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Occupational Wage Survey

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAM A
MARCH 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-37




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA
MARCH I9 6 0

Bulletin No. 1265-37
June I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents/ U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C o m m u n ity W a g e S u rv e y P r o g r a m
T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly con du cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o r ta n t in d u s ­
t r i a l c e n te r s .
T h e s tu d ie s , m a d e fr o m la te f a l l to e a r ly
s p rin g , r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la te d s u p p le ­
m e n ta r y b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on
c o m p le t io n o f the study in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m on th
fo llo w in g the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s
a d d itio n a l data not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t . A c o n ­
s o lid a te d a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lt s o f a ll
o f the y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le t io n o f the
fin a l a r e a b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t round o f s u r v e y s .

I n t r o d u c t io n _____________________________________________________________________

T a b le s:

1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e o f s u r v e y ____________

2

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s ______________ ________ , __ _______ ___ ___ .____ 4
_
A -2 .
P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ___________________
A - 3.
M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s __________________
A -4 .
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t io n s __________

7
8
9

B:
T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u re a u ’ s r e g io n a l
o ffic e in A tla n ta , Ga. , by D on ald C r u s e , u n der the d i r e c ­
tio n o f L o u is B . W o y ty c h , R e g io n a l W a g e and In d u s tr ia l
R e la tio n s A n a ly s t.




1

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e
p r o v is io n s ; *
B - l.
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s _________
B - 2 . M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a la r ie s f o r w o m e n o f f ic e
w o r k e r s _____________________________________________
B -3 .
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u r s ______________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s __________________________________________________
B - 5.
P a id v a c a tio n s ________________________________________________
B - 6.
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s ______________________

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s ___________________________ ___________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s f o r m o s t o f th e s e ite m s a r e
a v a ila b le in the B ir m in g h a m a r e a r e p o r t s f o r A p r i l 1952
and Jan u ary 1957, a s w e l l as in s i m i l a r r e p o r t s f o r o th e r
m a jo r a r e a s .
A d ir e c t o r y , in d ic a tin g date o f study and
the p r ic e o f th e r e p o r t s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t.

A c u r r e n t r e p o r t on o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and sup­
p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r a c t ic e s in th e B ir m in g h a m a r e a is a ls o
a v a ila b le f o r auto d e a le r r e p a ir shops (M a y 1958). U n ion
s c a le s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g p ay l e v e l s , a r e a v a ila b le
f o r the fo llo w in g t r a d e s o r in d u s tr ie s : B u ild in g c o n s t r u c ­
tio n ,
p rin tin g ,
lo c a l- t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s , and
m o to r tr u c k d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s .

iii

11
12
13
14
15
17

19




Occupational Wage Survey—Birmingham, Ala.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o r ta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te r s in
w h ich the U . S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r 's B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s has
c o n d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d w a g e b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , d ata w e r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u re a u f i e l d e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa c tu rin g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n , 1
c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il
tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s try g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g
f e w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th ey fu r n is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d to w a r ­
ra n t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u cted on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s . T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r ia t e a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s tu d ie d .
In c o m b in in g the d ata, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d o n the e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ie d a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e f o r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u s tr y g ro u p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .

O cc u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu rin g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to
take a ccou n t o f in t e r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u ties w ith in the s a m e
jo b . (S ee a p p e n d ix f o r lis t in g o f th e s e d e s c r ip t io n s .) E a r n in g s d ata a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a ) O ff ic e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; ( c ) m a in te ­
nance and p o w e r p la n t; and (d ) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s d ata a r e show n f o r
f u l l- t im e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a r n in g s d ata e x c lu d e
p re m iu m p ay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

la te s h ifts .
N o n p ro d u c tio n b o n u ses a r e e x c lu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
W h e re w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r ie s a r e p aid ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r th es e
o c c u p a tio n s h a ve b e e n rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m en and w o m e n a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in w h ich b oth s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in p ay le v e l s o f m en and w o m e n in th es e o c c u p a tio n s a r e
la r g e l y due to (1 ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am on g
in d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2 ) d if fe r e n c e s in s p e c if ic d u tie s p e r ­
fo r m e d , alth ou gh the o c c u p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e ly c l a s s i f i e d w ith in
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3 ) d iffe r e n c e s in le n g th o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r i t r e v ie w w h en in d iv id u a l s a la r ie s a r e a d ju s te d on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u ld r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e p ay
w h en b oth s e x e s a r e
e m p lo y e d w ith in the s a m e r a te r a n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th es e s u r v e y s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d if fe r e n c e s am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c i f y d u ties
p e r fo r m e d .

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the stu d y and n ot the n u m b e r a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e am on g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t ob ta in e d
f r o m the s a m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d if fe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e do n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s d ata.

E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s

and S u p p le m e n ta r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

In fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits as th ey r e ­
la te to o f f ic e and p lan t w o r k e r s . T h e t e r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u s e d
in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c tio n s , and e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clu d e w o rk in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in c lu d in g le a d A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
1
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e s e s tu d ie sm en and t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
,
e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tru c tio n
h a ve b e en ad d ed in n e a r ly a ll o f the a r e a s to b e s tu d ie d d u rin g the
e m p lo y e e s w ho a r e u t iliz e d as a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
w in te r o f 1959-60; r a ilr o a d s w i l l b e ad d ed in the r e m a in in g a r e a s n e x t
C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s and r o u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s ­
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in th is a r e a , s e e fo o tn o te to " t r a n s p o r t a ­
tr ie s , but a r e in c lu d e d as p lan t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .
tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t ie s " in ta b le 1.




2

T a b le 1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , 1 b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 M a r c h I 9 6 0

In d u s try d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

_________________

— ___________________________________

M a n u fa c t u r in g ------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------*---------T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r
p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5 ------------ -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e
__________________________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e
_______ _____ __ __________________ _______________
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ----------------- ------------------S e r v i c e s 7 ____________________________________________________________

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f s tu d y

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in
scop e of
s tu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f s tu d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o t a l4

O ffic e

P la n t

T o ta l4

51

410

128

9 9 ,7 0 0

1 5, 000

6 7 ,7 0 0

6 8 ,3 7 0

51
51

157
253

53
75

5 8 ,4 0 0
4 1 ,3 0 0

6, 100
8 , 900

4 3 ,8 0 0
2 3 ,9 0 0

4 5 ,2 3 0
2 3 ,1 4 0

51
51
51
51
51

39
64
74
45
31

19
14
21
11
10

1 2 ,4 0 0
6 ,9 0 0
1 1 ,9 0 0
6 , 100
4 ,0 0 0

2, 3 00

6 ,8 0 0

1 0 ,4 9 0
1 ,8 4 0
5 ,9 4 0
3, 110
1 ,7 6 0

0
0

(* )
( 6)

< !)
(* )
(‘ )
( 6)

1 T h e B i r m i n g h a m M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a ( J e f f e r s o n C o u n t y ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e and
c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t
t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d
f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t io n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r e d i t io n (u s e d in
th e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 -5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m il k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s an d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l is h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e (w h o l e s a l e o r
r e t a il ) t o m a n u fa c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s to th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b l ic u t il it i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c lu d e s a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m - s i z e l i m it a t io n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u to r e p a i r
s e r v i c e , an d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l is h m e n t .
4 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s an d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " and " n o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g " in t h e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s in s u f f ic i e n t t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e
pre­
s e n t a t io n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3
S h ift d if fe r e n t ia l d ata (ta b le B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u s tr ie s . T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d b oth in te r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o lic y , 2 p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t, and (b ) e f f e c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d s h ift at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g v a r ie d d if fe r e n t ia ls , the am oun t a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r it y w a s u s e d o r , i f no am ou n t a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s ific a t io n " o t h e r " w as u s e d .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich som e la t e s h ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if fe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d o n ly
i f it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the s h ift h o u rs .

M in im u m e n tr a n c e r a te s (ta b le B - 2 ) r e la t e o n ly to the e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d on an e s ta b lis h m e n t, r a th e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p aid v a c a tio n s ; and
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p lans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is th at th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a ­
j o r i t y o f such w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s l is t e d . S c h ed u le d h o u rs a r e tr e a t e d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
th at th es e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p lan t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g, sum s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in th es e
ta b u la tio n s m a y n ot e q u a l to ta ls .

T h e f i r s t p a r t o f the p aid h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s a c tu a lly p r o v id e d .
The secon d p a rt
c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to sh ow to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n plans is lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m ents,. e x c lu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o f f w ith p ay is g ra n te d
a t the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S e p a r a te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in c o m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , such
as tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r f la t - s u m a m ou n ts.
H o w e v e r , in the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts n ot on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d as the e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k ’ s p ay.

D a ta a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
plans f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n ts such as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n
and s o c ia l s e c u r it y . Such p lans in c lu d e th o s e u n d e r w r itte n b y a c o m ­
m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y and th o s e p r o v id e d th ro u gh a union fund o r
paid d i r e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r ou t o f c u r r e n t o p e r a tin g funds o r f r o m
a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D eath b e n e fits a r e in c lu d e d as a
f o r m o f l i f e in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e is lim ite d - to th at typ e o f in ­
s u ra n c e u n d er w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m a d e d i r e c t l y
to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll such p lan s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , w h ich
h a ve e n a c te d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u ra n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 p lan s a r e in c lu d e d o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r (1 ) c o n ­
tr ib u te s m o r e than is le g a l l y r e q u ir e d , o r (2 ) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n ts o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id s ic k - le a v e p lans a r e lim it e d to f o r m a l p lans 5 w h ic h p r o v id e
fu ll p ay o r a p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's p ay d u rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
( l ) p lans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll pay and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2 ) plans
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l pay o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s w ho a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r p aid s ic k l e a v e , an u n d u p lic a ted to ta l is
show n o f w o r k e r s w ho r e c e i v e e it h e r o r b oth ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .
C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to as .e x te n d e d
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th o s e p lan s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b e yo n d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p it a liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p lans p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le t e o r p a r t ia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . Such p lans m a y b e u n d e r w r itte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th e y m a y be
s e lf- in s u r e d .
T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p lan s a r e li m i t e d to
th ose plan s th at p r o v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's l i f e .

A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h a v in g a p o lic y i f it m e t
4 T h e t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a l i fo r n i a and R h o d e Is la n d
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s : (1 ) O p e r a te d la te s h ifts at the tim e
do n ot r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s .
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2 ) had f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts .
5 A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d as h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n i f
3
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u rs f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c t io n o t e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s o f s ic k le a v e th at
if
ta b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m ad e p r io r to la te 1957 and e a r l y 1958 w e r e
c o u ld be e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a p lan n e e d n o t b e w r it t e n ,
p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s e m ­
but in fo r m a l s ic k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
p lo y e d in o f f ic e s w ith the in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s .
w e r e e x c lu d e d .




4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , B ir m in g h a m , A la . , M a r c h I960)
Average
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

$
s
S
S
S
$
$
$
S
$
S
$
$
$
$
s
$
S
$
Weeklyi
Weekly i U n der 4 0 . 00 4 5. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 8 0. 00 8 5. 00 90. 00 9 5 .0 0 10 0 . oc 105.00 110 .00 115.00 120.00 1 25.00 1 30.00 *
1
*
135.00|140.00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
'
■
“
■
■
■
- j and
“
“
u n d er
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 8 5. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110.00 115 .00 120.00
125.00 130.00 1 3 5 .0 0 il4 0 .0 0 i o v e r
i

M en

!
i

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A -----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ ________ __ — _

152
71
81

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 0 2.0 0
113.50
9 1 .5 0

_
-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B -----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------

91
41
50

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

8 6 .5 0
7 8 .5 0
9 2 .5 0

_
“

C l e r k s , o r d e r _____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ________ _____ _____ _
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g
__________ _______

139
37
102

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

7 5 .5 0
9 0 .5 0
7 0 . 5p

"

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _______ _________ _____ _
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________

74
58

39. 5
4 0 .0

9 3 .5 0
100.00

O ffi c e b o y s _________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___ — — __ _ — _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____ ___ __________ _
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 ____________ ___ -

72
27
45
25

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
cla s s A
_________________ — _

_____

32

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B _____________________ __ __ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------

39
29

_
_

_
“

"

■

_
“

_
-

_
“

1
1
"

11
10
1

8
5
3

2
2

5
1
4

18
1
17

2
2

12
3
9

_

_

5
5

.

_
-

i
i
1
I

2
1
2

22
3
19

5
|

5

7
1
6

L
j
!

7
2
5

19
9
10

10
4
6

18
12
6

3
2
1

11
11

6
4
2

12
4
8

40
4
36

3
3
‘

.
-

.
-

.
-

"

ip ,

i
9

1

.i
i
1
I

~

1
1
"

8
8
"

11
2
9

9
9

20
5
15

31
1
30

6
6
"

3
3

4
2
2

11
11
"

.
"

_

_

_

“

'

1
1

1

7
7

6

'

6

11
11

9
3

9
9

i
1

1

21
9
12

10
10
"

1
1
-

l
l
-

5
5

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

5
5
"

.
-

.
-

-

-

"

■

"

-

2
2

3
3

6
5

1
1

i

“

9
"

55.0 0
4 9 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
6 2.0 0

_
"

15
13
2
"

10
4
6
4

20
3
17
8

6
2
4
1

6
1
5
5

6
1
5
1

_
'

3
3
"

6
6
6

■

■

-

-

-

-

-

-

40. 0

1 07.50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

3

3

2

1

2

10

3

39. 5
39. 0

7 9.0 0
7 2 .0 0

-

-

1
1

4
4

3
3

6
5

10
10

4
4

-

-

4

1

-

3
1

2

"

1
1

-

"

39.
40.
39.
38.

6 2 .0 0
7 1 .5 0
5 8.0 0
6 2.0 0

_

"

8
8
■

8
8
4

23
1
22
9

32
7
25
14

28
4
24
18

14
10
4
4

8
4
4
4

11
8
3
3

3
3
-

4
4
"

2
2
"

1
1

5 7.00

-

5
5

1

7
7

16
16

12
12

8
3

-

-

-

-

1

i
i

-

3
3

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

W om en

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) -----M a n u fa ctu r in g
_
---------- -------- __
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ------ -------_
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 _________ — __

143
43
100
58

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g
m a c h in e ) __________________________________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------

50
44

5
0
0
5

4 0 .0

40. 0

5 5 .0 0

1

j
1
1

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le .




NOTE:

E s t im a t e s f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s , n o n m a n u fa ctu r in g , and p u b lic u t ilit ie s in clu d e data f o r r a il r o a d s (SIC 4 0 ), o m it t e d f r o m the s c o p e
o f a ll la b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s m a d e b e fo r e the w in t e r o f 1959— 0 .
6
W h ere s ig n ific a n t , the e f f e c t o f the in c lu s io n o f r a i l ­
r o a d s is g r e a t e s t on the data sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly f o r the p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n .

5
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u s t r y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I96 0 )

N U M B E R OF WORKERS RECEIVING) STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY E AR NING S OF-

Average
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d i v is i o n

Number
of
workers

$
$
$
$
$
S
$
*
*
(
$
S
s
1*
$
S
$
$
$
$
S
Weekly
Weekly U n d er 4 0 . 0 0 4 5 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0
*
ho un 1
(Standard) (Standard) $
“
~
“
“
and
u n d er
4 5 . 00 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 over

W o m e n — C on tin u ed

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------

46
38

4 1 .5
42. 0

$ 6 9 . 00
63. 50

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
cla s s B
-------- ---------------------------- - ----M a n u fa ctu r in g -------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------

310
63
247

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .5

C le r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A ----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------- ------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 __________________

272
51
221
69

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5

-

-

"

-

5 6 . 0068. 00
5 3 .0 0

-

43

-

43

74
7
67

7 9 .5 0
9 4 .5 0
76. 00
9 6 .0 0

_
-

-

.
-

-

-

-

“
60

C l e r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s B ----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------ r

567
111
456

39. 0
40. 0
3 8 .5

6 3 .0 0
7 1 .5 0
6 0 .5 0

8
8

16
-

-

16

60

C le r k s , f i le , c l a s s A
--------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------

130
25
105

4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0

6 0 . 00
8 3 .0 0
5 4 .5 0

.
-

13

31

-

-

■

13

31

C le r k s , fi le , c l a s s B -------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ------------------------------

301
54
247

3 9 .0
40. 0
39. 0

5 2 .0 0
7 0 .5 0
4 7 .5 0

9

74

59

C le r k s , o r d e r ------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g -------------------------------

61
28
33

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

66. 00
7 2 .5 0
60. 00

C le r k s , p a y r o l l
-------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g -------------------------------

213
129
84

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5

6 9 .5 0
7 0 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s
XXarmfa r tn r in g
Nnnm aniifa rh i Ting

176
42
134

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
40. 0

220
74
146

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 0
39. 0

------------------------..............

K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _______ _____ ___
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________ ___

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le,




44

-

-

8

9

74

51

.
-

_
-

3

■

3

-

-

4
4

2
2

25
25

-

62
13
49

29

36
4
32
26
6
20
-

22
-

-

29
17
-

22
-

17
~

100

102

17
2
15

12

5
3
2

.
-

12

83
5
78

28
1
27

5
5

5
3
2

10
10

15
15

5

7
3
4

18
8
10

13
5
8

_
-

1

.
-

12
12
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

2
1
1
1

6
6

4
4

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

"

-

-

"

.
-

-

-

“

4
4
"

"

.
-

_
-

.
-

“

“

■

10
8
2
2

4
2
2
2

32
2
30
30

3
3
“

8
8

4

-

4

1

6
6
"

.
-

1

1

_
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

'

1
1
-

_
-

2
2
“

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

_

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

11

14
9

21
18

9
7

7

13

5

3

2

2
5

8
5

20

15

14
6

3

2

18

6

13

8

36
6
30

14

20

5
9
2

15

-

-

-

-

"

-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

16

■

39
28
11

6 1 .0 0 6 9 .0 0
5 8 .5 0

.

21

13
13

39
11
28

21

21

17

68. 50
8 2 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
6 8 .0 0

8
8

1

12

25
1
24
5

25
1
24
7

1
1
"

1

"

-

-

-

-

~

-

47
27
20

6

2

1

3
2
1

-

-

-

2

14

-

-

-

-

_

-

9
9
-

26
14
12

12

33
5
28

.
-

_

-

-

-

-

4

1

17
5
12
9

-

-

-

-

1

5
_
5

-

23
3
20
17

24
2
22
2

-

26
7
19

4

11
3
8
1

37

10

8

3
3
-

37
5

10

5

3

2
2

34
6
28
-

32
19
13

-

1

-

10
10
"

84
17
67

-

7
7
-

23
7
16

71
26
45

-

2

21
10
11

46
17
29

-

2
"

-

94

8

3
-

6
5

92

8

1
1

1
1

4

11

-

3
8

3

4

14

5

24
17

2

7
7

9
5
4

-

5

l

6
2

37
30
7
7

1

_

_

-

3
3

4

1
1
-

1
1
1

2
2
-

-

-

-

-

6

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , B ir m in g h a m , A la . , M a r c h I960)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Average
Number Weekly Weekly
of
workers (Standard) (Standard) Under
earnings1
fo.oo

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
$ 00 $45. 00 $ 00 $ 00 $60. 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 s80. 00 $ 00 90. 00 $95.00 $
85.
110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135. ool ^40.00
105.00 $
100.00 $
65. 70. 75.
40.
50. 55.
and
and
under
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 1140.00 over
t

Women—Continued
Office girls __________________________
Nonm anufacturing---------------------------

53
48

!

39. 5 $47. 50
39. 5 48. 00

1
1

25
21

14
13

6
6

4
4

"

3
3

4
4
-

6
1
5

35
1
34
'

40
4
36
1

42
12
30
2

98
27
71
5

.
!

.

.

64
18
46
8

91
36
55
16
73
38
35
13

1

j

!

j
j
-

.
-

-

47
24
23
6

21
7
14
9

55
38
17
7

43
22
21
15

63
44
19
11

44
24
20
10

68
44
24
6

57
34
23
19

75
71
4
3

. i
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

82
35
47
45

39
27
12
11

25
13
12
9

7
6
1
1

4
4
4

4
2
2
2

3
2
1
1

2
1
1
1

13
12
1
-

2
2
-

.
-

.
_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

“
.
~

.

"

.

.
“

.

-

.
"

.
-

~

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
"

-

“

-

-

Secretaries ---------------------------------------M anufacturing_____________________
Nonmanufacturing__________________
Public utilities 2 -------------------------

775
320
455
154

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5
39. 5

84. 50
92.00
79. 00
98. 50

_
■

Stenographers, general _______________
M anufacturing_____________________
Nonmanufacturing------------------- ----Public u tilities2 -------------------------

893
340
553
160

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
39. 0

70. 00
81.00
63. 00
69. 50

9
9
-

17.
17
“

66
66
8

73
11
62
18

96
17
79
20

137
38
99
22

100
20
80
22

63
29
34
19

Switchboard o p e ra to rs________________
M anufacturing_____________________
Nonmanufacturing__________________
Public utilities 2 -------------------------

164
42
122
26

6
6
■

27
4
23
•

18
8
10
2

14
3
11
1

5
5
1

10
1
9
7

16
2
14
14

5
5
“

18
18
-

111
57
54

“

13
3
10

36
13
23

9
4
5

22
17
5

6
1
5
1
5
4
1

-

Switchboard operator-receptionists ___
M anufacturing-------------------------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------------

62. 00 24 15
- i
81.00
56. 50 3 24 15
81.00
"
40. 0 63. 00 _
6
39. 5 68. 50 40. 5 58. 00
6

10
10
"

1
1
“

4
4

2
2
“

2
2
“

Tabulating-machine operators,
class B _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing__________________

60
54

38. 5 64. 50
38. 5 63. 00

"

"

10
10

2
2

12
11

4
4

19
19

6
4

3
1

'

_

3
3

-

1
•

-

•

■

-

-

-

-

-

Transcribing-m achine operators,
general _____________________________
M anufacturing-------------------------------Nonm anufacturing---------------------------

71
27
44

39. 5 59.50
40. 0 64. 50
39. 5 j 56.00

“

4
4

12
12

9
9

17
15
2

4
4

18
9
9

4
4

1
1

2
2
_

*

-

■

_

_

“

-

■

-

"

_
-

-

Typists, class A ________________ ___
Manufacturing _ ___________________
Nonm anufacturing---------------------------

159
69
90

40. 0 66. 50
40.0 79. 00
39. 5 56. 50

.
-

8
8

27
7
20

23
23

13
13

10
3
7

9 19
5 ------5”
4 13

5
5
_

19
19
■

3
2
1

23
22
1

~

-

'

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Typists, class B _____________________
M anufacturing----------- -------- ----Nonm anufacturing__________________

279
62
217

39.5 53. 00
40. 0 65. 50
39. 0 49. 50

67
67

63
63

42
7
35

45
20
25

30
10
20

11
11

3
3

1
1

2
2

4
4

.
-

_

_

.
-

-

41.0
40. 0
41. 5
40. 0

.
-

_

11
4
7

_

-

.

-

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s,
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 2 at $ 2 5 to $ 3 0 ; 14 at $ 3 0 to $ 3 5 ; 8 at $ 3 5 to $ 4 0 .




1
1
“

-

-

.

■

■

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

7
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I96 0 )

Avebaqk
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
s
$
$
$
Weekly Under 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 *95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00
earnings 1
and
and
(Standard) $
under
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 over

i
Men
Draftsmen, leader ---------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------

40
37

40. 0 $ 161.50
40. 0 163.00

-

Draftsmen, senior ---------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------

399
332
67

40. 0
40. 0
40. 5

3
3

Draftsmen, junior ---------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------

160
114
46

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

40
30

39.5
40. 0

124.50
128.50
104.50

3 18
92.00 8
78.50 10

8 8 .0 0

-

-

-

-

"
10
6
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

3
3

1
"

5
5

1
1

1
1

3
2

14
9

17
13
4

36
25
11

30
21

58
56
2

21
19
2

21
19
2

19
11

14
14
"

21
21
"

19
18
1

16
16

7
5

-

11
7
4

19
18
1

18
18

-

.

.

"

_

3
3

9
6
3

19
12
7

4
2
2

5
1
4

11
7
4

15
9
6

28
21
7

14
10
4

4

3
3

4
4

4
2

9

5

5

2

"

5

9

9

.

-

"

1
1

_

-

“

2
1

8

-

10
9

2
2

2 14
14

-

41
41
"

25
25
“

4
4
"

_

_

.

.

■

“

-

"

_

1
1

.

_

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

.

.

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) ------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------

95.50
97.50

3

5

4

4

8

3
2

1 S tandard h o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 4 at $ 165 to $ 190; 10 at $ 190 to $ 215.
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 9 at $ 5 0 to $ 5 5 ; 7 at $ 55 to $ 6 0 ; 2 at $ 6 0 to $ 6 5 .
NOTE:

S ee n ote on p . 4 ,




r e la t iv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a ilr o a d s .

.

8

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , B ir m in g h a m , A la . , M a r c h I96 0 )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—
O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

of
workers

$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Under 1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1 . 60 1. 70 1 . 80 1. 90 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3 .4 0 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70
hourly
e&mingB1 $
and
and
under
1. 30
1 .4 0 1. 50 1 . 60 1. 70 1 . 80 1. 90 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3 .4 0 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70 o v e r

1
-

“

-

-

2
2

-

3. 16
3. 18

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2. 95
3. 09
2 . 26

-

-

-

-

9

-

1
1

"

*

"

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce _______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________ __

280
259

$ 2 . 83
2. 87

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n ce __ __ __ __
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________

725
708

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t io n a r y __________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
________ _____ _____
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------

179
150
29

1
8

2

4
4

9
3

8
1

6
6

16
15

2
1

23
23

151
151 j

2
2

11
8

5
4

32
32

33
33

25
25

10 1

-

12
12
_
-

-

1

12
10
2

10
10

27
25

-

4
4

-

2

1

.

6
6

4
-

2

6

-

-

_
-

2

6

■

|
-

-

1i

20
17

2
2

-

20
20

-

-

-

41
41

31
31

218
218

62
62

62
62

38
38

_

99

42
35

-

28
27

24
24

6

_
-

25
24

_
_

8
8

8
8

-

1

8
8
-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
12

2
2

-

16
16

-

42
42

_

_

14

14

- '

4

2 I

j

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

2

10
6

3

7

3£
,

11
9
2

2

4

1

-

-

-

3
3

7
7

65
56

2. 54
2. 77

29

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n ce _______
M a n n fa rtn rin g
Nnnm a n n fa rtn rin g
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 -----------------------------

669
627
42
29

2. 38
2 .4 3
1. 74
1. 92

6

194
194

3. 14
3. 14

365

2 .4 1
2. 50
2. 37
2 .4 3

-

-

6
6

6
6

-

30
30

15
5

29
28

67

26

10
10

1
1

66
1
1

20
6
6

2 .8 9
2. 89

814
814

-

1
1

M a c h i n e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s ,
t o o lr o o m --------------------------------------------------

8
M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce ________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
________________________

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e
(m a in te n a n c e )
_____________ __________
M a n u fa ctu r in g -------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________ ___ ___
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 _____________ __

111
254
204

-

.

.

"

■

~

~

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

_
"

-

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce -------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________

729
661

68

2. 97
3. 03
2. 35

M illw r ig h t s _______________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------- __ -------------

330
330
171
171

2 .4 8
2 .4 8

_

_

-

62
46

2. 63
2. 65

_

108
108

-

-

-

_

-

"

■

“

-

8

12

-

8

5
7

-

1

-

_
-

7
7
-

12
8

6
6

.

_

"

"

P a in t e r s ____________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g

_____

_____

__ __ __

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s _____________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
— ----- __ -------------

1
2
J
4

79

8
-

-

63
46

8

20
20

14

35
23

3

S ee n o te on p . 4 ,




_

-

-

3
3

.

114
114

20
20

2 22
2 22

30
30

7

15
15

2
2

21
------- 5"
15
14

5
5

27

_

"

3
3

1

_

_

1
1

_

_

r e la t iv e t o th e in c lu s io n o f r a ilr o a d s ,

12
2

8
8

.

-

-

-

18
18

41
41

18
18

51
51

23
23

24
24

34
34

2
2

4

4
4

15
15

86
86

17
17

75
75

134
134

30
30

4
4

362
362

54

35

42
30

13

2
2

12

“
_

_

_

2
2

3
3

8
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

28
28

39
39

48
48

8
8

112
112

96
96

20
20

-

76
76

-

.

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
10

7
4

2

.

.

.

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

55
55

2
2

10
10

_

-

.

_

_

_

-

15
13

51
50

81
77
4

11

11
11

6

-

1

-

30
30

32
32

35
35

127
127

11
11

6
6

16
16

44
44

10
10

6
6

1
1

5
4

11
11

4

24
24

10
10

_

1
1

1

_

-

-

-

3

-

17
17

-

-

21

2

17
17

-

26

26

-

-

-

6
6

19
19

-

4
*

15
15
-

12

-

7
7

26
26

-

6
29
29

32

2
2

1

13
13

-

54
54

40

-

2
6
2 ------- F

2
25

7
3
4

8

1

.

24
24

4

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 6 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10; 3 at $ 1. 20 to $ 1. 30.
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 1 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10; 2 at $ 1. 10 to $ 1. 20; 3 at $ 1. 20 t o $ 1. 30.
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .

NOTE:

20

~TF~

-

2 .7 9
2 . 79

__

6
6

19
19

2. 87
2. 87

O il e r s — ________________ ___ _____
M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________ _

-

4
4

_

-

F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________ ________

_

i

5

-

94
93

-

'

9

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la ., M arch I960)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u str y d i v is i o n

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
----------------------------------------------(w o m e n )

G u a rd s -----------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s
(m en ) ------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s
(w o m e n ) -------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------

Number
of

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Average
hourly , U nder 0 . 60 0. 70 0 . 80 0 . 90 1.0 0 1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 .6 0
and
earnings $
0. 60 u n d er
. 80
. 70
• 90 1.0 0 1 . 10 1 . 2 0 1. 30 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1. 70 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 . 00 ' 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70
!

148
148

$ 0 .6 5
. 65

222

2 . 09
2. 23

132

3 46
46

65
65

10
10

3
3

1

21
21

_

1

3

-

-

2

1
1

5
3

4
-

-

1, 271
606
665
114

1 .4 1
1 .7 8
1 .0 8
1 .5 7

39
39

371
347

.8 4
.7 9

13
13
_
-

• 53
53

180
180
.
-

16
-

16

57
57
.
-

74
74

7
7

46

78
34
44
7

46

4
4

23
17

86

72
17
55

26
25

2 36
41
195

-

9

41
45
23

11

34
31

8

1, 827
949
878
264

1 .7 2
1 .9 4
1 .4 9
2. 23

O r d e r f i l l e r s -------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------

292
51
241

1. 33
2. 04
1 . 18

P a ck ers,

sh ip p in g _______________________

247

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s -----------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------

99
45
54

1 .8 7
2. 36
1 .4 6

-

Shipping c l e r k s --------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------

169
131
38

2 .4 9
2. 74
1 .6 4

Shipping and r e c e iv in g c l e r k s ------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------

252
167
85

2. 37
2 .4 8
2. 14

-

T r u c k d r i v e r s 7 ---------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s '* ---------------------------

1, 923
631
1 , 292
540

1.9 2
2 . 08
1 .8 4
2. 45




1
1

_

137
44
93

144
118
26

24

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

44
44

21
16

44
44

13
13

14
5
9

4

12

9

12

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

4

10

10

7
7

-

115
73
42

20
4

5

-

-

-

-

1

"

4

10

10

“

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

- i

1
1

7
7

j

-

" 1

11

28

133
14 '
1191

-

11 ;

28

245
7
238

80
5
75

1

j

3. 00

over

34
34

22
22

36
36

18

1
97
77

6

“

10
10

-

-

-

-

|
65
62

108
103
5
5

47
47

14
14

-

16

8
8

2
2

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

16

20
20

1
1

2

2

_

-

300
236
64
55

78
69
9
g

173
98
75
75

123

111
12

30
30
-

21
21
-

-

124
19
105
105

18
4
14
14

50
50
-

-

4
4
-

30
30
-

-

-

26
26

-

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

4
4

-

6

140

2

4

3
3

3
3

8
8

3
3

9
9

2
2

1
1

3
3

3
3

-

2
2

6
6

15
15

4
4

*42
42

36
36

6 32

-

6
1

9

1

6

-

5

3

1

^

14

6

2
12

3
3

20

5

20

2
3

_

25
14

2
2

2

"

11

182
107
75

95
79
16

46
46
3

$
3. 00
and

3
3

12
12

"

-

2 . 90

3
3

1

24

3

-

2. 90

$

6

3

3

2
-

2 . 80

"

6

-

2 . 80

$

4

22

3

6

-

13
9

3

302
302

1
See footnotes at end of table,

\

6

12

j
17
i i ;

20

25

33

-

23

2

112
10
10 2

-

-

12

29
-

27

1

18
18

"

18
5
13
7

106
106

2. 24

-

2. 70

1
1

129
106
23
5

7

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l ha n dlin g -------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------P iH Iir

$

4
4

i
i

7
5

5
-

.
-

4
4

11
11

11
10

9
9

2
2

24
24

8
6
2

19
16
3

30

29
23

11

21

5

2

-

_

6

8

17
4

1

28

4

-

-

20

100

70
15
55
41

31

298

26
74
50

334
163
171
163

90

15
5
5

22

19
279
273

134
134

4

6

2
2

4

2

2

9

3
-

7
5

3

2

3
3

5
5

-

-

18

26

n

2

12
78
3

3

9

2

-

4
.

-

36

8

-

-

-

8

10

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continyed
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B ir m in g h a m , A la . , M a r c h I960)

Occupation1 and industry division

Truckdriver s:7— Continued
Truckdrivers, light
(under 11 tons) _________________
M anufacturing--------------------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------

Number
of
workers

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

$
$
$
$
Average Under $ 60 $
0. 0.70 0. 80 0. 90 $1.00 1. 10 1.20 $1. 30 $1.40 $1. 50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2.40 $ 50 $ 60 $ 70 $ 80 $ 90 $3. 00
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
hourly
earnings 2 $
and
and
0. 60 under . 80 .90 1.00 1.10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 over
. 70
i
!
1
!
I

183 $1. 18
50 1.41
133 1. 10

-

-

"

10
10

10
10

67
7
60

23
7
16

Truckdrivers, medium ( l1^ to
and including 4 tons) ____________
M anufacturing--------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------PiiKI i r nti li ti p q ^

1, 315
322
993
516

1.93
1.96
1.91
2. 45

-

-

-

1
1

18
18

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4
tons, trailer type) _______________
Nonmanufacturing______________

184
116

1.91
2. 17

■

"

"

“

"

"

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type) __________

67

1.83

-

-

-

-

-

398
301

2. 19
2. 37

-

-

7
-

-

-

-

-

-

7

T ruckers, power (other than
forklift) ______________ ________________
M anufacturing_______________________

94
66

1.88
2. 02

~

-

"

"

~

15

-

W atch m en --------- ----------------------------------M anufacturing----------------------------------N onm anufacturing___________________-

190
99
91

1.40
1.62
1. 16

16
9 16

-

.

-

.

-

.

4
4

40
11
29

7
7

Truckers, power (forklift) ___________
M anufacturing------------------------------N onm anufacturing___________________
PiiKlir ntiliti pq 4

97
32

1.64
2. 58

66 195
7 59 195

26
5
21

22
20
2

13
3
10

27 115
- 42
27 73

62
56
6

9
9

18
18

45
"

20

-

18

9

-

39
-

-

24
21

10

"

39

40
40

-

-

- !
■ j

3
3

-

-

-

-

20

-

28

"

4
4

21
21

-

■

20

9
8
1

12
7
5

19
18

li

1

7
4

1
I

2
2
-

64

“

“

6
6

3

5

3
3

14
8
6

12
3

7
7

10
10

D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 16 at $ 0. 30 to $ 0. 40; 25 at $ 0. 40 to $ 0. 50; 5 at $ 0. 50 to $ 0 . 6 0 .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 14 at $ 3 to $ 3 . 1 0 ; 14 at $ 3 . 1 0 to $ 3 . 20; 10 at $ 3. 20 to
$ 3. 30; 4 at $ 3 .3 0 and o v e r .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 1 2 at $ 3. 10 to $ 3. 20; 12 at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30; 8 at $ 3 .3 0 and o v e r .
I n clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 44 at $ 3 to $ 3. 10; 8 at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30; 12 at $ 3 . 30 and o v e r .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 0 . 50 to $ 0 . 60.

NOTE:

S ee note on p . 4 , r e la t iv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a il r o a d s .




j 56 323 i 38
i; 5 2 169 ! 26 '
4 154 1 12
1 50 163 l 1
j
I
2 2 52
2 2 52
"

27
1

-

9

-

19
15
4
4

-

_____ i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

7
5
2

1

8
! 8

5
5
-

3

11
9

1

- i i |
- i
1 1
i

“

3
3
-

31 _ 22 i 6
61 1
22 ; 6 ! 6 - l
- 1

-

-

jj

-

10
-

3
3

59
5

1

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

61 ! 16 263
10
9 51
263
41 1 7 257

-

-

-

-

-

7
4

2
2

16
16

-

-

-

8
8

-

2

12

3

-

-

-

-

9
5

2
2
-

22
22
-

15
15
-

39

8
8
-

24
24
-

6

8 64
64
-

17
9

-

2
2

21
21

"

“

■

■

“

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

.
-

.

12
27
27

.

.

-

-




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s h ift w o r k , a n d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
a c t u a ll y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h ift s b y t y p e an d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l , B i r m i n g h a m , A l a , , M a r c h I 9 6 0 )
In e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

In e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a ll y
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
S e c o n d s h ift
w ork

T ota l

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h ift w o r k

S e c o n d s h ift

T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h ift

9 3 .9

8 3 .4

1 9. 3

10. 6

----------------------------------

86. 7

8 1 .6

17. 6

10. 2

-----------------------------

86. 7

77. 5

1 7. 6

10. 1

3 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------4 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------6 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------7 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------7 x/ 2 c e n t s ------------------------- -------- ------------------ 8 c e n t s _______________________________________
9 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s _____________________________________
12 c e n t s -------------------------------- --------- — ...........
13 c e n t s ------------------------------ — ____ _________
14 1/ 3 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------

.4
1 .5
2. 4
4. 3
1 .8
1 .8
64. 8
2. 1
3. 2
4 .4
_

W ith s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l
U n ifo r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r )

F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s

__________

F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s p lu s
c e n t s p e r h o u r _______________________________
N o s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

_________________________

_
_

_

_

_
. 2
. 3
. 1
.4
1 4. 6
. 3
. 7
1. 0
_

_
.6
_
_
.
_
_
_
9 .4
. 1

-

( 2)

-

( 2)

-

3 .9
.7
_
_
_
1. 1
5. 8
64. 7
1 .0
. 3

-

.7

-

3 .4

"

. 1

7. 2

1 .8

1. 7

.4

1 I n c l u d e s e s t a b l is h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e
e v e n th o u g h t h e y w e r e n ot c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i ft s .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

s h i ft s ,

a n d e s t a b l is h m e n t s

w it h f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s

c o v e r i n g la t e

s h ift s

12

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a ll in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I9 6 0 )
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c t u r in g

O t h e r in e x p e r i e n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

M a n u fa c t u r in g

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

M in im u m w e e k l y s a l a r y 1
A ll
i n d u s t r ie s

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

A ll
i n d u s t r ie s
40

B a se d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

___

123

48

XXX

75

XXX

123

48

XXX

75

XXX

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m --------------------------------

41

14

13

27

21

60

23

21

37

27

$ 3 5 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 3 7 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 3 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 . 0 0
_______________________________________
$ 4 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 4 2 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 4 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 4 5 . 00 ------------------------- ------------------- ----------$ 4 5 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 4 7 . 50 ________________________________ _______
$ 4 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0. 00 ____________________ _____ ___________
$ 5 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 52. 50 ________________________________ _______
$ 5 2. 50 a n d u n d e r $ 5 5. 00 _________________________________________
$ 5 5 .0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 7 .5 0 _________________________________________
$ 5 7. 50 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 . 00 _________________________________________
$ 6 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 6 2 . 50 ________________________ ______________
$ 6 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 . 00 ___________________________________ ___
$ 6 5 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 6 7 . 50 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 . 00 ____________________ __________________
$ 7 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 7 2 . 50 _________________ _____________________
$ 7 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 7 5. 00 _________________________________________
$ 7 5 .0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 7 7 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 7 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 8 0 . 00 _________________________________________
O v e r $ 8 0 . 00 __ _________________________ ___________________________

1
2
13
2
4
2
5
2
2
2
1
2
1
2

.

_

1
1
10
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
-

4
1
3
6
1
3
1
1
1
2

4
3
6
1
3
1
1
2

"

-

1
3
17
5
8
3
9
2
1
3
2
1
1
1
2
1

_

1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
2

1
2
12
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
-

_

1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

"

~

1
3
13
4
5
3
3
1
1
1
_
1
1

1
1
10
2
4
3
2
1
1
_
1
_
_
1

E s t a b li s h m e n t s s t u d i e d ____________________________

____________

,
2

-

___________________

17

9

XXX

8

XXX

21

12

XXX

9

XXX

E s t a b li s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p l o y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y _______________________________________________________

65

25

XXX

40

XXX

42

13

XXX

29

XXX

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i f i e d m in i m u m

L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r in g in e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a t e s a p p l ic a b l e to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s . D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d , a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k r e p o r t e d .
NOTE:




S ee n ote on p .

13, r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .

13
Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll i n d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h i9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
W e e k ly h o u r s

All industries 1

------------------------------------------------------------

100

U n der
h o u r s --------------------------------------------- 371/ 2 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 37 V 2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s -----------------------40 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 an d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ----------------------------4 4 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 4 and u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s ----------------------------48 h o u r s ___________________________________________
O v e r 48 and u n d e r 5 4 h o u r s ----------------------------5 4 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 54 h o u r s ---------------------- ---------------------------------

2
8
4
82

A ll w o r k e r s

2>71/z

}
2
3
4

(4 )
1
.2
n
(4 )

Manufacturing

100

(4 )

2

1
96
-

1
-

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

100

2
25
-

73
-

-

-

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

1
2
(4 )
75
2
2
5
5
3
4
1

100

100

3

86
5
3
6
-

-

85
2
1
1
( 4)
6
2

I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , and o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .




NOTE:

Public utilities2

E s t i m a t e s f o r a ll i n d u s t r ie s an d p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s in c lu d e d a t a f o r r a i l r o a d s (S IC 4 0 ), o m it t e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f a l l l a b o r m a r k e t
w a g e s u r v e y s m a d e b e f o r e th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 .
W h e r e s i g n ifi c a n t , th e e f f e c t o f th e i n c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s i s g r e a t e s t o n th e
d a ta s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y f o r th e p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .

14
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s and in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I 9 6 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Item

A ll w o r k e r s

All industries1

-------------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id h o l id a y s ------------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id h o l id a y s ------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries^

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

91

96

100

1

1

9

4

-

1
25
5
12

1
13
1
9

_
3

i
52
(4 )
3

1
5
2
10
2
79
(4 )

3
3
57
57
68
73
98
99
99

82
82
91
93
99
99
99

■

Number of days
L e s s th a n
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s
h o l id a y s

5
5
6
6
6
7
7
8

5 h o l id a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p lu s 1 h a lf d a y -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p lu s 1 h a lf d a y --------------------------------------p lu s 2 h a l f d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

n

_
3
-

20
(4 )

4
72
-

"

1
64
2

1
81
-

_
9
20
71
-

2
2
67
67
76
77
90
91
91

2
2
85
85
93
93
96
96
96

71
71
91
91
100
100
100

-

(4 )

8
-

2

Total holiday time5
8 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 1/ 2 o r m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------7 o r m o r e d a y s -----------------------------------------------------6 1/ z o r m o r e d a y s

6

or m ore days

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5 l/z o r m o r e d a y s

5
4
1

or m ore days
or m ore days
or m ore days

( 4)
(4 )

_
-

77
77
97
97
100
100
100

_

1
2
3

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
5 A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f f u l l a n d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s i n c lu d e s t h o s e w ith 7 f u l l d a y s
n o h a lf d a y s , 6 f u l l d a y s a n d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 fu l l d a y s an d 4 h a lf d a y s , a n d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e th e n c u m u l a te d .

4

NOTE:

S e e n o te o n p . 1 3,




r e l a t i v e t o th e in c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .

and

15
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I9 6 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A ll w o r k e r s

------------------

-----------------------------------------

All industries 1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100
-

98
90

-

100
100
-

2
-

100
89
11
-

100
100
-

“

"

■

2

"

_

11
50
1
3

15
63
-

8

7

-

3
-

-

.
42
6

( 5)

-

5
31
1

_
28
5
66

_
11
13
76

52
48

1
87
10

_
95
5

_
67
33

14
1
80
5

9
1
77
13

22
5
73
-

77
1
19
-

91
9
-

42
58
-

7
2
86
5

4
4
79
13

14

28
38
32
~

24
58
19
“

25
75
“

1
92
5
2

1
84
13
2

6
1
90
2

2
96
2

100
-

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s
-----------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t -------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ___________________________
F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t _____________________________
O t h e r ____ __ _____ _____ — -----------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s ________________________________

7

Amount off vacation p a y 4
A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v i c e
U nder 1 w eek
------------------------- ----------------------------1 w eek
_ -------- ---------------------- ----------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ________________________ ___________________

7

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
U n der 1 w eek
______________________________________
1 w eek
_______________________________________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ------------------------------------- -----------------------------

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ------------------------------- ----------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------

( 5)
86
•

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------- 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------- -----------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------ -----------------------------

S e e fo o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b le ,




_
100
-

16
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s an d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v is io n s , B irm in g h a m , A la . , M a r c h I96 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries 1

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n

pay4 —

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

C o n tin u e d

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w eeks
-------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d t in d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w eeks
--------------------------------------------------------------------

1

(5)

-

-

-

-

63
27
9

31
62
7

94
-

6

6
1
44
39
9

32
60
6

_
87
13

2
8
90

_
3
97

2
-

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------

1
-

23
5
69
1

(5)
9
13
77

-

_
5
95

6
1
19
-

73
(5 )

■

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k ---------------------------- -------- ---------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------- ---------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------

1

(5)

-

-

23
5
65
6

9
13
78
■

_
5

6
1
17

-

-

94
1

72
3

-

2

_

-

-

6
92

-

■

3
86
11

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s — ---------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------

1
-

23
5
42
19
11

(5 )
-

9
13
29
46
3

-

5
-

94
-

1

6
1
17
34
37
5

2
6
33
57
2

_
-

3
-

84
13

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n and d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p le , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d ic a t e d a t 10 y e a r s '
s e r v i c e in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
5 L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
N O T E : S e e n o t e o n p . 13, r e l a t i v e t o th e in c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .
In th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " le n g t h o f t i m e , "
o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o a n e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o^ 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .




su ch as p e rce n ta g e

17
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f it s , B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I9 6 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
T y p e o f b e n e fit

All industries 1

A l l w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

100

100

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

Public utilities2

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e ---------------------------------------------------A c c i d e n t a l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e ______________________________________
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 4 __________________________
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e ________
S ic k l e a v e ( f u ll p a y a n d n o
w a it in g p e r io d ) ____________________________
S ic k le a v e (p a r t i a l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r io d ) ____________________________
H o s p i t a l iz a t io n i n s u r a n c e ____________________
S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e _____________________________
M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ________________________
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n ____________________________
N o h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ____

1

2

94

96

78

86

92

77

40

37

32

31

25

41

65

80

66

77

86

70

43

72

9

62

78

22

43

54

34

10

1

33

6

3

28

8

8

25

89
89
59
20
88
( 5)

74
74
57
46
69

78
77
24
14
66
6

92
90
20
8
81
2

71
71
51
42
70

72
71
42
28
72

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r ta tio n ,

c o m m u n ic a t io n ,

a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t il it ie s .

3 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k le a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h at le a s t
th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e .
I n fo r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a ll o w a n c e s d e t e r m in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .
5 L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

S ee n ote o n p .




13, r e l a t i v e to th e i n c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .




19

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a t io n a l

D e s c r ip tio n s

T h e p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e B u r e a u ’ s w a g e s u r v e y s i s t o a s s i s t i t s
f ie ld s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in to a p p r o p r ia te o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll
t i t l e s a n d d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s fr o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d fr o m a r e a t o a r e a . T h i s i s
e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o p e r m it t h e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b l e j o b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f t h is e m p h a s is o n in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t a n d in te r a r e a c o m p a r a b ilit y o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n t e n t , th e
B u r e a u ’ s j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y fr o m t h o s e in u s e i n i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e
p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . In a p p l y i n g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e B u r e a u ’ s f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e
in s t r u c t e d to e x c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s , le a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a in e e s , h a n d ic a p p e d w o r k e r s ,
p a r t-tim e , te m p o r a r y , a n d p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , a n d i n v o i c e s o n a m a c h in e o th e r
th a n a n o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r it e r . M ay a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s a s
to b illin g s or s h ip p in g c h a r g e s or p er fo rm o th e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n t a l
to b illin g o p e r a t io n s . F o r w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , b i ll e r s , m a c h in e , a r e
c l a s s i f i e d b y t y p e o f m a c h in e , a s f o llo w s :

O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (R e m in g to n R a n d , E ll i o t t
F is h e r , S u n d s tr a n d , B u r r o u g h s , N a t io n a l C a s h R e g i s t e r , w it h o r w it h o u t
a ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .

,
c h in e (M o o n

B iller machine (billing machine) —

U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g m a ­
H o p k in s , E llio t t F is h e r , B u r r o u g h s, e t c ., w h ic h a re
c o m b in a t io n ty p in g a n d a d d in g m a c h in e s ) to p r e p a r e b i ll s a n d in ­
v o i c e s fr o m c u s t o m e r s ’ p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , i n t e r n a l l y p r e p a r e d o r d e r s ,
s h ip p in g m e m o r a n d u m s, e t c . U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a t io n o f p r e d e ­
t e r m in e d d i s c o u n t s a n d s h i p p i n g c h a r g e s a n d e n t r y o f n e c e s s a r y
e x t e n s io n s , w h ic h m a y or m a y n o t b e c o m p u te d on th e b illin g m a ­
c h in e , a n d t o t a ls w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te d b y m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a tio n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b er o f c a r b o n c o p ie s o f
th e b ill b e in g p r e p a r e d a n d is o fte n d o n e o n a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .

,

B iller machine (bookkeeping m achine) — U s e s a b o o k k e e p i n g
m a c h in e ( S u n d s tr a n d , E l l i o t t F is h e r , R e m in g t o n R a n d , e t c . , w h ic h
m a y or m a y n o t h a v e t y p e w r it e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ’
b ills a s p a rt o f th e a c c o u n t s r e c e iv a b le o p e r a tio n . G e n e r a lly in ­
v o lv e s th e s im u lta n e o u s e n tr y o f f ig u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s ’ le d g e r r e c ­
o r d . T h e m a c h in e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e s f ig u r e s o n a n u m b e r
o f v e r t ic a l c o lu m n s a n d c o m p u te s a n d u s u a lly p r in ts a u t o m a t ic a lly
th e d e b it or c r e d it b a la n c e s . D o e s n o t in v o lv e a k n o w le d g e o f b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
W o r k s fr o m u n if o r m a n d s t a n d a r d t y p e s o f s a l e s a n d
c r e d it s l i p s .




C lass A — K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u i r i n g a k n o w l e d g e o f
a n d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h
th e str u c tu r e o f th e p a r tic u la r a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m u s e d . D e te r m in e s
p ro p er r e c o r d s a n d d is tr ib u tio n o f d e b it a n d c r e d it ite m s to b e u s e d
in e a c h p h a s e o f th e w o r k . M ay p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e
s h e e t s , a n d o th e r r e c o r d s b y h a n d .
C lass B — K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s o f
a s e t of r e c o r d s u s u a l l y r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f b a s i c b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
P h a s e s or s e c t i o n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s t o m e r s ’ a c c o u n t s (n o t in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d
u n d e r b ille r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is t r ib u t io n , in ­
v e n to r y c o n tr o l, e t c . M ay c h e c k or a s s i s t in p r e p a r a tio n o f t r ia l
b a l a n c e s a n d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s fo r t h e a c c o u n t i n g d e p a r t m e n t .

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C lass A — U n d e r g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t ­
a n t, h a s r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r k e e p in g o n e o r m o re s e c t i o n s o f a c o m ­
p le t e s e t o f b o o k s or r e c o r d s r e la tin g to o n e p h a s e o f a n e s t a b l is h ­
m e n t ’ s b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W o rk i n v o l v e s p o s t i n g a n d b a l a n c i n g
s u b s id ia r y le d g e r or le d g e r s s u c h as a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le or a c c o u n t s

20

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—.Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allo catio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may direct c la s s B accounting
clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine accountingwork is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­

ber of varied su bject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical d u ties.
Class B — Perform s routine filing, usually of m aterial th at has
already been classified or which is easily identifiab le, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Com putes w ages of company em ployees and en ters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting-calculated data
on payroll sh eet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and distrib u t­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athem a­
tic al com putations. T his job is not to be confused with that of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other du ties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten m atter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or D itto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and sta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to m achine. May keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

21

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and im portant or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s n ot in clu de tran scribing-m ach in e
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s not in clu d e tran scribing-m ach in e w ork .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptio nists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptio nist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of th is worker*s time while at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C la s s A — O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s n ot in clu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
C la s s B — O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
C la s s C — O perates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

22

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.
C la s s A — Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C la s s B — Perform s on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and qu an tities;
writing sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sk etches,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bina tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from no tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
poses. D uties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, etc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pen cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting too ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

23

MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power too ls, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other sp ecificatio n s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and measuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H ea d or c h i e f e n g in e e r s in esta b lish m e n ts
em p loyin g more than o n e en g in eer are e x c lu d e d




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch inist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

24

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Contioned
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to clo se toleran ces; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of m achining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipm ent required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m ach in ist's work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u ses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most o f the following: Examining autom otive
equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipm ent in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installin g the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ic a l equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
p arts w ith item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to, a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from m achine shop; reassem bling ma­
ch ines; and making a ll n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L u bricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying p aint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other p aint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consisten cy . In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following:
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded .

25

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
K$eps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelv es, lockers, ta^k s, ventilators, chu tes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out a ll types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; settin g up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross "industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartment house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing m etal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

men who are sta tio n e d at g a te and ch e c k on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . In clu d es g a te -

.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
oth er persons en terin g

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve on e or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d ev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L o n g sh o rem en

,

w h o load and unload s h ip s are e x c lu d e d

.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sa le s slip s, custom ers *
orders, or other instru ctio n s. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o m ake w ood en
b o x e s or cra tes are e x c lu d e d

.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receiv es and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work i n v o l v e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R e c e iv i n g work i n v o l v e s : Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follows:
R e c e i v i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
S hipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or ind u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of estab ­
lishm ents such a s: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and o v er -th e -r o a d drivers
are e x c lu d e d .

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
T ru ckdriver (com bin a tion o f s i z e s l i s t e d se p a r a te ly )
Truckdriver, ligh t ( under 1% t o n s )
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and in clu din g 4 to n s)
T ru ckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, trailer t y p e )
Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 tons., o th er than trailer t y p e )

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, p o w e r (fo rk lift)
Trucker, p o w e r (o th e r than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN
M akes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ain st fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 O - 553554

Occupational Wage Surveys

O c c u p a t io n a l w a g e s u r v e y s a re b e in g c o n d u c t e d in 6 0 m ajor la b o r m a r k e ts d u rin g la te 1 9 5 9 a n d e a r ly I 9 6 0 . T h e s e b u ll e t in s , w h e n a v a i l a b l e ,
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d from th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n 2 5 , D .C . , or from a n y o f th e B L S r e g io n a l
s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n on i n s i d e fron t c o v e r .
A s u m m a r y b u lle t in c o n t a in in g d a ta for a l l la b o r m a r k e ts , c o m b in e d w ith a d d it io n a l a n a l y s i s , w i l l b e i s s u e d e a r ly in 1 9 6 1 .
B u l l e t i n s for th e a r e a s l i s t e d b e l o w a re n o w a v a i l a b l e .




B a l t i m o r e , M d ., S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 7 , p r i c e 1 5 c e n t s
B o s t o n , M a s s . , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 8 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 4 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
C a n t o n , O h i o , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 0 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
D a l l a s , T e x . , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
D a y t o n , O h i o , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 9 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 1 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
D e s M o in e s , I o w a , F eb r u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 0 , p r ic e 25 c e n t s
D e t r o i t , M i c h . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 5 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 3 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 2 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 6 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 4 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
K a n s a s C i t y , M o . —K a n s . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 3 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s

Memphis, Tenn., January I 9 6 0 —B L S Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 1 9 , price 2 5 cents
Miami, F la., December 1 9 5 9 — B L S Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 6 , price 2 0 cents
M inneapolis—St. Paul, Minn., January I 9 6 0 — B L S Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 2 1 , price 2 5 cents
Newark and Jersey City, N .J., February I 9 6 0 — B L S Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 2 8 , price 2 5 cents
P hiladelphia, P a., November 1 9 5 9 — B L S Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 1 6 , price 2 5 cents
Pittsburgh, P a., December 1 9 5 9 — BLS Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 2 0 , price 2 5 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1 9 5 9 — BLS Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 1 2 , price 2 0 cents
Richmond, V a., February I 9 6 0 — BLS Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 2 4 , price 2 5 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1 9 5 9 — BLS Bull. 1 2 6 5 - 5 , price 2 5 cents
San Bernardino—R iverside—Ontario, C alif., November 1 9 5 9 —
B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 5 ,

p rice 25 c e n ts

S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 7 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
S e a t t l e , W a s h ., A u g u s t 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
S i o u x F a l l s , S . D a k . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 9 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . —M d . —V a . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 8 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
Y o r k , P a . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 7 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102