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Occupational Wage Survey
MINNEAPOUS-ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA
JANUARY 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA




JANUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-21
April I960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

The Com m unity Wage Survey P rogram
The B ureau of JLabor S ta tistics regu larly conducts
areaw ide w age su rveys in a number of im portant indus­
tria l cen ters. The stu d ies, m ade from late fall to ea rly
spring, relate to occupational earnings and related supple­
m entary b en efits. A prelim in ary report is available on
com pletion of the study in each area, usually in the month
follow ing the payroll period studied. T his bulletin p rovides
additional data not included in the ea rlier report. A con­
solidated an alytical bulletin sum m arizing the resu lts of all
of the year*s su rveys is issu ed after com pletion of the
final area bulletin for the current round of su rveys.
T his report w as prepared in the B u rea u s regional
office in C hicago, 111. , by W oodrow C. Linn, under the d i­
rection of G eorge E. Votava, R egional Wage and Industrial
R elation s A nalyst.




P age
Introduction _______________________________________________________________ 1
Wage trends for selected occupational groups __________________________ 4
Table s:
1. E stab lish m en ts and w ork ers w ithin scope of survey ___________ 3
2. Indexes of standard w eekly sa la rie s and straigh t-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and p ercen ts of in crea se for selected p eriod s _________________ 3
A: O ccupational earnings: *
A - 1. O ffice occupations ________________________________________ 5
A -2. P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical occupations __________________ 9
A -3. M aintenance and pow erplant occupations ________________ 10
A -4 . C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent occupations __________ 11
B: E stab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary wage
provisions: *
B - l. Shift d ifferen tials _________________________________________ 13
B -2 . M inim um entrance sa la rie s for w om en
office w ork ers ___________________________________________ 14
B - 3 Scheduled w eekly hours __________________________________ 15
B -4 . Paid holidays ______________________________________________ 16
B -5 . Paid vacations _____________________________________________ 17
B - 6. Health, insuran ce, and pension plans ___________________ 19
Appendix: O ccupational d escrip tion s ___________________________________ 21
* NOTE: S im ilar tabulations are available in the M inneapolis—
St. P aul area rep orts for N ovem ber 1951, N ovem ber 1952,
N ovem ber 1953, N ovem ber 1954, D ecem b er 1955, M arch 1957,
January 1958, and January 1959. M ost of the rep orts a lso in ­
clude data on th ese or related estab lish m en t p ra ctices and
supplem entary wage p ro vision s. A d irectory indicating date of
study and the price of the rep orts, a s w ell as rep orts for other
m ajor a r ea s, is availab le upon req u est.
C urrent reports on occupational earnings and supplem en­
tary wage p ra ctices in the M inneapolisH St. Paul area are also
available for gray iron foundries (June 1959), and m iscellan eou s
p la stics products (February I960). Union s c a le s , indicative of
prevailing pay le v e ls, are available for the follow ing trades or
in d u stries: B uilding con stru ction , printing, lo c a l-tr a n sit op­
erating em p lo y ees, and m otortruck d riv ers and h elp ers.
iii




Occupational Wage Survey—Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn.
Introduction

This area is one of sev er a l im portant in d u strial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L a b o r's B ureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areaw ide b a sis. In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
w ithin six broad industry d ivision s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; finance, in su ran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from these stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis because of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying a ll esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are presented, th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le rica l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and powerplant; and (d) cu stod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and
1 R ailroads, form erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies,
have been added in n early all of the areas to be studied during the
w inter of 1959-60; railroad s w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
year. F or scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.




late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presen ted sep arately
for selected occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and wom en in th ese occupations are
largely due to (1) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es among
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d within
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la rie s are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average serv ic e of m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
descrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen eralized than those used in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecifip duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re among
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational structure do not m ateria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.
E stab lish m en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted also (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary ben efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w ork ers, " a s used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and non su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related functions, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e, ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lea d m en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
execu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and fo rce-acco u n t con stru ction
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing industries.

2

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p lo yer. Separate estim a tes are provided
according to em ployer practice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percen t of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam ple, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of
annual earnings w as co n sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w e ek 's pay.

Data are presen ted for a ll h ealth , in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo yer,
excepting only leg a l req u irem en ts such as w orkm en1s com p ensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m er cia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund s e t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce is lim ited- to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s w hich require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with b en efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during ab sen ce from work
b ecau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide fu ll pay and no w aiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w ork ers who are provided sick n ess
and accid en t insurance or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who re ceiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es referred to as, extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans w hich are design ed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se of sick n e ss and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al covera ge of h osp italiza tio n , m ed ica l, and su rg ica l plans.
M edical insuran ce re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of d octors' f e e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insuran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
se lf-in su r e d . T abulations of retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er 's life .

2 An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p rovision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n of
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of wom en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eek ly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t was con sid ered as having a form al plan if
it estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e allow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift d ifferential data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t policy, 2 presented in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, p resented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority w as used o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sifica tio n "other” was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferen tial was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are p resen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
h ealth , in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistic a lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part
com b in es w hole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




3

Table 1. E stab lish m en ts and w ork ers within scope of survey and num ber studied in M inneapolis—St. P aul, M inn. , 1 by m ajor industry d ivision , 2January I960
Industry d ivision
A ll d iv isio n s _____________________________________________
M anufacturing ____________________________________________
N on m an ufacturing________________ ________________________
T ransportation, com m unication, and other
public u tilitie s 5 _____ ____ _______________ ________ __
W holesale trade __________________ ______ ________ _____
R etail trade _______ ____________ ________________________
F inan ce, in su ran ce, and real esta te .......
_
S e r v ic e s 7 _____________________________________________

M inim um
in e sta b lish ­
m en ts in scope
of study
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

Num ber of estab lish m en ts
Within
scope of
Studied
study 3
1, 034
431
603
88
142
190
93
90

253
95
158
33
36
40
28
21

T o ta l4
257, 900
120, 000
137,900
4 3 ,4 0 0
20, 500
40, 800
2 0 ,8 0 0
12,400

W orkers in estab lish m en ts
Within scope of study
O ffice
Plant
5 4 ,9 0 0
17,400
37, 500
8, 600
7, 000
5, 300
15,200
( 8)

147, 500
7 7 ,1 0 0
7 0 ,4 0 0
23, 300
7, 700
30, 600
8 800
( 8)

Studied
T o ta l4
158, 080
7 2 ,0 6 0
86, 020
34, 160
9, 530
25, 760
12, 610
3, 960

1 The M inneapolis— P aul M etropolitan A rea (Anoka, Dakota, Hennepin, R am sey, and W ashington C ounties). The "w orkers w ithin scope of study" estim a te s shown in th is table provide
St.
a reasonably accurate d escrip tion of the siz e and com p osition of the labor force included in the survey. The e stim a te s are not intended, how ever, to serv e a s a b a sis of com p arison w ith other
area em ploym ent in d exes to m easu re em ploym ent trend s or le v e ls since (l) planning of w age su rveys req u ires the use of estab lish m en t data com piled consid erab ly in advance of the p ayroll period
studied and (2) sm all estab lish m en ts are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 rev ised edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssific a tio n M anual w as used in c la ssify in g esta b lish m en ts by industry d ivision . M ajor changes from the e a r lie r edition (used in the
B ureau's labor m arket w age survey program prior to the w inter of 1958-59) are the tran sfer of m ilk pasteu rization plants and read y-m ixed concrete estab lish m en ts from trade (w h olesale or
r e ta il) to m anufacturing, and the tran sfer of radio and te le v isio n broad casting from s e r v ic e s to the transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilitie s d ivision .
3 Includes a ll estab lish m en ts w ith total em ploym ent at or above the m in im u m -size lim itation . A ll ou tlets (within the a rea ) of com p anies in such in d u stries as trad e, finance, auto repair
s e r v ic e , and m otion -p ictu re th ea ters are con sid ered a s 1 estab lish m en t.
4 Includes execu tiv e, p ro fessio n a l, and other w ork ers excluded from the sep arate office and plant c a te g o r ie s.
5 R ailroad s w ere included; taxicab s and s e r v ic e s incidental to w ater tran sp ortation w ere excluded.
8 E stim a te re la te s to real estate esta b lish m en ts only.
7 H otels; p erson al se r v ic e s; b u sin e ss se r v ic e s; autom obile repair shops; m otion p ictures; nonprofit m em bersh ip organ ization s; and engineering and arch itectu al se r v ic e s .
8 T his industry d ivision is rep resen ted in e stim a te s for "all in dustries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S e r ie s A and B ta b les, although coverage w as in su fficien t to ju stify sep arate p r e sen ­
tation of data.

Table 2. Indexes of standard w eekly s a la r ie s and straigh t-tim e hourly earnin gs for selec ted occupational groups in M inneapolis— P aul, Minn. ,
St.
January I960 and January 1959, and pqjrcents of in crea se for selec ted p eriod s
Indexes
P ercen t in c r e a se s from —
(N ovem ber 1952 = 100)
January 1958
M arch 1957
January 1959
D ecem ber 1/55 N ovem ber 1954 N ovem ber 1953
Industry and occupational group
January I960
to
to
to
to
to
to
January 1959
January 1958
January I960
January 1959
M arch 1957
D ecem ber 1955 N ovem ber 1954
A ll in dustries:
O ffice c le r ic a l (wom en) ______________
133. 3
3. 2
3. 4
3. 0
6. 3
3. 8
3. 3
129. 2
Industrial n u rses (wom en) ___________
138. 6
3 .4
4. 3
5. 3
133. 9
3. 5
3. 7
3. 8
137. 1
Skilled m aintenance (m en) ___________
3 .4
4. 6
4. 1
4. 9
3. 3
132. 6
5. 3
4. 9
U nsk illed plant (m en) _________________
142. 6
6 .4
4. 9
137. 4
4. 9
5. 1
3. 9
M anufacturing:
3 .6
O ffice c le r ic a l (wom en) ______________
130. 9
126. 7
5. 3
3. 4
3. 1
3. 0
3. 3
2. 0
5. 0
13 7. 5
4. 4
5. 3
Industrial n u rses (w o m e n )____________
3. 6
133. 6
2. 9
1. 4
134. 5
Skilled m aintenance (m e n )____________
4. 1
4. 4
5. 4
130. 2
3. 3
5. 1
4. 8
5 .4
4. 2
138. 1
4. 1
U nsk illed plant (m en) ___________ ____
133. 7
3. 3
5. 5




N ovem ber 1952
to
N ovem ber 1953
6. 3
9. 4
6. 6
6. *
5. 8
9 .4
6. 7
5. 8

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P resen ted in table 2 are indexes of sa la rie s of office c le r ic a l
w orkers and industrial n u r se s, and of average earnings of selected
plant w orker groups.
F or office c le r ic a l w orkers and industrial n u r se s, the indexes
relate to average w eekly sa la rie s for norm al hours of w ork, that is ,
the standard work schedule for which stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s are paid.
F or plant w orker groups, they m easu re changes in stra ig h t-tim e hourly
earn in gs, excluding prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on w eek ­
end s, holidays, and late sh ifts. The* indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include m o st of the n u m erically im portant
jobs w ithin each group. The office c le r ic a l data are based on w om en in
the follow ing 18 jobs: B ille r s , m achine (billing m achine); bookkeepingm achine op erators, cla ss A and B; C om ptom eter operators; cle rk s, file ,
c la ss -A and B; c le rk s, order; c le rk s, payroll; k eyp u n ch operators;
office g irls; se c r eta ries; sten ograp h ers, general; sw itchboard op era­
tors; sw itchboard o p e ra to r-r ecep tio n ists; tabulating-m achine operators;
tran scrib in g-m ach in e op erators, general; and ty p ists, cla ss A and B.
The industrial nurse data are based on wom en industrial n u r se s. Men
in the follow ing 10 sk illed m aintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs w ere
included in the plant w orker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricia n s;
m ach in ists; m echanics; m ech an ics, autom otive; m illw righ ts; painters;
p ip efitters; sh eet-m eta l w orkers; and tool and die m akers; unskilled-—
jan itors, p o rters, and clean ers; la b o rers, m a teria l handling; and
w atchm en.
A verage w eekly sa la rie s or average hourly earnings w ere
com puted for each of the selected occupations. The average sa la rie s
or hourly earnings w ere then m ultiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 em ploym ent in the job. T hese w eighted earnings for individual
occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tional group. F in ally, the ratio of these group aggregates for a given
year to the aggregate for the b ase period (su rvey m onth, w inter 1952-53)




w as com puted and the re su lt m u ltip lied by the b ase year index (100) to
get the index for the given year.
A djustm ents have been m ade w h ere n e c e ssa r y to m aintain
com parability. F or exam p le, in m o st of the areas su rveyed , railroad s
w ere included in the coverage of the su rveys for the fir s t tim e this
year. In com puting the in d exes, data relatin g to the railroad industry
w ere excluded.
The indexes m ea su re, p rin cip ally, the effects of (l) gen eral
sa la ry and w age changes; (2) m erit or other in cr ea ses in pay received
by individual w orkers w h ile in the sam e job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, fo rce exp an sion s, fo rce red u c­
tion s, and changes in the proportion of w ork ers em ployed by esta b ­
lish m en ts w ith different pay le v e ls. Changes in the labor force can
cause in cr ea ses or d ec rea se s in the occupational averag es without
actual w age changes. F or exam p le, a force expansion m ight in crea se
the proportion of low er paid w ork ers in a sp ecific occupation and r e ­
sult in a drop in the a verag e, w h ereas a reduction in the proportion
of low er paid w orkers would have the opposite effect. The m ovem ent
of a high-paying estab lish m en t out of an area could cau se the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area esta b lish m en ts.
The u se of constant em ploym ent w eights elim in a tes the effects
of changes in the proportion of w ork ers rep resen ted in each job in ­
cluded in the data. Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard w ork sched ules or in prem ium pay for overtim e, sin ce they
are based on pay for stra ig h t-tim e h ou rs.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1959 for w ork ers in 17 m ajor
labor m ark ets appeared in BLS B u ll. 1240-22, W ages and R elated
B en efits, 20 Labor M arkets, W inter 1958-59.

5

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations

(Average straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M inneapolis— P aul, Minn. , January I960)
St.
Sex, occupation, and in d u stry division
M en
C le rk s, accounting, c la ss A _____ __ __
M a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________________
N onm anufacturing __ __ _ __ _ __ _ __
__
Public u tilitie s* _ ______ __
_ _ _ __ __
W holesale tra d e _____ _ _ ____
_ __ __
C le rk s, accounting, c la ss B ________________________
M anufacturing _ _ ______ __ __ _ __ _ _ . _
N onm anufacturing ________________________________
P ublic u til itie s * _______________________________
W holesale trad e
C le rk s , o rd er ________________________________________
M anufacturing _____ __________ ____________ ____ __
N onm anufacturing __
_ __
__ _ __
W holesale trad e
C le rk s, payroll
Office boys
M anufacturing
_
N onm anufacturing _
_ _ _ _ _ _
P ublic u tilitie s*
_ ._
W holesale tra d e
__
_
_
T abu lating-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss A ____________
N onm anufacturing
..
T abu lating-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss B ____________
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
___
__ __ __ _ __ __
P ublic u tilitie s * _
__
___
F in a n c e 3 _
__ __ ___ _ _
T abu lating-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss C _ _ _ _ __
N onm anufacturing
_______
____ _ _
F in a n c e 3 ___
___ _ ___
_ _
W orpen
B ille rs , m achine (billing m achine)
N onm anufacturing _________________________ _______
P ublic u tilitie s * _
__ __ _ _
R etail trad e __ __ ____
__ __ _
B ille rs , m achine (bookkeeping m a c h in e )____________
N onm anufacturing __ _________ ___ __ _ __
R etail trad e _ _ __ __ _ _
__ ___ ___ _

Average
Number
of
Weekly, earnings1
workers hours * Weekly.
• (Standard) (Standard)
620
2^2
388
191
142
333
lf>6
177
87
51
492
120
372
341
56
267
71
196
52
72
136
91
277
111
166
64
52
122
62

39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
4 0.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
4 0.0
40.0
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
4 0 .0
38.0
39.0
38.5
38.0

$95.50
95.00
96.00
104.00
87.50
77.00
>7.00
77.50
83.50
72.00
92.50
98.50
90.50
88.50
88.00
56.50
51.50
58.50
74.00
57.50
100.00
102.50
84.50
81.56
86.00
91.00
78.00
70.00
67.50
63.00

245
TTT~
94
53
147
143
72

39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
4 0.5
40. 5
40.0

63.00
63.00
66.50
57.50
60.50
6 0 .0 0
53.50

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
40.00 45. 00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00
and
and
under
45.00 50. 00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over
_
_
_

_
1
1
_
_

16
16
2
_
"
_
_
-

73
”“ 2 8 ”
45
3
_
_
*
1
1

_
-

16
14
14
16
16
16

-

6
6
6

_
7
7
_
3
13
13
13
6
56
.....25
31
9
15
_
4
3
1
1
2
2
2
44
42
24

5

25
25
20

_
8
1
7
7
_
"
1

3
1
2
_
2
38
17
21
8
7
9
9
9
_

55 ------r _
9
13
42
6
_
1
37
5
_
_
_
25
24
24

13
6
7
4
25
22
21

40
39
17
7
30
30
15

47
8
14
42
42

-

56

15

11
1
10
10
56
27
29
14
3
27
1
26
26
1
12
1
11
3
6
1
23
13
10
4
6
17
10
8

16
3
13
_
9
27
11
16
7
7
34
3
31
31
3
7
1
6
3
3
2
2
24
7
17
4
10
12
6
4

67
26
41
1
30
49
37
12
6
4
16
2
14
14
3
3
3
2
11
9
36
23
13
2
8
11
7
2

33
Z7
10
11

19
14
8
1

11
10

7
7

7

5
5

"

3

6

1

“

36
l4
22
6
14
62
32
30
7
15
70
14
56
56
12
36
_
36
34
1
15
10
36
l5
21
9
6
12
6
1

63
32
31
11
15
35
14
21
14
3
49
19
30
30
7

122
59
63
36
16
32
17
15
13
2
34
12
22
22
2

82
30
52
22
20
6
6
6
83
10
73
59
7

69
28
41
24
10
9
9
9
32
7
25
25
3

59
16
43
27
13
3
3
3
65
43
22
22
2

20
2
18
16
1
_
_
13
1
12
11
2

_
_
15
6
21
10
11
_
9
7

_
_
8
3
55
17
38
10
8
8
4
-

_
_
_
15
11
51
14
37
29
2
-

_
_
_
21
9
12
3
9
6
-

_
_
_
14
11
2
_
2
_
-

_
_
_
4
2
_
_
_
_
-

-

-

_

_

-

_
“

5

13
4
.....n ~ ~ ----- T ~
_
12
_
2
_
2
■
“

1
8
1 ----- g—
8
1
6
1
6
1
“

_

_
“

See footnotes at end of table.




NOTE: E stim ates for a ll in dustries, nonmanufacturing, and public u tilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), om itted from the scope
of all labor m arket wage surveys made before the winter of 1959-60. Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of r a il­
roads is greatest on the data shown separately for the public u tilities division. The trend of earnings in selected occupational
groups in all in d u stries, excluding railroad s, appears in table 2.

_

-

37 -------513
1
36
8
35
8
_
_
_
_
_
_
'_
26
_
5
_
21
13
_
6

22
14
8
5
2
_
_
_
21
3
18
10
1

_
_
_
19
17

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

_
_
_
11
11
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
"

_
_
_

_

_

-

_
_

_

_

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_

"

6
Table A-l. Office Occuoations-Continued

(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly h o u rs and earn in g s for selected occupations studied on an a re a b asis
by in d u stry d iv isio n , M inneapolis— P a u l, M inn. , Jan uary I960)
St.
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Avsbaqb

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Weekly | Weekly y 40.00 45. 00 50.00 55.00 *60.00 *65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00
and
hours
(Standard) (Standard) under
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00

$
125.00
and
over

W omen— Continued
Bookkeeping-m achine operators, cla ss A __________
Manufacturing _
____
_ __ _ _
Nonmanufacturing
_ __ _
W holesale trade _ _ _ _ _
_
_ __
Bookkeeping-m achine operators, cla ss B _
M anufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
_
_
___
Public u tilities* _ _
_ _ _
W holesale trade
Retail trade ___
.
F inan ce3 _
__
_
_ _
C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A
Manufacturing
_
______
Nonmanufacturing
_
__ __
_
Public u tilities* _
_
_
W holesale trade
R etail trade _
_
F in an ce3 _
_ _
_
_,__
C lerk s, accounting, c la ss B
_
_
M a n u fa c tu rin g
... .
. —
Nonmanufacturing
Public u tilities*
W holesale trade
R etail trade
__ .
F in an ce3
_
_
C l e r k s , f ile , c l a s s A

Manufacturing
Finance 3

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

__

__

_ __

C l e r k s , f ile , c la s s B

Manufacturing _
Nonmanufacturing _
Public utilities *
W holesale trade
R etail trade
.

C le rk s , o rd e r
__ ....
M a n u fa c tu rin g ...... ...

Nonmanufacturing
W holesale trade
R etail trade

C l e r k s , p a y ro ll
_ ...
M a n u fa c tu rin g __

_

__
....................

_

Nonmanufacturing
_
P u h lic u ti li ti e s * _
W holesale trade
R etail trade
_

_

..
_

__ _
__

See footnotes a t end of table,




__

_ __ _
_____

. .

_ __
.... _
... . ....
___

213 39.5 $72.50
53 3$. 5 75755“
70.50
160 39.5
65 40.0
76. 50
933 39.5
60.50
2T3T" 39.5
66.50
58.50
689 39.5
75.50
47 4 0.0
192 39.5
63.00
100 4 0.0
56.00
53.50
307 39.0
78.50
757 39.5
155 39.0
81.00
602 39.5
77.50
87.50
148 4 0.0
88 4 0.0
79.00
131 40.0
72.50
174 38.0
74.50
1,958 39.0
62.00
3-9:0' ' 6 3 .5o
1,578 39.0
61.50
328 40.0
68.00
222 40.0
62.50
311 40.0
56.00
60.50
649 38.0
258 39.0
63.50
124 39.5
62.56
134 39.0
64.50
67 38.5
63.00
1.248 39.5
52.50
558"" 39:5- "TJ755”
52.50
990 39.0
113 4 0.0
59.50
57.00
150 40.0
160 39.5
50.50
493 38.5
51.00
345 39.5
65.50
136 ■ 39:<T” T O T
215 39.5
62.00
97 40.0
70.50
77 4 0.0
53.00
643 39.5
71.00
271 "1975 "70755“
372 39.5
71.50
116 40.0
83.00
74 39.5
76.50
116 39.5
61.00

_

-

31
31
1
30
_
32
32
20
12
_
-

-

140
3
137
16
9
41
51
13
13
13
3
3
-

-

2

_

"
85
85
3
7
75
6
6
6
193
34
159
2
24
58
64
1
1
1
393
70
323
14
27
46
191
24
24
14
13
13
-

2
11

6
6
2
163
8
155
17
43
68
4
4
4
294
40
254
66
32
45
94
22
12
10
5
363
83
280
35
40
34
162
22
— 3—
19
1
18
20
20
5
3

11

15
15
4
148
12
136
6
32
33
63
22
1
21
1
10
10
385
54
331
42
48
75
154
74
33
41
22
138
51
81
11
15
6
49
63
T7—
46
13
21
58
9
49
16
4
9

34
1
33
6
242
87
155
10
72
4
69
97
3
94
11
2
38
24
426
101
325
62
47
57

133

73
40
33
17
94
33
61
6
14
18
23
87
25
62
37
10
143
59
74
13
1
38

57
16
41
6
136
66
70
4
44
9
2
123
22
101
10
11
34
31
302
72
230
42
35
50
103
56
33
23
16
73
16
63
2
41
10
10
27
21
6
4
118
61
57
3
14
36

18
1
17
4
62
40
22
4
13
2
~
85
18
67
16
17
8
23
100
24
76
30
3
3
40
11
3
8

28
9
19
19
23
19
4
1
2
1

100
39
61
5
26
10
10
86
42
44
8
1
3
32
9
1
8
2
1
21
9
2
19
9
3
9
1
3
5
7
“
51
16
36
6
15
10
8
14
1
71
73
4 1 .... 53—
24
2
0
2
10
9
7
2

33
16
17
17
17
7
10
4
6
84
16
68
25
11
7
25
56
5
51
22
10
17
4
1
3

“

5
5
5

-

20
16
4
4
30
10
20
4
14
”

8
7
1
11
11
8
3
57
17
40
7
8
2
10
26
7
19
9
10
-

-

4
4
3
2
2
2
-

1
1
1
35
11
24
13
9

.

.
*
_
8
8
8
-

_
4
2
2
1
-

1
1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
1

5
3
2
1
7
7
7
66
26
40
21
7
4
8
22
1
21
9
12
-

7
7
5
7
4
3
3
-

2
2
1
1
1
-

"
_
-

73
11
62
21
18
23
19
19
19
-

20
20
16
4
13
13
13
-

7
7
7
3
3
3
- •

3
3

1
1
-

_
-

2
2
2

1
1
1

-

5
5
5
-

6
6
6
19
8

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
3

4
4
4
15
3
12

•-

11
11
-

40
40
37
3

'

'

-

-

1
1
1
_

-

11
1

-

'

'

-

-

_

-

-

4
4
4

_
-

_
-

"
_
_
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

“
1
1
1
_

-

_
-

-

_

-

_
1
1
1
-

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

6
6
-

-

1
1
1

-

7
Table A-l. Office Occupatbns-Continued

(Average straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, MinneapoliS'r-St. Paul, Minn. , January I960)
Sex, occupation, and in d u stry division
W om en— C ontinue d
_______
C om ptom eter o p e ra to rs ______ _ ___ _
M anufacturing __ _ ____ _ ___ _
N onm anufacturing __ ______ ____ _ __ __ __ _ _
P ublic u tilitie s 2 .
__
_ ___ _ __
W holesale tra d e _ _
__ _
_ _
R etail tra d e __ _ _ _ _ _
Finance 3
__ _
D uplicating-m achine o p e ra to rs
(M im eograph or D itto )______________________________
Keypunch o p e ra to rs __ _
___
___ __
M a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________________
N onm anufacturing _ ___ r
Public u tilitie s* . ... . .
W holesale tra d e ___ __ _ _ _
F in a n c e 3
_
.................. .
Office g irls
_ ....
__
M anufacturing
......... _ ....
N onm anufacturing __ __ __ __
_
___
R etail tra d e ...
... ....
F in a n c e 3
___
_ _ _ _ _ _
S e c re ta rie s
....
...... .
M anufacturing
_
_
__
_ _ _
N onm anufacturing
_.
. _
P ublic u tilitie s *
_ ...
W holesale tra d e _
__ _
R etail tra d e
......... .
F in a n c e 3
_
_ __
S ten o g rap h ers, g en eral
M anufacturing
__
_ _
_
_ _
N onm anufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
P ublic u tilitie s*
W holesale tra d e
.......
R etail tra d e __ _ _ __
_ _
F in a n c e 3
__ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __
S ten o g rap h ers, technical __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _
N onm anufacturing ___
Sw itchboard o p e ra to rs _______________________________
M anufacturing _ __ __ _______
__ _ __ _ _
N onm anufacturing __
__
P ublic u tilitie s* _
R etail trad e
F in a n c e 3 _ _ __
_______
__ _
Sw itchboard o p e ra to r-re c e p tio n ists
M a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________________
N onm anufacturing __ _
Public u tilitie s*
W holesale tra d e ________________ — ----------------R etail tra d e
_
_ ..
F in a n c e 3 __ _
__ __ _ _
See footnotes at end of table.




Number
of
workers
717
511
91
192
133
59

T 5T T

73
1, 158
333
825
234
151
364
428
76
352
54
227
2,688
968
1,720
327
370
222
560
2,590
821
1,769
560
355
264
451
106
87
484
To5“
378
80
83
63
638
245
393
69
123
88
53

Average

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$45.00
$ 55.00 60.00 *65.00 $70.00 $
$
$
$50.00
75.00 $80.00 *85.00 *90.00 $95.00 100.00 $
Weekly earnings . 40.00
105.00 $
110.00 $
115.00 120.00 125.00
and
hours Weekly
and
(Standard)1 (Standard)1 under
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00
39.5
39.6
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.0

$69.00
74.00
67.00
87.50
65. 50
57.50
63.00

8
8
1
7

39.5
59.00
2
39.5
63.00 15
39.5 “ IT . 5b
39.5
63.00 15
40.0
77.00
40.0
61.00
38.5
56.00 15
39.0
47.50 160
39. ^ 48.00 l2
39.0
47.50 148
4 0.0
48.00 17
38.5
45. 50 121
_
39.0
79.00
39.5
86.00
39.0
78. 50
40.0
81.50
39.5
83.00
40.0
77.50
38.0
76.50
39.5
68.50
1
39.5
66.00
39.5
70.00
1
40.0
83.50
39.5
68.50
40.0
65.00
38.5
60.00
1
_
39.5
70.50
39.5 ■”75756'
40.5
6
65.00
69.00
39.5
6
41.0
63.50
40.0
82. 50
39.5
6
54.00
38.5
64. 50
39.5
6
62.50
39.5
66.66
39.5
6
60.50
4 0.0
63.00
39.5
63.00
6
40.0
56.50
37.5
62.50

31
2
29
2
25
2

73
1$
58
12
31
8

18
10
98
199
48
21
151
77
17
13
25
59
89
168
53
44
16
124
37
18
12
6
91
_
17
17
7
1
9
178
64
8 —FT"
56
121
3
13
3
10
20
1
75
49

_

28
28
27
1
26
7
19
9
5

_

101
10
91
24
9
84
21
63
17
3
19
7

93
19
74
38
21
7

121
32
89
1
54
19
10

103
25
78
1
35
28
2

11
219
53
166
42
24
95
25
1
24
6
8
94
8
86
23
6
29
458
14T
316
62
46
42
126
4
1
68
l5
53
1
2
3
162
36
126
16
31
35
14

15
257
112
145
17
38
59
11
3
8
1
1
204
47
157
54
17
10
49
671
253
418
37
132
78
87
34
31
67
17
50
2
12
21
157
57
100
17
42
17
16

8
2
4
3
73
20
30
119
56
19 ----- T T ~ 10
63
54
20
9
5
13
8
11
_
22
23
2
31
6
10
1
6
2
2
1
6
2
2
_
344
551
453
298
1(58 I T ? " ' 237
94
250
334
216
190
46
18
23
21
34
64
46
69
27
28
54
50
71
72
133
70
297
181
88
256
108
41
124
60
121
47
189
132
25
35
26
29
40
31
15
40
1
51
38
33
61
5
18
29
27
3
17
11
3
22
13
8
38
41
26
63
14
13
7
19
31
27
44
13
24
17
1
1
2
10
18
3
7
1
65
18
34
63
11
l9
49 .....33
16
15
7
30
4
5
4
1
6
16
10
5
1
6
8
2

62
22
40
_
30
6
4

54
20
34
1
9
1
19

42
10
32
26
5
1
-

39
14
25
21
4
_
-

88
44
44
41
3
-

1
1
_
_
_
-

_
98
29
2
_
96
29
_
28
93
_
3
1
_
_
_
_
_
118
278
190
..125 —
-----JO 125
88
153
24
13
30
46
30
39
24
3
19
16
43
57
83
162
49
- —
6
13
77
149
49
45
136
65
4
12
13
_
_
_
4 ------ 5 ~
1
5
4
26
7
11
1
2
7
24
4
6
23
4
6
_
6
17
8
4
2
9
6
3
2
_

-

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

2
2
_
_
_
_
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
52
14
38
31
7
_
39
r~
37
28
9
_
-

_

—

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
40
16
7
r r -------5“ ------- T ~
5
29
11
14
5
9
_
7
2
_
_
_
8
45
3
10
6
1
10
2
39
10
2
39
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
8
4
4
1
3
_
3
3
3
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
18
1
17
8
6
_
3
2
2
2
_
_
-

_
-

_

_
_
_
_
_
-

_

_

_

_

-

_
_
-

-

-

_

_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_

_

_
_
_
_

_

-

_
_

2
1
1
1
-

_

_
-

_

-

_

-

_
_
_

8
Table A-l. Office Occupatbns-Continued

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M inneapolis— P aul, Minn. , January I960)
St.
Sex, occupation, and in d u stry division
W om en— Continued
T abu lating-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss B ____________
__
_______ __ _ _
N onm anufacturing ___
T abu lating-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la ss C ____________
N onm anufacturing __ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F in a n c e 3 _____ ____ ____________ ___ _______
T ra n sc rib in g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs, g e n e ra l __________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _____ ____________________ _____ _____
N onm anufacturing __ _ _____ _ _______________
W holesale t r a d e _______________________________
F in a n c e 3 ----------------------------------------------------------T y p ists, c la ss A ____________________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g ___ ____ __ _ __ _ ___________
N onm an u factu rin g _________________________________
Public u tilitie s * _______________________________
W holesale tra d e _ _ _
F in a n c e 3 __ _ __ _ __ __ _______ _ __
T ypists, cla ss B _ _ _ _ _____ __ _ _ ____
M anufacturing
_ _ __ ____ __ — __ _ _
Nonm anufacturing__ ____ _____ _ ___ __ __ _
Public utilities * _
___ __ _ __ _ _ _
W holesale trade
R etail trade
F inan ce3 ___ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Number
of
workers

99
66
98
91
78
748
231
517
210
221
628
ZST"
340
72
66
122
2,502
645
1,857
193
264
145
1,021

Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
Weekly I earnings 1 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 $90.00 95.00 $
Weekly
100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120. 00
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125. 00
39.0
39.6
38.5
36.5
38.0
38.5
39.0
38.5
38.5
38.0
39.5
39.5
39.0
40.0
40.0
38.0
39.0
39.5
39.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
38.0

$76.00
76. 50
67.50
66.60
67.00
61.50
64.00
60.50
62.00
58.50
64.50
63.00
65.50
75.50
66.00
58.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
74.50
55.00
55. 00
53.50

_
6
6
6
6
6
6
_
72
2
70
25
8
33

1
1'
6
6
6
47
47
16
27
13
it
1
431
64
367
42
27
267

3
3
8
8
5
121
20
101
26
58
75
31
44
5
2
35
683
210
473
14
81
41
282

3
3
10
10
9
196
76
120
38
42
141
55
86
6
6
52
657
174
48 3
16
39
33
265

8
6
5
4
2
161
41
120
62
49
136
82
54
11
19
16
378
ii9
249
35
44
23
135

19
15
13
13
12
97
40
57
35
14
119
62
57
6
21
9
129
59
70
17
13
11
28

12
4
16
16
14
39
18
21
12
5
51
26
25
3
8
8
53
6
47
22
13
2
9

17
9
15
13
9
48
23
25
18
6
49
l3
36
12
10
2
27
1
26
21
4
1

10
3
19
15
15
26
13
13
12
14
3
11
3
7
7
3
3
1

10
7
4
4
2
13
13
13
21
21
21
“

10
9
_
3
3
3
6
6
6
32
32
32
-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to th ese w eekly hours,
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




3
' '3
_
_
7
7
7
11
11
11
“

3
3
_
_
4
4
1
1
1
“

_

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
~

_
_
_
-

_

_
_
_

_
"
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_

_
_
_
"

$
125.00
and
over

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_

_

_

_
_
_
-

_

9
Table A -2: Professional and Technical Occupations

(Average straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M inneapolis— Paul, Minn. , January I960)
St.
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A vbbaq *

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

Is

J

Weekly , Weekly . Jnder *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 *80.00 *85.00 *90.00 *95.00 100.00 *05.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 *50.00 i 5 5 .o a i6 o .o q 165.00
hours * earnings
and
j and
(Standard) (Standard)
under
L oo

70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00(165.00 1 over

Men
D raftsm en, le a d e r _____________
Manufacturing _____________

163
97

39.5
39.5

$141.50
137.00

D raftsm en, senior ____________
Manufacturing _____________
Nonmanufacturing _________
Public u tilitie s3 _________

824
608
216
80

39.5

4 0.0
4 0.0

111.00
“ 169.56
115.00
118.50

D raftsm en, ju n io r ___
M an u factu rin g___
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities 3

3 9 .5

39.5
39.5
4 0 .0
4 0.0

60

T racers

147
25

40 .0

64.50

102
76

39.5
39.5

88.00
88.00

669

521

"

~

~

1
1

8
8

~

4
4

4
4

10
10

9
9

24
9

9
7

26
1

1

8
7

29
13

30
30

53
50
3
3

111
66
45
5

108
76
32
2

56
45
11
10

85
56
29
16

73
45
28
14

76
64'
12
.’6

17
3
14
7

45
32
13
7

19
15
4
3

11
10
1
1

3

_

"

75
61
14
3

10
10

-

18
13
5
3

3
-

26
24
2
2

29
21
8
7

30
3b

3

_

3
3

~

_

2

-

2

8
8

22
22

-

-

-

-

87.50
20
87.00 ■ i9
i
88.50
103.00
429

-

55
26
29
-

53
51
2
2

88
81
7
-

121
105
16
-

60
4$
12
2

66
44
22
2

51
31
20
3

67
42
25
4

17

6

4

_

1

1

1

l

5
3

10
7

18
11

34
32

14
10

6
3

13
9

-

Women
N u rses, industrial (registered)
Manufacturing _____________

2

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
a W orkers w ere distributed as follows: 1 at $165 to $170; 10 at $175 to $180.
3 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
4 W orkers w ere distributed as follows: 5 at $45 to $50; 8 at $50 to $55; 7 at $55 to $60; 9 at $60 to $65.
NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.




!

-

3
2

-

8
-

_
_

~

20
*11
2
_

2
-

10
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M inneapolis— P aul, Minn. , January I960)
St.
Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
$
Avenge
hourly
.0 0
earnings .1 Under 2and 2 .1 0
$
under
2 .0 0
2 .1 0

$2.75
C arpenters, maintenance _______ _____ „ __ 260
2 .7 b
M anufacturing _ __ ____ _______________ _ 115
Nonmanufacturing
_
_
145
2 .7 4
78
2.42
Public u t ilit ie s * _________________________
2.95
E lectrician s, m aintenance ____________________
391
2.93
M anufacturing __ ____ _ - _ _ ___ __ 2 11
Nonmanufacturing ___ _____ ______ __ 114
2.99
81
__ __ __
Public utilities * ___
2.89
E ngineers, stationary
_____
573
2 .6 8
M an u factu rin g_______ __________________ _ 315
2.70
Nonmamifarturing
_____
258
2 .6 6
61
2.45
Public u tilitie s* __________________________
66
2.77
Finance 3 -------------------------------------------------2.48
F irem en, stationary boiler ___________________
422
M an u factu rin g__________________ _____ ____ _ 268
2.52
154
2.41
Nonmanufacturing ____ ___ __ ___
44
2 .4 4
Public u tilities * _ _ _ _ _ __
___
2 .35
H elpers, trad es, m aintenance ___ _ _ _ 344
Manufacturing
2.31
272
Nonmannfacturing _ _ _ _ _
72
2.49
143
2.52
M achine-tool operators, toolroom _____
' M anufacturing ______________________________ 143 " 2.52
M achinists, m aintenance
_
_ _ 471
2.96
M anufacturing __
_______
_
____ 453
2.96
786
2.65
M echanics, autom otive (m ain ten a n ce)________
R5T5----- 2751
M anufacturing _ _ __ _____
Nonmanufacturing
__ _.
_ _ 686
2 .6 6
Public utilities *
----- _ ____
634
2.65
M echanics, m aintenance _ __ __ _
__ _ 596
2.60
' 2 " 55"
425
Manufacturing _ ___ __ ______ _ _
2.74
Nonmanufacturing __________________________ 173
2.82
M illwrights __ __ __ ________ ___ ____ __ 216
Manufacturing
__
215
2.83
O ilers _________________________________________
123
2.36
Manufacturing _ __
i 2o
2.35
175
P ainters, m aintenance _______________________
2.91
57
___ _____ _ _____
Manufacturing _
2.79
Nonmanufacturing
118
2 .9 6
31
Public u t ilit ie s * _________________________
2 .6 0
2 .95
P ip efitters, m aintenance ______________________ 190
M anufacturing _
2 .95
m
Tool and die m akers ___________________________ 578
3.03
3.03
M anufacturing _ __ _
__ __ _ __ ____ T 7 S

_
_
_
31
16
15
24
24

-

_
_
32
32
32
16
14
2

_

5
5

6
6

2 .50

2 .6 0

2.70

2.80

2.90

4
3

61
61
60

18
7

31
13
18

_
-

3

19
19
40
35
5
-

65
22
43
41
62
24
38

14
9
5
5
5
-

18
15
3
19
12
7

43
43
62
61

106

55
24
31

22
12
10

17
14
3
41
41
-

27
24
3
27
26

23

22
1

36
21
15
6

21

1

34
21
13

27
22
5

107
99

_
"
_
-

1
1
2
2

12
12

74
74
_
-

-

i

1

1
1
1
20
id
2

_
2

l

_

_

_

-

2.40

19
12
7
3

_
-

-

1
1
1

29
29
_
5
5
_
-

1
1

1

3

1
1

28

20
8

_
48
48
8
8

3
_
-

_
-

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
3 Finance, insurance, and real estate.
NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.




$

2 .3 0

28
28
-

35
34

$

$
2.50

18
17
1
1

$

2 .2 0

$
2 .40

_
-

-

-

NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

$
2.30

_
-

-

1
1

_

2 .2 0

$

2
1
1

52
11
41
40
50
22
28

_
25
23

11
1

2

1

8

2
2

12
6
6
6

94
83

49
37

11

3
3
18
18
14

2
12
6

1
1
-

12
2

1

12

12

-

9
48
8
40
19
19
44
38
29
19
10
3
60

46
14
2
2

2 .6 0

43
63
4
25
90
47
43
4
29
29
23
23

12
12
206
20

186
171
40
25
15
28
26

2.70

6

13
9
4
13
l3
26

25
436
19
417
391
87
64
23
51
— 51—

22
22

7
7

7
4

2
2

1
1

12
2
10

21
16
5
1

14

3
3
12
12

7
7
15
15

2
2
1
1

8
6

5
7
7
65
65

2.80

1

124
52
72
_
31
8
8

3
_
1
1

89
89
36
6
30
26
32
32
53
53
1

1

23
14
9
9
78
78
78
78

$

2.90

$

3. 10

3.00
*
54
54
31
24
7
2

_
_
_
182
181
114
31
83
56
56
6
6
1
1

54
54
40
40

3.00

11
6

-

5
4
29
29
19
4
15
_
_
_
27
27
-

3
3
3
3
9
9
3
2
115
115

$

3.10
3.20
1
1

54
45
9

1

3
3
3
5
5
_
_
8
8

_
-

-

-

_
-

"
18
18
_
"
3
3
"
12
12
44
44

$

3.20
3. 30

$

3.30

$

3.40

3.40 —3. 5Q

8
38
- -------5 -------- 4~
1
34
~
!
21
34
21
4
1
30
30
10
21
17
18
10
17
_
3
_
_
3
_
_
34
_
34
_
_
_
_
_
_
36
4
35
4
32
35
3
2
3
2
_
_
_
24
24
*
_
_
_
_
~
37
30
1
36
30
~
_
_
8
_
197
11
197
11

$

3.50
3.6Q
2
_
2

-

21

7
14
2

$

3.60
and
over__
4
4
4
4
-

_
6
- --------r ~
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
_
_
_
-

_

_
_
_
1
-

_
-

_

-

_

_
i
i
14
14

_

11
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s t u d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , M in n e a p o lis —S t. P a u l, M in n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

1 .4 0

$
1$
1 .5 0
1 .6 0
1 .6 0 . . 1 . 7 0

$
1 .8 0

j$
1 1 .9 0

©j
00,

$
1 .3 0

o|
I>
T|

$
$
Average
hourly - U n d er 1 .1 0
1 .2 0
earnings*
and
$
under
1 .1 0
1 .3 0
1 .2 0

o
f-

Number
of
workers

o
V (

O c c u p a t i o n 1 a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

”
1 .9 0

LL.QQ

E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( m e n ) __ ______
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________ __ _

98
98

$ 1 .5 6
1 .5 6

-

-

35
35

10
10

1
1

-

1
1

42
42

-

-

E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( w o m e n ) ______
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________________
R e t a il t r a d e __ ___ __
____

238
2 36
81

1 .4 5
1 .4 5
1 .3 6

3
3
3

2
2
2

75
75
32

12
12
11

24
24
3

109
107
29

1
1
1

-

-

G u a r d s __ _
_
_ __ ____ _
_
___
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
__ _
__
P u b l ic u t il it i e s 3 ______
_____
___________
F i n a n c e 4 __ ____ __ __ _
_ _ _ ____ __

516
352
164
34
130

2 .1 7
2 .2 0
2 . 10
2 .9 5
1 .8 8

_
-

_
-

_
-

24
24
24

17
17
17

9
3
6
6

3
3
_
-

-

_
-

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( m e n ) ________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _ ___ _________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________________
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 _ __________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ____________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _ _______
_ __
F i n a n c e 4 --------------------------------------------------------

2 ,7 2 0
1 ,2?0
1 ,4 5 0
245
62
475
368

1 .7 9
1 .9 4
1 .6 6
1 .9 7
1 .8 1
1 .5 6
1 .7 5

27
27
3
18
-

26
26
5
_
6
-

120
1
119
8
_
55
-

242
19
2 23
9
1
111
10

107
24
83
2
1
32
13

72
28
44
1
10
7
25

145
20
125
24
18
28
38

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) _____
M a n u fa c t u r in g
__ _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ______ _________
_ __ ___
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 ____________________________
___ _
______ __
R e t a il t r a d e __
F i n a n c e 4 __ __ _____ __

661
R3
5 17
70
77
294

1 .4 9
1 .6 2
1 .4 5
1 .6 9
1 .2 6
1 .4 5

19
19
3
5 15
-

35
7
28
28
-

39
36
3
_
1

52
1
51
6
10
23

314
314
28
23
216

65
3
62
_
52

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d l i n g ____________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __
____
_
_ __ _______
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 __
___ ___
_ __ ___
W h o l e s a le t r a d e
........
R e t a il t r a d e _____ _______ _________ ________

5 ,7 6 5
1 ,7 1 5
4 ,0 5 0
2 ,3 3 3
1 ,0 8 5
604

2 .2 3
2 .1 4
2 .2 7
2 .3 8
2 .3 3
1 .7 9

84
84
_
4 84

56
56
_
28

37
37
_
_
37

38
38
_
38

67
38
29
_
29

35
19
16
•_
_
16

O r d e r f i l l e r s ________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _
_
__ _________
__ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __ _ __ __ __ __ __
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 _ ___ __
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ___________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _ _ ___

2 ,5 3 1
454
2 ,0 7 7
310
1 ,2 7 4
493

2 .2 1
2 .0
2 .2 5
2 .3 2
2 .2 9
2 .0 8

-

-

-

7
7
-•
-

89
8
81
_
81

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (m e n )
________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____
__ _ _ _ _ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ___ ____
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ____
_______
R e t a il t r a d e
_ _____

8 39
356
48 3
426
57

2 . 18
2 .2 6
2 .2 7
2 . 15

-

-

2
2
2

2
2
2

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (w o m e n ) _____________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __ __ ____
R e t a il t r a d e __ _
_____

394
158
155

1 .6 3
1 .4 5
1 .4 3

2
2
2

20
20
20

18
18
18

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s
_ _____
M a n u fa c t u r in g _
__ __ ____ __ _____ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
W h o l e s a le t r a d e
__ __
R e t a il t r a d e __________________________________

529
275
253
117
109

2 .2 6
2 .2 9
2 .2 2
2 .3 3
2 .1 1

_
-

_

S h ip p in g c l e r k s
_
_
_ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g __ __ _ _
_
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __ _ __
_ _
W h o l e s a le t r a d e _ __

S ee fo o t n o t e s a t e n d o f ta b le ,




_ _ _ _ _
_

376
179
177
129

1

2 .0 8

2 .4 1
■ " Z T T i...
2 .4 1
2 .4 0

-

_
-

_
-

$
1$
2 .0 0 | 2 .1 0

$
2 .2 0

1
_ 2 .J 0
2.. 2 0 . _ 2 , 30.

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 . 50

2 .4 0 _ . 2 .5 0

__2_. 60

$
2 .6 0

$
2 .7 0

$
2 .8 0

$
3 .0 0

$
2 .9 0

_2.7Q _ __2*8CL _ 2 . 90 . 3 ..0 0 -

2
2

5
5

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

4
4
-

5
5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

65
55
10
10

88
71
17
-

59
8
51
51

39
39
-

87
87
-

20
20
_

-

23
18
5
5

28
28
-

16
16
-

15
4
11
11
-

_
-

_
-

23
23
23
-

384
100
284
14
9
92
115

543
276
267
8
2
97
145

457
393
64
13
4
27
11

97
71
26
19
5
_
2

90
32
58
49
6
3

65
33
32
27
2
3

66
66
-

3
3
_

_
_
_
-

1
1
-

-

52
48
4
_

32
30
2
_
2

10
8
2
1
1
-

32
3
29
29
_
-

2
• 2
2
_
-

•
1
1
1
_
-

1
1
_
-

56
20
36
_
36

105
85
20
_
20

182
166
16
_
_
16

2 83
206
77
46
_
31

347
255
92
_
66
26

280
2 27
53
10
10
33

1802
258
1544
1035
451
58

32
16
16
16

97
24
73
10
_
63

41
9
32
24
_
8

69
84
35
4
20
11

63
36
27
15
6
6

197
115
82
3
69
10

188
57
131
12
96
23

_
-

11
11
_
-

6
1
5
5

5
5
-

76
60
16
15
1

50
47
3
3
-

77
70
7
7

39
25
25

31
31
31

17
17
17

25
19
19

182
23
23

35
-

14
-

4
4
_
4

1
1
_
1

5
5
-

_
-

6
_
6
_
6

9
T "
3
_
3

32
23
9
9

37
9
28
5
23

_

_
-

_

_

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

7
7
_ .
- !

j
i
1
j

_
-

7
6
1

i

17
271
200“
71
63
4
2
2

-

1
1
- *
1

-

3
3
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

660
391
217
52

412
207
2 05
6
135
64

1109
22
1 087
845
206
36

2
2
_
-

9
9
_
_
-

45
45
_
_
-

34
34
_
-

_
-

4 74
66
408
379
29

494
62
4 32
6
4 09
17

753
753
236
291
226

10
5
5
3
2

2
1
1
1

15
14
1
1
-

-

_
-

-

75
69
6
6
-

341
39
302
289
13

87
37
50
29
21

90
8
82
76
6

12
4
8
8
-

1
1
-

_
-

-

-

4
4
-

4
-

4
-

_
-

3
3
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

61

29
26
3
3
-

93

81
32
49
38
6

54
14
40
25
7

79
39
40
12
25

14
14
_
-

24
23
1
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

-

4
4

-

-

-

29
32
9
19
26

ii

9
9

38
23
15
3

T T

32
25
6
40
30
10
9

782

~m

40
17
23
18

114
32
82
68

38
17
21
13

39
30
9
9

28
21
7

2
2
-

_
-

12
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial; Movement Occupations-Continued
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , M i n n e a p o l is — t. P a u l , M in n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )
S
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS O F Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s _ _______________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _ __ __ _____
______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
__ _______________________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e
____________

243
103
140
99

$ 2 .3 2
2 .3 6
2 .2 9
2 .3 3

T r u c k d r i v e r s 7 ___________________ _______________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____ ______________________ _
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________________
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 ____________________________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ____________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _________________________________

3 ,5 8 1
464
3 ,1 1 7
1 ,7 9 9
721
548

T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t (u n d e r lV z t o n s ) ______
M a n u fa c t u r in g
__
______
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _________________________
P u b l ic u t il it i e s 3
____________
R e t a il t r a d e _____________________________
T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m (lV a t o a n d
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s ) _______ ______ ___________ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ___ ______ _____________
P u b l ic u t il it i e s 3
______ _____
W h o l e s a le t r a d e __________________
R e t a il t r a d e ___ __________ .______

O c c u p a t i o n 1 a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

*

U n der $1. 10
and
$
u n d er
1 .1 0
1 .2 0

$

1 .2 0
-

$

1 .3 0
1 .4 0

S

1 .4 0
-

1 .5 0

I$

-

2 .2 0
-

$
2 .3 0
-

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

_2 ,4 Q _

$
2 .4 0
-

$
2 .5 0
-

$
2 .6 0
-

$

$
2 .7 0
-

2 .8 0
-

$
2 .9 0
-

2L, 7Q_ _2 jl8Q_ __2_. 90

3 .0 0

-

-

-

5
5
5
-

14
14
5
9

11
11
10

7
7
7
-

27
7
20
11
9

6
6
-

16
13
3
1
2

37
13
24
-

150
19
131
20
101

78
77
1
-

22
22
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4
4

1
1
-

-

- i
_ 1
_ 1
1
I

-

-

-

29
9
20
20
-

19
1
18
18
-

34
7
27
6
21
-

35
16
19
13
6
-

336
43
293
103
80
110

868
63
8 05
681
57
59

146
32
114
41
69
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- .
-

-

-

-

-

12
-

2
2
2
-

768
752
561
11
172

151
146
134
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

16
-

10
10
-

-

"

97
38
59

9
9

28
2
26

8
8
-

18
18
-

80
76
4
4

63
57
6
6
-

33
23
10
2
7
1

117
45
72
44
23
5

167
69
42
56

204
44
160
111
14
35

1

-

35
33
-

229

-

1
1
-

141
6

13
13

29
17

12
12

63
40

65
32

73
65

-

-

-

-

-

39
8
31
1

28
12
16
15

36
io
26
15

19
18
1

5

13

-

-

4
4
4

15
15
15

2 .4 7
2 .5 9
2 .3 8
2 .2 3
2 .4 1

-

-

1 .4 9 3
192
1 ,3 0 1
865
251
177

2 .5 1
2 .5 4
2 .5 1
2 .5 3
2 .4 8
2 .4 6

-

9 40
900
561
147
184

2 .5 7
2 .5 7
2 .5 6
2 .6 4
2 .5 3

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea vy (o v e r 4 to n s ,
o t h e r tha n t r a i l e r t y p e ) __________ ________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ __ __ _______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ___ ____________________

169
--------55
103

2 .4 4
273“
2 .5 2

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) __ __ ---------- ----_
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_____________
________ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________ ________ ____
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 ____________________________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ______________ _____ ____
R e t a il t r a d e _______ _______________________

• 813
3^3
420
226
92
102

2 .3 5
2 .2 4
2 .4 6
2 .4 8
2 .4 2
2 .4 4

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o t h e r th a n f o r k l i f t ) ________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________ __ _ _

4 09
19$

2 . 14
2 .3 1

W a tch m en
_____ __ __
M a n u fa c t u r in g _________________
__________ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________ _______
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 ____ ____ ___ _______ ___

247
64
183
68

1 .8 4
1 .8 5 1 .8 3
2 .2 3

-

-

_
-

1 .6 0 1

1 !

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

25

9

6
6

-

-

25

9
-

4
1
3

25

-

13
9
4

4

-

"

-

'

1
D ata li m i t e d t o m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e in d ic a t e d .
a E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a n d la t e s h i f t s .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
4 F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .
5 A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 1.
* W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 12 a t $ 0 . 8 0 t o $ 0 . 9 0 ; 42 at $ 0 . 9 0 to $ 1 ; 30 a t $1 to $ 1 . 1 0 .
7 I n c lu d e s a l l d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e a n d ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .




$
2 . 10
-

-

374
158
216
49
131

5, r e l a t i v e t o th e in c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .

-

-

_
-

-

2
2
-

-

S e e n o te on p .

$
2 .0 0

-

-

2 .5 1
2 .5 2
2 .5 1
2 .5 4
2 .4 6
2 .4 7

_
-

'

$
1 .9 0
-

-

_

1 .5 0

$
1 .8 0
-

-

_

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea vy (o v e r 4 to n s,
t r a i l e r t y p e ) __ _____________ _______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _________________________
P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 3 ______________
_____
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _ ___________________________

NOTE:

j$
1 .6 0 j 1 .7 0

1 .7 0 f__Ll_8Q
2 .1 0
1 ,9 0
2 .0 0
j
_
13
28
“ {
22
- i
13
- 1
6
1
" |
. |
9
1
1
5 j
18
52
12 !
“ 1
- ;
- !
25
1 !
- |
5
18
27
11
5
5
27
13
10
-

1 .3 0

_

-

$

4

25
1

-

16

21
21 1
_ 1
!

i
17 i
1
10
_
!
56
18 !
38
11
18
9

"

-i
40
13 |
27
6
21
-

•

5
5

2 .5 0

__2 ,

60-

14
2
12
10

10
10
6

8
3
5
4

4
4
-

3
3
3

41
304
14
258
2

4 76
96
378
103
108
166

211 2
100
2 01 2
1577
86
332

405
118
2 87
41
2 30
16

33
23
10
10
_
-

12
12
_
-

93
15
78
66
345

13
12

62

-

1
1

$

3 .0 0
3 . 10

14
14 —
-

5
r
-

-

3
3
_
_
-

12
12
_
_
_
-

-

1
1
-

_
-

2
1
1
1
_

6
6
-

-

-

1
1
-

12
12
-

-

6
-

1
-

-

9
9

-

-

-

8
$
-

14
14
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

13
13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

'

"

'

"




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

13

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s h ift w o r k ,
a n d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a ll y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h ift s b y ty p e a n d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l ,
M in n e a p o lis — t. P a u l, M in n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )
6
In e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 f o r —

In e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a ll y
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
S e c o n d s h ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h ift w o r k

S e c o n d s h ift

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift

T o t a l _________________________________________________

86. 5

79. 1

13. 9

2.9

\iVith s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ________________________

86. 3

7 9. 1

13. 9

2. 9

U n ifo r m c e n t s (p e r h o u r ) ____________________
4 cen ts
5 c e n t s _______________________________________
6 c e n t s ______ _____ ___________________________
7 c e n t s _______________________________________
8 c e n t s _________________________ _____ _______
8 V 2 c e n t s ______________
________________
10 c e n t s ______________________________________
1 1 c e n t s _________________ ____ _______________
12 c e n t s _________________ _____ ______________
13 o r 13 V 2 c e n t s __________________________
14 o r 14 V 3 c e n t s
15 c e n t s _______________________________________
O v e r 15 an d u n d e r 2 0 c e n t s _____________
2 0 cen ts
. . . . . .
O v e r 2 0 c e n t s ____ _____ __________ _____ ____

65. 5
.7
12 . 1
1. 9
2. 7
3 .2
.8
25. 3
7. 1
4. 9
2. 5
1. 0
2. 7
-

5 9 .4
4 .4
-

1 0 .4
1. 7
.3
.4
. 4.2
3. 7
.5
1.2

2. 3
-

U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e
____ ____________________
5 p e r c e n t ____________________________________
6 7 3 p e r c e n t _________________________________
7 V 2 p e r c e n t _________________________________
8 p e r c e n t ____________________________________
10 p e r c e n t _____ _____________________________
12 V 2 p e r c e n t ________________________________
13 p e r c e n t __ ______ _________________________

20. 0
2. 0
1. 1

O t h e r _____________________________________________

.8

.8

N o s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________________

.2

-

1
2

.6

11. 9
.9
4. 1
-

1.2
1 6 .4

1 .2
12. 5
.8
2.8
1 0 .4
1. 1
3. 4
5. 2
18.
.
3.
10.
4.

9

9
0
9
1

1
.9
.4
-

.6

1

( 2)
1. 1
.3

. 1
.2
.4
. 1

3 .4
-

.5
( 2)
.5
-

.2
1. 8
.2
1.2
. 1
( 2)

1
-

In clu des e sta b lish m e n ts cu rre n tly operatin g late sh ifts, and esta b lish m e n ts w ith fo rm a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g late shifts
even though they w e re not c u r r e n tly operatin g late sh ifts.
L e s s than 0. 05 p e rce n t.

14
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
(D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l i n d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , M i n n e a p o l is - S t . P a u l, M in n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )

In e x p e rie n ce d ty p ists
M anufac turing
M in im um w ee k ly s a la ry 1

A ll
in d u strie s

O ther in ex p e r ie n c e d c le r i c a l w o rk e rs , 2

B a se d on standard w ee k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll
sch e d u le s

40

A ll
sch e d u le s

37 Vz

E sta b lish m en ts s t u d ie d __________________________

253

95

XXX

158

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m ___

143

49

41

94

_
13
24
32
12
26
10
5
7
1
6
1
1
5

_
7
8
9
9
6
3
3
2

_

1
1

5
5
6
9
6
3
3
2
1
1

„
13
17
24
3
17
4
2
4
1
4
1

__

57

26

XXX

31

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts w h ich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y _________________________________

53

20

XXX

33

XXX

$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 . 00
$ 57. 50
$ 60. 00
$ 62. 50
$ 6 5 . 00
$ 67. 50
$ 70. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 4 0 . 00
under $ 4 2 . 50 ___________________
under $ 4 5 . 00 ___________________
under $ 4 7 . 50
under $ 5 0 . 00 ____________
___
under $ 52. 50 ___________________
under $ 5 5 .0 0 ___________________
under $ 5 7 . 50 ___________________
under $ 60. 00 ___________________
under $ 62. 50 ___________________
under $ 6 5 .0 0 ___________________
under $ 6 7 . 50
under $ 70. 00 ___________________
o v e r ______________________________

E sta b lish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d
m in im um ______________________ ___________

M anufacturing

N onm anu facturing

-

383/4

A ll
Industrie s
A ll
sch ed u les

40

N onm anufacturing

B a sed on standard w eek ly h o u r s 3 o f—
40

A ll
sch ed u les

37 Va

383/4

40

XXX

XXX

253

95

XXX

158

XXX

14

7

70

137

44

37

93

_
2
3
5
1
3

_
3
3
1
-

-

-

-

-

_
11
11
14
1
13
4
2
4
1
4
1

_
6
13
5
6
5
2
2
1
2

_
5
8
4
6
5
2
2
1
2

-

-

1
23
20
16
1
16
2
4
2
3
1

4

i
23
26
29
6
22
7
6
4
1
5
1
1
5

1
1

1
1

4

XXX

XXX

60

25

XXX

35

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

56

26

XXX

30

XXX

XXX

XXX

-

-

-

-

_

4

-

-

-

-

XXX

XXX

13

7

71

_

_
1
4
2
-

1.
19
13
8
1
13
2
4
2
3
1

3
3
5
2
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

4

1 L o w e s t s a la r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l is h e d f o r h i r in g in e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r ty p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
2 R a t e s a p p l ic a b l e t o m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n ot c o n s i d e r e d .
3 H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s . D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d , a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .
NOTE:




S e e n o te o n p . 1 5 ,

r e l a t i v e t o th e in c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .

15
Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u le d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , M in n e a p o lis — t. P a u l, M i n n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )
S

W e e k ly h o u r s

A ll

__

__________ ____

__

All
industries

____________________

100

35 h o u r s ____________________ _____________ __________
O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r 37 V 2 h o u r s ____________________
\3 7 V 2 h o u r s ___________________________________________
O v e r 37 V 2 a nd u n d e r 38 % h o u r s --------------------------______________________________________________
3 8% h o u r s
O v e r 3 8 % a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s _____________________
4 0 h o u r s ____________________ _____ ____________________
O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s _______________________
4 4 h o u r s ______________________________________________
4 5 h o u r s a n d o v e r ___________________________________

1
1
18

w ork ers

( 5)
8
3

68
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)

1

OFFICE WORKERS
Manufacturing

Public
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance

3

PLANT WORKERS
Services

An
Industries4

Manufacturing

100

100

_

_

.

2
11

-

3

-

-

_

_

7

44

3

5
1

85
1

-

4
8

15

( 5)
( 5)
( S)

100

100

100
4

100
3

-

-

4
2
5
4

24

( 5)
-

10 0

90

86

28

89

-

_

_

-

_

_

1
2

.

-

-

3

100
5

_

Public
utilities 2

Wholesale
trade

100

100

_
_
_
_

_
-

-

_
_
-

-

-

93

93

_

2

_

1

_

7

6

4

1

1 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t il it i e s .
F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .
4 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
5 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .




100

97

3

NOTE:

-

Retail trade

E s t i m a t e s f o r a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d p u b lic u t il it i e s in c lu d e d a ta f o r r a i l r o a d s (-SIC 4 0 ), o m it t e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f a l l l a b o r m a r k e t
w a g e s u r v e y s m a d e b e f o r e the w in t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 .
W h e re s i g n ifi c a n t , th e e f f e c t o f th e in c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s is g r e a t e s t on the
d a ta sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y f o r th e p u b l ic u t il it i e s d i v is i o n .

Services

16
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , M i n n e a p o l is - S t . P a u l, M in n . , J a n u a r y I9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS
Item
AR
industries 1

A ll w o rk e rs „

_________________________ _____

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id h o l id a y s __ _________ ________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
no p a id h o l id a y s
.... ................
......

Manufacturing

Public ,
utilities2

Wholesale
trade

PLANT WORKERS
Retail trade

Finance3

Services

All „
industries 4

Manufacturing

Public
utilities 2

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

99

10 0

10 0

10 0

100

-

-

-

-

"

1

-

-

-

"

_
41

_
41
19

_

_

23
-

36

8

1

-

60
16
-

7
-

Services

N u m b e r off d a y s
3 h o l id a y s __
_
___
6 h o l id a y s _
_
6 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y
__
____
6 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s
6 h o l id a y s p lu s 3 h a lf d a y s
7 h o l id a y s _
___
___
7 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y __________________________
7 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s
_
... .
7 h o l id a y s p lu s 5 h a lf d a y s
................
___ _______
8 h o l id a y s
_ _
....
8 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y
............
8 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s
..................... . .....
9 h o l id a y s --------------------------------------------- ------------------9 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s
........ .....
10 h o l i d a y s ______ _____ ____________________________
10 h o l id a y s p lu s 4 h a lf d a y s _______________________

T ota l h o lid a y

llz

o r m o r e d a y s ___________________________________
m ore days
_
_ _
o r m o r e d a y s ___________________________________
m ore days
o r m ore days
. . . . . . ... _
m o r e d a y s ______________________________________
o r m ore
or m ore
3 o r m ore

7
6 V2
6

days
days
d a y s ...

1
2
3
4
5
6
n o h a lf

...
_

( 5)

20
1

11
2

5

5
-

1
10

10

4
1.

3

2

-

-

( 5)

1

1

■

-

_

_

79
4

-

38
4
9
13
5
5
-

-

2
19

2
14
19
-

2

13
-

2

( 5)
47

_

7
23

37
18
13
19

1
1

1
1

7
( 5)

9
-

-

( 5)

11

_

w
33
-

40
9
-

26

12

3
-

-

2

( 5)
58
9
-

20
1

-

-

-

( 5)

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

1

10

-

5

-

-

-

-

1

2

•

'

"

3

•

■

3

_

_

_

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
12

-

8

2
76
9
-

1
( 5)
-

“

tim e 4

12 d a y s ___________________________________________ „
10 o r m o r e d a y s _____________________________________
9
9 or
8 V2
8 or
7 V2
or

8
6

. __
.. .
___

_ .... _

j
3
4
9
9
24
25
51
59

10 0
10 0

_

_

_

1
1
5
5
19

-

-

16

21

16

40
59

77
77

33
36
63
64

10 0
10 0

10 0
10 0

10 0
10 0

_
-

1
1
2
2

10
10

17

25
25
36
36
58

21
10 0
10 0

62
10 0
10 0

9

10
40
52
99
99

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1

13
45
63

9
9
67
67

24
24
59
60

22

10 0
10 0

10 0
10 0

10 0
10 0

10 0

1
1
14
98

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n * t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n c e ,’ in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f fu l l a n d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c lu d e s t h o s e w it h 7 f u l l d a y s and
d a y s , 6 fu l l d a y s a n d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 fu l l d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , a n d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e th e n c u m u la t e d .

NOTE;




S ee n o te o n p . 1 5,

r e l a t i v e t o th e in c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .

17
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , M i n n e a p o l is —
St. P a u l, M in n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )
OF FICE W O RK ERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A ll w o rk e r s

_____________________________________

All
.
industries

_

P L A N T W O RK ER S

Manufacturing

Public ,
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance3

100

100

100

100

100

100
99
( 5)

100
99
1

100
100
■

100
100

All 4
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100
100
*

100
100
"

99
93
6

-

-

23
11

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100
88
12

100
100
■

100
100
~

100
100
"

1

"

-

■

"

8
81
5
3

27
10

31
9

2
5

14
16

44
13

-

-

-

-

-

( 5)

-

2

-

-

4

77
4
17
( 5)
1

80
9
10

81

-

-

1

2

47
7
43
1
1

60
12
24
3
1

40
6
52

11
4
79
2
1
1

14
8
70
5
2
1

24
1
73

1
( 5)
81
9
7
1

1
1
69
18
9

Services

Public 2
utilities

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s _____________________________________
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ______________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ___________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s ___ ______ ________________________

-

-

-

6
40
8
1

5
34
21
-

1
5
2
-

33
( 5)
67

23
( 5)
76

(* )
( 5)

-

-

1

"

7
6
86
1
( 5)

7
1
91

5
32
61
2
-

1

2
1
94

Amount off vacation p ay6
A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ----------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________________
2 w e e k s _ ______________________________________________________

_

25
-

-

-

1

A fte r 1 y e a r o f se r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________________
2 w e e k s _ ______________________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________________

80
-

29
-

79
-

-

70
1
“

21

96

-

-

14

20

_

-

-

-

85
1

80

100

-

-

-

-

"

_

3

_

-

20

-

-

97

100

61

-

-

17

38
1
“

68
-

32
-

-

A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ___ ______ _____________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ____ __________ _________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________________

-

1

-

2

30
-

69
1
■

18
-

82
-

■

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________________
2 w eeks _
__ _____________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s __________ _________________
3 w e e k s __ ________________________________________________ ___
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________________

( 5)
97
1
1
( 5)

-

2
1

( 5)
98
2
-

99
1
-

-

-

-

-

■

-

-

-

3
96
1
-

-

100
-

2

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __
O v er 1 and
2 w eeks _
O v er 2 and
3 w eeks _
O ver 3 and

__ _________________________________ ________________
u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________________
______________________________________________________

under 3 w eek s

______________________________

______________________________________________________

under 4 w e e k s

______________________________

S e e fo o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b l e .




( 5)
( 5)
86
8
6
( 5)

(* )
( 5)
78
9
12
1

_

_

-

-

--

-

98
2
-

93
1
6

-

-

84
16

5

-

95

-

-

98

98
1
1

-

2

-

89
11

Services

18
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(^ P ercen t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t io n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , M i n n e a p o l is - S t . P a u l, M in n . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 )
O F FIC E W O RK ER S

P L A N T W O RK ER S

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All
industries 1

Manufacturing

Public ,
utilities2

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance3

Services

All
industries

Manufacturing

P u b lic,
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Amount o! vacation p a y 6— Continued
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
2 w e e k s _ ______ ______ _______ _________ ________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________
3 w e e k s ________ ___________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _______________________
4 w e e k s _____ _______________________________________

47
6
46
(* )
( 5)

28
2
68
1
1

68
2
30

35
4
61

64

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

5

6
2
91

10
1
89

88

99

-

-

-

-

-

36

58
18
24

54
6
37
1
1

41
10
45
1
2

11
1
83
2
2

10
3
81
3
2

89
2
5

11
1
65
2
20

10
3
58
3
25

72
2
22

71
-

26
2

41
4
55

33

67

-

-

-

-

-

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
2 w e e k s _ ______ ____________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _____________________________
3 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _______________________
4 w e e k s __ ____________ ____________ _____ ______

6
( 5)

93
( 5)
( s)

-

93
1
1

1

12

( 5)

-

"

-

4
-

2
1
97

87

13

-

-

-

-

A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
2 w e e k s _______________________________________ _________ ____
O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s . _________________________
3 w e e k s ________________ _______________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _____________ _________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________ _____________________

6
(s)
70
( 5)
23

5
51
1
43

12

6
2
88

10
1
60

-

-

79

83

-

-

-

-

4

29

9

16

6
2
68

10
1
37

21

-

-

-

24

52

67

( 5)

4
-

1
1
69

77

13

-

-

-

29

9

2
1
49

40

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
2 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _____________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________ ____________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _______________ ___________
4 w e e k s __ _____________________________________________________

1
2
3
4
5
*
in c lu d e

6
( 5)
45
2
47

5
-

45
-

50

12
-

( 5)
-

42
6
51

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t il it i e s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
.
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n ot n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .

9

'l

50

1

37

F o r e x a m p le ,

8

3
52
( 5)
37

4
-

58
2
36

-

-

-

48

46

th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d ic a t e d a t

N O T E : S ee n o t e o n p . 1 5, r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .
In th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " le n g t h o f t i m e , "
a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o a n e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k ’ s p a y .




13

10 y e a r s

s e r v ic e

su c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f

19
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P ercen t of office and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in industry d ivision s em ployed in estab lish m en ts providing
health, in su ra n ce, or pen sion b en efits, M inneapolis— P au l, M inn. , January I960)
St.
OFFICE WORKERS

Type of benefit

All
industries

|

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

a

Wholesale
trade

PLANT WORKERS
Retail trade

Finance 3

Services

AU
industries

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

__________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

W orkers in estab lish m en ts providing:
L ife in su rance ------------------ -------------- --------- ----------------------A ccidental death and dism em berm en t
_ ______
__ _ _
in su rance _ ____
S ick n ess and acciden t in su rance or
sick lea v e or both 5 ________________________
S ick n ess and acciden t in su rance
Sick lea v e (full pay and no
w aiting p e r io d )___ ____ __
_ _
Sick lea v e (p artial pay or
w aiting period) __ _ _____ ____
H ospitalization in su rance _
__ _ _ _
Su rgical in su rance _________________________
M edical in su rance ____ ___ __ ____ __ _
C atastrophe in su rance _____________________
R etirem en t pen sion __
No health, in su ra n ce, or pension p la n ____

89
46
73
39
46
3
87
85
74
48
77
2

95
53
82
70
42

66
33
92
13
86
3
79
79
67
52
51

91
46
65
46

89
44
90
60
31
12
75
67
35
60
66
5

97
48
55
12
46

84
47
86
70
14
11
86
84
68
17
62
3

71
41
66
19
22
27
76
76
63
40
68
1

97
62
92
70
35
6
100
98
85
21
56

82
45
89
65

-

89
46
92
87
10
10
93
90
75
6
70
2

Services

A ll w ork ers _ _ ______________________

(6 )
94
91
74
31
78
1

29
5
92
91
85
34
74
4

89
89
89
70
99

19
6
71
69
50
30
54
6

1 Includes data for s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose industry d ivision s shown sep a ra tely .
* T ransportation , com m un ication , and other public u tilitie s.
3 F in an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l e sta te .
4 Includes data for r e a l e sta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose industry d iv isio n s shown sep arately.
5 Unduplicated total of w ork ers r eceiv in g sick leave or sic k n e ss and accid en t in su rance shown sep arately below . S ick -le a v e plans a re lim ited to th ose w hich d efin itely e sta b lish at le a s t the
m inim um num ber of d a y s' pay that can be exp ected by each em p loyee. Inform al s ic k -le a v e allo w an ces determ ined on an individual b a sis a re exclud ed.
4

L e s s tha n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE: See note on p. 15, re la tiv e to the in clu sion of r a ilr o a d s.







21

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the B u reau s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
essen tial in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FFIC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:
Biller, machine (billing machine)— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E llio tt F isher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold m achine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F isher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ithout
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b usiness tran sactio n s.




Class A— K eeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping* P h ases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sh eets for the accounting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
ment’s b usiness tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

22
CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allocatio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may direct c la ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among several w orkers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­

ber of varied su bject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
v ise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical du ties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of m aterial th a t h as
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. D uties involve: C alculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and distrib ut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathem a­
tic al com putations. T his job is not to be confused with that of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own wotk or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

23

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own in itiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also s e t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular du ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of th is worker’s time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A— O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents w ithout close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations arcdday-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
Class B— O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
Class C— O perates sim ple tabulating or electrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

24

TYPIST—“Continued

TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.

Class B— Perform s one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already se t up and spaced properly.

PR O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q uantities;
writing sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecifications. May ink In lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, maps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

25
MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
computations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires^ stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e lec­
trical system or equipment; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and measuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is nermitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch inist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; setting up and

26
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop com putations re la ting to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending of the machine to a m achine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten specificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making a ll n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipment and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, w hite lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten specifications; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

27

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-working m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, draw ings, or other oral and written sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, speed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die m aker's
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
T ransports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte*
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

28
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, custom ers’
orders, or other instru ctio n s. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders^ req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related du ties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of estab ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing plants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical rep airs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (ll/2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled g asoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I960 0 -546781

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bulletins, when av ailable,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, W ashington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issued early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
C leveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
D allas, T ex., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*3, price 20 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 cents
Miami, F la., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-6, price 20 cents
Baltimore, Md., September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents




Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
Denver, Colo., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*11, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-13, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102