View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

House D ocum ^^ H w *^^

82d Congress, 2d Session

ln”'» STATE
5 § 5£Hir
n i.L F ("

Occupational Wage Survey

R 2 1 1952

...

vRY

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
October 1951

Bulletin No. 1058

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin - Secretary



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U . S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington

bureau of labor statistics

Ewan Cla*u< *

25, D . C.

-

Price

15 cents

Com i**ion«r
m




Contents
Page

MTRtDUCTICN....................................................................

1

THE RICHMOND METROPOLITAN AREA ....................................................

1

OCCUPATIONAL WAGE STRUCTURE .......................................................

2

TABIESx
Average earnings far selected occupations studied on an area basis A-l
Office occupations .....
A-2
Professional and technical occupations •••«•»••••••••••••.....
A-3
Maintenance and power plant occupations........
A-4
Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations........

3
&
7
8

Average earnings far selected occupations studied on an industry basis* B-63
Insurance carriers..........

10

Union wage scales far selected occupations C-15
Building construction .................
C-205 Bakeries ..................................
0-27
Printing......................................
C-41
Looal transit operating employees ..........................
C-42
Motortruck drivers and helpers ••««•»•••••.............................

H
H
H
H
H

Entrance rates D-l
Minimum entrance rates far plant workers *••••••••••••«••••••••••••••••••

12

Wage practices E-l
Shift differential provisions
E-2
Scheduled weekly h o u r s .....
E-3
Paid holidays ........... .
E-4
Paid vacations •••*••••••••••
E-5
Paid sick leave ............
E-6
Nonproduction bonuses ......
E-7
Insurance and pension plans •

APPENDIX s
Scope and method of survey ••••••••••
INDEX...........................................................................

* NOTE - Occupational earnings reports are available
upon request for the following additional indus­
tries! auto repair shops (June 1951) and power
laundries (June 1951)*

March 6, 1952

12
13
13
H
15
16

16

Introduction

1/

The Richmond area is one of 40 major labor markets in
which the Bureau of Labor Statistics is currently conducting oc­
cupational wage surveys. Occupations that are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries were studied
on a community-wide basis#
Cross-industry methods of sampling
were thus utilized in compiling earnings data for the following
types of occupations:
(a) office; (b) professional and techni­
cal; (c) maintenance and power plant;
(d) custodial, warehous­
ing, and shipping. In presenting earnings information for such
jobs (tables A-l through
separate data have been provided
wherever possible for individual broad industry divisions.

k -4 )

Occupations that are characteristic of particular,
important, local industries have been studied on an industry
basis, within the framework of the community survey. 2 /
Earn­
ings data for these jobs have been presented in Series B tables.
Union scales (SeriesC tables) are presented in lieu of (or sup­
plementing) occupational earnings for several industries or
trades in which the great majority of the workers are employed
under terms of collective - bargaining agreements, and the con­
tract or minimum rates are indicative of prevailing pay prac­
tices.
Data have also been collected and summarized on shift
operations and differentials, hours of work, and supplementary
benefits such as vacation and sick leave allowances, paid holi­
days, nonproduction bonuses, and insurance and pension plans.

1/ Prepared in the Bureau’s regional office in Atlanta,
Ga., by Harry H. Hall, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations
Analyst.
The planning and central direction of the program
was carried on in the Branch of Community Wage Studies of the
Bureau’s Division of Wages and Industrial Relations in Washing­
ton, D. C.
See appendix for discussion of scope and method of survey.

2/




The Richmond Metropolitan A rea

Population of the Richmond Metropolitan Area, include
ing the city of Richmond and Chesterfield and Henrico Counties,
totaled more than 328,000 persons in 1950.
Of these, about 70
percent resided within the city limits of Richmond.
The Bureau’s estimate of the annual budget for a
Richmond worker’s family of four persons was $3,890, the third
highest annual cost among the
large cities surveyed in the
United State? during October 1950.
The budget is described as
providing a nmodest but adequate” level of living for an urban
worker’s family of four persons - an employed father, a house­
wife not gainfully employed, and two children under 15 years of
age. Between October 1950 and the time of the survey in October
1951, consumer’s prices in Richmond increased almost 6 percent.

34

Richmond occupies a position of industrial importance
in the South with representatives of a large variety of indus­
tries located in the area.
Nonagricultural employees totaled
132,750 in September 1951 with 38,700 of this number working in
manufacturing establishments. £ / The tobacco industry, employ­
ing over a fourth of the workers, ranked first in importance,
from the standpoint of employment, among Richmond manufacturing
industries, while chemicals ranked second with an employment of
over 6,000.
Other prominent manufacturing industries in the
area were food, textiles and apparel, and paper and allied
products.
As the hub of a wide trading area, Richmond has con­
siderably more workers engaged in nonmanufacturing industries
than in manufacturing. In September 1951, approximately 94,000
persons were employed in nonmanufacturing establishments.
The
retail and wholesale trade industries accounted for 34,000 of

2 / Labor Market Trends. Virginia State Employment Service,
Richmond, Va., December 1951*

Table A-l:

O

f f ic e

O

c c u p a t io n *

-

C

o n t in u e d

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 / for selected occupations studied on an area
basis in Richmond, Va., by industry division, October 19£l)

See footnote at end of table,
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication,
**
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




and other public utilities.

5<

A-i:

O

^ ic e

O c e s ip &

t i&

U

-

G o tU

it t u m

d

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 / for selected occupations studied on an area
basis in Richmond, Va., by industry division, October 1951)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
o
f
wres
okr

$
$
$
s
$
$
$
*
$
$
>
t
$
$
1
*
$
$
$
$
*
eky
Wel
e k y W e l Under 30.00 32 .S0 35.00 37.50 1*0.00 1*2.50 IS.OO U7.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00
j
erig
anns
hus
or
and
(tnad (tnad *
Sadr) Sadr)
2.50 1*5.00 1*7.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57*5o 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72,50 75.00 80.00 85,00 90.QQ
30.00 M i 35.00 37.50 1*0.00 1*

$
90.00
and
<?r
ye

Women - Continued
Clerks, general ...................
Manufacturing ...................
Nonmanufacturing...............
Public utilities * ............
Wholesale trade... ....... .
Retail trade .................
Finance * * ................. ..
Services ....................
Clerks, order.... .................
Manufacturing...................
Noixnanufacturing.................
Wholesale trade ...............
Retail trade ..................

906
loo
*.
-T 5 J— —
775
5o
288

19k
179
6k
91

105
*.
Loo
*.
Uo.5
110
*.
39.0
125
*.

$
1*3.00
5i.oo
1*1.50

51.00

ll.o
**o
37.50
l*i.5o
36.50

2

3

1*8.00
55.00
1*3.50
1*9.50

-

Duplicating-machine operators....... .
Nonmanufacturing ................

l*
l
15

39.5
39.5

38.00
38.00

5*
17

17
*5
37
191
103
126
18

............................... 933
. "TBI—

Stenographers, general
Manufacturing................................... .

Public u tilitie s * ..........................
Wholesale trade ...............................
Retail trade ....................................
Finance
.................... ..................
Services ...........................................

752
63

361

66

239
23

-

-

2

-

_
-

63
10
*
21
16

-

9

13
2
11
3
5
3

29

l*
l
6
8

1
1

2
2

3
3

21

37

31

55

31
1
*
27

55
2
19
*

20
3
17
1
9

10
5
5

1
*

36

17
*

1
*

36

17
*

73
1
*
69

11
1*
1

33
3

3*
1
20

1
-

1
l

-

12
6
6
1
_

11 +
1
13
8

l*
l
9
5
3

-

-

-

5
-

5
-

2
-

9
1
8
8
-

12
1
11

1
1

8
3

22
2
20
8
9
1
2
-

6
6
_

-

_
-

1
1

-

5
5

2
2

-

-

-

-

8

21

-

-

11
10

2
1*
1
l*
l

6
2
x

-

-

-

11
11

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

_

1

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

27
1
*
23

8

3

-

12

and other public utilities

-

-

-

3
-

37
3
3*
1
7
11
1
15

i

-

2

1
1

-

6

51
15
*
3

11
2
25

1*

17
11
6

-

_
27
1
26
1
20

6

23
2

1
*

12

-

6
2

1
1

-

-

6
1
*
2
2

10

_

-

_

-

1
*

-

-

_

16

l
1

1

-

-

-

-

-

13
3
10

5
3
2

6
1
5

k

3
1

2
2

-

-

6
1
5
5

1
1
1

8

2

1
*

-

-

-

-

9
2

150
20
130
2
36
36
56

9
2

139
16
123
2
52

6

63

9
6

122
30
92
15
50
1
*
23

_
_
_
_
-

-

_

10

20

10
_
10

20
_
20

-

-

_
_

_
_

-

_
_

-

2
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

7
7

3

1

-

11
11
_
_
_

_
_

-

_
_

-

-

-

_
_

_
-

_
.
-

-

-

-

_

_

1
1

_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_

_

_
_
_
_

2
1
1
_

l

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

..
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_

.
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-.

20
5

2
1
1

6

8

1
10

1

_
-

-

2
_
2
_

20
20
20

1
-

-

17
1

5
3
2
1
_

3
2
1

16

-

9
2
7
2
2
2

1
*
3

11

1*7.00
1*8.50
1*6.50
1*7.00
1*9.50
1*3.50
1*3.00
50.50

-

2
2

32.50
3U.50
31.50

39.0
38.5
39.0
39.5
39.0
105
*.
38.0
110
*.

-

-

3
1

38.5

53.00

10
*
l*
l
26
2
15
8
1

-

-

21

"61.00”
52.00
6 * 50
1.
51.00
1*9.50
52.00
1*7.00

21
17
5
7
5
-

5
3
2
2
-

3
3

-

-

39.5
■393”
.
39.0
100
*.
39.5
105
*.
38.0
38.0

38

l

. 1

k

2

-

37
3
33

30.50

19
2
17
12
5

66
8
'
11
18
27
2

19
*
10
39
10
5
15
9

1
-

3

-

-

1*0.00
1*9.00
39.00
1*5.50
38.00

-

11
2
9
8
1

77
11

3
-

-

38.5
39.0
38.5
100
*.
38.5

38.0
38.0

98
12
18
120
80
1
*
26
63
21 - 2*
1
3*
1
17
2
9

_
-

_
-

See footnote at end of table,
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication,
**
Finance, insurance, and r e a l estate.




19
15

1*
8.50

2k

'~ fS ~

2

-

T9760-

Secretaries ...............................................
Manufacturing .......................................
Nonmanufacturing ..................................
Public u tilitie s * .......... ...............
Wholesale trade ...............................
Retail trade.......... *.......................
Finance « * .......................................
Services ..........................................

12
3
9

-

39.5
"■"3^.3“
39.5
39.0
110
*.
38.0

Manufacturing .......................................
Nonmanufacturing ..................................
F^nanrA 44 . . T. 1T........ .... T. . t. - rt ,

8
i
7
6
1

1*5.00
1*2.00
1*2.50
1*0 5
.0

150
■Sr
86
21
25

lB
i
15—
33
25

k

8
8
8
-

Clerks, payroll ...................
Manufacturing ...................
Nonmanufacturing ................
Wholesale trade ...............
Retail trade ................ ..
Finance * * .................. .

Office girls.............. .......

8

132

i*
l7
7
1*
10
-

_

105
*.
100
*.
105
*.
105
*.
105
(.

228
17
211
17
173

-

75
26
27
18

92
92
38
2*
1
17
13

75

1*
2.50

20
71
52
19

Key-punch operators ................
Manufacturing............. .
Nonmanufacturing ................
Wholesale trade ...............
Finance * * ...................

22
22
2
12

38 116
5“ 17
32
99
1
11
10
*

3

16
1
119
38
81
11

3*
1
1

3
22 22
3
29
7
5 1
97 20
35
19

78

6

33

56

7
19

3

11

39

13

15

2
1
12

16
*
7
39
8

3

1*
1
13
1

38
3*
1
1
*
18
1
11

-

17
6
11
5

k
59
1

6

50

-

63

-

~

8

28
— 5“

22
9
2

1
*
7

16

2
2
_

1

3
-

1

-

-

2

-

_
_

-

-

k

1

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_

_

_

_

_

1
*

k

-

1

.

2
-

9
7
5

5+
1
1
*
5o

_

_

l

5o

'
2

1

_

-

-

2
_
2 2
2 _
_

12

10
3
5

-

7
3
l
*

-

_

_
_
_

-

_

2
2

8

6
1

-

1

_

1
-

2
2
1

1
+

_

15

2

«

6

_
_
_
_

2

6
5

_
1

-

6
,
Table A-l:

O fo c * 0C C 44fuU iO *U - Q o n tU tS m d

(Average straight-tine weekly hours and earnings 1/ for selected occupations studied on an area
basis in Richmond, Va., by industry division, October 1951)

Table A-2:

P * o l* U iOMcU 0 * d V 'm o tm ic a l O cC U fM otiO H d

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 / for selected occupations studied on an area
basis in Richmond, Va,, by industry division, October 1951)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
o
f
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A
toaoi

Weekly earnings Under
Weekly
hours
“
W
under
(Standard) (Standard)
42.50

ll5 .0 0

$

3

»

$

$

$

$

$

%

$

$

s

s

$

%

$

3

3

3

t

li5 .oo 1*7.50 9o.oo 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 6 2 .5 0 65.00 67.50 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 9 5.0 0 100.00105.00 110.001154X3 “ 2s8°
U?.5o 9o.oo 52-SQ 95.00 S7.50 60.00 62.50 6 5.0 0 6 7 .5 0 70,0 0 75*00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 1 0 5 /x noxc 115.00isnjn

M
en
Draftsmen...............................................
Manufacturing ......................
.
Noxmanufacturing ................................

i|8
3i
17

39.5
39.5
38.5

Draftsmen, junior ...................................
Nonmanufacturing........................... . .

2U
11

Uh

*

-

37.5

75.50
82.0o
6U.50
iifi.00
50.50

39.0
39.0

S9.00
6o.5o

2 __3_.
2
l

39.0

12

3

3

l
l

6
6

l
l

..-1.
2

8
6

-

6
6

2

$
h

1
1
1

>

2

1
1

13
8

5

3
1

1
1

6
6

k

k

5

1

1

3

2
2

h

-

-

-

1
1

1

1

0_ — 1__
3 1

— 2

1

Wmn
oe
Nurses, industrial (registered)........... .
Manufacturing .....................................

y i

l
l

k
h

6
6

3

1

2
2

li
k

1/ Hours reflect the workweek for ldiich employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours*




-

-

Occupational t a e Survey, Richmond, Va,, October 1951
fg
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF IABGR
fx
t reau of Labor Statistics

7
,

Table A-3:

• H O ttC *

a n d

f to W

B *

P U i* U

O c C M

f U x t jt m

i

(Average hourly earnings 1/ for m in selected occupations studied on an
en
area basis in Richmond, Va., by industry division, October 1951)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
o
f
wres
okr

$
$
s
$
9
$
*
$
$
$
$
<
s
s
*
9 s $ $ $ s
Aeae
vrg
$
9
9
h u l Under 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.1*0 1 1 5 l.5o 1.55 1.60 1.70 U80 1^90 2.00 t
ory
.*
2.10 2.20 2.30 2 1*0
.
erig \
anns
anpT
maer
and
1
0.7S 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1. * 1 1 5 i.5o 1.55 1.60 1.701.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30
10 .*
2 1 0 over
.|

X$
1.65
1.61*.

Caroenters. maintenance .......................
Manufacturing............................
Nonmanufacturing.................... ......

Hil
110
31

Electr: ^ o. maintenance .....................
Manufacturing............. ...............

133
163

Engineers, stationary........................
Manufacturing ........... ............ ....
Nonmanufacturing ..........................
Retail trade......... ..............

67
— 3 H
32
12

1*77
"136"1
2.00
1 81*
.

10

1.89
1.88 ■

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

20
17
3
1
2

1
1
1

Helpers, trades, maintenance ..................
Manufacturing ............................

232
1.50
■ w d 1.51""

-

1.
T”

-

1
1

229

1.39

13U
68
51

1.38
1 .1*0
118
.*
1.29

Mechanics, maintenance ....................
Manufacturing... .........................

368
1.86
“il*T“ ”1786”

Oilers ....................................
Manufacturing ............................

92
86

Painters, maintenance... .....................
Manufacturing .......................... .
Nonmanufacturing... .............. ....... .

90

_

_

8
8“
-

1
*
1
*
-

-

-

_

38
11

*

1
i

_
-

-

6
H* 19 16
1 * r r r " I T “i n
1
1
*
7
_
1
1
*
—
6

5
5

16
15
1

5
5
-

3
3

1
1

6
51

_
_

1
*

h
1

2
2
1

2
5
- n n
2
1
_
2
_
1

-

13
10

-

6
6

13
7

l

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

2

_
-

_
-

3

-

-

26
8
8
11 T ~ T
2
15
3
2
2
9

-

-

2

2, 3
- . 2
2
1
•
_
«
.
1
*
1
*
- n r
- T

_

-

2

_
_
-

-

-

1*

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

~ r

-

l
*

1
*
2

1.36
nr3 7 -

5

15

r± r
10

_

_

19
17
2

11 1*8
11 i n
18
*

51
5i
18

5
3
2
2
-

1

10

-

2
1

1
*
1
*

9
9

2
2

6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

15

1
1
*
1 “ IT

5

-f_

3

-

21*

38
19
19
5
12

2

1.72
”T787”
1.51
1.75

y

l
*
3
1

■laar

16
*7
1. *
19
"39IT~ ■"11BT
266
113
.*
1.75
11
**
1.30
58

1/

l
l

1.88

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) .............
Nonmanufacturing ............... ......... .
PnKJ-fc i f - - t f s * T..,..... T._r_.T._,__ TTtt
rcni/e
V / )enalp + r r p
hV
.ai
Retail trade ...........................

1 t.raHc I , . TT. , I . l i r . ITrTt. 1___ TTTTt. t l l I

-

7
_

8 18 18
- 16“n T
8
2 12
1
5
8

Maintenance men. general utility...............
Manufacturing ...................... .....
Nonmanufacturing ................. .........
Retail trade.................... .......
Services ............................. .

l
1

6
8
-

1
*
3
1

5
3
2

9
7
2

8
5
3

9
7
2

8
3
5

2
1
1

1

8
7

7

5
1

8
1 6 3?
*
7 “ 26" 37
1
*
1 _
*
2
1 *
- 2
2
- 1
*
9 _
1
*
9 _
.

3
1

5

-

_
5
- ■ 5

l
i
-

2
2
-

_
11
- 2A1
- ” 3

.
.
-

_

-

_
_

_
-

-

-

-

1
1

_
-

-

7

l iit
.
189
538— 1 '1.15”'
1.11
51
1.16
10
.88
23

253
2*
1?

-

1.70

Firemen, stationary boiler....................
Manufacturing............................
Nonmanufacturing ..........................
Retail trade ...........................
Services______________T_____ ______ t-t-

Machinists, maintenance .......................
Manufacturing ............................

-

-

5
~ r

9
5
2 ~ir
3
5
i
*
3

1
*
_
_
22
1
*
3
3
9
9
.
_
-

1
_
-

12 152
12 152

7
6

-

20
20

1
*
1
*

1
1

53
53

9

20
•
20
20
~

If
l

k

5
_
5

_
-

i*
i

5
9

6
I
t

2
1

12

h

2
1
1

_
-

~

1
1
- ' 1
1
1

2

2 l*
i
- ■11
2
3
2

_
_

69
13

2
2

2

133 37
129 36

9

30
30

1
1

-

_
-

_
-

1
1

5

-

1?
18
1

12
12

2
2

6

6
2
1
*
.
-

?6

1
1

2

f
*

h
-

8
3
5
5
-

-

37
35

-

U

-

1
1

2 l»
l
2 l*
i

25
25
22

1*

1 6
*
3 ’“5
1 1 _

12
12

7
-

20
20
-

8
8

_
-

13

6
6
_

2
1

3

-

_

6
1
1

10

10

13

1

-

?
9
2
P
2

7 ~ r

3

17
*
16
*
•o
a
1
1

12
12
12

52

i t

7

_ 1?
- 11
- I
t
- 3

1? 13
*
19 w
8 ■8
5
Q
2

1*6

38
31
21

7

1?
*

5

80

•

-

118 !°
*
118 i o
*

1

k

10
10
10
_
-

IZ

12

—
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

7
*

11
*
37

l
-

-

2

U

l
1
X

•

-

-

1
1

_
.
-

-

-

_
_
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

9
9
_
-

l
i
1
*
_

2
_
2
_

-

-

1

«
e

1

-

_
-

X

-

___J
Excludes premium pay far overtime and night work.
Workers were distributed as followsi $2.1*0 to $2.50, 3 workers} $2.50 to $2.60, 6 workers; $ 2.60 to $2.70, 2 workers.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




Occupational Wage Survoy, Richmond, 7a., October 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OP LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table A-U:

G

u &

t o d ia l,

W

a ’f J i o u L m

?

a n d

S

U

ip f u *

?

G

e tm

p a t to

*

(Average hourly earnings \ f for selected occupations 2/ studied on an area
basis in Richmond, Va., by industry division, October 1951)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
o
f
wres
okr

Occupation and industry division

5
<
$
$
s
>
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Aeae i
vrg
hul j
o r y Jnder 0.50 o.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.0 5 1 . c 1 .1 5 1.2C 1.25 1.3 0 1 .3 5 i.ao 1 1 5 1.50 1.55 1.60 1 .7 0 1.80 1.90
.)
1
erig
anns
and
1
inder
3.50 o.5S 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.0 5 1.10 1 .1 5 1.20 1.S 1.3C 1 ,3 5 i*ao i.as 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.70 1,80 lt*> over

51
29
22
Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) ...........
Manufacturing ............... ..............
Nonmanufacturing............ .............
Wholesale trade ................ ........
Retail trade ................ ..........
Finance # * ............... .............
Services ..............................

I
1.30
■ i3r
”
.98

1098
m
67 u
73
120
279
121
81

.92
1.09
.81
.97
.88
.79
.78
.71

-

-

_

-

-

1

6

27

73

1

6

27

73

I

_

-

35
3
35

26

1

6

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) ..........
Manufacturing ............................
Nonmanufacturing .......... ...... .........
TVa1aecl a +^*4^0
,i
7
<a 4o^1
D ,
.......

575
57
518
U6

.60 ?A6^ 5U
1.00
.55 l / l d i 5U

172

.57

52

Order fillers.... ...........................
Manufacturing.................. .
..........
Nonmanufacturing ......................................................

382
125
257

1.0 0
1 .1 3
•9h

-

207

221
162

1.00
. .1 0
1
.85
.85

59

.87

77 103

10
10

76

27
1

£

7

-

-

-

-

VA
fh TA^°l A

( (

( 1(

i i

i i ‘ -i - r i ‘ i

Packers (men) ......................... .......... .........................
Manufacturing ...........................................................
Nonmanufacturing ..........................
+Tf^ l t T - t r T 1 - T T T - T - T T - - T - T - - - - - - - ____ ,
r lA
<
Retail trade ...........................

HiU
110

.99
1.05

Receiving clerks ...........................................................
Manufacturing ..........................................................
Nonmanufacturing .....................................................
Wholesale trade ..................................................
Retail trade .......................................................

163
5U
109
57
52

1.15
1.39
1.0U
1.00
1.09

Shipping clerks............... , ..........................................
Manufacturing..........................................................
Nonmanufacturing ......................................................
Wholesale trade ............................................. .

239

1.32
118
.1
1.2U
1.25

Shipping-end-receiving clerks . . . ...............................
Manufacturing ..........................................................
Nonmanufacturing.......................................... ...........
P^Vl] 1 O

ll+.i 1 1

TfTIITTlIII

Wholesale trade ........................... .......................
Retail trade ...................... ................................

91

229
- 88
-

-

.76

Packers (women) .............................
Manufacturing ..................... .......

1U2
70

77 103

liil

1.2U
1.32
1.18

26
81
31

1 .1 1
1 .2 0

_
.
-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

6

5
a

1

1

2

2

1

3

3

6

1

1

1

2

2

1

3

7

-

7

-

-

-

-

85
8
77
il
l
2

22
8
ia

90
7
83
59

20
7
13
13

72

21

5

_

72
63
9

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

23
-

20
13

2

2

27

_

_

58
25
33
33

1R2
85
21
57
12
a3
9
ia

-*

-

5
2
3

-

-

-

-

12

22

7 “ 81 a- 12
8 12 52
8 12 26

-

1

22
22

a

31
31

-

1

10
7
3

15

20

31

ia

-

26
15

R
11

a3

_
-

-

2

3

96
76
20
18
2

_

39

56

20

i5
5

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

9

-

2

3

-

8

3

..

_

a

2

28

2

3

_

11

-

-

a

2
2

28
8

2

3
2

_

11
10

2

12

22

-

6
6

10

-

-

a

2

12

-

10

6
16

a

-

-

_

12

_

10

~

2

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

1

_

-

-

1

-

j
-

20

_

_

.

_

13

_

_

-

20
20

ii

20
20

2
2

ia

-

-

a

10
10

2
2

3
3

6
6

37
37

1
1

-

23

-

-

-

9
6
3
2
1

5

1
1

8
8

6

-

6

a

1

.

5
a
1

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

-

_

_.

-

-

-

-

-

-

22
2
20

2
1
1

13
13

2a

19

-

ia

11

13

13

17

2i
l
3

-

-

10 17
2 15
8 2
8 2

5

13
5

2

-

_

13

-

15

-

«

-1 2 -

-

a

-

-

_

-

1
3

2

R

2 _JL_
2
5

-

17

-

-

-

1 -Hl . 1 ia

-

-

-

a
-

1

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

—

—

-

_

2

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

6 — 1
6
7
-

_
-

27

-

-

_

_

-

3
3

13

23

3

2

-

- _k_
a

2

2

-

.

±•27

-

1

6
9
5
a

-

_

-

5

5
5
-

_

-

_

ia

_
-

31
20
11

-

-

86 _J2_ 61 _22_ 7
81
99 5
a 57
2
5 28
a
2 13
_ 1 ia
1
1
1
2
1
1
_ 1
1

6
6

3

_

-

-

3

63 • 20 1 U7 106 119 _iz_ 39 1 2 k l
it 2i 33 ia 11 62
82 86 a3 28 72
63 20 133
R 27
6
a ia
3
- U2 33
2
ia 12
12 22 22 68 28
9
19
3U
6
1
21
a
3 56 13 12
8
1
10
9
5
3

.95

5ia
323

1

2
2

_
"

12
a

a6
a6

-

12
12

3

ai

_

-

16
25
5
20

8
8
-

3

7
7
5

29
5
2a
5

13
13

16
2

nr

ia

13

17

1,
4
a

12

5

_

_

-

3

-

27
9

_

-

18
3
15
15

1

a3

15
11
a

26

18 17

u
11
7

-

7
5

-

1

-

2a

_

T~
6

_

u

a

2

6
7
5
2.

13

u
9

2

2
-

_

9

a

L ..

n 18 1
nr n T ” 1
a
_

-

10
10

3

a
a

_

I

9

3

a

_

.

5

_

.

_

t
h _

i
!
1
1

See footnotes at end of tab le.
* Transportation (excluding railroa d s), communication, and other public u t il i t i e s
## Finance, insurance, and rea l e sta te.




Occupational Wage Survey, Richmond, Va., October 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f Labor S ta tis tic s

9.

Table A-4:

G

tU

to J U

a i,

W

a s tm

J tO M

lin p

a n d

S

h

ip

p

in

g

O c e m

p a tU m

i

-

O o n

t it u

u

d

(Average hourly earnings l j for selected industries £/ studied on an area
basis in Richmond, Va., by industry division, October 1951)

Occupation and industry division

Manufacturing...........................................................
Sonnaaufaeturing ......................................................
PuVl 1c utilities * , t T ............... T- - - T. T.. T.. T
Retail trade ............ ................. ..........

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
s
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
$
a
$
N m e A ra e
u br
ve g
o
f
hu
o rly Jnder 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.53 1.60 1 . 7C 1.8G 1.90
w rk rs e rn g
oe
a in s
and
and
1 under
).50 0.55 0.60 O.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0 . 8? 0.90 O.95 1.00 1.03 1,10 1.15 1,20 1,25 1,30 1,35 1,40 1.45 1.39 1.55 1 . 6Q 1.79 1.89 1.99 over

1532
995
537
207

$
1.08
i.ll

1.00

201

1.16
.92
.92
.94
.91
.84
.97

-

Retail trade . rT___T_T....................................... t

191
33
15S
54
75

Truck drivers, nediun (1^ to and including 4 tons) . . .
Manufacturing ............................................................
Xonaanufaoturin g .....................................................
Retail trade , , ,
t t t r, T11. Tt r T. , TTt TTTT,

955
Si
777
106

1.11
1.12

-

Trunk drivers, heavy (ever 4 tons, trailer type) .......
Manufacturing............................................................
Monaaxufaoturing .............................. ...................... .
Pnhlla ntllitlaa a T
. trrrf. rT...............
Retail t.1 a t (| |(|ltl riitirT-ririr.... 1
* rla

336
— 52
284
217
43

Truck driven, heavy (ever 4 tone, other
than trailer type) ................................................ .
Manufacturing...........................................................
Kanaanufacturing.......................................... .

77
48
29

drivers, light (under l£ tons) ....................
Manufacturing .................... .......................... .
Bonaanufaoturing ......................................................

T re a t

Truckers, newer (fork-lift) ......................
Manufacturing ......... ......................
loneanufaoturin g ........... ...............
Uatehnan......................................
Manufacturing ............................................................
Boneanufaeturiag................. ............... ....................
Pnhlla ut-mt-faa *
Rata41 twada
Serviaaa

1/
g/
2/
*

.................
........ ....

153
.107

46
272
96
34
25
31

1.06

-

_

4
-

6 10
6 10
6 10

-

4

14
-

14

-

104 105 225
do 4d 105
24 57 120

4
2
2

2

?8

3

38
27

1-

-

-

1.23
" T 5 4 _1
1.23

-

-

-

-

48 L34
13 13
35 L21
35 4

-

" T

45
9
36

39
30
9

-

1
1

6

1.13
1.19

.73

23
14

23
23

10
10

-

4

1.00

•88

93 26
34 4
59 22
42 3

2
3

-

1.20
1.20

.97
1.04
.85
.96

10
1
16 10
6
9 10

-

-

2
1
1
1

2
2

2

1
1
1

i

13

13

13

40

;
'*
»

•

14
26

11

-

25
25
-

24 16 6 31
2 5 12
11 H 1 19
9 10
2 4 1 1
13

7

14

.99

1.32
1.35
1.28

5

108

111 46 63 101
7d 25 35
88
33 21 28
13
1
1
16 3 24
12

2

-

-

5

-

-

11
1

21
20
20

6

17

6 10
6 6
-

4

12
12
45
25

20
6 10
5
10
9

-

10
10

5

-

-

-

-

11 8
- 8
11 _
34
27
7
6

1

4

2
2

1
1

•

8

15

7
5

2

217
193
193

14

6
3

10

5
5

18
14
4

3

4

3

-

-

-

15
7 3 15
3

43
7
36

4
-

-

-

20 421

10

55
55
-

4
4
2_
3

_

3
3

9

•

5

30
29

9

1
1

9

25 48
48

20
5
1
X

_

1
1

X

7

15
15

16 18
4 403

4

1

-

222

249
27
217

7
7

4

1

3

-

4

12
12

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

.

9
9
-

-

-

.
-

-

.

•
.

23
5“ 15 -

4

.
•

•

4

24
13

-

11

1
1

6

20

10
5
5

1
5

10
10

1
1

1

2

1

1
4

g

H
3

11

4
4

15

>

Excludea preaiun pay for overtlna tad night work.
Study United to non workers except whore otherwise indicated.
Worker* were distributed aa follows! 30 to 35 cents, 1 worker; 35 to 40 cents, 156 workers; 40 to 45 cents, 2 workers; 45 to 50 cents, 5 workers.,
Transportation (excluding railroads), coaoranleation, and other public utilities.




80
76
4

-

23
23

13
15

29

8
8

29

-

.

-

22 11
19
3 11

_
-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30
30

82
73
9

2
2
2

13

j

6
-

410

-

4
4

-

_
-

4
:

4

-

-

10
.




B: Characteristic Industry Occupations
Table B-63:

9 * * i4 4 / U M U > e

G & V U & U s

if

Occupational W Surrey, Riohaond, Ya., October 1951
age
U.S. DEPARTM OF LABOR
ENT
Bureau of Labor Statistics

n,

C:

Union W age

Scales

rates and maximum straigit-tim e hours per week agreed upon through collective bargaining
between employers and trade unions* Rates and hours are those In effe ct on dates indicated.)

(Minimum wage

Table C-15*

B u ild U U f

Table C-205:

G o t U f r u t c t iO H

January 2, 1952
Rate
per
hour

Bricklayers
$2,750
2.050
Carpenters ...................... ................ .
Electricians • • • • • • • • «• • • • • • • 2.250
••••••*• ••••••
Painters
1.875
Plasterers • • • • • • • • * • • • * • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • 2.500
Plum
bers .................................................. . 2.475

B

o h v U

Hours
per
w
eek
40
40
40
40
40
40

tl

July 1, 1951
Classification

Rate
per
hour

Bread and cake - M
achine shops:
Agreem A:
ent
Bread:
D
ough mixers ............................... $1,410
Oven operators ............................ 1.360
Divider operators, solder
1.330
operators...............................
W
rapping-m hine operators.......... 3.310
ac
Mixers' helpers (advanced) .......... 1.280
Oven feeders and dum
pers ............. 1.260
D
ough room helpers, benchm
en
(female), and wrapping1.180
m
achine feeders.............. .
Helpers:
1st 6 m
onths ...........................
.980
1.080
After 6 m
onths •••........... .
Cake:
Cake mixers, icing mixers...........
1.330
Cake oven operators . . . . : ............. 1.280
Depositor operators, cake
wrapping-machine operators . . . . . 1.180
Icing-machine operators
1.080
leers and wrappers, female........ . 1.030
Helpers (male):
After 6 months..........• • • «•
• • • • 1.080
Helpers (female):
After 6 m
onths ......................
1.030
Agreem B:
ent
Dough mixers, cake mixers ................ 1.470
Oven operators ................................. 1.450
Divider operators, wrapping-machine
operators (bread), henchm
en,
relief m molder operators . . . . . . 1.390
en,
Depositor operator's (female), cake
wrapping-machine operators (female) 1.240
Mixers' helpers, oven feeders,
dumpers....................................... 1.330
Molder helpers, icing- and enrobingm
achine operators, wrappers'
helpers ....................................... . 1.230




-

G w

Table c-27: P A U tlb u } - Ctm tim am i

t i H M md

July 1, 1951

July 1, 1951

Classification

Table C-2051

B a A & t ie d

Hours
w
eek

Rate
per
hour

Classification

Bread and cake - M
achine shops: - Continued
Agreem B: - Continued
ent
Fem workers:
ale
H icers, depositor helpers • • $1,150
and
••
General bakery helpers
1.100
Crackers and cookies:
Dough mixers................... ..................... 1.275
Checkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.250
M
achinem enrobers, and overm ........
en,
en
1.225
W
rappers and automatic carton formers .. 1.200
Dough rollers ................... ........ .
1.175
1.150
Stockm
en
Icing m
achinem mixers ........... .......... 1.125
en,
Mixers, bakers' helpers ................. .
1.100
D
ough rollers' helpers .........................
1.045
Icing helpers, shippers, stockmen's
helpers, and packing departm
ent
helpers........... ................................
1.025
Wmn em
oe
ployees, after 6 m
onths ............ 1.000

Hours
per
w
eek

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Newspapers: - Continued
M
achine operators - day work ................. $2,374
M
achine operators - night work........... . 2.465
M
achine tenders (machinists) - day work • 2.374
M
achine tenders (machinists) - night work 2.465
Photoengravers - day work................. .
2.500
Photoengravers - night work ...•••........ 2.625
Pressm w presses - day work ••.•••.. 2.243
en, eb
Pressm w presses - night work • • • 2.330
en, eb
•••
Pressmen-in-charge - day work........ • • • 2.492
••
Pressmen-in-charge - night work • • • • • 2.580
••••
Stereotypers - day work ••• ••••........ 2.243
•• .
Stereotypes - night work..................... 2.330
Table C-41:

40
40

“
5
per
hour

Classification

jf c o c c U

<J 'U U

Hours
per
w
eek
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

U U

Qp& iatm q, CmfUoqmA
October 1, 1951

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Rate
per
hour

Classification
Table C-27* P / U n lU
July 1, 1951
Classification

U f.

Rate
Per
hour

Book and job shops:
Bindery w m n ....................................... $1,005
oe
Bookbinders ..........................................
1.875
Compositors, hand ................................. 1.875
Electrotypes .............. .
2.250
M
achine operators ...................... ........ . 1.875
M
achine tenders (machinists)................ 1.875
Photoengravers........... ......................... 2.625
Press assistants and feeders:
Agreem A .................... ................ 1.530
ent
Agreem B ....................................
ent
1.150
Agreem C .............................. .
ent
1.000
Pressm cylinder:
en,
Agreem A:
ent
Rotary ....................................... . 1.660
Small cylinder press (Kelly)....... 1.790
Agreem B ..................................... 2.000
ent
Offset ................ ........ .
2.000
Agreem C:
ent
Small cylinder press................. . 1.675
Pressm platen:
en,
Agreem A . . . . « no .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ent
1.260
Agreem B
ent
1.630
Agreem C
ent
......................
1.250
Newspapers:
Compositors, hand - day work...........
2.374
Compositors, hand - night work............ 2.465

Hours
per
w
eek
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Hours
per
w
eek

1-man cars and busses:
First 3 m
onths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,170
4 to 12 months .......................... 1.220
After (m year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e

* »w - c-42 ■

1.270

MotaX&utck
‘Cm d

#U

Jmpu
tLi

July 1, 1951
Classification
Bakery:
After 1 year........... .............. ..............
Furniture ................................ .
Helpers ................................................ .
General - Freight ........... .
Agreem A:
ent
Helpers .............................................
Agreem B:
ent
Freight and produce ................... • • •
••
Helpers .............................................
M - Packing house:
eat
Agreem A:
ent
After 3 0 days........... ................. .
Agreem B:
ent
After 9 0 days ................................. .
Railway express • • •
• • ..................................

feats
per
hour

Hours
per
w
eek

$ 1 ,1 7 5
1 .2 0 0
1 .1 5 0
1 .2 5 0

40
44
44
44

1 .1 5 0

44

1 .2 0 0
1 .1 5 0

48
48

1 .3 3 5

40

1 .5 6 5
1 .6 5 3

40
40

Occupational Wage Surrey* Richmond, Va., October 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OP LABOR
Bureau of Labor S tatistics

12,

D: Entrance Rates
Table D-li

Minimum Cuhamoe PateA job Plant WafJmai 1/

E: Supplementary Wage Practices

Percent of plant workers in establishments with specified
minimum rates in -

M um rate (in cents)
inim

All
industries
2/

All establishments .................

100.0

AO or under .............................
Over AO and under A5 ..............
A 5 ............................................
5 0 ............................................
Over 50 and under 55 ..............
5 5 ............................................
Over 55 and under 6 0 ..............
6 0 ............................................
6 5 ............................................
7 0 ............................................
7 5 ............................................
Over 75 and under 80 ..............
8 0 ............................................
Over 80 and under 8 5 ..............
8 5 ............................................
Over 85 and under 90 ..............
9 0 ............................................
Over 90 and under 95 ..............
9 5 ............................................
Over 95 and under 100 ............
1 0 0 ..........................................
Over 110 and under 115 ..........
115..........................................
Over 115 and under 120 ..........
120 and over ...........................

3.2
3.A
.7
5.6
•
A
.A

Establishments with no
established minimum............
Information not available . . . .

1/
2/
*

Manufacturing establishments
with 501 or
21-100
101-500
m
ore
workers
workers
workers

100.0

100.0

100.0

.3
10.A
.2

6.3
.
-

.
18.5
18.8
13.3
3.5
16.3
9.9
.
-

9.6
33.3
-

7.A

-

19.7

.8
l.A
1.2
1.0
25.8

3.2
2.3
A .l

8.1
6.2

.3
7.1
3.0
.3
.8

1.2

.9

-

1.1

77.0
12.5
-

2.6

-

-

23.A
•
9.2
12.5
-

Table E - n

Wholesale
Public
utilities*
trade

100.0
_
.
1.9
'19.A
3A.9

19.2

100.0
.
_
-

68.1
8.6
8 .A

100.0

100.0

2.9
15.5
3.2
25.7
1.7
1.7
3.8
5.9
A.7
A.A
9.5

S

h

if t

%

if t e

J it U

ie

36.5

d

P a o v U U h U

Services

.1
2.0

6.9

-

12.8
-

10.7
2.A
-

.
2.7
A.0
3.2

A.1
-

.
2.3
-

-

-

5.0

A.2

-

-

3.7

-

Shift differential

Peroent of plant
workers employed
on each shift in
all manufacturing
industries

2d
shift

3d or
other
shift

Peroent of workers on extra shifts,
a ll establishments ...........................

13.8

11.9

Receiving shift differentials .......

10.5

9.6

Uniform cents (per hour) ..........
Under 5 cents ........................
5 oents ..................................
6 cents ..................................
Over 6 and under 10 cents .. .
10 cents ................................
Over 10 cents ........................

3.1
1.3

2.7

1.6
•2

•
8

1.0
.6

A8 .A

.5

12.0

9.9
-

1.1

Lowest rate formally established for hiring either men or women plant workers, other than watchmen.
Excludes data for finance, insurance, and real estate.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




Retail
trade

_
-

.3

Uniform percentage ....................
5 percent ..............................
5& percent .............................
8 percent ..............................
10 peroent .............................

1.0

6.8

Receiving no shift differential . . .

3.3

2.3

7.A

.1

2.A
3.9

6.9
.1
-

Occupational W Survey, Richmond, Va., October 1951
age
U.S. DEPARTM O LAB R
ENT P
O
Bureau of Labor Statistics

13

Table E-2 *

S c h e d u le d

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS
W
eekly hours

All establishments ........... ...................
Under 35 hours.................................... ..
35 hours • • • • • ......................... ..............
3 7 hours.............. ............ ....................... ..
*$
Over 37J- m d under 10 hours .................
o
40 hours ...............................................
Over 40 and under 44 hours
44 hours ......................... ......................
Over 44 and under 48 hours ................ ..
48 hours ...............................................
Over 48 and under 50 hours...........................
50 hours ...............................................................................
Over 50 hours....................................................... ..

All
Industrie*

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

100.0

100.0

100,0

5.0
4.9
17.6
21.9

8.9
5.1
3.4
22.4
59.2
.5
_
.5
_
.

42.6

3.5
3.1
1.2
.2
_
_

Wholesale
trade

_
.

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Finance**

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

0.7

10.1
11.4
17.5
44.3
16.7
-

3.3

0 .1
-

2 .2

3.0

4.8
4.0
70.5
7.1
11.8
1.1
-

3 .8

-

J fo u A A ,

Retail trade

1 .2
10.8
10.8
67.7

2 .2

+ e J U tf

y | EMPLOYED IN—

.. 100.0

0.5
62.8
2.1
32.4

W

.5
-

_

14.6

20.4
38.0
12.9
10.8
-

-

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100.0.

100.0

100.0

100.0

-

-

1 .0
-

-

3.6
1.1
85.4
.4

_

industries 2 f Manufacturing

1.9
.6
6 6 .2
4*4
2.2
3.5
12.6
.6
4.6
3.3

-

.2
7.3
1.2
.8

42.7
11.8
4.2
2.2
31.2
7.9

-

60.3

5.7
5.0
5.6

8.4

14*0

48.9
10.9
3.6
4.7
6.5
12.4
13.0

Servieee

100.0

.
16.8
2.4
8.1
24.7
46.4
1.6

Data relate to w m n workers.
oe
Includes data for industries other than those show separately.
n
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** finance, insurance, and real estate.

" jj

2/

Table E-3*

P a id

J h

U

d

a

tf i

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

H ber of paid holidays
um

All establishments.............. .
Establishments providing paid
holidays................ .. ..........................

All
industries
1 0 0 .0

10 0 .0

9 7 .1

1 0 0 .0

Public
utilities*

Manufacturing

1 .0

1.0

4 .5

4 0 .2
1 .2
1 5 .2
3 .9
1 3 .0
2 .5
2 .9
8 .2

Establishments providing no paid
holidays ...................... .....................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

Wholesale
trade
_

Retail trade

Finance**

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

8 0 .8

1 0 0 .0

_

.1
1 .0

Under 3 days ....................................
3 days .............................................
3& and 4 days ..............................................................
4 days..............................................................................
5 days.................................................................................
5£ days
6 days..................................................................................
4 days..............................................................................
7 days.................................................................................
days................ .................................................
8 days .................................................................................
9 k days ............................................
1 2 days ............................................
1 3 or m
ore days................................

.

2 .9

.5
7 .1

.3

-

2 .6

2 0 .9

.6

3 .0
1 2 .6

5 2 .3

2 3 .6

4 9 .6
6 .3
1 1 .5

-

1 8 .0

-

3 .3
-

-

-

3 0 .2
4 5 .6
-

-

-

1 .4
1 3 .0

“

includes data for industries other than those show separately.
n
Less than .05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilitiesfinance, insurance, and real estate.




PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

.9
5 .6
2 .0
7 2 .3

-

-

“
1 9 .2

.
-

-

_
1 9 .3
-

2 7 .6

-

1 8 .9
-

8 .9
2 5 .3

a**.

1 0 0 .0 ..

9 0 .1
8 .0
3 .8
.2
_
5 6 .0
-

1 9 .6
2.5

-

9.9

All
industries 1 / Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Bsrricee

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

10 0 ,0

1 0 0 ,0

8 5 .1

9 0 .5

8 3 .5

1 0 0 .0

7 6 .0

6 2 .6

9 .3
-

5 .6
1 4 .8
1 .9
6 .1
1 .9

6 6 .7
-

2 4 .0

4 .9
3 .3
.1
.8
3 .7

2 .5
3 .3
3 .6

9 .9
2 .0

• 7 .0
5 .7
2 1 .6

5 7 .9
.2
1 0 .7
—
3 .5

6 0 .6

5 2 .2
1 9 .4

5 4 .5
3 .7
4 .8
2 .7

-

1 8 .6
1 .9

-

-

(2 /)

-

-

1 4 .9

9 .5

a
.

”

1 6 .5

—

*
*

a
.

-

-

6 .0
2 .3

2 4 .0

3 7 .4

-

“

-

Occupational W g Survey, Richm
ae
ond, Va., October 1951
U. S. D A TM T OF LA O
EP R EN
BR
Itareau of labor Statistics

u.

table E-4:

P

a

id

V &

o g

& U

U

h

(Q

o n m

a l P

a

o u

M

o m

A

)

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Vacation policy

All
Industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finanoe**

to * * .

AH
industries!/

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Establishments with paid vacations....

99.1

96.8

100.0

98.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

91.5

89.6

89.0

95.0

98.9

83.3

Under 1 w e e k .....................
1 week ...........................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ..........
2 w e e k s ............... ..........
Over 2 w e e k s .....................

1.0
26.8
2.1
68.0
1.2

18.1
1.5
77.2

71.4

*
»
71.5

-

61.6
35.2
3.2

6.0
49.1
_
39.9

27.5

9.5
2.3

Establishments with no paid vacations ..

.9

3.2

-

16.7

Establishments with paid vacations....

99.1

96.8

100.0

98.5

100.0

1 w e e k ...........................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s .......
2 w e e k s ..........................
Over 2 w e e k s .....................

15.4
3.0
78.6
2.1

U.9
1.5
80.4
-

6.2
90.6
3.2

22.3
3.6
68.0
4.6

49.8
2.0
48.2
-

.9

3.2

Establishments with paid vacations .....

99.1

96.8

100.0

98.5

100.0

1 w e e k ...........................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ..........
2 w e e k s ....... ...................
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ..........
3 w e e k s ............ .............

6.7
1.2
88.8
2.1
.3

3.5
1.5
91.8
-

2.9
93.9
3.2
-

13.8
3.6
76.6
4.5
-

17.5
2.0
78.4

Establishments with no paid vacations ..

.9

3.2

Establishments with paid vacations •••••

99.1

96.8

100.0

98.5

100.0

1 w e e k .................... .
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ..........
2 w e e k s ................... ..... .
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s .......
3 w e e k s ............. .......... .

6.7
1 .0
62.8
2.0
26.6

3.5
1.5
77.5
14.3

2.9
17.8
3.2
76.1

13.8
3.6
57.3
4.5
19.3

17.4

Establishments with no paid vacations ..

.9

3.2

All establishments...................

L

jgmt

.

100.0

of gvrriou

_

5.5
27.0

-

60.4

66.0
1.5

_

_

39.6
-

2.9
5.5
89.4
2.2

61.1
2.5

.4
49.9
2.8
38.2
.2

-

-

-

8.5

10.4

11.0

5.0

1.1

100.0

92.8

92.0

89.0

95.0

99.9

83.3

26.3

39.3
4.6
48.7
.2

28.2
7.0
56.8
-

36.3
52.7
-

39.0
1.6
53.6
.8

59.3
3.2
36.4

64.7

7.2

8.0

11.0

5.0

1.1

100.0

92.8

92.0

89.0

95.0

98.9

83.3

20.0
•

18.9
1.8
69.1
2.2
.8

8.5
1.9
77.9
3.7

3.3

24.6
1.6
68.0
.8

36.0
3.2
56.2

62.9

7.2

8.0

100.0

92.8

92.0

20.0
71.6
-

17.6
1.1
55.1
3.3
15.7

6.0
1.9
61.8
3.7
18.6

43.9
10.7
31.2

7.2

8.0

11.0

-

36.4

34.3
5.3
50.0

-

68.6
•
20.4
-

2 veers of service

Establishments with no paid vacations .•

-

1.5

-

100.0

5.5
92.3
2.2
-

71.2
2.5
-

16.3
2.3
16.7

5 years of service

-

1.5

-

2.1
-

100.0
97.8
2.2
-

77.5
2.5

-

85.7

-

18.1
2.3

3.5
5.0

1.1

89.0

95.0

98.9

83.3

3.2

24.6
1.6
59.8

36.0

62.9

16.7

15 years of service

1.5

1/ Inoludes data for industries other than those shown separately.
* Transportation (excluding railroads)) communication, and other public utilities.
** Finanoe, insurance) and real estate.




100.0
_

-

-

75.5
7.1

69.4
2.2
28.4

8.4

56.7

14.4

8.2

6.2

6.0

5.0

1.1

16.7

.8

Occupational Wage Survey) Richmond, Ta., October 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table E-5i

Provisions fo r paid sick leave
A ll establishm ents......................................
frjgptha of sgvicg
Xstablisfanents with farnal provisions
fo r paid sick le a v e .................................
Under 5 d ay s............................................
5 d ay s.......................................................
6 d ay s......................................................
7 d ay s.......................................................
8 d ay s.......................................................
10 d ay s.....................................................
12 d ay s.................................... ................
U d ay s......................................................
15 days ......................................................
20 days and e v e r................................
Establishments with no formal provisions
for paid sick leave .................................
1 vaar of service
Establishments with fornal provisions
for paid sick leave .................................
M a r 5 d ay s...................................... .
5 d ay s.......................................................
6 d ay s.......................................................
7 d ay s...............................................
10 d ay s.....................................................
11 d ay s.....................................................
12 d ay s.....................................................
U d ay s.....................................................
15 d ay s....................................................
20 day.........................................................
22 d ay s.....................................................
Over 22 d ay s............................................
Establishments with no formal provisions
fo r paid sick leave .................................
5 veers of service
Establishments with fornal provisions
fo r paid sick le a v e .................................
5 d ay s.......................................................
6 d ay s.....................................................
7 d ay s....................... ...............................
8 d ay s..................... .................................
9 days .......................................................
10 days .....................................................
11 d ay s.................................................. ..
12 d ay s.....................................................
H d ay s.......................................................
15 days .....................................................
20 days .....................................................
22 d ay s.....................................................
24 d ay s................... .................................
30 days .....................................................
33 days ......................................................
36 d ay s....................................................
Over 36 d ay s............................................
Establishments with no formal provisions
fo r paid sick le a v e ...............................
y
2/
*
**

All
industries

P a id S ic Jt Jiaaae (4o* m a l P^ ooUiOMi)

PERCENT OP OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Wholesale Retail trade Finance**
Public
Manufacturing utilities*
trade

Serriese

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

18.7
.1
4.4
7.2
.4
2.2
4.0
(2/)
.1
.3
81.3

12.7
12.7
87.3

5.0
3.2
1.8
95.C

12.5
1.0
11.5
87.5

29.6
.9
20.1
8.3
.3
70.4

27.7
4.6
10.9
12.2
72.3

8.4
5.9
2.5
91.6

6.3
1.2
3.4
.3
a
-.3
.2
.2
.2
.3
93.7

->
100.0

4.3
1.9
2.4
95.7

6.4
1.4
5.0
->
93.6

21.6
5.4
14.3
-.1
1.0
.8
•
78.4

10.5
4.6
3.6
_
•
2.3
89.5

26.4
1.5
7.7
1.5
.7
2.0
3.5
2.4
2.3
—
4.6
.2
73.6

12.7
12.7
—
87.3

7.7
2.7
3.2
1.8
92.3

35.1
7.8
8.8
1.1
1.4
11.5
4.5
64.9

52.4
42.9
9.2
.3
47.6

27.7
5.5
10.8
—
11.4
72.3

9.7
1.3
5.9
2.5
90.3

14.9
11.4
1.4
.4
.5
.2
.5
.2
.1
.2
85.1

•
100.0

24.0
19.7
1.9
2.4
76.0

23.6
10.5
1.4
2.7
5.0
3.2
.8
76.4

45.1
37.7
5.5
1.0
-.9
54.9

12.9
4.6
2.4
3.6
2.3
87.1

27.0
1.7
1.4
.7
1.5
.3
6.9
3.5
2.5
.1
.2
4.5
2.2
•6
(2/)
.9
73.0

12.7
12.7
87.3

7.7
3.2
2.7
1.8
92.3

35.1
6.3
1.1
1.4
7.8
2.5
4.5
11.5
64.9

57.3
4.1
8.3
—
38.8
1.0
.2
4.9
42.7

27.7
3.7
10.9
11.4
1.7
72.3

9.7
1.3
2.5
5*9
90.3

15.5
2.3
.3
.4
2.2
6.9
.6
•2
.1
.1
.2
.3
.8
1.1
84.5

•
100.0

24.0
1.9
19.7
2.4
76.0

23.6
3.7
1.4
2.7
6.8
.8
5.0
3.2
76.4

47.8
7.9
.1
29.8
2.7
.9
.3.7
2.7
52.2

12.9
4.6
2.4
2.3
3.6
87.1

Includee data for industries other than those shown separately.
Less than .05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railro ad s), communication, and other public u tilitie s .
Finance, insurance, and re al estate.




S-**.

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Public
Wholesale Retail trade
industries!/ Manufacturing utilities*
trade

Occupational Wage Surrey, Biehnond, Va., October 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LIBOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

16,

Tabi© e-6*
p i 3RCENT

T r e of bonus
jp

All establishments ........... ......
Establishments with nonproduction
bonus 2 / • • • • ............ ..... ..

All
industries

___

......m

m

OF OF FICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Public
utilities*

Manufacturing

fiim p tu k lu c tto n & O H 4 4 A e A

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

.........U Q t f t .. .

. . . . ...

AH _ .
industries ^ Manufacturing

Finance**

.

H Q a Q...... --1».0

Public
utilities*

100.0

100.0

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

51.9

50.1

11.4

60.2

50.2

62.7

71.2

38.1

31.2

2 5 .4

57.7

47.7

62.1

Christmas or year-end ...........................................
Profit-sharing ••••..••••.....................
Other...... ..................

41 .
2
1 0 .8
9 .8

43.9
2 .6
4.6

8.4
1 .8
1.2

33.0
31.3
5.8

33.9
5.8
10.5

62.7
3.1
17.8

20.2
63.4
12.4

30.1
4.6
7.7

25 .2

6.5

15.6
3.3
6.5

4 8 .0
15.2
8.9

36.8
4.5
6.4

51.8
32.5
22.1

Establishments with no nonproduction
bonus • * • • • • .... ........... ......

48.1

49.9

88.6

39.8

49.8

37.3

28.8

61.9

68.8

74.6

42.3

52.3

37.9

Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Unduplicated total.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), conmunication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.

7j

Table E~7t

9*t& 44SUi4U>e O H c l P -G 4 *li0 4 t P lo t U

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Type of plan

All establishments

••••••• ......

Establishments with insurance or
pension plans g / .................... .. ..... .
Life insurance ••••#••••••••• ......
Health insurance •••••••• ... .. .....
Hospitalization.... .. ..... • •• •• • •.
Retirement pension... .. .... •••••••
Establishments with no insurance or
pension plan.............. .

l/

All
industries

Manufacturing

100.0

100.0

84.2

90.0

73.1
34.9
51.0

85.0
60.3
40.5
44.2

15.8

10.0

42.8

_

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Finanoe**

100.0 _

Services

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Sendees

100.0

100.0

100.0

100*0

100.0

100.0

16.8

80.9

83.0

81.3

65.5

98.0

26.7

15.2
12.6
9.7
-

74.3
47.9
29.4
35.9

80.8
52.2
29.4
41.1

62.0
53.8
51.0
51.8

62.3
23.2
30.5
23.0

84.9
52.6
21.3
30.7

23.8
15.5
20.7
“

19.1

17.0

18.7

34.5

2.0

73.3

100.0.

100.0

97.0

75.4

95.7

84.1

51.4

56.9
U.9
81.6

67.5
26.4
32.3
41.2

77.2
43.7
28.1
26.5

83.1
39.8
36.1
64.4

3.0

24.6

4.3

15.9

83.2

100.0 _

Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
2/ Unduplicated total.
# Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
All
- y
industries ] / Manufacturing

100.0.

—

Occupational Wage Survey, Richmond, Ya., October 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

17

Appendix - Scope

With the exception of the union scale of rates, in­
formation presented in this bulletin was collected by visits of
field representatives of the Bureau to representative establish­
ments in the area surveyed.
In classifying workers by occupa­
tion, uniform job descriptions were used; these are available
upon request.
Six broad industry divisions were covered in compiling
earnings data for the following types of occupations i (a) office
clerical, (b) professional and technical, (o) maintenance and
power plant, and (d) custodial, warehousing, and shipping (tables
A-l through A-A). The covered industry groupings ares manufac­
turing; transportation (except railroads), communication, and
other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services.
Information on work
schedules and supplementary benefits also was obtained in a rep­
resentative group of establishments in each of these industry
divisions. As indicated in the following table only establish­
ments above a certain size were studied. Smaller establishments
were omitted because they furnished insufficient employment in
the occupations studied to warrant their inclusion.

Among the industries in which characteristic jobs were
studied, minimum size of establishment and extent of the area
covered were determined separately for each industry (see fol­
lowing table).
Although size limits frequently varied from
those established for surveying cross-industry office and plant
jobs, data for these jobs were included only for firms meeting
the size requirements of the broad industry divisions.
A greater proportion of large than of small establish­
ments was studied in order to maximize the number of workers
surveyed with available resources. Each group of establishments




id Method

of Survey

of a certain size, however, was given its proper weight in the
combination of data b y industry and occupation.
The earnings information excludes premium pay for over­
time and night work. Nonproduction bonuses are also excluded,
but cost-of-living bonuses and incentive earnings, including
oosmtisslons for salespersons, are included. Where weekly hours
are reported as for office clerical, they refer to the work sched­
ules (rounded to the nearest half-hour) for which the straighttime salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these occu­
pations have been rounded to the nearest $0 cents. The number
of workers presented refers to the estimated total employment in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not to the
number actually surveyed.
Data are shown for only full-time
workers, i.e., those hired to work the establishment1s full-time
schedule for the given occupational classification.
Information on wage practices refers to all office
and plant workers as specified in the individual tables. It is
presented in terms of the proportion of all workers employed in
offices
(or plant departments) that observe the practice in
question, except in the section relating to woemn office workers
of the table summarizing scheduled weekly hours. Because of eli­
gibility requirements, the proportion actually receiving the
specific benefits ma y be smaller.
The summary of vacation and
sick leave plans is limited to formal arrangements. It excludes
informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the dis­
cretion of the employer or other supervisor. Sick leave plans
are further limited to those providing full pay for at least
some amount of time off without any provision for a waiting
period preceding the payment of benefits. These plans also ex­
clude health insurance even though it is paid for by employers.
Health insurance is included, however, under tabulation for in­
surance and pension plans.

IS

ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS IN MAJOR INDUSTRY DIVISIONS AND IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES IN
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 1/ AND NUMBER STUDIED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, OCTOBER 1951

Item

Minimum number
of workers in
establishments
studied
2/

Numb<ar’
of
establi shments
Estimated
total
Studied
within
scope of
study

Employment
Estimated
total
within
scope of
study

!

In establi.shments
stud: ed
Total

Office

Industry divisions in which occupations were
surveyed on an area basis
All divisions................ ...................
Manufacturing........ .......................
Nonmanufacturing...... ......................
Transportation (excluding railroads),
communication, and other public
utilities. .......................... .
Wholesale trade........... ................
Retail trade.............. ................
Finance, insurance, and real estate..... .
Services 2/ ............................ .

21
21
21

644
174
470

151
42
109

73,000
32,800
40,200

23,0 20
21,010

7,530
1,670
5,860

21
21
21
21
21

51
146
160
54
59

18
24
28
19
20

8,200
7,600
14,200
5,800
4,400

5,950
2,010
7,280
3,190
2,580

1,440
770
1,020
2,410
220

21

37

13

3,516

1,881

1,274

44,030

Industries in which occupations were
surveyed on an industry basis
Insurance carriers..............................

1/ Richmond Metropolitan Area (City of Richmond, Chesterfield and Henrico Counties).
2/ Total establishment employment*
2/ Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit
membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




19

F&ge
Page
number
Assembler (insurance carriers) ........ .............
Benchman (bakeries) .........................
Biller, m a c h i n e ........ .......... .................
3, 4
Bindery woman (printing) .............................
“
Bookbinder (printing) ...**•••••••••••......... .
.... ............
3,
Bookkeeper, hand
Bookkeeping-machine operator . •.... ••••••.........
3, 4
Bricklayer (building construction) »•»'•••••••...«..«
H
Calculating-machine operator ....................
Carpenter (building construction) ....................
11
Carpenter, maintenance •.••»•••••••.*.......... •••••
C l e ane r............................... *...........*
8
Clerk, accounting.................. •••••.....
3, 4
Clerk, accounting (insurance carriers) ...............
10
Clerk, actuarial (insurance carriers).............
Clerk, file ........................................
*
Clerk, file (insurance carriers) ...................
10
Clerk, general.................. ...................
3# 5
Clerk, general (insurance carriers) .................
10
Clerk, order ........................................
3, 5
Clerk, pa y r o l l .... ..........*.......... .
5
Compositor, hand (printing) ...........
11

number

H

J

4

7

D r a f t s m a n .........

Duplicating-machine operator................
Electrician (building construction) ...........
Electrotyper (printing) ......
Engineer, stationary...............................
Fireman, stationary boiler ...................
Guard ...................
.•••••••••.
Helper (bakeries) ...........
Helper, motortruck d r i v e r ...............
Helper, trades, maintenance..... .......
leer (bakeries) .....
Key-punch operator
Key-punch operator (insurance
carriers) .............
Machine operator (printing) ........................
Machine tender (printing) ........................
Maintenance man, general u t i l i t y ..............
Mechanic, automotive (maintenance)
Mechanic, maintenance........




8

'
^
“

1
1

f*L
*4
?
“
*
10
“
"

7
7

10

Mixer (bakeries)...... .............................
Molder (bakeries) .......................... ..... .
Motortruck d r i v e r ...... •.•••••..••••••••••••.......
Nurse, industrial (registered) ........... ..........
Office b o y ............. •••......••••••••.........
Office girl •••••........... ......................
O i l e r .... .......................................
Operator (local transit) ........................ .
Order f i l l e r .......................................
Oven operator (bakeries)
Packer .............................................
Painter (building construction) ................... .
Painter, maintenance ............•••••••••........
Photoengraver (printing)
Plasterer (building construction) ................. .
Plumber (building construction) .....................
P o r t e r ............... .................. ...........
Premium acceptor (insurance carriers) •••••••.«..»..«
Press assistant (printing)..... ................
Press feeder (printing)..... ....... ...............
Pressman (printing) ................ ................
Receiving clerk •«............... ...................
Secretary...... ....................................
Section head (insurance carriers)
Shipping clerk .................................... .
Shipping-and-reeeiving c l e r k ..............
••••
Stenographer.......... ...........................
Stenographer (insurance carriers)
Stereotyper (printing) ...................••••.......
Stock handler ........
••••••••
Switchboard operator.... .•••,••••••• ••••••••••
Switchboard operator-receptionist
Tabulating-machine operator
Tabulating-machine operator (insurance carriers) ••••
Transoribing-machine operator
Truck driver ............................•••••••.....
Trucker, hand ...............................
Trucker, power ......................................
Typist .............................................
Typist (insurance carriers)
Ifoderwriter (insurance carriers) ......
•••••
W a t c h m a n ....... ................................. .
Wrapper (bakeries) .................................

'
☆

U.

s.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1952 O — 993097

11
11
11
6
3
5
7

11
S

11

8
11
7

11
11
11
8
10

11
11
11

8
5
10

8
8

5# 6
10

11
9

6

6

3, 6

10
6
9
9
9

6

10
10
9

11







This report may be obtained by addressing:
Brunswick A. Bagdon, Regional Director
Bureau of Labor S tatistics
664
50 Seventh Street, N« E.
Atlanta 5, Ga.
The services of the Bureau of Labor S tatistics1 regional offices
are available for consultation on statistic s relating to wages and indus­
tria l relations, employment, prices, labor turn-overproductivity, work
injuries, construction and housing*
R

ood

The Southern region includes the following States:
Alabama
North Carolina
ryi
Arkansas
Florida
South Carolina
Georgia
Tennessee
Texas
Louisiana
lferyland
Virginia
Mississippi
West Virginia
D istrict of Columbia


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102