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Occupational Wage Survey
DENVER, COLORADO
Janu ary

1951

Bulletin No. I029

U N I T E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
M A U R I C E J. T O B I N , S E C R E T A R Y




Bureau of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s
Ewan C l a g u e , Com m iss ioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 35 cents




In tro d u c tio n ^

C o n te n ts
Pag©
Number
INTRODUCTION.........................................................................

1

THE DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA .........................................................
Labor and Industry In the Denver Area ......... ••••••••••«•••«....................

2
2

OCCUPATIONAL WAGE STRUCTURE .................... .....................................
Cross-Industry Occupations
....... .................................... .
Office clerical occupations ...................................... .........•••••
Professional and technical occupations ....... .
Maintenance and power plant occupations .............. .
Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations .......................... .
Characteristic Industry Occupations ................. ••••••••••••••••••..••••••••••
Straight-time average earnings ................................
Union wage scales ........ .......•••••.........................................
Minimum Entrance Rates ..................... ••••••••••••••••••••••••••..•••••••••«*

2
2
2

k

SUPPLEMENTARY WAGE PRACTICES ...... .......................... ........................

k

3
3
3
3
3
3

TABIES:
Average
1.
2.
3•

earnings for selected occupations studied on an area "basis Office occupations ....................
Professional and technical occupations ....... ................... •••••.......
Maintenance and power plant occupations ..... ...........................••.*•
k» Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations ••••.•••••••...... ..........
Average earnings for selected occupations studied on an industry "basis 5* Machinery ....................................................................
6 . Power laundries ...................................••••••.........••••••••••••
7• Auto repair shops .....................•••••••••••......••••........••••••••••
8 . Railroads ........ ...................................................... ••*..
Union wage scales for selected occupations 9. Bakeries
..... ...........••••••••................
10. Building construction
.... .............................. ..................
11. Retail groceries .......... ............................................... .
12. Local transit operating employees
............ .............................
13. Meat markets .......................................
1^. Motortruck drivers and h e l p e r s .... •••••••••••...... ............
15. Printing ................................................................ .
Entrance rates 16 . Minimum entrance rates for plant w o r k e r s .... .............. ••••.•••••••••••••
Wage practices 17• Shift differential provisions •••••••••••••.........
••••••••••.
18• Scheduled weekly hours •••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.... ••......•
19. Paid holidays ................................................................
20. Paid vacations •
..... ......••••••••••••••......
21. Paid sick leave ................... ................••••••......
22. Nonproduction "bonuses.... ...................... ................... ..........
23• Insurance and pension plans •••••••••....... ..............
APPENDIX:
A. Scope and method of survey •••••••.........
B. Descriptions of occupations studied ...........................

......

I N D E X ....................................................................................................




5
10
10
12

The Denver area is one of several important industrial centers in which the Bureau
of Labor Statistics conducted occupational wage surveys during early 1951* £/ Occupations
that are common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries were studied cn
a community-wide basis. Cross-Industry methods of sampling were thus utilized in cenrolling
earnings data for the following types of occupations: (a) office clerical;
(b) professional
and technical; (c) maintenance and power plant; (d) custodial, warehousing, and shipping. In
presenting earnings information of such jobs (tables 1 through k) separate data have been
provided wherever possible for individual broad industry divisions. Occupations that are
characteristic of particular, important, local industries have been studied as heretofore on
an industry basis, within the framework of the community survey. 3 /

Although only a limited amount of such data was compiled in the present survey,
greater detail will be provided for in future studies. Union scales are presented in lieu
of (or supplementing) occupational earnings for several industries or trades in which the
great majority of the workers are employed under terms of collective bargaining agreements,
and the contract or minimum rates are indicative of prevailing pay practice. Data on shift
operations and differentials, hours of work, and supplementary benefits, such as vacation and
sick leave allowances, paid holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and insurance and pension plans
have also been collected and summarized.

The community wage survey of Denver was made in cooperation with other Federal agen­
cies. Individual agencies received separate tabulations limited to specified geographic,
industrial, and occupational coverage.

Ik
Ik
15
15
16
16
16

16

16
17

17
17
17
18
18
19
20
21

21
22

23
32

l/ Prepared in the Bureau*s Division of Wage Statistics by William P. O ’Connor under the
direction of John L. Dana, Regional Wage Analyst, Revion V, San Francisco, Calif. The plan­
ning and central direction of the program was the responsibility of Toivo P. Kanninen and
Louis E. Badenhoop under the general supervision of Harry Ober, Chief of the Branch of Indus­
try Wage Studies.
2/ Other areas studied are: Atlanta, Ga.; Boston, Mass.; Chicago, 111.; New York, N. Y.;
and San .Francisco-Oakland, Calif. Similar studies were conducted in 1950 in Buffalo, N. Y.;
Denver, Colo.; Philadelphia, Pa.; and San Francisco-Oakland, Calif.
3/ See Appendix A for discussion of scope and method of survey.

2

The

D e n v e r M e tr o p o lita n

A re a

Employment reached an all-time high In the 4 -county Denver metropolitan area 4/ to­
ward the close of 1950. This high employment level resulted from the continuing population
expansion In this area, coupled with an upturn in business activity largely attributable to
mobilization for defense. In January 1951, seasonal forces caused a slight decline, notably
in trade and construction. However, substantially more workers were employed that a year
earlier and unemployment was fast becoming negligible. Despite rises in living costs during
the latter half of 1950 , the volume of civilian consumption was high in early 1951 , reflect­
ing, in part, increased wage rates established during the preceding year. With defense con­
tracts coming more into the picture for Denver manufactures and the area becoming an increas­
ingly larger center of governmental activities, the outlook was for an expanded economy in
the months ahead.

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e

S tru c tu re

Wages of a majority of plant workers in the Denver area industries were raised dur­
ing 1950. Most of the advances were effected in the last 6 months of the year, when living
cost pressures and some tightening of the labor market probably became influencing factors in
collective bargaining. No broad pattern of wage adjustments emerged during the year, either
before or after the outbreak of hostilities in Korea. In general., contract
settlements,
chiefly in manufacturing and construction, included rate increases of from three to six cents
an hour before July. During this same period there was an increase of 10 cents an hour for
an important and fairly large group of government employees. After July almost double the
number of workers as in the earlier 6 months participated in wage adjustments. The raises
tended to be of greater magnitude, particularly in construction, in wholesale trade, retail
trade, and in seme segments of manufacturing. At the year's end hourly rates of the majority
of the workers receiving increases had advanced to between five and 14 cents.

Labor and Industry in the Denver Area
Nonagricultural pursuits in the Denver area engaged more than 225,000 individuals
in January 1951. Of these about 190,000 were wage and salaried workers employed in manufac­
turing, transportation, communication, utilities, trade, finance, services, construction, and
government.
Among the manufacturing industries, which employed one in every five wage earners,
the production of foodstuffs (primarily meat and bakery products) accounted for more than
10,000. Important in the durable goods field, the machinery and other metal fabricating in­
dustries accounted for almost another 10,000 workers engaged in producing mining machinery,
high-speed machine tools, precision instruments, heavy industrial equipment, and other metal
products. In still other manufacturing activities, the rubber industry loomed large as did
printing, apparel, and the luggage and leather goods industries.
Among nonmanufacturing industries wholesale and retail trade employed more than 50POO
salespeople and related distribution workers. In the transportation and utilities group some­
what more than 25,000 were utilized. The service industries accounted for another 18,000 and
financial institutions including insurance carriers and real estate operators employed an
estimated 8 ,000 .
During 1950 the building industry in the Denver area had a record year constructing
or starting more than 10,000 new dwellings. Although employment had declined from the 1950
peak, the 12,000 craftsmen, helpers, and laborers in the industry in January 1951 narked a
new high for the month.
Government employees, including those in city, State and Federal jurisdictions,
numbered a little more than 19,000 in early 1951 , with the outlook indicating expansion, par­
ticularly In Federal government.
Labor organizations represented about 60 percent of the plant workers in the indus­
tries and size groups surveyed in the Denver area. Among the industry groups, almost all the
plant workers in - h transportation and utilities group were employed in establishments having
te
written agreements with trade-unions. Approximately two-thirds of the plant workers in manu­
facturing and one-half in wholesale trade were employed under similar circumstances. Com­
paratively few office employees were working under union contract terms.

4/

Adams, Arapahoe, Denver, and Jefferson Counties




In the following discussion of wages two main occupational groupings are distin­
guished: (1 ) cross-industry occupations— office clerical; professional and technical; main­
tenance and pewer plant; custodial, warehousing, and shipping; and ( ) characteristic industry
2
occupations. The first group of occupations was studied on a cross-industry basis. These
occupations are usually found In all or a number of Industries. In general, the characteristic
industry occupations are peculiar to a specific industry. As indicated below, straight-time
average rates or earnings are shown for some Industries; union scales are shown far others.
Information for the railroad industry Is presented separately in this report and
has not been combined with the data in any of the other tables. This has been done in recog­
nition of the fact that wages in the railroad industry bear strong iuprints of interstate
considerations that have evolved over a long period of time. Some of these general considera­
tions are: Nation-wide uniformity in rates of pay for certain key occupations;
uniform
Nation-wide minimum rates that affect the entire range of occupational rates; and special
modes of wage payment and related practices.
Cross-Industry Occupations
Office clerical occupations— General stenographers constituted the
numerically
largest office classification studied, and women employed in this occupation averaged $ 45.50
a week in January 1951* Comparable average weekly salaries were paid in seven other occupa­
tions for women, accounting for more than half the women office workers studied (table l). In
14 of the occupations, containing about 70 percent of the workers studied, weekly averages
were within the narrow range of $41.50 and $46. Among occupations with average salaries in
excess of $46, secretaries at $53.50 accounted for a high proportion of the workers. Hand
bookkeepers and class A bookkeeping-machine operators were the highest paid woman, receiving
$56 and $ 57 , respectively. Boutine typists at $ 38 .50 , file clerks at $36 and office girls at
$33 were the lowest paid office jobs studied. In 16 of the 18 women's office jobs which per­
mitted comparisons, average salaries were higher In manufacturing establishments than in nonmanufacturing. Within the nonmanufacturing group, women In transportation (excluding rail­
roads), communication, and other public utilities, and in wholesale trade received weekly sal­
aries which compared most favorably with manufacturing.
Hand bookkeepers received $64.50, the highest average weekly salary among men office
workers. Accounting clerks constituted the largest group of men office workers studied, and
they averaged $60.50 a week. Office boys had the lcarest average with $34. A comparison of
salaries paid men and women In the same jobs showed a weekly wage advantage of $6.50 or more
for men in most of the jobs in which both sexes were employed. However, differences in aver­
age salaries far men and women in particular occupations generally do not reflect differences
in rates within the same establishment.

3.

Professional and technical occupations--Women employed as registered nurses in in­
dustrial establishments averaged $57.50 a week in January 1951* Men employed as draftsmen
had a weekly $ 8 l average; senior draftsmen averaged $109• Junior draftsmen received $67 and
tracers $57 (table 2 ).
Maintenance and power plant occupations— Among such skilled maintenance crafts as
carpenters, electricians, machinists, and painters, average hourly earnings were between$1*64
and $1.67 an hour in January 1951. Automotive mechanics formed the largest group of skilled
maintenance workers studied, and had an average scale of $1.60. Sheet-metal workers at $1.7**
received the highest average pay among these workers. Helpers to maintenance craftsmen aver­
aged $ 1 .3^ an hour.
Stationary engineers, responsible for the operation of equipment supplying power,
heat, refrigeration, or air conditioning, at $ 1.63 had an average rate comparable to rates
received by maintenance craftsmen. Stationary boiler firemen averaged $1.**2 an hour (table 3).
Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations--Men working as janitors, porters
and cleaners averaged 99 cents an hour, on an all-industry basis. Average earnings varied
widely by industry, however, with workers in wholesale trade, public utilities, and manufac­
turing earning $1.01, $1.10, and $1.13, respectively. In contrast, men janitors in retail
trade, finance, and the service industries, received between 8 * and 92 cents an hour (tabled).
*
Women employed in this classification averaged 10 cents an hour less than men, on an all­
industry basis. Watchmen and guards averaged $1.18 and $l«2 l , respectively.
*
In the numerically important stock handler and hand trucker job classification, average
hourly earnings were $1.21 an hour. Averages for this job were fairly uniform in all indus­
tries. Earnings of order fillers, however, varied from an average of $1 an hour in retail trade
to $1.30 in manufacturing. Their average on an all-industry basis was $1.23. Averages for
other warehousing and shipping jobs ranged from $1.13 for packers to $1.38 for shipping clerks.
Receiving clerks averaged $1.3^. Combination shipping and receiving clerks, typically em­
ployed in small establishments, averaged $1.28. Light-truck drivers at $1.20 averaged 8 cents
an hour less than drivers of medium trucks.
Characteristic Industry Occupations
Straight-time average earnings
Following the practice for the cross-Industiy occupations previously discussed, the
wage information for the following k industries reflects earnings derived from employer pay­
roll records.
Machinery*manufacture— Production machinists averaged $1.67 an hour in January
same amount as maintenance machinists on an all-industry basis. Payment on an in­
ceptive wage basis resulted in higher average hourly earnings of $1.68, $1.76, and $1.77/
respectively, for a large number of skilled workers, such as class A assemblers, millingmachine operators, and welders. Class B assemblers at $1.1*3 an hour represented the largest
group of workers studied in machinery manufacturing establishments (table 5 ).

exceeded $1 was washing-machine operator ($1.07). The rates generally reflected increases of
six to seven cents an hour over those prevailing at the time of an earlier survey made in
June 1949.
Auto rep*** shops— Average hourly earnings of $1.77 were received by auto mechanics
doing skilled repair work in auto repair shops and repair departments of dealer establishments
(table 7). This average was 17 cents higher than the $1.60 reported for auto mechanics em­
ployed by trucking firms and other types of establishments which repair automobiles and trucks
for own use (table 3). A majority of the automotive mechanics employed in auto repair shops
and repair departments of dealer establishments were paid on a "flat-rate” basis whereby the
mechanics received a percentage (usually 50 percent) of amounts charged customers for labor.
Twenty-five percent of these mechanics earned $2 or more an hour.
This "flat-rate” system
also accounted, in large part, for the relatively high average of $1.81 for metal-body repair­
men, and, to a lesser extent, the $1.06 and $1.18 averaged by automobile washers and greasers.
Only in the case of automobile washers paid at straight hourly rates were average earnings
less than $1 an hour.
Railroads— Earnings in selected office, maintenance, custodial, and warehousing jobs
in the railroad industry in Denver are presented in table 8 . Both men and women general ste­
nographers earned $60 for a 40-hour week^ Women secretaries were paid an average weekly sal­
ary of $66.50. Unlike office workers surveyed on a cross-industry basis (table 1), all of the
railroad office workers were covered by union agreements.
The straight-time hourly earnings for maintenance electricians, machinists, and
pipe fitters were $1.74 an hour. The average for painters was $1.69 and for carpenters $1.63.
Helpers to maintenance craftsmen averaged $1.43# Both men and women janitors averaged $1.22
an hour.
Union Wage Scales
The information reported for the following seven industries relates to the minimum
wage rates and maximum straight-time hours per week agreed upon through collective bargaining
between employers and trade-Hinions.
Bakeries— In Denver bakeries making bread and cake, union wage scales were $1.40 an
hour for bench hands, $1.45 for dough mixers and ovenmen, and $1.54 for foremen in both hand
and machine shops in January 1951. In the production of crackers and cookies, rates varied
widely by occupation and by union agreement. Under one agreement, minimum scales ranged from
fl .01 for women bundlers and machine operators to §1 .38 ^ for men machine captains; and under
another, the range was from 82 cents for women general helpers (first month) to $1.£L for
sponge-machine men.
The A0-hour week was established for all bakery workers except in bread
and cake hand shops where the schedule was 48 (table 9 ).

1951 --the

Power laundries— In the largest occupational group studied, machine flatwork fin­
ishers, all the women surveyed earned less than 85 cents an hour, the average being 66 cents
(table 6 ). Of the 561 women laundry workers included in the study, only six markers earned
in excess of $1 an hour ani these were paid on the basis of output. Men working as stationary
boiler firemen in laundries averaged $1.04 an hour compared with the all-industry average of
$1.1*2 far the same job. The only other laundry job studied in which average hourly earnings




=.===-=—

In

a $2.50

—

outuoa cuuuug seven major w v u . x u o . U g ujl a u o o X c U i g e U
for bricklayers and plasterers. Electricians were at
rate, plumbers at $2 .40 , carpenters at $2.35 and painters at $2 .12 ^ (table 10 ).

t0

. .
. .ggfcft1 groceries— On a 48-hour workweek basis, food clerks in Denver grocery stores
had a minxmum hourly scale of $1.A3£-.
Apprentice clerks were hired at 95 cents an hour and
received periodic increases bringing the scale to $1.43^ at the start of the third year. Head
clerks were rated at $1 ./8 J and assistant store managers at $1.51 an hour (table 11 ).
-

transit

tranBii g r a t i n g employees— -Bus and trolley coach operators in Denver1s
were paid ?1.38 an hour for the first 3 months' service, §1.39 for t h H e x t 9

k.
months, and additional 1 -cent advances each 6 months thereafter until the completion of 2
years* service when the rate of $1*42 an hour was reached*
The workweek for transit operat­
ing employees was 51 hours (table 12 )*
Meat markets— Journeymen meat cutters were at a minim um contract scale of $1*62 an
hour in retail meat markets in January 1951# Apprentice cutters were paid 95 cents an hour
for the first 6 months of employment and this scale was advanced at 6 -month intervals to
$1*32 for the third year and to $1*62 at the start of the fourth year* Managers or head meat
cutters received a basic hourly scale of $1*70* A 43-hour workweek was the schedule for meat
cutters (table 13 )*
Motortruck drivers and helpers— Union scales for Denver truck drivers varied widely
from $ 1.10 for drivers of produce trucks in the first 90 days of tenure to $2 for drivers of
low boy and Tandem Euclid trucks in building construction* Hates for drivers differed accord­
ing to type of truck, commodities hauled, and length of service* A standard workweek of ifi
hours was the schedule for all drivers and helpers (table 14 )*

Scheduled Workweek
Nine of every 10 women office workers were on scheduled workweeks of 4° hours or
more in January 1951*
A schedule of 40 hovers a week was generally the most common practice,
but in retail trade, services, and the transportation and other utilities group, establish­
ments with work schedules of more than 4 ° hours accounted for considerable employment
(table 18). Weekly hours of less than 4° were most prevalent in the finance, insurance, and
real estate group where almost 25 percent of the women office workers worked either 37^ or 38
hours.
The extended workweek was notable among plant workers, with two of every five on a
longer than 40-hour schedule* The 43-hour week was established for more than a fourth of the
workers in retail trade; services; and transportation, communication, and public utilities.
Few plant workers worked less than 40 hours weekly.
Paid Holidays

Printing— The minimum union scale fbr cylinder pressmen in commercial printing shops
called for $2,194 an hour ($87*75 for a 40-hour workweek)*
Platen pressmen had a scale of
$2*015* Press assistants and feeders had scales of 97^ cents on platen presses and $1*688 on
cylinder presses* The scale for electrotypers was $2*375 (table 15)#

Paid holidays were allowed for almost all office workers and about 80 percent of the
plant workers* The general rule provided six to 8 holidays throughout the year, except in the
finance, insurance, and real estate group in which 9 to 11 days was the general practice
(table 19).

In newspaper work, hand compositors and machine operators had a day scale of $2*568
and a night scale of $2*688*
Web pressmen had a day scale of $2.36 and a night scale of
$2.543 ; whereas the day and night scales of stereotypers were $2,407 and $2 *52*4 respectively.
The basic workweek in commercial shops was 40 hours in most trades whereas it varied from 35
to 37 g hours in newspaper establishments.
-

Paid Vacations

Minimum Entrance Rates
Established minimum entrance rates for inexperienced plant workers were included in
the formalized rate structure of Denver area firms with 80 percent of the nonoffice employ­
ment in all industries. These entrance rates varied widely (from less than 50 cents an hour
to more than $1 .25 ), although more than two-thirds of the workers were in establishments pay­
ing entrance rates of 75 cents an horn* or more* In manufacturing, minimum entrance rates
ranging from 75 cents to $1.15 an hour were in force in establishments with most of the em­
ployment*
In the service industries, on the other hand, entrance scales were under 75 cents
in establishments employing almost nine-tenths of the workers (table 16).

Practically all workers received a paid vacation after a year of service* Over
three-fifths of the office workers received 2 weeks* vacation after 1 year*s service, but
three-fourths of the plant workers received only 1 week (table 20).
After 2 years* service,
about two-fifths of the plant workers received a 2-week paid vacation; close to four-fifths
of the office workers received 2 weeks or more*
Paid Sick Leave
Formal provisions for paid sick leave after a year of service were limited to about
one-third of the office workers and one-eighth of the plant workers.
Although the number of
days of paid sick leave allowed varied widely, plans permitting from five to 12 days annually
applied to most of these workers. The industry division including transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities had the highest proportion of workers
covered by formal sick leave provisions (table 21 ),
Noneroduction Bonuses

S u p p le m e n ta ry

W age

P ractices

Shift Differentials
About 15 percent of factory workers were employed for extra shift work in Denver
area manufacturing establishments in January 1951.
In almost all cases payment of differ­
entials over first-shift rates was the practice for these workers. The amount of the differ­
ential varied among industries and among individual establishments, but the typical payment for
both second- and third-shift workers was less than 5 cents an hour over daytime scales.
In
the machinery industries, however, with more extensive shift operations than the average, 7i
~
cents was the most common differential paid workers on second shifts and 12 J cents to those
working on third shifts (table 17).




More than half of the office workers and almost the same proportion of plant workers
were employed in Denver establishments that supplemented annual earnings with some kind of
nonproduction bonus payment* Most common bonuses were of the Christmas or year-end type, but
a substantial number of employees participated in profit-sharing plans* A large majority of
workers in retail trade and finance, insurance, and real estate were in establishments that
made bonus payments (table 22 ).
Insurance and Pension Plans
In establishments employing four-fifths
plant workers, some form of insurance or pension
ployer was in effect. Life insurance plans were,
measures for both office and plant workers in all
in the transportation, communication, and other
tirement pension plans (table 23 ).

of the office workers and two-thirds of the
plan financed wholly or in part by the em­
by far, the most commonly accepted security
industries* A substantial number of workers
public utilities group were covered by re­

5

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
(Average w e e k l y earnings 1 / a n d w e e k l y scheduled hours for selected occupations b y industry division)

Atrerage
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
scheduled
hours

Weekly
earnings

25.00

_
Number of workers receiTring straighti-time weeklyr earedJigs oi
*
$
*
i
i
1
«
i
$
$
i
*
i
*
1
27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 to .00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50

and
under
27.50 30.00

32 t?o 35,00

37t?o 40.00

42,50 45,00

47 t?o

50.00 52.50

55,00

57t5°

_

6

_

2

2

12
11
1

18

13

60.00 62,50

75.00

75,00

80.00

_

65.00 67,50 70.00 72.50

8

80.00
and
over

_

17

i

Men
_

23

13

3

6

-

-

-

_
-

6

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

.
.

-

_
-

—

-

3
3

l
—

-

-

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

6
2

1

4
-

1

-

2

2

1

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

10
6

_
-

_
8
6
- ---- 6"---- F
2
2
-

_
-

r
*
-

Billers, machine (billing machine) ..........

57

43.5

lu.oo

Bookkeepers, h a n d ..........................
Manufacturing ............ ..............
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .....................

167
61

41.0
41.5
41.0
A0 6

.
-

_
-

40.5

64.50
63.50
65.00
69 00
58.50
58.50

_
-

-

40.0

49.50

-

106

Retail trade........................ .
Finance ** ...........................

62
25
16

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B 2 / ....
Manufacturing ...........................

2o

-40.5

48.00

Clerks, accounting..................... .
Manufacturing ...........................
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ......................
Wholesale trade.......... ............
Retail trade .................... .
Finance * * .......................... .

560

-40.5
40.5
40.5
40.5

60.50

175
3S5
123
19
38

42.0
40.0

51.00
48.00

Clerks, general ....................... .
Manufacturing ...........................
Nonmanufacturing........................

66
31
35

40.0
40.0
40.0

56.00

30

Clerks, order.............................
Manufacturing...........................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .....................
Wholesale trade ......................

171
32
139

Clerks, pay r o l l ...........................
Manufacturing..... ................... ..
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ......................
UVml A l l A
ffl

54
34

20
TL

Office boys ...............................
Manufacturing................... .......
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .....................
Wholesale trade ............. .........

177
73
104
27

IM
nflnrtA
Tabulating-machine operators ................

120

22
30

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and
** Finance, insurance, and r ea l estate.




42.0

63.00
59.00
53.50

52.50
49.50

41.0
41.5
40.5
40.5

55.00
51.00
55.50
56.00

41.5
41.5
41.5
/IL V
AJ e0
f /

54.00
50.00
61.50
w - A*
H.

40.0
41.0
39.5

34.00
33.00
35.00
39.50

40.0
40.0
39 5
39.5

33 00
33 . A1
60
53.00

-

—
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

86
47
39
8

Q
7

16
11

15
6
9

25
7
18

2
1
11

-

4

2
2
-

1

l

6
6

1
1

10
2

6

13

43

13

38
13
25

28

3
3

1

6

1

8

37
24
3
9

_
-

7
7

4
4
-

-

6
6
-

1

_
-

15

15

3

8
4

13

-

2
1

-

12

3
10

-

6

12

2

6

-

3

17

-

4

1
3

2

8

2

11

7
6
8
8

2

2

6
3

-

13
11
2
2

2

2

2
1
1
1

2
2

-

2

A

28
5
3

6
12
12

15
13

7

24

20

7

6
1

28

2
2

1
-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

1

9
9
-

1
1

6
2

1

79
42
37
9
-

4

2
2

_
-

4
4
-

2
2

-

_
-

2

4

-

_
-

1

2
2

1
1

4
4

-

-

-

1

33
17
16

22
8

44
3
41
16
3
4

51
4
47
16
-

52
44
14

89
43
46

33
18
15

1

3

2
2

2

14
3

2
15

2

6
6

-

2

72
5
67
55

14
14
14

4

2
3

5

_
-

13
13
-

-

-

2

2
2

-

1
14

2
12
12

3

10
5
5

2

8

1

-

1

-

-

-

12

-

-

12

-

-

12

12

3

2

12

12

1

6

-

2

2-

1
8

g

1

-

-

1

-

-

2
2

3

2

2

-

_

1

_
-

-

1

_
-

-

-

_
-

p

2
1

-

8
8
8
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1
-

-

-

2

1
9

3

9

5
3

28
20
1
6

2

8

2
1
1

6
11
10

-

-

2
1

4

6

_

4
-

3

11

30

6

5

_

«
.

17

2

3

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, J a n u a r y 1951
other public utilities.
U. S. DEP A R T M E N T OF LABOR
B u r e a u of Labor Statistics

1

2

1

1

1
-

6,

Table 1 . — OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - C o ntinued
(Average w e ekly e arnings l / a n d w e e k l y scheduled hours for selected occupations b y industry division)

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and r e a l estate.




7,

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

See footnotes at e n d of table.
*
Transportation (excluding r a i l r o a d s ) , communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and r e a l estate.




8,

Table 1 . — OFFICE OCCU P A T I O N S - Continued
(Average w e e k l y earnings 1 / a nd w e e k l y scheduled hours for selected occupations b y industry division)

Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
scheduled
hours

Weekly
earnings

Number of workers recjeiving straight-time weekly earnings of $
$
$
$■
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00
and
and
over
under
27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57,50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75..PP 80.00

Women - Continued
Duplicating-machine operators ................

17

40.0

$40.00

_

_

•
>

2

4

3

3

2

3

Key-punch operators
Manufacturing....................... .
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ......................
Public utilities * ....................
Finance * * ............ ...............

88
28
60
10
24

40.0
40.5
40.0
41.5
39.5

44.00
45756
43.00
40.50
42.50

-

-

2
2
2

2
2
1

4
4
1
1

13
7
6
6
-

14
2
12
1
8

18
4
14
4

11
3
8
1
4

9
4
5
2

-

3
2

-

33
1
32
7
2
3
13
7

57
10
47
13
14
9
7
4

66
11
55
17
3
11
20
4

Office girls.............. ...... ...........
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ............ ......... .

96
91

40.0
40.0
*0 C
3

33.00
33.00

-

7
7
7

62
58
]
L

13
13
2

Secretaries .................................
Manufacturing .................... .......
Nonmanufacturing •••••...... •••••••••••••••
Public utilities * ....................
Wholesale trade .......................
Retail trade ................... ......
Finance ** ............................
Services ..............................

580
129
451
92
135
45
100
79

40.0
40.5
40.0
40.5
40.5
40.0
39.5
39.0

53.50
55.50
53.50
53.50
58.00
49.00
50.00
51.50

-

-

-

-

Switchboard operators.............. .........
Manufacturing.......................... ••
Nonmanufacturing...................
Public utilities * ....................
Wholesale trade .......................
Retail trade ..........................
Finance ** ............................
Services ............................. .

1,498
397
1,101
152
439
168
224
118

40.0
40.5
40.0
40.5
40.0
41.0
39.5
40.0

45.50
46700
45.50
48.50
46.50
44.00
43.50
43.50

34

Stenographers, general ..................... ..
Manufacturing............................
Nonmanufacturing.........................
Public utilities * .......... ......... .
Wholesale tra d e ........ ...............
Retail trade ....................... .
Finance ** ............................
Services ..............................

40.0
42.0
40.0
42.0
43.0
40.5
41.0
39.5
45.0

39.50
44.50
38.50
49.50
44.00
38.00
40.00
34.00

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication,and other p ublic utilities. •
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




4
4
2

5
5
2

2
2
2

19
6
13
3
4
1
2
3

25

-

3
3
3

-

12
12
12

-

22
1
21
5
16

34
2
32
24
8
-

38'
1
37
1
2
12
15
7

_

44.50

233
42
191
15
15
74
29
58

2
2

6

3

24
24
17
7

43
43
1
29
12
1

11
3
8
1
7

153
44
109
7
26
19
48
9

25
6
2
3
12
2
227
61
166

19
36
40
31
40

247

W
161
12
41
40
35
33

3 ___ 4,
39
7
32
3
10
10
9

25
5
20
2
8
4
4
2

10
5
5
1
2

3
3
-

2
2

-

-

-

*
“

-

-

-

-

-

-

95
18
77
10
17
7
15
28

53
12
41
3
10
4
11
13

43
20
23
1
14
4
4
-

37
5
16
1
8
7

65

24

21
44
11
14
6
13
-

5
19
1
18
—

“

179
51
128
18
56
27
17
10

179
31
148
36
76
15
19
2

11

2

2

2

1

25
21
4
1
1
2

14
2
12
6
2
3
1

4
1
3
1
1
1

7
2
5
5
-

3
-

-

-

*
-

“
“

—

—

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

27
4
23
2
18
3
-

26
14
12
8
4
-

25
4
21
1
17
1
2

3
3
2
1
-

16
16
4
12
—

1
1
1

1
1
1
“

“

—

—

-

•—

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

37
15
22
8
2
1
4
7
22
13
9
8
1
—

•
—

4
4
1

-

-

_

270
66
204
26
122
8
38
10

60
16
44
13
24
7

51

14

-

—
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'-

-

“

-

-

“
-

9.

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
scheduled
hours •

Weekly
earnings

267
73
194
10
102
30
37
15

40.5
41.0
40.0
43.0
39.5
43.0
39.5
37.5

$41.50
41.50
41.00
48.00
43.00
41.00
36.50

100
33
67

40.0
40.5
40.0
40.0
39.5

earnings of $
$
1--$
*
$
1—
1
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1—
$
65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00
25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 4Q.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00
and
and
under
30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 5715° 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 7°t00 72.50 75.00 80.00 over
27.50

42.50
44.00
42.00
40.50
44.00

Women - Continued
Switchboard operator-receptionists ...........
Manufacturing ......................... .
Nonmanufacturing.........................
Public utilities * ....................
Wholesale trade .......................
Retail trade ..........................
Finance # # ..... ......................

Transcribing-machine operators, general ......
Manufacturing ................ ...........
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ......................
Finance ** ............................

/O
C
u

nn

Typists, class A ............................
Manufacturing......................... .
Nonmanufacturing.........................
Public utilities * ....................
Wholesale trade .......................
Retail trade ............ .............
Finance ** ............ ...... .........
Services .......................... .

520
63
457
70
94
85
154
54

40.5
41.5
40.5
42.0
39.5
42.5
39.0
39.5

41.50
43.00
41.50
47.00
45.00
37.50
39.50
39.50

Typists, class 6 ................... .
Manufacturing...........................
Nonmanufacturing.................. .

560
104
456
<O
c
180
62
141
47

40.5
40.0
40.5
41.0
40.5
41.0
39.5
40.5

38.50
40.50
38.50
43.00
39.00
39.00
37.00
37.00

Wholesale trade .......................
Retail trade ..........................
Finance * * ...... .....................
Services.............................

1/ Excludes premium pay for overtime.
2/ Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
*# Finance, insurance, and real estate.
949801 0 —51----2




-

-

6
6
6

56
6
50
24
6
14
6

19
13
6
1
3

6
6
2

2

35
16
19
1
12
4

26
9
17
10
5

2

37
10
27
20
1

19
4
15
2
4

-

2
2

-

-

2
-

-

-

l
l

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

23
1
22
2
7
10
*
5

55
22
33
26
1
6

14
7
7
/
H
1

14
1
13
5
8
-

30
5
25
2
18
4
1

1
1
1
-

8
2
6

9
5
4

5
4
1

2

4

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

1

-

—

5
4
1
1

54
2
52
7
12
15
15
3

81
81
6
41
19
15

103
10
93
9
16
4
49
15

92
8
84
8
14
11
44
7

59
23
36
4
8
24

49
4
45
4
24
5
3
9

19
2
17
4
10
1
2

7
2
5
3
2
-

13
2
11
9
2

20
6
14
8
6
*
■
*

_
-

12
12

22
22

131
131

60
11
49
10
24
2

47
2
45
/
32
9
-

1
1

-

50
9
56
16

118
43
75
2
38
8
17
10

8
6
2

8
4
5
5

81
23
58
5
6
18
26
3

3
1
2
2

12
-

77
17
60
*
3
9
12
27
9

1
1

-

-

_
-

-

—

9
4

-

11
11
1
10
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

—

-

-

_

-

7
7
7
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-■
-

-

“

-

_

-

”

-

10,

Tab l e 2 .— PROFESSIONAL A N D TECHN I C A L OCCUPATIONS
(Average earnings l / and w e e k l y scheduled hours for selected occupations h y Industry division)

Sex, occupation, and
industry division

Average
NumlJer of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of $
$
$
$
*
$
$
$
*
*
*
1
*
*
$
$
$
$
*
$
*
$
$
Number Weekly
Hourly Weekly Under 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00
sched­
of
earn­ earn­ $
workers uled
ings
ings
1*5.00
hours
47.50 50.00 52.50 ??.oo 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 55.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00

Men
Draftsmen, chief ................

*3
*

40.5

Draftsmen 2 / ................. .
Manufacturing ....... .........

293
86

40.5

Draftsmen, Junior 2 / ....... •••••
Manufacturing......... ......
Tracers .................... .

39,0

83

40.5
43.0

39

$2.69 *109.00

2.08
1.69
1.65
1.57

1

1

81.00
68.50

k

67.00
67.50

m

2

3

1

2

-

ko

40.0

1.43

57.00

_

18

41.0

1.40 - 57.50

2

2
-

1

7

-

-

-

5

6

3

k

8

15

3

2

3*
*
2

22

32

8

6

10

5

18

-

2

2

k

11

3
3

1
1

9

2

2

2

3

_

_

9

3
2

-

2

12

52
30

13
8

12

7

2

1

Ik

-

8

2

18
8

1
12
1— 5

5

11
--- S
T

-

11

12

3

6
-

2
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
30
6

16
_

2
2

-

-

4

-

-

_

_

_

Women
Nurses. Industrial (registered) ...

_

_

1

2

1

2

l/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work,
2/ Includes data for Industry divisions not shorn separately.

Table 3.--MAINTENANCE AND POWER PLANT OCCUPATIONS
(Average hourly earnings 1/ for men in selected occupations hy industry division)

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of Occupation and industry division

Number Average *0.75 *0.80 *0.85 *0.90 *0.95 *1.00 * 1.05 * 1.10 *1.15 *1.20 *1.25 *1.30 * 1.35 *1.40 * 1.45 *1.50 *1.55 * 1.60 *1.65 * 1.70 *1.75 * 1.60 *1.35 * 1.90 * 1.95 $2.00
and
of
hourly
and
workers earnings undsr
over
.80

Carpenters, maintenance .•••••••••••••••••
.... ...
t . i i y 9 / ....
Ti‘ a 1 1 t n H . U a *
>iK14
Retail trade ••••,,... ..,,,,....
no

Electricians, maintenance..... ...... .
U a n n f n o
.............
IffA vuvim r i i 1 a + n *
*v
9/
trflll+foa *

—

103
&L
12
*
TO
15
98
68

*1.64
1.54
1 11
x.77
1 (U
X.70
1.94
1.64

30

.90

.95

1.00

-

_

_

1.75

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), coomunloation, and other public utilities,
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1.30

1.35

1.40

-

-

-

2

-

_

1

1.45

-

-

2

_

-

-

1

2

1.75
k

1.80 1.35 1.90

1.95

2
2

1
1

-

1

-

-

3

3
3

2
2

18
18

13

10

7

7
1

28
27
1

6

3

5

6

*
j

*

17
17

2

1
*
k

12
1
1

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U, S. DEPARTMENT OF IABGR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

1?
10

9

7
1

2.00

1

3

2

1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70

12
1
11
a
/
6

18
18

1

1.62
JL.70

17
xf

.85

10

7
•

3
_

3
2
1
1

j

13
6

_

2

7

1
1
1

6

.

l
*
1
V

11,

Table 3 •— MAI N T E N A N C E A N D POWER PLANT OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average h o u r l y earnings l / for n » n in selected occupations b y industry division)

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of
Number Average $0.75 $0.80 $0.85 $0.90 $0.95 $1.00 $1.05 $ 1.10 $1.15 $ 1.20 $ 1.25 $1.30 $ 1.35 $l.lf0 $1.45 $1.50 $1.55 $1.60 $1.65 $1.70 $ 1.75 $1.80 $ 1.85 $1.90 $1.95 < p no
t
of
hourly
and
and
workers earnings under
.80 .85 .90 .95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1 A 5 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 over

Occupation and industry division

Engineers, stationary ..................
ManufacturJpg
Nonmanufacturing 2/ .................
Services ....... .......... ......

216
15
*2
6f
*
Il
ff

$ 1.63
1.70
1.33

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2

Firemen, stationary boiler ........ .
Manufacturing ...........•••••••••••••
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ........... .
Services ...........................

71
Si
29
12

1.42
0 9
1.33
X.Olf

1
1
X

-

-

2
2
2

-

Helpers, trades, maintenance ...........

335

1.34

2

6

Machinists, maintenance ••••••••••••••••••
Mannfacturing rfT*Tt«r**TTT*»#T»*»***#*
Nonmamife-cturln^ ..........T,f,Ttl,,.it

135
1.67
121 — itls—
I4
I.
1.68

Maintenance men, general utility.......
Manufacturing .......................
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ...................
Services........................

202
52
18

1.60
1.54
1.29

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) 2/ ...
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .................................. ...............
Public utilities * .................................. ..

282
261
2lf5

1.62
1.62

Mechanics, maintenance 2 / ..........................................
Manufacturing ••••••••••........................................

115
107

1.61
1.60

29
11
18
10

1.65
1.50
1.74
1.88

38

1.74

2

1M

2

3

k

3

1

17

tk

16

2
2
1

6
_
6
x

3
3

7
7

7

57

5

2
2

3
3

3
3

k
k

1
1

6
6
6

_

1
_
1
x

_
_

2
2
_

1

10

18

8

28

17

7

6
l
j
.
2
1

6

k

56
-

6

5
1

3
3

_

1
_
1
x

6
6
.

2k
2k
.

80

57

2

6
l
j
.
2
2

3k

.
_

5
--- IT
j
1
1
-

5$
l

2f
l
2f
1

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

11
-

_
_

.
.

_

_
.

_
_

_
_

11

1

'
-

12
12

*

Painters, maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing •••••••••••••••................. ..
Nonmanufacturing 2/ .............
Retail trade .................. .
Sheet-metalworkers, maintenance ..... .

.

150

1.59

27
7
--- 1 — air
■
a
x
j

-

_

-

-

1
_
1
1

2

7

_

_

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

7
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

• “

_

1.60

-

7

k
3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

2
1
1

-

19

I
f
2
2
2

30
27
3
3

12
12

2
2

-

-

-

-

58
39
19
-

k

k2
ko
ko

2k
12
12

T
l
*
.

20
16
16

10
10

2

1/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
2/ Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




58

18
18“

7
7

_

3
2
1
1

3
2
1
-

-

1
-

1
1
2

IQ
-•
*7

If
l
66
I f ~ “S3~
l
I8
f
Ik

6k
6k

7
x

18
18
-

-

2

2

5

2

2

15
If
l
1
-

20
17
3
-

17
13
I
f
-

_
-

_

11
11
11

-

1
1
x

-

-

-

96
-

— w

06
7°

6
6~

9
9

52
52

“

-

8
5
3

1
1

1

3

1

_

i
f

7

7
1

1

-

-

1
-

8

.

1
-

3
1

i
f

10

1
1

_
.

16

1
1
1

_

6
-

-

.

6
-

_

1
1
x

2
2

3
3
5

-

_

-

-

5
5
2

12

Tabla 1*.— CUSTODIAL, W A R E H O U S I N G A N D S H I P P I N G OCCUPATIONS
(Average hou r l y earnings 1 / far selected occupations 2 / b y industry division)

lumber of workers receiving straight-time horn?ly earnings of !
Occupation and industry division

Crane operators, electric bridge (under 20 tons) ...
Guards ..................... .......... ...... .
Manufacturing ............... ....... ....... ..

55
55
6k
kl
IT

Janitors, porters and cleaners (men) •••••.......
Manufacturing............... ................
Nopmanufaoturing ................. ......... .
'ihlt* n-H14f-lAa *
DY'-s
UViMan la
TA+B11 + ' A
}
Tn A
T-truinro **
f*AO
Janitors, porters and cleaners (women) 3/ ........
Nonmanufacturing 3/ ............. .7.•••••••••••
1 4va £
*» *
Order fillers......••••••••••••......... .
Manufacturing ...................................
Nonmanufact, v
,*ing ^ / ..........................__
.
Wholesale trade ..............................
Retail trade f................................
Packers .......... .••.......... ..... .
Manufacturing ........ ......... .
Nonmanufacturing 3J -*.*--.*********•-»*•--»**•*Wholesale trade .................... .
Retail trade .................................

Average
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

1,200

387
813
tr J
XVv
AA
13^
371
68
iqp

187
168
13
25
913

216
697
579
87
288
66

222
125
81

Receiving clerks ........................ .
Manufacturing ............... ................
Nonmanufacturing 3 / ....... ..... •••••••••••••••
Wholesale trade ..............................
Retail trade .................................

167

Shipping clerks ••••.•••••••••........ ••••••.....
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing 3/ ....* **«.............. .......
Wholesale trade ..............................
Retail trade

228
95
133
89
37

18
l*
i9
66

80

Under
$0.75

.80

.85

.90

$

.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20

*
*
*
*
*
*
$
*
$
$
*
$
$
l.4o 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00
and
1.30 1.35 1.40 1.^5 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 over

■$

$

1.15

1.25

l
*
k

8
8

l*
l
l*
l

3

2
2

28
28

1.24
1.33
.99
115

.89
-----^ 8

1
1

115
98
k
iq

2

95
8
87

nq
28
91

C
ji
op
3*
-

K
2

0
3

17
l

3

k6

27

10

in

33
78

ni
l

16
17
Q
22

13
13
13

18
18
6

5

20
_

62
0
3

95
q
3

20
32

2k

2
«
9

-

k
16
16

2

19
19
ll
8
20
20
16

k

31
2
29
16
13
22
22
6
16

k
-

_

-

_

-

_

_

1.38

_
_
_

1

60
7
f

8 118
k
17
7
ET 116 ~~k~ ~~T~ 9

£

1.23
1.30
1*21
1.21*
1.00

1.24

91
38
53
8
k

O

i
X
X

•97

1.38
1.38
1.42

6k 105 105
2k
2
10

1

p

I

.99
1.13
.92
l in
1 01
!86
.92
.1
8*

I.3I
*
1.29
1.3^
1M
I .26

2

2

0

0)1

1.13
1.33
1.07
1.03
1 .07

n
6
«
j

2

1

1

-

_

58

1*0

29

13
15
*
27

k

90

28
28

53

_

1
1

3
3

T9
37
12
*
39
3

*5
*

33
1
*

30

21
6
15
1
l*
l

17
2
15
12

18
2
16
1
15

3

3

26
26
16
10

7

3
l

22
8

15
9

7
2

3

99
8
91
88
3

5
1
*
2
2
2

5
5

5

2

_

2
2

77
13

49
1
*

3

3

_

29

18
11

2
1

7

_

6
6

_

_
_

_

3

_

_

_
_

_

2
2

_
_
_

2
«
.
2
2

1
l
_

3

_

_
_

_

•
.

k

.
.
.

k

s
q
J

3

J

7

38
21*
2
6
6
6

1
*
2
2
2

35
2
33
30
3

288
88
200
200

33
18
15
l*
l
l

17
1
16

7
3
1
*
1
*

3

20

39

5
31*
22
«.

_

2

28
26
2

_

_

2

10
*

6

2*
1

15
25

_

6

6

16

1

18
18

6

3

9

5

_

28

Ik

2

lk __3_
2
12
12
.

9
9
8

_

26

6

18
18
_

-

_

6

17

17

28
_
28

12
_
12
12

6 __5J
5
.
6

17
1
16

10
5
5
2

lk

57

1*7
10
10

11
2
9
1
*
5

3

3
-

8

7

18
18

7
5

25

k

_

3
1
1

2
2

18

30
22
8

23

20

29
18
11

25
10

1*8
25

11
11

3

1
2

37
2*
1
Q
7
6

Q
26

36
15
21

2

_

67 106
35 30
32 76

kl

iq
■0
*

13
13

1
_

2
2

7
5
2
q
j

*
j

2
2

81
£
O
k
27
10
oh
3*
*■

1
*
— r

.

_

1S 5—

1*10

$

*

1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35

tlM
—

See footnotes at end of table.
*
T r a n s portation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities
** finance, insurance, and r e a l estate.




*
*
$
$
$
$
%
$
0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0 .9 5 1.00 1.05 i .m

-

_

13
13

1
1

20
20

_
_

2
.

2

l
1
.

_

20
10
10
3

.
•

.

2
2

.
_

1 __3-^
1
3
-

-

•
•

-

-

-

3

_

16
16
12
1
*

1

-

«

•

•

.

i
*
1
3
3

1
1
•

_

_
_

3
l

2
2
_

2
2

.

.

2
2
2
.

-

.

.

.

2
-

2
2
*

2
2
2

-

12
.

.
•
_
.

.

-

12
12
.
13
1

12
32
_

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT Of IABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

13

Table 4 . ~ C U S T O D I A L , WAREHOUSING AND SHIPPING OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average h o u r l y e arnings l / for selected occupations 2 / b y industry division)

lumber of workers receiving straight-time hourly earning
r
Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
Under
$0.75

0.75
.80

Shipping-and-receiving clerks .....................
Manufacturing.......... *.....................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ...........................
Wholesale trade........ ....................
Retail trade ...............................

144

64
80
42
18

$1.28
1.24
1.31
1.16
1.37

Stock handlers and truckers, h a n d ............. .....
Manufacturing.................................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ..... ......................
Public utilities * ....... ..................
Wholesale trade ............................
Retail trade ...............................

1,830
335

Truck drivers, light (under l r tons) ...............
i
Manufacturing.................................
Nonmanufacturing 2 J ...........................
Public utilities * .........................
Wholesale trade ............................
Retail trade .............................. .

144
385
163
185 .

1.19
1.22
1.20
1.13

Truck drivers, medium
to and including 4 tons) ...
Manufacturing.................................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ...........................
Public utilities * .........................
Wholesale trade .......... ..................

820
255
565
375
179

Truckers, power (fork.lift) ............ ..........
Manufacturing.................................
Nonmanufacturing 3 / ............................
Public utilities * .........................
Wholesale trade ............................

138
79
59
32
26

-

.90

-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

403
453

-

3

11

10
23

49
11
38
4
28
6

886
142

1.20

1.26

8

4

34

12

11

-

-

-

-

-

1,495
639

m

Watchmen........................................
Manufacturing.................................
Nonmanufacturing 2 J .......... .................
Retail trade ...............................

204

69
120
84
13

8

3

13
2
11

47
14
33

-

4

34

12

11

-

-

-

12

8

4

4
30

7
4

1.28
1.34
1.25
1.27
1.20

-

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

1.24
1.20
1.30
1.26
1.35

-

1.36
1.34

_
-

1.18
1.10
1.28
1.06

_

8

11

-

2

8

10
10

6

3

-

—

—

-

1/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
2/ Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
2 ] Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.

-

-

4
2
2

_
-

-

34
22
12
12

26

26
24
1

143
6
137
40
- 62
20
35

35
4
31
6
3
22

169
2
167
28
98

19
8
11

31

36
11
25
14
4

34
4
30
10

3

-

3
1
2

11
10
1

31

41

6
6 —

6
r

-

%

%

%

$

%

1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00

3

1

2

254
4
250
174
- 28
48
25

15
1

75

100

-

62

12

12

14

75
2
70

38
26
12

4

20
8
12
12

12

12

-

-

-

-

23
23

-

-

_

13
12
11
1

4
4

‘ 1

1

8

2

9

6
2
2

2
-

6

—

3
3

2
2

24
23
1
1

_

316
28
288
267
10
11

223
46
177
152

-

-

5
4
1

1

-

12

2

_

2

-

-

-

_

2

-

12

-

18

5

-

52
12

1

-

2
27

-

16

3

-“ TT

8
3

44

8

- - 6"— 6
"

89 427
23 131
66 296
2 202
30
64
30
34
123
15
108

2

14
l2~
2

-

-

2

$

and
.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 over

1.21
1.23
1.21
1.22
1.17
1.22

Truckers, power (other than fork-lift) 3/ ..........
Manufacturing.................. ..............




.85

3

of -

$
$
$
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50

-

131 303
58
40
73 263
57
3
2
88
14 172
21
13
8

6

16

6
3

16

-

8

-

-

18

36
3

-

103
22
81
41
- 40

47
32
15

74
74

-

16
10
6
5

30
18
12

3
3

2

4

-

2

4

12

-

2

4

-

5
5

7
7

8
8

89
45

28
23
5
4

H
13
1

1

21
17
4

48

1
1

3

40
1
39

-

-

-

-

35
15
20

17
17

34
12
22
20
2

2

3

3

2

-

_

7
2

25

57
20
37
37

2

38
12
26
1

-

-

285
13
272
264
6

-

10
2
8

-

-

-

12

-

_
-

-

6

9

-

48

3

2

6
2

2

-

16

-

11
11

u ,
CHARACTERISTIC INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS
(Average earnings in selected occupations in manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries)

Table 5.~MACHINERY INDUSTRIES 1/

Number
of
workers

Occupation 2/

•

Average
hourly
earnings

1.05
and
under

2/

Assemblers, class A .........................
Assemblers, class B .......... .............
Drill-press operators, single- and multiplespindle, class B ........................
Electricians, maintenance 11___ _ t 11.,
Engine-lathe operators, class B .............
Janitors ..................................
Machinists, production....... ............. <
Mi 1lingr«?naehine operators, olaas A
Milling-machine operators, class B ..........
Truckers, hand
Welders, hand, olaas A

74
107
43
12
32
33
102
38
24
20
79

... ..... rtt.T.TtTttf

i

1.10

1.10

1,15

-

l

-

$
1.15

1.20

1,20 1 ,2 ? ; ,?0
L

-

$1.68
1.43
1.37
1.58 ■
1.44
1.17
1.67
1.76
1.42
1.23
1.77

_
-

-

i
1.25

rorkeics receiviilg St]raighl,-timi hom*ly e«irninfif of
llumber of \
*
i
i
4 1 4
f $ 5 • 1 1 1
♦ 1 1 4 $
1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2.20 2.25
and
over
1,40 1,45 1 .J0 1,55 1,60 1,6? 1,70 1.75 1,80 1,85 1,90 1,95 2t00 2,05 2r10 2,15 2t20 2,25
1,35

4

15

17
3

2
57

10

9

- ' 17

l

3

7
Q
10

5
1
4

10

6

i
J
L
3

-

1

_
25

5

2
3

4

7
-

3
-

15
1

1

2
1

6
1

5
-

3
-

6
£

1
2

1

.
.

X

10

12

8

6
_

1

0

0

-

-

2

_

1
-

_

—

3
✓

*
J
12
3

52

19
/
*•
*

5

3
10
1

1

3

1

17

28

2

1

*
J

6
18

2

5
1

1
3

3

j

JL

£

1

J

1

-

1/ The study covered establishments with more than 20 workers in nonelectrical machinery industries (Group 35) as defined in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual (1945 edition) prepared by the Bureau
of the Budget; machine-tool-accessory establishments with more than 7 workers were scheduled. Of the estimated 15 establishments and 2,686 workers in these industries, 11 establishments with 2,458 workers were
actually studied.
2/ Data limited to men workers.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.

Occupation and sex

Men
Extractor operators .....................
Firemen, stationary boiler •..••••••••••••••
Washers, machine ....................... .
Women
Clerks, retail receiving ••••••••••••••.••••
Finishers, flatwork, machine ..............
Identifiers ......................................... • • • • •
Markers, total ........ • • • • .......................• • • •
T i m e ........ ................ ...................... .
Incentive....... ................ .
Pressers, machine, shirt, t o t a l ........ • • • • • »
T i m e ....................................................
Incentive................................

Number
of
workers

34
6
31

$0.87
1.04
1.07

37
230
50
73
38
35
124
71
53

.70
.66
.72
.78
.71

47

0

and
under
.45

.50

$0.50

$0,55

$0.60

.55

.60

. .65

-

.-

-

-

-

1

4

-

-

-

-

3
13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

88
8
3
3

.8 6

-

-

-

-

-

.72

-

-

-

-

.68

-

-

-

-

18
18

.77

-

-

-

-

-

1

5

9

1/ The study covered power laundries employing more than 20 workers.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.




10.4 0 1 $0.45'

-

.66

Numher of workers r
<
$0.30 1 $0.85
$0.70
$0.75
CD

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

1

Table 6.— POWER LAUNDRIES 1/

-

-

$0.65
.70

.80

.85 .

7
59
17
15
13
2
47
33
14
15

7
1

6

-

-

-

*75

—

—

5
50
4
16
10
6
15
7
8

3
11
7
14
7
7
21
6
15

14

2

-

10
9
8
4
3
1
12
3
9
1

straight-time he>urlv ea:mines 0: $1.10
$a..oo 41.05
$0.90
$0.95

1.10

$1.15

$1.20

$1.25

$1.30

•90

.95

1.00

1.05

9
2

4
—
3

6
-

2
3
7

“
3

1
8

6

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

-

—

—

”

—

—

5
4
2
2
1

-

-

-

-

-

—

—

—

3

1

-

1

— •

-

-

-

-

—

—

•

2

1
1

3

1

-

1

-

—

6

-

-

-

-

—

“

-

-

-

-

-

—

—

•

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
9
4
4

1

-

1
2
-

1 .11 -

J*20_

_

Am L
Z

3..20

.

1.25

_

“

1
2
-

"1

Of the estimated 17 establishments and 1,617 workers in this industry, 12 establishments with 1,311 workers were actually studied,
Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

15.

Table 7.— AUT C REPAIR SHOPS 1 /

of

Occupation 2/

workers

172
53
119
69
43

17
5

$1.81
1.55
1.93

1.18

16

4

1.05
1.39
1.77

16

4
4

12

7
4
4

11
3
3

10

4

8
15
15

.94
1.32

3
3

14

10

21
4
4

15
3

16
3

3
7
33
4

3
23

9
4
5

3

3
15

3

3

10

44
4

3

22

2

4

-

-

2

4

26

25

3
-

4

7
3
4

3

-

12
-

12

-

-

4

9

6

53

-

4

3

53

26

4

115

-

-

-

1/ The study covered establishments with more than 4 workers in general automobile repair shops (Group 7538) and motor vehicle dealer establishments, new and used cars (Group 551) as defined in the Standard
Industrial Classification Manual (1949 edition) prepared by the Bureau of the Budget. Of the estimated 56 establishments and 2,845 workers in these industries, 16 establishments with 922 workers were actually
studied*
2/ Data limited to men workers.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.




Table

8 .— RAILROADS

(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected office occupations and average hourly earnings 2/
for selected maintenance, custodial and warehousing occupations)

Occupation and sex

Number of
workers

Average
Weekly
Weekly
scheduled
earnings l/
hours

Occupation 2/

Number of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings 2/

Office
Maintenance
Men
Clerks, accounting........................
Clerks, pay roll ..........................
Office boys -........... ............... .
.
Stenographers, general....... ............

51
27
28
30

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

$66.50
67.00
46.50
60.00

13
20
15
66

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

57.50
64.00
66.50
60.00

Women
Calculating-machine operators (Comptometer
type) .................................
Clerks, accounting ........................
Secretaries ..............................
Stenographers, general ....................

93
126
433
377
61
56
89

$1.63
1.74
1.43
1.74
1.69
1.74
1.23

38
11
67

1.22
1.22
1.38

Custodial and Warehousing

l/ Excludes premium pay for overtime.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
3/ Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated

2/

Carpenters, maintenance ....................
Electricians, maintenance ..................
Helpers, trades, maintenance .......... .
Machinists, maintenance ...................
Painters, maintenance ................ .
Pipe fitters, maintenance .................
Track laborers.............. .............

Janitors, porters and cleaners (men) ......
Janitors, porters and cleaners (women) ....
Stock handlers and truckers, h a n d .... .....

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

-

1

1.06

15
4
4

15
15

8

IvO

26

459
92
64
28

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of $
&
1— 1
5
$
$
s?
v
s?
$
V
'
$
1 --$
$
$
55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00
0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50
and
and
under
over
.80
^90 *22 1.00 -.05 1.10 iiiS. 1.20 1.25 1 m 1m 1.40 I A .1.50 1*55. 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 2* 22 .2*21 2.00
30 21
sS
.-JL.,

1

Body repairmen, metal .............
Time .................................
Incentive ............ ............
Greasers ...................................
Time .................................
Incentive .........................
Mechanics, automotive, class A
Washers, automobile ................
Time .................................
Incentive ....................... .

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

1H 1 1
00

Number

16,

U IO WG SC L S
N N AE A E
(Mnimumwage rates and m um straight-time hours per week agreed upon through collective bargaining between employers
i
axim
and trade unions. Rates and hours are those in effect in January 1951.)
Table 9 .—B K R S
A E IE

Classification
Bread and cake - Hand shops:
Foremen .................. ....... .....................
Dough mixers, ovenmen •••.••••••••••••••••••
Bench hands •••••............ .
Bread and cake - Msichine shops::
Foremen
Dough mixers, spongers, ovenmen •••••••••••»
Bench hands, machine operators •••••••••••••
Hebrew baking - cake and pastry:
Fftrernen
Dough mixers, spongers, ovenmen ••• •• ........
Bench hands, machine operators • ••••............
Crackers and cookies:
Agreement A:
Machine captains ............... •••••••••••*••
Head sponge and sweet mixers
Bakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peelers ....................... ............. •••••••••
Mixers, rollermen, drawmen .................. .
Mixers1 helpers
Stackers ................................
General helpers (men) ••••.••••••••••••».
Packing and icing departments:
Icing mixers ............. .
Wrapping-machine set-up men ••••••••»•
Floormen •••••••••••••••••»•••..........
W en employees:
om
Working supervisors
Sponge packers ••••••••••••.•••••••
Bundlers, machine operators,
hand bundlers, scalers,
and weighers • •• •• •• •• •• •• •. ....... .
Agreement B:
Baking department:
Machinemen, sponge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Machinemen, sweet • •.•••••••••••••••••
Peelers, ovenmen, sponge •
Ovenmen (sweet), sponge
reliefmen
Dough mixers, rollermen ••••••••»••.••
Dough feeders •••••••••••••.............
Mixers1 helpers ..................................
Sponge ovenmen* s helpers •«•••••••••••
Pan greasers
........




Table 11.—R TA G O E IE
E IL R C R S

Table 9 .—B K R S - Continued
A E IE
Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

#1.540
1.450
1.400

48
48
48

1.540
1.450
1.400

40
40
40

1.540
1.450

40
40
40

1.400
1.385
1.335
1.305
1.335
1.285
1.190
1.190
1.190

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

1.285
1.235
1.140

40
40
40

1.030
1.035

40
40

1.010

Classification
Crackers and cookies - Continued:
Agreement B - Continued:
Icing room:
Machinemenj jelly, cream and
icing mixers ............. •••••••••••».»
Jelly, cream and icing
mixers* helpers ••••••••••••••••••••
Packing department:
Wrapping and labeling
machinemen
Wrapping and labeling machine
helpers •«•••••••............................
General helpers (women):
Next two months ................... ..........
2nd three months........................ .
3rd three months........
Thereafter ............................. .
General helpers (men):

40

1.410
1.390
1.350

40
40
40

1.330
1.280
1.210
1.280
1.170
1.150

40
40
40
40
40
40

3rd three months................. .

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

#1.280

40

1.130

40

1.350

40

1.180

40

.820
.860
.900
.940
.980

40
40
40
40
40

.930
.980
1.020
1.060
1.110

40
40
40
40
40

Carpenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Assistant store managers •••••••••••••••••••••
Head clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clerks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apprentice clerks:
1st three months ....................................... .
2nd three months......................... ......... ..
2nd six months •••••••••............. .............. .
3rd six months • •••.....................................
4th six months .......................... ••••••••••••

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

#1.51
1*485
1.435

48
48
48

.95
1.01
1.07
1.14
1.22

48
48
48
48
48

Table 12.—L C L T A SIT O E A IN E P O E S
OA R N
P R T G ML Y E

Classification
Bus and trolley coach operators:
1st three months •••••••••••••••........
Next nine months •••••.......•••••••••..........
3rd six months ••••••••........•••••••••••••»
4th six months ........................................ • •
After two years ............••••••••••..............

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

#1.38
1.39
1.40
1.41
1.42

51
51
51
51
51

Table 13.—MA M R E S
E T A KT

Table 10.—B IL IN C N R C IO
U D G O ST U T N

Class i f ication

Classification

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

#3.00
2.35
2.50
2.125
3.00

40
40
40
40
40
40
40

2.40

1.50

Class ification
Jfenagers (or head meat cutters) ........ ••••••••
Journeymen meat cutters •••••••••••••»•..»••»«
Apprentice meat cutters:
1st six months .......................... ••••••••••«
2nd six months
3rd six months
4th six months ..................... ••••...............
3rd year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rate;
per .
hour

Hours
per
week

#1.70
1.62

48
48

.95
1.01
1.08
1.15
1.32

48
48
48
48
48

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT |0F LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

17,

UNIO W G SCALES
N AE
Table 14. — MOTORTRUCK

DRIVERS AND HELPERS

Classification

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

11.65
1.75

40
40

1.75
1.65
2.00
1.55
1.55
2.00

40
40
40
40
40
40

Building material:
Mixer truck drivers:
Under 5 yards...............
Over 5 yards................
Sand, gravel and mortar:
1st 30 days .................
Thereafter ..................
Structural steel and iron:
1st three months .............
2nd three months .............
Thereafter ...................
Lumber dealers:
Truck drivers................
Helpers....... ......... .
Plumbing supplies:
1st year ....................
Thereafter ..................
F i s h .............................
Meat - wholesale:
1st month ......................
2nd month......................
3rd month......... ......... .
Thereafter .....................
Produce:
1st 90 d a y s .....................
90 days to one year .............
Thereafter .....................




Table 36. — MINIMUM ENTRANCE RATES FOR PLANT WORKERS l/

Table 15.~PRINTING

Building construction:
Dump trucks:
Less than 6 yards ............
6 yards or more ..............
Euclid, Koehring, lumber carriers
and concrete mixer trucks ......
Flatrack and semi-trailers......
Low-boy trucks .................
Helpers ..... ..................
Pick-up trucks .................
Tandem Euclid ..................

Continued

1.65
1.75

40
40

1.35
1.45

40
40
40

1.25
1.05

40
40

1.40

Newspapers:
Compositors, hand:
Day w o r k ...........................
Night work ............... .........
Machine operators:
Day w o r k ...........................
Night w o r k ....................... .
Photoengravers:
Day w o r k ..........................
Night w o r k ...................... .
Pressmen, web presses:
Day w o r k ...........................
Night work .........................
Stereotypers:
Day w o r k ..........................
Night work .........................

40
40

1.15
1.25

Book and job shops:
Electrotypers .........................
Press assistants and feeders:
Cylinder presses ...................
Platen presses .....................
Pressmen, cylinder ....................
Pressmen, platen ......................

40

Minimum rate (in cents)
$2,375

40

1.688
.975
2.194
2.015

40
40
40
40

2.568
2.688

36$
36f

2.568
2.688

361

2.647
2.78

37i

2.36
2.543

37£
35

2.407
2.527

37J37f

50 or under .......................... .
Over 50 and under 55 ............
55 ............................................
Over 55 and under 60 ............
60 ............................................
Over 60 and under 65 ............
65 ............................................
Over 65 and under 70 ............
70 ............................................
Over 70 and under 75 ............
75 ............................................
Over 75 and under 80 ............
80 ............................................
Over 80 and under 85 ............
85 ............................................
Over 85 and under 90 ............
90 ............................................
Over 90 and under 95 ............
95 ............................................
Over 95 and under 100 ...........
100 ..........................................
Over 100 and under 105 .........
105 ..........................................
Over 105 and under 1 1 0 .........
n o ..........................................
Over 110 and under 1 1 5 .........
n 5 ..........................................
Over 3.15 and under 1 2 0 .........
120 ..........................................
Over 120 and under 125 .........
125 ..........................................
Over 125 and under 130 .........
130 and over ..........................

37J

Table 17. — SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL PROVISIONS

Shift differential

Percent of workers on extra shifts,
all establishments ..............
1.25
1.31
1.36
1.41
1.10
1.20
1.32

40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Receiving shift differentials ....
Uniform cents (per hour) .....
Under 5 cents ............
5 cents ................ .
Over 5 and under 10 cents ..
10 cents ................
Over 10 cents ............
Receiving no differential ......

Percent of plant workers
employed on each shift
All
Machinery
manufacturing
industries 1/
3rd or
3rd or
2nd
2nd
other
other
shift
shift shift
shift
10.8

3.9

15.3

3.9

10.4
10.4
4.5
2.1
2.2

3.5
3.5
2.9

15.3
15.3

3.9
3.9

.1

2.2

1/ Includes data for industries other than those shown
separately.
2/ Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.

4

2/

workers in establishments

A ll
indus­ Manufac­ Public
tr ie s turing u t i l i t i e s *
?/

A ll establishments ................. 100.0

40
40

1.25
1.30
1.42

Percent of plant

Rate per Hours per
week
hour

Classification

5.2
.2
1.3
2 .6
.9
1.9
.3
14.0
(V )
10.5
4 .8
2 .9
.5
1.6
1.1
.8
2.2
2.5
2 .4
1.1
9.2
2.7
1.2
5.9
.4

.8
1.0
1.5
1 .4

Whole­
sale R etail Services
trade trade

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.3
.8
12.0
n .o

.9
3.5
2.0

1 .7
7 .9
26 .4
.8
14.3
8.3
19 .1
5.4
4 .7
4 .1

_
31.9
8 .9
14.3
2 .1
5.3
4 .8
2 .1
3 .6
6 .2
-

9.2
2 .4
2 .7
4 .2
16.8
14.1
5.9
1 .1
.8
2.3
2 .9
2 .2
-

33.9
2 .4
7 .9
2 1 .8
1 .9
9 .9
7. 1
.1
4 .0
-

14.3

7.3

2 0 .8

35.4

n .o

2.5
-

2.1
1.8
-

.5
2.5
1.8
2.6
20.1
-

2.8
13.6
.9
-

_

Establishments with no
established minimum .........

19.1

l/ Lowest rates formally established for hiring either men or women plant
workers, other than watchmen.
2/ Other than office workers.
2/ Excludes data for finance, insurance, and real estate.
i j Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public
utilities.

18,

Table 18 *— SCHEDULED WEEKLY HOURS
.Percent oiJ women oiTice workers employed In

Weekly hours

All establishments .............................................
Under 35 hours ........................... .................. ..
35 hours ..................................................
Over 35 and under 37^ h ou rs....... .....................
J l \ hours ............................................................
Over 37-g- and under A h ou rs.............................
O
A hours ........................... .................................
O
Over A and under A hours ...............................
C
A
A hours ................................................... .........
A
Over A and under A8 h o u rs..........
A
AS hours ................................................... .........
Over A8 hours ....................................................
Information not available .......................... .

»

All
industries
100.0
0.3
.7
2.1
A.7
78.7
1.1

6.0
2.6
2.3
1.0

Percent" of plant 1/workers employed in -

100.0
_

Public
u tilit ie s *

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance**

100.0

Manufacturing

100.0

100.0

1C0.0

3.7
1.1
5.1
79.2
A.6
.9
5. A
-

_
_
3.A
66.8
3.3
12.5
5.A
2.7
5.9

_
_
10.5
12.6
73.0
2.6
1.3
-

..
86.9

-

2.6
90.1
.3
3.8

-

9.2
3.5
.A
-

1.8

l.A
-

Services

All
industries
2/

10C.0____ _____ ^100.0
11.1
_
_
3.6
67.6
5.3
7.0
5. A
-

0.1
l.A
.8
.9
56.6
1.9
A.6
2.9
23.5
7.3
-

1.9
1.8
1.6
71.7
.A
.9
2.1
16.3
3.3
-

Public
u tilit ie s *

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

100.0

Manufacturing

100.0

100.0

___ ioo.o_ _

_
6.9

~
A0.3
2 .A
3.0
5.3
3A.A
1A.6
-

.5
20.1
13.3
28.A
5.5
29.9

_
•
-

53.9
-

A.7
27. C
9 .A
-

-

1.7
66.5
5.2
1.7
7.6
10. A
-

2.3
-

-

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table 19.~PAID HOLIDAYS

Percent of plant 1/ workers employed in -

Percent of office workers employed in Number of paid holidays

All
industries

Manufacturing

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance**

Services

All
induj^ries

1C0.0

100.0

100.0

1C0.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
77.3
21.6
1.1
%
—

99.8
.A
99.A

All establishments ............................................

100.0

Establishments providing paid holidays ...........
1 to 5 days ...................................................
6 days .................................... ......................
7 days ........................................... ................
8 days .................................. ........................
9 days .......... ......... ......................................
10 days ............................... ..........................
11 days .........................................................

96.7
.3
58.1
16.9
11.6
2.0
1.0
6.8

87.9
68.6
12.A
6.9
-

98.7
2A.7
3A.A
39.6
-'

Establishments providing no paid holidays . . . .

3.3

12.1

1.3

l/
2/
2/
*
**

100.0

Public
u t ilit ie s *

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

-

100.0
23.9
11.3
8.9
11.3
5.8 .
38.8

97.8
A.O
65.0
16.3
12.5
-

81.A
3.0
65.1
5.A
7.8
(2 0
.1

.2

-

2.2

18.6

-

-

Public
u t ilit ie s

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trr.de

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1C0.0

85.8.3
71.7
2.7
11.1
-

73.8
26.9
25.7
21.2
-

89.0
82.7
6.3
—

85.8
7 .A
78.A
-

A9*7
5.3
A1.0
2 .A
1.0
“

1A.2

26.2

11.0

1A.2

50.3

Manufacturing

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 2 0 . — PAID V A C A TIONS (FORMAL PROVISIONS)

Percent of plant 1/ workers employe5d in -

Percent of.office workers employed in Vacation policy

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance**

Services

All
industries
2/

All establishments ........................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

37.6
1.3
36.1
.2
62.4

16.5
3.5
13.0
83.5

60.2
60.2
39.8

38.0
38.0
62.0

12.1
3.3
8.8
87.9

58.8
58.8
41.2

42.9
39.1
3.8
57.1

15.0
4.9
10.0
.1
85.0

11.5
9.7
1.8
88.5

34.4
34.4
65.6

29.7
29.7
70.3

9.5
3.2
6.3
90.5

4.2
3.0
1.2
95.8

99.7
.9
36.3
.3
61.0
1.2
(3/)
.3

99.5
3.5
49.5
1.2
45.1
.2
.5

100.0
13.7
86.3
-

100.0
40.6
59.4
-

100.0
80.1
19.9
-

100.0
5.5
87.4
7.1
-

97.4
33.4
64.0
2.6

97.5
3.9
74.9
1.7
16.9
.1
2.5

99.1
8.5
82,2
3.5
4.9
.9

100.0
2.3
50.0
1.7
46.0
-

100.0
63.9
36.1
-

95.4
79.3
16.1
4.6

88.8
80.0
7.6
1.2
11.2

99.7
19.6
1.7
76.3
2.1
(2/)
.3

99.5
44.2
4.8
50.3
.2
.5

100.0
6.8
93.2
-

100.0
14.8
2.5
82.7
-

100.0
29.7
70.3
-

100.0
88.1
11.9
-

97.4
13.4
.6
83.4
2.6

97.5
51.6
S.l
37.7
.1
2.5

99.1
67.7
16.2
15.2
.9

100.0
36.3
6.5
57.2
-

100.0
36.9
1.8
61.3
-

95.4
39.7
55.7
■4.6

88.8
50.0
2.0
35.6
1.2
11.2

99.7
3.3
84.2
4.2
8.0
(2/)
.3

99.5
1.0
95.2
1.2
1.9
.2
.5

100.0
1.4
87.8
10.8
—

100.0
100.0
—

100.0
17.0
72.5
5.7
4.8
-

100.0
55.1
6.5
38.4
-

97.4
10.1
83.5
3.8
2.6

97.5
12.0
81.1
2.2
2.1
.1
2.5

99.1
1.6
92.5
2.5
2.5
.9

100.0
17.3
77.3
5.4

100.0
3.6
96.4
-

95.4
20.7
69.6
1.5
3.6
4.6

88.8
40.4
47.2
1.2
11.2

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

6 months of service
Establishments with paid vacations.........
Under 1 w e e k ..... .....................
1 week ................................
2 weeks ...............................
3 weeks ...............................
Establishments with no paid vacations......
1 year of service
Establishments with paid vacations .........
Under 1 w e e k ..........................
1 week ................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...............
2 weeks ...............................
3 weeks ...............................
Over 3 weeks ..........................
Establishments with no paid vacations ........
2 years of service
Establishments with paid vacations .........
1 week ................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks...............
2 weeks ...............................
3 weeks...............................
Over 3 weeks ............... ...........
Establishments with no paid vacations......
10 years of service
Establishments with paid vacations.........
1 w e e k ........................... .
2 weeks ...............................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ...............
3 weeks......... ......................
Over 3 weeks.......... ................
Establishments with no paid vacations ........
3J
2/
2/
*
**

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excludfhg railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

-

—

—

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, J a n u a r y 1951
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LAB O R
B u r e a u o f L a bor Statistics

Table 2 1 . — PAI D SICK LEAVE

(FORMAL PROVISIONS)

Percent of plant 1/ workers employeei in -

Percent of office workers employed in Provisions for paid sick leave

All establishments ........................
6 months of service
Establishments with formal provisions for
paid sick leave.......... ............. .
3 days .................................
A days ................................
5 days ................................
6 days ................................
7 days ................................
8 d a y s ......... .......................
1C days ........... ............ .........
12 d a y s ...................... .........
Over 20 days ..................... .....
Establishments with no formal provisions for
paid sick l eave...... ..................
1 year of service
Establishments with formal provisions for
paid sick leave .........................
3 days ................................
A days ................. ...............
5 days ................ ............... .
6 days ................................
7 days .................... .............
8 days .......................... ......
10 days ................................
12 days ................................
20 days ................... ............
Establishments with no formal provisions for
paid sick l eave....... ............... .
10 years of service
Establishments with formal provisions for
paid sick leave ..;......................
A days ...................... ..........
5 days ....... ..........................
6 days ................................
7 days .................................
8 d a y s ......... .......................
10 days ........................ ........
12 d a y s ....... ........................
15 days ................................
18 days .............................. .
20 d a y s ............ ...................
Over 20 days ...........................
Establishments with no formal provisions for
paid sick leave .........................

1/
2/
2/
*
**

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance**

Services

All
industries
2/ „

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

22.1
.1
.1
9.5
1.6
1.0
•A
2.3
6.A
.7

39.5
37.8
.5
.5
.7
-

23.0
.6
1.8
3.0
17.6
-

6.5
6.5
-

16.5
.6
.3
6.6
3.3
5.7
-

26.9
5.0
17.7
A.2

77.9

60.5

77.0

93.5

S3.5

73.1

100.0

92.3

97.0

80.1

96.8

87.1

100.0

3A.5
.3
.1
9.9
1.9
1.0
.A
8.3
8.5
2.A
1.7

A2.9
1A.9
.5
.5
26.3
.7

A6.5
.5
23.6
22 .A
-

29.8
8.5
3.A
6.3
11.6
-

19.3
1.9
.3
8.0
3.A
5.7

37.3
5.0
3.8
2A.3
A.2

.8
.8
-

13.0

5.2
3.0
2.2
-

37.7
H.l
1.7
21.9
-

12.8
6.0
3.1
3.7
-

16.6
2.1
1.1
8.8
3.1
1.5

1.9
1.9
-

65.5

57.1

53.5

70.2

80.7

62.7

99.2

87.0

9A.8

62.3

87.2

83 .A

98.1

35.A
.1
5.5
2.2

A2.9
1A.2
.5 ‘
.5
27.0
.7
•
57.1

A6.5
.5
1.8

26.7
.3
15 .A
3.3
7.7

37.3
5.0
3.8
17.7
10.8

.8
.8
-

15.2

-

29.8
8.6
3.7
3.A
12.9
1.2

7.1
3.0
2.2
1.9
-

37.7
1.7
11.6
10.3
1A.1
-

19.0
6.0
1.3
6.2
-5.A
.1

20.3
1.1
13.1
3.2
- •
2.9

53.5

70.2.

73.3

62.7

99.2

8A.8

92.9

62.3

81.0

79.7

1.0

.A
7.9
6.8
.7
.6
6.9
3.3
6A.6

19.3
3.0

21.9

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

7.7
.2
1.0
3.7
(2/)
.8
.9
1.1
(i/)

.6
A.O
3.A
(2/)
.8
.5
3.0
.3
•A

T
2.1
A .5
(2/)
.8
1.1
1.6
.5
l.A
2.A
.8

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

3.0
1.7
1.3
-

19.9
10.3
1.7
7.9
-

3.2
3.2
-

12.9
.5
1.1
6.6
3.2
1.5
-

-

1.9
1.9
98.1

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 22.— NONPRODUCTION BONUSES

Percent or o rnce workers employed in -

Type of bonus

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Percent o ' plant
i

Retail
trade

Finance**

Services

All
industries
.... 2/

Manufacturing

1 / workers employed in -

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

All establishments........................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Establishments with nonproduction bonuses 2/...
Christmas or year-end •••••••............
Profit-sharing... ...............
Other................................

54.9
42.8
14*5
2.1

51.3
25.8
25.8
.4

27.5
25.6
1.9
-

56.5
56.5
10.4
-

60.8
52.9
16.0
2.0

79.8
56.1
20.9
7.5

65.9
58.6
7.9

48.6
37.1
12.8
1.8

50.0
31.3
17.8
.9

17.5
14.1
3.4
-

51.4
51.4
15.3
-

63.1
51.5
13.4
4.2

38.4
37.4
3.6

Establishments with no nonproduction bonuses • .
•

45.1

48.7

72.5

43.5

39.2

20.2

34.1

51.4

50.0

82.5

48.6

36.9

61.6

1/
£/
2/
*
**

-

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Unduplicated total.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table 23 •— INSURANCE AND PENSION PLANS
Percent of plani l/ workers employed in -

Percent of office workers employed in Type of plan

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance**

Services

All
industries
2/

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

All establishments .••••••.................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Establishments with insurance or pension
plans 2/................................
Life insurance........................
Health insurance.......................
Hospitalization.................... .
Retirement pension ........... •••••......

81.3
71.4
37.2
26.1
34.1

86.3
58.9
21.3
6.9
35.3

83.2
83.2
44.0
24.4
75.9

80.7
77.3
31.9
37.5
33.3

60.4
55.1
17.6
15.8
15.8

94.3
83.4
45.0
52.1
37.2

62.8
62.8
U.S
15.1
28.8

64.4
53.3
29.3
16.5
17.1

71.5
51.4
18.7
11.9
29.3

72.4
72.4
34.9
21.0
50.2

61.9
55.7
23.5
31.6
11.3

58.2
50.5
22.5
20.5
12.8

35.4
35.4
15.7
5.7
4.7

Establishments with no insurance or pension
plans.......... .................. .

18.7

13.7

16.8

19.3

39.6

5.7

37.2

35.6

28.5

27.6

38.1

41.8

1/
2/
2/
*
**

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Unduplicated total.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




,

64.6

Occupational Wage Survey, Denver, Colorado, January 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT CF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

22

A ppendix A “

S cope

With the exception of the union ecale of rates, Information presented in this bulletin was collected
by visits of field representatives of the Bureau to representative establishments in the area surveyed. In
classifying workers by occupation, uniform job descriptions were used; they are presented in Appendix B.
Six broad industry divisions were covered in compiling earnings data for the following types of oc­
cupations: (a) office clerical, (b) professional and technical, (c) maintenance and power plant, and (d) cus­
todial, warehousing and shipping (tables 1 through 1
+). The covered industry groupings are: manufacturing;
transportation (except railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Information on work schedules and supplementary benefits
was also obtained in a representative group of establishments in each of these industry divisions. As indi­
cated in table A, only establishments above a certain size were studied. Smaller establishments were omitted
because they furnished insufficient employment in the occupations studied to warrant their inclusion in the
study.
Among the Industries in which characteristic jobs were studied, minimum size of establishment and
extent of the area covered were determined separately for each industry, and are indicated in table B. Al­
though size limits frequently varied from those established for surveying cross-industry office and plant
jobs, data for these jobs were included only for firms which satisfied the size requirements of the broad in­
dustry divisions.
A greater proportion of large than of small establishments was studied in order to maximize the
number of workers surveyed with available resources. Each group of establishments of a certain size, however,
was given its proper weight in the combination of data by Industry and occupation.

Table

A.—

and

M e th o d

o£

The earnings information in the report excludes premium pay for overtime and night work. Nonproduction bonuses are also excluded, but incentive earnings, including commissions for salespersons, have been
included for those workers employed under some form of incentive wage systems.Where weekly hours are reported
as for office clerical, they refer to the work schedules for which the salaries are paid rounded to the near­
est half hour; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest 50 cents. The
number of workers presented refers to the estimated total employment in all establishments within the scope
of the study and not to the number actually surveyed. Data are shown only for full-time workers, i.e., those
who were hired to work the establishments full-time schedule of hours for the given occupational classifi­
cation.
Information on wage practices refers to all office workers and to all plant workers as specified in
the individual tables. It is presented in terms of the proportion of all workers employed in offices (or plant
departments) that observe the practice in question, except in the section relating to women office workers of
the table summarizing scheduled weekly hours. Because of eligibility requirements, the proportion actually
receiving the specific benefits may be smaller. The summary of vacation and sick leave plans is limited to
formal arrangements. It excludes informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the discretion of
the employer or other supervisor. Sick leave plans are further limited to those providing full pay for at
least some amount of time.off without any provision for a waiting period preceding the payment of benefits,
and exclude health insurance even though it is paid for by employers. Health Insurance is included, however,
under tabulations for insurance and pension plans.

ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS IB MAJOR INDUS TUT DIVISIONS IN DENVER, COLORADO AND
NUMBER STUDIED BY THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS, JANUARY 1951

Item

Number of establishments
Estimated
Estimated
Estimated
total
total in all
Studied total in all
industries
industries within scope
of study 2/
____ 1/
. i7

Employment
Estimated
In establishments
total
studied
within scope
Office
Total
of study 2/

Industry Division

89S
235

All divisions ....................................
Manufacturing.................................
Nonmanufacturing.............................
Transportation (excluding railroads),

10,183
903

Railroads ..................................
Wholesale t r a d e ................ ...........
Retail trade ........ ................ ......
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e .......
Services:
Industries covered
..................
Industries not covered .................

9

9

1,205

IS**
213

9,280

663
56

3,312
1 ,2^9

78

218
59
159

11+3,600
37,200
106,1+00

99.200
33,1+00
65,800

5 6 ,91+0
18,320
38,620

17,500
20
1 1 ,61+0
communication,and other 13,600 utilities .
public
8,300
8,300
7,020
5
13,600
26
12,100
2,970
34,1+00
20,100
10,870
^5
8,1+00
5,100
2,1+1+0
23

All size groups ..................................
1,001 and o v e r ............ . ..................
501 - 1,000 ...................................
251 - 500 ..................................
101 - 250 .....................................
51 - 1 0 0 ............... ......................
2 1 - 50 .......................................
1 - 2 0 ....
.................

Table B.— ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES IN
DENVER, COLORADO AND NUMBER STUDIED BY THE BUREAU OF
LABOR STATISTICS, JANUARY 1951

12,1+50
2,910
9 ,5 l
+0
3,1+00
292

1.390
1,000
1,510
1,820

1,393
1,820

123
-

10
+
-

12,300
5,900

6,600
-

3,680
-

10,183
10
12

898

218
10
12

10,110

1,81+0

25
67
*7
52

8,770

1,790
2,390
750
390

Selected industries in which
characteristic jobs were
surveyed 1/

1 2 ,1+50
5.270

37
146
2*+5

99,200
22,700
10,100
11,900
22,300
18,600
12,900
(2/)

22,680

37
146
21+5

11+3,600
22,700
10,100
11,900
22,300
18,600
ll+,l+00
1+3,600

56,9^0

10
12

Number of
establishments
Minimum
size of
estab­
lishment
studied

Estimated
total
within
scope of
study

Employment

Estimated In
total estab­
lish­
Studied within
scope of ments
study studied

1+20

-

Size of Establishment

U71
9,262

1+11
(2/)

12/)

.

10,170

3 ,^ 0
1,670
(2/)

(2/)

Includes establishments with 1 or more workers in the Denver Metropolitan Area (Adams, Arapahoe, Denver and Jefferson Counties).
2/ The survey of office, professional and technical, maintenance and power plant, and custodial, warehousing and shipping jobs

l/

reported in tables 1, 2, 3, and 1 was limited to establishments with more than 20 workers in each of the industry divisions listed above.
+
Personal services; business services; automobile repair services; such professional services as engineering, architectural,
accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping firms; motion pictures; and nonprofit membership organizations.




S u o o e *f

Machinery industries.............
Power laundries ..................
Auto repair shops ................

2/ 21
21

5

15
17
56

11
12
16

2,686
1,617
2,8*H)

1/ Industries are defined in footnotes to tables 5, 6 , and 7 .
2/ Establishments manufacturing machine-tool accessories with 8 or more
workers were included.

2 ,1+58
1.311
922

23

A p p e n d ix B "

^ b e d o M fU d o u d

a j

O c c u fu U iO H d .

S tu d d e d
Office - Continued

The primary purpose of the Bureau's Job descriptions is to assist its field
staff in classifying workers who are employed under a variety of pay-roll titles and
different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area,
into appropriate occupations. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of oc­
cupational wage rates representing comparable Job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau* s
Job descriptions differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or
those prepared for other purposes. In view of these special characteristics of the
Bureau's Job descriptions, their adoption without modification by any single establish­
ment or for any other purpose than that indicated herein is not recommended. Where
office workers regularly perform duties classified in more than one occupation, they
are generally classified according to the most skilled or responsible duties that are a
regular part of their Job and that are significant in determining their value to the
firm.

Office

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
A worker who operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sunds­
trand, Burroughs, National Cash Register) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine with or without a typewriter key­
board to keep a set of records of business transactions usually requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particu­
lar accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit
items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand.
Class B - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine with or without a typewriter key­
board to keep a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records pertaining
to
business transactions usually requiring some knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sec­
tions include accounts payable, pay rolls, customers* accounts (not including simple type of
billing described under Biller, Machine), cost distributions, expense distributions, inventory
controls, etc. In addition may check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare
control sheets for the accounting department.

BILLER, MACHINE
CALCULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
A worker who prepares statements, bills and invoices on a machine other than an
ordinary typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform
other clerical work incidental to billing operations. Should be designated as working on
billing machine or bookkeeping machine as described belcw.

A worker whose primary function consists of operating a calculating machine to per­
form mathematical computations other than addition exclusively.
Comptometer type

Billing Machine - A worker who uses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott
Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills
and invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda,
etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry
of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals
which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large num­
ber of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fan-fold machine.
Bookkeeping Machine - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott
Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare cus­
tomers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simulta­
neous entry of figures on a customer's ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the deb­
it or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and
standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPER, HARD
A worker who keeps a set of books for recording business transactions and whose
work involves most of the following: posting and balancing subsidiary ledgers, cash books or
Journals, Journalizing transactions where Judgment is involved as to accounts affected; post­
ing general ledger; and taking trial balances. May also prepare accounting statements and
bills; may direct work of assistants or accounting clerks.




Other than Comptometer type
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
A worker who performs one or more accounting operations such as preparing simple
Journal vouchers; accounts payable vouchers; coding invoices or vouchers with proper account­
ing distributions; entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; post­
ing and balancing subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledger, e.g., accounts receivable,
accounts payable, stock records, voucher Journals. May assist in preparing Journal entries.
For workers whose duties include handling the general ledger or a set of books see Bookkeep­
er, Hand.
CLERK, FILE
Class A - A worker who is responsible for maintaining an established filing system
and classifies and indexes correspondence or other material; may also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and lo­
cating material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - A worker who performs routine filing, usually of material that has already
been classified, or locates or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

Office - Continued

Office - Continued

CLERK, GENERAL
A worker who is typically required to perform a variety of office operations. This
requirement may arise as a result of impracticability of specialization in a small office or
because versatility is essential in meeting peak requirements in larger offices. The work
generally involves the use of independent judgment in tending to a pattern of office work
from day to day, as well as knowledge relating to phases of office work that occur only oc­
casionally. For example, the range of operations performed may entail all or some combination
of the following; answering correspondence, preparing bills and invoices, posting to various
records, preparing pay rolls, filing, etc. May also operate various office machines and type
as the work requires.

SECRETARY
A worker who performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an adminis­
trative or executive position and whose duties involve the following: making appointments for
superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making phone calls; handling
personal and important or confidential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initia­
tive; taking dictation, either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine (except where
transcribing machine is used), and transcribing dictation or the recorded information repro­
duced on a transcribing machine. In addition, may prepare special reports or memoranda for
information of superior.

CLERK, ORDER
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
A worker who receives customers * orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone,
or personally and whose duties involve any combination of the following: quoting prices to
customers, making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order, checking prices
and quantities of items on order sheet,.
distributing order sheets to respective departments to
be filled. May also check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, ac­
knowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow-up orders to see that they have been filled,
keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders.

A worker whose primary function is to take dictation from one or more persons, either
in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary, and to
transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up
and keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not Include transcribing-machine
work. (See Transcribing-Machlne Operator.)
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

CLERK, PAY ROLL
A worker who computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on
the pay roll sheets and whose duties involve: calculating worker*s earnings based on time or
production records; posting calculated data on pay roll sheet, showing information such as
worker*s name, working days, time, rate, deductions for insurance euid total wages due. In
addition, may make out pay checks and assist the paymaster in making up and distributing the
pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

A worker whose primary function Is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied technical cr spe­
cialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research and to tran­
scribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
(See Transcribing-Machine Operator.)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities,
reproduces
multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine.
Makes necessary adjustment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not
required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

A worker who operates a single or multiple position telephone switchboard, and whose
duties involve: handling incoming, outgoing and intraplant or office calls. In addition, may
record toll calls and take messages. As a minor part of duties, may give information to per­
sons who call In, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers who also do typing or
other stenographic work or act as receptionists, see Switchboard Operator-Receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities, records account­
ing and statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series^ of holes in the cards in a
specified sequence, using a numerical key-punch machine, following written information on
records. May be required to duplicate cards by using the duplicating device attached to ma­
chine . Keeps files of punch cards. May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
A worker who performs a variety cf routine duties such as running errands; operating
minor office machines; such as sealers or mailers; opening and distributing mail; and other
minor clerical work. (Bonded messengers are excluded from this classification.)




A worker who In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single position or
monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and/or performs typing or other routine cleri­
cal work as part of regular duties. This typing or clerical work may take the major part of
this worker*s time while at switchboard.
TABUIATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
A worker who operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates information
punched in groups of tabulating cards, and prints translated data on forms or accounting re­
cords; sets or adjusts machine to add, subtract, multiply and make other calculations; places
cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts machine. May file cards after they are
tabulated. May sort and verify punched cards.

25

Office

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

DRAFTSMAN, CHIEF

A worker whose primary function is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records.
May also type from written copy and do
simple clerical work.
A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype or similar
machine is classified as a Stenographer, General.

TYPIST
A worker who uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make out
bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May operate a teletype machine.
May, in addition, do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple
records, filing records and reports, making out bills, or sorting and distributing incoming
mail.
Class A - A worker who performs one or more of the following:
typing material in
final form from very rough and involved draft; copying from plain or corrected copy in which
there is a frequent and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreign language
copy; combining material from several sources; or planning lay-out of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final
form.
May also type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances. May, in
addition, perform clerical duties as outlined above.
Class B - A worker who performs
ly clear or typed drafts; routine typing
ple standard tabulations, or copying more
May, in addition, perform clerical duties

Professional and Technical - Continued

- Continued

one or more of the following: typing from relative­
of forms, insurance policies, etc.; setting up sim­
complex tables already set up and spaced properly.
as outlined above.

(Draftsman, head; squad le a d e r; squad boss)
A worker who plans and d ir e c t s a c t i v i t i e s o f one or more draftsm en in p re p a ra tio n
o f working p lan s and d e t a i l drawings from rough or d e t a i l sk etch es fo r e n gin e erin g , c o n s tru c ­
tio n , or m anufacturing purposes. The d u ties performed in vo lve a com bination o f the fo llo w ­
in g : in te rp re tin g b lu e p r in ts , sk e tch e s, and w r it te n or v e r b a l o rd e rs; determ ining work p ro ­
cedures; a ssig n in g d u tie s to subordinates and in sp ectin g t h e ir work; and perform ing more
d i f f i c u l t problems. May a s s i s t subordinates during emergencies or as a r e g u la r assignm ent,
and performs r e la t e d d u tie s o f a su p e rv iso ry or ad m in istra tive n a tu re .
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
( D a ta lle r , a s s i s t a n t draftsm an)
A worker who d e t a i l s u n its or p a rts o f drawings prepared by draftsm an or o th ers fo r
en gin e erin g , c o n s tru c tio n , or manufacturing p urposes. Uses v a rio u s ty p e s o f d r a f t in g to o ls
a s re q u ire d . May prepare drawings from simple plans or sk e tc h e s, and perform s o th er d u tie s
under d ir e c t io n o f a draftsm an.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A r e g is te r e d nurse who g iv e s nursing s e rv ic e to employees or persons who become i l l
o r s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on the prem ises o f a fa c to r y o r other estab lish m en t and whose d u tie s
in vo lve a l l or most o f the fo llo w in g : g iv in g f i r s t aid to the i l l or in ju re d ; atte n d in g to
subsequent d re ssin g o f em ployee's i n ju r i e s ; keeping reco rds o f p a tie n ts tr e a te d ; and p re p a r­
ing accid e n t re p o rts fo r compensation or other purposes. May a ls o a s s i s t P h y sic ia n in e x ­
amining a p p lic a n ts , g iv e in s tru c tio n in h ealth education and i l l n e s s p re v e n tio n , and perform s
oth er r e la t e d d u t ie s .
TRACER

Professional and Technical

A worker who cop ies p lan s and drawings prepared by o th e rs, by p la c in g tr a c in g c lo th
or paper over drawing and tr a c in g w ith pen or p e n c il. Uses T -sq u a re , compass and other d r a ft­
ing t o o ls . May prepare simple drawings and do simple l e t t e r in g .

DRAFTSMAN
Maintenance and Power P lant
A worker who prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or de­
tailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
The duties per­
formed involve a combination of the following:
preparing working plans, detail drawings,
maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use~of drafting instruments; making engineering com­
putations such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities; writing specifica­
tions; m«.king adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications. In addition, may ink in
lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace
drawings.
Work Is frequently In a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, m e ­
chanical, or structural drafting.




CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE
A worker who perform s the carp entry d u tie s necessary to c o n s tru c t and m aintain in
good r e p a ir b u ild in g woodwork and equipment such as bins, c r i b s , c o u n te rs, benches, p a r t it i o n s ,
doors, f lo o r s , s t a i r s , c a s in g s , trim made of wood In an establishm ent, and whose work in vo lve s
most o f the fo llo w ing: planning and la y in g out o f work from b lu e p r in ts , draw in gs, models or
v e rb a l in s t r u c t io n s ; usin g a v a r i e t y o f ca rp e n te rs’ hand t o o ls , p o rta b le power t o o ls , and
standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop computations r e la t i n g to dimensions of
work; and s e le c t in g m a te ria ls n e ce ssa ry fo r the work.

26.
Mai n t e n a n c e and Power Plant

- Continued

Maintenance a nd Power Plant

- Continued

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE - Continued

A worker who performs a variety of electrical trade functions in the installation,
maintenance or repair of equipment for the generating, distribution, and/or utilization of
electric energy in an establishment, and whose work involves most of the following: install­
ing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment suck as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layout or other specifications; lo­
cating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard computa­
tions relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electricians* hand tools and measuring and testing instruments.

perties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts and equipment required for
his work; and fitting and assembling parts. In general, the machinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice, usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
A worker who operates and maintains and/or supervises the operation of stationary
engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply power, heat, refrigeration or airconditioning and whose work involves: operating and maintaining and/or supervising the opera­
tion of such equipment as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ven­
tilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making or
supervising equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature,
and fuel consumption. This classification does not include head or chief engineers in estab­
lishments employing more them one engineer.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
A worker who fires stationary boilers used in a factory, power plant, or other es­
tablishment to furnish heat, to generate power, or to supply steam for industrial processes,
and whose work involves feeding fuel to fire by hand or operating a mechanical stoker, gas,
or oil burner; and checking water and safety valves. In addition, may clean, oil, or assist
in repairing boiler room equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A worker who assists smother worker in one of the skilled maintenance trades, by per­
forming specific or general duties cf lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with ma­
terials and tools; cleaning working area, machine and equipment; assisting worker by holding
materials or tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. In some
trades the term helper is synonymous with apprentice, since the helper is expected to learn
the trade of the worker he assists. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform also
varies from trade to trade:
in some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting and
holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to per­
form specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL UTILITY
A worker who keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or structure of an estab­
lishment (usually a small plant where specialization in maintenance work is impractical) in
repair; whose duties involve the performance of operations and the use of tools and equipment
of several trades, rather than specialization in one trade or one type of maintenance work
only, and whose work involves a combination of the following: planning and layout of work re­
lating to repair of buildings’ machines, mechanical and/or electrical equipment; repairing
^
electrical and/or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning and balancing new equipment; and
repairing building, floors, stairs as well as making and repairing bins, cribs, end partitions.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
A worker who repairs automobiles, motor trucks and tractors of an establishment, and
whose work involves most of the following: examining automotive equipment to diagnose source
of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such hand
tools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling
and/or installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and
aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
A worker \kio repairs machinery and mechanical equipment of an establishment and whose
work involves most of the following: examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose
source of trouble; dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
hand tools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items ob­
tained from stock; ordering the production of a defective part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major
repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; and reassembling of machines,
and making all necessary adjustments for operation.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
(Painter, repair)

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
A worker who produces replacement parts and new parts for mechanical equipment oper­
ated In an establishment, and whose work involves most of the following: interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and layout of work; using a variety of machinist*s
hand tools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working pro-




A worker who paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establish­
ment and whose work involves the following:
knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of
paint required for different applications; mixing colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency; preparing surface for painting by removing
old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with
spray gun or brush.

27
Custodial, Warehousing emd Shipping - Continued

Maintenance and Power Plant - Continued

GUARD

PIPE FITTER, MAINTENANCE
A worker who installs and/or repairs pipe and pipe fittings in an establishment,
and whose work involves most of the following: laying out of work and/or measuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine;
threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines;
assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computa­
tions relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to
determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. This classification does not include
workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
(Tinner; tinsmith)
A worker who fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, venti­
lators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment, and whose work involves most of
the following:
planning end laying *out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheetmetal working machines; using a variety of hand tools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work
of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquir­
ed through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

A worker who has routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintain­
ing order, using arms or force where necessary. This classification includes gatemen who are
stationed at gate emd check on identity of employees and other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER

OR CLEANER

(Day porter, sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
A worker who cleans and keeps in em orderly condition factory working areas and
washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment.
The duties performed involve a combination of the following: sweeping, mopping and/or scrub­
bing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furni­
ture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor main­
tenance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and rest rooms. This classification does
not include workers who specialize in window washing.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
A worker who fills shipping or transfer orders from stored merchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slip, customer orders, or other instructions. May, in ad­
dition to filling orders emd indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing
orders, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other
related duties.
PACKER

Custodial, Warehousing and Shipping

CRANE OPERATOR, ELECTRIC BRIDGE
(Overhead-crane operator; traveling-creme operator)
A worker who lifts and moves heavy objects with an electrically powered hoist which
is mounted on a metal bridge, and runs along overhead rails.
The work of the operator in­
volves: closing switch to turn on electricity; moving electrical controller levers and brake
pedal to run the crane bridge along overhead rails, to run the hoisting trolley back and forth
across the bridge, and to raise and lower the load line and anything attached to it. (Motions
of crane are usually carried out in response to signals from other workers, on the ground.)
For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies workers accord­
ing to type of crane operated, as follows:




Creme operators, electric bridge (under 20 tons)
Creme operators, electric bridge (20 tons emd over)

A worker who prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in
boxes or other containers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type,
size and number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment.
The work of the packer involves a combination of the following: knowledge of various items
of stock In order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; in­
serting enclosures In container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or
damage; closing emd sealing containers; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container. This classification does not include packers who also make wooden boxes or crates.
SHIPPING-AND-RECEIVING CLERK
A worker who prepares merchandise for shipment, or who receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: a knowledge
of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and
preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and ship­
ping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May, in addition, direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work generally involves: verifying or di­
recting others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices,
or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or
materials to proper departments; emd maintaining necessary records and files.

28,

Custodial, Warehousing and Shipping - Continued

Custodial,

SHIPPING-AHD-RECEIVING CLERK - Continued

Warehousing and Shipping - Continued

TRUCKER, POWER

For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies these workers on
the following basis:
Shipping clerk
Receiving clerk
Shipp ing -and- receiving clerk

A worker who operates a manually-controlled gasoline or electric-powered truck or
tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant
or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
ing to type of truck operated, as follows:

classifies workers accord­

STOCK HANDLER ARP TRUCKER, HAND
Truckers, power (fork-lift)
Truckers, power (other than fork-lift)

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman
or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
WATCHMAN
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or more of the following:
loading and unloading various materials
and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks or other transporting devices; unpacking,
shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; transporting mate­
rials or merchandise by hand truck, car or wheelbarrow to proper location. May, in addition,
keep a record of materials handled or check items against invoices or other records. This
classification does not include longshoremen, who load and unload ships.

A worker who guards premises of plant property, warehouses, office buildings, or
banks. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and
illegal entry.

TRACK LABORER*

Machinery Industries

Performs heavy laborer duties in the maintenance and repair of railroad ways under
supervision of Trackman:
(a) laying rails, switches, etc., working to grading stakes; (b) lev­
eling rails by packing sand, gravel and other material under low cross ties to raise them, and
aligning the rails to make a level track or a uniform grade; (c) placing tie plates or skeins
between ties and rails and fastening rails with spikes;
(d) replacing worn or decayed wooden
ties by removing spikes from old ties with a claw bar, loosening ballast and removing tie from
under the rail; (e) setting new ties into place and packing ballast around them, and spiking
them to rail;
(f) tightening rail joints with a long wrench until secure; (g) gauging tracks
for. correct and uniform distance between rails using a fixed gauge, and loosening rails out of
alignment, crowding them into place with a bar or clanrp and re tightening; bending rails to
templates or radium using a hand bender.

ASSEMBLER
(Bench assembler; floor assembler; jig assembler; line assembler; sub-assembler)

TRUCK DRIVER

A worker who assembles and/or fits together parts to form complete units or subas­
semblies at a bench, conveyor line, or on the floor, depending upon the size of the units and
the organization of the production process. The work of the assembler may include processing
operations requiring, the use of hand tools in scraping, chipping and filing of parts to obtain
a desired fit as well as power tools and special equipment when punching, riveting, soldering
or welding of parts is necessary. Workers who perform any of these processing operations ex­
clusively as paurt of specialized assembling operations are not included in this classification.

A worker who drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport materi­
als, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: manu­
facturing plants, freight dbpots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments and/or be­
tween retail establishments and customers' houses or places of business. Duties may also in­
volve loading or unloading truck with or without helpers, making minor mechanical repairs,
and keeping truck in good working order. This classification does not include driver-salesmen
or over-the-road drivers.

Class A - A worker who assembles pants into complete units or subassemblies that re­
quire fitting of parts and decisions regarding proper performance of any component pant of the
assembled unit, and whose work involves any combination of the following:
assembling from
drawings, blueprints or other written spec if ications; assembling units composed of a variety
of parts and/or subassemblies; assembling large units requiring careful fitting and adjusting
of parts to obtain specified clearances; and using a variety of hand end powered tools and
precision measuring instruments.

For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies
according to size and type of equipment operated, as follows:
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck

driver,
driver,
driver,
driver,

light (under 1-1/2 tons)
medium (1-1/2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

♦Department of Defense description.




truck drivers

Class B - A worker who assembles parts into units or subassemblies in accordance
with standard end prescribed procedures, and whose work involves any combination of the fol­
lowing: assembling a limited range of standard and familiar products composed of a number of
small or medium-sized parts requiring some fitting or adjusting; assembling lenge units that
require little or no fitting of component pants; working under conditions where accurate per­
formance and completion of work within set time limits are essential for subsequent assem­
bling operations; and using a limited variety of hand or powered tools.

29

M a chinery Industries

- Continued

M a c h i n e r y Industries

- Continued

ASSEMBLER - Continued

ENGINE-LATHE OPERATOR - Continued

Class C - A worker who performs short-cycle, repetitive assembling operations, and
vhose work does not involve any fitting or making decisions regarding proper performance of
the component parts or assembling procedures.

Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds, tool­
ing and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve
requisite dimensions or

DRILL-PRESS OPERATOR, SINGLE- OR MULTIPLE -SPINDLE
Performs such operations as drilling, reaming, countersinking, counterboring, spot­
facing and tapping on one or more types of single-spindle or multiple-spindle drill presses.

Operator who is required to set up machine from drawings, blueprints or layout, in
accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence and to make necessary
adjustments during operation where changes in work and set-up are frequent and where care is
essential to achieve very close tolerances.

This classification includes operators of all types
radial-drill presses and portable drilling equipment.

other than

Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.

Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine for operations requiring care­
ful positioning, blocking and aligning of units; to determine speeds, feeds, tooling and oper­
ation sequence; and to make all necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite
dimensions or

Class B - Operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others, by making
all necessary adjustments, where care is essential to achieve very close tolerances or

of drill presses

Operator who is required to set up machine where speeds, feeds, tooling and operation
sequence are prescribed but whose work involves very difficult operations such as deep drill­
ing, or boring to exacting specifications.
Class B - Operator who is required to set up machine on standard operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; and to make all necessary adjust­
ments during operation or
Operator who is required to maintain set-up made by others, including making all ne­
cessary adjustments during operation on work requiring considerable care on the part of the
operator to maintain specified tolerances.

Operator who is required to set up machine on standard or roughing operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; and to make adjustments during
operation.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools and
to select proper coolants and cutting oils.
Class C - Operator who is required only to operate machine on routine and repetitive
operations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop
the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.
JANITOR
(Sweeper; cleaner)

Class C - Operator who is required only to operate machine, an routine and repetitive
operations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop
the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.

A worker who sweeps and cleans shop areas, washrooms and offices, and removes waste
and refuse. May wash floors and windows.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

MACHINIST, PRODUCTION

(See Maintenance and Power Plant, page 25, for description.)
ENGINE-LATHE OPERATOR
Operates an engine lathe for shaping external and internal cylindrical surfaces of
metal objects. The engine lathe, basically characterized by a headstock, tallstock, and powerfed tool carriage, is a general-purpose machine tool used primarily for turning. It is also
commonly used in performing such operations as facing, boring, drilling, and threading; and,
equipped with appropriate attachments, it may be used for a very wide variety of special ma­
chining operations.
The stock may be held in position by the lathe "centers" or by various
types of chucks and fixtures.
This classification excludes operators cf bench lathes, automatic lathes, automaticscrew machines, and hand-turret lathes and hand-screw machines.




A worker who is required to fabricate metal parts involving a series of progressive
operations and whose work involves most of the following:
understanding of written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinists * hand
tools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to di­
mensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; understanding of the working proper­
ties of the common metals; and selecting standard materials, parts and equipment needed for
his work. In general, the machinists* work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience .
MILLING-MACHINE OPERATOR
(Milling-machine operator, automatic; milling-machine operator, hand)

30

Mac h i n e r y Industries

- Continued

Machinery Industries

- Continued

MILLING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
WELDER, HAND - Continued
Performs a variety of work such as grooving, planing, and shaping metal objects on
a milling machine, which removes material from metal surfaces by the cutting action of multi­
toothed rotating cutters of various sizes and shapes.
Milling-machine types vary from the manually controlled machines employed
production to fully automatic (conveyor-fed) machines found in plants engaged in mass
tion. This classification includes operators of all types of milling machines except
purpose millers such as thread millers, duplicators, die sinkers, pantograph millers
graving millers.

in unit
produc­
single­
and en­

Class A - Operator vho is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds, tool­
ing and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve req­
uisite dimensions or

Class A - Worker who performs welding operations requiring most of the following:
planning end laying out of work from drawings, blueprints or other written specifications;
knowledge of welding properties of a variety of metals and alloys; setting up of work and de­
termining operation sequence; welding < high pressure vessels or other objects involving cri­
£
tical safety and load requirements; working from a variety of positions; and ability to weld
with bas or arc apparatus.
Class B - Worker who is required to perform either arc or gas welding operations on
repetitive work, where no critical safety and load requirements are involved; where the work
calls mainly for one position welding; and where the layout and planning of the work are per­
formed by others.

Operator who is required to set up machine from drawings, blueprints, or lay-out in
accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence, and to make neces­
sary adjustments during operation where changes In work and set up are frequent and where con­
siderable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
Class B - Operator who is required to set up machines on standard operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; to make adjustments during oper­
ation; and to maintain prescribed tolerances or
Operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others, by making all neces­
sary adjustments, where considerable care is essential to achieve .very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting oils.
Class C - Operator who is required to operate only, on routine and repetitive oper­
ations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop ma­
chine and call on foremen, leadman or set-up man to correct the operation.
TRUCKER, HAND
A worker who pushes or pulls hand trucks, cars or wheelbarrows used for transport­
ing goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other estab­
lishment, and usually loads or unloads hand trucks or wheelbarrows.
May stack materials in
storage bins, etc., and may keep records of materials moved.

Power Laundries

CLERK, RETAIL RECEIVING
A person who receives work from routemen or from customers over the counter in the
receiving office or store of a dry-cleaning or laundry establishment and whose work involves
most of the following:
maintaining a record of articles or bundles received; returning com­
pleted work to customers who call for it; collecting payment and maintaining simple records
of money received; and in establishments where dry cleaning is done, fastening an identifying
marker to each article, examining an article for defects such as holes, stains or tears, and
making a record of the identification symbol assigned to each article with a brief description
of the article and of any defects noted. This classification does not include store managers.
EXTRACTOR OPERATOR
(Whizzer operator)

A worker vho removes surplus moisture from materials (such as wet cloth, clothing,
knit goods, and yarn) by operating an extractor and whose work involves most of the following:
loading material into perforated drum of machine by hand or hoist; closing lid and starting
machine, allowing it to run a predetermined time or until fluid stops flowing from drain; re­
moving partly dried materials; and hand trucking materials within the department. In addition,
the worker may assist the Washer in loading, operating, or unloading the washing machine.
FINISHER, FLATWORK, MACHINE

WELDER, HAND
A worker who fuses (welds) metal objects together by means of an oxyacetylene torch
or arc welding apparatus in the fabrication of metal shapes and in repairing broken or cracked
metal objects. In addition to performing hand welding or brazing operation, he may also lay
out guide lines or marks on metal parts and may cut metal with a cutting torch.




A worker who performs flatwork finishing operations by machine and whose work in­
volves one or more of the following:
shaking out the creases in semi-dry washing to prepare
it for the flatwork Ironing machine; feeding clean, damp flatwork pieces into the flatwork
ironing machine by placing the articles on the feeder rollers; and catching or receiving arti­
cles as they emerge from the machine and partially folding them.

31,
Power Laundries

- Continued

A u t o Repair Shops

- Continued

FIRKMAH, STATIONARY BOILER
(See Maintenance and Power Plant, page 25, t o r description.)

BODY REPAIRMAN, METAL - Continued

IDEHTIFISR
A worker who sorts soiled bundles, places the contents into various bags and by
neans of flags, pins or other devices identifies the net with a customer tag or ticket. In
addition nay weigh, list or count some or all articles contained in each bundle. This classi­
fication does not include workers who mark or otherwise identify each individual piece con­
tained in a bundle.

Repairs damaged automobile fenders and bodies to restore their original shape and
smoothness of surface by hammering out and filling dents, and by welding breaks in the metal.
May remove bolts and nuts, take off old fenders, and install new fenders. May perform such
related tasks as replacing broken glass and repairing damaged radiators and woodwork.
May
paint repaired surfaces.
GREASER

MARKER
A worker who marks or affixes by hand or mechanical means, customer Identifying
symbols on soiled garments, linens, or other articles. In addition may weigh, list, or count
articles contained in each bundle, sort contents of each bundle into groups according to treat­
ment to be received, or note and record any damaged or stained condition of articles. This
classification does not Include workers who do sorting, examining, or listing without marking
the various articles.
HRESSER, MACHHK, SHIRT
A worker who operates or tends the operation of one or more of the several type
machines that press shirts, and who perform such shirt pressing operations as body pressing,
bosom pressing, collar and cuff pressing, and/or sleeve pressing.
WASBER, MACHIKB
A worker who operates one or more washing machines to wash household linens, gar­
ments, curtains, drapes and other articles and whose work involves the following: manipula­
ting valves, switches, and levers to start and stop the machine and to control the amount and
temperature cf water for the sudsing and rinsing of each batch; mixing and adding soap, bluing
and bleaching solutions; and loading and unloading the washing machine. In addition may make
minor repairs to washing machine.
WRAPPER, BUNDLE
A worker who wraps packages or finished products, or packs articles, goods, or ma­
terials in cardboard boxes and secures the package or box with twine, ribbon, gummed tape, or
paste. The worker may segregate articles according to size or type, or according to customers
order and inspect articles for defects before wrapping.

(Lubricating man)
Lubricates, by means of hand-operated or compressed-air operated grease guns and
oil sprays, all parts of automobile or truck where lubrication is required, using proper type
lubricant on the various points on chassis or motors; drains old lubricant from lubricant reser­
voirs and refills with new. May perform other related duties, such as checking radiator water
level, checking and adding distilled water to battery, repairing tires, etc. May also perform
duties of washer.
MBCHAJIC, AUTOMOTIVE
Repairs automobiles and trucks, performing such duties as disassembling and overhaul­
ing engines, transmissions, clutches, rear ends, and other assemblies on automobiles, replac­
ing worn or broken parts, grinding valves, adjusting brakes, tightening body bolts, aligning
wheels, etc. In addition to general automotive mechanics, this classification also Includes
workers whose duties are limited to repairing and overhauling the motor.
Class A - Repairs, rebuilds, or overhauls engines, transmissions, clutches, rear
ends, or other assemblies, replaces worn or broken parts, grinds valves, bores cylinders, fits
rings. In addition, may adjust brakes or lights, tighten body bolts, align wheels, etc. May
remove or replace motors, transmissions or other assemblies. May do machining of parts.
Class B - Adjusts brakes or lights, tightens body bolts, aligns wheels, or makes
other adjustments cr repairs of a minor nature; or removes and replaces motors, transmissions,
clutches, recur ends, etc., but does no repairing, rebuilding, or overhauling of these assem­
blies. Workers who are employed as helpers to Mechanics are excluded from this classification.

WASHER, AUTOMOBILE
Auto Repair Shops

BODY REPAIRMAH, METAL
(Automobile-collision serviceman; fender and body repairman; body man)




(Car washer; wash boy)
Washes automobiles and trucks; sweeps and cleans interior of automobile; may polish
auto vehicle bodies, using polishing compound and a cloth. Various parts of this Job may be
performed by individual workers in automobile laundries production lines.

32

Page Number
Description Earnings or rate

Page Number
Description Earnings or rate

16
16
lU

_

16
16
16

5> 6
6
15
5, 6
5, 6
_
_

16
16
16

6
6
15

Calculating-machine operator (other than Comptometer type) ........ .
Calculating-machine operator (Comptometer type) (railroads) ........

16

10
15
12
15

16

PI.rV fll*

. ....... ...... ................................■••■••t
.
.....
.....
.....

2f
l
2f
l
2f
l

5, 7
15
7
5, 7
5, 7
5, 7
15
If
l
17
12

16

10
10
10
16
Drill-press operator, single- and multiple.....

2f
l

lf
i
8
16
10
15

lk

17
11
If
l
If
l

lk
.....

26
_

11
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16
16

15
12

n

(rata.il orooerlss 1 __

.....
Helper, trades, intermrina
tmdAfl. MlntAnSllfiA (nllTOftdfll »*•.»•»..**••***••«*•*»*•**«••• .....

_
26
26

16
16
16

17
11
15

lk

12
Junltnr* /
MfihiMrv 1

.....

29

lk
15

16

Journeymen meat cutter (meat markets) .......... ................
.....
| | > 1 M f n T t f i fbslCAFlAs)
U A i r lAftlr
m ******** ********** **••••• •
*
Machine operator (printing) ........ ......................... .




2f
l

_

8

16

17

Machinist, maintenance..... ......... .
Machinist, production (machinery) .........
Machinist, maintenance (railroads) ........
Maintenance man, general utility ....... .
Manager (or head meat cutter) (meat markets)
Marker (laundries) ........................
Mechanic, automotive (auto repair shops) ...
Mechanic, automotive (maintenance) .... .
Mechanic, maintenance ......... ...........
Milling-machine operator (machinery) .......
Mixer (bakeries) ..........
•••••••••
Motortruck driver ............... •••••••••
Nurse, Industrial (registered) ............
Office boy ••••...... .................. .
Office boy (railroads) ....................
Office girl ..............................
Order filler ..... .......... •••••........
Ovenman (bakeries) ........................
P a c k e r .........•••••••••....... .
Painter (building construction) ..... .....
Painter, maintenance ........
••••••
Painter, maintenance (railroads) .... .....
Pan greaser (bakeries) .......... .........
Photoengraver (printing) ••••••••••........
Pipe fitter, maintenance (railroads) .......
Plasterer,(building construction) ••••••••••
Plumber (building construction) .........
Porter ..................... ..... .......
Porter (railroads)
Press assistant (printing) .... ......... .
Presser, machine, shirt (laundries) .......
Press feeder (printing)
Pressman, cylinder (printing) .............
Pressman, platen (printing) ......... .
Pressman, web presses (printing) ........ .
Deceiving clerk ............ ••••••........
Bollerman (bakeries) ................... .
Secretary
.... ....... •••••••
Secretary (railroads) .....................
Sheet-metal worker, maintenance ........ .
Shipping clerk ......... ......... .
Shipping-and-receiving c l e r k .... ....... .
Sponger (bakeries) ........... ..... .
Stacker (bakeries) ..... ........ •••••••••
Stenographer, general ••••••••••••••••••••••
Stenographer, general (railroads)
Stenographer, technical ............ .
Stereotyper (printing) ..... .
Stock handler .........................
Stock handler (railroads)
Switchboard operator........... •••••••••••
Switchboard operator-receptionist •••••••••.
Tabulating-machlne operator.......... •••••
Tracer .............. .............. .
Track laborer (railroads) ........ •••••••••
Transcribing-machine operator, general ....
Trolley coach operator (local transit) ....
Truck driver .................... ....
Trucker, hand ................. ...... .
Trucker, hand (machinery) ..... .
Trucker, hand (railroads)
Trucker, pcver ............ ..... .
Typist ...........
1..
Washer, automobile (auto repair shops) .....
Washer, machine (laundries) ..... .........
Watchman
Welder, hand (machinery)
Working supervisor (bakeries) ••••••••••.•••
Wrapper, bundle (laundries) ...... .
Wrapping machine set-up man (bakeries) .....

26
29

26
26

11
lf
i
15

11

16
Ilf

31
31

15

26

11

26
29

11
If
l

25
2h

2k

16

17
10
5

2k
27
27
26
26
27
27
27
31

27
2lf
2f
l
27
27
27
2f
l
2f
l
2f
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28
28
2f
l
2f
l
2k
25

28

28
28

30

28
28

25
31
31
28

30
31

lk

26
☆ u S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 0 -1 9 5 1


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102