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ui.it i4*eService -w Occupations Protective and Compliance Inspectors ISBN 0-16-043061-5  Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1994-95 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 2450-14  9 780160 4306  * * 44 4 * O0 1  ffrm O OOO  #ii¥  -- o   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ! *** 44  W- 69hS if.l .1 Construction and Building Inspectors (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, -050, .267-010, -102; 182.267; 850.387, .467)  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, al­ teration, or repair of buildings, highways and streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, and other structures to ensure com­ pliance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. They make the initial inspections during the first phase of construction, and make followup inspections through­ out the construction period to monitor continuing compliance with regulations. In areas with severe natural hazards—such as earth­ quakes or hurricanes—inspectors monitor compliance with addi­ tional regulations. Inspectors generally specialize in one particular type of construction work. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality and general safety of buildings. Some may specialize—for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete buildings. Before construction, plan ex­ aminers determine whether the plans for the building or other struc­ ture comply with building code regulations and are suited to the en­ gineering and environmental demands of the building site. They visit the worksite before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. Then they in­ spect the foundation after it has been completed. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion determine the number of other visits they must make. Upon completion of the project, they make a final comprehensive inspection. In addition, inspectors may calculate fire insurance rates by assessing the type of construction, building contents, availability of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. Electrical inspectors inspect the installation of electrical systems and equipment to ensure that they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit worksites to inspect new and existing wiring, lighting, sound and security systems, mo­ tors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the installation of the electrical wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appli­ ances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, lifts and hoists, inclined railways, ski lifts, and amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechanical components of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air-con­ ditioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting boilers or ventilating equipment. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including pri­ vate disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors ensure that Federal, State, and local gov­ ernment construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifications. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, reinforced concrete, or ditches. Others spe­ cialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Home inspectors conduct inspections of newly built homes to as­ certain adherence to regulatory requirements. Some home inspec­ tors are hired by prospective home buyers to inspect and report on the condition of the home’s major systems and components. Home  2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  inspectors typically are hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer or as a contingency to a sales contract. Construction and building inspectors increasingly use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and the issuance of permits. Details about construction projects, building and occupancy permits, and other information can thus be stored and easily retrieved. Although inspections are primarily visual, inspectors often use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equip­ ment such as concrete strength measurers. They often keep a daily log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the construction contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when they discover something that does not comply with the appropriate codes, ordinances, contract specifications, or approved plans. If the deficiency is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, government inspectors have authority to issue a “stop-work” order. Many inspectors also investigate construction or alterations being done without proper permits. Violators of permit laws are directed to obtain permits and submit to inspection. Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to a large, complex project. They may spend much of their time in a field office reviewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspec­ tions. The rest of their time is spent inspecting construction sites. Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or may have to crawl in tight places. Although the work is not considered hazardous, inspectors often wear “hard hats” for safety. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work irregular hours to complete their report.  Construction inspectors ensure compliance with building codes, zoning regulations, and contract specifications.  For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328  ISBN 0-16-043061-5  Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 66,000 jobs in 1992. Nearly 6 of every 10 worked for local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments. Employment of local government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban ar­ eas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large in­ spection staffs, including many inspectors who specialize in struc­ tural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. About 15 percent of all construction and building inspectors worked for engineering and architectural services firms, doing in­ spections for a fee. Most of the remaining inspectors were employed at the Federal and State levels. Many construction inspectors em­ ployed by the Federal Government worked for the Department of Defense, primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other im­ portant Federal employers include the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Construction or building inspectors need several years of experience as a construction contractor, supervisor, or craft worker before be­ coming inspectors. Most employers also require an applicant to have a high school diploma or the equivalent. High school courses in drafting, algebra, geometry, and English are also useful. Workers who want to become inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a gen­ eral area like structural or heavy construction, or in a specialized area such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or structural steel. Many construction and building inspectors have re­ cent experience as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Employers prefer inspectors who have graduated from an appren­ ticeship program, have studied engineering or architecture for at least 2 years, or have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, mathe­ matics, and building inspection. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They also must have a driver’s license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments usually require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive most of their training on the job. At first, working with an experienced inspector, they learn about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regu­ lations; contract specifications; and recordkeeping and reporting duties. They begin by inspecting less complex types of construction such as residential buildings. They then progress to more complex assignments. An engineering degree is frequently required to ad­ vance to supervisory inspector. Since they advise builders and the general public on building codes, construction practices, and technical developments, con­ struction and building inspectors must keep abreast of new building code developments. Many employers provide formal training pro­ grams to broaden inspectors’ knowledge of construction materials, practices, and inspection techniques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not conduct training programs can broaden their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-conducted training programs, by taking college or correspon­ dence courses, or by attending seminars sponsored by the organiza­ tions listed below under Sources of Additional Information . Certification enhances construction inspectors’ chances for higher paying, more responsible positions. Some States and cities re­ quire certification for employment. Inspectors with substantial ex­ perience and education can attain certification by passing stringent examinations on construction techniques, materials, and code re­ quirements. The organizations listed below offer many categories of certification for inspectors and plan examiners, including the desig­ nation “CBO,” Certified Building Official.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increases in the level of construction activity and a rising con­ cern for public safety and for improvements in the quality of con­ struction should spur demand for construction and building inspec­ tors. The trend of government—particularly Federal and State—to contract out construction inspection functions to engineering, archi­ tectural and management services firms is expected to continue. In addition, a growing volume of real estate transactions and a greater awareness and emphasis on home inspections will add to employ­ ment requirements for home inspectors. Despite the expected rapid growth in demand for inspection ser­ vices, most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspec­ tors who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Be­ cause of the trend toward the establishment of professional standards for inspectors, job prospects should be best for highly ex­ perienced craft workers who have some college education or who are certified as inspectors. Employment of construction and building inspectors is not al­ ways directly affected by changes in the level of building activity. Unlike most construction occupations, inspectors—particularly those in government—seldom experience layoffs when construction activity declines. During these periods, maintenance and renova­ tion—which usually require more frequent inspection than new construction—generally continue, enabling inspectors to continue working full time year round. In an upturn, new jobs for inspectors increase but not to the same degree as construction activity. Earnings The median annual salary of construction and building inspectors was $31,200 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $25,000 and $40,900. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,700 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $51,100 a year. Generally, building inspectors, including plan examiners, earn the highest sala­ ries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions. Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of con­ struction principles and law with the ability to coordinate data, di­ agnose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other occupations with a similar combination of skills are drafters, estima­ tors, industrial engineering technicians, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career and certification as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code orga­ nizations: O’ International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601. O’Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478. O’ Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information on careers and certification as a home inspector is available from: O’American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., 1735 North Lynn St., Suite  950, Arlington, VA 22209.  For information about a career as a State or local government construction or building inspector, contact your State or local em­ ployment service. Persons interested in a career as a construction and building in­ spector with the Federal Government can obtain information from: 13= U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  3  Correction Officers (D.O.T. 372.367-014, .567-014, .667-018, and .677; and 375.367-010)  Nature of the Work Correction officers are charged with the security and safety of per­ sons who have been arrested, are awaiting trial or other hearing, or who have been convicted of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a correctional institution. Many correction officers guard prisoners in small municipal jails or precinct station houses where their respon­ sibilities are wide ranging, while others control inmates in large State and Federal prisons where job duties are more specialized. A relatively small number guard aliens being held by the Immigration and Naturalization Service before being released or deported. Re­ gardless of the setting, correction officers maintain order within the institution, enforce rules and regulations, and often supplement the counseling that inmates receive from psychologists, social workers, and other mental health professionals. To make sure inmates are orderly and obey rules, correction of­ ficers monitor inmates’ activities, including working, exercising, eating, and bathing. They assign and supervise inmates’ work as­ signments, as well as instruct and help them on specific tasks. Some­ times it is necessary to search inmates and their living quarters for weapons or drugs, to settle disputes between inmates, and to enforce discipline. Correction officers cannot show favoritism and must re­ port any inmate who violates the rules. To prevent escapes, officers staff security positions in towers and at gates. They count inmates periodically to make sure all are present. Correction officers inspect the facilities to assure the safety and security of the prisoners. For example, they check cells and other ar­ eas of the institution for unsanitary conditions, fire hazards, and evi­ dence of infractions of rules by inmates. In addition, they routinely inspect locks, window bars, grille doors, and gates for signs of tam­ pering. Correction officers report orally and in writing on inmate con­ duct and on the quality and quantity of work done by inmates. Of­ ficers also report disturbances, violations of rules, and any unusual occurrences. They usually keep a daily record of their activities. In some modem facilities, correction officers monitor the activities of prisoners from a centralized control center with the aid of closed cir­ cuit television cameras and a computer tracking system. Within the institution, correction officers escort inmates to and from cells and other areas and admit and accompany authorized vis­ itors. They also escort prisoners between the institution and court­ rooms, medical facilities, and other points. From time to time, they may inspect mail for contraband (prohibited items), administer first aid, or assist police authorities by investigating crimes committed within the institution and by searching for escaped inmates. Counseling and helping inmates with problems are increasingly important parts of the correction officer’s job. Correctional institu­ tions usually employ psychologists and social workers to counsel in­ mates, but correction officers informally supplement the work of the professionals. They may arrange a change in a daily schedule so that an inmate can visit the library, help inmates get news of their fami­ lies, talk over personal problems that may have led to committing a crime, or suggest where to look for a job after release from prison. In some institutions, officers receive specialized training and have a more formal counseling role and may lead or participate in group counseling sessions. Correction sergeants directly supervise correction officers. They usually are responsible for maintaining security and directing the activities of a group of inmates during an assigned watch or in an as­ signed area. Working Conditions Correction officers may work indoors or outdoors, depending on their specific duties. Some indoor areas are well lighted, heated, and ventilated, but others are overcrowded, hot, and noisy. Outdoors, weather conditions may be disagreeable, for example when standing 4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Correction officers closely monitor inmates' activities. watch on a guard tower in cold weather. Working in a correctional institution can be stressful and hazardous; correction officers occa­ sionally have been injured or killed during inmate disturbances. Correction officers usually work an 8-hour day 5 days a week. Prison security must be provided around the clock, which means some officers work weekends, holidays, and nights. In addition, of­ ficers may frequently be required to work overtime. Employment Correction officers held about 282,000 jobs in 1992. Six of every 10 worked at State correctional institutions such as prisons, prison camps, and reformatories. Most of the remainder worked at city and county jails or other institutions run by local governments. A few thousand correction officers worked at Federal correctional institu­ tions. Most correction officers work in relatively large institutions lo­ cated in rural areas, although a significant number work in jails and other smaller facilities located in cities and towns. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most institutions require that correction officers meet an 18- or 21year age minimum, have a high school education or its equivalent, and be a United States citizen. In addition, correctional institutions increasingly seek correction officers with postsecondary education in psychology, criminology, and related fields—reflecting a continu­ ing emphasis on personal counseling and rehabilitation of inmates. Correction officers must be in good health. Many States require candidates to meet formal standards of physical fitness, eyesight, and hearing. Strength, good judgment, and the ability to think and act quickly are assets. Other common requirements include a driv­ er’s license, work experience that demonstrates reliability, and hav­ ing no felony convictions. Some States screen applicants for drug abuse and require candidates to pass a written or oral examination. Federal, State, and local departments of correction provide train­ ing for correction officers based on guidelines established by the American Correctional Association, the American Jail Association, and other professional organizations. Some States have special training academies. All States and local departments of correction provide informal on-the-job training and advanced training as well. Academy trainees generally receive several weeks or months of instruction on institutional policies, regulations, and operations; counseling psychology, crisis intervention, inmate behavior, and contraband control; custody and security procedures; fire and safety; inmate rules and rights; administrative responsibilities; writ­ ten and oral communication, including preparation of reports; self­ defense, including the use of firearms; cardiopulmonary resuscita­ tion; and physical fitness training. New Federal correction officers undergo 2 weeks of training at their assigned institutions followed by 3 weeks of basic correctional instruction at the Federal Bureau of  Prisons training center at Glynco, Georgia. On-the-job trainees re­ ceive several weeks or months of similar training in an actual job set­ ting under an experienced officer. Experienced officers receive inser­ vice training to keep abreast of new ideas and procedures. Some complete home- study courses. Correction officers employed in Michigan must be certified. The criteria for certification are 340 hours of academy training and 15 hours of more advanced training that includes the law regarding corrections; human growth and development; and prison organiza­ tion. Officers in Pennsylvania’s 2-year apprenticeship program, which provides 4 weeks of orientation, 4 weeks of training at its academy, and 20 months of on-the-job training, receive certification from the U.S. Department of Labor. With additional education, experience, or training, qualified of­ ficers may advance to correction sergeant or other supervisory, ad­ ministrative, or counseling positions. Many correctional institutions require experience as a correction officer for other corrections posi­ tions. Officers sometimes transfer to related areas, such as probation and parole. Job Outlook Job opportunities for correction officers are expected to be plentiful through the year 2005. The need to replace correction officers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force, coupled with rising employment demand, will generate several tens of thousands of job openings each year. Correctional institutions have tradition­ ally experienced some difficulty in attracting qualified applicants, and this situation is expected to continue, ensuring highly favorable job prospects. Employment of correction officers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as additional officers are hired to supervise and counsel a growing in­ mate population. Expansion and new construction of correctional facilities also are expected to create many new jobs for correction of­ ficers, although State and local government budgetary constraints could affect the rate at which new facilities are built. Increasing pub­ lic concern about the spread of illegal drugs—resulting in more con­ victions—and the adoption of mandatory sentencing guidelines call­ ing for longer sentences and reduced parole for inmates also will spur demand for correction officers. Layoffs of correction officers are rare because security must be maintained in correctional institutions at all times. Earnings According to a survey by CONTAC, Inc., starting salaries of State correction officers averaged about $18,600 a year in 1992, ranging from $12,000 in Arkansas to $30,500 in New Jersey. Salaries, over­ all, averaged about $23,200 and ranged from $15,500 in Tennessee to $38,600 in California. Salaries generally were comparable for cor­ rection officers working in jails and other county and municipal cor­ rectional institutions. At the Federal level, the starting salary was about $18,300 a year in 1993; supervisory correction officers started at about $40,300 a year. The 1993 average salary for all Federal nonsupervisory correc­ tion officers was about $30,000; for supervisors, about $53,000. Correction officers usually are provided uniforms or an allowance to purchase their own. Most are provided or can participate in hos­ pitalization or major medical insurance plans; many officers can get disability and life insurance at group rates. They also receive vaca­ tion and sick leave and pension benefits. Officers employed by the Federal Government and most State governments are covered by civil service systems or merit boards. In over half of the States, cor­ rection officers are represented by labor unions. Related Occupations A number of related careers are open to high school graduates who are interested in the protective services and the field of security. Bai­ liffs guard offenders and maintain order in courtrooms during pro­ ceedings. Bodyguards escort people and protect them from injury or  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  invasion of privacy. House or store detectives patrol business estab­ lishments to protect against theft and vandalism and to enforce stan­ dards of good behavior. Security guards protect government, com­ mercial, and industrial property against theft, vandalism, illegal entry, and fire. Police officers and deputy sheriffs maintain law and order, prevent crime, and arrest offenders. Other corrections careers are open to persons interested in work­ ing with offenders. Probation and parole officers counsel offenders, process their release from correctional institutions, and evaluate their progress in becoming productive members of society. Recrea­ tion leaders organize and instruct offenders in sports, games, arts, and crafts. Some of these related occupations are discussed else­ where in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information Information about entrance requirements, training, and career op­ portunities for correction officers may be obtained from the Federal Office of Personnel Management, Federal Bureau of Prisons, State civil service commissions, State departments of correction, or nearby correctional institutions and facilities. Information on corrections careers, as well as information about schools that offer criminal justice education, financial assistance, and where to find jobs, is available from: O^CEGA Services, Inc., P.O. Box 81826, Lincoln, NE 68501-1826.  Additional information on careers in corrections is available from: ®=The American Correctional Association, 8025 Laurel Lakes Ct., Laurel, MD 20707. W The American Probation and Parole Association, P.O Box 201, Lexing­ ton, KY 40584. IS" The International Association of Correctional Officers, Box 53, 1333 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60605.  Firefighting Occupations (D.O.T. 169.167-022; 373 except .117; 379.687-010; 452.134, .167, .364-014, .367-010 and-014, .687-014)  Nature of the Work Every year, fires take thousands of lives and destroy property worth billions of dollars. Firefighters help protect the public against this danger. This statement provides information only about paid firefighters; it does not cover volunteer firefighters, who make up the overwhelming majority of all firefighters in the Nation. During duty hours, firefighters must be prepared to respond to a fire and handle any emergency that arises. Because firefighting is dangerous and complex, it requires organization and teamwork. At every fire, firefighters perform specific duties assigned by a superior officer. They may connect hose lines to hydrants, operate a pump, or position ladders. Their duties may change several times while the company is in action. They may rescue victims and administer emergency medical aid, ventilate smoke-filled areas, operate equip­ ment, and salvage the contents of buildings. The job of firefighter has become more complicated in recent years due to the use of increasingly sophisticated equipment. In ad­ dition, many firefighters have assumed additional responsibilities— for example, working with ambulance services that provide emer­ gency medical treatment, assisting in the recovery from natural di­ sasters such as earthquakes and tornadoes, and becoming involved with the control and cleanup of oil spills and other hazardous chem­ ical incidents. Some firefighters are responsible for fire safety in the Nation’s forests. Fire lookouts locate fires from remote fire-lookout stations and report their findings to headquarters by telephone or radio. Fire rangers patrol areas of the forest to locate and report fires and haz­ ardous conditions and to ensure that travelers and campers are com­ plying with fire regulations. When fires break out, firefighters go in to battle the blaze, parachuting from airplanes when necessary to reach inaccessible areas. 5  Most fire departments also are responsible for fire prevention. They provide specially trained personnel to inspect public buildings for conditions that might cause a fire. They may check building plans, the number and working condition of fire escapes and fire doors, the storage of flammable materials, and other possible hazards. Fire inspectors inspect pipes, hoses, and other fire appara­ tus to ensure that it is in working order. Firefighters also educate the public about fire prevention and safety measures. They frequently speak on this subject before school assemblies and civic groups. Fire marshalls investigate and gather facts to determine the cause of fires when arson or criminal neglience is suspected or someone is killed or seriously injured. In addition, they may have to testify in court about the evidence that they have gathered. Between alarms, firefighters have classroom training, clean and maintain equipment, conduct practice drills and fire inspections, and participate in physical fitness activities. Firefighters also pre­ pare written reports on fire incidents and review fire science litera­ ture to keep abreast of technological developments and administra­ tive practices and policies. Working Conditions Firefighters spend much of their time at fire stations, which usually have facilities for dining and sleeping. When an alarm comes in, firefighters must respond rapidly, regardless of the weather or hour. They may spend long periods at fires, medical emergencies, hazard­ ous chemical incidents, and other emergencies on their feet and out­ doors, sometimes in adverse weather. Firefighting is one of the most hazardous occupations. It involves risk of death or injury from sudden cave-ins of floors or toppling walls and from exposure to flames and smoke. Strong winds, and falling trees and branches can make fighting forest fires particularly dangerous. Firefighters also may come in contact with poisonous, flammable, and explosive gases and chemicals. For these reasons, firefighters must wear all kinds of protective gear. Work hours of firefighters are longer and vary more widely than hours of most other workers. The majority of firefighters work over 50 hours a week; during some weeks, they may work significantly longer hours. In some cities, firefighters are on duty for 24 hours, then off for 48 hours, and receive an extra day off at intervals. In other cities, they work a day shift of 10 hours for 3 or 4 days, a night shift of 14 hours for 3 or 4 nights, have 3 or 4 days off, and then re­ peat the cycle. In addition, firefighters often work extra hours at fires and other emergencies. Fire lieutenants and fire captains often work the same hours as the firefighters they supervise. Duty hours include time when firefighters study, train, and perform fire preven­ tion duties.  c~-  Firefighters routinely check equipment to ensure proper performance. 6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Firefighters held about 305,000 jobs in 1992. Nine of every 10 worked in municipal or county fire departments. Some very large cities have several thousand firefighters, while many small towns have only a few. Most of the remainder worked in fire departments on Federal and State installations, including airports. Private firefighting companies employ a small number. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Applicants for municipal firefighting jobs may have to pass a writ­ ten test; tests of strength, physical stamina, coordination, and agil­ ity; and a medical examination—including drug screening. Workers also may be monitored on a random basis for drug use after ac­ cepting employment. Examinations are open to persons who are at least 18 years of age and have a high school education or the equivalent. Those who receive the highest scores have the best chances for appointment. The completion of community college courses in fire science may improve an applicant’s chances for ap­ pointment. In fact, in recent years, an increasing proportion of en­ trants to this occupation have some postsecondary education. As a rule, beginners in large fire departments are trained for sev­ eral weeks at the department’s training center. Through classroom instruction and practical training, the recruits study firefighting techniques, fire prevention, hazardous materials, local building codes, and emergency medical procedures; also, they learn how to use axes, saws, chemical extinguishers, ladders, and other firefight­ ing and rescue equipment. After completing this training, they are assigned to a fire company, where they are evaluated during a period of probation. A number of fire departments have accredited apprenticeship programs lasting 3 to 4 years. These programs combine formal, technical instruction with on-the-job training under the supervision of experienced firefighters. Technical instruction covers subjects such as firefighting techniques and equipment, chemical hazards as­ sociated with various combustible building materials, emergency medical procedures, and fire prevention and safety. Most experienced firefighters continue to study to improve their job performance and prepare for promotion examinations. Today, firefighters need more training to operate increasingly sophisticated equipment and to deal safely with the greater hazards associated with fighting fires in larger, more elaborate structures. To progress to higher level positions, firefighters must acquire expertise in the most advanced firefighting equipment and techniques and in build­ ing construction, emergency medical procedures, writing, public speaking, management and budgeting procedures, and labor rela­ tions. Fire departments frequently conduct training programs, and some firefighters attend training sessions sponsored by the National Fire Academy on a variety of topics such as executive development, anti-arson techniques, and public fire safety and education. Some States also have extensive firefighter training programs. Many colleges and universities offer courses leading to 2- or 4year degrees in fire engineering or fire science. Many fire depart­ ment offer firefighters incentives such as tuition reimbursement or higher pay for completing advanced training. Among the personal qualities firefighters need are mental alert­ ness, courage, mechanical aptitude, endurance, and a sense of public service. Initiative and good judgment are extremely important be­ cause firefighters often must make quick decisions in emergencies. Because members of a crew eat, sleep, and work closely together under conditions of stress and danger, they should be dependable and able to get along well with others in a group. Leadership quali­ ties are necessary for officers, who must establish and maintain dis­ cipline and efficiency as well as direct the activities of firefighters in their companies. Opportunities for promotion are good in most fire departments. As firefighters gain experience, they may advance to a higher rank. The line of promotion usually is to engineer then lieutenant, captain, then battalion chief, assistant chief, deputy chief, and finally to chief. Advancement generally depends upon scores on a written ex­ amination, performance on the job, and seniority. Increasingly, fire departments are using assessment centers—which simulate a variety of actual job performance tasks—to screen for the best candidates for promotion. However, many fire departments require a master’s  degree—preferably in public administration or a related field—for promotion to positions higher than battalion chief. Job Outlook Firefighters are expected to face considerable competition for avail­ able job openings. Firefighting attracts many people because a high school education usually is sufficient, earnings are relatively high, and a pension is guaranteed upon retirement. In addition, the work is frequently exciting and challenging and affords an opportunity to perform a valuable public service. Consequently, the number of qualified applicants in most areas generally exceeds the number of job openings, even though the written examination and physical re­ quirements eliminate many applicants. This situation is expected to persist through the year 2005. Employment of firefighters is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as a result of the increase in the Nation’s population and fire protection needs. In addition, the number of paid firefighter positions is expected to in­ crease as a percentage of all firefighter jobs. Much of the expected increase will occur in smaller communities with expanding popula­ tions that augment volunteers with career firefighters to better meet growing, increasingly complex fire protection needs. However, little growth is expected in large, urban fire departments. A small number of local governments are expected to contract for firefighting ser­ vices with private companies. In response to the expanding role of firefighters, some municipali­ ties have combined fire prevention, public fire education, safety, and emergency medical services into a single organization commmonly referred to as a public safety organization. Some local and regional fire departments are being consolidated into county-wide establish­ ments in order to cut overhead, take advantage of economies of scale, reduce administrative staffs, and establish consistent training standards and work procedures. Turnover of firefighter jobs is unusually low, particularly for an occupation that requires a relatively limited investment in formal education. Nevertheless, most job openings are expected to result from the need to replace those who retire or stop working for other reasons, or who transfer to other occupations. Layoffs of firefighters are not common. Fire protection is an es­ sential service, and citizens are likely to exert considerable pressure on city officials to expand or at least preserve the level of fire-protec­ tion coverage. Even when budget cuts do occur, local fire depart­ ments usually cut expenses by postponing equipment purchases or not hiring new firefighters, rather than by laying off staff. Earnings Median weekly earnings for firefighting occupations were $636 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $499 and $824 weekly. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $362, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $987. Fire lieutenants and fire captains may earn considerably more. The law requires that overtime be paid to those firefighters who average 53 or more hours a week during their work period—which ranges from 7 to 28 days. Firefighters receive benefits that usually include medical and lia­ bility insurance, vacation and sick leave, and some paid holidays. Practically all fire departments provide protective clothing (hel­ mets, boots, and coats) and breathing apparatus, and many also pro­ vide dress uniforms. Firefighters generally are covered by liberal pension plans that often provide retirement at half pay at age 50 af­ ter 25 years of service or at any age if disabled in the line of duty. The majority of career firefighters are members of the Interna­ tional Association of Fire Fighters. Related Occupations A related fire protection occupation is the fire- protection engineer, who identifies fire hazards in homes and workplaces and designs prevention programs and automatic fire detection and extinguishing systems. Other occupations in which workers respond to emergen­ cies include police officers and emergency medical technicians.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information Information on obtaining a job as a firefighter is available from local civil service offices or fire departments. Information about a career as a firefighter may be obtained from: O’International Association of Fire Chiefs, 4025 Fair Ridge Dr., Fairfax, VA 22033-2868. W International Association of Fire Fighters, 1750 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Information about firefighter professional qualifications and a list of colleges and universities that offer 2- or 4-year degree programs in fire science or fire prevention may be obtained from: tjr National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269.  Additional information on the salaries and hours of work of firefighters in various cities is published annually by the Interna­ tional City Management Association in its Municipal Yearbook, which is available in many libraries.  Guards (D.O.T. 372.563, .567-010, .667-010, -014, and -030 through -038; 376.667-010; and 379.667-010)  Nature of the Work Guards, also called security officers, patrol and inspect property to protect against fire, theft, vandalism, and illegal entry. Their duties vary with the size, type, and location of their employer. In office buildings, banks, hospitals, and department stores, guards protect records, merchandise, money, and equipment. In de­ partment stores, they often work with undercover detectives to watch for theft by customers or store employees. At ports, airports, and railroads, guards protect merchandise be­ ing shipped as well as property and equipment. They screen passen­ gers and visitors for weapons, explosives, and other contraband. They ensure that nothing is stolen while being loaded or unloaded, and watch for fires, prowlers, and trouble among work crews. Some­ times they direct traffic. Guards who work in public buildings, such as museums or art galleries, protect paintings and exhibits. They also answer routine questions from visitors and sometimes guide tours. In factories, laboratories, government buildings, data processing centers, and military bases where valuable property or informa­ tion—such as information on new products, computer codes, or de­ fense secrets—must be protected, guards check the credentials of persons and vehicles entering and leaving the premises. University, park, or recreation guards perform similar duties and also may issue parking permits and direct traffic. Golf course patrollers prevent unauthorized persons from using the facility and help keep play run­ ning smoothly. At social affairs, sports events, conventions, and other public gatherings, guards provide information, assist in crowd control, and watch for persons who may cause trouble. Some guards work as “bouncers” and patrol places of entertainment such as nightclubs to preserve order among customers and to protect property. Armored car guards protect money and valuables during transit. Bodyguards protect individuals from bodily injury, kidnapping, or invasion of privacy. In a large organization, a security officer often is in charge of the guard force; in a small organization, a single worker may be respon­ sible for all security measures. Patrolling usually is done on foot, but if the property is large, guards may make their rounds by car or mo­ tor scooter. As more businesses purchase advanced electronic secur­ ity systems to protect their property, more guards are being assigned to stations where they monitor perimeter security, environmental functions, communications, and other systems. In many cases, these guards maintain radio contact with other guards patrolling on foot or in motor vehicles. Some guards use computers to store informa­ tion on matters relevant to security—for example, visitors or suspi­ cious occurrences—during their hours on duty. As they make their rounds, guards check all doors and windows, see that no unauthorized persons remain after working hours, and ensure that fire extinguishers, alarms, sprinkler systems, furnaces, and various electrical and plumbing systems are working properly. 7  They sometimes set thermostats or turn on lights for janitorial workers. Guards usually are uniformed and may carry a nightstick and gun, although the bearing of guns is decreasing. They also may carry a flashlight, whistle, two-way radio, and a watch clock—a device that indicates the time at which they reach various checkpoints. Correction officers—guards who work in prisons and other cor­ rectional institutions—are discussed separately in this section of the Handbook. Working Conditions Guards work indoors and outdoors patrolling buildings, industrial plants, and grounds. Indoors, they may be stationed at a guard desk to monitor electronic security and surveillance devices or to check the credentials of persons entering or leaving the premises. They also may be stationed at gate shelters or may patrol grounds in all weather. Because guards often work alone, there may be no one nearby to help if an accident or injury occurs. Some large firms, therefore, use a reporting service that enables guards to be in constant contact with a central station outside the plant. If they fail to transmit an ex­ pected signal, the central station investigates. Guard work is usually routine, but guards must be constantly alert for threats to them­ selves and to the property that they are protecting. Guards who work during the day may have a great deal of contact with other em­ ployees and members of the public. Many guards work alone at night; the usual shift lasts 8 hours. Some employers have three shifts, and guards rotate to divide day­ time, weekend, and holiday work equally. Guards usually eat on the job instead of taking a regular break. Employment Guards held about 803,000 jobs in 1992. Industrial security firms and guard agencies employed over one-half of all guards. These or­ ganizations provide security services on contract, assigning their guards to buildings and other sites as needed. The remainder were in-house guards, employed in large numbers by banks; building management companies; hotels; hospitals; retail stores; restaurants and bars; schools, colleges, and universities; and Federal, State, and local governments. Although guard jobs are found throughout the country, most are located in metropolitan areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer guards who are high school graduates. Ap­ plicants with less than a high school education also can qualify if they pass reading and writing tests and demonstrate competence in following written and oral instructions. Some jobs require a driver’s license. Employers also seek people who have had experience in the  SOfMAST UMjl  FLOOR  Guards check the credentials ofpersons entering or leaving a building. 8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  military police or in State and local police departments. Most per­ sons who enter guard jobs have prior work experience, although it is usually unrelated. Because of limited formal training requirements and flexible hours, this occupation attracts some persons seeking a second job. For some entrants, retired from military careers or other protective services, guard employment is a second career. Applicants are expected to have good character references, no po­ lice record, good health—especially in hearing and vision—and good personal habits such as neatness and dependability. They should be mentally alert, emotionally stable, and physically fit in or­ der to cope with emergencies. Guards who have frequent contact with the public should be friendly and personable. Some employers require applicants to take a polygraph examination or a written test of honesty, attitudes, and other personal qualities. Most employers require applicants and experienced workers to submit to drug screening tests as a condition of employment. Virtually all States and the District of Columbia have licensing or registration requirements for guards who work for contract security agencies. Registration generally requires that employment of an in­ dividual as a guard be reported to the licensing authorities—the State police department or other State licensing commission. To be granted a license as a guard, individuals generally must be 18 years old, have no convictions for peijury or acts of violence, pass a back­ ground examination, and complete classroom training in such sub­ jects as property rights, emergency procedures, and seizure of sus­ pected criminals. In 1990, only about five States and the District of Columbia had licensing requirements for in-house guards. Candidates for guard jobs in the Federal Government must have some experience as a guard and pass a written examination. Armed Forces experience also is an asset. For most Federal guard positions, applicants must qualify in the use of firearms. The amount of training guards receive varies. Training require­ ments generally are increasing as modern, highly sophisticated se­ curity systems become more commonplace. Many employers give newly hired guards instruction before they start the job and also provide several weeks of on-the- job training. More and more States are making ongoing training a legal requirement. For example, New York State now requires guards to complete 40 hours of training af­ ter starting work. Guards receive training in protection, public rela­ tions, report writing, crisis deterrence, first aid, drug control, and specialized training relevant to their particular assignment. Guards employed at establishments that place a heavy emphasis on security usually receive extensive formal training. For example, guards at nuclear power plants may undergo several months of training before being placed on duty under close supervision. Guards may be taught to use firearms, administer first aid, operate alarm systems and elec­ tronic security equipment, and spot and deal with security problems. Guards who are authorized to carry firearms may be peri­ odically tested in their use according to State or local laws. Some guards are periodically tested for strength and endurance. Although guards in small companies receive periodic salary in­ creases, advancement is likely to be limited. However, most large or­ ganizations use a military type of ranking that offers advancement in position and salary. Higher level guard experience may enable persons to transfer to police jobs that offer higher pay and greater opportunities for advancement. Guards with some college educa­ tion may advance to jobs that involve administrative duties or the prevention of espionage and sabotage. A few guards with manage­ ment skills open their own contract security guard agencies. Job Outlook Job openings for persons seeking work as guards are expected to be plentiful through the year 2005. High turnover and this occupa­ tion’s large size ranks it among those providing the greatest number of job openings in the entire economy. Many opportunities are ex­ pected for persons seeking full-time employment, as well as for those seeking part-time or second jobs at night or on weekends. However, some competition is expected for the higher paying in-house guard positions. Compared to contract security guards, in-house guards enjoy higher earnings and benefits, greater job security, and more advancement potential, and are usually given more training and re­ sponsibility. Employment of guards is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increased con­ cern about crime, vandalism, and terrorism will heighten the need  for security in and around plants, stores, offices, and recreation ar­ eas. The level of business investment in increasingly expensive plant and equipment is expected to rise, resulting in growth in the number of guard jobs. Demand for guards will also grow as private security firms increasingly perform duties—such as monitoring crowds at airports and providing security in courts—formerly handled by gov­ ernment police officers and marshals. (Police, detectives, and spe­ cial agents are discussed separately in this section of the Handbook.) Because engaging the services of a security guard firm is easier and less costly than assuming direct responsibility for hiring, training, and managing a security guard force, job growth is expected to be concentrated among contract security guard agencies. Guards employed by industrial security and guard agencies occa­ sionally are laid off when the firm at which they work does not re­ new its contract with their agency. Most are able to find employ­ ment with other agencies, however. Guards employed directly by the firm at which they work are seldom laid off because a plant or factory must still be protected even when economic conditions force it to close temporarily. Earnings According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, guards with less responsibilty and training had median hourly earn­ ings of $6.00 in 1992. The middle half earned between $5.00 and $7.35 an hour. Guards with more specialized training and experi­ ence had median hourly earnings of $ 11.15, with the middle half earning between $9.05 and $13.34 an hour. Guards employed by in­ dustrial security and guard agencies generally started at or slightly above the minimum wage, which was $4.25 an hour in 1993. Unionized in-house guards tend to earn more than the average. Many guards are represented by the United Plant Guard Workers Of America. Other guards belong to the International Union of Guards or the International Union Of Security Officers. Depending on their experience, newly hired guards in the Federal Government earned between $14,600 and $16,400 a year in 1993. Guards employed by the Federal Government averaged about $21,700 a year in 1993. These workers usually receive overtime pay as well as a wage differential for the second and third shifts. Related Occupations Guards protect property, maintain security, and enforce regulations for entry and conduct in the establishments at which they work. Re­ lated security and protective service occupations include: Bailiffs, border guards, correction officers, deputy sheriffs, fish and game wardens, house or store detectives, police officers, and private inves­ tigators. Sources of Additional Information Further information about work opportunities for guards is availa­ ble from local employers and the nearest State employment service office. Information about registration and licensing requirements for guards may be obtained from the State licensing commission or the State police department. In States where local jurisdictions establish licensing requirements, contact a local government authority such as the sheriff, county executive, or city manager.  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (List of D.O.T. codes available on request from the Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.)  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce adherence to a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, and procedures that protect the public on matters such as health, safety, food, immigration, licens­ ing, interstate commerce, and international trade. Depending upon their employer, inspectors’ duties vary widely.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work with engineers, chem­ ists, microbiologists, health workers, and lawyers to insure compli­ ance with public health and safety regulations governing food, drugs, cosmetics, and other consumer products. They also adminis­ ter regulations that govern the quarantine of persons and products entering the United States from foreign countries. The major types of health inspectors are consumer safety, food, agricultural quaran­ tine, and environmental health inspectors. In addition, some inspec­ tors work in agricultural commodity grading, a field closely related to food inspection. Most consumer safety inspectors specialize in food, feeds and pes­ ticides, weights and measures, cosmetics, drugs and medical equip­ ment, or radiation emitting products. Some are proficient in several areas. Working individually or in teams under a senior or supervi­ sory inspector, they periodically check firms that produce, handle, store, and market the products they regulate. Inspectors look for in­ accurate product labeling, and for decomposition or chemical or bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becom­ ing harmful to health. They may use portable scales, cameras, ultra­ violet lights, container sampling devices, thermometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, and other equipment to ascertain vi­ olations. They may send product samples collected as part of their examinations to laboratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their obser­ vations with plant managers or officials and point out areas where corrective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence that may be used in court if legal action must be taken to enforce the law. Federal and State laws empower food inspectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their byproducts to insure that they are safe for public consumption. Working onsite as a team under a veterinarian, they inspect meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and packaging operations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sanitation. Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect American agriculture from the spread of foreign plant and animal pests and diseases. To safeguard crops, forests, gardens, and livestock, they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and motor vehicles entering the United States for restricted or prohibited plants, animals, insects, agricultural commodities, and animal by-products. Environmental health inspectors, or sanitarians, who work prima­ rily for State and local governments, insure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions. They often examine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compli­ ance with sanitation rules and regulations and oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors may visit pollution sources and test for pollutants by collecting air, water, or waste samples for analysis. They try to determine the na­ ture and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, envi­ ronmental health inspectors may specialize in milk and dairy prod­ ucts, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, water pollution, institutional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small cities, they may be responsible for a wide range of environ­ mental health activities. Agricultural commodity graders apply quality standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities and to insure that retailers and consumers know the quality of the products they purchase. Al­ though this grading is not required by law, buyers generally will not purchase ungraded commodities. Graders usually specialize in an area such as eggs and egg products, meat, poultry, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They examine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certificates. Graders also may inspect the plant and equipment to maintain sanitation standards. Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspectors insure compliance with laws and regulations that protect the public welfare. Important types of regulatory inspectors include immigration, customs, avia­ tion safety, railroad, motor vehicle, occupational safety and health, 9  mine, wage-hour compliance, postal, and alcohol, tobacco, and fire­ arms. Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking to enter the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and to verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and pe­ titions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed in the U.S. and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points, they examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leav­ ing the United States to determine admissibility and the amount of tax that must be paid. They insure that all cargo is properly de­ scribed on accompanying manifests to determine the proper duty. They inspect baggage and articles worn by passengers and crew members to insure that all merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contraband is not present. They also ensure that peo­ ple, ships, planes, and anything used to import or export cargo com­ ply with all appropriate entrance and clearance requirements. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and enforce laws and regulations. As law enforcement agents, postal in­ spectors have statutory powers of arrest and the authority to carry firearms. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and mis­ use of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanagement or fraud, inspectors conduct management or financial audits. They also col­ laborate with other government agencies, such as the Internal Reve­ nue Service, as members of special task forces. Aviation safety inspectors insure that Federal Aviation Adminis­ tration (FAA) regulations which govern the quality and safety of aircraft equipment and personnel are maintained. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or flight operations procedures. They usu­ ally specialize in either commercial or general aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, repair stations, schools, and instructional materials. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate acci­ dents and review railroads’ operating practices. Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compliance of automobiles and trucks with State requirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect truck cargoes to assure compliance with legal limita­ tions on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Traffic inspectors oversee the scheduled service of streetcar, bus, or railway systems and determine the need for additional vehicles, revised schedules, or other changes to improve service. They also re­ port conditions hazardous to passengers and disruptive to service. Park rangers enforce laws and regulations in State and national parks. Their duties range from registering vehicles and visitors, col­ lecting fees, and providing information regarding park use and points of interest, to patrolling areas to prevent fire and theft, partic­ ipating in first aid and rescue activities, and training and supervising other park workers. Some rangers specialize in snow safety and ava­ lanche control. With increasing numbers of visitors to our national parks, their duties increasingly resemble those of traditional urban law enforcement officers in a rural setting, a kind of forest police. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of employ­ ment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment or unhealthy work­ ing conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and urge that violations be promptly corrected in ac­ cordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regulations. Mine safety and health inspectors work to insure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain in­ formation on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the management of the mine and issue citations describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also investigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and firefighting operations when fires or explosions occur. Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect employers’ time, pay­ roll, and personnel records to insure compliance with Federal laws 10  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  on such matters as minimum wages, overtime, pay, and employ­ ment of minors. They often interview employees to verify the em­ ployer’s records and to check for complaints. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair em­ ployment practices through consultation with and mediation be­ tween employers and minority groups. Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors inspect distilleries, win­ eries, and breweries; cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants; wholesale liquor dealers and importers; firearms and explosives manufacturers, dealers, and users; and other regulated facilities. They insure compliance with revenue laws and other regulations on operating procedures, unfair competition, and trade practices, and determine that appropriate taxes are paid. Some alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors have statutory powers of arrest and the au­ thority to carry firearms and investigate criminal activities. Securities compliance examiners implement regulations concern­ ing securities transactions. They investigate applications for regis­ tration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities transactions, and recommend necessary legal action. Revenue officers investigate delinquent tax returns and liabilities. They attempt to resolve tax problems with taxpayers and recom­ mend penalties, collection actions, and prosecution when necessary. Chief bank examiners direct investigations of financial institu­ tions to enforce Federal and State laws and regulations governing the institution’s operations and solvency. Examiners schedule au­ dits, determine actions to protect the institution’s solvency and the interests of shareholders and depositors, and recommend accept­ ance or rejection of applications for mergers, acquisitions, establish­ ment of a new institution, or acceptance in the Federal Reserve Sys­ tem. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised establish­ ments to ascertain compliance with the franchiser’s policies and procedures. They may suggest changes in financial and other opera­ tions. Logging operations inspectors review contract logging operations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Travel accommodations raters inspect hotels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tourist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Quality control inspectors and coordinators inspect products man­ ufactured or processed by private companies for government use to insure compliance with contract specifications. They may specialize in specific products such as lumber, machinery, petroleum prod­ ucts, paper products, electronic equipment, or furniture. Others co­ ordinate the activities of workers engaged in testing and evaluating pharmaceuticals in order to control quality of manufacture and in­ sure compliance with legal standards. Other inspectors and compliance officers include coroners, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and construction and building inspectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers meet people and work in a vari­ ety of environments. Their jobs often involve considerable field work, and some inspectors travel frequently. They often are fur­ nished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. Inspectors may experience unpleasant or dangerous working con­ ditions. For example, mine safety and health inspectors often are ex­ posed to the same hazards as miners. Food inspectors may examine and inspect the livestock slaughtering process in slaughterhouses and frequently come in contact with strong, unpleasant odors. Alco­ hol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors frequently confront risk when trying to curtail criminal activity. Customs inspectors may have to conduct body searches of passengers or crewmembers and may ex­ perience violence in the course of subsequent arrests. Park rangers may help work outdoors in very hot or bitterly cold weather, and risk injury in rough terrain or mountainous areas. Many inspectors  S A StaL- 4 % Inspectors promote the general health and safety by ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. work long and often irregular hours. Even those inspectors not en­ gaged in some form of police work may find themselves in adver­ sarial roles when the group being inspected does not want them there. Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held 155,000 jobs in 1992. State governments employed 33 percent, the Federal Government— chiefly the Departments of Defense, Treasury, Agriculture, and Jus­ tice—employed 28 percent, and local governments employed 20 percent. The remaining 19 percent were employed in the U.S. Postal Service and throughout the private sector—primarily in education, hospitals, insurance companies, labor unions, and manufacturing firms. The largest single employer of consumer safety inspectors is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agricultural commod­ ity graders in processing plants are employed by the U.S. Depart­ ment of Agriculture, as are agricultural quarantine inspectors. Many environmental health inspectors work for State and local gov­ ernments. Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in regional and district offices throughout the United States. The Department of Defense employs the most quality control inspectors. The Treasury Depart­ ment employs internal revenue officers, alcohol, tobacco, and fire­ arms inspectors, and customs inspectors. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution control laws. The U.S. Department of Labor and many State governments employ wage-hour compliance officers, occupa­ tional safety and health inspectors, and mine safety and health in­ spectors. Immigration inspectors are employed by the U.S. Depart­ ment of Justice, while the U.S. Department of Interior employs park rangers. Like agricultural quarantine inspectors, immigration and customs inspectors work in the United States and overseas at air­ ports, seaports, and border crossing points. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of functions, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Requirements are a com­ bination of education, experience, and often a passing grade on a written examination. Employers generally prefer applicants with  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  college training, including courses related to the job. The following examples illustrate the range of qualifications for various inspector jobs. Food inspectors must have related experience and pass an exami­ nation based on specialized knowledge. Postal inspectors must have a bachelor’s and a graduate degree or one of several professional certifications, such as certified public ac­ countant. They also must pass certain age and health requirements, possess a valid State driver’s license, and be a U.S. citizen. Aviation safety inspectors must have considerable experience in aviation maintenance and operations and knowledge of the industry and relevant Federal laws. In addition, FAA mechanic or pilot and medical certificates are required. Some also are required to have an FAA flight instructor rating. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight and maintenance training in the Armed Forces. No writ­ ten examination is required. Applicants for positions as mine safety and health inspectors gen­ erally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervi­ sion or possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electri­ cal inspectors). Most mine safety inspectors are former miners. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must have a bache­ lor’s degree or 3 years of business, legal, or investigative work expe­ rience that displays strong analytical ability. Park rangers need at least 2 years of college with courses in sci­ ence and criminal justice. Many start as part-time, seasonal workers with the U.S. Forest Service. Environmental health inspectors, called sanitarians in many States, sometimes must have a bachelor’s degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in applicable laws and inspection procedures through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter this occupation should be able to accept responsibility and like detailed work. Inspectors and compliance officers should be neat and per­ sonable and able to express themselves well orally and in writing. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For positions above this level (usually supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often simi­ lar to those in the Federal Government. Some civil service examinations, including those for agricultural quarantine inspectors, aviation safety inspectors, and agricultural commodity graders, rate applicants solely on their experience and education and require no written examination. Job Outlook Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, reflecting growing public demand for a safe environment and quality products. Employment growth, particularly in local govern­ ment, will stem from the expansion of regulatory and compliance programs in solid and hazardous waste disposal and water pollu­ tion. In private industry, employment growth will reflect increasing self-enforcement of government and company regulations and poli­ cies, particularly among the rapidly growing number of franchise dealerships in various industries. Job openings will also arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom af­ fected by general economic fluctuations. Most work in programs which enjoy wide public support. In addition, Federal, State, and lo­ cal governments—which employ most inspectors—provide workers with considerable job security. As a result, inspectors are less likely to lose their jobs than many other workers when government pro­ grams are cut. Earnings The median weekly salary of inspectors and compliance officers, ex­ cept construction, was about $630 in 1992. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $375; the highest 10 percent earned over $1,000. 11  In the Federal Government, the average annual salaries for in­ spectors varied substantially in 1993—from $24,800 to $59,300— depending upon the nature of the inspection or compliance activity. The following tabulation presents 1993 average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions.  Table 1. Average salaries of selected Federal inspectors and compliance of­ ficers, 1992  Aviation safety inspectors.............................................................. Highway safety inspectors............................................................ Insurance examiners..................................................................... Railroad safety inspectors.............................................................. Equal opportunity compliance officials........................................ Mine safety and health inspectors.................................................. Internal revenue agent.................................................................. Environmental protection specialists........................................... Import specialists.......................................................................... Safety and occupational health managers..................................... Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors.................................... Quality assurance inspectors......................................................... Public health quarantine inspectors ............................................. Securities compliance examiners................................................... Customs inspectors ....................................................................... Agricultural commodity graders.................................................. Immigration inspectors................................................................. Food inspectors............................................................................. Consumer safety inspectors........................................................... Transportation rate and tariff examiners..................................... Environmental protection assistants.............................................  $59,300 55,100 51,100 50,200 49,100 48,400 48,000 45,700 43,600 43,400 41,500 41,000 39,600 36,500 36,400 34,200 33,500 29,800 27,600 25,600 24,800  SOURCE: U.S. Office of Personnel Management  Salaries of inspectors and compliance officers in State and local government and in private industry are generally lower than those of their Federal counterparts. Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local governments and in large private firms, all of which gener­ ally offer more generous fringe benefits than do smaller firms.  Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Construction and building inspec­ tors, fire marshals, State and local police officers, FBI and Secret Service agents, and fish and game wardens also enforce laws.  Sources of Additional Information Information on Federal Government jobs is available from offices of the State employment service, area offices of the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management, and Federal Job Information Centers in large cities throughout the country. For information on a career as a spe­ cific type of Federal inspector or compliance officer, the Federal de­ partment or agency that employs them may also be contacted di­ rectly. Information about State and local government jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State Employment Service, which is listed under “Job Service” or “Employment” in the State government section of local telephone directories. 12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Inspectors, Testers, and Graders (List of D.O.T. codes available on request from the Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.)  Nature of the Work Inspectors, testers, and graders ensure that products meet quality standards. Virtually all manufactured products, including foods, textiles, clothing, glassware, automotive components and completed vehicles, electronic components, computers, and structural steel, are inspected. Inspectors visually check and may also listen to or feel products, or even taste or smell them. They verify dimensions, color, weight, texture, strength, or other physical characteristics of objects and look for imperfections such as cuts, scratches, bubbles, missing pieces, misweaves, or crooked seams. Many inspectors use microm­ eters, electronic equipment, calipers, alignment gauges, and other instruments to check and compare the dimensions of parts against the parts’ specifications. Those testing electrical devices may use voltmeters, ammeters, and oscilloscopes to test the insulation, cur­ rent flow, and resistance. Machinery testers generally check that parts fit and move correctly and are properly lubricated, check the pressure of gases and the level of liquids, test the flow of electricity, and do a test run to check for proper operation. Some jobs involve only a quick visual inspection; others require a much longer detailed one. Senior inspectors may also set up tests and test equipment. Some inspectors examine materials received from a supplier before sending them on to the production line. Others inspect com­ ponents, subassemblies, and assemblies or perform a final check on the finished product. Inspectors mark, tag, or note problems. They may reject defective items outright, send them for rework, or, in the case of minor problems, fix them themselves. If the product checks out, they may screw on a nameplate, tag it, stamp a serial number, or certify it in some other way. Inspectors also may calibrate precision instruments used in inspection work. Inspectors, testers, and graders record the results of their inspec­ tions, compute the percentage of defects and other statistical param­ eters, prepare inspection and test reports, notify supervisors of problems, and may help analyze and correct problems in the pro­ duction process. Increasingly in manufacturing, inspection is occurring through­ out the production process, rather than just at the end on the final product. Inspectors still test products to ensure that they will meet with specifications, but they may direct the production line to adjust the machinery before the manufacturing line produces unusable parts. Also, many firms have automated their inspection systems, using machinery installed at one or several points in the production process. The inspectors in these firms have generally been trained to operate this equipment. Working Conditions Working conditions vary from industry to industry. Some inspec­ tors examine similar products for an entire shift; others examine a variety of items. Most remain at one work station, but some travel from place to place to do inspections. Some are on their feet all day; others sit. In some industries, inspectors are exposed to the noise and grime of machinery; in others, they work in a clean, quiet envi­ ronment. Some may have to lift heavy objects. Some inspectors work evenings, nights, or weekends. In these cases, shift assignments generally are made on the basis of seniority. Overtime may be required to meet production goals. Employment Inspectors, testers, and graders held about 625,000jobs in 1992. Al­ most 8 of every 10 worked in manufacturing industries, including industrial machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and equip­ ment, primary and fabricated metals industries, electronic compo­ nents and accessories, textiles, apparel, and aircraft and parts. Some  worked in communications and utilities, wholesale trade, engineer­ ing and management services, and government agencies. Although they are employed throughout the country, most jobs are in large metropolitan areas where many large factories are located. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A high school diploma is helpful and may be required for some jobs. Simple jobs are generally filled by beginners with a few days’ train­ ing. More complex ones are filled by experienced assemblers, ma­ chine operators, or mechanics who already have a thorough knowl­ edge of the products and production processes. In-house training for new inspectors may cover the use of special meters, gauges, computers, or other instruments; quality control techniques; blueprint reading; and reporting requirements. There are some postsecondary training programs in testing, but most em­ ployers prefer to train inspectors themselves. Inspectors, testers, and graders need mechanical aptitude, good hand-eye coordination, and good vision. Advancement for these workers frequently takes the form of higher pay. However, they also may advance to inspector of more complex products, supervisor, or quality control technician.  Earnings Inspectors, testers, and graders had median weekly earnings of about $381 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned from about $282 to $534 a week. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $209 a week; the highest 10 percent earned more than $691. Related Occupations Other workers who inspect products or services are construction and building inspectors and inspectors and compliance officers, ex­ cept construction, which includes consumer safety, environmental health, agricultural commodity, immigration, customs, postal, mo­ tor vehicle, safety, and other inspectors. Sources of Additional Information For general information about this occupation, contact: *3” The National Tooling and Machining Association, 9300 Livingston Rd., Fort Washington, MD 20744. tw The American Society for Quality Control, Membership Department, 310 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI53203.  Police, Detectives, and Special Agents Job Outlook Individuals wishing to become inspectors, testers, or graders may face competition. Although the occupation is large, giving rise to a large number of openings due to normal turnover, jobs often are only available to those having experience with the production pro­ cess. Also, like many other occupations concentrated in manufac­ turing, employment is projected to decline through the year 2005. Even though the volume of manufactured goods will grow, em­ ployment will not grow for several reasons. For one thing, manufac­ turers are taking steps to improve production methods—relying on computers and statistical analysis to control the production process. This should result in fewer defects and reduced requirements for in­ spectors. In some cases, machines will alert workers when items ap­ proach limits so that problems can be corrected before defects oc­ cur. In addition, more firms are holding assemblers, machine operators, and other production workers responsible for quality, and having them correct problems as they occur. Also, better in­ specting machinery will improve inspectors’ speed and accuracy, so fewer of them will be needed, and, in some special cases, completely automated equipment will eliminate the need for inspectors. In many industries, however, automation is not being aggres­ sively pursued as an alternative to manual inspection. When key in­ spection elements are size oriented, such as length, width, or thick­ ness, automation may play some role in the future. But when taste, smell, texture, appearance, or product performance are important, inspection will probably continue to be done by humans.  xm 1  ___  A precision inspector uses a machine that measures a part’s exact dimensions.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (List of D.O.T. codes available on request from the Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.)  Nature of the Work The safety of our Nation’s cities, towns, and highways greatly de­ pends on the work of police officers, detectives, and special agents, whose responsibilities range from controlling traffic to preventing and investigating crimes. In most jurisdictions, whether on or off duty, these officers are expected to exercise their authority when­ ever necessary. As civilian police department employees and private security per­ sonnel increasingly assume routine police duties, police and detec­ tives are able to spend more time fighting serious crime. Police and detectives are also becoming more involved in community rela­ tions—increasing public confidence in the police and mobilizing the public to help the police fight crime. Police officers and detectives who work in small communities and rural areas have many duties. In the course of a day’s work, they may direct traffic at the scene of a fire, investigate a burglary, or give first aid to an accident victim. In a large police department, by con­ trast, officers usually are assigned to a specific type of duty. Most of­ ficers are detailed either to patrol or to traffic duty; smaller numbers are assigned to special work such as accident prevention. Others are experts in chemical and microscopic analysis, firearms identifica­ tion, and handwriting and fingerprint identification. In very large cities, a few officers may work with special units such as mounted and motorcycle police, harbor patrols, helicopter patrols, canine corps, mobile rescue teams, and youth aid services. Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs generally enforce the law in rural ar­ eas or those places where there is no local police department. Bailiffs are responsible for keeping order in the courtroom. U.S. marshals serve civil writs and criminal warrants issued by Federal judges and are responsible for the safety and transportation of jurors and pris­ oners. Detectives and special agents are plainclothes investigators who gather facts and collect evidence for criminal cases. They conduct interviews, examine records, observe the activities of suspects, and participate in raids or arrests. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) special agents investigate violations of Federal laws in connection with bank robberies, theft of Government property, organized crime, espionage, sabotage, kid­ napping, and terrorism. Agents with specialized training usually work on cases related to their background. For example, agents with an accounting background may investigate white-collar crimes such as bank embezzlements or fraudulent bankruptcies and land deals. Frequently, agents must testify in court about cases that they inves­ tigate. Special agents employed by the U.S. Department of Treasury work for the U.S. Customs Service; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, 13  and Firearms; the U.S. Secret Service; and the Internal Revenue Service. Customs agents enforce laws to prevent smuggling of goods across U.S. borders. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms agents might investigate suspected illegal sales of guns or the underpayment of taxes by a liquor or cigarette manufacturer. U.S. Secret Service agents protect the President, Vice President, and their immediate families, Presidential candidates, ex-Presidents, and foreign dignita­ ries visiting the United States. Secret Service agents also investigate counterfeiting, the forgery of Government checks or bonds, and the fraudulent use of credit cards. Internal Revenue Service special agents collect evidence against individuals and companies that are evading the payment of Federal taxes. Federal drug enforcement agents conduct criminal investigations of illicit drug activity. They compile evidence and arrest individuals who violate Federal drug laws. They may prepare reports that are used in criminal proceedings, give testimony in court, and develop evidence that justifies the seizure of financial assets gained from ille­ gal activity. State police officers (sometimes called State troopers or highway patrol officers) patrol highways and enforce laws and regulations that govern their use. They issue traffic citations to motorists who violate the law. At the scene of an accident, they direct traffic, give first aid, and call for emergency equipment including ambulances. They also write reports that may be used to determine the cause of the accident. In addition, State police officers provide services to motorists on the highways. For example, they may radio for road service for drivers with mechanical trouble, direct tourists to their destination, or give information about lodging, restaurants, and tourist attractions. State police officers also provide traffic assistance and control during road repairs, fires, and other emergencies, as well as during special occurrences such as parades and sports events. They some­ times check the weight of commercial vehicles, conduct driver ex­ aminations, and give information on highway safety to the public. In addition to highway responsibilities, State police in the major­ ity of States also enforce criminal laws. In communities and counties that do not have a local police force or a large sheriffs department, the State police are the primary law enforcement agency, investigat­ ing crimes such as burglary or assault. They also may help city or county police catch lawbreakers and control civil disturbances. Most new police recruits begin on patrol duty, riding in a police vehicle or walking on “foot” patrol. They work alone or with exper­ ienced officers in such varied areas as congested business districts or outlying residential neighborhoods. Officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with conditions throughout their area and, while on patrol, remain alert for anything unusual. They note suspi­ cious circumstances, such as open windows or lights in vacant build­ ings, as well as hazards to public safety such as bumed-out street lights or fallen trees. Officers enforce traffic regulations and also watch for stolen vehicles. At regular intervals, officers report to po­ lice headquarters from call boxes, radios, or telephones. Regardless of where they work, police, detectives, and special agents must write reports and maintain police records. They may be called to testify in court when their arrests result in legal action. Some officers, such as division or bureau chiefs, are responsible for training or certain kinds of criminal investigations, and those who command police operations in an assigned area have administrative and supervisory duties. Working Conditions Police, detectives, and special agents usually work 40 hours a week, but paid overtime work is common. Because police protection must be provided around the clock in all but the smallest communities, some officers work weekends, holidays, and nights. Police officers, detectives, and special agents are subject to call any time their ser­ vices are needed and may work overtime, particularly during crimi­ nal investigations. The jobs of some special agents such as U.S. Secret Service agents require extensive travel. Police, detectives, and special agents may have to work outdoors for long periods in all kinds of weather. The injury rate among these law officers is higher than in many occupations and reflects the risks taken in pursuing speeding motorists, apprehending criminals, and dealing with public disorders. Police work can be very dangerous, and this can be very stressful for the officer as well as for his or her family. 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  €r  I \  s  ^'*r\  Responsibilities ofpolice officers range from controlling traffic and preventing and investigating crimes. Employment Police, detectives, and special agents held about 700,000 jobs in 1992. Most were employed by local governments, primarily in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Some cities have very large po­ lice forces, while hundreds of small communities employ fewer than 25 officers each. State police agencies employed about 12 percent of all police, detectives, and special agents; various Federal agencies, particularly the Treasury Department and the Federal Bureau of In­ vestigation, employed an additional 5 percent. There are about 17,000 State and local police departments in the Nation. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Civil service regulations govern the appointment of police and detectives in practically all States and large cities and in many small ones. Candidates must be U.S. citizens, usually at least 20 years of age, and must meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. Eligibility for appointment depends on performance in competitive written examinations as well as on education and experience. Physi­ cal examinations often include tests of vision, strength, and agility. Because personal characteristics such as honesty, good judgment, and a sense of responsibility are especially important in police and detective work, candidates are interviewed by a senior officer at po­ lice headquarters, and their character traits and background are in­ vestigated. In some police departments, candidates also may be in­ terviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist, or be given a personality test. Most applicants are subjected to lie detector exami­ nations and drug testing. Some police departments subject police of­ ficers in sensitive positions to drug testing as a condition of continu­ ing employment. Although police and detectives often work independently, they must perform their duties in accordance with laws and departmental rules. They should enjoy working with peo­ ple and serving the public. In large police departments, where most jobs are found, appli­ cants usually must have a high school education. An increasing number of cities and States require some college training, and some hire law enforcement students as police interns; some departments require a college degree. A few police departments accept applicants as recruits who have less than a high school education, particularly if they have worked in a field related to law enforcement. To be considered for appointment as an FBI special agent, an ap­ plicant either must be a graduate of an accredited law school; be a college graduate with a major in either accounting, engineering, or computer science; or be a college graduate with either fluency in a foreign language or 3 years of full-time work experience. Applicants must be U.S. citizens, between 23 and 35 years of age at the time of appointment, and willing to accept an assignment anywhere in the United States. They also must be in excellent physical condition with at least 20/200 vision corrected to 20/40 in one eye and 20/20 in the other eye. All new agents undergo 15 weeks of training at the FBI academy at the U.S. Marine Corps base in Quantico, Virginia.  Applicants for special agent jobs with the U.S. Department of Treasury must have a bachelor’s degree, or a minimum of 3 years’ work experience of which at least 2 are in criminal investigation. Candidates must be in excellent physical condition and be less than 35 years of age at the time they enter duty. Treasury agents undergo 8 weeks of training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia, and another 8 weeks of specialized training with their particular bureau. Applicants for special agent jobs with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration must have a college degree in any field and either 1 year of experience conducting criminal investigations or have achieved a record of scholastic excellence while in college. The mini­ mum age for entry is 21 and the maximum age is 36. Drug enforce­ ment agents undergo 14 weeks of specialized training at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. More and more, police departments are encouraging applicants to take post-high school training in law enforcement. Many entrants to police and detective jobs have completed some formal postsecon­ dary education and a significant number are college graduates. Many junior colleges, colleges, and universities offer programs in law enforcement or administration of justice. Other courses helpful in preparing for a police career include psychology, counseling, En­ glish, American history, public administration, public relations, so­ ciology, business law, chemistry, and physics. Participation in phys­ ical education and sports is especially helpful in developing the stamina and agility needed for police work. Knowledge of a foreign language is an asset in areas that have concentrations of ethnic populations. Some large cities hire high school graduates who are still in their teens as civilian police cadets or trainees. They do clerical work and attend classes and are appointed to the regular force at age 21 if qualified. Before their first assignments, officers usually go through a pe­ riod of training. In small communities, recruits work for a short time with experienced officers. In State and large city police depart­ ments, they get more formal training that may last a number of weeks or months. This training includes classroom instruction in constitutional law and civil rights, State laws and local ordinances, and accident investigation. Recruits also receive training and super­ vised experience in patrol, traffic control, use of firearms, self-de­ fense, first aid, and handling emergencies. Police officers usually become eligible for promotion after a pro­ bationary period ranging from 6 months to 3 years. In a large de­ partment, promotion may enable an officer to become a detective or specialize in one type of police work such as laboratory analysis of evidence, traffic control, communications, or working with juveniles. Promotions to sergeant, lieutenant, and captain usually are made according to a candidate’s position on a promotion list, as determined by scores on a written examination and on-the-job per­ formance. Many types of training help police officers and detectives improve their job performance. Through training given at police department academies—required annually in many States—and colleges, of­ ficers keep abreast of crowd-control techniques, civil defense, legal developments that affect their work, and advances in law enforce­ ment equipment. Many police departments pay all or part of the tui­ tion for officers to work toward associate and bachelor’s degrees in law enforcement, police science, administration of justice, or public administration, and pay higher salaries to those who earn a degree. Job Outlook Employment of police officers, detectives, and special agents is ex­ pected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. A more security- conscious society and growing concern about drug-related crimes should contribute to the increasing demand for police services. However, employment growth will be tempered somewhat by continuing budgetary con­ straints faced by law enforcement agencies. In addition, private se­ curity firms may increasingly assume some routine police duties such as crowd surveillance at airports and other public places. Al­ though turnover in police, detective, and special agent jobs is among the lowest of all occupations, the need to replace workers who retire, transfer to other occupations, or stop working for other reasons will be the source of most job openings.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The opportunity for public service through police work is attrac­ tive to many. The job frequently is challenging and involves much responsibility. Furthermore, in many communities, police officers may retire with a pension to pursue a second career while still in their 40’s. Because of attractive salaries and benefits, the number of qualified candidates generally exceeds the number ofjob openings in many Federal agencies and some State and local police depart­ ments—resulting in increased hiring standards and selectivity by employers. Competition is expected to remain keen for higher pay­ ing jobs in larger police departments. Persons having college train­ ing in law enforcement should have the best opportunities. Opportu­ nities will be best in those communities whose departments are expanding and are having difficulty attracting an adequate supply of police officers. Competition is expected to be extremely keen for spe­ cial agent positions with the FBI, Treasury Department, and Drug Enforcement Administration as these prestigious jobs tend to at­ tract a far greater number of applicants than the number of job openings. Consequently, only the most highly qualified candidates will obtain jobs. The level of government spending influences the employment of police officers, detectives, and special agents. The number ofjob op­ portunities, therefore, can vary from year to year and from place to place. Layoffs, on the other hand, are rare because early retirements enable most staffing cuts to be handled through attrition. Police of­ ficers who lose their jobs from budget cuts usually have little diffi­ culty finding jobs with other police departments. Earnings In 1992, the median salary of nonsupervisory police officers and detectives was about $32,000 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between about $24,500 and $41,200; the lowest paid 10 percent were paid less than $18,400, while the highest paid 10 percent earned over $51,200 a year. Generally, salaries tend to be higher in larger, more urban jurisdictions that usually have bigger police departments. Police officers and detectives in supervisory positions had a me­ dian salary of about $38,100 a year, also in 1992. The middle 50 per­ cent earned between about $28,300 and $49,800; the lowest paid 10 percent were paid less than $23,200, while the highest paid 10 per­ cent earned over $58,400 annually. Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers had a median annual salary of about $25,800 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between about $20,500 and $30,900; the lowest paid 10 per­ cent were paid less than $15,600, while the highest paid 10 percent earned over $38,800. In 1993, FBI agents started at about $30,600 a year, while Trea­ sury Department agents started at about $18,300 or $22,700 a year, and DEA agents at either $22,700 or $27,800 a year, depending on their qualifications. Salaries of experienced FBI agents started at around $47,900, while supervisory agents started at around $56,600 a year. Salaries of experienced Treasury Department and DEA agents started at $40,200, while supervisory agents started at $47,900. Federal agents may, however, be eligible for a special law enforcement compensation and retirement plan; applicants should ask their recruiter for more information. Total earnings frequently exceed the stated salary due to pay­ ments for overtime, which can be significant, especially during crim­ inal investigations or when police are needed for crowd control dur­ ing sporting events or political rallies. In addition to the common fringe benefits—paid vacation, sick leave, and medical and life in­ surance—most police departments and Federal agencies provide of­ ficers with special allowances for uniforms and furnish revolvers, nightsticks, handcuffs, and other required equipment. In addition, because police officers generally are covered by liberal pension plans, many retire at half-pay after 20 or 25 years of service. Related Occupations Police officers maintain law and order in the Nation’s cities, towns, and rural areas. Workers in related law enforcement occupations in­ clude guards, bailiffs, correction officers, deputy sheriffs, fire mar­ shals, fish and game wardens, and U.S. marshals. Sources of Additional Information Information about entrance requirements may be obtained from Federal, State, and local civil service commissions or police depart­ ments. 15  Contact any Office of Personnel Management Job Information Center for pamphlets providing general information and instructions for submitting an application for jobs as Treasury special agents, drug enforcement agents, FBI special agents, or U.S. marshals. Look under U.S. Government, Office of Personnel Management, in your telephone directory to obtain a local telephone number.  16  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information about law enforcement careers in general may be ob­ tained from: ©•International Union of Police Associations, 1016 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  ☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1994 363-539 2450-14
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102