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For example, those making women’s
suits, coats, and skirts averaged
$83.15 a week in early 1967, whereas
those producing men’s work clothing
averaged $57.44 a week. Earnings of
apparel workers also vary by occu­
pation and geographical area. For
example, average hourly earnings of
cutters and pressers in almost all
Women’s and misses’ dresses

areas are higher than those of sewing
machine operators; and average
hourly earnings generally are lower
in the South than in the Middle
Atlantic States. The following tabu­
lation gives estimated average hourly
earnings for selected occupations and
geographical areas in one segment of
the apparel industry in March 1966:
Estimated average hourly earnings
Wilkes- Los AnBarre- geles-Long New York
Hazleton Beach

All production workers........................................................ $1.89
Cutters and markers (almost all men).......................................
2. 79
Pressers, hand (women)..................................................................
2. 61
Pressers, hand (men).......................................................................
3. 17
Sewers, hand (almost all womfcn)................................................
Sewing machine operators, section system (almost all
Sewing machine operators, single hand (tailor) system (al­
most all women).............................................................................................

Because most production workers
in this industry are paid on the basis
of the number of pieces they produce,
their total earnings depend upon
speed as well as skill. Sewing machine
operators, hand sewers, and pressers
generally are paid on a piecework
basis. Cutters are paid either piece­
work rates or hourly wages, depend­
ing upon the practice in the area or
shop in which they work. Most of the
other workers, including tailors, pat­
ternmakers, graders, inspectors, and
work distributors, are paid by the
hour or week.
In most metropolitan areas, the
bulk of apparel employees work in
shops that have union contracts. New
employees in plants which have these
agreements are required to join the
union after 30 days of employment.
These agreements deal with such sub­
jects as wages; hours of work; vaca­
tion and holiday pay; seniority;
health, insurance, and pension plans;
and other employment matters.
Among the unions to which apparel
workers belong are the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America
(ACWA), International Ladies’ Gar­
ment Workers’ Union (ILGWU),
and United Garment Workers of
America (UGW). The ILGWU
sponsors vacation resorts for union

3. 28
2. 22
2. 94

3. 55
2. 91
5. 08



members and their families. Both the
ACWA and the ILGWU operate
health centers for garment workers
in major producing areas.
Workers in the apparel industry
can expect to lose very little work
time as a result of strikes or other
work stoppages because the industry
has had many years of peaceful labormanagement relations. However,
workers making certain types of gar­
ments may have layoffs of several
weeks during slack seasons. Generally,
such layoffs occur more often in
plants making seasonal garments,
such as women’s coats and suits, than
in plants producing standardized gar­
ments, such as pajamas and men’s
shirts, which are worn all year long.
In many plants, the available work
during slack periods is divided so that
workers can be assured of at least
some earnings. Also, more and more
firms are diversifying the types of
apparel they make, which reduces
seasonal employment declines.
Old buildings, whose surroundings
and facilities may frequently leave
much to be desired, continue to
house most apparel establishments,
especially those in metropolitan areas.
Newly constructed plants usually
have ample space, good lighting, and
air conditioning. Some of the new

plants have cafeterias, and health
clinics with a registered nurse on
Most sewing jobs are performed
while sitting and are not physically
strenuous. The working pace is rapid
because workers’ earnings depend on
their production. In addition, many
tasks are extremely monotonous.
Serious accidents among sewers are
rare, although a sewer may occasion­
ally pierce a finger with a needle. On
the other hand, pressing may be
strenuous work and involves working
with hot steam.
Working conditions in cutting and
designing rooms are pleasant. In
manufacturing establishments, de­
signing and cutting are often per­
formed in a separate area away from
the main sewing and pressing opera­
tions. Jobs in designing and cutting
operations are more interesting and
less monotonous than most other ap­
parel jobs. Moreover, since accuracy
and skill as well as individual talent
and judgment are valued more than
speed in these jobs, the work pace is
less rapid.
Where To Go for More Information

Information relating to vocational
and high schools that offer training
in designing, tailoring, and sewing
may be obtained from the Division
of Vocational Education of the De­
partment of Education in the State
Information concerning appren­
ticeships may be obtained from the
Apprenticeship Council of the State
Labor Department or the local of­
fice of the U.S. Employment Service.
Some local Employment Service of­
fices give tests to determine hand-eye
coordination, which is important for
many apparel industry jobs.
Information of a general nature
may be obtained from the following
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
15 Union Square, New York, N.Y.



American Apparel Manufacturers
Association, Inc.,
2000 K St. N W , Washington, D.C.
Associated Fur Manufacturers, Inc.,
101 West 30th St., New York, N.Y.


Clothing Manufacturers Association
of U.S.A.,
135 West 50th St., New York, N.Y.
National Outerwear and Sportswear
Association, Inc.,
347 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.

International Ladies’ Garment Work­
ers’ Union,
1710 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
United Garment Workers of Amer­
31 Union Square, New York, N.Y.


In early 1967, about 175,000 work­
ers had jobs in a variety of atomic
energy activities. Large numbers of
these workers were employed in re­
search and development work. Others
were engaged in activities such as the
manufacture of nuclear weapons and
other defense materials, the design
and manufacture of nuclear reactors,
and the production of nuclear fuels.
The majority of atomic energy work­
ers are scientists, engineers, techni­
cians, or craftsmen. Employment
opportunities for these workers will
continue to be especially favorable
through the 1970’s.
Applications of Atomic Energy

Atomic energy is a source of enor­
mous heat and radiation that can be
used in many ways for peaceful as
well as military purposes. Peaceful
applications of atomic energy are
still in the early stages of develop­
ment, and continuing research and
development programs will be needed
during the next several decades to
find new and more efficient ways of
utilizing this force.
One of the most significant uses of
atomic energy is in the production of
commercial electricity, using nuclear
reactors as the heat source. (See chart
49.) Steam produced by such reac­
tors is now generating electricity for
several communities. In recent years

these reactors have become more com­
petitive with systems using fossil fuels,
such as coal and oil, and it is antici­
pated that many more nuclear facil­
ities will be built. Since reactors are
an efficient source of thermal energy,
they also can be used to evaporate
large quantities of sea water to pro­
duce fresh water—a process known
as desalting. Plans are already being
developed to build a combination
power generation and desalting plant.
Nuclear reactors provide power for
naval and commercial ships. By vir­
tually eliminating the need for refuel­
ing, nuclear propulsion greatly ex­
tends the range and mobility of our
naval forces. Research towards de­
veloping nuclear propulsion for space
vehicles hold excellent promise for
extending the range of space flights
by eliminatmg the need to carry
great quantities of conventional fuel.
Although existing reactors generate
tremendous amounts of power from
a small amount of uranium, research
is continuing in an effort to develop
even more efficient reactors. Still fur­
ther in the future, we can hope to
generate power through controlled
fusion. Fusion occurs naturally on the
sun, and scientists already have pro­
duced uncontrolled fusion in the hy­
drogen bomb, but have not yet been
able to produce a controlled fusion
reaction on a relatively small scale.
Research also is being conducted in
the “Plowshare” program to develop
peaceful uses for nuclear explosives.
The program has many potential ap­
plications in such areas as gas and oil
recovery, mining operations, and in
excavation of harbors, canals, and
mountain passes.
Another significant application of
atomic energy is in the use of radio­
isotopes which decay or disintegrate
spontaneously, emitting radiation
that can be detected by special instru­
ments. Radioisotopes are very valu­
able as research tools in agriculture,
medicine, and industry and for use in
industrial inspection and control

Nuclear radiation also has tre­
mendous potential as an aid in the
preservation of food. One of the ma­
jor causes of food spoilage is the
activity of micro-organisms. When
food is treated with radiation, these
organisms are killed, and the spoilage
process is greatly inhibited. This treat­
ment makes possible the long term
storage of certain foods without re­
frigeration, and extends the time for
marketing certain perishable refrig­
erated items such as fresh fruits and
How Atomic Energy Is Produced

Atomic energy, or more accurately
nuclear energy, may be produced
through several processes, the two
most important of which are fission
and fusion. In fission, the nucleus of a
heavy atom is split, releasing energy
in the form of heat and radiation, and
producing two lighter elements or
more. In fusion, energy is released
by combining the nuclei of two light
atoms. The detonation of atomic
bombs is an application of the ex­
plosive release of enormous amounts
of atomic energy. Nonweapon appli­
cations require that release of this
energy be carefully controlled and
regulated so that it proceeds at a
manageable rate.
Controlled fission is the essential
feature of a nuclear reactor. The re­
actor, being a furnace, requires fuel
to operate. The principal source ma­
terial for reactor fuel is uranium,
which in its natural state contains
less than 1 percent of readily fission­
able material, uranium U— Al­
though natural uranium is used as re­
actor fuel, a more concentrated and
enriched fuel can be produced and
used by increasing the proportion of
U-235 isotopes through a process
called gaseous diffusion. U-235 occurs
naturally and undergoes fission read­
ily, but two manmade fissionable ma­
terials, plutonium and uranium U—
235, also can be used as reactor fuel.

Fissionable fuel is placed in the
nuclear reactor with certain other
elements. Under proper conditions,
the fuel will sustain a “chain reac­
tion”—the continuous fissioning (or
splitting) of the nuclei of atoms—re­
sulting in the release of energy in the
form of heat and radiation. When the
fissionable atoms in the fuel split, they
release neutrons (so-called “atomic
bullets”) which cause other fission­
able atoms to split. These, ;n turn, re­
lease additional neutrons which sim­
ilarly split more atoms. The level of
the chain reaction is carefully con­
trolled, usually by inserting special
neutron-absorbing rods into the fuel
chamber, or “core,” of the reactor. In
this way, the rate of the fission reac­
tion and of the energy produced can
be regulated or stopped completely.
Thus, harnessed atomic energy is
produced in a nuclear reactor in the
form of heat and radiation. However,
if reactors are to be used for power,
the heat must be removed from the
reactor and put to work. This is done
by converting the heat to electricity
through the use of conventional
equipment. The major difference be­
tween nuclear and conventional
thermal electric power stations is that
the heat needed to generate steam to
drive turbines comes from a nuclear
reactor rather than from a conven­
tional steam-generating boiler fueled
with coal, gas, or oil.
During the fission process, nuc’ear
radiation is released. This radiation,
identifiable only by sensitive instru­
ments, can be ruinous to equipment
and highly dangerous to personnel.
Therefore, special materials, resistant
to damage by radiation, are used in
reactors and great care is taken to
protect personnel.
Nature of the Atomic Energy Field

Many different kinds of research
and industrial activities are required
for the production and application
of nuclear energy. Included in the
various processes is the mining, mill­


ing, and refining of uranium-bearing
ores; the production of nuclear fuels;
the manufacture of nuclear reactors,
reactor components, and nuclear in­
struments; the production of special
materials for use in reactors; the de­
sign, engineering, and construction of
nuclear facilities; the operation and
maintenance of nuclear reactors; the
disposal of radioactive wastes; the
processing and packaging of radio­
isotopes; the production of nuclear
weapons; and research and develop­
ment work.
These activities are performed in
plants in several different industries,
as well as in laboratories and other
types of facilities. Much of this work,
such as ore mining and milling, manu­
facture of heat transfer equipment,
and construction of facilities, differs
little from similar nonatomic energy
work. Other activities, such as manu­
facture of the fuels needed to run
reactors, are unique to the atomic
energy field.
The Federal Government supports
most of the basic atomic energy activ­
ities. The U.S. Atomic Energy Com­
mission (AEC) directs the Federal
Government’s atomic energy program
and regulates the use of nuclear ma­
terials by private organizations. The
operation of AEC-owned facilities,
including laboratories, uranium proc­
essing plants, nuclear reactors, and
weapon manufacturing plants, is con­
tracted out to private organizations.
More than half of all workers in the
atomic energy field are employed in
these facilities. In their own installa­
tions, private firms are engaged in
many types of atomic energy activity,
except development and production
of military weapons and certain nu­
clear fuel-processing operations.
A large amount of research and de­
velopment work is done in the atomic
energy field. Much of this work is
carried on by the AEG-owned labora­
tories and by university and college
laboratories, other nonprofit institu­
tions, and industrial organizations
under Commission contracts.

Occupations in the Atomic Energy

Engineers, scientists, technicians,
and craftsmen account for a higher
proportion of total employment in
this field than in most other fields,
largely because of the importance of
research and development. Office
personnel in administrative and cleri­
cal jobs represent another large
group. Most of the remaining em­
ployment consists of semiskilled and
unskilled workers in production work,
and plant protection and other service
Although many engineers in the
atomic energy field are highly trained
in nuclear technology, engineers in
all major engineering fields are em­
ployed. Mechanical engineering is the
largest single engineering occupation,
but large numbers of electrical and
electronics, chemical, reactor, civil,
and metallurgical engineers also are
employed. Many of these engineers do
research and development work,
while others are engaged in designing
nuclear reactors, nuclear instruments,
and other equipment used in the
atomic energy field, and in the opera­
tion of production plants.
A large number of scientists are
employed by research laboratories
and other organizations engaged in
atomic energy work to perform basic
and applied nuclear research. Physi­
cists and chemists predominate, but
many types of scientists are included,
such as mathematicians, metallurgists,
b i o l o g i c a l scientists, and health
A large number of technicians are
employed to assist engineers and
scientists in research and development
work and in the designing and testing
of equipment and materials. These
workers include draftsmen; electron­
ics, instrument, chemical, and other
engineering and physical science
technicians; and radiation monitors.
The atomic energy field employs
many highly skilled workers to fabri­
cate special parts and equipment for
use in experimental and pilot work
and to maintain the considerable
amount of complex equipment and


small proportion of the employees in
uranium mining are in professional
jobs, such as mining engineer and

Nuclear engineers adjust equipment used in
reprocessing nuclear fuels.

machinery. Maintenance mechanics
(e.g., machinery repairmen and mill­
wrights) and all-round machinists are
employed extensively in most atomic
energy activities, as are electricians,
plumbers, pipefitters, and other
craftsmen and chemical process
Activities in the Atomic Energy

A brief description of some impor­
tant atomic energy activities and the
types of workers employed in them

Uranium Ore Milling. In uranium
mills, metallurgical and chemical
processes are used to extract uranium
from mined ore. Uranium mills, lo­
cated primarily in the Colorado
Plateau, employed about 2,000 work­
ers in early 1967.
These mills employ skilled machin­
ery repairmen, millwrights, pipefit­
ters, carpenters, electricians, and
chemical process operators. A small
proportion of the employees in mill­
ing operations are scientists and
Uranium Refining and Enriching.
Milled uranium is chemically proc­
essed to remove impurities and then
converted to metal or intermediate
chemical products for reactor fuel
preparation. Conventional chemical
and metallurgical processes are used,
but they must meet more exacting
standards than in most other indus­
tries. The output of refining plants
may be further processed to obtain
enriched uranium.
Activity in this segment of the
atomic energy field is centered in
Ohio, Tennessee, K entucky, and
Illinois. In early 1967, uranium refin­
ing and enriching plants employed
about 7,500 workers.
Maintenance craftsmen, particu­
larly in the highly automated ura­
nium enriching plants, account for a
large proportion of skilled workers.
Large numbers of chemical process
operators are also employed. Chemi­
cal engineers and chemists accounted
for almost half of the engineers and
scientists. Many of the technicians
worked in chemical analytical labora­
tories associated with production

Uranium Mining. The 4,000 miners
and supporting personnel employed
in uranium mines in early 1967 had
jobs similar to those in the mining of
other metallic ores. Their jobs are
largely concentrated in the Colorado
Plateau area of the Far West, in the
States of New Mexico, Wyoming,
Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. A rela­
tively few mines account for the bulk
of production and employment. Most
workers in uranium mines are in pro­
duction jobs, such as miner and driller
in underground mines, and truckdriver, bulldozer operator, and ma­ Reactor Manufacturing. More than
chine loader in open pit mines. A 14,000 workers were employed in

early 1967 in the design and manu­
facture of nuclear reactors and
unique reactor components. Reactor
manufacturers do extensive research
and development work on reactors
and auxiliary equipment, design the
reactor, and generally fabricate some
of the intricate components, such as
fuel elements, control rods, and re­
actor cores.
More than half of the employees
in firms that design and manufacture
reactors are scientists, engineers, and
technicians. Engineers alone repre­
sent about one quarter of the employ­
ment, with mechanical engineers and
reactor engineers, who are specialists
in reactor technology, predominating.
Among scientists, the largest group
of workers are physicists, but many
chemists, mathematicians, and metal­
lurgists also are employed. Assisting
these engineers and scientists are
many draftsmen, engineering aids,
and physical science technicians.
Skilled workers are employed by
reactor manufacturers in experimen­
tal, production, and maintenance
work. All-round machinists account
for a large proportion of these crafts­
men. Other craftsmen such as sheet
metal workers, instrument makers,
machinery repairmen, instrument re­
pairmen, and electricians also are
employed. Reactor manufacturers
employ nuclear reactor operators
to operate experim ental and test
Reactor Operation and Maintenance.
About 1,000 workers were engaged in
the operation and maintenance of
nuclear reactors producing commer­
cial electricity in early 1967. Principal
types of occupations found in the
operation of a nuclear power station
are mechanical engineer, electrical
and electronics engineer, instrument
technician, electronics technician, ra­
diation monitor, reactor operator,
and other power plant operators and
attendants. Among the employees
needed to maintain and repair reac­
tors are machinery repairmen, in­
strument repairmen, electricians, and



Cool Fluid

Research and Development Facilities.
A number of research and develop­
ment laboratories and other research
facilities are owned by the Atomic
Energy Commission and are operated
for the AEC by universities and in­
dustrial concerns. These facilities are
major centers for basic and applied
nuclear research in the physical, engi­
neering, and life sciences and in the
development of nuclear reactors and
other nuclear equipment. In early
1967, these facilities employed about
50,000 workers. More than half of
the employees in AEC research and
development facilities are engineers,
scientists, and supporting technicians.
Among the engineers and scientists
are physicists, mechanical engineers,
electrical and electronics engineers,
chemists and chemical engineers,
mathematicians, reactor engineers,
metallurgists and metallurgical engi­
neers, biological scientists, and health
physicists. Assisting scientists and en­
gineers are many physical science and
engineering aids; draftsmen; elec­
tronics, instrument, and biological
technicians; and radiation monitors.
Administrative and clerical work­
ers together account for a large pro­
portion of employment. The skilled
worker group includes large numbers
of all-round machinists, electricians,
machinery repairmen, and mill­

wrights, as well as substantial num­
bers of tool and diemakers, instru­
ment makers, and pipefitters. Nuclear
reactor operators are employed to
operate research and test reactors and
many service workers are employed
in plant protection and security
Although most nuclear energy
research is performed in AEC re­
search and development facilities,
additional research is performed in
the privately owned research labora­
tories of educational institutions,
other nonprofit institutions, and in­
dustrial concerns. Like the AEC
facilities, these laboratories employ a
large proportion of workers in scien­
tific, engineering, and other technical
Production of Nuclear Weapons and
Other Defense Materials. Approxi­
mately 30,000 workers were employed
in early 1967 in establishments pro­
ducing nuclear weapons and weapon
components, plutonium, and other
defense materials.
About 1 out of every 4 workers in
these defense production facilities is
a skilled worker in a production or
maintenance job. Included among
these skilled workers are large num­
bers of machinery repairmen and
millwrights, chemical process opera­

tors, all-round machinists, electri­
cians, instrument repairmen, pipefit­
ters, tool and diemakers, and
instrument makers.
Among the large number of scien­
tists and engineers employed at these
facilities are many chemists, physi­
cists, and mechanical, chemical, and
electrical and electronics engineers.
Many engineering and physical
science aids, draftsmen, radiation
monitors, and electronics technicians
are employed to assist scientists and
Other Atomic Energy Activities.
About 1,500 workers were employed
in early 1967 to produce special
materials such as beryllium, zir­
conium, and hafnium for use in
About 5,500 workers were em­
ployed by companies that manufac­
ture reactor control instruments,
radiation detection and monitoring
devices, and other instruments for
the atomic energy field. Production
of these instruments involves work
similar to that in instrument manu­
facturing in general. Engineers and
technicians represent a substantial
proportion of employment in this
About 1,000 persons were employed
in companies which specialize in the
manufacture of particle accelerators
or their specialized components.
These machines enable scientists to
study the structure and properties of
the elementary particles that make
up the nucleus of an atom. Workers
employed in the design and manu­
facture of these machines include
electrical and electronics engineers,
mechanical engineers, physicists,
draftsmen, electronics technicians,
and machinists.
Other workers in the atomic energy
field are engaged in such activities
as processing and packaging radioiso­
topes, manufacturing radiography
units and radiation gages, packaging
and disposing of radioactive wastes,
and industrial radiography.


Instrument technicians make connections on
test reactor.

Government Employment. The
Atomic Energy Commission, which
directs the Federal Government’s
atomic energy program, employed
about 7,400 workers in its head­
quarters and field offices in early
1967. Over 1,300 engineers and scien­
tists were employed by the Commis­
sion, including personnel in nearly
every major engineering and scien­
tific occupation. Since the AEC is
primarily an administrative and reg­
ulatory agency, approximately twothirds of Commission employees are
in administrative and other profes­
sional positions or in clerical jobs.
This proportion of administrative and
clerical personnel is much larger than
in most other activities in the atomic
energy field.
In addition to those employed by
the Atomic Energy Commission, a
few thousand government employees
are engaged in atomic energy work
in other Federal agencies and in reg­
ulatory and promotional activities of
State and local governments. Their
responsibilities involve atomic energy
research and application, and estab­
lishment of radiation health and
safety measures.
Unique Atomic Energy Occupations.
Most of the occupations discussed in
the preceding sections are similar to
those found in other industrial activi­

ties, although they may have job titles
unique to the atomic energy field,
(such as nuclear engineer, radia­
tion chemist, and nuclear reactor
operator) and require some special­
ized knowledge of atomic energy.
A detailed discussion of the duties,
training, and employment outlook for
most of these occupations appears
elsewhere in the Handbook.
The health physics occupations,
which are unique to the atomic
energy field, and some other occupa­
tions that are unique in that they re­
quire training in the handling and
use of radioactive materials or radia­
tion-producing equipment, are dis­
cussed briefly in the following sec­
Health physicists (also called
radiological physicists) are concerned
with the problem of radiation safety
for workers in atomic energy installa­
tions and for people in surrounding
communities. They are responsible for
protecting individuals and property
from the hazards of radiation by
detecting radiation, and applying
safety standards to control exposure
to it. In early 1967, more than 800
health physicists were employed in
radiation protection work, research,
or teaching.
Health physicists are responsible
for planning and organizing radiologi­
cal health programs at atomic energy
facilities. T hey establish standards of
inspection and determine procedures
for protecting employees and elimi­
nating radiological hazards. They
supervise the inspection of work areas
with potential radiation hazards and
prepare instructions covering safe
work procedures in these areas.
Health physicists also plan and
supervise training programs dealing
with radiation hazards and advise
others on methods of dealing with
such hazards. In some cases, they are
employed on research projects deal­
ing with the effects of human ex­
posure to radiation and may develop
procedures to be followed in using
radioactive materials.
Radiation monitors (also called
health-physics technicians) generally
work under the supervision of health

physicists. An estimated 2,000 radia­
tion monitors were employed in the
atomic energy field in early 1967.
They use special instruments to
monitor (check) work areas, tools,
and equipment to detect radioactive
contamination. Soil, water, and air
samples are taken frequently to deter­
mine radiation levels. Monitors may
also collect and analyze radiation
detectors worn by workers, such as
film badges and pocket detection
Radiation monitors inform their
supervisors when a worker’s ex­
posure to radiation or the level of
radiation in a work area approaches
specified maximum permissible limits
and they recommend work stoppage
in potentially unsafe areas. They cal­
culate the amount of time that per­
sonnel may work in contaminated
areas, considering maximum radia­
tion exposure limits and the radiation
level in the area. Monitors may also
give instructions in radiation safety
procedures and prescribe special
clothing requirements and other
safety precautions for workers enter­
ing radiation zones.
A nuclear reacior operator's job in
a nuclear power station is similar to
a boiler operator’s job in a conven­
tional power station; however, the
controls he operates are somewhat
different. In addition, reactor oper­
ators may assist in the loading and un­
loading of reactor cores. Nuclear
reactor operators who work with re­
search and test reactors check reactor
control panels and adjust controls to
maintain specified operating condi­
tions within the reactor, such as
power and radiation levels. More
than 1,000 persons were employed as
nuclear reactor operators in early
Accelerator operators set up and
coordinate the operation of particle
accelerators. They adjust machine
controls to accelerate electrically
charged particles, in accordance with
instructions from the scientist in
charge of the experiment, and set up
target materials which are to be bom­
barded by the accelerated particles.

They also may assist in the main­
tenance of equipment.
An estimated 7,000 radiographers
were employed in early 1967. These
workers take radiographs of metal
castings, welds, and other objects by
adjusting the controls of an X-ray
machine or by exposing a source of
radioactivity to the object to be
radiographed. They select the proper
type of radiation source and film to
use and apply standard mathematical
formulas to determine exposure dis­
tance and time. While taking radio­
graphs, they use radiation detection
instruments to monitor the work area
for potential radiation hazards.
Radiographers may also remove and
develop the film or plate and assist
in its analysis.
Hot-cell technicians operate re­
mote-controlled equipment to test
radioactive materials that are placed
in hot cells—rooms that are enclosed
with radiation shielding materials,
such as lead and concrete. By con­
trolling “slave manipulators” (me­
chanical devices that act as a pair of
arms and hands) from outside the
cell and observing their actions
through the cell window, these tech­
nicians perform standard chemical
and metallurgical operations with
radioactive materials. Hot-cell tech­
nicians may also enter the cell wear­
ing protective clothing to set up
experiments or to decontaminate the
cell and equipment. Decontamina­
tion men have the primary duty of
decontaminating equipment, plant
areas, and materials exposed to radio­
active contaminants. They use radia­
tion-detection instruments to locate
the contamination; eliminate it by
the use of special equipment; deter­
gents, and chemicals; and then verify
the effectiveness of the decontamina­
tion measures. Waste-treatment op­
erators operate heat exchange units,
pumps, compressors, and other equip­
ment to decontaminate and dispose of
radioactive waste liquids. Waste-dis­
posal men seal contaminated wastes
in concrete containers and transport
the containers to a burial ground or
arrange for sea burial. Radioisotope


Hot-cell technician manipulates
“ master-slave.”

production operators use remote con­
trol manipulators and other equip­
ment to prepare radioisotopes for
shipping and to perform chemical
analyses to ensure that radioisotopes
conform to specifications.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Training and educational require­
ments and advancement opportuni­
ties for most workers in atomic energy
activities are generally similar to those
for comparable jobs in other fields
and are discussed elsewhere in the
Handbook under the specific occupa­
tion. However, specialized training is
required for many workers because
the atomic energy field is a relatively
new field of work, requires rigorous
work standards in both its research
and production activities, and has
unique health and safety problems.
Engineers and scientists at all levels
of professional training are employed
in the atomic energy field. Many of
them have had advanced training,
particularly those engaged in re­
search, development, and design
work. Of the scientists and engineers

employed in research and develop­
ment by major AEC contractors in
1966, about one-fourth had a Ph. D.
degree. The proportion of engineers
with Ph. D. degrees is smaller than
the proportion of scientists with such
degrees. However, graduate training
is preferred for an increasing num­
ber of engineering jobs, and training
in nuclear engineering is available
almost exclusively at the graduate
Specialized knowledge of nuclear
energy is essential for most scientific
and engineering positions in the
atomic energy field. This specialized
training may be obtained by taking
work at a university or sometimes by
on-the-job training.
Colleges and universities have ex­
panded their facilities and curriculums to provide training in nuclear
energy. Engineers and scientists who
plan to specialize in the atomic energy
field generally take graduate work in
nuclear energy, although introduc­
tory or background courses may be
taken at the undergraduate level.
Some colleges and universities award
graduate degrees in nuclear engineer­
ing or nuclear science. Others offer
graduate training in these fields, but
award degrees only in the traditional
engineering or scientific fields.
Craftsmen in some atomic energy
jobs need more training than most
craftsmen in comparable nonatomic
iobs. Hifdi skill requirements are
often needed because of the extreme
precision reauired to insure efficient
ODeration and maintenance of com­
plex eauipment and machinery. For
example, pipefitters may have to fit
pipe to tolerances of less than one
ten-thousandth of an inch and work
with pipe made from rare metals
costing more than $1,000 a foot.
Welding may also have to meet
higher reliability standards than in
most nonatomic fields. Craftsmen in
the atomic energy field generally ob­
tain the required special skills
through on-the-job training. Many
AEC installations also have appren­
tice training programs to develop
craft skills.


Health physicists should have at
least a bachelor’s degree in physics,
chemistry, or engineering, and a year
or more of graduate work in health
physics. A Ph. D. degree is often re­
quired for teaching and research posi­
To qualify for on-the-job training
as a radiation monitor, a high school
education with courses in mathe­
matics, physics, and chemistry is
usually sufficient. Radiation monitors
must become familiar with charac­
teristics of radiation, maximum per­
missible radiation exposure levels,
and methods of calculating exposure
periods. They must also learn how to
calibrate the instruments they use.
Nuclear power reactor operators
need a basic understanding of reactor
theory and a working knowledge of
reactor controls. Most operator
trainees have a high school education.
Trainees usually are selected from
conventional power plant personnel
having experience as operators of
boiler, turbine or electrical machin­
ery. Preference is sometimes given to
those who have completed courses in
science and engineering at the college
level. Workers who operate the con­
trols of private nuclear reactors must
be licensed by the AEC. To qualify
for a license, the trainee must pass an
operating test, a written test given by
the AEC, and a medical examination.
To qualify for on-the-job training
as an accelerator operator, a high
school education that includes courses
in mathematics and physics usually is
required. Accelerator operators re­
ceive several months of on-the-job
training covering operating, repair,
and safety procedures. To qualify for
on-the-job tra:ning as a radiographer,
a high school education, including
courses in mathematics, chemistry,
and physics usually is sufficient.
High school graduates with some
mechanical experience usually can
qualify for on-the-job training as hot­
cell technicians and decontamination
men. They may be given in-plant
training lasting several months. For
the job of radioisotope-production
operator, a high school education,

with courses in chemistry, is usually
required. High school graduates can
qualify as waste-treatment operators,
but experience in reading electronic
instruments or in a chemical labora­
tory is desirable. High school grad­
uates can also qualify for employment
as waste-disposal men. They receive
on-the-job training in the operation
of equipment and the avoidance of
radiation hazards.
Other workers in the atomic energy
field also need special training be­
cause of the presence of potential
radiation hazards. Employees who
work in the vicinity of such hazards
are always given on-the-job training
in the nature of radiation and the
procedures to follow in case of its ac­
cidental release.
Individuals who handle classified
data (restricted for reasons of na­
tional security) or who work on classi­
fied projects in the atomic energy
field must have a security clearance.
This is a finding based on an investi­
gation of a person’s character, loyalty,
and associations.
The Atomic Energy Commission,
at its contractor-operated facilities,
supports on-the-job and specialized
training programs to help prepare
scientists, engineers, technicians, and
other workers for the atomic energy
field. The AEC also offers graduate
fellowships in specialized nuclear
A large number of fellowships—
about 480—were awarded for the
1965— academic year. The prereq­
uisite for consideration for a fellow­
ship is a bachelor’s degree in engi­
neering or physical science.
Fellowships in health physics pro­
vide for 9 months’ training at a
university, followed by 3 months’
training at a Commission laboratory.
Approximately 60 such fellowships
are available each year to students
with bachelor’s degrees in biology,
chemistry, engineering, or physics.
About 10 additional fellowships are
available for advanced training in
health physics leading to a doctorate.
Additional educational and train­
ing opportunities are offered in co­

operative programs arranged by AEC
laboratories with colleges and univer­
sities. Temporary employment at
AEC-owned laboratories is available
to faculty members and students. En­
gineering undergraduates may work
at laboratories and other Commission
facilities on a rotation basis with
classroom studies, and graduate stu­
dents may do their thesis work at
AEC laboratories.
Many Commission contractors pro­
vide employees with training at their
own plants or at nearby colleges and
Employment Outlook

Total employment in the atomic
energy field is expected to increase
moderately during the remainder of
the 1960’s. Over the 1970’s, however,
overall employment is likely to grow
more rapidly as commercial activities
in atomic energy expand, and as new
applications of this energy form are
Many factors point to a long-term
expansion in this field. Increasing ex­
penditures for atomic energy research
and development should lead to fur­
ther employment growth in research
and development laboratories; the
use of nuclear reactors in electric
power generating stations is becom­
ing increasingly widespread; and the
use of reactors in conjunction with
power generation to desalt sea water
is also expected to increase. Growth
in the use of nuclear reactors for
propulsion of naval and maritime
ships is anticipated, although progress
in this area may not be as rapid as in
power generation. Expansion is also
expected in the “Plowshare” program
to develop peaceful uses for nuclear
explosives, in programs to further de­
velop radioisotope technology, and in
the use of nuclear power in space.
Employment opportunities are ex­
pected to rise significantly for work­
ers who design and manufacture nu­
clear power reactors and instruments,
and who process and package radio­
isotopes. As more nuclear reactors are
built and put into operation, employ­

ment will further increase both in the
operation and maintenance of reac­
tors, and in such related activities as
the fabrication and reprocessing of
reactor fuel elements and the disposal
of radioactive wastes. Employment in
mining, milling, refining, and enrich­
ment of uranium will increase as the
demand for nuclear fuel increases. As
the use of nuclear power becomes
more widespread, there will also be
an increase in employment of regula­
tory workers in both the Atomic
Energy Commission and in State
agencies to insure safe use of atomic
energy. Expansion in these areas of
atomic energy will create very good
employment opportunities for trained
professional and technical workers
and for skilled craftsmen.
In addition to the employment op­
portunities created by expansion in
atomic energy activities, other job
openings will occur because of the
need to replace workers who retire,
die, or transfer to other industries.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In early 1967, blue-collar workers
employed by contractors at AEC
laboratories and other installations
had average straight-time hourly


earnings of $3.48, while blue-collar
workers in all manufacturing indus­
tries had average earnings of $2.78
an hour.
Professional workers employed at
AEC installations averaged $12,380
a year in base pay in early 1967, and
other white-collar workers (largely
clerical and other office personnel)
averaged $6,600 a year. (Earnings
data for many of the occupations
found in the atomic energy field are
included in the statements on these
occupations elsewhere in the Hand­
Working conditions in uranium
mining and milling, instrument and
auxiliary equipment manufacturing,
and facilities construction are gen­
erally similar to those in comparable
nonatomic energy activities, except
for radiation safety precautions.
Nearly all uranium mines are
equipped with mechanical ventilation
systems that reduce the concentra­
tion of radioactive radon gas—a sub­
stance that can cause lung injury if
inhaled over a number of years. Ef­
forts to eliminate this hazard are
continuing. In other atomic energy
activities, in which the major propor­
tion of workers in the field are em­
ployed, working conditions generally

are very good. Buildings and plants
are well lighted and ventilated.
Equipment, tools, and machines are
modern and sometimes the most ad­
vanced of their type. Only a small
proportion of employees in the atomic
energy field actually work in areas
where direct radiation hazard dan­
gers exist. In some cases, plants are
located in remote areas.
Extensive safeguards ensure the
health and safety of workers, and the
AEC and its contractors have main­
tained an excellent safety record. The
AEC regulates the possession and use
of radioactive materials, and AEC
personnel inspect nuclear facilities to
insure compliance with the AEC’s
health and safety requirements. Con­
stant efforts are being made to
provide better safety standards and
Most plant hourly paid workers
belong to unions that represent their
particular craft or industry.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about the
atomic energy field may be obtained
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission,
Washington, D.C. 20545.


The baking industry is one of the
largest food-processing employers in
the United States. Occupations in
baking establishments provide steady,
year-round employment to several
hundred thousand workers through­
out the country.
The industry employs workers to
make bakery products, wrap and
pack these products, and to deliver
them to stores, homes, and restau­
rants. It also employs mechanics to
maintain and repair the large
amounts of machinery used in modern
bakeries. Additional mechanics are
employed to serve the fleets of de­
livery trucks. The industry employs
many managers and sales specialists
to direct operations and clerical
workers to perform the regular office
Nature and Location of the

In early 1967, the baking industry
employed 280,000 workers in about
5,000 establishments. About 85 per­
cent of these workers were employed
in establishments that produced per­
ishable baked goods such as bread,
rolls, pies, cakes, and doughnuts. The
remaining workers were employed in
establishments that produced “dry”
baked goods such as cookies, crack­
ers, pretzels, and ice cream cones.
Baking establishments include large
262-057 O— 68-----35

wholesale bakeries that sell to retail
stores, restaurants, hotels, and other
large customers; home service bak­
eries that deliver their products
directly to the customers’ homes;
bakeries owned and operated by
grocery chains; and the central bak­
ing establishments of companies op­
erating several retail bake shops.
In addition to the baking establish­
ments described above, over 14,000
single-shop retail bakeries employed
about 100,000 men and women in­
cluding shop owners. Although some
retail bakeshops employed 20 individ­
uals or more, the average shop em­
ployed about 5 or 6. Many of the
actual baking operations in these re­
tail establishments are done by hand
rather than machine, and therefore,
retail bakeries offer many opportuni­
ties to the skilled baking craftsman
which are not available in the large
industrial-type establishments.
Most establishments producing
perishable baked goods are relatively
small because they serve only their
local area. However, an increasing
number serve markets up to 200 miles
away, and a few serve even wider
areas. In contrast, bakeries that pro­
duce dry baked goods generally are
large establishments that distribute
their products regionally or nation­
ally. The average number of employ­
ees in these bakeries is about 120 in
contrast to about 50 in bakeries pro­
ducing perishable products.
Alm ost every com m unity in the
United States has at least one bakery.
However, half of all industrial baker­
ies and the same proportion of the
industry’s employees are in the fol­
lowing seven States: New York, Penn­
sylvania, California, Illinois, Ohio,
New Jersey, and Massachusetts.

for delivery, or keep the bakeries san­
itary. About every fifth employee de­
livers the industry’s products. Most
of these employees work as driversalesmen, selling to retail stores or di­
rectly to customers in their homes.
Other drivers with no sales duties
are employed to deliver bakery prod­
ucts to distribution centers, hotels,
restaurants, and stores. The remain­
der of the work force is employed in
administrative, professional, techni­
cal, and clerical jobs.
About 1 of every 5 industrial bakery
workers is a woman. Most of them
are employed as secretaries, typists,
bookkeepers, and in other office jobs.
Some are employed in production
jobs, such as slicing machine operator,
wrapping machine operator, or pie
and cake packer; very few women are
Production Occupations. The princi­
pal baking processes consist of blend­
ing, sifting, mixing, proofing, baking,
and wrapping and packing. Since
bread is the primary product of the
baking industry, the following de­
scriptions of occupations relate prin­
cipally to the production of bread.
With some variations, depending on
the product and the amount of
mechanization in the bakery, these
are the occupations in any industrial

Occupations in the Baking Industry

Nearly 60 percent of the employees
in the baking industry perform the
actual baking operations, receive and
store raw materials, maintain and re­
pair machinery and other baking
equipment, wrap or pack products

Dough mixer operator prepares to release
batch of dough into trough.


In general, production workers
load and unload machines, watch
the operation of the machines,
and inspect the output. Mixers
(D.O.T. 520.885) weigh ingredients
and combine them in blending ma­
chines. By means of instruments, they
carefully control timing and temper­
ature in order to produce a uniform,
well-blended dough. The dough is
sent to a “proofing” room where the
warm temperature produces a fer­
menting process which causes the
dough to rise. When the dough has
risen, it is poured into another blend­
ing machine, and additional flour,
liquids, sugar, salt, and shortening
are added and mixed. The dough
then goes through another fermenting
process before it is shaped into loaves
or rolls. Dividermen (D.O.T. 526.782) operate machines which divide
the dough according to the weight
of the loaf to be produced. The pieces
of dough are rolled into balls which
are dusted with flour in a rounding
machine. Dough molders or molding
machine operators (D.O.T. 520.885)
operate machines which press all the
air bubbles from the dough and form
it into loaves or rolls. “Continuous
mixing,” an automatic process that is
being used increasingly, eliminates
many of the steps described above.
When fancy shaped bread or rolls are
made, bench hands (D.O.T. 520.884) knead and form the dough by
hand into various shapes and place
the pieces of dough in the pans. The
pans containing the machine- and
hand-shaped dough go to the final
proofing room where the dough rises
for about an hour before it is re­
moved and placed in the oven. Ovenmen (D.O.T. 526.885) adjust tem­
perature and timing devices on the
In small bakeries, all-round bakers
(D.O.T. 526.781), assisted by help­
ers, usually carry through all the steps
needed to turn out finished baked
products. Large bakeries employ all­
round bakers as working foremen in
charge of one operation or more.
These workers supervise the men and
machines in their department and co­


ordinate their activity with that in
other departments in order to meet
production schedules.
A considerable number of helpers
(D.O.T. 526.886) are employed in
baking operations. They may assist
all-round bakers and specialized bak­
ery workers. They have job titles such
as dough mixer helper, bench hand
helper, and ovenman helper. Helpers
also perform such jobs as greasing
pans, removing bread from pans,
pushing troughs and racks, and
washing pans.
After baked foods leave the oven
and are cooled, several types of
workers prepare them for delivery
to customers. Slicing-and-wrapping
machine operators (D.O.T. 521.885)
feed loaves of bread onto conveyors
leading into the machines and watch

the slicing and wrapping operations.
They adjust the machines and keep
them supplied with plastic bags,
paper, and labels. The wrapped
loaves leave the machines and travel
along a conveyor belt to the shipping
Many bakery employees work in
icing departments where they give
the finishing touches to cakes, pas­
tries, and other sweet goods. Icing
mixers (D.O.T. 520.885) prepare
cake icings and fillings, following
special formulas of the bakery. They
weigh and measure ingredients and
mix them by machine. They also pre­
pare cooked fillings for pies, tarts,
and other pastries.
In small plants, icing mixers may
also spread icing on cakes and
cookies. Hand icers (D.O.T. 524.-

Baker adjusts automatic depanning machine.


884) are skilled craftsmen who dec­
orate special products such as
wedding cakes, birthday cakes, and
fancy pastries. When the product is
uniform or requires' no special dec­
oration, the frosting may be applied
by machine icers (D.O.T. 524.885).
Bakeries employ many workers in
their storage, warehousing, and ship­
ping departments. Receiving and
stock clerks check and keep records
of incoming supplies and ingredients,
and deliver them to various depart­
ments. Packers and checkers make
up orders of bakery products for de­
livery by driver-salesmen.
Maintenance Occupations. Baking
firms employ skilled maintenance
workers such as machinists, electri­
cians, and stationary engineers and
their helpers to keep machinery and
equipment in good condition. Large
plants, which are usually highly
mechanized, employ many of these
workers. In addit'on, since many
baking firms have fleets of trucks,
many truck mechanics are employed
for maintenance.
Sales and Driving Occupations. The
selling and delivery of finished baked
foods to grocers, restaurants, hotels,
homes, and other customers provide
jobs for many thousands of workers.
Some of these workers sell baked
goods, some drive trucks, and many
do both.
Driver-salesmen, also called routemen (D.O.T. 292.358), work for
either wholesale bakeries or homeservice bakeries. They deliver baked
foods to grocery stores or to homes
along their assigned routes and col­
lect payment for delivered products.
A major part of their job is to try to
increase customers’ orders and to
gain new customers on their routes.
Wholesale driver-salesmen arrange
their baked products on shelves or
display racks in grocery stores. At
some busy stores, they may restock
the shelves several times a day.
Home-service driver-salesmen make
deliveries directly to customers’

homes. Driver-salesmen return to the
bakery at the end of each day to
make a report of the day’s transac­
tions. They turn in money collected
from their customers and return un­
sold baked goods. They make a list
of the items that they think grocers
or housewives on their routes will
buy the next day. These estimates,
assembled from driver-salesmen on
all routes, serve as guides for produc­
tion managers in making up pro­
duction schedules for the next
A large bakery may employ several
route supervisors, each in charge of
6 to 10 driver-salesmen. In a smaller
bakery, one route supervisor may be
in charge of all salesmen. When
a salesman is absent, the supervisor
may take over the route until the
salesman returns or is replaced.
Route supervisors also train new
Chain grocery store bakeries and
multioutlet retail bakeries generally
employ truckdrivers rather than
driver-salesmen. These employees
drive large vans, delivering baked
foods to each of their company’s
stores. Truckdrivers for chainstore
bakeries deliver wrapped bread and
other bakery products to loading
platforms of the stores. Stock clerks
then arrange the display of baked
goods in the stores. In bakeries which
operate their own retail bakery out­
lets, the truckdrivers wheel the un­
wrapped baked foods in enclosed
metal racks from the van to each
store. Sales clerks then arrange the
display of these freshly baked foods.
Administrative, Clerical, and Profes­
sional and Technical Occupations.
Administrators in large baking firms
and proprietors of small firms coor­
dinate all baking activities from the
purchase of raw materials to the pro­
duction and delivery of baked prod­
ucts. In large baking firms, activities
are divided into separate departments
or functions and supervised by plant
managers, comptrollers, sales man­
agers, and other executives. Other

administrative employees may spe­
cialize in such fields as accounting,
purchasing, advertising, and person­
nel and industrial relations. Business
offices of bakeries employ many types
of clerical workers, including book­
keepers, cashiers, clerks, business
machine operators, stenographers,
typists, and switchboard operators. A
large proportion of these office work­
ers are women. Some large baking
companies have laboratories and test
kitchens where chemists, home econ­
omists, and their assistants test
ingredients and prepare formulas and
recipes for bread and other baked
items. (Detailed discussions of the
duties, training, and employment
outlook for maintenance, sales, driv­
ing, administrative, clerical, and
technical personnel appear elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Training requirements for occupa­
tions in the baking industry range
from a few days of on-the-job training
to several years of training and
experience. For example, some bakery
workers, such as slicing machine
operators, can be trained on the job
in a few days. Skilled workers, such
as all-round bakers and baking
specialists, require at least 3 or 4 years
of training. Professional personnel
and some administrative workers
must have a college degree or equiv­
alent experience in their particular
Most inexperienced production
workers in the baking industry are
hired as helpers (utility workers).
They may be assigned such tasks as
washing and greasing pans, carrying
ingredients to mixing machines,
pushing troughs of dough to the
proofing room, and otherwise assist­
ing bakers. By working alongside
skilled bakers, helpers are able to
acquire baking skills.
Some bakeries train their bakers
through formal apprenticeship pro­

grams. Apprentices generally are
selected from among the helpers.
Employers usually require that
apprentice applicants be between 18
and 26 years of age, have a high
school or vocational school educa­
tion, and show an interest in baking.
Apprenticeship programs last 3 or 4
years. They include on-the-job train­
ing in all baking operations and class­
room instruction in related subjects.
Some workers acquire baking skills
by taking courses in vocational school
or by learning the trade in the Armed
Forces. Such training may not
qualify a young man as a skilled
baker, but it may help him to become
an apprentice and perhaps shorten
his apprenticeship period.
Bakers may be promoted to such
jobs as working foreman or depart­
ment foreman. Some bakers who
have developed special skill in fancy
cakemaking or piemaking may find
jobs in hotel or restaurant bakeries.
All-round bakers with some business
ability sometimes open their own
Good health is important for a
young man or woman planning to
enter a baking occupation. For any­
one handling food, most States re­
quire a health certificate indicating
that the worker is free from commu­
nicable diseases. Good health is
necessary also because of irregular
working hours and the extremes in
temperatures found in bakeries.
Some bakeries have apprenticeship
programs for maintenance jobs such
as machinists, electricians, and me­
chanics. Other plants hire inexperi­
enced workers as mechanics’ helpers,
who gain experience and know-how
while working with skilled mechanics.
Some bakeries hire only skilled main­
tenance men.
For jobs as driver-salesmen or
truckdrivers, baking firms generally
hire inexperienced young men with a
high school education. These workers
often begin as stock clerks, packers, or
checkers, and may be promoted to
driving jobs as vacancies occur. Some


young men take summer and parttime jobs as driver-helpers to gain
experience. Applicants for these jobs
must be able to get a commercial
driving permit (chauffeur’s license).
Large baking companies often give
tests to their applicants to determine
whether they are safe drivers. A
pleasant appearance and the ability
to get along well with people are pre­
ferred qualifications for the new
worker who w’ants to sell as well as
drive. New driver-salesmen may be
given classroom instruction in sales,
display, and delivery procedures.
Most training, however, is given on
the job by route supervisors. Driversalesmen may be promoted to route
supervisor and sales manager.
Administrative jobs are usually
filled by upgrading personnel already
employed in the firm. Some owners
and production managers of bakeries
have come from the ranks of baking
craftsmen, and some begin their ca­
reers in sales occupations. In recent
years, large baking firms have re­
quired their new administrative work­
ers to have a college degree in one
of the administrative fields, such as
marketing, accounting, labor rela­
tions, personnel, or advertising. Sev­
eral colleges offer courses in baking
science and management; one col­
lege offers a 4-year course in this
Young women who have com­
pleted a commercial course in high
school, junior college, or a business
school usually are preferred for the
secretarial, stenographic, and other
office jobs.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job openings are
expected to occur in the baking in­
dustry each year during the rest of
the 1960’s and over the 1970 decade
because of the need to replace work­
ers who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work. Retirements and
deaths alone should provide about
6,000 job openings each year.

The demand for bakery products
is expected to rise moderately during
this period in response to increases
in population. However, because of
increasing efficiency in production,
employment in the industry is ex­
pected to decline slowly. Even so, em­
ployment in some occupations is
expected to increase. For example,
more truckdrivers will be needed as
suburban developments increase and
sales territories expand. Additional
maintenance workers will be needed
to keep machinery and other equip­
ment in operating order as bakeries
become more mechanized. Some in­
crease may occur in the number of
clerical workers as a result of
additional recordkeeping require­
ments. However, the anticipated
increases in these occupations will be
more than offset by the continuing
decline in the number of production
workers resulting from the installa­
tion of mechanized processing and
materials handling equipment, and
improvements in the methods of
processing baked goods. Pneumatic
conveyors, for example, greatly in­
crease efficiency in materials handling
operations, and the “continuous mix”
process eliminates dough mixing and
proofing operations. In addition, the
freezing of baked goods for storage
until ready for sale permits bakeries
to prepare a week’s requirements at
one time rather than small batches
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of production workers in
the perishable bakery products indus­
try averaged $105.86 a week, or $2.64
an hour, in late 1966. The rates were
slightly lower in biscuit and cracker
bakeries. Wage rates tend to be higher
in the West and North than in the
South or Southwest.
According to union-management
contracts covering employees in 25
wholesale bakeries producing bread
and related products, ranges for
minimum hourly rates in major oc-


Truckdrivers for baking plants are
cupations in mid-1966 were as
paid by the hour. Hourly rates and
hours worked vary from city to city.
Baking foremen and all­
round bakers........................ $2. 88-$4. 04 In mid-1965 (the latest year for
Mixers (dough or icing). . . . 2. 43- 3. 88 which this information is available),
Ovenmen..................................... 2.
43- 3. 88 minimum wage rates and maxi­
Molders and dividers and
mum hours a week before overtime
molding and dividing ma­
chine operators...................... 2.
28- 3.rates prevail, provided by union-man­
agement contracts for truckdrivers of
Benchmen................................... 2.
43- 3. 79
Utilitymen (general helpers). 2. 13- 3.28 bakeries producing bread, cakes, pies,
Wrapping machine opera­
etc. in 11 selected cities were as
tors ......................................... 2. 28— 3. 02 follows:
Porters and cleaners.............. 1. 92- 2. 73
Minimum Hours
Some plant employees work night
shifts and weekends because baking Atlanta, G a..................... . $2,695
is done around the clock in many Birmingham, Ala........... . 2.43
Cleveland, Ohio............ 3.33
plants. Workers receive from 7 to 23 Dallas, T ex...................... .. 2. 59
cents an hour extra pay for night- Detroit, Mich, (bread). . 3. 10
work. However, the night shift is be­ Houston, T ex.................. . 2.645
ing eliminated in some bakeries be­ Little Rock, Ark............ . 2.43
cause the increasing use of freezing New York, N.Y. (cake . 3.225
and pastry)..................
processes makes it possible to prepare Oklahoma City, Okla. . . 2.465
baked goods in advance and store Pittsburgh, Pa. (bread). . 2.545
them until needed. Most plant work­ Oakland, Calif, (transers are on a 40-hour workweek, al­ port and chainstore).. . 3. 95-4. 20 40
though some work 35 or 37^ hours
Home-service driver-salesmen and
and others 44 or 48 hours regularly. truckdrivers work mostly out of doors.
For those who work a 35- or 37l/ i- Wholesale driver-salesmen spend
hour week, time and a half is paid for much of their time arranging bakery
work beyond their regular schedule. goods on grocers’ display shelves.
For all others, time and a half is paid Many jobs in baking plants involve
for all work over 40 hours.
some strenuous physical work, despite
Driver-salesmen are usually paid a the considerable mechanization of
guaranteed minimum salary plus a baking processes. Work near ovens
percentage of their dollar sales. Ac­ may be hot.
cording to limited information avail­
Paid vacations for employees are
able in late 1966 on baking firms in almost universal in industrial baking
13 Eastern States, driver-salesmen for firms. Vacation periods range from 1
both wholesale and home-service to 4 weeks, according to length of
bakeries had minimum weekly sala­ service. Paid holidays range from 5
ries of from $70 to $118. By selling to 11 days, depending on the locality.
more baked products to their custo­ Most baking firms have adopted some
mers and by increasing the number of type of insurance or pension arrange­
customers on their routes, driver- ment for their employees, such as life
salesmen can increase their earnings insurance, health insurance programs,
considerably. Companies generally or retirement pension plans. A large
pay for uniforms and their mainte­ number of employees are covered by
joint union-industry health and wel­

fare plans, and pension systems which
are paid for entirely by employer con­
Most plant workers and drivers be­
long to a labor union. Bakers, baking
specialists, and other plant workers
have been organized by the American
Bakery and Confectionery Workers’
International Union or the Bakery
and Confectionery Workers’ Interna­
tional Union of America (Ind.).
Driver-salesmen and transport drivers
are generally members of the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America (Ind.). Some
maintenance men are members of
craft unions such as the International
Association of Machinists and Aero­
space Workers and the International
Union of Operating Engineers.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on local job openings
in the baking industry may be ob­
tained directly from bakeries in the
High school students—or adults in­
terested in evening courses—may
obtain information on courses relating
to baking by writing to the Director
of Vocational Education or to the
Superintendent of Schools in their lo­
cal community, or to the State Direc­
tor of Vocational Education in the
Department of Education in the
State capital.
General information on job oppor­
tunities in the baking industry and on
requirements for entering accredited
schools which offer courses or degrees
in baking science and technology may
be obtained by writing to:
American Bakers Association,
1700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.


The science of electronics has con­
tributed greatly to the spectacular
achievements of the age in which we
live. Electronic instruments guide un­
manned missiles for our Nation’s de­
fense and control the flights of our
astronauts as they rocket into outer
space. Other electronic instruments
make it possible for man to see, hear,
and communicate over vast distances.
Electronic devices direct, control, and
test production processes in industries
such as steel, petroleum, and chemi­
cals. Electronic data-processing
equipment enables business and Gov­
ernment to handle tons of paper
work with great accuracy and speed.
Hospitals use electronic instruments
to perform laboratory tests and to
check body functions. Television and
radio sets inform and entertain, while
other electronic devices help protect
homes against fire and other hazards.
Indications are that electronics will
play an even greater role in the
In early 1967, an estimated 1.1 mil­
lion workers were engaged in manu­
facturing electronic products. Dur­
ing the late 1960’s and throughout the
1970’s, a rapid increase in employ­
ment is anticipated. Job opportuni­
ties are expected to be particularly
favorable in plants producing indus­
trial-commercial electronic equip­
ment, output of which is expected to

grow more rapidly than other elec­ computers; commercial radio and
television broadcasting equipment;
tronic products.
commercial and private aircraft
communications and navigational
Nature and Location of Electronics apparatus; and industrial testing,
measuring, and production control
equipment. Principal consumer prod­
Before World War II, the principal ucts include television sets, radios,
electronic products were radios, phonographs, tape recorders, and
broadcasting equipment, other re­ hearing aids. Electronic components
ceiving and transmitting equipment, fall into three broad classifications:
and electron tubes. With the rapid tubes, semiconductors, and “other
development of new electronic prod­ components.” Tubes include receiv­
ucts during and after that war, the ing tubes, power tubes, television pic­
broader term “electronics manufac­ ture tubes, and special purpose tubes.
turing” or “electronics industry” Principal semiconductor devices are
came into general use.
transistors, diodes, rectifiers, and
The heart of every electronic prod­ microelectronic devices, which in­
uct is a circuit or system that in­ clude combinations of miniaturized
cludes electron tubes, semiconduc­ semiconductors. “Other components”
tors, and other electronic devices include such items as capacitors,
which regulate, control, or direct the resistors, transformers, relays, con­
flow of small, active particles of nega­ nectors, and electronic switches.
tive electricity (electrons) through
Of the estimated 1.1 million work­
the circuit. Because of their unique ers employed in electronics manu­
functions, electronic devices are find­ facturing establishments in early
ing many applications.
1967, about three-fifths—640,000—
Electronic products may be were in plants producing end pro­
grouped into four major categories: ducts. About 325,000 of these work­
(1) Military and space equipment, ers produced military and space
(2) industrial and commercial prod­ equipment; 170,000 industrial and
ucts, (3) consumer products, and commercial products; and 145,000
(4) components. In 1966, military consumer items. The remaining
and space products accounted for 440,000 workers were in plants mak­
about half of total electronic ship­ ing electronic components.
ments. Industrial and commercial
Electronics manufacturing plants
equipment and consumer products are located in nearly every State, but
accounted for about one-fourth each; the majority of electronics manufac­
components produced as replacement turing workers in early 1967 were em­
parts were only a small percentage of ployed in seven States: California,
total shipments. (Components pro­ New York, New Jersey, Illinois,
duced as original equipment for end Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and
products are included in the ship­ Indiana. Metropolitan areas with
ments value of the end products.)
large numbers of electronics manu­
Military and space products in­ facturing workers included Chicago,
clude electronic guidance and tele­ Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia,
metering systems for missiles and Newark, Boston, Baltimore, and
spacecraft; radar and other detection Indianapolis.
devices; automatic communications
In addition to the employees in
and computing systems; gyroscopes electronics manufacturing plants,
and other navigational equipment; over 75,000 electronics workers were
and fire controls (such as air-to-air employed in the Federal Govern­
target seeking and detonating equip­ ment, universities, and nonprofit
ment) . Some important commercial research centers, in such activities as
and industrial electronic products are research, development, and the


negotiation and administration of ment plants, particularly where
products are mass-produced. For
example, in the manufacture of cir­
cuit boards, many plants use auto­
How Electronic Products Are Made matic punch presses to make holes in
thin sheets of plastic (one or both
Many plants manufacturing elec­ sides of which is coated with a thin
tronic products specialize in one type layer of copper) so that components
of end product, such as television can be attached. Machines are used
sets, radios, or electronic computers; to etch electrical circuits, which re­
or one type of component, such as place wires, on the circuit boards.
television picture tubes, power tubes, Machines also position components
or semiconductors. In plants which into the proper holes in the circuit
produce several types of end products boards. Mechanical devices bend the
or components, each type is generally wires or metal “ears” on the bottom
made in a separate department.
of the components, locking them into
Subassemblies, such as tuners and place on the board. Wire leads on
record changers, are often made in the components are commonly
plants specializing in these products. soldered to the etched circuits in one
Research and development activities continuous operation (called “dip”
are performed in establishments spe­ or “wave” soldering).
cializing in such work, or in separate
Parts used in end products are
departments of manufacturing plants. usually brought to the assembly line
A large proportion of workers in by hand truck since most electronic
plants manufacturing end products parts are not bulky. They may be
are engaged in assembly operations. loose in boxes, fed from hoppers
Inspecting and testing of subassem­ (receptacles for parts), or held in
blies and end products are also impor­ special containers or jigs. During
tant activities. Some end-product assembly operations, components and
plants have fabricating and process­ subassemblies are inspected and
ing departments in which workers do tested to locate faulty parts or con­
machining, sheet-metal work, and nections or other defects.
cleaning and coating of metals, such
In components manufacturing
as painting and plating; and plastic plants, most assembly work is done
by machine. Some types of compo­
In assembling radios, television nents are usually assembled by hand,
sets, and other end products pro­ such as experimental parts, special
duced in large quantities, major sub- purpose tubes, and extremely tiny
assemblies, such as circuit boards or semiconductors used in military and
panels, transformers, tuners, tubes, space equipment. Electronic compo­
and speakers are attached mainly by nents are inspected and tested many
hand onto a chassis. A moving con­ times, beginning with visual inspec­
veyor is often used to transport the tion of raw materials as they enter
chassis from one work station to the plant and continuing through all
another. Assembled units are placed stages of manufacture.
into metal, plastic, or wooden cab­
inets. Where complex electronic
products are made in small lots, as
Electronics Manufacturing
in the case of scientific and research
devices and of electronic equipment
A wide variety of occupations, re­
used in space exploration, one or two
workers may assemble a complete quiring a broad range of training and
skills, is found in plants manufactur­
unit by hand.
Semiautomatic and automatic ma­ ing electronic products. About half
chinery are being used more and the workers in electronics manufac­
more to perform processing and turing are in plant jobs (production,
assembly operations in end-equip­ maintenance, transportation, and

service); the rest are in white-collar
jobs (engineering, scientific, finance,
administrative, clerical, and sales).
The proportions of plant and
white-collar workers differ from one
establishment to another, depending
mainly on the products being manu­
factured. For example, the propor­
tion of plant workers is generally
higher in establishments producing
consumer products than in establish­
ments manufacturing military and
space products.
More than two-fifths of the work­
ers employed in electronics manufac­
turing plants are women. In some
plants, particularly those producing
electron tubes and semiconductors,
women account for half or more of
total employment. Most women are
employed as semiskilled plant work­
ers, chiefly as assemblers, inspectors,
and testers, and as office workers.
However, opportunities for women
exist in nearly all types of jobs in
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. A large proportion of electron­
ics manufacturing workers are in
engineering, scientific, and other
technical jobs. Engineers and scien­
tists alone represent about 1 out of 7
electronics workers. Generally, they
account for a much larger proportion
of employment in plants making mil­
itary and space equipment than in
those producing other types of elec­
tronic products.
The largest group of engineers is
electrical or electronics engineers.
They are generally employed in re­
search and development, although
many work in production operations
as design engineers or as test methods
and quality control engineers. Elec­
tronics engineers also work as field
engineers, sales engineers, or engineer­
ing liaison men.
Substantial numbers of mechanical
engineers and industrial engineers are
also employed in electronics manu­
facturing plants. Mechanical engi­
neers work as design engineers in
product development and in tool and
equipment design. They work also as

plant engineers—chiefly concerned
with the maintenance layout, and
operation of plant equipment. Most
industrial engineers work as produc­
tion engineers or as efficiency, meth­
ods, or time-study engineers. Other
engineers employed in electronics
manufacturing include chemical,
metallurgical, and ceramic engineers.
Physicists make up the largest
group of scientists in electronics man­
ufacturing. Most of them do research
and development work in connection
with such products as microwave
tubes and microminiaturized compo­
nents and circuits. Microminiaturiza­
tion refers to the development of ex­
tremely tiny, light-weight electronic
devices which consume very small
amounts of power. Many scientists in
electronics manufacturing are chem­
ists and metallurgists, employed
mainly in research work and in mate­
rials testing. Mathematicians and
statisticians work with engineers and
scientists on complex mathematical
and statistical problems, especially in
the design of military and space
equipment and computers. Statisti­
cians are also employed in the fields
of quality control, production sched­
uling, and sales analysis and plan­
ning. Industrial designers work on the
design of electronic products and the
equipment used to manufacture them.
Technicians—such as electronics
technicians, draftsmen, engineering
aids, laboratory technicians, and
mathematical assistants represent a
large group of electronics manufac­
turing workers, roughly 1 out of 11.
Many electronics technicians are
engaged in research and development
work, helping engineers in the design
and construction of experimental
models. They are also employed by
manufacturers to work on electronic
equipment in customers’ establish­
ments. Other electronics technicians
work in highly technical inspecting,
testing, and assembly jobs in the engi­
neering laboratories of firms manu­
facturing electronic products.


commercial products and in establish­
ments doing research and develop­
ment work. They prepare training
and technical manuals describing the
operation and maintenance of elec­
tronic equipment. They also prepare
catalogs, product literature, and pro­
ject reports and proposals. Specifica­
tions writers compile lists of required
measurements and materials. Tech­
nical illustrators draw pictures of
electronic equipment, for technical
publications and sales literature.

Research technician analyzes quality of ma­
terials for electronic components.

Draftsmen are usually employed in
engineering departments to prepare
drawings from sketches or specifica­
tions furnished by engineers. Manu­
facturers of military and space
equipment generally employ a higher
proportion of draftsmen than do
manufacturers of other types of elec­
tronic products.
E ngineering aids are another im­
portant group of technicians. They
assist engineers by making calcula­
tions, sketches, and drawings, and by
conducting performance tests on com­
ponents and systems. Laboratory
technicians help physicists, chemists,
and engineers by performing such
duties as setting up apparatus and as­
sisting in laboratory analyses and ex­
periments. Some laboratory tech­
nicians may themselves conduct
analyses and experiments, usually of
a standardized, routine nature.
Mathematical assistants help to solve
mathematical problems, following
procedures outlined by mathe­
maticians. They also operate test
equipment used in the development
of electronic computers.
Technical writers work closely with
engineers, particularly in plants
making military-space and industrial-

Administrative Clerical, and Related
Occupations. About 1 out of 4 work­
ers in electronics manufacturing
plants are in administrative or other
office jobs. Administrative workers
include purchasing agents, sales ex­
ecutives, personnel workers, advertis­
ing personnel and marketing research
specialists. Clerks, secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, and business ma­
chine operators, many of whom are
women, are among the thousands of
other office workers employed by
electronics manufacturing firms. A
small but growing proportion of these
office workers operate electronic com­
puters and auxiliary equipment. Most
of these computers are used to process
office records, including payroll, pro­
duction, costs, sales, and inventory
Plant Occupations. About half of
electronics manufacturing employees
work in assembly, inspecting and test­
ing, machining, fabricating, process­
ing, maintenance, and other plant op­
erations. The proportion of workers
in each of these operations differs
among electronics plants depending
largely on whether end products or
components are produced, and the
types manufactured. For example,
the proportion of assemblers is higher
in plants making components and
consumer end products than in plants
producing military space equipment,
and industrial-commercial products.
The proportion of machining and
fabricating workers is higher among


manufacturers of military space
equipment and industrial-commercial
products than among manufacturers
of other types of products.
Assembly occupations (D.O.T.
729.884; 720.884; 726.781 and .884).
Assemblers make up the largest
group of electronics plant workers.
Both end-product and component
manufacturing firms employ as­
semblers with many different skills.
However, most assemblers are semi­
skilled workers.
Most end products are assembled
mainly by hand, with small handtools,
soldering irons, and light welding
devices. Assemblers use diagrams,
models, and color-coded parts and
wires to help them in their work.
Some assembly work is done by fol­
lowing instructions presented on color
slides and tape recordings. Color
slides flash a picture of an assembly
sequence on a viewing screen while
the assembler listens to recorded
Precision assemblers install com­
ponents and subassemblies into end
products in which moving parts and
mechanisms must operate within
clearances measured in thousandths,
or even millionths, of an inch. Some
of these assembly workers do repair

Machine operator checks wave-soldered
printed circuit board.

work, experimental and develop­
mental work, and model assembly
work. Most precision assemblers are
employed in the manufacture of mili­
tary space and industrial-commercial
electronic equipment.
Machines are used in some as­
sembly work on end products. For
example, in putting together subas­
semblies such as circuit boards, auto­
matic machines are often used to
position components on the boards
and to solder connections. Here the
assemblers work as machine operators
or loaders.
Most components are assembled by
machines, since their assembly in­
volves many separate but simple and
repetitive operations. Even some types
of miniaturized semiconductors and
other components, made with parts
small enough to pass through the eye
of a needle, are now assembled on
highly complex machines. Some of
these machines are automatically
Hand assembly is needed for some
components, such as receiving tubes,
special purpose tubes, and some types
of transistors, diodes, capacitors, and
resistors. Hand assemblers may only
perform a single operation on these
components as they move down the
assembly line, but some may com­
pletely assemble a particular type of
component. Tiny components are
often hand-assembled under magnify­
ing lenses or powerful microscopes.
Hand assemblers may sometimes
use machines to assist them in per­
forming assembly operations on com­
ponents. For example, precision
welding equipment may be used to
weld connections in microminiature
components and circuit assemblies.
Some circuit assemblies are so small
that hundreds of components may be
precision welded in a cubic inch of
space. Machines may also be used to
position and hold component parts
during assembly operations.
Hand assemblers are also employed
in electronics research laboratories

and in the research and development
departments of electronics manufac­
turers. These workers—frequently
called electronics technicians—gen­
erally do difficult assembly work on
small quantities of complex, often ex­
perimental, equipment. They may
also work on the development of new
ways to assemble large quantities of
components or subassemblies by ma­
chine. Some electronics technicians
install subassemblies into complex
systems such as those in guided mis­
siles. These hand assemblers usually
must know enough electronics theory
to understand the operation of the
items being assembled.
Most assemblers are women. They
are employed mainly as machine op­
erators or tenders and as hand as­
semblers of items made in large
quantities. Men are chiefly employed
in experimental assembly work, in
model assembly, and in assembly jobs
requiring relatively heavy work. Men
are also employed in assembly depart­
ments as “trouble shooters.” These
workers analyze end products and
subassemblies which have failed
routine performance tests, to pinpoint
the exact cause of faulty operation.
Machining occupations. Metal ma­
chining workers are employed in most
electronics manufacturing plants,
particularly those making militaryspace and industrial-commercial
products. Machine-tool operators
and machinists operate power-driven
machine tools to produce metal parts
of electronic products. Toolmakers
construct and repair jigs and fixtures
used in the- fabrication and assembly
of parts. Diemakers specialize in mak­
ing metal forms (dies) used in punch
and power presses to shape metal
Fabricating occupations. Fabricat­
ing workers are employed in many
electronics manufacturing plants, but
the largest proportion is in establish­
ments producing industrial-commer­
cial products. Among the fabricating
workers are sheet-metal workers who
make frames, chassis, and cabinets.



tronics manufacturing workers is en­
gaged in processing activities, chiefly
in plants producing electronic com­
ponents. Electroplaters and tinners
(D.O.T. 501.885) coat many parts
with metal. Anodizers (D.O.T. 501.782) treat parts in electrolytic and
chemical baths to prevent corrosion,
iSilk screen operators (D.O.T. 726.887) print patterns on circuit
boards and on parts of electronic

Many women are employed as assemblers in the electronics industry.

Glass blowers and glass lathe opera­
tors (D.O.T. 674.782) are employed
chiefly in electronic tube experi­
mentation and development work; in
the manufacture of special purpose
tubes, which are made in small num­
bers ; and in rebuilding television pic­
ture tubes. Other fabricating workers
include punch press operators, blank­
ing machine operators and shear
Some fabricating jobs involve the
molding, firing, and glazing of
ceramics used as insulating materials
in many components. Workers may

also operate machines that mold plas­
tic components. In electron tube man­
ufacturing, special fabricating work­
ers are employed. For example, grid
lathe operators (D.O.T. 725.884)
make grids (devices in electronic
tubes which control the flow of elec­
trons) by winding fine wire around
two heavy parallel wires. Other fabri­
cating workers include spot welders,
coil winders (D.O.T. 724.781 and
.884) and crystal grinders and finish­
ers (D.O.T. 726.884).
Processing occupations. A relatively
small but important group of elec­

Etching e q u i p m e n t operators
(D.O.T. 590.885) do chemical etch­
ing of copper on circuit boards.
Processing workers also impregnate
or coat coils and other electronic
components with waxes, oils, or other
materials. Some operate machines
which encase microminiature compo­
nents in plastic resin to join and in­
sulate them in circuits, seal out
moisture, and reduce chances of
connection failure caused by heat and
Another group of processing work­
ers operate furnaces, ovens, and kilns,
used chiefly to harden ceramics, bake
on coatings, and eliminate contam­
ination by gases and foreign materials.
Operators of infrared ovens and hy­
drogen furnace fires (D.O.T. 590.885) rid tubes of foreign deposits.
In tube manufacturing, exhaust op­
erators (D.O.T. 725.884) and sealers
(D.O.T. 692.885) operate gas flame
machines which seal the mount (the
part of an electronic tube consisting
of a Bakelite base and stem) in the
tube, clear the tube of impurities,
exhaust the gas, and seal the tube.
Testing and inspection. Testing
and inspection in electronics manu­
facturing begin when raw materials
enter the plants, and continue
throughout fabricating operations.
Finished components and end prod­
ucts undergo thorough testing and
inspection, frequently including op­
eration for a period of time, before
In end-product manufacturing
plants, testers use voltmeters, oscillo­
scopes, and other test meters to make
certain that components, subassem­


blies, and end products conform to
specifications. Many of these workers
have job titles that indicate the type
of work they do, such as analyzer,
final tester, tuner tester, and opera­
tional tester.
Some testing jobs require techni­
cally trained workers who have had
several years of experience in elec­
tronic testing. These jobs are com­
monly found in research and devel­
opment work, where electronics
technicians test, adjust, and aline
circuits and systems as part of their
overall responsibility. These jobs are
also found in complex production
work, such as the manufacture of
missiles and spacecraft.
In component manufacturing
plants, components are checked
manually by testers using various
types of test meters, or routed me­
chanically through automatic test
equipment. Some automatic equip­
ment can check a large number of
component characteristics, produce
a punched tape of test results and sort
the components into batches for
shipping. Although many of these
workers are simply called component
testers, others have job titles which
reflect the type of components they
test, such as transformer tester, coil
tester, and magnetic component

Inspector tests power supply module.

tester. Workers who feed or monitor
automatic test equipment are often
called test-set operators or testingmachine operators.
The work of inspectors in endproduct plants varies from checking
incoming materials to inspecting
subassemblies and final products for
flaws in circuit assembly, etching,
plating, painting, and labeling. Elec­
tronic assembly inspectors (D.O.T.
722.281) examine assembled elec­
tronic units to make certain that they
conform to blueprints and specifica­
tions, and check wire routing,
electrical connections, and quality of
units. Mechanical and precision
inspectors check mechanical assem­
blies and precision parts. Inspectors
in end-product plants may use tools
such as measuring scales, microme­
ters, calipers, and magnifying glasses
in their work.
Inspectors in component manu­
facturing plants check incoming raw
materials and subassemblies before,
during, and after fabricating and
processing operations. They may in­
spect wire leads on diodes for
straightness or length, wire winding
on coils for evenness or breakage, and
completed tubes for loose wires,
scratched paint, corrosion, and de­
fective etches and identifying labels.
Some inspectors make repairs on de­
fective components.
Tools used by inspectors in com­
ponents plants may include magnify­
ing lenses, micrometers, calipers,
tweezers, and, in some circumstances,
microscopes. These inspectors may
have job titles that indicate the work
they do, such as incoming materials
inspector, plating inspector, power
tube inspector, coil inspector, ma­
chine parts inspector, and precision
Maintenance occupations. Many
maintenance workers with different
types of training are employed in
electronics manufacturing plants to
take care of machinery and equip­
ment. Skilled electricians are respon­
sible for the proper operation of
electrical equipment. Machine and
equipment repairmen perform me­

chanical repairs. Hydraulic mechan­
ics s p e c i a l i z e in maintaining
hydraulic equipment. Maintenance
machinists and welders build and re­
pair equipment, jigs, and fixtures.
Air-conditioning and refrigeration
mechanics are employed in electron­
ics plants which are air-conditioned
and have special refrigerated and
dust-free rooms. Painters, plumbers,
pipefitters, carpenters, sheet-metal
workers, and other building mainte­
nance craftsmen are also employed
in electronics plants.
Other plant occupations. Parts
changer (D.O.T. 729.381) is another
important occupation in electronic
manufacturing plants. These workers
repair assembled electronic products
which have been tagged for replace­
ment of defective parts. Women are
frequently e m p l o y e d as parts
Many workers are employed in
materials movement and handling.
These workers include operators of
plant trucks and tractors; forklift op­
erators who stack crates and load and
unload trucks and boxcars; and
truckdrivers who handle transporta­
tion outside the plant. Other occupa­
tions include boiler operator and
stationary engineer.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found not only in
electronics manufacturing plants but
also in other industries are given else­
where in the Handbook, in sections
covering the individual occupations.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Electronics manufacturing plants
employ many engineers, scientists,
and technicians, because of the tech­
nical nature of plant production
operations and the great emphasis on
research and development work. Be­
ginning engineering jobs are usually
filled by recent graduates of engineer­
ing colleges (some with advanced
degrees). A small number of workers
without college degrees are upgraded
to professional engineering classifica­

tions from such occupations as engi­
neering assistant and electronics
technician. Workers who become
engineers in this way usually have
taken advanced electronics courses in
night school or under other training
programs. To keep up with new de­
velopments in their fields and to help
them qualify for promotion, profes­
sional and technical personnel obtain
additional training, read technical
publications, and attend lectures and
technical demonstrations.
Almost all mathematicians, phys­
icists, and other scientists employed
in electronics manufacturing plants
have college degrees and many have
advanced degrees. Job prospects are
usually better for scientists with at
least a master’s degree than for those
with only a bachelor’s degree.
Technicians generally need some
specialized training to qualify for
their jobs. Most electronics tech­
nicians have attended either a public,
private, or Armed Forces technical
school. Some have obtained their
training through apprenticeships,
usually of 3 or 4 years’ duration. Ap­
plicants with a high school education,
including courses in mathematics
and science, are preferred for these
apprenticeships. Some workers be­
come electronics technicians by being
upgraded from such jobs as tester
and experimental assembler, after
they have developed required skills
on the job and acquired the necessary
knowledge in basic electronics theory,
mathematics, drafting, and reading
of schematic diagrams. This knowl­
edge is usually obtained by taking
courses in company-operated classes,
night school, junior college, technical
school, or by correspondence.
Electronics technicians need color
vision, manual dexterity, and good
eye-hand coordination. As in the case
of other technical workers, they must
be able to understand technical pub­
lications. Some technicians who do
final testing that requires the opera­
tion of radio transmitting equipment
must hold licenses from the Federal
Communications Commission as firstor second-class commercial radiotele­
phone operators.


Laboratory technicians, engineer­
ing and scientific aids, and mathe­
matical assistants frequently have had
1 year or more of college training in a
scientific or engineering field, but have
not completed course requirements
for a degree. In other cases, these
workers have been upgraded from
jobs as lower grade assistants in engi­
neering laboratories or as high-grade
testers in production departments. In
hiring lower grade assistants, elec­
tronics firms give preference to high
school graduates who have completed
high school courses in mathematics,
physics, and chemistry.
Draftsmen usually enter their trade
by taking a course in drafting at a
trade or technical school; a few have
completed a 3- or 4-year apprentice­
ship. Some qualify for their jobs under
an informal arrangement with their
employers which provides for both
on-the-job training and part-time
schooling. Because many draftsmen
must understand the basic principles
of electronic circuits to do their work,
they should study basic electronic
theory and circuits and the reading of
electronic schematic diagrams.
Technical writers must have a flair
for writing and are usually required
to have some technical training. Elec­
tronics firms prefer to hire those who
have had some technical institute or
college training in science or engi­
neering. Some have college engineer­
ing degrees. Many have college de­
grees in English and journalism and
have received their technical training
on the job and by attending companyoperated evening classes. Technical
illustrators have usually attended
special schools of art or design.
Many tool and die makers, ma­
chinists, electricians, pipefitters, car­
penters, and other craftsmen in elec­
tronics manufacturing learn their
trades by completing a 4- or 5-year
apprenticeship. Some enter these
trades through upgrading from help­
ers’ jobs. Some take courses at voca­
tional schools.
Formal training in electronics is
usually not necessary for workers en­
tering plant jobs, but completion of

high school is frequently required. Job
applicants may have to pass aptitude
tests and demonstrate skill for par­
ticular types of work. On-the-job
training, usually for a short period, is
generally provided for workers who
have had no previous experience. As­
semblers, testers, and inspectors need
good vision, good color perception,
manual dexterity, and patience.
Requirements for filling adminis­
trative and other office jobs are simi­
lar to those in other industries. Cer­
tain beginning administrative jobs in
electronics manufacturing are gener­
ally open only to college graduates
with degrees in business administra­
tion, accounting, or engineering.
More and more employers are re­
quiring college training for adminis­
trative jobs in advertising, personnel,
accounting, and sales. For clerical
jobs, employers usually prefer appli­
cants who are high school graduates
with special training in stenography,
typing, bookkeeping, and office ma­
chine operation.
Employment’ Outlook

Electronics manufacturing will pro­
vide tens of thousands of job oppor­
tunities annually during the late
1960’s and throughout the 1970’s.
A rapid rate of growth in electronics
employment is expected over this
period, assuming relatively full em­
ployment in the Nation’s economy
and the high levels of economic ac­
tivity needed to achieve this goal. In
addition to the many thousands of
job opportunities resulting from em­
ployment growth, large numbers of
job openings will result from the need
to replace workers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die. Re­
tirements and deaths alone will pro­
vide an estimated 35,000 job open­
ings annually—about 10,000 for men
and 25,000 for women.
Employment in the electronics in­
dustry is expected to rise rapidly but
the rate of increases will vary by ma­
jor product category. The most rapid
employment growth is expected for
industrial-commercial products. Busi-


nessmen are expected to spend in­
creasing amounts for electronic
equipment to automate and mech­
anize data processing and production
processes, especially for such items
as computers and numerical controls
for machine tools. Demand is also
expected to grow for navigational,
test, educational, and radio commu­
nications equipment. Production of
electronic equipment for the medical
and atomic energy fields will also ex­
pand greatly. In addition, many new
fields are being explored for applica­
tions of electronic devices, including
automated highways and railways
and water desalinization and purifi­
The demand for consumer items
is also expected to increase rapidly
as population, family formations, and
personal spendable incomes rise over
the period. The demand for military
and space electronic equipment is ex­
pected to grow slowly over the period.
This projection is based on the as­
sumption that the level of defense
expenditures, an important determi­
nant of output in this product cate­
gory, will return to the pre-Vietnam
level during the 1970’s. Moreover, it
assumes that expenditures for pro­
grams to explore outer space and the
ocean depths will continue at ap­
proximately current levels. If these
assumptions should not be realized,
em ploym ent levels in this sector of
the industry will be affected.
The increase in electronics em­
ployment in all product categories
probably will not be as great as the
expansion in output, however, be­
cause technological improvements in
production methods are expected to
increase output per worker. For ex­
ample, increasing mechanization of
operations formerly done by hand
will tend to reduce labor require­
ments, particularly in plants where
products are mass-produced, such as
television and radio sets, and com­
ponents. However, mechanized man­
ufacturing processes are difficult to
adapt to the fabrication of many
types of highly complex electronic

Although employment in elec­
tronics manufacturing is expected to
grow rapidly over the period, the
rates of growth will vary among oc­
cupational groups and individual oc­
cupations. For example, the demand
for skilled maintenance personnel,
particularly instrument repairmen,
is expected to rise at a rapid rate, be­
cause of the need to maintain and
repair the increasing amounts of
complex machinery. On the other
hand, employment of semiskilled
workers is anticipated to rise slowly
because of the growing mechaniza­
tion and automation of assembly
line operations.
The overall demand for engineers,
scientists, and technicians is expected
to increase because of continued high
•expenditures for research and de­
velopment, and the continuing trend
toward the production of complex
equipment. Among professional and
technical workers, the greatest de­
mand will be for engineers with ad­
vanced degrees, particularly those
who have a background in certain

specialized fields, including quantum
mechanics, solid-state circuitry, prod­
uct design, and industrial engineer­
ing. The demand for engineers pos­
sessing selling ability will rise rapidly
because the increasing complexity of
industrial and commercial equip­
ment will require salesmen with
highly technical backgrounds. The
demand for mathematicians and
physicists will be particularly great
because of expanding research in
computer and laser technology.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average hourly and weekly earn­
ings of production workers in elec­
tronics manufacturing industries
vary considerably by type of product
produced. As shown in the following
tabulation, production workers in in­
dustries making military-space and
industrial-commercial products had
higher average earnings in mid-1967
than those in industries producing
other major types of electronic prod­

Type of product

All manufacturing industries.......................................................
Major electronics manufacturing industries:
Military-space and industrial-commercial electronics end
Electron tubes.....................................................................................
Radio and television receiving sets, and phonographs............
Semiconductors and other com ponents, except tu b es................

Earnings of individual production
workers may differ from the averages
shown above since such earnings de­
pend not only on the type of plant
in which they work but also on factors
such as skill level and experience,
length of service, geographic location,
and amount of overtime.
Electronics workers generally re­
ceive premium pay for overtime work
and for work on Sundays and holi­
days. Virtually all plants provide ex­
tra pay for evening and night shift
Many workers in electronics manu­
facturing plants receive 2 or 3 weeks’
vacation with pay, depending on their
length of service, and from 6 to 8 paid


$2. 82
3. 03
2. 42
2. 36

w eekly

$114. 49
125. 14
103. 10
92. 20
91. 57

holidays a year. Almost all electronics
workers are covered by health and
life insurance plans; many are cov­
ered by pension plans and other
fringe benefits.
Working conditions in electronics
manufacturing compare favorably
with those in other industries. Plants
are usually well lighted, clean, and
quiet. Many plants are relatively new
and are located in suburban and semirural areas. Most plant departments
are air conditioned where dust-free
conditions or air temperature control
is necessary for the manufacture of
certain types of electronic equipment.
The work in most electronics occupa-


U liJ C

tions is not strenuous. Many assembly
line operations are repetitious. Music
during working hours, cafeterias,
recreational facilities, and social pro­
grams are provided for employees by
some electronics manufacturing firms.
The frequency of injuries in elec­
tronics manufacturing is far below
the average in manufacturing as a
whole, and injuries are usually less


Many workers in electronics manu­
facturing are covered by labor-man­
agement agreements. The principal
unions involved are the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and Ma­
chine Workers; International Broth­
erhood of Electrical Workers; Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers; and the
United Electrical, Radio and Ma­
chine Workers of America (Ind.).

Where To Go for More Information

Further information concerning
careers in electronics manufacturing
can be obtained from die public re­
lations department of individual elec­
tronics manufacturing companies and
Electronic Industries Association,
2001 Eye St. NW., Washington, D.G.


The metal castings produced by
foundry workers are essential parts
of thousands of products ranging
from automobile engines to cooking
utensils. In early 1967, an estimated
400,000 workers were employed in
the Nation’s foundries and in foundry
departments of other metalworking
Casting is a method of forming
metal into a wide range of intricate
shapes. To cast metal, a mold is pre­
pared with a cavity in it that has been
shaped by a pattern or model of the
object to be cast. Metal is then melted
and poured into the mold cavity,
where it cools and solidifies.
Castings may range in length from
a fraction of an inch to many feet.
They may weigh anywhere from less
than an ounce to many tons. The
considerable strength and rigidity of
cast objects makes the casting process
suitable for producing thousands of
items for household and industrial
uses. Among these products are ma­
chine bases, ship propellers, bearings,
industrial valves, water faucets, water
mains, engine blocks, dies, gears, mo­
tor frames, railroad car wheels, and
aircraft and missile components.

ployed in ferrous foundries—those
that make castings of iron and
steel. About three-fifths of these
workers are employed in ferrous
foundries that produce gray and
ductile iron castings; the remainder
are employed in malleable iron and
steel foundries. About 90,000 work­
ers are employed in nonferrous found­
ries. Most of this group work in
foundries that make brass, bronze,
aluminum, magnesium, and zinc cast­
ings. Approximately 70,000 foundry
workers are employed in foundry
departments of other metalworking
establishments. Foundries usually spe­
cialize in casting a particular metal,
since somewhat different methods and
equipment are used in melting and in
casting the different metals. However,
many nonferrous foundries and some
ferrous foundries cast several metals.
With additional training, foundry
workers are capable of transferring
from foundries casting one type of
metal to foundries casting a different
Foundries are usually small estab­
lishments. More than 90 percent em­
ploy fewer than 250 workers each.
However, large foundries with 500
workers or more employ about onethird of all foundry workers. More
than two-thirds of the foundry work­
ers are employed in independent shops

that sell their castings to other firms.
Most of the remaining workers are
employed in the foundry depart­
ments of plants that use castings in
their final products, such as machin­
ery and motor vehicles. Some foundry
workers are employed in foundry pat­
tern shops in various metalworking
plants, and in shops that make pat­
terns on order.
There are five principal methods
of casting, each named for the type
of mold used. The most common of
these is green-sand molding. In this
method, sand composed chiefly of sil­
ica, clay, and moisture is packed in
a boxlike container, called a flask,
around a pattern. After the pattern
is withdrawn, molten metal is poured
into the mold cavity to form the de­
sired metal shape. Sand molds can
be used only once, but the sand is
usually reconditioned and reused.
A second method, called permanent
molding, employs a metal instead of
a sand mold. Metal molds, which can
be used many times, are used chiefly
for casting nonferrous products. How­
ever, some ferrous castings are also
produced by this method.
Precision investment casting, a
third method (often known as the
“lost wax” process), uses ceramic
molds. In this method, a wax or plas­
tic pattern is coated with refractory

Employment In
27 Selected Foundry Occupations


Nature and Location of Foundry

An estimated 240,000 of the
foundry industry’s workers are em­

_ ! / E stim a te d .e a rly 1967


clay. After the coating hardens, the
pattern is melted and drained, leaving
a mold cavity into which molten
metal is poured. Castings produced
from these molds are precise and re­
quire little machining.
Shell molding, a fourth process, is
becoming increasingly important. In
this method, a heated metal pattern
is covered with sand coated with resin.
The sand forms a thin shell mold that,
after curing, is stripped from the pat­
tern. Castings produced from these
molds are precise and have a smooth
surface. The process is even used
more widely to make cores, which
form designed cavities in the castings.
Die casting, a fifth process, is done
entirely by machines operated by die­
casting machine operators. In this
method, molten metal under high
pressure is forced into dies from which
the castings are later automatically
ejected, or removed by hand, when
the metal solidifies.
Small foundries generally produce
small amounts of different kinds of
castings for* nearby metal fabricating
plants. These foundries ordinarily are
not highly mechanized. They employ
hand and machine molders and core­
makers (the key foundry occupa­
tions), and a substantial number of
unskilled laborers. Many of these
foundries produce large castings, and
require the skills of floor molders.
Large foundries are often highly
mechanized and produce great quan­
tities of identical castings. These shops
employ relatively few unskilled labor­
ers because cranes, conveyors, and
other types of materials-handling
equipment are used in place of hand
labor to move materials, molds, and
castings. However, proportionately
greater numbers of skilled mainte­
nance workers, such as millwrights
and electricians, are employed in
these foundries to service and repair
the large amount of machinery and
equipment. Also, these shops employ
proportionately fewer skilled molders
and coremakers.
There are foundry jobs in every
State and in most large- and mediumsize cities in the country. Because


foundries usually are located near
plants where their castings are used,
foundry jobs tend to be concentrated
in States where there is considerable
metalworking activity; for example,
in Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsyl­
vania, Indiana, and Wisconsin.
Foundry Occupations

More than four-fifths of the ap­
proximately 400,000 workers in
foundries and foundry departments
in early 1967 were employed in plant
occupations. More than half of the
plant workers were employed in oc­
cupations not found in other indus­
tries. To illustrate more clearly the
duties of these workers, a brief de­
scription of the jobs involved in the
most common casting process—sand
After the casting is designed, the
patternmaker makes a wood or metal

pattern in the shape of the casting
desired. Next, a hand molder (D.O.T.
518.381) makes sand molds by pack­
ing and ramming sand, specially pre­
pared by a sand mixer (D.O.T. 579.782), around the pattern. A molder’s
helper (D.O.T. 519.887) may assist
in these operations. If large numbers
of identical castings are to be made,
molding machines may be used to
make the molds at a faster speed than
is possible by hand. The operator of
this equipment is called a machine
A coremaker shapes sand, specially
prepared by a sand mixer, into cores
(bodies of sand designed usually to
create hollow spaces in castings).
Most cores are baked in an oven by
a core-oven tender (D.O.T. 518.885).
Core parts or sections are put togeth­
er by a core assembler (D.O.T.
518.887). After the cores are assem­
bled, they are placed in the molds by
coresetters (D.O.T. 518.884) or

Machine coremaker tends automatic equipment that produces cores.


molders. Now, the molds are ready
for the molten metal to be poured.
A furnace operator, or melter
(D.O.T. 512.782) operates the fur­
nace that melts the metal. The metal
is usually poured into molds by a
pourer (D.O.T. 514.884), although
in some small foundries molders may
perform this task. When the castings
have solidified, they are dumped from
the molds by a shakeout man (D.O.T.
519.887) and sent to the cleaning and
finishing department.
The dirty and rough surfaces of the
castings are cleaned and smoothed by
blasting or tumbling, and chipping
and grinding. A shotblaster (D.O.T.
503.887) operates a machine that
cleans the castings by blasting them
with air mixed with metal shot or
grit. The castings may be smoothed
by tumbling. In this process, the cast­
ings together with an abrasive mate­
rial, and sometimes water, are placed
in a barrel which is rotated. As the
barrel turns, the castings tumble
against each other, thereby removing
sand, burrs, and scale. The man who
controls the barrel is called a tumbler
operator (D.O.T. 599.885). Sand­
blasters and tumbler operators may
also operate a machine which both
tumbles and blasts the castings. A
chipper (D.O.T. 809.884) and a
grinder (D.O.T. 809.884) use pneu­
matic chisels, powered abrasive
wheels, powersaws, and handtools,
such as hammers, chisels, and files, to
remove excess metal and to finish the
Castings are frequently heat treated
in furnaces to improve the physical
properties of the metal; a heat
treater, or annealer (D.O.T. 504.782), operates these furnaces. Before
the castings are packed for shipment,
a casting inspector (D.O.T. 514.687)
checks them to make sure they are
structurally sound and meet blue­
print specifications.
The estimated number of workers
in the principal occupations unique to
foundries and foundry departments
are shown in chart 50. Detailed dis­
cussions of three of these occupa262-057 O— 68-----36

tions—patternmakers, coremakers,
and molders—follow this chapter.
Many foundry workers are em­
ployed in occupations that are com­
mon to other industries. For example,
foundry maintenance mechanics, ma­
chinists, carpenters, and millwrights
maintain and repair plant and equip­
ment. Crane and derrick operators
and truckdrivers move castings and
casting materials from place to place.
Machine tool operators finish castings
in the many foundries that do ma­
chine finishing work. Foundries also
employ thousands of workers in un­
skilled jobs, such as guard, janitor, la­
borer, and helper.
Nearly a fifth of all foundry work­
ers are employed in professional, tech­
nical, administrative, clerical, and
sales occupations. Of these personnel,
the largest number are clerical work­
ers, such as secretaries, stenograph­
ers, typists, and accounting clerks.
Foundries also employ substantial
numbers of professional and technical
workers, such as engineers, and metal­
lurgists. Some of these employees do
research; others make designs and lay­
outs of machinery and equipment;
control the quality of castings; or su­
pervise plant operations and mainte­
nance. In recent years, increasing
numbers of these workers have been
hired to sell castings and to assist cus­
tomers in designing cast parts. Found­
ry technicians are employed in a va­
riety of functions concerning the
control of quality in casting produc­
tion. For example, they may test
molding and coremaking sand, make
chemical analyses of metal, and oper­
ate machines that test the strength
and hardness of castings. In this work
they may use X-ray or magnetic ap­
paratus to inspect the internal struc­
ture of castings.
Administrative workers employed
in foundries include office managers,
personnel workers, purchasing agents,
plant managers, and other supervi­
sory workers.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, office,
and other occupations found in the

foundry industry as well as in many
other industries are given in the sec­
tions of the Handbook covering indi­
vidual occupations.)
The foundry work force is predom­
inately male, since much of the work
connected with the production of
castings is strenuous. Women are em­
ployed primarily in office jobs, al­
though some are employed in produc­
tion occupations such as coremaker.
Women also assemble wax and plastic
patterns in investment c a s t i n g
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most foundry plant workers start
in unskilled jobs, such as laborer or
helper. A worker may begin as a la­
borer and, after receiving informal
on-the-job training from a foreman
or experienced worker, he may gradu­
ally learn how to perform the more
skilled jobs. This is the usual practice
in training workers for such direct
casting process jobs as melter, chip­
per, and grinder.
Some skilled foundry workers—particularly hand molders, hand
coremakers, and patternmakers—
learn their jobs through formal ap­
prenticeship. In this type of training,
the young worker is given supervised
on-the-job training for a period of 4
or 5 years, usually supplemented by
classroom instruction. A worker who
has completed an apprenticeship pro­
gram is usually preferred by foundry
management because he has a greater
working knowledge of all foundry
operations and is, therefore, better
qualified to fill supervisory jobs.
An increasing number of skilled
foundry workers learn their jobs
through a combination of trade
school and on-the-job training. Begin­
ning workers may attend trade schools
that offer training in foundry work
before entering a formal apprentice­
ship program; in some cases, trade
school courses may be credited to­
ward completion of formal appren­


Employment Outlook

The foundry industry will hire
thousands of workers a n n u a l l y
through the 1970’s, mainly to replace
experienced workers who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die. Be­
cause the industry employs a large
number of workers, retirements and
deaths alone will provide about 9,000
job openings annually.
A substantial increase in foundry
production is expected during the
decade ahead. Growing population
and rising levels of personal dispos­
able income will result in expanded
consumer outlays for most products,
resulting in greater demand for cast­
ings and products that include cast
parts. These products include, for ex­
ample, automobiles, plumbing fix­
tures, air conditioners, household ap­
pliances, and gas and water lines.
New machinery, much of which will
be made with cast components, will
also be needed to produce the increas­
ing quantity of goods needed to sat­
isfy the requirements of an expanding
population. In addition, the need for
modern transportation systems to
transport the output of a growing
economy will stimulate the demand
for castings used in trucks, buses, rail­
road cars, ships, and aircraft.
Little or no change is expected in
employment in foundries through the
1970’s. Continued improvements in
casting methods, particularly in ma­
chine molding and coremaking, and
the increasing use of machinery for
materials handling, will result in
greater output per foundry worker.
Employment is expected to rise
faster in some occupations than in
others; in a few occupations, employ­
ment may actually decline. For ex­
ample, scientists, engineers, and other
technical personnel are expected to
increase more rapidly than other
workers as a result of expanding re­
search and development activities.
Technicians also will be needed in
greater numbers as the foundry in­
dustry introduces improved quality
control procedures and new produc­
tion techniques. More maintenance

workers and operators of materials
moving machines will be needed be­
cause of the increasing use of materials-handling equipment and more
complex processing equipment. In
contrast, the number of hand molders, hand coremakers, and other hand
processing workers will show little
change, because of the increasing sub­
stitution of machine molding and
coremaking for hand processes. The
number of laborers and other un­
skilled workers employed in the in­
dustry will continue to decline.

Various labor unions have foundry
workers in their membership. Among
these unions are the International
Molders’ and Allied Workers’ Union
of North America; the United Steel­
workers of America; the Interna­
tional Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Imple­
ment Workers of America; and the
International Union of Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers. Many
patternmakers are members of the
Pattern Makers’ League of North

Earnings and Working Conditions

Where To Go for More Information

Foundry production workers had
higher average hourly earnings than
production workers in manufacturing
as a whole. In early 1967, earnings of
production workers in iron and steel
foundries averaged $128.78 a week,
or $3.03 an hour. In nonferrous
foundries, the average was $120.30 a
week, or $2.92 an hour. By compari­
son, production workers in all manu­
facturing industries had average earn­
ings of $113.02 a week, or $2.77 an
Collective bargaining contracts
negotiated between foundry em­
ployers and unions generally included
provisions for fringe benefits, such as
holiday pay, vacation pay, and retire­
ment pensions. Other important
benefits often included in such con­
tracts were life, medical, and ac­
cident insurance.
Working conditions in foundries
have improved in recent years. Many
foundries, through the installation of
modem ventilating systems, new
equipment, and improved plant lay­
out, have reduced the heat, fumes,
and smoke that are part of foundry
operations. Although the rate of dis­
abling work injuries in foundries is
higher than the average for all manu­
facturing industries, employers and
unions attempt to eliminate injuries
by promoting safety training and by
using protective equipment, such as
face shields, metal toe shoes, metal
helmets, and safety glasses.

For further information about work
and/or training opportunities in
foundry occupations, inquiries should
be directed to local foundries; the
local office of the State employment
service; the nearest office of the State
apprenticeship agency or the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department of Labor; and the fol­
lowing organizations:
Foundry Educational Foundation,
1138 Terminal Tower, Cleveland,
Ohio 44113.
International Molders’ and Allied
Workers’ Union of North America,
1225 East McMillan St., Cincinnati,
Ohio 45206.
National Foundry Association,
9838 Roosevelt Road, P.O. Box 76,
Westchester, 111. 60156.
Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society, Inc.,
14600 Detroit Ave., Cleveland, Ohio
Gray and Ductile Iron Founders’
Society, Inc.,
National City— East 6 th Bldg.,
Cleveland, Ohio 44114.
American Foundrymen’s Society,
Golf and Wolf Rds., Des Plaines,
111. 60016.
Malleable Founders’ Society,
781 Union Commerce Bldg., Cleve­
land, Ohio 44114.
Steel Founders’ Society of America,
Westview Towers,
21010 Center Ridge Rd., Rocky
River, Ohio 44116.



Nature of Work

Foundry patternmakers are highly
skilled craftsmen who build patterns
used in making molds in which
foundry castings are formed. Most of
the workers in the occupation are
metal patternmakers (D.O.T. 600.280) ; a somewhat smaller number are
wood patternmakers (D.O.T. 661.281) . In the last decade or so, in­
creasing use has been made of plaster
and plastics in pattemmaking. Al­
though these materials are used
mainly by wood patternmakers, they
are also used by metal patternmakers.
In addition, a small number of pat­
ternmakers work exclusively with
plaster and plastics.
Patternmakers work from blue­
prints prepared by the engineering
department or the customer’s design
engineer. They make a precise pattern
for the product, allowing for shrink­
age of molten metal used in the cast­
ing process and for other factors.
The metal patternmaker prepares
patterns from metal stock or from
rough castings made from an original
wood pattern. To shape and finish the
patterns, he uses a variety of metal­
working machines, including the
engine lathe, drill press, shaper, mill­
ing machine, power hacksaw, and
grinder, as well as small handtools.
The wood patternmaker selects the
appropriate woodstock, lays out the
pattern, marks the design for each sec­
tion on the proper piece of wood, and
saws each piece roughly to size. He
then shapes the rough pieces into final
form, using various woodworking ma­
chines, such as circular saws, lathes,
planers, bandsaws, and sanders, as
well as many small handtools. Finally,
he assembles the pattern segments by
hand, using glue, screws, and nails.
Standardize colors are used to finish
the pattern.
A high degree of accuracy is re­
quired to make patterns, since any
imperfection in the pattern will be
reproduced in the castings made from

Patternmakers cover test tank mold with high-temperature coating.

patternmaker. Because of the high
degree of skill and the wide range of
knowledge needed for patternmaking,
it is difficult to learn the trade in­
formally on the job. In some in­
stances, skilled machinists have been
able to transfer to metal patternmak­
ing with additional on-the-job train­
ing or experience. Good trade school
courses in patternmaking provide
useful preparation for the prospective
apprentice. Such courses may be
credited toward completion of the ap­
prenticeship period. However, these
courses do not substitute for appren­
ticeship or other on-the-job training.
The usual apprenticeship period
for pattemmaking is 5 years. At least
144 hours of classroom instruction in
related technical subjects are nor­
Training and Other Qualifications
mally provided annually. There are
Apprenticeship is the principal separate apprenticeship programs for
means of qualifying as a journeyman wood and metal pattemmaking.

it. Throughout his work, the pattern­
maker carefully checks each dimen­
sion of the pattern, using a variety of
measuring instruments such as shrink
rules, calipers, micrometers, and
gages. Patternmakers also may make
core boxes (in much the same man­
ner as patterns are constructed) and
repair patterns and core boxes.
More than half of the pattern­
makers work in specially equipped
foundry pattern shops in plants mak­
ing such products as machinery,
transportation equipment, and fabri­
cated metal products. Other pattern­
makers work in plants that make pat­
terns on order, or in pattern shops
in independent foundries.

The patternmaker apprentice be­
gins by helping journeymen in routine
duties. Then he makes simple pat­
terns under close supervision, gradu­
ally learning to use the various types
of machines and handtools. As his
training progresses, the work becomes
increasingly complex and the super­
vision more general.
Patternmaking, although not stren­
uous, requires considerable standing
and moving about. A high degree of
manual dexterity is especially impor­
tant because of the precise nature of
many hand operations. The ability to
visualize objects in three dimensions
is also important. Employers generally
require patternmaker apprentices to
have had at least a high school
Employment Outlook

There will be a few thousand job
openings for foundry patternmakers,
mainly metal patternmakers, during
the remainder of this decade and
throughout the 1970’s. Most job
openings will result from the need to
replace experienced patternmakers
who transfer to other fields of work,
retire, or die. Retirements and deaths
alone will create several hundred job
openings annually.
Employment of foundry pattern­
makers—who numbered about
18,000 in early 1967—is expected to
show little or no growth during the
decade ahead, despite the anticipated
substantial increase in foundry pro­
duction. The need for patternmakers
will not increase as fast as production,
because of the greater use of metal
patterns in the production of large
numbers of identical castings. Metal
patterns can be used many times to
make identical molds, thereby reduc­
ing the number of individual patterns
needed to produce a given number of
Because patternmakers learn either
basic metalworking or woodworking
skills, they are prepared for employ­
ment in related fields when pattern­
making employment is not available.
Wood patternmakers can qualify for


skilled woodworking jobs, such as
cabinetmaker, and metal pattern­
makers can transfer their skills to
machining occupations such as ma­
chinist or layout man.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Skilled patternmakers generally
have higher average straight-time
earnings than other skilled foundry
workers. However, the earnings of
both wood and metal patternmakers
depend on the skill requirements of
the job, the type of metal poured,
and the geographic location of the
foundries in which they are employed.
Generally, metal patternmakers have
higher average hourly earnings than
wood patternmakers. In January
1967, average straight-time hourly
earnings of wood patternmakers
ranged from $3.53 in steel foundries
to $4.23 in nonferrous foundries, ac­
cording to a national survey of wages
and fringe benefits for 27 foundry oc­
cupations in 55 labor areas, made by
the National Foundry Association.
See “Where To Go for More In­
formation” in the introductory sec­
tion of this chapter.


Nature of Work

The molder prepares a mold which
is made of specially prepared sand
and which contains a hollow space in
the shape of the item to be made. The
mold is made by packing and ram­
ming prepared sand around a pat­
tern—-a model of the object to be
duplicated—in a molding box called
a flask. A flask is usually made in two
parts which can be separated to allow
removal of the pattern by the molder
without damaging the mold cavity.
Molten metal is poured into the cavity
which, when solidified, forms the cast­
ing. A molder uses pneumatic-pow­

ered rammers and handtools, such as
trowels, shovels, and mallets, to han­
dle, compact, and smooth the sand in
molds made by hand.
Most of the more than 50,000
workers in this occupation in early
1967 were machine molders; the rest
were hand—bench and floor—mold­
ers. Machine molders (D.O.T.
518.782) operate machines which
simplify and speed the making of
large quantities of identical sand
molds. Machine molders assemble the
flask (molding box) and pattern on
the machine table, fill the flask with
prepared sand, and operate the ma­
chine by the properly timed use of
its control levers and pedals. Many
machine molders are skilled workers
who set up and adjust their own ma­
chines. Some machine molders are
semiskilled workers whose duties are
limited to operating machines which
are set up for them by more experi­
enced molders or maintenance men.
Bench and floor molders use mainly
hand methods to make the sand
molds. Molds for small castings are
usually made on the workbench by
bench molders (D.O.T. 518.381);
those for large and bulky castings are
made on the foundry floor by floor
molders (D.O.T. 518.381). Skill re­
quirements in this occupation vary
considerably. An all-round hand
molder (journeyman) makes many
different kinds of molds. A less skilled
molder does more repetitive work,
specializing in a few simple types of
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Completion of a 4-year apprentice
training program, or the equivalent
in experience, is needed to become a
journeyman molder and thus qualify
both for all-round hand molding and
for the specialized skilled or super­
visory jobs. Men with this training
are also preferred for some kinds of
machine molding.
The molder apprentice works un­
der the close supervision of journey­
men who instruct him in the skills of



Hand molder* use trowels to finish floor mold.

the craft. About half of the appren­
tice training is devoted directly to
molding. The apprentice begins with
a simple job, such as shoveling sand;
and gradually takes on more difficult
and responsible work, such as ram­
ming molds, withdrawing patterns,
and setting cores. He also learns to
operate the various types of molding
machines. As his training progresses,
he makes complete molds, beginning
with simple shapes and progressing
to those of increasing complexity.
This training includes both floorwork
and benchwork. In addition, the ap­
prentice may work in other foundry
departments to develop all-round
knowledge of foundry methods and
practice. The apprentice usually re­
ceives at least 144 hours of classroom
instruction each year in such subjects
as shop arithmetic, metallurgy, and
shop drawing.
Molders’ helpers and less-skilled
hand molders frequently learn mold­
ing skills informally on the job, and
then seek jobs as journeymen. How­
ever, this way of learning the trade
is often lengthier and less reliable
than apprenticeship.
Hand molders who do highly
repetitive work usually learn their
jobs during a brief training period.
“Learners” (either men without pre­
vious foundry experience or upgraded
foundry helpers) work with a molder
engaged in making a particular kind

of mold. After 2 to 6 months of this
training, the learner is usually com­
petent to make the same mold, or one
that is similar, without close super­
The more difficult and responsible
types of machine molding jobs also
require formal or equivalent training.
However, most machine molding jobs
can be learned in 60 to 90 days of
on-the-job training.
An eighth grade education usually
is the minimum requirement for ap­
prenticeship. Many employers, how­
ever, require additional education up
to and including high school gradu­
ation for apprenticeship in skilled
hand molding or machine molding
Physical standards for molding jobs
are fairly high. The molder stands
at his work, moves about a great deal,
and must do frequent lifting. The
hand molder needs a high degree of
manual dexterity and good vision.
Since the work is fairly strenuous,
very few women are employed as

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of molders depend
on several factors, including the type
of molding work performed—hand
or machine; the specific type of hand
or machine work performed; the
skill requirements of the job; the
type of metal poured; and the geo­
graphic location of the foundry in
which they are employed. In Jan­
uary 1967, the average (median)
straight-time hourly earnings of
bench molders was $2.87; squeezermachine molders $2.92; heavy ma­
chine molders, $2.87; and floor
molders, $3.05, according to a na­
tional survey of wages and fringe
benefits for 27 foundry occupations
in 55 labor areas, made by the
National Foundry Association. As
shown in the following tabulation of
average (mean) straight-time hourly
earnings for molding occupations,
the highest earnings were received
by squeezer-machine molders in nonferrous foundries.
Type of molder

Employment Outloox

The need to replace molders who
transfer to other fields of work, retire,
or die will provide most of the job
openings for new workers in this
trade through the 1970’s. Retire­
ments and deaths alone with provide
approximately 1,000 openings an­
nually. Several hundred of these
openings will be for molding appren­
tices. There will also be openings
each year for workers in entry jobs
in machine molding and in the less
skilled types of hand molding.
Employment of molders is ex­
pected to show little or no growth
during the decade ahead, despite the
anticipated substantial increase in
foundry production. The demand for
molders will not increase as fast as
foundry production, since the trend
is toward more machine molding and
less hand molding, and the increasing
use of permanent molds and shell

Type offoundry
Noniron and
malleable Steel ferrous

Floor...................... $2.96 $3. 07 $3.06
Bench..................... 2.84 2. 76 2. 97
Heavy machine. . 2. 74 2.64 2. 83
machine............. 2. 88 2. 77 3. 18

See “Where To Go for More In­
formation” in the introductory
section of this chapter.


Nature of Work

Coremakers prepare the “cores”
which are placed in molds to form the
hollows or holes usually required in
metal castings. The poured metal
solidifies around the core so that
when the core is removed, the desired
cavity or contour remains. A core
may be made either by hand or ma­
chine. In both instances, prepared
sand is packed into a core box, a block
of wood or metal into which a hollow

space of the size and shape of the
desired core has been cut. After the
core has been removed from the core
box, it is hardened either by baking
or by other drying methods. When
hand methods are used to make a
core, the coremaker uses mallets and
other handtools to pack and ram sand
into the core box.
In hand coremaking, small cores
are made on the workbench by bench
coremakers (D.O.T. 518.381) and
bulky cores are made on the foundry
floor by floor coremakers (D.O.T.
518.381). There is a wide range of
skill requirements in this occupation.
All-round hand coremakers (journey­
men) prepare large and intricate
cores. The less skilled coremakers
make smaller and simpler cores.
Their work is highly repetitive be­
cause they frequently produce large
quantities of identical cores. Many
skilled coremakers are employed as
Machine coremakers (D.O.T. 518.885) operate machines which make
sand cores by forcing sand into spe­
cially shaped hollow forms. Most ma­
chine made cores are blown by
compressed air. Some machine core­
makers are required to set up and
adjust their own machines and do
finishing operations on the cores.
Other coremakers are primarily ma­
chine tenders. They are closely
supervised and their machines are
adjusted for them.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Completion of a 4-year appren­
tice training program or the equiv­
alent in experience is needed to
become a skilled hand coremaker.
Coremaking apprenticeships are also
sometimes required for the more
difficult and responsible machine
coremaking jobs. Only a brief period
of on-the-job training is needed for
less skilled hand coremaking and for
most machine coremaking jobs.
Training in coremaking and molding
are often combined in a single

Employment Outlook

Coremaker operates machine that forces sand

Most job openings for coremakers
through the 1970’s will result from
the need to replace experienced core­
makers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die. Retirements
and deaths alone will create several
hundred job opening annually.
The employment of coremakers—
who numbered about 22,000 in early
1967—is expected to show little or
no growth during the decade ahead,
despite the anticipated substantial in­
crease in foundry production. The
demand for coremakers will not in­
crease as fast as production, because
of the growing use of machine-made
rather than handmade cores.

into hollow forms.

The coremaking apprentice works
with journeymen coremakers, first
helping them in routine duties and
then undertaking more advanced
work, such as making simple cores, or
operating core ovens. As his skill
increases, the apprentice makes more
complex cores. He acquires experi­
ence in benchwork and floorwork and
in the operation of coremaking ma­
chines used in the plant. On-the-job
training is generally supplemented by
classroom instruction covering such
subjects as arithmetic, shop drawing,
and the properties of metals. Hand
coremakers with all-round training
have opportunities for promotion to
supervisory jobs.
An eighth grade education is
usually a minimum requirement for
coremaking apprentice training; some
employers require apprentices to be
high school graduates.
Persons without previous foundry
experience may be hired directly for
the less skilled coremaking jobs, or
foundry laborers or helpers may be
upgraded to do this work. Physical
requirements for light coremaking
are not exacting because the work
is not very strenuous. Some types of
hand coremaking require a high de­
gree of manual dexterity. Women are
frequently employed to do light

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of both hand and
machine coremakers depend not only
on the skill requirements of the job,
but also on the type of metal poured
and the geographic location of the
foundry in which they are employed.
In January 1967, the average (me­
dian) straight-time hourly earnings
of bench coremakers was $2.87; floor
coremakers, $2.97; and machine
coremakers $3.05, according to a
national survey of wages and fringe
benefits for 27 foundry occupations
in 55 labor areas, made by the Na­
tional Foundry Association. As shown
in the following tabulation of average
(mean) straight-time hourly earnings
for coremaking occupations, the
highest averages were recorded for
bench coremakers in nonferrous

Type offoundry
Gray iron
Nonmalleable Steel ferrous

Floor coremaker.. $2. 78 $2. 93 $2. 91
Bench coremaker. 2. 74 2. 92 2. 99
Machine core­
maker................. 2.96 2.78 2.83

See “Where To Go for More Infor­
mation” in the introductory section
of this chapter.


The industrial chemical industry
has grown, in just a few decades, into
one of the great manufacturing
industries of our Nation. An impor­
tant reason for this growth has been
the industry’s huge expenditures for
research and development activities,
which have provided many new and
improved products for its custom­
ers—mainly other manufacturing
industries. A wide variety of indus­
trial chemical products contribute to
our everyday needs and comforts,
e.g., synthetic fibers are used in cloth­
ing and rugs, and plastics in dinnerware and furniture. Also, they are
essential for the manufacture of mis­
sile and space equipment, rocket pro­
pulsion fuels, and for other national
defense and space materials.
In early 1967, more than 500,000
wage and salary workers were em­
ployed in the industrial chemical
industry in a wide range of occupa­
tions. Job requirements varied from
graduate college degrees for some
scientists and engineers to a few days
of on-the-job training for some plant
Nature of the Industry

The industrial chemical industry
is made up of plants which manufac­
ture industrial inorganic and organic
chemicals, plastic materials and syn­

thetic resins, synthetic rubber and
synthetic and other man-made fibers,
except glass. These chemicals are used
mainly by other companies in the
chemical industry, and by other man­
ufacturing industries as raw materials
or as processing agents to make their
own products. Industrial chemicals
are unlike other chemical products,
such as drugs, soaps, detergents, cos­
metics, perfumes, paints, and fertili­
zers, which are sold directly to the
consumer without further processing.
The latter are not discussed in this
Industrial chemical plants make
organic chemicals from raw materials
obtained from the remains of pre­
historic life such as coal, petroleum,
and natural gas, or from living mate­
rials such as agricultural and forest
products. Some products of organic
chemicals such as synthetic fibers,
synthetic rubber, and plastics are well
known. Among those less well known
to the public are coal tar crudes,
benzene, acetone, and formaldehyde.
The principal users of organic chem­
icals include the textile, plastics prod­
ucts, rubber, and food-processing
Inorganic chemicals come from
nonliving matter, such as salt, sulfur,
mineral ores, and limestone. They are
basic materials for making, or help­
ing to make, other chemicals as well
as finished products, such as steel,
glass, paper, and gasoline. In at least
one respect, the manufacture of
chemicals differs from the manufac­
ture of most other products—the in­
gredients which are used to make
chemicals undergo reactions which
produce compounds vastly different
in nature and appearance from those
of the original raw materials. For ex­
ample, by rearranging and combin­
ing the molecules of coal, air, and wa­
ter, the chemists can produce nylon,
a product having no similarity to its
raw materials.
A modern chemical plant is made
up of huge towers, tanks, and build­
ings linked together by a network of
pipes. These structures contain the







chemical plant to learn about new process­
ing equipment.

various types of equipment needed
to process raw materials into chemi­
cal products. Raw materials go
through several processing operations
such as drying, heating, cooling, mix­
ing, evaporating, and filtering. Be­
tween each operation, the materials,
which may be liquid, solid, or gas, are
transported by pipes or conveyors.
Throughout these operations, auto­
matic control devices regulate the
flow of materials, the combination of
chemicals, and the temperature, pres­
sure, and time needed for each op­
eration. These control devices make
it possible for tons of material to be
processed in one continuous opera­
tion with very little manual handling
of materials.
Approximately 2,500 plants in the
United States make industrial chem­
icals. About two-thirds of the plants
have fewer than 50 employees each.
However, more than one-half of the
industrial chemical workers are em­
ployed in very large plants of 500 or
more employees each. Chemical
plants are usually located on the out­
skirts of industrial centers. Sometimes
plants are built near the sources of
raw material; for example, plants

which produce chemicals made from
petroleum and natural gas are located
near the oilfields and refineries of
Texas, California, and Louisiana.
Although industrial chemical
workers are employed in most States:
more than 60 percent of the em­
ployees and more than one-half the
plants are in the following 10 States;
New Jersey, Texas, New York, Ten­
nessee, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Dela­
ware, West Virginia, Michigan, and
Occupations in the industry

Workers with many different levels
of skills and education are employed
in the plants, offices, and laboratories
of industrial chemical firms. More
than 3 out of every 5 employees are
engaged in processing operations,
maintenance duties, or other plantrelated activities. A large number of
scientists, engineers, and other tech­
nical personnel are also employed
because of the highly technical na­
ture of chemical products and the
methods used to produce them. Ad­
ministrative and professional em­
ployees, such as purchasing agents,
salesmen, accountants, lawyers, and
personnel officers, make up another
sizable segment of the industry’s
work force. In addition, large num­
bers of clerical workers, such as book­
keepers, stenographers, typists, and
office machine operators, are em­
About 1 out of every 8 workers in
the industrial chemical industry is
a woman. Most women in this in­
dustry work in clerical jobs, although
some work in chemical laboratories
as research chemists or as laboratory
technicians and assistants. In a few
industrial chemical plants, women
are employed as chemical operators
or as packers.
Plant Occupations. Plant workers,
who represent more than 3 out of
every 5 employees in the industrial
chemical industry, can generally be
divided into three major occupa­


tional groups: Processing workers,
who operate the chemical-processing
equipment; maintenance workers,
who maintain, install, and repair
machinery, pipes, and equipment;
and other plant workers, such as
stock clerks, material handlers, and
Process equipment operators and
their helpers are the largest occupa­
tional group in the industrial chemi­
cal industry. Many of these operators
are highly skilled workers. Chemical
operators (D.O.T. 558.885 and
559.782) control the various pieces
of equipment which convert raw
materials into chemical products.
Operators are responsible for carry­
ing out instructions given to them
by the supervisor in charge. Op­
erators set dials on devices that
measure the exact amount of ma­
terials to be processed and con­
trol temperature, pressure, and flow
of materials. They keep a record of
operations and report any sign of
breakdown of equipment. They may
use instruments which measure and
test chemicals or they may send sam­
ples of chemicals to laboratory tech­
nicians in the testing laboratory.
They may be assisted by chemical
operators of less skill, as well as by
helpers. Sometimes chemical opertors are classified according to the
type of equipment they operate, such
as filterer, grinder, or mixer.










The industry employs many skilled
maintenance workers to prevent in­
terruptions of its highly automated
production processes. Maintenance
skills are also very important because
of the extremes of temperature, pres­
sure, and corrosion to which pipes,
vats, and other plant equipment are
subjected. Included among mainte­
nance workers are pipefitters, who lay
out, install, and repair pipes and
pipefitting; maintenance machinists,
who make and repair metal parts for
machines and equipment; electri­
cians, who maintain and repair wir­
ing, motors, switches, and other elec­
trical equipment; and instrument
repairmen, who install and repair
electrical and electronic instruments
and control devices. In some chemical
plants, the duties of several mainte­
nance jobs may be combined into a
single job and performed by one
maintenance man.
Plant workers who do not operate
or maintain equipment perform a
variety of other tasks in industrial
chemical plants. Some drive trucks
and tractors to make deliveries to
various parts of the plant; some load
and unload materials on trucks,
trains, or ships; and other workers
keep inventory records of stock and
tools. The industry also employs cus­
todial workers, such as guards, watch­
men, and janitors, whose duties are
similar to those of such workers in
other industries.
Scientific and Technical Occupa­
tions. The industrial chemical indus­
try is one of the Nation’s largest
employers of scientific and technical
personnel. About 1 out of every 6 em­
ployees in this industry is in some
activity requiring scientific, engineer­
ing, or technical training. About 40
percent of these employees work in
laboratories, developing new chemi­
cal products and new methods of pro­
duction as well as performing basic
research. About one-third are in­
volved in the production of chemicals
and in other plant operations. The
remaining scientific and technical
personnel are in analysis and testing


Chemist uses complex equipment to analyze composition of chemical compounds.

work, and in administrative or sales
positions requiring technical back­
Chemists and chemical engineers
make up the largest proportion of
scientific and technical personnel in
the industrial chemical industry.
Many chemists work in research and
development laboratories. A large
number work in production depart­
ments, analyzing and testing chemi­
cals in order to control their quality
during processing. Some chemists are
supervisors of plant workers; others
are technical salesmen, technical
writers, or administrators whose posi­
tions require technical knowledge.
Chemical engineers apply their
knowledge of both chemistry and en­
gineering to the design, construction,
operation, and improvement of
chemical equipment and plants.
They convert processes developed in

a laboratory into large-scale produc­
tion methods, using the most eco­
nomical manufacturing techniques.
Some chemical engineers are em­
ployed in production departments
and others are in selling, customer
service, market research, and writing
jobs which require technical knowl­
edge and skill.
Other types of engineers are also
employed in industrial chemical
firms. Mechanical engineers design
and lay out power and heating
equipment, such as steam turbines.
They often supervise the installation,
operation, and maintenance of chem­
ical processing equipment. Electrical
engineers design and develop elec­
trical and electronic machinery and
equipment, such as control devices
and instruments, as well as facilities
for generating and distributing elec­
tric power.
In addition to the large number of

t such professional personnel, the in­
dustry employs many technical
assistants such as laboratory techni­
cians, draftsmen, and engineering
aids. Laboratory technicians assist
chemists and engineers in research
and development work and in qual­
ity control. They may perform simple
routine tests or experiments, or do
highly technical testing and analyses
of chemical materials, depending on
their training and experience. Much
of the work of laboratory technicians
consists of conducting tests and re­
cording the results—often in the
form of simple reports, charts, or
graphs—for interpretation by chem­
ists and chemical engineers.
Administrative, Clerical and Related
Occupations. About 1 out of every
5 employees in the industrial chem­
ical industry is an administrative,
clerical, or other white-collar worker.
Many high-level administrative and
management positions are filled by
men with training in chemistry or
chemical engineering. At the top of
the administrative group are the
executives who make policy decisions
concerning matters of finance, types
of products to manufacture, and
location of plants. To make such de­
cisions, executives require the help
of a large body of specialized per­
sonnel in the company. Some of these
workers are accountants, purchasing
agents, sales representatives, lawyers,
and personnel employed in such
activities as industrial relations, pub­
lic relations, transportation, adver­
tising, and market research. Other
workers are required to assist these
specialized administrative workers.
For example, clerical employees keep
records on personnel, payroll, raw
materials, Sales, shipments, and plant
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found not only in
the industrial chemical industry but
in other industries as well are given
elsewhere in this Handbook in the
sections covering the individual oc­
cupations. See index for page



Operator monitors machine that processes manmade fiber.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

The industrial chemical industry
generally hires inexperienced workers
for processing and maintenance jobs
and trains them on the job. Com­
panies in the industry prefer to hire
young workers who are high school
In many plants, a new worker is
sent to a labor pool from which he
is assigned to such jobs as filling
barrels and moving materials. After
several months, he may be trans­
ferred to one of the processing de­
partments when a vacancy occurs.
As he gains experience and know­
how, he moves to more skilled jobs
in his department. Thus, he may ad­
vance from laborer to chemical

operator helper, to assistant chemical
operator, and then to skilled chem­
ical operator. Skilled processing
workers are rarely recruited from
other plants.
Most maintenance jobs are filled
by men who are trained on the job in
the plant. Many industrial chemical
companies have training programs to
meet the needs of their maintenance
shops. These programs may last from
a few months to several years; they
include mainly on-the-job training
and some classroom instruction re­
lated to the trainees’ particular work.
Instrument repair trainees often learn
how to assemble and repair instru­
ments in the factories which manu­
facture them. Many companies en­
courage skilled maintenance workers
as well as trainees to take courses

related to their jobs in local voca­
tional schools and technical institutes,
or to enroll in correspondence courses.
Upon the successful completion of
these courses, some companies reim­
burse the workers for
A bachelor’s degree in
chemistry, or one of the otner sciences
is the minimum educational require­
ment for entry into scientific and en­
gineering jobs in the industrial chem­
ical industry. For jobs in research
laboratories, applicants with ad­
vanced degrees are generally pre­
ferred. Some companies have formal
training programs for young college
graduates with engineering or scien­
tific backgrounds. These men work
for brief periods in the various divi­
sions of the plant to gain a broad
knowledge of chemical manufactur­
ing operations before being assigned
to a particular department. Other
firms immediately assign junior chem­
ists or engineers to a specific activity
such as research, process develop­
ment, production, or sales.
Technicians in the industrial chem­
ical industry qualify for their jobs in
many different ways. Companies pre­
fer to hire men and women who have
obtained a formal education in tech­
nical institutes or junior colleges.
However, most workers become tech­
nicians through on-the-job training
and experience. Generally, industrial
chemical firms select young men from
their labor pool and give them train­
ing while they work at one of the
technician jobs. Sometimes, techni­
cians may be sent to a technical insti­
tute for training, usually at company
expense. Students who have not com­
pleted all requirements for a college
degree, especially those who have
received some education in mathe­
matics, science, or engineering, are
often employed in technician jobs.
Laboratory technicians begin their
work in routine jobs as assistants and
advance to jobs of greater responsi­
bility after they have acquired addi­
tional experience and have shown
their ability to work without close
supervision. Inexperienced draftsmen


usually begin as copyists or tracers.
With additional experience and train­
ing, they may advance to more skilled
and responsible jobs as draftsmen.
Administrative positions frequently
are filled by men and women who
have college degrees in business ad­
ministration, marketing, accounting,
economics, statistics, industrial rela­
tions, or other specialized fields. Some
companies have advanced training
programs in which they give their
new employees additional training in
their chosen specialties.
Clerks, bookkeepers, stenographers,
and typists in industrial chemical
firms generally have had commercial
courses in high school or business
school. Although the qualifications
for and the duties of administrative,
sales, clerical, and related occupations
in this industry are similar to those in
other industries, a knowledge of
chemistry is often helpful. This is
especially true of those sales jobs in
which it is necessary to give technical
assistance to customers.
Employment Outlook

The growing industrial chemical
industry is expected to provide many
thousands of job opportunities for
new workers each year through the
1970’s. Large numbers of job open­
ings for new workers will be created
by retirements, deaths, or transfers to
jobs in other fields of work. Retire­
ments and deaths alone probably will
provide, on the average, more than
10,000 openings for new workers each
year during the late 1960’s and
throughout the 1970’s.
The industrial chemical industry’s
emphasis on research and develop­
ment is expected to continue to stim­
ulate the growth of this dynamic
industry, which has far outstripped
most other major industries in the
development of new products. Some
of these products, such as plastics and
synthetic fibers, have not only created
completely new markets, but also
have competed successfully in mar­
kets previously dominated by wood,

natural textile fibers, and metals.
They are expected to continue to
make inroads into these markets. A
plentiful supply of the raw materials
used in chemical manufacturing is
also favorable to the industry’s future
The atomic energy field is an area
where continued growth, in civilian
as well as military applications, will
favorably affect the demand for
industrial chemicals. These chemicals
are used in various aspects of atomic
energy work, such as the processing
and purification of uranium ores and
the development and operation of
nuclear reactors.
Although industrial chemical pro­
duction has grown rapidly, employ­
ment has increased at a much slower
rate. Since 1958, the number of
industrial chemical workers has
grown by about 21 percent in con­
trast with output, which has more
than doubled. The major reason for
this difference is the industry’s em­
phasis on improved methods of
making chemicals. The widespread
use of automatic processing and con­
trol equipment has enabled the indus­
try to increase its production consid­
erably with a relatively small increase
in labor. Increases in output per
worker are expected to continue in
the years ahead, as new plants with
the latest equipment are constructed
and more modern devices are
installed in the older plants.
Some occupational groups in the
industry are expected to grow faster
than others. For example, the number
of professional and administrative
jobs is expected to increase more
rapidly than the number of plant
(processing and maintenance) work­
ers if recent trends in this industry
continue. Emphasis on research and
development and greater complexity
of products and processes are ex­
pected to increase the need for
chemists, engineers, technicians, and
other technical personnel.
Most of the demand for additional
plant workers will be for skilled
maintenance workers, such as instru­
ment repairmen, pipefitters, electri­

cians, and maintenance machinists,
because of the increasing use of
instrumentation and automatic
equipment in processing operations.
Process equipment operators will
continue to be the largest occupa­
tional group in the industry, although
employment of these workers is not
expected to increase as much as
employment of maintenance workers.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in the indus­
trial chemical industry are among
the higher paid factory workers.
Average earnings are relatively high
because of the large proportion of
workers in skilled occupations. In
mid-1967, production workers in
plants producing industrial inorganic
and organic chemicals had average
earnings of $145.74 a week or $3.47
an hour and those in plants pro­
ducing plastics materials and syn­
thetic rubber, resins, and fibers had
average earnings of $129.89 a week
or $3.10 an hour. In comparison,
average earnings in mid-1967 for
production workers in manufacturing
industries as a whole were $113.65
a week or $2.82 an hour.
Entry salaries for inexperienced
chemists and chemical engineers in
the chemical industry are among the
highest in American industry, accord­
ing to a 1966 survey conducted by
the American Chemical Society. In
this industry, the median starting
salary was $625 a month for chemists
with a bachelor’s degree and $690 a
month for chemical engineers with a
bachelor’s degree. Chemists and
chemical engineers with graduate
degrees received higher starting
Paid vacations are universal in this
industry and are generally based on
length of service. Plant workers gen­
erally receive a 1-week vacation after
1 year of employment, 2 weeks after
3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years and 4
weeks after 20 years.
A majority of the workers are cov­
ered by insurance plans. These plans
include life, sickness, accident, hos­

pitalization, and surgical insurance.
Practically all plants have pension
Many chemical workers are em­
ployed in plants that operate around
the clock—three shifts a day, 7 days
a week. Owing to the widespread in­
dustry practice of rotating shifts, proc­
essing workers can expect to work
the second or third shift at one time
or another. Nearly all workers receive
extra pay for shift work, about 10
cents more an hour for the second
shift, and about 15 cents more an
hour for the third or night shift. Very
few maintenance workers are em­
ployed on these shifts. Work in the
industry has little seasonal variation
and regular workers have year-round
With the exception of work per­
formed by laborers and material han­
dlers, most industrial chemical jobs
require little physical effort. Much of


the plant work involves tending, in­
specting, repairing, or maintaining
machinery and equipment, since most
of the process operations are con­
trolled automatically or semiautomatically. Some workers climb stairs
and ladders to considerable heights in
the course of their duties. Other jobs
are performed out of doors in all
kinds of weather.
In some plants, workers may be ex­
posed to dust, disagreeable odors, or
high temperatures. Chemical compa­
nies, however, have reduced the dis­
comforts arising from these condi­
tions by installing ventilating or airconditioning systems. Safety meas­
ures, such as protective clothing and
eye glasses (usually provided by the
company), warning signs, showers
and eye baths near dangerous work
stations, and first-aid stations, have
also reduced hazards. These measures
have helped to make the injury-fre­

quency rate (number of disabling in­
juries for each million man-hours
worked) in the industrial chemical
industry less than half that for all
manufacturing industries.
Most production workers in the
industrial chemical industry are
members of labor unions. The leading
unions are the International Chemi­
cal Workers Union; Oil, Chemical
and Atomic Workers International
Union; and District 50, United Mine
Workers of America (Ind.).
Where To Go for More Information

American Chemical Society,
1155 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Associa­
tion, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.


There is hardly a product in daily
use that has not been made from steel,
or processed by machinery made of
steel. The Nation’s high and rising
standard of living, its industrial might,
and its military strength depend
largely on its ability to produce great
quantites of high quality steel. In
1966, United States steelmakers pro­
duced about 135 million tons of
steel—more than one-fourth of the
world’s output of this vital metal.
The iron and steel industry is one
of the Nation’s largest employers.
About 640,000 wage and salary work­
ers were on the payrolls of the indus­
try’s more than 700 plants in early
1967. Employees work in a broad
range of jobs requiring a wide variety
of skills—from unskilled to technical
and professional jobs. Many of these
jobs are found only in iron and steel
making or finishing.
The iron and steel industry, as dis­
cussed in this chapter, consists of blast
furnaces, steelmaking furnaces, and
rolling mills, including mills engaged
in finishing and rolling steel products,
from purchased sheets, strips, bars
and rods, and other materials. The
production of iron and steel consists
of a closely related series of produc­
tion processes. First, iron ore is con­
verted to molten iron in blast
furnaces. The molten iron is poured
into “hot metal cars” and either trans­

ported directly to the steelmaking
furnace, or cast into “pigs” (iron in
rough bar form) for use by foundries
or by steel mills that do not produce
their own iron. (See chart 54.) Mol­
ten iron or pig iron is then converted
into steel in various types of steelmak­
ing furnaces, including open hearth,
basic oxygen, and electric furnaces.
The steel is then rolled into basic
products, such as plates, sheets, strips,
rods, bars, rails, and structural shapes.
Many plants carry the manufacturing
processes beyond the primary rolling
stage to produce finished products
such as tinplate, pipe, and wire prod­
ucts. (This chapter does not describe
the mining of coal, iron ore, lime­
stone, and other raw materials used
to make steel, or the casting, stamp­
ing, forging, machining, or fabrica­
tion of steel. These activities are not
considered to be in the iron and steel
industry. Employment opportunities
in foundry, forging, and machining
occupations are discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Because iron and steel are pro­
duced in huge quantities, the industry
uses gigantic processing equipment.
A modern blast furnace may be as
high as a 23-story building (about 230
feet tall). A single blast furnace may
produce up to 4,000 tons of molten

iron in a 24-hour period. The several
different types of furnaces used to
convert iron into steel are also im­
mense. For example, open-hearth fur­
naces, used to make most steel, may
be 70 feet long, 2 stories deep, and 20
feet wide or even larger. Limestone
and scrap metal are loaded into openhearth furnaces by enormous electri­
cally operated “charging” machines.
After the initial charge is heated, mol­
ten iron is poured into open hearths
from huge crane-operated ladles. Six
to eight hours later, molten steel is
“tapped,” or emptied from the fur­
nace into other giant ladles, which
are moved by a crane to a pouring
platform where the steel is “teemed,”
or poured, into ingot molds. These
ingots later are rolled into finished
and semifinished products.
An increasing tonnage of steel to­
day is being made in basic oxygen
furnaces. In these “pear-shaped” ves­
sels, steel scrap, molten iron, and
limestone—plus alloying additives—
are charged in closely controlled
amounts. Pure oxygen is blown into
the charge, raising the temperature
rapidly and burning off the impurities
in the charge. A 250-ton heat of steel
can be made in less than 1 hour—
charge to tap time. BOF’s are com­
puter controlled to increase the qual559



Molten metal is poured into basic oxygen furnace.

ity of the steel produced and to speed
up the steelmaking process.
The rolling equipment which forms
steel into various shapes is hundreds
of feet long. A hot sheet mill, for ex­
ample, is more than 2,000 feet long.
Some of the steel cylinders, or “rolls,”
used in this equipment may weigh 40
or 50 tons.
Steel companies differ in the num­
ber of operations they perform. Many
of them, known as integrated com­
panies, produce their own coke from
coal, reduce ore to pig iron, make
steel, and form the steel into products
by rolling and other finishing meth­
ods. Such companies account for the

dustries are automobile, construction
and building materials, machinery
and machine tools, containers, and
household appliances.
Steel sheets are made into such
things as automobile bodies, house­
hold appliances, and metal furniture.
Steel bars are used to make parts for
automobiles and machinery, and to
reinforce concrete in building and
highway construction. Steel plates be­
come parts of ships, bridges, heavy
machinery, railroad cars, and storage
tanks. Strip steel is used in the manu­
facture of such items as pots and pans,
automobile body parts, razor blades,
and toys. Tin coated steel, known as
“tinplate,” is used primarily to make
“tin” cans.
Individual plants in this industry
typically employ a large number of
workers. About 70 percent of all the
industry’s employees work in plants
which have more than 2,500 wage
and salary workers. A few plants
have more than 20,000 employees.
However, many plants employ fewer
than 100 workers, particularly those
plants which make highly specialized
steel products.
Iron and steel producing plants
are located mainly in the northern
and eastern parts of the United
States. There are large plants at the
South Shore of Lake Michigan;
Cleveland and Youngstown, Ohio;
Buffalo, N.Y.; and Pittsburgh, Johns­
town, Bethlehem, and Morrisville,
Pa. The Nation’s largest steel plant is
located at Sparrows Point, near
Baltimore, Md. Much of the steel­
making in the South is in the vicinity
of Birmingham, Ala. Important steel­
making facilities also are located in
the Far West.
About 7 out of 10 of the industry’s
workers are employed in five States—
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
and New York. Nearly 3 out of 10 are
in Pennsylvania.

bulk of total steel production and em­
ploy most of the industry’s workers.
Another group of companies make
various types of steel from steel scrap
and pig iron purchased from other
companies. A third group rolls and
finishes purchased raw steel. A fourth
type makes only pig iron to be sold to
small steel plants and foundaries.
Most of the basic products made by
steel mills are shipped to the plants of
other industries, where they are made
into thousands of different products.
Occupations in the Industry
Some steel mill products, however,
Workers in the iron and steel in­
such as rails, pipe, and nails, are pro­
duced in their final form at the mills. dustry hold more than 1,000 different
The leading steel consuming in­ types of jobs. Some workers are di­


rectly engaged in making iron and
steel and converting it into semi­
finished and finished products. Others
take care of the vast amount of ma­
chinery and equipment used in the
industry, operate cranes and other
equipment which move raw materials
and steel products about the plants,
or perform other kinds of work. In
addition, many workers are needed to
do the clerical, sales, professional,
technical, administrative, and super­
visory work connected with the op­
eration of steelmaking plants.
More than four-fifths of all em­
ployees in the iron and steel industry
in early 1967 were production and
maintenance workers. These workers
were directly concerned with the pro­
duction and finishing of iron and
steel, the maintenance of plant equip­
ment, and movement of materials
within and among plant departments.
The remaining employees were em­
ployed in clerical, sales, professional,
technical, administrative, research,
managerial, a n d s u p e r v i s o r y
Men constitute 96 percent of all
employees in the iron and steel in­
dustry, and an even higher propor­
tion of the industry’s production
workers since much of the production
work is strenuous. However, the
physical labor involved in steelmak­
ing has been reduced through mech­
anization. About two-thirds of all the
women employed in the industry
work in clerical and other office jobs,
including research and other tech­
nical work. Women employed in pro­
duction departments are in jobs such
as assorter and inspector.
Processing Occupations. The major­
ity of the workers in the iron and steel
industry are employed in the many
processing operations involved in con­
verting iron ore into steel and then
into semifinished and finished steel
products. To provide a better under­
standing of the types of jobs in this
industry, brief descriptions of the
major steelmaking and finishing op­
erations and of the more important

occupations connected with them are
given below.
Blast furnaces. The blast furnace
is used to reduce iron ore to molten
iron. Calculated mixtures of iron ore,
coke, and limestone are fed into the
top of the furnace. Hot air, blown in
from the bottom of the furnace, rises
through the mass of material and
causes combustion. The gases formed
by the burning of the coke combine
with and remove the oxygen from the
Molten iron trickles down through
the charge and collects in a pool at
the bottom of the furnace. At the
same time, the intense heat melts the
limestone which combines with silica
and other impurities in the iron ore
and coke and forms molten “slag,”
a useful byproduct. This, too, trickles
down through the charge and floats
on top of the heavier molten iron.
The slag and molten iron ore are
separately tapped or “cast” from the
blast furnace.
A blast furnace operates continu­
ously, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week,
unless it has to be shut down for
repairs or for other reasons. Molten
iron is removed every 3 to 4 hours;
slag is removed more frequently. The
charging of iron ore, coke, and lime­
stone into the furnace is a continu­
ous operation.
The raw materials used in blast
furnaces are stored in a stock house
below furnace level. Here stockhouse
men or stockhouse larrymen. (D.O.T.
919.883) load traveling stock or larry
cars with raw materials from storage
bins. They weigh all raw materials in
accordance with a prearranged sched­
ule, determined by the kind of hot
metal desired. The loaded stock cars
are emptied into waiting “skip cars,”
which carry the materials up tracks
to the top of the blast furnace where
they are automatically dumped.
Other stockhouse men or skipmen
(D.O.T. 921.883), stationed on the
ground below, control the skip cars
through electric and pneumatic con­
trols. Stove tenders (D.O.T. 512.782)
and their assistants operate huge,
bricklined stoves which heat air for

the blast furnace. They regulate
valves to control the heating cycle of
the stoves and regulate the flow of
heated air to the furnace.
The men responsible for the quan­
tity and quality of iron produced are
called blowers (D.O.T. 519.132).
They direct the operation of one or
more blast furnaces, including load­
ing and tapping the furnace, and reg­
ulating the air blast and furnace heat.
Blowers carefully check the metal pro­
duced, periodically sending samples
of the molten iron and slag to the lab­
oratory where quality tests are made
and the results reported to the blower.
Keepers (D.O.T. 502.884), under the
direction of the blower, are respon­
sible for tapping the furnace. They
direct their helpers and cindermen or
staggers (D.O.T. 519.887) in lining
(with special refractory sand) the
troughs and runners through which
the molten iron and slag are run off
into waiting cars. In plants where
both iron and steel are made, most
of the molten iron is carried in insu­
lated “hot metal cars” or in giant la­
dles to the steelmaking furnaces. If
the iron is to be shipped or stored, it
is carried to a casting machine where
it is cast into pigs (bars).
Steel furnaces. The second major
step in steelmaking is to convert the
iron into steel. This is done in several
types of furnaces: Open hearth; basic
oxygen; and electric.
Open-hearth steel, which accounts
for about two-thirds of all steel pro­
duced in the United States, is pro­
duced by adding molten pig iron to
previously charged and heated steel
scrap and limestone and melting the
mixture in furnaces. It is possible to
make from about 125 to more than
500 tons of steel per load or “heat” in
most furnaces. Some furnaces, how­
ever, have capacities in excess of 600
tons. The open-hearth process is
named because the saucer-shaped
hearth, or floor of the furnace, is ex­
posed to the sweep of the flames
which melt the steel. Most of the
open-hearth steelmaking facilities
now use oxygen in the refining opera­
tion to speed up the process. The use
of oxygen has improved heat transfer


and melting rates to such an extent
that the “heat” time has been cut by
50 percent or more when compared
with traditional open-hearth opera­
A melter (D.O.T. 512.132) is in
charge of one open-hearth furnace or
more and is responsible for the qual­
ity and quantity of the steel produced.
Each heat of steel is made to specifi­
cations, which depend upon the end
use for the steel. The melter makes
the steel to the desired specifications
by varying the proportions of lime­
stone, iron ore, scrap steel, and mol­
ten pig iron in the furnace, and by
adding small amounts of other materi­
als, such as manganese, silicon, or
copper. He supervises three grades of
helpers—first (D.O.T. 512.782), sec­
ond (D.O.T. 502.884), and third
(D.O.T. 519.887). These helpers pre­
pare the furnaces for the heat, regu­
late furnace temperatures, take sam­
ples of molten steel for laboratory
tests, direct the adding of various al­
loying materials, and tap the molten
steel from the furnace into a ladle.

One first helper is responsible for each
open-hearth furnace.
The charging machine operator
(D.O.T. 512.883) runs an electrically
controlled machine with a long steel
arm which picks up, one by one, long
steel boxes full of limestone, scrap,
and other materials. The machine
pushes each box through the open
furnace doors, turns it upside down
to discharge its contents, and then
withdraws it. The hot metal crane­
man (D.O.T. 921.883) operates a
large overhead crane, that picks up
ladles of molten iron and pours the
contents into the open-hearth fur­
When the heat of steel is ready to
be tapped, the furnace crew knocks
out a plug at the back of the furnace
with a “jet tapper” (small explosive
charge which is fired into the plug)
which allows the molten metal to flow
into a ladle. The slag, which floats to
the top of the ladle, overflows into a
smaller ladle, called a slag pot.
The molten steel is then poured
from the ladle into ingot molds (hol­

Melter helpers sample steel from basic oxygen furnace.

low cast iron forms). A ladle crane­
man (D.O.T. 921.883) operates an
overhead crane which picks up the
ladle and moves it over a long row of
ingot molds resting on flat-bottom
cars. The steel pourer (D.O.T. 514.884) operates a stopper on the bottom
of the ladle to let the steel flow into
the molds.
As soon as the steel in the molds has
solidified sufficiently, an ingot strip­
per (D.O.T. 921.883) operating an
overhead crane, removes the molds
from the still hot blocks of steel, called
ingots, leaving the stripped ingots
standing to cool on the “ingot bug­
gies” (four-wheel carts running on
About one-fourth of all steel pro­
duced in 1966 was made in basicoxygen furnaces, and the proportion
is expected to increase rapidly in the
years ahead. Basic oxygen furnaces
can make steel faster than any other
type of furnace currently in use, and
continual displacement of the openhearth steelmaking process by the
basic oxygen method is expected.
Some basic oxygen furnaces can pro­
duce more than 6,000 tons of steel in
a 24-hour period. In this steelmaking
process, oxygen is “blown” into the
furnace through vertical pipes, or
“lances,” after it has been loaded
with steel scrap, and molten pig iron.
Limestone and other slag forming
materials are added to remove im­
purities from the steel. The use of
oxygen speeds the steelmaking proc­
ess because it is blown directly into
the molten metal forcing a faster
chemical reaction and a higher bath
- Electric furnaces accounted for
about one-tenth of all steel produced
in 1966. In electric furnaces, steel­
making can be controlled very closely.
Consequently, such furnaces are used
to produce high quality and high al­
loy steel, such as tool and stainless
steels, as well as .the more common
Rolling and finishing. The three
principal methods of shaping metal
in steel plants are rolling, casting, and
forging. About three-fourths of all



steel products are shaped by the roll­
ing process. In this method, heated
steel ingots are squeezed longer and
flatter between two cylinders or
“rolls.” Before ingots of steel are
rolled, they are heated to the temper­
ature specified by the plant’s metal­
lurgist. The heating is done in large
furnaces, called “soaking pits,” lo­
cated in the plant floor. A heater
(D.O.T. 613.782) controls the soak­
ing pit operation. He directs helpers
in heating the ingots to the specified
temperature and, with the help of
control equipment, determines when
they are ready for rolling. A soaking
pit craneman (D.O.T. 921.883) op­
erates an overhead crane, by means
of electrical controls, to lift the
stripped ingots from an ingot car and
place them into the soaking pit. When
the ingots are sufficiently “soaked”
with heat, the heater opens the fur­
nace doors and the craneman removes
the ingots and places them on ingot
buggies, which carry them to the roll­
ing mills. Here, the ingots are rolled
into semifinished shapes—blooms,
slabs, or billets. Blooms are generally
more than 6 inches wide and 6 inches
thick. Slabs are much wider than
blooms. Billets are the smallest of
these three shapes.
The rolling of blooms illustrates the
semifinishing process. In the bloom­
ing mill, as in other rolling mills, the
ingot m oves along on a roller con­
veyor to a machine which resembles
a giant clothes wringer. A “two-high”
blooming mill has two heavy grooved
rolls which revolve in opposite direc­
tions. The rolls grip the approaching
ingot and pull it between them,
squeezing it thinner and longer. When
the ingot has made a “pass” through
the rolls, the rolls are revolved in the
opposite direction, and the ingot is
fed back through them. Throughout
the rolling operation the ingot is pe­
riodically turned 90 degrees by me­
chanical devices called “manipula­
tors,” and passed between the rolls
again, so that all sides are rolled.
Guides, located on each side of the
roll table, properly position the ingot
for entry into the rolls. This opera262-057 0 —

Blooming mill roller manipulates controls to reduce ingot to slab.

tion is repeated until the ingot is re­
duced to a bloom of the desired size.
The bloom is then ready to be cut to
specified lengths.
A blooming mill roller (D.O.T.
613.782), the man in charge of the
mill, works in a glass-enclosed control
booth, or “pulpit,” located above or
beside the roller line. His duties,
which appear to consist principally of
moving levers and pushing buttons,
look relatively simple. However, the
quality of the product and the speed
with which the ingot is rolled depend
upon his skill. The roller regulates
the opening between the rolls after
each pass. Long experience and a
knowledge of steel characteristics are
required for a worker to become a
roller. A manipulator operator
(D.O.T. 613.782) sits in the pulpit
beside the roller and coordinates his
controls with those of the roller.
Upon leaving the rolling mill, the
red-hot bloom moves along a roller

conveyor to a place where a shearman
(D.O.T. 615.782) controls a heavy,
hydraulically operated shear which
cuts the steel into desired lengths.
In a blooming mill with automatic
(electronic) process controls, a roll­
ing mill attendant is given a card
which has been punched with a series
of holes. The holes represent coded
information and directions as to how
the ingot is to be rolled. The attend­
ant inserts the card into a card
“reader,” then presses a button that
starts the rolling sequence. The infor­
mation in punched-card form governs
the setting of the roll opening, the
speed of the rolls, the number of
passes to be made, and the number
of times the ingot must be turned.
When the automatic process is used,
the roller’s function is shifted from
operating the rolling controls to di­
recting and coordinating the entire
rolling process. This consists of heat­
ing, rolling, and shearing.

One of the latest developments in
steel shaping is the continuous cast­
ing process. In this process molten
steel is poured into a water-cooled
mold located at the top of a tower. As
the mold is filled, the steel solidifies
along the bottom and lower sides.
The mold bottom is then withdrawn
and the slab starts its descent through
the tower. As the slab ribbon emerges
from the mold, additional molten
steel is continuously added at the top.
Continuing downward, the slab passes
through a spray chamber where it is
further cooled by a water spray to
solidify the still liquid core. Pinch
rolls control the slab’s descent and
support its weight. Finally the slab
is cut into lengths as it emerges from
the rolls. In some continuous casting
installations, a curved mold is used,
so that the slab comes out horizontally
rather than vertically.
Another relatively new process
which is capable of displacing the
conventional method of casting steel
into rolling ingots is known as “pres­
sure pouring.” In this process, molten
steel is forced up through a tube into
a graphite mold to produce a finished
steel slab.
After the steel is rolled into semi­
finished shapes—blooms, slabs, or
billets—most of it is put through
“finishing” operations. For example,
steel slabs may be reduced and
shaped into plates and sheets. Even
after additional rolling, some steels
must be worked further. Some rods,
for instance, are reduced to wire by
drawing. Wire can be further proc­
essed into wire rope, nails, fencing,
or other end products. Much sheet
steel is further reduced by cold-roll­
ing, and then it may be run through
galvanizing or tinplating lines. Bars,
skelp (a thick, narrow sheet), and
plate can be formed into pipe of
widely varying diameters.
Equipment operator, inspector, and
assorter are among the major occu­
pations in finishing operations;
women frequently are employed in
these jobs.
An important occupation in wire
making is the wire drawer (D.O.T.


614.782). This worker pulls the
pointed end of a steel rod through a
die (a block of hard steel or sintered
carbide with a tapered hole in it).
The rod end is then attached to a
reel which, while revolving, pulls the
rest of the rod through the die. As the
rod passes through the die it is made
thinner and longer and becomes wire,
which is automatically coiled around
the revolving reel. If extensive reduc­
tion of the rod is required, it is passed
through a series of dies, each die re­
ducing the diameter of the wire
Pipe, both welded and seamless, is
also an important steel mill product.
In making welded pipe, the flat steel
is fed into a machine which rolls it
into tube shape; then the edges of the
pipe are fused by continuous welding.
Seamless pipe and tubing are
formed from a solid billet of steel,
called a tube round. In the seamless
operation, the piercer-machine oper­
ator (D.O.T. 613.885) passes a pre­
heated tube round between two bar­
rel-shaped rolls. The revolving rolls
spin the tube round and force one
end against a piercing plug or
“mandrel.” The combined rolling ac­
tion and the pressure of the rolls tend
to make the steel draw apart pro­
viding space for the mandrel to enter.
The mandrel smooths the inside walls
and makes the diameter of the hole
Tinplate is another important
steel product. To make tinplate, thin
sheets of steel are fed continuously
through an electrolytic bath where a
coat of tin is deposited on the steel.
Maintenance, Transportation, and
Plant Service Occupations. Large
numbers of workers are required in
steel plants to support processing ac­
tivities. Some maintain and repair
machinery and equipment, and others
operate the equipment which pro­
vides power, steam, and water. Other
groups of workers move material and
supplies and perform a variety of
service operations.
In the machine shops, machinists
and machine tool operators make and
repair metal parts for machinery or

equipment. Diemakers use machine
tools to form dies, such as those used
in wire drawing units. Roll turners
(D.O.T. 613.780) use lathes, grind­
ers, and other machine tools to finish
steel rolls to desired shapes and sizes
for use in the rolling mills.
Millwrights in this industry main­
tain mechanical equipment. They
overhaul machinery, and repair and
replace defective parts. Electricians
install electric wiring and fixtures and
“hook up” electrically operated
equipment. Electrical repairmen
(motor inspectors) keep wiring,
motors, switches, and electrical equip­
ment in good operating condition and
make repairs when electrical equip­
ment breaks down.
Electronic repairmen install, repair,
and adjust the increasing number of
electric devices and systems used in
steel manufacturing plants. Typically,
this equipment includes communica­
tion systems, such as public address
systems; closed-circuit television in­
stallations; electronic computing and
data recording systems; and measur­
ing, processing, and control devices,
such as X-ray measuring or inspection
Bricklayers repair and rebuild the
brickwork in furnaces, soaking pits,
and coke ovens, as well as mill build­
ings and offices. Pipefitters lay out,
install, and repair piping that is used
to carry the large amount of water,
gas, steam, oil, air, oxygen, and
acetylene used in the steelmaking
process. Boilermakers test, repair, and
rebuild heating units, storage tanks,
stationary boilers, and condensers.
Locomotive engineers and other train
crew members operate diesel or elec­
tric trains used to transport materials
and products in the vast yards of iron
and steel plants. Welders operate
welding equipment to join metal
parts in repairing and rebuilding
plant machinery and in fabricating
steel products. Skilled workers run
the various boilers, turbines, and
switchboards in the powerplants
which provide the large amounts of
electric power needed in steelmaking.
Other types of maintenance and
service workers found in steel plants


include carpenters, oilers, painters,
instrument repairmen, scale repair­
men, loaders, riggers, greasers, jani­
tors, and guards. Many laborers are
employed to load and unload mate­
rials and do a variety of cleanup
Administrative, Clerical, and Techni­
cal Occupations. Professional, tech­
nical, administrative, clerical, and
sales workers accounted for nearly
one-fifth of the industry’s total em­
ployment in 1967. Of these, the
majority were clerical workers, such
as secretaries, stenographers, typists,
accounting clerks, and general office
Engineers, scientists, and techni­
cians made up a substantial propor­
tion of the industry’s “white-collar”
employment. Several thousand of
these workers were engaged in re­
search and development to improve
existing iron and steel products and
processes, and to develop new prod­
ucts and processes. For example,
these workers are now developing
and improving alloy steels that are
highly resistant to heat, extremely
strong, and corrosion resistant.
The technical specialists in iron
and steel plants also include mechan­
ical engineers whose principal work
is the design, construction, and oper­
ation of mill machinery and material
handling equipment. Many mechan­
ical engineers work in operating units
where their jobs include, for example,
determination of roll size and con­
tour, rolling pressures, and operating
speeds. Others are responsible for
plant and equipment maintenance.
Metallurgists and metallurgical engi­
neers work in laboratories and in
production departments where they
have the important task of testing and
controlling the quality of the steel
during its manufacture. They also
develop and improve the industry’s
products and processes through re­
search. Civil engineers are engaged in
the layout, construction, and main­
tenance of steel plants and the equip­
ment used for heat, light, and trans­
portation. Electrical engineers design,

lay out, and supervise the operation
of electrical generating distribution
facilities that provide the power
essential in modem steel mill opera­
tion. These engineers are concerned
also with the operation of electrical
machinery and electrical and elec­
tronic control equipment.
Chemists work in the laboratories,
making chemical analyses of steel
and raw materials used in steel manu­
facture. Laboratory technicians do
routine testing and assist chemists and
engineers. Draftsmen prepare work­
ing plans and detailed drawings
required in plant construction and
Among the employees in adminis­
trative, managerial, and supervisory
occupations were office managers,
labor relations and personnel man­
agers, purchasing agents, plant
managers, and industrial engineers.
Working with these personnel were
several thousand professional work­
ers, other than scientists and engi­
neers. By far the largest group of
these professional employees were
accountants, but there were also
many nurses, lawyers, economists,
statisticians, mathematicians, librar­
ians, and social workers. In addition,
the industry employed several thous­
and workers in sales positions.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found in the iron
and steel industry as well as in many
other industries are given elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and

New workers in processing opera­
tions usually are hired at the un­
skilled level, as laborers. Openings
in higher rated jobs usually are filled
by promoting workers from lower
grade jobs. Factors considered when
selecting workers for promotion are
ability to do the job, physical fitness,
and length of service with the
Training for processing occupa­
tions is done almost entirely on the

job. Workers move to operations re­
quiring progressively greater skill as
they acquire experience. A crane­
man, for example, is first taught how
to operate relatively simple cranes,
and then he advances through several
steps to cranes much more difficult
to run, such as the hot-metal crane.
In selecting workers for processing
jobs, steel companies generally give
preference to high school graduates.
To help them advance in their work,
many workers take part-time courses
in subjects such as chemistry, physics,
and metallurgy. In some cases, this
training is provided by the steel com­
panies and may be given within the
plant. Other workers take evening
courses in high schools, trade schools,
or universities in their communities
or enroll in correspondence courses.
Workers in the various operating
units usually advance along fairly
well-defined lines of promotion within
their department. Examples of pos­
sible lines of advancement in the
various operating units follow.
To become a blast furnace blower,
a worker generally starts as a laborer,
advancing to cinderman or slagger,
keeper’s helper, keeper, blower’s
helper, and finally, to blower. In the
open-hearth department, a man may
begin by doing general cleanup
work around the furnace and then
advance to third helper, second
helper, first helper, and eventually, to
melter. A possible line of job ad­
vancement for a roller in a finishing
mill might be pitman, roll hand,
manipulator, rougher, and finish
roller. Workers can be trained for
skilled jobs, such as blower, melter,
and roller (which are among the
highest rated steelmaking jobs), in a
minimum of 4 or 5 years, but usually
wait a much longer time before
openings occur.
Most companies conduct some type
of apprenticeship program to meet
the needs of their maintenance shops.
There are apprentice training pro­
grams for more than 20 different
crafts in the steel industry. The ap­
prenticeship programs for mainte­
nance workers usually are of 3 or 4

years’ duration and consist mainly of
shop training in various aspects of
the particular jobs. In addition, class­
room instruction in related technical
subjects usually is given, either in the
plant or in local vocational schools.
Steelmaking companies have dif­
ferent qualifications for apprentice
applicants. Generally, employers re­
quire applicants to be high school or
vocational school graduates. In most
cases, the minimum age is 18 years;
sometimes an upper age limit is
specified. Some companies give apti­
tude and other types of tests to ap­
plicants to determine their suitability
for the trades. Apprentices generally
are chosen from among qualified
young workers already employed in
the plant. The following occupations
are among those most often included
in apprentice training programs in
iron and steel plants: Blacksmith,
boilermaker, bricklayer, coremaker,
carpenter, electrician, instrument re­
pairman, lead burner, machinist,
molder, painter, patternmaker, pipe­
fitter, rigger, roll turner, sheet-metal
worker, tool and die maker, and
Applicants for jobs as helpers to
skilled maintenance workers are
usually given aptitude tests. Helpers
receive on-the-job training and may
be promoted to jobs requiring greater
skill as openings occur. However,
vacancies in these higher grades may
not occur for several years, depending
on the rate of turnover.
The minimum requirement for
engineering and scientific jobs is
usually a bachelor’s degree with an
appropriate major. Practically all the
larger companies have formal train­
ing programs for college-trained tech­
nical workers in which the trainees
work for brief periods in various oper­
ating and maintenance divisions to
get a broad picture of steelmaking
operations before they are assigned
to a particular department. In other
companies, the newly hired scientist
or engineer is assigned directly to a
specific research, operating, main­
tenance, administrative, or sales unit.


Engineering graduates frequently are
hired for sales work and many of the
executives in the industry have engi­
neering backgrounds. Engineering
graduates as well as graduates of busi­
ness administration and liberal arts
colleges are employed for jobs in sales,
accounting, and labor-management
relations, as well as in managerial
Completion of a business course in
high school, junior college, or business
school usually is preferred for entry
into most of the office occupations.
Office jobs requiring special knowl­
edge of the steel industry generally
are filled by promoting personnel al­
ready employed in the industry.
Employment Outlook

The iron and steel industry will hire
many thousands of workers during the
remainder of this decade and through
the 1970’s. Retirements and deaths
alone in this large industry should
provide about 12,000 job openings
annually. However, because of the ex­
pected increase in output per worker,
total employment in the industry is
not expected to increase substantially
above the 1967 level of approximately
640,000, even assuming relatively full
employment nationally and the high
levels of economic activity needed to
achieve this goal.
Future employment levels are dif­
ficult to determine at this time, be­
cause it is too early to evaluate com­
pletely the laborsaving effects of many
of the technological developments be­
ing introduced in the iron and steel
industry. However, should total em­
ployment levels decline over the long
run, employment* in some occupa­
tions, or occupational groups, still is
expected to rise.
Among white-collar workers, for
example, employment of engineers,
chemists, physicists, mathematicians,
laboratory aids, and other technical
personnel will increase, because of the
industry’s expanding research and de­
velopment programs. Job opportuni­

ties for electronic technicians,
electronic computer programers, and
other personnel trained in the prep­
aration of data for use in these ma­
chines also are expected to increase.
Among skilled plant personnel, main­
tenance workers (particularly instru­
ment repairmen) are expected to be
needed in greater numbers, because
of the increasingly complex ma­
chinery, instruments, and other
equipment used. In contrast, the
number of less skilled processing jobs
is expected to decline.
A moderate increase in the produc­
tion of iron and steel is expected dur­
ing the decade ahead. The growing
population and rising levels of per­
sonal disposable income will result in
greater demand for products that re­
quire large amounts of steel, such as
automobiles, houses, household appli­
ances, and highways. New machinery
also will be needed to produce the
growing quantity of goods needed to
feed, clothe, and otherwise satisfy the
requirements of an e x p a n d i n g
Continued increases in the effi­
ciency of office and production opera­
tions in the iron and steel industry are
expected in the decade ahead. The
efficiency of office operations, for ex­
ample, will be improved by the grow­
ing use of electronic data-processing
and communications equipment. Pro­
duction efficiencies will be gained by
the increasing use of beneficiated ores
in blast furnaces; the replacement of
open-hearth furnaces with basic oxy­
gen furnaces; the use of oxygen in
open-hearth and electric furnaces;
and the substitution of continuous
casting equipment for primary rolling
mills. The trend toward more auto­
matic production operations and the
greater use of instruments to control
the quality of steel also will result in
increased operating efficiency. The
use of automatic production tech­
niques is growing in rolling mills, in
tin coating processes, and in heating
and controlling furnaces; and these
techniques are being improved and
extended to other operations.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of production workers in
iron and steelmaking establishments
are among the highest in manufactur­
ing. In early 1967, their earnings av­
eraged $143.72 a week, or $3.54 an
hour. This compares with average
earnings of $113.02 weekly, or $2.77
an hour, for all production workers
in manufacturing establishments.
Basic (standard) hourly wage rates
for nine selected processing occupa­
tions in the United States Steel Corp.,
the largest single steel company, are
shown in the following tabulation:
Blast furnaces:
Stockhouse man........
operator, open
Ingot stripper, open
Helper, third, open
Rolling and finishing
Roller, blooming
Manipulator, blooming mill....................
Assorters, tin plate. . .

C lass 1 ra te s 2


$3. 35
3. 05
2. 75


3. 50


3. 20
2. 75


4. 25


3. 27
2. 67


1An arrangement of jobs into a series of categories
rated according to skill, experience, training, and
other factors.
2 These rates are from the wage agreement between
the company and the United Steelworkers of Amer­
ica and include the increase effective on Aug. 1,1967

Basic hourly wage rates for skilled
processing jobs ranged from about
$3.12 to $4.70; for semiskilled jobs,
from approximately $2.67 to $3.05;
and for unskilled jobs, from $2.45 to
about $2.60. (The individual work­
er’s rate depends on his particular job
classification.) These rates were rep­
resentative of those from processing

jobs throughout the industry and were
guaranteed minimum for those work­
ers who were paid on the incentive
(piece rate) basis. Since about twothirds of the industry’s production
workers were paid on an incentive
basis, a majority of such workers gen­
erally earned more than the basic
hourly wage rate.
In addition to the above rates,
steelworkers receive premium pay
for overtime work and for work on
Sundays and holidays.
Agreements between most steel
companies and the United Steel­
workers of America include provisions
for various fringe benefits, such as va­
cation pay, shift differentials, paid
holidays, retirement pensions, and un­
employment benefits. Most workers
receive vacation pay ranging from 1
to 4 weeks depending on length of
service. In addition, the top 50 per­
cent of the workers, ranked on the
basis of seniority, receive 13-week va­
cations (including regular vacation
time) every 5 years; and the remain­
ing 50 percent receive extra single
weeks vacation, expected to average
about 3 weeks in a 5-year period. Pro­
fessional and executive personnel in a
few companies receive similar bene­
fits. Workers may retire on full pen­
sion after 30 years of service, regard­
less of age. Retiring workers are
eligible for a company-paid pension,
in addition to social security benefits
for which they may be eligible. Em­
ployees having 2 years or more of
service are eligible to receive supple­
mental unemployment benefits for up
to 52 weeks. Other important provi­
sions include a $100 monthly disa­
bility pension provided by the com­
panies, and accident and sickness,
hospitalization, surgical, and life in­
surance benefits financed by the

The American Iron and Steel Insti­
tute estimates wage supplements in
1966 as 27.5 percent of total employ­
ment costs or $1.27 per hour worked.
Working conditions depend upon
the particular plant department in
which the worker is employed. Main­
tenance shops generally are clean and
cool. Rolling mills, however, gener­
ally are hot and noisy. Some plants
are developing methods to reduce job
discomfort. For example, the use of
remote control enables employees to
work outside the immediate vicinity
of processing operations. In other in­
stances, the cabs in which the men
work, while operating mechanical
equipment, are often air conditioned.
Some of the workers near blast and
steel furnaces are exposed to consid­
erable heat. Because certain processes
are operated continuously, some
workers are on night shifts or work
on weekends.
The iron and steel industry is a
leader in the development of safety
programs for workers, emphasizing
the use of protective clothing and de­
vices on machines to prevent acci­
dents. In 1966, steel plants had an
average injury frequency rate (in­
juries per million hours of work) that
was about a third of the rate for all
Most plant workers in the iron and
steel industry are members of the
United Steelworkers of America.
Where To Go for More Information

American Iron and Steel Institute,
150 East 42d St., New York, N.Y.
United Steelworkers of America,
1500 Commonwealth Building, Pitts­
burgh, Pa. 15222.


Few products have had as great an
impact on everyday life as the auto­
mobiles, trucks, buses, and other ve­
hicles manufactured by the motor ve­
hicle and motor vehicle equipment
industry (automobile industry). Four
out of five families owned automo­
biles in 1966, and over 94 million
passenger cars, trucks, and buses trav­
eled the Nation’s streets and high­
ways. In addition, the widespread
use of motor vehicles has made sig­
nificant contributions to the Nation’s
economy by helping to create new
industries and develop existing ones.
Many businesses, including automo­
tive repair shops, gasoline service sta­
tions, and truck and bus transporta­
tion facilities have been created as a
result of the motor vehicle. More­
over, the automobile industry is a
major consumer of many basic com­
modities such as steel, rubber, and
plate glass.
To manufacture the more than 10
million motor vehicles (mainly auto­
mobiles) produced in 1966, the mo­
tor vehicle industry (SIC 371) em­
ployed approximately 860,000 em­
ployees. (In addition, thousands of
people, whose employment is not in­
cluded in this chapter, are employed
outside motor vehicle plants in the
production of components for the mo­
tor vehicle industry. These are per­
sons engaged in the production of

tires and tubes, automobile glass, ve­
hicular lighting systems, storage bat­
teries, and many other items.) Like
other large industries, the automobile
industry offers employment to men
and women with widely different
backgrounds of education and skill.
Requirements for jobs vary from the
college degrees necessary for engi­
neers and other professional and tech­
nical personnel, to the few hours of
on-the-job training necessary for
some other occupations, such as as­
sembler, materials handler, and cus­
todial employee. The largest number
of employees work in factory (plant)
occupations. Plant occupations range
from the skilled tool and die maker,
millwright, and electrician, to those
requiring little skill, such as machine
tender, assembler, materials handler,
and custodial worker. A great num­
ber of automotive employees also
work in office and administrative
jobs as clerks, business machine
operators, stenographers, purchasing
agents, and personnel assistants.
Nature and Location of the

This industry’s ability to produce
millions of complex motor vehicles is
due mainly to mass production of
standardized parts and assembly-line
manufacturing methods. Thousands
of identical parts are produced by em­
ployees whose jobs are divided into
a limited number of operations on
high-speed machinery. These massproduced parts are then put together
by other employees to form the com­
pleted vehicle. As a result, new cars
can be driven off assembly lines at
the rate of more than one a minute.
The motor vehicle industry in 1966
consisted of approximately 2,500
plants that manufactured parts or as­
sembled these parts into cars, trucks,
buses, and special-purpose vehicles
such as ambulances, fire engines, and
taxicabs. The plants ranged in size
from huge assembly plants employ­
ing many thousands of workers, to

parts plants employing a small num­
ber of workers. About 80 per cent of
the industry’s workers are employed
in establishments with 1,000 em­
ployees or more.
In 1966, about 15 percent of the
employees in the industry were en­
gaged in the manufacture of bodies
for passenger cars, trucks, and buses,
and in the production of truck trail­
ers and truck trailer chassis. The re­
maining 85 percent were almost
equally divided between plants that
supply parts for new motor vehicles,
and plants that assemble the com­
ponents into the final product that
appears on the highway.
Hundreds of companies supply the
parts for new vehicles and also pro­
duce the replacement parts neces­
sary to keep the millions of vehicles
already on the road in operation.
These firms often specialize in pro­
ducing individual parts—for instance,
brakes, axles, and transmissions.
There are relatively few companies
that assemble complete vehicles.
More than 90 percent of the motor
vehicle industry’s workers are em­
ployed in 12 States. Michigan alone
accounts for more than 40 percent
of the industry’s employment; Ohio,
Indiana, and New York account for
another 25 percent. The eight other
States with large concentrations of
motor vehicle manufacturing employ­
ment are Wisconsin, California, Mis­
souri, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, Georgia, and Texas.
In Michigan, the Detroit metro­
politan area is the center of the in­
dustry. About 1 out of every 4 of the
Nation’s motor vehicle workers is em.
ployed within its industrial area,
which includes Dearborn and Ponti­
ac. Several other cities, especially
Flint, Lansing, and Saginaw, employ
large numbers of automobile workers.
The Great Lakes region has many
other important centers; Cleveland,
Lorain, Toledo, and Cincinnati,
Ohio; Indianapolis and Fort Wayne,
Ind.; Chicago, 111.; Buffalo, N.Y.;
and Milwaukee and Kenosha, Wis.


Much of the motor vehicle manu­
facturing on the East Coast is cen­
tered in the New York-Northeastern
New Jersey-Philadelphia industrial
area in such localities as Newark,
Paterson, Linden, and New Bruns­
wick, N.J.; and New York, N.Y.
The Los Angeles industrial area is
the leading automobile manufactur­
ing center in the Pacific Coast region.
The East Bay area is another auto­
mobile manufacturing center in
How Motor Vehicles Are Made

Automobiles and other motor ve­
hicles are produced in three steps:
Preliminary designing and engineer­
ing ; production of motor vehicle
parts and subassemblies; and final
assembly of parts into completed
Preliminary Designing and Engineer­
ing. Approximately 2 to 3 years of de­
signing, planning, and testing often
precede the actual production of each
year’s model. Stylists constantly strive
to improve the appearance of the au­
tomobile. They work closely with en­
gineers and other technical personnel
concerned with improving mechani­
cal operation, design, and safety.
The stylists’ creative designs are
transferred to blueprints, from which
skilled modelmakers make clay,
wood, and plastic models of the new
automobile. From these models, re­
finements in styling and design of the
new car are developed. In order to
mass-produce the car, master dies
based on the finally accepted model
are made.
Companies that produce parts
work closely with the automobile
manufacturers on questions of de­
signing, engineering, and testing.
Problems of production methods,
costs, and scheduling also are worked
out long before the actual manufac­
turing process begins.
In recent years, computers have
played an increasingly important
role in calculating engineering data
and have been linked up with numer

Draftsman checks automobile design drawings





ically controlled drafting machines.
These machines, automatically op­
erated by a tape containing instruc­
tions prepared on a computer,
produce engineering drawings. An­
other recent technique is the
recording of points on a clay model
using photographic equipment which
the computer can then convert into
full scale drawings. These methods
have enabled the manufacturers to
shorten the lead time that is neces­
sary to bring forth the new model
automobiles that appear annually.
Production of Motor Vehicle Parts.
After the designing and engineering
phases have been completed, thou­
sands of component parts that will
later be assembled into a complete
motor vehicle must be produced. A
large variety of materials are used,
the most common being steel, alum­
inum, copper, zinc, plastic, rubber,
fabric, glass, iron, and lead.
The large number of metal parts
used in a motor vehicle are shaped
by several different methods, depend­
ing on the purpose and size of the
part and the metal being used. The
casting process is used to produce
bulky parts such as engine blocks.
Those parts which must be capable
of withstanding great stress, such as
axles and wheel spindles, are pro­
duced by the forging process. Huge
presses form the sheet metal and

aluminum that compose the exterior
body. Those metal parts that require
precise size and shape dimensions,
such as pistons and engine blocks,
undergo further machine processing.
These various processes are explained
more fully under plant occupations.
The production of parts does not
entirely consist of metalworking op­
erations. For example, parts are
made rustproof and attractive by
painting and baking them in ovens
lined with infrared lights.
Throughout the production of
parts, numerous inspections are made
so that the quality of the assembled
vehicles will meet established stand­
Assembling the Final Product. The
last stage of motor vehicle manufac­
turing takes place on the final assem­
bly line. Final assembly is the process
of putting together in sequence the
individual parts and the subassem­
blies, with the completed vehicle
rolling off the end of the line. Over­
head wires and pipes feed electric
power and air to nut tighteners, weld­
ing equipment, and other tools used
by workers on the assembly line. A
conveyor carries the motor vehicle
forward while men at work stations
attach the necessary parts and subassemblies in proper sequence.
Generally, large and heavy subassemblies, such as the engine and
the body, are lowered by hoists into

Assembly line worker alines automobile body
with power train.


Motor Vehicle Manufacturing

Operator tightens a ll wheel lugs at once with
pneumatic impact wrench.

position on the chassis as it conies
down the line. The finishing acces­
sories, such as bumpers, hubcaps, and
floor mats, are added near the end
of the line. Finally, gasoline is
pumped into the fuel tank, and the
new motor vehicle is driven off the
line. The headlights and wheels are
then alined and the finished car is
inspected before it leaves the factory.
As the chassis move down the as­
sembly line, “banks” of material
located in aisles along the line are
continually fed to the assemblers in
accordance with a careful system of
scheduling arranged by the produc­
tion control department. Behind die
movement of the parts and subassem­
blies to the assembly line is the work
of the materials control men who,
months before, coordinated the
movement of material from outside
suppliers with a planned production
The sequence of the models to be
built may be transmitted to the
various stations along the line by
either teletype or telautograph. The
information on color and on the
special equipment desired in each car
is obtained from car orders placed
by automobile dealers. By this sched­
uling program, cars of different
colors and types follow each other
down the assembly line—for ex­
ample, a light blue sedan may be
followed by a beige station wagon.

The motor vehicle industry’s
860.000 employees in 1966 worked in
hundreds of occupations. Semiskilled
plant workers such as assemblers,
inspectors, and materials handlers
made up about one-half of all
employees. An additional quarter
were employed as foremen, mechan­
ics and repairmen, machinists, tool
and die makers, and in other skilled
occupations. Clerical employees made
up about a tenth of the total. The
remaining workers were employed in
professional, technical, sales, and
managerial occupations, and as un­
skilled workers and guards.
About 90 percent of all the auto­
mobile industry’s employees are men.
Of the women employed in the indus­
try, about half are in production jobs
in which the work is not physically
strenuous, such as assemblers, inspec­
tors, machine operators, and sewers
and stitchers; the rest are in clerical
and other office jobs, including
research and technical work.
The duties and training require­
ments of some of the important occu­
pations are described briefly below.
(Detailed discussions of professional,
technical, mechanical, and other
occupations found in the automobile
industry, as well as in many other
industries, are given elsewhere in
this Handbook, in the sections cover­
ing individual occupations.)
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The modem automobile is a
product of the research, design, and
development work of thousands of
engineers, chemists, metallurgists,
physicists, and other scientists and
engineers, as well as mathematicians,
draftsmen, and other professional and
technical personnel employed by the
motor vehicle companies. About
21.000 scientists and engineers were
employed in the motor vehicle indus­
try in early 1967. Engineers make up
the largest group of professional and
technical workers in the motor
vehicle industry. Motor vehicle com­
panies hire engineers specializing in

mechanical, electrical, industrial, and
other fields. For example, the
mechanical engineer seeks ways of
improving the engine, transmission,
or other parts of the automobile
through research and development
and better design. The electrical
engineer works on the design of
electrical parts, such as ignition sys­
tems, voltage regulators, and gen­
erators. The industrial engineer con­
centrates on the layout of plant
equipment, improved processes, and
production scheduling. The industry
also employs civil, chemical, and
ceramic engineers, and metallurgists.
About two-fifths of the scientists
and engineers are principally engaged
in research and development. Others
may supervise technical production
jobs; for example, the metallurgist
may supervise the melting operations
in the precision casting and forging
departments, and the chemist may
head the testing and analytical
The industry also employs many
thousands of technicians, such as
draftsmen, engineering aids, and lab­
oratory assistants, to assist profes­
sional engineers and scientists.
Administrative, Clerical, and Related
Occupations. Many types of employ­
ees are necessary in the automobile
industry to perform a great variety
of administrative functions. These
include executives who determine
how many vehicles to produce, what
styles to make, what prices to charge,
which parts the company should pro­
duce and which parts it should buy,
and where it is best to locate plants.
Other administrative personnel are
those, such as personnel manager and
purchasing agent, who direct individ­
ual departments or special phases of
operations. Among those assisting the
administrators are accountants, law­
yers, market analysts, economists, sta­
tisticians, and industrial relations ex­
perts. This large industry also has
many supervisory personnel in charge
of specific groups of office or plant


A large staff of clerical workers also
is employed, including secretaries,
stenographers, bookkeepers, clerks
and typists, key punch operators, and
business machine operators. A large
proportion of these are women.
Plant Occupations. More than threefourths of the employees in the motor
vehicle industry work in factory jobs
and are directly concerned with pro­
duction operations. Most plant em­
ployees m a k e automobile parts,
assemble them into the complete ve­
hicles, and put the finishing touches
on them. Other plant employees serv­
ice and maintain the vast amount of
machinery and equipment needed
for automobile manufacturing.
Machining Occupations. Machining
is the metalworking process generally
best adapted for the production of
parts to precise sizes. It is a process
of cutting or chipping away excess
metal from a part or a piece of metal
by the use of power-driven machine
tools. Among the more common types
of machine tools are lathes, boring
machines, drill presses, grinding ma­
chines, milling machines, and gear
Automobile parts are manufac­
tured to precise dimensions by
machining workers. One of the larg­
est metalworking occupations in the
automobile industry is that of
machine tool operator. These work­
ers operate power-driven machines
which hold both the piece of metal
to be cut and an instrument, or
“tool,” that cuts, shapes, drills, or
grinds the metal. The job titles of
these employees, such as engine lathe
operator, drill press operator, and
milling machine operator, depend on
what type of machine tool they
Among the most highly skilled
machining workers are the tool and
the die makers .Toolmakers make the
jigs, fixtures, and other accessories
that hold the metal being machined.
Diemakers construct the dies that are
used in stamping, pressing, forging,
and other metalforming operations.
Tool and die makers read blueprints,






accuracy of cylinder bores.

set up and operate machine tools,
use precision-measuring instruments,
and make shop computations. They
work to closer tolerances (more exact
dimensions) and do more precision
handwork than most other machining
The motor vehicle industry has
taken the lead in developing contin­
uous automatic production for many
machining operations. This approach
to production depends on a variety
of instruments to direct and control
manufacturing processes. In applying
automation to machining processes,
automobile manufacturers have
linked automatic machine tools to
perform various operations. Less
labor is required because the parts or
pieces being machined are not
handled manually.
For example, in an automated
engine plant, a rough engine block
goes through hundreds of different
cutting, drilling, and grinding opera­
tions using little direct manual labor.
The engine block is moved into and
out of load stations mechanically,
machined automatically by a battery
of machine tools, and transferred by
conveyors to the next machining
operation. Much of the inspection is
done automatically. The machine
tools, the conveyors, and the inspec­
tion equipment often are controlled
by electronic, hydraulic, or air con­
trol mechanisms. Workers tend the
automated lines of machine tools by
watching the control panels for inter­

ruptions of the machines’ normal
Other Metalworking Occupations.
The motor vehicle industry employs
large numbers of workers in other
metalworking occupations. These in­
clude punch press operators who run
power-driven presses that vary in size
from small presses used for forming
brackets, clips, or other small parts to
massive presses which form, trim, and
pierce holes in automobile doors, body
panels, and frames.
Automobile plants employ many
thousands of welders to join metal
parts. Some manual electric-arc
welders and gas welders work in pro­
duction jobs in parts and body manu­
facturing plants, and others work in
maintenance jobs repairing and re­
building machinery and equipment.
Machine (resistance) welders are em­
ployed on assembly lines to weld the
separate parts of the bodies and subassemblies.
Foundry Occupations. Castings for
automobile parts, such as engine
blocks, are produced by pouring metal
into molds where it cools and hardens
in the shape of the molds. Pattern­
makers make a wood or metal pattern
in the shape of the final casting
desired. Coremakers shape the bodies
of sand, or “cores,” which are placed
inside molds in order to form hollow
spaces needed in castings. Machine
molders make the sand mold into
which the metal is poured.
Many other workers in the
foundries are in less skilled occupa­
tions. Melters operate electric fur­
naces and cupolas used to melt metal
for castings! The actual pouring is
done by metal pourers. After the cast­
ing cools, the shakeout men remove it
from the mold. Other workers clean
the castings and remove the excess
Forging occupations. Those auto­
mobile parts which must withstand
great stress, such as axles, are shaped
by forging hammers and presses in
the forge shop. Hammermen operate
drop hammers which pound metal in­
to various shapes between closed dies.



Welder fastens rocker panel to steel body structure.

The hammermen are assisted by
heaters who heat the metal stock in a
furnace to prepare it for forging and
then pass the stock to the hammer­
men. Other forge shop workers are
engaged in cleaning, finishing, heat
treating, or inspecting forgings.
Inspection Occupations (D.O.T.
806.281; 283; 381; 382; 387; 684 and
687). Automobiles can be massproduced because parts and subas­
semblies for the same make of auto­
mobile are interchangeable. These
parts are made to exact measure­
ments and are subject to close quality
control and inspection. (The industry
employs statisticians and engineers in
quality control departments who use
statistical techniques designed to con­
trol the quality of the product.)
Inspectors check incoming raw
materials, examine parts during the

manufacturing stages, and make qual­
ity and conformity checks during the
subassembly and assembly operations.
Micrometers, specially designed
gages, and other measuring and test­
ing instruments are used by inspectors
and testers in performing their duties.
Finishing Occupations. Many finish­
ing operations must be performed be­
fore a car is completed. For example,
the metal surfaces must be readied for
finishing, the exteriors painted, the
interiors covered, the seats up­
holstered, and finally, the finished
product must undergo a thorough in­
spection. Among these employed in
the finishing departments are metal
finishers, platers, sprayers, polishers,
sanders, trim cutters, sewing machine
operators, and trimmers. Metal
finishers (D.O.T. 705.884) file and
polish rough surface areas of metal

parts in preparation for painting.
Platers (D.O.T. 500.885) put a thin
coat of chrome on automobile bump­
ers and “hardware” for ornamenta­
tion and protection against corrosion.
Sprayers (D.O.T. 741.887) operate
spray guns to apply paint or other
finishes to the metal parts. Polishers
(D.O.T. 705.884) rub the finished
surfaces by hand or polish them with
a portable motor-driven buffing
Gutters, sewing machine operators,
and trimmers combine their skills to
provide comfortable and attractive
interiors. With hand shears or an
electric knife, the cutter (D.O.T.
781.884) cuts fabric or leather to the
specific shape according to a pattern.
The sewing machine operator
(D.O.T. 787.782), using a powerdriven machine, sews together the up­
holstery sections after they have been
cut to size. Trimmers (D.O.T.
780.884) arrange and fasten springs
and padding or foam rubber for the
seats and backs and tack the covering
material in place.
Assembling Occupations (D.O.T.
806.887). The workers who do motor
vehicle assembling make up the larg­
est occupational group in the auto­
mobile industry. Assemblers may put
together small parts to form subas­
semblies or they may put together the
parts and subassemblies to form the
motor vehicle (line assemblies).
Those employed on subassemblies
work in parts plants or in automobile
manufacturing plants. Those who put
together the completed car work in
automobile assembly plants.
Most assembly jobs are repetitive
and require little skill; however, they
do require coordination and may be
strenuous. Assembly-line work is di­
vided into many simple operations.
Each employee is assigned a job to be
done when the automobile passes his
work station. For example, one em­
ployee may start nuts on bolts and the
next worker may tighten the nuts.
Materials Handling, Custodial, and
Plant Protection Occupations. The
production of motor vehicles by the



Employee alines front wheels before automobile leaves assembly line.

assembly-line process requires an elab­
orate system of materials movement
to supply the assembly lines and to
remove finished products. A consider­
able number of workers are employed
to move materials in automobile and
automobile parts plants. Drivers op­
erate power trucks which deliver
parts or subassemblies to the asembly
line or move materials between
plants. Materials handlers load and
unload parts from trucks or into and
out of containers. Overhead crane
operators use machines to move raw
steel stock, heavy dies, and other ma­
terials that cannot be lifted by hand.
Many employees are needed to
keep the production employees sup­

plied with tools, parts, and materials,
and to keep records of materials. Fac­
tory clerks, such as checkers, stock
chasers, and stock clerks, coordinate
the delivery of parts to the proper
location on the assembly line. They
check, receive, and distribute mate­
rials and keep records of incomingand outgoing shipments.
The motor vehicle industry also
employes many workers in plant pro­
tection and custodial work. These
employees include plant patrolmen,
gatemen, janitors, and porters.
Maintenance Occupations. A large
staff is required to keep machines and
equipment in good operating condi­

tion and to make changes in the lay­
out of automobile plants. Because
breakdowns in the assembly lines and
in the highly mechanized machining
lines are particularly costly, the auto­
mobile industry employs many skilled
maintenance employees to service this
complicated production system. The
maintenance and repair of complex
electrical, electronic, and hydraulic
equipment require well-trained elec­
tricians, electronic technicians, and
machinery repairmen. Millwrights
move, install, and maintain heavy
machinery and mechanical equip­
ment. Plumbers and pipefitters lay
out, install, and repair piping, valves,
pumps, and compressors. Other

maintenance employees in automo­
bile plants include carpenters, sta­
tionary engineers, and sheet metal
Training, Other Qualifications, and

The training requirements for jobs
in the motor vehicle industry range
from a few hours of on-the-job train­
ing to years of preparation. Many
plant workers can learn their jobs in
a day or two. On the other hand,
engineering and scientific jobs, as
well as craft jobs, are filled by people
who have spent many years in train­
ing for their occupations.
The motor vehicle industry’s em­
phasis upon new designs and mechan­
ical improvements has made it an
important employer of persons with
engineering and scientific back­
grounds. The minimum requirement
for professional engineering jobs is
a bachelor of science or a bachelor
of engineering degree from a recog­
nized college. Advanced degrees are
often required for scientists, par­
ticularly for those engaged in research
and development work. Many of the
companies give their newly hired en­
gineers and scientists specialized
training courses. Many of the indus­
try’s top executives have been selected
from this professional group.
The requirements for other tech­
nical employees vary according to
their specialities. For example, en­
gineering aids, laboratory assistants,
and draftsmen are often technical
institute or junior college graduates.
Some automobile companies train
their own seimprofessional technical
employees at company-run schools or
subsidize students at local junior col­
leges or technical institutes. These
employees may also take advanced
training and acquire engineering
Administrative positions are usually
filled by men and women who have
college degrees in business adminis­
tration, marketing, accounting, in­
dustrial relations, or other specialized
fields. Some companies have ad­


vanced training programs for em­
ployees in these specialties. Most of
the top administrative jobs are filled
by promotion from within the
Most motor vehicle firms hire peo­
ple who have had commercial
courses in high schools or business
schools for office jobs such as clerk,
bookkeeper, keypunch operator, ste­
nographer, and typist. These people
usually have not been trained spe­
cifically for jobs in this industry.
Applicants for most plant jobs
must be physically able, dependable,
and have aptitude for mechanical
work. For semiskilled jobs, the indus­
try looks for applicants who are high
school graduates, and who can do
routine work at a steady and fast
pace. Many assembling jobs can be
learned in a few hours or days. Some
of the less skilled machine operating
jobs can be learned in a few weeks.
Other plant production jobs require
about a month of on-the-job experi­
Extensive periods of training are
required for craft jobs in the motor
vehicle industry. Tool and die makers,
patternmakers, electricians, mill­
wrights, and machinery repairmen
are some of the highly skilled workers
who generally require at least 4 years
of training before they can perform
their specialized jobs. Although many
of the workers in craft jobs have ac­
quired the skills of their trade by
working for many years with experi­
enced workers, most training authori­
ties agree that apprenticeship is the
best way to learn a skilled trade.
Automobile firms, in cooperation
with labor unions, conduct appren­
ticeship programs for many of the
skilled trades. The industry’s appren­
ticeship programs enable several
thousand young men each year to
prepare themselves for skilled jobs.
Applicants for apprenticeship
training are generally required to be
between the ages of 18 and 26 (onethird of the apprentices can be work­
ers between the ages of 26 and 41
who are already employed in auto­
mobile companies) and graduates of

a high school, trade, or vocational
school. Training authorities stress that
young people interested in appren­
ticeship training should prepare
themselves by taking courses in math­
ematics and other sciences. Appren­
tice applicants are given physical
examinations, mechanical aptitude
tests, and other qualifying tests.
Apprenticeship training includes
both on-the-job and classroom in­
struction related to the occupation.
Mathematics, blueprint reading, shop
theory, and specialized subjects are
studied in the classroom and the op­
eration and use of tools of a particu­
lar trade are learned in the shop.
Most motor vehicle companies se­
lect their foremen from among work­
ers already employed. Frequently,
persons who have completed appren­
tice training in a company are se­
lected for supervisory jobs after they
have acquired further experience.
Applicants for foreman jobs, if se­
lected, go through a training period
when promoted to the foreman level.
Employment Outlook

The motor vehicle industry is ex­
pected to provide thousands of job
openings annually during the remain­
der of the 1960’s and throughout the
1970’s, as a result of the need to re­
place experienced workers who trans­
fer to other industries, retire, or die.
Retirements and deaths alone should
provide about 14,000 job openings
annually. On the other hand, be­
cause of laborsaving technological ad­
vances, employment in the industry is
expected to show little change from
the 1966 level of 860,000, despite an­
ticipated large increases in produc­
tion of motor vehicles and parts.
Production of motor vehicles and
parts and therefore, employment,
have fluctuated sharply since the end
of World War II, reflecting the in­
dustry’s sensitivity to factors such as
changes in general business condi­
tions, consumer preference, availabil­
ity of credit, and defense production
needs. In the future, assuming the
realization of relatively full employ­


ment nationally, the production of
motor vehicles and equipment is ex­
pected to increase greatly. Factors
contributing to the growth in demand
for motor vehicles include expected
large increases in the driving age
population and in the number of
households, growth of multicar own­
ership, higher levels of personal
spendable income, and a continuing
shift of families from the cities to the
suburbs. Also, as the stock of motor
vehicles in use continues to grow, the
demand for vehicles will be stimu­
lated by the increasing numbers of
new vehicles needed each year to re­
place those that are scrapped.
In addition to the production of
motor vehicles and parts, another
major factor determining employ­
ment in this industry is the number
of man-hours required to build a
motor vehicle or to produce a part.
Man-hour requirements have de­
clined in recent years and have ex­
erted a downward pressure on
employment. In the decade ahead,
the industry’s continued emphasis
upon mechanized production meth­
ods, such as automatic assembly
operations, especially subassembly, is
expected to continue to increase out­
put per worker. The emphasis on re­
search and development of new
materials is also likely to continue in
the future. Recent examples include
the use of metal powders to manufac­
ture certain precision parts, which
eliminates a substantial amount of
machining, the substitution of plas­
tics for many metal parts, and the
growing use of electrical discharge
and electrochemical machining. New
and modernized plants are also ex­
pected to lead to further efficiencies
in production that will reduce labor
requirements. However, increased
production efficiency will be partly
offset by the greater number of man­
hours required to produce an increas­
ing variety of models and a growing
number of motor vehicles with addi­
tional equipment, such as improved
safety devices, air conditioners, power
brakes, and exhaust control devices.

Taking into account all of these
factors, and assuming the realization
of relatively full employment na­
tionally and the high rates of eco­
nomic growth necessary to achieve
this goal, employment in the motor
vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing industry in the late 1970’s is ex­
pected to be about the same as the
1966 level. If these high levels of eco­
nomic activity are not realized a de­
cline in employment in this industry
may be anticipated.
The occupational distribution of
employment in the motor vehicle in­
dustry has been changing as a result
of the industry’s emphasis upon re­
search and development activity, and
its increasing use of automatic manu­
facturing operations. For example,
white-collar employment as a pro­
portion of total employment in this
industry has been increasing slowly
in the postwar period.
Following recent occupational
trends, the number of engineers, sci­
entists, and other professional and
technical personnel is expected to in­
crease as a proportion of total employ­
ment because of the anticipated ex­
pansion in research and development
activities. Moreover, this emphasis
upon research and development will
create more job opportunities for en­
gineers and scientists with advanced
degrees. The growing complexity of
the automobile industry will lead to
a greater need for more accountants,
particularly those specializing in tax
accounting. The industry is expected
to expand its use of electronic dataprocessing equipment in the future,
and programers will be employed in
greater numbers. Employment of
clerical and administrative workers
is expected to remain at about the
present level. Although the introduc­
tion of data-processing equipment
may reduce the number employed in
some clerical occupations, a slight in­
crease in the number of stenogra­
phers and typists is anticipated.
The employment of skilled workers,
as a group, is expected to remain rela­
tively stable. However, some skilled
occupations, including millwright,

pipefitter, electrician, and machinery
repairman, are expected to increase;
others, including carpenter and up­
holsterer are expected to decline. The
number of semiskilled workers, such
as assemblers and machine operators,
is expected to continue to decline.
Earnings and Working Conditions
ij ,

The earnings of production work­
ers in this industry are among the
highest in manufacturing. In 1966,
production workers in the motor ve­
hicle industry earned, on the aver­
age, $147.23 for 42.8 hours a week,
or $3.44 an hour. This compares with
average earnings of $111.92 for a
41.3-hour week, or $2.71 an hour,
for production workers in all manu­
facturing industries.
As a result of collective bargaining
contracts negotiated between em­
ployers and unions, most employees
in the industry receive benefits such
as life insurance, accidental death,
and dismemberment benefits, and
weekly accident and sickness benefits
for temporary disability. Many em­
ployers pay the entire cost of these
benefits. Hospitalization, surgical,
and medical benefits, which are pro­
vided as a result of collective bargain­
ing, are usually financed solely by em­
ployers. Most employees also receive
paid sick leave; paid vacations (or
payments in lieu of vacations) rang­
ing from 1 to 3 weeks depending on
length of service; and an average of
9 paid holidays a year. Most com­
panies provide for automatic in­
creases in hourly wages when the
cost of living rises beyond a given
amount. Employees are paid at one
and one-half their normal rate for
working more than 40 hours a week
or for working on Saturdays. They
receive double the hourly rate for
working on Sundays or holidays.
Supplemental unemployment ben­
efit plans (paid for solely by the em­
ployers) cover the majority of
workers. These plans provide cash
payments for employees with at least 1
years service, ranging up to $56 a

week for hourly rated employees and
up to $66 a week for some salaried
employees. In most States these bene­
fits are in addition to those received
from State unemployment compen­
sation plans. These plans also provide
supplementary pay benefits (short
workweek benefits) to help stabilize
the income of hourly rated employees
when they are required to work less
than a normal week. In addition, pro­
visions are included for hospitaliza­
tion, surgical, and medical benefits
during layoff; separation payments
for those laid off 12 or more con­
tinuous months; and relocation al­
lowances for some laidoff employees.
A great majority of the motor ve­
hicle workers are covered by pension
programs, almost all of which are
paid for entirely by the employer. Re­
tirement benefits vary with length of
service. In a typical case, a retiring
employee, age 65, with 30 years’
service, receives a monthly company
pension of $127.50 in addition to his
Federal social security benefits. Many
pension programs also include pro­


visions for voluntary retirement as
early as age 55.
The great bulk of the production
and maintenance workers in the mo­
tor vehicle assembly plants, and a ma­
jority employed in the parts plants
belong to the International Union,
United Automobile, Aerospace and
Agricultural Implement Workers of
America. In some automobile parts
plants, the International Union, Al­
lied Industrial Workers of America is
the bargaining agent for the em­
ployees. Other unions with member­
ship in the automobile industry in­
clude the International Association
of Machinists and Aerospace Work­
ers; the Pattern Makers’ League of
North America; the International
Molders’ and Allied Workers’ Union
of North America; the Metal Polish­
ers, Buffers, Platers and Helpers In­
ternational Union; the International
Union, United Plant Guard Workers
of America (Ind.); the Mechanics
Educational Society of America; the
International Brotherhood of Electri­
cal Workers; and the International
Die Sinkers’ Conference (Ind.).

In general, the work surroundings
in automobile plants are more favor­
able than those in most other types of
metalworking facilities. Most motor
vehicle workers are employed in
plants which are relatively clean and
free from dust, smoke, and fumes.
Some work surroundings, however,
particularly in the foundry and forge
departments, may be hot, and the
worker may be exposed to noise, dust,
and fumes. Working conditions in
foundries and forge departments have
been greatly improved by the intro­
duction of larger, more efficient ven­
tilation systems.
Motor vehicle plants are, on the
whole, comparatively safe places to
work, although safety conditions vary
somewhat among the individual de­
partments or facilities. The rate of
disabling injuries in motor vehicle
plants has been less than half that of
all manufacturing industries in most
of the recent years. Some automobile
plants have fully equipped hospital
facilities with doctors and nurses in


The petroleum industry provides
about 75 percent of all the energy
fuels consumed in this country. Prod­
ucts refined from crude oil supply the
fuels and lubricants used for nearly
all our cars, trucks, buses and trains;
military and civilian aircraft; and
ships. Oil and gas provide much of
the heat for our homes, factories, and
commercial establishments, as well as
the fuel for over one-quarter of the
electric power generated in this coun­
try. In addition, basic petroleum com­
pounds are essential in the manufac­
ture of hundreds of products in
everyday use, such as synthetic rub­
ber, plastics, and fertilizer.
In early 1967, about 430,000 work­
ers, with a wide range of educational
backgrounds and skills, were em­
ployed in the various activities that
make up the crude oil and natural
gas production and processing sectors
of this industry. They worked in oil
and natural gas exploration and drill­
ing operations, in natural gas proc­
essing plants, and in oil refineries lo­
cated throughout the country.
Nature and Location of the

Petroleum is one of the fossil fuels,
having been formed from the decay
of once living matter. It is extracted

mainly in the form of crude oil and
natural gas.
Thousands of companies are in the
petroleum business, most of them spe­
cializing in a single activity, such as
exploring for gas or oil, drilling wells,
operating wells, transporting petrol­
eum products, processing gas, and re­
fining crude oil. Others operate gaso­
line service stations, or supply natural
gas for heating and cooking. Much of
the petroleum business, however, is
done by a small number of large firms
that are involved in many of the in­
dustry’s activities—from exploring
for oil and gas to selling finished pe­
troleum products. These firms pro­
vide a large share of the industry’s
This chapter deals with the jobs
and activities involved in getting oil
and gas to the surface of the earth
(production) and converting it to
usable products (processing and re­
fining) . It excludes the transporting
and marketing of petroleum products.
Petroleum Production. Because the
processes involved in finding and ex­
tracting crude oil and natural gas
are the same, the jobs and activities
involved are identical up to the point
where the gas or oil well starts pro­
ducing. In this chapter, references
to “petroleum production” also cover
the discovery and extraction of nat­
ural gas.
In early 1967, about 280,000 wage
and salary workers were employed
in the United States in petroleum
production, including the production
and processing of natural gas. Al­
though drilling for oil and gas is done
in about three-fourths of the States,
nearly 90 percent of the workers are
employed in 10 States. Texas is the
leading State in the number of oilfield
jobs, followed by Louisiana, Oklaho­
ma, California, Kansas, Illinois, New
Mexico, Wyoming, Mississippi, and
Colorado. Many additional American
workers are employed in foreign
countries by United States oil com­
panies, particularly in the Middle

East, Africa, South America, and
The jobs and processes in petrole­
um production involve finding crude
oil and extracting it from the earth.
Petroleum production includes three
broad fields of work: Exploration,
drilling and oilfield servicing, and
well operation and maintenance.
Firms that specialize in performing
one or more of these activities under
contract to oil companies, employ
about one-half of all the workers in
petroleum production. Major oil
companies engage in all of these pro­
duction activities.
Since oil is difficult to find—only
rarely are there any signs on the
earth’s surface of its presence under­
ground—an important part of petro­
leum production activity involves
using scientific methods to search for
oil. After scientific tests are made
which indicate the possible presence
of oil beneath the surface of the earth,
a site is selected and the drilling
process begins.
Before a well can be drilled, a
towerlike steel drilling rig is installed
to support the tools and pipes that
must be lowered into the well. Most
rigs used today are portable ones
brought to the drilling site, but some
rigs are built at the site. Although a
few large firms do some of their own
drilling, over 90 percent of this work
is performed by about 2,800 special­
ized drilling contractors.
A number of other services are
performed in connection with oilfield
drilling. These include building ac­
cess roads, hauling supplies, cement­
ing wells, cleaning and treating wells,
and other special operations. Much
of this work is handled by contrac­
When oil is reached, the job of the
drilling crew is finished and that of
the well-operating crew begins.
About half of all petroleum produc­
tion workers operate or maintain
some 700,000 oil and gas producing
wells in the United States. These
wells are operated by thousands of
companies which range in size from

large firms with wells all over the
world to small firms with only a sin­
gle well. After oil or gas is brought
out of the ground, it is transported
to refineries or processing plants by
pipelines, ships, barges and trucks.
Petroleum Refining. Crude oil as it
comes from the ground has few uses.
To make useful end products, such
as gasoline, fuel oil, kerosene and
lubricants, oil must be heated under
pressure or in a vacuum, or treated
with chemicals. This processing,
called refining, is done in plants
known as refineries.
About 265 refineries were in oper­
ation throughout the country in
1966, employing some 150,000 wage
and salary workers. Refineries range
in size from small plants with fewer
than 50 employees to plants with sev­
eral thousand employees. Although
refineries are located in most States,
nearly 90 percent of refinery workers
are employed in only 10 States:
Texas, California, Pennsylvania,
Louisiana, Illinois, Oklahoma, In­
diana, New Jersey, Ohio, and Kan­
sas. Refineries usually are located
near oilfields, consuming centers, and
deepwater ports where tankers can
Natural Gas Processing. Natural gas
as it comes from the ground is diffi­
cult to transmit through pipelines for
long distances because of the various
liquid compounds dissolved in it. As


a result, natural gas processing plants,
which remove these liquids, usually
are located at or near gas fields. How­
ever, a few companies have found it
desirable to locate large processing
plants adjacent to main transmission
lines, at a point several hundred miles
from the producing area. Recently
constructed plants are highly auto­
mated and usually have relatively
few employees.
There are over 600 natural gas
processing plants employing about
15,000 workers. More than 75 per­
cent of the plants had fewer than 50
employees. Although natural gas
processing plants are located in 20
States, over 85 percent were located
in 6 States: Texas, Oklahoma, Lou­
isiana, California, West Virginia, and
New Mexico.

industry each year during the re­
mainder of the 1960’s and over the
next decade.
Employment in the industry is ex­
pected to decline despite the fact that
the demand for petroleum and nat­
ural gas products will continue to
increase. The anticipated decline,
however, will be concentrated among
production and related workers as
a result of the continued applica­
tion of technological improvements
which, in all likelihood, will lead to
further increases in output per
worker. (See p. 724 for statements
on petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction occupations.)
Where To Go for More Information

Further information concerning
jobs, processes, and working condi­
tions in the petroleum industry can
Employment in petroleum and be obtained from the public relations
natural gas production and petro­ department of individual petroleum
leum refining is expected to continue companies and from:
the slow decline which began during
American Gas Association,
the 1950’s. However, little or no
605 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.
change in employment is anticipated
among natural gas processing work­
ers. Most of the job opportunities
American Petroleum Institute,
that will arise through the 1970’s 1271 Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y. 10020.
will result from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer National Petroleum Refiners Asso­
to other fields of work. Deaths and
retirements alone will account for
1725 DeSales St. NW., Washington,
more than 7,000 job openings in this
D.G. 20036.
Employment Outlook


Nature of Work

Petroleum refining changes crude
oil into gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil,
lubricants, and other products for
use in homes and industry. The mod­
em refinery is a complicated
stmcture made up of tanks and tow­
ers connected by a maze of pipes.
From the time crude oil enters the
refinery to the shipment of finished
products, the flow of production is
continuous. The refining process is
highly automatic and is controlled
by instmments which measure and
regulate the flow, temperature, and
pressure of liquids and gases going
through the pipes and tanks. Manual
handling of materials is virtually
eliminated in the modem refinery.
Briefly, the first step in petroleum
refining consists of heating crude oil
as it flows through a series of pipes
in a furnace. The vapors from the
heated oil pass into a tower where
the various “fractions,” or parts, of
crude oil are condensed. The heaviest
parts (for example, asphalt) are
drawn off along the bottom of the
tower where temperatures are high­
est; lighter parts (kerosene) are
drawn off along the middle of the
tower; and the lightest (gasoline and
gases) are taken off at the top where
temperatures are lowest. Further pro­
cessing, by more complicated
methods, combines or modifies
262-057 O— 68----- 38

Operators regulate processing of crude oil from central controls.

compounds obtained through frac­
About one-third of the plant work­
ers in refineries are employed in
processing work. A key worker in
converting crude oil into usable prod­
ucts is the stillman (D.O.T. 542.280),
or chief operator. He is responsible
for the efficient operation of one
distillation unit or more. The opera­
tor watches instrument readings for
any changes in temperature, pressure,
and oil flow. In the more modem
refineries, the operator can watch in­
struments on graphic panels which
show the entire operation of all
distillation units in the refinery. He
regulates the instmments so that oil
products will meet specifications.
From time to time, the operator pa­

trols all units for which he is responsi­
ble to check their operating condition
and to take samples for testing. He
may have one assistant or more
(D.O.T. 542.782), depending on the
number and size of the units he
Other plant workers whose jobs
are related .to the processing of crude
oil include pumpmen (D.O.T.
549.782) and their helpers (D.O.T.
549.884), who maintain and operate
power-driven pumps which circulate
petroleum products, chemicals, and
water through units during process­
ing; and treaters (D.O.T. 549.782),
who operate equipment to remove
impurities from gasoline, oil, and
other petroleum products.

In many refineries, a large percent­
age of the plant workers repair, re­
build, and clean the highly compli­
cated refinery equipment. In other
plants, maintenance work is con­
tracted to companies outside the
petroleum industry. A large number
of maintenance workers are needed
because high heat and pressure and
corrosion quickly wear out equip­
ment. Included among these are
skilled boilermakers, carpenters, elec­
tricians, instrument repairmen, lead
burners, machinists, masons, painters,
pipefitters, pipe coverers, riggers,
sheetmetal workers, and welders.
Many helpers and trainees are also in
these trades. Some skilled workers
have a primary skill in one craft as
well as the ability to handle the
duties of closely related crafts. For
example, a pipefitter also may be
able to do boilermaking and welding
repair work on a piece of equipment.
Maintenance workers who have such
combined jobs are sometimes called
refinery mechanics.
Plant workers who do not operate
or maintain equipment do a variety of
other tasks in refineries. Some workers
are employed in the packaging and
shipping department; some load and
unload materials on trucks, trains, or
ships; som e drive trucks and tractors
to deliver materials to various parts
of the plant; and others keep inven­
tory records of stock and tools. The
industry also employs custodial work­
ers such as guards, watchmen, and
About 15 percent (slightly more
than 20,000) of the workers in pe­
troleum refining are scientists, engi­
neers, and technicians, compared with
about one-tenth in petroleum pro­
duction. Among these professional
and technical refinery workers are
chemists, chemical engineers, me­
chanical engineers, petroleum engi­
neers, laboratory technicians, and
draftsmen. Chemists and laboratory
technicians control the quality of
petroleum products by making tests
and analyses to determine chemical
and physical properties. Some chem­
ists are engaged in research and
development activities to discover


Chemist conducts research to develop new petroleum products.

new products and to improve those
already produced. Laboratory tech­
nicians also assist chemists in research
projects or do routine testing and
sample taking. Some engineers design
chemical processing equipment and
plant layout and others supervise re­
fining processes. Draftsmen prepare
detailed plans and drawings needed
in refinery construction and main­
Many administrative, clerical, and
other white-collar personnel are em­
ployed by refining companies. A large
number of top administrative and
management positions are filled by
technically trained men, many of
whom are chemists or engineers. Sales
engineers also are technically trained.
Other specialized workers in the field
of administration include account­
ants, purchasing agents, and lawyers.
Many typists, stenographers, secre­
taries, bookkeepers, and business ma­
chine operators are employed to as­
sist these specialized workers. (De­
tailed discussions of professional,
technical, mechanical, and other oc­
cupations found not only in the pe­

troleum refining industry but also in
other industries are given in the sec­
tion of this Handbook covering the
individual occupations. See index for
page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Petroleum refineries typically re­
quire new plant workers to have a
high school or vocational school edu­
cation. In large refineries, aptitude
and psychological testing and inter­
viewing are used in selecting em­
ployees. Usually, a new worker be­
gins in a labor pool where he does
such jobs as moving materials, pack­
ing cartons, or filling barrels. When
a vacancy occurs either in a process­
ing department or in a maintenance
shop, he may be transferred to one
or the other, depending on his par­
ticular aptitudes and seniority.
A worker newly assigned to a proc­
essing department learns to operate
processing equipment under the su­
pervision of experienced workers. As


he gains experience and know-how,
he moves to the more skilled jobs in
his department. For example, one
line of advancement for a processing
worker may be from helper to assist­
ant operator to chief operator. For­
mal training courses frequently are
provided to assure thorough and cur­
rent knowledge in a variety of
An inexperienced worker who is
assigned to a maintenance shop re­
ceives training on the job under the
supervision of the foreman. In some
refineries, he also may receive class­
room instruction related to his partic­
ular work. Over a period of 3 or 4
years, he may advance from helper
to skilled craftsman in one of the
maintenance jobs. Some large refin­
eries have programs under which
workers are given training in several
related maintenance crafts. For ex­
ample, a qualified instrument repair­
man may be given additional train­
ing as electrician or machinist.
For scientists and engineers a bach­
elor’s degree in science or engineering
usually is the minimum educational
requirement. For research jobs, scien­
tists and engineers with advanced de­
grees are preferred. Laboratory assist­
ants begin their work in routine jobs
and advance to positions of greater
responsibility as they acquire addi­
tional experience and demonstrate
ability to work without close super­
vision. Inexperienced draftsmen be­
gin as copyists or tracers. With addi­
tional experience and training, they
may advance to more skilled and re­
sponsible drafting positions. Adminis­
trative positions generally are filled
by men and women who have college
degrees in business administration,
marketing, accounting, industrial re­
lations, or other specialized fields.
For positions as clerks, bookkeepers,
stenographers, and typists, most re­
fineries employ persons who have had
commercial courses in high school or
business school.

ers in petroleum refineries through
the 1970’s. These will result from the
need to replace workers who retire,
die, or transfer to other industries.
Not all job vacancies created by turn­
over may be filled, since it is expected
that in the future total employment
in petroleum refining will continue a
slow decline which began during the
early 1950’s.
This decline is expected despite the
continued expansion of refinery out­
put and anticipated increases in con­
sumption of petroleum products in
the years ahead. The lower employ­
ment level is expected to result from
improved methods of refining crude
oil and the trend toward fewer but
larger and more highly automated
Most of the job opportunities cre­
ated by turnover in petroleum refin­
ing will be for professional, adminis­
trative, and technical workers, partic­
ularly chemists, chemical engineers,
and technicians, who are needed for
the industry’s research and develop­
ment activities. Among plant work­
ers, most job opportunities will be in
maintenance occupations, such as
those of instrument repairman, pipe­
fitter, machinist, and maintenance
electrician, because of the increasing
use of automated equipment and
complex control instruments.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Refinery workers are among the
highest paid employees in American
industry. In mid-1967, production
workers in petroleum refining aver­
aged $163.07 a week, or $3.81 an
hour for a 42.8-hour workweek, com­
pared with an average for all manu­
facturing industries of $113.65 a
week, or $2.82 an hour for a 40.3hour workweek. The higher average
earnings of production workers in
refineries reflect the relatively large
proportion of workers in skilled
Employment Outlook
Entry salaries for chemists and
Only a few thousand job openings chemical engineers in the petroleum
each year are expected for new work­ refining industry were among the

highest in American industry, accord­
ing to a survey conducted by the
American Chemical Society in 1966.
The survey showed that in this in­
dustry the average starting salary for
chemists with a bachelor’s degree and
no experience was $643 a month and
for chemical engineers, $690 a month.
Most petroleum refinery workers
receive a 2-week vacation with pay
after 1 year of service; 3 weeks, after
5 years; 4 weeks, after 10 years; and
5 weeks after 20 years. Most refiner­
ies have adopted some type of insur­
ance, pension, and medical and sur­
gical plans for their employees. Em­
ployee stock-purchase and savings
plans, to which the employer makes
contributions, are in effect in many
Because petroleum refining is a
continuous round-the-clock opera­
tion, operators may be assigned to one
of the three shifts, or they may be
rotated on various shifts and be sub­
ject to Sunday and holiday work. Em­
ployees usually receive 10 to 20 cents
an hour additional pay when they
work on the second or third shift.
Most maintenance workers are on
duty during the day shift; only a few
work at night to handle emergencies.
Work in the industry has little sea­
sonal variation and regular workers
have year-round jobs.
Most refinery jobs require only
moderate physical effort. A few work­
ers, however, have to open and close
heavy valves and climb stairs and lad­
ders to considerable heights in the
course of their duties. Others may
work in hot places or may be exposed
to unpleasant odors. Refineries are
relatively safe places in which to
work. The injury-frequency rate is
about half that of manufacturing as
a whole.
A majority of refinery plant work­
ers are union members. A large num­
ber of refineries have been organized
by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic
Workers International Union. Some
refinery workers are members of other
AFL-CIO unions or of various local
unions not affiliated with the AFLCIO.

cal and professional jobs, many of
which are found only in the paper
About 145,000 women were em­
ployed in this industry at the begin­
ning of 1967. Many of them worked
in plant jobs, mainly as machine op­
erators and inspectors in paper finish­
ing and coverting plants; others were
in office jobs. Few women were em­
ployed in the actual making of pulp
or paper.

In early 1967, the pulp, paper and
allied products industry (the paper
industry) employed about 680,000
workers to produce thousands of
paper products such as newsprint,
business forms, facial tissue, building
board, paper bags, writing paper, and
paperboard containers and boxes.
Consumption of paper and paperboard in 1966 amounted to more
than 530 pounds for each person in
the Nation. The industry employs
workers in occupations ranging from
unskilled to highly specialized techni­


Nature and Location of the

paperboard. A few very large plants
also produce finished paper products.
The largest group of employees in
the industry in 1966 worked in mills
that made pulp, paper, or paperboard. The next largest group was
employed in plants that produced
paperboard boxes and containers; the
remainder worked in plants that pro­
duced a variety of other paper
More than 90 percent of the pulp,
paper, and paperboard employees
and over 70 percent of the converting
plant employees worked in factories
employing over 100 workers each.
Workers in this industry are located
throughout the country, although
more than half are employed in eight
States: New York, Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin, Ohio, Illinois, Massachu­
setts, New Jersey, and California.
Other States with large numbers of
paperworkers are Michigan, Minne­
sota, Georgia, Washington, Maine,
Louisiana, Florida, and North

The paper industry is highly mech­
anized. Pulp and paper and many
finished paper products are manufac­
tured by machines—some as long as
a football field—in a series of nearly
automatic operations involving very
little handling of material by workers.
Manufacturing plants in the paper
industry are engaged in one or more
of three different operations: The
production of pulp (the basic ingredi­
ent of all paper) from wood, reused
fibers, or other raw materials; the
Occupations in the Industry
manufacture of paper or paperboard
(thick paper) from pulp; or the con­
Workers in the paper industry are
version of rolls of paper or paper- employed in a wide variety of occupa­
board into finished products. Some tions, requiring a broad range of
large plants produce pulp, paper, and training and skills. Many workers op­
erate and control specialized paper­
making, finishing, and converting
machines. Some workers install and
repair equipment such as papermak­
ing machinery, converting equipment,
motors, pumps, pipes, and measuring
instruments. Truck and tractor driv­
ers make deliveries to and from plants,
and other workers load and unload
trucks, trains, and ships. Guards,
watchmen and janitors do custodial
work. Other workers keep inventory
records of stock and tools.
The industry employs many work­
ers in clerical, sales, and administra­
tive occupations. For example, it
employs purchasing agents, personnel
managers, salesmen, office clerks,
stenographers, bookkeepers, and busi­
ness machine operators. Also, because


ering individual occupations. See
index for page numbers.)
Production Jobs. More than threefourths of all employees in the in­
dustry worked in production jobs.
The simplified description of paper­
making occupations and processes
which follows, applies to a plant
which combines the production of
pulp, paper, and finished products
into one continuous operation. (See
chart 52.) It takes between 12 and
15 hours, on the average, for pulpwood or other raw materials to be
converted into rolls of paper or paperboard.
After the pulpwood logs are re­
ceived at the pulp mill, the bark is re­
moved. One machine used for this
operation is a large revolving cylinder
known as a “drum barker.” Logs are
mechanically fed into this machine by
a semiskilled worker called a barker
operator. The machine cleans the
bark from the logs by tumbling them
against each other and against the
rough inner surface of the drum.
Next, the pulp fibers in the logs are
separated from other substances not
used in papermaking. This is done by
a chemical or mechanical process, or
a combination of both, depending on
the type of wood used and the grade
of paper desired.

Women are frequently employed as carton inspectors.

of the complex processes and equip­
ment used, the industry employs many
people in professional and technical
occupations such as chemical and
mechanical engineers, chemists, lab­
oratory technicians, pulp and paper

testers, and inspectors. (Detailed dis­
cussions of professional, technical,
and mechanical occupations, found
not only in the paper industry but in
other industries, are given elsewhere
in the Handbook in the sections cov-

Barker operator controls machine that removes
bark from logs.

In the mechanical process, the
pulpwood is held against a fastrevolving grindstone which separates
the fibers. In the more commonly
used chemical process, pulpwood is
carried on conveyor belts to a chipper
machine operated by a chipperman
(D.O.T. 668.885). The machine cuts
the pulpwood into chips about the
size of a quarter. These wood chips
are then “cooked” with chemicals
under high temperature and pressure
in a “digester,” a kettlelike vat several
stories high. The digester is operated
by a skilled worker called a digester


operator (D.O.T. 532.782) (also
known as a “cook”). He determines
the amount of chemicals to be used
and the cooking temperature and
pressure, directs the loading of the
digester with wood chips and chemi­
cals, and determines, by checking an
instrument panel, that proper con­
ditions are being maintained. When
the pulp fibers are removed from the
digester, they are washed to remove
chemicals, partially cooked chips, and
other impurities. These fibers, called
pulp, resemble wet, brown cotton. As
a first step in turning pulp into paper,

Digester operator adjusts flow of steam in paper digester.

pulp is mixed thoroughly with water
and further refined in a machine op­
erated by a skilled worker called a
beater engineer (D.O.T. 530.782).
The kind and amount of chemicals
and dyes that he uses and the length
of time he “beats” the solution de­
termines the color and strength of the
The pulp solution, now more than
99 percent water, is turned into paper
or paperboard by machines that are
among the largest in American in­
dustry. The machines are of two gen­
eral types. One is the Fourdrinier
machine which is, by far, the most
commonly used. The other is the
cylinder machine used to make cer­
tain types of paper such as building
and container board. It differs from
the Fourdrinier machines in the pa­
performing section. In the Four­
drinier, the pulp solution pours onto
a continuously moving and vibrating
belt of fine wire screen. As the water
drains, millions of pulp fibers adhere
to one another, forming a thin wet
sheet of paper. After passing through
presses that squeeze out more water,
the newly formed paper passes
through the dryer section of the pa­
permaking machine to evaporate the
remaining water. Papermaking ma­
chines are operated by a paper ma­
chine operator (D.O.T. 539.782)
(also called a “machine tender”).
The quality of the paper produced
largely depends on the skill of this
worker. His principal responsibility
is to control the “wet-end” of the pa­
permaking machine, where paper of
a specified thickness, width, and
physical strength is formed. He checks
control-panel instruments to make
certain that the flow of pulp and the
speed of the machine are coordinated.
The paper machine operator deter­
mines whether the paper meets the
required specifications by interpreting
laboratory tests or, in some instances,
by visually checking and feeling the
paper. He also supervises the less
skilled workers of the machine crew
and, with their help, keeps the paper
moving smoothly through the ma­
chine. The paper machine operator



and his crew may also replace worn
felts and wire screens. The backtender (D.O.T. 532.885), who is super­
vised by the paper machine operator,
controls the “dry-end” of the pa­
permaking machine, where the pa­
per is dried and prepared either for
shipping or converting into finished
products. He controls the pressure
and temperature of the rolls that dry
and finish the paper and give it the
correct thickness, inspects the paper
for imperfections, and makes sure
that it is being wound tightly and
uniformly into rolls. The backtender
also adjusts the machinery that cuts
the rolls into smaller rolls and, with
the help of assistants, may weigh and
wrap the rolls for shipment.
Paper mills that produce a fine
grade of paper for books, magazines,
or stationery usually maintain finish­
ing departments. Most of the workers
in these departments are either semi­
skilled or unskilled. One such semi­
skilled worker, called the super­
calender operator (D.O.T. 534.782),
aided by several helpers and by me­
chanical handling equipment, places
huge rolls of paper onto a machine
which gives the paper a smooth and
glossy finish. He also inspects the fin­
ished paper to make sure that speci­
fications have been met. Another
semiskilled worker in the finishing de­
partment, the paper sorter and
counter (D.O.T. 649 .68 7), inspects
sheets of paper for tears, dirt spots,
and wrinkles, and counts them.
In converting plants, machines
operated by semiskilled or skilled
workers convert paper and paperboard into paper products such as
envelopes, napkins, corrugated ship­
ping containers, and folding or rigid
boxes. Occupations in converting
plants differ widely, depending
largely on the product being manu­
factured. An example of a semiskilled
worker in an envelope-making plant
is the envelope machine operator
(D.O.T. 641.885) who feeds and
tends an automatic machine that
makes envelopes from either rolls of
paper or prepared envelope blanks.
He loads the rolls of blanks into the

Paper machine operator and helper inspect and adjust flow of w et stock.

machine and supplies the machine
with glue. An example of a skilled
worker in a converting plant is the
corrugator operator (D.O.T. 643.782) who regulates the speed of the
machine that glues together three
pieces of paperboard into corrugated
paperboard (paperboard with alter­
nate ridges and grooves) which is
used in the manufacture of shipping
containers. Another of the few skilled
workers in a converting plant is the
printer-slotter operator (D.O.T. 651.782) who sets, adjusts, and operates
a machine which cuts and creases
corrugated or paperboard sheets and
prints designs or lettering on them.
He also positions the printing plates
and cutting devices and turns keys
to control the distribution of print­
ing ink, pressure of rollers, and speed
of the machine. Another skilled job

is that of the die maker (D.O.T.
739.381) who makes cutting dies
used on machines that produce fold­
ing cartons (the familiar collapsible
cartons used by clothing stores to
pack purchases).
Converting plants employ thou­
sands of workers to print text, designs,
and lettering on paper products, such
as cartons, bags, wallpaper, and en­
velopes. Among these are skilled com­
positors who set type, and pressmen
who prepare and operate printing
Maintenance Jobs. The paper indus­
try employs many skilled mainte­
nance workers to care for its Com­
plex machinery and electrical
Millwrights maintain, install, and
repair machinery and equipment and

examine paper machine rolls, bear­
ings, and pumps to insure that they
are in good working condition. They
also take apart and reassemble ma­
chines and equipment when they are
moved about the plant.
Instrument repairmen install and
service electrical, electronic, and me­
chanical instruments that measure
and control the flow of pulp, paper,
water, steam, and chemical additives.
The job of instrument repairman is
becoming increasingly important
with the greater use of automatic
control equipment in pulp and paper
Other important maintenance em­
ployees include electricians, who re­
pair wiring, motors, and switches;
maintenance machinists, who make
replacement parts for mechanical
equipment; and pipefitters, who lay
out, install, and repair pipes.
Stationary engineers are employed
to operate and maintain powerplants,
steam engines, boilers, air compres­
sors, motors, and turbines.
Professional and Technical Occupa­
tions. The complexity of pulp and pa­
per manufacturing requires the em­
ployment of thousands of workers
with engineering, chemical, or other
technical training and education.
More than 15,000 scientists and en­
gineers and 7,000 technicians were
employed by the paper industry in
early 1967.
Many chemists are employed to
control the quality of the product by
supervising the testing of pulp and
paper. In research laboratories,
chemists study the influence of vari­
ous chemicals on pulp and paper
properties. In addition, some chem­
ists and engineers are employed as
salesmen, supervisors of plant work­
ers, or as administrators in positions
requiring technical knowledge.
Chemical and mechanical engi­
neers design, construct, operate, con­
trol, and improve pulp and paper­
making equipment. They transform
new pulp and papermaking tech­
niques, developed in the laboratory,
into practical production methods.


Some chemical engineers are em­
ployed in plant jobs to supervise the
application of pulp and paper tech­
nology to the production process.
Electrical engineers are employed
to supervise the design, development,
and operation of electrical and elec­
tronic instruments and power-gener­
ating and distributing equipment.
Packaging engineers (D.O.T. 019.187) design and supervise the pro­
duction of paper and paperboard
containers and packages. A few box
manufacturers also employ artists
who work out the letterings, designs,
and colors for containers.
Professionally t r a i n e d foresters
manage large areas of timberland
and assist in the wood-buying opera­
tions of pulp and paper companies.
Systems analysts and computer
programers are becoming increasingly
important to this industry. Comput­
ers are being used to coordinate the
complex papermaking process by col­
lecting and analyzing data on chem­
ical mixtures, pulp flows, tempera­
tures, pressures, machine speeds, and
performing quality control tests. In
addition, much of the accounting and
management statistical data are proc­
essed by computers.
Frequent tests are performed dur­
ing the manufacturing of pulp or
paper to determine whether the size,
weight, strength, color, and other
properties of the material meet speci­
fied standards. Some of this testing is

done by machine operators, but in
many mills, testing technicians are
employed. These employees, who
have job titles such as laboratory tech­
nician, paper tester, pulp tester, pa­
per inspector, and chemical analyst,
work in plant laboratories. They use
chemicals and laboratory testing
equipment when performing tests.
They also assist professional engineers
and chemists in research and devel­
opment activities. Depending on their
training and experience, technicians
perform simple, routine tests or do
highly skilled technical or analytical
work. Technicians working in labora­
tories conduct tests and record the
results on charts or graphs for inter­
pretation by engineers and chemists.
Administrative, Clerical and Related
Occupations. The paper industry em­
ploys many administrative, clerical,
and other office personnel. At the top
of the administrative group are the
executives who make and administer
company policy. Many of these are
technically trained men. To do their
work effectively, executives require in­
formation that must come from a
large group of personnel. Some are
accountants, purchasing agents, sales
representatives, lawyers, and person­
nel employed in such activities as in­
dustrial relations, public relations,
transportation, advertising, and mar­
ket research. Clerical employees who
keep records of personnel, payroll, in­
ventories, sales, shipments, and plant
maintenance are also employed in
this industry.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Technician tests bursting strength of paper

The training for new workers in
the pulp, paper, and allied products
industry ranges from a few days to
years of preparation. Many operating
jobs can be learned in a few days of
on-the-job training. On the other
hand, maintenance jobs, some ma­
chine operating jobs, and, particu­
larly, engineering and scientific jobs
require years of specialized training.


Paper and pulp companies gener­
ally hire inexperienced workers for
processing and maintenance jobs and
train them on the job. Many com­
panies prefer to hire high school grad­
uates between the ages of 18 and 25.
Production workers usually start as
laborers or helpers and advance along
fairly well-defined paths to more
skilled jobs. Maintenance jobs gen­
erally are filled by men trained in the
plant. When no qualified workers are
available, however, jobs are filled by
hiring experienced men from outside
the plant.
Most companies in this industry do
not have formal apprenticeship pro­
grams to meet the needs of their own
maintenance shops. In recent years,
however, some of the large plants that
make pulp, paper, and paperboard
have started formal apprenticeship
programs which require 3 to 4 or
more years of training. Under these
programs, young men are trained for
skilled maintenance jobs such as ma­
chinist, electrician, millwright, and
pipefitter. Generally, an applicant is
given a physical examination, me­
chanical aptitude tests, and similar
qualifying tests. Apprentice training
includes both on-the-job training and
classroom instruction related to the
occupation. For example, the ma­
chinist apprentice receives classroom
instruction in mathematics, blueprint
reading, shop theory, and specialized
subjects. During shop training, the
apprentice learns the use and care of
the tools of his trade.
A bachelor’s degree from a recog­
nized college is usually the minimum
educational requirement for sci­
entists, engineers, foresters, and other
specialists employed by the industry.
For research work, persons with ad­
vanced degrees are preferred. Many
engineers and chemists (called proc­
ess engineers and paper chemists)
have specialized training in paper
technology. A listing of the schools
offering such training is available
from the American Paper Institute,
260 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.
10016. Many companies hire students
specializing in papermaking for sum­
mer work, and upon graduation, fre­

quently hire them on a permanent
basis. Some associations, colleges,
universities, and individual com­
panies offer scholarships in pulp and
papermaking technology.
Some companies have formal train­
ing programs for college graduates
with engineering or scientific back­
grounds. These employees may work
for brief periods in various plant op­
erating divisions to gain a broad
knowledge of pulp and paper manu­
facturing before being assigned to a
particular department. Other firms
immediately assign junior chemists or
engineers to a specific research opera­
tion or maintenance unit.
Generally, no specialized education
is required for laboratory assistants,
testing technicians, or other kinds of
technicians. Some employers, how­
ever, prefer to hire those who have
had training in a technical institute
or junior college. Training, usually, is
on the job. Laboratory assistants, for
example, begin in routine jobs and
advance to positions of greater re­
sponsibility after they have acquired
experience and demonstrated their
ability to work without close super­
Administrative positions are filled
frequently by men and women who
have college degrees in business ad­
ministration, marketing, accounting,
industrial relations, or other special­
ized business fields. A knowledge of
paper technology is helpful for ad­
ministrative, sales, and related occu­
pations. This is especially true of sales
jobs, where customers often require
technical assistance. Most pulp and
paper companies employ clerks, book­
keepers, stenographers, and typists
who have had commercial courses in
high school or in business school.
Factors affecting advancement of
plant workers include the length of
time that a worker has held a plant
job, how well he performs his job,
and his physical condition. Promotion
is generally limited to jobs within a
“work area,” which may be a depart­
ment, section, or an operation on one
type of machine. To become a paper
machine tender, for example, the
worker may start as a laborer, wrap­

ping and sealing the finished rolls of
paper as they come off the paper­
making machine. As he gains experi­
ence and skill, he moves to more diffi­
cult assignments, finally becoming a
machine tender in charge of the op­
eration of a machine. These promo­
tions may take many years, depending
on the availability of jobs. Experience
gained within a work area is generally
not transferable; unskilled or semi­
skilled workers who transfer to jobs
outside their senority area or to other
plants usually must start again in
entry jobs.
Many plant foremen and super­
visors are former production workers.
In some plants, qualified workers may
be promoted directly to foreman or
other supervisory positions. In others,
workers are given training before they
are eligible for promotion to higher
level jobs. This training is often con­
tinued after the worker is promoted—
through conferences, special plant
training sessions, and sometimes by
taking courses at universities or trade
schools. Most firms provide some fi­
nancial assistance for employees who
take training courses outside their
Employment Outlook

Young people will find many thou­
sands of job openings annually during
the remainder of the 1960’s and
throughout the 1970’s in the pulp,
paper, and allied products industry.
Although employment is expected to
increase by several thousand workers
each year, most job opportunities will
result from the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, trans­
fer to other fields of work, or die.
Deaths and retirements alone are ex­
pected to provide about 14,000 job
openings annually.
Employment in this industry is ex­
pected to continue to grow fastest in
the South and West. Employment
prospects, however, will remain good
in the Northeast and North Central
areas because of the need to replace
experienced workers.

The production of paper is ex­
pected to increase as a result of the
increased demand resulting from
population growth, business expan­
sion, and new uses of paper. For ex­
ample, rising population will create
a greater demand for textbooks, writ­
ing papers, periodicals, and news­
papers. Business expansion will in­
crease the need for paper products,
such as business forms and packaging.
The greater use of paper products,
such as disposable garments, stretch­
able grocery bags, carpet backing,
and refuse bags is also expected to
stimulate paper production. Employ­
ment will increase at a slower rate
than production, however, because of
the increasing use of more efficient,
labor-saving machinery and auto­
matic tontrol equipment.
Occupational groups in the indus­
try are expected to increase at differ­
ent rates. The numbers of engineers,
scientists, technicians, and skilled
workers, such as electricians, machin­
ery repairmen, instrument repair­
men, pipefitters, and millwrights are
expected to increase faster than other
occupational groups in the industry.
Scientific and technical personnel
will be needed as research and devel­
opment activities increase, and more
skilled maintenance and repair men
will be required to service the grow­
ing inventory of complex machinery.
The employment of administrative
and clerical workers is also expected
to increase at a faster pace than
total employment. On the other hand,
employment of semiskilled workers
will grow more slowly, while the num­
ber of helpers, laborers, and other un­
skilled plant workers is expected to
remain about the same or decline
slightly as more automatic machinery
is introduced.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in the paper
and allied products industry had
average earnings of $2.75 an hour, or
$119.35 for a 43.4-hour workweek in
1966. In the same year, earnings of
production workers in all manufac­


turing industries averaged $2.71 an
hour or $111.92 for a 41.3-hour
The following data, collected from
more than a score of union-manage­
ment agreements in the paper indus­
try, illustrate the approximate range
of hourly wage rates for selected pro­
duction and maintenance occupa­
tions for the country as a whole in
1966. Local wage rates within these
ranges depend on factors such as
type and size of mill and kind of ma­
chines used.
Pulp plants

Woodyard and wood prepa­
ration occupations:
Crane operator....................
Barker, drum.......................
Pulpmaking occupations:
Digester operator (cook). .
Pulp tester............................
Paper and paperboard plants

Stock preparation occupa­
tions :
Head stock preparer
(beater engineer).............
Hydrapulper operator. . . .
Machine room occupations:
Paper machine tender. . . .
Third hand..........................
Fourth hand........................
Paper tester..........................
Finishing occupations:
Supercalendar operator. ..
Rewinder operator.............
Rewinder helper.................
Converting plants

Converting occupations:
Envelope machine opera­
tor .......................................
Corrugator operator...........
Printer-slotter operator. . .
Pressmen (printing)...........
Miscellaneous occupations

Maintenance occupations:
M aintenance mechanic
(also millwright, welder,
pipesetter, sheet-metal
worker, machinist, black­
smith, and boilermaker).
Trucker, power...................

Hourly rate

$2. 50-$3. 75
2. 20- 2. 75
2. 20- 3. 00
2. 502. 202. 302. 402. 30-

4. 54
3. 77
3. 62
4. 53
2. 82

2. 70- 4. 12
2. 25- 3. 50
2. 30- 3. 67
2. 64— 4. 50
2. 40- 4. 00
2. 30- 3. 70
2. 25- 3. 15
2. 30- 3. 12
2. 60- 3. 56
2. 22- 3. 20
2. 31- 2. 77
2. 22- 3. 14
1.602. 001.952. 402. 202. 20-

2. 55
3. 07
3. 70
3. 72
5. 26

2. 202. 152. 102. 35-

3. 78
3. 62
3. 78
3. 86

2. 30- 3. 25
2. 20- 2. 87

Most of the workers in pulp and
paper producing operations work in
plants that operate around the
clock—three shifts a day, 7 days a
week. Owing to the widespread in­
dustry practice of rotating shifts, pro­
duction workers can expect to work
on the evening or night shifts from
time to time. Maintenance workers,
for the most part, are employed on the
regular day shift. Many plants pay
between 5 and 11 cents more an hour
for work on the evening shift and
between 9 and 15 cents extra an hour
for the night shift. Most workers in
the industry have year-round employ­
ment because paper production is not
subject to seasonal variations.
A work schedule of 40 hours a week
is in effect in most mills. A few plants
in the industry have a standard work­
week of 36 hours or less.
Paid vacations are almost always
provided and generally are based on
length of service. In practically all
mills, workers receive 1 week of vaca­
tion after 1 year of employment, 2
weeks after 3 to 5 years, and 3 weeks
after 10 years or more. Many com­
panies give 4 weeks’ vacation to em­
ployees who have been with them 20
years and 6 weeks after 30 years.
Nearly all workers receive paid holi­
days ; the number of days range from
4 to 11 a year, with most mills grant­
ing 7 or 8 paid holidays.
Insurance or pension plans,
financed at least partially by em­
ployers, are in effect in the majority
of plants. These plans generally in­
clude life, sickness, accident, hospitali­
zation, and surgical insurance benefits
for the employee and, in some cases,
his dependents. Employee stock-purchase and savings plans, to which the
company makes contributions, are in
effect in some firms.
Most pulp and papermaking jobs
do not require strenuous physical ef­
fort. Some employees, however, work
in hot, humid, and noisy areas. They
may also be exposed to disagreeable
odors from the chemicals used in the
papermaking process, but the pulp
and paper companies have made in-



tensive efforts in recent years to im­
prove working conditions.
The rate of disabling injuries in this
industry in recent years has been
about the same as the average for all
manufacturing. Protective clothing,
warning signs in danger areas, lock­
ing devices on potentially dangerous
equipment, guards and rails around
moving machinery, and instruction in
safe practices have been important
in reducing the accident rate. Some
of the more hazardous jobs are in
converting plants, where many cut­
ting tools and moving equipment are
A majority of the production work­
ers in this industry are members of

trade unions. A large number belong
to either the International Brother­
hood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper
Mill Workers or the United Papermakers and Paperworkers. Many
printing workers in the industry be­
long to the International Printing
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of
North America. Some maintenance
workers and other craftsmen belong
to various craft unions.
Where To Go for More Information

American Forest Products Industries,
1835 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.

American Paper Institute,
260 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.
Fibre Box Association,
224 South Michigan Ave., Chicago,
111. 60604.
National Paper Box Manufacturers
Association, Inc.
121 North Broad St., Philadelphia,
Pa. 19107.
National Paper Trade Association,
220 East 42d St., New York, N.Y.
United Papermakers and Paperworkers,
Papermakers Building, Albany, N.Y.



Wholesaling and retailing are the
final stages in the process of trans­
ferring goods from producers to con­
sumers. Wholesalers assemble goods
in large lots and distribute them to
retail stores, industrial firms, and
institutions such as schools and
hospitals. Retailers sell goods directly
to housewives and other consumers
in a variety of ways—in stores, by
mail, or through door-to-door selling.
A list of the items sold by wholesale
and retail businesses would in­
clude almost every item produced
by American industry—automobiles,
clothing, food, furniture, and count­
less others.
In 1966, more than 13 million per­
sons (not counting an estimated 2 /2
million self-employed and unpaid
family workers) worked in whole­
sale and retail trade. Retail trade ac­
counted for the largest number of
workers—9.8 million—or about
three-fourths of the employment in
the broad industry group. The ma­
jority of these workers are employed
in department stores, food stores, and
in restaurants and other eating
places. About 3^4 million persons
worked in wholesale trade.
Wholesale and retail businesses
are a major source of job opportuni­
ties for women. In 1966, for example,
about two-fifths of the workers
employed in retail trade were women.

They comprised about one-fifth of all
workers employed in wholesale trade.
Many women employed in retail
stores work part time.
Workers with a wide range of ed­
ucation, training, skill, and ability
are employed in wholesale and retail
trade. In 1966, white-collar workers
accounted for more than 3 out of
every 5 persons employed in the ma­
jor industry group, as shown in the
accompanying table. Sales workers,
the largest single group, make up
nearly one-fourth of total industry
employment. Managers and proprie­
tors, the second largest group of work­
ers, account for about one-fifth of
the industry’s work force. Many
managers and proprietors own and
operate small wholesale houses or
retail businesses, such as food stores
and gasoline service stations. Clerical
workers make up roughly one-sixth of
the work force; many are employed
by retail stores as cashiers, especially
in supermarkets and other food stores.
Other important clerical occupations
in retail trade include secretaries,
stenographers and typists, office ma­
chine operators, and bookkeepers and
accounting clerks. Large numbers of
shipping and receiving clerks are em­
ployed in both wholesale and retail
Blue-collar workers (craftsmen,
operatives, and laborers) accounted
for nearly one-fourth of all employ­
ment in the industry group in 1966.
Many are employed as mechanics and
repairmen, auto parking attendants,
drivers and deliverymen, meat cut­
ters, and materials handlers. Most
mechanics and auto parking attend­
ants work for motor vehicle dealers
and gasoline service stations. A large
number of meat cutters are employed
in wholesale grocery establishments
and in supermarkets and other food
Service workers accounted for
roughly 1 out of every 7 workers em­
ployed in the industry group, mostly
in retail trade. Food service workers
such as waiters, cooks, and bartend­
ers made up by far the largest con­

centration of persons employed in this
occupational group. These workers
were employed mainly in restaurants,
drug stores and other retail businesses
where food is served to the public.
Other large groups of service workers
were janitors, charwomen and clean­
ers, and guards and watchmen.
Major occupation group

E stim ated
em ploym ent,


All occupation groups........................
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers........................
Managers, officials, and pro­
prietors. ......................................
Clerical and kindred workers...
Sales workers................................
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers........................
Operatives and kindred
Service workers.............................


Employment in wholesale and re­
tail trade is expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1970’s.
The major factors contributing to the
expected growth of employment in
trade are increasing population and
consumer expenditures, continuation
of the population movement from
rural to urban areas and from city
to suburbs, and the trend toward
keeping stores open longer hours.
Growth in employment requirements
is expected to be slowed somewhat by
the increasing applications of laborsaving technology. For example,
technological change may affect em­
ployment because of improvements in
materials-handling methods, packag­
ing innovations, the growing use of
computers for inventory control and
billing operations, the increasing use
of mechanized equipment in super­
markets, and the continued growth
in the number of stores using selfservice operations.
Within retail trade, employment in
department stores and in restaurants
and other eating places is expected to
rise the most rapidly. Among whole­
sale establishments, the rates of em­
ployment growth are likely to be
highest in businesses that distribute


in office buildings or factories, or in
a suburban shopping center, empha­
size rapid service and inexpensive
meals. In contrast, some restaurants
cater to customers who have the time
to eat in a leisurely manner and, thus,
they serve elaborate meals which may
include unusual dishes or “specialties
of the house.”
Most restaurants are small busi­
nesses with fewer than 10 paid em­
ployees; many of these are operated
by their owners with no paid help or
with only 1 or 2 part-time workers.
A small proportion of all restaurants
are run by proprietors or business
firms owning more than one restau­
Although restaurant employment
is concentrated in the States with the
Restaurant Industry
largest populations, and particularly
in large cities, even very small com­
Millions of people eat in restau­
rants, cafeterias, snack bars, and munities usually have coffee diners.
luncheonettes, and roadside
other eating places daily. There are
about 335,000 establishments whose
main business is to serve food and
Restaurant Workers
beverages, and in early 1967, they
employed about 2.0 million persons.
About three-fourths of all restau­
Many other food-service workers rant employees prepare and serve
were employed in establishments that food, or do other kinds of related
serve meals in connection with some service work. The two largest service
other activity—for example, drug groups, each with several hundred
and department stores, hotels, hos­ thousands of workers, are waiters and
pitals, schools and colleges operating waitresses and cooks and chefs. In
lunchrooms for students and staff, addition to these two groups, there
and factories operating cafeterias for are counter attendants who serve food
employees. Commercial airlines, rail­ to customers in cafeterias; bartenders
roads, and shiplines also employ who mix and serve alcoholic drinks
food-service workers. (See state­ to customers; busboys and busgirls
ments on the two largest restaurant who clear tables, carry soiled dishes
occupations—Waiters and Waitresses back to the kitchen, and sometimes
and Cooks and Chefs.)
set tables; kitchen workers who wash
dishes and prepare vegetables; pan­
trymen and pantrywomen who pre­
Nature and Location
pare salads and certain other dishes
Establishments catering to the for serving; and janitors andgarbage,
who dispose of trash and
custom of “eating out” range from sweep and mop floors, and do other
small diners to luxurious and expen­ cleaning jobs. Some of these workers
sive restaurants. The kind of food operate mechanical equipment, such
offered and the way it is served de­ as powerdriven dishwashers, floor
pend upon the size, location, and polishers, vegetable slicers and peel­
financing of the restaurant, as well ers, and garbage disposal equipment.
as the type of customer it seeks to These specialized service jobs, how­
attract. For example, cafeterias, ever, are likely to be found only in
which usually are located downtown the largest restaurants. In many small


motor vehicles and automobile parts
and in firms selling industrial ma­
chinery, equipment, and supplies.
The statement that follows covers
the major occupations in restaurants,
where, for example, large numbers of
waiters and waitresses and cooks and
chefs are employed. More detailed in­
formation about occupations that cut
across many industries appear else­
where in the Handbook. These in­
clude salesmen, office workers,
shipping and receiving clerks,
maintenance trades, and many
others. (See index in the back of the

eating places, waiters and waitresses
clear and set up tables, sometimes
prepare certain kinds of dishes, and
help in the kitchen when they are not
busy with customers.
Another large group of restaurant
workers—about one-sixth of the
total—are managers and proprietors.
Many are owners and operators of
small restaurants and, in addition to
acting as managers, may do cooking
and other work. Some are salaried
employees managing restaurants for
All other restaurant workers com­
bined account for less than one-tenth
of total industry employment. They
are employed principally in large
restaurants. Most are clerical em­
ployees—cashiers who receive pay­
ments and make change for
customers; food checkers who total
the cost of the meals selected by
cafeteria customers; and bookkeep­
ers, stenographers, typists, and other

office workers. Some large restau­
rants also employ mechanics and
other maintenance workers, account­
ants, advertising or public relations
directors, personnel workers, and
musicians or other entertainers.


troduced self-service, made use of
precut meats and modern mechanical
equipment, and otherwise increased
the efficiency of their operations. Al­
though further improvements of this
kind can be expected, the number of
restaurant employees is likely to in­
crease rapidly as the volume of busi­
Employment Outlook
ness continues to expand to meet the
population’s need for restaurant
More than 150,000 openings are services.
expected annually in the restaurant
industry during the remainder of the
1960’s and throughout the 1970’s. Earnings and Working Conditions
Although many new jobs will be cre­
ated by the growth of the restaurant
The location, size, and type of res­
business, most openings will result taurant affect earnings of restaurant
from turnover. Most job openings will workers. Other significant factors in­
be for waitresses and kitchen help­ clude the tipping practice for some
ers—both because of high turnover occupations and the degree of union­
and because these workers make up ization.
a very large proportion of all restau­
In early 1967, average earnings of
rant employees. Employment oppor­ nonsupervisory employees in the res­
tunities also are expected to be favor­ taurant industry (excluding tips)
able for skilled cooks and salaried were $47.60 a week or $1.40 an hour
restaurant managers. There will be a for a 34.0 hour workweek, compared
number of openings in clerical jobs with $68.57 a week or $1.91 an hour
such as cashier, bookkeeper, stenog­ for a 35.9 hour workweek for work­
rapher, and typist, and a few in spe­ ers in all retail trade establishments.
Limited wage data obtained from
cialized positions such as food man­
ager and dietitian.
union-management contracts, in ef­
The volume of restaurant business fect in early 1967, covering eating
is expected to increase substantially and drinking places in large metro­
over the next decade and the number politan areas on the East and West
of restaurant workers will rise rapidly. Coasts and in the Midwest, provide
A growing population, increasing an indication of earnings for various
leisure time, and higher income levels, types of restaurant workers. In these
will raise the demand for restaurant contracts, straight-time hourly pay
services. More people will “eat out” rates generally ranged from $1.90 to
as large numbers of housewives take $3.35 for bartenders; $0.95 to $2.15
outside employment and more people for bus boys and girls; $1.35 to $2.45
travel. Restaurants, hotel and motel for cashiers; $1.25 to $2.25 for dish­
dining rooms, school and factory washers; $1.50 to $2.50 for food
lunchrooms, drugstore fountains, and checkers; $1.50 to $2.50 for kitchen
even vending machines which dis­ helpers; $1.50 to $2.80 for pantry
pense prepared foods will share in the men and women; and $1.45 to $2.25
for porters. (For earnings of waiters
increased business.
Manpower changes taking place and waitresses, and cooks and chefs,
within the restaurant industry will see statements on these occupations.)
tend to reduce the number of em­ Most restaurant workers, however,
ployees needed to prepare and serve are not covered by union-manage­
food. Restaurants—particularly those ment contracts.
serving hundreds of meals daily— Salaries of employees in managerial
have achieved substantial reductions positions have a wide range, mainly
in manpower requirements during re­ because of differences in duties and
cent years, as managers have central­ responsibilities. Many college gradu­
ized the purchase of food supplies, in­ ates with specialized training in res­

taurant management received starting
salaries ranging from $6,000 to $8,000
annually in 1967. Managerial trainees
without this background often started
at lower salaries. Many experienced
restaurant managers receive salaries
between $10,000 and $15,000 a year,
depending on size, location, and type
of restaurant. Salaries below this
range may be paid to managers of
small restaurants, and considerably
higher salaries are likely to be paid to
managers of exclusive restaurants
and large restaurant chains.
In addition to wages, restaurant
employees usually receive at least one
free meal a day at their place of work
and are often provided with uniforms.
Waiters, waitresses, and bartenders
also receive tips. Paid vacations and
holidays are common and various
types of health and insurance pro­
grams also are available. Most full­
time restaurant workers have work
schedules of 40 to 48 hours a week.
Many work on split shifts, which
means they are on duty for several
hours during one meal, take some
time off, and then return to work
during the next period of heavy ac­
tivity. Scheduled hours may include
work in the late evenings and on
holidays and weekends.
Many restaurants are air-condi­
tioned, have convenient work areas,
and are furnished with the latest
equipment and laborsaving devices.
In other restaurants—particularly
small ones—working conditions may
be less desirable. In all restaurants,
workers spend long periods on their
feet, and may be required to lift heavy
trays and other objects, or work near
hot ovens or steam tables. Work haz­
ards include the possibility of burns;
injury from knives, broken glass or
china, or mechanical equipment; and
slips and falls on wet floors.
The principal union in the restau­
rant industry is the Hotel and Restau­
rant Employees and Bartenders Inter­
national Union (AFL-CIO). The
proportion of workers covered by
union contract agreements, however,
varies greatly from city to city.

Where To Go for More Information
A list of public and private schools
Information on courses relating to
and colleges offering courses which restaurant work may be obtained
Additonal information about ca­ train restaurant employees may be from the local Director of Vocational
reers in the food service industry may obtained by writing to:
Education, the Superintendent of
be obtained by writing to:
Schools in the local community, or the
Council on Hotel, Restaurant and
Educational Director, National Res­
State Director of Vocational Educa­
Institutional Education,
taurant Association,
tion in the Department of Education
Statler Hall, Cornell University,
1530 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago,
in the State capital.
Ithaca, N.Y. 14850.
111. 60610.



Government service, one of the
Nation’s largest fields of employment,
provided jobs for 11.5 million civilian
workers in early 1967—about 1 out
of every 7 persons employed in the
United States. More than threefourths of these workers are em­
ployed by State or local governments
(county, city, town, village, or other
local government division) ; the rest
work for the Federal Government,
either in the United States or abroad.
Opportunities for jobs in government
service will be very favorable through
the 1970’s. Rapid growth is expected
in State and local government em­
ployment, continuing the trend in
the post-World War II period. Only
a small increase is expected in Fed­
eral employment. Large numbers of
job opportunities will arise in Fed­
eral, State, and local governments
from the need to replace workers
who retire, or die, or leave govern­
262-057 O— 6S


ment service. Hundreds of thousands
of individuals will be hired each year
for jobs in a wide variety of occupa­
Government employees are a sig­
nificant part of the nonagricultural
work force in every State. Their jobs
are found not only in capital cities,
county seats, and metropolitan areas,
but also in small towns and villages,
and even in remote and isolated
places such as lighthouse installations
and forest ranger stations.
Government Activities and

More than a third of all govern­
ment workers are engaged in provid­
ing educational services (chart 53);
the majority are in schools and col­
leges supported by State and local
governments. In addition to teachers,
employees in this field include ad­

ministrative and clerical workers,
maintenance workers, librarians,
dietitians, nurses, and counselors.
The great majority of workers in
educational services are employed in
elementary and secondary schools.
The second largest group of gov­
ernment workers is engaged in na­
tional defense activities. This group,
numbering more than a million em­
ployees, includes civilians working in
the Department of Defense and a few
other defense-related agencies such
as the Atomic Energy Commission.
Within this group are administrative
and clerical employees, doctors,
nurses, teachers, engineers, scientists,
technicians, and craftsmen and other
manual workers. Employees in this
group work in offices, research labora­
tories, navy yards, arsenals, and mis­
sile launching sites, and in hospitals
and schools run by the military



Major Areas Of Government Employment


com p rises
legislative bodies,
chief executives.
& c e n tral
staff agencies
of governm ents


Large concentrations of employees
are found in health services and hos­
pitals, the postal service, and highway
work. Workers are employed also by
government agencies in activities such
as housing and community develop­
ment, police and fire protection, social
security and public welfare services,
transportation and public utilities,
conservation of natural resources, tax
enforcement and other financial func­
tions, as well as in general administra­
tive, judicial, and legislative activities.
Most employees in the health and
hospital fields, in highway work, and
in police and fire protection activities
work for State and local government
agencies. On the other hand, jobs in
national defense and in the postal
service are Federal, as are over half
the jobs concerned with natural re­
sources, such as those in the National
Park and Forest Services.
Although the many different gov­
ernmental activities require a diversi­
fied work force with many different
levels of education, training, and skill,
the majority of government em­
ployees are white-collar workers.
Among the largest white-collar oc­
cupational groups are teachers, ad­
ministrators, postal clerks, and office
workers such as stenographers, typists,
and clerks.
Some important occupations and
occupational groups among service,
craft, and other manual workers are
aircraft and automotive mechanics
and repairmen; policemen; firemen;
truckdrivers; skilled maintenance
workers (for example, carpenters,



painters, plumbers, and electricians);
custodial workers; and laborers.
The wide variety of government
functions requires employees in many
different occupations. Because of the
special character of many government
activities, the occupational distribu­
tion of employment is very different
from that in private industry, as
shown in the distributions of employ­
ment in early 1967 which follows:
Occupational group

White-collar workers..
Professional and
Managers, officials,
and proprietors..
Blue-collar workers___
Craftsmen, forem en......................
Nonfarm laborers.
Service workers............
Farm workers...............

Trends In State And Local Government Employment

Percent of—
Government ment
employ- employmerit1 merit







1 Data excluded overseas Federal employment.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual
items m ay not equal totals.

The following chapters discuss op­
portunities for civilian employment in
the major divisions of government
and in the various branches of the
Armed Forces. A separate chapter
gives detailed information on post
office occupations.


Types Of Work Performed By Enlisted Men
In The Armed Forces, 1965
ELECTRICAL/MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIRMENautomotive, aircraft mechanics, etc.
ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALISTS & CLERKSsupply, communications, personnel workers, etc.
ELECTRONICS- electronics equipment repairmen,
radio operators, aircraft controllers, etc.
GROUND C0MBATinfantry, artillery, tank crews, etc.
SERVICESfood service, security, motor transport, etc.
OTHER TECHNICALmedical specialists, intelligence, draftsmen, etc.
CRAFTSMENprinting, metal working, construction, etc.








The Federal Government, the
largest employer in the United States,
had about 2.7 million civilian work­
ers in early 1967. Federal employees
are engaged in occupations represent­
ing nearly every kind of job in private
employment, as well as some unique
to the Federal Government such as
postal clerk, border patrolman, immi­
gration inspector, foreign service of­
ficer, and Internal Revenue agent.
Practically all Federal employees
work for the departments and agen­
cies that make up the executive
branch of the government. The others
are employed in the legislative and
judicial branches.
The executive branch includes the
Office of the President, the 12 depart­
ments with cabinet representation,
and a number of independent agen­
cies, commissions, and boards. This
branch is responsible for such activ­
ities as administering Federal laws;
handling international relations; con­
serving natural resources; treating
and rehabilitating disabled veterans;
delivering the mail; conducting scien­
tific research; maintaining the flow of
supplies to the Armed Forces; and
administering other programs to pro­
mote the health and welfare of the
people of the United States.
The Department of Defense, which
includes the Departments of the
Army, Navy, and Air Force, is the
largest agency; it employed more

than 1.2 million civilian workers in
early 1967; the Post Office Depart­
ment employed nearly 700,000. The
Veterans Administration, the Depart­
ment of Agriculture and the Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare each had more than 100,000
workers. The remaining employees of
the executive branch were distributed
among more than 70 departments,
agencies, commissions, offices, and
boards. There were about 27,000 em­
ployees in the legislative branch,
which includes the Congress, the Gov­
ernment Printing Office, the General
Accounting Office, and the Library
of Congress. About 6,000 persons
were employed by the judicial branch,
which includes the Supreme Court
and the other United States courts.
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 1.4 million white-collar
workers. Entrance requirements for
white-collar jobs vary widely. En­
trants into professional occupations
are required to have highly special­
ized knowledge in a specified field, as
evidenced by completion of a pre­
scribed college course of study or,
in many cases, the equivalent in ex­
perience. Occupations typical of this
group are attorney, physicist, and en­
Entrants into administrative and
managerial occupations usually are
not required to have knowledge in
a specialized field but rather, they
must indicate by graduation from a
4-year college or by responsible job
experience, that they have potential
for future development. The entrant
usually begins at a trainee level, and
learns the duties of the job after he is
hired. Typical jobs in this group are
budget analyst, claims examiner, pur­
chasing officer, administrative assist­
ant, and personnel officer.
Technician, clerical, and aid-assist­
ant jobs have entry level positions
that usually are filled by persons hav­
ing a high school education or the
equivalent. For many of these posi­
tions, no prior experience or training
is required. The entry level position
is usually that of trainee, where the

duties of the job are learned and
skill is improved. Persons with junior
college or technical school training,
or those having specialized skills may
enter these occupations at higher
levels. Jobs typical of this group are
engineering technician, supply clerk,
clerk-typist, and nursing assistant.
With its wide range of responsibili­
ties, the Federal Government em­
ployes white-collar workers in a great
many occupational fields. About
130.000 Federal workers are em­
ployed in engineering and related
fields. Included in this total are
75.000 engineers, representing virtu­
ally every branch and specialty of the
profession. There are also large num­
bers of technician positions in areas
such as engineering, electronics, sur­
veying, and drafting. More than half
of all engineering positions are in
the Department of Defense.
Of the 110,000 workers employed
in accounting and budgeting work,
more than 30,000 are professional ac­
countants and Internal Revenue
agents. Among administrative and
managerial occupations in the ac­
counting and budgeting field are tax
technician and budget administrator.
There are also large numbers of cleri­
cal positions involving specialized ac­
counting work. Accounting workers
are employed throughout the Govern­
ment, particularly in the Department
of Defense, the Treasury Depart­
ment, and the General Accounting
About 90,000 Federal workers are
employed in medical, public health,
and hospital work. Professional oc­
cupations in this field include medical
officer, nurse, dietitian, medical tech­
nologist, and physical therapist.
Among technician and aid jobs are
medical technician, medical labora­
tory aid, and nursing assistant. Em­
ployees in this field work primarily in
the Veterans Administration; some
others are in the Defense Department
and Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare.
Approximately 40,000 workers are
employed in the biological and ag-


ricultural sciences. Large numbers of
professional workers are engaged in
forestry and soil conservation work.
Others administer farm assistance
programs. Technician and aid-assist­
ant occupations include biology tech­
nician, forest and range fire control
technician, soil conservation techni­
cian, and forestry technician. Most of
these workers are employed by the
Departments of Agriculture and
In the physical sciences, the Feder­
al Government employs professional
workers such as physicists, chemists,
meteorologists, cartographers, and
geologists. Aids and technicians in
this field include physical science
technician, meteorological techni­
cian, and cartographic technician.
Most of the 40,000 workers in the
physical sciences are employed by the
Department of Defense, National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion, the Department of Agriculture,
the Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, and the Commerce
Within the mathematics field are
professional mathematicians and
statisticians and mathematics tech­
nicians and statistical clerks. There
are also a number of administrative
positions in the related field of com­
puter programing. Mathematics
workers are employed primarily by
the Defense Department, the Nation­
al Aeronautics and Space Adminis­
tration, the Department of Agricul­
ture, the Commerce Department, and
the Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare. Positions in the
computer field are found in most
In the field of law are about 11,000
employees in professional positions
such as attorney, and others in ad­
ministrative positions such as claims
examiner. There are also many cleri­
cal positions involving claims examin­
ing work. Workers in the legal field
are employed throughout the Fed­
eral Government.
In the social science field there are
professional positions for economists
throughout the government, psychol­

ogists and social workers, primarily
in the Veterans Administration, and
foreign affairs and international rela­
tions specialists in the Department of
State. Among social science adminis­
trative workers are social insurance
administrators in the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, and
intelligence specialists in the Depart­
ment of Defense.
The Federal Government employs
more than 50,000 persons in investi­
gating and inspection work. Large
numbers of these workers engage in
administrative activities such as crim­
inal investigation and food and cus­
toms inspection. These jobs are pri­
marily in the Defense, Treasury, Jus­
tice, and Agriculture Departments.
Jobs concerned with purchasing,
cataloging, storing, and distribution
of supplies for the Federal Govern­
ment provide employment for about
80,000 workers. This field includes
many managerial and administrative
positions, such as supply management
officer, purchasing officer and inven­
tory management specialist, as well
as large numbers of specialized cleri­
cal positions. Most of these jobs are
in the Department of Defense.
Some 275,000 general clerical
workers are employed in virtually
every department and agency of the
Federal Government. I n c l u d e d
within this group are office machine
operator, secretary, stenographer,
clerk-typist, mail and file clerk, tele­
phone operator, and other related
workers. (In addition, there are sev­
eral hundred thousand postal clerks
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment. See the following section on
Post Office occupations for further in­
formation. )
Blue collar jobs—service, craft, and
manual labor—provided employment
to over 600,000 workers in early 1967.
The majority of these workers were in
establishments such as naval ship­
yards, arsenals, air bases, or army de­
pots ; or they worked on construction,
harbor, flood-control, irrigation, or
reclamation projects. Approximately
three-fourths of these workers were
employed by the Department of De­

fense. Others worked for the Veter­
ans Administration, Post Office, Gen­
eral Services Administration, Depart­
ment of the Interior, Tennessee Val­
ley Authority, and Department of Ag­
riculture. Within this group are a
wide range of occupations, including
many of the service, craft, and man­
ual occupations found in industry.
The largest single group of bluecollar workers consists of mobile
equipment operators and mechanics.
Among these jobs are forklift opera­
tor, chauffeur, truckdriver and auto­
mobile mechanic. The next largest
group of workers are general laborers,
who perform a wide variety of man­
ual jobs.
The Federal Government employs
many workers in machinery operation
and repair occupations, such as boiler
and steam plant operator, machinist,
machinery repairman, maintenance
electrician, electronics equipment re­
pairman, and aircraft mechanic.
Skilled construction workers also
are utilized widely throughout the
Federal Government. Included in
these fields are jobs such as carpenter,
painter, plumber, steamfitter and
pipefitter, and sheetmetal worker.
Other large blue-collar occupations
include warehouseman, food service
worker, and printer.
Many skilled occupations may be
entered through apprenticeship pro­
grams. To qualify, experience nor­
mally is not required, but a test may
be given to indicate whether an ap­
plicant has an aptitude for the occu­
pation. There are also jobs as helpers
for skilled workers, such as carpen­
ter’s helper and machinist’s helper.
(Detailed descriptions of the work
duties of most white-collar, service,
craft, and manual labor jobs men­
tioned above are provided in other
sections of the Handbook.)
Federal employees are stationed in
all parts of the United States and its
territories and in many foreign coun­
tries. Although most Government de­
partments and agencies have their
headquarters offices in the Washing­
ton, D.C. metropolitan area, only 1
out of 10 (under 300,000) Federal

workers were employed in that area
in early 1967. California had about
265,000 workers, and New York,
Pennsylvania, Texas, and Illinois each
had more than 100,000. About 40,000
U.S. citizens were employed in for­
eign countries and about 20,000
worked in U.S. territories.
The Merit System

Approximately 9 out of 10 jobs in
the Federal Government in the
United States are covered by the Civil
Service Act. This act was passed by
the Congress to ensure that Federal
employees are hired on the basis of
individual merit and fitness. It pro­
vides for competitive examinations
and the selection of new employees
from among those who make the
highest scores. The U.S. Civil Service
Commission, which administers the
Civil Service Act, is responsible for
examining and rating applicants and
supplying Federal departments and
agencies with names of persons eligi­
ble for the jobs to be filled.
Some Federal jobs are excepted
from Civil Service requirements
either by law or by action of the Civil
Service Commission. However, most
of the excepted positions are under
separate merit systems of other agen­
cies, such as the Foreign Service of
the Department of State, the Depart­
ment of Medicine and Surgery of the
Veterans Administration, the Fed­
eral Bureau of Investigation, the
Atomic Energy Commission, and the
Tennessee Valley Authority. These
agencies establish their own stand­
ards for the selection of new em­
Civil service competitive examina­
tions may be taken by all persons who
are citizens of the United States, or
who owe permanent allegiance to the
United States (in the case of residents
of American Samoa). To be eligible
for appointment, an applicant must
meet minimum age, training, and ex­
perience requirements for the par­
ticular position. A physical handicap
will not in itself bar a person from a
position if it does not interfere with


his performance of the required
duties. Examinations vary according
to the types of positions for which
they are held. Some examinations in­
clude written tests; others do not.
Written examinations test the appli­
cant’s ability to do the job applied for
or his ability to learn how to do it. In
nonwritten examinations, applicants
are rated on the basis of the experi­
ence and training described in their
applications and any supporting evi­
dence required by the Commission.
The Commission notifies applicants
whether they have achieved eligible
or ineligible ratings, and enters the
names of eligible applicants on a list
in the order of their scores. When a
Federal agency requests names of
eligible applicants for a job vacancy,
the Commission sends the agency the
names at the top of the appropriate
list. The agency can select any one of
the top three available eligibles.
Names of those not selected are re­
stored to the list for consideration for
other job openings.
Appointments to civil service jobs
are made without regard to an appli­
cant’s race, color, religion, national
origin, politics, or sex.
Employment Trends and Outlook

requirements for professional, admin­
istrative, and technical workers.
Population expansion will lead to
an increased employment of workers
such as social security claims examin­
ers, accounting and budget workers,
and business and industry specialists.
Laws providing new or expanded
services to the public should result
in increased employment of food and
drug inspectors, highway engineers,
and education personnel. Employ­
ment in legal and kindred occupa­
tions will increase also, mainly be­
cause of the existence of more laws
and regulations to interpret, adminis­
ter, and enforce; and more claims to
examine for payment of retirement,
disability, and death benefits.
Federal employment gains in sci­
ence, engineering, and other fields
will reflect the demands of vigorous
national research and development
efforts in a variety of programs, such
as space exploration, urban develop­
ment, military weapons, nuclear
energy, medicine and health, trans­
portation, and natural resource de­
velopment. The number of engineers
and engineering technicians will
continue to grow rapidly. Employ­
ment of scientists, as well as that of
technicians working with them, also
will increase, and the number of
medical personnel employed should
continue to rise also.
Opportunities for employment in
the Federal Government will con­
tinue to be favorable during the
1970’s. In addition to new oppor­
tunities due to growth in employment,
several hundred thousand job oppor­
tunities will become available each
year because of the need to replace
employees who leave the Federal
service, retire, or die. Thus, many
job opportunities will occur in occu­
pations in which total employment is
relatively stable, as well as in those
in which it is rising.

Assuming defense activities ap­
proximate the level prior to the Viet­
nam build-up, it is anticipated that
Federal employment will grow at a
relatively slow rate during the 1970’s.
A number of factors will tend to
limit employment in many clerical
and blue-collar occupations. Among
these factors are the Federal Govern­
ment’s increasing use of laborsaving
electronic data-processing and materials-handling equipment and the
introduction of improved data-transmission and communications systems.
The manpower requirements of the
Federal Government will, in general,
tend to reflect the demand for services
Earnings, Advancement, and
of an increasing population, and the
Working Conditions
country’s domestic and international
Federal civilian employees are paid
programs. These demands are ex­
pected to be reflected in rapidly rising under several pay systems.


Pay rates of employees under the
General Schedule are set by the Con­
gress and are nationwide. This Gen­
eral Schedule provides a pay scale
for employees in professional, admin­
istrative, technical, and clerical jobs,
and for employees such as guards and
messengers. General Schedule jobs
are classified and arranged in 18 pay

grades according to difficulty of the
duties, and the responsibilities, knowl­
edge, experience, or skill required.
The distribution of Federal whitecollar employees by grades, the en­
trance and maximum salaries, and
the amount of periodic increases for
each grade, are listed in the accom­
panying table.

Distribution of All Full-Time Federal Employees Under the General Schedule, June 30, 1966, by Grade
Level and Salary Scale, Effective July 1,1966
General schedule grade

11 ...................................................................................
1 2 .....................................................................................
15 ...............................................................................
16 ...............................................................................
17 ...............................................................................
18 ...............................................................................

Number Percent
97| 151



Periodic Maximum

10; 927
22; 760



5; 565
10; 045

» Less than 0.05 percent.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

Employees in all grades except GS18 receive within-grade increases
after they have completed the re­
quired service periods, if their work
in determined to be of an acceptable
level of competence. Within-grade in­
creases also may be given in recogni­
tion of high-quality service.
High school graduates with no re­
lated work experience are usually ap­
pointed to GS-2 positions, but some
with special skills begin at GS-3.
Graduates of 2-year junior colleges
and technical schools can often begin
at the GS-4 level. Most young people
appointed to professional and admin­
istrative positions enter at grades GS5 or GS-7 depending on their aca­
demic record. Those who hold a
master’s degree or the equivalent in
education or experience usually enter
at grade GS-7; they may enter at
grade GS-9 if they are well qualified.
In addition, the Federal Government
also appoints very well-qualified, ex­
perienced people at the GS-11 level

and above. These appointments are
for such positions as psychologist, stat­
istician, economist, writer and editor,
budget analyst, accountant, and
New appointments usually are
made at the minimum rate of the
salary range for the appropriate
grade. However, appointments in

hard-to-fill positions frequently are
made at a higher rate. For example,
in 1967 engineers, accountants, math­
ematicians, certain physical scientists,
and those in a few other specialized
occupations were being recruited at
above minimum rates.
Advancement depends upon abil­
ity, work performance, and generally,
upon openings in jobs at higher
grades. Employees frequently get pro­
motions by qualifying for jobs at high­
er grades. Promotions also may be ob­
tained when jobs are reclassified to a
higher grade to reflect more difficult
work assignments and increased re­
Graft, service, and manual workers
employed by the Federal Government
in the United States are paid under
the wage board system. The pay rates
for these workers are fixed by wage
boards on the basis of “prevailing”
rates paid for similar work by private
employers in the areas where they
work. The average (median) annual
pay of employees under this system
was $6,180 ($2.97 per hour) in June
1966. The following tabulation of
Army-Air Force Wage Board pay
rates for selected occupations illus­
trates hourly wage rates in early 1967
for workers paid under the wage
board system.
Employees in agencies with sep­
arate merit systems are paid under
acts other than those already men­
The standard workweek for Fed­
eral Government employees is 40

Atlanta, G a......................................................... ...............
Boston, Mass....................................................... ...............
Chicago, 111......................................................... ...............
Denver, Colo. ..................................................... ...............
Hampton Roads, V a........................■................ ...............
Houston-Galveston, Tex................................... ...............
Los Angeles, Calif.............................................. ...............
New Orleans, La................................................ ...............
New York, N.Y.-Newark, N .J........................ ...............
Pensacola, Fla..................................................... ...............
Philadelphia, P a................................................ ...............
Puget Sound, Wash........................................... ...............
San Francisco, Calif.......................................... ...............
St. Louis, M o...................................................... ...............
Washington, D .C ............................................... ...............


$2. 17
2. 17
2. 15


$3. 23
3. 36
3. 28
3. 18
3. 34
3. 63
3. 32
3. 39
3. 50
3. 37
3. 56
3. 38


$3. 37
3. 69
3. 39
3. 30
3. 47
3. 75
3. 49
3. 63
3. 73
3. 62
3. 68

Source: Army-Air Force Wage Board, U.S. Department of Defense. Rates are for the second step of a 3-step
pay range.

hours, and the pay schedules are
based on this workweek. If an em­
ployee is required to work overtime
he is either paid overtime rates for
the additional time worked or given
compensatory time off at a later date.
Most employees usually work 8 hours
a day, 5 days a week, Monday
through Friday, but in some cases,
the nature of the work may call for
a different workweek. Annual earn­
ings for most full-time Federal work­
ers are not affected by seasonal
Federal employees earn 13 days of
annual (vacation) leave during each
of their first 3 years of service, then
20 days each year until they have
completed 15 years; after 15 years,
they earn 26 days of leave each year.
In addition, they earn 13 days of paid
sick leave a year. Eight paid holidays
are observed annually. Employees
who are members of military reserve
organizations also are granted up to
15 days of paid military leave a year
for training purposes. A Federal em­
ployee who is laid off is entitled to
unemployment compensation similar
to that provided for employees in
private industry.
Other benefits available to most
Federal employees include: A con­
tributory retirement system; optional
participation in low-cost group life
and health insurance programs sup­
ported in part by the Government;
and training programs to develop
maximum job proficiency and help
employees achieve their highest po­
tential. These training programs may
be conducted in Government facil­
ities or in outside educational
facilities at Government expense.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on Federal employ­
ment opportunities is available from
a number of sources. For college
students, the college placement office
is often a good source of such infor­
mation. High school students in
many localities may obtain informa­
tion from their high school guidance
counselors. Additional information


may be obtained from State employ­
ment service offices and many post
The Interagency Board system,
operated by the U.S. Civil Service
Commission, consists of boards of
examiners located in population
centers throughout the country.
These boards announce and conduct
examinations and evaluate and refer
eligible applicants to employing
agencies for their geographic areas.
They also provide a complete onestop information service, so that all
interested citizens may learn of local
and nationwide employment oppor­
tunities in the Federal Government
Information about a specific
agency also may be obtained by con­
tacting the agency directly.

Post Office Occupations

The mailman, carrying the familiar
leather pouch over his shoulder, and
the clerk standing behind the stamp
window in the Post Office, are the two
employees of the Federal Government
most familiar to the general public.
Although we all receive or send mail
almost every day, few people realize
how many workers are employed by
the Post Office Department and
exactly what they do.
In early 1967, more than 700,000
postal service workers—about 13 per­
cent of whom were women—were
employed in 38,000 separate installa­
tions throughout the country. These
workers collected and distributed
nearly 80 billion letters, post cards,
newspapers, magazines, parcels, and
other items of mail. They also pro­
vided special mail services such as
registration (giving evidence of mail­
ing and delivery), insurance, and
c.o.d. (the collection of the price of
an article, and the cost of postage
from a customer upon delivery).
Other services performed by these

workers included selling United States
savings stamps and money orders.
Although many postal jobs are
located in small communities and in
rural areas, postal employment is con­
centrated in large centers of popula­
tion. The metropolitan area of New
York City, in its various post offices
and other installations, employs about
56.000 postal service workers, or 8
percent of all post office employees.
Other large centers of postal employ­
ment include the Chicago, Los
Angeles, Boston, and Philadelphia
metropolitan areas.
Occupations in the Postal Service

Clerks are the largest group of
postal workers, many of whom are
employed in the workrooms behind
the lobbies of large post offices. At all
hours of the day and night, an end­
less flow of mail moves from unload­
ing platforms through the workrooms
and out to loading platforms. In the
workrooms, the mail goes through a
series of separations in which distribu­
tion clerks sort it according to type
and destination. Other clerks work
behind the windows in the lobbies of
post offices selling stamps and money
orders, registering and insuring mail,
and accepting parcel post. In all,
there were about 280,000 postal clerks
employed throughout the country in
early 1967.
The city carriers are the second
largest group of postal workers (over
190.000 in early 1967). These work­
ers collect the mail which flows into
city post offices and deliver it after it
has been sorted by the distribution
clerks. Rural carriers collect and
deliver mail in the country and pro­
vide some of the services available in
post offices. In early 1967, there were
about 47,000 of these workers. Both
city and rural carriers cover assigned
routes on regular schedules. Some city
carriers may work exclusively deliver­
ing parcel post or collecting mail. (A
detailed description of the duties,
training, qualifications, employment
outlook, earnings, and working con­
ditions for clerks and carriers appears


in later sections of this chapter.) A
relatively small number of postal em­
ployees deliver only special delivery
The “Star” route carrier transports
mail under contract with the Post
Office Department and is not an em­
ployee of the Department. There
were approximately 12,000 “Star”
route contracts in early 1967. The
length of the routes varied consider­
ably. Most of these carriers use trucks
to carry the mail, but in certain re­
mote areas where there are no roads,
some use horses or boats.
In all post offices, bulk mail in
large, heavy sacks must be loaded,
unloaded, and moved about. In small

post offices, clerks perform this work;
in large post offices, mail handlers
are employed to do most of it. Be­
sides handling sacked mail, mail han­
dlers separate the mail into parcel
post, paper mail, and letter mail, and
bring the mail to distribution clerks
for processing. They also pick up the
processed mail and put it into sacks.
In early 1967, there were approxi­
mately 43,000 mail handlers.
About 33,000 postal supervisors
and 11,000 postmasters directed the
work of more than a half million
clerks, carriers, and mail handlers in
large post offices. (About 22,000 ad­
ditional postmasters were employed
in small post offices.)

Mail handlers are employed primarily in large post offices.

Approximately 21,000 mainte­
nance service employees were con­
cerned with the operation, mainte­
nance, and protection of post office
buildings and equipment. About
14.000 of these employees were jani­
tors, building guards, elevator opera­
tors, and laborers. The remainder
were mechanics or craftsmen, such
as electricians, carpenters, and
The Post Office Department em­
ployed more than 6,000 motor ve­
hicle operators who drove trucks
transportating bulk mail. About
4,600 other employees were concerned
with the maintenance of the trucks
driven by the motor vehicle opera­
tors as well as the rest of the post of­
fice vehicle fleet, including more than
57.000 trucks and mailsters (light
three-wheel motor vehicles) driven
by carriers. This group included
garagemen who did routine servic­
ing of vehicles, automotive mechan­
ics, body and fender repairmen, and
parts clerks.
About 1,000 postal inspectors are
employed in the oldest investigative
agency in the Federal Government—
the Post Office Inspection Service.
The main function of these em­
ployees is to inspect post offices to
see that they are efficiently operated,
that funds are being properly spent,
and that postal laws and regulations
are observed. Other principal duties
include the prevention and detection
of crimes, such as theft, forgery, and
fraud involving use of the mail.
Another small, but very important,
group of employees is made up of the
several hundred workers who service
semiautomatic and automatic mail
processing equipment. As the mecha­
nization of the Post Office Depart­
ment continues, many more of these
employees will be needed.
The Post Office Department also
employs a small number of engineers,
accountants, lawyers, and clerical
and office workers, such as typists,
stenographers, file clerks, and person­
nel assistants.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

To qualify for a job in the Post
Office Department, an applicant
must be a citizen, pass a civil service
examination, and meet the minimum
age requirements. Generally, the
minimum age for post office employ­
ment is 18. For high school graduates,
the minimum age limit is 16, except
for jobs which may be considered
hazardous or may require operation
of a motor vehicle. Usually the ap­
plicant must also live in the area
served by the particular post office
in which he would work if selected for
appointment. Before deciding on a
permanent career in the Post Office
Department, young men and women
may work at a post office during the
summer or at Christmas when tem­
porary help is employed.
In recent years, most applicants
who have been appointed to post of­
fice jobs were high school graduates.
However, formal education or special
training, although highly recom­
mended, is not required for most post
office entry jobs.
As in other civil service examina­
tions, an honorably discharged war
veteran has 5 extra points added to
his passing grade and a disabled vet­
eran receives 10 extra points. Veter­
ans with compensable disabilities are
placed at the top of the list. Certain
jobs (guards, elevator operators, la­
borers, janitors, etc.) are reserved
for veterans.
The names of applicants who pass
an examination are placed on a reg­
ister in the order of their scores. The
appointing officer selects one of the
top three available applicants to fill
a job vacancy. Those not selected are
put back on the list for consideration
for the next job opening. Appoint­
ments to jobs are made without
regard to an applicant’s race, color,
sex, marital status, national origin,
or religion. Postal employees, like all
other Federal workers, are subject
to an investigation of their moral
character and loyalty. Before an ap­
plicant may be appointed, he must
pass a physical examination. Specific


physical requirements differ accord­
ing to the nature of the work in the
various jobs.
In general, most of the work in the
post office requires considerable
physical stamina. An even more im­
portant quality is a good memory.
Clerks, for example, must be able to
remember the streets and numbers
which make up a district so that they
can sort mail rapidly.
Window clerks and carriers are
expected to be pleasant and tactful
in dealing with the public. Distribu­
tion clerks in the large post offices
have no contact with the public.
However, since they have constant
deadlines and work in large groups
in close quarters, they are expected to
get along well with coworkers.
All new postal employees serve a
probationary period of 1 year. During
this period the employee’s conduct
and performance are observed and,
if warranted, he may be dismissed at
any time.
The amount of training given to a
new employee varies considerably,
depending on his job and the size
of the post office. On-the-job train­
ing is generally provided by the super­
visor or an experienced employee.
The new employee performs the
simpler tasks of his job from the very
first day. To become proficient in all
of his work, however, takes much
longer. The new clerk or carrier must
spend many hours of practice sorting
mail to get the necessary speed and
accuracy. In addition, he must spend
time learning postal regulations,
schemes, and routes. (A scheme is
a group of places consisting of States,
cities, zones, or streets and numbers
arranged for the convenient delivery
of mail.)
Career postal employees are classi­
fied as regulars or substitutes. The
great majority begin as substitutes.
The positions of clerk, city carrier,
special delivery messenger, mail
handler, and positions in the vehicle
service are initially filled by substitute
appointment from the civil service
register. Substitutes replace regular
employees who are absent and also

supplement the regular work force.
As vacancies occur in the regular
work force, they are filled by convert­
ing substitutes to regulars according
to seniority.
Some jobs, even at the same salary
level, may be considered more desir­
able than others because of the type
of work performed, the hours of work,
or for other reasons. When a vacancy
occurs, it is posted and employees in
the occupational group may submit
“bids” (written requests for assign­
ment to the vacancy). The preferred
assignment is given to the qualified
bidder who has the longest service. A
few nonsupervisory jobs at a higher
salary level may also be bid on.
For assignment to most higher level
positions, however, merit, not senior­
ity, is the controlling factor. Qualifi­
cations for promotion may include
experience, training or education,
aptitude as measured by a written
examination or performance test,
work record, and personal character­
istics. (The last mentioned is par­
ticularly important in supervisory
positions.) If the leading candidates
for the job are about equally qualified,
length of service determines which
one is selected.
Opportunities for advancement in
the postal service are limited. Most
employees start as postal clerks and
carriers and continue in those cate­
gories. However, they can receive
preferred assignments or routes as
their seniority increases. Opportuni­
ties for promotion to supervisory
positions depend largely on the size
of the post office. Promotion oppor­
tunities are better in large post offices,
where each department has a super­
visor, than in small post offices.
Employment Outlook

The Post Office Department will
hire many thousands of young work­
ers each year during the remainder of
the 1960’s and throughout the 1970’s.
Most job opportunities will arise from
the need to replace employees who
retire, die, or transfer to other em­
ployment. Deaths and retirements


alone should provide more than 17,000 jobs openings annually. In addi­
tion, some job openings will result
from an expected moderate increase
in post office employment.
As in the past, the volume of mail
is expected to grow rapidly, largely
as a result of an expanding popula­
tion and rising business activity. Em­
ployment, however, is expected to
grow at a slower rate than mail vol­
ume because of the continuing mod­
ernization of postal facilities and
equipment which is increasing the
amount of mail an individual em­
ployee can handle. In advanced stages
of development, and in actual use at
a few post offices, are a variety of
electromechanical and electronic de­
vices and controls which receive,
process, and dispatch mail at a con­
siderable saving in postal clerk man­
power. Light weight vehicles (mailsters) are also in use on a number of
residential routes, and additional ones
are being purchased. The carrier pro­
vided with such a vehicle delivers
parcel post as well as letter mail and
paper mail. For every 10 routes so
mechanized, one less parcel post car­
rier is required. Neverthless, because
of the large increase expected in mail
volume in the next decade, employ­
ment should still continue to grow.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Almost all postal employees are
paid under the Postal Field Service
Compensation Act, under which
three separate pay schedules are pro­
vided. One schedule determines the
salaries of rural carriers and is based
primarily on route length. Another
schedule covers fourth-class postmas­
ters, whose compensation is based on
the annual receipts of their post of­
fices. Salaries of all other postal field
service employees are determined un­
der the third schedule, the Postal
Field Service Schedule (PFS). The
grade level of a position under this
schedule depends upon the duties and
responsibilities, and the knowledge,
experience, or skill required.

In all three pay schedules, em­
ployees receive periodic “step” in­
creases, up to a specified maximum,
if their job performance is satisfac­
tory. A distribution of employees by
PFS level, together with the entrance
and maximum salary, as well as the
amount of the periodic increases for
each grade, is shown in the accom­
panying table.
Most regular postal employees
work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week. If
a regular employee works more than
8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a
week, he is paid at 1/i times the regu­
Postal field service level
Total employees under P F S schedule3.



3 .................................................................................
4 .................................................................................


6 .................................................................................



8 .................................................................................

9 .................................................................................




13 ...............................................................................
14 ...............................................................................
15 ...............................................................................
16 ............................ ..................................................
17 ...............................................................................
18 ...............................................................................
19 ...............................................................................

lar rate for the extra hours worked. A
substitute employee receives overtime
pay if he works more than 40 hours in
a week.
Postal employees, both substitutes
and regulars, receive the same vaca­
tion, sick leave, and other benefits
available to Federal employees gen­
erally. They earn 13 days’ annual
(vacation) leave during each of their
first 3 years of service, then 20 days
each year until they have completed
15 years of service; and after that, 26
days of leave a year. In addition, they
earn 13 days of paid sick leave a year.
Employees 1
Salary schedules 2
Number Percent En- Periodic Maxiof total trance increase mum

0.8 . $4,204
.2 10,202
.2 11,274
.1 12,427
.1 13,736



1As of June 30,1966.
2 In effect as of March 10,1967.
3 Does not include postmasters of fourth-class offices and rural carriers.
< Less than 0.05 percent.
N ote .—B ecause of rounding, sums of individual items m ay not equal 100.
Source: U.S. Post Office Department.

Other benefits include: Retirement
and survivorship annuities, optional
participation in low-cost group life
insurance and health insurance pro­
grams supported in part by the Fed­
eral Government, and compensation
to employees injured in the perform­
ance of duty.
Postal workers are covered by the
civil service system and enjoy a maxi­
mum of job security. The physical
surroundings usually are pleasant.
Most postal employees have frequent
contact with the public or other em­
ployees, a work situation which many
people enjoy. Prospective employees
have the opportunity to choose be­

tween outdoor work (carrier) and in­
door work (postal clerk).
Some of the work requires consid­
erable physical exertion, such as
walking, reaching, lifting, and carry­
ing heavy sacks of mail. Some of the
work is also of a routine nature.
Most postal employees are mem­
bers of unions. There are more than
a dozen unions which represent
postal employees.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on post office employ­
ment opportunities and civil service
competitive examinations for postal

jobs may be obtained from the local storage (relay) boxes at intervals
post office, the regional offices of the along the route.
The carrier starts on his route with
Civil Service Commission, or State
the mail in a large leather bag, which
employment service offices.
is carried over his shoulder, or in a
mail cart. In some cities, a carrier
who is assigned an outlying residen­
tial route may use a light, three­
wheeled motor vehicle called a “mailMAIL CARRIERS
ster” to deliver mail.
(D.O.T. 233.388)
On his route, the carrier goes from
door to door, placing mail in boxes
or through door slots. Mail is deliv­
ered throughout residential areas and
Nature of Work
office buildings served by elevators;
Most carriers or mailmen, as they however, in apartment houses, the
are commonly known, travel along mail is usually deposited in the boxes
predetermined routes delivering and located near the front entrances. The
collecting mail. Some city carriers carrier collects charges on postage(usually new workers), however, only due and c.o.d. mail and obtains re­
collect mail from street letter boxes ceipts for registered and certain in­
and from office mail chutes. Other sured mail.
are the same or different. The third
carriers drive trucks and deliver par­ When the carrier completes his part tests the applicant’s ability to fol­
cel post; still others—called rural car­ route, he returns to the post office, low instructions carefully in making
riers—deliver and collect mail along bringing with him the letters left in changes on a mailing scheme and in
routes usually located outside the city mail boxes for mailing, and the mail routing mail. Sample questions are
limits. In addition, they may sell he has collected from street letter sent to applicants with their notices
stamps and money orders and accept boxes. He then arranges the letters
admission to
parcel post, letters, and packages to he brought back so that stamps can of Persons being the written tests. ap­
be registered or insured. All carriers be easily canceled and turns in the pointment as carriers are givenforroad
answer questions about postal regu­ money and receipts he has collected test in which they must demonstrate
lations and service and provide during the day.
their ability to handle, under various
change of address cards and other
driving conditions, vehicles of the
postal forms when requested.
type and size they may required
The carrier begins his work early Training, Other Qualifications, and operate as carriers. Atbethe time to
in the morning. He spends a few
appointment, the applicant must
hours at the post office arranging the
To be
for carrier posi­
mail in the order it will be delivered. tion, an consideredmusta be a citizen, have a valid driver’spass a rigorous
Applicants must
He readdresses mail to be forwarded
physical examination
and marks the mail of persons who meetpass minimum age requirements, whether they are able to determine
to stand the
a civil service examination.
have moved without leaving forward­ To be eligible for employment, most physical exertion required to perform
ing addresses to show how it should
be able to
be handled. He also prepares remind­ post offices require carrier applicants for jobs. They must time, walk stand
long periods of
to be at least 18 years of age and pass
ers for special mail, such as insured a road test.
siderable distances, and handle heavy
mail which requires a signature by The same written civil service ex­ sacks of mail. Carriers must weigh
the person receiving it. He signs re­ amination is given to applicants inter­ at least 125 pounds. The minimum
ceipts for postage due and c.o.d. mail. ested in either city carrier or postal weight requirements may be waived
When the mail has been arranged,
written test consists for veterans, and for those who can
it is assembled into bundles. The car­ clerk jobs. TheThe longest part is a pass a strength test consisting of lift­
of three parts.
rier’s mail is generally too heavy for test of general intelligence, including ing a sack weighing 80 pounds to their
all of it to be carried at one time. questions on simple arithmetic, spell­ shoulders.
(Thirty-five pounds is the maximum ing, vocabulary, and reading compre­ In addition to good health and
to be carried.) He therefore makes up hension. Another part tests the appli­ physical stamina, a carrier should
larger bundles of mail—called “re­ cant’s reading accuracy by requiring have a good memory. He relies on his
lays”—which are transported in him to compare addresses arranged memory in arranging the mail on his
trucks by other carriers and placed in in pairs and to indicate whether they route in the proper order for delivery.


He must also memorize many postal
rules and regulations. Other desir­
able qualities for a carrier are a pleas­
ant manner and a neat appearance.
City carriers begin as substitutes
and become regulars in order of se­
niority as vacancies occur. New car­
riers are taught the procedures for
casing mail. Substitute city carriers
may be assigned to postal-clerk duties
and may sometimes be required to
pass examinations on schemes of city
“primary distribution” (first sorting
by destination). About once a year,
the carrier is checked on how well he
performs his job.
Promotional opportunities for car­
riers are limited. Some carriers in city
delivery service may advance to spe­
cial nonsupervisory jobs such as car­
rier-technician or to jobs as carrier
foreman and route examiner. Such
employees, however, constitute only
a small percentage of the number of
city carriers. Most carriers, there­
fore, can only look forward to pre­
ferred routes as their seniority in­
Employment Outlook

There will be many thousands of
job openings for mail carriers during
the remainder of the 1960’s and
throughout the 1970’s. Many of these
openings will result from the need to
replace carriers who die, retire, or
transfer to other work. Deaths and re­
tirements alone should provide about
4,000 job opportunities annually. Ad­
ditional job openings will result from
an expected moderate increase in
mail carrier employment.
Most job openings will be for city
carriers. Employment of city carriers
is expected to increase moderately as
population continues to grow and
spread out into suburban areas. How­
ever, such innovations as the increas­
ing use of motor vehicles will prob­
ably limit employment growth.
Employment of rural carriers is ex­
pected to show little or no change in
future years. Although new rural
routes will be established to provide
service in areas where fourth-class

post offices are discontinued, many
rural routes near large cities will be
connected to city routes as the suburbs
continue to spread.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Almost all city carriers begin as
substitutes and receive $2.64 an hour.
If their work is satisfactory, they re­
ceive an increase of 8 or 9 cents an
hour each year for the first 6 years,
and an increase of 8 or 9 cents an
hour every 3 years thereafter, up to a
maximum of $3.60 an hour. Regular
city carriers are paid on an annual
basis, beginning at $5,331 and increas­
ing each year by $176 for the first 6
years, and by $176 every 3 years there­
after, up to a maximum of $7,267
after 21 years of service. All city car­
riers receive an allowance for the
postal uniforms they are required to
Rural carriers are paid a salary
based on a combination of fixed an­
nual compensation and the number
of miles in their routes. In addition,
they receive a maintenance allowance
of 12 cents a mile for the use of their
automobiles. A carrier with a 61-mile
route (the average route length in
1966) would receive $5,806 a year in
his first year and $6,862 in his sev­
enth year. The allowance for the use
of his automobile would give him an
additional $7.32 a day.
A substitute rural carrier receives
a base pay for the days he works, and,
in addition, receives the same mileage
compensation and automobile main­
tenance allowance as the regular car­
rier whose route he is covering.
The regular city carrier usually
works an 8-hour day, 5 days a week.
If he works more than 8 hours a day
or 40 hours a week, he is paid at I /2
times his regular rate for the extra
hours worked. A substitute city car­
rier receives overtime pay if he works
more than 40 hours a week. Both reg­
ular and substitute city carriers re­
ceive 10-percent additional pay for
work between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Rural carriers work a 6-day week.

Most carriers begin work very early
in the morning. In some cities, car­
riers with routes in the business dis­
trict report to the post office at 6 a.m.
They work outdoors in the pleasant
spring and fall weather, as well as un­
der the hot summer sun and in the
snow and ice of winter.
The carrier must cover his route
within certain time limits. Otherwise,
he is on his own while delivering the
mail and has the opportunity of meet­
ing different people along his route.
Most carriers have to do a great
deal of walking with a mail bag slung
over the shoulder. Even the carriers
who drive vehicles have to do consid­
erable walking and lift heavy sacks of
parcel post while loading their ve­
hicles. They may also carry heavy
packages in making deliveries to busi­
ness establishments or homes.


(D.O.T. 232.368)

Nature of Work

The great majority of post office
clerks—called distribution clerks—
work behind the scenes and are never
seen by the public. These workers
sort incoming and outgoing mail in
post offices. Other clerks—called win­
dow clerks—serve the public at the
windows in post office lobbies, sell­
ing stamps and money orders and
providing other services. In small
post offices, the same clerks may do
both types of work.
After the carriers collect the mail,
they bring it into the post office work­
room and dump it onto long tables.
Here distribution clerks (and some­
times mail handlers) separate the
mail into parcel post, paper mail, and
letter mail. They then “face” (stamps
down and facing the same direction)
the letter mail and feed it into stamp
canceling machines. (Many large post
offices have machines which can au-



from outside the city to be sorted in
a secondary case. The clerks who sort
local mail must know the streets and
street numbers that are included in
each postal zone, branch, or station.
Mail is sometimes further separated
by sections within postal zones so that
when it arrives at a neighborhood
post office, it is almost ready for im­
mediate delivery by carriers.
Parcel post is sorted in the same
way as letter mail. However, clerks
use chutes, conveyors, slides, tables,
and bags or other containers instead
of letter cases when sorting parcels.
Some distribution clerks separate
mail while traveling in trains or
buses. Other clerks, known as trans­
fer clerks, arrange for the mail to be
moved to and from trains promptly
and at the lowest possible cost.

Distribution clerk (machines) is a
relatively new post office occupation.
Clerks in this occupation are em­
ployed in some of the large post
offices and operate electronic ma­
chines that distribute mail automat­
ically. For example, a clerk using an
electronic sorting machine merely
pushes buttons to direct letters auto­
matically to the proper compart­
ments. These clerks must know
distribution schemes, as do the clerks
who sort mail by hand.
Distribution clerks have to work
quickly because mail must be deliv­
ered as speedily as possible. Accuracy
is also most important because plac­
ing a letter in the wrong compart­
ment of a case will result in delayed
Window clerks weigh letters and

Postal clerk feeds letters into canceling

tomatically “find” and cancel
stamps.) Parcel post and paper mail
are canceled by hand. After the
stamps have been canceled, the mail
is taken to different sections where
other clerks begin a series of sortings
according to destination.
Clerks who process letter mail sep­
arate it into even finer groupings.
They begin by making a “primary
distribution” ( first sorting by destina­
tion) of the letters. The letters are
sorted into a “letter case” (an up­
right box with compartments) which
usually has one or two compartments
for local mail, a number of compart­
ments for groups of distant States, a
compartment for each of the nearby
States, one for each of the largest
cities in the country, etc.
The primary distribution is fol­
lowed by one or more “secondary”
distributions in which the mail from
each compartment in the primary
case is sorted in greater detail. For
example, clerks gather the local mail
from the appropriate compartment
in each primary case and combine it
with the local mail which has come in

Postal workers sort letters rapidly with high speed machines.


parcels and determine the amount of
postage required. They check pack­
ages and envelopes to see if their
sizes, shapes, and condition are ac­
ceptable. They register and insure
mail and sell the postage or collect
the charges required for the service.
Window clerks also sell and cash
money orders, distribute general de­
livery mail and parcels and other
undeliverable mail being held at the
post offices, and rent post office
boxes. They also answer questions on
rates, mailing restrictions, and other
postal matters. Occasionally, a win­
dow clerk will help someone file a
claim for mail that has been dam­
aged. In large post offices, a window
clerk will perform only one or two
of these services. Thus, in these offices
there are such clerks as registry,
stamp, and money order clerks.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Some of the requirements for
entry as a postal clerk are the same
as for any post office job and are dis­
cussed earlier in this chapter. The
written civil service examination and
physical requirements are the same as
for carrier applicants and are dis­
cussed on page 606. A special type
of examination, including a machine
aptitude test, is given to applicants
for the position of distribution clerk
Good health and a good memory
are essential for those who want to
be postal clerks. The work requires
much stretching and lifting, walking
and standing, and throwing of pack­
ages of mail as well as handling of
heavy sacks of mail. Clerks have to
memorize distribution schemes and
many postal rules and regulations.
They also need good eye-hand co­
ordination, and the ability to read
The distribution clerk works closely
with other clerks, frequently under
the tension and strain of meeting
mailing deadlines and should, there­
fore, be even-tempered. The window
clerk is in constant contact with the

public, and considerable tact may be are increasing the amount of mail a
required in his replies to questions clerk can handle.
and complaints.
Most postal clerks begin as sub­
stitutes and become regulars in order Earnings and Working Conditions
of seniority as vacancies occur. New
Most postal clerks are at the same
clerks receive brief instructions in
their duties. They are given a pri­ grade level as city carriers and the
mary scheme to learn and, when they earnings information for clerks is,
have mastered this, they are given therefore, the same as that presented
one or two secondary schemes to on page 605. Clerks working on the
learn. They practice on their own night shift receive 10-percent addi­
time to achieve speed and accuracy. tional pay. Postal clerks who separate
All postal clerks are required period­ mail while traveling in trains or buses
ically to pass scheme examinations receive higher salaries than clerks in
on the work for which they are large post offices, and the clerks in
large post offices receive higher sala­
Promotion opportunities for postal ries than those in the small (thirdclerks are limited. In large post of­ class) post offices.
The working conditions of post of­
fices, there are some special postal
clerk jobs at a higher level, as well fice clerks differ according to the spe­
as some scheme examiner jobs, mail cific work assignment and the amount
dispatch expediter jobs, and foreman and kind of laborsaving machinery in
jobs. Compared with the large num­ the particular post office. Generally,
ber of postal clerk jobs, these “higher distribution clerks work in close con­
level” jobs are relatively few. Most tact with each other and often there
postal clerks, therefore, do not ad­ is a spirit of friendliness and coopera­
vance to a higher level. However, as tion within a group. Much of the
their seniority increases, they may re­ work is routine, however, and may be­
ceive preferred assignments such as come boring unless the clerk accepts
the day shift, or a window clerk job. the challenge of improving his speed
and accuracy. The work is also physi­
cally demanding. The clerk has to do
considerable walking, throwing, and
Employment Outlook
reaching. He is on his feet much of
There will be many thousands of the time and may have to handle
job openings for postal clerks during heavy sacks of mail.
the remainder of the 1960’s and
The work of the window clerk re­
throughout the 1970’s. Most of these quires considerably less physical exer­
openings will result from the need to tion. It is usually more varied, and
replace clerks who retire, die or the window clerk also has the constant
transfer to other fields of work. Deaths contact with the public to keep him
and retirements alone should provide interested. Furthermore, very few
nearly 6,000 job opportunities annu­ window clerks work at night. For
ally. Additional job opportunities will these reasons, the job of the window
result from an expected moderate in­ clerk is generally regarded as a pre­
ferred assignment.
crease in postal clerk employment.
Employment requirements for pos­
tal clerks are expected to increase
mainly as a result of a substantial in­
crease in the volume of mail, arising STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
from increases in population and
business activity. However, employ­
ment is expected to grow at a slower
State and local governments pro­
rate than the volume of mail because vide a very large and growing source
of technological developments which of job opportunities in many different

occupational fields. In 1966, about
8.6 million workers were employed in
State and local government agencies.
Three-fourths of these workers were
with units of local governments, such
as counties, municipalities, towns, and
school districts, and one-fourth were
employed in State government
About 4.4 million employees, or
over half of all State and local govern­
ment workers, were employed in pub­
lic schools, colleges, or other educa­
tional services in 1966.
In addition to more than 2.5 mil­
lion classroom and college teachers,
school systems and colleges and uni­
versities also employ administrative
personnel, librarians, guidance coun­
selors, nurses, dietitians, clerks, and
maintenance workers. Almost 80 per­
cent of employment in the field of
education is in elementary and secon­
dary schools, which are administered
largely by local governments. State
employment in education is concen­
trated chiefly in institutions of higher
The next two largest fields of State
and local government employment in
1966 were in health and hospital
work and highway work. The 860,000
persons employed in health and hospi­
tal work include physicians, nurses,
medical laboratory technicians, and
hospital attendants. About 590,000
workers were employed in highway
activities, such as construction and
maintenance of roads, highways, city
streets, toll turnpikes, bridges, and
tunnels. Among these employees are
civil engineers, surveyors, operators
of construction machinery and equip­
ment, truckdrivers, concrete finishers,
carpenters, and construction laborers.
In 1966, about 540,000 workers
were employed in general and finan­
cial control activities—most of them
at the local level. General and finan­
cial control functions include the ac­
tivities of chief executives and their
staffs and legislative bodies; the ad­
ministration of justice; tax enforce­
ment and other financial work; and
general administrative work. These
functions require the services of in­


dividuals such as lawyers, judges, and
other court officials, city managers,
property assessors, budget analysts,
stenographers, and clerks.
Protective services, such as those
provided by police and fire depart­
ments, is another large field of State
and local government employment.
There were over 410,000 people em­
ployed in police work in 1966, prin­
cipally by local governments. Em­
ployment in police work includes ad­
ministrative, clerical, and custodial
personnel, as well as uniformed and
plainclothes policemen. All of the
250,000 firemen are employed by
local governments, and about a third
of these are part-time employees.
Other State and local government
employees are engaged in a wide va­
riety of fields—local utilities ( such as
water, electricity, transportation, and
gas supply systems) ; natural re­
sources; public welfare; parks and
recreation; sanitation; correction;
local libraries; sewage disposal; and
housing and urban renewal. These
activities require workers in many dif­
ferent occupations such as economist,
electrical engineer, electrician, pipe­
fitter, clerk, forester, and busdriver.
Clerical, administrative, mainte­
nance, and custodial workers con­
stitute a significant proportion of all
employees in many areas of govern­
ment activity. Among the more im­
portant groups of workers engaged in
these occupations are clerk-typists,
stenographers, secretaries, office man­
agers, fiscal and budget administra­
tors, bookkeepers, accountants, car­
penters, painters, plumbers, guards,
and janitors. (Detailed discussions of
most occupations in State and local
governments are given elsewhere in
the Handbook, in the sections cover­
ing the individual occupations.)
Employment Trends and Outlook

The long-range employment trend
in State and local governments has
been steadily upward. (See chart 55.)
Much of this growth has occurred
because of the need to provide serv­

ices for increasing numbers of
younger and older persons, and
because of population movements
from rural to urban areas. City
development has required more
street and highway facilities; police
and fire protection; and public
health, sanitation, welfare, and other
services. Population growth and in­
creasing personal income have gen­
erated demands for more and
improved education, housing, and
hospital and other services provided
by State and local governments.
Much of the increase in State and
local government employment in the
1956-66 decade was due to increased
employment of teachers and other
educational personnel. Expansion in
health and hospital services, highway
programs ,and protective (police and
fire) services also contributed to the
Rapid growth in State and local
government employment is expected
to continue during the remainder of
the 1960’s and through the 1970’s.
Employment of elementary and sec­
ondary school teachers, however, is
expected to increase more slowly than
in the past, as the areas of rapid
school enrollment growth shift to
higher education. This shift will
create greater needs for college and
university teachers and administra­
A larger State and local work
force also will be needed to provide
improved public transportation sys­
tems; more urban planning and re­
newal ,programs; increased police
protection; better measures to guard
against air and water pollution; and
expanded natural resource develop­
ment programs and hospital facilities.
New or recently expanded FederalState programs in education, voca­
tional training, medicine, and other
fields will increase greatly the require­
ments of local and State govern­
ments for professional, administrative,
and technical personnel, such as
engineers, scientists, social workers,
counselors, teachers, doctors, and


In addition to job opportunities
resulting from the expected overall
growth in State and local government
employment, large numbers of em­
ployees will be needed to replace
workers who transfer to other fields
of work, retire, or die.
Most positions in State and local
governments are filled by permanent
residents of the State and locality
where they seek employment. Often,
however, it is necessary for State and
local governments to recruit outside
their areas if shortages of particular
skills exist in their areas.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of State and local gov­
ernment employees vary widely, de­
pending Upon occupation and lo­
cality. Salaries from State to State
tend to reflect differences in the
general wage level in various lo­
calities. Clerical and blue-collar
earnings in State and local govern­

262-057 0 — 68


ments are generally comparable to
those of workers in similar occupa­
tions in private industry. Earnings of
administrative and professional em­
ployees in many areas tend to be
somewhat lower than those for work­
ers in similar occupations in private
The Handbook statements for in­
dividual occupations often give salary
information for State and local gov­
ernment employment. Salary infor­
mation can be obtained also from the
appropriate agency in each State and
A majority of State and local gov­
ernment positions are filled through
some type of formal civil service test,
and personnel are hired and pro­
moted on the basis of merit. In some
areas, broad groups of employees,
such as teachers, firemen, and police­
men have separate civil service cov­
erage which applies only to their
specific groups.
Most State and local government
employees are covered by retirement

systems, or by the Federal Social Se­
curity program. They usually work a
40-hour week; overtime pay or com­
pensatory time benefits often are
granted for hours of work in excess
of the standard workweek.
Where To Go for More Information

People interested in working for
State or local government agencies
should contact the appropriate agen­
cies in the State, county, or city.
Local school boards, city clerks, school
and college counselors or placement
offices, and local offices of State em­
ployment services also will have fur­
ther information.
General information on adminis­
trative careers in government may be
obtained from:
American Society for Public Adminis­
1329 18th St. N W , Washington,
D.C. 20036.


When planning their careers,
young men must take into account
their military service obligation. By
knowing the choices available for ful­
fillment of this obligation, they can
better fit their service period into their
occupational plans. In many in­
stances, the service activities provide
valuable vocational training which is
helpful in obtaining civilian jobs later
on. The Armed Forces also offer
many opportunities to qualified young
men and young women for. lifetime
service careers in many occupations.
The Armed Forces are maintained
through voluntary enlistment, supple­
mented by a Selective Service System
which drafts young men between the
ages of I 8 /2 and 26. A young man
may enlist in any one of a variety of
programs involving different combi­
nations of active service and reserve

duty; or he may wait to be drafted
for a 2 -year period of active duty, fol­
lowed by 4 years in the reserves; or,
if qualified, he may enter one of sev­
eral officer training programs and dis­
charge his obligation in a commis­
sioned status.
Additional choices for fulfilling a
military obligation are available in
reserve programs. One of these
choices allows a young man to fulfill
his military obligation by enlisting in
the reserves for 6 years, at least 4
months of which are spent in active
duty training. These enlistment
choices and the draft, however, are
subject to change at any time by
congressional action. The alternative
choices described here in a general
way serve only to illustrate a few pos­
sibilities. Detailed up-to-date infor­
mation can be obtained from local
Armed Forces recruiting stations or
from publications available at high
schools, colleges, and State employ­
ment service offices.
In early 1967, military personnel
were distributed among the various
services as follows: Army, 1,427,000;
Air Force, 904,000; Navy, 747,000;
Marine Corps, 280,000; and Coast
Guard, 35,000. About half of all en­
listed jobs in the Armed Forces re­
quire special in-service school train­
ing. On-the-job training is given for
the remainder. It is possible for a
young man, during his military serv­
ice, to receive training in electronics,
aircraft maintenance, metalworking,
or other skilled work. (See chart 56.)

In addition to specific on-the-job
training, the Armed Forces provide
military personnel with a wide choice
of voluntary off-duty academic and
technical training programs. Military
personnel may enroll in ( 1 ) the U.S.
Armed Forces Institute (USAFI),
(2) the Resident Center Program,
(3) the Group Study Program, or
(4) the Military Extension Corre­
spondence Course Program. USAFI
offers approximately 200 correspond­
ence courses ranging from elementary
school through the second year of
college. In addition, approximately
6,000 courses are offered by colleges
and universities under contract with
USAFI. In the Resident Center Pro­
gram, civilian institutions offer
courses leading to high school diplo­
mas and college degrees; these
courses may be taken either on the
military installation or on a nearby
campus. The Group Study Program is
offered on military installations where
local civilian classes are not avail­
able. The Military Extension Corre­
spondence Course Program provides
technical courses in military special­
ties which are designed to advance
career capabilities.
Each of the services publishes
handbooks describing entrance re­
quirements, training, advancement,
and other aspects of their career
fields. These publications are avail­
able at all recruiting stations and at
most State employment service of­
fices, high schools, colleges, and pub­
lic libraries.

The long-term growth in the
American economy has created a
growing demand for services of all
kinds. Thus, in addition to the mul­
titude of goods produced and distrib­
uted, a growing share of our national
wealth and manpower is being
devoted to needed services, resulting
in greater emphasis on better medical
care, quality education, and increased
personal and recreational services.
In many ways, the rapid growth in
the importance of the service in­
dustries reflects the country’s aspira­
tions for a better and fuller life for all
of its citizens.
In today’s job market, the service
industries represent an important
source of employment to new as well
as experienced workers and offer job
opportunities to persons with various
levels of skill and with differing de­
grees of training and education.
In 1966, about 19 million workers
were employed in one of the various
service industries. Approximately
one-half were wage and salary work­
ers employed by private firms, 4.9

million were government employees
(mainly in educational and medical
services), and 2.3 million were selfemployed persons. The remainder,
accounting for 2.5 million persons,
were employed in private households.
Educational services, including
public and private elementary and
secondary schools and institutions of
higher education, make up the largest
sector of the service industry’s em­
ployment. In 1966, educational serv­
ices accounted for more than onefourth of the service work force.
Hospitals and other establishments
that provide health services consti­
tute the next largest industry sector,
accounting for roughly 1 of every 5
workers. In both the educational
service and health service industries,
government workers (mainly local
and State) make up a large share of
the work force. Other service indus­
tries employing many workers are
hotels, laundries and other personal
services, private households, business
and repair services, and entertain­
ment services.

The service industries represent a
major source of job opportunities for
women. In 1966, for example, women
made up about three-fifths of the
total employment in the service in­
dustry. Among the various service
industries that make up the broad
industry group, however, their em­
ployment ranged from less than onetenth in automobile and other types
of repair businesses to virtually all of
the workers in private households.
Women workers also accounted for
an especially high proportion of the
total employment in hospitals, medi­
cal and dental offices, educational
services, hotels and establishments
that provide personal services, such
as beauty shops and laundries.
Workers with a wide range of edu­
cation, training, skills and abilities
are employed in the service industries.
In 1966, as shown in the accompany­
ing table, white-collar workers (pro­
fessional, managerial, clerical, and
sales workers) made up more than
one-half of the service industry’s
work force. The service industry em613

ploys the highest proportion of pro­
fessional, technical, and kindred
workers found in any major industry,
accounting for nearly one-third of
total industry employment. By far the
largest concentration of professional
and technical workers is represented
by teachers employed in the educa­
tional services industry. Other major
employers of professional workers are
found in the medical and health serv­
ices industry—where doctors, den­
tists, and nurses make up a large
share of the work force, and profes­
sional services where large numbers
of engineers and architects are em­
ployed. Self-employment is typical for
most of the male professional workers
in the health service industry. By way
of comparison, women in this field—
typified by the case of professional
nurses—are mainly salaried workers.
Clerical workers account for about 1
out of every 7 workers in the service
industry. Most are women who are
employed as stenographers, typists,
and secretaries, and office machine
operators or in general office occupa­
tions. Managers, officials, and propri­
etors, including hospital administra­
tors, make up a relatively small
fraction of total employment in the
service industry.
Service workers represent the larg­
est occupational group and make up
more than one-third of the total in­
dustry employment. The major serv­
ice occupations are private household


worker, practical nurse, hospital at­
tendant, charwoman, janitor, waiter,
waitress, cook, and protective service
Blue-collar workers, mainly skilled
craftsmen and maintenance workers,
account for a relatively small share of
total industry employment—only
about 1 out of every 8 workers. Many
of the craftsmen are employed as me­
chanics and repairmen in automobile
and other repair service industries or
as maintenance workers in hotels,
schools, theaters, and other establish­
ments. Motion picture projectionists
are especially important in the enter­
tainment service industry. Operatives
are employed mainly in laundries,
automobile repair shops, and other
types of repair businesses. Most of the
relatively few laborers in this indus­
try work in auto repair shops, on golf
courses, and in bowling alleys.
Major occupational group


All occupation groups........................
Professional, technical and kin­
dred workers..............................
Managers, officials and proprie­
Clerical and kindred workers...
Sales workers.................................
Craftsmen, foremen, and kin­
dred workers..............................
Operatives and kindred work­
ers .................................................
Service workers.............................


N ote.—Because of rounding, individual items
may not add to total.

Employment in the service industry
is expected to increase rapidly
through the mid-1970’s, rising by
nearly two-fifths over current levels.
Major factors contributing to the
sharp growth in the demand for serv­
ices are expected to stem from popu­
lation growth, expanding business
activity, rising personal incomes, and
the general awareness of the benefits
that educational, health, and other
services can provide. The fastest
growing components of the service in­
dustry will be educational services,
medical health services, and among
firms that provide computer services
and laboratory research facilities.
The necessity for extensive personto-person contact in the performance
of many service functions tends to
limit the impact of technological innovations on employment require­
ments. Although the adoption of
automatic data-processing equipment
may moderate employment growth in
some areas—for example, in account­
ing and bookkeeping services—tech­
nological change is not expected to
influence greatly or limit the demand
for workers in the service industries.
The statement that follows dis­
cusses job opportunities in the hotel
industry. More detailed information
about occupations that cut across
many industries appears elsewhere in
the Handbook. (See index in the back
of the book.)


Throughout the United States,
travelers find hotels and motels ready
to provide them with a “home-awayfrom-home.” More than 700,000 peo­
ple worked in these hotels, motels,
and related businesses in early 1967.
The great majority were employed in
the Nation’s hotels and motor hotels,
located chiefly in urban areas. Of the
remainder, most worked in the large
number of motels and tourist courts
located on the outskirts of large
cities, along major highways, and in
resort areas. A few were employed in
related businesses such as summer
camps and dude ranches. Slightly less
than half of the employees in hotels
and related businesses were women.
Some hotel occupations can be en­
tered with little or no specialized
training. In many kinds of hotel work,
however, the demand for specially
trained people is increasing. Hotels
are complex organizations and need
specialized personnel to direct and
coordinate operations which may in­
volve thousands of guests annually
and millions of dollars of property
and equipment.
This chapter deals with employ­
ment opportunities in hotels, motels,
and related businesses, and includes
separate statements on several hotel
The Hotel Business and Its Workers

Hotels are of three general types—
commercial, residential, and resort.

The vast majority are commercial
hotels which cater chiefly to tran­
sients—that is, travelers seeking a
room for a brief stay. A relatively
small number are residential hotels,
which chiefly accommodate people
for long periods, ranging from a few
months to many years. Others are
resort hotels, which provide lodging
for vacationers. Motor hotels, motels,
and other establishments cater espe­
cially to vacationers and other travel­
ers seeking accommodations for a
short time. Commercial and resi­
dential hotels generally operate the
year round. Although many resort
hotels, motor hotels, and motels are
open for only part of the year—for
example, during the winter season in
Florida, or the summer months in
northern parts of the country—an in­
creasing number are remaining open
the year round.
Hotels range in size from those
which have fewer than 25 rooms and
only a few employees, to some which
have 1,000 or more rooms and many
hundreds of workers. In the past few
years, an increasing number of motor
hotels have been built, some of
which have large staffs. Most motels,
however, are relatively small, includ­
ing a sizable number which are run
by the owners with few, if any, paid
Most hotels have restaurants,
ranging from simple coffee shops to
vast dining rooms, wine cellars, and
elaborate kitchens. Large hotels and
motor hotels also may have banquet
rooms, exhibit halls, and spacious
ballrooms—to accommodate conven­
tions, business meetings, and social
gatherings. Many hotels, especially in
resort areas, have recreational facili­
ties such as swimming pools, boating
facilities, golf courses, and tennis
courts. For the convenience of guests,
hotels may provide information about
interesting places to visit, sell tickets
to theaters and sporting events, and
even call in babysitters. Their facili­
ties often include newsstands, gift
shops, barber and beauty shops,
laundry and valet services, and rail­

road and airline ticket reservation
offices. Although motels and tourist
courts usually offer fewer services
than hotels, the number with restau­
rants, swimming pools, and other
conveniences for guests is steadily
Because of the many services they
offer, hotels need workers in a wide
variety of occupations. One of the
largest groups of hotel employees is
in the housekeeping department.
Many thousands of maids, porters,
housemen, linen room attendants,
and laundry room workers are em­
ployed in “back of the house” jobs—
to make beds, clean rooms and halls,
move furniture, hang draperies, pro­
vide guests with fresh linens and
towels, operate laundry equipment,
and mark and inspect laundered
items. Women are usually employed
for the lighter housekeeping tasks,
whereas men have jobs requiring
more strenuous physical effort, such
as washing walls and arranging fur­
niture. Large hotels and motor hotels
usually employ executive housekeep­
ers to supervise these workers, and
some hotels may also have a special
manager in charge of laundry opera­
In most hotels, a uniformed staff
performs guest services in the lobby.
This staff includes the bellmen who
carry baggage for guests and escort
them to their rooms. Doormen are
also a part of the uniformed staff, as
are elevator operators.
The front office staff work as room
clerks, key clerks, mail clerks, and
information clerks. Their chief duties
are to greet guests, assign rooms, and
furnish information. About half of
the hotel clerical workers are front
office employees. The remainder,
mainly women, are employed in a
variety of office occupations such as
bookkeeper, cashier, telephone oper­
ator, and secretary. These occupa­
tions are discussed elsewhere in the
Hotel managers and their assist­
ants are a relatively small group with
the highly important task of super615

vising operations and making them
profitable. A general manager is in
charge of all hotel operations. Some
general managers have assistants who
are in charge of the frorit office or
help with other phases of hotel man­
agement. Some assistants may be
responsible for specific operations;
for example, food-service managers
who operate the dining rooms and
other eating facilities, or sales man­
agers responsible for attracting more
business to the hotel.
In addition, hotels employ workers
who also are found in other indus­
tries. Among these are accountants,
personnel workers, entertainers, rec­
reation workers, waiters, chefs, and
bartenders. Maintenance workers,
such as carpenters, electricians, sta­
tionary engineers, plumbers, and
painters, also work for hotels. Still
other types of workers employed in
hotels include detectives, barbers,
beauty salon operators, valets, seam­
stresses, and gardeners. Most of these
occupations are discussed elsewhere
in the Handbook.
Employment Outlook

A rapid increase in employment is
likely in this industry during the rest
of the 1960’s and through the 1970’s.
In addition, about 30,000 workers
will be required each year to replace
those who retire or die. Many addi­
tional openings will result from the
need to replace workers who transfer
to positions in other industries.
Most of the anticipated employ­
ment growth in the industry will stem
from the need to staff the new hotels,
motor hotels, and motels being built
in urban areas. Limited expansion
probably will take place in older
hotels that try to meet the challenge
of increasing competition for business
by modernizing their facilities and ex­
panding their services. Hotels that are
unable to modernize their facilities
are likely to experience low occu­
pancy rates and may be forced to re­
duce overhead costs by eliminating
services and workers. Thousands of
temporary jobs will continue to be


available each year in resort hotels,
motels, and other establishments
which are open only part of the year
or have more business in some seasons
than others.
The demand for lodging is ex­
pected to increase through the 1970’s
as the country’s population grows and
travel for business and pleasure in­
creases. Jet air travel, which permits
businessmen and others who travel
frequently to make a trip to a distant
city, complete their business, and re­
turn home the same day, may some­
what limit this increase. Employment
is likely to rise most rapidly in motels,
motor hotels, and other businesses
catering especially to motorists. This
trend has been evident for some time
and will continue, as the Federal
highway building program further
stimulates both automobile travel and
the building of motels and motor
hotels. In motels, most of the addi­
tional employees (not counting new
owners) will be housekeeping and
food-service workers.
Most of the job openings in hotels
will continue to be for workers who
need little specialized training, such
as maids, porters, housemen, kitchen
helpers, and some dining room em­
ployees. These jobs account for a
large proportion of all hotel workers,
and have high turnover rates. When
general employment conditions are
good, people in such jobs find it rela­
tively easy to shift to other kinds of
work. Also many of the workers are
women, who often leave their jobs
to take care of their families. In a
few of these occupations technologi­
cal changes may limit the number of
openings. For example, the increased
use of automatic dishwashers, vege­
table cutters and peelers, and other
mechanical kitchen equipment is
likely to reduce the need for kitchen
A number of people will also be
needed every year in front office jobs,
to replace workers who are promoted
to managerial posts as well as to fill
new jobs in the increasing number of
hotels and motels. People in these oc­
cupations are less subject than many

other workers in the industry to
changes in general economic condi­
tions. In addition, there will be open­
ings for clerical workers, although the
increasing use of office machines may
adversely affect clerical employment
in some hotels. Opportunities are ex­
pected to be favorable for young peo­
ple who acquire the training and
experience necessary to qualify for
jobs as cooks and food managers.
(Food service workers and office
workers are discussed elsewhere in the
Earnings and Working Conditions

The location, size, and type of
hotel affect earnings of hotel workers.
Other significant factors include the
tipping practice for the occupation
and the degree of unionization. More
than one-half of all hotel workers are
now covered by the Fair Labor Stand­
ards Act, a Federal statute which sets
minimum wages. Hotel workers cov­
ered by the law receive at least $1 an
hour. In addition, more than half the
States have their own wage and hour
laws that cover hotel workers among
Salaries of hotel employees in man­
agerial positions have an especially
wide range, mainly because of great
differences in duties and responsi­
bilities. Hotel manager trainees who
are graduates of specialized college
programs start out at salaries rang­
ing from $5,000 to $7,200 and are us­
ually given periodic increases for the
first year or two. Experienced man­
agers may earn several times as much
as beginners; a few, in top jobs, earn
$50,000 or more a year. In addition
to salary, hotels customarily furnish
managers and their families with
lodging in the hotel, meals, parking
facilities, laundry, and other services.
Since earnings of bellmen are
greatly affected by tips, obtaining
meaningful data on their income is
difficult. In large luxury and resort
hotels, bellmen may earn $100 or
more a week (including tips).



The earnings for all nonsupervisory
workers in the hotel industry aver­
aged about $53 a week in 1966. How­
ever, the wage rates of hotel workers
varied greatly from occupation to oc­
cupation according to limited infor­
mation obtained from union-man­
agement contracts in various cities
throughout the United States. For
example, bellmen earned from $30 to
$57 a week depending upon geo­
graphic location, type of hotel, and
whether they worked the day or night
shift. Housemen averaged from $53 to
$80 a week and maids and chamber­
maids earnings ranged from about
$47 to $60 a week. Front office clerks
earned from about $53 a week to $73
a week. In addition to the wage rates
contracted for in these agreements,
some workers such as bellmen, maids,
and housekeepers may receive tips
from hotel or motel guests.
Nonsupervisory employees gener­
ally work a 40-hour week, except in
the South where the scheduled week
is usually 48 hours. For most front
office clerks th,e scheduled workweek
ranges from 40 hours—particularly
common in the Northeast—to 48
hours in practically all southern cities.
In a few cities, the workweek is less
than 40 hours.
Since hotels are open round the
clock, workers may be employed on
any one of three shifts. Usually, more
people are employed during the day
than at night, and additional com­
pensation may be paid for work dur­
ing late hours. Managers and house­
keepers who live in the hotel usually
have regular work schedules, al­
though managers may be called on at
any time.
Waiters and waitresses, cooks, pan­
try workers, dishwashers, and other
kitchen workers commonly receive
free meals; in a few hotels, maids,
elevator operators, and room clerks
also receive free meals. More than
three-fourths of nonsupervisory em­
ployees are covered by paid vacation
provisions, the duration of the vaca­
tion usually being determined by
length of service. Paid holidays—
usually 4 to 6 a year—are provided

for nearly half of the nonsupervisory
hotel employees.
The Hotel & Restaurant Employees
and Bartenders International Union
is the major union in the hotel busi­
ness. Uniformed personnel, such as
bellmen and elevator operators, may
be members of the Building Service
Employees’ International Union.
The degree of unionization, however,
differs sharply from area to area. In
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, New York,
St. Louis, and San Francisco-Oakland, 90 percent or more of nonsuper­
visory employees, except front desk
and office, are in establishments with
union contract agreements. In New
Orleans, Atlanta, and Memphis the
percentage is 20 or below.
Where To Go for More Information

Information on careers in hotel
work may be obtained from:
American Hotel and Motel Associa­
221 West 57th St., New York, N.Y.

Additional information on train­
ing opportunities, and a directory of
schools and colleges offering courses
in the hotel field may be obtained by
writing to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education,
Statler Hall, Cornell University,
Ithaca, N.Y. 14850.

Information on housekeeping in
hotels, including a list of schools offer­
ing courses in housekeeping, may be
obtained from:
National Executive Housekeepers
Association, Inc.,
Business and Professional Building,
Gallipolis, Ohio 45631.

Information on courses relating to
hotel work may be obtained from the
local Director of Vocational Educa­
tion, the Superintendent of Schools
in the local community, or the State
Director of Vocational Education in
the Department of Education in the
State capital.


(D.O.T. 324.138 and .878)

Nature of Work

Bellmen, also called bellboys or
bellhops, carry the baggage of incom­
ing hotel guests while escorting them
to their rooms. The bellman checks
the lights and the supply of towels
and soap, and sees that everything is
in order in the room. He may suggest
the use of various hotel services, in­
cluding the dining room and the valet
service. Bellmen also perform errands
for guests and deliver packages. In
early 1967, more than 25,000 such
workers were employed in the Na­
tion’s lodging places. In large hotels,
special baggage porters are usually
employed to carry baggage for guests
who are checking out. In smaller
hotels, bellmen carry baggage for out­
going as well as incoming guests and
may also relieve the elevator operator
or switchboard operator.
Bell captains are employed in large
and many medium-size hotels to
supervise the bellmen. They assign
work to these employees, keep their
time records, and instruct new bell­
men in their duties. They may also
help guests arrange for transporta­
tion by giving them information on
train and plane schedules and sending
a baggage porter or a bellman to pick

up the transportation tickets. In addi­
tion, they handle complaints from
guests regarding the work of their
department, and take care of requests
for unusual services. At times, bell
captains may also perform the duties
of bellmen.
Superintendents of service—found
in only a few hotels with large service
departments—supervise elevator op­
erators and starters, doormen, and
washroom attendants, as well as bell­
men and bell captains.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

No specific educational require­
ments exist for bellman jobs. Gradua­
tion from high school, however, en­
hances a bellman’s opportunities for
transfer to front office clerical jobs,
and for promotion. (See statement on
Front Office Clerks in this chapter.)
In many hotels, bellman jobs are
filled by promoting elevator opera­
tors. In the service department of the
hotel, the line of promotion is from
bellman to bell captain to superin­
tendent of service. Some of the factors
which may affect a bellman’s chances
for advancement are a favorable work
record showing few complaints by
guests, good work habits, and leader­
ship qualities. Since there is only one
bell captain’s position in each hotel
a number of years may pass before
an opening occurs. Opportunities for
advancement to superintendent of
service are even more limited.
Since bellmen are in frequent con­
tact with the public, it is important
that they be neat, tactful, and courte­
ous. A knowledge of the attractions
and geography of the local commu­
nity is an asset. They must also be
able to stand all day and to carry
heavy baggage.


deaths and retirements. Many addi­
tional openings will also be created as
bellmen transfer to other occupations.
Since many hotels promote from
within by advancing men elevator
operators to bellman jobs, chances for
outsiders to enter year-round jobs as
bellmen will be best in hotels which
employ women as elevator operators,
and in the increasing number of
hotels which have automatic eleva­
tors. Many opportunities for tempo­
rary jobs will also arise in resort hotels
which are open only part of the year
and hire college students and other
young men. Many beginners will also
be needed in small hotels, to replace
experienced bellmen who shift to jobs
in luxury hotels where earnings from
tips may be higher. Competition
among employed bellmen for the rela­
tively few bell captain jobs that will
become available in the future is ex­
pected to remain keen.
The number of bellmen employed
is expected to increase slowly during
the rest of the 1960’s and through
the 1970’s. Some additional jobs will
be created as new hotels and motor
hotels are built and additions are
made to existing hotels. The fast
growing motel business will also' pro­
vide some additional jobs; however,
because of the type of construction
and the emphasis on informality, rela­
tively few motels employ bellmen.
See introductory section to this
chapter for information on Earnings
and Working Conditions, Where To
Go for More Information, and for
additional information on Employ­
ment Outlook.

work related to assigning rooms.
More than 50,000 such workers were
employed in the Nation’s lodging
places in early 1967. By working “up­
front,” they deal directly with the
public and help build an establish­
ment’s reputation for courteous and
efficient service. In small hotels and
in motels, a front office clerk (who
may be the owner) may not only rent
rooms, issue keys, sort mail, and give
information, but also do some book­
keeping and act as cashier. On the
other hand, large hotels usually em­
ploy several front office clerks, who
may be assigned to the following dif­
ferent kinds of jobs.
Room or desk clerks rent the avail­
able rooms. Customarily, they are the
first of the front office clerical staff
to great guests. In assigning rooms,
they must be aware of advance reg­
istrations, consider any preferences
guests may express, and at the same
time try to obtain maximum revenues
for the hotel. Room clerks give infor­
mation about rates and the types of
services available, and see that guests
fill out registration forms properly.
After registration is completed, room
clerks signal bellmen to carry guests’
luggage. Reservation clerks acknowl­
edge room reservations by mail or
telephone, type out registration forms,
and notify the room clerk when guests
are due to arrive. To keep room as­
signment records current, rack clerks
insert or remove forms indicating the


(D.O.T. 242.368)

Employment Outlook
Nature of Work

Nearly a thousand openings for
bellmen are expected each year dur­
Hotels and motels employ front
ing the rest of the 1960’s and through office clerks to greet guests, rent
the 1970’s to take care of growth and rooms, handle mail, and do other

Front office clerks check advance room


time when rooms become occupied or
vacant or when they are closed for
repairs. They also keep housekeepers,
telephone operators, and other per­
sonnel informed about changes in
room occupancy. Other special clerks,
such as key, mail, and information
clerks are employed in some hotels.
In the largest hotels floor supervisors
or floor clerks are assigned to each
floor to handle the distribution of
mail and packages and perform other
incidental duties.
In all but the very largest hotels
and motels, front office clerks may
be responsible for a combination of
these various duties. They may have
other duties as well, particularly
when they work on late evening shifts.
For example, the night room clerk
may perform bookkeeping functions
or assist cashiers with their clerical
Training, Other Qualifications, and

High school graduates who have
some clerical aptitude and the per­
sonal characteristics necessary for
dealing with the public may be hired
for beginning jobs such as mail, in­
formation, or key clerk. Neatness, a
courteous and friendly manner, and
ease in dealing with people are im­
portant personal traits for front office
clerical workers. Typing and book­
keeping courses given in high school
may be helpful, particularly for nightshift work where additional clerical
duties are often performed, or for jobs
in smaller hotels and motels, where
the front office clerks often have a
variety of duties. Although education
beyond high school is generally not
required for front office work, hotel
employers are increasingly attaching
greater importance to college train­
ing in selecting personnel who may
later be advanced to managerial posi­
tions. Front office clerks may improve
their opportunities for promotion by
taking home study courses, such as
those sponsored by the Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association.

Inexperienced workers learn about Go for More Information, and for
the front office routine mainly additional information on Employ­
through on-the-job experience. They ment Outlook.
usually have a brief initial training
period during which their duties are
described and they are given infor­
mation about the hotel, such as the
location of rooms and the types of HOUSEKEEPERS AND ASSISTANTS
services offered. After new employees
(D.O.T. 321.138)
begin working, they receive help
when necessary from the assistant
manager or some experienced front
office worker.
Nature of Work
Front office workers usually start
as key clerks or mail clerks, or in other
Hotel housekeepers are responsible
fairly routine jobs. Occasionally, em­ for keeping the hotels clean and at­
ployees in other types of related tractive. They account for furnish­
work—for example, bellmen or ele­ ings and supplies; hire, train, and
vator operators—may be transferred supervise the maids, linen room and
to front office jobs. Most hotels have laundry workers, housemen, seam­
a promotion-from-within policy for stresses, and repairmen; keep em­
front office workers. A typical line of ployee records; and perform other
promotion might be from key or rack duties which vary with the size and
clerk to room clerk, to assistant front type of the hotel. Those employed in
office manager, and later to front of­ middle-size and small hotels not only
fice manager. (See statement on supervise the cleaning staffs but may
Hotel Managers and Assistants later do some of the maids’ work. In large
in this chapter.)
hotels and smaller luxury-type hotels,
the duties of executive or head house­
keepers are primarily administrative.
Employment Outlook
Besides supervising a staff which may
number in the hundreds, they pre­
Employment in this occupation pare the budget for the housekeeping
will probably increase moderately department; make regular reports to
during the rest of the 1960’s and
through the 1970’s. Many openings the manager on the condition of
will result from the need to replace rooms, needed repairs, and suggested
workers who are promoted to higher improvements; purchase or assist in
level jobs or transfer to other occupa­ purchasing supplies; and have respon­
tions. Some new jobs will become sibility for interior decorating work.
available in cities where new hotels Some executive housekeepers em­
will be built or existing ones ex­ ployed by large hotel chains may have
panded. In addition, new front office special assignments such as reorgan­
jobs will be created in the hundreds izing housekeeping procedures in an
of motels and motor hotels expected established hotel or setting up the
housekeeping department in a new or
to open in the next decade.
A front office clerk has relatively newly acquired hotel.
stable employment. Employment in
In many hotels, executive house­
this occupation does not expand or keepers are assisted by floor house­
contract as sharply with changes in keepers who directly supervise the
general economic conditions as em­ work on one floor or more. Large
ployment in many other hotel occu­ hotels also may employ assistant ex­
ecutive housekeepers. More than
See the introductory section to this 18,000 hotel housekeepers were em­
chapter for information on Earnings ployed in early 1967, most of whom
and Working Conditions, Where To were women.



hotel, many years may pass before an
opening of this kind occurs in a given
hotel. Experienced hotel housekeep­
ers will also find employment oppor­
tunities in hospitals, clubs, college
dormitories, and a variety of welfare
See introduction to this chapter for
information on Earnings and Work­
ing Conditions, Where To Go for
More Information, and for addi­
tional information on Employment


(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and .168)

Nature of Work

Executive housekeeper instructs new employees in bed-making procedures.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Although no specific educational
requirements exist for housekeepers,
most employers prefer applicants who
have at least a high school diploma.
Experience is also an asset in obtain­
ing a hotel housekeeping job.
Specialized training in hotel ad­
ministration, including courses in
housekeeping, was available at sev­
eral colleges in 1966. Some univer­
sities offer short summer courses or
conduct evening classes in coopera­
tion with the National Executive
Housekeepers Association. In addi­
tion, the Educational Institute of the
American Hotel and Motel Associa­
tion also offers housekeeping oriented
courses, for class or individual home
study. The most helpful courses are
those emphasizing housekeeping pro­
cedures, personnel management,
budget preparation, interior decorat­

ing, and the purchase, use, and care
of different types of equipment and
Employment Outlook

More than 1,500 openings for ho­
tel housekeepers and their assistants
are expected annually during the rest
of the 1960’s and through the 1970’s.
Most openings will result from the
need to replace workers who retire or
leave the occupation for other rea­
sons. However, some new positions
for housekeepers also will become
available in newly built hotels and
the growing number of motor hotels
and large luxury motels. In estab­
lished hotels, most openings for house­
keepers and their assistants will be
filled from within by promoting as­
sistant housekeepers and maids. How­
ever, since only one top job as ex­
ecutive housekeeper exists in each

Hotel and motel managers are re­
sponsible for operating their estab­
lishments profitably and at the same
time, providing maximum comfort
for guests. Of the more than 150,000
hotel and motel managers employed
in early 1967, more than 50,000 were
salaried and about 100,000 were
owner-managers. Managers direct
and coordinate the activities of the
front office, kitchen and dining rooms,
and the various hotel departments,
such as housekeeping, accounting,
personnel, purchasing, publicity, and
maintenance. They make decisions
on room rates, establish credit policy,
improve operations, and have final
responsibility for dealing with many
other kinds of problems that arise in
operating their hotels or motels. Like
other managers of business enter­
prises, they may also spend consider­
able time conferring with business
and social groups and participating
in community affairs.
In small hotels, the manager also
may perform much of the front office
clerical work. In the smallest hotels
and in many motels, the owners—
sometimes a husband - and - wife
team—do all the work necessary to
run the business.


M anager helps guest with special problem.

The general manager of a large
hotel may have several assistants who
manage one department or more and
assume general administrative respon­
sibility when the manager is absent.
Because preparing and serving food
is so important in the operation of
most large hotels, a special manager
is usually in charge of this depart­
ment. Managers of large hotels usu­
ally employ a special assistant, known
as a sales manager, whose job it is to
promote maximum use of hotel facili­
ties. The sales manager spends much
time traveling about the country ex­
plaining to various groups the facili­
ties his hotel can offer for meetings,
banquets, and conventions.
Since large hotel chains often cen­
tralize such activities as purchasing
supplies and equipment and plan­
ning employee training programs,
managers of these hotels may have

fewer duties than managers of inde­
pendently owned hotels. Hotel chains
may assign managers on a temporary
basis to help organize work in a newly
acquired hotel, or may transfer them
to established hotels in different States
or in foreign countries.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Since most hotels promote from
within, individuals who have proved
their ability usually in front office
jobs, may be promoted to assistant
manager positions and eventually
to general manager.
Although successful hotel experi­
ence is generally the first considera­
tion in selecting managers, employers
increasingly emphasize a college edu­
cation. Many believe that the best

educational preparation is provided
by the few colleges which offer a
specialized 4-year curriculum in hotel
and restaurant administration. Spe­
cialized courses in hotel work, avail­
able in a few junior colleges, and
study courses given by the Educa­
tional Institute of the American Ho­
tel and Motel Association, are also
In colleges offering a specialized 4year curriculum in hotel manage­
ment, the courses include hotel ad­
ministration, hotel accounting, eco­
nomics, food service management and
catering, and hotel maintenance en­
gineering. Students are encouraged
to spend their summer vacations
working in hotel or restaurant jobs—
for example, as busboys or bellmen,
room clerks, or assistant managers.
The experience gained in these jobs
and the contacts with employers may
enable young people to obtain better
hotel positions after graduation. In
addition, students are encouraged to
study foreign languages and other
subjects of cultural value such as his­
tory, philosophy, and literature.
College graduates who have ma­
jored in hotel administration usually
begin their hotel careers as front office
clerks; after acquiring the necessary
experience, they may advance to top
managerial positions. An increasing
number of employers require some ex­
perience in food operations. Hotel
chains may offer better opportunities
for advancement than independent
hotels, since vacancies may arise in
any hotel of the chain as well as on
the central management staff.
Some large hotel organizations
have established special programs for
management trainees who are college
graduates or for less highly trained
personnel promoted from within.
Such programs consist mainly of onthe-job training assignments in which
the trainee is rotated among jobs in
the various hotel departments. In ad­
dition, some large hotels provide
financial assistance to outstanding
employees for college study.


Employment Outlook

Well-qualified young people will
find favorable opportunities during
the rest of the 1960’s and through the
1970’s to obtain entry positions that
offer the possibility of promotion to
managerial work. Young men appli­
cants who have college degrees in
hotel administration will have an ad­

vantage in seeking such entry posi­
tions and later advancement, if they
have had training in food manage­
ment or can qualify as sales managers.
Many openings for management per­
sonnel will probably result from the
need to fill vacancies resulting from
The number of hotel managers is
expected to increase rapidly over the

long run. New positions will arise as
additional hotels are built, and as the
number of motor hotel and luxury
motels expand.
See the introductory section of this
chapter for information on Earnings
and Working Conditions, Where To
Go for More Information, and for
additional information on Employ­
ment Outlook.

A farmer’s workday may begin
early and end late, but he works for
himself and thus has considerable
flexibility. He does not have to punch
a time clock. If he needs an extra few
minutes to complete a job, he can
take it without imposing on anyone.
If he is cultivating land and it rains,
he may shift to repair work or mar­
keting, catch up on odd jobs, or spend
the time with his family. Modem
transportation and communication,
public utilities, and conventional upto-date household and farming appli­
ances have reduced most differences
that once existed between rural and
urban living. Many people prefer liv­
ing in the country or rural area.
Earlier agriculture was synonymous
with farming, or the growing of crops
and the production of livestock, using
simple tools and methods of produc­
tion. Science and technology have
made agriculture a complex and di­
versified industry including many of

the activities existing outside the farm
Today the typical farmer is a me­
chanic, welder, tractor operator,
bookkeeper, financier, scientist, and
supervisor. He buys items from a va­
riety of dealers. He has many com­
petitors and sells his products in sev­
eral markets at different times.
Significance of Agriculture in the

Only about 6 percent of the total
population now live on farms, com­
pared with 23 percent in 1940. Five
percent of the total civilian labor
force is employed on farms. Whereas
one farmworker produced enough
food and fiber for himself and only
10 other people three decades ago,
today he can produce enough food
for himself and 38 others.
Although the number of farm­

workers has declined, the number of
people who work in jobs closely re­
lated to agriculture has been grow­
ing. These include the workers in feed
mills, fertilizer plants, farm machin­
ery industries, farm marketing and
farm supply stores, food processing
plants, and many other businesses
that process, distribute, or transport
farm products and farm supplies. The
total number of trained persons
needed to carry on this whole com­
plex of activities on and off the
farm—often called “Agri-Business”—
is rising. The nonfarm sector of agri­
culture consists of (1) firms manu­
facturing and distributing equipment
and supplies used in farm production;
(2) processing and marketing estab­
lishments that convert and distribute
farm produces in the form, place, and
time needed for consumption, and
(3) organizations providing sendees
to the farmer directly or to agricul­
ture in general.

Size of Farm Operations


The typical farm of today is much
larger and more highly mechanized
than the farm of 25 years ago, and
consequently requires much more
capital and many farming skills to
own and operate. The standard of
living of American farmers today is
higher than ever before. Opportuni­
ties for the small farmer, however,
have become very limited.
Investment per Worker on Farms

Since before World War II, agri­
culture in the United States has in­
creased greatly in the value of produc­
tive assets relative to the number of
workers, resulting mostly from the
higher cost of land and equipment
and the substitution of machinery for
labor. Capital investment in land,
farm buildings, livestock, machinery,
equipment, and other items amounted
to about $36,000 per farmworker in
1966, compared with less than $3,500
in 1940; the investment in farm ma­
chinery and equipment alone has in­
creased tenfold. Technological prog­
ress has brought the farmer many
new laborsaving devices and produc­
tion-expanding aids.

Many farms in the United States
are too small to provide an adequate
income. In 1964, about 69 percent
of all farms were classified as com­
mercial (those providing the farmer
with his major source of income).
Fewer than 45 percent of all farms
reported sales of $5,000 or more. The
trend toward fewer and larger farms
means that more managerial skills,
capital, and mechanical equipment
are needed.
Farm Employment Outlook

Because of current trends on the
farm, openings for new workers dur­
ing the remainder of the 1960’s and
over the next decade will be fewer
than the number of workers who die,
retire, or leave the farm for other rea­
sons. From 1954 to 1964, an estimated
1.2 million operators left commercial
farms, and farmworkers declined by
1.8 million. This trend is likely to
continue for some years. Since the
number of young men growing up
on farms and living in rural commu­
nities is declining, there will be some
opportunity for those possessing farm
skills and backgrounds. Though find­
ing skilled and interested farmwork­
ers is difficult, employment opportu­
nities will not improve significantly
for most hired farmhands.
Agriculture cannot expect the same
increase in per capita consumption of
its products as can many other seg­
ments of the economy. Expansion of
domestic markets will depend mainly
on population growth. Although ex­
ports of farm products are expected
to continue at relatively high levels,
farming nevertheless will continue to
be highly competitive because of the
rapid advances in technology, faster
communication and transportation,
and better informed producers and
consumers. Agriculture in the under­
developed countries will improve, and
they will depend less on our exports.

Training Opportunities Available
for Farming

The best initial training for farm­
ing is to grow up on a farm. The
necessary experience also may be
gained by working as a closely super­
vised tenant or hired worker on a
successful farm.
Several types of vocational train­
ing are available under the federally
assisted program of vocational educa­
tion, including the teaching of agri­
culture in high school. Training may
be given in the following:
1. All-day programs supervised by
teachers who are agricultural college
2. Young farmer programs consisting
of short courses during the day, includ­
ing intensive training in farm planning,
farm layout, farm structures, construction,
welding and related shop and repair work,
plant breeding, pest control, growing
broilers and breeding cattle, swine, sheep,
and other aspects of farming.
3. Adult farmer programs in evening
classes (or day classes in off-seasons) give
intensive training in conservation, crop
and livestock production, and special
problems, such as control of pests and
planning adjustments in land use and

The most significant general sources
of information and guidance avail­
able to farmers are the services pro­
vided by the land-grant colleges and
universities and the U.S. Department
of Agriculture. These include the fa­
cilities of State and Federal experi­
ment stations, the Cooperative Exten­
sion Services, and resident teaching.
The county agricultural agent is often
the best contact for the young person
seeking advice and assistance in farm­
ing. The Farmers Home Administra­
tion system of supervised credit is one
example of credit facilities combined
with a form of extension teaching.
Organized groups, such as the Future
Farmers of America and the 4-H
Clubs, also furnish valuable training
to young farm people.


income or opportunity to improve his
status without major changes. On
most of the farms, the major part of
the work is done by the farm operator
and his family. Whereas, some of the
smaller farms hire workers only dur­
ing the peak labor season, large ones
often use hired labor year-round.
The figures in the table on capital
invested mean that, the operator
controls or uses resources valued at
that amount. Many farmers supple­
ment their own capital with borrowed
funds; others rent part or all of the
land they use, thus allowing more of
their funds for the purchase of live­
stock, machinery, and equipment.
Still others have partners who provide
most of the working capital. For ex­
ample, many farmers raise broilers
in partnership with a feed dealer.
No brief general statement about
specialization versus diversification in
farm operations that would apply in
all parts of the country can be made.
The general trend is for more special­
ized farming. Farms that produced
many products a generation ago now
may produce only two or three. Ef­
ficient production of most farm prod­
ucts requires a substantial investment
in specialized equipment. If the farm
operator is to receive the full benefit
from his investment, he must produce
on a large scale. Two other factors
contributing to specialization are the
greater emphasis on quality of farm
products and the increased knowl­
edge and skill required for effective
production of each. Few farmers,
however, find it advantageous to pro­
duce only one product. The main
reasons are the spreading of price
and production risks, the more effec­
tive use of labor, particularly family
labor, and the inefficient utilization
of other resources in a one-product

Although the number of openings
in fanning is decreasing, desirable
and rewarding openings occur from
time to time. The decision to enter
farming may be made simply because
an opening exists on the family farm
or on one nearby. To be successful,
a young man should carefully ap­
praise the requirements in specific
types of farm operations, and the
prospects for success in them, taking
into consideration his aptitudes,
interests, preferences, experience,
knowledge, and skills in directing
labor and handling livestock and ma­
chinery. He must take into account
also his family labor supply and his
financial resources, as the labor and
capital requirements for an operation
of adequate size vary widely from one
type of farm to another.
A realistic decision to go into farm­
ing can be made only in terms of a
particular type (or types) of farming
in a particular area or community.
This section evaluates from an oc­
cupational standpoint some of the
more common farm types. The ac­
companying table gives illustrative
data on size of farm, labor and capi­
tal requirements, and net farm in­
comes received by operators of typi­
Dairy Farms
cal or representative farms in various
parts of the country. Many farms are
Dairy farms are located in most
larger than these and offer more re­ parts of the country. Despite modem
turn than is shown here. Some are methods of processing and transport­
smaller and offer the operator little ing milk, dairy production is still con­

centrated near the large population
centers, particularly in the Northeast
and the Great Lakes States. How­
ever, many areas in the Far West and
the South also are becoming large
producers of dairy products. Al­
though many of these are “drylot”
operations, on dairy farms in the
Lake States and to a lesser extent in
the Northeast, crops are important,
causing peak labor loads, especially
at harvesttime. However, there is
plenty of work throughout the year
on dairy farms, so that effective use
can be made of labor, and a regular
force can be kept fully occupied most
of the time.
Although most people do not like
to be “tied down” 7 days a week,
this obstacle presents no great hard­
ship for the man who enjoys working
with animals. Dairying is also a good
choice for the man who likes to work
with mechanical equipment. As many
dairy farmers still produce much of
their feed, the work varies enough
to prevent monotony.
The dairyman’s sales and income
are evenly distributed throughout the
year. Moreover, the prices he receives
are less subject to year-to-year fluctua­
tions than some other types of farm­
ing. The accompanying table shows
the average net farm income on
dairy farms in the Central Northeast
and Midwest for 1963 to 1965.
Compared with farmers in most
other areas, dairy farmers in the more
concentrated milksheds of the North­
east (such as the dairy farms in the
Central Northeast shown in the
table) frequently milk larger herds,
purchase a larger proportion of their
feed, and buy rather than raise their
herd replacements. Exceptions are
the specialized dairy farms on the
Pacific Coast and a few other isolated
areas. In the most highly specialized
producing area near Los Angeles,
dairy farms are quite small in acreage
but large in milk production and
number of cows milked. No crops are
produced; these dairy operators buy
their entire feed requirements from
outside the area. Most of the cows

are bought at freshening time and
are replaced when their lactation
period is completed.
Net farm income represents the re­
turn to the farm operator and his
family for their labor and the capi­
tal invested in the farm business—
provided the operator owns his land
and is free from debt. If he rents
part or all of his farm, not all of net
farm income is available for family


stock and mechanical equipment.
Many farmers consider general live­
stock farms—such as the hog-fatten­
ing beef-raising farms, and hog-beef
fattening farms of the Com Belt—an
advantage because they require fewer
chores than dairy farms. (See table.)
Livestock Farms and Ranches
Although livestock producers often
A general livestock farm is a good work shorter hours than dairymen,
choice for the farmer who is inter­ during the slack season they cannot
ested and skilled in working with live­ always use effectively the regular

living; part of it must be used for
rent. Similarly, the farmer who is
in debt must deduct interest and

Size of Farm, Labor Used, Capital Invested, and Net Farm Income on Commercial Farms, By Type, Size, and Location, 1963-65 Average
Type of farm and location

Dairy farms:
Central Northeast.................................................
Eastern Wisconsin:
Grade A ................................................................
Grade B ................................................................
Western Wisconsin, Grade B .............................
Dairy-hog farms, Southeastern Minnesota........
Egg-producing farms, New Jersey.......................
Broiler farms:
M aine.........................................................................
Com Belt farms:
Hog fattening—beef raising................................
Hog-beef fattening.................................................
Cash grain...............................................................
Cotton farms:
Southern Piedm ont..............................................
Mississippi Delta:
Small ....................................................................
Black Prairie.......................................................
High Plains (nonirrigated).............................
High Plains (irrigated)....................................
San Joaquin Valley, Calif, (irrigated):
Cotton-specialty crop.......................................
Cotton-general crop (medium size).............
Cotton-general crop (large).............................
Peanut-cotton farms, Southern Coastal Plains.
Tobacco farms:
North Carolina Coastal Plain:
Kentucky Bluegrass:
Tobacco-livestock, inner area........................
Tobacco-dairy, intermediate area.................
Tobacco-dairy, outer area...............................
Pennyroyal, Kentucky-Tennessee:
Spring wheat farms:
Northern Plains:
Wheat-small grain-livestock...........................
Winter wheat farms:
Southern Plains:
Wheat-grain sorghum........................................
Pacific Northwest:
Cattle ranches:
Northern Plains.....................................................
Intermountain Region........................................
Sheep ranches:
Northern Plains.....................................................
U tah-Nevada.........................................................

Size of farms, in 1965 as
measured by—

1 4 9 ,0 7 0
0 3 310,250
0 3 307,980
0 4 1,057,730


• 460











33.5 milk cows........................
34.2 milk cows........................
22.4 milk cows........................
25.4 milk cow s........................
22.6 milk cow s........................
5,200 layers...............................
72,802 produced annually...
59,376 produced annually...
63,630 produced annually...
32,594 produced annually...
130 acres of cropland............
145 acres of cropland.............
198 acres of cropland.............
277 acres of cropland.............
107 acres of cropland.............
40 acres of cropland...............
640 acres of cropland.............
248 acres of cropland.............
480 acres of cropland............
427 acres of cropland.............
340 acres of cropland.............
340 acres of cropland.............
1,196 acres of cropland.........
72 acres of cropland...............





48 acres of cropland...............
54 acres of cropland..............
63 acres of cropland...............
25 acres of cropland...............
43 acres of cropland...............
240 acres of cropland.............
179 acres of cropland............





605 acres of cropland............
411 acres of cropland.............
670 acres of cropland.............




625 acres of cropland.............
700 acres of cropland.............
555 acres of cropland...........
1,088 acres of cropland.........
110.5 cows.................................
154.6 cows.................................
150.6 cows.................................
1,323 sheep...............................
2,208 sheep...............................
1,250 sheep...............................




1 The information presented here is on an owner-operator basis primarily for
comparability between types of ranches. N et ranch income to operator and
unpaid members of the family for labor and management on the ranch and return
to total capital. N o allowance has been made for rent, interest, or mortgage.
2 Includes $24,010 cost of irrigation system.

Capital invested in—
Total farm N et Harm
Land Machinery
and Livestock Crops capital income
(hours) buildings equip­

3 Includes $20,100 cost of irrigation system.
4 Includes $48,540 cost of irrigation system.
N ote.—Prepared in the Farm Production Economic Division, Economic
Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


labor force. This may not present
particularly great problems when a
larger part of the labor force consists
of young people of school age. The
busiest times come when these work­
ers are out of school.
The livestock farmer’s income is
not as well distributed throughout the
year as the dairyman’s and it is less
likely to be uniform from year to year.
Financial management problems re­
sult, increasing the risks of operation.
Moreover, on farms of limited acre­
ages—often found in the Eastern
States—the level of income from gen­
eral livestock is usually lower than
from a dairy herd on similar acreage.
Most hog producers have their own
breeding stock and raise the pigs they
fatten for market. Cattle and sheep
present a different situation. Most of
the cattle and sheep fattened and
marketed by the livestock farmer are
bred and raised originally by someone
else—usually the livestock rancher of
the West. The accompanying table
includes data for six types of Western
livestock operations: Northern Plains
sheep and cattle ranches, Intermoun­
tain cattle ranches, sheep ranches in
Utah and Nevada, and sheep and cat­
tle ranches in the Southwest. In these
areas of low rainfall, the main source
of feed is range grass, and several
acres are required to support one ani­
mal. Except where irrigation is avail­
able, few feed crops are harvested.
Some ranchers, particularly those in
the Intermountain region and the
Northern Plains, own only a small
part of the land on which they graze
their livestock. Most of the land on
which they buy grazing rights is pub­
lic. Large acreages are required to
provide enough pasture for their
stock, so the ranchers spend much
time in the saddle, truck, or jeep,
managing their herds.
Poultry Farms

Most farmers in the United States
raise some poultry, but in 1964 fewer
than 3.8 percent of them were classi­
fied as poultry farmers. Many poultry
farms concentrate on egg production;
262-057 O— 68-----41

most of the larger and more special­
ized of these farms are in the North­
east and in California. Others pro­
duce broilers; many highly concen­
trated centers of broiler* production
are east of the Mississippi River and
a few are on the West Coast. Turkey
producers also are specialized. A con­
centration of specialized producers of
ducks are in Suffolk County, Long
Island, New York.
A few poultrymen produce some
crops for sale and purchase special
poultry feeds and laying mash. Crops
are not grown by most specialized
poultry producers, particularly those
who produce broilers or large laying
flocks. Commercial poultry farmers in
New Jersey, for example, buy all their
feed. The typical broiler producer in
Maine, the Delmarva (Delaware,
Maryland, Virginia) peninsula, and
Georgia devotes almost all of his capi­
tal and labor to the production of
Poultry farming requires special­
ized skill in handling birds, chiefly on
the part of the operator. Bulk han­
dling of feed and mechanical feeding
is widespread and requires little physi­
cal strength. For these reasons, poul­
try farms can use available family
Data on average capital investment
and net farm income for representa­
tive egg producers in New Jersey and
broiler operators in Maine, Del­
marva, and Georgia from 1963 to
1965 are given in the table. These
averages do not reveal the sharp yearto-year fluctuations in income that
occur. Because they have a high pro­
portion of cash costs and a thin mar­
gin of profit, relatively small changes
in feed, broiler, and egg prices can
produce sizable fluctuations in net
farm income.
The incomes of most broiler pro­
ducers, however, are more stable be­
cause of the high proportion of broiler
growers who produce “under con­
tract.” Contract production is more
widespread in broiler production than
in any other major type of farming.
Under these arrangements, the fi­
nancing agency (usually a feed

dealer) furnishes the feed, chicks, and
technical supervision—almost every­
thing except the buildings, equip­
ment, and direct production labor.
The grower receives a stipulated
amount for each bird marketed, and
often a bonus for superior efficiency.
Many turkey producers operate under
similar contracts, but these arrange­
ments are not nearly so universal for
the production of turkeys as for
Corn and Wheat Farms

For the man who likes working
with crops and farm machinery, cash
grain, corn, and wheat farming have
much to offer. Many farmers dislike
year-round association with livestock
and chores. They prefer instead to
work long hours using laborsaving
equipment during the busy seasons,
and then having more freedom when
the rush times end.
The table shows the investment re­
quired and the recent income experi­
ence of some representative cash grain
farms. Farms of this type include cash
grain farms in the Corn Belt, spring
wheat farms in the Northern Plains,
winter wheat farms in the Southern
Plains, and wheat-pea and wheat-fal­
low farms in the Pacific Northwest.
Some of these farmers—particularly
in the Northern Plains—raise some
beef cattle for sale as feeders and keep
a few milk cows. However, this live­
stock production is usually of sec­
ondary importance. Many of these
farmers do not raise any livestock.
One of the main risks faced by the
commercial wheat grower is the un­
certainty of favorable weather. Gov­
ernment programs have taken out
much of the price risk in wheat
Cotton, Tobacco, and Peanut Farms

In terms of numbers of farmers, the
production of cotton, tobacco, and
peanuts makes up a large part of the
agriculture in the Southeastern and
South Central States. These products

are grown on farms that range from
very small operating units to com­
paratively large ones. Competition
among these growers has been keen,
and many have been forced to di­
versify and enlarge their farms—ad­
justments which require expenditures
of capital. Industrial expansion in the
South and competition from cotton
growers in the irrigated areas of the
West and Southwest have forced
many farmers in the Southeast to dis­
continue cotton growing. Some of
them have stopped farming, and some
have diversified their operations.
Competition will continue in the
growing of cotton, tobacco, and
Crop Specialty Farms

Many farmers throughout the
country have special background,
skills, resources, and other advantages,
chiefly because of location and home
training. They may specialize in pro­
duction of a single crop—such as
grapes, oranges, potatoes, sugarcane,
or melons—or a combination of, re­
lated specialty crops.
Operators of these enterprises
usually employ many seasonal workers
and require relatively expensive spe­
cialized equipment. They also need
specific skills, many of which can be
obtained only through experience.
Enterprises of this kind should be
undertaken only by persons with con­
siderable experience and some of the
special skills and techniques required.
An individual having an aptitude for
these skills can usually learn them by
working a few years as a laborer for
an operator or as a tenant for a land­


lord who can give direction and
Annual returns from these special­
ty farms usually vary greatly from
year to year* because of the vagaries
of nature and the changes in prices.
Operators of these farms must keep
abreast of production and market­
ing conditions and are well rewarded
for their ability to manage, produce,
and market.
Private Outdoor Recreation Farms

Public demand for outdoor recrea­
tion is far in excess of the existing and
projected supply of public facilities.
The public sector is not flexible
enough to supply the specialized types
of recreation or services demanded by
smaller groups. The privately owned
outdoor recreation enterprise, par­
ticularly the farm-base type, is in a
unique position to supply these types
of recreation services and activities
to the public.
The 1964 Census of Agriculture re­
ported over 3 million farms in the
United States. Of this total, about
28,000 earned money from some type
of recreation activity.
Many farm operators in the vicini­
ty of national, State, and local parks,
or wildlife reservations have taken
advantage of the location in estab­
lishing recreation businesses. The av­
erage amount received from this ac­
tivity was about $1,500 per farm
These farmers sell hunting rights
to individuals, form hunting clubs,
establish private campgrounds, and
take the overflow from public camp­
grounds or cater to the individuals
who want more privacy with their

camping. Vacation farms cater to
family groups during the summer and
take in hunters later during the year
when children are in school. Many
farmers enlarge and improve their
irrigation reservoirs. They stock
ponds for fishing and have swimming
areas in the summer and skating areas
in the winter. Old farm buildings,
sheds, and bams are converted into
riding stables or horse boarding sta­
bles, or a combination of both. Shore
and backwater areas are used to dock
privately owned craft. In so doing,
many farmers have converted a lia­
bility into an asset. Farmers become
guides for hunters during the game
season and mechanics and service en­
gineers for watercraft. Guides are
also in demand for nature trails and
scenic tours.
Other Specialties

j Other highly specialized operat­
ions, such as fur farms, apiaries, and
hop farms are very sensitive to price
and market conditions. Special land
skills and equipment are required,
and risks are high. Even with the
high risk, from the standpoint of capi­
tal invested and income, the venture
is often rewarding to individuals who
have the ability and resources.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information may be ob­
tained from the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.G.
20250; the Department of Com­
merce, Washington, D.G. 20230; and
from State Land Grant Colleges and


As agriculture becomes more tech­
nical and more commercial, the num­
ber of people directly engaged in
farming decreases, but the number
in occupations related to agriculture
increases. Power machinery, for ex­
ample, saves many man-hours of la­
bor on the farm, but many highly
trained nonfarmworkers are required
to develop, distribute, and service
these machines.
Technological changes have been
applied to the production, process­
ing, and marketing of farm products
and have brought about diversifica­
tion and specialization in the farm
and agri-business sectors. This has re­
sulted in an increased demand for
people in occupations related to ag­
riculture. A large number of these
vocations are professional or techni­
cal and require college training or its
equivalent. Others can sometimes be
learned on the job. A farm back­
ground is helpful, but not essential.
Following is a discussion of some of
these occupations.

culture, home economics, youth ac­
tivities, and community resource de­
velopment. They are employed joint­
ly by State land-grant universities
and the U.S. Department of Agri­
culture. Extension workers must be
proficient in both subject matter and
teaching methods.
County agricultural agents are in­
terested in improving the efficiency
of agricultural production and mar­
keting, including the development of
new market outlets. County home
economics agents work closely with
women in home management and nu­
trition. There are 4— extension
agents who work with youth. In some
counties special agents concentrate on
community resource development.
Extension workers help people ana­
lyze and solve their farm and home
problems. Much of this educational
work is carried on in groups, through
meetings, tours, demonstrations, and
local voluntary leaders. Individual
assistance is given on problems that
cannot be solved satisfactorily by
group methods. Extension workers
rely heavily on mass communication
media, such as newspapers, radio, and
The county extension staff is sup­
ported by State extension specialists
in such subject-matter fields as agron­
omy, livestock, marketing, agricul­
tural economics, home economics,
horticulture, and entomology. Each
of these specialists keeps abreast of
the latest research in his particular
field and works with agents in apply­
ing this information to local needs
and problems.
Where Employed

duction, crop production, or live­
Training and Other Qualifications

A county agent must have a bache­
lor’s degree in agriculture or home
economics. In most States, the Exten­
sion Service maintains an in-service
training program to keep agents in­
formed of the latest developments in
agricultural research, of new pro­
grams and policies that affect agricul­
ture, and of new teaching techniques.
To be successful, extension workers
must like to work with people.
In most instances, specialists on the
State staff are expected to have a
master’s degree and special training
in their particular lines of work.
Employment Outlook

Employment of Extension Service
workers has grown to 15,000 in 1967.
The demand for additional workers is
expected to continue, especially in
depressed rural areas. As agricultural
technology becomes more compli­
cated and as farm people become
more aware of the need for organized
activity, more help is being sought
from trained Extension Service per­
sonnel. The Extension Service also is
being extended to new segments of
the population, as rural nonfarm
families and suburban residents recog­
nize the value of their assistance.
Counterparts of the Cooperative
Extension Service are being estab­
lished in many countries and Exten­
sion Service personnel are often re­
cruited to help initiate and organize
these programs.

Extension agents are located in
nearly every county in the United Earnings and Working Conditions
States. Counties having many farm­
The salaries of extension agents
ers who produce a variety of crops
Nature of Work
may have as many as 10 agents or vary from State to State and county to
Extension Service workers are en­ more, each specializing in a particular county. In 1966, starting salaries for
gaged in educational work in agri­ field such as dairying, poultry pro­ assistant agricultural agents ranged
(D.O.T. 096.128)


from $5,600 to $7,500 and averaged
$6,200. That of home economics
agents was approximately $5,800.
Ordinarily, the assistant agent is
promoted rapidly to a more respon­
sible job, either in the county where
he works or in another county in the
State. In 1966, salaries for experi­
enced agricultural agents ranged from
$9,500 to $15,500. Salaries of experi­
enced home economics agents ranged
from $7,200 to $12,000 annually. Ex­
tension specialists salaries averaged
$10,000 to $12,000; some earned
around $20,000.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information may be ob­
tained from County Extension Of­
fices, State Director of Extension
located at each State College of Agri­
culture, or the Federal Extension
Service, U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture, Washington, D.C. 20250. (Also
see statement on Home Economists.)

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of Work

Soil scientists study the physical,
chemical, and biological characteris­
tics and behavior of soils. They
investigate the soils both in the field
and the laboratory and grade them
according to a national system of soil
classification. From their research,
scientists can classify soils in terms
of response to management practices
and capability for producing crops,
grasses, and trees, as well as their
utility as engineering materials. Soil
scientists prepare maps, usually based
on aerial photographs, on which they
plot the individual kinds of soil and
other landscape features significant
to soil use and management in rela­
tion to land lines, field boundaries,
roads, and other conspicuous fea­
Soil scientists also conduct research
to determine the physical and chem­


ical properties of soils and their water
relationships, in order to understand
their behavior and origin. They pre­
dict the yields of cultivated crops,
grasses, and trees, under alternative
combinations of management prac­
Soil science offers opportunities for
those who wish to specialize in soil
classification and mapping, soil
geography, soil chemistry, soil phys­
ics, soil microbiology, and soil
management. Training and experi­
ence in soil science also will prepare
persons for positions as farm man­
agers, land appraisers, and many
other professional positions.
Where Employed

Most soil scientists are employed
by agencies of the Federal Govern­
ment, State experiment stations, and
colleges of agriculture. However,
many are employed in a wide range
of other public and private institu­
tions, including fertilizer companies,
private research laboratories, insur­
ance companies, banks and other
lending agencies, real estate firms,
land appraisal boards, State highway
departments, State and city park
departments, State conservation de­
partments, and farm management
agencies. A few are independent con­
sultants and others work for con­
sulting firms. An increasing number
are employed in foreign countries as
research leaders, consultants, and
agricultural managers.

with the doctor’s degree—can be
expected to advance rapidly into a
responsible and high paying position.
This is particularly true in soil re­
search, including the more responsi­
ble positions in soil classification, and
in teaching. Soil scientists who are
qualified for work with both field and
laboratory data have a special advan­
Many colleges and universities
offer fellowships and assistantships
for graduate training, or employ
graduate students for part-time
teaching or research.
Employment Outlook

Opportunities for well-trained soil
scientists are expected to be favorable
through the mid—
1970’s. A number
of positions were vacant in early 1967
because of the shortage of qualified
The demand is increasing for soil
scientists to help complete the scien­
tific classification and evaluation of
the soil resources in the United States.
One of the major program objectives
of the Soil Conservation Service of
the U.S. Department of Agriculture
is to complete the soil survey of all
rural lands in the United States. This
program includes research, soil classi­
fication and correlation, interpreta­
tion of results for use by agriculturists
and engineers, and training of other
workers to use these results. Also,
demand is increasing for both basic
and applied research to increase the
efficiency of soil use.

Training and Advancement

Training in a college or university
of recognized standing is important
in obtaining employment as a soil
scientist. For Federal employment,
the minimum qualification for en­
trance is a B.S. degree with major
study in Soil Science, or a closely
related field of study, having 30
semester hours of course work in the
biological, physical, and earth
sciences including a minimum of 15
semester hours in soils. Those with
graduate training—especially those


The incomes of soil scientists
depend upon their education, profes­
sional experience, and individual
abilities. The entrance salary in the
Federal service for graduates holding
a B.S. degree was $5,300 in early
1967. They may expect advancement
to $6,400 after 1 year of satisfactory
performance. Further promotion
depends upon the individual’s ability
to do high-quality work and to accept
responsibility. Earnings of well-

turns from, various alternatives of tion, some openings will arise because
land use and treatment.
of the normal turnover in personnel.
After the landowner or operator
decides upon a conservation program
that provides for the land to be used
within its capability and treated ac­
In early 1967, soil conservationists
cording to the planned use, the con­
having a bachelor’s degree and em­
servationist records the relevant facts
as part of a plan which, together with receivedby the FederalAdvancement
$5,300 a year.
the maps and other supplemental in­
formation, constitute a plan of action to $6,400 could be expected after 1
for conservation farming or ranching. year of satisfactory service. Further
advancement depends upon
The soil conservationist then gives the dividual’s ability to accept the in­
land manager technical guidance in responsibility. Earnings of well-quali­
applying and maintaining the conser­ fied Federal soil conservationists with
vation practices.
several years’ experience range from
$9,200 to $15,100 a year.


qualified Federal soil scientists with
several years’ experience range from
about $9,200 to $15,100 per year.
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information may be ob­
tained from the U.S. Civil Service
Commission, Washington, D.C.
20415; Office of Personnel, U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250; or any office of the De­
partment’s Soil Conservation Service.
Also see statements on Chemists
and Biologists.

Where Employed

Most soil conservationists are em­
ployed by the Federal Government,
mainly by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Serv­
Nature of Work
ice and the Bureau of Indian Affairs
in the Department of the Interior.
Soil conservationists supply farm­ Some are employed by colleges and
ers, ranchers, and others with tech­ State and local governments; others
nical assistance in planning, applying, work for banks and public utilities.
and maintaining measures and struc­
tural improvements for soil and water
conservation on individual holdings,
Training and Advancement
groups of holdings, or on watersheds.
Farmers and other land managers use A Bachelor of Science degree and a
this technical assistance in making ad­ major in soil conservation or a related
justments in land use; protecting land agricultural science constitute the
against soil deterioration; rebuilding minimum requirement for profes­
eroded and depleted soils; stabilizing sional soil conservationists. Those
runoff and sediment-producing areas; with unusual aptitude in the various
improving cover on crop, forest, phases of the work have good chances
pasture, range, and wildlife lands; of advancement to higher salaried
conserving water for farm and ranch technical and administrative jobs.
use and reducing damage from flood
water and sediment; and in draining
Employment Outlook
or irrigating farms or ranches.
The types of technical services pro­ Employment opportunities for wellvided by soil conservationists are as
follows: Maps presenting inventories trained soil conservationists were good
of soil, water, vegetation, and other in 1966. Opportunities in the profes­
details essential in conservation plan­ sion will expand because government
ning and application; information on agencies, public utility companies,
the proper land utilization and the banks, and other organizations are
treatment suitable for the planned use becoming interested in conservation
of each field or part of the farm or and are adding conservationists to
ranch, groups of farms or ranches, or their staffs. Other new openings will
entire watersheds; and estimates of occur in college teaching, particularly
the relative cost of, and expected re­ at the undergraduate level. In addi­
(D.O.T. 040.081)

Where To Go for More Information

Additional information on employ­
ment as a soil conservationist may
be obtained from the U.S. Civil Serv­
ice Commission, Washington, D.C.
20415; Employment Division, Of­
fice of Personnel, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
20250; or any office of the Depart­
ment’s Soil Conservation Service.


Nature of Work

There are many employment op­
portunities in the field of agriculture
for people trained in other profes­
sional fields. The following are gen­
eral descriptions of the work per­
formed by other professional persons
employed in occupations related to
agriculture. Many of these occupa­
tions are discussed more fully else­
where in the Handbook. (See index.)
Entomologists study insects, both
beneficial and harmful in farming.
They are concerned especially with
developing measures to control in­
sects that injure growing crops and
animals, harm human beings, and
damage agricultural commodities in

shipping, storage, processing, and dis­
Agronomists are concerned with
the growing and improving of field
crops such as cereals and grains,
legumes, grasses, tobacco, cotton, and
others. They also do research in the
fundamental principles of plant and
soil sciences and study and develop
seed propagation and plant adapta­
Plant scientists study diseases,
structure, and growth factors in
plants, and try to improve the quality
of fruits, vegetables, flowers and
Microbiologists study bacteria and
the relation of other micro-organisms
to human, plant, and animal health;
they also study the function of these
micro-organisms in the making of
such products as vitamins, antibiotics,
amino acids, sugars, and polymers.
Geneticists try to develop strains,
varieties, breeds, and hybrids of plants
and animals that are better suited
than those currently available to the
production of food and fiber.
Animal physiologists and animal
husbandmen study the environmental
influences in relation to efficient man­
agement of farm animals; they also
are concerned with the breeding,
growth, nutrition, and physiology of
Home economists specialize in fam­
ily household management; the study
of foods in relation to human nutri­
tion ; and the use of household equip­
ment, textiles and clothing.
Veterinarians inspect livestock at
public stockyards and points of entry
into the U.S.; inspect establishments
that produce veterinary biological
supplies; administer tests for animal
diseases; conduct animal disease con­
trol programs; and do research in dis­
eases of livestock.
Plant quarantine and plant pest
control inspectors who are trained in
the biological sciences, supervise and
perform professional and scientific
work in enforcing plant quarantine
and pest control laws. Plant
Quarantine Inspectors inspect ships,
planes, trucks, and autos coming into


the country to keep out dangerous
insect pests. Plant Pest Control In­
spectors conduct programs to protect
the crops of the country by prompt
detection, control, and eradication of
plant pests.
Human nutritionists study the proc­
ess by which the human body utilizes
food substances.
Agricultural engineers develop new
and improved farm machines and
equipment; study the physical aspects
of soil and water problems in farming,
such as irrigation layout, watershed
protection, flood control and related
problems; and devise new techniques
for harvesting and processing farm
products; and design more efficient
farm buildings.
Agricultural economists deal pri­
marily with problems related to the
production, financing, and marketing
of farm products. They are fact­
finders, evaluators, analysts, and in­
terpreters who help farmers under­
stand economic problems. They
estimate benefits; allocate costs; and
determine economic justification of
plans for flood prevention, irrigation,
drainage, recreation, and other types
of resource development projects.
Rural sociologists study the struc­
ture and functions of the social insti­
tutions (customs, practices, and laws)
that are a part of or affect rural
School teachers in vocational agri­
culture and related fields supervise
and give instructions in farm planning
and management, communications,
mechanics, engineering, and related
Where Employed

Persons trained in these specialties
work in various capacities that relate
to agriculture. Government agencies,
colleges, agricultural experiment sta­
tions, and private businesses that deal
with farmers hire many research
workers. They also hire people to take
technical and administrative respon­
sibilities in public agencies involving
farmers or programs affecting farm­

ers. Agri-business and farmer coop­
eratives, private business, commercial,
and financial companies that buy
from, sell to, or serve farmers also
employ many people. State, county,
and municipalities hire many who
serve as vocational agriculture teach­
ers and workers in agricultural com­
munications, in farmers’ organiza­
tions, or in trade associations whose
members deal with farmers.
The number of research activities
related to agriculture has increased
very rapidly. The largest agencies in
this field are the State experiment
stations connected with the landgrant colleges and the various re­
search branches of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Other research
organizations include some engaged
in independent research, and others
connected with companies that fi­
nance farming operations, market
farm products, or produce chemicals,
equipment, and other supplies or serv­
ices for farmers. The U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture employs workers
in research positions in various parts
of the country; in Washington, D.C.,
at the Agricultural Research Center
at Beltsville, Md.; and at land-grant
colleges. Other Government depart­
ments also have many agricultural
research jobs.
Various independent research orga­
nizations, foundations, and private
business groups in many parts of the
country have recently initiated re­
search related to agriculture. They
tend to be located either in industrial
centers or in areas of high agricultural
activity, and include producers of
feed, seed, fertilizer, farm equipment;
and insecticides, herbicides, and other
chemical dusts and sprays.
Public and private lending institu­
tions which make loans to farmers,
employ men with broad training in
agriculture and business. These work­
ers are ordinarily required to have
had practical farm experience, as well
as academic training in agriculture,
economics, and other subjects. Mak­
ing financially sound loans involves
careful analysis of the farm business
and proper evaluation of farm real


estate and other farm property. These
workers are employed by the cooper­
ative Farm Credit Administration in
its banks and in associations operating
under its supervision throughout the
country; by the Farmers Home Ad­
ministration in its Washington and
county offices; by rural banks; and by
insurance companies that have sub­
stantial investments in farm mort­
The Federal and State Govern­
ments also employ various specialists
in activities relating to agriculture.
These specialists have technical and
managerial responsibilities in activ­
ities such as programs relating to the
production, marketing, inspection,
and grading of farm products; pre­
vention of the spread of plant pests,
animal parasites and diseases; and
management and control of wildlife.
Large numbers of professionally
trained persons are employed by co­
operatives and business firms that
deal with farmers. Employment in
these organizations may be expected
to expand, as farmers rely increas­
ingly on them to provide farm sup­
plies, machinery, equipment, and
services, and to market farm prod­
ucts. The size of the organization and
the types of services it offers deter­
mine the number of its employees and
the nature of their jobs. Large farm
supply cooperatives and businesses,
for example, may have separate divi­
sions for feed, seed, fertilizer, petro­
leum, chemicals, farm machinery,
public relations, and credit, each su­
pervised by a department head. In
smaller businesses and cooperatives,
such as local grain-marketing eleva­
tors, the business is run almost en­
tirely by the general manager who has
only two or three helpers.
Agricultural communications is an­
other expanding area of specializa­
tion. Crop reporters and market news
reporters are employed by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture in field
offices throughout the United States.
Crop reporters gather information on
crop production during all stages of
the growing season. Market news re­

porters collect information on move­
ment of agricultural produce from
the farm to the market. Radio and
TV farm directors are employed by
many radio and TV stations to report
prices, sales, grades, and other agri­
cultural information to farm people.
Agricultural reporters and editors
compile farm news and data for farm
journals, bulletins, and broadcasts.
Closely related to agricultural com­
munications is employment in farm­
ers’ organizations or in-trade associa­
tions whose members deal with
The nationwide, federally aided
program of vocational education con­
tinues to offer employment for per­
sons technically trained in agriculture
and related subjects. Instruction
under this program is given in public
high schools and in classes organized
for persons over 14 years of age “who
have entered upon or who are prepar­
ing to enter upon the work of the
farm or the farm home.” Vocational
agriculture teachers also supervise
farm programs and give instruction
in farm mechanics in school shops
as well as serving as advisers to the
local chapters of the Future Farmers
of America. In addition to working
with “in-school” students, the teach­
ers provide organized instruction to
assist young farmers in becoming
satisfactorily established in farming
and in becoming community leaders.
They also provide organized instruc­
tion for adult farmers giving individ­
ual consultation on their farms to
keep them abreast of modem farm
The qualifications of workers in all
of these fields ordinarily include a
college education and special training
in a particular line of work. In most
of these fields, the demand for work­
ers exceeds the supply. In recent
years, the demand has been increased
because of the need to recruit pro­
fessional personnel to staff agricul­
tural missions and to give technical
aid to agricultural institutions and
farmers in other countries.

Where To Go for More Information

Opportunities in Research. Addi­
tional information on research op­
portunities at land-grant colleges may
be obtained from the dean of agri­
culture at the State land-grant col­
lege. Information on employment in
the U.S. Department of Agriculture
is available from the USDA recruit­
ment representatives at land-grant
colleges and from the Office of Per­
sonnel, U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture, Washington, D.C. 20250.
The following publications will be
“Profiles-Careers in the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture,” U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture, Septem­
ber 1964. Superintendent v of
Documents, GPO, Washington,
D.C. 20402. Price $2.
“There is a New Challenge in
Agriculture,” American Associa­
tion of Land-Grant Colleges and
State Universities, Washington,
D.C., 1962. Copies can be obtained
from your State Agricultural

Opportunities in Agricultural Fi­
nance. Inquiries on employment op­
portunities in agricultural finance
may be directed to the following:
Farm Credit Administration, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20578.
Farm Credit District— Springfield,
Mass.; Baltimore, Md.; Columbia,
S.C.; Louisville, Ky.; New Or­
leans, La.; St. Louis, Mo.; St.
Paul, Minn.; Omaha, Nebr.;
Wichita,, Kans.; Houston, Tex.;
Berkeley, Calif.; Spokane, Wash.
Farmers Home Administration, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20250.
Agricultural Director, American
Bankers Association, 90 Park Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10016.

Opportunities With Cooperatives.
Farmer cooperatives are located in
every State. Information relating to
job opportunities in farmer coopera­
tives may be obtained from local or
regional cooperatives. If no jobs are
available with these cooperatives,
they may be able to make referrals to

others which have openings. Other
sources of information are the county
agent and the Agricultural Eco­
nomics Departments of State Agricultral Colleges. General information
may be obtained from the American
Institute of Cooperation or the Na­
tional Council of Farmer Coopera­
tives, both located at 1200 17th St.
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, and
the Cooperative League of the
U.S.A., 59 East Van Buren St.,
Chicago, 111. 60605.
Opportunities for Agricultural
Economists. For additional informa­
tion about opportunities in agricul­
tural economics, check with the
Department of Agricultural Eco­
nomics at State land-grant colleges.
For information on Federal employ­
ment opportunities, applicants may
get in touch with USD A recruitment
representatives at the State land-grant
college or write directly to the Office
of Personnel, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250.
Opportunities as Vocational Agri­
culture Teachers. As salaries, travel,
and programs of vocational agricul­
ture teachers vary slightly among
States, prospective teachers should
consult the Head Teacher Trainer in
Agriculture Education at the landgrant college or the State Supervisor
of Agricultural Education at the State
Department of Public Instruction in
their respective States.


In almost every type of agriculture,
farmers require specialized services
which can be readily learned and per­
formed by other workers. A person
can enter many of these services,
either as an independent operator or
as an employee. Some services require
an extensive outlay of capital, and
others require very little. Some are
highly seasonal; others are performed
year round. These services and the
operation of a small farm can some­
times be combined.
Services that provide year-round
employment include the following:
Cow testing, artificial breeding, live­
stock trucking, whitewashing, well
drilling, fencing, and tilling.
In cow testing and artificial breed­
ing, an association of farmers em­
ploys one worker or more on a month­
ly basis to conduct the operations.
Supervisors who do cow testing are
employed by dairy herd improvement
associations. They must have a high
school education, and a farm back­
ground is almost essential. Artificial
breeding associations employ inseminators who must have at least a high
school education. Agricultural col­
lege training is desirable but not es­
sential for employment in these occu­
pations. Brief periods of approxi­
mately a month of specialized train­

ing are available through the
Other services for farmers are
more seasonal. These include the fol­
lowing: Fruit spraying (2-3
months), airplane dusting (4-6
months), grain combining (2
months), hay and straw baling (2-8
months), tractor plowing and culti­
vating (4-6 months), and sheep
shearing (2-3 months).
These and many other services are
often done by farmers who engage in
custom work as a sideline to keep
their equipment busy. In areas where
the growing season is long, however,
the period when these services can
be carried on is long enough to per­
mit individuals to specialize in them.
Closely associated but somewhat
more remote from farm operation are
such activities as repairing and serv­
icing farm machinery; feed grinding
and mixing; maintaining storages
and warehouses of agricultural prod­
ucts; operating nurseries and green­
houses; and packing, grading, and
processing farm products.
Although these activities are some­
times performed on the farm, the cur­
rent trend is to conduct them as spe­
cialized lines of business away from
the farm. An agricultural background
is helpful to people who enter these
lines of work. The agricultural as­
pects, however, can be learned more
readily than the required specialized

The transportation, communica­
tion, and public utilities industries
make possible the smooth functioning
of our society and produce most of
the energy that powers, heats, and
lights our factories and homes. The
transportation industry moves goods
and people about the country by air,
rail, water and highway; the com­
munications industry provides com­
munication systems such as telephones
and radio and TV broadcasting.
Other public utilities supply the Na­
tion with electricity and gas, and with
sanitation services. Transportation,
communication, and public utility
firms are all semipublic in character.
Some State and local governments
operate their own transit lines or elec­
tric companies as well as other types
of utilities. Privately owned transpor­
tation and public utility firms are
regulated closely by commissions or
other public authorities to make sure
they operate in the public interest.

In 1966, about 4.1 million persons
were employed in the transportation,
communication, and public utilities
industry group. In addition, one-half
million persons were employed by
State and local governments in pub­
licly owned transit and utility systems.
Almost half of the workers in this
major industry group were employed
in two industries—motor freight (1.0
million workers) which includes localand long-distance trucking, and the
communications industries (0.9 mil­
lion workers) which includes tele­
phone, telegraph, and radio and TV
broadcasting. Railroads employed
over 700,000 workers in 1966; over
600,000 were employed by electric,
gas, and sanitary services companies.
Other industries with significant em­
ployment included local and interurban passenger transit and air trans­
portation. The remainder of the
workers were employed by firms that
provided water and pipeline trans­
portation and transportation services.

Nearly one-fifth of the persons em­
ployed in transportation, communi­
cation, and public utilities are
women—a ratio somewhat less than
for the economy as a whole. Employ­
ment of women varies greatly among
the industries that make up the major
industry group. For example, they
make up only 8 percent of employ­
ment in local and interurban passen­
ger transit; however, in the communi­
cations industry, where many work
as telephone operators, women ac­
count for over one-half of the work
White-collar workers account for
about 2 of 5 workers in transportation,
communication, and public utilities,
mostly in communications, and elec­
tric, gas, and sanitary services. Whitecollar jobs in these industries reflect
the many clerical workers in the tele­
phone industry, technicians and man­
agers in radio and TV broadcasting,
and engineers and technicians em­
ployed throughout the various trans635

portation and public utility indus­
tries. Clerical workers make up about
1 of 4 workers in the major industry
division; over one-half are employed
in the communications industry. Pro­
fessional and technical workers make
up about 7 percent of the employment
in the industry. Most of these workers
are concentrated in the communica­
tions industry, where, in addition to
large numbers of engineers and tech­
nicians, many actors, entertainers, and
writers are employed.
Craftsmen account for 1 of 5 work­
ers, and operatives, 1 of 4. Skilled
craftsmen are needed to install, main­
tain, and repair the large amount of
mechanical, electrical, and other
types of equipment that are used
throughout this industry. Among the
major blue-collar occupations are
airplane mechanic, motor vehicle me­
chanic, and telephone lineman; other
important skilled occupations are lo­
comotive engineer and fireman, sta­
tionary engineer, and foreman. This
major industry division is the chief
employer of workers in a number of
semiskilled occupations such as bus
and truck driver, taxi driver, brakeEstimated
Major occupational group distribution)

All occupational groups.................... 100Professional, technical, and kin­
dred workers.......................
Managers, officials, and proprie­
tors ...............................................
Clerical and kindred workers...
Sales workers..........................
Craftsmen, foremen, and kin­
dred workers.......................
Operatives and kindred work­
Service workers.....................
N o t e .—Due to rounding, sum of indi­
vidual items may not add to total.


man and switchman, and sailor and
Employment in transportation and
public utilities is expected to increase
moderately during the 1970’s. In ad­
dition to opportunities resulting from
growth in employment, many thou­
sands of job openings are expected
each year because of the need to re­
place workers who die or retire.
Transfer of employees to other fields
of work will provide still additional
job opportunities. Replacement needs
will be particularly high in clerical
positions because many women leave
the work force each year to take on
family responsibilities.
The rising levels of business and
consumer income in the years ahead
should increase significantly the over­
all demand for services in this sector
and the need for workers to provide
them. Employment growth in the in­
dividual industries, however, will
vary considerably. The transportation
industries are expected to grow faster
than average, particularly because of
rapid growth in motor freight and
air transportation. Rising population,
urbanization, and the growth of sub­
urban areas will continue to stimulate
employment in local trucking. Al­
though employment in long-distance
trucking will continue its long-term
growth, competition from rail and
air transportation may slow down the
rate of growth relative to the recent
past. The increasing popularity of air
transportation for both passengers and
cargo will continue into the 1970’s,
as rising business activity and more
leisure time for travel spur continued
rapid growth in this area. On the
other hand, not all of the transporta­
tion industries will experience rapid

employment growth. For example,
little employment change is expected
in local and interurban passenger
transportation (buses, taxis, and sub­
ways) as it is likely that consumers
will continue to rely heavily on pri­
vate automobiles.
Employment in the communica­
tions industry and electric, gas, and
sanitary services is expected to grow
slower than the sector as a whole.
Rapid advances in technology are
expected to limit employment growth,
although demand for the products
and services of these industries
will increase rapidly. Technological
changes are expected to be particu­
larly significant in telephone com­
munications. The computer and other
electronic equipment are expected to
be applied increasingly to functions
that have been performed by workers.
Employment in electric and gas
utilities also will be affected strongly
by advancing technology as the out­
put of the industry nearly doubles
by 1975. Substantial improvements
in electric generating equipment
through the increasing use of nuclear
power, the growing use of electronic
controls, improved coal-handling
techniques, and more efficient tech­
niques of constructing and maintain­
ing transmission lines will work to
limit the growth of employment in
this important industry.
The statements that follow cover
major occupations in the transporta­
tion, communication, and public util­
ity fields. More detailed information
about occupations that cut across
many industries—for example, ste­
nographers and typists, drivers, and
others—appear elsewhere in the
Handbook. (See index in the back
of the book.)


The rapid development of air trans­
portation in the past two decades has
greatly increased the mobility of the
population and has created many
thousands of job opportunities in the
civil aviation industry. By late 1966,
about 375,000 persons were employed
in this field in a variety of interesting
and responsible occupations.
Nature and Location of Civil
Aviation Activities

Civil aviation services are provided
by many different types of organiza­
tions for a variety of purposes. The

scheduled airlines (those which oper­
ate regularly scheduled flights over
prescribed routes) provide transpor­
tation for passengers, cargo, and mail.
Other airlines, called supplemental
airlines, provide charter and nonscheduled service for passengers and
cargo. A wide range of other civil
aviation activities are conducted in
the field of general aviation, includ­
ing the use of company-owned aircraft
to transport employees or cargo
(business flying) ; spraying insecti­
cides, fertilizers, or seed on land,
crops, or forest (aerial application) ;
charter service in small aircraft (airtaxi operations); and inspection of
pipelines and powerlines for breaks.
In addition to these flying activities,
general aviation includes mainte­
nance and repair activities conducted
by repair stations licensed by the Gov­
ernment to work on general aviation
aircraft (certificated repair stations).
Civil aviation activities also include
the regulatory functions of the Fed­
eral Aviation Administration (FAA)
and the Civil Aeronautics Board
(CAB)—both Federal Government
agencies. The FAA develops air safety
regulations, inspects and tests aircraft
and airline facilities, provides ground
electronic guidance equipment, and
gives tests for licenses to personnel
such as pilots, copilots, flight engi­

Employment In Scheduled Airlines
Selected Occupations






flight Eng.risers



1 Pilots & CapiMs

Stewards. Stewardesses & Pursers

neers, dispatchers, and aircraft me­
chanics. The CAB establishes policy
concerning matters such as airline
rates and routes and investgates
The 49 scheduled airlines were the
largest employers of air transporta­
tion workers in late 1966, with about
211.000 workers. Of these, about 80
percent (170,000) were employed to
fly and service aircraft and passengers
on domestic routes—between cities in
the United States. About 37,000
other workers handled the operations
of the scheduled airlines which flew
international routes. The remaining
workers were employed by airlines
that handled only cargo. More than
half of all scheduled airline employees
worked for the four largest domestic
In addition to scheduled airline
employees, several thousand work­
ers—all in ground occupations—were
employed in the United States by for­
eign airlines that operate between
overseas points and the United States.
An additional 2,400 workers were
employed by 15 supplemenal airlines.
These workers were in many of the
same occupations as scheduled airline
An estimated 112,000 workers—
nearly all pilots, copilots, and aircraft
mechanics—were employed in gen­
eral aviation operations to fly and
service the 95,000 aircraft used in
late 1966. About two-fifths of these
workers (46,000) were employed in
certificated repair stations. Another
one-fourth (29,000) were engaged in
business flying. About 10,000 worked
for firms that gave flight instruction;
approximately 7,500 were in aerial
application activities; and nearly
16.000 were employed by for-hire
operators of small passenger and
cargo aircraft. The remaining 13,500
workers were in other general avia­
tion activities, such as test flying or
inspecting pipelines for breaks.
The FAA employed about 43,000
people and the CAB about 830 in late
1966. The largest group of FAA em­
ployees worked mainly in occupations

relating to the direction of air traffic,
and the installation and maintenance
of mechanical and electronic equip­
ment used to control traffic. CAB
workers were employed mainly in ad­
ministrative and clerical jobs con­
cerned with the economic regulation
of the airlines, supervision of inter­
national air transportation matters,
promotion of air safety, and investiga­
tion of accidents.
Civil aviation workers are em­
ployed in every State, but an esti­
mated half work in five States: New
York, California, Florida, Illinois,
and Texas. Some of the reasons for
the employment concentration in
these States are their large popula­
tions and geographic areas, their large
numbers of airports and aircraft regi­
strations, and the existence of major
airline aircraft overhaul bases.
Civil Aviation Occupations

In addition to employing the
largest number of air transportation
workers, the scheduled airlines em­
ploy workers in the widest variety of
occupations. Of the 211,000 employed
by the scheduled airlines in late 1966,
about 4 out of 5 worked in ground
Mechanics and other aircraft main­
tenance personnel was the largest oc­
cupational category, with 19 percent
of scheduled airline employment.
(See chart 57.) About 16 percent of
all scheduled airline workers were
traffic agents and clerks, and almost
2 percent worked at airline ground
stations as communications personnel
and dispatchers. The remaining work­
ers in ground occupational categories
(about 43 percent) were employed as
cargo and freight handlers, custodial
and other aircraft-servicing person­
nel, and office, administrative, and
professional personnel.
Pilots and copilots represented the
largest flight occupation, with over 8
percent of all airline workers; stew­
ardesses and stewards constituted an­
other 8 percent; and flight engineers
accounted for the remainder.


More than 50 percent of general
aviation workers were pilots or co­
pilots, and about 45 percent were
aircraft mechanics. The great ma­
jority of the mechanics were em­
ployed in certificated repair stations.
The remaining general aviation work­
ers were employed in clerical or ad­
ministrative jobs.
In the Federal Government, the
largest group of civil aviation workers
were in air traffic servicing work.
About 17,700 workers were employed
in this category. Most of these work­
ers—about 13,600—were air traffic
controllers. Another group of about
4,100 workers were flight service sta­
tion specialists.
A detailed description of the duties,
training, qualifications, employment
outlook, earnings, and working con­
ditions for each of the following air
transportation jobs appear in the
later sections of this chapter: (1)
Pilots and copilots, (2) flight engi­
neers, (3) stewardesses, (4) aircraft
mechanics, (5) airline dispatchers,
(6) air traffic controllers, (7) ground
radio operators and teletypists, and
(8) traffic agents and clerks.
Employment Outlook

The total number of workers in
civil aviation occupations is expected
to increase very rapidly during the
1970’s, but the rates of growth among
the major civil aviation divisions will
General aviation employment is
expected to show a rapid rise, mainly
because the anticipated greater de­
mand for general aviation services
will lead to an increase in the number
of aircraft. About 184,000 general
aviation aircraft may be flying by
1980—an increase of about 88,000
over the number in 1966. A significant
employment increase also will occur
in business flying, which will require
about 20,000 new employees, mainly
well qualified pilots. Even more new
job openings will occur in air-taxi
operations, largely because of the de­

mand for air transportation in cities
not serviced by the scheduled airlines.
These jobs will be about equally di­
vided between qualified pilots and co­
pilots and aircraft mechanics. An es­
timated 40,000 job openings—prac­
tically all for aircraft mechanics—
will occur in certificated repair sta­
tions because of the need for addi­
tional maintenance and repair serv­
ices by a larger general aviation fleet.
The number of operators who give
flight instruction and engage in patrol
and survey flying will grow very
rapidly by 1980, requiring thousands
of additional pilots.
Use of aircraft for aerial applica­
tion which includes the distribution
of chemicals or seeds in agriculture,
fire fighting, restocking of fish and
other wild life will require a few thou­
sand additional employees, mainly
A slow increase is expected in Fed­
eral Government employment of civil
aviation workers. Openings that oc­
cur will be primarily those resulting
from retirements, deaths, and trans­
fers to other fields of work. Although
employment declines may occur in
some occupations, increasing employ­
ment opportunities are expected for
those who maintain and repair the
increasing array of visual and elec­
tronic aids to air traffic.
Airline employment growth will
result from anticipated increases in
passenger and cargo traffic. By 1980,
the scheduled airlines will fly about
three times the number of revenue
passenger miles flown in 1966. An
even larger increase is expected in air
cargo traffic which, however, repre­
sents a relatively small percent of total
traffic. Among the factors which will
contribute to increased air travel are
a larger population, increased con­
sumer purchasing power, the trend
toward longer vacations, the greater
use of air travel by businessmen, faster
flights on jet aircraft which will save
considerable time in long-distance
travel, and more economy-class pas­
senger services.
As in the past, airline occupations


will grow at different rates. Occupa­
tions such as stewardess and cargo
and baggage handler, which provide
services for passengers and cargo
directly, will grow very rapidly. How­
ever, employment in these occupa­
tions is not expected to increase as
fast as the increases in traffic for
several reasons. For example, more
widespread installation of mechanical
equipment, such as conveyors, will
permit airlines to move greatly in­
creased amounts of baggage and
cargo without comparable growth in
employment of baggage and cargo
handlers. Economy flights, which
offer fewer in-flight services than
first-class flights, will permit airlines
to fly greatly increased numbers of
passengers without a corresponding
rise in employment of flight attend­
The rapid growth in some airline
occupations, particularly those con­
cerned with the operation and main­
tenance of aircraft, will result from a
substantial increase in the number of
aircraft in service. Continuing re­
placement of present equipment by
faster, larger capacity jet planes and
eventual introduction of supersonic
aircraft will accomodate part of the
increased traffic, but a significant in­
crease in the total number of aircraft
in service will also be necessary. Re­
placement needs because of retire­
ments and deaths will remain high
throughout the 1970’s.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings among various civil avia­
tion occupations vary greatly because
of such factors as skill requirements,
length of experience, and amount of
responsibility for safe and efficient
operations. Within particular occupa­
tions, earnings vary according to the
type of civil aviation activity. The
statements on individual occupations
which follow contain detailed discus­
sions of earnings.
As a rule, airline employees and
their immediate families are entitled

to a limited amount of free or re­ portation are union members. These
duced-fare transportation on their unions are identified in the statements
companies’ flights, depending on the covering the individual occupations.
employees’ length of service. In addi­
tion, they may fly at greatly reduced
rates with other airlines. Flight per­ Where To Go for More Information
sonnel may be away from their home
Information about job openings in
bases about a third of the time or
a particular airline, and the qualifi­
more. When they are away from cations required may be obtained by
home, the airlines either provide liv­ writing to the personnel manager of
ing accommodations or pay expenses. the company. Addresses of individual
Airlines operate flights at all hours
from the Air
of the day and night. Personnel in companies are available of America,
Transport Association
some occupations, therefore, often 1000 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­
have irregular work schedules. Maxi­
mum hours of work per month for ington, D.C.20036. jobs with the
Inquiries regarding
workers in flight occupations have Federal Aviation Administration
been established by the FAA as a should be addressed to the Personnel
safety precaution against fatigue. In
addition, union-management agree­ Officer, at any Aviation following
of the
ments often stipulate payment for a addresses:
minimum number of hours each
Federal Building, John
month, to guarantee a substantial
F. Kennedy Interna­
proportion of normal earnings.
tional Airport, Ja­
Ground personnel who work as
maica, Long Island,
N.Y. 11430.
dispatchers, mechanics, traffic agents,
communications operators, and in
P.O. Box 1689, Fort
administrative jobs usually work a 5Region.
Worth, Tex. 76101.
day, 40-hour week. Their working
P.O. Box 20636, Athours, however, often include nights,
lanta, Ga. 30320.
weekends, or holidays. Air traffic con­
601 E. 12th St., Kantrollers work a 5-day, 40-hour week;
sas City, Mo. 64106.
they are periodically assigned to night,
weekend, and holiday work. Ground
5641 West Manchester
Ave., Box 90007,
personnel generally receive extra pay
Airport Station, Los
for overtime work or compensatory
time off.
In domestic operations, airline em­
632 Sixth Ave., An­
ployees usually receive 2 to 4 weeks’ Alaskan
vacation with pay, depending upon
length of service. Most flight person­
P.O. Box 4009, Hononel in international operations get a
lulu, Hawaii 96812.
month’s vacation. Employees also re­
Information concerning FAA-apceive paid sick leave and retirement,
insurance, and long-term disability proved schools offering training for
hospitalization benefits. FAA and work as an airplane mechanic, pilot,
CAB employees are entitled to the or in other technical fields related to
same benefits as other Federal per* aviation may be obtained from the
sonnel, including from 13 to 26 days Information Retrieval Branch, Fed­
of vacation leave and 13 days of sick eral Aviation Administration Li­
leave a year, as well as retirement, life brary, HQ— Federal Aviation
Administration, Washington, D.C.
insurance, and health benefits.
Many of the workers in air trans­ 20553.



(D.O.T. 196.168, .228, .268, and .283)

Nature of Work

The men who have the respon­
sibility for flying a multimillion dollar
plane and transporting safely as many
as 200 passengers or more are the pilot
and copilot. The pilot (called “cap­
tain” by the airlines) operates the
controls and performs other tasks nec­
essary for flying a plane into the air,
keeping it on course, and landing it
safely. He supervises a crew which
usually includes—in addition to the
copilot—a flight engineer and flight
attendants. The copilot is second in
command. He is present on airline
flights to assist the captain in air-toground communications, monitoring
flight and engine instruments, and in
operating the controls of the plane.

Both captain and copilot must do
a great deal of planning before their
plane may take off. Before each flight,
they confer with the company mete­
orologist about weather conditions
and, in cooperation with the airline
dispatcher, they prepare a flight plan
along a route and at altitudes which
offer the best weather and wind con­
ditions so that a safe, fast, and smooth
flight will be possible. This flight
plan must be approved by Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) air
traffic control personnel. The copilot
plots the course to be flown and com­
putes the flying time between various
points. Just prior to takeoff, both men
check the operation of each engine
and the functioning of the plane’s
many instruments, controls, and elec­
tronic and mechanical systems.
During the flight, the captain or
copilot reports by radio to ground
control stations regarding their alti­
tude, air speed, weather conditions,

and other flight details. The captain
also supervises the navigation of the
flight and keeps close watch on the
many instruments which indicate the
plane’s fuel load and the Condition
of the engines, controls, electronic
equipment, and landing gear. The co­
pilot assists in these duties.
Before landing, the captain or the
copilot recheck the operation of the
landing gear and request landing
clearance from air traffic control per­
sonnel. If visibility is limited when a
landing approach is being made, the
captain may have to rely primarily
on instruments, such as the altimeter,
air speed indicator, artificial horizon,
and gyro compass. Both men must
complete a flight report and file trip
records in the airline office when the
flight is ended.
Some pilots, employed by airlines
as “check pilots,” make at least two
flights a year with each captain to
observe his proficiency and adherence
to FAA flight regulations and com­
pany policies. Airlines employ some
pilots to fly planes leased to private
corporations. Airlines also employ
pilots as instructors to train both new
and experienced pilots in the use of
new equipment.
Although pilots employed in gen­
eral aviation usually fly planes smaller
than those used by the scheduled air­
lines, their preflight and flight duties
are similar to those of airline pilots.
These pilots seldom have the assist­
ance of flight crews. In addition to
flying, they may perform minor main­
tenance and repair work on their
planes. In some cases, such as in busi­
ness flying, they may mingle with and
act as host to their passengers. Pilots
who are self-employed, such as airtaxi operators, in addition to flying
and doing some maintenance work,
have duties similar to those of other
small businessmen.
Where Employed

The scheduled airlines employed
over 21,000 pilots and copilots in
late 1966. In addition, approximately


1,900 pilots were employed by the
certificated supplemental airlines
(airlines that provide charter and
nonscheduled service).
An estimated 57,000 pilots and co­
pilots (including some who work
part time) were employed in general
aviation in late 1966. Several thou­
sand worked in business flying and in
for-hire operations. About 7,500 pilots
were employed in aerial application
flying. The Federal Government em­
ployed approximately 900 pilots
(about half in the FAA) to perform
a variety of services, such as examin­
ing applicants for pilots’ licenses, in­
specting navigation facilities along
Federal airways, testing planes that
are newly designed or have major
modifications, enforcing game laws,
fighting forest fires, and patrolling na­
tional boundaries. In addition, several
thousand pilots were employed by
companies to inspect pipelines and
installations for oil companies, and to
provide other aerial services, such as
private flight instruction, and flights
for sightseeing, skywriting, and aerial
photography. A small number worked
for aircraft manufacturers as test
Training, Other Qualifications, and

To do any type of commercial fly­
ing, pilots or copilots must be licensed
by the FAA. Airline captains must
have an “airline transport pilot’s” li­
cense. Copilots, and most pilots em­
ployed in general aviation, must have
a “commercial airplane pilot’s”
license. In addition, pilots who are
subject to FAA instrument flight regu­
lations or who anticipate flying on
instruments when the weather is bad,
must have an “instrument rating.”
Pilots and copilots must also have a
rating for the class of plane they can
fly (single-engine, multi-engine, or
seaplane) and for the specific type of
plane they can fly, such as DC-6 or
Boeing 707.

To qualify for a license as a com­
mercial pilot, applicants must be at
least 18 years old and have at least
200 hours of flight experience. To
obtain an instrument rating, appli­
cants must have at least 40 hours of
instrument time, 20 hours of which
must be in actual flight. Applicants
for an airline transport pilot’s license
must be at least 23 years old and have
a total of 1,200 hours of flight time
during the previous 8 years, including
night flying and instrument flying
Before a person may receive any
license or rating, he must pass a phys­
ical examination and a written test
given by the FAA covering such sub­
jects as principles of safe flight op­
erations, Civil Air Regulations, navi­
gation principles, radio operation,
and meterology. He must also submit
proof that he has completed the mini­
mum flight-time requirements and,
in a practical test, demonstrate flying
skill and technical competence. His
certification as a professional pilot re­
mains in effect as long as he can pass
an annual physical examination and
the periodic tests of his flying skills
required by Government regulation.
An airline transport pilot’s license ex­
pires when the pilot reaches his 60th
A young man may obtain the
knowledge, skills, and flight experi­
ence necessary to become a pilot
through military service or from a
private flying school. Graduation
from flying schools approved by the
FAA satisfies the flight experience re­
quirements for licensing. Applicants
who have appropriate military flight
training and experience are required
to pass only the Civil Air Regulations
examination if they apply for a license
within a year after leaving the service.
Those trained in the armed services
have the added opportunity to gain
experience and accumulate flying
time on large aircraft similar to those
used by the airlines.
As a rule, applicants for a copilot
job with the airlines must be between

20 and 35 years old, although pref­
erence is given to applicants who are
between ages 21 and 28. They must
be 5 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 4 inches
tall and weigh between 140 and 210
pounds. All applicants must be high
school graduates; some airlines re­
quire 2 years of college and prefer to
hire college graduates. Physical re­
quirements for pilots, especially in
scheduled airline employment, are
very high. They must have at least
20/100 vision corrected to 20/20,
good hearing, outstanding physical
stamina, and no physical handicaps
that would prevent quick reactions.
Since flying large aircraft places great
responsibilities upon a pilot, the air­
lines use psychological tests to deter­
mine an applicant’s alertness, emo­
tional stability and maturity, and his
ability to assume responsibility, com­
mand respect, and make quick deci­
sions and accurate judgments under
Men hired by the scheduled air­
lines (and by some of the larger sup­
plemental airlines) usually start as
copilots, although they may begin as
flight engineers. An applicant for a
copilot’s job with a scheduled airline
often must have more than the FAA
minimum qualifications for commer­
cial pilot licensing. For example, al­
though the FAA requires only 200
flying hours to qualify for such a li­
cense, the airlines generally require
from 500 to 1,000 flying hours. Air­
lines also require a “restricted” radio­
telephone operator permit, issued by
the Federal Communications Com­
mission, which allows the holder to
operate the plane’s radio.
Pilots employed in business flying
are required to have a commercial
pilot’s license. In addition, some em­
ployers require their pilots to have in­
strument ratings, and some require
pilot applicants to have air transport
pilot ratings. Because of the close re­
lationship between pilots and their
passengers, employers look for job
applicants who have pleasant

All newly hired airline copilots go
through company orientation courses.
In addition, some airlines give begin­
ning copilots or flight engineers from
3 to 10 weeks of training on company
planes before assigning them to a
scheduled flight. Trainees also re­
ceive classroom instruction in subjects
such as flight theory, radio operation,
meteorology, Civil Air Regulations,
and airline operations.
The beginning copilot generally is
permitted only limited responsibility,
such as operating the flight controls
in good weather over a route that is
easy to navigate. As he gains experi­
ence and skill, his responsibilities are
gradually increased and he is pro­
moted to copilot on larger, more
modern aircraft. When he has proved
his skill, accumulated sufficient ex­
perience and seniority, and passed the
test for an airline transport pilot’s li­
cense, a copilot may advance to
captain as openings arise. A minimum
of 2 or 3 years’ service is required for
promotion but, in actual practice, ad­
vancement often takes at least 5 to
10 years or longer. The new captain
works first on his airline’s older equip­
ment and, as openings arise, he is
advanced to larger, m ore modern
A few opportunities exist for cap­
tains who have administrative ability
to advance to chief pilot, flight opera­
tions manager, and other supervisory
and executive jobs. Most airline cap­
tains, however, spend their entire
careers flying. As they increase their
seniority, they obtain a better selec­
tion of flight routes, types of aircraft,
and schedules which offer higher
earnings. Some pilots may go into
business for themselves if they have
adequate financial resources and busi­
ness ability. They may operate their
own flying schools or air-taxi and
other aerial services. Pilots may also
shift to administrative and inspection
jobs in aircraft manufacturing and
Government aviation agencies, or be­
come dispatchers for an airline when
they are not longer able to fly.

Employment’ Outlook

A rapid rise in the employment of
airline pilots is expected through the
1970’s. In addition to those needed
to staff new positions, several thou­
sand job openings for qualified ap­
plicants will result from the need to
replace pilots who transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die. Although
larger, faster, and more efficient jet
planes are likely to be used in the
years ahead, increased passenger and
cargo miles may substantially exceed
the increase in capacity realized from
the new equipment. Therefore, em­
ployment of pilots is likely to increase
to the extent increased growth of
traffic exceeds increased capacity.
Employment of pilots outside of
the scheduled airlines is expected to
continue to grow very rapidly, par­
ticularly in business flying, aerial ap­
plication, air-taxi operations, and
patrol and survey flying. Growth in
these areas will result from expansion
in the use of aircraft to perform these
general aviation activities.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Captains and copilots are among
the highest paid wage earners in the
Nation. Those employed by the sched­
uled airlines averaged about $21,000
a year in domestic air transportation
and nearly $25,000 in international
operations in late 1966. Most of the
senior captains on large aircraft
earned well over $25,000 a year:
those assigned to jet aircraft may earn
as much as $35,000. Pilots employed
by the scheduled airlines generally
earn more than those employed else­
where, although pilots who work for
supplemental airlines may earn almost
as much. Some experienced copilots
were earning as much as $21,000 a
year in domestic flying and more than
$23,000 in international flying in late
The earnings of captains and co­
pilots depend on factors such as the
type, size, and speed of the planes

they fly, the number of hours and
miles flown, and their length of serv­
ice. They receive additional pay for
night and international flights. Cap­
tains and airline copilots with at least
3 years of service are guaranteed
minimum monthly earnings- which
represent a substantial proportion of
their earnings.
Under the Federal Aviation Act,
airline pilots cannot fly more than 85
hours a month; some union-manage­
ment contracts, however, provide for
75-hour a month maximums. Though
pilots and copilots, in practice, fly
approximately 60 hours a month,
their total duty hours, including
before- and after-flight activities and
layovers before return flights, usually
exceed 100 hours each month.
Some pilots prefer the shorter dis­
tance flying usually associated with
the local airlines and commercial fly­
ing activities, such as air-taxi opera­
tions, because they are likely to spend
less time away from their home bases
and fly mostly during the daytime.
These pilots, however, have the added
strain of making more takeoffs and
landings daily.
Although flying does not involve
much physical effort, the pilot is often
subject to stress because of his great
responsibility. He must be constantly
alert and prepared to make decisions
quickly. Poor weather conditions can
also make his work more difficult.
Most airline pilots are members of
the International Airline Pilots Asso­
ciation. Some are members of the
Allied Pilots Association.
Where To Go for More Information

International Air Line Pilots Associa­
55th St. and Cicero Ave., Chicago,
111. 60638.

See the introductory section for ad­
ditional sources of information and
for general information on supple­
mentary benefits and working con­


(D.O.T. 621.281)
Nature of Work and Where

The flight engineer monitors the
operation of the different mechanical
and electrical devices aboard the air­
plane. Before takeoffs, he may inspect
the tires and other outside parts of the
plane and make sure that the plane’s
fuel tanks have been filled properly.
Inside the plane, he assists the pilot
and copilot in making preflight checks
of instruments and equipment. Once
the plane is airborne, the flight engi­
neer watches and operates many in­
struments and devices to check the
performance of the engines and the
air-conditioning, pressurizing, and
electrical systems. In addition, he
keeps records of engine performance
and fuel consumption. He reports any
mechanical difficulties to the pilot
and, if possible, makes emergency re­
pairs. Upon landing, he makes certain
that mechanical troubles that may
have developed are repaired by a
mechanic. Flight engineers employed
by the smaller airlines may have to
make minor repairs themselves at
those few airports where mechanics
are not stationed.

Digitized262-057 0 — 68------ 42

Flight engineers or second officers
are required on almost all three- and
four-engine aircraft and some twoengine jet aircraft. An evaluation of
the aircraft and the functions to be
performed by the crew determined
the need of a flight engineer. In late
1966, about 7,200 workers were em­
ployed to perform flight engineers’
duties. Most of them worked for the
major scheduled airlines and were
stationed in or near large cities where
long-distance flights originate and
Training, Other Qualifications, and

All flight engineers must be licensed
by the Federal Aviation Administra­
tion (FAA). A man can qualify for
a flight engineer’s certificate if he has
had 2 years of training or 3 years of
work experience in the maintenance,
repair, and overhaul of aircraft and
engines, including a minimum of 6
months’ training or a year of experi­
ence on four-engine piston and jet
planes. He may also qualify with at
least 200 hours of flight time as a
captain of a four-engine piston or jet
plane, or with 100 hours of experience
as a flight engineer in the Armed
Forces. The most common method of
qualifying is to complete a course of
ground and flight instruction ap­
proved by the FAA.
In addition to such experience or
training, an applicant for a license
must pass a written test on flight
theory, engine and aircraft perform­
ance, fuel requirements, weather as
it affects engine operation, and main­
tenance procedures. In a practical
flight test on a four-engine plane, he
must demonstrate his skill in perform­
ing preflight duties and normal and
emergency in-flight duties and pro­
cedures. He must also pass a rigid
physical examination every year.
Most scheduled airlines now require
applicants for flight engineer positions
to have a commercial pilot’s license.

This qualification is not generally re­
quired by the nonscheduled airlines.
Young men can acquire the knowl­
edge and skills necessary to qualify as
airline flight engineers through mili­
tary training as aircraft pilots, me­
chanics, or flight engineers. They may
also attend a civilian ground school
and then gain experience as an air­
plane mechanic.
For jobs as flight engineers, airlines
generally prefer men 21 to 35 years
of age, from 5 feet 6 inches to 6 feet
4 inches tall, and in excellent physical
condition. They require a high school
education but prefer men with 2 years
or more of college. Airlines prefer to
hire young men who already have a
flight engineer certificate and a com­
mercial pilot’s license, although they
do select applicants who have only a
commercial pilot’s license and give
them additional training.
A flight engineer can become a
chief flight engineer for his airline.
Advancement possibilities usually de­
pend on his qualifications and the
seniority provisions established by air­
line union-management agreements.
The flight engineer with pilot quali­
fications may advance on the basis of
his seniority to copilot, and then fol­
low the regular line of advancement
open to other copilots. Flight engi­
neers without pilot qualifications can
advance from less desirable to more
desirable routes and schedules as they
gain seniority.
Employment Outlook

Employment of flight engineers is
expected to increase rapidly during
the 1970’s as heavier jet-powered air­
craft replace piston engine planes not
now requiring flight engineers. This
development will contribute to the
employment growth in this field since
in most cases the third required crew
member will be a qualified pilot serv­
ing as a flight engineer until his pro­
motion to copilot. (See also the

Handbook statement for Pilots and


(D.O.T. 352.878)

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of flight engineers in
late 1966 ranged from $550 to $600 a
month for new employees to $1,730
for experienced flight engineers on
jet aircraft on international flights.
Many flight engineers earned be­
tween $1,000 and $1,500 a month.
Average monthly earnings for all
flight engineers in domestic opera­
tions was nearly $1,400; those em­
ployed on international flights aver­
aged nearly $1,700. The earnings of
flight engineers depend upon factors
such as size, speed, and type of plane;
hours and miles flown; length of
service; and the type of flight (such
as night or international). Engineers
are guaranteed minimum monthly
earnings, which represent a substan­
tial proportion of their total earnings.
Their flight time is restricted, under
the Federal Aviation Act, to 85 hours
a month. Flight engineers in inter­
national operations are limited to
100 hours a month, 300 hours every
90 days, or 350 hours every 90 days,
depending on the size of the flight
Many flight engineers belong to
the Flight Engineers’ International
Association. Some are represented by
the International Air Line Pilots
Association and some by the Inter­
national Association of Machinists
and Aerospace Workers.
Where To Go for More Information

Flight Engineers’ International Asso­
100 Indiana Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20001.

See the introductory section for ad­
ditional soures of information and for
general information on supplemen­
tary benefits and working conditions.

Nature of Work and Where

Stewardesses or stewards (some­
times called flight attendants) are
aboard almost all passenger planes
operated by the commercial airlines.
Their job is to make the passengers’
flight safe, comfortable, and enjoy­
able. Like other flight personnel, they
are responsible to the captain.
Before each flight, the stewardess
attends the briefing of the flight crew.
She sees that the passenger cabin is in
order, that supplies and emergency
passenger gear are aboard, and that
necessary food and beverages are in
the galley. As the passengers come
aboard, she greets them, checks their
tickets, and assists them with their
coats and small luggage. On some
flights, she may sell tickets.
During the flight, the stewardess
makes certain that seat belts are fas­
tened and gives safety instructions
when required. She answers questions
about the flight and weather, distrib­
utes reading matter and pillows, helps
care for small children and babies,
and keeps the cabin neat. On some
flights, she heats and serves meals that
have been previously cooked. On
other flights, she may prepare, sell,
and serve cocktails. After the flight,
she completes flight reports. On in­
ternational flights, she also gives cus­
toms information, instructs passengers
on the use of emergency equipment
and repeats instructions in an appro­
priate foreign language to accommo­
date foreign passengers.
About 21,000 stewardesses and
1,000 stewards worked for the sched­
uled airlines in late 1966. About 80
percent were employed by the domes­
tic airlines, and the rest worked for
international lines. Nearly all stew­
ards were employed on overseas
flights. Airliners generally carry 1 to
6 flight attendants, depending on the

size of the plane and what proportion
of the flight is economy or first-class.
Most flight attendants are stationed
in major cities at the airlines’ main
bases. A few who serve on interna­
tional flights are based in foreign
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Because stewardesses are in con­
stant association with passengers, the
airlines place great stress on hiring
young women who are attractive,
poised, tactful, and resourceful. As
a rule, applicants must be 20 to 27
years old, 5 feet 2 inches to 5 feet 9
inches tall, with weight in proportion
to height (but not to exceed 140
pounds), and in excellent health.
They must also have a pleasant speak­
ing voice and good vision. As of mid1967, some major airlines required
that stewardesses be unmarried; and
also required them to resign when
they married or shortly afterwards.
Stewardesses who can no longer
qualify for flying, such as those who
marry, may obtain jobs in other de­
partments, such as sales or public
Applicants for stewardess’ jobs
must have at least a high school edu­
cation. Those with 2 years of college,
nurses’ training, or business experi­
ence in dealing with the public are
preferred. Stewardesses who work for
international airlines generally must
be able to speak an appropriate for­
eign language fluently.
Most large airlines give newly hired
stewardesses about 5 weeks’ training
in their own schools. Girls may receive
free transportation to the training
centers and also may receive an al­
lowance while in attendance. Train­
ing includes classes in flight regula­
tions and duties, company operations
and schedules, emergency procedures
and first aid, and personal grooming.
Additional courses in passport and
customs regulations are given train­
ees for the international routes.
Toward the end of their training, stu-


Employment Outlook

Young women will have several
thousand opportunities ter get jobs as
stewardesses each year during the re­
mainder of the 1960’s and through­
out the 1970’s. Most of these openings
will occur as girls marry or leave the
occupation for other reasons. (About
40 percent of the employed stew­
ardesses leave their jobs each year.)
In addition, total employment of
stewardesses will grow very rapidly
as a result of the anticipated large in­
crease in passenger traffic.
Young women interested in becom­
ing stewardesses should realize that
thousands of girls apply for this type
of work each year because of the
glamour attached to the occupation.
Despite the large number of appli­
cants, the airlines find it difficult to
obtain enough young women who
can meet their high standards of at­
tractiveness, personality, and intel­
Earnings and Working Conditions

dents go on practice flights and per­
form their duties under actual flight
A few airlines which do not operate
their own schools may employ gradu­
ates who have paid for their own
training at private stewardesses’
schools. Girls interested in becoming
stewardesses should check with the
airline of their choice before entering
a private school to be sure they have
the necessary qualifications for the
airline, and that the school’s training
is acceptable.
Immediately upon completing
their training, stewardesses report for
work at one of their airline’s main

bases. They serve on probation for
about 6 months, and an experienced
stewardess usually works with them
on their first flights. Before they are
assigned to a regular flight, they may
work as reserve flight attendants, dur­
ing which time they serve on extra
flights or replace stewardesses who are
sick or on vacation.
Stewardesses may advance to jobs
as first stewardess or purser, super­
vising stewardess, stewardess instruc­
tor, or recruiting representative. Ad­
vancement opportunities often come
quickly because stewardesses work
only about 2 or 3 years, on the aver­
age, and then resign to get married.

An examination of union-manage­
ment contracts covering several large
domestic and international airlines
indicates that in 1966, beginning
stewardesses earned approximately
$413 to $475 a month for 80 hours of
flying time. Stewardesses with 2 years’
experience earned approximately
$475 to $567 a month. Those assigned
to piston flights usually earned ap­
proximately $30 a month less.
Stewardesses employed on domes­
tic flights averaged $466 a month in
late 1966; those working on interna­
tional flights averaged about $555.
Since commercial airlines operate
around the clock, 365 days a year,
stewardesses usually work irregular
hours. They may work at night, on
holidays, and on weekends. They are
usually limited to 80 hours of flight
time a month. In addition, they de­
vote up to 35 hours a month to
ground duties. As a result of irregular
hours and limitations on the amount
of flying time, some stewardesses may
have 15 days or more off each month.

Of course, some time off may occur
between flights while away from
Airlines generally use the seniority
bidding system for assigning home
bases, flight schedules, and routes.
Stewardesses with the longest service,
therefore, get the more desirable
The stewardess’ occupation is ex­
citing and glamorous, with opportu­
nities to meet interesting passengers
and to see new places. However, the
work can be strenuous and trying. A
stewardess may be on her feet during
a large part of the flight. She must
remain pleasant and efficient during
the entire flight, regardless of how
tired she may be.
Most flight attendants are members
of either the Air Line Stewards and
Stewardesses Association of the
Transport Workers Union of Ameri­
ca, or the Stewards and Stewardesses
Division of the International Air
Line Pilots Association.
See introductory section for gener­
al information on supplementary
benefits and working conditions.


instruments, or on sheet metal sec­
tions They frequently take apart a
complex airplane component, replace
damaged or worn parts, put the com­
ponent together, and test it to make
sure that it is operating perfectly.
A line-maintenance mechanic may
be instructed by the flight engineer or
lead mechanic as to the kinds of re­
pairs to make, or he may examine
the aircraft thoroughly to discover the
cause of malfunction. He then makes
the necessary repairs or adjustments
or he may install a new part; for in­
stance, he may replace an entire en­
gine when it cannot be repaired
quickly. Line-maintenance mechanics
must be all-round mechanics able to
to make repairs on all parts of the
plane. They may also have to do
maintenance work such as changing

spark plugs or adding fluid to a hy­
draulic system.
Aircraft mechanics employed in
general aviation usually do mainte­
nance and repair work comparable
with the work performed by linemaintenance mechanics. However,
the planes which these mechanics
service are smaller and less complex
than those flown by the airlines. One
mechanic frequently does the entire
servicing job with little supervision,
and he works on many different types
of planes and engines. Mechanics who
work for employers such as cer­
tificated supplemental airlines, airtaxi operators, and independent
repair shops may also do overhaul
work. Independent repair shops usu­
ally specialize in engine, instrument,
or airframe overhaul. (The airframe


(D.O.T. 621.281)
Nature of Work

Aircraft mechanics have the im­
portant job of keeping airplanes
operating safely and efficiently. Me­
chanics employed by the airlines work
either at the larger airline terminals
making emergency repairs on aircraft
(line-maintenance work) or at an
airline main overhaul base, where
they make major repairs or perform
the periodic inspections that are
necessary on all aircraft. These me­
chanics may specialize in work on a
particular part of the aircraft, such
as propellers, landing gear, hydraulic
equipment, airborne electronic com­
munications and control equipment,

Line mechanics service engine on jet aircraft.


consists of the plane’s fuselage, wings,
landing gear, flight controls, and other
parts which are not part of the engine,
propeller, or instruments.)
Aircraft mechanics use many dif­
ferent kinds of tools in their work.
These may range from simple handtools, such as screwdrivers, wrenches
and pliers, to large and expensive
machines and equipment designed to
diagnose troubles and help the me­
chanic correct them. Examples of
such equipment are propeller grind­
ing machines, electrical circuit test­
ers, and magnetic and black light
inspection equipment designed to de­
tect flaws and cracks in metal parts.
Where Employed

Over 45,000 mechanics were em­
ployed by the scheduled airlines in
late 1966. An estimated 46,000 me­
chanics and supervisory mechanics
were employed by independent re­
pair shops. A few thousand mechanics
also were employed by certificated
supplemental airlines, aerial applica­
tion and air-taxi firms, and businesses
that use their own planes to transport
their key employees or cargo. Many
other aircraft mechanics work in air­
craft manufacturing plants. (These
workers, whose duties are somewhat
different from those of airline me­
chanics, are discussed in the chapter
on Occupations in the Aircraft,
Missile, and Spacecraft Field.)
About 17,000 civilian aircraft me­
chanics were employed by the Air
Force in late 1966. Another 10,000
worked for the Navy. The FAA em­
ploys several hundred skilled men
with maintenance experience to in­
spect aircraft manufacturing plants;
examine airline and other commer­
cial flying organizations’ aircraft
maintenance methods, training pro­
grams, and spare parts stock; and
test applicants for FAA mechanic li­
censes. This agency also employs ap­
proximately 475 aircraft mechanics to
maintain its own planes. Most of these
men are employed at the FAA Aero­
nautical Center in Oklahoma City.
Some mechanics are employed by

other Government agencies, princi­
pally the National Aearonautics and
Space Administration and the Army.
Most airline mechanics are em­
ployed in the larger cities on the main
airline routes. Each airline usually has
one main overhaul base where more
than half of its mechanics are em­
ployed. Large concentrations of me­
chanics are employed in cities such as
New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San
Francisco, and Miami, all of which
are important domestic and interna­
tional air traffic centers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Mechanics responsible for any re­
pair or maintenance operation must
be licensed by the FAA as either an
“airframe mechanic” (to work on the
plane’s fuselage, covering surface,
landing gear, and control surfaces
such as rudder or ailerons) ; “powerplant mechanic” (to work on the
plane’s engines) ; “airframe and powerplant mechanic” (to work on all
parts of the plane) ; or as a “repair­
man” who is authorized to make only
specified repairs. Mechanics who
maintain and repair electronic com­
munications equipment are required
to have at least a Federal Communi­
cations Commission Second Class Ra­
dio Telephone Operator License.
At least 18 months’ experience
working with airframes or engines is
required to obtain an airframe or
powerplant license, and at least 30
months’ experience working with both
engines and airframes is required for
the combined airframe and powerplant license. However, this experi­
ence is not required of graduates of
mechanics’ schools approved by the
FAA. In addition to meeting these re­
quirements, applicants must pass a
written test and give a practical dem­
onstration of their ability to do the
work. Repairmen licenses are issued
to mechanics who are able to perform
those maintenance and repair opera­
tions for which their employers have
received FAA authorization.

Mechanics may prepare for the
trade and their licenses by working as
trainees or apprentices, or as helpers
to experienced mechanics. The larger
airlines train apprentices or trainees
in a carefully planned 3- or 4-year
program of instruction and work ex­
perience. Men who have learned air­
craft maintenance in the Armed
Forces are usually given credit for this
training towards the requirements of
apprenticeship or other on-the-job
training programs.
For trainee or apprentice jobs, the
airlines prefer men between the ages
of 20 and 30 who are in good physical
condition. Applicants should have a
high school or trade school education,
including courses in mathematics,
physics, chemistry, and machine shop.
Experience in automotive repairs or
other mechanical work is also helpful.
Other mechanics prepare for their
trade by graduating from an FAA ap­
proved mechanics school. Most of
these schools have an 18- to 24-month
program. Several colleges and uni­
versities also offer 2-year programs
that prepare the student for the FAA
mechanic examinations, and for jobs
as engineering aids and research and
development technicians in aircraft
Mechanics are generally required
to have their own handtools which
they must pay for themselves. They
usually acquire their tools gradually.
Several advancement possibilities
are available to skilled mechanics em­
ployed by the scheduled airlines. The
line of advancement is usually me­
chanic, lead mechanic (or crew
chief), inspector, lead inspector, shop
foreman, and, in a few cases, super­
visory and executive positions. In most
shops, mechanics in the higher grade
positions are required to have both
airframe and powerplant ratings. In
many cases, the mechanic must pass
a company examination before he is
To qualify for jobs as FAA in­
spectors, mechanics must have broad
experience in maintenance and over­

haul work, including supervision over
the maintenance of aircraft. Ap­
plicants for this job must also have
both airframe and powerplant ratings
or a combined rating.


Transport Workers Union of Amer­
ica. See introductory section for
sources of additional information and
for general information on supple­
mentary benefits and working condi­

Employment Outlook

The number of aircraft mechanics
employed by scheduled airlines is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s because of the substantial
increase in the number of aircraft in
operation. In addition to the openings
that will arise from employment
growth, a few hundred job openings
will result annually from the need to
replace mechanics who transfer to
other fields of work, retire, or die.
The very rapid growth anticipated
in general aviation flying will lead to
an increase in the number of aircraft.
Therefore, an increase is expected in
the number of mechanics employed
in firms providing general aviation
services, and the independent repair
shops that repair many of these air­
Employment opportunities for air­
craft mechanics in the Federal Gov­
ernment will depend largely on the
size of the Government military air­
craft program.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Mechanics employed by the sched­
uled domestic and international air­
lines earned, on the average, $665 a
month in late 1966. Other aircraft
mechanics generally had lower aver­
age earnings.
Airline mechanics work in hangars
or in other indoor areas, whenever
possible. However, when repairs must
be made quickly, which is sometimes
the case in line-maintenance work,
mechanics may work outdoors.
Mechanics employed by most
major airlines are covered by union
agreements. Most of these employees
are members of the International As­
sociation of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers. Many others belong to the


(D.O.T. 912.168)

Nature of Work and Where

Dispatchers (sometimes called
flight superintendents) are employed
by the airlines to coordinate flight
schedules and operations within an
assigned area; they also make sure
that all Federal Aviation Administra­
tion (FAA) and company flight and
safety regulations are observed. After
examining weather conditions, the
dispatcher makes a preliminary de­
cision as to whether a flight may be
safely undertaken. He frequently
must arrange to notify the passengers
and crew if there is any change from
the scheduled departure time. The
dispatcher confers with the captain
about the quantity of fuel needed, the
best route and altitude at which the
plane will fly, the total flying time,
and the alternate fields that may be
used if landing at the scheduled air­
port is hazardous. The dispatcher and
the captain must agree on all details
of the flight before the plane leaves
the airport. In some instances, the
dispatcher is also responsible for
keeping records and checking such
matters as the availability of aircraft
and equipment, the weight and bal­
ance of loaded cargo, the amount of
time flown by each aircraft, and the
number of hours flown by each crew
member based at his station.
After the flight has begun, the dis­
patcher plots the plane’s progress as
reported at regular intervals by the
captain by radio, and keeps the cap­
tain informed of changing weather

Airline dispatcher assists pilot in preflight

and other conditions that affect his
The assistant dispatcher helps the
dispatcher plot the progress of flights,
secure weather information, and han­
dle communications with aircraft.
In late 1966, only about 1,000 dis­
patchers and assistants were em­
ployed in scheduled domestic and in­
ternational operations, primarily at
large airports in the United States.
An even smaller number worked for
large certificated supplemental air­
lines, and for private firms which
offer dispatching services to small
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Dispatchers are required to have
an FAA dispatcher certificate. An ap­
plicant for such a certificate may
qualify if he has spent at least a year
engaged in dispatching work under
the supervision of a certificated dis­
patcher. He may also qualify by com­
pleting an FAA-approved dispatch­
er’s course at a school or an airline
training center. If an applicant has
neither schooling nor experience, he
may also qualify if he has spent 2 of



the previous 3 years in air traffic con­
trol work, or in such airline jobs as
dispatch clerk, assistant dispatcher,
or radio operator, or in similar work
in military service.
An applicant for an FAA dispatch­
er certificate must pass a written ex­
amination on subjects such as Federal
aviation regulations, weather anal­
ysis, air-navigation facilities, radio
procedures, and airport and airway
traffic procedures. In an oral test, he
also has to demonstrate his ability to
interpret weather information, his
knowledge of landing and cruising
speeds and other aircraft operational
characteristics, and his familiarity
with airline routes and navigational
facilities. A licensed dispatcher is
checked periodically by his employer
to make sure that he is maintaining
the skills required by Federal regula­
tions. All qualified dispatchers are
given additional instruction by their
airlines at special training centers so
that they may become familiar with
new flight procedures and with char­
acteristics of new aircraft. Each year
he is also required to “fly the line” as
an observer over the portion of the
system which he services, in order to
maintain his first-hand familiarity
with airline routes and flight opera­
For assistant dispatcher jobs, which
may not require certification, airlines
prefer men who have at least 2 years
of college or an equivalent amount of
time working in some phase of air
transportation, such as communica­
tions. Preference is given to college
graduates who have had courses in
mathematics, physics, and related
subjects. Some experience in flying,
meteorology, or business administra­
tion is also helpful.
Most airlines fill assistant dis­
patcher positions by promotion or
transfer from within the company.
Men are preferred who have had long
experience in ground operations
work. As a result, most openings are
filled by men who have been dispatch
clerks, meteorologists, or radio opera­

tors; a few jobs are filled by men who
have been pilots.


(D.O.T. 193.168)

Employment Outlook

The number of workers in this very
small occupation is not expected to
change much during the 1970’s. Most
new workers in this occupation will
be hired as assistant dispatchers or
dispatch clerks. Job openings for dis­
patchers will be filled mainly by pro­
moting or transferring experienced
persons already employed by the air­
The need for some additional dis­
patchers will result from the increase
in air traffic, the addition and exten­
sion of routes, and the extra diffi­
culties in dispatching jet aircraft.
However, these factors will be large­
ly offset by improved radio and tele­
phone communication facilities,
which allow dispatchers at major
terminals to dispatch aircraft at other
airports and over large geographic
areas. Foreign-flag airlines, which fly
between overseas points and cities in
the United States, will also provide
a few job opportunities for dis­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Beginning dispatchers earned be­
tween $700 and $800 a month in late
1966. Dispatchers with 10 years’ serv­
ice earned between $1,000 and $1,325
a month. Assistant dispatchers earned
$475 and over a month to begin and
up to $750 a month after 3 years. As­
sistant dispatchers with FAA certifi­
cates may earn $25 a month extra.
Most dispatchers are members of the
Air-Line Dispatchers Association.
Where To Go for More Information

Air Line Dispatchers Association,
243 West Maple Ave., Vienna, Va.

See introductory section for addi­
tional sources of information and for
general information on supplemen­
tary benefits and working conditions.

Nature of Work

Air traffic controllers are the guard­
ians of the airways. These employees
of the Federal Aviation Administra­
tion (FAA) give instructions, advice,
and information to pilots by radio in
order to avoid collisions and mini­
mize delays as aircraft fly between air­
ports or in the vicinity of airports.
When directing aircraft, traffic con­
trollers must consider many factors
including weather, geography, the
amount of traffic, and the size, speed,
and other operating characteristics
of aircraft. The men who control traf­
fic in the areas around airports are
known as airport traffic controllers;
those who guide aircraft between air­
ports are called air-route traffic con­
Airport traffic controllers are sta­
tioned at airport control towers to
give all pilots within the vicinity of the
airport weather information and take­
off and landing instructions, such as
which approach and airfield runway
to use and when to change altitude.
They must simultaneously control
several aircraft which appear as tiny
bars on a radar scope. They talk on
the radio first to one and then an­
other of the pilots of these planes,
remembering their numbers and their
positions in the air, and give each of
them different instructions. These
workers also keep records of all mes­
sages received from aircraft and op­
erate runway lights and other air­
field electronic equipment. They may
also send and receive information to
and from air-route traffic control
centers about flights made over the
Air-route traffic controllers are sta­
tioned at air traffic control centers
to coordinate the movements of air­
craft which are being flown “on in­
struments.” They use the written
flight plans which are filed by pilots
and dispatchers before aircraft leave



Air traffic controllers guide aircraft with radio and radar.

the airport. To make sure that air­
craft remain on course, they check
the progress of flights, using radar
and other electronic equipment and
information received from the air­
craft, other control centers and tow­
ers, and information from FAA or
airline communication stations.

port traffic controllers, employed at
airport control towers located at key
airfields. A few of these jobs are lo­
cated at towers and centers outside
the United States. About 6,600 airroute traffic controllers worked in 24
control centers scattered throughout
the United States.

be at least 21 years of age and able
to speak clearly and precisely. They
enter the field through the competi­
tive Federal Civil Service system after
passing a rigid physical examination,
which they must pass every year. Ap­
plicants must pass a written test de­
signed to measure their ability to
learn, perform the duties of air
traffic controller, and meet certain
experience, training, and related
Successful applicants for airport
traffic controller jobs are given ap­
proximately 8 weeks of formal train­
ing to learn the fundamentals of the
airway system, Civil Air Regulations,
and radar and aircraft performance
characteristics. Newly hired air-route
traffic controllers are given a slightly
longer period of basic instruction.
After completing this training, both
groups of controllers qualify for a
basic air traffic control certificate. At
an FAA control tower or center, they
receive additional classroom instruc­
tion and on-the-job training to be­
come familiar with specific traffic
problems. After about 6 months, they
generally qualify as assistant control­
lers and receive additional training.
This training is designed to simulate
emergency situations to determine the
assistant controller’s emotional stabil­
ity under pressure, stress, and strain.
Only after he has demonstrated his
ability to apply procedures, and to use
available equipment under pressure
and stress, may he work as a control­
ler. This usually takes about a year
from the time he becomes an assistant
Controllers can advance to the job
of chief controller. After this promo­
tion, they may advance to more re­
sponsible management jobs in air
traffic control and to a few top admin­
istrative jobs in the FAA.
Employment Outlook

Total employment of air traffic
controllers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Both the
About 13,500 air traffic controllers
were employed by the FAA in late
Applicants for positions as air- number of airport traffic controllers
1966. Of these, nearly half were air­ route or airport traffic controller must and air-route traffic controllers are
Where Employed

Training, Other Qualifications, and


expected to increase despite the
greater use of automated equipment.
Additional airport traffic control­
lers will be needed because of the
anticipated growth in the number of
airport towers that will be built to
reduce the burden on existing facili­
ties and to handle increasing airline
traffic. More airport controllers will
also be needed to provide services to
the growing number of pilots outside
of the airlines, such as those employed
by companies to fly executives.
A small number of additional airroute traffic controllers will be needed
during the next few years to handle
increases in air traffic. However, with
the expected introduction of an auto­
matic air traffic control system and a
further decline in the number of con­
trol centers, employment of air-route
traffic controllers is expected to de­
cline in the longer run.
A few hundred openings will occur
each year for both kinds of controller
jobs because of the need to replace
those workers who leave for other
work, retire, or die.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The monthly salary for air traffic
controllers during their first 6 to 12
months of training averaged about
$490 in late 1966. After this training
period, they receive $590 monthly
during their first year as an assistant
air traffic controller. Air-route traffic
controllers can earn over $1,000 a
month, depending on the type of
work they do. Airport traffic con­
trollers can earn from about $650 to
over $1,000 a month, depending on
the amount of traffic handled at their
facility and how long they have been
on the job. In addition, all traffic
controllers are eligible for periodic
wage increases. In areas that handle
extremely large volumes of air traffic,
a chief controller may earn $1,460
and over a month. These employees
receive the same annual leave, sick
leave, and other benefits provided
other Federal workers.
FAA controllers work a basic 40hour week; however, they may work

overtime, for which they receive
equivalent time off or additional pay.
Because control towers and centers
must be operated 24 hours a day,
7 days a week, controllers are peri­
odically assigned to night shifts on a
rotating basis. However, an additional
10 percent is paid for work between
6 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Because of the congestion in air
traffic, a controller works under great
stress. He is responsible for directing
as many as 10 to 20 or more aircraft
at the same time. He must simultane­
ously check flights already under his
control, know the flight schedules of
aircraft approaching his area, and
coordinate these patterns with other
controllers as each flight passes from
his control area to another.
See introductory section for sources
of additional information and for gen­
eral information on supplementary
benefits and working conditions.

erators and teletypists. They use
radio-telephones, radio-telegraph,
and teletype machines in their work.
In addition to providing pilots with
weather and navigational informa­
tion before and during flights, these
workers relay messages from air
traffic control facilities to other
ground station personnel and to
Where Employed

About 8,000 ground radio opera­
tors and teletypists were employed in
air transportation in late 1966.
Flight service station specialists em­
ployed by the FAA made up about
half of these employees. The sched­
uled airlines employed about 3,100
radio operators and teletypists. An
additional 375 were employed by a
cooperative organization which offers
the airlines, private pilots, and cor­
poration aircraft its services over a
centralized communications system.
A few hundred were employed by the
Army and Navy in civilian communi­
GROUND RADIO OPERATORS AND cations occupations.
FAA flight service station spe­
cialists work at stations scattered
(D.O.T. 193.282 and 203.588)
along the major airline routes; some
stations are located in remote places.
Ground radio operators and tele­
typists employed by the airlines work
Nature of Work
mostly at airports in or near large
Ground radio operators and tele­ cities.
typists transmit highly important
messages concerning weather condi­
tions and other flight information be­ Training, Other Qualifications, and
tween ground station personnel and
flight personnel. Radio operators use
Applicants for airline radio opera­
a radio-telephone to send and receive
spoken messages; some operators may tor jobs usually must have at least a
use a radio-telegraph to transmit third-class Federal Communications
written messages. Radio operators Commission radio-telephone or
occasionally may make minor repairs radio-telegraph operator’s permit.
on their equipment. Teletypists trans­ However, a second-class operator’s
mit only written messages between permit is preferred. They must also
ground personnel. They operate a be high school graduates and have a
teletype machine which has a key­ good speaking voice, the ability to
board similar to that of a typewriter. type at least 40 words a minute, and
Flight service station specialists em­ a basic knowledge of the language
ployed by the Federal Aviation Ad­ used in weather reports. Teletypists
ministration (FAA) do work similar must be able to type at least 40 words
to that of airline ground radio op­ a minute and have had training or



ices for pilots will be offset by im­
provements in equipment, and an in­
crease in two-way radios that permit
communications between pilots and
air traffic controllers. The number of
radio operators and teletypists em­
ployed by airlines will increase slowly
due to communications systems be­
coming more automatic and
Earnings and Working Conditions

The beginning salary for airline
radio operators who held the mini­
mum third-class permit generally was
between $388 and $490 a month in
late 1966. Workers who held a secondclass license generally received $10 to
$25 more a month. The beginning
salary for teletypists ranged from
$355 to $400 a month. Beginning FAA
flight service station specialists receive
between $440 and $480 a month, de­
pending on education and experience;
experienced communicators earn
from $640 to $835 a month.
Radio operators and teletypists in a
number of airlines are unionized. The
major union in these occupational
fields is the Communications Workers
Ground radio operators and teletypists process messages in radio room.
of America.
for sources
experience in operating teletype transferring into such higher paying of See introductory sectionand for gen­
additional information
equipment. Applicants for jobs as jobs as airline dispatcher or eral information on supplementary
radio operators and teletypists must meteorologist.
benefits and working conditions.
also have a knowledge of standard
codes and symbols used in communi­
Employment Outlook
To qualify for entry positions as
Openings for entry positions as
FA A flight service station specialists,
applicants must be at least 21 years radio operators or teletypists will TRAFFIC AGENTS AND CLERKS
old, pass a written test, and meet cer­ number less than a hundred each
(D.O.T. 912.368, 919.368)
tain experience requirements. Perma­ year during the 1970’s. These open­
nent appointments are made on the ings will occur as workers transfer to
basis of Federal civil service other fields of work, retire, or die.
Nature of Work
Overall employment of these work­
The airlines usually employ women ers may decline somewhat because of
Selling flight tickets, reserving seats
as teletypists, and an increasing num­ the use of more automatic communi­ and cargo space, and taking charge
ber are being hired as radio operators. cations equipment which permits of the ground handling of planes are
Both airline radio operators and tele­ communications for longer distances. some of the duties of traffic agents
The number of flight service sta­ and clerks. This group of workers in­
typists and FAA flight service station
tion specialists employed by the FAA cludes ticket or reservation agents and
specialists serve probationary periods,
during which time they receive on- is expected to remain about the same clerks, operations or station agents,
the-job training. Skill gained in com­ in the years ahead. Need for addi­ and traffic representatives.
munications is helpful experience for tional workers to perform more serv­ Reservation sales agents and clerks


Where Employed

About 33,000 men and women were
employed as traffic agents and clerks
by the scheduled airlines in late 1966.
A few thousand others were also em­
ployed by the supplemental airlines,
and by foreign-flag airlines that oper­
ate between the United States and
overseas points.
Traffic staffs are employed prin­
cipally in downtown offices and at air­
ports in or near large cities where
most airline passenger and cargo
business originates. Some are em­
ployed in smaller communities where
give customers flight schedule and airlines have scheduled stops.
fare information over the telephone.
Reservation control agents record
reservations as they are made and re­ Training, Other Qualifications, and
port the reservations by teletype ma­
chine to a central computer or to
clerks in other cities so that the same Traffic agents and clerks must deal
space will not be sold twice. They directly with the public, either in per­
also receive teletype messages inform­ son or by telephone. For this reason,
ing them of the sale of space. On some airlines have strict hiring standards
of the larger airlines, data processing with respect to appearance, personal­
systems receive, record, and transmit ity, and education. A good speaking
flight space information to personnel voice is essential because these em­
at airports and reservations offices ployees frequently use the telephone
throughout the entire airline system or public address systems. High school
at -great speeds. Ticket agents sell graduation generally is required, and
tickets and fill out ticket forms, in­ college training is considered desir­
cluding such information as the flight able. Experience with freight, pas­
number and the passenger’s name and senger, or express traffic in other
destination. They also check and
weigh baggage, answer inquiries branches of transportation is also
about flight schedules and fares, and desirable.
keep records of tickets sold. Traffic College courses in transportation,
representatives contact potential cus­ such as “traffic management” and
tomers in order to promote greater “air transportaton,” as well as ex­
perience in other areas of air trans­
use of the airlines services.
Operations or station agents are portation, are helpful for a higher
responsible for the ground handling grade job, such as traffic representa­
of airplanes at their stations. They tive. Both men and women are em­
supervise the loading and unloading ployed as reservation and ticket
of the aircraft and sometimes do this agents; however, most operations
work themselves. They see that the agents are men.
weight carried by the planes is dis­ Traffic agents may
tributed properly, compute gas loads traffic representative andadvance to
and the weight carried by the plane, A few may eventually movesupervisor.
up to city
prepare a list of the cargo, and keep
and district traffic and station man­
records of the number of passengers
carried. They may also make arrival ager. Some transfer to better pay­
and departure announcements and ing jobs with travel agencies or
prepare the weather forms that pilots to the traffic departments of big
use when they plan their routes.

Employment Outlook

Employment of traffic personnel
will increase rapidly over the 1970’s,
mainly because of anticipated growth
in passenger and cargo traffic. In ad­
dition to the thousands of opportu­
nities for new workers that will result
from this employment growth, addi­
tional opportunities will arise as young
women leave their jobs to marry or
rear children.
Most of the major airlines are in­
stalling new machines to record and
process reservations, keep records, and
perform a variety of other routine
tasks. Mechanization will affect the
reservation clerks in particular. The
employment of ticket agents, however,
whose main job involves personal con­
tacts, will not be affected very much,
although their paper work will be re­
duced considerably. The small group
of traffic representatives probably will
increase substantially as the airlines
compete for new business.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Limited wage data collected from
union-management contracts cover­
ing reservations and ticket agents em­
ployed by several airlines indicate that
their beginning salaries ranged from
$388 to $436 a month in early 1966.
Those workers with 5 to 8 years or
more of experience earned between
$456 and $514 a month. Station and
’operations agents started at about
$411 a month and progressed to about
$553 a month after several years.
Many reservation and transporta­
tion agents belong to labor unions.
Most of the organized agents belong
to the Transport Workers Union of
America or the Brotherhood of Rail­
way and Steamship Clerks, Freight
Handlers, Express and Station Em­
See introductory section for source
of additional information and for gen­
eral information on supplementary
benefits and working conditions.

ers. Electric utilities offer interesting
jobs and steady employment for men
and women in several thousand com­
munities throughout the country.
Nature and Location of the


Nearly every American home, busi­
ness, and community is dependent
upon electricity. There would be no
modern communication systems, no
highly mechanized industries, and
fewer of the appliances that have be­
come an indispensable part of every
day life without this most versatile
form of energy. Many types of work­
ers are needed to produce electricity,
develop additional markets for it, and
distribute it to the consumer. These
workers include power plant opera­
tors, linemen, electricians, engineers,
research scientists, salesmen, techni­
cians, meter readers, and office work­

The electric power industry in­
cludes about 3,600 electric utility
systems, which vary greatly in size and
type of ownership. Utilities range
from large interconnected systems
serving broad regional areas, to small
power companies serving individual
communities. Many utilities are in­
vestor owned (private) or owned by
cooperatives; others are owned by
cities, States, counties, and public
utility districts, as well as by the Fed­
eral Government. Utility systems in­
clude power plants, which make (gen­
erate) electric power; substations,
which increase or decrease the voltage
of this power; and vast networks of
transmission and distribution lines.
The delivery of electricity to the
user at the instant he needs it is the
distinctive feature of the operation of
electric power systems. Electricity
cannot be stored efficiently but must
be used as it is produced. Because a
customer can begin or increase his
use of electric power at any time by

How Electricity Is Made
And Brought To The Users
G e n e r a t i n g P la n t


H ig h V o lt a g e T r a n s m is s io n

merely flicking a switch, an electric
utility system must have sufficient ca­
pacity to meet peak consumer needs
at any time during the day or night.
Some utilities generate, transmit,
and distribute only electricity; others
distribute both electricity and gas.
This chapter is concerned with em­
ployment opportunities in those jobs
relating only to the production and
distribution of electric power.
In early 1967, private, cooperative,
and government utility systems com­
bined employed almost 460,000 work­
ers. Privately owned utilities and co­
operatives employed about 390,000
workers; Federal, State, and munici­
pal government utilities employed the
remaining 70,000. A few large manu­
facturing industries, which produce
electric power for their own use, also
employ some electric power workers.
Three principal groups of con­
sumers—industrial, residential, and
commercial—purchased about 95
percent of all electricity sold in 1966.
Industrial customers such as chemi­
cal, steel, aluminum, and automobile
plants purchased almost half of all the
electric power sold. Residential cus­
tomers purchased nearly 30 percent,
and commercial customers such as
stores, hotels, and office buildings
purchased about 20 percent.
Electric utility service now reaches
almost every locality and, therefore,
electric utility jobs are found through­
out the country. Hydroelectric power
projects have created some jobs even
in relatively isolated areas. Most utili­
ty jobs, however, are in heavily popu­
lated urban areas, especially where
there are many industrial users, or
where a large utility has its head­
Producing and distributing large
quantities of electrical energy in­
volves many processes and activities.
Chart 58 shows how electric energy
is generated, and how it travels from
the generating station to the users.
The first step in providing electrical
energy takes place in a generating sta­
tion or plant, where huge generators


convert mechanical energy into elec­
tricity. Electricity is produced pri­
marily in steam-powered generating
plants which use coal, gas, or oil for
fuel. Increasingly, new steam gen­
erating stations use nuclear energy as
fuel. A considerable amount of elec­
tricity is also produced in hydroelec­
tric generating stations which use
water power to operate the turbines.
Some generators, primarily for use in
standby service or to provide elec­
tricity for special purposes, are pow­
ered by internal combustion and gas
turbine engines.
After electricity is generated, it
passes through a “switchyard” where
the voltage is increased in order that
the electricity may travel long dis­
tances without excessive loss of power.
After leaving the generating plant,
electricity passes onto transmission
lines. These lines carry electricity
from the generating plant to substa­
tions where the voltage is decreased
and passed on to the distribution net­
works serving individual customers.
Transmission lines tie together the
generating stations of a single system
and also the power facilities of several
systems. In this way, power can be
interchanged among several utility
systems to meet varying demands.
Electric Utility Occupations

Workers are needed in many differ­
ent occupations to produce electric
power for instant use. About 10 per­
cent of the employees in this industry
work in occupations directly related
to the generation of electricity. About
20 percent are in jobs related to the
transmission and distribution of pow­
er to the customers. Another 20 per­
cent are in maintenance and repair
work and in jobs such as guard,
watchman, and janitor. Approxi­
mately 30 percent are employed in
administrative and clerical jobs, 10
percent in customer servicing jobs,
and 10 percent in scientific, engineer­
ing, and other technical occupations.

In addition to the powerplant,
transmission, and customer service
occupations (discussed in detail later
in this chapter), the electric power
industry employs large numbers of
workers in maintenance, engineering,
scientific, administrative, sales, and
clerical occupations. The latter occu­
pations are discussed briefly below.
Detailed discussions of these and other
occupations in the electric power in­
dustry and in many other industries
are given in the Handbook sections
covering the individual occupations.
Maintenance and Other Occupations.
A considerable number of workers are
engaged in maintaining and repairing
the equipment used by the electrical
utilities. The duties of these skilled
craftsmen are similar to those of main­
tenance workers in other industries.
Among the more important skilled
workers are electricians, instrument
repairmen, maintenance mechanics,
machinists, pipefitters, and boiler­
makers. Other workers are employed
as guards, watchmen, and janitors.
Engineering and Scientific Occupa­
tions. Many interesting job op­
portunities are available for engineers
and technical workers in electric
utilities. Engineers plan generating
plant additions, interconnections of
complex power systems, and installa­
tions of new transmission and distri­
bution equipment. They supervise
construction, develop improved
operating methods, and test the effi­
ciency of the many types of electrical
equipment. In planning modem
power systems, engineers select plant
sites, types of fuel, and types of plants.
Engineers also help industrial and
commercial customers make the best
use of electric power for equipment
and lighting. They stimulate greater
use of electricity by demonstrating the
advantages of electrical equipment
and suggesting places where elec­
tricity can be more effectively used.
Administrative and Clerical Occupa­
tions. Because of the enormous

amount of recordkeeping necessary to
run the business operations, electric
utilities employ a greater proportion
of administrative and clerical person­
nel than many other industries. Near­
ly a third of the industry’s work force
is employed in clerical and adminis­
trative jobs. Many of these workers
are women. Large numbers of stenog­
raphers, typists, bookkeepers, office
machine operators, file clerks, ac­
counting and auditing clerks, and
cashiers are employed. These workers
keep records of the services rendered
by the company, make up bills for
customers, and prepare a variety of
statements and statistical reports. An
increasing amount of this work in the
larger offices is now being performed
by electronic data-processing equip­
ment. This generally results in more
clerical work being done with the
same or fewer employees. The use of
this new equipment is also creating
some new jobs such as programer and
console operator. Administrative em­
ployees include specialized workers
such as accountants, personnel offi­
cers, purchasing agents, lawyers, and
Employment Outlook

Employment in the electric power
industry is expected to show little or
no change during the 1970’s, although
the production of electric power is
expected to increase substantially.
Several thousand job opportunities
for new workers will occur each year
during this period, however, because
of the need to replace workers who
retire, die, or leave the industry for
other work.
Industrial customers are expected
to use more electricity because of the
widening application of electric
power to industrial processes. Use of
electricity by residential customers is
expected to rise because of the rapid
growth in population and the num­
ber of households. In addition, resi­
dential customers are expected to in­
crease their use of electricity for

heating and air-conditioning, and for
an increasing number and variety of
appliances. The construction of new
stores and office buildings and the
modernization of existing structures
will expand the use of electricity by
commercial customers.
However, the growing use of auto­
matic controls in this already highly
mechanized industry makes possible
large increases in the production of
electric power with little or no in­
crease in total employment. For ex­
ample, since operators in generating
stations are needed chiefly to check
gages and control instruments, im­
provements in generating equipment
have made possible great increases in
the industry’s capacity and produc­
tion with only small increases in the
number of operators. Continuing de­
velopment of larger and more highly
mechanized equipment with many
automatic controls will result in a
decline in the number of these
operators. The employment of substa­
tion operators will continue to decline
because of the installation of com­
pletely automatic equipment in all but
the largest substations. Employment
decreases in these occupations may be
offset by the expected growth in the
number of maintenance and repair
craftsmen needed to keep the in­
dustry’s increasing amount of complex
machinery in working condition.
The employment of workers in
maintenance and repair of transmis­
sion and distribution lines is expected
to remain relatively stable. Fewer men
per crew will be needed to work on
electric power lines because of the
increasing use of mechanized equip­
ment for setting poles and for string­
ing and maintaining lines. However,
this reduction in jobs per crew may be
offset by the larger number of crews
needed to service the expanding dis­
tribution systems required by the
growing number of electric power
Because of the increasing use of
electronic data-processing equipment
for billing and recordkeeping, only a


small increase in office employment
is expected. However, the relatively
high turnover in office jobs will pro­
vide many additional openings for
new workers each year. Some increase
in employment is also expected in
administrative jobs; scientific, engi­
neering, and other technical jobs; and
in such areas as sales and market de­
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings in the electric utility in­
dustry are generally higher than in
other public utility industries and in
many manufacturing industries. In
mid-1967, earnings of nonsupervisory
employees in private electric power
utilities averaged $3.50 an hour or
$145.95 a week.
Many nonsupervisory electric util­
ity workers in production, transmis­
sion, and distribution departments are
union members. The bargaining rep­
resentative for most of these workers
is either the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers or the
Utility Workers Union of America.
Independent unions represent some
utility workers.
Because supplying electricity is a
24-hour, 7-day-a-week activity, some
employees must work evenings,
nights, and weekends. Most union
contracts with electric utilities provide
a higher rate of pay for evening and
night work than the basic day rate.
In 1966, most workers on the second
shift received from 7 to 17 cents an
hour more than the basic day rate,
and those on the third shift, from 9
to 24 cents an hour more.
Overtime work is often required,
especially during emergencies such as
floods, hurricanes, or storms. During
an “emergency callout,” which is a
short-notice request to report to work
during nonscheduled hours, the
worker is generally guaranteed a
minimum of 3 or 4 hours’ pay at I /2
times his basic hourly rate. Travel
time to and from the job is counted as

In addition to these provisions
which affect the workers’ pay, electric
utilities provide other benefits. An­
nual vacations are granted to workers
according to length of service. Usu­
ally, contracts or employee benefit
programs provide for a 1-week vaca­
tion for 6 months to 1 year of service,
2 weeks for 1 to 10 years, and 3 weeks
for 10 to 20 years. A number of con­
tracts and programs provide for 4
weeks after 20 years or more. The
number of paid holidays ranges from
6 to 12 days a year, depending on the
locality. Nearly all companies have
benefit plans for their employees. A
typical program provides life, hospi­
talization, and surgical insurance and
paid sick leave. Retirement pension
plans supplement Federal social secu­
rity payments and are generally paid
for in full or in part by the employer.
The number of injuries per million
man-hours worked is much lower in
this industry than in most manufac­
turing industries. Workers in some oc­
cupations in this industry are more
subject to accidents than others. Ac­
cidents occur most frequently among
the line and cable splicing crews. Be­
cause of the dangers of electrocution
and other hazards, electric utilities
and unions have made intensive ef­
forts to enforce safe working prac­
Where To Go for More Information

More information about jobs in
the electric power industry may be
obtained from local electric utility
companies, industry trade associa­
tions, or from the local offices of
unions which have electric utility
workers among their membership.
Additional information may be ob­
tained from:
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers,
1200 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
Utility Workers’ Union of America,
1875 Conn. Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.




Nature of Work

Operators are key workers in a
powerplant. They watch, check, con­
trol, and keep records of the opera­
tion of various kinds of equipment.
They must see that the equipment
functions efficiently and instantly de­
tect any trouble that arises. There are
four basic classes of operators—boiler,
turbine, auxiliary equipment, and
switchboard operators. In many new
steam plants, the duties of these op­
erators are combined, and operators
and their assistants are known as

steam operators, powerplant opera­
tors, or central control room opera­
tors. Of increasing importance in this
highly mechanized industry are the
maintenance men and repairmen, in­
cluding electrical, instrument, and
mechanical repairmen. Other powerplant workers include helpers and
cleaners, and custodial staff, includ­
ing janitors and watchmen. Coal han­
dlers are employed in steam generat­
ing plants that use coal for fuel.
Hydroelectric plants employ gate ten­
ders who open arid close the headgates
that control the flow of water to the
turbines. Supervision of powerplant
operations is handled by a chief en­
gineer and by his assistants, the watch

Boiler operators (D.O.T. 950.782)
regulate the fuel, air, and water sup­
ply in the boilers and maintain proper
steam pressure needed to turn the
turbines, on the basis of information
shown by gages, meters, and other
instruments mounted on panel
boards. One man may operate one or
more boilers. Boiler operators, of
course, are employed only where
steam is used to generate electricity.
Turbine operators (D.O.T. 952.138) control the operation of steamor water-powered turbines which
drive the generators. (In small plants,
they may also operate auxiliary
equipment or a switchboard.) Mod­
ern steam turbines and generators
operate at extremely high speeds,
pressures, and temperatures; there­
fore, close attention must be given
the pressure gages, thermometers, and
other instruments which show the op­
erations of the turbogenerator unit.
Turbine operators record the infor­
mation shown by these instruments
and check the oil pressure at bearings,
the speed of the turbines, and the cir­
culation and amount of cooling water
in the condensers which change the
steam back into water. They are also
responsible for starting and shutting
down the turbines and generators, as
directed by the switchboard operator
in the control room. Other workers,
such as helpers and junior operators,
assist the turbine operators.
Auxiliary equipment operators
(D.O.T. 952.782) check and record
the readings of instruments that indi­
cate the operating condition of
pumps, fans, blowers, condensers,
evaporators, water conditioners, com­
pressors, and coal pulverizers. Since
auxiliary equipment may go out of
order occasionally, the operators must
be able to detect trouble quickly,
make accurate judgments, and some­
times make repairs. Some small plants
do not employ auxiliary equipment
operators; these duties are performed
by turbine operators.
Switchboard operators (D.O.T.
952.782) control the flow of electric
power in the generating station from
generators to outgoing powerlines.
They usually work in a control room

which is equipped with switchboards
and instrument panels. Switches con­
trol the movement of electricity
through the generating station cir­
cuits and onto the transmission lines.
Instruments mounted on panelboards show the power demands on
the station at any instant, the power­
load on each line leaving the station,
the amount of current being pro­
duced by each generator, and the
voltage. The operators use switches to
distribute the power demands among
the generators in the station, to com­
bine the current from two or more
generators, and to regulate the flow
of the electricity onto various power­
lines to meet the demands of the users
served by each line. When power re­
quirements on the station change, they
order generators started or stopped
and, at the proper time, connect
them to the power circuits in the sta­
tion or disconnect them. In doing this
work, they follow telephone orders
from the load dispatcher who directs
the flow of current throughout the
Switchboard operators and their
assistants also check their instruments
frequently to see that electricity is
moving through and out of the powerplant properly, and that correct
voltage is being maintained. Among
their other duties, they keep records
of all switching operations and of
load conditions on generators, lines,
and transformers. They obtain this
information by making regular meter
In most powerplants constructed
in recent years, the operation of boil­
ers, turbines, auxiliary equipment,
and the switching required for effi­
cient balancing of generator output
has been centralized in a single con­
trol room. Here, central control room
operators or power plant operators,
by monitoring instrument panels and
manipulating switches, regulate all
the power generating equipment,
which in older plants requires spe­
cialists such as boiler and turbine op­
erators. Control room operators have
several assistants whose duties include







generating plant.

patrolling the plant and checking the
equipment. The central control room
operators report to the plant superin­
tendent or watch engineers when
equipment is not operating properly.
Watch engineers (D.O.T. 950.131)
are the principal supervisory workers
in a powerplant. They supervise the
employees responsible for the opera­
tion and maintenance of boilers, tur­
bines, generators, auxiliary equip­
ment, switchboards, transformers,
and other machinery and equipment.
Watch engineers are supervised by a
chief-engineer or a plant superin­
tendent who is in charge of the en­
tire plant.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

New powerplant workers generally
begin at the bottom of the ladder—
usually on cleanup jobs. Such work
gives beginners an opportunity to be­
come familiar with the equipment
and the operations of a powerplant.
They advance to the more responsible
job of helper, as job openings occur.
Formal apprenticeships in these jobs
are rare. Applicants are generally re­
quired to have a high school educa­
tion or its equivalent. Advancement

on the job depends primarily on
ability to master the skills required.
It takes from 1 to 3 years to become
an auxiliary equipment operator and
from 4 to 8 years to become a boiler
operator, turbine operator, or switch­
board operator. A person learning to
be an auxiliary equipment operator
progresses from helper to junior op­
erator to operator. A boiler operator
generally spends from 2 to 6 months as
a laborer before being promoted to the
job of helper. Depending on openings
and the worker’s aptitude, the helper
may advance to junior boiler oper­
ator and eventually to boiler operator,
or transfer to the maintenance de­
partment and work his way up to
boiler repairman. In most large cities,
boiler operators, who operate highpressure boilers, are required to be
Powerplant workers employed in
atomic-powered electric plants must
have special training to work with
fissionable, radioactive fuel, in addi­
tion to the knowledge and skills re­
quired for operation of conventional
steam generated electric power.
Turbine operators are selected
from among auxiliary equipment op­
erators in many plants. The line of
advancement in other plants is from
laborer to turbine helper. The helper
then may advance either to junior
turbine operator and eventually to
turbine operator, or he may transfer
to turbine repairman, depending on
job openings and his aptitude. Tur­
bine operators in most large cities are
required to be licensed.
Where a system has a number of
generating plants of different size,
operators first get experience in the
smaller stations and then are pro­
moted to jobs in the larger stations as
vacancies occur. New workers in the
switchboard operations section begin
as helpers, advance to junior oper­
ators, and then to switchboard op­
erators. They also may advance from
jobs in small stations to those in larger
stations where operating conditions
are much more complex. Some utility



companies promote substation oper­
ators to switchboard operating jobs.
The duties of both classes of operators
have much in common. Switchboard
operators can advance to work in the
load dispatcher’s office.
Watch engineers are selected from
among experienced powerplant op­
erators. At least 5 to 10 years of ex­
perience as a first-class operator are
usually required to qualify for a
watch engineer’s job.

Employment Outlook

The total number of jobs for pow­
erplant operators is expected to show
little or no change during the 1970’s,
although the production of electrical
energy will increase at a rapid rate.
However, several hundred job open­
ings for new workers will occur each
year because of the need to replace
operators who retire, die, or leave the
industry for other work.
The use of increasingly larger and
more efficient equipment is expected
to make possible great increases in ca­
pacity and production with little or
no increase in the number of powerplant operators. For example, one
operator can control a large modern
turbogenerator as readily as he can
control a much smaller one. Also, the
growing use of more automatic equip­
ment reduces the number of operators
needed, and makes it possible to di­
rect all operating processes from a
central control room.
Generally, running an atomic-pow­
ered plant requires about the same
number of employees as running a
steam-generating plant using more
common fuels.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of powerplant work­
ers depend on the type of job, the
section of the country in which they
work, and many other factors. The
following tabulation shows estimated
average hourly earnings for selected

Digitized 262-057 o — 68

powerplant occupations in privately
operated utilities in 1966:

Auxiliary equipment operator........ $3. 18
Boiler operator................................. 3. 55
Control room operator...................... 4.
Switchboard operator:
Switchboard operator, Class A . . 3. 72
Switchboard operator, Class B . . 3. 36
Turbine operator............................... 3.71
Watch engineer................................. 4.53

A powerplant is typically well
lighted and ventilated, clean, and or­
derly, but there is some noise from
the whirring turbines.
Switchboard operators in the con­
trol room often sit at the panel
boards, but boiler and turbine opera­
tors are almost constantly on their
feet. The work of powerplant opera­
tors is generally not physically
strenuous, particularly in the newer
powerplants. Since generating stations
operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week,
powerplant employees sometimes
must work nights and weekends.


Nature of Work

One-fifth of the workers employed
by electric light and power systems
are in transmission and distribution
jobs maintaining the flow of electric
power to the users. The principal
workers in transmission and distribu­
tion jobs are those who control the
flow of electricity—load dispatchers
and substation operators—and the
men who construct and maintain
powerlines—linemen, cable splicers,
troublemen, groundmen, and helpers.
Linemen make up the largest single
occupation in the industry.
Load dispatchers (D.O.T. 950.168) (sometimes called system oper­
ators or power dispatchers) are the
key operating workers of the transmis­
sion and distribution departments.
They control the flow of electricity

throughout the area served by the
utility. The load dispatcher’s room is
the nerve center of the entire utility
system. From this location, he con­
trols the plant equipment used to gen­
erate electricity and directs its flow
throughout the system. He telephones
his instructions to the switchboard
operators at the generating plants and
the substations. He tells the operators
when additional boilers and genera­
tors are to be started or stopped in
line with the total power needs of the
The load dispatcher must antici­
pate demands for electric power, so
the system will be prepared to meet
them. Power demands on utility sys­
tems may change from hour to hour.
A sudden afternoon rainstorm can
cause a million lights to be switched
on in a matter of minutes.
He must also be able to direct the
handling of any emergency situation,
such as a transformer or transmission
line failure, and to route current
around the affected area. Load dis­
patchers may also be in charge of
interconnections with other systems,
and they direct the transfer of current
between systems as the need arises.
The load dispatcher’s source of in­
formation for the entire transmission
system centers in the pilot board. This
pilot board, which dominates the load
dispatcher’s room, is a complete map
of the utility’s transmission system. It
enables the dispatcher to determine,
at a glance, the conditions that exist
at any point in the system. Lights may
show the positions of switches which
control generating equipment and
transmission circuits as well as high
voltage connections with substations
and large industrial customers. The
board may also have several recording
instruments which make a graphic
record of operations for future analy­
sis and study.
952.782) are generally in charge of a
substation and are responsible for its
operation. Under orders from the
load dispatcher, they direct the flow
of current out of the station by means
of a switchboard. Ammeters, volt-



Load dispatchers control flow of electricity through distribution lines.

meters, and other types of instruments
on the switchboard register the
amount of electric power flowing
through each line. The flow of elec­
tricity from the incoming to the out­
going lines is controlled by circuit
breakers. The substation operators
connect or break the flow of current
by manipulating levers on the switch­
board which control the circuit
breakers. In some substations, where
alternating current is changed to di­
rect current to meet the needs of
special users, the operator controls
converters which perform the change.
In addition to switching duties, the
substation operators check the oper­
ating condition of all equipment to
make sure that it is in good working
condition. They supervise the activi­
ties of the other substation employees
on the same shift, assign them tasks,
and direct their work. In smaller

substations, the substation operator
may be the only employee.
Linemen (D.O.T. 821.381) con­
struct and maintain the network of
powerlines which carry electricity
from generating plants to consumers.
Their work consists of installations,
equipment replacements, repairs, and
routine maintenance work. Although
in many companies the installation
of new lines and equipment is im­
portant, in other companies this work
is performed by outside contractors.
When wires, cables, or poles break,
it means an emergency call for a line
crew. Linemen splice or replace
broken wires and cables and replace
broken insulators or other damaged
In some power companies, line­
men specialize in particular types of
work. Those in one crew may work
only on new construction and others

may do only repair work. In some in­
stances, linemen specialize on high
voltage lines using special “hot line”
tools to avoid interruptions in the
flow of current.
Troublemen (D.O.T. 829.281) are
experienced linemen who are as­
signed to special crews that handle
emergency calls for service. They
move from one special job to an­
other, as ordered by a central service
office which receives reports of line
trouble. Often troublemen receive
their orders by direct radio communi­
cation with the central service office.
These workers must have a thor­
ough knowledge of the company’s
transmission and distribution net­
work. They first locate and report the
source of trouble and then attempt
to restore service by making the nec­
essary repairs. Depending on the na­
ture and extent of the trouble, a
troubleman may restore service in
the case of minor failure, or he may
simply disconnect and remove dam­
aged equipment. He must be familiar
with all the circuits and switching
points so that he can safely discon­
nect live circuits in case of line break­
Groundmen (D.O.T. 821.887) dig
poleholes and assist the linemen and
apprentices to erect the wooden poles
which carry the distribution lines.
The linemen bolt crossarms to the
poles or towers and bolt or clamp
insulators in place on the crossarms.
With the assistance of the groundmen, they raise the wires and cables
and install them on the poles or tow­
ers by attaching them to the insula­
tors. In addition, with assistance from
groundmen, linemen attach a wide
variety of equipment to the poles and
towers, such as lightning arrestors,
transformers, and switches.
Cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381)
install and repair underground lines,
performing about the same service as
the linemen do on the overhead lines.
When cables are installed, the cable
splicers pull the cable through the
conduit in which the cable is carried
and then join the cables at connect­
ing points in the transmission and



Linemen repair extra-high voltage transmission line.



distribution systems. At each connec­
tion in the cable, they wrap insula­
tion around the wiring. They splice
the conductors leading away from
each junction of the main cable, in­
sulate the splices, and connect the in­
sulated splices to the cable sheathing
by means of a lead joint. Most of the
physical work in placing new cables
or replacing old cables is done by
Cable splicers spend most of their
time in repairing and maintaining
the cables and changing the layout of
the cable systems. They must know
the arrangement of the wiring sys­
tems, where the circuits are con­
nected, and where they lead to and
come from. They must make sure
that the conductors do not become
mixed up between the substation and
the customer’s premises. The splicers
connect the ends of the conductors to
numbered terminals, making certain
that they have the same identifying
number at the remote panel box in
an underground vault as they have in
the control office. Cable splicers must
also make sure that the insulation on
the cables is in good condition.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Load dispatchers are selected from
among the experienced switchboard
operators and operators of the larger
substations. Usually, 7 to 10 years of
experience as a senior switchboard or
substation operator are required for
promotion to load dispatcher. To
qualify for this job, an applicant
must demonstrate his knowledge of
the entire utility system.
Substation operators generally be­
gin as assistant or junior operators.
Advancement to the job of operator
in a large substation requires from 3
to 7 years of on-the-job training.
Skilled linemen (journeymen) usu­
ally qualify for such jobs after about
4 years of on-the-job training. In
some companies, this training consists
of a formal apprenticeship program.
Under formal apprenticeship, there

Linemen work on transmission lines from "bucket truck.”

is a written agreement, usually worked
out with a labor union, which covers
the content of the training and the
length of time the apprentice works
in each stage of the training. The ap­
prenticeship program combines onthe-job training and classroom in­
struction in b l u e p r i n t reading,
elementary electrical theory, electrical
codes, and methods of transmitting
electrical currents.
The apprentice usually begins his
training by helping the groundman to

set poles in place and by passing tools
and equipment up to the lineman.
After a training period of approxi­
mately 6 months, the apprentice be­
gins to do simple linework on lines
with low voltage. While on this work,
he is under the immediate supervision
of a journeyman lineman or the line
foreman. After about a year, he is as­
signed more difficult work but is still
under close supervision. During the
last 6 months of his apprenticeship,
the trainee does about the same kind


of work as the journeyman lineman
but with more supervision. When he
begins to work independently, he is
first assigned simple, routine tasks.
After he acquires several years of ex­
perience and demonstrates a thorough
knowledge of the company’s trans­
mission and distribution systems, he
may advance from lineman to
The training of linemen who learn
their skills on the job is generally simi­
lar to the apprenticeship program; it
usually takes about the same length of
time but does not involve classroom
instruction. The worker begins as a
groundman and progresses through
increasingly difficult stages of linework before becoming a skilled line­
Candidates for linework should be
strong and in good physical condition,
since climbing poles and lifting lines
and equipment is strenuous work.
They must also have steady nerves
and good balance to work at the tops
of the poles and to avoid the hazards
of live wires and falls.
Most cable splicers get their train­
ing on the job, usually taking about 4
years to become fully qualified.
Workers begin as helpers and are then
promoted to assistant or junior splic­
ers. In these jobs, they are gradually
assigned more difficult tasks as their
knowledge of the work increases.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportunities
are expected to be available in trans­
mission and distribution occupations
during the 1970’s. Most of these op­
portunities will occur because of the
need to replace experienced workers
who retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work.
Some increase in the employment
of transmission and distribution
workers is expected, although em­
ployment trends will differ among
the various occupations in this cate­
gory. In spite of the need to construct
and maintain a rapidly growing num­
ber of transmission and distribution
lines, the number of linemen and

troublemen is expected to increase
only slightly becausevof the use of
more mechanized equipment. Some
increase in the number of cable splic­
ers is expected because of the growing
use of underground lines in suburban
areas. The need for substation opera­
tors will be reduced substantially
since the introduction of improved
and more automatic e q u i p m e n t
makes it possible to operate most
substations by remote control.
Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of transmission and
distribution workers depend on the
type of job they have, and the section
of the country in which they work.
The following tabulation shows the
average hourly earnings for major
transmission and distribution occupa­
tions in privately operated utilities in

Groundman..................................... $2.61
Lineman........................................... 3.81
Load dispatcher............................... 4. 57
Substation operator......................... 3. 71
Troubleman..................................... 3.82

Load dispatchers and substation
operators generally work indoors in
pleasant surroundings. L i n e m e n ,
troublemen, and groundmen work
outdoors and, in emergencies, in all
kinds of weather. Cable splicers do
most of their work in manholes be­
neath city streets—often in cramped
quarters. Safety standards developed
over the years by utility companies,
with the cooperation of labor unions,
have greatly reduced the accident
hazards of these jobs.


Nature of Work

Workers in customer service jobs
include those who install, test, and

repair meters, and those who read the
meters. Also in this group are com­
pany agents in rural areas and ap­
pliance servicemen working in com­
pany-operated shops which repair
electrical equipment owned by cus­
Metermen (D.O.T. 710.281) (or
meter repairmen) are the most skilled
workers in this group. They install,
test, maintain, and repair meters
on customers’ premises, particularly
those of large industrial and com­
mercial establishments. Some metermen can handle all types of meters,
including the more complicated ones
used in industrial plants and other
places where large quantities of elec­
tric power are used. Others specialize
in repairing the simpler kinds, like
those in homes. Often, some of the
large systems have meter specialists,
such as meter installers (D.O.T.
821.381) and meter testers (D.O.T.
710.281). Meter installers put in and
take out meters. Meter testers special­
ize in testing the small meters on
homeowners’ property and some of
the more complicated ones used by
commercial and industrial customers.
Meter readers (D.O.T. 239.588)
go to customers’ premises—homes,
stores, and factories—to read the fig­
ures on the meters which register the
amount of electric current used. They
record the amount of current used in
a specific period so that each cus­
tomer can be charged for the amount
he used. Meter readers also watch for,
and report, any tampering with
District representatives u s u a l l y
serve as company agents in outlying
districts, in localities where the utility
company does not have an office, and
where the small number of customers
does not justify the use of more spe­
cialized workers. Their work includes
reading meters, collecting overdue
bills, connecting and disconnecting
meters, and making minor repairs.
They receive complaints about serv­
ice and reports of line trouble and
send them to a central office for


Training, Other Qualifications, and

Metermen begin their jobs as help­
ers in the meter testing and meter
repair departments. Young men en­
tering this field should have a basic
knowledge of electricity. About 4
years of on-the-job training are re­
quired to become a fully qualified
meterman. Some companies have
formal apprenticeship programs for
this occupation in which the trainee
progresses according to a specific
Utility companies usually employ
inexperienced men to work as meter
readers. They generally accompany
the experienced meter reader on his
rounds until they have learned the
job well enough to go on the rounds
alone. This job can be learned in a
few days.

The duties of district representa­
tives are learned on the job. An
important qualification for men in
these jobs is the ability to deal tact­
fully with the public in handling
service complaints and collecting
overdue bills.

Employment Outlook

Little change in employment in
customer service occupations is ex­
pected through the 1970’s. The need
for meter readers will be limited be­
cause of the trend toward less fre­
quent reading of meters. Moreover,
automatic meter reading may become
more common and new meters will
require less maintenance. However,
a few job openings for metermen and
meter readers will occur each year to
replace those workers who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of customer service
workers vary according to the type
of job they have and the section of
the country in which they work. The
following tabulation shows the aver­
age hourly earnings for major cus­
tomer service jobs in privately oper­
ated utilities in 1966:

District representative..................... $3. 72
Meterman A .................................... 3. 84
Meterman B..................................... 3. 30
Appliance serviceman..................... 3.31
Meter reader.................................... 2. 89

The job of the meter reader is not
physically hard but involves consider­
able walking and some stair climbing.
Metermen and appliance servicemen
work indoors under typical repair
shop conditions except when repair­
ing or installing meters or appliances
on customers’ premises.

tional network stations. Nevertheless,
the talented individual will have
many opportunities to advance to
good paying jobs in stations located
in smaller communities.
Nature and Location of the

In early 1967, about 5,700 com­
mercial radio stations were in opera­
tion in the United States. Some 4,100
of these were AM stations (broad­
RADIO AND TELEVISION casting on frequencies between 540
and 1600 kilocycles), and 1,600 were
FM stations (broadcasting on fre­
quencies between 88 and 108 mega­
cycles) .
About 600 commercial television
The glamour and excitement as­ stations were in operation in early
sociated with radio and television 1967. Most of these were VHF sta­
make careers in broadcasting attrac­ tions which broadcast on channels 2
tive to many young people. The through 13; about 100 were UHF sta­
electronic technology involved in tions, which broadcast on channels 14
transmitting programs and the busi­ through 83. UHF stations generally
ness aspects of operating a broadcast­ employ fewer workers than VHF sta­
ing station or network also are attrac­ tions.
tions. In early 1967, there were about
Most commercial radio broadcast­
90,000 full-time and 21,000 part-time ing stations are small independent
staff employees in commercial broad­ businesses. In early 1967, the average
casting; altogether, over 55 percent AM radio station employed about 11
were employed in radio. Staff em­ full-time employees and about 3
ployees work for a broadcasting sta­ workers on a part-time basis. FM-only
tion or network on a regularly sched­ stations, on the average, employed
uled and continuous basis. In addi­ fewer employees—about 5 full time
tion to staff employees, several and 3 part time. Because they are
thousand freelance performers, such more complex, television stations have
as actors, musicians, dancers, comedi­ more staff. The average station had
ans, and top-level announcers work on about 70 full-time and 11 part-time
specific assignments from stations, employees.
networks, and other program pro­
Commercial radio stations are
ducers. (Several thousand other em­ served by four nationwide networks
ployees work for independent pro­ and a large number of regional net­
gram producers in activities closely works. Stations can affiliate with net­
related to broadcasting, such as the works by agreeing to broadcast their
preparation of filmed and taped pro­ programs on a regular basis. National
grams and commercials for broadcast­ radio networks have affiliated stations
in almost every large metropolitan
Broadcasting stations offer a variety area, although only a minority of all
of interesting jobs in all parts of the radio stations are affiliated with na­
country. Opportunities for entry jobs tional networks. Regional radio net­
are best at stations in small com­ works have fewer affiliated stations,
munities. Generally, the most spe­ and their activities usually consist of
cialized and best paying jobs are in arranging for the sale of advertising
large cities, especially those with na­ time, and interconnecting member

stations for special events such as
baseball and football games. Regional
networks have few full-time em­
ployees because their programing is
conducted by staff employees of the
affiliated stations. The four national
radio networks together employed
over 1,000 workers in early 1967.
Most television stations depend on
one or more of the three national
television networks for programs that
would be too expensive for individ­
ual stations to originate—for ex­
ample, sports events such as world
series baseball games or international
Olympic contests; broadcasts of
operas, plays, and musicals; and news­
casts of national and international
significance. These networks, in turn,
can offer national coverage to ad­
vertisers. Since some small cities have
only one or two television stations,
these stations often arrange to carry
the programs of two or three networks
in order to offer their viewers a wider
variety of programs. A typical net­
work television show may be carried
by up to 200 stations across the coun­
try. In early 1967, the three national
television networks employed about
11.000 workers, or 1 of every 5 staff
employees in television.
Almost every community of over
10.000 population has at least 1
broadcasting station (usually radio),
and a few of the largest metropolitan
areas have as many as 30 radio and
television stations. However, onethird of all radio stations are located
in communities of less than 10,000,
and most of these are in one-station
communities. Generally, television
stations are located in communities of
more than 25,000 population. About
three-fourths of all television stations
are in communities of 100.000 or
more. In contrast, over 60 percent of
all radio stations are in communities
of less than 100,000 population.
Practically all large broadcasting
stations are located in metropolitan
areas, but small stations are found in
big cities as well as small communities.
The largest proportion of broadcast­
ing jobs are in New York and Cali665



fornia because New York City and
Los Angeles are the two major cen­
ters for origination of network pro­
grams. Other large and heavily popu­
lated States, such as Illinois, Texas,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio, also have
many broadcasting workers because
of the large number of individual
In addition to commercial broad­
casting stations, there were over 300
noncommercial radio stations (mainly
FM ), and over 100 noncommercial
television stations, both VHF and
UHF, in early 1967. These stations
are operated by nonprofit organiza­
tions, principally educational agen­
cies such as State commissions; local
boards of education; colleges and uni­
versities; and special community
educational television organizations.
Relatively few full-time staff members
were employed in educational radio
and television stations; instructors
and students often help to operate
many of these stations, especially those
located on college campuses.

every sixth employee, and one-fourth
of all workers are engaged in some
aspect of business management.
These proportions vary widely among
individual stations, depending on sta­
tion size and type of programing.
Job duties vary greatly between
small and large stations. In small
radio stations, a large proportion of
broadcast time consists of recorded
music and weather and news an­
nouncements. As a result, small sta­
tions employ only a few workers, each
of whom performs a variety of tasks.
The station manager, who frequently
is also the owner, may act as business
and sales manager, or perhaps as pro­
gram director, announcer, and script
writer. Announcers in small stations
may do their own writing, often op­
erate the studio control board, and
may even act as salesmen. The engi­
neering staff may consist of only one
full-time broadcast technician assisted
by workers from the other depart­

ments on a part-time basis. Small lowpowered stations, which do not use
a directional antenna, may employ a
chief engineer on a part-time contract
basis, sharing his services with similar
stations in the community. In large
radio and television stations, jobs are
more specialized and usually are con­
fined to 1 of the 4 departments. The
kinds of jobs found in each of these
departments are described below.
Programing Department. The pro­
graming department plans, prepares,
and produces radio and television
programs. Staff employees plan the
station’s programing, produce the
daily and weekly shows, assign per­
sonnel to cover special events, and
provide general program services such
as music, sound effects, and lighting.
In addition to these staff employees,
freelance actors, comedians, singers,
dancers, some well-known announc­
ers, and other entertainers are hired

Broadcasting Occupations

Employees of broadcasting stations
generally specialize in 1 of 4 major
areas of work, although there may be
considerable “doubling in brass” in
small stations. Those concerned with
programing prepare and produce pro­
grams; engineering workers operate
and maintain the equipment that
converts sounds and pictures into
electronic impulses that can be picked
up on home receivers; sales workers
sell time to advertisers and develop
publicity and promotional material
for the station. The remaining em­
ployees handle general business mat­
ters, such as accounting, payroll, pub­
lic relations, personnel administration,
and the clerical work related to all the
station’s activities.
Almost one-half of all full-time
staff employees are in programing
work and 1 worker in 5 is employed
in the engineering department.
Workers in the sales, publicity, and
promotion departments account for

Television cameramen sometimes work outdoors.



for specific broadcasts or a series of
broadcasts or for special assignments.
These performers work on a contract
basis for the station, network, adver­
tising agency, sponsor, or an inde­
pendent company specializing in pro­
ducing programs. Many radio and
television entertainers also perform
in stage plays, motion pictures, night­
clubs, or other entertainment media.
The size of a station’s programing
department depends not only on the
size of the station, but also on the ex­
tent to which its broadcasts are live,
recorded, or received from a net­
work. In small stations, the program
functions are handled by a few peo­
ple who make commercial announce­
ments, read news and sports sum­
maries, select and play recordings,
and introduce network programs. A
large television station, on the other
hand, may have a program staff con­
sisting of a large number of people in
a wide variety of specialized jobs.
Responsibility for the overall pro­
gram schedule of a large station rests
with a program director. He arranges
for a combination of programs that
he believes will be most effective in
meeting the needs of advertisers who
buy the station’s services and will at
the same time be most attractive and
interesting to members of the com­
munity served by the station. He de­
termines and administers the station’s
program ing policy.

Daily schedules of programs are
prepared by a traffic manager, who
also keeps a record of broadcasting
time available for advertising. A con­
tinuity director is responsible for the
writing and editing of all scripts. He
may be assisted by a continuity writer,
who prepares Announcers’ Books
(“copy” ). These books contain the
script and commercials for each pro­
gram along with their sequence and
Individual programs or series of
programs are planned and supervised
by a director. In large stations, he
may work under the supervision of a
producer, who assumes responsibility
for selection of scripts, financial con­
trol, and other
 overall problems of

Program assistants help assemble and coordinate parts of show.

production. Sometimes these func­
tions are combined in the job of pro­
ducer-director. The director’s major
functions include selecting appropri­
ate artists and studio personnel,
scheduling and conducting rehears­
als, coordinating the efforts of all the
people involved in the show to pro­
duce effective entertainment, and di­
recting the on-the-air show. He may
be assisted by an associate director,
who takes over such tasks as working

out detailed schedules and plans, ar­
ranging for distribution of scripts and
changes in scripts to the cast, and as­
sisting in directing the on-the-air
show. Some stations employ program
assistants to aid in carrying out the
orders of the director and his assist­
ants. The assistants help assemble
and coordinate the various parts of
the show. They arrange for obtain­
ing props, makeup service, art work,
and film slides. They assist in timing



the on-the-air show, preparing cue
cards from the scripts and using them
to cue the performers. Education and
public affairs directors act as a link
between the station and schools,
churches, and civic and charitable in­
stitutions. They supervise and edit
most noncommercial programs.
Announcers are the largest and
best known group of program work­
ers. In radio and television stations
of all sizes, the announcer introduces
programs, guests, and musical selec­
tions, and delivers most of the live
commercial messages. (Further in­
formation on broadcast announcers
is given later in this chapter.)
Music is an important part of radio
and television programing. Both
small and large stations use record­
ings and transcriptions to provide
musical programs and background
music for other shows. Large stations,
which have extensive music libraries,
sometimes employ a music librarian,
who maintains the music files and
answers requests for any particular
selection or type of music. In addi­
tion to recorded music, a few of the
largest stations have specialized per­
sonnel who plan and arrange for mu­
sical services. The musical director
selects, arranges, and directs suitable

music for programs on general in­
structions from the program director.
He selects musicians for live broad­
casts and directs them during re­
hearsals and broadcasts. Musicians
are generally hired for particular as­
signments on a freelance basis, al­
though a few stations employ staff
musicians full-time.
News gathering and reporting is
an increasingly important aspect of
radio and television programing. In
addition to daily coverage of the
news, sports, weather, and, in rural
areas, farm reports, the news depart­
ment also presents special programs
covering such events as conventions,
.elections, and disasters. The news
director plans and supervises the
overall news and special events cov­
erage of a station. A newscaster
broadcasts daily news programs and
reports special news events on the

scene. A newswriter selects and writes
news copy to be read on the air by
the newscasters. In small stations the
jobs of newscaster and newswriter fre­
quently are combined.
Stations that originate live tele­
vision shows must have staff members
capable of handling staging jobs,
since staging a television show is sim­
ilar in many ways to producing a
professional stage play. The studio
supervisor plans and supervises the
setting up of scenery and props and
other studio and stage equipment for
broadcasts. The floor or stage man­
ager plans and' directs the actors’
positions and movements on the set
in accordance with the director’s in­
structions by relaying stage direc­
tions, station breaks, and cues. The
jobs of studio supervisor and floor
manager often are combined. Floormen set up props, hold cue cards, and
do the unskilled chores around the
studio. (This job is frequently held
by a beginner in the programing de­
partment.) Makeup artists prepare
personnel for broadcasts by applying
proper makeup, and maintain the
supplies and facilities necessary for
this work. Scenic designers plan and
design settings and backgrounds for
programs. They select furniture,
draperies, pictures, and other proper­
ties to help convey the visual impres­
sions desired by the director. Sound
effects technicians operate special
equipment to simulate sounds, such
as gunfire, thunder, or falling water
during rehearsals and broadcasts.
About half of all television pro­
graming is on film, about 15 percent
is live, and the remainder is recorded
on magnetic video tape. Video tape
recording is done by broadcast tech­
nicians on electronic equipment that
permits instantaneous playback of a
television performance. It can be
used either to record a live show be­
ing broadcast or to prerecord a pro­
gram for future broadcast. For filmed
programs, the role of the station’s
programing staff is limited to editing
the film and timing and scheduling
the show. Many stations employ spe­
cialized staff members to take care of

Technician rewinds video tape.

filmed program material. The film
editor edits all film and prepares it
for on-the-air presentation. This in­
cludes screening all films received as
well as cutting and splicing feature
films to insert commercials. He also
edits all locally produced film. The
film librarian catalogs and maintains
the station’s files of motion picture
film, which include not only com­
plete programs, but many short se­
quences that can be fitted into pro­
grams to create effects which are dif­
ficult to produce in the studio, such
as outdoor action.
Engineering Department. The engi­
neering department of a broadcasting
station is responsible for converting
the sounds and pictures of programs
into electromagnetic impulses that
can be received on home radio and
television sets. The main tasks of the
engineering staff are positioning mi­
crophones, adjusting levels of sound,
keeping transmitters operating prop­
erly, moving and adjusting television
cameras to produce clear, wellcomposed pictures, and lighting tele­
vision scenes and performers. The


staff also installs, maintains, and re­
pairs the many types of electrical and
electronic equipment required for
these operations.
The basic job in the engineering
department is that of the broadcast
technician who is qualified to perform
a variety of jobs in the radio or tele­
vision station. For example, these
technicians control the operation of
the transmitter to keep the output
level and frequency of the outgoing
broadcast within legal requirements.
They also set up, operate, and main­
tain equipment in the studio and in
locations from which remote broad­
casts are to be made. (Further in­
formation on broadcast technicians is
given later in this chapter.)
All stations employ a chief engi­
neer, who has responsibility for all
engineering matters, including super­
vision of other technicians. In small
stations, he also may work a regular
shift at the control board. The large
stations have engineers who specialize
in such fields as sound recording,
maintenance, and lighting. A few
development engineers are employed
by the networks to design and develop
new electronic apparatus to meet
special problems.
Sales Department. Broadcasting sta­
tions earn their income by selling
services to advertisers. These services
consist of the time on the air that is
allotted to the advertisers’ commer­
cials. Advertisers may buy time as
part of a regular daily or weekly show
with which they wish to identify their
product, or they may simply buy a
time segment or “spot” without spe­
cial reference to the program being
Time salesmen, the largest group
of workers in this department, sell
time on the air to sponsors, advertis­
ing agencies, and other buyers. They
must have a thorough knowledge of
the stations’ operations and the char­
acteristics of the area it serves that
are of most interest to advertisers,
such as population, number of radio
and television sets in use, income
levels, and consumption patterns.
Time salesmen in large stations often

maintain close relationships with par­
ticular sponsors and advertising agen­
cies, selling time and acting as general
consultants and advisers to these
clients in matters pertaining to ad­
vertising through the station. In very
small stations, the time salesman also
may handle other functions. Many
stations sell a substantial part of their
time, particularly to national adver­
tisers, through independent sales
agencies known as station representa­
tives, which act as intermediaries for
time buyers and stations or groups of
Large stations generally have sev­
eral workers who do only sales work.
The sales manager supervises his staff
of time salesmen, directing their
efforts and setting general sales policy.
He also may handle a few of the
largest accounts personally. Some
large stations employ statistical clerks
and research personnel to assist the
sales staff by analyzing and reporting
market data relating to the commu­
nity served, the significance of the rat­
ings of the station’s programs re­
ported by the rating services, and
other statistical information.
Business Management. Like other
businesses, broadcasting stations have
a considerable amount of administra­
tive work. In a very small station, the
owner and his secretary may handle
all the recordkeeping, accounting,
purchasing, hiring, and other routine
office work. Where the size of the
station warrants the employment of
full-time specialists, the business staff
may include accountants, publicity
specialists, personnel workers, and
other professional workers. They are
assisted by office workers such as
stenographers, typists, bookkeepers,
clerks, and messengers. Building
maintenance men are employed to
keep the facilities in good condition.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

A high school diploma is the mini­
mum educational requirement for
entry jobs in broadcasting, although

for many jobs some college training
is increasingly preferred. A liberal
arts education is a good qualification
for the beginner because broadcasting
needs broadly educated people with
knowledge and interests in many
areas. Work in television programing
for networks and large independent
stations generally requires a college
degree and some experience in the
broadcasting field.
Training in specialized areas such
as writing, public speaking, dramatics,
designing, makeup, or electronics may
be required of beginners in these
specialties, even though work experi­
ence usually is not necessary. Some
young people without specialized
training or experience get their start
in broadcasting in such jobs as clerk,
typist, floorman, or assistant to an
experienced worker. As these new
workers gain knowledge and experi­
ence, they have the chance to advance
to more responsible jobs. Young peo­
ple are sometimes hired on the basis
of their potentialities rather than for
any specific training or experience,
but the more skills, education, and
varied background these beginners
have, the better will be their chances
for advancement. A few young people
get started in broadcasting with tem­
porary jobs in the summer when reg­
ular workers go on vacations, and
broadcast schedules of day-lighthours stations are increased.
Technical training in electronics is
required for entry jobs in engineering
departments. In addition, anyone
who operates or adjusts a broadcast'
transmitter must have a Federal Com­
munications Commission Radiotele­
phone' First Class Operator License.
To obtain this license, an applicant
must pass a series of technical exam­
inations given by the Federal Com­
munications Commission. Small radio
stations with only a few employees
sometimes prefer to have as many per­
sonnel as possible legally qualified to
operate their transmitters. Because of
this, nontechnicians, especially an­
nouncers, will have a better chance
of getting a job in radio if they have
a first class license. A course in elec­

tronics at a recognized technical insti­
tute is probably the best way to pre­
pare for the FCC test.
Specific training or experience usu­
ally is not required for entry jobs as
announcers in small stations, but an
applicant must have a good voice,
a broad cultural background, and
other characteristics that make him a
dramatic or attractive personality.
Qualifications for administrative and
sales jobs in broadcasting are similar
to those required by other employers;
a business course of study in high
school or college is good preparation
for such jobs.
Most beginners start out in small
stations. Although these stations can­
not pay high salaries, they offer new
workers opportunities to learn many
different phases of broadcasting work
because they generally use their per­
sonnel in “combination” jobs. For ex­
ample, in addition to his regular
duties, an announcer may perform
some of the duties of a broadcast
Women make up about a fourth of
broadcasting staff employment. They
seldom are employed as technicians,
announcers, or salesmen, but fre­
quently work as production assistants,
producers, newswriters, continuity
writers, casting directors, costume or
set designers, and supervisors of reli­
gious and children’s programs. They
also work in the many office occupa­
tions often filled by women. A job as
secretary is frequently a good entry
job for women interested in the pro­
graming and administrative areas of
People in the engineering depart­
ment tend to remain in this area of
work, where thorough training in
electronics is essential. Program em­
ployees usually remain in program­
ing work, although sometimes trans­
fers from and to the sales and business
services departments are made.
Transfers are easier between sales and
administrative departments because
of their close working relationship; in
fact, in the small stations, they are
often merged into one department.
Although transfers of experienced


workers between departments are lim­
ited to the extent noted, these distinc­
tions are less important in the begin­
ning jobs and also in the top-level
jobs. At the higher levels, a station
executive may be drawn from toplevel personnel of any department.
Many top-level administrative jobs
are filled by people with sales

Employment Outlook

Employment in the broadcasting
industry is expected to increase slowly
during the 1970’s. In addition to job
opportunities resulting from growth,
job openings will become available as
workers transfer to other fields of
work, retire, or die. Retirements and
deaths alone will provide an estimated
2,000 job openings annually.
Although new radio and television
broadcasting stations will be estab­
lished over the period, most will be
small and require few employees. In
existing radio stations, employment
probably will remain about the same.
Continued introduction of equipment
that permits the control of transmit­
ters from the studio will eliminate the
need for a technical crew at the trans­
mitter site. Automatic programming
equipment permits radio stations to
provide virtually unattended pro­
graming service. These technological
advances will tend to offset employ­
ment gains in other areas of station
Employment in existing television
stations may increase slightly as they
continue to broaden the scope of their
service, such as more local newscasts
and locally produced shows. As more
of the smaller stations acquire the
capability to originate local color tele­
casts, there may be a small expansion
in the number of technical workers to
handle and operate the more complex
The number of educational broad­
casting stations is expected to increase
rapidly as private and governmental
groups—local, State, and Federal—continue to expand this medium as an

educational tool. The growth of edu­
cational television stations, particu­
larly, should provide an increasing
number of job opportunities, espe­
cially in programing, engineering,
and station management.
Competition will be very keen for
entry jobs in broadcasting in the years
ahead, especially in the large cities,
because of the attraction this field
has for young people, and the rela­
tively few beginning jobs that will be

Earnings and Working Conditions

In late 1966, earnings of nonsupervisory broadcasting workers aver­
aged $154.40 a week or $3.86 an hour
for a 40-hour workweek. There is a
wide range of salaries among various
occupations in the industry and
among locations. Employees in large
cities generally earn much more than
those in the same kinds of jobs in
small towns. Wages also tend to be
higher in large stations than in small
ones and higher in television than in
Working conditions in broadcast­
ing stations are usually pleasant. The
work is done in clean, attractive sur­
roundings. It is performed indoors,
except where remote pickups are in­
volved. Jobs in programing are par­
ticularly attractive to young people
interested in the performing arts, both
because of the glamour attached to
this field of work, and the opportuni­
ties it affords for high earnings and
artistic expression.
Most broadcasting employees have
a scheduled 40-hour workweek. How­
ever, some employees, particularly in
the small stations, may have a longer
workweek. Sales and business services
workers generally work in the day­
time hours common to most office
jobs. However, program and engi­
neering employees must work shifts
which may include evenings, nights,
weekends, and holidays. In order to
meet a broadcast deadline, program
and technical employees in the net­
works may have to work continuously



for many hours and under great
Many unions operate in the broad­
casting field. They are most active in
the network centers and large stations
in metropolitan areas. The National
Association of Broadcast Employees
and Technicians and the Interna­
tional Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers both organize all kinds of
broadcasting workers, although most
of their members are technicians.
The International Alliance of The­
atrical Stage Employees and Moving
Picture Machine Operators organizes
various crafts, such as stagehands,
sound and lighting technicians, ward­
robe attendants, makeup men, and
cameramen. Many announcers and
entertainers are members of the
American Federation of Television
and Radio Artists. The Directors
Guild of America, Inc. (Ind.) or­
ganizes program directors, associate
directors, and stage managers. The
Screen Actors Guild Inc., represents
the majority of talent personnel who
appear on films made for television.

(D.O.T. 159.148)
Announcers have various duties, such as conducting interviews.

Nature of Work

Radio and television staff an­
nouncers present news and live
commercial messages, introduce pro­
grams, describe sporting events, act
as masters of ceremonies, conduct
interviews, and identify stations. In
small stations, they may perform ad­
ditional duties such as operating the
control board, selling time, and
writing scripts and news copy. In
large stations, their duties are con­
fined to the programing department.
Many announcers act as disc
jockeys, introducing selections of
recorded music and commenting on
the music and other matters of inter­

est to the audience. Disc jockeys “ad­
lib” much of the commentary, work­
ing without a detailed script.
About 14,000 staff announcers
were employed on a regularly
scheduled, full-time basis in radio and
television broadcasting stations in
early 1967. About 85 percent of them
were employed in radio. The average
radio station employed 3 or 4 an­
nouncers; larger stations employed 8
or 10. Most television stations em­
ployed three staff announcers, al­
though larger stations sometimes em­
ployed five or six. In addition to staff
announcers, several thousand free­
lance announcers sell their services

for individual assignments to net­
works and stations, or to advertising
agencies and other independent
producers, for both programs (news,
sports, disc jockey, etc.) and com­
mercials. Some announcers become
well-known and highly paid person­

Training, Other Qualifications, and

To succeed as an announcer, one
must have a pleasant and well-con­
trolled voice, a good sense of timing,
and excellent pronunciation. In

addition, a thorough knowledge of
correct English usage, and a knowl­
edge of dramatics, sports, music, and
current events, improve chances for
success. In television, rather high
standards of personal appearance
also must be met. When on the air,
an announcer must be able to react
quickly and imaginatively in unusual
situations. He also must be a convinc­
ing salesman when presenting com­
mercials. In addition to all the above
qualifications, the most successful
announcers have a combination of
personality and showmanship that
makes them attractive to audiences.
Therefore, anyone considering a
career as an announcer should judge
his chances of success realistically.
Most announcers are men, but there
are a few opportunities for women,
especially in programs and commer­
cials aimed at women.
High school courses in English,
public speaking, dramatics, and for­
eign languages, plus sports and music
hobbies, are valuable background for
prospective announcers. A number of
vacational schools offer training in
announcing, and some universities
offer courses of study in the broad­
casting field. A college liberal arts
education also provides an excellent
background for an announcer.
Most announcers get their first
broadcasting jobs in small stations.
Because announcers in small stations
sometimes operate transmitters, pro­
spective announcers often obtain a
Federal Communications Commis­
sion Radiotelephone First Class Op­
erator License which enable them
legally to operate a transmitter and,
therefore, makes them much more
useful to these stations. Announcers
more frequently operate control
boards, for which only a Third Class
license is required. (For information
on how to obtain such licenses, see
p. 669.)
Announcers usually work in several
different stations in the course of their
careers. After acquiring experience at
a station in a small community, an
ambitious and talented announcer
may move to a better paying job in a


larger community. He also may ad­
vance by getting a regular program
as a disc jockey, sportscaster, or other
specialist. Competition for announc­
ing jobs in the national networks is
intense, and an announcer usually
must be a college graduate with sev­
eral years of successful announcing
experience before he will be given an

Employment Outlook

The employment of announcers is
expected to increase moderately in
the 1970’s, as new radio and tele­
vision stations are opened. The gains
in employment resulting from these
openings during this period, how­
ever, will be reduced slightly by the
increased use of automatic program­
ing. Some job openings in this
relatively small occupation will also
result from transfers to other fields
of work and from retirements and
deaths. The growth of the industry
and replacement needs will create, on
the average, several hundred open­
ings for announcers each year through
the 1970’s.
It will be easier to get an entry
job in radio than in television because
of the greater number of radio sta­
tions, especially small stations, which
hire beginners. However, the great
attraction this field has for young
people and its relatively small size
will result in keen competition for
entry jobs.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of staff announcers vary
whether the announcer works in
radio or televison, in a large or small
station, or in a large or small com­
munity. As a general rule, wages in­
crease with the size of the community
and the station. Earnings of an an­
nouncer in television tend to be some­
what higher than those in radio.
The earnings of many better paid
announcers i n c l u d e fees received
from advertisers in addition to the

salaries received from stations. Such
fees are larger and more common in
television than in radio. In small
radio stations, announcers generally
are paid a fixed weekly or monthly
salary. Announcers who work in reg­
ular shows, such as disc jockeys or
announcers who become identified
with popular network radio or tele­
vision programs, earn considerably
more than other staff announcers.
Most announcers in large stations
work a 40-hour week and receive
overtime for work beyond 40 hours.
In small stations, many announcers
work 2 to 6 hours of overtime each
week. Evening, night, and weekend
work occurs frequently since some
stations are on the air 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. Announcers’ working
hours consist of both time on the air
and time spent in preparing for
broadcasts. Working conditions are
usually pleasant because of the vari­
ety of work and the many personal
contacts which are part of the job.
Announcers also receive some satis­
faction from becoming well known in
the area their station serves.

(D.O.T. 194.281, .282, and .782;
957.282; and 963.168 through .887)

Nature of Work

Broadcast technicians set up, op­
erate, and maintain the electronic
equipment used to record or trans­
mit radio and television programs.
They work with equipment such as
microphones, sound recorders, light­
ing equipment, sound effects devices,
television cameras, magnetic video
tape recorders, and motion picture
projection equipment. In the control
room, broadcast technicians operate
equipment that regulates the quality
of sounds and pictures being record­
ed or broadcast. They also operate
controls that switch broadcasts from


one camera or studio to another,
from film to live programing, or
from network to local programs.
From the control room, they give
technical directions to personnel in
the studio by means of hand signals
and, in television, by use of telephone
headsets. When working on disc
jockey programs, they sometimes
operate phonograph record turn­
tables. Other control room duties
may include operating movie pro­
jectors, making recordings of live
shows, and keeping an operation log
of all broadcasts.
As a rule, broadcast technicians in
small stations perform a wide variety
of duties. In large stations and in net­
works, technicians are more special­

ized, although specific job assign­
ments may change from day to day.
Broadcast technicians who specialize
may be given titles such as transmit­
ter technician (monitors and logs
outgoing signals and is responsible
for proper operation of the trans­
mitter) , maintenance technician (sets
up, maintains, and repairs elec­
tronic broadcasting e q u i p m e n t ) ,
audio control technician (operates
controls that regulate sound pickup,
transmission, and switching), video
control technician (operates controls
that regulate the quality, brightness,
and contrast of television pictures),
lighting technician (directs lighting
of television programs), field techni­
cian (sets up and operates broad­

Maintenance technicians service complex electronic broadcasting equipment.

c a s t i n g equipment for programs
originating outside the studio), re­
cording technician (operates and
maintains sound recording equip­
ment), and video tape recording
technician (operates and maintains
magnetic video tape recording equip­
ment). Sometimes the term “engi­
neer” is substituted for technician in
the above titles.
Installing and maintaining com­
plex electronic equipment is the most
technically difficult work of broad­
cast technicians. Most technicians do
at least occasional maintenance, but
large stations usually have one or
two experienced men whose - chief
duties are to repair and maintain
electronic equipment under super­
vision of the chief engineer. In small
radio stations, the chief engineer
frequently does all maintenance and
repair work himself.
When events taking place outside
the studios are to be broadcast,
technicians go to the site of the pick­
up and set up, test, and operate the
necessary equipment. They also make
emergency repairs. After the broad­
cast, they dismantle the equipment
and return to the station.
In early 1967, about 20,000 nonsupervisory broadcast technicians
were employed in radio and televi­
sion stations. Most radio stations
employing fewer than four techni­
cians, although a few large radio
stations may employ more than 15.
Nearly all television stations employ
at least five broadcast technicians
with the average large station having
about 45. A few of the largest televi­
sion stations may employ more than
75. The majority of broadcast tech­
nicians work in communities of more
than 250,000 population. The highest
paying and most specialized jobs are
concentrated in New York, Los An­
geles, Washington, D.C., and Chi­
cago, the originating centers for most
of the network programs.
In addition to the nonsupervisory
technicians, several thousand super­
visory personnel with job titles such
as chief engineer, assistant chief
engineer, director of engineering,



Technician regulates transmission from radio
station control room.

technical director, and supervisory
technician work in engineering de­
partments. Supervisory personnel are
responsible for the operation, main­
tenance, and repair of all electronic
equipment in the studio, at the trans­
mitter, and on remote broadcasting
sites. They may also do maintenance
and repair work, design and build
new equipment, purchase equipment
for the station, and help lay out plans
for building new studios, transmit­
ters, relay equipment, and towers.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

A young man interested in becom­
ing a broadcast technician should
plan on getting a Radiotelephone
First Class Operator License from the
Federal Communications Commis­
sion. Federal law requires that any­
one who operates or adjusts broad­
cast transmitters in television and ra­
dio stations must hold such a license.
Some stations require all their broad­
cast technicians, including those who
do not operate transmitters, to have
this license. Applicants for the license
must pass a series of written examina­
tions covering the construction and
operation of transmission and receiv­
ing equipment, the characteristics of
electromagnetic waves, and Federal
Government and international regu­
 and practices governing

broadcasting. Information about
these examinations and guides to
study for them may be obtained from
the Federal Communications Com­
mission, Washington, D.C. 20554.
High school courses in algebra and
trigonometry, and in physics and
other sciences, provide valuable back­
ground for young men anticipating
careers in this occupation. Building
and operating an amateur radio sta­
tion is also good training. A good
way to acquire the knowledge neces­
sary for becoming a broadcast tech­
nician is to take an electronics course
in a technical school. Many schools
give courses especially designed to
prepare the student for the FCC firstclass license test. Training at the tech­
nical school or college level is a dis­
tinct advantage for those who hope to
advance to supervisory positions or to
the more specialized jobs in large sta­
tions and in the networks.
Young men with FCC first-class li­
censes who get entry jobs are in­
structed and advised by the chief en­
gineer or other experienced techni­
cians concerning the work procedures
of the station. In small stations, they
may start by operating the transmitter
and handling other technical duties
after a brief instruction period. As
they acquire more experience and
skill, they are assigned to more re­
sponsible jobs. Men who demonstrate
above-average ability may move into
the top-level technical positions, such
as supervisory technician and chief
engineer. A college degree in engi­
neering is becoming increasingly im­
portant for advancement to supervi­
sory positions.
Employment Outlook

The number of broadcast techni­
cians is expected to increase only
slightly during the 1970’s. Retire­
ments, deaths, and transfers to other
jobs will result in some additional job
Some job opportunities for tech­
nicians will be provided by the new
radio and television stations expected
to go on the air during this period.

In addition, color television broad­
casting may slightly increase the need
for technicians. Color television pick­
up and transmitting equipment is
much more complicated than black
and white equipment and requires
more maintenance and technical
know-how. However, other technical
advances, such as automatic switch­
ing and programing, automatic op­
eration logging, and remote control
of transmitters will limit the increase
in job opportunities in the new sta­
tions and replacement needs in exist­
ing stations.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of broadcast technicians
vary greatly depending on such fac­
tors as the size and location of the
community a station serves, the size
of the station, whether he works in
a radio or television station, and the
experience of the individual. As a
rule, technicians’ wages are highest
in large cities and in large stations.
Technicians employed by television
stations usually are paid more than
those working for radio stations be­
cause television equipment is gener­
ally more complex.
Most technicians in large stations
work a 40-hour week with overtime
pay for work beyond 40 hours. Many
broadcast technicians in the larger
cities work a 37-hour week. In small
stations, many technicians work 2 to
8 hours of overtime each week. Eve­
ning, night, and weekend work occurs
frequently since some stations are on
the air as many as 24 hours a day, 7
days a week. Network technicians
may occasionally have to work con­
tinuously for many hours and under
great pressure in order to meet broad­
cast deadlines.
Broadcast technicians generally
work indoors in pleasant surround­
ings. The work is interesting, and
there is often considerable variety of
duties. When remote pickups are
made, however, technicians may
work out of doors at some distance
from the studios, under less favorable

his way up by learning his job, prov­
ing his ability, and acquiring the se­
niority which will enable him to

Nature and Location of the


The railroads, with their network
of more than 200,000 miles of rail
line reaching into all parts of the
country, are one of the Nation’s larg­
est employers. About two-thirds of a
million railroad workers were em­
ployed in early 1967, operating trains,
looking after the needs of the travel­
ing public, maintaining and repair­
ing facilities and equipment, and
carrying on the hundreds of other ac­
tivities required in this industry.
These activities offer a great variety
of interesting careers requiring differ­
ent kinds of skills and levels of educa­
tion. In most railroad occupations, a
worker starts at the bottom and works

The railroad industry is made up
of “line-haul” railroad companies
which transport freight and passen­
gers between cities and towns, and
switching and terminal companies
which operate facilities at stations,
freight yards, and other terminal
points. About 570 of these railroad
companies were operating in 1966.
In addition, the Pullman Co. per­
formed special services for passengers
traveling on these railroads.
The Class I line-haul railroads,
which include all of the large, wellknown companies, handle more than
95 percent of the railroad industry’s
business and employ about 92 per­
cent of all railroad workers. With
nearly 28,000 locomotive units, about
20,000 passenger train cars, and about
1.5 million freight cars, they trans­
ported more than 2.5 billion tons of
freight and 300 million passengers in
1966. Employment and earnings data
for jobs on Class I line-haul railroads

are used in this chapter to illustrate
employment and earnings throughout
the entire railroad industry.
Of the various transportation serv­
ices provided by the railroads, freight
movement of commodities, such as
coal, ore, grain, lumber, and manu­
factured products, account for most
railroad revenue and employment.
Passenger service is important also,
although it has declined substantially
during the past 20 years. Other
railroad services include mail and
Railroad workers are employed in
every State and in both large and
small communities, but the greatest
numbers work at terminal points
where the railroads maintain their
central offices, freight yards, and
maintenance and repair shops. The
metropolitan area of Chicago, where
the great eastern and western rail­
road systems meet, is the hub of the
Nation’s railroad network and has
more railroad workers than any other
area. Other places where particularly
large numbers of railroad workers are
employed are areas around New
York City, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, and St.
Louis. “Railroad towns,” such as
Altoona, Pa., and Roseville, Calif.,
where locomotive and car shops are
located, also have relatively large
concentrations of railroad workers.

Employment In Selected Railroad Occupations




262-057 0 - 6 8

Railroad Occupations

The work force of the railroad
industry can be divided into five main
groups—employees who (1) operate
trains, (2) perform communications,
station, and office work, (3) build
and maintain locomotives, cars, and
other rolling stock, (4) build and
maintain tracks, structures, and other
railroad property, and (5) handle
luggage, prepare and serve food,
and provide other personal services
to passengers. In 1966, 94 percent of
the workers in railroad jobs were
men. Most women employed by the
railroads do office work.

Chart 59 shows the number of em­
ployees in some of the principal rail­
road occupations. Other occupations
in which large numbers of workers
are employed but which are not
shown on the chart, range from un­
skilled laundry and cleaning jobs to
professional positions such as ac­
countant, engineer, and statistician.
(Information about some of these
jobs is given elsewhere in the Hand­
The workers directly engaged in
running the trains are known as
“operating employees.” They repre­
sent more than one-fourth of all rail­
road workers. Class I line-haul rail­
roads had over 170,000 operating
employees in 1966. In this group are
locomotive engineers, firemen, con­
ductors, brakemen, and, on some pas­
senger trains, baggagemen. These
men work together as train crews,
either operating trains out on the
“run” or operating trains at the ter­
minals and railroad yards where
freight is loaded and unloaded,
freight cars are received and
switched, and trains are broken up
and made up. Other operating em­
ployees who work in the yards in­
clude switchtenders, who assist con­
ductors (or foremen) and brakemen
(or switchmen) by throwing the
track switches, and hostlers, who fuel
locomotives, check their operating
condition, and deliver them to the
engine crews.
A large group of railroad workers,
about one-fifth of all those employed
in the industry, consists of communi­
cations, station, and office employ­
ees who regulate the movement of
trains and take care of the business
affairs of the railroads. In 1966, Class
I line-haul railroads employed about
151,600 persons in such jobs. Com­
munications are handled by dis­
patchers who coordinate the move­
ment of trains and issue train orders,
and by telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen who either pass train or­
ders and other instructions to the
train crews or carry them out by
setting signals and track switches. At
all stations, station agents are in


charge of the railroad’s business af­
fairs. Railroad clerks work in stations
and company offices where they may
do secretarial and other kinds of office
work, assist station agents, deal with
customers, sell tickets, tend baggage
rooms, keep records, and perform re­
lated tasks. Also included in this
group of railroad workers are claims
investigators, accountants, lawyers,
motor vehicle operators, patrolmen,
and watchmen.
More than a fifth of all railroad
workers are employed in railroad
yards, carshops, and engine houses
where they maintain and repair loco­
motives, cars, and other railroad roll­
ing stock. Class I line-haul roads em­
ployed about 145,600 workers in this
group in 1966. Carmen perform a
variety of repair and maintenance
tasks necessary to keep railroad
freight and passenger cars in good
operating condition. Electrical work­
ers, machinists, boilermakers, black­
smiths, and sheet metal workers also
are employed in car shops.
A considerably smaller group of
railroad workers, about one-sixth of
the total, maintains and constructs
tracks, bridges, stations, signals, and
other railroad property. The Class I
line-haul railroads employed about
94,100 in work of this kind in 1966.
Trackmen and other maintenanceof-way workers maintain, construct,
and repair tracks and roadbeds.
Bridge and building mechanics con­
struct and maintain bridges, tunnels,
and many other kinds of structures
along the right of way. Signal work­
ers are responsible for installing the
railroad’s vast network of train and
crossing signals and for keeping it in
working order.
Another small group of railroad
workers provides personal services to
passengers at stations and aboard
trains. With 10,800 employees in
1966, or 2 percent of all employed in
the railroad industry, it is by far the
smallest of the five major railroad oc­
cupational groups. It includes Pull­
man conductors who are in charge of
sleeping and parlor car service on
most trains, as well as porters and

attendants who perform many kinds
of personal service for passengers.
This group also includes cooks and
waiters who prepare and serve food
and redcaps who work in and around
railroad stations where they handle
luggage and otherwise assist passen­
gers in boarding and leaving trains.
(Additional information about cooks
and waiters is given elsewhere in the

Training, Other Qualifications, and

For most jobs, particularly those
on the trains, in the yards, and around
the stations, training is received on
the job. The new employee learns by
working and receiving instructions
from experienced men. For some of­
fice and maintenance jobs, training
may be obtained in high schools and
vocational schools. Home study
courses on railroading are available
also. In addition, universities and
technical schools offer courses in rail­
way engineering, transportation, traf­
fic management, and other subjects
valuable to professional and technical
New employees in some occupa­
tions—principally those connected
with train or engine service—start as
“extra board” men, that is, their
names are placed on an “extra list”
for individual occupations. From
these lists, they are called to fill va­
cancies that arise due to vacations,
days off, or illness of men on regular
jobs. They also may be called for
extra work because of an increase in
railroad traffic. As regular job assign­
ments become available and as the
extra board workers gain experience
and seniority, they are assigned to
regular positions. The time spent on
extra board work varies with the type
of job and the number of available
openings. In some cases workers may
not receive regular assignments for
a number of years.
Apprenticeship programs are lim­
ited chiefly to trainees in the railroad
shop crafts. Many of these programs



are planned and operated jointly by
the companies and the railroad work­
ers’ unions. Of the several thousand
men who were taking this kind of
training in 1966, the majority were
“regular” apprentices, usually high
school graduates with no previous
work experience, who were working
and receiving instruction in their
chosen trades for a 4-year period.
Others were “helper” apprentices,
men with some previous experience
as railroad workers, who were receiv­
ing the same kind of training, usually
for a 3-year period.
Applicants with a high school edu­
cation or its equivalent are preferred
by railroad companies for most kinds
of nonprofessional positions. Good
physical condition is required for
most jobs, and almost all large rail­
roads require applicants to pass phys­
ical examinations before they are
hired; in some jobs, physical exami­
nations are required periodically. Ex­
cellent hearing and eyesight are es­
sential for train and engine service
jobs, and color blindness is an abso­
lute bar to employment in work in­
volving the interpretation of railroad
Promotions of qualified workers to
jobs covered by union-management
agreements are made on the basis of
seniority. Most job vacancies are
listed on a bulletin board, and all
workers interested may “bid” for
them. The job goes to the qualified
applicant whose length of service
places him highest on the seniority
list. Often, before workers can qualify
for promotion, they must pass written
and performance tests. For occupa­
tions in train and engine service, there
are well-established avenues of pro­
motion. Engineers are usually chosen
from the ranks of the firemen, and
conductors from the list of brakemen.
A railroad worker’s seniority usu­
ally entitles him to promotion only for
job openings which occur within a
limited area or “seniority district”
of the railroad system for which he
works. In some cases, seniority rights
may apply only to one shop, locality,
or office. Among train and engine

personnel, seniority rights may be
limited either to road (freight and/or
passenger) service, or yard service.
In such cases, workers may bid only
for positions in the particular type of
service in which they have been
The worker’s seniority also deter­
mines how much choice he may have
about his working conditions. A be­
ginning telegrapher, for instance, may
have to work several years on a night
shift in an out-of-the-way location
before he accumulates enough se­
niority to get an assignment without
these disadvantages.
(Later sections of this chapter con­
tain more complete information
about the training and other qualifi­
cations for selected occupations in the
railroad industry.)

Employment Outlook

The longrun decline in railroad
employment is expected to continue,
but at a gradually decreasing rate in
the immediate years ahead. If the an­
ticipated growth of freight traffic is
realized, however, a slow upward
movement in employment should oc­
cur during the early 1970’s.
Technological innovation and
changing patterns of transportation
and production have resulted in a
substantial decline in railroad em­
ployment in recent years. Between
1955 and 1966, employment in Glass
I line-haul railroads dropped 41 per­
cent, from nearly 1.1 million to 631,000. Such developments as the use
of larger, more powerful diesel loco­
motives and the extensive use of ma­
chines for roadway upkeep have had
a considerable employment impact.
The railroad work force also declined
as competition from other modes of
transportation—notably automobiles,
trucks, buses, airplanes, and pipe­
lines—brought a steep drop in rail­
road passenger travel and relatively
little growth in freight traffic.
Most of the factors which have led
to reduced employment in the past
will continue to influence railroad

employment during the decade
ahead. In addition, mergers of con­
necting or parallel railroads could
further reduce railroad employment
by eliminating facilities, such as those
at terminals, and by combining ac­
counting and other functions. Some
mergers have occurred in recent years
and, on the basis of present develop­
ments, other mergers are likely.
Despite prospects for declining em­
ployment in the immediate future,
job opportunities will be available for
thousands of new railroad workers.
The railroads have one of the largest
work forces in American industry,
with a high proportion of older work­
ers. Many jobs will become vacant
because of retirements, deaths, pro­
motions to other railroad jobs, and
transfers to other fields of work. Re­
tirements and deaths alone may re­
sult in tens of thousands of job open­
ings each year during the next 10
Job openings due to replacement
needs will number in the thousands.
However, opportunities for new
workers in some nonoperating occu­
pations—such as clerk, roadway
maintenance worker, and signal­
man—may be restricted as a result of
recent labor-management agreements
providing for job protection of many
nonoperating (other than train and
engine service) employee groups.
Under these contracts, a limitation
has been established on reductions in
the number of workers in any one
year; provisions were made for mov­
ing unneeded workers in a given craft
or occupational group in one district
to another district where their skills
can be usefully employed; and assur­
ances were given that regular seasonal
employees in future years would be
offered employment at least equiva­
lent to what they performed in 1966.
Another restriction on openings for
new workers is the recalling of fur­
loughed workers before considering
job applicants to fill vacancies. This
restriction is most constraining for
jobs in specialized railroad work, such
as that of telegrapher and towerman.
Job opportunities will be affected

much more in some geographic areas
than in others by these restrictions.
Job openings for work as locomo­
tive firemen (helpers) have also been
extremely limited since May 7, 1964,
the effective date of a compulsory ar­
bitration award designed to eventu­
ally eliminate 90 percent of firemen
(helper) positions in road freight and
yard locomotive service. Firemen
(helper) positions on locomotives in
passenger service were not affected
by this award, nor were any positions
of firemen (helpers) for any class of
locomotive service operating where
State law requires employment of fire­
men on locomotives. This temporary
award expired in April 1966 and
since no general agreement had been
reached between the parties in the
dispute by mid-1967, the outlook for
job opportunities in this occupation
is uncertain.
Future job opportunities for appli­
cants probably will be most numerous
in construction and maintenance
work along the right-of-way, in oper­
ating jobs as brakemen, and in office
work. However, because of the sea­
sonality of railroad work, and the
seniority system under which new
workers are furloughed first and re­
called last, many new workers will
have less than full-time employment
during the first few years on the job.
The number and type of job open­
ings for applicants hired by an indi­
vidual railroad also will be influenced
by the rapidity of the railroad’s adop­
tion of new equipment and new
methods of operation, and its geo­
graphical location in relation to
changing marketing c o n d i t i o n s .
There will be a need for professional
engineers and skilled personnel cap­
able of maintaining and improving
the new mechanical and electrical
equipment gradually being intro­
duced. Opportunities should increase
for industrial engineers and methods
analysts as railroads seek better means
of utilizing equipment and personnel.
The increasing use of electronic dataprocessing equipment to handle a
wide range of railroad accounting
and statistical activities will generate


a growing demand for programers
and other trained specialists. As the
railroads continue to explore new
ways to meet competition, opportuni­
ties will arise for specialists in indus­
trial development and marketing.
Railroad freight traffic is expected
to rise substantially through the
1970’s, continuing the trend of recent
years. Toward the end of the 1960’s,
the need for new workers, due to in­
creasing freight traffic, is expected to
about offset the declines in railroad
employment that will result from in­
creasing efficiency in operations and
the declining passenger traffic. The
anticipated rise in demand for rail­
road freight service is based on the
assumption of a high rate of growth
in the economy through the mid1970’s. Even higher levels of railroad
freight traffic may result, also, if im­
proved freight handling methods and
equipment are more widely adopted.
For example, the shipment of high­
way trailers and large containers on
railroad flat cars, and the use of
larger, special purpose freight cars
may increase freight traffic signifi­
cantly by improving rail carriers’
ability to compete more effectively
with other modes of transportation.
New interest has also been shown
in the use of rapid rail transit for
intercity and intraurban passenger
movement. Studies of the best meth­
ods for moving passengers within
and between urban areas are pro­
gressing, and may result in a
significant resurgence of rail pas­
senger transportation. In that event,
railroad employment opportunities
would increase substantially.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Average earnings of railroad work­
ers are higher than those of workers
in most manufacturing industries.
Employees of Class I line-haul rail­
roads, exclusive of executive and
administrative personnel, averaged
$3.08 an hour and $135.52 a week in
1966, whereas production workers in
all manufacturing industries aver­

aged $2.71 an hour and $111.92 a
The earnings of individual railroad
workers vary greatly because of the
great variety of their occupations and
skill requirements. Geographic dif­
ferences in wage levels are consider­
ably less than in most other industries,
since the wage scales specified in
many labor-management contracts in
the railroad industry are identical
throughout the country. (Earnings in
some of the principal occupations are
discussed in later sections of this
Most railroad workers are mem­
bers of trade unions and many of the
conditions under which they work
are regulated by collective bargaining
agreements. Contracts between the
unions and the railroad companies
contain clauses dealing with wage
rates, hours of work, vacation pay,
seniority, and other matters. (The
principal unions representing each
occupational group are listed in the
sections of this chapter which deal
with individual occupations.)
The work schedules of railroad em­
ployees and the conditions under
which they are paid for overtime
work depend upon the type of opera­
tion in which they are employed. The
great majority of railroad employees
work at terminals—in yards, stations,
and railroad offices. In 1966, the
“basic” workweek for most workers
in this group was a 5-day week of 40
hours. Premium pay, amounting to
time and one-half the regular wage
rate, usually was paid for any time
worked over 8 hours a day.
In freight and passenger road serv­
ice, the basic workday for train and
engine crews is established on an
entirely different basis. Generally,
when a member of the train or engine
crew has covered a specified number
of miles, or worked a certain number
of hours—whichever occurs first—he
receives a day’s pay at his regular
wage rate. He receives extra pay for
any additional miles covered or hours
worked on that day.
The basic hours of employees who
look after the needs of passengers



aboard trains— dining car cooks and
waiters, Pullman porters, and train
attendants—are set on a monthly
basis. Some workers in these jobs re­
ceive time and one-half pay for hours
worked over 184 a month and those
employed on regular assignments are
guaranteed at least 174 hours of work
a month. Others receive overtime
after 240 hours and are guaranteed
205 hours a month, if working on
regular jobs.
Because freight shippers and the
traveling public must be served 24
hours a day, the members of train and
engine crews, as well as hostlers, teleg­
raphers and telephoners, and station
agents, are often required to work
nights, weekends, and on holidays.
Irregular work schedules are particu­
larly common for extra board work­
ers, since they have no regular
assignments and may be called to
work any time of the day or night.
Some railroad workers, like bridge
and building mechanics and certain
track and road maintenance workers,
are required to work away from home
for days at a time.
Practically all railroad employees
receive 1 week’s paid vacation after
1 year on the payroll, 2 weeks after
3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and
4 weeks after 20 years. On most roads,
nonoperating employees receive pay
for 8 holidays a year and operating
employees in yard service receive pay
for 7 holidays a year.
Under the federally administered
Railroad Retirement Act of 1935, all
employees having more than 10 years
of service in the railroad industry re­
ceive pensions upon retirement. They
receive full pensions when they reach
age 65 and reduced pensions at age
62. Those who have worked for the
railroads for at least 30 years may
retire on a reduced pension at age
60. Employees having 10 years or
more of service who become disabled
and are unable to work, and depend­
ent wives and husbands of railroad
workers who have died also receive
pensions. As of early 1967, the aver­
age pension paid to railroad workers
who retired because of age or dis­

ability was about $150 a month; the
average pension paid to survivors of
railroad workers, about $68 a month.
Another Federal law, the Railroad
Unemployment Insurance Act, pro­
vides benefits for railroad workers
who become unemployed. In January
1967, these benefits ranged from
$22.50 to $51 a week depending on
earnings. In 1966, the average daily
unemployment benefit paid was
$10.13 (equal to $50.65 for 5 benefit
days per week). Unemployment ben­
efits are paid for a period up to 26
weeks, but workers having 10 years or
more of service can receive benefits
for a longer period.
Under the Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance Act, railroad workers
also receive compensation for work­
days lost because of sickness or injury.
In early 1966, the average daily sick­
ness benefit paid was $10.10.
Other insurance programs are op­
erated under agreements with trade
unions and provide group life insur­
ance to employees and comprehensive
hospital and medical insurance to
these employees and their depend­
Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about oc­
cupations in the railroad industry can
be obtained from railroad offices in
your locality. General information
about the railroad industry can be
obtained from :
Association of American Railroads,
Transportation Building, Washington,
D .G .20006.

air brakes, and other controls, and he
supervises the work of the fireman
(helper) who may work in the cab
with him. Engineers work in railroad
yards, or on the road in passenger or
freight service.
The yard engineer operates the
locomotive or switch-engine, which is
used to move freight and passenger
cars when trains are being made up
before a run and broken up after a
run, or when cars are being switched
for loading or unloading. The engi­
neer in passenger or freight service
operates the locomotive which moves
trains over the road, in accordance
with the train orders for each run or
any instructions received en route
through the conductor, the wayside
signal system, or by train radio.
Before and after each run, the
engineer checks on the condition of
the locomotive and either sees that
minor adjustments are made on the
spot or reports to the engine foreman
mechanical defects needing attention.
While operating his locomotive, he
must observe track signals and com­
ply with speed restrictions at all hours
and in all weather conditions. To do
this he must be thoroughly familiar
with the characteristics of the road
over which he is operating. He must
constantly be alert, especially for ob­
structions on the track or other
In 1966, about 36,200 engineers
were employed by Class I line-haul
railroads, and a few thousand more
were employed by short-line railways
and switching and terminal com­

Training, Other Qualifications, and
(D.O.T. 910.383)

Nature of Work

The engineer is responsible for
running the locomotive safely and
efficiently. He operates the throttle,

Vacancies in engineer positions
generally have been filled by firemen
(helpers) who have qualified for pro­
motion. Selection is on a seniority
basis. To qualify, the applicant must
p a s s comprehensive examinations
which deal with the train’s mechan­
ical and electrical equipment, and
with fuel economy, safety, timetables,
train orders, and other operating rules



moted, or by firemen whose jobs as
engineers were terminated during re­
cent years because of cutbacks in rail­
road services.
The number of engineers employed
by the railroads has been declining for
some years because of the decrease
in railroad business and increasing'
multiple-unit operation of diesel loco­
motives. Introduction of technologi­
cal innovations, such as the use of
remotely and automatically controlled
devices for freight car classification
and signal control, and other changes
in equipment and operating methods,
were also important factors in lower
employment levels. The total number
of engineers employed by class I linehaul railroads dropped from about
44,000 in 1955 to 36,200 in 1966.
Employment is expected to increase
slightly in the early 1970’s as freight
traffic increases. Some additional
locomotive engineers may be needed
also for passenger service as rapid
mass transit rail systems are
Earnings and Working Conditions

Diesel engineer checks track conditions by radio.

and regulations. He must also be able
to operate any kind of locomotive in
service on his road.
A newly promoted engineer starts
out as an extra board man without
any regular assignment. It may be
several years before he receives such
an assignment. During this period, he
works on temporary assignments
whenever an engineer is needed. An
experienced engineer may advance
to a supervisory position, such as fore­
man of engines for his road.
Engineers are required to take
physical examinations at regular in­
tervals. They must have good eye­
sight and hearing. If they fail at any
time to meet all of the physical stand­

ards, they may be restricted to work­
ing as engineers only in certain types
of service, or they may be transferred
to other kinds of work where physical
standards are less exacting.

Employment Outlook

The number of job openings for
locomotive engineers during the next
decade will be limited. Virtually all
openings during the early 1970’s will
arise from the need to fill positions left
vacant by engineers who retire or die.
(Most workers are in the older age
groups.) These positions will be filled
by firemen (helpers) who are pro­

The earnings of engineers depend
on the class of locomotive operated
and the kind of service in which the
engineer is employed. Engineers in
yard service for Class I line-haul rail­
roads (including extra board men)
earned, on the average, about $850
a month in 1966. In road freight serv­
ice, engineers averaged $1,000 a
month. The earnings of passenger
service engineers averaged about
$1,040 a month in 1966.
In 1966, the standard workweek at
straight-time rates for yard engineers
varied from 5 days on some railroads
and railroad divisions to 7 days on
others. All yard engineers worked
basic 8-hour days with time and onehalf paid for work over 8 hours. The
basic unit of work for road freight and
passenger engineers is 100 miles. Un­
der certain circumstances they may be
paid on an hourly basis or on a mileshour basis.
On many roads, the amount a road
engineer may earn in a single month



is governed by mileage limitations
agreed upon by the unions and the
railroad companies. Whenever an en­
gineer on one of these roads reaches
the maximum number of miles he is
permitted to operate a locomotive
during a month, his assignment for
the rest of the month is taken over by
another engineer—usually an extra
board man.
The engineer in road service, even
on regular assignments, is often sched­
uled to work nights, weekends, and
holidays at straight-time rates. Like
other workers in road service, he must
often “lay over” away from home for
a time at the end of a run before he
makes the return trip back to his
home terminal.
The assignments of engineers on
the extra board may be very irregu­
lar, because these men may be called
to work at any time of the day or
night, and the amount of traffic varies
from one season to another on many
roads. Extra board engineers are likely
to have less work, and lower earnings
than those men having regular assign­
On all major railroads, wages and
the conditions under which engineers
work are agreed upon by employers
and unions. The great majority of
engineers are represented by the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Enginers (Ind.). Some are represented by
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Fire­
men and Enginemen.

(D.O.T. 910.383)

Nature of Work

The locomotive fireman (helper)
works with the engineer either in the
railroad yards or in road service. At
the beginning of his run, the fire­
man (helper) checks to make sure
that the locomotive is supplied with
the fuel, sand, and water needed for

the run, that the engine is in proper
working order, and that the flagging
equipment, classification markers,
and tools needed by the engine crew
are on hand and ready to use. Dur­
ing the run, he makes mechanical and
electrical adjustments as needed. On
passenger trains, he is also responsible
for operating the equipment which
supplies heat to the train.
From his position at the left side
of the cab, the fireman (helper) as­
sists the engineer by acting as look­
out for obstructions on tracks and at
road crossings, and by checking wayside signals which indicate the speed
at which the train is to proceed. In
addition, he inspects the train as it
rounds curves, because this view of
the train enables him to spot smoke,
sparks, fire, and other signs of de­
fective equipment.
The fireman (helper) must be pre­
pared to take over the controls of the
locomotive, should the engineer be­
come ill or otherwise incapacitated.
An important part of his job, there­
fore, is learning to operate the loco­
motive by observing the engineer.
Often he relieves the engineer at the
controls for brief periods, or takes the
controls for a “practice run.”
Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 19,600 firemen in 1966.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

For the relatively few firemen
(helper) positions being filled at pres­
ent, most railroads prefer that appli­
cants be at least 21 years of age and
not over 35. Most applicants hired
are over 20 years of age. A high
school education or its equivalent is
desired. Good health is important,
and firemen must be able to pass pe­
riodic physical examinations. Stand­
ards for eyesight and hearing are par­
ticularly high.
A beginning fireman first makes a
series of trial trips in the railroad yard
or on the road. On these trips, he
works under the direction of an ex­
perienced engineer or fireman who

instructs him about his future duties
and about railroad rules and regula­
tions. This training period lasts a few
days on some roads and as long as 3
weeks on others. After the newly
hired fireman has satisfactorily dem­
onstrated his ability on the trial
trips, and after he has passed exami­
nations on railroad rules and regula­
tions, his name is placed on the fire­
man’s extra board and he becomes
subject to call for temporary work
assignments. He may remain on ex­
tra board work up to several years
before he obtains his first regular as­
signment. On some roads, beginning
assignments are in yard service and
the fireman works his way up first to
road freight service and then to road
passenger service. On other railroads,
firemen usually remain either in yard
service or in road service throughout
their railroad careers.
Firemen with sufficient experience
and seniority—usually at least 3 or
4 years—can become eligible for pro­
motion to engineer by passing quali­
fying examinations covering the me­
chanical and electrical equipment on
trains, air brake systems, fuel econ­
omy, timetables, train orders, and
other operating rules and regulations.
As engineers are needed, qualified
firemen who have the longest senior­
ity are placed on the engineers’ extra
Employment Outlook

Job openings for work as locomo­
tive firemen (helpers) have been ex­
tremely limited since May 1964, the
effective date of a compulsory arbi­
tration award designed to eventually
eliminate all but a relatively few
fireman (helper) positions in road
freight and yard locomotive service.
Firemen (helper) positions on loco­
motives in passenger service were not
affected by this award, nor were any
positions of firemen (helpers) for any
class of locomotive service operating
where State law requires the employ­
ment of firemen on locomotives.



The national arbitration award ex­
pired in April 1966, and since no
general agreement had been reached
between the parties in the dispute by
mid-1967, the outlook for job oppor­
tunities in this occupation cannot be
anticipated with any degree of cer­
tainty although it appears that em­
ployment opportunities for new en­
trants may be somewhat limited.

Workers in this occupation on all
major roads are covered by union
contracts. The great majority of fire­
men are represented by the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Firemen and
Enginemen. Some are members of the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi­
neers (Ind.).

Earnings and Working Conditions


The earnings of firemen depend
on the class of locomotive on which
they work and the type of service for
which the locomotive is operated.
Firemen in yard service for Class I
line-haul railroads (including extra
board men) averaged $670 a month
in 1966. Freight service firemen aver­
aged $785 monthly on freight trains.
Road passenger firemen averaged
$900 monthly.
In 1966, firemen in yard service
worked a basic 8-hour day and 40hour week, and IJ/2 times the basic
hourly rate was paid for work beyond
these hours. On many roads, the
amount that firemen in road service
could earn in a single month was
governed by mileage limitations
agreed upon by the unions and the
railroad companies. Whenever a fire­
man on one of these roads reached
the maximum number of miles he was
permitted to cover in a month, his as­
signment for the rest of the month
was taken over by another fireman—
usually a man on the extra board.
Firemen must often work at night
and on weekends and holidays be­
cause train schedules require 24hour-a-day service. Road service often
requires that they be away from their
home stations for varying periods of
time. Irregular working hours are
particularly common among men on
the extra board and in road freight
service. Extra board men tend to have
less work and therefore lower incomes
than firemen with regular assign­
ments. On many roads, the amount of
work varies from one season of the
year to another.

(D.O.T. 198.168)

Nature of Work

Conductors are responsible for see­
ing that railroad trains are moved ac­
cording to train orders or other in­
structions. Freight and passenger train
conductors are the “captains” of their
trains. They are responsible for the
safety of their passengers and cargoes,
and they supervise the work of the
train and engine crews.
Before a freight or passenger train
leaves the terminal, the conductor re­
ceives the train orders from the dis­
patcher and confers with other crew
members to make sure they under­
stand the orders. During the run, he
sees that the cars in the train are in­
spected periodically and arranges
either for the repair of mechanical
breakdowns while the train is on its
run, or for defective cars to be set
out on the nearest siding. At stops, he
signals to the engineer the proper
time for departure. As the superior
officer on the train, the conductor
takes charge in any emergency that
may occur while the train is on its
run, and all persons employed on it
are subject to his instructions.
On freight trains, the conductor
keeps a record of the contents and
destination of each car, and sees that
freight cars are picked up and set out
along the route. On passenger trains,
the conductor collects tickets and
cash fares.
Yard conductors, often called
“yard foremen,” direct the work of

the switching crews who make up and
break up trains. In mechanized yards,
yard conductors operate consoles that
electrically control the alinement of
track switches.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Openings for conductors are filled
on a seniority basis by promotion of
qualified brakemen. To qualify for
promotion, a man usually must have
several years’ experience as a brakeman, and pass examinations covering
signals, air brakes, timetables, operat­
ing rules, and related subjects. On
some roads, those who have qualified
for promotion are first given tem­
porary assignments as conductors
while they are still working as brakemen. On other roads, brakemen
promoted to conductor positions are
put on the extra board where they are
given temporary assignments as men
are needed. In either case, as regular
conductor assignments become avail­
able, they are assigned to the men
with the greatest seniority.
On most roads, conductors in yard
service and in road service have sep­
arate seniority lists, and they usually
remain in one of these two types of
service throughout their careers. A
few roads, however, start conductors
on yard assignments and then move
them to freight service and finally to
passenger service.
The conductor is the member of
the train crew who has the most di­
rect contact with the public and it is
important that he be able to act ef­
fectively as the railroad’s representa­
tive. Conductors who show special
ability of this kind may advance to
managerial positions such as" train­

Employment Outlook

There will be a moderate number
of opportunities for brakemen to be
promoted to jobs as conductors during
the 1970’s. Conductors compose one
of the oldest age groups in the Na-


conductors and ticket collectors $800
a month.
In 1966, conductors in yard service
worked a basic 8-hour day and 5-day
week. For work beyond these hours,
they were paid I /2 times their basic
wage rates. The pay received by pas­
senger and freight conductors is based
on a combination of miles traveled
and hours worked. Under this prac­
tice these conductors may receive
more for a trip than their basic day’s
Like all other road crew members,
conductors in freight or passenger
service are often scheduled to work
nights, weekends, and on holidays.
Conductors on extra board work
often have irregular hours. They may
also work less time than conductors
with regular assignments and, there­
fore, earn less.
Conductors on every major railroad
are covered by union contracts.
Freight and passenger conductors are
represented by the Order of Railway
Conductors and Brakemen (Ind.)
and the Brotherhood of Railroad
Trainmen. Yard conductors (or yard
foremen) are organized by the Broth­
erhood of Railroad Trainmen and
the Switchmen’s Union of North

Conductor talks w ith en gin eer b y radio phone.

tion’s work force, and job openings
will develop to replace those who re­
tire, die, or leave railroading for some
other reason.
The number of conductors on Glass
I line-haul railroads declined from
about 45,200 in 1955 to 38,700 in
1966, owing to the decline of passen­
ger traffic, the trend toward longer
freight trains, and the mechanization
of yard operations. As more and more
yard work is speeded up by the use
of the new devices such as electric
and electronic car classification sys­
tems and communications equip­
ment, little change is expected in the
number of conductors during the
early 1970’s. However, employment in


this occupation is expected to increase
slightly in the latter part of the 1970’s
as a result of the anticipated growth
in railroad freight traffic.

(D.O.T. 910.364 and .884)

Earnings and Working Conditions

Brakemen work with the conduc­
tors as members of the train crews on
freight and passenger trains and in
the railroad yards. One brakeman
(or “flagman” ) is generally stationed
in the rear of each freight and pas­
senger train; his duties include seeing
that the proper flags, warning lights,
and other signals are displayed at the
rear of the train in order to protect
it while it is in motion and at stops.
Most freight and passenger trains

The type of service in which they
are employed and the number of cars
in their trains determine the basic
earnings of conductors. In 1966, yard
conductors employed by Class I linehaul railroads earned an average of
$780 a month. In road freight service,
conductors averaged $920 monthly.
The average for passenger conductors
was $915 and for assistant passenger

Nature of Work

carry at least one other brakeman
stationed in the front end of the train
whose duties include setting out sig­
nals to protect the front of the train
at unexpected stops.
Before a train leaves the station,
the brakemen in road service check
the air brake equipment on the cars
and see that tools and other equip­
ment are in their proper places. Dur­
ing a run, they make frequent visual
inspections of their train from posi­
tions at both the head and rear end
of the train, looking for smoke, sparks
or other indications of sticking brakes,
overheated car bearings, or other
equipment malfunctions. A t stops
during the run, they make “walking
inspections” of the cars in the train
and, when necessary, couple and un­
couple cars and air hose and assist
(the conductor in setting out and
switching cars at industrial sidings.
They are responsible for regulating
the air-conditioning, lighting, and
heating equipment in passenger cars.
Brakemen in passenger service (also
known as “trainmen” ) sometimes as­
sist the conductor by collecting tickets
and generally looking after the needs
of the passengers. Yard brakemen
(frequently called “switchmen” or
“helpers” ) assist in making up and
breaking up trains by throwing
switches, coupling and uncoupling
freight and passenger cars, and ap­
plying or releasing handbrakes on cars
to control car movement.
Yard brakemen may advance to
yard conductors; usually they stay in
yard service throughout their rail­
road careers. On some roads, brakemen in road service may move from
freight service to passenger work, us­
ually considered more desirable be­
cause it is less strenuous than freight
service and sometimes involves shorter
working hours.
When they have acquired suffi­
cient seniority brakemen in road serv­
ice may advance to conductors. Less
frequently, they take positions as bag­
gagemen. Conductor positions are
nearly always filled by promoting
brakemen who have qualified by pass­
ing written
 and oral examinations


covering such subjects as signals,
timetables, brake systems, and oper­
ating rules. Promotions are made ac­
cording to seniority rules, and it may
take up to 10 years or more for a
brakeman to get his first assignment
as a conductor.

Employment Outlook

Several thousand opportunities for
new workers to obtain jobs as brakemen will develop through the 1970’s,
almost entirely as a result of retire­
ments and deaths of conductors and
brakemen and because of promotions
and transfers to other work.
The number of brakemen em­
ployed by Class I line-haul railroads
declined from about 103,000 in 1955
to 76,200 in 1966. During the early
1970’s, work in railroads yards is ex­
pected to become increasingly mech­
anized, using automatic car retarders,
automatic switching, and other de­
vices. These developments are ex­
pected to result in a further decline in
the employment of brakemen during
this period. However, the total num­
ber of brakemen is expected to sta­
bilize or increase slightly by the mid1970’s as a result of the anticipated
growth in railroad freight traffic.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The number of cars in the train
and the type of service in which he is
employed determine the earnings of a
freight brakeman. The average
monthly earnings of yard brakemen
employed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads were $645 in 1966. Brakemen
on freight trains averaged $780 a
month. The monthly average for pas­
senger train brakemen was $785 in
In 1966, brakemen in yard service
had a 5-day, 40-hour basic work­
week, and for work beyond this they
were paid V/2 times their regular
hourly rates. In addition to their basic
day’s pay, brakemen in road, passen­
ger, or freight service earned extra

pay under certain conditions; for ex­
ample, when they traveled more than
100 miles on a freight run or 150 miles
on a passenger run.
Like other members of train and
engine crews, brakemen are often
scheduled to work nights, weekends,
and holidays. Brakemen who are on
the extra board and have been em­
ployed by the railroad for only a
short time have less steady work and
lower earnings than men having regu­
lar assignments and they may also
work more irregular hours. Yard and
freight brakemen face greater ac­
cident risks than most other railroad
The great majority of brakemen
are represented by the Brotherhood of
Railroad Trainmen. The Order of
Railway Conductors and Brakemen
(Ind.) has organized freight and pas­
senger brakemen on some roads, and
the Switchmen’s Union of North
America has organized some yard

(D.O.T. 236.588 and 910.782)

Nature of Work

Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen control the movement of
trains in accordance with instructions
issued by the train dispatchers. Teleg­
raphers and telephoners receive
train orders from the dispatchers and
pass them on to the train crews.
Towermen operate the controls
which throw track switches and set
signals in order to route traffic ac­
cording to train schedules or special
orders. To some extent, the three jobs
are interchangeable. For example,
many towermen also act as teleg­
raphers and telephoners in trans­
mitting orders, and some telegraphers
and telephoners spend part of their



time operating signals. Telegraphers,
telephoners, and towermen work
either in railroad stations or in towers
located in yards, terminals, and other
important junction points along the
railroad’s right of way. Often, at the
larger facilities and signal towers, a
chief telegrapher, a chief telephoner,
or wire chief, or chief towerman
(train director) is in charge of the
Telegraphers and telephoners may
transmit information about train or­
ders, as well as other types of com­
munications relating to the railroad’s
business, by Morse Code, radio tele­
phone, telephone, and teletype or
similar device. Morse Code, once
used for this purpose, has generally
been replaced by the telephone. At
some stations, telegraphers may sell
tickets or perform clerical work in
addition to their other duties.
Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed about 14,300 workers in the
telegrapher, telephoner, and towerman group in 1966. Included in this
group were about 1,100 chief teleg­
raphers and telephoners, over 300
train directors, and about 4,600
workers who combined telegraphing
and telephoning with clerical duties
in stations. Short-line railways em­
ployed several hundred more of these
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen receive their training on
the job, working under the supervi­
sion of experienced telegraphers, sta­
tion agents, or towermen. They are
instructed about their future responsi­
bilities, including operating rules,
train orders, station operations, and
the Morse Code. On most roads,
trainees must pass examinations on
train operating rules as well as prac­
tical tests on other duties relating to
their future assignments before they
can qualify for telegraphers, tele­
phoners, or towermen.

Most roads place newly qualified
workers on the extra board, where
they serve on temporary assignments
as men are needed and, after acquir­
ing sufficient seniority, bid for regular
assignments as telegraphers, tower­
men, clerk-telegraphers, and station
agent telegraphers.
Most railroads prefer applicants for
beginning positions to be high school
graduates between 21 and 30 years of
age. Applicants must pass physical
examinations which have strict eye­
sight and hearing requirements.
A man with the necessary qualifi­
cations may advance to station agent
or train dispatcher.

Telegraphers worked a basic 40hour week of five 8-hour days in
1966, with time and one-half paid for
overtime. Under Federal law, teleg­
raphers, whose duties involve the
movement of trains, are prohibited
from working more than 9 hours in
any one day, except in emergencies.
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
towermen are members of the
Transportation-Communication Em­
ployees Union.

(D.O.T. 211.468 and 910.138)

Employment Outlook

There will be some opportunities
for new workers to become student
operators each year through the
1970’s. The openings that occur will
result primarily from the need to re­
place experienced workers who retire
or die.
Employment of Class I line-haul
railroads in the telegrapher, tele­
phone, and towerman group dropped
from about 24,400 in 1955 to 14,300
in 1966, but it is expected to increase
slightly by the mid-1970’s as freight
traffic increases. The mechanization
of yard operations, the use of dispatcher-to-train radio hookups and
other new communications devices,
and the extension of centralized traffic
control and other automatic signaling
systems are reducing the number of
workers needed to help control the
movement of trains.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly
earnings of clerk-telegraphers and
clerk-telephoners on Class I line-haul
railroads in 1966 were $2.89; teleg­
raphers, telephoners, and towermen
averaged $2.92. Chief telegraphers
and telephoners and train directors
averaged, respectively, $3.23 and
$3.84 an hour.

Nature of Work

Station agents are the railroads’ of­
ficial representatives in dealing with
the public at railroad stations. Most
agents work at small stations where
they sell tickets, check baggage, calcu­
late freight and express charges, load
and unload freight and express pack­
ages, and perform many other tasks.
They may also serve as telegraphers
and telephoners, receiving and de­
livering train orders and other mes­
sages pertaining to the company’s
business. A t stations where super­
visory agents are employed, some of
this work may be done by railway
clerks, telegraphers, and other em­
ployees working under the sta­
tions agent’s supervision. In major
freight and passenger stations em­
ploying many railroad employees, the
duties of the station agent are pri­
marily administrative and super­
About 12,100 station agents were
employed by Class I line-haul rail­
roads in 1966. About 10,400 worked
in small stations (8,100 of them act­
ing as telegraphers and telephoners
in addition to their other duties), and
1,800 had supervisory positions at
major stations. The short-line rail­
ways employed several hundred other
agents, chiefly at small stations.


Training, Other Qualifications, and

Experienced telegraphers usually
become agents in small stations or as­
sistant agents in larger ones. In addi­
tion to the necessary seniority, an
agent should have a knowledge of
train schedules, and routes, rates,
bookkeeping methods, and other rail­
road business transacted at wayside
Station agents may advance from
small to larger stations or from assist­
ant agents to agents. They may be
promoted to supervisory positions
such as stationmaster or inspector.

agents who handled the business of
the Railway Express Agency received,
in addition to their regular pay, a
c o m m i s s i o n on the business
Station agents, except for some sup­
ervisory agents, are members of the
Transportation-Communication Em­
ployees Union.

(D.O.T. 219.388 and .488; 222.368
through .687; 229.368; 231.682; 249.368; 910.368; 910.688; 913.168; and

Employment Outlook

A limited number of opportunities
for assignment to station agent jobs
will arise each year through the
1970’s, principally because of the need
to replace agents who retire or die.
For several years the number of sta­
tion agents employed by Class I linehaul railroads has been declining. Be­
tween 1955 and 1966, employment
dropped from about 19,600 to 12,100,
principally because some local pas­
senger and freight services were con­
solidated or discontinued. It is
expected that the railroads will
consolidate or discontinue some addi­
tional passenger and freight services
over the next decade resulting in the
employment of fewer station agents.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The earnings of station agents vary.
In 1966, agents who also served as
telegraphers and telephoners on Class
I line-haul roads averaged $2.94 an
hour; other agents at small stations
who did not act as telegraphers aver­
aged $3.14 an hour. Agents at major
stations earned a straight-time aver­
age of $3.76 an hour.
Agents are paid either by the hour
or by the month; those in nonsupervisory positions had a basic 40-hour
workweek, and time and one-half
was paid
 for overtime work. Most

Nature of Work

Railroad clerks handle the huge
volume of paper work necessary to
keep an account of each piece of roll­
ing stock, and transact business with
freight shippers and the traveling
public. They work in railroad stations,
freight houses, yards, terminals, and
company offices. Clerks make up the
largest single group of railroad em­
ployees—Class I line-haul railroads
employed about 98,400 of these work­
ers in 1966 and short-line railways,
thousands more.
The majority of railroad clerks—
59,900 on Class I line-haul railroads
in 1966—do clerical work connected
with business transactions such as col­
lecting bills, investigating complaints,
adjusting claims, tracing shipments,
compiling statistics, selling tickets,
and keeping books. Today much of
this work is done by clerks who uti­
lize computers and other electronic
business machines. In small offices
and stations, one man may perform
duties related to several of these jobs,
but in large offices with many em­
ployees, each clerk usually handles a
specialized job.
A second group, totaling 17,300 in
1966, consists of secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, and operators of
calculating, bookkeeping, and other
kinds of office machines. They per­

form duties similar to those of work­
ers in the same kinds of jobs in other
industries. (Information about the
nature of the duties of employees in
these clerical jobs may be found else­
where in the Handbook.)
About 9,300 other railroad clerks
were in higher grade “senior” jobs
involving more responsible or techni­
cal work. Some of the clerks in this
group prepare the statistics on em­
ployment, traffic, and other matters
relating to railroad operations, re­
quired periodically by the Federal
Government. Others, called “cash­
iers,” deal with customers on such
matters as uncollected freight bills.
Still others do accounting work re­
lated to their companies’ use of ter­
minals and other facilities owned
jointly by several roads.
A fourth group are the supervisory
and chief clerks, who numbered about
11,900. They not only supervise the
work of other railroad clerks and as­
sume responsibility for the clerical ac­
tivities of entire departments, but they
may be called on to deal with highly
complex problems related to the
business end of railroad operations.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Beginning railroad clerk positions
are often filled by hiring newcomers
or by promoting workers such as of­
fice boys or messengers. A high school
education usually is required, and
clerical aptitude tests are sometimes
given. Railroads prefer workers who
have had training or some experience
in working with figures. In some
clerical positions—yard clerk for in­
stance—beginning workers on some
roads are assigned to extra board
work, where they work on temporary
assignments until such time as regular
assignments become available.
In many offices, a railroad clerk
may advance to assistant chief clerk,
or to a higher administrative position.
Some clerks may move from routine
jobs to work requiring special knowl­
edge of subjects such as accounting or
statistics, and this work may lead



tions. However, employment of cleri­
cal workers is expected to increase
slightly in the late 1970’s as a result
of the anticipated expansion of rail­
road freight traffic.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Employees of Class I line-haul rail­
roads who had clerical jobs involving
work such as billing operations, filing,
and inventory control, received aver­
age straight-time pay of $2.92 an
hour in 1966. Secretaries, stenogra­
phers, typists, and office machine op­
erators averaged $2.92 an hour;
senior clerks and specialists averaged
$3.29 an hour; and supervisory and
chief clerks, $3.48 an hour. Railroad
clerks in nonsupervisory positions
work a basic 8-hour day and 40-hour
week, with time and one-half paid for
The Brotherhood of Railway, Air­
lines, and Steamship Clerks, Freight
Handlers, Express and Station Em­
ployees represents the railroad clerks
on all major roads.


Nature of Work
Modem office machines have revolutionized many railroad paperwork operations.

eventually to positions as auditors or
statisticians. Railroad clerks may also
be promoted to traffic agents, buyers,
storekeepers, or ticket and station

Employment Outlook

Several thousand job opportuni­
ties for new workers will become
available each year through the
1970’s. Because this is a large occupa­
tional group, retirements, deaths, and
transfers to other fields of work will

create many openings for new clerical
Employment in this occupational
group has been declining. In 1955,
Glass I line-haul railroads employed
about 146,000 railroad clerks; by
1966, their number was 98,400. A
continued decrease in the employ­
ment of these workers is expected
during the early 1970’s as electronic
business machines do more of the
work formerly done by railroad clerks
in processing freight bills and record­
ing information about freight car
movements and freight yard opera­

The skilled workers employed by
the railroads to build, maintain, and
repair rolling stock and other equip­
ment may be classified in six main
“shop crafts” : Carmen (D.O.T. 622.381), machinists, electrical workers,
sheet-metal workers, boilermakers,
and blacksmiths. They work in rail­
way shops, enginehouses, yards, and
In 1966, about 94,200 journeymen
mechanics in these six crafts were
employed by Class I line-haul rail­
ways. Working with them were 6,600
gang foremen and leaders, 10,700
helpers, and 3,800 apprentices. Sev­
eral thousand more workers in the



ployed mainly away from the shop,
lay power and communications lines
for equipment used by the railroads.)
Sheet-metal w o r k e r s , numbering
about 6,200 in 1966, install and mainlight sheet-metal parts and do
pipefitting on cars, locomotives, and
other equipment. Boilermakers, of
there were about 1,800 in 1966,
maintain and repair stationary boiltanks, and other parts made of
sheet iron or heavy sheet steel. Other
craftsmen employed in the shops in­
clude blacksmiths, molders, station­
ary firemen, oilers, and stationary
engineers (steam). (More informa­
tion about the nature of the work of
most of the above shop trades may be
found elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Shop worker checks for flaws in locomotive axles.

same occupations were employed by
short-line railways.
Carmen, who numbered about
52,000 on Class I line-haul railroads
in 1966, are by far the largest group
of shop craftsmen. They do many
different kinds of work, since they
build, maintain, and repair railroad
freight and passenger cars, and also
work on locomotives and on small
vehicles such as the motor-driven cars
used in transporting workers along
the tracks. Some carmen are skilled
in carpentry and can use power equip­
ment as well as handtools. A few are
skilled only in specialties such as up­
holstering, car painting, and pattern­

making. Many carmen work as car
inspectors in the railroad yards and
stations, examining cars for defects
that might lead to accidents or delays.
Machinists are the second largest
group of skilled shop workers. About
19,600 were employed in 1966, doing
such work as assembling and dis­
mantling equipment and replacing
and repairing parts. Electrical work­
ers, who numbered about 12,900 in
1966, install and maintain wiring and
electrical equipment in locomotives,
passenger cars, and cabooses, as well
as in buildings owned by the rail­
roads. (Another group of electrical
workers—nearly 2,200 in 1966—em­

Apprenticeship is the usual way of
entering the shop trades, although
many, particularly in the carmen’s
craft, are upgraded directly from
laborer or helper positions. Appren­
tices are trained in all branches of
-their respective trades, according to
standards which in many cases are
included in agreements negotiated by
the shopmen’s trade unions and the
railroad companies. Upon completion
of their training, they are certified as
qualified journeymen. Beginners, who
have no previous experience in their
chosen trades, take this training as
regular apprentices, generally for a
4-year period. Men who have at least
2 years of previous work experience
train as helper apprentices for a 3year period.
To become a regular apprentice,
the applicant must be at least 16 and
not over 21 years of age. The rail­
roads prefer that helpers entering the
3-year apprentice training be no older
than 30 or 35. On some roads, ap­
plicants for regular apprentice train­
ing are required to pass mathematical
and mechanical aptitude tests.
Workers in the shop trades may
advance to supervisory positions as
foremen in shops, enginehouses, and


Employment Outlook

There will be several hundred op­
portunities for new workers to obtain
jobs either as helpers or as apprentices
in the shop crafts each year during
the next decade. In 1966, apprentice­
ship programs operated by Class I
line-haul railroads were training
about 3,800 new workers, 3,600 of
them as regular apprentices.
Openings in the skilled shop crafts
will result primarily from the need to
replace experienced craftsmen who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. The number of journeymen
mechanics employed in these crafts
declined from about 143,400 in 1955
to 94,200 in 1966 and some further
decline appears likely through the
1970’s despite the fact that more roll­
ing stock will be needed to handle the
anticipated increase in freight traffic.
Among the factors which are making
it possible for the railroads to handle
a given amount of work in the shops
with a smaller work force than for­
merly are the use of assembly line
techniques in repair work, greater
specialization of labor, and the use of
better designed and constructed roll­
ing stock. Fewer equipment mainte­
nance employees are needed, also,
because of the practice on some rail­
roads of sending diesel locomotives
requiring major overhaul back to the
manufacturer for rebuilding or in
exchange for more highly powered
new, or rebuilt units.
Employment trends for individual
shops crafts have not been affected
equally by changes in equipment and
operating methods, nor are they
likely to be in the future. Two ex­
tremes in shop craft employment
trends are represented by electrical
workers and boilermakers. During
the 1955-64 period, when the total
number of skilled craftsmen in the
six principal shop trades decreased
by one-third, the number of elec­
trical workers declined about 25 per­
cent. Some increase in employment
of electrical workers may occur
through the 1970’s because of the
almost universal use of diesel-electric
power and the installation of more


complex electrical and electronic
equipment in locomotives, railroad
cars, and communication systems.
On the other hand, the decline that
has already taken place in the num­
ber of boilermakers employed in the
shops—from about 4,300 in 1955 to
1,800 in 1966—is expected to con­
tinue, because the skills of these
workers are required much less in
the repair of diesel locomotives than
in the repair of steam locomotives.
The decline since 1955 in carmen and
machinists who together account for
about three-fourths of all journey­
men mechanics employed in shop
crafts, has been about one-third;
some further decline, although less
pronounced, is expected through the

of Electrical Workers; Sheet Metal
Workers’ International Association;
International Brotherhood of Boiler­
makers, Iron Shipbuilders, Black­
smiths, Forgers and Helpers; and the
International Brotherhood of Fire­
men and Oilers. In collective bar­
gaining, these unions usually nego­
tiate their labor contracts through
the Railroad Employes’ Department
of the AFL-CIO.

(D.O.T. 822.281 and .884)

Nature of Work
Earnings and Working Conditions

Straight-time average hourly earn­
ings of journeymen employed by
Class I line-haul railroads in the shop
trades in 1966 were: Carmen $2.99;
machinists $3.06; electrical workers
$3.08; sheet-metal workers $3.06;
boilermakers $3.06; and blacksmiths
$3.04. Straight-time earnings of
helpers in all shop crafts averaged
$2.73 an hour; regular apprentices,
who spend part of their time in class­
room instruction and the rest on the
job, averaged $2.50 an hour; and
helper-apprentices, who also worked
on the same basis, averaged $2.77 an
hour; gang foremen and gang leaders
averaged $3.55 an hour. Most shop
workers have a basic 40-hour work­
week of five 8-hour days, and are
paid time and one-half for overtime.
Major repairs on locomotives and
cars are made generally indoors in
the enginehouse or car repair shop.
Minor adjustments, inspection, and
emergency repairs may be performed
Most shop workers are members of
unions. Among the unions in this
field are: Brotherhood Railway Car­
men of America; International Asso­
ciation of Machinists and Aerospace
Workers; International Brotherhood

Workers in railroad signal depart­
ments construct, install, maintain,
and repair the signaling systems
which control the movement of
trains and assure the safety of rail­
road travel.
One group of skilled workers,
known as signal maintainers, keep
wires, lights, switches, and other con­
trolling devices in good operating
condition. The work requires a thor­
ough practical knowledge of electric­
ity and considerable mechanical skill.
Work on the newer signaling systems
also requires a knowledge of elec­
A second skilled group, known as
signalmen, generally has the same
skills and knowledge required of
maintainers, but construct and install
new signals and signal systems. Sig­
nalmen work as members of crews
which also include semiskilled work­
ers. The crews travel from one part
of the road to another, wherever con­
struction work is underway. In con­
structing a signal system, crews often
build forms for concrete, mix and
pour cement, weld metal, and do
many other types of work in addition
to electrical work.
In 1966, Class I line-haul railroads
employed about 12,500 men in this


kind of work; included were about
8,400 signalmen and signal maintain­
ed, about 1,200 semiskilled assistants,
and 800 helpers. Several hundred
workers in these groups also were em­
ployed by the short-line railways and
by switching and terminal companies.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Railroads prefer that applicants for
entry jobs in the signal department be
between 18 and 35 years of age and
have a high school education or its
equivalent. Knowledge of electricity
and mechanical skill are assets to
young men seeking these jobs.
New employees start as helpers
doing work under the direction of ex­
perienced men, or as assistants, if
they have had previous experience in
signal work. Helpers, after about 1
year of training on the job, usually
advance to assistant. Openings for
signalmen and signal maintained are
filled, as they occur, by promoting
qualified assistants according to sen­
iority rules. At least 4 years are re­
quired usually for an assistant to
work up to signalman or signal maintainer.
Both signalmen and signal main­
tained may be promoted to more re­
sponsible positions such as inspected
or testmen, gang foremen, leading
signalmen, or leading signal main­
tained. A few may advance to assist­
ant supervisors or signal engineers.
Employment Outlook

There will be some opportunities
for new workers to obtain entry jobs
as helpers or assistants during the
1970’s. Most of these opportunities
will result from the need to replace
workers who retire, die, or transfer to
other fields of work. Job openings
for new workers will be limited be­
cause men furloughed in recent years
will be recalled before new men are
Employment of helpers and assist­

Signal m aintained check signal strength of repeater station.

ants declined from about 4,600 in
1955 to 2,000 in 1966, and the num­
ber of skilled signalmen and signal
maintained declined from about
8,800 to 6,900. These occupations are
expected to continue to decline in the
early 1970’s, after which they are
expected to increase slightly. The in­
stallation of new equipment initially
has increased signal work opportuni­
ties ; maintenance and repair require­
ments has declined as a result.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly
earnings of signalmen and signal
maintained employed by Class I linehaul railroads in 1966 were $3.08.
Assistant signalmen and signal main­
tained averaged $2.74 and helpers
$2.63 an hour. Signal workers have a
basic 8-hour day and 5-day week, and
are paid time and one-half for work
beyond 8 hours a day.



Signal maintainers have fairly
steady work, because the amount of
work required for maintaining rail­
road signal systems does not change
greatly with variations in traffic or
with the seasons. Signalmen and other
crew members, particularly on some
northern roads, may have less work
during especially bad weather. In
both of these occupations, the work
is mostly out of doors, and maintain­
ers must make repairs regardless of
the time of day or the weather condi­
tions. Both maintainers and signal­
men, when working on signaling de­
vices, must often climb poles and
work near high-tension electric wires
and unguarded railroad tracks.
Signalmen and other crew mem­
bers who work on construction and
installation frequently work away
from their homes; on these occasions,
many railroads provide camp cars for
living quarters while the men pay for
their own food. Signal maintainers
generally are able to live at home,
since they maintain signals only over
a limited stretch of track.
Most signal workers are members
of the Brotherhood of Railroad

Either a member of the section
crew, or track workers operating
track motorcars, make regular in­
spections of the right-of-way, looking
for cracked rails, weak ties, washedout ballast, and other track and road­
way defects. Trackmen and portable
equipment operators working in the
crews then make the necessary re­
pairs. Roadway maintenance ma­
chines, such as multiple tie tampers,
power wrenches, and ballast clean­
ers, have been displacing gradually
the use of such handtools as picks,
shovels, and spike hammers. More
and more railroads are using road­
way machines, which require skilled
operators, to do heavy maintenanceof-way work once done by trackmen
using hand or pneumatically powered

In 1966, an average of 60,900 track
workers were employed by Class I
line-haul railroads. They included
40,200 trackmen working in crews,
9,300 portable equipment operators
and helpers, and 11,300 gang fore­
men. Additional thousands of these
workers were employed by the short­
line railroads. The size of this maintenance-of-way work force varies
considerably during the year because
many construction and repair jobs
are done in the summer months when
the weather is best.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Most track workers are trained on
the job. To acquire the skills neces-


182.168; 859.883; 869.887;
910.782; and 919.887)

Nature of Work

Trackmen and portable equipment
operators construct, maintain, and
repair railroad tracks and roadways.
Many of them work in section crews
which patrol and maintain a limited
section of the railroad’s right-of-way.
Some roads combine the section crews
and highly mechanized crews to cov­
er longer stretches of the right-ofway. Still other track workers are em­
ployed in “extra” crews. These men
perform seasonal maintenance and re­
pair work, such
 as replacing rails.
262-057 O— 68---- 45
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Track workers drive spikes with automatic spikemaster.



sary to become an all-round trackman
requires up to 2 years. Machine op­
erating jobs in track maintenance
work are assigned to qualified track­
men on the basis of seniority.
Most roads prefer workers between
the ages of 21 and 45 for their track
work forces. Men seeking work as
trackmen must be able to read and
write and do heavy work. Applicants
often are required to take physical
examinations. A high school educa­
tion is desirable for workers who are
seeking to advance to portable equip­
ment operators and gang foremen.
Trackmen and portable equipment
operators who have the necessary
seniority and qualifications may ad­
vance to gang or assistant foreman. A
qualified foreman may advance to a
supervisory maintenance-of-way posi­
tion such as track supervisor.
Employment Outlook

Several thousand new workers will
be hired each year in track mainte­
nance occupations during the 1970’s,
mostly for the seasonal rush during
the summer months, particularly in
northern sections of the country.
Comparatively few openings will offer
steady year-round employment.
For some years, the use of mecha­
nized equipment and new kinds of
materials in roadway construction has
been reducing substantially the num­
ber of men employed by the railroads
in maintenance-of-way work. At the
same time, however, the use of
mechanized equipment has created a
limited number of maintenance-ofway jobs involving the operation of
roadway machines. Betwen 1955 and
1966, as the number of trackmen and
foremen in section and other kinds of
crews dropped from about 136,000 to
51,600, the number of portable equip­
ment workers rose from 7,400 to
about 9,300. These trends are ex­
pected to continue in the years ahead.
Earnings and Working Conditions

Track workers are among the low­
est paid groups in the railroad indus­

try. Men employed in section and
other kinds of crews on Class I linehaul railroads had straight-time aver­
age earnings of $2.51 an hour in 1966.
Portable equipment operators and
helpers averaged $2.85 and crew fore­
men averaged $2.93 an hour in 1966.
A basic 5-day, 40-hour week was in
force for most classes of track work­
ers. Time worked over 8 hours a day
was paid for at time and one-half
Since most section men inspect and
maintain only a few miles of track,
they usually live at home. However,
the section crew is rapidly giving way
to the mechanized “floating” crew.
Trackmen and portable equipment
operators who work in “floating”
crews usually travel from place to
place and generally live in camp cars
or trailers provided by the railroads.
They pay for their own food.
Most maintenance-of-way workers
are members of the Brotherhood of
Maintenance of Way Employes.


Nature of Work

These workers construct, maintain,
and repair tunnels, bridges, stations,
railway shops, and a variety of other
structures owned by the railroads. In
1966, Class I line-haul railroads em­
ployed in this kind of work about
9,400 skilled craftsmen, 2,600 helpers,
and 2,300 foremen. Among the
skilled craftsmen were about 5,500
carpenters working as all-round
mechanics in a variety of construc­
tion trades in addition to carpentry;
about 2,800 masons, bricklayers, plas­
terers, and plumbers; and about 700
painters and 400 ironworkers. The
short-line railways employed several
hundred more workers in the same
occupations. (Information about the
nature of the work done by these

craftsmen can be found elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications, and

New employees usually receive their
training as helpers. As openings occur
in skilled mechanics’ jobs, they are
filled by helpers who have qualified
for promotion and have the necessary
Skilled workers with the necessary
experience may advance to positions
as foremen, inspectors, or bridge and
building supervisors.

Employment Outlook

A small number of job openings
in the bridge and building work force
will arise each year during the next
10 years. Retirements, deaths, and
transfers to other fields of work will
provide some job opportunities for
new workers. Most of the jobs avail­
able will be as beginners or helpers,
where turnover rates are relatively
Employment by Class I line-haul
railroads of skilled craftsmen, helpers,
and foremen on bridge and building
work decreased from about 27,300 in
1955 to 14,400 in 1966. This trend is
expected to continue because the in­
creased use of power tools and other
laborsaving equipment, and of new
materials which require less mainte­
nance and repair, will cut down fur­
ther on the number of men needed
for construction and maintenance
work. However, increased railroad
freight activity projected for the early
1970’s may cause employment of
these workers to increase slightly.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average straight-time hourly
earnings of carpenters employed by
Class I line-haul railroads in bridge
and building work in 1966 were $2.82.
Masons, bricklayers, plasterers, and
plumbers averaged $2.99, ironworkers



$3.02, painters $2.86, helpers $2.67,
and foremen $3.17 an hour in 1966.
Bridge and building workers work a
5-day, basic 40-hour week and are
paid time and one-half for work be­
yond 8 hours a day, and may receive

double time for work over 16 continu­
ous hours.
Bridge and building men usually
are away from home during their
workweek. On these occasions, they
usualy live in camp cars supplied by

the railroads. While living in camp
cars, they pay for their own food.
The Brotherhood of Maintenance
of Way Employes represents the
bridge and building workers on most

a few weeks; other jobs, such as in­
staller and repairman, take many
more months to learn.
More than half of all telephone
workers are women. They are em­
ployed primarily as telephone oper­
ators or clerical workers. Men usually
are employed in installing, repairing,
and maintaining telephone equip­


As our population and economy
grow, and as technology advances, the
need for communication increases.
More than 385 million telephone
calls are made daily in the United
States, both locally and for long dis­
tances to different parts of the
country and overseas. Approximately
800,000 employees were required to
provide this service in early 1967.
The telephone industry offers men
and women many employment op­
portunities for steady, year-round
work in many different jobs. Some
of the jobs, such as telephone opera­
tor and file clerk, can be learned in

Nature and Location of the

Providing telephone service for the
many millions of residential, com­
mercial, and industrial customers is
the main work of the Nation’s tele­
phone companies. About 100 million
telephones were in use in the United
States in 1967.
Telephone jobs are found in almost
every community in the U n i t e d
States. Most telephone workers,
however, are employed in large cities
with concentrations of industrial and
business establishments. Nearly threefifths of them work in the 10 States
which have the largest number of
telephones: New York, California,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Texas,
Michigan, New Jersey, Massachu­
setts, and Indiana.
The nerve center of the local tele­

Telephone Industry Employs More
Craftsmen Than Operators V


phone system is the central office
containing the switching equipment
through which any telephone may
be connected with any other tele­
phone. Every telephone call made,
whether by dialing direct or signaling
the operator, travels from the caller
through wires and cables to the cable
vault in the central office. Thousands
of pairs of wires fan out from the
cable vault to a distributing frame
where each set of wires is attached to
switching equipment. To join the
caller’s telephone to the telephone he
is calling, connections are made auto­
matically, mainly by electro-mechan­
ical switching equipment. Manual
connections may also be made by the
operator in the few remaining man­
ually operated switchboards, or in
unusual situations.
Long-distance calls are dialed by
the customer or an operator and con­
nected through switching equipment
with the telephone called. By early
1967, about 85 percent of all tele­
phone users could dial long-distance
calls directly. Information needed to
bill the customer may be recorded
automatically or, on operator han­
dled calls, is entered on a ticket by
the operator.
Some customers make and receive
more calls than can be handled on a
single telephone line. For these calls,
a system somewhat similar to a mini­
ature central office may be installed
on the subscriber’s premises. This
system is the private branch exchange
(PBX), usually found in such places
as apartment and office buildings,
hotels, department stores, and other
business firms.
A new type of service is called
CENTREX, in which incoming calls
can be dialed direct to any extension
without an operator’s assistance, and
outgoing and intercom calls can be
dialed direct by the extension users.
The equipment for this service can
be located either on telephone com­
pany premises or on the customer’s
Other communication services pro­
vided by telephone companies in-



elude conference equipment installed
at a PBX to permit conversations
among several telephone users simul­
taneously; mobile radiotelephones in
automobiles, boats, airplanes, and
trains; and telephones equipped to
answer calls automatically and to
give and take messages by recordings.
Telephone companies also build
and maintain the vast network of
cables and radio-relay systems for
comunication services, including those
joining the thousands of broadcasting
stations all over the Nation. These
services are leased to networks and
their affiliated stations. Telephone
companies also operate teletype and
private-wire services which they lease
to business and government offices.
The domestic telephone network is
made up of two ownership groups—
the Bell System and the independent
telephone companies. Bell, through its
associated companies, serves about 5
of every 6 of the Nation’s telephones.
The independents serve the re­
mainder. There are approximately
2,300 independent telephone com­
panies in the United States.
Telephone Occupations

The telephone industry requires
workers in many different occupa­
tions. Chart 60 shows the percentage
distribution of telephone employment
by occupational group.
Nearly 3 of every 10 workers in the
industry are telephone craftsmen and
about the same proportion are tele­
phone operators. Telephone crafts­
men install, repair, and maintain
telephones, cables, switching equip­
ment, and message accounting sys­
tems. These workers can be grouped
by the type of work they perform: (1)
Line construction men place, splice,
and maintain telephone wires and
cables; (2) installers and repairmen
place, maintain, and repair tele­
phones and private branch exchanges
(PBX) in homes and in offices and
other places of business; and (3) cen­
tral office craftsmen test, maintain,
and repair equipment in central of­

fices. The duties of the operators in­
clude making telephone connections;
assisting customers on specialized
types of calls, for example, reversecharge calls; and giving telephone in­
formation. Telephone craftsmen are
discussed in detail later in this chap­
ter. A detailed discussion of telephone
operators and operators of private
branch exchanges (PBX operators)
is presented in a separate statement
elsewhere in the Handbook.
When central office equipment is
purchased by a telephone company, it
is usually installed by employees of the
equipment manufacturers. A few cen­
tral office equipment installers work
for telephone companies or private
firms specializing in installation work.
Although most of these skilled work­
ers are not employed in telephone
operating companies, they are dis­
cussed in this chapter because their
work is so closely connected with the
Nation’s telephone system.
Many other occupations in the
telephone industry, such as clerical,
administrative, scientific, and cus­
todial jobs, are found in other in­
dustries as well. They are described in
detail elsewhere in the Handbook, in
the sections covering individual
More than a fifth (22 percent) of
all telephone industry employees are
clerical workers, such as stenog­
raphers, typists, bookkeepers, office
machine operators, cashiers, recep­
tionists, file clerks, accounting and
auditing clerks, and payroll clerks.
Among their other duties, these cleri­
cal workers, most of whom are
women, keep records of services,
make up and send bills to customers,
and prepare statistical and other re­
ports. A small but growing amount
of this recordkeeping and statistical
work is being done by electronic dataprocessing equipment.
About 11 percent of telephone
company employees are business office
and sales representatives who handle
orders for new telephone services and
workers, such as accountants, at­
torneys, personnel specialists, purchas­

ing agents, public relations employees,
training specialists, and statisticians.
A small but increasing proportion
(6 percent) of the industry’s em­
ployees are scientific and technical
personnel; for example, engineers and
their assistants and draftsmen. Most
of these workers plan and design the
construction of new buildings and the
expansion of existing ones, and solve
engineering problems that arise in the
day-to-day operations of the tele­
phone system. Some engineers are em­
ployed in sales development work.
Many top supervisory and administra­
tive jobs are held by men with engi­
neering backgrounds. Basic research
in comunications systems and the de­
velopment of new and improved tele­
phone equipment are not done by
employees of telephone operating
companies, but mainly by those em­
ployed in affiliated laboratories spe­
cializing in such work.
About 4 percent of the telephone
industry’s workers maintain buildings,
offices, and warehouses; operate and
service motor vehicles; and do many
other maintenance and service jobs in
offices and plants. Skilled main­
tenance craftsmen include stationary
engineers, carpenters, painters, elec­
tricians, and plumbers. Other workers
employed by the telephone industry
are janitors, porters, watchmen, ele­
vator operators, and guards.
Employment Outlook

Tens of thousands of new workers
will be required by telephone operat­
ing companies each year during the
remainder of the 1960’s and through­
out the 1970’s, mainly to replace the
large numbers of women telephone
operators and clerical workers who
leave the industry to marry, rear a
family, or for other reasons. Some of
these new workers, however, will be
needed for craft jobs, to replace
skilled workers who die, retire, or
shift to other work. Job turnover will
also create openings for administra­
tive, sales, professional, technical, and
scientific personnel.

Despite an anticipated growth in
the amount and types of telephone
service, total employment in the tele­
phone industry is expected to grow
at only a slow rate. This is because
technological improvements are per­
mitting more calls to be made with­
out any assistance from an operator.
However, operators will continue to
be needed to handle the more com­
plex calls. Clerical workers and many
of the skilled craftsmen are also being
affected by technological changes ex­
pected to restrict the total number of
workers required for efficient tele­
phone service. Occupational groups
in which employment is expected to
grow as the volume of business in­
creases are sales, administrative, pro­
fessional, technical, and scientific
Part of the expansion in telephone
service will result from expected in­
creases in the number of households,
and the number of business and in­
dustrial establishments. The remain­
ing one-seventh of households in the
United States without telephones will
be another factor in the demand for
telephone service, especially as family
incomes rise.
Other factors are also expected to
increase the demand for telephone
services. For example, the popularity
of extension telephones in private
homes, and of telephones of different
styles and colors, is increasing. A re­
cent development is the touch-tone
instrument on which a set of buttons
replaces the dial. This instrument en­
ables the user to make a call in half
the time required for a dial call and
has the potential to be used to pro­
vide many new services, including the
transmission of data, remote control
of appliances or remote access to
electronic computers. Also, there is
growing use of specialized equip­
ment on telephone instruments, such
as volume controls that compensate
for impaired hearing, and loudspeak­
ers that permit “hands free” conver­
sation. For industrial and commercial
users, high speed transmission of large
quantities of computer-processed and
other data via telephone, teletype­


writer, telephotograph, or facsimilie
are types of special services which are
becoming more important. With high
speed data transmission, for example,
it is possible to publish the same news­
paper almost simultaneously in two
widely separated cities. To meet the
increasing demand for overseas com­
munications, transoceanic service will
continue to expand as more under­
sea cables are laid and communica­
tions satellites come into wider com­
mercial use.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Since wage rates in the telephone
industry are geared to those for com­
parable work in the locality, earnings
of telephone workers depend not only
on the type of job and the worker’s
previous training and experience, but
also on location and character of the
community. Because of differences in
rates among regions and communi­
ties, considerable variation exists in
the rates paid for any given telephone
occupation. In general, telephone
wage rates are highest in the Pacific
and Middle Atlantic States, and low­
est in the Southeast.
For the Nation as a whole, aver­
age basic hourly wage rates in Decem­
ber 1965 for all telephone employees,
except officials and managerial as­
sistants, were $3.04. Rates for these
workers ranged from an average of
$1.82 an hour for telephone operator
trainees and $2.17 for experienced
telephone operators, to $5.31 for pro­
fessional and semiprofessional work­
ers. Clerical workers in nonsupervisory positions averaged $2.35 an hour.
Construction, installation and main­
tenance employees averaged $3.45 an
A telephone employee usually starts
at the minimum wage for his partic­
ular job. Advancement from the
starting rate to the maximum rate
generally takes from 5 to 6 years and
involves from 10 to 14 pay grades.
More than two-thirds of the work­
ers in the industry, mainly telephone
operators and craftsmen, are mem­

bers of labor unions. The Communi­
cations Workers of America repre­
sents the largest number of workers
in the industry, but many other em­
ployees are members of the 16 in­
dependent unions which form the
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Unions. Others are members of the
Independent Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers.
Wage rates, wage increases, and the
amount of time required to advance
from one step to the next are gov­
erned for most telephone workers by
union-management contracts. The
contracts also call for extra pay for
work beyond the normal tour of 6
to 8 hours a day or 5 days a week,
and for all Sunday and holiday work.
Most contracts provide a pay differ­
ential for night work.
Travel time between jobs is
counted as worktime for craftsmen
under some contracts. Overtime work
is sometimes required in the tele­
phone industry, especially during
emergencies, such as floods, hurri­
canes, or bad storms. During an
“emergency call-out,” which is a
short-notice request to report to work
during nonscheduled hours, workers
are guaranteed a minimum period of
pay at the basic hourly rate.
In addition to these provisions
which affect the pay envelope di­
rectly, other benefits are provided.
Periods of annual vacations with pay
are granted to workers according to
their length of service. Usually, con­
tracts provide for a 1-week vacation
for 6 months to 1 year of service, 2
weeks for 1 to 10 years, 3 weeks for
10 to 20 years, and holidays range
from 6 to 11 days a year depending
on locality. The majority of telephone
workers are covered by paid sick
plans and group insurance plans
which usually provide sickness, acci­
dent, and death benefits, and retire­
ment and disability pensions.
The telephone industry has
achieved one of the best safety records
in American industry: The number
of disabling injuries has been con­
sistently well below the average.



Where To Go for More Information

Additional information about jobs
in the telephone industry may be ob­
tained from the local telephone com­
pany or from local unions with tele­
phone workers among their member­
ship. If no local union is listed in the
telephone directory, information may
be obtained from the following:
Alliance of Independent Telephone
Room 302, 1422 Chestnut St., Phila­
delphia, Pa. 19102
Communications Workers of Amer­
1925 K St., N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20006.
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers.
1200 15th St., N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20005.

Telephone Craftsmen

Nearly a third of the employees of
the telephone industry are craftsmen
engaged in construction, installation,
and maintenance activities necessary
to operate the vast amount of me­
chanical, electrical, and electronic
equipment vital to the far-reaching
network of our modem communica­
tions systems. About 1 in every 8 of
these workers are foremen many of
whom have advanced to supervisory
positions from a craft job.

tential trouble before service is af­
fected. Telephone companies em­
ployed about 76,000 central office
craftsmen in early 1967, including, for
example, approximately 17,000 testboardmen and 56,000 central office
repairmen, helpers, and framemen.
Frameman (D.O.T. 822.884) is
usually the beginning job from which
a worker may advance to a more
skilled central office craft job. Framemen run, connect and disconnect
wires representing individual sub­
scriber lines between cable and cen­
tral office terminals according to
plans prepared by line assigners, an­
other small group of workers.
Central office repairmen (D.O.T.
822.281), often called switchmen,
maintain and repair switching equip­
ment and automatic message account­
ing systems in central offices. They
check switches and relays, using spe­
cial tools and gages. They also locate
and repair trouble on customers’
lines in central office equipment as
reported by testboardmen.
Testboardmen (D.O.T. 822.281)
make periodic checks of customers’
lines to prevent breakdowns or inter­
ference in telephone service. They
work at special switchboards made
up of electrical testing instruments
and test for, locate, and analyze
trouble spots reported on customers’
lines. If repairs are needed and the
breakdown is outside the central of­
fice, they direct the repair activities
of line and cable crews or installerrepairmen or of central office repair­
men (if the trouble is inside).

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Nature of Work

Central office craftsmen test,
maintain, and repair mechanical,
electrical, and electronic switching
equipment and other central office
equipment. They keep this equipment
in operating condition and locate po­

The telephone companies usually
hire inexperienced men to train for
skilled jobs in central offices. Appli­
cants for these jobs must have at
least a high school or vocational
school education. A knowledge of the
basic principles of electricity and
electronics is generally desired. Tele­
phone training and experience in the
armed services or technical training

beyond the high school level may be
helpful in obtaining jobs as telephone
company craftsmen; men with such
training may be brought in above the
entry level. Preemployment aptitude
tests usually are given to prospective
Most telephone companies have
regular programs for training new
employees in central office craft jobs.
A new worker may be given classroom
instruction as well as on-the-job train­
ing. Usually, he is assigned to the
starting job of frameman and works
with experienced framemen under
the direction of a supervisor or fore­
man. As the frameman gains skill and
experience, he may advance to cen­
tral office repairman or testboardman
receiving such additional classroom
instruction or other training as may
be required for the new job. Instruc­
tion includes courses such as the prin­
ciples of electricity and electronics,
as well as special courses in the main­
tenance of the particular type of cen­
tral office equipment used by the
Central office craftsmen receive
training throughout their careers with
the telephone company. As new types
of equipment and tools are introduced
and new maintenance methods are
developed, these men may be sent to
school for short periods of instruc­
tion. Usually it takes at least 6 years
for workers to reach the top pay rate
for central office repairmen or test­
Many workers move into central
office craft jobs from other types of
telephone work. For example, some
men start as telephone installers or
linemen and many, with additional
training, transfer to jobs as central
office craftsmen. Promotional oppor­
tunities for central office craftsmen
include, in addition to the jobs of
central office foremen, jobs such as
those of engineering assistants and
administrative staff workers.
Employment Outlook

Young men will find many oppor­
tunities for steady employment as



■ .wilJi I J L/BPB

w i

Central office repairmen at test frames check functioning of switching equipment.

central office craftsmen during the
remainder of the 1960’s and the
1970’s. The opportunities will result
from the need to replace workers who
retire, die, transfer to other telephone
jobs, or leave the telephone industry.
Retirements and deaths alone may
result in several thousand job open­
ings each year.

The total number of central of­
fice craftsmen is expected to increase
moderately during the 1967-80 pe­
riod, mainly as a result of increasing
demand for telephone service and
data communication systems. How­
ever, recent technological develop­
ments, such as electronic switching
and various automatic testing devices,

will tend to restrict employment
Earnings and Working Conditions

Central office craftsmen are among
the highest paid skilled workers in the
telephone industry. In December
1965, average basic hourly rates of


pay in large telephone companies in
the United States were $3.43 for testboardmen and $3.25 for central of­
fice repairmen; average basic hourly
rates ranged from $3.36 to $3.83 for
testboardmen and from $3.11 to $3.40
for central office repairmen, depend­
ing on locality and length of service.
Earnings increase considerably
with length of service in central office
jobs. According to a 1966 unionmanagement contract in one of the
higher pay scale cities, craft employ­
ees start at $90.00 for a 40-hour week.
Framemen can work up to a maxi­
mum of $134.00 after 5 years. If a
vacancy occurs and the worker is
qualified, a frameman can move into
the job of central office repairman or
testboardman with a higher pay
schedule. Central office repairmen
and testboardmen can earn a maxi­
mum of $160.00 a week after 6 years
of periodic increases. Craftsmen who
qualify for engineering assistant jobs
can earn a maximum of $172.50 a
week after 6 years.
Since the telephone industry gives
continuous service to its customers,
central offices operate 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. Some central office
craftsmen, therefore, have work
schedules for which they receive extra
pay. Central office craftsmen are
covered by the same provisions gov­
erning overtime pay, vacations, holi­
days, and other benefits that apply to
telephone workers generally. (See dis­
cussion earlier in this chapter.) Em­
ployees in central offices work in clean
and well-lighted surroundings.


Nature of Work

Central office equipment installers
set up complex switching and dialing
equipment in central offices of local
telephone companies. They assemble,
wire, adjust, and test this equipment


distance toll center in a big city, he
may work with hundreds of other

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Central office installers raise frame for dial­
ing equipment.

making sure that it conforms to the
manufacturer’s standards for efficient
and dependable service. These jobs
may involve installing a new central
office, adding equipment in an ex­
panding local office, or modifying or
replacing outmoded equipment.
About 22,000 installers were em­
ployed in early 1967. Unilke the other
craftsmen discussed in this chapter,
most installers work for manufac­
turers of central office equipment
rather than for the telephone com­
panies. A few installers work directly
for telephone operating companies,
including about 1,500 in the New
England area, and some are employ­
ees of private contractors who spe­
cialize in large-scale telephone instal­
lation jobs.
Central office equipment installers
are generally assigned to specific
areas which may include several
States; they must travel to central
offices of local telephone companies
within these areas. On a small job,
such as installing a switchboard in a
central office in a small community,
an installer may be teamed with only
one or two other installers. On a
large job, such as installing a long­

Young men who wish to become
installers must have a high school or
vocational school education. Men
with some college education, espe­
cially those with engineering training,
are often hired for these jobs. Pre­
employment tests are generally given
to determine the applicant’s mechan­
ical aptitudes, and a physical exami­
nation is required.
New employees receive on-the-job
training and classroom instruction.
They attend classes for the first few
weeks to learn basic installation
methods and then start on-the-job
training under experienced installers.
After several years of experience, they
may qualify as skilled installers.
Training on the job, however, con­
tinues even after they become skilled
workers. Additional courses are given
from time to time not only to improve
their skills but also to teach them new
techniques of installing telephone
equipment. Installers may advance to
engineering assistant jobs, especially
those workers who have had some
technical training beyond the high
school level.

Employment Outlook

During the remainder of the 1960’s
and through the 1970’s, several hun­
dred job openings a year are expected
to become available for young men
to replace central office equipment
installers who transfer to other work,
retire, or die. The total number of
installers, however, will remain at
about the present level for several
reasons. Installation of automatic
dialing equipment for long-distance
calls will continue at about the cur­
rent rate; eventually such equipment
will be installed in all parts of the
country. Some new central offices will
have to be constructed during the

years ahead and existing ones modi­
fied or enlarged to meet the growing
needs of a population that is expand­
ing and shifting to the suburbs. The
amount of such work may be some­
what less than in recent years, how­
ever, because many new central of­
fices have been built recently and
will not need replacement for some
time. On the other hand, increasingly
complex central office and toll equip­
ment, including advanced types of
PBX systems, as well as data and
computer networks, will require
manpower with more and higher
skills in electronic work.
Installers, perhaps more than
other craftsmen connected with the
telephone industry, are subject to
possible employment fluctuations in
the short run because of changes in
business conditions. When the busi­
ness outlook is depressed, there is less
likelihood that new central offices
will be built or existing ones enlarged
or modernized. When business is
prospering, installations, additions,
and modifications of central offices
may occur at an above-average pace.

Earnings and Working Conditions

As of late 1966, the straight-time
average hourly rate of pay for in­
stallers was $3.15. According to a
major union contract in effect for
this occupation in late 1966, inexperi­
enced installers start at $2.00 to $2.19
an hour, depending on locality. The
contract provides for periodic in­
creases and employees may reach
rates of $3.22 to $3.96 an hour after
6 years of experience. Employees may
also receive merit increases above
these rates, based on job performance
plus length of service, bringing the
top rates up to $3.49 to $4.25 an
hour. Time and a half is paid for
work in excess of 8 hours a day or 40
hours a week, and double time is paid
for work on Sundays and holidays.
Travel and expense allowances are
also given. Installers receive 7 to 12
paid holidays a year, depending on


locality. Paid vacations are provided
according to length of service.
The majority of central office
equipment installers, including most
of those servicing the Bell System, are
represented by the Communications
Workers of America. Some installers
employed by manufacturers supply­
ing the non-Bell or independent seg­
ment of the telephone industry, and
some employed by large installation
contractors, are represented by the
International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers. Installers employed
directly by telephone operating com­
panies in the New England area are
members of the International Broth­
erhood of Telephone Workers, which
is affiliated with the Alliance of
Independent Telephone Unions.


Nature of Work

The vast network of wires and
cables that connect telephone cen­
tral offices to the millions of tele­
phones and switchboards in cus­
tomers’ homes and buildings is con­
structed and kept in good operating
order by linemen and cable splicers
and their helpers. Telephone com­
panies employed over 40,000 such
workers in early 1967— 16,000 line­
men, 20,000 cable splicers, and 4,000
helpers, laborers, and other workers.
In constructing new telephone
lines, linemen (D.O.T. 822.381)
place wires and cables leading from
the central office to customers’ prem­
ises. They use power-driven equip­
ment to dig holes and set in telephone
poles which support cables. Line­
men climb the poles to attach the
cables, usually leaving the ends free
for cable splicers to connect later. In
cities where telephone lines are below
the streets, linemen place cables in
underground conduits. Construction
linemen usually work in crews of two

to five men. A foreman directs the
work of several of these crews.
Much of the lineman’s work is re­
pairing and maintaining existing
lines. When wires or cables break or
when a pole is knocked down, line­
men are sent immediately to make
emergency repairs. The line crew
foreman keeps in close contact with
the testboardman who directs him to
trouble locations on the lines. Some
linemen are assigned sections of lines
in rural areas which they inspect pe­
riodically. During the course of their
work, they make minor repairs and
line changes.
After linemen place cables on
poles or in underground conduits,
cable splicers (D.O.T. 829.381) gen­
erally complete the line connections.
Splicers work on aerial platforms, in
manholes, or in basements of large
commercial buildings. They connect
individual wires within the cable by
matching colors of wires so as to keep
each circuit continuous. Cable splic­
ers also rearrange pairs of wires
within a cable when lines have to be
changed. At each splice, they either
wrap insulation around the wires and
seal the joint with a lead sleeve or
cover the splice with some other type
of closure. Sometimes they fill the
sheathing with gas under pressure to
keep out moisture. Cable splicers also
maintain and repair cables. The pre­
ventive maintenance work that they



do is extremely important because a
single defect in a cable may result in
a serious interruption in service.
Many trouble spots are located
through electric and gas pressure tests.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Telephone companies hire inex­
perienced men to train for jobs as
linemen or cable splicers. Applicants
for these jobs must have a high school
or vocational school education and
must pass a physical examination.
Knowledge of the basic principles of
electricity, and especially electronics,
is helpful. Preemployment tests are
often given to help determine the ap­
plicant’s aptitudes. Some line and
cable work is strenuous, requiring
workers to climb poles and lift lines
and equipment. Applicants for these
positions must be physically qualified
for such work. Manual dexterity and
the ability to distinguish color are also
important qualifications. Men who
have received telephone training and
experience in the armed services fre­
quently are given preference for job
openings and may be brought in
above the entry level.
For these jobs, telephone com­
panies have training programs which
include classroom instruction as well
as on-the-job training. Classrooms
are equipped with actual telephone
apparatus, such as poles, cable sup­
porting clamps, and other fixtures to
simulate working conditions as closely
as possible. Trainees learn to climb
poles and are taught safe working
practices to avoid contact with power
wires and falls.
After a short period of classroom
training, some trainees are assigned
to a line crew to work on the job with
experienced men under the supervi­
sion of a line foreman. About 6 years
are required for linemen to reach the
top pay for the job. Other trainees
acquire the skills of the trade by work­
ing with experienced cable splicers to
whom they are assigned.

Line construction craftsmen con­
tinue to receive training throughout
their careers to qualify for more dif­
ficult assignments and to keep up with
technological changes in the industry.
Those with the necessary qualifica­
tions find many additional advance­
ment opportunities in the telephone
industry. For example, a lineman may
be transferred to telephone installer
and later to telephone repairman or
other higher rated jobs.

Employment Outlook

Employment of linemen and cable
splicers is expected to increase only
at a slow rate despite anticipation
of a continuing high level of activity
in line and cable installation, main­
tenance, and repair. However,
hundreds of job openings for these
craftsmen as a group are expected to
become available during the 1960’s
and throughout the 1970’s because of
the need to replace workers who
transfer to other jobs, retire, or die.
Employment trends will differ
among individual occupations. Very
small growth is expected in the num­
ber of cable splicers because of tech­
nological developments that increase
worker efficiency, such as devices that
permit splicing of cables without the
need to remove insulation; instru­
ments for identifying types of wires in
cables; and use of gas-filled cables
whose failure can be pinpointed by
detecting devices located in the cen­
tral office. These developments, fur­
thermore, are expected to reduce
drastically the need for cable splicers’
helpers, continuing the rapid decline
in employment in this occupation in
recent years. The number of linemen
is not expected to increase signifi­
cantly because of the increasing use
of mechanical improvements, such as
trucks with derricks and pole-lifting
equipment, earth-boring tools, light­
weight ladders, and “sky buckets,”
which has eliminated much of the
physical work of the line crews, and
is causing a substantial reduction in
the regular size of a line crew.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Cable splicers have higher earnings
than linemen. In December 1965, in
the United States as a whole, cable
splicer’s basic rates averaged $3.39 an
hour, and linemen’s rates averaged
$2.64. Average hourly rates ranged
from $3.27 to $3.65 for cable splicers
and from $2.12 to $3.09 for linemen,
with variations in earnings depending
on locality.
Pay rates within the jobs also
depend to a considerable extent upon
length of service. For example, ac­
cording to a 1966 union-manage­
ment agreement, new workers in line
construction jobs in one of the higher
pay scale cities begin at $90:00 for a
40-hour week. Linemen can reatSi the
maximum of $150.00 after 6 years of
service. The maximum basic weekly
rate for cable splicers is $160.00 based
upon a combined total of at least 6
years of work in a plantcraft job, as a
helper and as a splicer, or in related
craft jobs. Linemen and cable splicers
are covered by the same contract
provisions governing overtime pay,
vacations, holidays, length of service
and other benefits that apply to tele­
phone workers generally. (See discus­
sion earlier in this chapter.)
Linemen and cable splicers work
outdoors. They must do a consider­
able amount of climbing. They also
work in manholes, often in stooped
and cramped positions. Safety stand­
ards, developed over the years by
telephone companies with the co­
operation of labor unions, have
greatly reduced the hazards of these
occupations. When severe weather
conditions damage telephone lines,
linemen and cable splicers may be
called upon to work long and irregu­
lar hours to repair damaged equip­
ment and to restore service. Because
of the nature of their work, some
linemen and cable splicers, by the
time they reach their midfifties, trans­
fer to other jobs, such as installers
and repairmen or central office




Nature of Work

Telephone and private branch ex­
change (PBX) installers and repair­
men (sometimes called servicemen)
install and service telephone and PBX
systems on the customers’ property
and make necessary repairs on the
equipment when trouble develops.
These workers travel to customers’
homes and offices in trucks equipped
with telephone tools and supplies.
When telephone customers move or
request new types of service, installers
relocate telephones or make changes
on customers’ existing equipment. For
example, they may install a PBX
system in an office or change a twoparty line to a single-party line in a
residence. Installers may also fill a
customer’s request to add an exten­
sion in another room or to replace an
old telephone with a newer model.
Telephone and PBX installers and
repairmen are the largest group of
telephone craftsmen; about 85,000
were employed in early 1967. The
bulk of these men mainly install tele­
phones or private branch exchanges
and about 18,000 of them repair and
maintain this equipment. The jobs of
installing and repairing telephones
and PBX systems are discussed below
as separate jobs, but many telephone
companies combine two or more of
these jobs.
Telephone installers (D.O.T. 822.381) install and remove telephones in
homes and places of business. They
connect newly installed telephones to
outside service wires which are on
nearby buildings or poles. Installers
often must climb poles to make these
connections. Telephone installers are
sometimes called station installers.
PBX installers (D.O.T. 822.381)
perform the same duties as telephone
installers but they specialize in more
complex switchboard installations.
They connect wires from terminals to
switchboards and make tests to check
their installations. Some PBX instal­

lers also set up equipment for radio
and television broadcasts, mobile
radiotelephones, and teletypewriters.
Telephone repairmen (D.O.T.
822.281), with the assistance of testboardmen in the central office, locate
trouble on customers’ equipment and
make repairs to restore service. Some­
times the jobs of telephone repairmen
and telephone installers are combined
and the workers are called telephone
PBX. repairmen (D.O.T. 822.281),
with the assistance of testboardmen,
locate trouble on customers’ PBX
systems and make necessary repairs.
They also maintain associated equip­
ment, such as batteries, relays, and
power plants. Some PBX repairmen
maintain and repair equipment for
radio and television broadcasts, mo­
bile radiotelephones, and teletype­
writers. Sometimes the jobs of PBX
installers and PBX repairmen are
combined into the job of PBX in­

requires personal contact with cus­
tomers, applicants who have a pleas­
ing appearance and the ability to deal
effectively with people are preferred.
Applicants for these skilled jobs must
have a high school or vocational
school education. Preemployment
tests usually are given to help deter­
mine applicants’ aptitude.
New workers are given classroom
instruction in addition to on-the-job
training. Classrooms are equipped
with telephone poles, lines and cables,
and terminal boxes, as well as models
of typical residential construction to
simulate actual working conditions.
Trainees practice installing tele­
phones and making connections to
service wires just as they would in
the field. After a few weeks of such
training, new workers accompany
skilled installers and continue to learn
the job of installing by watching and
helping these experienced men.
Telephone and PBX installers and
repairmen continue to receive train­
ing throughout their careers with the
telephone company to qualify for
more difficult and responsible work.
Since technological changes in the
telephone industry are occurring con­
stantly, telephone companies send
their craftsmen to training schools for
further instruction. Well qualified
workers will have many additional
advancement opportunities in this in­
dustry. For example, after a tele­
phone installer has worked a few
years, he may be transferred to the
higher paying job of PBX installer.
Similarly, a telephone repairman
may be promoted to PBX repairman,
one of the highest paying craft jobs.
Another new worker may start as a
lineman and then transfer to the job
of installing or repairing telephones,
later moving to either PBX installer
or PBX repairman.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Employment Outlook

Telephone companies hire inexpe­
rienced men and train them for tele­
phone and PBX installation and re­
pair jobs. Since much of the work

Young men will find many oppor­
tunities for steady employment as
telephone and PBX installers and
repairmen during the remainder of


this decade and throughout the
1970’s. Primarily, these opportunities
will result from the need to replace
workers who transfer to other tele­
phone jobs, leave the industry, retire,
or die. Retirements and deaths alone
may result in about 1700 job openings
each year during the 1967-80 period.
Some job openings created by turn­
over may be filled by workers trans­
ferring from other telephone craft
jobs, such as linemen and cable splic­
ers, but many will be open to new
The total number of telephone and
PBX installers and repairmen is ex­
pected to increase at a slow rate dur­
ing the rest of the 1960’s and through
the 1970’s. Some additional jobs may
become available because of a gradual
changeover to electronic switching
equipment in central offices that has
begun recently. Also, some expansion
is anticipated in the volume of service
handled by these craftsmen, because
of the expanding number of tele­
phones to be serviced and repaired,
the growing popularity of extension

phones, the increased use of special­
ized types of phone equipment, and
the development of improved but
more complex equipment. The em­
ployment increase will be slight be­
cause recent technological changes
have increased the efficiency of indi­
vidual installers or repairmen. Ex­
amples of such changes include im­
proved designs for telephone instru­
ments, wires, and cables; the develop­
ment of removable components which
can be returned to factory or serv­
ice shop for repair.
Earnings and Working Conditions

In December 1965, the average
basic hourly rate for PBX repairmen
was $3.54 and the rate for telephone
and PBX installers was $3.32. Aver­
age hourly rates ranged from $3.26
to $3.66 for PBX repairmen and from
$3.00 to $3.52 for telephone and PBX
installers, with variations in earnings
depending on locality and length of

The effect of length of service on
wage rates is illustrated by a 1966
union management agreement in one
of the higher pay scale cities. Under
this agreement, telephone installers
and repairmen have a starting rate
of $90.00 for a 40-hour week with
periodic pay increases until a maxi­
mum of $150.00 a week is reached
after about 6 years. PBX installers
and repairmen also have a starting
rate of $90.00 and progress to $160.00.
Installers and repairmen are covered
by the same provisions governing
overtime pay, vacations, holidays,
and other benefits that apply to tele­
phone workers generally. (See dis­
cussion earlier in this chapter.)
Telephone and PBX installers and
repairmen work indoors and outdoors
in all kinds of weather. Outdoor work
includes climbing poles to place and
repair telephone wires leading from
poles to customers’ premises. Instal­
lers and repairmen may be called
upon to work extra hours when break­
downs in customers’ lines or equip­
ment occur.


The activities of the construction
industry touch nearly every aspect of
our daily lives. The houses and apart­
ments we live in ; the factories, offices,
and schools in which we work; and
the roads we travel upon; are ex­
amples of some of the products of
this important industry. The indus­
try encompasses not only new con­
struction projects, but includes also
additions, alterations, and repairs to
existing structures.
In 1966, about 3.3 million persons
were employed in the contract con­
struction industry. An additional 1.3
million workers are estimated to be
either self-employed—mostly owners
of small building firms—or are State
and local government employees en­
gaged in building and maintaining
our Nation’s vast highway system.
The contract construction industry is
divided into three major segments.
About half of the work force is em­
ployed by electrical, air-conditioning,
plumbing, and other special trade

contractors. Another one-third work
in the general building sector where
most residential, commercial, and in­
dustrial construction is carried on.
The remaining workers, one-fifth, are
engaged in building dams, bridges,
roads, and similar heavy construction
As illustrated in the tabulation on p.
706, workers in all blue-collar occupa­
tions made up nearly four-fifths of the
construction industry employment in
1966. Craftsmen and foremen alone
account for more than one-half of the
total employment in this industry—a
much higher proportion than that of
any other major industry. Most of
these skilled workers are employed as
carpenters, painters, plumbers and^
pipefitters, construction machinery
operators, and bricklayers, or in one
of the other construction trades. La­
borers are the next largest occupa­
tional group, and account for 1 of 6
workers. They provide material, scaf­

folding, and general assistance to the
craftsmen at the worksite. Semiskilled
workers such as truck drivers, weld­
ers and apprentices (operatives and
kindred workers) represent about
one-tenth of the industry’s total work
force. Managers, officials, and pro­
prietors—mostly self-employed—also
account for about the same share of
employment. Professional and tech­
nical workers make up slightly less
than 5 percent of the work force em­
ployed in construction. Engineers,
together with technicians such as
draftsmen and surveyors account for
most of the employment in this oc­
cupational group. Clerical workers,
largely women working as stenog­
raphers, typists and secretaries, and
in general office work, made up an­
other 5 percent of the industry’s
For the remainder of this decade
and through the mid-1970’s, em­
ployment requirements are expected




Major occupational group


All occupational groups............ 100
Professional, technical, and kindred
Managers, officials, and proprietors. . .
Clerical and kindred workers..............
Sales workers........................................
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
Operatives and kindred workers........
Service workers....................................


'Less than 0.5 percent.

to rise in the construction industry.
As the national economy expands, as

population increases, and as personal
and corporate incomes rise, the de­
mand for contract construction ac­
tivities are expected to undergo a
substantial increase. Likewise, the
number of construction workers em­
ployed by State and local highway de­
partments is also expected to increase
because of the need to meet the de­
mands of the country’s expanding
highway systems. Even though em­
ployment in the construction indus­
try is likely to grow, the increasing
application of the latest technology
in tools, material, and work methods,
together with the rising skill level of

the work force, will make it possible
to increase the level of construction
activity without a correspondingly
large increase in employment.
Contract construction is the major
source of employment for such skilled
craftsmen as bricklayers, painters,
carpenters, and others who are dis­
cussed more fully eleswhere in the
Handbook. For information on these
and similar construction occupa­
tions, see the Building Trades chap­
ter of the Handbook. For information
on occupations which are found in
many other industries see the index
in the back of book.

Nearly every individual or organi­
zation makes extensive use of the di­
verse and complex services provided
by the finance, insurance, and real
estate industry. Financial institu­
tions—banks, savings and loan associ­
ations, consumer credit organizations,
and others—make banking and credit
facilities available to individuals and
businesses. The types of services they
offer range from providing simple fi­
nancial services such as personal
checking and savings accounts to act­
ing as the broker and salesman in the
buying and selling of stocks and bonds
needed by giant corporations for in­
vestment capital. Insurance firms
provide protection against unex­
pected losses due to fire, accident,
sickness, and death, and for many
other contingencies. Real estate or­
ganizations act as the intermediary or
broker in the sale of houses, build­
ings, and other property, and often
262-057 0 — 68------ 46

operate and manage large office and
apartment buildings.
In 1966, nearly 3.1 million workers
were employed in the finance, insur­
ance, and real estate industry. Fi­
nance made up the largest sector,
employing nearly 1.3 million persons
in 1966. The next largest concentra­
tion of employment was in the insur­
ance sector, where over 1.1 million
workers were employed. The remain­
ing workers—about one-fourth of the
total—were employed in the real es­
tate sector.
Finance, insurance, and real estate
firms are a major source of job oppor­
tunities for women workers. Women
made up over half of the industry’s
work force in 1966, and their propor­
tion ranged from roughly 35 percent
of employment in real estate to over
60 percent of employment in banking.
This industry employs a very high
proportion of white-collar workers.
As shown in the following tabulation,

nearly 9 out of 10 workers in the in­
dustry held white-collar jobs in 1966.
Clerical workers made up 45 percent
of the industry’s work force, account­
ing for half of the white-collar em­
ployees. Many clerical workers are
employed in specialized banking and
insurance occupations such as bankteller, checksorter, and insurance
claims adjuster. Other large clerical
occupations include stenographer,
typist, secretary, and office machine
operator—occupations also found in
most other industries. Sales workers,
who account of nearly one-fifth of the
workers in this industry, are especially
important in the insurance and real
estate sectors, where insurance and
real estate agents and brokers make
up over one-third of the total work
force. Stock and bond salesmen and
brokers are also an important occupa­
tion in the finance sector. Managers
and officials—bank officials, office



managers, and others—made up
roughly one-fourth of the industry’s
work force in 1966.
A majority of the very small num­
ber of professional, technical, and re­
lated workers in this industry are
employed by financial institutions.


Major occupational group


All occupational groups........
Professional, technical, and kindred
Managers, officials, and proprietors.
Clerical and kindred workers.........
Sales workers...................................
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
Operatives and kindred workers. . .
Service workers................................



Accountants and auditors, program­
ed, and business research analysts
make up the greater part of these
highly trained workers.
Employment in the finance, insur­
ance, and real estate industry is ex­
pected to increase moderately through
the mid-1970’s. Population growth,
increasing business activity, and ris­
ing personal incomes are among the
important factors expected to gener­
ate a rapidly expanding demand for
financial, insurance, and real estate
services. However, the increasing use
of computer technology in perform­
ing the routine clerical and record­
keeping functions that are so common
in this industry may limit employ­
ment growth to some extent. In the
financial sector, employment is ex­
pected to increase more rapidly than

any other sector within the major in­
dustry group. On the other hand, the
insurance and real estate sectors will
experience only modest employment
gains over the same time period.
In addition to the opportunities
that will arise because of employment
growth, many thousands of job open­
ings will result as women leave the
field to assume family responsibilities.
Replacements also will be needed to
fill vacancies created by deaths and
retirements and by transfers of work­
ers out of the industry.
The statements that follow cover
major occupations in the banking and
insurance fields. More detailed infor­
mation about occupations that exist
in many industries appear elsewhere
in the Handbook. (See index in the
back of the book.)

Occupations in Banking

Banks have been described as “de­
partment stores of finance” because
of the great variety of financial serv­
ices they offer. Their services range
from convenient individual checking
accounts to letters of credit that may
be used to finance world trade. They
safeguard money and valuables; ad­
minister trusts and personal estates;
and lend money to retail merchants,
large industrial concerns, and farm­
ers. In addition, banks make loans to
individuals for the purchase of homes,
automobiles, and household items, as
well as to meet unexpected expenses
and other personal financial needs.
Banks strive to introduce new services
to meet the needs of their customers.
In recent years, for example, they
have offered customers revolving
check credit plans, credit cards, travel
services, facilities for handling charge
accounts for retail stores, and “driveup” windows for their banking
Banks and Their Workers

To provide these and many other
services, banking organizations em­
ployed about 850,000 people in early
1967; more than half were women.
Approximately 800,000 of these bank
employees worked in commercial
banks, where a wide variety of serv­
ices are offered; the banking occupa­
tions discussed in this statement are
generally those which are found in

banks of this type. Other bank em­
ployees, many of whom are in the
same occupations, work in mutual
savings banks, which offer a more
limited range of services—mainly
savings deposit accounts, safe-deposit
rentals, trust management, mortgage
loans, and other banking services
such as money orders, travelers
checks, and passbook loans. Still
others are in the 12 Federal Reserve
Banks (or “bankers’ banks” ) and
their 24 branches; and in foreign
exchange firms, clearing house asso­
ciations, check cashing agencies, and
other organizations doing work closely
related to banking.
In addition to those employed in
banking, many people who do similar
work are employed in savings and
loan associations, credit unions and
other personal credit institutions, and
other related financial institutions.
In 1966, commercial banks proc­
essed more than 20 billion checks and
handled an enormous amount of
other paperwork. The clerical em­
ployees who do this work account for
two-thirds of all bank employees.
Many of these clerical workers are
in jobs which are unique to banks;
they are either tellers or bank clerks
who process the thousands of deposit
slips, checks, and other documents
which banks handle daily. Also em­
ployed are many secretaries, stenog­
raphers, typists, telephone operators,
receptionists, and others whose duties
are much the same in banks as in
other types of businesses.
Bank officers are the second largest
occupational group within the indus­
try. Approximately 1 out of 6 bank
workers is an officer—a president,
vice president, treasurer, comptroller,
or other official. Other, much smaller,
occupational groups are accountants
and auditors, lawyers, statisticians,
economists, and other professional
workers, as well as guards, elevator
operators, cleaners, and other service
workers who protect and maintain
bank properties.
This chapter gives ’information
about three large groups of workers in

occupations unique to banking—
bank clerks, tellers, and bank officers.
Some of the other occupations men­
tioned which are common to banks as
well as other institutions are described
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Where Employed

In early 1967, there were more
than 30,000 commercial banks and
branch banks, and more than 900
mutual savings banks and branches.
Bank employment is concentrated,
to a considerable extent, in a rela­
tively limited number of very large
banks and their branches. In early
1966, the 392 largest commercial
banks in the country, each with
total deposits of $100 million or
more, employed more than one-half
of all commercial bank employees,
whereas nearly 9,700 small commer­
cial banks (with total deposits of $10
million or less) employed only about
one-seventh of all commercial bank
Bank employees work mainly in
heavily populated areas. Approxi­
mately half of all bank employees are
located in five states: New York,
California, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and
Texas. New York City, the financial
capital of the Nation, has far more
bank employees than any other city.

Bank workers include thousands of
professional and managerial employ­
ees who usually have completed col­
lege. A high school diploma is ade­
quate preparation for entry into most
clerical jobs in banks; other workers,
such as building service workers and
guards, are in jobs which can be filled
by persons with a high school educa­
tion or less. Most newly hired em­
ployees undergo some form of inservice training so that they may be­
come familiar with bank policies and
procedures. Bank employees have
numerous opportunities which are
provided by their employers to



broaden their knowledge and skills.
Besides the on-the-job training op­
portunities they may have, employees
are often encouraged to further their
education off the job. (Additional in­
formation about the educational re­
quirements which apply to bank
clerks, tellers, and bank officers, and
the training given them, is provided
in the statements that follow ).
Bank employees are encouraged to
prepare themselves for better jobs by
enrolling in courses offered by the
American Institute of Banking in
many cities throughout the country.
Local Institute chapters set up study
groups and offer students correspond­
ence courses which cover many sub­
jects. These include accounting, fi­
nance and credit, commercial law,
investments, b a n k i n g operations,
trusts, letter writing, public speaking,
and English, as well as courses in
other areas.
Many banks encourage their em­
ployees to take courses at local col­
leges and universities. In addition,
there are more than 60 individual
banking schools sponsored by the
American Institute of Banking in co­
operation with colleges and universi­
ties throughout the country. These
schools are designed to assist bank
employees at all levels to assume
greater responsibilities in their bank.
Many banks pay all or a part of the
tuition for those who successfully
complete the courses in which they
Employment Outlook

Employment in banks is expected
to rise very rapidly during the rest of
the 1960’s and through the 1970’s.
New jobs resulting from employment
growth, as well as jobs that must be
filled as employees retire or stop
working for other reasons, may ac­
count for about 70,000 openings each
year. Still other openings will occur
as employees leave their positions to
enter other types of employment.
Most of these openings will be in
clerical occupations. In addition, an
increasing number of trainee jobs,

which may eventually lead to officer
positions, will probably become avail­
able for college graduates. Openings
for professional and specialized per­
sonnel, such as lawyers, accountants
and auditors, economists, statisticians,
actuaries, and electronic computer
personnel will occur in greater num­
Population growth and the accom­
panying rise in production, sales, and
national income are expected to pro­
duce a steady growth in the number
of business and financial transactions
which banks will handle. As a result,
total employment may rise to more
than a million workers by 1980. The
number of branch banks has been in­
creasing for many years and will
probably continue to do so as banks
seek to make their services more
accessible both in cities and in new
and expanding suburban business
centers. More jobs will also be created
as banks continue to expand other
services. The anticipated services are
many, including among others, facili­
ties for handling charge accounts for
retail stores, special savings plans for
travel and education, estate planning
and administration, “in-plant” bank­
ing facilities for employed workers,
and the management of employee
pension funds. The estimated 943
banks which had electronic computer
installations in 1966 provided con­
ventional banking services to other
banks and financial institutions with­
out computers and, to business cor­
porations, such services as account
reconciliation, payroll preparation,
sales analysis, inventory control, and
customer billing.
The increasing number of addi­
tional workers needed to handle the
anticipated increase in banking activ­
ities may be offset somewhat by the
continued conversion of many major
banking activities to electronic dataprocessing. Even so, the very rapid
growth in employment which has
characterized the banking industry in
recent years is expected to continue,
but at a somewhat slower pace. Elec­
tronic data-processing is likely to
bring about important changes in the

pattern of occupations in banking,
however, substantially reducing the
number of workers needed in some
occupations and at the same time cre­
ating other jobs which are new to
banks. The effect of these develop­
ments will vary from one occupation
to another, as indicated in the state­
ments on specific banking occupations
which follow.
Bank employees can anticipate
steadier employment than workers in
many other fields, because they are
less likely to be affected by layoffs
during periods when the general level
of business activity is low. Even when
a bank is sold or merged with another
bank, it usually continues to do busi­
ness, and there is little likelihood that
workers will lose their jobs. When
bank officials find it necessary to cur­
tail employment, they usually do so by
not replacing employees who retire or
leave their jobs for other reasons.
Although this reduces the number of
openings for new employees, it avoids
the necessity of laying off experienced
Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of bank clerks, tellers, and
officers are discussed in the statements
which follow. In addition to their
salaries, bank workers receive fringe
benefits which are generally some­
what more liberal than those pro­
vided by other types of businesses. For
example, most banks offer their work­
ers some type of profit sharing or
bonus plan; sick leave; paid holidays
ranging from 5 to 12 a year; and va­
cations with pay, generally 2 weeks
for those who have completed 1 year
of service, 3 weeks after 10 to 15 years
of service, and 4 weeks after 20 to 25
years of service. In addition, group
plans that provide life insurance, hos­
pitalization and surgical benefits, and
retirement income are commonplace
fringe benefits for many bank em­
ployees. Sometimes free or preferred
banking services, such as checking ac­
counts, safe deposit boxes, installment
loans, and traveling services are also


ao cu p A / n o N S i n b a n k i n g

Scheduled hours in banks are gen­
erally 40 or less a week; in a few
localities, a work week of 35 hours is
fairly common. Tellers and some
other types of employees may work
in the evening at least once a week
when banks remain open for business;
and overtime work may be necessary
for some bookkeeping department
employees during peak periods, often
at the end of each month. Workers
who do some kinds of check process­
ing may be employed on evening and
night shifts, as are many operators of
electronic computing equipment.
Generally, bank work is done in
modern, clean, well-lighted, and
air-conditioned offices. Few jobs re­
quire strenuous physical exertion.

and savings accounts, loans to indi­
viduals and business firms, and other
bank business. Because of the nature
of banking, some of their work differs
from the work in other kinds of busi­
ness offices. (Secretaries, office ma­
chine operators, receptionists, and
other clerical workers whose jobs are
much the same in banks as in other
businesses are discussed in the chapter
on Clerical and Related Occupa­
tions. )
The specific duties that must be
performed in a particular bank de­
pend on the size of the bank and the

extent and scope of the services
offered. In a small bank, for example,
one clerk may be required to perform
a variety of work such as sorting
checks, totaling debit and credit
slips, and preparing monthly state­
ments for mailing to depositors. How­
ever, in a large bank, each clerk
usually is assigned one kind of work
and frequently has a special job
Bank clerks known as sorters
(D.O.T. 219.388) separate bank
documents—checks, deposit slips,
and other bank items—into different

Where To Go for More Information

Local banks and State bankers’ as­
sociations can furnish specific infor­
mation about job opportunities in
local banking institutions. General in­
formation on banking occupations,
training opportunities, and about the
banking industry itself is available
American Bankers Association, Per­
sonnel Administration and Man­
agement Development Committee,
90 Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
National Association of Bank Wom­
en, Inc.,
National Office, 60 East 42d St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Information on career opportu­
nities in consumer finance can be ob­
tained from:
The National Consumer Finance As­
1000 16th St., NW., Washington,
D .C .20036.


Nature of Work

Bank clerks handle the paperwork
 depositors’ checking
associated with

Modem banks rely on electronic computers to process millions of bookkeeping entries daily.

groups and tabulate each “batch” so
they may be charged to the proper
account; often they use canceling
and adding machines in their work.
Many banks also employ proof ma­
chine operators (D.O.T. 217.388)
who use equipment that, in one oper­
ation, sorts items and adds and
records the amount of money in­
The bookkeeping workers who
keep records of depositors’ accounts
and of bank transactions such as loans
to business firms or the purchase and
sale of securities are the largest single
group of bank clerks. Bookkeeping
machine operators (D.O.T. 215.388)
in this group use either conventional
bookkeeping machines or electronic
posting machines especially designed
for bank work; in most other respects,
their work is similar to that of book­
keeping machine operators in other
types of establishments. In banks,
these workers are sometimes known as
account clerks, posting machine oper­
ators, or recording clerks. Bookkeep­
ers (D.O.T. 210.388) are also em­
ployed in banks, usually to keep
special types of financial records.
Banks employ very few general book­
keepers (D.O.T. 210.388) who main­
tain complete sets of books. The job
titles of many bank bookkeepers are
related to the kinds of records on
which they work—among them,
Christmas club bookkeeper, discount
bookkeeper, interest-accrual book­
keeper, trust bookkeeper, and com­
modity loan clerk. Thousands of
bookkeeping and accounting clerks
(D.O.T. 219.488) are also employed
in bookkeeping departments to do
routine typing, calculating, and post­
ing related to bank transactions.
Included in this group are reconcile­
ment clerks, who process statements
from other banks in order to expedite
the auditing of accounts; and trust
investment clerks who post the daily
investment transactions of bank cus­
Other clerical employees whose du­
ties and job titles are unique to bank­
ing include country collection clerks


(D.O.T. 219.388) who sort the thou­
sands of pieces of mail which come in
daily to a city bank and determine
which items must be held at the main
office and which should be routed to
branch banks or out-of-city banks for
collection. Also employed are transit
clerks (D.O.T. 217.388) who sort
bank items such as checks and drafts
on other banks, list and total the
amounts involved, and prepare the
documents so that they can be mailed
for collection; exchange c l e r k s
(D.O.T. 219.388) who service for­
eign deposit accounts and determine
charges for cashing or handling
checks drawn against such accounts;
interest clerks (D.O.T. 219.388) who
maintain records relating to interestbearing items which are due to or
from the bank; and mortgage clerks
(D.O.T. 209.388) who type legal pa­
pers affecting title to real estate upon
which money has been loaned, and
maintain records relating to taxes and
insurance on such properties.
New clerical occupations which
have been created by the introduction
of electronic data-processing, and
which are unique to banks, include
those of the electronic reader-sorter
operator who operates electronic
check sorting equipment, the check
inscriber or encoder, who operates
machines that print information on
checks and other documents in mag­
netic ink to prepare them for machine
reading, and the control clerk who
keeps track of the huge volume of
documents flowing in and out of the
computer division. Other occupations
include card-tape converter opera­
tor, coding clerk, console operator,
data typist, data converting machine
operator, data examination clerk,
high speed printer operator, tape
librarian, teletype operator, and veri­
fier operator. Workers in these occu­
pations are employed only in the rel­
atively small number of banks that
use this kind of equipment.
Banks employed more than 400,000 clerical employees of all kinds in
early 1967, about 7 out of every 10
of whom were women.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

High school graduation is ade­
quate preparation for most beginning
clerical jobs in banks. For the major­
ity of jobs, courses in bookkeeping,
typing, and business arithmetic are
desirable. Courses in office machine
operation are also helpful. Job appli­
cants may be given short employment
and clerical aptitude tests. These tests
are designed to determine the spe­
cific ability to work rapidly and ac­
curately, and to communicate effec­
tively with others.
Beginners may be hired as file
clerks, bookkeeping clerks, transit
clerks, clerk-typists, or for other re­
lated work. Some are trained by the
bank to operate proof, bookkeeping,
and other office machines. A few
start as pages or inside messengers.
An employee in a routine clerical
job may eventually be promoted to a
minor supervisory position, or to a
job as teller or credit analyst, and
eventually to a senior supervisory
position. Opportunities for advance­
ment to bank officer positions also
exist for outstanding clerical employ­
ees, although they are more likely to
attain such positions if they have had
college training or have taken spe­
cialized courses offered by the bank­
ing industry. Additional education
obtained while employed—particu­
larly the courses offered by the Amer­
ican Institute of Banking—may be
helpful in preparing workers for ad­
vancement. (See introduction to this
chapter for further information on
the Institute’s educational program.)

Employment Outlook

Employment of bank clerks is ex­
pected to increase moderately during
the rest of the 1960’s and through the
1970’s, creating many openings. New
jobs created by growth, as well as
jobs that must be filled as employees
retire or stop working for other rea­
sons, may result in more than 25,000
openings each year.-Turnover is rela­
tively high in banks, as in other in­



dustries which employ many women
in clerical positions. Jobs for clerks
will arise as established banks expand
their services and as new banks and
branch banks are opened. In those
banks which install modern elec­
tronic equipment, however, decreases
may be expected in the employment
of workers such as check sorters and
bookkeeping machine operators.
Most employees affected by the
changeover will probably be re­
trained and reassigned, either to new
jobs created by the change in equip­
ment and processing methods, or to
other duties related to the many new
functions and services which banks
will introduce. Overall, the growth
in the volume of work created by new
bank facilities and services is ex­
pected to be so great that the total
number of clerical workers will con­
tinue to rise for some years to come,
although much less rapidly than in
the recent past. The sharpest in­
creases in employment are expected
in occupations related to electronic
data processing.


Average earnings of nonsupervisory bank workers—most of them
in clerical jobs—were about $82.14
per week in 1966. The most recent
information on the earnings of spe­
cific clerical occupations is from a
1964 survey of banks in 27 metro­
politan areas throughout the country.
In these areas, average weekly earn­
ings for women proof-machine
operators employed in banks ranged
from $56.50 in Louisville to $77 in
the San Francisco-Oakland area.
The lowest and highest average
weekly earnings for women Class A
bookkeeping machine operators—
generally experienced employees who
worked on relatively difficult assign­
ments—were $61 in Providence and
$89.50 in Chicago. For women Class
B bookkeeping machine operators,
doing more routine work, average
weekly earnings ranged from $55.50
in Providence to $71 in the San
Francisco-Oakland area.

Clerical workers in banks are cov­
ered under provisions of the Fair
Labor Standards Act, a Federal law
which provides for minimum wages.
In 1967, the minimum was $1.40 an
hour; thus, a clerk who worked a 40hour week would earn at least $56.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Where
Employed, Earnings and Working
Conditions, and Where To Go for
More Information, and for addi­
tional information on Training and
Employment Outlook.





entering deposit.

(D.O.T. 212.368)

Nature of Work

Every bank, no matter how small,
has at least one teller to receive and
pay out money and record these
transactions. In a very small bank,
one teller—often known as an allaround teller—may handle transac­
tions of all kinds, but in large banks
different kinds of transactions are
usually taken care of by different
tellers. A Christmas Club teller ac­
cepts and records deposits made to
Christmas Club savings accounts, for
example, and a note teller handles
certain transactions for clients mak­
ing loans on securities. Other tellers
who have special job titles include
commercial (or paying and receiv­
ing), savings, foreign exchange, pay­
roll, discount, and securities tellers.
Approximately 180,000 tellers of
all kinds were employed in early
1967. A considerable number worked
only part time, and about 7 out of 10
were women.
Commercial tellers, with whom
most people deal when they transact
business at banks, are mainly occu­
pied with cashing customers’ checks
and handling deposits and with­
drawals from checking and savings
accounts during the hours the bank

is open to the public. Before he cashes
a check, the teller must verify the
identity of the person to whom he
makes payment, and be certain that
funds in the account against which
the check is drawn (or the payee’s
account) are sufficient to cover the
payment. When he accepts a deposit,
he checks to see whether the amount
of money has been correctly itemized
on the deposit slip and enters the
total in a passbook or on a deposit
receipt. Tellers may use machines to
make change and total deposits. A
teller handling savings accounts may
use a “window” posting machine
which prints a receipt, or records in
the customer’s passbook, and simul­
taneously posts the transaction in the
bank’s ledger.
After public banking hours, the
teller counts the cash on hand, lists
the currency-received tickets on a
settlement sheet, and balances his
day’s accounts. He may also perform
other incidental tasks such as sorting
checks and deposit slips, filing new
account cards, and removing closed
account cards from files. A paying
and receiving teller may supervise
one or more clerks assigned to assist
Training, Other Qualifications, and

In hiring tellers, employers prefer
high school graduates experienced in

related clerical positions. They regard
personal characteristics such as ma­
turity, neatness, tact, and courtesy
particularly important because cus­
tomers, who deal with tellers far more
frequently than with other bank em­
ployees, often judge a bank’s services
principally on their impressions of the
tellers. Since tellers handle large sums
of money, they must be able to meet
the standards established by bonding
companies. In filling new positions,
most banks give preference to their
employees who have demonstrated
the necessary qualifications.
Newly hired tellers usually learn
their duties by first observing experi­
enced workers for a few days and
then, under close supervision, doing
the work themselves. Training peri­
ods may last from a few days to 3
weeks or longer. A new teller’s first
assignment is usually to a combina­
tion job as a savings and commercial
teller; or, in those banks which are
large enough to have a savings teller’s
“cage,” the beginner may start as a
savings teller.
After gaining experience, a compe­
tent teller in a large bank may ad­
vance to the position of head teller, in
which he supervises the bank’s staff of
tellers. Eventually, experienced tellers
may qualify for promotion to bank
officer positions, particularly if they
have had college training or have
taken specialized courses offered by
the banking industry. (See introduc­
tion to this chapter for information
about the educational program of the
American Institute of Banking.)


Employment Outlook

The number of bank tellers is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly during
the rest of the 1960’s and through the
1970’s, as banks continue to expand
their services for the growing urban
population. An increasing proportion,
however, will be part-time tellers em­
ployed during peak hours to accom­
modate those customers who transact
business during the noon hour and in
the evenings. More than 18,000 open­
ings are expected each year as a
result of the increase in employment
and the need to replace tellers who
retire or stop working for other rea­
sons. Turnover is relatively high
among the thousands of women who
work as tellers.
Although increased use of mechan­
ical and electronic equipment can be
expected to eliminate some of the
routine work now done by many
tellers, and to speed other work they
now perform, it is unlikely to affect
greatly the total number employed.

1967, the minimum was $1.40 an
hour; thus, tellers who worked a 40hour week would earn at least $56.
According to the limited informa­
tion available, part-time tellers, many
of whom are employed in branch
banks, earn $2 or $3 an hour for a
workweek of 20 or 25 hours.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Where
Employed, Earnings and Working
Conditions, and Where To Go for
More Information, and for additional
information on Training.

(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and .288;
161.118; 189.118 and .168)

Nature of Work

Practically every bank has a presi­
dent who exercises general direction
over all operations; one or more vice
presidents who either act as general
managers or have charge of bank de­
The most recent information on the partments such as trust, credit, and
earnings of tellers is from a 1964 sur­ investment; and a comptroller or
vey. In 27 metropolitan areas, earn­ cashier who (unlike cashiers in stores
ings of bank tellers having less than and other businesses) is an executive
5 years’ experience ranged from a low officer generally responsible for all
of between $45 and $50 a week to a bank property. Large banks may also
high almost three times as great. The have treasurers and other senior offi­
lowest and highest average weekly cers, as well as assistant officers, to su­
earnings for men and women em­ pervise the various sections within
ployed in specific teller positions for different departments. Banking in­
less than 5 years are given in the ac­ stitutions employed more than 140,000 officers in early 1967; women
companying tabulation.
represented about one-tenth of the
Average weekly earnings, 1964
A bank officer makes decisions
All-round tellers:
within a framework of policy set by
$75.50 (Cincinnati)
Women............. ...... $55.50 (Louisville)___________________
Men---------------- 66.00
(Washington and Providence)......... .................... 90.00(Chicago)
the board of directors. His job re­
Commercial tellers:
Women------------- 66.00
(Boston and D allas)_______
quires a broad knowledge of business
(D allas)_________________
Men---------------- 65.00
Savings tellers:
Women------------- 59.50
(Baltimore)__________________ 79.50
(San Francisco-Oakland) activities, which he must relate to the
Men---------------- 62.50
(Newark-JerseyC ity)__ _______ 87.00
(San Francisco-Oakland)
operations of the particular depart­
N ote tellers:
Women— ......... .
63.50 (Philadelphia)____________________
89.00(New York and San Fran­
ment for which he is responsible. For
Men--------------- 74.00 (Miami)______________________________ 98.50 (Milwaukee)
example, the loan officer must exercise
The average salaries of tellers with 5 perience. Bank tellers are covered un­ his best judgment in considering ap­
years or more of service were from $6 der provisions of the Fair Labor plications for loans, bearing in mind
to $24 a week more than the averages Standards Act, a Federal law which general business conditions and the
listed above for tellers with less ex- provides for minimum wages. In nature of the collateral offered. He



The number of women employed as bank officers is growing.

must evaluate carefully the reports of
credit analysts on the individual or
business firm applying for a loan, and
balance the favorable and unfa­
vorable elements in reaching a deci­
sion. Similarly, the trust officer must
have a thorough understanding of the
provisions of each trust which he is
administering and the knowledge nec­
essary to manage properly the fund or
estate involved; he must invest wisely
in order to manage trust funds which
were established for purposes such as
supporting families, sending young
people to college, or paying pensions
to retired workers. Besides supervising
financial services, bank officers are
frequently called upon to advise in­
dividuals and businessmen and to par­
ticipate in many different kinds of
community projects.
Because of the great variety of
services offered
 by banks, a wide

choice of officer careers in different
areas of the bank is available for
those who wish to specialize. For ex­
ample, in the lending area, the loan
officer must be familiar with the prin­
ciples of economics, production, dis­
tribution, and merchandising, as well
as the fundamentals of commercial
law. He must also have the ability to
analyze financial statements and have
some knowledge of the operations and
customs of businesses to which the
bank expects to extend credit. Ca­
reers in the lending area include:
Installment loan officer, commercial
loan officer, credit department loan
officer, real estate mortgage loan of­
ficer, and agricultural loan officer. In
the trust services area, the trust officer
is responsible for the management of
assets belonging to individuals, fam­
ilies, corporations, and charitable
and educational institutions. Trust

management requires specialization
in such fields as financial planning,
investment, administration, taxes,
and business and real estate manage­
ment. Specialized careers in the trust
management area include, for ex­
ample, estate administration, in­
dividual and institutional trust
administration, and investment re­
search positions. The operations
officer plans, coordinates and controls
the work flow, updates systems, and
strives for more efficient operations of
a bank. He must be able to train and
supervise a large number of people
since most of a bank’s staff works in
operations. Career opportunities in
the bank operations area include the
following: Customer services, elec­
tronic data processing services, and
internal services. Other career spe­
cialities for bank officers include cor­
respondent bank officer who is
responsible for relations with other
banks, branch bank manager who has
full responsibility for all aspects of a
branch office, and international of­
ficer who is financial advisor to cus­
tomers in the United States and
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign language and knowledge of a
foreign country’s geography, politics,
history, and economic growth can be
very helpful to those interested in
careers in international banking.
Other career fields for bank officers
are auditing, economics, personnel

administration, public relations, and
operation research.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Bank officer positions may be filled
by promoting either experienced
clerical bank employees or manage­
ment trainees. Outstanding individ­
uals may be selected for promotion
even though their academic back­
ground is limited, but college gradua­
tion is the usual requirement for
young people who enter as trainees.
A business administration curriculum
with a major in finance or a liberal
arts curriculum including accounting,
economics, commercial law, political

science, and statistics are considered
excellent preparation for trainee posi­
tions. Valuable experience may be
gained in the summer employment
programs recently initiated by some
large city banks for college students.
Most large city banks have wellorganized officer-training programs.
Usually these range from 6 months
to 1 year in length. Trainees may start
as credit or investment analysts, or be
rotated among various jobs in several
bank departments so that they get
the “feel” of banking and so that
bank officers may be better able to
determine the position for which each
employee is best suited. Many banks
which are too small to operate formal
officer-trainee programs nevertheless
provide some form of training pro­
gram which enables trainees to gain
an understanding of bank operations.
Advancement to officer positions
may come slowly in small banks
where t&e number of such positions is
limited. In large city banks with spe­
cial training programs, initial pro­
motions may come more quickly. For
a senior officer position, however,
many years of experience are usually
necessary before an employee can
acquire the necessary knowledge of
the bank’s operations and customers
and of the community.
Although experience, ability, and
leadership qualities receive great em­
phasis when bank employees are


considered for promotion to officer
positions, advancement may also be
accelerated by special study. Courses
in every phase of banking are offered
by the American Institute of Banking,
a long-established, industry-sponsored
school. (See introduction to this
chapter for more information on the
Institute’s program and other train­
ing program sponsored jointly by
universities and local bankers’ associ­

openings will rise as bank officers
transfer to other types of employment.
Most of the officer positions which
become available will be filled by
promoting people who have already
acquired experience in banking op­
erations. Competition for such pro­
motions is likely to remain keen,
particularly in large banks. College
graduates who meet the standards for
executive trainees should find good
opportunities for entry positions,

Employment Outlook

The number of bank officers is ex­
pected to increase rapidly during the
rest of the 1960’s and through the
1970’s. Many new positions will be
created by the expected expansion of
banking activities. Others will de­
velop because the increasing use of
electronic computers enables banks to
analyze and plan banking operations
more extensively and to provide new
kinds of services. In addition, because
bank officers are somewhat older, on
the average, than most employee
groups, a large number of additional
officers will be needed each year to
replace those who retire, or leave their
jobs for other reasons. More than
10,000 workers will probably be
needed annually because of employ­
ment growth and the replacement of
bank officers who retire or stop work­
ing for other reasons. Many other

According to a private survey con­
ducted in 1966, large banks, insurance
companies, and other financial insti­
tutions paid salaries generally ranging
from $514 to $549 or more a month
to new executive trainees who were
college graduates having majors in
business administration or in the lib­
eral arts.
The salaries of senior bank officers
may be several times as great as these
starting salaries. For officers, as well
as for other employees, salaries are
likely to be lower in small towns than
in big city banks.
See introductory section of this
chapter for information on Where
Employed, Earnings and Working
Conditions, and Where To Go for
More Information, and for additional
information on Training.

may be operated by independent
agents and brokers.
Nature of the Business


Insurance is a multibillion dollar
business which offers many employ­
ment opportunities for young people
just out of high school or college and
for experienced workers.
There are about 1,700 life insur­
ance companies and more than 3,000
property and liability (sometimes
called property and casualty) insur­
ance companies. They conduct their
business in main offices, commonly
called “home” offices, and in thou­
sands of local sales offices in cities
and towns throughout the country.
Local offices may be branches oper­
ated by an insurance company or they

Insurance policies are classified into
two broad categories: life insurance,
and property and liability insurance.
Most companies specialize in one of
these types. However, companies in
both fields sell health insurance.
Life insurance companies sell poli­
cies which provide not only basic life
insurance protection, but also several
other kinds of protection. Under some
policies, for example, policyholders
receive an income when they reach
retirement age or if they become dis­
abled and stop working; other life
insurance policies may help to meet
the costs of educating children when
they reach college age, or may give
extra financial protection when the
children are young. Life insurance
companies may also sell accident and
health insurance, which assists policy­
holders in meeting medical expenses
and may provide other kinds of bene­
fits to policyholders when they are
injured or ill.
Policies sold by property and lia­
bility insurance companies provide
financial protection against loss or

damage to the policyholders’ property
and protects the policyholder when
he is responsible for injuries to others
or damage to other people’s property.
This insurance field includes protec­
tion against hazards such as fire, theft,
and windstorm, as well as workmen’s
compensation and other liability in­
Many policies sold by life insurance
and by property and liability insur­
ance companies are written to cover
groups of people—anywhere from a
few individuals to many thousands.
Group policies are usually issued to
employers for the benefit of their em­
ployees. They most often provide re­
tirement income, life insurance, or
health insurance and they have gained
great popularity in recent years.
Group policies providing life insur­
ance, for example, protected more
than 60 million workers in 1965, and
the number of policies in force was al­
most three times the number 10 years
Insurance Workers

The insurance business provided
jobs for more than 1.2 million people
in 1967. The great majority were
clerical and sales workers. (See chart
Salesmen are a key group of em­
ployees in insurance companies. About
one-third of all insurance employees
are sales workers—chiefly agents,
brokers, and others who sell policies
directly to individuals and business
firms. Agents and brokers are usually
responsible for finding their own cus­
tomers or “prospects,” and for seeing
that each policy they sell provides the
special kind of protection required by
the policyholder. (A statement on In­
surance Agents and Brokers is in­
cluded in the chapter on Sales Occu­
The various types of insurance poli­
cies offered by companies in both the
life and property-liability fields must
be carefully planned so that they are
financially sound and conform to le­
gal requirements. After a policy is
7 17

sold, the insurance company must
deal with claims made by the policy­
holder. Insurance companies also
must keep records of premium pay­
ments made by policyholders and
services and benefits rendered to
them. Most of the planning, record­
keeping, and other behind-the-scenes
work is done in home offices and re­
quires the services of company offi­
cials and other in managerial posi­
tions, professional and technical em­
ployees, and clerical workers.
About 1 out of 7 insurance workers
is in a managerial position. Managers
in charge of local offices, through
which most insurance policies are
sold, often spend part of their time in
sales work. Others, who work in home
offices, are company officials or ad­
ministrators in charge of policy issu­
ance, accounting, investments, loans,
and other important office work. The
large-scale investment activities of
many insurance companies make
financial administration a particularly
important area of employment.
Working closely with the mana­
gerial personnel in insurance com­
panies are specialists who study in­
surance risks and coverage problems,
analyze investment possibilities, pre­
pare financial reports, and do other
professional work. Professional work­
ers, employed mainly at home offices,
represent about 1 out of 25 insurance
workers. Included among them is the
actuary, whose job is unique to the
insurance field. Actuaries make sta­
tistical studies relating to various
kinds of risks and, on the basis of these
studies, determine how large the pre­
mium rate on each type of policy
should be. Another specialist is the
home-office underwriter (D.O.T.
169.188), who reviews insurance ap­
plications in order to evaluate the de­
gree of risk involved. Underwriters
decide whether to accept or reject the
insurance policy; they also determine
which premium rate should apply for
each policy issued. The work of most
other professional employees in insur­
ance companies is fundamentally the
same as in other industries. Account­


ants, for example, deal with insur­
ance company records and financial
problems relating to premiums, in­
vestments, payments to policyholders,
and other aspects of the business. En­
gineers work on problems connected
with policies covering industrial work
accidents, damage to industrial plants
and machinery, and other technical
matters. Lawyers interpret the regu­
lations which apply to insurance com­
pany operations, handle the settle­
ment of some kinds of insurance
claims, and do other legal work. In­
vestment analysts evaluate real estate
mortgages and new issues of bonds
and other securities, analyze current

investments held by their companies,
and make recommendations on when
to hold, buy, or sell. As more elec­
tronic computers are installed to han­
dle office records, increasing numbers
of programers are being employed.
Many companies also employ editor­
ial, public relations, sales promotion,
and advertising specialists.
Keeping track of millions of poli­
cies involves a vast amount of paper­
work and occupies the time of
hundreds of thousands of clerical
workers. Almost half of all insurance
company employees are in jobs classi­
fied as clerical—a much larger pro­
portion than in most other industries.

Insurance companies employ many people in data processing jobs.



The majority are secretaries, stenog­
raphers, and typists; operators of
bookkeeping and other kinds of office
machines; or general office clerks.
They do much the same kind of work
in insurance companies as in other
types of business enterprises. Other
clerks, employed mostly in home
offices, have specialized jobs found
only in the insurance business. Among
them are typists known as policy
writers (D.O.T. 203.588) who copy
onto policy forms, from approved in­
surance applications, the name and
address of the policyholder, amount
of the policy, premium rate, and other
information. Policy change clerks
(D.O.T. 219.388) enter changes in
beneficiaries and coverage on policies,
in accordance with the instructions
given by agents. Insurance checkers
(D.O.T. 219.488) check the infor­
mation entered on policies by other
clerical workers, to be certain that the
work is accurate.
Other workers who are classified as
clerical occupy positions of consider­
able responsibility which require ex­
tensive knowledge of one or more
phases of the insurance business. This
group includes claim adjusters
(D.O.T. 241.168)
who decide
whether insurance claims are covered
by the customer’s insurance policy,
see that any payment due the policy­
holder is made on each claim, and
when necessary, investigate the cir­
cumstances which gave rise to the
claim. Claim adjusters for life insur­
ance companies hold home office
positions; those in the property and
liability business are generally field
In addition to the four major
groups of employment discussed
above, insurance companies employ
thousands of repairmen, janitors, and
others who do maintenance and cus­
todial work similar to that required
in other large business organizations.
These employees account for about
1 out of 50 workers in the insurance
Additional information about many

of these occupations is contained in
this Handbook in the chapter on
Clerical and Related Occupations
and the statements on Actuaries, Ac­
countants, Engineers, Lawyers, Programers, and Maintenance Elec­

Where Employed

Relatively large numbers of insur­
ance workers are employed in Con­
necticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey,
New York, and Texas, where the
home offices of some of the largest
insurance companies are located.
Many insurance workers also are em­
ployed in agencies, brokerage firms,
and other sales offices in cities and
towns throughout the country. Almost
all sales personnel work out of local
offices, whereas the majority of pro­
fessional and clerical workers are em­
ployed in company home offices.
More than half of all insurance
workers are employed by life insur­
ance companies and agencies; in­
cluded in this group are some large
companies with thousands of employ­
ees. Companies which deal mainly in
property and liability insurance, al­
though more numerous than the life
insurance companies, generally have
fewer employees. Many local agen­
cies and sales offices are also small,
regardless of the type of insurance
they handle.
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Insurance offers job opportunities
for people with very different educa­
tional backgrounds and talents. Some
positions require a great deal of man­
agerial and administrative experience
and ability; others require college
training in mathematics, accounting,
and engineering; but still others in­
volve only routine duties which can
be learned on the job.
Graduation from high school or
business school is regarded as ade­

quate preparation for most beginning
clerical positions. Courses in typing,
business arithmetic, and the operation
of office machines may be valuable.
These special skills are often required
for jobs in insurance company offices,
and this kind of training provides a
background of information which
helps employees advance to more re­
sponsible positions. Some legal train­
ing in a college or university may also
be helpful for the position of claim
Engineering, accounting, and other
professional positions in insurance
companies usually require the same
kinds of college training as they do in
other business firms. College-trained
people are also preferred for man­
agerial positions, many of which are
filled by promotion from within. In
professional and managerial work re­
quiring contact with the public, as
well as in sales work and claim ad­
justing, it is important that the em­
ployee have a pleasant disposition and
outgoing personality and be able to
inspire confidence in his ability to
protect the customer’s interests.
Insurance companies and associa­
tions of companies and agents offer
several kinds of training programs to
help employees prepare for better
jobs. The Insurance Institute of
America, for example, furnishes study
guides relating to the fundamentals
of property and casualty insurance,
and awards certificates to those who
pass the Institute’s examinations.
Some national, State, and local insur­
ance associations offer home study
training or evening courses in various
aspects of the insurance business.
Other courses, especially designed to
help clerical employees gain a better
understanding of life insurance and
life insurance company operations,
deal with the organization and opera­
tion of both home and field offices.
They are given under the auspices of
the Life Office Management Associa­
tion which also provides programs for
the development of supervisory and
managerial personnel.



Employment Outlook

During the rest of the 1960’s and
through the 1970’s, employment in
the insurance industry is expected to
rise slowly. New jobs to be filled, plus
openings that occur as employees re­
tire or stop working for other reasons,
are expected to total more than 50,000
a year. Turnover is particularly high
in this industry because of the many
young women in clerical jobs who
work for only a few years and then
leave to care for their families. Still
other openings will have to be filled
as insurance workers leave their jobs
for employment in other industries.
The expected increase in employ­
ment will result mainly from a rapidly
increasing volume of insurance busi­
ness. With population growth, there
will be more individuals who pur­
chase life insurance as well as insur­
ance which provides retirement in­
come and funds for their children’s
education. Others who do not pres­
ently have insurance may become
policyholders; for example, advances
in medical science are making life in­
surance available to persons who were
formerly rejected as poor insurance
risks. The need for property and liabil­
ity insurance will also increase as a
rising standard of living enables more
individuals and families to own one
automobile or more, buy homes, and
make other major purchases which
are usually insured. In the business
world also, more insurance of this
kind will be required as new plants
are built, new equipment is installed,
and more goods are shipped through­
out the country and the world. Fur­
thermore, as the coverage of State
workmen’s compensation laws is
broadened, more employers may need
workmen’s compensation insurance.
Insurance employment probably
will rise at a somewhat slower rate
than the volume of business handled
by insurance companies. It is becom­
ing more common for companies to
issue “multiple-line” policies, which
cover a variety of insurance risks
formerly covered in separate policies,
thus reducing the workload of sales

personnel in local offices and clerical
employees in home offices. The prob­
ability that more companies will in­
stall electronic computers and other
equipment to process some of the
routine paperwork now done by
clerks is also likely to bring about
changes in insurance company em­
ployment. The total number of in­
surance company clerical jobs is likely
to continue to rise, especially those
jobs such as machine operators, which
require special training, but the pro­
portion of routine jobs probably will
Insurance workers have better pros­
pects of regular employment than
workers in many other industries.
Most businessmen regard property
and liability insurance as a necessity
both during economic recession and
in boom periods, and private individ­
uals also attempt to retain as much
basic financial protection as possible,
even when their incomes decline.
Earnings and Working Conditions

A 1965-66 survey of nonsupervisory
employees of insurance companies,
banks, and related^ businesses showed
a wide range of salaries among the in­
dividuals in the companies surveyed.
Some clerical workers in beginning,
routine jobs earned less than $40 a
week; some experienced employees in
more responsible positions earned up
to four times that amount. Women
employed in beginning jobs as junior
file clerks averaged $59.50 a week and
office girls, $60.50. Switchboard op­
erators, a fairly large group of
women employees, averaged between
$76.00 and $85.00 depending upon
skill and experience. General stenog­
raphers averaged $74.50 a week and
senior stenographers averaged $86.50
a week. Typists, the largest of any
women’s group covered in the survey,
averaged $65.50 for beginning jobs
and $77.50 for experienced workers.
The average for women accounting
clerks ranged from $71.50 to $91.50
depending on experience and skill.
The earnings of men in office occupa­

tions averaged somewhat higher than
those of women doing similar work.
To some extent, these differences
in salary levels may be due to differ­
ences in the specific job duties of the
employees involved and in the firms
for which they worked. Salary levels
in different parts of the country also
vary; earnings are generally lowest in
southern cities and highest in the
western metropolitan areas. (See
chapter on Clerical and Related Oc­
cupations for additional information
about the earnings of workers in other
office occupations found in insurance
Starting salaries for professional
workers are generally compara­
ble with those for similar positions
in other industries and businesses. It
is not uncommon for specialists with
several years of experience in the in­
surance business to receive annual
salaries of well over $10,000. The
earnings of agents and brokers, unlike
those of salaried professional work­
ers, depend on commissions from the
policies they sell. (See the statement
on Insurance Agents and Brokers.)
Except for agents and brokers,
who must sometimes extend their
working hours to meet the conven­
ience of prospective clients, insurance
company employees usually work
between 35 and 40 hours a week. The
number of paid holidays is somewhat
greater than in many other indus­
tries. Two-week paid vacations are
generally granted employees after 1
year of service; in most companies,
vacations are extended to 3 weeks
after 15 years and, in some, to 4
weeks after 20 years. Practically all in­
surance company workers share in
group plans providing hospitaliza­
tion, life, sickness and accident, and
surgical insurance, as well as retire­
ment pensions.
Where To Go for More Information

General information on employ­
ment opportunities may be obtained
from the personnel departments of
major insurance companies or from



insurance agencies in local communi­
ties. Other information on careers in
the insurance field is available from:

Insurance Information Institute,
110 William St., New York, N.Y.

Institute of Life Insurance,
277 Park Ave., New York, N.Y.

For additional information on the
salaries of clerical workers in finance
industries, including insurance, see:

W ages


R e la t e d

B e n e fits ,

P a rt

I I : M e t r o p o li t a n A r e a s , U n ite d
S t a t e s a n d R e g io n a l S u m m a r ie s ,

(BLS Bulletin 1385-82, June
1965). Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington, D.C. 20402.
Price 70 cents.


The mining industry is a major
supplier of the basic raw materials
and energy sources required for in­
dustrial and consumer use. Metal
mines provide iron, copper, gold, and
other ores. Quarrying and other nonmetallic mining produce many of the
basic materials such as limestone,
gravel, and fire clay needed to build
the country’s schools, offices, homes,
and highways. Petroleum, natural
gas, and coal are the primary sources
of nearly all our energy, both for
industrial and personal use. Few of
the products that are extracted from
mines reach the consumer in their
natural state. Nearly all require fur­
ther processing in one or several of the
manufacturing industries.
Mining is the smallest major in­
dustry division, employing 630,000
wage and salary workers in 1966.
Nearly one-half of these workers are
employed in the exploration and exDigitized 262-057 o — 63----- 47

traction of crude petroleum and
natural gas. Goal mining and quarry­
ing and nonmetallic mineral mining
each account for about one-fifth of
the industry’s work force; the remain­
ing workers, about 1 out of 8, are
employed in mining metal ores.
The mining industry employs only
a small number of women workers;
few are engaged directly in the actual
mining operations; most are in
clerical positions.
Nearly three-fourths of all workers
in mining are employed in blue-collar
jobs, primarily as operatives and
kindred workers. Included in the op­
erative group are miners and mine
laborers; mining machinery operators
such as drilling and cutting machine
operators, crusher operators, con­
veyor operators, oil well drillers; and
most other workers engaged in under­
ground mining operations. Also in­

cluded, and especially important in
surface mining, are truck and tractor
Skilled craftsmen and foremen
account for the second largest occu­
pational group. Mechanics and re­
pairmen maintain the complex equip­
ment and machinery used throughout
the various mining industries. Manyheavy equipment operators such as
excavating, grading, and power
shovel operators are employed in
open pit mining operations. Large
numbers of pumpers, gagers, and
enginemen are needed in the produc­
tion and transportation of petroleum
and natural gas. Foremen, needed to
supervise the mine work crews, also
constitute an important part of the
industry’s work force.
The industry’s white-collar workers
are divided nearly equally among
three major occupational groups-—

professional and technical, clerical,
and managerial. Taken together,
these three groups account for the re­
maining one-fourth of overall indus­
try employment. Professional, techni­
cal, and kindred workers make up
slightly less than one-tenth of the
work force and are concentrated
largely in the crude petroleum and
natural gas extraction industry. Most
are employed in occupations such as
engineer, geologist, and technician,
and are engaged in the exploration
and research activities that are so im­
portant to the discovery of oil and gas
fields and new uses of petroleum
products. Clerical workers and man­
agers, officials, and proprietors each
account for one-tenth of the employ­
ment. Two out of every three clerical
employees work in the petroleum and
gas extraction industry. Most are
secretaries, office machine operators,
and typists needed to support the
large number of professional, tech­
nical, and managerial workers em­
ployed in the petroleum industry.
The following tabulation shows the
estimated distribution of occupational
employment in the mining industry:


Major occupational group

( percent

All occupational groups........



Professional, technical, and kindred
Managers, officials, and proprietors.
Clerical and kindred workers..........
Sales workers....................................
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
Operatives and kindred workers 2.. .
Service workers................................
1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Includes mine laborers.
N ote .—Because of rounding, sums of individual
items may not equal total.

Little or no change in employment
is expected in the mining industry
through the mid-1970’s, despite an
anticipated substantial increase in
mining output. The increased de­
mand for mining products will be
met largely through the use of more
and improved equipment that will be
operated by a more highly skilled
work force. Even though employment
in the industry as a whole is expected
to remain stable, some shifts are likely

within the industry. For instance, em­
ployment in coal mining has declined
steadily throughout the 1950’s and
1960’s, and further decreases are ex­
pected during the 1970’s, although at
a slower pace than in the past. On the
other hand, employment in quarrying
and nonmetallic mining has been
growing and is expected to continue
to rise over the 1970’s. Population
growth, rising incomes and business
activity, together with the increasing
need for construction materials, are
likely to bring about a growing de­
mand for manpower in quarrying
and nonmetallic mining.
Employment in the remaining sec­
tors of the mining industry—for examplefi metal mining, and petroleum
and natural gas extraction—will un­
dergo little change through the
The statement that follows pro­
vides information on employment
opportunities in the petroleum and
natural gas extraction industry. More
detailed information about occupa­
tions that are found in mining as well
as other industries appears elsewhere
in the Handbook. (See index in back
of book.)


samples of the rocks, clays, and sands
that form the layers of the earth.
From these examinations, geologists
can draw a cross-section map of the
underground formations being sur­
veyed in order to pinpoint areas
where oil may be located.
Many geologists work in district
offices of oil companies or exploration
firms where they prepare and study
geological maps. They also study core
samples collected by exploration
parties to find any clue to the pres­
ence of oil.
Exploration parties may include,
in addition to the geologist, paleon­

tologists (D.O.T. 024.081), who
study fossil remains in the earth in
order to locate oil-bearing sands; and
chemists (D.O.T. 022.081) and min­
eralogists (D.O.T. 024.081), who
study physical and chemical prop­
erties of minerals and rock samples.
010.281), and rodmen (D.O.T.
018.587) assist in surveying and
mapping operations.
Another way of searching for oil
is through the science of geophysics—
the study of the inner characteristics
of the earth’s structure. About 90

Nature of Work

Workers in the petroleum produc­
tion branch of the oil industry ex­
plore for crude oil and natural gas,
drill wells, and operate and maintain
them. These activities require work­
ers with a wide range of education
and skills. (In this section, references
to oil include natural gas.)
Exploration. Exploring for oil is the
first step in petroleum production.
Small crews of specialized workers
travel to remote areas to search for
geological formations likely to con­
tain oil. Exploration parties, led by
a petroleum geologist (D.O.T.
024.081), study the surface and sub­
surface composition of the earth.
Geologists seek clues to the possibility
of oil traps by examining types of
rock and rock formations on and
under the earth’s surface. Besides
making detailed, foot-by-foot surveys,
petroleum geologists depend on aerial
exploration for a broad picture of the
surface and sub-surface features of
the area being explored; they also
may obtain rock samples from the
bottom of the sea in their search for
clues to oil-bearing formations. Geol­
ogists can determine the age of rocks
by measuring their radioactivity.
Sub-surface evidence is collected by
making test drills and bringing up

Geophysical crew searches for oil.


percent of geophysical exploration is
done by seismic prospecting. The
seismograph is a sensitive instrument
which records natural and manmade
earthquakes. Manmade earthquakes
in petroleum exploration are com­
monly made by exploding small
charges of dynamite in the ground.
The time it takes for sound waves
to reach an underground rock layer
and to return indicates the depth of
the layer. The seismograph records
such information by wavy lines on a
chart. Increasingly, this information
is recorded on magnetic tape which
is then placed in a computer and
analyzed automatically. By setting off
explosions at a number of points,
underground formations can be
mapped with considerable accuracy,
thus providing a clue to the where­
abouts of traps which may contain
A seismograph crew generally in­
cludes 10 to 20 persons, led by a party
chief who is usually a geophysicist
(D.O.T. 024.081). Other members
of the seismograph crew may include
computers (D.O.T. 010.168), who
prepare maps from the information
recorded by the seismograph; ob­
servers (D.O.T. 010.168), who op­
erate and maintain seismic equip­
ment; prospecting drillers (D.O.T.
930.782) and their helpers (D.O.T.
930.886), who operate portable
drilling rigs to make holes into which
explosive charges are placed; and
shooters (D.O.T. 931.381), who are
in charge of placing and detonating
explosive charges.
Once the oil company has decided
where to drill, it must obtain permis­
sion to use the land. The landman
or leaseman (D.O.T. 191.118) makes
necessary business arrangements with
owners of land in which his company
is interested.
Another important job in oil ex­
ploration is that of the scout (D.O.T.
010.168). He keeps his company in­
formed of all exploring, leasing,
drilling, and production activity in
his area.
Drilling. Despite all the petroleum
Digitized forexploration methods that have been


developed, there is no device that will
actually find petroleum. Only by drill­
ing can the presence of oil be proved.
Overall planning and supervision of
drilling are usually the responsibilities
of the petroleum engineer (D.O.T.
010.081). He helps to prepare drilling
sites and to select the methods of
drilling. He directs workers in install­
ing the drilling rig and machinery.
He advises drilling personnel on tech­
nical matters and may stay on the
site until drilling operations are
There are two methods of drilling
a well—rotary drilling and cable-tool
drilling. No matter which method is
used, all wells are started in the same
way. Rig builders (D.O.T. 869.884)
and a crew of helpers (D.O.T. 869.887) install a drilling rig, the main
purpose of which is to support the
machinery and equipment which
raise and lower the drilling tools.
The rotary method is used for drill­
ing deep wells through rock and clay
formations and accounts for about
one-half of the drilling rigs in use.
In rotary drilling, a revolving steel
drill bit, with cutting teeth at its
lower end, bores a hole in the ground
by chipping and cutting rock. The
bit is attached to a string of jointed
pipe (drill stem), which is rotated by
a steam, diesel, or gasoline engine or
an electric motor. As the bit cuts
through the earth, the drill stem is
lengthened by the addition of more
pipe which is screwed on at the upper
end. A stream of mud is continuously
pumped through the hollow pipe.
This mixture of clay and water cools
the drill bit, plasters the walls of the
hole to prevent cave-ins, and floats
the cuttings to the surface.
A typical rotary drilling crew con­
sists of a rotary driller and four or five
helpers. From 15 to 20 workers, di­
vided into three crews, generally are
required to operate a rig 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week. A rotary driller
(D.O.T. 930.782) is in charge of the
work of the crew during his tour of
duty. His major duties include oper­
ating the drilling machinery which
controls drilling speed and pressure.

He also selects the proper drill bit
and keeps a record of operations. He
must be ready to meet any emergency,
such as breakdown of equipment or
problems caused by unusual geologi­
cal formations.
(D.O.T. 930.782), second in charge
of the crew, works on a small plat­
form high on the rig. When a drill
bit becomes dull and has to be re­
placed, he catches the upper ends of
the pipe sections and. guides them
over to a rack beside his platform. He
often has several miles of drill pipe
racked up before the worm bit is
brought to the surface.
Other members of a typical rotary
drilling crew include rotary floormen
(D.O.T. 930.884), who guide the
lower end of the pipe to and from the
well opening and connect and discon­
nect pipe joints and drill bits. Help­
ers, called roughnecks (D.O.T. 930.884), assist floormen in their duties.
A fireman (D.O.T. 951.885) (if
steam is used) or engineman (D.O.T.
950.782) (if diesel or electric power
is used) operates the engines which
provide power for drilling and
An important oilfield worker is the
tool pusher (D.O.T. 930.130), who
acts as foreman of one or more drill­
ing rigs. He also is in charge of sup­
plying rig builders and drilling
crews with needed materials and
equipment. Roustabouts (D.O.T.
869.884), or general oilfield laborers,
are not considered part of drilling
crews but are used to do odd jobs,
such as cleaning derrick floors and
pipes or constructing and maintain­
ing roads in oilfields.
In cable-tool drilling, a hole is
broken through rocks by continuously
raising and dropping a heavy, sharp­
ened bit attached to the end of a
cable. Cable-tool drilling is used
mainly to drill shallow wells in soft
rock formation. Most of it is done in
Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia,
Pennsylvania, and certain areas of
Texas and Oklahoma.
A cable-tool drilling crew usually
consists of a driller and a tool dresser.
The cable-tool driller (D.O.T. 930.-


280) is in charge of all operations dur­
ing his tour of duty and maintains a
detailed record of drilling activity.
He controls the force with which the
drilling bit strikes the rocks at the
bottom of the well. He also supervises
and helps in setting up the machinery
and derrick. The cable-tool dresser
(D.O.T. 639.781), whose job is re­
lated to that of a blacksmith, assists
the driller and maintains the


Rotary drilling crew lowers section of drill pipe.

Well Operation and Maintenance.
Production is ready to begin when oil
is found and the producing equip­
ment installed. Drill pipe and bit are
pulled from the well and casing and
tubing are lowered. The upper end
of the tubing is fastened to a system of
valves and controls, called a “Christ­
mas tree.” Pressure in the well forces
crude oil to the surface, through the
Christmas tree, and into storage
tanks. If natural pressure is not great

enough to force the oil to the surface,
pumping or other methods are used
to produce an artificial flow.
Petroleum engineers generally have
charge of overall planning and super­
vision of the operation and mainte­
nance of wells. One of their principal
duties is to prevent waste by deciding
which production method to use and
how fast the oil should flow. Some
companies hire assistants to the petro­
leum engineer. These engineering

aides perform routine duties such as
making elementary calculations, run­
ning tests, and_
keeping records.
The job of pumper is numerically
the largest occupation in the oilfield.
Pumpers (D.O.T. 914.782) and their
helpers (D.O.T. 914.887) operate
and maintain motors, pumps, and
other equipment used to force an
artificial flow of oil from wells. Their
chief duty is to regulate the flow of oil
according to a schedule set up by the
petroleum engineer. Generally, a
pumper operates a group of wells.
Switchers work in fields where oil
flows under natural pressure and does
not require pumping. They open and
close valves to regulate the flow of oil
from wells to tanks or into pipelines.
Gagers (D.O.T. 914.381) keep track
of the amount of oil flowing into tanks
or pipelines. They measure and record
the contents of storage tanks and take
samples of the oil to check its quality.
Treaters (D.O.T. 541.782) make tests
of crude oil for water and sediment.
They remove these impurities from oil
by opening a drain at the base of the
tank or by using special chemical or
electrical equipment. In many fields,
pumping, switching, gaging, and
treating operations are performed by
automatic controls. One operator who
monitors these instruments can con­
trol the flow of oil from several wells
into different pipelines.
Many workers are employed in
maintenance operations in oilfields.
Welders, carpenters, electricians, and
machinists repair and install pumps,
gages, pipes, and other oilfield equip­
ment. Roustabouts perform various
field and well-maintenance jobs which
require little skill, but often involve
heavy, hazardous work.
Other Oilfield Services. Companies
which offer oilfield services (other
than exploration and drilling) on a
contract basis provide another im­
portant source of employment. Em­
ployees in these companies perform
many services, including cementing
and cleaning wells, and building
foundations at well locations. Among
Digitized for these employees are skilled workers


such as cementers (D.O.T. 930.281),
who mix and pump cement into the
space between steel casings and side
walls of the well to prevent cave-ins;
acidizers (D.O.T. 930.782), who
force acid into the bottom of the well
to increase the flow of oil; perforator
operators (D.O.T. 931.782), who
pierce holes in drill pipes or casings
by using subsurface “guns” to make
passages through which oil can flow;
sample-taker operators (D.O.T. 931.781), who obtain samples of soil and
rock formations from wells to help
geologists determine the presence of
oil; and well puller (D.O.T. 930.883), who remove pipes and casings
from wells for cleaning and repairing
equipment or for salvaging.
Offshore Operations. Most explora­
tion, drilling, and producing activities
are done on land, but an increasing
amount of this work is done offshore,
particularly in the Gulf of Mexico off
the coasts of Louisiana and Texas.
Some additional offshore work is be­
ing done in the Pacific Ocean off
California, Oregon, Washington, and
Alaska. Some wells have been drilled
more than 100 miles from shore and
in water up to 1,000 feet deep. These
offshore operations require the same
types of drilling crews as are employed
on land operations. In addition, off­
shore operations require employment
of radio men, able-bodied seamen,
cooks, mess boys, and pilots for work
on drilling platforms, crewboats,
barges, and helicopters.
(Detailed discussions of profes­
sional, technical, mechanical, and
other occupations found not only in
the petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction industry, but in other indus­
tries as well, are given elsewhere in
the Handbook, in the sections cover­
ing the individual occupations. See
index for page numbers.)
Training, Other Qualifications, and

Exploration. Most workers in non­
professional jobs with an exploration

crew begin as helpers and work into
one of the specialized jobs after gain­
ing experience. Their period of train­
ing on the job may vary from several
months to several years. New workers
usually are hired in the field by the
party chief or by local company rep­
resentatives. For many nonprofes­
sional jobs, companies hire young
men with a high school or vocational
school education and with training
or aptitude in mathematics, drafting,
and mechanics. College students
majoring in physical or earth sciences
or in engineering often are hired for
part-time or summer work with an
exploration crew. This may be a
means of working into a full-time
job after graduation.
For entry into professional occupa­
tions such as geologist, geophysicist,
chemist, or engineer, college training
with at least a bachelor’s degree is
required. Professional workers usually
start at junior levels and, after several
years of experience in field surveys,
are eligible for promotion to the job
of party chief. After field survey ex­
perience, they may take a position of
responsibility in an area or division
office and then perhaps in the central
office. Scientists and engineers with
research ability, preferably those with
advanced graduate degrees, may
move to research or consulting work.
Drilling. Members of drilling crews
usually begin work in the industry as
roughnecks. As they acquire experi­
ence, they may advance to more
skilled jobs. In rotary drilling, for
example, a worker may be hired as
a roughneck, advance to the job of
floorman, and eventually to derrickman. After several years, he may be­
come a driller. He may then be pro­
moted to the job of tool-pusher, in
charge of one or more drilling crews.
Some drilling companies hire high
school and college students for jobs
during the summer months.
Drilling requires men capable of
performing heavy physical labor.
Drilling crew members usually are
between the ages of 20 and 40. Some


companies, however, report that their
best drillers are over 50 and even in
their sixties, for the job of driller re­
quires good judgment combined with
practical experience.
Well Operation and Maintenance.
Companies generally hire persons
who live near operating wells for well
operation and maintenance jobs.
They prefer men with mechanical
ability and a knowledge of oilfield
processes. Because this type of work
is less strenuous and offers the advan­
tage of a fixed locale, members of
drilling crews or exploration parties
who prefer not to travel often transfer
to well operation and maintenance
New workers may start as roust­
abouts and advance to jobs as switch­
ers, gagers, or pumper helpers, and
later to pumpers. Training usually is
acquired on the job; at least 2 years
of experience are needed to become
a good all-round pumper.
The preferred educational qualifi­
cation for a petroleum engineer is a
college degree with specialization in
courses dealing with the petroleum
industry. However, college graduates
with degrees in chemical, mining, or
mechanical engineering, or in geol­
ogy or other related sciences, some­
times are hired for petroleum en­
gineering jobs. Petroleum engineering
aids frequently are former roust­
abouts or pumpers who are given
several months of specialized on-thejob and classroom training.

Employment Outlook

Employment in petroleum and nat­
ural gas production during the 1970’s

is expected to continue the slow de­
cline which began during the late
1950’s despite anticipated increases in
oil and gas production. The use of
data-processing equipment and im­
proved seismic techniques is expected
to reduce the number of crews needed
in petroleum exploration. The em­
ployment level in oil and gas field
production should decline also be­
cause of the increasing use of auto­
matic equipment to control produc­
tion activities.
About 5,000 new workers in crude
petroleum production operations will
be hired each year during the next
decade. These job openings will re­
sult primarily from the need to re­
place workers who retire, die, or
transfer to other fields of work. Al­
though some untrained workers will
be hired for less skilled jobs, the great­
est demand will be for workers with
electrical and mechanical training
and/or experience. These skills are
becoming more necessary to maintain
and repair the increasingly complex
equipment used in oil and gas field
Most of the job opportunities
created by turnover in petroleum
production will be concentrated in
the 10 States which together account
for over 85 percent of oilfield jobs—
Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Cali­
fornia, Kansas, Illinois, New Mexico,
Wyoming, Mississippi, and Colorado.
Offshore activities have accounted
for only a small portion of total pro­
duction employment. However, off­
shore drilling activities are expected
to increase greatly during the 1970’s,
particularly off the coasts of Texas,
Louisiana, California, Alaska, Wash­
ington, and Oregon.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Earnings of oilfield workers are
among the highest in American in­
dustry. In late 1966, earning of nonsupervisory
$124.49 a week, or $2.95 an hour for
a 42.4-hour workweek.
The work schedule for most oilfield
workers is 40 hours a week. Drilling
operations are carried on 24 hours a
day, with a complete crew for each
8-hour shift. Generally, workers in
these crews receive 8 cents more an
hour for work on the second shift and
16 cents an hour more for the third
shift. Most establishments provide 8
paid holidays annually. Paid vaca­
tions are granted according to length
of service—generally 2 weeks after
1 year of service, 3 weeks after 10
years, and 4 weeks after 20 years.
The majority of oilfield employees
do most of their work outdoors and
are exposed to all kinds of weather.
Although some fields may be near
cities, they are more often far from
sizeable communities and are some­
times located in swamps or deserts.
Drilling employees may expect to
move from place to place since their
work in a particular field may be
completed in less than a year. Explor­
ation personnel move even more
frequently. They may be away from
home for weeks or months at a time,
living in a trailer or tent. Workers in
well operation and maintenance often
remain in the same location for long
In offshore operations, earnings
usually are higher than those in land
operations. Except for drilling ac­
tivity that is close to shore, workers
living quarters are on platforms held
fast to the ocean bottom or on ships
anchored nearby.



Nature of Work

A natural gas processing plant
performs several functions. Raw
natural gas is processed to extract
natural gas liquids, and impurities,
such as chemical compounds, sand
and water. The natural gas liquid
compounds—propane, butane, eth­
ane, and natural gasoline—have im­
portant uses; for example, as raw
materials for the chemical industry
and oil refineries, and as a fuel in
rural areas. In addition, natural gas
may be compressed, for delivery to
pipeline transportation companies or
for use by oil well operators to force
oil out of the ground.
More than 50 percent of the work­
ers in the larger natural gas processing
plants are employed in operating or
maintaining processing equipment.
Operators, numerically the largest
plant occupation, have duties very
similar to those of the oil refinery
workers. The dehydration-plant op­
erator (D.O.T. 541.782) tends an
automatically controlled treating unit
which removes water and other im­
purities from natural gas. The gaso­
line-plant operator, or gasoline-plant
engineer (D.O.T. 950.782), operates
equipment which extracts natural
gasoline from natural gas. The com­
pressor-station operator, or compres­
sor-station engineer (D.O.T. 914.132) operates a compressor which

raises the pressure of the gas for trans­
mission in the pipelines. The gas-com­
pressor operator (D.O.T. 950.782),
assists either of the last two employees
named above. The gas plant operator
or stillman, gas plant (D.O.T. 540.280), operates the unit which removes
sulfur from the gas.
As in oil refineries, many workers
in the larger natural gas processing
plants are employed in maintenance
activities. However, the equipment in
such plants is subject to less corrosion
and wear than that in oil refineries,
and it is generally more automated.
As a result, the instrument repairman
and the electrician are two key work­
ers needed to maintain the instru­
ments that control the automatic
equipment. The welder and his helper
also do much maintenance work in
the processing plant. Other workers,
whose jobs include maintenance
functions, are engine repairman and
laborer. .
Clerical, administrative, profes­
sional, and technical workers are a
smaller proportion of employment in
the larger gas processing plants than
in oil refineries.
In the numerous smaller natural
gas processing plants, many workers
have multiple skills—usually combin­
ing the skills of operator and main­
tenance man. In addition, there are
many very small plants which are so
highly automated that they are virtu­
ally unattended. Either they are
checked by maintenance workers at
periodic intervals, or they are moni­
tored continuously by instruments
which automatically report malfunc­
tions and shut down the plant if an
emergency develops.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Information on occupational train­
ing, qualifications, and advancement
in natural gas processing plants is
similar to that for occupations in
petroleum refining, discussed on page

Employment Outlook

Employment in natural gas proces­
sing plants is expected to show little
or no change during the 1970’s, even
though the demand for natural gas
and natural gas liquids is expected to
increase faster than for other petro­
leum products. Continued applica­
tion of technological improvements in
processing methods, which will lead
to greater output per worker, is ex­
pected to offset the effect of growing
Only a small number of job open­
ings are expected in these plants each
year during the 1970’s. These will
result from the need to replace work
ers who retire, die, or transfer to
other industries. The greatest demand
will be for workers who can repair,
rebuild, and maintain the highly auto­
matic plant equipment. Increasing
numbers of technically trained em­
ployees, including engineers, are be­
ing used on these jobs.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Production workers in natural gas
processing plants, in late 1966, re­
ceived wages that compared very
favorably with the average hourly
wage of $2.77 for production workers
in manufacturing industries. Gener­
ally, production workers in these
plants receive the same benefits, vaca­
tions, and shift differentials as work­
ers in petroleum refining. (See p.
Most workers in natural gas proc­
essing plants and oil refineries have
similar working conditions. Only a
moderate amount of physical effort is
involved. Some workers are required
to open and close valves, to climb
stairs and ladders to considerable
heights, and to work 1 of 3 shifts. The
plants are relatively safe places in
which to work.
Some workers in particular natural
gas processing plants have unusual
working conditions. They are re­
sponsible for maintaining several

small, unattended automated plants
in widely separated, isolated loca­
tions. They make periodic trips, of
1-day duration or more, to check
these automated plants. They travel
over rough, unpaved terrain and are


exposed to all kinds of weather. These
maintenance jobs may be very satisfy­
ing to those who like working out­
doors and alone.
Workers in many of the larger gas
processing plants are union members.

Many are members of the Oil, Chem­
ical and Atomic Workers Interna­
tional Union. Some have been orga­
nized by other unions affiliated with
the AFL-CIO , and others are mem­
bers of local, unaffiliated unions.

This appendix is designed for readers
who wish more information on the pro­
cedures followed in developing the con­
clusions on employment outlook than is
presented in the preceding reports on
individual occupations and industries. Also
included in this appendix is a brief ex­
planation of how the D.O.T. numbers
(from the D ic t io n a r y o f O c c u p a t io n a l
T itle s prepared by the Bureau of Employ­
ment Security o f the U.S. Department o f
Labor) given in the occupational reports
fit into the D ic t io n a r y ’s occupational
classification system.

Employment Outlook Conclusions
The sections on employment outlook in
the occupational reports present conclu­
sions based not only on information com­
piled from many sources but also on ex­
tensive economic and statistical analyses.
Although the sources used and the methods
of analysis differed among occupations and
industries, the same general pattern of
research was followed in all of the outlook
In preparing the employment outlook
studies overall projections of the economy
to 1980 were developed to insure that in­
dividual occupational and industry studies

were consistent. This general analytical
framework included projections of the
population, labor force, gross national
product, average weekly hours of work,
employment in major industries, and re­
lated economic measures. All studies of
separate occupations and industries were
tied in with the projections of the entire
economy. The projections are based on the
assumption of a relatively full-employment
Many individual occupational and in­
dustry studies were based heavily on an
analysis of past and prospective population
trends, including the changes expected in
population of school and college age, in
numbers of older people, in employment of
women, and in the concentration of popu­
lation in urban and suburban areas. In
fields such as teaching, the health profes­
sions, and many personal services, popula­
tion factors have a direct and obvious
influence on employment requirements.
They are also of great importance in many
industries—for example, residential con­
struction, baking, telephone communica­
tions, apparel, and retail trade.
Many factors besides the size and com­
position of the population may affect the
volume of business and employment in a
given industry. Consumer purchasing pat­
terns change with shifts in preference from

one type of product to another, and with
the development of new products which
cut into the market for old ones. A general
rise in income levels can create new mar­
kets for more expensive items. Techno­
logical developments not only bring
changes in the raw materials and equip­
ment needed in production, but also influ­
ence the size of the required work force
and the kinds of occupations and skills
needed. Government policies, such as the
size of the defense and space programs,
and expenditures for research and develop­
ment, also bring about changes in the types
of occupations required.
In studying the outlook in each in­
dustry, the factors having the greatest
influence were analyzed and projections
were made of demand for the industry’s
products or services. These projections
were then translated into estimates of the
numbers and kinds of workers required
to produce the indicated amounts of
products or services, taking into account
the numbers currently employed in dif­
ferent occupations, productivity trends,
possible further reductions in the work­
week, and other factors. Past trends in
employment also were given much weight
in arriving at conclusions about probable
future trends.
The basic data on population and labor
force trends, used for the overall employ­


ment projections and for the studies of
individual occupations and industries, are
from the decennial Censuses of Popula­
tion, and from the monthly labor force
surveys conducted by the Bureau of the
Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.1
Data also were drawn from the Censuses
of Manufactures and Business conducted
by the Census Bureau.
Information also was utilized from a
variety of sources such as licensing agen­
cies, labor unions, professional and trade
associations, and special surveys.
Equally essential to the studies of em­
ployment trends in major industries were
the statistics on employment in nonagricultural establishments, compiled by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. These esti­
mates provide monthly data on employ­
ment, hours of work, earnings, and labor
turnover, based on reports from a sample
of industrial, commercial, and govern­
mental establishments which together
employ about 26 million workers. They
are available for a great number of dif­
ferent industries for the past quartercentury or more.2
Another Bureau program which con­
tributed to the analysis of future employ­
ment trends was its series of studies of
productivity and technological develop­
ments. In converting the projections of
demand for the products of a given in­
dustry into estimates of the number of
workers who will be needed in that in­
dustry, allowances were made for
anticipated productivity trends and tech­
nological changes. Information on em­
ployment of scientists and engineers in
research and other activities, obtained
from surveys conducted by the Bureau
in cooperation with the National Science
Foundation, also has been utilized
Still another Bureau project which had
a major role in the development of esti­
mates of future employment requirements
in different occupations is the Occupa­
tional Industry Matrix. The matrix con­
sists of a set of tables for 116 industry
sectors which represent the entire econ­
omy of the United States. For each
industry sector, the tables show a per­
centage distribution of employment among
1 S p ecia l L abor F o rce R ep ort No. 4 9 ,
“L abor F o rce P r o je c tio n fo r 1 9 7 0 - 8 0 ” ;
a v a ila b le on req u est a s lo n g a s th e supply
la s ts from th e U .S. D ep a rtm en t o f Labor,
B u reau o f L abor S ta tis tic s, W a sh in g to n , D.C.


3 See E m p lo ym en t a n d E a rn in g s and
M o n th ly R e p o rt on th e L a b o r F o rc e described
on p age 7 5 8 .


about 160 of the most important occupa­
tions and among the major occupational
groups. The matrix was valuable in ap­
praising the effects of changing employ­
ment levels in different industries on
employment in specified occupations. It
also was useful in estimating the numbers
of workers currently employed in each
Conclusions based on the analysis of
information from these many sources
generally indicate increases in employ­
ment and, hence, openings for new
workers. Expected gains in employment,
however, are by no means an adequate
indication of the to tal. numbers of job
openings that will need to be filled. In
most occupations, more workers are
needed yearly to fill positions left vacant
by those who leave the occupation (to
enter other occupations or because of re­
tirement or death) than are needed to
staff new positions created by growth of
the field. Rarely do occupations grow fast
enough so that the reverse is true. Conse­
quently, even occupations which are
declining in size may offer employment
opportunities to many young people.
In estimating the number of openings
likely to arise in an occupation, use has
been made of Bureau of Labor Statistics
studies of occupational mobility among se­
lected groups of workers, and of tables of
working life, also developed by the Bureau.
The tables, which are similar to the actu­
arial tables of life expectancy used by in­
surance companies, provide a basis for
assessing future rates of replacements re­
sulting from deaths and retirements. The
latter is affected by differences in sex and
average age of the workers in various
occupations. In occupations where men
constitute the great majority of workers,
the rate of replacement for death and for
retirement is generally between 1 and 4
percent. The rate is usually somewhat
higher in women’s occupations, however,
because so many women leave paid em­
ployment to get married and assume fam­
ily responsibilities; for example, the re­
placement rate among school teachers is
at least 8 percent a year.
The types of information mentioned so
far in this section all relate to the demand
for workers. In order to appraise the pro­
spective employment opportunities in an
occupation, it is also important to have
information on the probable future supply
of personnel. The statistics on high school
and college enrollments and graduations
compiled by the U.S. Office of Education

are the chief source of information on the
potential supply of personnel in the pro­
fessions and other occupations requiring
extensive formal education. Data on num­
bers of apprentices from the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training provide some information
on new entrants into skilled trades.
Many of the statistical sources and ana­
lytical approaches referred to above have
been developed within comparatively re­
cent years. The reader should bear in mind
that economic forecasting is still in an
early stage of development and that at
best, it is difficult and uncertain. It is
necessary to keep in mind also the basic
assumptions underlying the forecasts (enu­
merated on p. 4). The Bureau believes
that, within this general framework of
assumption, the basic trends affecting em­
ployment can be discerned with sufficient
accuracy to meet the needs of young peo­
ple preparing for careers.

D.O.T. Classification Numbers
The reports in this Handbook have been
grouped in the manner that seemed most
appropriate in view of the needs of the
users and the realities of the industrial
world. The arrangement followed does not
conform to any one established system of
classifying occupations. Provision has been
made, nevertheless, to meet the needs of
those persons who wish to relate the oc­
cupations discussed to an established clas­
sification system. The occupations covered
in the Occupational Outlook Handbook
are organized according to the occupa­
tional classification system developed by
the Bureau of Employment Security of
the U.S. Department of Labor and pub­
lished in the third edition of the Diction­
ary of Occupational Titles. The Dictionary
provides a code number (the so-called
D.O.T. number) for each occupation in­
cluded in it. In this Handbook, the code
numbers have been shown either in the
occupational heading or in the body of
the text.
The third edition of the Dictionary is
published in two volumes. Volume I con­
tains job definitions arranged alphabeti­
cally; Volume II provides two arrange­
ments of titles, one primarily for placement
and one primarily for counseling. All jobs
are classified by a new code structure using
six-digit numbers; the system can be used
as a filing system for occupational

Index to Occupations and Industries

P age

Accelerator operators, atomic energy_________
Account clerks, see: Bank clerks_____________
Account executives, advertising_____________
Account executives, see: Securities salesmen_
See also: Insurance business____________
Accounting-bookkeeping machine servicemenAccounting clerks, see: Bookkeeping workers_
Acidizers, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion ___________________________________
Acquisition librarians_____________________
Actors and actresses_______________________
A ctu aries________________________________
See also:
Insurance business________________
Mathematicians _________________
Adding machine operators_________________
Adding machine servicemen________________
Adjusters, claim, insurance_________________
Administrators, hospital___________________
Adult services librarians___________________
Advertising artists and layoutmen_________
Advertising copywriters____________________
Advertising managers_____________________
Advertising production managers____________
Advertising workers_______________________
Aeronautical engineers, see: Aerospace engi­
neers ________________
Aeronautical technicians___________________
Aerospace engineers_______________________
See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
Aerospace products manufacturing, see: Air­
craft, missile and spacecraft manufacturingAgents, see:
Insurance agents and brokers___________
Real estate salesmen and brokers________
Agents, air traffic, civil aviation_____________
Agricultural agents, county_________________
Agricultural economists____________________
Agricultural engineers_____________________
See also: Agriculture__________________
Agricultural finance workers________________
Agricultural research workers_______________
Agricultural technicians___________________
Agricultural workers______________________
Agriculture, occupations in_____________
Agriculture, occupations related to___________


Agriculture teachers, vocational-------------------Agronomists _____________________________
See also: Agriculture__________________
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics—
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration
Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating me­
chanics ________________________________
Air Force________________________________
Air-route traffic controllers, civil aviation------Air traffic controllers, civil aviation--------------Air transportation occupations, see: Civil avia­
tion ___________________________________
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufactur­
ing, occupations in----------Aircraft mechanics, civil aviation-----------------See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ------------------------------Airframe mechanics, civil aviation---------------Airline dispatchers, civil aviation-----------------Airline traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation—
Airplane mechanics, aircraft mechanics---------See also: Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing-------------------------------Airplane pilots, civil aviation----------------------Airport traffic controllers, civil aviation--------Alteration tailors, see: Bushelmen, apparel----Aluminum industry---------------------------Analysts, Chemical, see:
Aluminum industry___________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products-----------Analysts, systems---------------------------------------Analysts, investment, see: Insurance business—
Analytical chemists----------------------------------Analytical statisticians-------------------------------Anatomists_______________________________
Animal physiologists and animal husbandmen,
see: Agriculture________________________
Annealers, see:
Aluminum industry-------------------------------Foundries_____________________________
Announcers, radio and television--------------------Anode men, aluminum industry--------------------Anodizers, electronics manufacturing---------------Anthropologists__________________________
Apparel industry, occupations in the---------------Appliance servicemen----------------------------------See also: Electric power------------------------735


Appraisers, real estate_____________________
Arc cutters, see: Welders___________________
Arc welders______________________________
Archeologists, see: Anthropologists__________
Architects, landscape______________________
Archivists, see: Historians__________________
Armament assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and
Armed Forces____________________________
Army ___________________________________
Art directors, see: Commercial artists________
A rt related occupations____________________
Artists, see:
Advertising workers___________________
Commercial artists____________________
Printing (graphic arts)________________
Artists, lithographic, printing (graphic arts)_
Asbestos and insulating workers_____________
Assemblers ______________________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ________________
Apparel industry_________________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing _____________________
Assemblers, bench________________________
Assemblers, floor_________________________
Assembly inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ____________________________
Assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ____________________________
Assorters, iron and steel____________________
Astrogeologists __________________________
Astronomers ____________________________
Astronautical engineers, see: Aerospace engi­
neers _________________________________
Astrophysicists, see: Astronomers____________
Atomic energy field, occupations in the_______
Attendants, gasoline service station__________
Attendants, hospital______________________
Attorneys _______________________________
Audio-control technicians, radio and television.
Audiologists ____________________________
Auditors, see: Accountants_________________
Automatic pin setting machine mechanics___
Automatic rolling mill attendants, iron and
steel __________________________________
Automatic screw machine operators, see: Ma­
chine tool operators_____________________
Automatic transmission specialists, see: Auto­
mobile mechanics______________________
Automobile air-conditioning specialists, see:
Automobile mechanics_________________
Automobile body repairmen________________




P age

Automobile-glass mechanics, see: Automobile
mechanics ___________________________
Automobile manufacturing occupations, see:
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing __________________________________
Automobile mechanics____________________
Automobile painters______________________
Automobile parts countermen--------------------Automobile-radiator mechanics, see: Automo­
bile mechanics ________________________
Automobile salesmen-------------------------------Automobile service advisors-----------------------Automobile trimmers and installation men_
Automobile upholsterers___________________
Automotive technicians, see: Mechanical
technicians ___________________________
Auxiliary equipment operators, see: Electronic
computer operating personnel-----------------Auxiliary equipment operators, electric power.
Auxiliary nursing workers, see: Hospital at­
tendants ______________________________
Aviation occupations, see: Civil aviation--------Babysitters, see: Private household workers___
Backtenders, pulp, paper, and allied products.
Bakers, all-round------------------------------------Baking industry, occupations in the--------------Ballet dancers-----------------------------------------Bank clerks______________________________
Bank managers, branch------------------------------Bank officers------------------------------------------Bank tellers______________________________
Banking occupations______________________
Bankmen, printing (graphic arts)--------------Barbers _________________________________
Barker operators, pulp, paper, and allied prod­
ucts --------------------------------------------------Bartenders, restaurant------------------------------Beater engineers, pulp, paper, and allied prod­
ucts _________________________________
Beauticians ______________________________
Beauty operators_________________________
Bellhops, hotel__________________________
Bellmen and bell captains, hotel-----------------Bench assemblers________________________
Bench coremakers, foundry_________________
Bench hands, baking______________________
Bench molders, foundry___________________
Benchmen, optical goods__________________
Bill clerks, see: Cashiers___________________
Billing machine operators__________________
Bindery workers, printing (graphic arts)------Biochemists ------------------------------------------Biological oceanographers-------------------------Biological sciences------------------------------------Biological technicians-------------------------------





Biologists _______________________________
Biophysicists -----------------------------------------Blacksmiths _____________________________
See also:
Forge shop occupations____________
Railroad shop trades______________
Blanking machine operators, electronics manu­
facturing ____________________________
Blasters, sand, forge shop--------------------------Blasters, shot, forge shop----------------------------Blockers, printing (graphic arts)___________
Blowers, iron and steel----------------------------Boardmen, general, see: Commercial artists---Body repairmen, automobile_______________
Boiler operators, electric power-------------------Boilermakers____________________________
See also:
Iron and steel industry____________
Railroad shop trades---------------------Boilermaking occupations__________________
Bookbinders and related workers---------------Bookkeepers ____________________________
See also:
Bank clerks_____________________
Bookkeeping and accounting clerks--------------See also:
Bank clerks_____________________
Bookkeepers ____________________
Bookkeeping machine operators, see:
Bank Clerks__________________________
Bookkeeping workers__________________
Bookkeeping machine servicemen___________
Bookkeeping workers______________________
Bookmobile librarians_____________________
Boring machine operators, see: Machine tool
operators _____________________________
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics-------------------Box office cashiers________________________
Brake mechanics, see: Automobile mechanics_
Brakemen, railroad------------------------------------Branch bank managers____________________
See also:
Aluminum industry_______________
Iron andsteel industry_____________
Railroad bridge and building work­
ers ___________________________
Bridge and building workers, railroad________
Broadcast technicians, radio and television___
Broadcasting occupations, radio and television.
Brokers, insurance________________________
Brokers, real estate_______________________
Building helpers__________________________
Building laborers_________________________



P age

Building trades____________________________
Bulldozer operators, see: Operating engineers.
Bundlers, apparel_________________________
Bus boys and girls, restaurant_______________
Bus mechanics_____________________________
Busdrivers, intercity_______________________
Busdrivers, local transit____________________
Bushelmen, apparel_______________________
Business administration and related profes­
sions __________________________________
Business machine operators-------------------------Business machine servicemen----------------------Butlers, see: Private household workers---------


C abdrivers_______________________________
Cable splicers, see:
Electric power industry________________
Telephone industry----------------------------Cable-tool dressers, petroleum and natural gas
Cable-tool drillers, petroleum and natural gas
Calculating machine operators--------------------Calculating machine servicemen-------------------Cameramen, printing (graphic arts), see:
Photoengravers---------------------------------Cameramen, television, see: Broadcast techni­
cians _____________
Card-to-tape converter operators, see: Elec­
tronics computer operating personnel______
Caretakers, see: Private household workers----Carmen, railroad shop_____________________
C arpenters_______________________________
See also: Railroad bridge and building
Carpet layers, see: Floor covering installers---Cartographers, see: Geographers-----------------Caseworkers, social------------------------------------Cash accounting clerks, see: Cashiers------------Cash register servicemen___________________
C ashiers_________________________________
Cashiers, banking, see: Banking officers--------Cashiers, restaurant_______________________
Casting inspectors, foundry-------------------------Casting operators, see: Aluminum industry—
Casualty insurance agents---------------------------Catalogers, see: Librarians_________________
Catholic priests___________________________
Cement finishers__________________________
Cement masons-----------------------------------------Cementers, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction ________________________________
Central office craftsmen, telephone---------------Central office equipment installers, telephone—
Central office operators, telephone----------------






P age


Central office repairmen, telephone__________
Central office supervisors, see: Telephone op­
erators ________________________________
Ceramic engineers------------------------------------69
See also: Electronics manufacturing____
Certified public accountants________________
Chainmen, see: Surveyors_________•
Chaplains, see: Clergy____________________
Charging machine operators, iron and steel---562
Check encoders, see: Bank clerks____________
Check inscribers, see: Bank clerks____________
Check-out clerks, see: Cashiers_^___________
Checkers, apparel industry_________________
Checkers, see: Draftsmen__________________
Checkers, insurance policy_________________
Checkers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing _______________________________
Chefs, see: Cooks and chefs________________
Chemical analyst, see:
Aluminum industry______________________ 513
Pulp, paper, and allied products_________ ’586
Chemical engineers_______________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ______________________
Aluminum industry_______________
Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Industrial chemical industy_________
Pulp, paper, and allied products
in d u stry______________________
Chemical mixers, see: Photographic laboratory
Chemical oceanographers__________________
Chemical operators, industrial chemical_____
Chemical process operators, atomic energy___
Chemical technicians______________________
See also:
Aluminum industry_______________
Atomic energy field________________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Industrial chemical industry________
Iron and steel industry_____________
Petroleum and natural gas production
Petroleum refining________________
Pulp, apper, and allied products in­
dustry ________________________
Chief engineers, radio and television_________
Chief mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft --------------------------------------------------505
Chief operators, telephone__________________
Child psychologists________________________
Child welfare workers, see: Social workers___

Chippermen, pulp, paper, and alliedproducts__
Chippers, see:
Forge shop____________________________
Foundry industry_____________________
Chiropodists, see: Podiatrists----------------------Chiropractors -----------------------------------------Choreographers, see: Dancers------------------------Christmas club bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks—
Christmas club tellers, see: Bank tellers------------Cindermen, iron and steel-----------------------------City carriers, post office--------------------------------City planners____________________________
Civil aviation occupations-------------------------Civil engineering technicians-----------------------Civil engineers___________________________
See also:
Atomic energy field_______________
Iron and steel industry---------------------Civil service workers, Federal Government----Civil service w o r k e r s , State and local
Civilian employment______________________
Claim adjusters, insurance-------------------------Cleaners, see: Thread trimmers, apparel
Clergy, the--------------Clerical and related occupations------------------Clerk-typists______________________________
Clerks, banking-----------------------------------------Clerks, civil aviation____________________
Clerks, insurance_________________________
Clerks, post office--------------------------------------


Clerks, r a i lr o a d _______________


Clerks, reservation, civil aviation-----------------Clerks, shipping and receiving--------------------Climatologists, see: Meteorologists---------------Clinical psychologists---------------------------------Clothing industry occupations, see: Apparel
in d u stry----------------------------------------------Coast G u a rd ------------------------------------------Coil winders, electronics manufacturing--------Coiler operators, aluminum industry------------Collar pointers, apparel----------------------------College and university teachers--------------------College librarians-------------------------------------College placement officers---------------------------College professors_________________________
Color technicians, see: Photographic laboratory
Combination w eld ers-------------------------------Commercial artists------------------------------------Commercial photographers-------------------------Commercial tellers, banking-----------------------Commodity loan clerks, see: Bank clerks--------Companions, see: Private household workers—




Composing room occupations, printing (graphic
Composition ro o fers______________________
Compositors, hand, printing (graphic arts)---Compressor-station engineers', natural g a s
Compressor-station operators, natural g a s
Comptrollers, banking, see: Bank officers------Computer operators, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel-------------------------------Computers, petroleum and natural gas
Concrete finishers------------------ 1 ----------------Conductors, railroad---------------------------------Conservation occupations------------------------------Conservationists, range, see: Range managers.
Conservationists, so il---------------------------------Console operators, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel-------------------------------Construction----------------Construction electricians------------------------------Construction laborers and hod carriers------------Construction machinery operators, see: Oper­
ating engineers---------------------------------Construction trades, see: Building trades------Continuity directors, radio and television------Continuity writers, radio and television-------Contractors, building trades--------------------------Control clerks, see: Bank clerks---------------------Control room operators, electric power---------Controllers, air route---------------------------------Controllers, airport traffic--------------------------Converter operators, see: Electronic computer
operating personnel_____________________
Cooks, see: Private household workers-------------Cooks and chefs____________________________
Cooks’ helpers, see: Private household workers.
Cooperative extension service workers_______
Copilots, civil aviation_____________________
Copying machine servicemen_______________
Copywriters, advertising___________________
Core assemblers, foundry__________________
Core-oven tenders, foundry________________
Coremakers, fo u n d ry_______________________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
Coremaking machine operators, foundry____
Coresetters, fo u n d ry________________________
Corn and wheat farmers___________
Correspondent bank officers, banking_________
Corrugator operators, pulp, paper, and allied

262-057 0 — 68 4 8
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Cotton growers__________________________
Counseling ______________________________
Counseling psychologists, see: Psychologists_
Counselers, see:
Rehabilitation counselers______________
School counselers------------------------------Vocational counselers_________________
Counter attendants, restaurant______________
Counters, pulp, paper and allied products___
Country collection clerks, see: Bank clerks___
County agricultural agents-------------------------County home economics agents-------------------725
Court reporters__________________________
Craftsmen, foreman, and kindred workers—
Crane operators, see:
Foundry industry_____________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing _______________________________
Operating engineers---------------------------260
Cranemen, forge shop_____________________
Cranemen, iron and steel---------------------------333
Credit analysts, see: Bank officers---------------331
Credit cashiers, see: Cashiers----------------------Crew chiefs, aircraft, missies, and spacecraft_
347Crop reporters____________________________
Crop specialty farmers------------------------------667
Crystal finishers, electronics manufacturing---667
Crystal grinders, electronics manufacturing—
Cultural anthropologists__________________
Customer service occupations, electric power—
Customers’ brokers, see: Securities salesmen—
Cutters, apparel--------------------------------------649
Cutters, fur, apparel----------------Cutters, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ___________________________ _—
Cutting room occupations, apparel--------------301
Cytologists, see: Anatomists-----------------------291
Dairy farmers____________________________
D an cers_________________________________
Dark-room technicians, see: Photographic lab­
oratory occupations_____________________
Data-processing equipment servicemen---------546
Data typists, see: Typists---------------------------551
See also: Electronic computer operators—
Day workers, see: Private household workers—
Decontamination men, atomic energy-----------552
Decorators, interior designers and---------------546
Dehydration-plant operators, natural gas proc­
essing _________________________________
Deliverymen, see: Routemen----------------------714
Dental hygienists--------------------------------------585
Dental laboratory technicians---------------------

P age


D entists_________________________________
Derrick operators, see: Foundry industry_____
Derrickmen, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction ________________________________
Derrickmen, see: Stonemasons_______________
Designers, apparel__________________________
Designers, industrial________________________
See also listing under Industrial designers.
Designers, interior__________________________
Designers, scenic, radio and television_________
See also: Interior designers and decora­
tors ________________________________
Designers, tool and machine, see: Mechanical
Designing room occupations, apparel_________
Desk clerks, hotel___________________________
Detailers, see: Draftsmen____________________
Detectives, police__________________________
Developers, see: Photographic laboratory occu­
pations _______________________________
Development engineers, radio and television—
Developmental psychologists_________________
Dictationists, see: Newspaper reporters________
Dictating-machine servicemen_____________
Die makers, pulp, paper, and allied products_
Die makers, tool-and________________________
See also listing under Tool-and-die
Diesel mechanics__________________________
Deisel technicians, see: Mechanical techni­
cians ---------------------------------------------------Die sinkers, forge shop______________________
Dietitians _________________________________
Digester operators, pulp, paper, and allied
products _____________________________
Directors, art, see: Commercial artists_________
Directors, college placement, see: College
placement officers________________________
Directors, education, radio and television___
Directors, program, radio and television_____
Directors, public affairs, radio and television_
Disbursement clerks, see:
Cashiers _____________________________
Post office occupations__________________
Disc jockeys, radio and television____________
Discount bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks________
Discount tellers, banking____________________
Dishwashers, restaurant_____________________
Dispatchers, see:
Civil aviation_________________________
Railroads ____________________________
Dispatchers, load, electric light and power___
Dispensing opticians and optical mechanics_
Distribution clerks, post office_______________
Distributors, work, apparel___________________




P age

District representatives, electric power________
Dividermen, baking______________________
Doctors, medical_________________________
Domestic workers, see: Private household
workers _______________________________
Doormen, hotel-------------------------------------Dough molders, baking------------------------------Draftsmen ______________________________
See also:
Aluminum industry--------------------Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing________
Iron and steel industry____________
Petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion -------------------------------------Petroleum refining________________
Drama teachers, see: Actors and actresses____
Dressmakers, apparel_____________________
Drill press operators, see: Machine tool oper­
ators _________________________________
Drillers, petroleum and natural gas production.
Driver-salesmen, see: Routemen____________
See also: Baking industry_____________
Drivers, intercity buses____________________
Drivers, local transit buses_________________
Drivers, local trucks----------------------------------Drivers, over-the-road trucks----------------------Drivers, taxi--------------------------------------------Driving occupations______________________
D ruggists________________________________
Drycleaning and laundry routemen__________
Duplicating and copying machine servicemen_
Duplicating machine operators_____________
Dynamic meteorologists____________________


Earth-boring machine operators, see: Operating
engineers _____________________________
Earth sciences____________________________
Economic geographers_____________________
Economic geologists_______________________
Economists---------------------------------------------- ‘ 172
Economists, agricultural----------------------------632
Editors, film, television____________________
Editors, newspaper________________________
See also: Technical writers-------------------201
Education directors, radio and television--------668
Electric-arc welders----------------------------------495
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
Electric power linemen____________________
Electric power industry------------------------------654
Electric sign servicemen------------------------------420
Electrical appliance servicemen-------------------401
Electrical assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and



Electrical engineers_______________________
See also:
Aluminum industry_______________
Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Industrial chemical industry'________
Iron and steel industry_____________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing _____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry ________________________
Electrical repairmen, maintenance electriciansElectrical workers, see: Shop trades, railroads_
Electricians, construction__________________
Electricians, maintenance__________________
See also listing under Maintenance elec­
Electric power linemen____________________
Electric power industry, occupations in the----Electromechanical machinery servicemen, see:
Postage and mailing equipment servicemen-_
Electronic computer operating personnel____
Electronic computer programers-----------------Electronic data-processing equipment service­
men, see: Business machine servicemen____
Electronic reader-sorter operators, see: Bank
clerks _________________________________
Electronics checkout men, aircraft, missiles, and
Electronics engineers, see:
Atomic energy field___________________
Electronics manufacturing_____________
Electronics manufacturing occupations_____
Electronics mechanics, aluminum____________
Electronics repairmen, iron and steel_________
Electronics technicians____________________
See also:
Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Electroplaters -----------------------------------------See also: Electronics manufacturing____
(graphic arts)_________________________
Elementary school teachers_________________
Elevator constructors______________________
Elevator mechanics_______________________
Elevator operators, hotel___________________
Embossing machine operators_______________
Embryologists ___________________________
Employment counselors, see: Vocational coun­
selors __________________________________
Engine lathe operators_____________________
Engine mechanics, aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft --------------------------------------------------Engineering______________________________

P age



P age

Engineering aids__________________________
See also:
Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Engineering and science technicians_________
Engineering geologists_____________________
Engineering psychologists, see: Psychologists---Engineering technicians___________________
Engineers, aeronautical, see: Engineers, aero­
space __________________________________
Engineers, aerospace---------------------------------See also: Aircraft, missile and spacecraft
Engineers, agricultural------------------------------See also: Agriculture__________________
Engineers, astronautical, see: Engineers, aero­
space _________________________________
Engineers, ceramic________________________
Engineers, chemical_______________________
See also listing under Chemical engineers.
Engineers, civil___________________________
See also listing under Civil engineers.
Engineers, compressor-station, natural gas proc­
essing _________________________________
Engineers, development, radio and television—
Engineers, electrical_______________________
See also listing under Electrical engineers.
Engineers, electronics, see listing under Elec­
tronics engineers.
Engineers, flight, civil aviation______________
Engineers, foundry________________________
Engineers, gasoline-plant, natural gas process­
ing ----------------------------------------------------Engineers, industrial______________________
See also listing under Industrial engineers.
Engineers, locomotive_____________________
Engineers, mechanical_____________________
See also listing under Mechanical engi­
Engineers, metallurgical___________________
See also listing under Metallurgical engi­
Engineers, mining________________________
Engineers, oceanographic, see: Oceanogra­
Engineers, operating, buildingtrades_________
Engineers, packaging, pulp, paper, and allied
Engineers, petroleum______________________
See also listing under Petroleum engineers.
Engineers, reactor, atomic energy__________
Engineers, stationary______________________
See also listing under Stationary engineers.
Engineers, watch, electric power____________
Enginemen, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction ________________________________







P age

P age

Entomologists ___________________________
See also: Agriculture__________________
Envelope-machine operators, pulp, paper, and
allied products_________________________
Estimators, building trades_________________
Etchers, printing (graphic arts)_____________
Etching equipment operators, electronics manu­
facturing ______________________________
Ethnologists, see: Anthropologists___________
Exchange clerks, see: Bank clerks___________
Exhaust operators, electronics manufacturing-_
Experimental machinists, see: Instrument mak­
ers (mechanical)_________________________
Exploration geophysicists_____________________
Extension agents, agricultural______________
Extension agents, 4—
Extension service workers__________________
Extras, see: Actors and actresses_______________
Extrusions press operators, aluminum industryFabrication inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
Family service workers, see: Social workers___
Farm cooperative workers_________________
Farm equipment mechanics________________
Farm housekeepers, see: Private household
Farm service jobs_________________________
Farmers, see: Agriculture__________________
Fashion illustrators, see: Commercial artists_
FBI Special Agents_________________________
Federal Government occupations____________
Field technicians, radio and television________
Film editors, television____________________
Film librarians, television__________________
Film numberers, see: Photographic laboratory
Film strippers, see: Photographic laboratory
Final assemblers, aircraft, missiles, and space­
craft ___________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate___________
Finance workers, agricultural_______________
Finishers, crystal, electronics manufacturing_
Finishers, fur, apparel_____________________
Finishers, optical goods____________________
Finishers, printing (graphic arts)___________
Firefighters, protective service_______________
Firemen, petroleum and natural gas production
Firemen, protective service, see: Firefighters_
Firemen (helpers), railroad________________
Firemen, stationary (boiler)________________
Firers, hydrogen furnace, electronics manu­
facturing ________________________________
Fitup men, boilermaking occupations_________
Flagmen, railroad_________________________



Flame cutters, see: Welders________________
Flight attendants, civil aviation_____________
Flight checkout occupations, see: Aircraft, mis­
sile, and spacecraft manufacturing________
Flight engineers, civil aviation______________
Flight superintendents, see: Airline dispatch­
ers, civil aviation_________________________
Floor assemblers__________________________
Floor boys and girls, see: Work distributors, ap­
parel industry____________________________
Floor clerks and supervisors, hotel___________
Floor coremakers, foundry_________________
Floor covering installers----------------------------Floor covering mechanics__________________
Floor layers, see: Floor covering installers___
Floor managers, radio and television_________
Floor molders, foundry____________________
Floormen, rotary, petroleum and natural gas
Floormen, television_________________________
Food checkers, restaurant____________________
Food chemists______________________________
Food managers, see: Hotels__________________
Foreign exchange tellers, banking______________
See also: Pulp, paper, and allied products.
Forestry aids______________________________
Forestry technicians, see: Forestry aids_________
Forge shop occupations______________________
See also:
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
Forging press operators, forge shop----------------Forklift truck operators, see: Power truck op­
erators _________________________________
Foundry industry___________________________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
Framemen, telephone central office craftsmen.
Free-lance artists, see: Commercial artists____
Front-end mechanics, see: Automobile me­
chanics ________________________________
Front office clerks, hotel_____________________
Fur cutters, apparel_________________________
Fur finishers, apparel_______________________
Fur machine operators, apparel---------------------Fur nailers, apparel_________________________
Fur shop occupations, apparel-----------------------Furnace installers (heating mechanics)--------Furnace operators, foundry-----------------------Furniture upholsters-------------------------------------Gagers, petroleum and natural gas production.
Garage mechanics, see: Automobile mechanics.




Gas appliance servicemen__________________
See also: Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics______________
Gas burner mechanics____________________
Gas fitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters______
Gas plant operators, natural gas processing___
Gas welders_______________________________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
Gas-compressors operators, natural gas proc­
essing _________________________________
Gasoline-plant engineers, natural gas proc­
essing _________________________________
Gasoline-plant operators, natural gas proc­
essing _________________________________
Gasoline service station attendants___________
Gasoline service station managers____________
Gasoline station servicemen-------------------------General boardmen, see: Commercial artists_
General bookkeepers---------------------------------See also: Bank clerks--------------------------General maids, see: Private household workers.
General practitioners, see: Physicians________
See also: Agriculture__________________
Geochemists, see: Geologists-----------------------Geodesists, see: Geophysicists----------------------Geodetic surveyors________________________
Geological oceanographers_________________
See also: Petroleum and natural gas
Geomagneticians, see: Geophysicists------------Geomorphologists, see: Geologists-----------------Geophysicists____________________________
See also: Petroleum and natural gas
Glass blowers, electronics manufacturing------Glass lathe operators, electronics manufactur­
ing ___________________________________
Glaziers _________________________________
Governesses, see: Private household workers—
Government occupations, Federal---------------See also: Post office----------------------------Government occupations, State and local------Government, occupations in-----------------------Grain farmers, see: Com and wheat farmers—
Gravure pressmen, printing (graphic arts)----Grind lathe operators, electronics manufactur­
ing __________________ :________________
Grinders, see:
Forge sh op __________________________
Foundry industry_____________________
Grinding machine operators, see: Machine tool




P age

Grocery checkers, see: Cashiers_____________
Ground radio operators and teletypists, civil
Groundmen, electric power-----------------------Guidance counselors______________________
Hammer drivers, forge shop________________
Hammer operators, forge shop--------------------Hammer runners, forge shop----------------------Hammermen, see: Motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing------------------------------Hammersmiths, forge shop-------------------------Hand compositors, printing (graphic arts)---Hand cutters, apparel-------------------------------Hand icers, baking------------------------------------Hand molders, foundry------------------------------Hand sewers, apparel-------------------------------Hand spreaders, apparel----------------------------Handymen, see: Private householdworkers----Health physicists, atomic energy-----------------Health physics technicians, atomicenergy------Health service occupations-------------------------Heat treaters, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
Forge shop---------------------------------------Foundry industry-------------------------------Heaters, see:
Forge shop__________________________
Iron and steel industry-----------------------Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing---------------------------------------Heating mechanics------------------------------------Helpers, baking---------------------------------------Helpers, building trades----------------------------Helpers, iron and steel------------------------------Helpers, petroleum and natural gasproduction
High school teachers---------------------------------High speed printer operators, see: Electronic
computer operating personnel-----------------Highway patrolmen, see: State police officers—
Highway surveyors------------------------------------Historians ---------------------------------------------Hod carriers______________________________
See also:
Home economists--------------------------------------See also:
Cooperative extension service workD ietitians----------------------------------ers____________________________
Home housekeepers, see: Private household
workers _______________________________
Home office underwriters, insurance-------------








Janitors, restaurant______________________
Jewelers and jewelry repairmen_____________



leers, baking_____________________________
Icing mixers, baking______________________
Illustrators, see: Commercial artists_________
Illustrators, technical, see listing under Tech­
nical illustrators.
Industrial chemical industry, occupations in
t h e ___________________________________
Industrial designers_______________________
See also: Electronics manufacturing_____
Industrial engineers______________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ----------------------------Electronics manufacturing------------Motor vehicle and equipment man­
ufacturing ____________________
Industrial machinery repairmen-------------------Industrial meteorologists--------------------------Industrial nurses_________________________
Industrial photographers--------------------------Industrial psychologists----------------------------Industrial recreation workers----------------------Industrial salesmen---------------------------------Industrial technicians------------------------------Industrial traffic managers-------------------------Infants’ nurses, see: Private household workers.
Information clerks, hotel__________________
Information operators, telephone----------------Infrared oven operators, electronics manufac­
turing _________________________________
Ingot strippers, iron and steel-------------------


P age

Inorganic chemists_______________________
Inspectors (manufacturing)_______________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ___________________
Apparel industry_________________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Forge shop-------------------------------Iron and steel industry-----------------Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ___________________ ___
Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry _______________________
Installation men, see: Automobile trimmers
(automobile upholsterers)_______________
Installers and repairmen, telephone and PBX .
Installers, floor covering___________________
Installers, meter, electric power_____________
Installers, telephone central equipment_____
Instrument maintenance men, see: Instrument
repairmen ___________________________
Instrument makers (mechanical)___________
Instrument mechanics, see: Instrument repair­
men -------------------------------------------------Instrument men, see: Instrument repairmen_
Instrument repairmen------------------------------See also:
Industrial chemical industry_______
Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry _______________________
Instrument technicians, see: Instrument repair­
men --------------------------------------------------Instrumentation technicians----------------------Instrumentmen, see: Surveyors_____________
Insulating workers----------------------------------Insurance agents and brokers_______________
Insurance business, occupations in the________
Insurance checkers_______________________
Insurance clerks_________________________
Intercity busdrivers______________________
Intercity truckdrivers_____________________
Interest-accrual bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks.
Interest clerks, see: Bank clerks____________
Interior designers and decorators___________
International officers, banking_____________
Intertype operators, printing (graphic arts)_
Interviewers, marketing research___________
Investigators, FBI________________________
Investment analysists, see: Insurance business.
Iron and steel industry, occupations in the___
Iron workers, building trades_______________
See also: Railroad bridge and building
workers _________________________

Hospital administrators____________________
Hospital attendants_______________________
Hospital nurses___________________________
Hospital recreation workers________________
Hostlers, railroad_________________________
Hot-cell technicians, atomic energy__________
Hot metal cranemen, see:
Aluminum industry___________________
Iron and steel industry________________
Hotel managers__________________________
Hotel occupations________________________
Household workers, see: Private household
Housekeepers, see: Private household workers.
Housekeepers and assistants, hotel___________
Housemen, see: Private household workers_
Housemen, hotel_________________________
Human nutritionists, see: Agriculture_______
Husbandry specialists (animal)_____________
Hydrogen furnace firers, electronics manu­
facturing _______________________________
Hydrologists, see: Geophysicists_____________
Hygienists, dental-------------------------------------






P age

Jig and fixture builders, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ____________________________
Junior high school teachers, see: Secondary
school teachers------------------------------------Keepers, iron and steel____________
Key clerks, hotel_________________________
Keypunch operators---------------------------------See also: Electronic computer operating
personnel ________________________
Kindergarten teachers____________________
Kitchen workers, restaurant________________
Laboratory technicians----------------------------See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ----------------------------Aluminum industry--------------------Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Industrial chemical industry________
Iron and steel industry-----------------Petroleum refining----------------------Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry _______________________
Laboratory technicians, dental--------------------Laboratory technicians, optical-------------------Laborers and hod carriers, building trades___
Ladle cranemen, iron and steel-------------------Land surveyors---------------------------------------Landmen, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion __________________________________
Landscape architects-------------------------------Larrymen, iron and steel---------------------------Lathe operators, see: Machine tool operators.
Lathers _________________________________
Laundresses, see: Private household workers—
Lawyers ________________________________
Layout artists, see: Commercial artists---------Layout men, advertising----------------------------See also: Commercial artists-----------------Layout men (machine tools)_______________
See also: Boilermaking occupations--------Leasemen, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion __________________________________
Legal secretaries_________________________
Lens grinders, see: Optical mechanics________
Letterers, see: Commercial artists___________
Letterpress pressmen, printing (graphic arts).
Librarians _______________________________
Librarians, medical record_________________
Librarians, tape, see: Electronic computer oper­
ating personnel_________________________
Librarians, television film__________________

Licensed practical nurses___________________




Licensed vocational nurses_________________
Life insurance agents______________________
Lighting directors, television________________
Lighting technicians, television______________
Line-haul truckdrivers_____________________
Line maintenance mechanics, civil aviation_
Linemen, see:
Electric power industry________________
Telephone industry___________________
Linemen and cable splicers, telephone________
Linotype operators, printing (graphic arts)_
Lithographic artists, printing (graphic arts)_
Lithographic occupations, printing (graphic
arts) __________________________________
Lithographic pressmen, printing (graphic
a r t s ) __________________________________
Livestock farmers_________________________
Load dispatchers, electric power_____________
Loan officers, banking_____________________
Local government occupations______________
Local transit busdrivers____________________
Local truckdrivers________________________
Locomotive engineers, railroad--------------------Locomotive firemen (helpers), railroad---------Long distance operators, telephone__________
Long-haul truckdrivers____________________
Machine coremakers, foundry______________
Machine designers, see: Mechanical techni­
cians __________________________________
Machine icers, baking_____________________
Machine molders, see:
Foundry industry_____________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufactur­
ing _______________________________
Machine movers, see: Riggers and movers------Machine spreaders, apparel________________
Machine tenders, see: Paper machine operators,
pulp, paper, and allied products---------------Machine tool operators____________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ____________________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Foundry industry-------------------------Iron and steel industry____________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ________
Machined parts inspectors, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft_________________________
Machinery repairmen, industrial____________
Machining occupations____________________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ____________________



Machinists, all-round---------------------------------■ee also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ____________________
Atomic energy field----------------------Electronics manufacturing------------Instrument makers (mechanical)-----Iron and steel industry-------------------Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry ________________________
Railroad shop trades--------------------Maids, see: Private household workers_______
Maids, hotel_____________________________
Mail carriers, post office----------------------------Mail clerks, hotel-------------------------------------Mail clerks, post office_____________________
Mail handlers, post office----------------------------Mail preparing and mail handling machine op­
erators, office machine operators---------------Mailing equipment servicemen--------------------Mailmen, post office----------------------------------Maintenance electricians----------------------------See also:
Aluminum industry----------------------Electronics manufacturing_________
Iron and steel industry-------------------Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry ________________________
Railroad shop trades--------------------Maintenance machinists, aluminum------------Maintenance mechanics, see: Industrial ma­
chinery repairmen______________________
Maintenance technicians, radio and television.
Maintenance welders, aluminum____________
Makeup artists, television__________________
Makeup men, printing (graphic arts)-----------Managerial occupations___________________
Managers, advertising_____________________
Managers, branch bank____________________
Managers, food, hotel_______________________
Managers, gasoline service station___________
Managers, industrial traffic_________________
Managers, range_________________________
Managers, restaurant________________________
Managers, sales, see:
Radio and television broadcasting_______
Managers and assistants, hotel______________
Manipulator operators, iron and steel________
Manual workers__________________________
Manufacturers’ salesmen___________________
Marble setters, tile setters, and terrazzo work­
ers -----------------------------------------------------Marine biologists, see: Oceanographer________
Marine Corps____________________________
 geologists, see: Oceanographers________




P age

Marine meteorologists, see: Oceanographers_
Markers, apparel_________________________
Market news reporters_____________________
Marketing research workers__________________
Masons, brick____________________________
See also:
Iron and steel industry-------------------Railroad bridge and building work­
ers ____________________________
Masons, cement and concrete----------------------Masons, stone_____________________________
Materials handlers, motor vehicle and equip­
ment manufacturing. ___________________
Mathematical assistants, electronics manufac­
turing _________________________________
Mathematical statisticians____________________
See also:
A ctu aries_________________________
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ________________________
Electronics manufacturing------------Statisticians_______________________
Mathematics and related fields-----------------------Mathematics technicians_____________________
Mechanical engineers_______________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ________________________
Aluminum industry----------------------Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing----------------Industrial chemical industry-----------Iron and steel industry-----------------Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ______________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry ________________________
Mechanical technicians______________________
Mechanic-attendants, see: Gasoline service
station attendants_______________________
Mechanics, see:
Air-conditioning mechanics-------------------Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing ----------------------------Aircraft mechanics------------------------------Automobile mechanics-------------------------Bowling-pin-machine mechanics------------Bus mechanics------------------------------------Diesel mechanics---------------------------------Dispensing opticians and optical me­
chanics _____________________________
Electronics manufacturing-----------------------Farm equipment mechanics-----------------Floor covering installers--------------------------Foundry industry-----------------------------------






Gas burner mechanics_________________
Heating mechanics____________________
Oil burner mechanics__________________
Refrigeration mechanics_______________
Truck mechanics_____________________
Vending machine mechanics____________
See also listing under Servicemen and
Mechanics and repairmen__________________
Media directors, advertising__________________
Medical laboratory assistants_______________
Medical record librarians____________________
Medical secretaries________________________
Medical social workers____________________
Medical technologists________________________
Medical X-ray technicians___________________
Melters, see:
Foundry industry_____________________
Iron and steel industry_________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ______________________________
Mental health occupations, see:
Physicians (psychiatrists)________________
Psychiatric aids (hospital attendants)___
Social workers________________________
Metal cranemen, iron and steel--------------------Metal finishers, motor vehicle and equipment
Metal patternmakers, foundry--------------------Metal roofers____________________________
Metallurgical engineers------------------------------See also:
Atomic energy field----------------------Electronics manufacturing--------------Iron and steel industry-------------------Metallurgical technicians_____________________
Metallurgists, see:
Aluminum industry----------------------------Electronics manufacturing--------------------Foundry industry-------------------------------Iron and steel industry-------------------------Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing ____________________________
Meteorological instrumentation specialists----Meteorologists_____________________________
Meter installers, electric power-------------------Meter readers, electric power_______________
Meter testers, electric power________________
Metermen, electric power---------------------------Microbiologists __________________________
See also:
Biological sciences__________________


P age



Milling machine operators, see: Machine tool
op erators______________________________
M illw rights______________________________
See also:
Aluminum industry_________________
Iron and steel industry_______________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ________________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry __________________________
Mineralogists, see:
Petroleum and natural gas production___
M ining_____________________________
Mining engineers_________________________
Ministers, Protestant________________________
Missile assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft____________________________
Missile manufacturing occupations___________
Missionaries, see: Clergy_____________________
Mixers, baking_____________________________
Modelmakers, see: Instrument makers (me­
chanical) _______________________________
Molders, foundry___________________________
■ee also: Motor vehicle and equipment
Molders’ helpers, foundry industry____________
Molding machine operators, baking industry_
Molding machine operators, foundry---------------Monitors, radiation, atomic energy___________
Monotype caster operators, printing (graphic
arts) ___________________________________
keyboard operators,
(graphic arts)___________________________
Mortgage clerks, see: Bank clerks--------------------Mothers’ helpers, see: Private household
Motion picture projectionists------------------------Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing
Motor vehicle body repairmen--------------------Motor vehicle operators, post office----------------Music directors, radio and television---------------Music librarians, radio and television-------------Musicians and music teachers------------------------Nailers, fur, apparel-----------------------------------Natural gas processing occupations----------------Natural sciences____________________________
N avy _____________________________________
Neon sign servicemen_______________________
News directors, radio and television----------------Newscasters, radio and television-------------------Newspaper rep orters-------------------------------See also: Technical writers-------------------Newswriters, radio and television-------------------




Note tellers, banking_____________________ _
Nuclear physicists________________________
See also: Atomic energy field---------------Nuclear reactor operators, atomic energy------Nurse aids, see: Hospital attendants------------Nu,rse educators, see: Registered professional
Nurse maids, see: Private household workers_
Nurses, industrial_________________________
Nurses, licensed practical__________________
Nurses, licensed vocational-------------------------Nurses, registered professional______________
Nursing assistants, see: Hospital attendants---Nutritionists_____________________________
See also:
D ietitians_______________________
Home economists_________________
Observers, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction ________________________________
Occupational health nurses________________
Occupational therapists----------------------------Oceanographers -------------------------------------Oceanographic engineers, see: Oceanogra­
Odd-job men, see: Private household workers—
Office machine operators__________________
Office machine servicemen_________________
Office nurses____________________________
Offset pressmen, printing (graphic arts)------Oil burner mechanics-------------------------------Operating engineers, construction machinery—
Operations agents, civil aviation____________
Operations officers, banking________________
Operatives, see: Semiskilled workers, indus­
tria l___________________________________
Operators, compressor-station, natural g a s
processing ____________________________
Operators, resistance welding----------------------See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
Operators, telephone______________________
Optical laboratory technicians--------------------Optical mechanics________________________
Opticians, dispensing---------------------------------Optometrists ____________________________
Orderlies, see: Hospital attendants__________
Organic chem ists________________________
Ornamental-iron workers, building trades___
Osteopathic physicians____________________
Outside production inspectors, aircraft, mis­
siles, and spacecraft_____________________
Over-the-road truckdrivers________________
Ovenmen, baking industry_________________
 cu tters__________________________




Packaging engineers, pulp, paper, and allied
Painters, automobile______________________
Painters, production______________________
See also listing under Production painters.
Painters and paperhangers_________________
Paleontologists, see:
Petroleum and natural gas production_
Pantrymen and pantrywomen, restaurants___
Paper and allied products_________________
Paper inspectors, pulp, paper, and allied
Paper machine operators, pulp, paper, and
allied products_________________________
Paper sorters and counters, pulp, paper, and
allied products_________________________
Paper testers, pulp, paper, and allied products.
Parcel post carriers, post office______________
Parole officers, see: Social workers___________
Parts changers, electronics manufacturing___
Parts countermen, automobile______________
Paste-up men, see: Commercial artists_______
Pastors, see: Clergy.______________________
Pathologists, speech_______________________
Patrolmen, see:
Policemen __________________________
State police officers___________________
Pattern graders, apparel___________________
Patternmakers, a p p a re l___________________
Patternmakers, foundry industry____________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ____________________
Paying and receiving tellers, banking________
Payroll tellers, banking____________________
PBX installers and repairmen, telephone____
PBX operators, see: Telephone operators_____
Peanut grow ers__________________________
Perforator operators, petroleum and natural
gas production_________________________
Performing arts, the______________________
Personal maids, see: Private household
workers-----------------------------------------------Personnel workers____________________
Petroleum and natural gas production and
Petroleum engineers, see:
Mining engineers____________________
Petroleum and natural gas production_
Petroleum refining___________________
Petroleum geologists______________________
See also: Petroleum and natural gas
Petroleum refining_______________________




Petrologists, see: Geologists_________________
Pharmacologists _________________________
Photocheckers and assemblers, see: Photo­
graphic laboratory occupations___________
Photo-journalists, see: Photographers________
Photoengravers, printing (graphic arts)_____
Photogrammetric surveyors________________
Photograph retouchers, see: Photographic lab­
oratory occupations_____________________
Photographers __________________________
See also listing under Cameramen, print­
ing (graphic arts).
Photographic laboratory occupations________
Phototypesetting machine operators, printing
(graphic arts)________________________
Physical anthropologists___________________
Physical chemists------------------------------------Physical geographers_____________________
Physical meteorologists____________________
Physical oceanographers__________________
Physical sciences_________________________
Physical therapists________________________
Physicians __________________________
Physicists _______________________________
See also:
Atomic energy field_______________
Electronics manufacturing-----------Physicists, health, atomic energy-----------------Physicists, radiological, atomic energy-----------Physiologists ____________________________
Phytopathologists, plant pathologists_________
Picklers, forge shop_______________________
Piercer machine operators, iron and steel------Pilots and copilots, civil aviation— „_______
Pinchasers, see: Bowling-pin-machine me­
Pinsetting machine mechanics, see: Bowlingpin-machine mechanics-------------------------Pipefitters ---------------------------------------------See also:
Industrial chemical industry________
Iron and steel industry-----------------Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ____________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products in­
dustry ________________________
Placement directors, see: College placement of­
ficers _________________________________
Placement officers, see: College placement of­
ficers _________________________________
Plainclothesmen, see: Policemen-----------------Plane table operators, petroleum and natural
gas production________________________
Planners, urban_________________________

Plant pathologists_______________________

P age




Plant quarantine and plant pest control inspec­
tors, see: Agriculture____________________
Plant scientists, see: Agriculture____________
Plasterers _______________________________
See also: Railroad bridge and building
workers __________________________
Platemakers, printing (graphic arts)________
Platers, electroplaters_____________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ___________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing _____________________
Plumbers and pipefitters___________________
See also:
Aluminum industry________________
Railroad bridge and building work­
ers ____________________________
Podiatrists ______________________________
Policemen, see: State police officers----------------Policemen and policewomen------------------------Policy change clerks, insurance---------------------Policy writers, insurance-------------------------------Polishers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ---------------------------------------------Political geographers______________________
Political scientists________________________
Portable equipment operators, see: Track
workers, railroad______________________
Porters, baggage, hotel______________________
Porters, restaurant_______________________
Portrait photographers--------------------------------Post office occupations______________________
Postage and mailing equipment servicemen---Postal clerks---------------------------------------------Postal inspectors----------------------------------------Posting machine operators, see: Bank clerks---Postmasters ______________________________
Pot liners, see: Aluminum industry----------------Potmen, see: Aluminum industry--------------------Poultry farmers____________________________
Pourers, see:
Foundry industry------------------------------Iron and steel industry--------------------------Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing _____________________________
Power brake operators, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ------------------------------------------Power dispatchers, electric power---------------Power hammer operators, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft------------------------------------Power linemen, electric power-----------------------Power truck operators----------------------------------Powerplant installers, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ---------------------------------------------Powerplant mechanics, civil aviation--------------





Powerplant occupations, electric power---------Power shear operators, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ____________________________
Practical nurses---------------------------------------Press feeders, printing (graphic arts)-----------Press operators, forge shop_________________
Pressers, apparel-------------------------------------Pressing occupations, apparel_______________
Pressmen, printing (graphic arts)___________
Priests, Roman Catholic___________________
Print developers, machine, see: Photographic
laboratory occupations--------------------------Printer operators, see: Photographic laboratory
occupations __________________________
Printer-slotter operators, pulp, paper, and
allied products________________________
Printers, see: Photographic laboratory occupa­
tions _________________________________
Printers, printing (graphic arts)------------------Printing (graphic arts) occupations_________
Printing pressmen and assistants, printing
(graphic arts) _________________________
Private duty nurses_______________________
Private household workers_________________
Private outdoor recreation operators------------Probation and parole officers, see: Social
Producer-directors, p r o g r a m , radio and
television _____________________________
Production managers, advertising---------------Production painters_______________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, a n d spacecraft
manufacturing ________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing _____________________
Railroad bridge and building work­
ers ___________________________
Production planners, aircraft, missiles, and
spacecraft ____________________________
Production technicians, see: Industrial engi­
neering technicians_____________________
Professional and related occupations_________
Professors, college________________________
Professors, university______________________
Profile cutting torch machine operators, air­
craft, missiles, and spacecraft_____________
Program assistants, radio and television-------Program directors, radio and television---------Program producer-directors, radio and tele­
vision ____________
Programers, electronic computer____________
See also: Insurance business____________
Projectionists, see: Motion pictures__________
Proof machine operators, see: Bank clerks----Proofers, printing (graphic arts)------------------




Proofreaders, printing (graphic arts)________
Property and liability insurance agents and
b rokers________________________________
Prospecting drillers, petroleum and natural gas
Prospecting geophysicists__________________
Protestant clergym en_____________________ / 44
Psychiatric aids, see: Hospital attendants_____
Psychiatric social workers---------------------------228
Psychologists ____________________________
See also: Counseling__________________
Public affairs directors, see: Radio and tele­
vision _________________________________
Public health nurses______________________
Public health sanitarians, see: Sanitarians----113
Public librarians_________________________
Public relations workers___________________
Public stenographers______________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products industry, occu­
pations in the__________________________
Pulp testers, pulp, paper, and allied products_
Pumpers, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion ___________________________________
Pumpmen, petroleum refining--------------------579
Punch press operators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing _________________________
Electronics m anufacturing____________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing _____________________________
Purchasing agents________________________
Rabbis __________________________________
Rack clerks, hotel_________________________
Radiation monitors, atomic energy--------------Radio and television announcers____________
Radio and television broadcasting occupations.
Radio operators, ground, civil aviation---------Radio service technicians__________________
Radiographers, see:
Aluminum industry----------------------------Atomic energy_______________________
Radioisotope-production operators, atomic en­
ergy ----------------------------------------------------Radiologic technologists, see: Medical X-ray
Radiological physicists, atomic energy________
Railroad bridge and building workers________
Railroad clerks____________________________
Railroad conductors______________________
Railroad occupations-------------------------------Ranchers ________________________________
Range conservationists, see: Range managers—
Range managers__________________________
Range scientists, see: Range managers_______
Reactor engineers, atomic energy------------------




Reactor technicians, atomic energy----------------Real estate salesmen and brokers_____________
R ealto rs__________________________________
Receiving clerks, see: Shipping and receiving
clerks __________________________________
Receiving inspectors, aircraft, missiles, and
Receiving tellers, banking____________________
Reconcilement clerks, see: Bank clerks________
Recording clerks, see: Bank clerks------------------Recording technicians, radio and television----Recreation workers_________________________
Reference librarians_________________________
Refinery mechanics, petroleum refining--------Refrigeration mechanics------------------------------Regional geographers_______________________
Regional planners__________________________
Registered professional nurses------------------------Registered representatives, see: Securities sales­
men __________________________________
Rehabilitation counselors--------------------------Rehabilitation workers, see: Social workers----Reinforcing-iron workers, building trades------Remelt operators, see: Aluminum industry—
Renderers, see: Commercial artists----------------Repairmen, see:
Automobile body repairmen-----------------Central office repairmen, telephone--------Industrial machinery repairmen---------------Instrument repairmen_________________
Jewelry repairmen____________________
Shoe repairmen________________________
Telephone and PBX repairmen---------------Vending machine operators____________
Watch repairmen_______________________
See also listings under Mechanics and
under Servicemen.
Reporters, newspaper_______________________
Reporting stenographers_____________________
Research directors, advertising______________
Research workers, agricultural______________
Research workers, marketing_______________
Reservation agents and clerks, civil aviation_
Reservation clerks, hotel___________________
Resilient floor layers, see: Floor covering in­
stallers ________________________________
Resistance-welding operators________________
Restaurant industry_________________________
Retail salesmen and saleswomen_____________
Rewrite men, see: Newspaper reporters_______
Rig builders, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion ___________________________________
Riggers and machine movers, building trades_

Riveters, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft____




P age

Rocket assembly mechanics, aircraft, missiles,
and spacecraft_________________________
Rodmen, see: Reinforcing-iron workers_______
Rodmen, see: Surveyors___________________
Rodmen, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion __________ *
Roll turners, iron and steel---------, --------------Rollers, iron and steel_______________________
Rolling mill attendants, iron and steel-------------Rolling mill operators, see: Aluminum in­
dustry __________________________________
Roman Catholic priests______________________
Room and desk clerks, hotel__________________
Rotary drillers, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction _________________________________
Rotary floormen, petroleum and natural gas
Roughnecks, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction _________________________________
Roustabouts, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction _________________________________
Route salesmen, see: Routemen---------------------Routemen ________________________________
See also: Baking industry________________
Routers, printing (graphic arts)_____________
Rural carriers, post office-------------------------------Rural sociologists, agriculture-------------------------


Safety technicians, see: Engineering and science
Sailors, see: Navy___________________________
Sales clerk, retail store----------------------------------268
Sales engineer, see: Manufacturers’ salesmen—
Sales managers, see:
H otels________________________________
Radio and television broadcasting------------669
Sales occupations___________________________
Salesmen and saleswomen, see:
Automobile parts countermen----------------273
Automobile salesmen-----------------------------271
Automobile service advisors--------------------275
Insurance agents and brokers------------------281
Manufacturers’ salesmen------------------------278
Radio and television-----------------------------669
Real estate salesmen and brokers-------------283
Salesmen and saleswomen in retail stores—
Salesmen in wholesale trade--------------------277
Securities salesmen______________________
Sample stitchers, apparel-------------------------------516
Sample-taker operators, petroleum and natural
gas production___________________________
Sandblasters, forge shop-------------------------------383
Sandblasters, foundry----------------------------------547
Sand mixers, foundry-----------------------------------546

Savings tellers, banking____________________
Scalemen, see: Aluminum industry__________
Scalper operators, see: Aluminum industry___
Scenic designers, television_________________
See also: Interior designers and decoratorsSchool counselors_________________________
School librarians_________________________
School recreation workers__________________
School social workers______________________
School teachers, see: Teachers______________
Science aids_______________________________
Science information specialists, see: Librar­
ians ___________________________________
Science technicians________________________
Scientists, biological_______________________
Scientists, earth___________________________
Scientists, natural_________________________
Scientists, physical________________________
Scientists, soil____________________________
Scouts, petroleum and natural gas production.
Sealers, electronics manufacturing___________
Seat-cover installers, see: Automobile trimmers
and installation men____________________
Secondary school teachers__________________
iSee also: Agriculture__________________
Securities salesmen________________________
Securities tellers, banking__________________
Sedimentologists, see: Geologists____________
Seismologists, see: Geophysics_______________
Semiskilled workers, industrial______________
Service advisors, see: Automobile service ad­
visors _________________________________
Service assistants, telephone________________
Service occupations_______________________
Service salesmen, see: Automobile service ad­
visors _________________________________
Service station attendants, see: Gasoline service
station attendants_______________________
Service station managers, see: Gasoline service
station managers________________________
Service station mechanic-attendants__________
Service writers, see: Automobile service ad­
visors _________
Servicemen, see:
Appliance servicemen_________________
Business machine servicemen___________
Electric sign servicemen_______________
Gas appliance servicemen______________
Neon sign servicemen__________________
Telephone and PBX servicemen________
Television and radio service technicians_
Setup men (machine tools)________________
 hand, apparel_____________________



P age

Sewing machine operators, see:
Apparel industry______________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing _____________________________
Sewing room occupations, apparel___________
Shakeout men, see:
Foundry industry_____________________
Motor vehicle and equipment manufac­
turing _____________________________
Shapers, apparel---------------------------------------Shear operators, electronics manufacturing-----Shearmen, iron and steel----------------------------Sheet-metal workers----------------------------------See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manu­
facturing ______________________
Electronics manufacturing------------Railroad shop trades______________
Shipping and receiving clerks_______________
Shoe repairmen__________________________
Shooters, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion ___________________________________
Shop trades, railroad______________________
Shotblasters, forge shop----------------------------Shotblasters, foundry---------------------------------Signal department workers, railroad------------Signal maintainers, railroad-----------------------Signalmen, railroad----------------------------------Silk screen operators, electronics manufactur­
ing ___________________________________
Singers and singing teachers-----------------------Skilled and other manual occupations-----------Skilled workers___________________________
Skipmen, iron and steel------------------------------Slaggers, iron and steel------------------------------Slate roofers, building trades----------------------Slicing-and-wrapping machine operators, bakSlide mounters, see: Photographic laboratory
Soaking pit cranemen, iron and steel------------Soaking pit operators, aluminum-----------------Social caseworkers------------------------------------Social psychologists----------------------------------Social sciences____________________________
Social secretaries---------------------------------------Social workers_____________________________
Sociologists, rural, see: Agriculture--------------Soil conservationists-----------------------------------Soil scientists______________________________
Soldiers, see: Army---------------------------------Sorters, see: Bank clerks----------------------------Sorting machine operators_________________






Sound effects technicians, radio and television.
Spacecraft manufacturing occupations---------Special agents, see: FBI Special Agents---------Special delivery carriers, post office--------------Specialty farm operators----------------------------Specifications writers, see: Electronics manu­
facturing -------------------Speech pathologists_______________________
Sportscasters, radio and television___________
Sprayers, motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing ______________________________
Spreaders, apparel industry_________________
Stage managers, radio and television------------Star route carriers, post office----------------------State and local government occupations--------State highway patrolmen----------------------------State police officers----------------------------------Station agents, civil aviation-----------------------Station agents, railroad------------------------------Station installers, telephone-------------------------Stationary engineers_______________________
See also:
Aluminum industry----------------------Pulp, paper, and allied products------Stationary firemen (boiler)-------------------------Statisticians______________________________
See also:
A ctu a ries_______________________
Electronics manufacturing------------Mathematicians -------------------------Steamfitters, see: Plumbers and pipefitters----Steel industry occupations--------------------------Steel pourers, iron and steel-----------------------Stenographers and secretaries----------------------Stereotypers, printing (graphic arts)------------Stewardesses, civil aviation-------------------------Stillmen, petroleum refining-----------------------Stillmen, gas plant, natural gas processing------Stock chasers, motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing-------------------------------------Stock clerks, banking---------------------------------Stock clerks, motor vehicle and equipment
Stock house larrymen, iron and steel_________
Stock house men, iron and steel--------------------Stonehands, printing (graphic arts)------------Stonemasons ------------------------------------------Stove tenders, iron and steel-----------------------Stratigraphers, see: Geologists________________
Stretcher-leveler-operators, aluminum indus­
t r y ____________________________________
Strippers, printing (graphic arts)___________
 workers, building trades_____






Structural-, ornamental-, and reinforcing-iron
workers, riggers, and machine workers_____
Studio supervisors, radio and television_______
Substation operators, electric power__________
Supercalendar operators, pulp, paper, and allied
Surfacers, optical goods____________________
Survey statisticians________________________
Switchboard operators, electric power________
Switchboard operators, telephone___________
Switchers, petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion ----------------------------------------------------Switchmen, railroad______________________
Switchmen, telephone_____________________
Synoptic meteorologists____________________
Systems analysts__________________________
Tabulating machine operators______________
Tailoring occupations, apparel--------------------Tailors, apparel---------------------------------------Tape librarians, see: Electronic computer oper­
ating personnel_________________________
Tape perforating machine operators, printing
(graphic arts)_________________________
Tape perforator typists, see: Typists__________
Tape-to-card converter operators, see: Elec­
tronic computer operating personnel_______
Tappers, see: Aluminum industry---------------Taxi drivers______________________________
Teachers, college and university-------------------Teacehrs, dancing________________________
Teachers, drama_________________________
Teachers, high school---------------------------------Teachers, junior high school, see: Secondary
school teachers--------------------------------------Teachers, kindergarten and elementary school.
Teachers, music__________________________
Teachers, secondary school-------------------------See also: Agriculture---------------------------Teachers, singing--------------------------------------T eaching________________________________
Technical illustrators, see:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft manufac­
turing __________________________
Electronics manufacturing-------------------Technical stenographers_______________
Technical writers-------------------------------------See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
m anufacturing________________
Electronics manufacturing------------Newspaper reporters______________
Technician occupations___________________




Technicians, broadcasting, radio and tele­
vision _________________________________
Technicians, dental laboratory______________
Technicians, engineering and science________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing ________________
Atomic energy field_______________
Dispensing opticians and optical me­
chanics _______________________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Foundry industry_________________
Industrial chemical industry________
Iron and steel industry____________
Petroleum refining________________
Pulp, paper, and allied products in,
Technicians, forestry, see: Forestry aids_____
Technicians, medical X-ray_________________
Technicians, optical laboratory_____________
Technicians, sound effects, radio and televisionTechnicians, television and radio service-------Technologists, medical_____________________
Tectonophysicists, see: Geophysicists_________
Telegraphers, telephoners, and towermen,
railroad _______________________________
Telephone and PBX installers and repairmen_
Telephone central office craftsmen-,________
Telephone central office equipment installers_
Telephone craftsmen______________________
Telephone industry occupations____________
Telephone installers and repairmen__________
Telephone linemen and cable splicers________
Telephone operators______________________
Telephone repairmen_____________________
Telephone servicemen_____________________
Telephoners, railroad_____________________
Teletypists, civil aviation__________________
Television announcers_____________________
Television broadcasting occupations_________
Television and radio service technicians_____
Tellers, banking__________________________
Terrazzo workers, building trades___________
Testboardmen, telephone__________________
Therapeutic dietitians_____________________
Therapists, occupational___________________
Therapists, physical_______________________
Thermal cutters, see: Welders______________
Thread trimmers and cleaners, apparel_______
Ticket agents, civil aviation________________
Ticket sellers, see: Cashiers_________________
Tile roofers, building trades________________
Tile setters, building trades_________________
Time salesmen, radio and television_________
Tinners, electronics manufacturing__________
Tobacco growers_________________________





P age

Tool-and-die makers______________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ____________________
Aluminum industry_______________
Electronics manufacturing_________
Iron and steel industry____________
Motor vehicle and equipment manu­
facturing _____________________
Tool designers, see: Mechanical technicians_
Tool pushers, petroleum and natural gas
Toolmakers, electronics manufacturing---------Topographic surveyors____________________
Towerman, railroad_______________________
Tracers, see: Draftsmen___________________
Track workers, railroad___________________
Trackmen, railroad_______________________
Traffic agents and clerks, civil aviation_______
Traffic controllers, air-route________________
Traffic controllers, airport__________________
Traffic managers, industrial________________
Traffic managers, radio and television-----------Traffic representatives, civil aviation_________
Train directors, railroad___________________
Train dispatchers-------------------------------------Trainmen, see: Brakemen, railroad--------------Transcribing machine operators, see: Typists—
Transfer clerks, post office--------------------------Transit clerks, see: Bank clerks______________
Transmission and distribution occupations,
electric power__________________________
Transmitter technicians, radio and television_
Transportation, communication, and public
u tilities________________________________
Treaters, see:
Petroleum and natural gas production---Petroleum refining----------------------------T rimmers, apparel----------------------------------Trimmers, automobile (automobile upholster­
ers) __________________________________
Trimmers, motor vehicle and equipment man­
ufacturing ___________________________
Trimmers, forge shop_____________________
Troopers, see: State police officers--------------Troublemen, electric power-----------------------Truck mechanics--------------------------------------Truckdrivers, local_______________________
Truckdrivers, motor vehicle operators, post
office _________________________________
Truckdrivers, over-the-road-----------------------Trust bookkeepers, see: Bank clerks--------------Trust investment clerks, see: Bank clerks--------Trust officers, banking------------------------------Tube benders, aircraft, missiles, and spacecraftTumbler operators, foundry------------------------






P age

Tune-up men, see: Automobile mechanics----Turbine operators, electric power---------------Typesetters, hand, printing (graphic arts)----Typesetting machine operators, printing
(graphic arts)_________________________
Typewriter servicemen____________________
Typists -------------------------------------------------Typographic surveyors------------------------------Understudies, see: Actors and actresses---------Underwriters, insurance----------------------------United States Government occupations---------University librarians---------------------------------University professors---------------------------------University teachers----------------------------------Unskilled workers, industrial----------------------Upholsterers, see:
Automobile trimmers and installation
men ______________________________
Furniture upholsterers-----------------------Upsetter operators, forge shop--------------------Urban geographers----------------------------------Urban planners---------------------------------------



Valets, see: Private household workers-----------Vending machine mechanics----------------------Vending machine routemen, see: Routemen—
Veterinarians -----------------------------------------See also: Agriculture--------------------------Video-control technicians, television------------Video-tape recording technicians, television—
Vocational agriculture teachers, see: Agricul­
ture __________________________________
Vocational counselors-------------------------------Vocational nurses---------------------------------------


Waiters and waitresses------------------------------Waste disposal men, atomic energy-------------


Digitized 262-057 0 — 68


P age

Waste-treatment operators, atomic energy___
Watch engineers, electric power_____________
Watch repairmen___________________________
Weather forecasters, see: Meteorologists______
Welders and oxygen cutters__________________
See also:
Aircraft, missile, and spacecraft man­
ufacturing ____________________
Iron and Steel industry____________
Natural gas processing_____________
Welders, electric-arc______________________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ______________________
Welders, gas______________________________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ______________________
Welding operators, resistance_______________
See also: Motor vehicle and equipment
manufacturing ______________________
Well pullers, petroleum and natural gas pro­
duction _________________________________
Wheat farmers_____________________________
Wholesale and retail trade___________________
Wholesale salesmen_______________________
Window clerks, post office_________________
Wire chiefs, railroad______________________
Wire draw operators aluminum______________
Wire drawers, iron and steel________________
Wood patternmakers, foundry______________
Work distributors, apparel_________________
Wrapping machine operators, baking________
Writers, technical_________________________ ' 200
■ee also listing under Technical writers.
Writing occupations________________________
X-ray technicians, medical--------------------------


Yard foremen, railroad____________________


Zoologists ________________________________



BLS Occupational Outlook Service for Counselors
To help the professional community concerned with youth keep up to date on occupational
developments that have significant implications for young people, and to assist counselors in
making occupational information available to their clients, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
supplements the Occupational Outlook Handbook with the following publications:
OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK QUARTERLY: Handbook users will want to consult the Occupa­

tional Outlook Quarterly to make sure they have up-to-date, authoritative occupa­
tional information between editions of the Handbook. Published four times during
each school year, the Quarterly presents the latest occupational outlook studies by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and interprets the guidance implications of Government
and other authoritative research in the economic, educational, demographic, and
technological fields. A 2-year subscription for the Occupational Outlook Quarterly is
$2.50 domestic, $3.50 foreign; 1 year is $1.25 domestic and $1.75 foreign; single copies
are 35 cents each. Order from Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402.
See order form, page 760.
OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK REPRINT SERIES: The reports in the Handbook are reproduced

in this series of reprints, each of which covers a single occupation, an industry, or a
group of related occupations. The reprints enable counselors to make occupational
information available to more students interested in specific careers. Teachers can use
these reprints as motivational aids in relating school subjects to earning a living.
Librarians who keep a file of occupational information will find these reprints helpful
in extending their resources to greater numbers of young people. Single reprints of a
full set of 119 reprints can be ordered. A list of reprints, with prices, is available from
the Occupational Outlook Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.
FREE OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK PUBLICATIONS: These include wall charts and reprints

of articles from the Quarterly. Wall charts emphasize graphically the salient facts
about various occupations and industries. Reprints from the Quarterly deal with the
employment outlook in new occupational areas, the impact of technological changes,
and other subjects of interest to young people and counselors and teachers. Free
publications are announced in the Quarterly, and many of these are distributed auto­
matically to schools, organizations, and individuals on the occupational outlook mail­
ing list. Write to the Occupational Outlook Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212, to request the List of Free Occupa­
tional Outlook Publications and to have your name placed on the mailing list.

raphy, as the title suggests, lists the major occupational and other manpower
publications of Federal and State government agencies that will be useful to
counselors and others interested in trends and developments that have implications
for career decisions. The bulletin, No. 1421 (currently being revised), is available
from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402; 50 cents a copy.

Other BLS Publications Useful to Counselors
Information on employment, unemployment, occupation trends, earnings, and other labor
force developments can be obtained from the following publications:





Monthly reports featuring timely analysis of current developments in employment,
unemployment, hours, and earnings for the Nation. Contains statistics on employment,
earnings, hours of work, and labor turnover by industry for the Nation and by industry
division for each State and 202 metropolitan areas. Also, contains detailed statistics
on the labor force including characteristics of the employed and unemployed, such as
age, marital status, color, industry, and occupational attachment. Statistics for earlier
years are contained in Employment and Earnings Statistics for the United States (BLS
Bulletin 1312-5), price $4.75 and Employment and Earnings Statistics for States and
Areas (BLS Bulletin 1370-4), price $5.
SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORTS: Reports based on special surveys of the labor force are

issued several times a year. They include statistics and analysis of selected character­
istics of the labor force, such as educational attainment, employment of school
dropouts and recent high school graduates, work experience during the year, and
marital and family status. Published in the Monthly Labor Review, which may be
available in your school library, these reports are also available (as long as the supply
lasts) without charge, upon written request to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.
OCCUPATIONAL WAGE SURVEYS: These reports include figures on average earnings and

employment in selected occupations and in major industries and labor market areas.
Weekly working hours for some groups of workers and customary practices regarding
pensions, vacations, holidays, and sick leave are also reported. Occupational Wage
Surveys are listed in the Directory of Community Wage Surveys which may be
obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington,
D.C. 20212. You can write BLS regional offices for free releases on individual city
UNION WAGE SCALES: Annual bulletins and releases on minimum wage scales and maximum

hours of work at straight-time rates for cities of 100,000 or more population—69 cities
in the printing industry, 68 cities in the construction and local trucking industries, and
67 cities in the local transit industry. Quarterly releases on surveys in seven major
building trades in 100 cities cover averages and increases in wage scale by trade, and
wage trends for the industry as a whole. These releases are available from the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212, or any of the
regional offices.
MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW: The Bureau of Labor Statistics issues the Monthly Labor Review


which contains articles that can help counselors keep abreast of the changing social,
economic, and demographic scene. In addition to providing a statistical section on
labor force and employment, labor turnover, earnings and hours, consumer and
wholesale prices, and work stoppages, the Monthly Labor Review publishes special
articles by experts on such subjects as the impact of technological change on employ-

ment, occupational counseling, and manpower planning. The Monthly Labor Review
can be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402 or from any of the Bureau’s regional offices listed above.
Annual subscription $7.50 domestic; $9 foreign. Single issue 75 cents.
Priced publications mentioned above can be ordered from the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington, D.C. 20402. Both priced and free publications are available (as long as the
supply lasts) from the regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
Labor, at the following addresses:
341 Ninth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10001.
1371 Peachtree St. NE., Atlanta, Ga. 30309.
911 Walnut St., Kansas City, Mo. 64106.
1603-A Federal Building, Government Center,
Boston, Mass. 02203.

219 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60604.
450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36017, San Francisco,
Calif. 94102.

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O FFICE : 1968 O - 262 -0 57


To make sure you have up-to-date, authoritative occupational information between editions of the Handbook,
order the—

(Issued September, December, February, and May)
The Quarterly is directed toward counselors, teachers, educators, parents, and others who work with young people;
students; and people interested in finding or changing jobs. It provides information on:

Career prospects
Training opportunities
Educational assistance
'fe Other manpower developments

Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
ENCLOSED FIND $ --------- (check, money order). Please enter my subscription to
--------- 2-YEAR subscription (DOMESTIC) $2.50; (FOREIGN) $3.50
--------- 1-YEAR subscription (DOMESTIC) $1.25; (FOREIGN) $1.75
Name________ ______ _________________________ _________ ___
Street address............. ......... ..............................................................

___ Enclosed________
To be mailed
___ later___________
___ Subscription_____
Coupon refund__

City, State, and ZIP Code._________________________ _______ _
W ASHINGTON, D.C. 2 0 4 0 2



Name__ _____ ____________________ _______ _____________________


Street address__________________________________ _______________ _
City, State, and ZIP Code.................... ........ ................................. ...........

------or you may place your order with any of the following Regional Offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S.
Department of Labor:
341 Ninth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10001.
1371 Peachtree St. NE., Atlanta, Ga. 30309.
911 W alnut St., Kansas City, Mo. 64106.
1603-A Federal Building, Government Center, Boston,
Mass. 02203.

219 South Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60604.
450 Golden Gate Ave., Box 36017, San Francisco,
Calif. 94102.



A New Visual Aid for Counselors









@ $10 PER SET. TOTAL AMOUNT. ______
Make check or money order (no cash, please!) payable to
Enclose with this order blank, and address to :



Do you need reprints ot Occupational