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U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
W O M E N ' S BUREAU

Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director

Pamphlet Six

Reprinted 1961
with Supplement

Foreword
Better nursing care is a goal shared by health
services, nurses' organizations, and scores of other
groups throughout the country. Their continued
efforts to increase recruitment and utilization of nursing personnel are helping to provide services vitally
needed by our expanding population. Nevertheless,
a nursing shortage continues—despite the fact that
there were more than 500,000 professional nurses on
duty in 1960.
In the search for ways to obtain additional nursing personnel, we must not underestimate the influence of wage levels and working conditions. In
recognition of the need for accurate and up-to-date
information about these factors, the Women's Bureau
in 1958 issued a pamphlet summarizing salary and
employment data collected for nurses and other
hospital personnel by the U.S. Department of Labor's
Bureau of Labor Statistics. This reprint of that
pamphlet includes a Supplement (beginning on p.
28) that provides later statistics collected by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in mid-1960.
The new information, together with the ideas and
measures for recruitment and training presented in
the first part of this pamphlet, may suggest next
steps for attracting more workers to the nursing
field, and thus help us approach more closely the goal
of adequate nursing care for all.
E S T H E R PETERSON,

Director, Womerts Bureau,

014667°—61




1

i




The data on earnings and supplementary benefits
received by hospital personnel are based on surveys
conducted by the Department of Labor's Bureau of
Labor Statistics. Information about measures to
increase the supply of nurses, in the first part of
the pamphlet, was collected by the Women's Bureau,
also of the Department of Labor.
The report was written by Jean A. Wells under
the general direction of Stella P. Manor, Chief of
the Division of Program Planning, Analysis, and
Eeports, in the Women's Bureau. Drucilla E. Hopper assisted in the preparation of the Supplement included in the reprint of this pamphlet.
Acknowledgment is made for the following photographs :
Cover—Washington Post and Times Herald.
Nursing students at a capping ceremony lift
their lamps to future service.
Figures 1 and 2—U.S. Public Health Service.

Contents
Continuing demand for more nurses
Measures to increase the supply of nurses
Intensive recruitment programs
Financial assistance
Modified training program
Effective utilization of trained nurses
Retraining of inactive nurses
Part-time work
Findings of hospital survey
Highlights
Types of hospital employees surveyed
Hours of work and overtime provisions
Late-shift work
Holidays with pay
Paid vacations
Starting salaries for registered nurses
Salaries of registered nurses
Salaries of other nursing personnel
Salaries of other hospital personnel
Perquisites received
Health and retirement benefits
In conclusion
Appendix table

Pane
1
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
9
9
10
11
12
13
14
14
14
17
18
19
21
23
24

Supplement
Findings of the mid-1960 hospital survey
Supplementary tables




28
35

iii




Figure

1.—The

demand for more nurses extends to educators, such as this nursing instructor, w h o is

explaining the operation of an artificial kidney to a group of nursing students.

Continuing Demand
for More Nurses

The number of persons employed in the health field is now at an
all-time high.

A s recently as 1940 there were just slightly over 1

million persons engaged in hospital and other health services.

By

1950 the group had grown to more than 1,600,000 persons and has
continued to expand since then.
Similarly, professional nurses—the largest single health occupation—numbered about 284,000 in 1940, as compared with 430,000 in
1956.

During the intervening period, when the Nation's birth rate

was rising and the death rate declining, the number of professional
nurses kept pace with population growth.

Nevertheless, the available

supply still failed to match the mounting demand from the American
people for more nurses.
The following principal developments since 1940 help explain the
present nursing shortage :
• Widespread subscription to hospital and medical prepayment
plans is encouraging people to seek hospital and medical care
more readily.
• Our rising economic status is enabling the general public to
afford more health services.
• The discovery of new medical techniques and drugs is expanding
the medical services now available.
• Increased attention to prevention of illness and to the rehabilitation of the handicapped is resulting in greater liealth-staff
requirements.
• The trend toward a shorter workweek for nurses, accompanied by
the extension of hospital facilities and public health services,
requires the employment of larger numbers of nurses.
Many of these influences will persist in the future and will no doubtcontribute to a further rise in the overall demand for nurses.




There
1

is no simple answer to the many-faceted shortage problem. Leaders
in the profession have advocated the raising of salaries and improvement of working conditions as basic to the solution. Through its
economic security program, the American Nurses' Association is working to raise the economic status of the nursing profession. This is
considered fundamental to the achievement of several objectives: recruiting more newcomers into the held, holding trained and experienced personnel, and inducing more inactive nurses to return to work.
Historically, nurses have worked long and hard to serve the public,
often without regard to financial return. Lack of specific information on their economic status has hampered the improvement of their
situation. Widespread requests for reliable information 011 existing
salaries and working conditions prompted the Women's Bureau to
sponsor a survey of hospital earnings and related benefits in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This report summarizes
the findings from the 16-area survey and describes briefly the main
programs currently directed toward increasing the supply of nurses
and other hospital personnel. It should serve as a springboard for
further .appropriate action by hospital boards and administrators,
nurses1 associat ions, and other interested groups.

Figure

2.— More nursing administrators are needed as hospitals and other
health services expand.

2



Measures To Increase
the Supply of Nurses

jp^

Intensive Recruitment Programs
The Committee on Careers, a unit of the National League for
Nursing, is coordinating a nationwide effort to recruit more trainees
for nursing. The National Committee distributes leaflets, articles,
newsletters, and other materials intended to stimulate interest in nursing as a career. Other media used to inform the public about the need
for more nurses include exhibits, films, radio and television announcements, and transportation and outdoor posters. The national program
is augmented by intensive recruitment activities carried on by State
and local committees, hospitals, and schools of nursing. Information
and ideas are continually exchanged among the various groups. One
of the most effective methods of recruitment is through the sponsorship of Future Nurses Clubs in high schools. However, recruitment
appeals are not limited to youth but are also directed to older workers
who might be persuaded to become practical nurses.

Financial Assistance
Increased demand for highly qualified nursing teachers and administrators is resulting from the greater enrollment of nursing students
and the expansion of health services. The growing shortage has
stimulated measures to train more nurses for positions of leadership.
In 1956 a Federal law established a 3-year program of traineeships
for advanced education in nursing administration, supervision, and
teaching, as well as for public health work. For graduate work in
nursing during the first school year (1956-57), over 550 trainees
selected under the Federal program received scholarships which
covered tuition, fees, certain allowances, and a stipend. During the
second year, the number of trainees is expected to approximate 800.
The United States Public Health Service is to evaluate the traineeship
program in 1958 to determine its effectiveness and the need for
continuing it.




3

Other scholarships and fellowships are also being offered for both
basic nursing training and graduate work by public and private agencies, as well as by hospitals and schools of nursing. Young women
who are interested in a nursing career are advised to seek information
from their school counselors about the types of financial assistance
available.

Modified Training Program
In their search for additional educational facilities and for modified
methods of training nurses, some educators have introduced an experimental training program. A project, called the Cooperative Research
Project in Junior and Community College Education for Nursing,
was launched in 1952 under the auspices of Teachers College of
Columbia University. Under this project, associate-degree programs
for the training of nurses were developed in several junior and
community colleges in various parts of the country. In contrast
to the traditional 3-year diploma course offered by hospital schools,
the new type of program is college-centered and lasts approximately
2 years. The curriculum of the modified program includes general
academic subjects as well as nursing courses. In the interest of avoiding duplication of subject matter, the nursing courses have been reduced in number and broadened in scope. Repetitive practice has
been reduced to a minimum. The hospital work performed by nursing
students is supervised by college teachers and viewed as a laboratory
assignment. Thus, the program retains the principle of integrating
theory and practice in the training of nurses. An evaluation of the
experimental project is expected to be released in 1958.
Meanwhile, news of the project has stimulated other colleges to
develop independent programs, generally similar in principle to those
in the project. The National League for Nursing, in cooperation with
the American Association of Junior Colleges, has developed guiding
principles and has provided consultation services to interested groups
but has cautioned hospital schools against jeopardizing their current
programs by acting hastily in shortening them without first studying
thoroughly the philosophy and objectives of the new program. The
League, in recognizing the adaptability of junior colleges to educational needs, states in Nursing Outlook (December 1957) that "a significant new source for the education of bedside nurses may be taking
form to ease the problem and help provide an adequate number of
nurses for our growing nation."
4




Figure

3.—A student practical nurse, assisting in the care of a mother and baby, is part

of a medical team in which all members perform duties for which they are trained.

Effective Utilization of Trained Nurses
To encourage the most effective use of the professional skills of
nurses, the nursing research unit of the Public Health Service has
made a number of studies in hospitals. Most of the studies have
sought to develop methods for analyzing the work duties of nursing
personnel. Scientific techniques are being developed to determine
whether professional nurses are performing clerical, housekeeping,
or other routine duties which could be assigned to clerks, maids, or
nursing aides. The studies are expected to be useful to hospital administrators and supervisors in improving hospital management and
thus in providing t he best nursing care possible.
With a similar purpose in mind, the American Nurses' Association
undertook a 5-year research program called Studies of Nursing Functions. Research projects have been developed concerning job content,
organization of work assignments, interpersonal relations of hospital
personnel, methods of supervision, and nurse-patient relationships.
Project findings have already been used as a basis for changes in
nursing education as well as for new staff assignments. To further
extend research in nursing, the American Nurses' Association established tlx1 American Nurses' Foundation, Inc., in 1955.
r,H(!f,7° ill



5

The American Nurses' Association has also undertaken an extensive
and continuing project of defining the functions, standards, and qualifications f o r the practice of professional nursing. Since 1952 thousands o f nurses f r o m all over the country have participated in the
development of statements concerning 13 different positions within
professional nursing. These statements are designed to represent a
reasonable balance between present practice and emerging patterns
and are serving as guides f o r achieving the best nursing practice
possible.
I n addition, a statement regarding the functions o f practical nurses
within the field of nursing has been developed by the American Nurses'
Association and the National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses.
Further analysis of research findings and their application to work
situations is continuing.

Retraining of
Inactive Nurses
In order to encourage inactive nurses to return to the field of nursing,
special efforts are being made to help them learn new medical developments and regain skills which have become rusty.

A sizable reserve

of trained but inactive nurses exists since, like other women workers,
nurses frequently leave their jobs when they marry or have children.
A t last report, there were about two inactive registered nurses for
every three registered nurses who were active in the profession.
Some hospitals favor formal refresher courses as a means of attracting former nurses back into service when their family responsibilities
become lighter.

Since instruction precedes employment, it increases

the confidence of incoming nurses and does not interfere with regular
nursing duties.

In refresher courses, nurses are formally acquainted

with new drugs, treatments, and equipment, and they review current
practices in nursing.

The courses may be conducted by the hospital

itself, by a local school or college, or—quite frequently—through some
sort of joint arrangement.

Cost to the nurses is usually quite low.

In some instances, course participants must agree to work in the
sponsor hospital after completion of their refresher course.

In many

cases, they are expected only to resume a career in nursing and thereby
make a general contribution to the supply of nursing personnel.
Other hospitals, keenly aware of the difficulties in obtaining professional nurses, welcome job applications from all inactive nurses.
6




Those who are hired are then given in-service training on an individual
basis in the subjects in which they need special help. Supervision is
fairly close during the first few weeks. Those who do not perform
well under pressure are placed in suitable work situations. Since
such individual attention given previously inactive nurses encourages
them to stay on the job and thus tends to decrease turnover, many
hospitals find it protitable to spend time and money 011 this type of
retraining.
In their efforts to bring inactive nurses back into service, some hospitals have also made arrangements for child-care centers and special
transportation facilities.

Figure

'/.—Nurses must know how to operate many types of new equipment.

Part- Time Work
Many hospital administrators have increased part-time work opportunities and have found that part-time workers can be used very
advantageously to supplement the full-time work staff. Their call
for nursing personnel 011 a part-time basis has attracted many married
women, willing to work half days or a few days a week 1 1 a local
1
hospital. Some of these women are the previously inactive nurses
who returned to nursing when their families 110 longer required their
full attention and energy.




7

The employment of nurses on a part-time basis is well suited to
the round-the-clock operations of hospitals. In most cases, part-time
workers have regular schedules. Their chief value is as relief workers
for the full-time stall' during their days o f t In areas of severe nursing shortages, evening and night shifts may be almost entirely staffed
by part-time workers. During the busiest hours of the clay there is
additional need for part-time workers, particularly for versatile nurses
who can give all types of nursing care.

Figure 5.—The important work of ihe medical team is highlighted at a dramatic moment
in the operating room.

8



Findings of
Hospital Survey

The survey of salaries and employment conditions of nurses and
other selected hospital personnel was conducted in 16 large metropolitan areas between May 1956 and March 1957 by the U. S. Department
of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics in cooperation with the Women's
Bureau.1 The 400,000 employees of the hospitals surveyed were located in areas ranging in size from Dallas (with about 5,000 hospital
employees) to New York City (with about 100,000 hospital employees). Each of the 16 areas contained a city which was relatively
large for its State. The areas surveyed and the periods of study are
listed in table 1, along with the numbers of hospitals and employees
represented in the survey.

Highlights
General duty nurses employed by hospitals in the 16 metropolitan
areas were generally earning between $60 and $80 a week when surveyed.2 These earnings were received in most instances for 40 hours
of work per week. For work after 40 hours, nurses usually received
either compensatory time off or straight-time pay. Premium rates
were generally paid for work on evening and night shifts. Few of
the professional nurses in the 16 survey areas were provided meals
or rooms by their hospital employers, and less than one-third were
1 'The survey covered all types of hospitals employing more than 50 workers—with the
exception of nursing and rest homes. Personal visits were made by trained representatives
to 401 hospitals selected from about 800 hospitals. Salary data were collected only for
major occupations, but information on employment conditions and supplementary benefits
covered almost all hospital personnel.
Detailed reports entitled "Earnings and Supplementary Benefits in Hospitals" were
issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as they became available for each of the 10
metropolitan areas and are on sale by the Superintendent of Documents. The individual
Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins (Bull. 1210, parts 1 to 16), show separate information
for private and for government hospitals and include descriptions of the specific
occupations surveyed.
2 Some hospitals have raised salaries since the survey was made in their areas ; the
data shown are for the period surveyed and have not been adjusted to include any recent
changes,




9

supplied uniforms and/or laundry service. The usual supplementary
benefits included at least 5 paid holidays a year and at least 2 weeks
of paid vacation after 1 year of employment. Most hospitals in the
16 survey areas also made some provision for health and retirement
benefits.
Table

1.—NUMBER

OF HOSPITALS

AND

EMPLOYEES

REPRESENTED

IN

HOSPITAL

SURVEY IN 16 AREAS, 1 9 5 6 - 5 7

Area
Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles-Long
Beach.
Memphis
Minneapolis-St.
Paul.
New York City__
Philadelphia
Portland (Oreg.)__
St. Louis
San FranciscoOakland.

Date of survey
September 1956__
June 1956
August 1956
June 1956
August 1956
September 1956. _
November 1956. _
do
January 1957

Number
of hospitals
represented
11
37
77
24
93
21
30
12
86

December 1956
March 1957
February 1957
July 1956
May, July 1956 __
June 1956
November 1956 __

16
33
153
65
20
47
71

Number of hospital employees
represented
ProfesTotal
Total
sional
hospital
nursing
nurses
personnel employees
823
1, 620
5, 190
16, 640
5, 544
1, 723
3, 712
9, 176
33, 730
4, 365
13, 700
1, 656
14, 989
5, 661
44, 500
1, 221
3, 571
10, 090
2, 250
6, 301
17, 850
673
1, 718
5, 080
6, 594
16, 524
37, 930
874
2, 790
15,
3,
1,
2,
5,

969
816
363
230
037

1, 832
5, 341
37,
9,
2,
6,
9,

094
626
904
809
537

7, 270
16, 670
99,
29,
6,
18,
28,

910
570
700
550
230

The relationship of nurses' salaries to those of women employed
by hospitals in other professional jobs was not consistent from area
to area. In general, however, general duty nurses tended to earn
more than X-ray technicians and about the same as medical technologists. On the other hand, salaries of general duty nurses were typically below those of medical social workers., medical record librarians,
physical therapists, and dietitians in most of the survey areas.

Types of Hospital Employees

Surveyed

The nursing personnel covered by the survey included not only
general duty nurses but also nursing administrators and instructors
as well as practical nurses and nursing aides. However, private duty
nurses and nursing students were excluded from the survey. Within
the 16 survey areas, the total number of nursing employees represented
10




from 25 percent of all hospital employees (in Memphis) to 44 percent
(in Los Angeles-Long Reach). Typically, less than half the nursing
group were professional (or registered) nurses. (See chart 1.) Hospitals in Baltimore, St. Louis, and Cincinnati had the lowest percentages (31 to 34 percent) of professional nurses on their nursing
staffs, and those in Atlanta, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and San FranciscoOakland had the highest (51 to 53 percent ) .3

Nursing aides

General duty
nurses

Other
professional nurses
Practical nurses

Chart 7.—Hospital Nursing: Personnel in 16 Metropolitan Areas.

Other occupations common to most hospitals were also selected for
study, although doctors were not covered in the survey. The occupations studied included those of dietitians, medical record librarians,
medical social workers, medical technologists, physical therapists, and
X-ray technicians. In addition, selected office, kitchen, laundry,
housekeeping, and maintenance occupations were surveyed, although
not mentioned specifically in this summary report.4
Among every 10 hospital employees in the survey areas: 6 generally
worked in a private hospital; 3 in a State, county, or city hospital;
and 1 in a Federal hospital. The ratios varied in some of the survey
areas as, for example, in Memphis and San Francisco-Oakland, where
the number of employees in government-operated hospitals exceeded
those in private hospitals.

Hours of Work and Overtime Provisions
A 40-hour workweek was scheduled for most employees in the 16
areas surveyed. In Atlanta, however, the basic workweek of general
3 The percentage of professional nurses in private hospitals was generally higher than
in government hospitals. As a result, the relative position of each area is affected by its
proportion of private and government hospitals, and the areas named would differ
somewhat in a comparison for private hospitals only.
4 A comparison of the relative earnings of various occupational groups, including nurses,
with earnings of women kitchen helpers (one of the lowest paid hospital jobs) is contained
in "Salaries and Supplementary Benefits in Private Hospitals, 1956-57," Monthly Labor
Review, September 195,7 (p. 1074).




li

duty nurses averaged 42 hours at the time of the 1956-57 survey; in
Buffalo and Baltimore, 41 hours; and in Cincinnati, 39.5 hours. These
averages support the popular belief that the length of the standard
workweek is decreasing for most hospital employees. As recently as
1946, the regular work schedule of nurses averaged 48 hours a week;
by 1949 it averaged 44 hours; and at the time of the 1956-57 survey,
it approximated 40 hours.
A workweek of 40 hours was also in effect for most medical technologists, X-ray technicians, dietitians, medical social workers, and other
professional workers studied. Moreover, in New York City, Chicago,
and Philadelphia, some of these occupational groups averaged only
39 or 39.5 hours a week. The scheduled hours of auxiliary nursing
personnel tended to be slightly higher than those of the professional
personnel. In half the survey cities, practical nurses and nursing
aides averaged a 40-hour workweek, but in the remaining cities their
average hours ranged from 40.5 to 43 per week.
Virtually all the hospitals covered by the 1956-57 survey had
established a pay policy for work done after regularly scheduled
hours. Of every 5 professional nurses surveyed, about 2 were permitted to take equal time off for overtime work, another 2 received
straight-time pay, and the remaining 1 was typically paid a premium
rate of time and one-half. In private hospitals, the majority of nurses
received straight-time pay; in government hospitals, compensatory
time off. The time-and-one-half rate applied to a slightly higher
proportion of nongovernment than government nurses; only in the
San Francisco-Oakland area did it cover a majority of nurses in
both types of hospitals.
Overtime pay practices for other professional and technical workers
were fairly similar to those for nurses in the hospitals surveyed.
Most of those in private hospitals received straight-time pay. However, in government hospitals, the percentage of those granted compensatory time off was equaled by those paid time and one-half. The
time-and-one-half rate covered a majority of the other professional
and technical employees in government hospitals in Boston, Chicago,
Memphis, Philadelphia, Portland (Oreg.), and San FranciscoOakland.

Late-Shift Work
Since nursing care is required on a round- the-clock basis, hospitals
must have some nurses on duty at all times. Over one-third of the
hospital nurses surveyed in 1956-57 were assigned to late shifts—
about 20 percent on the evening shift and 15 percent on the night shift.
12




Over four-fifths of the late-shift nurses received extra pay for their
work. Shift premiums were generally less than $7.50 a week, but
varied considerably from hospital to hospital in each of the 16 survey
cities. Evening differentials (the extra pay for evening work) were
frequently higher than those for nightwork—evidence that evening
shifts, which often conflict with family and social activities, are harder
to staff. For nurses on evening duty, the predominant differential
ranged between $2.50 and $5 a week, but for those on night duty it
was generally less than $2.50 a week. Differentials of $5 to $12.50
a week were received by one-fourth of the professional nurses on the
evening shift and one-fifth on the late shift. Amounts of $7.50 a
week and over were reported for small groups of nurses in Atlanta,
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, and New York City.

Holidays With Pay
Virtually all the hospitals surveyed in 1956-57 granted their employees paid holidays, numbering in most instances from 5 to 11 a
year. About one-third of the professional nurses employed by private
hospitals received 6 paid holidays; another third received 7; and
other small but significant groups—8, 9, or 10. The number of paid
holidays was somewhat higher in government hospitals: over one-half
the professional nurses received 11 paid holidays; one-fourth received
8; and most of the others—6,7, or 10.
By city, the predominant number of paid holidays reported for
nurses and other hospital employees was: 5—Dallas and Memphis;
6—Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Portland (Oreg.), and St. Louis;
7—Minneapolis-St. Paul, Philadelphia, and San Francisco-Oakland;
8—Baltimore; 10—Boston; and 11—New York City. In the remaining cities, the numbers varied considerably between and within various
groups of hospital employees.
For work on paid holidays, most hospital nurses were given equal
time off on another workday. However, almost one-tenth of the
nurses surveyed—principally those in private hospitals—received
double pay for holiday work. In government hospitals, a double rate
was paid to relatively few of the registered nurses but to more than
one-third of the other professional and technical workers.
614667°—61




3

13

Paid Vacations
At least two-thirds of the hospital employees in 9 of the 16 survey
areas were eligible for a paid vacation after 6 months' service. Vacation benefits after 1 year's service were granted almost all hospital
employees in all the survey areas.
After 1 year of service, a majority of professional nurses in private
hospitals received 2 weeks of vacation; and in government hospitals, 4
weeks or longer. Vacation time increased with additional years of
service. After 5 years' service, two-thirds of the nurses in government
hospitals and one-third in private hospitals were entitled to at least
a 4-week vacation. Most other nurses had a vacation of 2 or 3 weeks.
Four weeks were granted a majority of private-hospital nurses after
10 years' service. For other professional and technical employees of
hospitals, a vacation of 2 weeks was common after 1 year of service,
at least 3 weeks after 5 years, and at least 4 weeks after 15 years.

Starting Salaries for Registered Nurses
Starting salaries for general duty nurses varied widely from hospital
to hospital in each of the 16 areas surveyed in 1956-57. In most of
the hospitals (all located in relatively large metropolitan areas),
nurses' entrance salaries ranged between $50 and $80 a week; and in
a majority of hospitals in 13 of the 16 cities, between $55 and $70 a
week. Government hospitals had generally higher starting rates for
nurses than private hospitals did. For example, a weekly minimum
of $65 or more prevailed in at least half of the government hospitals
in 10 of the 16 survey cities (exceptions: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston,
Philadelphia, Portland (Oreg.), and St. Louis). By contrast, the
same minimum rates were reported by a majority of private hospitals
in only four cities: Chicago, Los Angeles-Long Beach, MinneapolisSt. Paul, and San Francisco-Oakland. In most of the other cities,
private hospitals hired registered nurses at $55 to $65 a week.

Salaries of Registered Nurses
A majority of hospital nurses assigned to general duty earned
between $60 and $80 a week in 13 of the 16 areas surveyed during
1956-57. In the remaining cities—Atlanta, Memphis, and Philadelphia—general duty nurses generally received from $50 to $65 a week.
In the areas where hospitals employed sufficient numbers of male nurses
to warrant reporting their average salaries, men usually earned more
than women in the same job.
14




Average weekly salaries for women general duty nurses in the 16
areas ranged from $58.50 in Philadelphia to $75.50 in San FranciscoOakland. (For all 16 survey areas, average salaries are shown in
chart 2.) Government hospitals paid higher salaries on the average
than private hospitals in the same area. Differences in the average
earnings of general duty nurses in the two types of hospitals ranged
from $3 a week in New York City to $18 a week in Memphis.
Highest paid nurses were the directors of nursing. (See Appendix
table, p. 24.) Their average salaries ranged from $100.50 a week in
Boston to $124.50 a week in Minneapolis-St. Paul but in a majority
of the 16 survey cities were between $110 and $120 a week. In most
of the survey areas, directors of nursing earned, on the average, 50
to 75 percent more than general duty nurses.
Supervisors of nurses, generally the second-highest paid group of
nurses, were averaging in the 1956-57 survey period from $75 a week
in Philadelphia to $98 a week in Los Angeles-Long Beach. Nurses
covered in this group were primarily daytime unit supervisors and
did not include late-shift supervisors, central-supply supervisors, or
assistant directors responsible for certain types of functions. Slightly
lower weekly averages were reported for nursing instructors—from
$71 in Atlanta to $95.50 in San Francisco-Oakland. In a majority
of the survey cities, average earnings of women employed in both
these positions were about 20 to 30 percent more than those of general
duty nurses.
Head nurses, who rated second in group size among hospital nurses,
were fourth in salary level among the nurses studied.5 Their average
earnings were about 10 to 15 percent above those of general duty
nurses in most of the survey areas. Average salaries of head nurses
were lowest in Philadelphia ($66 a w^eek) and highest in Los AngelesLong Beach ($87 a wTeek).
5 Salary information was not secured for several small groups of hospital nurses, among
which were assistant directors of nursing and late-shift supervisors.




15

Chart

2.—Average
W e e k l y Salaries of General Duty Nurses ( W o m e n ) in
Private and Government Hospitals in 16 A r e a s , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7
$50

$60

$70

Average weekly salaries 1
$80
$90

$90
1

Reqular straiqbt-time salaries




Salaries of Other Nursing Personnel
Practical nurses and nursing aides, who included many men as well
as women, typically made up over half the nursing team. The number of practical nurses was about half that of nursing aides in most
of the cities studied.
A majority of the women practical nurses (who generally equaled
from 75 to 90 percent of all the practical nurses studied) earned
between $45 and $60 a week in 9 of the 16 cities. In the remaining
cities, most practical nurses earned more than $60 a week in San
Francisco-Oakland, between $35 and $50 in Baltimore, and less than
$45 in Atlanta, Dallas, Memphis, Philadelphia, and St. Louis.
Average weekly salaries paid to practical nurses were highest in
San Francisco-Oakland (women—$63; men—$67.50) and lowest in
Philadelphia (women—$38; men—$50.50). The relationship of
practical nurses' earnings to those of general duty nurses differed
among the areas surveyed. In over half the survey cities, practical
nurses earned from 70 to 80 percent as much as general duty nurses.
Figured on the basis of women's average hourly earnings in all the
hospitals 6 surveyed in 1956-57, the salary relationship of practical
nurses to general duty nurses follows for each of the survey areas:
Percent

San Francisco-Oakland
New York City
Boston
Buffalo
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Portland (Oreg.)
Cincinnati

84
83
80
80
79
79
76
76

Percent

Atlanta
Cleveland
Chicago
Baltimore
Philadelphia
St. Louis
Dallas
Memphis

75
74
72
72
64
62
58
58

Women nursing aides received the highest average earnings in the
San Francisco-Oakland area ($59 a week) and the lowest in Atlanta
($29 a week). Men nursing aides also averaged the highest in San
Francisco-Oakland ($62.50) but the lowest in Dallas ($36.50). The
proportion of women was slightly lower among nursing aides than
among practical nurses—equaling about 70 to 90 percent of the
nursing aides in most survey cities.
Actual straight-time earnings of a majority of the women nursing
aides ranged between $30 and $55 a week in 11 of the 16 areas. The
lower end of the range dropped to $25 a week in four other areas:
Atlanta, Buffalo, Dallas, and Philadelphia. In the fifth area, San
Francisco-Oakland, the earnings range for a majority of the women
nursing aides was from $50 to $60 a week.
6 The percentage and the position of each area on the list would be slightly different
in a comparison of salary relationships in private hospitals only.




17

Women nursing aides earned from 55 to 70 percent as much as
women general duty nurses in a majority of the survey cities. The
percentage relationship of the aides' earnings to those of the nurses
for the 1956-57 survey period follows:
Percent

Percent

San Francisco-Oakland
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Boston
Portland (Oreg.)
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati

78
74
70
69
68
63
63
61

Cleveland
New York City
Philadelphia
Baltimore
St. Louis
Atlanta
Dallas
Memphis

58
57
57
55
53
49
43
42

Salaries of Other Hospital Personnel
Salaries of hospital personnel performing professional or technical
work outside the nursing field were also studied in the 195.6-57 survey.
Salary data were secured for medical technologists, X-ray technicians,
dietitians, medical social workers, physical therapists, and medical
record librarians—listed in order of their numerical importance in
the hospitals studied. Women were predominant in all these occupations, equaling three-fifths of the X-ray technicians, about threefourths of the medical technologists and physical therapists, and all
or almost all of the medical social workers, dietitians, and medical
record librarians. In most cities where both men and women were
reported in these occupations, men's earnings were somewhat higher
than women's.
Weekly salaries of women medical technologists averaged from
$57 in Philadelphia to $83.50 in Los Angeles-Long Beach. They
approximated the earnings level of general duty nurses—being the
same in 2 cities, higher in 7 cities, and lower in 7 cities. However, in
private hospitals, medical technologists averaged more than general
duty nurses in 10 of the 16 cities. X-ray technicians, the next largest
group of women professional workers in hospitals, received weekly
salaries averaging between $53.50 in Atlanta and $76 in San FranciscoOakland. In private and government hospitals combined, women
X-ray technicians earned less than women general duty nurses in 13
of the 16 survey cities; but in private hospitals only, in 9 of 16 cities.
Women performing other professional and technical jobs in hospitals had the following range of average weekly salaries in the 16 areas
surveyed in 1956-57: medical social workers—$68 to $99, medical
record librarians—$68 to $86.50, dietitians—$68.50 to $84.50, and
physical therapists—$65 to $85.7 (For a general picture of the rela7 Earnings of employees with supervisory responsibilities were included in the averages
for medical record librarians but not f o r medical social workers and dietitians.

18




tive earnings of women employed in 13 hospital occupations, see chart
3. This shows the range of salaries averaged by occupational groups
in each of the 16 survey cities and the median (middle) average.)
The only nonnursing group for whom starting salaries w^ere secured
in the 1956-57 survey were staff dietitians. Less than one-half the
hospitals surveyed reported that they had formal starting rates for
these workers. In all but 1 of the 16 survey cities, rates of $70 a week
or more were paid dietitians by a majority of government hospitals
reporting a minimum rate. In Boston (the exception), the majority
of government hospitals started their dietitians at $65 to $70 a week.
Of the private hospitals surveyed (less than one-third of which had
established a minimum for dietitians), a majority in each of the
survey cities except NewT York paid dietitians at least $60 a week.
In New York City, only a very small percentage of private hospitals
reported a minimum rate.

Perquisites
Received
The practice of providing employees with meals, rooms, uniforms,
or laundry service in addition to cash salaries still prevails in some
hospitals, although it now applies to only a minority of hospital employees. The occupations and proportions of employees receiving
these supplementary benefits varied among the 16 survey cities, but
those most likely to receive meals and/or rooms were the directors of
nursing, dietitians, and kitchen helpers. Provisions for uniforms
and/or laundry service were somewhat more usual and were extended
primarily to practical nurses, nursing aides, dietitians, directors of
nursing, X-ray technicians, physical therapists, medical technologists,
head nurses, and supervisors of nursing. Only very small percentages
of professional nurses were provided meals or rooms by hospitals.
Generally, less than one-third of the hospital nurses working in the
16 survey cities during 1956-57 were supplied uniforms and/or laundry
service.
Very few hospitals in the three West Coast areas surveyed (Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Portland (Oreg.), and San Francisco-Oakland),
as well as few hospitals in Minneapolis-St. Paul, provided supplementary meals or rooms in addition to cash salaries. On the other
hand, these perquisites were received by relatively larger groups of
hospital employees in Baltimore and Philadelphia—where hospital
salaries were frequently lower than in the other survey cities.




19

Chart 3.—Range

of A v e r a g e W e e k l y Salaries of Women in Nursing a n d O t h e r Hospital Occupations
in 16 A r e a s , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7

A v e r a g e weekly salaries 1

$10

$20

$30

$40

$50

$60

$70

$80

$90

$100

$110

$120

$130

Median

Directors of nursing .
Lowest area average

Supervisors of nursing .

Highest area
' average

M e d i c a l social workers
Nursing instructors
M e d i c a l record librarians
Physical therapists
H e a d nurses
Dietitians
General dutv nurses .
M e d i c a l technologists.
X - r a y technicians
Practical nurses
Nursing aides
0
1

Regular straight-time salaries.




$10

$20

$30

$40

$50

$60

$70

$80

$90

$100

$110

$120

$130

Health and Retirement Benefits
Most nurses and other hospital employees in large metropolitan
areas are covered by some form of health plan and retirement plan—
financed partially or fully by the hospitals where they work.
Almost all hospital employees in the 16 areas surveyed were provided sick leave—time when they received full pay during absence
from work because of illness. Small percentages of others received
a limited type of sick-leave pay, such as partial pay, pay following
a waiting period, or sick and accident insurance.
Formal provisions for hospitalization and medical benefits were
found less often than was sick leave. The predominant type of plan
set up to defray hospital expenses during illness was hospitalization
insurance—underwritten by an insurance company or pooled fund
and financed at least in part by the employer. It was found most
frequently in the San Francisco-Oakland area and in some hospitals
in all the other survey areas except Baltimore. Significant numbers
of hospitals in most of the survey cities (including Baltimore) had
a formal policy of paying hospitalization benefits to employees out
of operating income.
A variety of formal plans providing for complete or partial payment of doctors' or surgical fees existed in all the 16 survey cities.
In three cities (San Francisco-Oakland, New York City, and Cincinnati) a majority of hospital employees received these benefits. In
the other cities, smaller percentages were eligible—with the coverage
extending to slightly more nurses than other hospital employees. The
predominant type of medical or surgical benefit was paid by the
hospital itself (in part or in full) rather than through group insurance.
Life insurance financed at least partially by the employer was provided over one-fifth of the hospital employees in each of the survey
areas except Dallas (where the proportion covered was about oneseventh). At least a majority of the nurses and other employees
were eligible for life insurance in three cities: Baltimore, Memphis,
and Portland (Oreg.). Accidental death and dismemberment insurance covered significant proportions of hospital employees in Atlanta, Memphis, and San Francisco-Oakland; and fairly small groups
in 12 of the other 13 areas. Catastrophe insurance—for major expenses that occur unexpectedly—was provided by only a few hospitals.
Although most hospitals are not automatically covered by the Federal Social Security Act, it has been possible since 1950 for private
hospitals to secure coverage for their employees if the institution and
two-thirds of the employees desire it. In 1956-57, a majority of
hospital employees in 11 of the 16 survey areas were covered by the
Federal program of old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (part




21

of social security) and at least one-third, in the remaining five areas.
Most employees in private hospitals were covered by social security;
those in government hospitals, by separate retirement plans. State
and local hospitals may come under social security if the State where
the hospital is located has an agreement with the Federal Government.
Some employees—in both private and government hospitals—were
covered by both social security and separate retirement plans. Virtually all could expect to receive some type of regular payment after
they retire.

22




In Conclusion

Since the increased demand for nurses is expected to persist at least
through the late 1950's and early 1960's, continued efforts and resourcefulness must be focused on ways to provide the Nation with sufficient
nursing personnel. The challenge stems from the growing needs of
a complex and dynamic society which requires the best efforts and
full cooperation of all its members.
Communities may wish to review their nursing needs and to appraise
current efforts being taken toward meeting them. Interested groups
and organizations may well question whether:
Salaries and employment conditions of the nurses in their community
are adequate and equitable in the light of the survey information
now available.
Intensive recruitment is under way among young women who may
be interested in nursing as a career.
Financial assistance is available to provide leadership training for
additional nursing educators and administrators.
Modified methods of nursing education are being considered.
Skills and services of each type of worker engaged in nursing care
are being utilized effectively.
Older women formerly active in nursing are being encouraged to
return to their profession.
Refresher training—either formal or informal—is available to bring
former nurses up to date on medical developments.
Part-time employment opportunities have been increased sufficiently
for older nurses and married nurses.
The nurses of America have long been dedicated to improving and
maintaining the health of the American people—a goal which is linked
directly to effective utilization of the human resources of the Nation.
How well they will be able to help meet the future health needs of our
Nation will be determined largely by the extent to which the various
measures for securing more nursing personnel are applied successfully.




23

Appendix Table
A V E R A G E W E E K L Y SALARIES

1

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN 1 6 A R E A S , BY HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP, 1 9 5 6 - 5 7
A. NURSING

Area and hospital
ownership
Atlanta
Private
Government
Baltimore
Private
Government
Boston
Private
Government
Buffalo
Private
Government
Chicago
Private
Government
Cincinnati
Private
Government
Cleveland
Private
Government
Dallas
Private
Government




Directors

of

General duty
nurses

Date of survey

nursing

Women

September 1956 _
do
do
June 1956
do
do
August 1956
do
do
June 1956
do
do
August 1956
do
do
September 1956
do
do
November 1956
do
do
do
do
do

$109. 50

$59. 50
57. 50
62. 50
66. 00
62. 50
73. 00
64. 50 $76. 00
60. 50
72. 00
66. 00
60. 00
75. 00
73. 00
77. 00
72. 00
69. 50
76. 50
84. 00
68. 00
63. 00
74. 50
70. 00
68. 00
76. 50
68. 50
65. 00

102.
95.
127.
100.
99.
104.
112.
98.
138.
119.
115.
136.
113.

50
50
00
50
00
50
50
00
00
00
50
50
00

121.
111.
141.
117.
101.

00
00
50
00
50

Men

Head
nurses
$69.
69.
70.
69.
65.
78.
70.
66.
75.
75.
68.
85.
81.
78.
88.
74.
71.
84.
80.
80.
81.
79.
74.

50
00
50
00
00
50
00
00
50
50
50
50
00
50
50
50
50
50
50
00
00
00
00

Nursing aides
Women
$29. 00
31. 00
38.
31.
48.
44.
39.
49.
42.
31.
54.
47.
42.
58.
42.
35.
50.
40.
39.
44.
29.
29.

00
00
50
50
50
50
50
00
50
00
50
50
00
50
50
50
00
50
50
50

Men
$38. 50

43.
35.
48.
50.
45.
52.
57.
41.
59.
58.
46.
61.
51.
42.
53.
48.
48.
47.
36.
38.

50
00
50
50
00
50
50
00
50
50
50
00
50
50
00
00
50
50
50
00

Nursing
instructors

Women

$71. 00

$43. 00

78. 50

76. 50
74. 50
80.
76.
90.
88.
87.
95.
77.
74.
95.
84.
84.

00
50
00
50
50
50
00
50
00
50
00

78. 50
73. 50

Practical nurses

47.
41.
52.
51.
48.
57.
54.
45.
61.
54.
50.
61.
52.
48.
57.
51.
49.
55.
40.
40.

00
00
00
50
50
50
00
50
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
50
50
50
00
50

Men

$65. 00

61.
44.
63.
62.

00
50
00
50

67.
58.
52.
64.
58.

50
00
00
50
50

Supervisors
$76.
76.
76.
76.
71.
86.
77.
73.
83.
88.
76.
107.
90.
86.
97.
87.
82.
91.
86.
84.
89.
83.
79.

00
50
00
50
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
00
00
50
00
00
00

Area and hospital
ownership
Los Angeles-Long
Beach.
Private
Government
Memphis
Private
Government
Minneapolis-St. PauL
Private
Government
New York City
Private
Government
Philadelphia
Private _
Government _ _
Portland (Oreg.)_ _ _
Private
Government
St. Louis
Private
Government
San FranciscoOakland.
Private.
Government

Directors
Date of survey

Of

nursing

General duty
nurses
Women

January 1957

116. 50

75. 00

do
do
December 1956__
do
do
March 1957
do
do
February 1957__
do
do
July 1956
do
do
Julv 1956
do
do
June 1956
do
do
November 1956_

106. 50
154. 50
106. 00

71.
86.
69.
57.
75.
71.
68.
77.
69.
67.
70.
58.
56.
71.
70.
67.
78.
66.
64,
71.
75.

do
do

124.
120.
134.
117.
112.
132.
115.
111.

50
50
00
00
50
00
00
00

110. 00
104. 00
113.
109.
118.
121.

00
50
50
50

117. 00
130. 50

00
50
00
50
50
50
50
00
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
00
00
00
50
50

72. 00
80. 00

Nursing aides

Nursing
instructors

Women

56. 00

93. 00

59. 50

66. 00

51. 50
58. 50

82. 50

50
00
00
00
00
50
00
00
50
50
00
00
50

57. 00
67. 00

00
00
00
00
50
50
00
50
00
50
00

52.
67.
41.
38.
44.
56.
54.
60.
57.
51.
60.
38.
35.

50
00
50
50

53.
50.
53.
44.
39.
53.
63.

00
00
50
50
50
50
00

Men

Head
nurses

Women

Men

82. 00

87. 00

52. 50
47.
57.
30.
29.
32.
53.
52.
55.
40.
35.
54.
35.
27.
49.
47.
45.
53.
36.
31.
49.
59,

90. 00

76.
103.
75.
65.
81.
83.
81.
86.
77.
74.
81.
66.
63.
76.
77.
73.
91.
74.
70.
81.
85.

50
00
00
00
50
50
00
50
50
00
50
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
50
00
50

77. 50
97. 50

50
00
50
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
50
00
50
00
00
00

57. 00
63. 00

58.
56.
61.
48.
39.
57.
43.
32.
51.
55.
51.
59.
47.
38.
50.
62.

00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
00
00
00
50
50
50

62. 00
63. 00

80.
71.
94.
88.
82.
95.
81.
82.
80.
75.
72.

74.
72.
86.
95.

92. 00
110. 50

i Salaries are for women unless otherwise specified. Salaries are regular straight-time earnings and have been rounded to nearest 50 cents.




Practical nurses

57. 00
67. 50

Men

62. 50

65.
52.
66.
50.
44.

00
50
50
50
50

63. 50

58.
43.
61.
67.

50
50
00
50

Supervisors
98. 00
85.
116.
84.
74.
91.
93.
88.
100.
90.
86.
95.
75.
70.
100.
89.
80.
99.
83.
81.
85.
93.

50
50
50
50
00
50
00
50
50
00
00
00
50
00
00
50
00
00
00
00
00

86. 00
100. 50

A V E R A G E W E E K L Y SALARIES

1

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN 16 A R E A S , BY HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP, 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 — C o n t i n u e d
B. OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL 2

Area and hospital
ownership
Atlanta. _
Private
_ _.
Government
Baltimore
_
Private __
_
Government
.
Boston
__ .
Private
_ .
Government __ __
Buffalo
Private _
__ __
Government-- _
Chicago
__
Private
_
__ __
Government __ _
Cincinnati
Private
Government
Cleveland
_ _ .
Private __
Government
Dallas
Private _
Government




Dietitians
$68.
66.
72.
76.
71.
86.
72.
69.
79.
70.
63.
82.
84.
85.
83.
78.
75.
85.
80.
80.
81.
73.
72.

50
50
50
50
50
00
00
50
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
50
00
50
50
00
50
50
50

Medical
record
librarians
$75.
71.
84.
76.
69.
88.
68.
66.
73.
76.
74.
82.
79.
78.
92.
83.
86.

00
00
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
00
50
50
00
00
50
00

84.
82.
89.
80.
82.

00
00
00
00
50

Medical
social
workers

$75.
71.
80.
74.
72.
78.
82.
80.
87.
85.
86.
84.
89.

00
00
50
50
50
50
50
00
00
50
50
50
50

84. 50
83. 50
86. 00

Medical
technologists
Women
$67.
66.
69.
69.
64.
74.
60.
57.
67.
68.
67.
72.
71.
70.
72.
71.
69.
74.
67.
67.
66.
68.
67.

50
50
00
00
50
00
00
50
50
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
50
50
00
00
50
50
50

Physical
therapists

Men

Women

Men

•

$75. 00

73. 50

68.
64.
72.
69.
67.
71.
74.
75.
72.
76.

50
50
50
00
50
00
00
00
50
50

70.
74.
67.
72.

00
00
00
00

$77.
63.
88.
65.
61.
69.
71.
66.
86.
78.
75.
82.
81.
81.

00
50
50
00
50
00
50
00
00
50
50
50
50
50

74.
70.
79.
76.

50
50
50
50

$81. 00

78.
77.
78.
82.
86.
79.

00
50
50
50
00
50

X-ray
technicians
Women
$53.
56.
50.
57.
55.
61.
58.
57.
61.
64.
62.
69.
70.
69.
76.
64.
63.
70.
63.
61.
69.
70.
67.

50
50
00
50
50
50
00
50
50
00
50
50
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
00
50
50
50

X-ray technidans, chief

Men

Women

$93. 50

$66. 50

64.
54.
72.
63.
53.
65.
73.
69.
76.
75.
72.
78.
75.

00
50
50
00
50
50
50
50
00
00
50
00
50

70.
67.
74.
66.
62.

50
00
50
00
50

Men

106. 00
117. 50
$75. 50
75. 50
75. 50

85. 50
88. 00
83. 50

86. 50
86. 00

92. 50
87. 50
105. 50

81. 50

101. 50
102. 50
99. 00
. . . .

Area and hospital
ownership
Los Angeles-Long Beach_
Private
Government
Memphis
Private
Government
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Private
Government
New York City
Private
Government
Philadelphia
Private
Government
Portland (Oreg.)
Private
Government
St. Louis
Private
Government
San Francisco-Oakland. _
Private
Government

Dietitians

Medical
record
librarians

Medical
social
workers

Medical
technologists
Women

Men

Physical
therapists
Women

Men

X-ray
technicians
Women

Women

Men

78. 50

86. 5 0

99. 0 0

83. 50

83. 50

82. 0 0

84. 5 0

73. 50

77. 5 0

94. 50

76. 0 0
82. 50

81. 5 0

82. 50

81. 50

81. 5 0

80. 0 0

82. 5 0

73. 50

76. 0 0

93. 50

96. 5 0

104. 50

85. 50

85. 0 0

86. 0 0

88. 0 0

73. 0 0

78. 5 0

98. 0 0

75. 00
70 50
79. 5 0

75. 0 0

69. 0 0

.__

86. 0 0

55. 0 0
54. 0 0

65. 0 0

82. 00

81. 5 0

80. 00

79. 0 0

94. 50

79. 00

85. 0 0

77. 50

86. 0 0

86. 5 0

74. 00

81. 5 0

82. 50

82. 0 0
65. 0 0

66. 5 0

73. 0 0

72. 00

83. 5 0

86. 00

65. 0 0

65. 5 0

70. 0 0

75. 50

78. 0 0

80. 50

64. 5 0

67. 5 0

76. 5 0

69. 50

70. 0 0

68. 00

57. 0 0

62. 50

68. 50

61. 50

56. 0 0

78. 0 0

68. 0 0
84. 5 0

64. 5 0

79. 0 0

79. 5 0

77. 50

78. 5 0

87. 0 0

70. 0 0

77. 50

94. 0 0

61. 0 0

74. 50

95. 0 0

71. 0 0

76. 50

78. 0 0
75. 0 0

67. 0 0

71. 0 0

83. 0 0

96. 0 0

66. 0 0

66. 5 0

81. 5 0

102. 50

79. 0 0
74. 50

69. 0 0

73. 50

69. 0 0

56. 5 0

59. 0 0

64. 50

61. 5 0

67. 5 0

78. 0 0

56. 0 0

56. 50

63. 5 0

70. 5 0

66. 0 0
72. 5 0

80. 0 0

73. 5 0

71. 50

81. 0 0

83. 5 0

61. 5 0
58. 0 0

86. 0 0

72. 5 0

79. 0 0

74. 50

78. 0 0
72. 5 0

83. 50
83. 0 0

68. 0 0

67. 5 0

72. 0 0

66. 0 0

69. 0 0

77. 5 0

66. 5 0

73. 0 0

86. 00

72. 5 0

64. 0 0

69. 0 0

75. 5 0

65. 5 0

73. 5 0

85. 5 0

83. 5 0

71. 0 0

70. 0 0

83. 0 0

70. 50

73. 0 0

73. 50

76. 0 0

70. 0 0
80. 50

78. 5 0

81. 00

84. 5 0

92. 0 0

80. 50

81. 5 0

83. 5 0

76. 0 0

82. 50

95. 0 0

100. 00

79. 0 0

82. 0 0

84. 00

80. 0 0

81. 5 0

78. 0 0

73. 5 0

82. 0 0

88. 00

102. 5 0

85. 0 0

88. 5 0

95. 50

81. 50

82. 0 0

90. 5 0

80. 0 0

82. 5 0

1 Salaries are for women unless otherwise specified.
Salaries are regular straight-time earnings and have been rounded to nearest 50 cents.
2 The date of survey for each area is the same in part B as in part A of this table.




Men

X-ray technicians, chief

97. 0 0

Supplement
Findings of Mid-1960 Hospital Survey
In the summer of 1960, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of
Labor Statistics resurveyed earnings and supplementary benefits for
selected occupational groups of hospital employees.1 This resurvey
covered 15 of the 16 metropolitan areas which had been studied in
1956-57. Detailed data were collected for private hospitals and for
State and local government hospitals. In the later survey, detailed
earnings data were not collected (as in 1956-57) for Federal hospitals;
however, general information about salary scales and supplementary
benefits in these hospitals was obtained and reported separately.2

Summary
Average salaries of employees of private hospitals rose between
1956-57 and mid-1960 in all 15 metropolitan areas surveyed. Average area increases for occupations covered in the survey ranged from
13 to 40 percent; the average increase for the median area was 20
percent.
A majority of the general duty nurses in the metropolitan areas
surveyed in mid-1960 received between $70 and $90 a week, not including overtime. Like the other hospital employees in the survey
areas, most nurses had a 40-hour weekly work schedule. Beyond 40
hours, they typically received straight-time pay or compensatory time
off. Nurses assigned to late-shift work were generally paid a shift differential, which varied widely—in most cases from $2.50 to $10 a week.
Almost all of the private and non-Federal Government hospitals
surveyed in mid-1960 granted their employees from 5 to 131^ paid
holidays a year and at least a 2-week vacation following the first year
of employment. Sick leave and retirement benefits were provided for
most of the hospital employees studied. Many also received hospitalization, surgical, medical, and accident benefits, as well as life insurance—with all or part of the cost of these benefits paid by the
employer. The practice of providing perquisites—rooms, meals, free
uniforms, and/or laundering of uniforms—continued to decrease and
covered fewer employees in rnid-1960 than in 1956-57.
1 See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1294, "Earnings and Supplementary Benefits
in Hospitals, Mid-1960," which is available, at 50 cents a copy, from the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.
2 Because of differences in collection methods between the 1956-57 and 1960 surveys,
comparisons between the two time periods can be made only f o r private hospitals.

28




Average Salaries of Registered Nurses
Actual salaries of general duty nurses (in private and non-Federal
Government hospitals), the largest group of hospital nurses, were
typically between $70 and $90 a week in 13 of the 15 metropolitan
areas surveyed in mid-1960, and tended to be somewhat lower in the
two remaining areas (Atlanta and Memphis).
By area, average weekly salaries of general duty nurses ranged
from $65 in Atlanta to $89 in Los Angeles-Long Beach. Nurses employed by Government hospitals (non-Federal) usually received
higher salaries than those employed by private hospitals in the same
area. For these two types of hospitals, differences in average salaries
of general duty nurses varied from 50 cents a week in Cleveland to $17
a week in Los Angeles-Long Beach. (See supplementary table 1.)
In private hospitals in mid-1960, the majority of general duty
nurses had weekly salaries concentrated between $70 and $85 in 13
of the 15 survey areas. When surveyed in 1956-57, this occupational
group typically earned between $55 and $75 a week in all 16 areas.
(See suplementary table 2 for a comparison of average weekly
salaries in private hospitals in 1956-57 and mid-1960.) At nonFederal Government hospitals surveyed in mid-1960, the majority of
general duty nurses earned from $80 to $95 a week in 9 of the 10
areas where government hospitals were reported.
Directors of nursing received the highest salaries among the occupational groups surveyed. In mid-1960, their average salaries ranged
from $118 a week in Cincinnati to $158.50 a week in San FranciscoOakland. Their salaries averaged about 65 to 85 percent above those
of general duty nurses in most of the survey cities.
Supervisors of nurses were the second highest paid nursing group.
Their average weekly salaries ranged from $80.50 in Atlanta to $116
in both Los Angeles-Long Beach and San Francisco-Oakland. Nursing instructors had slightly lower salaries—averaging from $78 in
Memphis to $116.50 in Los Angeles-Long Beach. These two groups,
the supervisors and the instructors, typically received about 20 to 30
percent more than did general duty nurses.
Average salaries of head nurses, the second largest group of hospital
nurses, were about 10 to 20 percent above those received by general
duty nurses in mid-1960. For head nurses, the lowest salary average—
$71.50 a week—was reported in Atlanta and the highest—$105.50
a week—in the San Francisco-Oakland area.
In Federal Government hospitals, professional nurses in positions
covered by the Classification Act of 1949, as amended, recei ved annual
salaries ranging from $4,345 ($83.50 a week) to $11,935 ($229.50 a




29

week), effective July 10, 1960. Actual salaries varied with education
and experience, as well as demonstrated ability. At Veterans' Administration hospitals, where most Federal nurses are employed, the
salary range was from $4,760 a year ($91.50 a week) to $10,255 a
year ($197 a week). Nurses in the commissioned corps of the U.S.
Public Health Service earned from $4,063 a year ($78 a week) to
$13,831 a year ($266 a week). According to a separate study made
by the U.S. Civil Service Commission, the average salary of Federal
nurses was $5,461 a year ($105 a week) in 1959—prior to the 7.5percent increase of July 1960.

Starting Salaries of Registered Nurses
Formal starting rates, effective for general duty nurses in 87 percent of the hospitals (private and non-Federal public) surveyed in
mid-1960, varied considerably from area to area but generally ranged
between $60 and $95 a week. At a majority of the private hospitals
with an established minimum, starting salaries were typically between
$65 and $80 a week in 13 of the 15 survey areas. In Memphis, general
duty nurses were hired by private hospitals at $55 to $60 a week; and
in Chicago, at primarily $80 to $90 a week. Thus, over half of the
private hospitals paid nurses starting salaries of at least $65 a week
in 14 of 15 areas in mid-1960, as compared with only 4 of 16 areas in
1956-57. At a majority of Government (non-Federal) hospitals in
11 of 13 areas, starting rates of general duty nurses were concentrated
between $70 and $85 a week in mid-1960.
In the Federal service, starting salaries of general duty nurses
are based on uniform salary schedules. At Veterans' Administration
hospitals, nurses were paid (effective July 10, 1960) minimum annual
salaries of $4,760 ($91.50 a week) to $5,600 ($107.50 a week), depending upon their qualifications. Federal nurses subject to the Classification Act were hired at $4,345 a year ($83.50 a week). Beginning
salaries for nurse officers in the commissioned corps of the U.S. Public
Health Service ranged from $4,063 a year ($78 a week) to $5,513 ($106
a week), as determined by their experience and education.

Salaries of Other Nursing Personnel
In mid-1960 as in 1956-57, "practical nurses and nursing aides accounted for half or more of the nursing group in each of the 15 cities
surveyed and included many men as well as women. The number of
nursing aides, the largest group of hospital workers, was at least
double that of practical nurses in 10 of the cities.
30




Among practical nurses, average weekly salaries were highest in
the Los Angeles-Long Beach area (women, $75.50; men, $76), and
lowest in Atlanta (women $42) and Dallas (women, $46.50; men,
$45.50). Actual salaries of most women practical nurses ranged between $50 and $75 a week in 10 of the 15 areas. The majority of women
in this occupation received lower salaries—$40 to $55 a week—in Atlanta, Dallas, Memphis, and Philadelphia, and higher salaries—$75
to $90 a week—in Los Angeles-Long Beach.
Nursing aides were paid the highest average weekly salary in San
Francisco-Oakland (women, $67; men, $68.50), and the lowTest in
Memphis (women, $32.50; men, $36). Actual salaries of a majority
of the women nursing aides in 11 of the 15 survey areas were between
$40 and $65 a week. In three of the remaining areas—Atlanta, Dallas,
and Memphis—most women nursing aides earned (exclusive of overtime) between $30 and $40 a week, and in one area—San FranciscoOakland—between $60 and $70.

Salaries of Other Hospital Personnel
Outside the nursing field, the professional and technical employees
surveyed in hospitals in mid-1960 included medical technologists,
X-ray technicians, dietitians, medical social workers, physical therapists, and medical record librarians—in order of their numerical
importance. As in 1956-575 women predominated in all these occupations. However, their average salaries were somewhat lower than
men's in most cities where both men and women were reported in the
same occupation. Between 1956-57 and mid-1960, salaries paid by
private hospitals to the survey employees in this group of occupations
increased, typically from $5 to $20 a week.
In mid-1960, women medical technologists received average weekly
salaries ranging from $69 in Philadelphia to $109 in Los Angeles-Long
Beach. Their averages were greater than those for general duty nurses
in 11 areas, and less in 4 areas. For women X-ray technicians, the
average was lowest—$57 a week—in Memphis, and highest—$88 a
week—in San Francisco-Oakland and Los Angeles-Long Beach. In
comparison to general duty nurses, X-ray technicians received more
in 2 areas and less in 13 areas.
Among the nonnursing professional workers surveyed, women
medical social workers received the highest average salaries, ranging
from $93.50 to $123 a week. Their average weekly salaries exceeded
those of women in the following occupations: medical record librarians
($80 to $112), physical therapists ($77.50 to $103), and dietitians
($75.50 to $102.50).




31

Starting salaries of staff dietitians were also collected in the mid1960 survey. Less than half of the private hospitals but almost all
of the non-Federal Government hospitals reported an established
minimum. A majority of the hospitals, both private and Government,
paid dietitians minimum rates ranging between $80 and $95 a week.
Under the salary schedule established by the Classification Act, dietitians in Federal hospitals received a starting salary of $5,355 a year
($103 a week), effective July 1960. In the commissioned corps of the
U.S. Public Health Service, dietitians received at least $4,063 a year
($78 a week).

Hours of Work and Overtime Provisions
Most hospital employees in the 15 survey areas were scheduled to
work 40 hours a week in mid-1960, just as they were in 1956-57. However, in a few areas, limited numbers of hospital employees were regularly working more than 40 hours and slightly larger numbers were
working fewer than 40 hours. Some registered professional nurses,
for example, were scheduled to work a 37.5-hour week in Chicago,
New York City, Baltimore, and Cleveland, and a 35-hour week in
Philadelphia.
For work beyond their regularly scheduled hours, most hospital
employees in the survey areas received some type of compensation.
Most often they received straight-time pay for overtime work, but
frequently compensatory time off or time and one-half the regular
rate of pay.

Late-Shift Work
In the 15 survey areas, about the same percentages of professional
nurses were working on late shifts in mid-1960 as in 1956-57—roughly
20 percent on the second (evening) shift and 15 percent on the third
(night) shift. At least four-fifths of the nurses working on late
shifts were paid shift differentials at private hospitals in all 15 areas
and at non-Federal Government hospitals in 9 areas. Only small
proportions of nonnursing personnel worked on late shifts and relatively few of these received extra pay.
Shift premiums paid to professional nurses in mid-1960 usually
amounted to less than $10 a wTeek. In some hospitals, the differentials
were slightly higher on the second shift than on the third. Generally,
the differentials on either shift ranged from $2.50 to $10 a week in
private hospitals and from less than $2.50 to $7.50 a week in non32




Federal Government hospitals. Differentials of $10 a week or more
were paid upon occasion, particularly in private hospitals in Boston,
New York City, Cleveland, and Atlanta.

Holidays With Pay
Paid holidays were granted to almost all hospital employees in the
15 areas surveyed in mid-1960. The number ranged from 5 to 11 days
a year in private hospitals and from 5 to 1 Sy2 days a year in nonFederal Government hospitals.
By city, the predominant number of paid holidays for nurses and
other workers in private hospitals was: 5—Dallas and Memphis; 6—
Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Los Angeles-Long Beach, and Portland (Oreg.) ; 7—Minneapolis-St. Paul, Philadelphia, and San Francisco-Oakland; 8—Baltimore; and 10—Boston and New York City.
In the remaining areas, the numbers varied between and within various groups of hospital employees. The government hospitals frequently allowed from 1 to 6 more paid holidays than the private
hospitals in the same city.

Paid Vacations
In mid-1960 as in 1956-57, virtually all hospital employees were
eligible for a paid vacation after their first year of employment. In
most instances, the vacation period was 2 weeks. The length of the
vacation usually increased with the length of service. Many hospitals
granted a third week of paid vacation after 5 to 10 years of service,
and some granted 4 weeks or more after 15 to 25 years.
Professional nurses sometimes received slightly more liberal vacation benefits than other hospital employees, particularly in private
hospitals. For example, in private hospitals, at least 3 weeks' vacation with pay after 3 years' service was given to a majority of professional nurses in eight areas and of other professional employees
in four areas; but in no area did a majority of nonprofessional employees receive this benefit. In non-Federal Government hospitals, at
least 4 weeks' vacation with pay after 10 years' service was granted
to a majority of professional nurses in four areas, and to other
hospital employees in three areas.
In Federal Government hospitals, classified employees are eligible
for 13 days of vacation a year during their first 3 years of service,
20 days after 3 years, and 26 days after 15 years. Nurses in Veterans'
Administration hospitals and members of the commissioned corps of
the U.S. Public Health Service receive 30 calendar days (including
nonworkdays) of leave a year.




33

Perquisites

Received

Although some hospital employees were provided rooms, meals,
uniforms, or other perquisites in addition to their cash salaries in
mid-1960, such benefits were reported less frequently than in 195657. The provision of free uniforms and/or laundering service was
the most common type of perquisite in mid-1960 and covered a
majority of the employees surveyed in most of the 15 areas. In
every area, one or more free meals a day was allowed some employees,
most frequently the kitchen workers.

Health, Insurance, and Retirement Plans
Almost all hospital employees in the 15 survey areas received
some type of sickness, health, or retirement benefit in mid-1960, as
in 1956-57. The benefit granted most frequently was sick leave,
usually with full pay and without a waiting period. Retirement
plans also were widespread. Employees in private hospitals were
generally covered by the Federal program of old-age insurance,
sometimes in addition to a private pension plan. Most employees
of non-Federal Government hospitals could expect to receive a pension after they retired, often in addition to social security benefits.
Other health and insurance plans covering significant percentages
of hospital workers in the survey areas provided hospitalization,
medical, and surgical benefits. These were financed in whole or in
part by the hospitals, either through insurance or other arrangements for medical care. Life insurance, accidental death and dismemberment insurance, and catastrophe (extended medical) insurance
protected somewhat smaller proportions of hospital workers.
Employees, of Federal Government hospitals were eligible for a
specific number of days a year of paid sick leave: 13 working days
for classified employees and 15 working days for professional nurses
in the Veterans' Administration. In addition, the Federal Government contributed with participating employees to a retirement fund,
a life insurance plan, and a program of hospitalization, surgical, and
medical care.

34




Supplementary

Table 1—Continued

AVERAGE WEEKLY SALARIES 1 FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN 15 AREAS, BY HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP, M I D - 1 9 6 0
A.

Area and hospital ownership
Atlanta
Private
Government
Baltimore
Private
Government
Boston
Private
Government
Buffalo
Private
Government
Chicago
Private
Government
Cincinnati
Private
Government
Cleveland
Private
Government
Dallas
Private
Government

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

(non-Federal).

See f o o t n o t e s at end of table.




Date of survey
June 1960
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
July 1960
do
do
June 1960
do
do
July 1960
do
do
June 1960
do
do

NURSING

$131. 50
125. 00
135.
134.
137.
142.
135.

00
50
50
00
50

140.
136.
157.
118.
97.

00
00
50
00
00

143.
143.
144.
133.
126.

50
00
50
50
00

Head
nurses

Women

$65. 00
67. 00

Directors of
nursing

General
duty
nurses

$71. 50
74. 50

$33. 00
35. 00

74. 00
73. 00
79.
78.
83.
80.
78.
87.
85.
85.
88.
77.
73.
83.
82.
82.
82.
74.
74.

50
50
00
50
00
00
50
00
00
50
50
50
00
00
50
00
00

82.
80.
86.
91.
89.
95.
95.
90.
104.
95.
93.
99.
85.
82.
94.
95.
94.
96.
83.
83.

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
00
00

Nursing aides

46.
37.
58.
55.
48.
63.
55.
46.
69.
54.
50.
67.
45.
40.
54.
46.
45.
49.
35.
35.

50
50
50
00
00
50
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
50
50
00

Men

Nursing
instructors
$79. 50
79. 50

$53. 50
44. 50
58. 50
59. 50
52. 50
62. 50
68. 50
52. 50
71. 50
64. 00
58. 50
68. 50
56. 00
47. 00
60. 00
53. 50
54. 50
52. 00
40. 50
41. 50

92.
91.
100.
98.
98.
101.
102.
98.

00
50
50
50
00
50
00
50

102. 00
102. 50
87.
85.
98.
99.
98.

00
50
00
50
00

89. 50
89. 50

Practical nurses
Women

Men

$80. 50
82. 50

$42. 00

60.
53.
65.
68.
62.
76.
62.
59.
75.
66.
63.
72.
61.
55.
67.
60.
59.
62.
46.
47.

00
00
50
50
50
00
50
00
50
50
00
00
50
50
50
00
00
50
50
50

Supervisors

$65. 00
68.
75.
62.
76.

50
50
50
00

63. 00

45. 50

95.
90.
103.
100.
97.
108.
106.
97.
125.
105.
102.
112.
101.
96.
106.
104.
104.
106.
92.
92.

50
00
50
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
00
00
50

Supplementary Table 1—Continued
AVERAGE WEEKLY SALARIES

1

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN 15 AREAS, BY HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP, M I D - 1 9 6 0 — C o n t i n u e d
A.

Area and hospital ownership

Date of survey

Los Angeles-Long Beach
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
Memphis
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
New York City
Private
Government (non-Federal) Philadelphia
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
Portland (Oreg.)
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
San Francisco-Oakland
Private
Gover nment (non-Federal) _

August 1960__
do
do
July 1960
do
do
do
do
do
do
do
_ do
.
do
do
do
do
do
do.
August 1960__
do
do

NURSING—continued

Directors of
nursing
$145. 00
137. 50
189. 50
127. 50

153.
148.
164.
138.
135.
150=
127.
125.
145.
137.
137.

50
50
00
50
00
50
50
00
00
50
50

158. 50
152. 00
172. 50

General
duty
nurses

Head
nurses

$89. 00 $105. 00
85. 00
95. 00
102. 00 124. 50
68. 50
75. 00
8. 00
76. 00
73. 50
80. 50
95. 00
80. 00
94. 50
96. 00
82. 50
94. 00
82. 50
92. 50
81. 00
86, 50
97. 00
72. 00
82. 50
71. 50
81. 50
79.
79.
81.
87.
83.
94.

50
50
00
50
50
00

88.
87.
98.
105.
98.
114.

50
00
00
50
00
50

Nursing aides
Women
$61. 50
57. 00
69. 00
32. 50
32. 50
32. 50
57. 50
55. 50
62. 00
57. 50
46. 50
66. 50
43. 00
37. 50
55. 50
56. 50
56. 00
60. 00
67. 00
64. 50
70. 00

Men

Nursing
instructors

60. 00

68.
63.
49.
67.
48.
39.
55.
60.
61.

50
00
50
50
00
00
50
50
00

68. 50
65. 50
70. 50

Women

Supervisors

50
50
50
50
00

$76. 00
66. 00
80. 50

$116.
106.
135.
83.
85.

00
50
00
00
00

00
00
00
00
50
50
50
50

65.
63.
70.
67.
61.
72.
48.
45.

50
00
00
00
00
50
00
00

69. 00

47. 50
45. 00

98. 00
97. 50

60.
59.
63.
72.
67.
78.

50
50
00
50
50
50

108.
104.
116.
109.
106.
112.
93.
89.
110.
103.
100.

50
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
00
00

72. 00
61. 50
78. 50

103.
99.
111.
100.
102.
97.
93.
91.

113. 00
111. 50

i Salaries are for women unless otherwise specified. Salaries are regular straight-time earnings and have been rounded to nearest 50 cents.
indicate no data, or data insufficient to show separately.




Men

$75.
65.
80.
44.
45.

$65. 50 $116. 50
60. 50 107. 00
69. 50
36. 00
78. 00
32. 50
63. 00

Practical nurses

69. 00
69. 00
66. 50

116. 00
110. 50
123. 00

Dashes within figure columns

Supplementary Table
AVERAGE WEEKLY

SALARIES 1

1—Continued

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN 15 AREAS, BY HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP, M I D - 1 9 6 0 — C o n t i n u e d
B. OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL 2

Area and hospital ownership
Atlanta
Private
Government
Baltimore
Private
Government
Boston
Private
Government
Buffalo
Private
Government
Chicago
Private
Government
Cincinnati
Private
Government
Cleveland
Private
Government
Dallas
Private
Government

Medical
technologists

Physical
therapists

$92. 50

98. 50
94. 50
109. 00
93. 00
91. 00
100. 50
94. 00
90. 00
104.00
98. 00
98. 00
98. 00
100. 00
98. 00

93.
89.
102.
93.
92.
94.
93.
90.

50 $103. 00
97. 00
00
50 110. 50
00
93. 50
50
94. 50
50
89. 50
50 104. 00
00 101. 50

99.
99.
103.
93.
91.

50
00
50
50
50

100. 50
107. 00

87.
83.
96.
84.
90.

50
00
00
50
50

104. 00
106. 50
101. 00

Women

Men

$74. 50
74. 00

$82. 50
82. 50

Women

Men

$76. 00

X-ray
technicians
Women

Men

$63. 00
62. 50

X-ray
technicians,
chief
Women

Men

$67. 00

$86. 50
86. 50

$123. 00
131. 50

92. 50
89. 50

108. 00
109. 50

(non-Federal) _

(non-Federal) _

(non-Federal) _

(non-Federal) _

(non-Federal) -

95. 50
87. 50

(non-Federal) _

(non-Federal) _

(non-Federal) _

See f o o t n o t e s at end of table.




Dietitians

Medical
record Medical
librarsocial
workers

92.
92.
93.
86.
86.

50
00
50
50
00

79.
77.
84.
73.
72.
76.
84.
82.
86.
87.
86.
89.
81.
78.
92.
77.
77.
77.
82.
83.

50
00
50
00
50
00
00
50
50
00
50
00
50
50
50
50
50
50
00
50

83.
79.
91.
74.
72.
84.
79.
78.

00
00
50
50
50
50
50
50

$85. 50
84. 00
50
50
50
50
50

$99. 00

87.
85.
89.
90.
84.

00
50
00
00
50

82. 50
81. 00

99. 00
98. 50

80. 00
81. 00
88. 50

77.
74.
82.
86.
81.

88.
92.
83.
84.
84.
84.
81.

50
50
00
50
50
50
50

94. 00
91. 00

71.
69.
76.
72.
69.
81.
75.
70.

50
00
00
00
50
00
00
00

82.
81.
87.
70.
64.
83.
70.
70.
71.
67.
66.

00
00
00
50
50
00
50
00
50
00
50

75. 00
74. 00
79. 00
76. 50
74. 50
79.00
83. 00
75. 00
90. 50
85.50
86. 00

96. 00
96. 50

97. 00
90. 50

101.50
103. 50

110.50
108. 50
121. 50

79. 00
72. 00

90. 50
90. 50

74.50
76.00
70. 50
74. 50
74. 50

115.00
115.50

Supplementary Table
AVERAGE WEEKLY SALARIES

1

1—Continued

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN 15 AREAS, BY HOSPITAL OWNERSHIP, M I D - 1 9 6 0 — C o n t i n u e d
B. OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL 2 —continued

Area and hospital ownership
Los Angeles-Long Beach
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
Memphis
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
Minneapolis-St. Paul
Private
Government (non-Federal)New York City
Private
Government (non-Fcdcrai) _
Philadelphia
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
Portland (Oreg.)
Private
Government (non-Federal) _
San Francisco-Oakland
Private
Government (non-Federal) _

Dietitians

Medical
record Medical
librarsocial
workers

Medical
technologists
Women

Men

Physical
therapists
Women

Men

Women

$99. 00 $101. 50 $122. 00 $109. 00 $108. 00 $103. 00 $100. 00
99. 00
91. 00
99. 00 114. 00 104. 50 104. 00
97. 00
125. 00 116. 00 117. 50 110.00 114.50
108. 00
74. 50
77. 00
80. 00
75. 50
76. 00
76. 50
80. 00
75. 50
79. 00
75. 00
94. 50
96. 00 119. 50
98. 50
95. 50 100. 00 114. 50
94. 50
95. 50 120. 50
96. 50
92. 50
96. 50
101.50 107. 00 114. 50 103. 00
86. 00
80. 50
80. 50
80. 00
86. 50 101. 50 102. 00
89. 00
78. 50
79. 00
80. 50
89. 50 104. 50 107. 50
93. 00
84. 00
90. 00
89= 00
81. 50
89. 00
83. 00
93. 50
95. 50
69. 50
69. 00
85. 50
92. 50
88. 50
89. 00
69. 50
69. 00
85. 50 100. 00
92. 00
87. 00
97. 00
98. 50
86. 50
89. 50 101. 00
95. 50 104. 00
87. 00
89. 50 107. 00
94. 50 104. 50

$88. 00
86. 00
95. 50
57. 00
57. 50

106.00
104.50
108.50

102.50
99. 50
109. 50

112.00
108. 50
123. 00

123.00
110. 00
130. 00

110.00
108.50
112.50

98.50
95.50
104.50

101.00
99.50
103.00

X-ray
technicians,
chief

X-ray
technicians
Men
$90.
87.
94.
52.

Women

50 $111. 50
00
50
50

Men
$107. 00
106. 00

70. 00
66. 00
81. 50
78. 50
79. 00
77. 50
66. 00
65. 50

73. 50
71. 00

88. 50

115. 50
113. 00

79.
79.
78.
66.
68.

99. 50
99. 50

110.
116.
96.
105.

81. 50
82. 50

88. 00
89. 00

88. 00
85.00
91.50

91.00
89.50
92.00

00
00
50
50
50

84. 00
83. 50

50
00
00
50

91. 00
91. 00
111.50
103.00
121.50

114.00
114.00

1 Salaries are for women unless otherwise specified. Salaries are regular straight-time earnings and have been rounded to nearest 50 cents, Dashes within figure columns
indicate no data, or data insufficient to show separately.
2 The date of survey for each area is the same in part B as in part A of this tabie.




Supplementary Table
COMPARISON OF AVERAGE WEEKLY SALARIES

1

1—Continued

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN 15 AREAS,
1 9 5 6 - 5 7 AND M I D - 1 9 6 0

Directors of
nursing
Mid1960

195657

$125.00
134. 50
135. 50
136.00

$95.50
99. 00
98. 00
115.50

143.00
126.00

111.00
101.50

137. 50

106. 50

148. 50
135.00
125.00
137.50
152.00

Area
Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles-Long
Beach
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
New York City
Philadelphia
Portland, (Oreg.)
San FranciscoOakland

See footnote at end of table.

Co
vO




General duty
nurses
Mid1960

195657

Nursing aides
Head nurses
Mid1960

195657

Women
Mid1960

195657

Nursing
instructors

Men
Mid1960

195657

Mid1960

195657

$44.50
52. 50
52. 50
58.50
47. 00
54.50
41.50

$35.00
45. 00
41. 00
46.50
42. 50
48.50
38.00

$98. 00
98. 50
102.50
85. 50
98.00
89.50

$74. 50
76. 50
87.50
74. 50
84.00
73.50

$67. 00
73.00
78. 50
78. 00
85.00
73. 50
82.00
74.00

$57. 50
62.50
60. 50
60. 00
72.00
63. 00
68.00
65.00

$74. 50
80.50
89. 50
90. 00
93.50
82. 00
94.50
83.00

$69. 00
65.00
66. 00
68. 50
78.50
71. 50
80.00
74.00

$35. 00
37.50
48. 00
46. 00
50.00
40. 00
45.50
35.00

$31. 00
31.00
39. 50
31. 00
42.50
35. 50
39.00
29.50

71.00
57. 50
68. 50
67.50
56.50
67.50

95. 00
76. 00
94. 50
92.50
81.50
87.00

76. 50
65. 00
81. 00
74.00
63.00
73.50

57. 00
32. 50
55. 50
46.50
37.50
56.00

47. 50
29. 50
52. 00
35.00
27.50
45.50

60. 50

51. 50

107. 00

82. 50

120. 50
112.50
111.00
104.00

85. 00
68. 00
80. 00
81.00
71.50
79.50

60.00
49.50
39.00
61.00

56. 00
39.00
32.00
51.00

99. 00
102.50
91.50

82. 50
82.50
72.00

117.00

83.50

72.00

98.00

77.50

64.50

57.00

65.50

62.00

111.50

92.00

Supplementary Table 2
COMPARISON OF AVERAGE WEEKLY SALARIES

1

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN 15 AREAS,
1 9 5 6 - 5 7 AND M I D - 1 9 6 0

Practical
nurses

Medical record
librarians

Medical social
workers

Physical
therapists

Mid1960

195657

Mid1960

195657

Mid1960

71. 5 0

$89. 00

$69. 00

$97. 0 0

$71. 0 0

$84. 0 0

$63. 5 0

69. 5 0

92. 5 0

66. 0 0

94. 5 0

72. 5 0

74. 5 0

61. 50

90. 0 0

63. 50

90. 0 0

74. 0 0

101. 5 0

80. 0 0

81. 5 0

66. 0 0

86. 5 0

98. 0 0

85. 0 0

99. 0 0

78. 0 0

107. 0 0

86. 5 0

81. 0 0

75. 5 0

96. 5 0

82. 0 0

98. 0 0

75. 0 0

91. 5 0

86. 0 0

49. 5 0

104. 0 0

84. 5 0

92. 0 0

80. 0 0

83. 0 0

82. 0 0

40. 5 0

92. 5 0

79. 0 0

86. 0 0

72. 50

90. 5 0

82. 50

65. 5 0

52. 5 0

106. 5 0

85. 5 0

97. 0 0

76. 0 0

99. 0 0

81. 5 0

45. 0 0

38. 00

85. 0 0

74. 5 0

75. 5 0

70. 5 0

Mid1960

195657

Mid1960

195657

$82. 50

$76. 5 0

$82. 50

$66. 50

$53. 0 0

$41. 0 0

90. 0 0

71. 0 0

94. 5 0

62. 5 0

48. 50

97. 0 0

73. 5 0

91. 0 0

59. 0 0

45. 50

97. 5 0

76. 0 0

63. 0 0

50. 0 0

102. 0 0

55. 50

48. 50

59. 0 0
47. 50

See footnote at end of table.




Dietitians

Mid1960

Area
Atlanta __ _
Baltimore __
Boston.
_ _
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles- Long
Beach
_
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul— _
New York City
Philadelphia
Portland, (Oreg.)
San FranciscoOakland
_ _

Supervisors

195657

195657

92. 5 0

81. 5 0

106. 5 0

83. 5 0

84. 5 0

70. 5 0

114. 0 0

82. 5 0

99. 0 0

80.00

95. 5 0

86. 0 0

63. 0 0

54. 0 0

104. 5 0

88. 0 0

92. 5 0

80. 0 0

96. 5 0

79. 0 0

61. 0 0

51. 50

106. 0 0

86. 0 0

89. 5 0

72. 0 0

104. 5 0

83. 5 0

107. 5 0

86. 0 0

80. 5 0

70. 0 0

45. 0 0

35. 50

89. 0 0

70. 5 0

87. 0 0

68. 5 0

92. 0 0

68. 0 0

89. 0 0

61. 5 0

85. 5 0

67. 5 0

59. 5 0

50. 0 0

100. 0 0

80. 5 0

94. 5 0

77. 50

104. 5 0

78. 5 0

107. 0 0

79. 0 0

67. 5 0

57. 0 0

110. 5 0

86. 0 0

99. 5 0

79. 0 0

108. 5 0

82. 0 0

95. 5 0

78.00

110. 0 0

84. 0 0

Supplementary Table 1—Continued
COMPARISON OF AVERAGE WEEKLY SALARIES

FOR SELECTED HOSPITAL OCCUPATIONS IN PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN 15 AREAS,

1

1 9 5 6 - 5 7 AND M I D - 1 9 6 0

Medical technologists
Women
Area
Atlanta
Baltimore
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Dallas
Los Angeles-Long
Beach
Memphis
Minneapolis-St. Paul___
New York City
Philadelphia
Portland, (Oreg.)
San Francisco-Oakland.

Men

Mid1960

1956-57

$74. 00
77.00
72. 50
82. 50
86. 50
78. 50
77.50

$66. 50
64.50
57. 50
67. 00
70. 50
69. 50
67.00

104.
76.
96.
79.
69.
87.
104.

50
50
50
00
00
00
50

81.
65.
77.
65.
56.
71.
80.

X-ray technicians

50
00
50
00
00
50
00

Mid1960

Women

1956-57

X-ray technicians, chief

Men

Mid1960

1956-57
$56. 50
55.50
57. 50
62. 50
69. 00
63. 00
61.00
67.50

Women

Mid1960

1956-57

$74.00
74. 50
75. 00
86. 00

$54.50
53. 50
69. 50
72. 50

76.00
74.50

Mid1960

1956-57

$75. 50

$131.50
109. 50

$117.50
88. 00

86. 00

108. 50

87. 50

67.00
62.50

115.50

102.50

106. 00

93. 50

113. 00
116.00

95. 00
102.50

114. 00

102. 50

$72. 50
78. 50
85. 50

$64. 50
67. 50
75. 00

81.00
83.50

74.00
67.50

$62. 50
69.00
69. 50
70.00
81. 00
64. 50
70.00
66.50

104. 00

81. 50

86. 00

73. 50

87. 00

65.
61.
72.
81.

66.
79.
65.
82.
85.

58.
66.
56.
74.
73.

71.
79.
68.
89.
89.

61.
66.
56.
72.
82.

1956-57

$89. 50
103. 50

76. 00

78.
69.
89.
108.

Mid1960

50
50
50
50

50
50
50
50

00
00
50
50
00

00
00
00
50
50

00
00
50
00
50

00
50
50
50
00

99. 50
83. 50

81. 50
63. 50

103. 00

88. 00

1 Salaries are for women unless otherwise specified.
Salaries are regular straight-time earnings and have been rounded to nearest 50 cents.
indicate no data, or data insufficient to show separately.




Men

Dashes within figure columns

U . S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents











Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102