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UL

TABLE O F ' C O N T E N T S .
'

Report by; Mr. Dallas on tlie Finances Eeport by Mr. Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr! Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr.'Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr. Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr. Crawford on the Finances
.Report by Mr. Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr-Crawford on the Finances ,
lieport by Mr. Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr. Crawford on the Finances
Report by Mr. Rush on the Finances Report by Mr. Rush^ on the Finances Report by Mr. Rush on the Finances . Report by Mr. Rush on the Finances Eeport by Mr. Crawford on the state of the




•

Page.

December, 1815
5
D.ecember, 1816
73
-^
,r
December, :i817
88
•
November, . 1818
lo
i
- ..
. December, 1819, 144
December, 1820
167
,. - .
December,, 1821
198
.December,. 1822 .217
; December,^ 1823
247
•December, 1824276
-^
313
December, 1825
December, • 1826 ^ 353
- ,
-~
:
December, 1827
. .-< . .
388
December, 1828
->
- . 439
Currency of the United States, in 18*20
481 .

' ^ '^^ w'

8 31

388

•REPORTS OF T H E .

. 11827,

IIEPORT ,.0M THE FINANCESo
•.DECEMBER, 1827.. In obedience to the act making it the duty of the Secretary, of the Trehsnry to ^' lay before Congr.ess, at the commencement of every session, a report on the subject of finance, containing estimates of the public reyenue nnd
public expenditures, and plans for improving or iiicreasing the revenues
• from time to time," the Secretary,proceeds to. the task which that duty enjoins,upon him.
^
\
It is satisfiictpry to be able, to state, in the beginning, that the revenue,
accruing for the current year is hkely to exceed, rather than fall below,
that ofthe last. . This is the more satisfactory, when considerediii connexion with the fact of the unusually largeTinportations of foreign merchairdise
ill 1825. The importations for that year having greatly'exceeded their
average value'for many years preceding, a subsequent reduction in their
value'had been looked to, under analogous facts heretofore occurring in thp
foreign trade of the country. ' This has proved to be less th^ case than
might have been anticipated. Although the importations for the year ending on the 30th of September last are believed to have been lessthan
for the year ending on the.same day in 1826 ; those ,for 1827, commencing
onthe 1st of January, and ending with the close of the present month, \vill,
in all probability,be greater, itjs on the year,' calculated in the latter way,
that.the annual revenue from the^customs is estimated. The importations
for the third quarter of the present year have beeri large, o,wing to the
quantity of woollen goods which they embraced. If this, on the one hand,
has been a cause specially operating to augment the entire importations of
1827, there are circumstances, connected.withother.branchesof the foreign
trade, that have been specially in operation to diminish them. The opinion
may reasonably beentertained, founded on these and other considerations, that
the re-action, under the heavy importations of 1825, has arrived at its close.
Aside, therefore, from unforeseen events, the importations forthe next year,
on \yhich the revenue so mainly depends, under the present system of
firiance, may be expected to prpve sufficiently ample for every ordinary financial purppse. The actual receipts intb the Treasury, during the current
year, have been less, in particulars.that will be presently stated, than the '
sum at which they were estimated. They have been sufficient,, ho we ver,
with the balance.in the Treasury at the commencement of the year, to meet
every appropriation for the service of the year, including the sum of ten
milhons on account of the public debt.
As the state of the public debt, and manner in which the process of extinguishment goes on, from year to year, is a subject on which the nation desires and^expects to receive accurate and full information, it will be exhibited to Congress, in the'first'instance, upon, the present occasion. The exposition of "this subject willbe given in connexion with a short retrospect.
Frbm the 1st .lanuary, 1825, to'the close of the present, year, the re will'-^ave
been applied to the principal of the public debt the sum of $21,2^)7,210 93;



1827.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

389.

and paid, on account of interest, the sum of $11,863,445 20 ; making
a total of $33,160,656 13. Of the apphcations on account of the principal during these years, $7,725,034 88 were made in 1825; $7,064^709. 21
in 1826; and $6,507,466 84 will have been made by the close of 1827. Of
the preceding sum of $21,297,210 93, it is proper to state that a portion of
it, viz^: $5,000,000, was borrowed under the act of the 26th>of,May,
1824, at an interest of four and a half per cent., to pay off an equal portion of
debt standing at an interest pf six per cent. , The aggregate amount of the,
public debt on the 1st pf January, 1825, was .,$83,710,572 60. To this
must be added the stock, amounting to.five millions, at four and a half per
cent., created by the above act, but vvhich was not issued until after the commencemenl of 1825, and a small, amount of three per cent, stock that ^was
subsequently issued, viz: $16 25, making.the whole of the public debt, in
1825, $88,710,588 85. The aggregate amonnt at'which it will stand on
the 1st of January, 1828, wiU be $67,413,377 92. The whole ,of the
$21,297,210 93, applied to the principal of the debt in the three years men-,
tioned, have gone towards the reduction of the six per cent, stock. Five millions of this sum having been replaced by the stock atfour and a half per
cent, issued under the act ofthe 26th of May aforesaid,-are of course again
, to be ranked as part of the debt. It follows, that debt, in six per cent, stock,
to.the amo.unt of sixteen million two hundred and ninety-seven,thousand
two hundred and ten dollars nineiy-three cents, will have been absolutely extinguished in the course of these three years, by the surplus moneys ofthe
Treasury, in addition to $11,863,445 20 paid as interest.- It also follows,,
that twenty-one million sixty-two thousand three hundred and.'thirty-two
dollars seventeen cents, in principal and interest, will have been applied tp '
the public debt during the years 1-S26 and 1827, out of the means of the
Treasury, withput any assistance whatever from loans. This is an amount
greater than was reqiiired to be applied to it for these tv/o years by the,obligations, of the sinking fund act.
, It Villi be satisfactory to Cpngress to know, that, during the three years in
question, besides these payments made on account ofthe debt, and all other
payments to meet the annual expenses of Government, large sums have been
applied to objects wearing'a character neitlrer temporary nor annual. By
these are meant—internar improveraents, in the form of.subscriptions to ca-.
nals ; and appropriations for otherwise opening and extending intercourse
throughout the country; .fortifications, and armories; ships of war, naval
docks, and other establishnients connected with the nav.y; public edifices of
various descriptions, whether for purposes marine Pr civil; arming the militia; the purchase of lands from the Indians, and other expenses belonging
to this departnient ofthe public service. On such objects, and others kindred to them, the expenditures during these three years have reached a sum
little short of fweive millions of dollars. A nation that, after providing for
the regular support ^of its Gpvernment, is seen to proceed in this manner in
^ the payment of its. public debt, and in additional disbursements sP considerable, for which equivalents remain, that for the most part are of permanent
value to the nation, cannot be regarded as other than prosperous in its fiiiancial eondition.
>. . .
'
That the exact situation of the whole funded debt at this fime may be
seen, the several parts of which it, consists will,be distinctly set forth, for
the full infoYmation of Congress. , .
'•
' ;




390

REPORTS OP T H E

.

[1827;

Its 'total -amonnt, on the 1st of October last, was (statement No 1)
$6,8,913,541 08." This siim comprehends the old revolutionary'three per'^ents, amounting to $13,296,247 70, redeemable at the pleasure of the
Government; and the seven mihions, subscribed to the Bank of the United
States, also redeemable at the pleasure of the Government.
* •
•
'
- The residue of the debt was contracted after the commencement of the
war of 1812, and consists of various loans and stocks, created and liedeemable at ^periods as follow:
. '
1. The sum o^f $4,244,587 07, at six per. ceht., being the residue unpaid ofthe loan linder the act of the 8th of February, 1813, and redeemable in 1826. The amount authorized to be borrowed under this "act was
^ sixteen millions. For this sum, certificates of stock issued' to the' amount
of $18,109,^377 43, a premium having been given to the lenders. Of this
amount there remain uhpalid, as abovP, $4,244,587 07.
., ^
^2. The sum of $13,096;542 90, at six per cent., being the residue unp,aid of loans made under the act pfthe 24th Pf March, 1814, and redeemable in 1827. The amount authorized'by this act was twenty-five mihions.
Of this amount there was borrovved, under loans contracted in 1814, thesum
of $12,942,423 26. For this sum, certificates of stoPk issued to.-the
amountof $16,108,014 43, under a prernium to the lenders, as above, of
whicli there remairi unpaid ofthe loan contracted on the 2d day of
May, "in that year, $8,507,866 36; of that contracted on the 22d of August,
$4,050,780 77] and of bther smaller loa'ns,. contracted under the act, in the
course ofthe same year,V$537,895 77; niaking, in the whole, $13,096,542' 90
as first above stated.
' • 3. The sum of, $9,490,699 10, at six per cent., being the residue nnpaid ofthe loan under the act of the 3d of March, 1815, and redeemable
in 1828. - This acit authorized a loan of eighteen minion four hundred-and
fifty-two thoiisand, eight hundred,doilars. There was borrowed' uiider it
the sum of $11,699,3.26 .63, priricipally by the' funding of Treasury notes,
and certificates of .stock issued to the amount of $12,288,147 66, ofwhich
there remain unpaid, as above, $9,490,099 10. '
4. The sum of $769,668 08, at an interest of four and a half per cent.,
being one half of the^six per cent, stock of 1813 exchanged under the act
of Congress of the ,3d of March, 1825, and redeemable^in 1829.
5. The sum of $769,668 08, at an interest of four and a half per cent:,
being the other half of the six per cent, stock exchanged as above, a n d r e : deemable in 1830.
. . .
^ -6 The sun\of $18,901 '59, at fiye per cent, being one third part ofthe
sum. of $56,704 77, issued in exchange for six per cent, stock pf 1813,
1814, anda815, under the->act,of the 20th of April, 1822, and redeemable
in 1831. '
. ' . • . ' .
•)','-'
' . • '• •
7.; Thesum of $18,901 6%, at five per cent.',' being one other third part
ofthe sum subscribed as abbve stated, and redeemable in 1832.
B. Thesum of $10,ObO,000, at four and a half per cent,.'being stock
created under the. acts of the 24th and 26th of May; 1824, for sums borrow-"
ed ofthe Bank Pf the United States, one-half to pay the Florida claims, the
other half to pay off the six percent, stockof 1812, and redeemabiein'1832.
9. The sum of $999,999 13, atfi^veper ceitt., being stock created by the/ act of the 15th of May, 1620, and' redeemable- in 1832.
10. The sum of $18,901 59, at five per cent, being.the remaining third
subscribed under the act of the 20th of April, 182.2, and redeemable in 1833.



1827.]-

SECRETARY OF THE-TREASURY.

391

11. The sum of $2,227-,363 97, at four and a half per cent., being one
lialf of the amount subscribed in exchange for six per cent stock of 1813,
tinder the act of the'26th of May, 1824.' and redeeinable in 1833. /
12. The sum Pf $2,227,363 98, at four and a half per cent., being the
other.half subscribed under the'act last above stated, and redeemable ih
1834;':.
••
• '^ .
,
• '•
. •
13. The sum of $4,735,296 30, at five per cent, being the amourit of
stock issued under the act of'the 3d of March; 1821, and redeemable in
1835.
•
• \'
. ; • •. ,^ .
>
'
^ • •
•
The foregoing enumeration gives the aggregate'of$68^913,541( 08, stated
as the amonnt of the debt on 1st of October last
Of this aggregate, it may not be improper here to state, that'$49,001,215 36
are; owned in the United States, and $19,912,325 72 by foreigners. •
, ^A payment being about to be riiade, on account of "the principal Pf the
<debt, atthe close of the; present year, in addiMon to one that was rriade in
•July, its total" aggreofate amount, on the Ist of January^ 1828, will be
.$67i4.13;377-92.; "•
",
" " , '• . •
.
^
To make up this-aggregate, all the itenis exhibited in the foregoing view^
of the whole debt are included. But the whole together gives the nominal
rather than the real ariioiirit of the debt. Its real am.ount on the .1st pf Jariiiary,-'1828, will be but a fractiPn above sixty mih-ioris.' • The sum of seven
millipns subscribed by the" Government to the Bank of the UnitedStates,
is, in effect, destroyed as debt, by the United States-own ing an^equal amount
in the shares ofthe bank. So far is this sum from being any charge upon
the.Treasury, that the Treasiiry is annually receiving interest fPr it, in the
dividend? upon the shares. Whenever the latter are sold, they may a.t
least be expected to replace the sum that was invested "in them. The old
revolutionary three per bents, too,.have now existed nearly fPrty y'ears. By
the provisionsi of the sinking fund act, tliis stock can only be bought up and
extinguished by the Government, when, the pfice shall fall to sixty-five dollars "for every one hundred dollars. This, in all probability, will prevent,
for sonie time to come, the $13,290,247 70^, ofwhich this stock consists,
being any charge upon the resources of the hatiPn, so far as paying off the
.principal is cancerned; as it would be" difficult to say when the obligation
to-pay it off will attach, under the above act, or when it could otherwise be
•done with full adyantage to the public. It is many years since this stock
has been as low as sixty-five dollars for one hundred, andlhere is no present
prospect of its falling so low. The portions of the debt, therefore, which,
under the-existing enactments ofthe la.w, can a\l6ne be met by an annual and
ascertained process of extinguishment, unless the three per cents should be
paid'off at one hundred, cannot be computed at more than $47,117,130 ^2!
It is plain that this amourit is rapidly hastening to extinguishment.' If the
United States continue at peace, (and there is, happily, no present prospect
of its interrnption,) their debt must, in a few years more, disappear. The
new obligations, which will devol ve,upon the riational councils, in reference
to the pecuniary resources of the country, when liberated from large annual
payriaents-ori account of the debt, the wisdom of thpse councils will, at the
proper season,'know how to CvStimate.
. ,
It remains to make known, in conclusion, under,this head^ the pperations
had at the Treasury upon the public debt, since the adj otir n'merit of the last
session of Congress.



392'

R E P O R T S . O F TFIE

•

fl827,..

^ In the last annual reporf from this departrnent, a loan to the amount of
sixteen milhons, at an interest not to exceed five per cent, was recommended. The object of such a loan was to pay,off' a portion ofthe debt,:
equal to sixteen millions, bearing an interest of six per cent.. No law to
this-effect having passed, it became the duty of the.depar tment to proceed,
in the work of paying off the six per cents, as far as the means of the Treasury would allow. Accprdingly, on the 1st of July, the sum of 5,007,303 j % \
dollars was paid on account of the six per cent, loan created by the act of
the 8th of February, 1813.. By the decision ofthe commissioners of the'
sinking fund, in September, it was agreed that the further sum of 1,500,000
dollars should be/paid,'on account of'the same loan, at the termination of the
present quarter of this year. Piiblic notices have been issued in conformity
with this decision, and are now outstanding. A small fraction over the sum
I s included in the notice, the terriis of the loan having rendered it necessary
that the certificates, to he paid o£F should be fixed upon by lot, and the last
drawn riuriiber in this instance, as in the payment of July, having given the
fractional excess. The manner of drawing the lots, havirig been minutely
described in a paper annexed to the last anriiial report, will not here be repeated. In deciding upon the further payment of 1,500,000 dollars, the
commissioners had due reference to the ith section of the sinking fund act
of March 3d, 1817, which declares, that "whenever there shall be, at any
time after an adjournment of Congress, in any year, a surplus of money in
the Treasury above the sums appropriated for the service of such year, the
payment ofwhich to the coriimissioners ofthe sinking fund will yet leave
in the Treasury, at the end ofthe year, a balance equal to two millions of
dollars, then such surplus shall be, and the same is hereby, appropriated ta
the sinking fund, to be paid at such times as the situation pf the Treasury
will best perrriit:" But this provision was not'viewed as creating any obstacle to the decision. The construction and practice at the TreasLiry,. .
since the passage ofthe act, have invariably been, npt to consider the above
provision as attaching, so long as any part of the ten,millions remaiii unapplied to the debt; this surri being considered, under the very object and terms
ofthe act, as a standing apprppriation for the service of the year.
No further remarks are-deemed-necessary at this tinie, in relation to the
public debt. Should the laws respecting it remain unchanged, payments on
account ofthe principai will continuP to be made throughout the ensuing:
year, in such ways as the obligations of the laws direct, and the means of
the Treasury may best allow.
. .
•
.
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF T t l E YEARS 1826. AND 1 8 2 7 .

The nett revenue which accrued from duties on import? and
tonnage, during the year 1826, amounted (A) to
$20,248,054 30
The actual receipts into the Treasury from a!ll sourcps, durino-the ^rear 1826^ amounted to '
,-;
$25,260,434 21,
' .. - • V i z .

• '

Customs, (statement A)
^ - '
Public lands, (statement D) . . ,Dividends on stock in the Bank of the
United States, arrears Pfinternalduties ahd direct taxes, and incidental
receipts, (statement E) . :


.

- 23,341,331
],393,785
- ,
-^
500,228

77
09.
.. 90'

1827.]'

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

•

Repayments of advances made in the War
' . . '.
Department, for services or supplies prior
to the 1st of July, 1815
.- . ; $25,088 45, •

.

393

; .

..

Making,^with the balance in the Treasury on the 1st of"
January, 1826, uf'
-'
. - . $5,20L6S0 43
An aggregateof •
The actual expenditures of the
counts; during the year 1826,
to
- •
V i z .

•

^

:

.

, - > . - ' : - 30,462,084 ,64
United States, on all ac;
amounted (statement F ) .
' -• 24,103,398 46
••

^

•

.

Civil,, diplomatic, and miscellaneous
- $2,600,177 79 ~
Military service-, including fortifications,
,
*
ordnance, Indian ,department, revolu,^
.' ,
^tionary. and military pensions, arming
'
the militia, and arrearages prior to the •
] st of .January, 18i7 - 6,243,236 03
Naval service, including the gradual in.;
. crease of the navy • - - 4,218,902,45
',
Publicdebt
.,- 11,041,082 19 ,

"
'
. ,

Leaving a balance in the Treasury, on the 1st of January,
^ 1827, of
- . 6,358,686 18
The actual receipts into the Treasury, during the first - >
three quarters of the year 1827, are estimated to have
amounted to '. . .
- - ,-$17,488,810 07
Yiz.

•••

'•

•

•'

.•

• /

Customs
'
-•
T
$15,142,892 68
Public lands, (statement G) '
; - 1,212,011 29
Dividends on stock in the Bank of the
.
• United States ., ' . , 420,000- 00
Arrears of internal duties and direct taxes,
.
'
and incidental receipts, (statement H) -.
681.561 12
[This item ^includes the sum of 602,480 dollars, as the
first moiety of a sum paid by the British Govern' ment," l')y virtue of a convention under the
article of the treaty of Ghent, for slaves^ carried ofif.
by British officers, in contravention of that treaty;
which sum, as it is paid out to the American claimants, by Treasury warrants, in the usual form, has
a place among the actual receipts of theyear, though
no part of the revenue.]

Repayments of advances rifiade in the War
Departnaent, for services or-supplies prior
to the 1st of July, 1815
-

- .'.
first

.
•
•

,

•
.

'.

. •
, •..

/
. .32,344 98 - .

And the actual receipts intp the Treasury, during the
fourth quarter pfthe year, (including the other moiety
ofthe sum explained as above,) are estimated at
-




.

.5,117,480 00

394

,

^
'

REPORTS OF T H E

[1827.

Making the total estimated receipts into the Treasury,
duringtheyear 1827 -•
- .
-<
•.$22,606,290 07
And with the balance in the Treasury on the 31st of December, 1826, of '
-•
..- 6,358,686 18
An aggregateof
' ^
•:
• , - $2S,964,976-25.
The expenditures of the ^rst thi;ee quarters of the year 1827, are. estimated to
' have am.ounted to (statement 1)
-$17,895,390'96 ,
• Viz.

- • ,

Civil,' diplPmatic,
miscellaneous

and
- $2,013,520 47

•

•|;ThisitemincludesS294,393 23, .
. / • ' - ' . . \>
paid to the Americah claim- ' .
'
..
' ants, under the first article of
'
• , , . . '
'
the treaty of Ghent, in virtue
."
.
'
'
of awards duly made in their
•. '
,
favor.]
.
.
.
.,

Military service, including-.fortifications, .ordr ^
nance, Indian depart-'
• ment, re voliitionary and ^
mihtary pensions, arm•ing the mihtia, and
arrearages prior to the
Istof January, 1817. - 4,750;271 15
Naval service, including
^ , .
• • the gradnal increase of
,.
the riavy
- 3,458,575 91
Public debt, viz.
ReimbuTseriient of prin- '
.
cipal - ,
5,007,303 68 ,
Payment of interest
2,665,719 75

.

"

.
•

•

.
•
. .

•

.'—

.;

•

]

|
'
'

And the "expenditures of the fourth quar- .
ter are estimated at -^ ' - , :- ,4,800,000 00
• Viz.

- '

Civil, diplomatic,
miscellaneous

,

:

and
-

[This item, includes $92,6^7 67,
• as arnount of ^awards, underthe fir.st article ofthe treatv
of Ghent]

•

-

,
'
$672,243 42/ ; ,
^

,

^
"

•

;

'

•

•

•

1^
'

Military service, includ. ing fortifications, ^ord-.
>
nance,; Indian depart- .
ment,Tevolutionaryand
^
'
. . .
^ mihtary pensions, arm/
; ing the militia,,and ar-- • fi .
- ^ .* ; ,
• rearages prior to the 1st ;
" '
• -af^Janu^ry, 1817
, - ,900,000 G ^
O
;




'

,i
",

'
,

.
- I

12..
87J

• SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.

Naval service, including
'
' the gradual increase of
•
'the navy
-••
- $875,000 00
Pubhc debt, vi^:'
',
.
Reimbursement of prin'
.• cipal- • •• 1,'500,163 16' \
' Payment of interesi
- 852,593 42

. 395
•

'
'

•'

Making the- total expenditure of. the year 1827

"
'

" '

,

- • $22,695,390 96

And leaving in the Treasury, on the 1st of January.
1828, an estimatedbalance of - ' ^
-'
- V '- ' $6,269,585 29
It will be observed, from the.aboye statements, that the receipts irito the
Treasury, from all sources, in 1826, were $25,260,434 21. The sum at
which they were estimated in the annual report of 1825 was $25,500,000.
From" the statements-and estimates applicable to 1827,itwill also beobserved, that the syrns received, and expected to be received, from all sources,
during this year, (apart from the moneys paid under the trieaty of Ghent,)
will amount to $21,401,330 07. The amount at which, they were estimated, i.n the annual report of 182.6,, was $23,150,000. . It is therefore expected that the entire receipts of 1827 will be $1,748,669 93 less than the
estimates presented in 1826.
, :
^
^
Of this difference, upAvards of $400,000 were caused by postponements in
the sales of the public lands. The esth-nate in 1826, of receipts from this
source for 1827, was fixed at.two millipris of dollars. This' was founded,
\n part, as stated iri the report, on expected sales of a cprisideralble quantityof relinquished lands in Alabama. These sales having been postponed until
1828, the amount,yhich it was anticipated they would yield should therefore be stricken from the estiriiate. With this deduction the ariiount produced by the sales of the ]3ublic lands in 1827 will be found to correspond
very nearly, in all other particulars, with the estiniate.
. The remaining difference has been in the customs. This has proceeded
from the uncertainties that attend all estimates of the revenue depending upon
foreign commerce—itself ever uiicertain. These estimates, whether given
by,this department, or by committees of Congress, specially scrutinizing
theni under all the lights attainable, have often, heret;ofore, from causes impossible to have been foreknown, iDeen disappointed by the result. The
disappointment has sometimi^.s been upon a larger, sometimes upPn a smaller
scale. Such estimates can, therefore, on rio occasion be regarded in any
other Ught than as an approximation to that sum, always desirable to be
known, but rarely, if ever, in a long series of years, foretold with precision.
The estimates presented for 1827 were formed upon bases which had the
sanction of past experience in giving, reasonable promise ofa fair approach
to the true result. Whilst, on the one side, expectations of a redundant
income should not,be too confideritly indulged, it becomes a\ duty, on, the
other, not to estimate the receipts below the amount which the usual probabilities seerii to warrant, lest the public servicP should be stinted in any useful particular by the restrained appropriations of Congress. The importa: tipns for 1827, taking into the account the calendar year,will, itis believed,
as before intimated,..exceed the importations for 1826. But,those for the
first two quartersof 1827 have been very smalj. Had they borne the sanie



396^

^

^ REPORTS OP T H E

[1827,.

prpportion to those of the last two quarters, that the importatiPns of the fir&t
two quarters have borne to those of the last two, on an average of five years
preceding, the actual receipts into, the Treasury from the customs in 1827
would have been larger. This effect would have grown out of thelerms of
,credit allowed on duty bonds. By these terms, a portion of the payments
always falls due within the year, on importations made during the first six
inonths pfthe year. The average importations for .the first six months,
during "five years that preceded^ 1827, were larger than those for the
last six months. For 1827, there is every probability that this ratio of
importations, on the time Pf the whole year, will be reversed. It is
so, as far as yet ascertained. We are reminded, even by the experience
of recent years, of the frequent'variations between the anticipations
, and the issue in this part of our fiscal system. In 1817, the estimated receipts from tbe, customs were 24,000,000 dollars, and the actual receipts
26,283,348 dollars. In 1818, the estimated receipts were 20,000,000 dollars, and-the actual receipts 17,176,385 dollars, in 1819, 1820, and'1821,
the estimates from the same .source Were successively given at 21.000,000
dollars, 19,000,000 doUars, and 14,000,0,00 dollars. The sums successive-,
ly,recei ved. were, 20,283,608 dollars, 15,005,612, dollars,'and 13,004,447
dollars., These disappointments sprung from supervenient causes, the
means of knovying which did not exist when the estimates \yere made.
There have beeri,,at pther epochs, differences much, more considerable,
which need not be detailed ; yet it may not be irrelevant to'the purpose of
setting forth the-intrinsic uncertainties of this/ branch of revenue, to add, .
that for the last of the years here indicated, after the estimate had been gi veil
in from the Treasury at 14,000,000 dohars, the proper committee of one
of the brariches of the legislature; thinking it too low, raised it to fifteen
mihions. The receipts, for that year (1821) scarcely exceeded .thirteen millions, as already stated^ The allusipn to these facts would be incomplete in
its purpose, without the further remark, thatthe affairs of this department
are well known to have been conducted with great general accuracy during
the years mentioned.
,
'
.
' > ',
The balance of $6,269j585 29 that will probably be in the Treasury'on
the" 1st of January, 1828, will be subject to the Ibllowing charges: 1. The
balance of unapplied appropriatioris which will.remain to be satisfied after
the 1st of:.January, 1828, estiniated' .at $3,980,000. 2. About one million
ofdollars, in funds that cannot be considered as effective, being made up pf
debts due from banks in seyeral, of the States, heretofore used by the Gpvernment as banks of deposite, or the notes of which were received whilst
payments in specie were suspended. As was stated in a former report, the
recpyery of these debts, though measures to that end are in train, .must, in
many instances, be regarded as doubtful, and will probably be .slow in all.
3. T h e s u m of $817,880, being the amount which it is beheved will remain unpaid of the moneys received under the first article of the treaty of
Ghent.; ,
;
. /
.
'
^ ESTIMATE OF THE PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPE^^DITURE FOR 1 8 2 8 .

The value ofimportationsinto the United States during the year ending
.on the 30th of September last, is estimated at eighty-one. millions of
dollars. The exportations for the same period are estimated at eighty millions. When the more exact statistical returns for the year are laid before
Congress, as they will be in the course of the session, it Avillbe perceived



1827.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

•

397

that there has been a diminution'in the imports frorii China, during thp
present year, as compared with .the past; the diminutiori has been very
"considerable, both in teas and silks. This fact will show, in the end," the
greater excess of importations froiri Europe during the present year, whpnce
our foreign'manufactures are principally derived. The fourth year is now
in progress since the passage ofthe act of Congress augmenting the duties
on imported merchandise;; we are, therefore, at a point enabling us to speak
on grounds more.authentjic thari hitherto ofthe effect of that act upon the
foreign commerce'of the nation. By comparing, the time that has elapsed
since its operation with an equal portion of time that preceded.it appears
that both the imports, and exports have, in the aggregate, increased. They
'staiid thus: total value of importations for the years 1822. 1823, and 1824,
two hundTcd and forty-one millions of dpllars; total for 1825, 1826, and
1827, two hundred and sixty-two millions : total value of exportations "for
the three former years, two hundred and twenty-two millions; total value
for the three latter years, two hundred and. fifty-seven mihions. • Fractions
are-dropped both ways. The result is not effected by the re-eicportations
,of foreign merchandise for the same tiriie, which bear a proportion, as nearly
as- may be, equal, on the basis of importations for the two periPds. It will
be understood that, in these statements of importations and exportations fpr
a term of six years, those for 1827 are giveri by estimate only for a portion
Pf the year; but it is not belieyed that there wih be any such change in
them as to shake the general results. . The articles of domestic manufacture
exported in 1827 are esrimated at upwards of seven miUions of dohars ; a
, sum greater than that to which they have ever before amounted in any
one year.
.
' '
A tariff of duties upon loreign jDroductipns may, w.ithout doubt, be so
raised as tp affect injuriously the iriterests of foreign commerce. To suppose that the tariff of the United, States, established bythe act of Ma}^, 1824,
is at such .a pitch, would be contrary to analogies afforded by the history
of other commercial nations, and, thus far, to the experience of our own.
It is believed, on the contrary, that its rates might beaugniented in- important particulars, without hazarding any'such consequences to foreign trade
in its. ultimate course and aggregate value, and that a true national pohcy
dictates their augmentation. The increase of our imports and exports, since
the tariff of 1824, becomes the more striking, from the consideration that,
in 1826, there was witnessed in Europe an extraordinary depression of
prices. This was followed by a proportionate stagnation in aU the operations of purchase and sale. The evil assumed a magnitude, productive, in
that hemisphere, not only of great individual suffering, but of anxiety in
Governments. It was at such a moment that we began to reap the benefits
ofthe profitable turn given to a portion ofthe industry of our owri country
by the provisions ofthe tariff. Had it not been for the demand of our own
manufacturers for some of the agr;icultural staples of the country, the presumption is authorized that the fall of prices in Europe at that period would
have been differently felt by our agricultural classes here. Similar occlirrences abroad had, on fornier occasions, beeri foliowfed by pecuniary losses
inlhiscountry, inuch more extensive "and formidable. The increased number of artisans within our bwn borders, andgreater scope of their operations,
evidently tended to leave the agriculturist less exclusively dependant upon
foreign markets than^if the latter had been his sole reliance. Nor have
the benefits of manufacturing industry ended here. The proof strengthens



398

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. REPORTS OF T H E

,

[1827.

that many articles have becoiiie cheaper, more abundant, and of superior
quality, by the effect of competition among the home'artisans, than when
derived only frorri abroad. The opening of new objects of labor, by multi])lying the occupations of men, has alsp increased the public, prosperity.
This has produced an increased'^ability to buy all articles of consumption,
whencesoever obtained. Hence foreign trade has not declined, of Which
we have tlie-incpiitestable evidence just stated, whilst new domestic resourPes in manufacturing lab^or have been unfolding themselves. " As the
^
latter are rriore amply brought out, it is confidently anticipated that'the
fornier will, become wider, and more enriching in its range. If the new
fields of labor have only, as yet, been opened in' particular divisions ofthe
country,'other divisions will reap a fiill,rneasure of benefit. If there can
be no dissent to the maxima as between independent nations, that the prosperity of one promqtps that of another, it cannot be doubted that different
part^.of the same nation will derive reciprocal prosperity (rom the. same
cause. The Uriited States are distinguished in this respect by a lot as peculiar as it is favorable : nothing can exceed the inducempnts to various
and subdivided traffic that abound within their own limits. It is liere that
the economist may hope to see exemplified every essential advantage of thp
foreign and home' trade blended in the same system, moulded by the same
policy, and- freed from the jealousies that have frustrated, arid must ever
ppn tinue tolrustrate, the benevolent but impracticable theories of comnaermhl intercourse as between distinct nations. It is iiot merely.that the extent of climate and soil inthe Union are adapted to all pursuits that can
give activity and fruitfulness to industry under every form ; these are but
natural advantages : it is the excharige of the.products of industry upon
terms the most desirable arid ,the. most gainful, throughout so ample an extent of home dominion, that will exalt such .natural advantages tothe utmost. It is here that commerce may be carried on, freed from every restriction, and probably for .the first time« upon a pplitical and geographical
theatre so expanded. The appropriate industry of each portion may go
into unfettered action : of Louisiana and of jyiassachusetts, of Georgia and
of Rhode Island. A vast; horiie trade, resembling foreign trade, as well by
inlervening, distances as jthe nature of its exchanges, 'wilf be- prosecuted,
whether alorig the ocean; or the water highways of the interior, untrammelled by toll's or imposts of any kind, and without even the necessity of
custom-houses, orgivingito such establishments uses only formal. Such-.a
trade, however, can only;have its proper value by the extensive success of
manufactures ; there is nothing else cari impart to labor in the United States
the riecessary variety in its objects^' and the necessary regularity and fulness
' in the deriiarid; there is riothing else can adequately augment and diversify
the list of comniodities, for which the necessities and enjoyments of improved life are ever making calls ; there is nothing else will raise up towns
on the surface of our territory at every commanding point, without which
land-can never be made ioyieldthefullamount of which it is susceptible, or
the/farmerbe sure of steady andremunerating prices. It hardly need be addedhow a course of policy that would infuse augmented vigor and briskness
into a coasting I trade, ernbracing in its range nearly one-half of a contirient,
would tend to enlarge, in all waysy.the essential foundations of naval strength.
Manufactures are recommended by every consideration that cari bear
xipon the riches, the security, and the ,powef of the State. The effect upon
agrieulttiralpriGeSj-produGed by thep^^
presence of armies in acotin


1827.]

"SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY. .

399'

try, will riot too strongly illustrate theextent ofthe benefit thatthe manii:
facturing class renders to the class of .farmers. The parallel ends, indeed,
here, and ends beneficently; fpr whilst the soldier does nothing but consume^
the riianufacturer produces as well as consumes ; supplying the farmer with
.articles as necessary as. those which he receives from him... Manufacturing
iridustry advances the intellectual, no less than the physical, power of a
State, by the various knowledge which its complicated pursuits put into
requisition^ It is the course of industry which, must lay the^foundation of
those arts .which tend to refinement in a natjon, for which intellectual nations, and none more than re]3ubhcs, have acquired renown. • Thetime has
passed when objeptions might be made to manufactures, from the limited
amount of our population and the dearness of labpr. The population
throughout large portions of the Union is now sufficient, both in amount
and density,for any operations of manual labor.;, whilst science, by applying its inventions to this kind of labor, has abridged its expensiveriesSo
Where a, single Sta.te of the Unidii has recently been seen to.coraplete a
public work, which, for its great extent and skilful execution, may comparp
with similar works achieved in any.part of the world, it will not readily be
. believed that the country, ofwhich that State is but a part, can be deficient.
in the means of prosecuting manufacturing labor, however extended' the
scale upon which it may be demanded. The coiiipletion'of such a work^
(the New York canal,) is, of itself, a memorial of the highest authenticity
that the riation has reached a point qualifying it for whatever undertakings
its true.'interests point out, and to which other nations have .been found
equal. As little has the obje,ction to manufactures, foiinded upon moral
causes, any place. That they lead to deterioration in portions pf the people,
is npt to be admitted. Facts, on the. contrary, teach-that the freest and
most,enlightened, as weh as most opulent and powerful countries of
, EiiirQpe, are those in which manufactures bear the greatest proportipn to
the other prPdiictiye classes. Their success begets, industry, which is favorable to good habits;, it begets prosperity, which supplies them with
comforts, ^and raises up their condition. The remark rests on general resiiUs,\aside frorn pavlial exceptions-. It is equally borne out by facts, that
countries in which ther eis. an undue .predominance of agricultural populatiori: are the pboresty^aiid. their inhabitants the most depressed. Sailors,
eorisiderecl as a class, have their lives shortened by the hardships that they
nndprgo ; yet, when was this alleged as a reason for extirpating commerce ?
In like nianner, that Go-,equal',agent in hftirigupthe condition of nations—^
mariufactuiingindustry^^wpuld be entitledto favor, even if partial evils
flo.w(ad frpm itj, as these, must give, way in. the scheme of society tb prepondeiiatinggood. But if authentic inforniation justifies the cpnclusipn that
the pursuit of manufactures tends not to deterioratipn in a people,,but the
.reiverse, the .policy inculcated acqnires
The experience of our
myn <;ouritry confirms the accourits from others; and we may be allowed I Q
addlheihope, that the influence of our political institutipns upon individual
andfsocial life, will operate to keep up still mpre the irioral tpne of this por-r
tipri of pur population, as time multiplies it»s numbers.
Eemarks like/the preceding are beheved to be justified by the success;
which manufacturing industry has already attained in the Uriited States, as
far as it has .received^ adequate prPtection. They are conceived to^ be not
lp3S: appropriate to. the design which isi.ehtertained of reconimending, an in:
ctease of that.protectiori, where it is most.^deniaiided. There is: little hazard



400

;

REP.ORTS OF T H E • •
•

i*

;[1827, >

"of a. community ever forcing manufactures not adapted to its soil, climate'
'and all its other capabilities. 'Still, less, can the hazard exist, where the
powers, of legislation iare deposited in the hands'pf those who are imbued
• with the collective intehigencp of the community. Every -country possesses its physical characteristics ; as those stamped by its.^ Govern ment, its
laws, and the leading warits and tastes of its population. In these lie the
'causps that make lip its inherent capabilities for the pursuitof some branches
of industry more than others: ^ Manufactures once estabhshed to the proper
limit of these, and scope enough wiU remain for fbreign commerce in other
GommPdities, that wilfcoriie into demand.. ^The demand for others neyer
fails to iricrease, as increasing wealth at home enlarges the capacity to procure them,'and superinduces the new artificial desires that crave them.
Wealth at home must increase, as manufacturing labor increases. Money,
as representing wealth, must increase.; since each year that witnesses anincrease in theamouut of consumable goods, rnust witness a proportionateincrease in the medium necessary to circulate them. I'hese are truths too
Pbvious to be dwelt upon,,'and too important to national prosperity to be
disregarded in practice. Amongst the branches of home industry deserving
--special,care at all times, are those which-conduce to subsistence, shelter,
'clothing, and defence. It! is intended, Pn the present occasion, respectfully
to recommeridto the corisideration of Congress, as classing under one or other
bf these primary heads, the expediency of increasing the present duties—-.
' . 1. Upon woollen goods and foreigri wool.
. .
2. Upon fine, cotton goods..
, •
'
3; Upon bar irori. }
4. Upon heinp.
; .
^
. ^ .
' T h e t i m e that has passed since the tariff'of 1824 has been siiificient ta
show that the duties fixed by it upon these articles are notvadeqnate-^ to the
meakire bf success in-proiSucing them at home, vv^hich their cardinal importance merits. A change, ^ince 1824, in the laws of Grea:t Britain, in regard
to those first named, has also rendered almost abortive the provisions of the
tariff in their favor. It belongs to the purppse of this report, which looks
to the encourageriient of the national industry in preference to any that is
foreign, here to state, that for a period of six successive years, ending with
1826; the value of woollen goods and cotton goods, iniported into the United
States from the country just named, exceeds one hundred millipns of dol- •
lars; andthe value of irbn, and of articles manufactured from iron, seventeen millions. During orie of these years, the woollens exported from that
country to this exceeded the amount of those exported to the, whole pf Europe put together; For the means of exchange against an amount of foreign
manufactures so great, the United States have had three principal staples of
their soil, viz: wheat flpur, tobacco, and botton. The first of these, the
same couritry has, by her laws, positively or virtually excluded, duririg.-the
sarne period of years, froni consumption within her domains. The $econd
she has admitted; under a; duty of more than six hundred per cent. The
_third she, has received with little iscruple. She has known how to convert
it into a nieans of wealth to hep.owri industrious people, greater than had
fever before,' in her whole jan nals, been derived from any single conimodity.
This she has dpne, first, by working itup forher home use, upon thelargpst
scale ; and next, by making it subserve the interests of her foreigh trade.
She has sent it over all seas,-wherever a market opened, but;chiefly back
again to us, to be bought, under the enhancements of her own labor, at prices



'1827.]

' SECRETARY OF T H E TKEASURY.

401

four and. fivefold those which she has paid us fdr it. Commerce, upon the
terms attested by such facts, cannot be pronounced just as between the parties. The conviction is deeply entertairied,. ihat the best interests of the
nation point to fhe expediency of reviewWg • and' correcting a species of
commercial intercourse so uneq'u'al. It rimy be apphcable to subjoin, that the
woollen, cotton, andiron goods, imported from all other parts of the world,
during the years indicated., are found to be but about .oncrsixth part of the
value of those obtained from the country whose laws fall with .edicts of exclusion, or with-such disproportionate duties, upon the produce^of the United
States, not only of the articles me^itipned, but more that might-be mentioned.
The complete establishment: ()f American manufacturers in wool, cotton,
i.ron, and hemp, is believed ^ be of very high moment to the nation. All
>
the principal raw materiaVipt-' carrying them on are at hand, or could be
commanded. The skill fo-itopfti'titig excellence to them would come at the
proper time. There w/nld be no want of labor;'to which an abundant
water-power, as well o^ artificial machinery, would everywhere be lending
Its assistance. Capi^^l would befound for investment in theni. If their
establishment by tl^ immediate protection of the laws should, at first, raise
the cost'of, the 'a>tieles, and, for a succession of years, keep it up, a true
forecast, looking' to the future, rather than adapting, alf its calculations to
the existing libur, would not hesitate "to embrace tbe protecting policy.
Nations, that; would found schemes of solid and durable advantage, must be
ready to d/so at the peril of temporary privation. It is the great term of
natipnal/s of individual superiority and distinction. To buy cheap, is not
the on 1/, or always the chief, good. It is for legislators, who have to deal
with trip practical interests of.mankind, to give to abstract propositions the
necessary limitations. Considerations, higher than those of present mercantile gain, have often swayed the councils pf nations—of nations, whPse wisdom in this respect we ought not lightly to impugn, anymore than we can
at all question their long prerCminence in prosperity. Need it be said that
England had hPr laws to protect her tonriage for more^than a century: during all which time she iriight have employed the tonnage of other states, at
a price much below that at which she built and used her .own? Need it be
added, what results to her maritime and corrimercial sway have flowed from
her .resolute perseverance in those laws? Need it be said that France, coh^
spicuous for positive as for progressive riches, and comforts, and power, still
excl tides from her territory fabrics that might trench upon the custom of
her own workshops, in brariches of labor find art l:)elieved tP be conducive
to the national resources, whilst they confer also the means of ihdividual
^ thrift? Shall the. many laws of these two great states, a,t periods when
they.were laying the foundations of their manufacturing industry, be re. counted, all tending to foster it by inducements the most efficacious—^laws,
to the essential.principle ofwhich they stih, in so many i^istances, systematically adhere? Shall we call to recollection, especially, the ordinance of M.
Calonrie, which invited to France artificers from all nations, allowing them
equal privileges with those they enjoyed in their native countries, arid granting them an imriiunity from duties on the iniportation ofthe materials used
in their manufactures; nay, more, exempting them- and their workmen
from all personal or other taxes? These, \yitli analogous illustrations, as
numerous as applicable, wfll be forborne, as too familiar to be recapitulated.
The protecting laws to our own tonnage, our own coasting trade, our own
fisheries, stillin force, and wKich first raised up the prostrate navigation of
VOL. II.—26



402

: . ^ RE.PORTS. OF T H E _

"

[1827.

the United States, may supersede other, references. These show how tbe
fathers of the republic weie awake to the .wisdom of other times and either
nations, knowing how to make it their own. Their recorded opinions attest
that they were equahy awake lo the principle of encouraging manufacturp^s,
in the broadest sense. If they did not carry if farther iruo practice, it is because a.proper discrimination saw,la the circumstances of that early day,
virhether as regarded the s^tate'of'the world from without, or our own. internal con difion, no suffi^cieipt ri:i,otive for giving tolhe principle a inore extended application. But if jthis species of industry should not be prematurely
gone into, so neither ought the laws to neglect it too long. Excellence is o*f
slow growth. Rarely is it quick or spontaneous in. the.material, any more
than in the moral world. [Time is an agent iXdispensable towards inducting
a'^pepple into'the full knowledge ofthe manuflcturirig arts. They are COIIIT
plex; they are difficult.' They are to be learnedonly by"stages, throughout
a long course of application and efforts, as mind\s evolved by education ;
institutions for promoting: which, the laws, in the w^^est countries, are careful to foundvand to nurture. When, therefore, neitW paucity of population .nor of means any longer hold as reasons for not\ultivating these'arts
amongst us; and when those external circumstarices V^ve-passed away,
which drew nearly all of lour population into commerce bi into husbandry,
the jDeriod for permanently fixing them as an integral irUeiest iri the state
seems fullyto have arrived. Whilst \ve repose in tranquillity^.the season is
auspicious for entering Pffectually upon the 'work of establishing those
specially recommended. Should war happen, it is not easy to sta'i^.the augmented resources with which ,we. should meet its exigencies, with these,
manufactures, flourishing jin perfection, any riiore than to-portray the inconvenience which we should know in their absence. It is, therefore, frpixi the
connexion of their success, with the 'leading interests of the state, in peace or
war, that the conviction ,is felt that it would be expedient to secure thPir
success, even -at the sacrifice, of cheapness to theindividual purchaser.
.But no such consequence is to be apprehended. If it were a question of
fostering manufactures fb;r which the circumstances of the. country'yielded
not the abundant focihtie,s, as/with England when she'fpstered by her own
laws her own tonnage, then, indeed, could success be accomplished only by
indefinite forcing, to be .followed by indefinite monopplyjn price. Such is
manifestly not the case. iManufactures of fine cottons,'of woollens of almost
all descriptions, of iron jarticles, and of those from hemp, have already
arrived at a point in the'United States justifying the conclusion that some
additional encouragement from Congress is alone wanting to fix them upon
lasting and profitable foundations. This additional encouragement is invoked as a proper offset to the liigh degree of success which foreign industry has attained in these branches by the effect of capital and skill, long preexisting in older nations, dnd long aided by their laws. These are advantages,
not intrinsic, but accidental: yet theycannot be countervailed but by efficient legislative aid \p 6ur own establishments in the beginning. This
afforded, and there is the ^'trongest reason, from past experience, to feel assured
that American industry and resources, stimulated into full competition, will
supply the commodities,cheaper in price, as well as better in quality, than
they have heretofore come to us from other countries. The competition,
increasing with tirne,.^111 unfold effects more and more useful. Every
branch pf manufacture brought into successful operation is apt to become the
parent of others. New imaterials'are discovered, new combinations of skill



1827.}

^SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

.403

struck out, new aptitudes developed; Industry becomes awakened, where
before.it was inactive, carrying the country forward in individual wealth, in
general cpmfortSj'and'in financial power. For promoting^he last durably,
all expedients must prove fallacious that,are not based upon prosperous labor
pervading all classes at home. The consumption of the products of every
kind of home labor would'necess^irily increase with the increasing amount
-of productiori, and, under more encouragement given to manufactures in thp
branches recommended, might be expected to yield an. excess that wouldflow
into our export trade, augmenting its amount and the amount of its returns.
As regards cotton articles, such is the exuberance ofthe raw material in the
United States, that it camiot be assuming too much to suppose that the day '
is not remote when tb^y will largely supply other eountries" of-the world
with these fibrics. .Already.they liave begun to do so, to some extent, with
those ofthe coarser species. ^.European science, applied, to the manufacturing arts, has indeed returned to India, in the manufactured-state, the native
cotton of Indi^ ; btit it wiU be the. etfect of orir own policy if a similar.traffic be long permitted to.go on betweeri Europe^and the United States. That
the latter Vill continue, under all circumstances, to supply Europe with a
•full portion of raw cotton, cannot be doubted, from thepresentand growing
-State of that inanufacture in Europe. That they might also be enabled, by
the poWof recommended, to vie with any nation in sending even to the markets of Europe articles manufactured from this materjal, is an opinion.which
is believed to rest upon no ex-agger ated estimate of their manu ftictu ring
abiiity, hpwever dormant it may be in reference to such a result now. . That
this invaluable raw material, but thirty years ago scarcely known to our own
fields, any more than to the British loom, is destined to draw out a far greater
portion ofthe productive labor of this country than it has yet put into
action, and mark an era in its. manufacturing, as it has already done in its
agricultural riches, is an anticipation vvhich ratiorial calculations ofthe future
may justify. What is said of our cotton manufactures, may, it is believed,
be said with scarcely less confidence, eventuaUy, though perhaps not immediately, of those of wool. The latter, from beingliiore complicated in their
whole process, and more, difficult and costly in the skiU necessary to their
elaboration, naturally require more time to be reared to perfection. They,
claim on this account, and claim the more imperiously, the immediate and
decisive succor of the,laws.
,
.
>
The opinion that these and other manufactures would.come to be afforded
to us better in quality when obtained at home, cannot be passed over with
only the simple expression of it. It is ofa nature entithrig it to some further
notice. Amongst the disadvantages of manufactures not being more universahy established inthe United States, we are to rankthatof their inhabitants
being obhged to use wares ofa low quality from abroad. It is known that
a long list of articles is sent to us from both England and Frarice, if not from
other, countries, which in those countries woald be rejected by a large class
of consumers. ^ Furthermore, it is true thatan article injured in the making,
^ in reference to the highest character of workmanship, will, notwithstanding,
be sometimes shipped to this market, in the hopeof finding for it bidders that
could not so readily be commanded in Europe;. If it be said that the wealth
of this country does not at present yield a class pf purchasers .for European
articles ofthe highest workmanship, the answer recurs, that, by multiplying
our own workshops, we should,, at the proper time, be supplied with like
articles. It ought not to be supposed that the resources of our own country,



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[I827i

and the ingenuity of our own. workmen, could -not, under adequate incentives, supply them as excelleriVin quality, and as perfect^ iri finish, as those
made elsewhere- And,, although it may not now be convenient to any con.<^iderable class of consumers in this, eobntry to. make a call for articles of.
'fliis.highest stamp of manufactured excellence at the foreign prices, it isfiilly believed that the rivalry of numerous.artisans at home would raise up
skill to a point that WPuld produce such articles, whilst it would bring dowa
the prices to limits that \yould put them into circulation. It has not escaped
observation, that in Ameriean manufactures .that have alrcjady, by the aid
of the laws, obtained a preference to the foreign, there is ho inferiority, as
compared with the^ best standards ofthe same species of mariufactures produced and conslinied in the foreign country. By-opening full scope to the
competition and talents of our own artisans, the standard of excellerice, as
well as the faculty of discrimination, would he raised to a.higher tone than
when the one is formed, and the other exercised, as is now-- too often^ the'
case, upon the secondary productions of other countries, v \
In appropriate cbnnexion with these remarks, it may. be stated, as a fict
also known, that the.rav/cotton of the fir.st quality and price, which is sent
from the Uriited Stales to Europe, is not that which is returned to the United
States when manufactured. On the contrary, it is this species which is for
the most part retained fbr consumptiori in Europe ; whilst fabrics wrPught
from the inferior cotton are sent off to foreign markets generally, and ta
those-of the United States amongst.the number. Further legislative assistance to manufactures at this juncture, coming, as it would, after an interval
Ihat has leh time for the judgment of the nation to pass upon the good effects
of the tariff of 1,824, as far as it has proved adequate, would impress the conviption at home and abroad that the manufacturing system was to be incorporated, with the well understood and durable policy of rhe natiori. Besides other'advantages from this conviction, we might reasonably expect to
witness" that of seeing a new class of emigrants^ come to the United States. '
They would consist not merely of unemployed journeymen from foreign
workshops, however useful these may be ; but, in all 'probability, of master
manufacturers of capital and standing. How valuable emigrants.of this description would prove,liow they would help, to quicken, the progress of the •
country in manufacturing skill and general riches, is attested by the experience of all natioris, the wisdom of whose laws has superadded such emigrants
to their own population. The effect of their coming would not be to injure
our own manufacturers. It would benefit them. It w^ould increase their
,riunibers;. It would raise more speedily the whole class, by blending it
more thoroughly with all the other interests of the state. The foreign artisans, whom Britain sedulously drew to her shores at an early day, fully peopled
as the whole of her circumscribed territory then was, in comparison with
ours now, rank among the causes that first and most prominently elevated
her condition among nations. The effects of their ingenious industry exerted
a meliorating influence upon social life, by investing it with new means of
accommodation and embellishmeiit, and was soon followed by the largest
additions to the rural and commercial prosperity ofthe whole island. That
the productiveness and perfection of English agriculture, at the present day,
is owing to the size and power of her man ufacturing classes, is a truth not disputed. It is these classes to whose hands the harvests of her soil are carried,
whether gathered from its surface, or extracted in exhaustless mineral wealth




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SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

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'40B

from beneath it. and who become the customprs'of it all—^^the ready, cbn.;sfant, unfkiling customei:s.
- .
There is an inducement to increase legislative protection to manufactures^
in the actual internal condition of the United States, which is viewed with
an anxiousness belonging to its peculiar character and intrinsic weight... It
is that which arises frnm the great extent of their unsold lands. The mag-,
nitude of the interests |it stake in this part of our public affairs ought notlp
appal us from approaching it. It should rather impel us to look at it with^
'the more earliest desire to arrive at correct opinions on any course of legislaition that may affect, primarily or remotely, an interesi so full of importance.
The maxim is held to be a sound onp, that the ratio ofcapital to population
should, if possible, be, kept on the increase. When this takes place, the demand and compensation for labor will be proportionably increased, tind the
•eondition ofthe most numerousclasses of ihe commuriity become improved.
If the ratio of capital to population be diminished, a contrary state of things
will be the result. The manner in which the remote lands of the United
States are selling and settling, v/hilst it may possibly tend to increase more
quickly the aggregate pop.ulatioii of the country, and the mere means of subsistence, does not increase capital in the same proportion. It isa propositiori
too plain to require elucidation, that the creation of capital is retarded, rather
than accelerated, by the diffusion of ia thin population over a great surface of
.soil. Any thing that may serve to hold back this tendency tp^diffusion from
•running too far and too long into an extreme, can scarcely prpve otherwise
than salutary. Moreover, the further encouragement of manufactures by
legislative means would be but a counterbalance, and at most a partial one,
to the encouragement to agriculture by legislative means, standing but in the
very terms upon which the public lands are sold. It is not here intended to
make lhe system of selling oft', the territorial domain of theUnion a subject
ef any commentary, and still less of any complaint. The system is interwoven beneficially with the highest interests and destiny of the nation. It
rests upon foundations, both of principles and practice, deep and immoveable;.
foundations not to be uprooted or shaken. But. our gravest attention may,
on this account, be but the more wisely summoned to the consideration of
correiatiye duties, which the existence of s.rich a system in the hea,rt ofthe
state imposes. It cannot be overlooked, that the prices at which fertile
bodies of land may be bought of the Government, under this system, operate
as a perpetual allurement to their purchase. It must, therefore, be taken in,
the light ofa bounty, indelibly written in the text ofthe laws theniselves, in
favor of agricultural pursuits. Such it is in effect, though not in form.
Perhaps no enactment of legislative bounties has 'ever before operated
upon a scale-so vast, throughout a series of years, and over the face pf an entire nation, to turn population and labor into one particular channel, preferably to all others. The utmost extent of protection granted to manufactures
or commerce, by our statutes, collectively,,since the first.foundation of the
Government, hasbeen, in its iTiCre effect of drawing the people of the United
States into those pursuits, as nothing to it. No scale of imposts, no prohibitions or penalties, no bounties, no preriiiums, enforced or dispensed .at the
cus to mil ouse, has equalled it. It has served, arid still serves, to draw, in an
annual stream, the inhabitants of a majority ofthe States, including amongst
them at this day a portion (notsmah)of the western States, in to the settlement
of fresh lands, lying still farther and farther off. If the population of these
StateSj not yet redundant in fact, though appearing to be so, under this le


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[1827.

,gisla,tive incitement to emigrate, remained fixed in morelnstanees, as it probably would by extending the motives to manufacturing labor, it is believed
that the nation at large would gain, in two way's : first, by the more rapid accumulation of ca])ital.; and next, by the gradualreduction of the excess of
its agricu.ltural population over that engaged in other vocations. Itis not
imagined that it would ever be practicable, even if it were desirable, to turn
this stream of emigration aside : but resources opened, through the influence
of the laws, in new fields of industry, to the inhabitants of the States already
, suificiently peopled to enter upon them, niight operate to lessen, in some
degree, and usefully lessen, its absorbing force. The e^^e of legislation, intent
upon the whole good of the nation, will look to each part, not separately as a
part, but in conjunction with-the whole. The i:apidity with which, after all,
a civilized population,- founding new and sovereign communities, will grow
. up m those exuberant portions of territory, presents considerations favorable
to. the mairi policy inculcated. This populatipn, carrying with it the wants
and habits of society, will create a demand for manufactures, which must, at
least for some time, be suppliedfromother sources. It will hence form the
natural market of: purchase" and consumption for those produced in other
parts of the Union, rather than in foreigri countries.' By this intercourse
we may hope to see multiplied the comniercial and pecuniary ties whichlt
is fit should grow up and be cherished throughout the whole federal family,
superadding themselves to all other ties, and harmonizing ap.d compacting
the elements of a great empire. Should it still be apprehended by any, that
evils will be generated in a state of society^where large manufacturing
classes co-exist with a frill population—to such minds, the reflection must
prove consolatory, and re-assuring, that in the public lands a check to these
evils will be at hand for'ages to come. This immense domain, besides embodying all the, ingredients, piatefial and moral, pf riches and power, throughout a long vista of'the future; may, therefore, also be clung to; under'the
various springs and^conjoint movements-of our happy political system, as a
safeguard against contingent dangers. Its very possession is conceived to
furnish paramount inducements, under all views, for quickening, by fresh
legislative, countenance,'manufacturing labor throughout other parts ofthe
Union.' It is a power fo be turned to the account of nianifold and transcendent
blessings, rather than reposed upon for aggrandizing too exclusively the interest of agriculture, fundaniental as that must ever be in the state. Agriculture itself would be essentially benefited ; the price of lands in all the existing States would soon becom.e enhanced, as well as the.produce from them,
by a policy that would.in anywise tend to render portions of their present
populatipn more stationary, by supplying .newand adequate motives to their
becoming so. And, as it is, the laws that have largely, in effect, throughout
;a,long course of time..superinduced disinclinations to manufacturing labor,
by their overpowering calls to ruraMabor, iri the mode of selling off' the pubhc domain, the claim of further legal, protection to the former kind of labor,
at this day, seems to wear an aspect of justice no less than of expedienc3r.
Firially: the great plans of internal improvement, so wisely in prosecution,
or contemplated, in different po.rtionsof the country, will lose much of their
object and value if activity be not.imparted to manufacturing industry. The
increased facilities of conveyance which these plans are intended to effect,
presuppose, as their ^basis, the, necessity of transferring the produce ofthe
country from place to place. How such transfers will be increased by multiplying the.products of manufacturing labor, is apparent. New resources



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SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

407

for this kind of labor may be expected to rise up, as these plans are in progress ; whether by bringing to light occult treasures, or by affording, through
improved transportation, the meansof use tothose already known. And
then, as manufacturing enterprise, acting upon a greater variety and abundance of miaterials, shah, be seen to enlarge its spheres, how much more reciprocally benefi-cial will not its exchanges become with the produce of the
la'nd? Itis this state of things that will, emphatically bind together the'
firmer,.the manufacturer, and the merchant, in orie indissoluble connexion.
Towns and villages may be expected to ri^se up, in good lime, under such a ..
policy, Jining the borders of our canals, us of our natural streams. Scenes.
. of stirring industry will strike upon the eye, flowing from various and subdivided labor; the aggregate results of all which will stand out in the advancing cultivation and embellishments ofthe earth, and extended prosperity
a M happiness of our people. This is tbe broad policy'suited to a nation
d^estined by natural gi^fts to reach the heights of civilization and power.
Such a nation rejects, as top 'confined, the counsels that would limit her to
the walks of agriculture, of commerce, or manufactures, singly; seeing that
her resources and aptitudes of all kinds confer upon her the warrant Pf
pre-eminence in each. Unless in this combination, we have beheld'no state
enjoy any other than an imperfect or transitory greatness.
Whilst the efficient encouragement of manufactures is earnestly dwelt
upon as conducive to the fiscal strength and gerieral prosperity of the-Union,
the claims of foreign commerce press riot less forcibly upon our attention.
Each interest is alike entitled, witbin proper bounds, tothe fostering superintendence of the legislative povy'er. Amongst the expedients for augmenting the foreign trade of'a country?-, otherwise than in.the exports of its own
prpductions, none are believed to be more important than the warehousing
system. It was this system that greatly contributed to the commercial riches
• of some of the European sttites of the.middle ages, and that is now^-enlarging the commercial dominion .of nations of the present day. The. situation
• of the United States, locally ; thenumber and position of .their ports, alorig
so extended a line of coast; the tonnage of Vvrhich they are actually, in possession, with the commercial experience of their people, point them out as
peculiarly fitted to derive advantage from this system, and serve to recommend for it raore liberal enactments than any ofwhich it has yet beeii the
subject By our la.ws, as they now stand; the merchant is compelled to reexport, within a Iwelvempnth, the foreign commodity which he has importzed, or. lose the benefit of drawing back the duty he has paid upon it to the
Government. . Hence, he loses all opp'ortunity, after this limit of time, of
sending the commodity to seek foreign markets, when the market at-,home
may fail. The restriction put upon him in this respect ought, it is conceived, tobe done away, by extending the time during .which he might ex'ercise the right of re-exportation. It is not believed that.the iircreased
quaritity of foreignmerchandise, which such an, alteration in the laws might
be the means of bringing to the country, would interfere with the interests
of home manufactures, under the protection claimed for the latter, and the
guards with which they might be surrounded. The result raight be expected to prove otherwise. At present, whenever, a redundancy of foreign goods
is seen in the conntry, (as will happen occasionally in all trading countries,
from the impossibility of adapting precisely the supply tothe demand.)
the excess, if.not sent'abroad within the year, is thrown upon the home
market, at whatever reduction of price. This operates to the injury both ot



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[1827.

the home manufacturer .'and the importer. By enlarging the time of re-exportation, with privilege of drawback, such excess, wheriever existing,would be rnore likely .to seek a vent in other countries, and with improved
chances of finding it profitable. More especiahy might the prospects of
this trade in re-exportations be increased, if no transit duty existed on foreign merchandise passing through our ports ; the necessary charges being
also kept at the lowest possible point. This is a policy which the wisest commercial nations have observed. . 'An increased trade in reexportations, by
increasing the carrying trade of. the United States, may be expected to increase their tonnage ; thus giving new activity tb^ ship-building, so highly
important and valuable'a branch of manufactures to the country. The aspect ofthe times recommends to fiivorable consideration ^the alteration in the
drawback system proposed. Political and commercial revolutions, occurring, all around us, renvnd us ofthe expediency^of reviewing our own com. mercial laws, in. points where4hese revolutions have affected, or may aflect^
the operation of them. . We have seen the principal part of this continent
change th^.relations which.it held to Europe.. We have seen, as the eflect
of this and other causes, ancient channels of trade deserted,-colpnial monopolies give way, and another system open. A new Gomiliercial era is begun, of which this hemisphere is to be theprincipal scene. We have be.jheld the nations of Europe watching the course of these sChanges, and accommodating their policy—especially the Warehousing policy—-to the new
commercial wants and contingencies which have grown up, or are anticipated. VVe have'seen, above all, the leading commercial power of Europe,
whose wakeful eye is abroad throughout the commercial world, extend this
very policy, under.new,and advantageous facilities, tp her insular positions,
in seas close to our borders.' This she has done with the purpose, not concealed, of availing herself of these changes, and of meeting, in the spirit of
fair commercial competition, 'similar measures which she naturally supr
posed would go into eflect on the side of tiie United States. No such measures have been taken by the United States. In the midst of the changes
adverted to, our own cprnmercial legislation remains, so far as any bearing
upon this nevvT.comme.ixial era is concerned,.at the point where, it stood
inore than fiye-arid-twenty years ago.^ This single exceptipn is in the act of
the last session of Congress, authorizing the importation of brandy in casks
of smaller si^e than was permitted by.the act of 1799 ; an act o'bviPnsly de-.
signed to improve our export trade in this article to the new states of this
continent. - The merchant, like the manufacturer, and other interests of the
•state, requires at proper-times the assisting hand of legislation; regulation,
in one fbrm or other, being the great end of government, and useful or baffling to individual enterprise, as it is wisely or improvidently exerted.
Should the. wisdom, of Congress deerii an alteration In the laws, with a
view to enlarge the privilege of re-exportation, expedient, an authority to
build-additional warehouses in some of the principal seaport towns would
be. a necessary adjunct to the alteration. The local accommodation for
merchandise that must go into store, under the existing laws, is insufficient.
Larger and better constructed edifices are required, even for the preserit
wants-of our commerce,fand would become altogether indispensable under
an extension of the warehousing system. A commerce vvhich yields to the
national treasury a revenue of twenty millions of dollars a year, under a
tariff'far mpre nioderate, even since 1824, than that which has niarked the
career of,any great state of modern times, is entitled to adequate andhberal



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409

provisions, for the machinery necessary for carrying it on. Its local establishments should have reference, as weU to the security of the revenue, as to
the reasonable accommodation of the merchant, and the,prompt despatch of
business. It is probably not too rriucli to affirm, thait of the foreign mer.chandise, which, under the present comniercial code of the Union, is deposited in warehpuses, more than Pne-half is unduly exposed to depredation,
to frauds, and tP fire, from the nature ahd insecurity ofthe present buildings.
They are; besides, too often situated in places rempte from the customhouses and other commercial establishments, and inconvenient otherwise to
the transaction of daily commercial business. Under circumstances such as
these, the propriety of drawing the attention of Congress to the defects of the
warehousing systeni seems suffici'entlyjustifiable.
Where interests are" multifarious, as in free, populous, and opulent
communities must be the case, the hand of Government must be variously extended. Som'etimes it is wisely applied to the effective regulation pf some
of these interests, and sometimes it becomes as necessary to lighten its pressure upon others. Not only is it recommended to lessen the restriction
which bur laws have so long imposed upon the merchant, in an extensive
branch of the foreigii trade, but it is also conceived that there are articles
entering intothe list of our imports; the duties upon which itwould be expedient to reduce. Amongst these, it is thought proper to mention teas and
wines, as being prominent.
The use of tea has become so general throughout the United States, as to
rank almost ..as a necessary of life. When to this we add that there is no
rival production at home to be fostered by lessening the aniount of its iniportation, the duty upon it may safely be regarded as too high. Upon sonie of
the varieties of the article, it considerably exceeds one hundred per cent.,
and is believed to be generally above the level which a true policy points
out.' A moderate reduction of the duty would lead to an increased consumption of the article, tp an extent that, in all probability, would, in the end,
benefit rather than- injure the revenue.. Its tendency wbuld be to erilarge
our trade in exports to China; a trade of progressive value, as our cottons and
other articles of home production (aside from specie) are rnore and more
entering into it. It would cause more of the trade in teas to centre in our own
ports ; thepresent rate of duty driving pur tea ships not unfrequently to .seek
their markets in Europe—not inihe, form of re-exportations, but in the direct voyage from China. It wpuld also serve to diminish the. risk of the
United States ultimately losing any portion ofa trade so valuable, through
the pplicy and regulations of other nations.
The duty-upon wines is also believed to be higher than a wise commercial, and national policy dictates; The experience of our own, as well as
other countries, has showii that high duties upon wines do riot prove bene.ficial to the revenue.. General experience also shows that the consuriiption
of wine tends to diminish the use of ardent spirits. These are inducenients
for keeping the duties upon wines low. They are strengthened by the consideration, that, by lowering them, we shall increase beneficially our trade to
the countries whence we obtain wines. Sorne of these countries are unable
to take our productions, unless their wines be received as an equivalent.
They are, at the same time, prepared to.take them untrammeled by positive
or virtual prohibitions. It seems but just that we should take freely the
productions'of nations that take ours freely. But, in point of fact, the present rates of our tariff favor most, in many and essential things, the productions of nations that favor ours least. The rate of duty.upon wines is not only,



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in many instahces, very high, but very unequal,'as regards, the different descriptions of wines and the countries producing them. ,'The whole subject
is thought fo demand revision. Upon the superior wines of France, upon
those of the Rhine,-upon those, generally, of Spain, Portugal, the Italian
states, and perhaps some other countries,.the duties, itis believed, might feead vantageou.sly brought down. The ^manufacture of wine in the United
States does not, at this juncture,xomprehend any such large interest as to
interpose serious objections to the policy recommended. The opinion ma}''
also be'hazarded, that, in proportion as the taste for wine conies to prevail
over that for ardent "spirits, under the" encouragemerit of low duties upoii
those imported from abroad, wih a better basis be laid for the prosectition, at
a future day, of this branch of industry at home. Its prosecution might go
on, hand in hand, with lowei: duties on foreign wines, even at the present
time ; a very small amount of capital being necessary to the production of
\yines at home.
'
• '
'
A fevv remarks upon'the state ofthe trade between the'United States and
the British colonies, since the interdiction put upon it by Great Britain, will
close the riiore general observations of this report
Sufficient time has scarcely elapsed to enable us to determine, with precision, the course that this trade will ultimately take, as regards the amount
of supplies, the channels through which they will chiefly pass, and the proportions of American and. British tonnage likely to be employed intheir
transportation.. The British Interdict of July, 1826, left an interval before
its actual operation. This did not commence until the 1st of December of
that year. The interval, it is uriderstood, was improved ih accumulating in
the British West India ports supplies of provisions, and other necessary articles, from the United States. Geographical causes, in their nature unchcuigeable, render it manifest that such supplies can be sent to the British
islands in more abundance, and on cheaper tPrms,-from the United States,
than from parts of the world mo.re remote, or from climates less favorable
to their productibn". .Nevertheless, the British Government, true toits invariable riiaxirn of encouraging the industiy of its owri subjects in preference
to that of foreigners, laid duties upon these supplies whe.n coming from the
United States, designed to countervail the greater cheapness with which
they could be furnished over similar supplies frPm the British colonies of
North' America.' . It was to no purpose that Britain was urged, in protracted
negotiations, to forego this discrimination in favor of her own subjects. She
steadily adhered to it: affording^a fresh and signal example toother nations,
that to protect the agricultural as'well as the manufacturing labor of her own
people, in whatever region situated, is apoint in her policy, to which.that of
buying cheap from strangers knows when and how to yield.. As the British
Nprth American colonies were enabled, with the aid of these protecting
duties, to fbrnish a portion of the.supplies necessary to the British islands,
leaving the United States to, furnish the residue, whilst the direct intercourse
between the latter and those islands remained open, it is not believed that
the trade, under ordinary circumstances, will be materially affected in aniount
by the direct intercourse being closed. T h e continued necessity of drawing the major part Pf those supplies from the United States was seen in the
fact of Q,uebec havirig been made an entrepot for their flour and other articles
at an earl.y day after the commencement of the interdict; and. afterwards, by
an act of the British Parliament," which admits, duty free, various, prod nets,
of the United States into Canada, whence their exportation to the islands is



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411

legalized, as of the proper products' of Canada. It is by the establishment
of such depots that the desire of Great Britain is also evinced to draw.to
hprsplf a preponderating share ofthe carrying trade between her, islands and
the United States. It is through these circuitous channels—also through
N'ew Brunswick and Nova Scotia, through the ports and islands' of intermediate powers, as St. Jagode Cuba, Carthagena, St Bartholomew's, St. Eustatius, St. Thomas—that Jariiaica and the Windward islands will chiefly
derive from the United States the supplies that they have heretofore had
liom them, and still continue to want. It is even known, that biscuit has •
been shipped from Philadelphia for Jamaica, by way of Liverpool; andthe flour ofthe United States,-under bonds iri the warehouses of Liverpool,
will also, it is thought, find its way to consumption in the larger islands of
the British West Indies. " The Bahamas will probably experience most inconvenience from the course of this trade being forced into these indirect
channels, from their relative inability to sustain the increased expense with
which it will be burdened. This, we may presume, will be shared by both
parties ; the transhipments and other interniediate agencies necessary "to keep.
the trade in activity being, to a certain extent, common to both. What will
be the relative proportion of the tonnage of the two nations emplpyed in
carrying oh this trade, carinot, at present, -be stated with, confidence. It is
not probable that that of the United States will suffer, where the competition can be niade equal; but it is possible that some diminutfon of their,
shipping may be eventually witnessed, in favor of the. flag of soriie third
power."" It is the declared policy of Britciin to produce such a result, rather
than allow, by any arrangements which she can control, the tonnage pf a
nation already as large as that of the United Sta.tes to becomelarger. Next
T the angmentatiPn of her own tonnage, it is the aim ofthe British laws to
O
bring into employment the tonnage of the smaher maritime powers of the
world. If the anticipation be correct, that the^British islands will continue
to receive, indirectly, their supplies from the United States, without material diminution,the revenue will not suffer; since our ex.ports, through
whatever channels thPy reach the islands,--may be expected to be followed
by equivalent returris. It may be repeated, however, that further time is
necessary for establishing definite conclusions upon this and the other
points adverted to. It is ascertained that the imports into the United States
from the VT^hple of the West Indict islands, for the first six months, of the
present year, fall below the average rate of those of the first six months of
the threeyears preceding, including importations from the British islands.
On the other htind, our exports to the whole of the West Indies, during the
first six months of 1827, have exceeded their average arnount for the same
period during the three years preceding, including exports to the British
islands.
.
.
The estimates, in detail, of the revenue for the ensuing ye^ir. will now be
given. For the general observations upon the home industry and foreign
trade of the country that have been gone' into, the indulgence of Congress
is, with the utmost deference, solicited, under the motives that have prompted them. All fmancial plans must ultimately be dependant upon the flourishing state in which a sagacious and comprehensive policy may aid in placing
the great agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial interests of the nation ; not in a spirit of partisanship for either, but by weighing co-equally
the claims of each, and striving to secure the enriching results of all. It
is in the anxious endeavor and humble hppe of exhibiting them, urider .this



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R E P O R T S OF -THE

[1827.

alliaiice. to the correcting and controlhng wisdom .of Congress, that this
report has been prepared!
The gross amount of duties which accrued on imports, and tonnage,
from the 1st of Janua.ry to the 30th of September last, is estimated at twenty-one milliPn two hundred and twenty-six thousand dollars. The gross
amount that will, accrue for the last quarter, of the year,"i^ estimated at five
mihion seven hundred and seventy-four thousand; making an aggregate
of twerity-seven millioris for the entire year.
The debentures for drawbacks issued during the first three quarters of
the year amounted to $3,381,942 79 ; and the" amount outstanding on the
30th September was $2,516,966 45; of which $1,245,057 17 are chargeable upon the revenue of 1828..
,
,
The,amoiint of diity bonds iri suit, Pn the 30th of September last, was
$4,136,812 64; which is more, by $128,929 88, than,was in suit on the
same day of the year preceding.
' In estimating the probable amount of duties that will, be received, as
compared with the gross amount secured on the importations of the year,
the necessary deductions are to be made, not only for drawbacks, but for
the expenses of collection, and.various losses that may happen. -Making
what is judged, to be a full aUowance on all these accounts, for. the present
occasion', the receipls from the customs in 1828 are esti- .
mated c^t '
-'•
^
- . ••
$20,372,700
^ ,'
Those from .the sales of the public lands,
-.
are estimated at
-'.
1,400,000
From bank dividends
420,000
And from all other sources , -.
• 107,300
Making an aggregate of
.—
•.—- $22,300,000 00
The expenditure for 1.828 is estiniated as follows, viz:
'
Civil, miscellaneous, and diplomatic
- ; $1,828,385 14
^
Military service, including fortifications,
,
ordnance. Indiaii department, revolu- .
<
tionary and military pensions, arrriing
cthe militia, and arrearages prior to the
Istof January, 1817 - '
-. 4,332,091 05
Naval service, including the gradual in, ,
crease of the navy
-.
- 3,786.649 25. '
Publicdebt
- ^
- 10,000,000.00 .
Makihg a total of
.' .•
: 19,947,125 44
And leaving an excess of receipts for the year, pver its
expenditure, of"
-.
-. $2,352,874 56
The estimate of revenue from all sources, for 1828, has been made
850,000 dollars lower than that for 1827. This has been done, to guard, as far
as possible, against unfavorable contingencies. Nevertheless, the present
estimate is formed oh a larger amount of duties, secured by bond on merchandise imported, than the estimate for 1827. Hence there is reason,
from all present appearances,lo believe that, although the estimate for 1828
is less than that for 1827, the receipts will prove greater.
All which is most respectfully submitted.
• : ;.'
,, \ '^
. RICHARD RUSH.^
TREASURY DEPAIITHENT, December^ 8, 1827.



A.

oo

A S T A T E M E N T exhibiting the duties tohich accrued on merchandise, tonnage, passports, and clearances ; ofi debentures issued on the exportation ofi fioreign merchandise; ofi payments fior drawback on domesiic distilled spirits
and domestic refined' sugar, exported; ofi bounty on salted fish exported; ofi alloioances to vessels employed in tke
fisheries; ofi expenses of collection : and ofi j)ayments made into the Treasury,' during ihe year ending on the 31st
day ofi December, 1826.
^
Drawback on
Debentures domestic., dis- Bounties and Gross revenue, Expenses of Nett reyenue.
Payments
issued.
tilled spirits allowances.
made into the
collection.
and domestic
Treasury.
Merchandise. Tonnage and Passports and
refined sugar,
light money. clearances.
exported.
DQTIES

• Year.

1826

o

ON

S26,087,352 78 S150,070 55 Sll,716 00 S5,04fi,3l0 00

TREASURY .DEPARTMENT,




m
td

SO,1S8 60

S229,683 28 S20,963,957- 45 $715,903 15 .i^20,;248,054. 30 .•$23,34 t.33t^

Register's Ofice, December 7, 1827.
. . / • / '
' .

'

o

^
JOSEPH NOURSE, i^^^^-i^/'^r.

[.Statements B and C are in preparation, and will be transnfitted as soon as they arc completed.]

Cd

>

Ul

a

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•

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•

•

• D .

.

.

.

•

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.

.

.^
^

^

S T A T E M E N T ofi lands sold at the several land offices ofi the United States, and ofi moneys received in payment ofi
jpublic lands, firom the 1st ofi January, 1826, to ihe 3lsi December fiolloxoing, inclusive; showing, also, the incidental
expenses ofi said offices, arid parjrnents oriade into tke Treasury during the same period.

Ciuantity sold.
Land offices.

Marietta
Zanesville
-.
Steubenville
.Chillicothe''.
Cincinnati
Wooster
Piqua
Delaware
Jeffersonville Vincennes
- .
Indianapolis ^Cr.awfordsville Fort Wayne ^
Shawneetown Kaskaskia
Edwardsville Vandalja
Palestine
, Springfield
St. Louis
- p
Franklin
Cape Girardeau
Palmyra
- ,
Lexington



Purchase money. Amount received
under the credit
S3^stem.

Aggregate re• ceipts.

Incidental expenses.

Payments made
into'the Treasury.

Acres.
.
-.

.
-

-

-

- '

-

-

.
-

-

.
-

-

.
'.

-,
-

-

-

-

.
.

.

.

.

. ..

.
.
- '
.
. .
.
-

.
;..
.
-

,
.

.

12,111.53
29,314.21
28,894.55
13,3.06.44
10,6-25.12
16,128.25
2,383.82
20,965.10
10,720.74
13,154.65
71,081.85
103,106.92
2,041.06
2,086.87'
1,901.28
6,584.93
1,472.61
12,915.63 .
56,122.41
14,532.78
30,968.08 ,
3,314.73
9,701..44
no. sajes..

S15,139 38 .
, 37,517 63
36,118 18
17,005 39
13,281 40
20,1(30 302,979 72
26,206 37
13,400 92
16,443 30
87,8^12 16
128,883 64 '
2,551 31
2,608 60
2,376 60
8,231 17
1,840 75
.17,.587.19
70,215 45
18,166 01
. 38^712 48
4,193 61
12,126 79

.-

S15,468
41,292
. 39,109
19,779
19,011
23,999
2,979
_
26,206
2.667 50
16,068
2;412 35
18,855
87,842
128,883
2,551
_
3,190
582 20 '
150 00
2,526
8,239
8 38
1,840
17,.587
70,215
; 18,166
1,900 4340,612
4,193
_
12,126
_
S328 84
3,774.84
2,991 23
2,773 m
5,730 10
3,839 21

•

'

^.

-

_'

22^
47
41
25
50 '
51
72
37
42
65
1664
31
80
60
55
75
19
45
01
91
61
79

St,638
3,809
2,895
1,777
"3,302
2,410
1,310
1,813
1,492
1,631
.2,670
4,653
1,214
1,435
.1,328
1,400
1,186
1,524
3,427
^ 3,574
15,039
1,471
1,563
500

02
57.
38
28
52
25
05
06
83
76
74
25
97
00
74
72
28
32 69
76
23
97
48
00 '.

.914,736
39,371
33,401
• - 14,068
19,950
, 21,934

20
58
54
1.7
76
10

41,08^6
;14,411
24,775
66,065
145,208
5,725
1,850
1,810
10,050

57
97
37
87
94
04
00
57
00

o
Ul

o
td

,

' 17,442 65
77,187 92
17,6^25 68
30,278 09
8 25
10,340 57
8,630 00

GO

Little Rock
Batesville
' Ouachita
.
Opelousas
New Orleans . St. Helena court-house'
Cahaba
"
St. Stephen's - . . ' ' - '
HuntsvilleTuscaloosa
Sparta Washington Augusta
Jackson (Choctaw district)
Detroit - • r
-Monroe
Tallahassee
-

-

-

•

. ^ '

',
-

"'

"

.

-

- '

-

Aggregates

.

-

^ -

8,333.43 - • 10,416 78
6,273.45.
5,018.77
18,070 49 •
14,082.66
5,631 39
4,505.12,
, 746 37
597.09
no sales.
_
44,217 11
35,373.73• 21,775 09
17,420.08
8,331 52
6,665.22.
151,895 19
86,618.05
2,011 59
1,609.28
9,302 15
7,441.75
1,201 33
' 961.07 •
•
94,263 38
74,019.55
77,581 86
47.125.13
16,613 91
12;236.83
65,580 45
52,464.36
847,996.76-

1,127,500 41

^
_
• '

_

1^,058 57
'

_i

-•

^

2,384 18
2,450 75

,-

_
3,345 38

V

''
_
36,397 82

10,416
6,273
18,070
0,689
746

_

44,217
24,1.59
10,782
151,895
2,011
12.647
i,'201
94,263
77;581
.16,613
65,580

78
45
49'
96
37
11
27
27
19
59
53
33/
,38
86
91
45

1,163,898 23

1,518
1,415
1,807
1,2^4
1,514
1,000
5,159
4,677
2,825
8,122
1,302
4,006
1,139
4,748
3,729
1,742
2,205

70
58
14 •
11
92
00
67
67
85'
57
17
66
63
55
33
38
85

111,212 65

^

8,905 G
O
2,003 00
• 17,500 00
4,500 00
1,812 10

-'
^

167,508 16
8,'00 00
101,41104
158,886 76
7,414 G
O
8,265 86

-140,269
102,383
19.866
29,099

20
73
78
62

GO

to

Ul

o

1,393,785^09

NOTE.—The column oi ^'incidental expenses" in this statement, is greatly" increased, in consequence of the operation ofthe act of 22d May, 1826,'
providing for the'allowance to registers and receivers of the amount of clerk-hire incurred in the execution of the' laws for (he relief of the purchasers
ofpublic lands, passed in the years 1821, 1822, and 1823; and.allowing the one-half of one percent, onthe payments made by relinquishment and discounts;
and, a;lso, in consequence of allowances made to receivers, for depositing public moneys since 20th April, 1818, in pursuance of the. provisions of an act
to that effect, passed on the 2,2d May, 1826.
' .
\
•

O
&3

TRS^ASURY D E P A R T M E N T ,

General L a n d Office, October 3], 1827.>




Ul

• GEO-. GRAHAM. Commissioner.

cd

416

• R E P O R T S . O F T H K • '•

[1827.

S T A T E M K N T ofi. money s received into the Treasury, firom all sources
otker tkan customs and public lands, during the year 1826.
From arrears of old direct tax
'• $1,514 28
''
new direct tax
5,124.48
new internal revenue
- • 21,589 93
fees on letters patent
-.
-/
9,420 00
cents coined at. the mint
- ,
- . 17,041 00postage of letters
- , >>
- ^
,-•
' 300 14
fines, penalties; and forfeitbres
-.
1,382 44
surplus emoluments of ofhcers of the customs
••
37,299 20
interest o''n balances due by banks to the United States
720 73
passage money of American seamen returned
' 5 0 00.
received under theact to abohsh theUnited States'
trading establishments with the Indian's ,- ,
.2,959 25
• nioneys previously advanced on account of treaty
with Spain . ' ' r • ' - .
327 45
dividends.on stock in the Bank ofthe United States - 402,500 00
.^500,228 90
balances of advances made in the War Department,
repaid under the third section of the. act of 1st
iWay,1820 ^
' - ' ' "

•25,088 45

' / $5.25,317 35

TREASURY, DEPARTMENT,

•

. . Register's Office. November 28^1827.
•
'
• . JOSEPH NOURSE, Register.




f
1827.J

SECRETARY OP .'THE TREASURY.
•

•

p ^

,

• ,-

. ,

417

. .

S T A T E M E N T ofi tke expenditures ofi ike United States, fior the year
,
1 8 2 6 . .,• ' . • • • • •
" . • .
CIVIL, MISCELLANEOUS, AND DIPLOMATIC, VIZ :

Legislature
. '
Executive departnients Oflicers of the mint
Surveying department, Commissioner of tlie;Public Buildings Governments in/the Territories of the
United States
Judiciary
Annuities and grants
. Mint establishment
- Unclaimed merchandise
, Light-hbuse establishment
.Surveys of public lands•;
Registers and receivers of land offices
Preservation of the public archives in
Florida
-•
Land claims in Florida Territory
Land claims in St. Helena land district Roads within the State of Ohio Roads within the State of Indiana
Roads and canals within the State of Mississippi
. Roads and canals within the State of
Alabama
-"
Roads and canals within the State of
Missouri
-i
Paynient to Ohio, of the.ilett proceeds of
lands sold under the 3d section ofthe
act ofthe 28th February, 1823
Repairing the post road in the Indian
country, betweeii Jackson and Columbus, in the State of Mississippi"
Repayment for larids erroneously sold by
the United States
-Marine hospital estabUshment Public buildings in Wasliington
Bringing the votes for; Prbsident and Vice
-President of tfe UnitedStates
Appropriation of priie mphey Payment of balances, due to officers of old
internal revenue and direct.tax
Payment of balances to collectors of new
internalrevenue
- . Stock in the Chesapeake and Delaware
Canal Company
- ,
StockintheDismal Swamp Canal Company
VOL. II.—27




$493,356 45 /
489,776 07
. 9,600 60
r6,718 82'
1,699 94
.36,i58',82
209,455 38

' •

$1,256,745 48
2;i50 00
34,068 27 •
356 06
188,849 72
. 46,769'65
2,993 96
750 OG
9,723 48 '
•4,487 16
9,799 71
7,176 97 •

' ,

5,888 15
12,958 28
1,385 64
17,823 85
15,000.00
342 40
51,236 98
91,271 97
4175
^ 4,297 45
.
35 70
428 02
^
107,500 00
150,000 00

•

-418

• .

REPORTS OF THE .

Stock in the Louisville -and Portland
Canal Company
- _^ ^ .
'Payment bf claims for property lost
Payment of claims for buildings destroyed, per act 3d March, 1825 Miscellaneous expenses

•

[1827.

$30,000 00
288 76
208,311 46
106,777 75
,$1,110,713 23

Diplomatic department , -^Mission to the Congress ofPanama
Contingent expenses of foreign intercourse
Reliefand protection of American seamen
Treaty of Ghent, (6th and. 7th articles) Treaty of Ghent (1st article)
Payment of claims under the 9th article
of the treaty with Spain
Treaties with Mediterranean powers

152,476.90
9,000'00
. 18,627 07
20,061 15
10,500 00 ,
10,000 op

, "'

' '*'

9,967 88
2,086 08
- 232,719:08

-1

MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT.

$2,600,177 79
•

.Pay of the army -, ,1,0,12.243 66
SuJDsistence
254,220 41
^Quartermaster's department
- 301,370 66
Forage -- .
32,253 90
Clothing . - . , ; . . 25.5,770 74 '
Bounties and premiums
. 9;394 02
r
Expenses of recruiting -.
- •
, 9,041 37
Medical department
• 21,454 71,
Purchase of woollens for 1827 2O1OOO 00
Contingencies - ^
-,
-,
10,787 68
.^
Military Academy."West Point r
.
20,309 32
Armories
' .
355,117 06
Arsenals
' , -'
49,317 86- .
Arsenal at Vergennes , 6,400 00 ,, ' .•
• .'
Arsenal at Augusta ., 6,392 95
Ordnance
- .
58,766 63
Armament of new fortifications ' 10,662.93
Arming and equipping militia - .
' 186,16^5- 71
..
Maps, plans, &c. for the War Department
84 87 •• '.'•'?:• " 3 •••
Repairs and contingencies of fortifications
9,243 96
Fort Monroe ,-- ' .106,100 00
Fort Calhoun 77-400 00
s .• •. \^ '
Fort Delaware --,
, . • 18,'47'9 75
Fort at Mobile Point
94;714 99.
Fort Adonis ; 89,221 25
Fort Hamilton 78,q08' 00
Fort at Rigolets and Chef Menteur
81,329 29^
r^"
Fort Jackson 75,940.58
Fort Constitution
2,500 .00
Fort B.eaufort 845 00
Fort at Cape Fear
57,800 00
Fort Bienvenue
.
50,000 00.
Fort at Bogue Point
12,100 00



I

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1-

•

:

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.

..._

; '-T

; . ,

•1827.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY. • •

Purchase of Throg's Point .115,000 00
Deepening the harbor of Presque Isle
-9,095 00
Repairs of Plymouth beach - . - ,
11,000 00
Preservation of islands in Boston harbor
32,950 00
Building pier at the mouth of Buffalo creek 10,000 00
Building pier at Newcastle, Delaware
104 01
Building pier on Steel's Ledge, Be.lfast, Me. - -. 600 00
Survey of public piers at Chester, Pa.
, -.,28 28
Removing obstructions iii the mouth of Huron river, Ohio
' 1,500 00
Removing obstructions in Grand river
.1,000 00
400 00
Survey of Saugatuck river and harbor. Conn.
^i:v..^/ vv^
Survey of Piscataqua river, Maine 200 do
Survey of the harbor of Edgartown, &c.
500 00
Survey of, Sandusky -bay, Ohio
/ 400 00
Survey of Oswego bay and harbor. New York
•300 00
Survey of Laplaisance^ bay, Michigan
200 00
Removing obstructions in th^e mouth of Ashtabula creek, Ohio
. 1,000 00
Removing obstructions in Cunningham creek,
Ohio : ,1,000 00
Survey ofthe Swash, in Pamhco sound, N. C.
1,000 00
Improving the Ohio and Mississippi rivers - . 16,002 1 8
Surveys, &c., roads and canals
32,887 22
Continuation of the Cumberland road
125,469 00
Road from Ohio to Detroit 14,107 45
Road from Missouri to New Mexico 15,000 00
Road from Memphis to Little Rock 9,204 00
Eoad from Pensacola to St. Augustine
2,069 00'
2,441 7 4 ' '
Road from Little Rock to Cantonment Gibson
6,000 OA)
Road from Colerain to Tampa Bay .
927 85
Road from Cape Sable to Suwanee 16,423 29
Florida canal
.Balances due to certain .States on account of
17.039 51.
mihtia
.- '
66,563 22
Interest due to the State of Maryiand
21,710 35
Interest due fo the city of Baltimore 40,264 86
Interest due to the State of New York
6,530 00
Interest due to the Sjate of Delaware
251.399 01
Invalid and half-pay pensions
1,305.194 82
-Revolutionary pensions
985 18
Ransom of Amefican captives in the late war
168 25
Paynient for property lost, &c.
Relief of officers, &c., engaged in Seminole
3,764 99
campaign .76,649 12
Relief of sundry individuals 15,459 50
Arrearages - . 14,914 09
Civihzation of Indians
- .
29,860 32
Pay of Indian agents
12,131 59
Pay .of sub-agents •16,387 50
Presents to Indians ••
130,542 12
Contingencies of Indian department 


.419

^^

|182T„

REPORTS OF T H E

•420

Compensation to citizens of Georgia iinder
the Creek treaty of 1821
General councils with Indians on Lake Superior - , _ '; - ;. Ciaims against Osages , Running a line dividing the Territoryof
Florida from Georgia r - ''
Removal of Creek Indians west of the Mis^
sissippi Relief of the'Florida Indians
Treaty with the Mbrida Indians Creek treaty of 1825
- " - Creek treaty of 1826
Choctaw treaty
-.
Choctaw schools .- (
Holding treaties with the Choctaws and
Chickasaws
. - , Eftecting the treaties with the Osas^es and
Kanzas ' -^
-, ^
Holding treaties with the Miami and Pottawatamie Indians, &c. Negotiating and carrying into effect certain
Indian treaties' - ^
Annuities to Indians ;
^
-

$23,000 W
27,000 00
2,407 71
300.90
564 04
7,249 75
3)218 00
"20,813 88
7^^658 00
2j056 51
•2,804 00'.
15,000 00
18,306 18
15,000 00
80,262 29
243,542 93

6,250,693 '91.
Gratuities
Fortifications
Survey of t\\.e coast of the
United State's
Survey of Marblehead ahd
Holmes'sHole
Extinguishment of ladian
title's in Michigan Purchase bf three tracts of land
in Tuscaraiwas county, Oh\o

repayments
$454 73
3,791 31
2,586 00

^

"

•

54 76
507 76
; 63 32
7,457 88
16.243,236 03
. . . !(

.-

..

.

NAVAL E S T A B L I S H M E N T . .

Pay of the navy afloat
Pay of the navy sliere stations
Provisions
Repairs of vessels Inclined plane docks, &c. SMp-houses .^ •\:-'-\
Navy yard, PortsrriGuth Navy yard, Boston ^
Navy yard,.New Ybrk
Navy yard, Pliiladelphia Navy yard, WasKiii'gtpn Navy yard, Norfolk
Navy yard, Pensacola




-

-

.'

- .

-

. '

.

,1,025,968 56
131,823 56
28^^660 88
' 485,970V85
10^017 41
44,296 52
11,216 16
40,000 ;oo
53,098 "58
30,490 26
. * .32,480' 7 4 •
54;063 88
40:200 00

1827.]

SECRETARY. OF T H E TREASURY.

Medicines and liospital stores
- ,
Contingent, not enumerated, for 1824
Contingent, not enumerated, for 1825 '
Contingent for 1826 '
- '^
- ''
Contingent, not enumerated, for 1826
'Gradual increase ofthe navy
Ordnance and ordnance stores
Ten sloops of war
Superintendents, artificers, &c.
Laborers and fuel for e,ngine
Survey of Savannah, Brunswick, &c.
Suppression of piracy
Prohibition of slave trade Relief of Edward Lee
.
Pay and subsistence of marine corps
dothing for the marine corps
Medicines for the marine corps
Military stores for the marine corps
Contingent expenses of the marine corps
Fuel for the marine corps
Barracks for the marine corps
-

421

- $32,833 18
. 304 15
673 88
- 238,855 18
1,217 80
- 793,704 92
36,312 84
-' 506,163 84 .
53,630 13
- ' 13,461 97
1,299 43 • ^
- < 2,559 62
22,220 81
2,8I2'50
- 219,686 73
25,960 47
• -•
2,283 28
1,559 70 .
14,096 23 .
9,321 45
5^,838 23

•
\

^

-

4,233,983 74
From which deduct the following repayments, viz:
.
'
^
Navy, yards, docks, and
. wharves .. " .
-. ^2,843 23
Contingent prior to 1824 -' '8,520 '05 .
Contingent for 1824
- 1,431 22'
Contingent for 1825
- . 58.09
Arrearages of contingent,
mar ihe corps - 2,228 70
•
— . 15,081 29
$4,218,902 45
PUBLIC DEBT.

Interest on the funded debt
-.' • :.- 3,975,542 95
Redemption of 6 per cent, stock of 1813
>
( 7 | millions) . - 5,062,402'50
Rede'mption of 6 per cent, stock of 1813
(16 millions). . . ^- 2,002,306 71
Bedemption of 7 per cent, stock of 1815 25 00'
Reimbursement of Mississippi stock
; 450 00
Principal and interest of Treasury notes ' 327 17
Paying certain parts of domestic debt
27 86
11,041,082 19
24,103v39|^6
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

"

Register's Offuce\November•28,1827. ^
: ^
. JOSEPH NOURSE, Register.




G.
S T A T E M E N T ofi lands sold at the several land offices ofi the Uriited States, and ofi moneys received in payment ofi
public lands, firom the 1st ofi Jariuary, 1827, to the 30th ofi June fiollowing, inclusive; showing, also, the incidental
expenses ofi said offices, and payments m^ada irito tke Treasury during ike same period.
Gtuantity sold.
'

L a n d offices.

.

^

^

^

•

...
.

Acres, hdths.
r

Marietta
Zanesville
, Steubenville ." Chillicothe
Cincinnati
. -~
Wooster
- .
. '.' -•
Piqua --,
•Delaware
Jefifersonville . ,Vincennes
.. Indianapolis
_ .
_
.
Crawfordsville. . Fort W a y n e .
,
Shawneetownc. Kaskaskia"
, Edwardsville - .
- "
Vandalia
- .
- Palestine
' •.•
Springfield
^ - ' ' - .
St. Louis
* .Franklin
Cape G i r a r d e a u
' -•
Palmyra
- '
- - . Lexington.
=
"
Little Rock
- • • - _
^ .'
Digitized forBate-sville
FRASER
. - ' ".,'



'

P u r c h a s e money. A m o u n t received
u n d e r the credit
system.
Dolls.-Cts.

Dolls. Cts. .

A g g r e g a t e re• ceipts.

Dolls. Cts.

Incidental expenses.

to
CO

Payments m a d e
into the Ti-easury. .

•" .

•. ^ Dolls. Cts.

Dolls'. Cts.

-- ' •
•

-

4 , 0 9 1 76
3,275;'82
14,245.38
17,690 25 '
'13,871.33
16,089 16
4,719.56
5,899 49
5,701.68
•. . 7,127 10
.5,944.15
7,430 17 •
. > 1,572.69
1,965 86
11,653.90
14,567 38
\ _
4,996 19
3,996.96
4,623 47
3,698.77
,
_
32,186 25
25,260.57
,
33,815.95 .
42,269 9 3 .
•
1,208.78"
1,510 97
•
1,362 47
1,089.98
455.76
579 09
,
2,4.54.16
3,067 71
479 54
383.64
.
3,164.23
. 3,955 29
, - • -' . 10,240.92
. 12,801 94
. - 6,510.93'
. 8,138 70
17,582 31
14,065.83 .
'
1,500 61
1,200.49
' • - ,
6,023 80
4,819.02
- ' , - .
26,000.23
32 ,.732 33
.
896 88
717.50
1,320 89
1,056.71
.

8,952-26
38,317 84
31,403 25
16,917 71
44,993 67
22,965 10
1,965 86
_
14,567 38
_ 69
20,453
25,449 88
22,313 41
17,689 94 "
32,186 25
_ '
42,269 93 .
_
•
1,510 9 7 .
1,216 84
2,579 31
690 36
1,269 4.5
• 3,.307 .55
2,39 84
479 54
•
3,955 29
.
12,801 94
4,893 74
13,032 44
- '9,782-66
27,364 97
1,500-61
_
6,023 80
_.
32,732 33
_
." 896 8,8
.
1,320 89
~ =>
4,857
20,627
15,314
11,018
37,866
15,534

50
59
09
22
57
93 .

" •

1,391
1,058
2,023
2,305
3,46S
2,296
509
1,307
2,378
1,859
2,223.
1,599
590
1,941
1,895
633
547
584
1,110
2,398
1,234
.012
'630
949
• 688
710

06
24
45
09
31
52
1-3
32
11
01
53
39
06
75
69
41
63
19
85
47
22
87
09
68
26
11

5,320 80
8,447-38
• 18,988 01
14,400 80
16,155 11
' 16,203 35
2;437 39
12,650 31
24,607 42
4,799 87
76,3.39 44
; 71,806 85
1,440 00

-

•

;

~

•
.'
-

.

Ul

O

• ' 7 6 56
5,073 47
6,426
21,555
11,475
35,209

,

o

06
94
83
31

10,850 00
CO

• 2,000 00

-^1

Ouachita
Opelousas
-,
•- !New Orleans ~ . St. Helena court-house Cahaba
- '
St. Stephen's Huntsville
'
,
Tuscaloosa
Sparta
Washington Augusta
-.
Jackson, Choctaw district
- .Detroit
Monroe
- '
Tallahassee -

_
-

Aggregates

^

16,603.06
846.13
town lots
no sales
16,704.51 /
3,939.41
2,001.92 ^
8,623.30
23,134.86
2,896.14
79.87
22,589.65
18,939.47
3,831.30
121,372.99

2,003 81
1,057 66
134,451 00
-

.

•

20,882
4,924
. 2,502
10,779
29,863
3,'620
99
•28,376
23,679
4,789
167,397

426,687.55

42
43
.38
46
78.
16
85 •
75- "
58 ,
15
16

685,320 13

_.

2,965 72

_
^

29,453 40
. 1,389 83
11,253 30

_
_ '
_
_

29,741 41
1,847 14

_
236,836^77

2,003 81
4,023 38
134,451 00

_

50,335
6,314
13,755
10,779
29,863
33,361
99
28.376
25;526
4,789
167,397

82
26
68
46
78
57
85
75
72
15
16

922,156 90.

793
696
2,117
500
2,870
1,842
3,559
1,203
1,088
1,927
•500
1,754
2,185
885
3,956

64
66
8600
19
14
67
96
12
99
00
75
84
61
75.

-62,829.62

5,-004 17
100,538 91

CO

^

30,535 64
8,500 00
7,650 00
Ul

13,000 00
20,918
22,122
.6,000
184,845

o

92
61
00
98

765,380 13

-

$765,380 13
446,631 16

Aggregate of payments during the first three-quarters of the year 1827 -

o

§1,212,011 29

Payments into the Treasury to the 30th of June, as above
Payments into the Treasury during the third quarter, 1827 -

-

NOTE.—The column of*' incidental expenses,'^ in this statement, is greatly increased in, consequence ofthe operation ofthe ac.t of May 22, 1826,'providing
for the allowance to registers and receivers of the amo'unt of clerk hire incurred in the execution of the laws, for the relief of the jDurchasers of public
lands, passed in the years 1821, '22, and '23 ; and allowing the one-half of one .per cent, on the payments made by relinquishment and discounts; and, also,
in consequence of allowances made tb receivers for depositing public moneys since the 20th'of April,^1818, in pursuance"of the provisions of an act to"that
eftect,,passed on the 22d May, 1826.' .
,•
* •
..
-.
•
„ • .•

ffi

:>
Ul
K!

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

GenercdLand Office, October 31, 182Z,




GEO RGE GRAHAM, Commissioner.

CO

.424'

• REPORTSOF THE

[1827...

H.
S T A T E M E N T ofi moneys received irito^ tke Treasury, firom all sour ees
otker tkan customs arid puhlic lands, firom the 1st of January to tke
30tk Septemher, 1827.
From dividends on stock in the Bank of the United States $420,000 00
awards under the first article treaty of
^
/
'
Ghent, for slaves and other property $602,480 00
arrears of new direct tax
2,626 90
• new;, internal revenue
18,149 23
fees on letters patent 8,130 00
cent# coined at the mint
14,376 32
postages of letters , . 101 00 '
fines, penalties, and forfeitures
< .
20 00
surplus emolument of oflicers of the ^
customs
- ;
T
-'
27,880 49
interest on balances due by banks to
^
the United States 3,000 00
nett proceeds of vessels condemned
under the slave trade acts 4,791 18
*
a person unknown, stated to be on account of duties on imports and tonnage
6 00
681,561 12
balances of advances, made in the War Department,
repaid under the third section of the act of 1st May,
1820 •
.•.. .32,344 .98^
$1,133,906 10
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Office, November 28, 1827.
JOSEPH NOURSE, i?^^i5'.^er./




1&27.]:

42^

SECRETARY O F T H E ' TREASURY.
<

L

••-•

•

.^

S T A T E M E N T of the expenditures ofi tke United States, firorn the
1st ofi January io the 30tk ofi September, 1827.
CIVIL, M I S C E L L A N E O U S , A N D DIPLOMATIC, VIZ'.

Legislature
- ;
Executive-departments Officers of the mint
Surveying department - '
Commissioner of the Public Buildings in
Washington Governments in the Territories of the
United States Judiciary'

$308,589 25 •
394,437 74
7,200 00
'21,01 r 54

Annuities and grants
Mint establishment
—
Unclaimed merchandise ,
Light-house establishnient.
Surveys of pubhc laiids Registers and receivers of land offices Preservation of the public, archives in
Florida .
Land claims in Florida .Territory
Land claims in St; Helena land district Roads within the State of Qhio Roads within the State of Indiana
Roads and canals in the State of Alabama
Roads and canals^in the State of Missouri
Roads and canalsin.the Stateof Mississippi
Repairing the post-road between Chatahoochie and Line creek, Alabania - Marine hospital estabhshment" Public buildings in Washington
Appropriation of prize nioiiey Payment of balances to cbllectors of new
internal revenue"
Stock in the Louisville and Portland Canal Conipany Payment of claims for property lost
Payment of claims for buildings destroyed
Miscellaneousexpenses - ^

1,600- 00
35,588 86
263 92
203,678 68'
48,593 15..
2,631 14

••

1,195 06 • '
36,07F 40'
167,694 08
$936,205' 07'

Diplpmatic department Mission to the Congress of Panama
Contingent expenses.of foreign intercourse
Relief and protection of American seamen
Treaty of Ghent, (6tK and 7th articles) Treaty of Ghent, (,1st article) - '
Claims on Spain • .
Treaties with Mediterranean,powers.



1,125 00
1,971 24 \,
. 1,502-78
2,452 90
7,352 54
6,540 36
1,981 45
4,717 11 .

. •

„

••" •

•

- r

•

•

6,000 00 . '
46,51104
135,727 35
2,202 50-

• 'i
;
•

-

2,559 73 .
•
SOiOO'O 00
l,9t 25
4,218- 45
48,060 29

•

,

595,469 74
85,260^75
17,022 08. •. ..
18;609 00
25,531 90
7,50^ 00
10,206 44
1,817 72- •
21,505 54.
-

426'

[1827.

REPORTS' OF THE.

Awards under the. 1st article ofthe treaty
of Ghent
-

$294,392 23

•

N

$481,845, 66
MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT.
HMENT.

Pay of the army
-' $722,788 60
171,199 40
Subsistence
' - ^. . Forage 34,992 30
(Quartermaster's department
\
322,600 13 .
Arrearages of quartermaster's depart. \
17,741 03
Arrearages of army
,11,163 87
Bounties and premiuins
, Purchasing department
- .
_
150,239 60
Expenses of recruiting -/
8,460 14
Purchase of woollens for 1828 10,000 00
Ordnance
15,115 57
Arming and equipping the militia
156,603 Q3
Hospital department
21,147 84
Armories
- '
' 281,047 27
Arsenals ,
. ,^ - , .
31,.564 96
Arsenal at Verge'nnes
, - r
8,600 00
Arsenal in Georgia
,14,286 69
Arsenal tit St. Louis
15,000 00
Arsenal at Augusta, Maine
' 2,081 60
Contingencies 10,232 30
Repairs and/contingencies of fortifications
22,918 73
73,643 97
Fort Monroe
- '
38,.526 24
Fort Calhoun Fort Adams
" -,
83,015 00
Fort.Hamilton 58,034 09
72,144 78
Fort Jackson .
-.
Fort I)elaware 1 28, •
29.930 00
For-t at Cape Fear
- '
44,364 42
Fort at Beaufort
-.
-^
Fort at Bienvenue " -,
40,00a 00
Fort at-Mobile Point " - • , ' 72,951 46
. 30,000. 00
Fort at Rigolets Armament of new fortifications 39,054 40
Surveys, (fcc. of roads and canals
47,405 70
Continuation of the Cumberland road 118,000 00
Preservation of the Cumberland road 9,00Q 00
Repairs of the Cumberland road
.510 00
Road from Memphis to Litde Rock
• 2,000 00
Road fi'om Little Rock to-Canton't Gibson •
2,000. OO
Road from Fort Smith to Fort Tdwson 2,000 00
King's road, from the Georgia line, (by
St. Augustine tp New Smyrna)
3,000 00
Improving the Ohio and Mississippi riyers
18,216 00
Improving the navigation of the Ohio river
9,000 00
Improving Hyannis harbor, Massachusetts
J.,000 00
Iinproving Cleavelaiid harbor Ohio; . 1,500 00
IrnprovingPascagoulaharbor, Miss, river
8.000 00
Deepening the harbor of Presque Isle 5,484 81



~

. . '

-

.
1
.

•

'

•

~!

•

.

•

,*

^

••••H

,

"f'
."

•.".\-

• i

1827.]

SECRETARY OP THE' TREASURY.

Preservation of islands in Boston harbor
' - $9,115 27
Repairs of Plymouth beach 2,184 90 ,.
Removing obstructions in Huron creek, Ohio.-/ • 3,500 00
Removing obstructions in Cunningham creek,
.
Ohio . _'. 1,000 00
Removing obstructions in Ashtabula creek, Ohio' -9,698 00'
Removing obstructions in Grand river creei,'O.
4,620 00
Removing obstructions in Mobile harbor, Ala. .- 5,605 78
Buikling piers on Steel's ledge, Belfast, Maine 400 00
Building piers at Bufi'alo creek
5,000 00 .
Piers, beacon, (fcc, in the harbor of Saco, Maine
4,450 00.^ .
Examining piers at Port Penn, Marcus Hook,
and Fort Mifflin -.
^ 100 00
Survey of a canal from the Atlantic to the Gulf
of Mexico -.
;- ^ 2,755 00
Connecting the Detroit and the river Raisin
with the Maumee and Sandusky roads
12,000 00
,
Piers'at the mouth of Oswego harbor, New
York
:
.
.
3,533 06
Piers at the mouth of Dunkirk harbor, New
^
York
-. . - . 3,000-00.' .
Piers at Laplaisance bay, Michigan 1,000 00 .
Removing obstructions in Saugatuck river,'(fee.
1,500 00
Boundary lines between Georgia and Florida
3,745 80
Erection of a wharf at Fort Wolcott, Rhode
Island
' .. .
'.
500 00
Purchase of a house and lot of land, Eastport,
Maine
, -.
1,800' 00
Piirchase of lots at St. Augustine, Florida
600 00 •
Barracks at Savannah
. - .11,414 40 - ,
.Barracks at Michilimackinac .
• 2,000 00
Military cantonment near St. Louis 10,108 18System of cavalry, artillery, and infantry exercise
.. - ',1,675 24
Settlement of Geojgia militia claims - 50,600 00
Military Academy, West Point
- 24,895. 00"
Maps, plans, (fcc. War Department 62 00"
Suppression, of Indian aggressions on frontiers
of Georgia and Florida,. ^ .
.10,887 81
Revolutionary pensions
-•
- 796,381 93 .
Invalid aild half-pay pensions,
- 172,033 86
Pensions to widows and orphans
. 8,802 47
Surveying the harbor of Church's cove, R. I. 200 00:
Surveying the harborof Stonington, Cdi.nn. -..
200 00
.
Surveying the roads from Detroit to Saginaw,
' ,.
•
Fort Gratiot, and Huron lake
-'
1,500 00
Opening and constructing the Detroit and Chi-.
cago roads
. . -,
- ' 20,000 00
Relief of officers, (fee, engaged in Seminole'
' '
campaign -- ,
747 01
Interest due the State of Pennsylvania
- 17,677 60
Relief of Captain Bigger's company of rangers4.474 41



427

S1!i
..
,
i'i
. ; ^^
•
-.
'

'

..:\>^

' ;.^.^^
.
"^"^i
, ;
"fi..,

•'

.-'Ti
' ..,^j

fij
iZ

428

REPORTS OF T H E

[1827.

^ Payment of claims for property lost -' ^
^
$4000
.Relief of sundry individuals
10,613 80
Carrying into effect certain Indian treaties , - 149,141 06
Rations to Florida Indians
- ^ 30,015 96
Relief of Florida Indians.
.12,750 25
Running the line of land assigned to Florida
s
Indians
,. ,
—
330: 56
Presents to Indians - 13,390 45
Contingencies of Indian department - 98,377 94Creek'treaties
-;
V
- 96,464 51:
Tre.aty with the Choctaw cind Chickasaw Indians
.
2,445 37
.Effecting certain Indian treaties, act 20th May,
1826
^
2,800. 00
Removal of,the Creeks west of the Mississippi
29,080 82
Civilization of Indians
-• .' ' - '
- , 8,629 84
Pay of Indian agents '
- 25,606 65
Pay of sub-agents
- 1L840 36
Indian annuities
- 206,443 24
Treaty with the Choctaws, 3d March, 1821 148 00
Choctaw schools, treaty 18th October, 1820 7,074 57
.

^

'• ^

1
,
V

4,751,426 31

From, which deduct the following repayments: .
Fortifications
- ,
- $53 19
•Survey of Marblehead and Holmes's
hole
. .
- 95 82
Road from Pensacola to St. Augustine 546 00
Road from Colerain to Tampa bay - 84 00
,
Holding treaties \yith Indians in Indiana'
• - '
r 2 27
Road from Ohio to Detroit - 373 88
— r ^ ^ . 1,155 16
• •
,_>_
_ $4,750,271 15
NAVAL E S T A B L I S P I M E N T .

Pay of the navy afloat ..
Pay of the navy shore, stations
Provisions
-^
Repairs of vessels ; . r
Navy yards, docks, &c. ' Navy yard, Pensacola
Medicines and hospital stores Ordnance and ordnance stores
Ten sloops of war .^ »/
Repairs of sloops ofwar
Gradual increase of the navy
Gradual improvement of the navy
Prohibition of the slave trade
*
Superintendents, artificers, (fee.



- , ^ $1,053,5,76. 21
,- 135,730 14
- .276,009 45
. - 344,936 6T
. . .
174,039 53
•
*
- 52,516 21
'--'26,63184
- 36,874 00
.
- , 184,804 24
- 20,181 38
- 625,952 ^51
- 68,095 88
- ,26,651 59/
^ ^ 55,676 02

-,
'

^
^
- <

,

1827.]

SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

Suppression of piracy Survey of the harbors of Savannah,
Brunswick, (fee.
Arrearages prior to 1827
Surveys and estimates for dry docks
Contingent, prior to 1824
Contingent for 1825
- .
Contingent, not enumerated, 1826
Contingent for 1827
Contingent, not enumerated, 1827 •
' Pay, (fee, marine corps Clothing, marine corps ' Fuel, marine corps
Medicines, marine corps
Barracks, marine corps - , - Military stores, marine corps
Contingent, marine corps
Contingent arrearages, marine corps
Contingent, additional, 1826, marine corps

^ 429

$1,162 65
1,503 00
13,686 90
2,707 27
10,486 60
216 66
3,384 31
191,528 56
929 37
. 127,257 48'
11,848 86
3,413 31
717 55
149 41
- '402 -00
8,619 27
2,228 70
308 05
3,462,225 52

From which deduct.the following repay. ments:
Building barges - -. $67 16
Five schooners
- 58 33
Swords and medals
- 579 62
Contingent for 1824 - 575 52
Contingent, not enumerated, 1825 108 88
Contingent for 1826 - 2,260 10
3,649 61
— — ^ — • $3,458,575 91
PUBLIC DEBT.

Interest on the funded debt . .Redemption of six per cent, stock of 1813,
'(loan of 16 millions) Intereston Louisiana stock
Reimbursement of Mississippi stock
Paying certain parts of domestic debt
Paying the principal and interest of Treasury notes
-

2,652,983 49
5,007,303 69
3,562 30
742 48
2112
8,410'36
7,673,023 44

From which deduct the following repayment :
Redemption of six per cent: stock of 1813,
(7^ millions)
fi
-

01
7,673,.023 4 3 '
$17,895,390 96

TREASURY DEPAR¥MENT,

Register's Office, November 28, 1827.
• ^ ^JOSEE^-NGURSE, iSe^/^^er.



430

„- ,

' . - - R E P O R T S .O-P ,.THE'

. '.-.

[1827.

•STATEMENTofiikeyiiblic debt on tke 1st ofiDciober, 1827. ' "'
.Three per centv stock- - '
Six per cent:.stock'of.1813 .
Sixper cent, stock of.1814
Sixper cent; sto(:k of 1815

-r.
-

. -.
- "
- $13,296.247.70
' - $4,244,587 07 ' v "fi'- - - ^
-' 13,096,542 90
• -' .
, -. 9,490,099 10
26,831,229 07
Five per cent, stock, (subscription to Bank
• •/United State,s) - ' ' . - - '
'- 7,000,,000 00Five per cent, stock of 1820 - ;
-999,999 13'
Five per cent, stock of:i821
- 4,735,296 30
Exchanged fiveper cent, of 1822
/
- ' 56,704'77
12,792,000 20
Four and a half per cent, stocks of 1824 - 10,000,000 00
' Exchang;ed4| per cent, stock of 1824 ,'. 4,454,727 95 ^
,
Exchanged 4|.per cent, stock of 1825
- 1,539,336 16
15,994,064 11
Total

$68,913,541 OS

Amonnt of the debt on the 1st of October, 1826, (per statement No. 3.)
which accompanied the Secretary's report of the 12th of December,
1826 .- .' . \ . .
- $75,923,151 47.
Deduct six per cent, stock paid off, viz:
On t h e l s t Januarv, 1827
- - $2,002,306 71
On thelst July, r827 ', - 5,007,303-eS
'
^ _ : - _ _ _ _
7,009,610 39
Leaves the amount, on the 1st of October, 1827, as above stated 68,913,541 08
From which, by deducting the ambunt to. be paid-at the
close of the present quarter
-,;
•'1,500,163 16
' Will lea^ve, as the amount of the public, debt on the 1st of
'
Jamiary,.1828 .,/ ; ; - . \; , - ' ' ; - . \ • ,- P7,413,377'92
The pubhc debton the 1st ofJanuary, 1825, amounted tb ^ $83,710,572 60
'
Add 44 per cent, stock issued since, under the act of 26th ' ;
May;,1824- - • '
' • - ' • --.$5,(i00,000 00 ^' •' \'^ V':•
And• 3 per cent, stock ^ -'
'•'
16'25
'
^-—
- \ 5,000^016 5
•-'•
. •;
•.':•.-•
. ^ •. $88,710,5.88 85
Deduct payments ofprincipal, viz:
....
In 1825- ^ • .-. ' . .- -' .
- 7,725,034 88,
•In"1826- •
' - . , - - - ' . • " •-' 7,064,709 2 1 ' •''y^--• ..-'.
In 1827, including payment at the close of
/ . - ^
theyear
-^•
>
, 6,507.466 84
' -T..:--/ -': .
'
- —
21,297,210 93
Amount, as above, on the Isf of j[antiary, 1828
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,



$67,413,377 92

Register's Office, Dec. 1,1827.
JOSEPH NOURSE, Rtgisier.

'1827.]

.,

SECRETARYOFTHETREASURY.

431

No.2.
.ESTIMA T E D AMO U N T of Treasury notes outstanding on the 1st ofi
October, 1827.
Total amount issued, (as per No. 4 of last report) -"
Cancelled and reported on by the First Auditpr^
-

-

$36,680,794
36,669,854

Outstanding

-.

$10,940

-

-

-

-

Consisting of small Treasury notes notes bearing interest -

•

,

-'

^ - ._
•

,

TREASURY DEPA.RTMENT,

.•. .- ^'
'- ,
- -^

-

,

.

'

.

;

$2^180
8,760
$10,940

./ ^

Register's Office, December 8, .1827.
. - •
JOSEPH NOURSE, Register..

• N o . 3.

S T A T E M E N T ofi the stock issjued under the act of Congress entitled
'' An aci .supplementary to the act fior the indemriification ofi certain
claim^ants ofi puhlic lands in ihe Mississippi Territory," passed on the
3d ofi March, 1815.
Amount of claims awarded, per statement No. 5 of the last
"
.report - • - • - - ' . $4,282,151 12-^Whereof there was paid in for lands, per said report
- $2,447,539 39
Payments at the Treasury to the 30th Sep,'
tember, 1826, per said statement
-$1,827,215 56
Payments from 1st October, 1826, to the
30th September, 1827 - .
. . 742 48
1,827,958 04
Balance outstanding on 1st O(:tober, 1827, consisting of—
Certificates outstanding
6,609 09
'
Awards not applied for
*
44 6 0 |
6,653 694
"
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

^

•

$4,282,151 121

-

Register's Office, December 8, 1827.
, ' JO.SE.PH NOURSE, Register.




.432.

;

^

,

REPORTS O F T H E

[1827.

TiiEASURY D E P A R T M E N T ,

\ ,.fi''
•
May 16,1828.
S I R :' I have the honor to,transmit a letter of the.Register of the Treasury, accompanied by statements, marked B and C, which were referred to
in the statement marked A, annexed to the annual report of this depiartment on the state.of the finances, dated the Sth of December last. Statement B exhibits, in, deteiil, the duties on merchandise, tonnage, (fee.; and
statement C exhibits the amount of tonnage employed in the foreign trade
of the United States.
T have the honor to be,-very respectfully,
,
' Your obedient servant,
RICHARD R U S a
The

Hon.

the P R E S I D E N T OF THE SENATE.




IS27.]

.SECRETARY OF T H E TREASURY.

433

A S TA T E M E N T exhibiting tke values and qiianiities^ respectively^ of
merchandise on whick duties actually accrued during', tke y e a r , 1826,
{consisting ofi the diff'erence between articles paying duty, imported,
and those entitled to drawback, re-exfiortedfi) and also, of the nett revenue rofiick accrued thai year, firom duties on merchandise, tonnage,
passports, ancl clearances. .
'
/
- - . .
•

• ^ . •'

;MERCr-I.\NDlSE PAYING-DUTIES AD VALOREM.

"5,031 doUars,,at 12 per cent.
i,296,183 dollars, at 12| per cent.
,3,824,710 dollairs, at 15 percent.
, 4,592,965 dollars, at 20 percent.
17,612,114 dollars; at 25 percent.
1,416,166 dollars, at 30 percent.
5,835,605 dollars, at 33^ per cent.
3,327 dollars, at 35- percent.
92,642 dollars, at 40 per cent.
340,782 dol J ars, at 50 percent.

•S603 72
-^ . - , - . • >. - -'162,022 75
-• i -.
573,7()6 50
- . . - • , 918,.593 QO,
-'.
-•: ' - 4,'403,028^50
- '
424,849 80
- - - . . . 1,945,201 67-,_
1,164 45
^ 37,056 80
, - . • -•
170,391 00

;
-

35,019,524

• .;

.

.

^

;

.

,

•

••

.

^

S8,636,618 19

\

i. Wines,
2,767,893 gallons, at 25.71 cents,.averas^e 2. Spirits,
3,.322,380 gallons, at 43.54 cents, av.erage^Molasse.s, 13,661,639 gallons, at 5
cents
-'
3. Teas,
8,816,225 pounds, at 34.32 cents, average -^
Coifee, 26,449,356 pounds, at 5- cents 4. Sugar,
73,451,591 pounds, at 3.06-cents, average 5. Salt,
3,104,668 pounds, at 20
cents 6". AU other arlicles - . .

;

" •'••, '

DUTIES ON SPECIFIC ARTICLE.S.

.

,'

,

.

.

^

, 711,790 10
1,446,559 00,
683,081 95
3,026,140 42
1,322,467 80
2,246,942 11,
620,933 60
1 ,'953,944 10

"

,

•

.

Deduct duties refunded,after-deducting therefrom dutieson^
merchandise, the particulars ofwhich could not be ascertained, and difference in calculation
- . -

.

,

V

"

12,011,859 08

• ^ 'f

-

-

• 20,648,477 27

•

-

•.

14,795.51

^

• 20,633,681 76
•Add-2^ per cent, retained on drawback ' .•10 per cent, extra duty on foreign vessels
, discriminating duty on. French vessels- , ' -•
mterest on custom-hou'se bonds storage received
- ' .-

^ -•

140,239
.. 18,140
. 1,067
14,632
3,628

89
94
57
14
03

^

^

•

,.

^

'

• !

177,708 57
Duties on merchandise
Duties on tonnage
-'
.Light^money Passports and clearances

_
..-

. " ' , . - ^
- ' . \.- ^
'- •
-

-,

.
-

•

-•
-, - .128,5.53 84
21,516 71

^

-•

20,811,390 33
150 J 070 .55
11,716 00
20,973,176 88

Deduct drawback on domestic refined sugar
> drawback on domestic distiUed spirits
drawback imder the convention with France

- .

2,627 57
6,56^03
• '30 83 -

9,219 43

*
"
Gross revenue
Expenses of collection'

- -•
-

- -

Nett revenue" -

-

~^

..-

VOL. 11.-28



..-

. •

r .

-" ' ' -

-

20,963,957 45
715,903 15

•.,-

20,248,054 30

434

[1827:

, REPORTS-OF'THE.
Explanatory .Statements and Notes. •

1. AVines— '"
'
Madeira
128,515 gallons, atlOO cents ^ • 'Burgundy and Champagne - 15., 99'2 gaUons, at 100 c,en ts Sherry and St. Eu car •
, 28,0.41 gaUoiis, at 60 cents Lisbon, Oporto, &c'.
308,557 gallons,,ai 50 cents T.en e ritfe, IFay a 1 ,,&c.
•I66,3i7gall6ns, at 40xents Claret, &c. bottled- '
77', 217'gai lons, at 30 cents All oilier - . '. 2,043,254 gaUons,-at 15cents .

,

'

'v

^

•\ iE;128,.515
, ,15,992
• 16,824
' 154,278
•66,526
23,165
306,488
'

,2,767 ,.893-.

711., 790 10

2'. Spirits—
,
.
'
From grain, 1 si proof
' 2d . do.. . . ' . 3d do.

.331,827 gallons, at 42 cents
17,-167 gaUons, at 45 cents
39,903 gallons, at 48- cents
'•,4th do..- . •6,931 gaUons, at 52 cents
5th'' dow •' 8,516'gaUons, at 60 cents
, Other materials 2d- do..^
'685,822 gallons, at 38 cents
3d do.
1,003,874 gaUons, at 42 cents
.'• • ^
"4th'. d o . -• ^ - , 1,234,468 gallons, at 48 cen ts
• ,
Above 5th .do.
-•2,371 gaUons, at 70 cents

fi

. '

^ ••

• \ '

3-,330,879 gallons ^
' 8,'499 gallonSj at 57 cents • -

1,451,403 43
< • 4,844' 43.
1,446,559 00

,

3'. Teas— • . '>•..' ; , :
Bohea
- •.
- -..,";188,321 pounds, at 12'cents
Souchong ^-'
-.
1,550,016.pounds, at 25 cents
Hyson skin, &c.' ^2,205,586"^pounds, at28cent.s.Hyson'and young hyson .•- 4,407,145 pounds, at40 cents
; Imperial i
,; 465, l57 pounds, at 50 ceiits
Extra duty on teas imported ftom
oth'er places than China
_

'.

•

-

•

- '

'^

8,816,225poundvS
4. Sus:ar—
'• '
, Brown
'White, clayed, &c. - ^

- ,

„

.

•

•-

'' .

•

•

•

'

•

, -

22,59^
387,504
,617,564
1',762,858
• 232,578

•

3,037 32

,.

3,026,140 42

;

73,451,599pounds

5200
08.
00
50

-

. - 69,112,185 pounds,'al.3'cents • 4,339,414 pounds, at 4,cents. -,

5. SaltImported
- • - bushels '
: Exporte^d
,-; - .'bushels .
44,:777
Bounties and allowances re.duced into bushels, at 20
' ceras. ' ' -.
- 1,148,4,16




.\^
139,367.34
;. 7,.725'15:
19,153 44
' - 3,604 12
- '
5,109 60
260,612 36'
- .
. 421,627 OS
592,544 641,659 70

3,322,380 gallons .

Deduct exported 0 . spirits .5th proof
\

00
00
6k)
50
80
10
10

' .

-:

•.^-_
' -

2,073,365 55
173,576 56

'

2,246,942 11

4,-297,86lat20,cents

•859-,5'72 20

1,193,193 at'20 cents,

238,638 60'

3,l04,668at20cents

620,933 60

1827.]

SECRETARY O-P THE TREASURY.

, •

Ex'planatoriJ Statements and iVofes^—Continued.
6. All Other articles.

Carpeting—Brussels, Wilton, &c.
Venetian and ingrain
..aU other
- •
Cotton bagging/
•Vinegar • Beer, ale, and porter, bottled
in casks
Gil—spermaceti whale, and other fisH . ' olive, in casks
castorlinseed •
- ' ' hempseed
- '
rapeseed
- ,
Cocoa . . - ; ' -_
,Chocolate Su^ar, candy
loafother, refined •
Fruits—Almonds - ,
) Currants Prunes and plums
. Figs•Raisins, jar, and Muscatel
other
- ,
Candles, tallow
- '
wax
- ', spermaceti
- '
Cheese , •Soap
.
Tallovi^
' Lard'
. Beef and pork
- '- ' Hams and, other bacon
'Butt^er
.- - •^
Saltpetre, refined . Camphor, crude • . refined -.
- •
Salts, Epsom • . • ;. Spices—Cayenne pepper - .
.
Ginger, ' ^- . ' .i
.Mace
,- " • Nutmegs; - '^ -. . ,Cinnamon
- . Cloves
, .Pepper
•' , Pimento "
.' ' '
•Cassia
-.
, - ^ fiTohacco, manufactured' * - '
Snuff: ,
-•
- , ..
Indigo
T
• Cotton
' Gunpowder
,Bristles • Gltie
"
. , PairitS:—ochre, dry;^ '
• in oil'
white and red lead
:whiting' -,
f
Lead-^pig, bar, and*^ sheet, 


Gtuantity.-

Rate of
" 'duty.

435

•Duties.

Cents.
" ,r yards
• '-54,380
50
• S27,190 00
6J8,793
. do. ,
25 ,
154,698 25
10,303
-.
do.
20
2,060 60
1,787,5P7
•".
do. . :'
.
3f , -67,031 52
•35,862 • •
- gallons
-8
2,868 96
61,880
do.
20
12,376 00
7,516 '
-, . d o .
15 •• ••.-..1,127/40
do.
25 ^
_ 5 6,3 '
.
- ..do.
15
.84.45
2.5,109
do.
25
• 6,277 25
^ do: '
40'
_•
137,730 •
" . do.25
- 34,432 50
do.,
• 25 ^
do.
• 25;
._
1,646,691 . •• .2'
•
- pounds
32,933 82
2,256
' 4.
.do. "
90 24
.491
do. . .
12
58 92
1,866,
- . do.
12
' '223 92
do.
623
, 62 30
10.
521,483
do:
3
. 45,644 49
442,419
do.
3,
13,272 57
141,464
" '4'
4
do.
' ^,658 56
'479,048\
,
do.
3
14,371-44
2,561,923
• 4
do.
• 102,476 92
2,309,296
do.
3
• '69,278 •88...
do..
5
_
' G'
do.
165
9 90
. 8 .
do.
33.
,
2 64
. 37,839 / ^
d
do.
3,405 5.1
- • do.,
272,949
• - . do-.
1
^
2,729 49
212
do.
3
6 36
do. (
44,697
,do.
3
1,340 91
'2,707.^
do.
5
135 35
7,040
'
3.
- . - •.. do..
211 20
60,887• 8
do.
. 4,870 m
3,,'335
•^ .
do.
12
) 402 60
6,787 •
4 .
>- - do.
271 4B
137
do.
15
- 20'55'
2,673
do;
2
.53:46
'
- . do.
.
do.
10,596
. 25 i. •' 2,649 00
do.
56,002
.
- .do. 25
. 14,000 50
• 8
^ 651,078
- ,. do.
• 52,086 24
222,404 .
do.
,. 6r
13/344 24
536,962
do..
6
32,217 72
13,573
- • .do.
10
, 1,357 3()
_

^

-

do.^
. do.
:do..
. do.

do.
- . do.
do.
do.
-.
do. .
do. •
T
do. '

'

•

696,87615^
27,176.
3
38,441
:
8
160,900 •
3.;
•-^12,024
5
903,040'
. 1
5^359^
U
1,690,936 ;
4
' 370,843.
> i:
3,449V825'.
2

104,531 40
815 28'
3,075 28
•4,827 00
601 20
9,030 40
80 38
67,637 44
3', 708 43
68,996 50

[1827.

REPORTS OF THE

436

Explanatory- S(ateme7its' and Notes—Continued.
.6. All other articles.

Gtuantity.

Rate of
duty.

- pounds
Lead, shot - '
-'
r ,
Cables, tarred
> , . . -.
.•do.'
Cordage, tarred ' -•
- '
- . do.
untarred- ^ - •
- .
- , • do.
Twine,cuntarred yarn, &c. .
do.
Corks .
•., - \
, -•' .^ do.
Copper—rods arid bolts " do.
nails and spikes - >
- • do.
Fire-arm's—niuskets
-'
.. ~ . • No.
- ^
.
^ rifles - ' ,. - • do.
Iron and steel wire, not above No. 18
- pounds
above-No. 18 - " / - >do.'
tacks, brads, &c., .not above 16 oz. - . M.
' ' .
. • ,' . above 16 oz.
- -pounds
. nails --'
:- - , - ' ' • • do. •.
spikes
-- ^ do.
; - chain cables - . do.
' rnUl cranks - .
'- ' •
.do.
inU] saws
'^
No.
. anchors.
.^ pounds
anyUs
.- .
do.
., bla:cksmith's hammers • . • ^ - - do.
• castings, vessels of' - '
- •
do.
•other , ' •. - . do.
' round- and brazier's rods
• - . do.
nail and ."spike rods - . do. .
^ . sheet.and hpop " . -^ .. *
- • do.
' slit and rolled
. - . . 'do. .
-. - cwt.
"
'
P'^ ;, ,
"
"
. " •
bar, I'oUed - • .do;' hammered-. , dor.
Steel
- '
- ' ' ' - ' xlo:
Hemp
- " -'
do.
Alum
. - • - • . '
do.
Copperas do.
- \ do.^
Wheat
flour
^ '
^ Coal
^ -.\
- (iushels
Wheat
- , :
- - - c
- ; do.
Oats
, - . do.
Potatoes
. -.- • " do.
Paper—folio and 4to post - pounds
, foolscapx '- • do.,. .
printing .
.
- , do.
sheathing - . ' ;-.• do.
all other do. Books—printed previous to 1775 do.
- in other languages
-.
do.
- , Latin and Greek, bound - '
do.
" ..
in boards
do.
all other, bound . - . do. •
in b o a r d s "
-•
do.' '
Glass—cut, and not specified
do. •
all other - •_
do.
apDlhecafies' vials, not above 4 oz. gross
,' '
not above 8 oz. '.do.
bo.lies, not above one quart.
- . ' do.
two" quarts
,do. •
four quarts
- . do., .
.window, not above 8 by 10
.- lOOsq.ft.
.10 by 12 . • dp.

- • -52,853

Cents.
3^




. ^.

60,887
233,438
C^ 128,466.
, 38,230
" .1,163

•• Duties.

'-

5
5^
12
4
^ 4

t^l,849 85
3,044
11,671
15,415
1,529
46

35
90
92
20
52

161
250
'
-.. 402 50
639,657*
5
31,982 85
- 218,776
9
19,689 84
• ' 16,400
5 < .
-820'00
1,351
5
67 55
191,562;
5
9,578 10
. "26,791
4
1,071 64
381,294
3
. 11,438 82
; 205
4
8 20
^ "^1,508
lOO
1,508 00
; 67,452
2
.1,349 04
, 445,946
2
8,918 92
14,593
•2r ' • 364 82
' - 445,392
6,680 88
n
630,396
1
6,303 96
.^ 409,179
3
12,275 37
395,595
3
11,867 85
2,243,526
3
'67,305 78
'8,006
^
3
240 18
, 35,769
50
17,'884 50
79,316
150
118,974'00
385,095
90 ' • 346.585 50
15,727
100
15',727 C
O
72,451
175
126,789 25
4
250
10 00
4,536 200
9,072.00
39
50
19 50
1,012,092
6
60,725 52
1,157
. -25
'289 25
1,275 90
12,759
10,
67,177
10
'•,i.- 6,717 70
: . 4,772
; 954 40
20
.

1,548
a, 119
.40,396 ,

^

10
3
15

111,236 '
4
. -7,941
15
2,761
13
' 9,859 .
30
40,708
26
23,341
3
- 911,828
2
5,144
IGO
497
125
24,576
, 200.
.- 459
250
.22
.:00
767 ' .:00
441
350

154 80
273 57
:. ,6,059 40

,. .'

4,449 44
l,19ri5
-358,93
2,957 70
. 10,584 08
700 23
18,236 56
5,144 00
. 621 25"
49,152 00
1,147 50
66 00
;
2,301 00
1,543 50

1827.].

437

SECRETARY GF THE TREASURY.
Explanatory Statements and Notes—Continuecl.
6. AU other articles. '

;

Q.uantity

-Rate of'
duty.,

V-

Duties.

Cents.
Glass—window, above 10 b} 12
uncut, in plates demijohns
Fish^dried or smoked salmon • mackerel all other •Shoes and slippers; silk '
prunelle > leather, men's, &c.
children's
-'
Boots and bootees
Segars -. '
Playing cards Russia duck

- 100 sq. feet
\ do.
' No.
quintals
barrels.
do.
do,
pairs
. do.
do.
, .
do. .
"•

,

-

'2,9(51
264,
60,088
... 605
'1,'889
•• 89
, -234
.1,042
1,068
3,-843.

- ,

25
100
200
150
100
30

• - •

25

,-' 25

150' ' -' V • 226 50
: 39,042 50
250
. 406 20
30
' 400
206 ' / ' •

151
15,617.
1,354
..•"2'

do.

• M.
packs.
pieces

$11,844 00
1,056 00
15,022 00
• ^605 00
2,978 00
133. 50
234 00
,312 60
267 00
9'60 75

m
400'

2,063., Ij37 43
c

"^

^

Deduct excess of exportation over importation ;
/- . S23 60
•Castor oil 59 gaUons, at 40 cents
. 768 55
Candles, tallow -'
.15,^371 pounds, at 5 cents
731 08
Soap .
18,277 pounds, at 4 cents
- 4,044 .58Beef and pork
202,299 pounds, at 2 cents
M a c e . - -•
- 10,149 00
10,149 pounds, at 100 cents .
- 2,193 00
Nutmegs 3,655 pounds, a L 60-cents ,
5.6 52
Snuff
-.
471 pounds, at 12 cents
- 2;235 64
Cable.?, Jarred
55,891 pounds, a-t 4 cents
- 8,212 88
Cordage, tarred - •
- '205,322 pounds, at 4 cents
- -3,277.50
Muskets • 2,185 No.
'at-150 cents
- 75,682 98^
Paper
445,194 pounds, at- 1.7 cents
Books printed previous to
322 16
8,054 pounds, at • '4 cents
1775
TOO- 50
670 pairs, at 15 cents
Shoes, chUdren's - - 1,018 50
'4,074 gallons, at 25„cents
Hempseed oil
9,171 pounds, at • 4cents c - ' 366 84
Blue vitriol




' '

Carried to statement B.

'

•

,
^

V.

>

-

-

' '
109,183 33

, - Sl,953,944 10

438

REPORTS OF THE.
'

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.-'

• • " .

,

•

" ^

•

•

c

.

, ' .

•

. \
• • . .

^

.
',

[1827..:
^

- - > •

A ^ S T A T E M E N T exhibiiing tke amount ofi. American and fioreign
'tonnage, ernployed iri tke fioreign trade ofi tke United States, during
theyear ending ori tke 31st day ofi December, 1826. .
American ton'ri age Jn foreign trade
Foreign tonnage in foreign trade;
'

-^
-

»
-

-

Tons 910,635
,
120.716

^FotaL tonnage employed in the foreign trade of the
.UnitedStates
,-•
- ;
^ ^
•-

- l^OSl/aSl

Proportion of.foreign;tonnage to the,whole amount of
the, tonnage emplo.yed in the foreign trade of t h e '
• UnitedStates
-^ • • - .
TREASURY. DEPARTMENT,

•

' ,
. 11.7 to lOG

/

fifi^ ^Jkegister's' Offiice, May 16, \828._
JOSEPH 'NOURSE, Register.




•

INDEX
A.
Agriculture, promoted by domestic manufactures, 321, 405, 445.
how affected by the fall in price of domestic articles i n foreign
markets in 1818, 4S6.
Appropriations for 1814, gross amount of, 29.
Army expenses from 1st January, 1812, to 30th September, 1815, 15, 29.
in 1816, 74.
1817, 89, 111.
1818, 111, 198.
1819', 145, 198.
1820,: 168, 198.
1821, 200, 2:17; 234,
1822, 218, 239. 264.
1823; 248, 269', 276, 2 9 4
1824, 277; 301, 313, 332.
1825, 314, 339, 354, 372.
1826, 355, 379, 393, 418.
1827, 394, 426, 461, 472.
1828, 466, 473.
B,
Balance in the Treasury, 1st January, 1815, 30,
.1816, 74.
1817, 88,
1818, 111.
1819, 114.
1820, 169.
1821, 199.
1822, 217.
1823, 247,
1824, 276,
1825, 313,
1826; 354.
1827, 393, 472,
1828, 448, 472.
1829, estimated, 448,
Batik capital authorized by law, itt 181445-16-17, 481, 483,. 520.-,
of sixteen banks, in 1813-15-19, 523.
Bank credits, advantages and,,disadvantages of, consideredijy 491,492.
Bank, national,; establishmentr of: a, .recommendedy ^i 1 ,
Bank of England, suspended specie payments,.remarks, on, .491i
excessive issues;of, reduced the- rate, GT inteiest, 503.
F
B a n k + o f U n i t e d . States, .subscription, to the. sfockUof.the; k:90., .
a modification) of the f charter., of?, recommended;, 177.
its beneficial effects on the: fiscal) operations of
Government, : 446.-,
condition iof, the,'on: the':30th ^iSeMenaber, 1819,
481, 514.



528

INDEX.

Bank dividends, in 1817, 117
1838, 110, 155, 198.
1819, .184, 198.
1821, 199, 232.
1822, 237, 260.
1823,^ 292.
1824, 330.
1825, 337, 370.
1826, 416.
1827, 424, 460, 472.
1828, 473.
Banknotes, duty on, cease in 1816, 9.
in circulation in 1819, 482, 483, 518, 523.
Banks benefit the community, under certain restrictions, 487
Banks increased since the termination of the war in 1.815, 493.
should be restrained from excessive issues, and from issuing small
notes, 494.
Banks in the several Stales and Territories, condition.of.the, in 1819, 521.
specie possessed by the, 522.
Bounties and allowances.—See Imports.
C
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, United States subscribe to the stock
of the, 447
Circulating medium, plan for improving the, 40.
Cocoa, a reduction of the duty on, recommended, 325.
Coffee, a reduction of the duty on, recommended, 325.
Coinage of the United States compared with that of other nations, 494.
an.increase and alterations of the. recommended, 495.
Colonial trade, remarks on the, 410.
Commerce, how affected by the tariff of 1824, 280, 319, 397
state of the foreign, in 1828, 442.
how affected by substituting a paper for a metallic currency, 509.
Cotton, exported in 1825-26, 361.
Cotton fabrics^ further protection necessary for the manufacturers of, 149,
325, 400.
Crawford, Mr., report of, on currency, 481.
Currency, report of Mr. Crawford on, 481.
of what it consists, and its condition, 482.
causes of depreciation in the paper, 484.
of metal and paper in circulation in 1813-15-19, 485.
when purely metallic, its effects, 488, 493.
how affected by bank issues, 489.
Treasury notes became a component part of the, in the eastern
States, in 1815-16, 491.
paper circulation may be beneficially connected with metallic,
491,493.
metallic, value of, compared with that of other nations, 494.
the issue of Treasury notes for the improvement of the, considered, 496.



INDEX.

529

Currency, the practicability of adopting a paper for a -metallic, considered,
497, 511.
constitutionality of adopting a paper for a metallic, considered, 504
estimated amount required for Europe, of metallic, 501'.
D.
65.
Debentures, issued in 1,813-14,
1815,
82, 95, 150.
1816,
95, 150.
1817,
116, 150.
1818-19-20, 179, 205.
1821,
225.
1822,
253.
1823,
285.
1824,
327.
1825,
367,
1826,
413.
1827,
451,
Debt—See Public Debt.
Direct taxes increased in 1815, 12.
a.reduction of the, recommended, 36.—See Revenue,
Discriminating duties cease in 1816, 7,
Drawbacks—See Debentures issued.
Duties on domestic manufactures, a repeal of the, proposed, 36.
table of existing, 46.
additional, on imports and tonnage, cease in 1816, 7,
a continuance of the. recommended, 38.
on stamps and refin.ed sugar, cease in 1816, 35.
on other articles, a repeal or reduction of, recommended, 36.
on. imports, an increase of the, proposed for the protection of certain
articles of domestic manufacture, 149, 204, 223, 252, 400.;
on fine cotton fabrics imported, an increase of the, proposed, 325.
on teas, coffee, and cocoa, a diminution of the, proposed, 325.
on imports, remarks on the credit system, in the collection of the,
492.—See Imports; also, Merchandise.
E.
Estimate of receipts and expenditures for 1815-16, 24, 29, 33, 35, 73, 78.
1817,
78, 80, 88.
1818,
93, 110.
1819,
113, 145.
1820,
148, 167,
1821,
170, 199.
1822,
202,218,
1823,
220,247.
1824,
250,277.
1825,
281,314.
1826,
318, 354.
1827,
360, 393.
1828,
396,412.
1829,
449.
Exchange, (foreign and inland,) rale of, in 1813-14-15-16, 484, 524.
Exchange, (foreign) how' affected by the depreciation of paper currency, 48*4.
by substituting a paper for a metallic currency, 509„

VOL. II.—34


530

INDEX.

Expenditures^— See Receipts and expenditures.
Exports for the year ending 30th September, 1822, .220. 222.
1823, 250.
1824, 280.
1825, 318.
1826, 360.
for the years 1822 to 1827, 397
1821 to 1828:, 442.
F
Finances, a review of the. in reference to the late state of war, 5.
state of the, in 1815, 24.
1816, 73.
1817, 88;
1818, 110.
1819, 144.
1820, 167=
1821, 198.
1822, 217,
1823, 247,
1824, 276,
1825, 312.
1826, 353.
1827, 388.
1828, 439.
Flour exported in 1825-6, 361.
Foreign debt'extinguished'in 1810> 20;
H.
Hamilton's reports on finances referred to, 445.
Hemp,- an increase of the duty on, recommended, 400,
I.
Importations into several ports, a comparative statement of the value of, 305,
gross amount of, in 1821 to 1828, 442.
in 1816, increased the rate of exchange, 484.
Imports, statement of the amount of duties accrued on, in 1813-14. 65.
1815, 82,150'.
1815-16, 95, 150.
1817, 116, 150.
1815-16-17-18,150.
1817-18-19, 179.
1818-19-20, 205.
1821, 225.
1822, 253.
1823, 285.
1824, 327,
1825, 367.
1826, 413.
1827, 451.—See
Merchandise imported,
Indemnity by Great Britain fof slaves, &c., amount of, 393.
distribution of the, 394, 418, 425.
Internal duties increased in 1S15; 12.



INDEX.

531

Internal} duties, repeal of some, and reduction of other parts of the, proposed, 36.
repealed 31st December, 1817. 148.—See Revenue.
Internal improvements, surplus revenues may be applied to, 81.
Iron, an increase of the duty on, recommended, 400.
L.
Land claimants (Yazoo) in Mississippi, statements of the awards to, 126,
166, 190, 216, 246, 275, 311, 345, 387. 431, 474.,
Lands—See Public lands.
Laws creating and increasing the revenue, reviewed, 8, 34.
repeal or modification of certain, proposed, 38.
a revision of the, recommended, 445.
Loans, additional, recommended, 75/ 149, 178, 204, 282, 317, 359.
receipts from, in 1812-'13-'14, 15.
in 1815, 26, 30.
terms on which obtained, 26, 53 to 64. 283, 306, 307,
receipts from, in 1816, 74.
1820, 178.
1821,199, 204, 217,
1822, 223.
1823, 283.
1824, 312.
1825, 354, 370—See Revenue.
M:
Manufactures, a repeal of the laws injuriously affecting domestic, proposed, 36.
table of the existing duties on domestic, 46.
a modification of the tariff, proposed for the better protection
of, 149, 204, 223, 252, 325, 397. 400.
promote the interests of agriculture and commerce, 324, 445.
domestic, exported in 3.S24-'25, 319.
1826, 363.
1827, 397
182,1 to. 1828. 442.
how affected by the fall in price of domestic articles in
foreign ports in 1818, 486.
Mediterranean fund, discontinued in March, 1815, 6.
Merchandise imported, (the quantity re-exported deducted) in 1814, 66.
1815, 82, 95.
1816, 95.
1817, 116.
1818, 151.
1819, 180.
1820, 206.
1821, 226.
1822, 254.
1823, 286.
1824, 347,
1825, 476.
1826, 433.
1827, 452.



532

INDEX.
N.

National bank, establishment of-a, recommended, 44.
subscription to the stock of the, 76.
National circulating medium, plan for improving the, 40.
Navy expenses, from 1st January, 1812, to 30th September, 1815, 15, 29.
for 1816, 74.
1817, 89, 111.
1818, 111, 198.
1819, 145, 198.
1820, 168, 198.
1821, 200i 217, 234.
1822, 218, 241, 264.
1S23, 248, 270, 276, 295.
1824, 277, 302, 313, 333.
1825, 314, 340, 354. 374.
1826, 354, 381, 393^ 420.
1827, 394, 428/464, 472.
1828, 469, 473.
O.
Officers and soldiers—See Revolutionary

claims.

P.
Passports and clearances—See Merchandise imported ,- also, Imports.
Postage on letters, increased in 1815, 12.—See Revenue.
Public credit, during the late war, state of the, reviewed, 6.
plan for improving the, 38.
suite of, in 1.828, 441.
Public debt, amount paid from 1st Jan., 1812, to 30th Sept., 1815,15,16,30,
amount unpaid on 30th September, 1815,19.
amount paid to 1st January, 1815, 22.
statement of the, from 1st January, 1791, to 1815. 47.
state of the. in 1816, 75, 82, 85, 90, 100.
1817. 90, 100 to 103, 111, 119, 135.
additions made to the, by funding Treasury notes, 104,146,160,
amount of the, on 1st January and 1st October, 1818,112, 120r
146, 160, 164.
in 1819, 147, 161 to 166, 185.
1820, 169, 186, 188, 200, 212.
1821, 201, 213 to 216, 219, 235, 243.
1822, 219, 244, 249, 265, 272.
1823, 249, 271, 273, 278, 296, 308.
1824, 278, 303, 30?, 334, 342.
when it may be redeemed, 283.
amount paid from 1st January, 1817. to 1st January, 1825,''284,
343.




INDEX.

533

Public debt, amount of the, on 1st October, 1825, 315, 341, 344, 375-, 384.
1826, 356,381,385 to 387,421.
1827, 390,429 to 431,465,472,
. 1828, 470, 473.
amount paid from 1st Jan., 1817, to 1st Jan., 1829, 440, 472.
amount unpaid on 1st January, 1829, 471.
Public lands sold prior to ihe establishment of land offices, 51.
from the opening of the land offices to 1814, 51.
from 1st October, 1814, to 30th Sept., 1815, 68 to 72,88,
receipts from, in 1816, 73, 88. 110.
sold from 1st Oct., 1816, to 1st Oct.,, 1817, 97 to, 99, 110.
sold in 1817-18,110, 118, 135 to 143.
1818-19, 145, 156 to 159, 191.
1819-20, 167, 191 to 198.
relief to purchasers of, recommended, 175.
sold in 1820-21, 199,<211, 230.
effects of the relief laws on the sale of, 202.
sold in 1823, 236, 247, 258.
1823, 248, 266, 276, 290.
1824, 277/297, 312, 328.
1825, 313, 335, 368.
1826, 376, 392,. 414.
1827, 393, 422, 457.
remarks on the credit system in the sale of, 492.
R.
Receipts and expenditures, from 1st Jan., 1812, to 30th Sept., 1815,16, 29.
from 1791 to 1814, 45, 73.
in 1815-16, 73, 88, 110.
1816-17, 88, 110.
1817-18, 111, 144,
1818-19, 145, 167.
1819_20, 167, 198.
1820-21, 198, 217, 233.
1821-22, 217, 233, 238 to 244, 247,261.
1S22-23, 247, 261,.268, 293.
18^3-24, 276, 293, 300, 330-1.
from 1st Jan., 1817, to 1st Jan., 1825, 284.
in 1824-25, 312, 330 to 352, 354,371,476.
1825-26, 353, 371 to 382.
1826-27, 392, 413 to 438, 451, 457, 460,
472.
from 1821 to 1828, 442, 448, 451,, 465, 473.
Revenue, state of the, during the late war, reviewed, 5.
laws passed in 1815 for increasing the, 12.
from what sources derived, and the amount in 1815, 12, 23, 30.
received from all sources, from 1st Jan., 1812, to 30th Sept., 1815,
16, 30.
laws relating to the several branches of, reviewed, 8, 34.

laws, modifications of, proposed, 36, 38, Mo.
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ improving the, 38.
plan for
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

534

INDEX.

Revenuej amount of. in 1814-15-16, 73, 88, 96, 110, 144.
1817, 89, 96, 110, 117, 144, 167,
1818, 111, 144, 150, 167, 198.
1819, 145, 155, 167: 184, 198.
an augmentation of the, recommended, 149, 204, 223.
amount of; in 1820, 167, 184, 198, 210.
1821, 199, 217, 226, 232.
1822, 218, 237, 254, 260.
1823,' 247, 266, 276, 286 to 292.
from 1st Jan. 1817, to 1st Jan. 1825, 284.
in 1824, 276, 299, 312, 328, 3.30.
1825, 313, 335 to 337, 354, 368 to 370, 476.
1826, 377, 392, 413 to 416, 432 to 438.
1827, 393, 422 to 424. 448, 451, 457 to 460.
from 1821 to 1828, 442, 448.
how affected by the issue of Treasury notes, 496.—See Merchandise.
Revolutionary claims paid under act of 15th May, 1828. 466.
Rice, amount of, exported in 1825-6. 361.
S.
Salt duty, ceases in 1816, 9, 34.
a continuation of the, recommended, 36.
Silk, observations on the culture and manufacture of, 364.
Sinking fund, operations of the, to 30th September, 1815, 20.
rise and progress of the, 21, 39.
further powers necessary to the, 40, 77, ^
statement of the, in 1816, 83.
stock purchased by the, in 1817, 106 to 109.
1818,124.
1819, 164.
1826, 358, 382.
7 per cent, stock, to be purchased by the. 252.
operations of the, from January, 1818, to January, 1829, 440.
Slaves, <fcc., amount received from Great^ Britain for. 393, 460.
amount'paid, 461, 466, 472, .473.
Specie, effects of the suspension of the payment of, by banks, on the fiscal
.operations of Government, 12, 24, 40, 114.
payment-of, resumed by banks, 114, 490.
amount possessed by banks, and in circulation in 1819, 482.
causes of the suspension of the payment of, by banks, 484, 490.
an article of commerce, 494.
Spirits distilled in the United States, duties on, to be modified, 36,178.
importation of, to be prohibited, 178.
quantity imported.—See Merchandise.
Stamp duties, cease in 1816, 35.
a continuation of the, recommended, 36.
Subscription to the Bank of the United States, 90.
Sugarj quantity imported.—See Merchandise.
refined, duties on, cease in 1816, 35.
a continuation of the duties on, recommended, 36.



INDEX.

535

Surplus fund, unexpended balances carried to the, in 1815, 29.
amount applied to the payment of the public debt since
January, 1817, 441.
Surplus revenues may be applied to internal improvements, 81, 252.

Tariff of duties on imports, a modification of the, proposed for the better
protection of domestic manufactures, 149.
a revision of the, recommended, 204, 223, 252.
325, 397,
present compared with former, 304,
of 1828, effect of, on the revenue, 445.
'Taxes, a view of the several descriptions of, in 1815.12.—See Direct taxes.
also. Internal duties.
Teas imported, a reduction of the duties on, recommended, 325, 409, 445.
—See Merchandise.
Tobacco exported in 1824-5-6, 361.
Tonnage, amount of American and foreign, 111 1814, 65.
1815, 82, 95,150.
1816, 95, 150.
1817, 116, 150, 179.
1818, 150, 179. 205,
1819, 179, 205.'
1820, 205.
1821, 225.
1822, 253.
1823, 285.
1824, 352.
1825, 367,
1826, 438.
1827, 456.
1828, 443.
Treasury notes authorized to.be issued! in 1815, 13.
amount received from, in 1812-13-14, 15.
issued prior to February, 1815, and outstanding, IS,
may be funded, 19.
for what purposes issued in 1815, 26.
amount received from, in 1815, 31.
re-issued prior to October, 1815, 52.
estimated amount of, unpaid in 1816, 64.
issued, 92.
funded and outstanding in 1817, 104.
1818, 112, 125.
stock issued on, to 31st December, 1817, 121.
outstanding in December, 1819, 165, 187,
October, 1820, 189.
November, 1821, 215.
October, 1822. 246.
1823, 275.
1824, 310, 345,



536

INDEX.

Treasury notes outstanding in October, 1825, 316.
1826, 387.
1827, 431.
1828, 474.
constituted an essential part of the circulating medium in
the Eastern States in 1815-16, 490.
expediency of issuing^ as a relief from the general • pecuniary distress (in 1820) considered, 496.
W,
Wines, a reduction of the duties on, recommended, 409.—See Merchandise;
Woollen fabrics, further protection necessary for manufacturers of, 149,400.
Y
Yazoo claimants, statement of, awards' in favor of the, 126, 166, 190, 216,
246, 275, 311, 345, 387, 431, 474.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102