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St. Louis Public libran REFERENCE DEFT, Slflplfl! COLLEGE A Study of Alumnae of the Class of 1945 U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary WOMEN'S BUREAU Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director FIFTEEN YEARS AFTER COLLEGE A Study of Alumnae of the Class of 1945 Women's Bureau Bulletin 283 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary WOMEN'S BUREAU Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director 1962 U.S. Government Printing Office : 19G2 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington 25, D.C. - Price 15 cents Foreword Our country needs to utilize to the fullest extent possible the talents of educated women. Most college women agree that their major contribution to society is in the role of wife and mother. They also want to make fuller use of their minds and talents, and when their children are old enough, many think about continuing their education or getting a paid job. Inquiries received by the Women's Bureau from mature women college graduates indicate that further information is needed about this group as a basis for more intelligent understanding of their needs and problems. Although the main purpose of this exploratory study was to test the feasibility of a broader survey in the future, the information gained does provide some insight into the activities and interests of educated women who have reached an age when home and family responsibilities make fewer demands upon their time. Analyses of the findings also point up the necessity of making available to women more and better opportunities for counseling, training, and employment if we hope to help them achieve personal fulfillment and make their maximum contribution to society. ESTHER PETERSON, Director, Womerts Bureau. m Acknowledgments This exploratory study was initiated and developed on the basis of suggestions of Mrs. Alice K. Leopold, former Director of the Women's Bureau, and Miss Alice Gore King, Executive Director of the Alumnae Advisory Center, Inc., of New York, N.Y. They obtained the cooperation of the presidents and alumnae associations of four colleges which supplied the names and addresses of their alumnae, class of 1945. Appreciation is extended to these college officials and to the alumnae whose participation helped make this survey possible. The report was written by Jean A. Wells, of the Bureau's Division of Program Planning, Analysis, and Reports, of which Stella P. Manor is Chief. iv Contents Fare Introduction Survey highlights 1 3 Marital and family status. 4 Education and training; past and present Employment status in I960. Volunteer activities Principal occupations Future employment plans and interests Plans for additional education or training Interest in vocational counseling. Conclusion Appendix: Tables Questionnaire 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 16 23 v FIFTEEN YEARS AFTER COLLEGE A Study of Alumnae of the Class of 1945 Introduction One of the most dramatic events taking place in today's world of wo^k is the great influx of married women. It is now quite customary for married women to consider combining homemaking with outside employment when their children are in school or grown, and their family and home responsibilities have lessened. As recently as 1940, there were just 4.2 million working wives. By 1950, the number was up to 8.6 million and by 1961, had jumped to 13.3 million.1 Some of this increase can be explained by the population increase and by the fact that marriages are occurring at a relatively early age. The number of married women increased from 28.5 million in 1940 to 40.5 million in .1961. But more significant has been the change in social attitudes concerning the employment of married women. Husbands no longer consider it a reflection on their earning ability if their wives have a paying job, and the earnings of these married women have contributed to our country's high standard of living—including the rise in homeownership and the increase in the number of college-educated youth. This social change is apparent in the fact that 33 percent of all married women were working in 1961, as compared with only 15 percent in 1940. Forecasts anticipate a continuation of this trend. If the estimated figure of 18 to 20 million married women workers by 1970 is reached, the labor-force participation rate may then exceed 40 percent among married women. What do these statistics and forecasts mean in terms of the women themselves? What are the interests and needs of mature women when fewer demands are made upon their time? Do those who are planning to return to the labor market feel the need of further edu1 T h e figures given here refer to " m a r r i e d woman w i t h husband present." l cation or training? Do they want employment counseling or information? What kinds of work would they like to obtain? Questions such as these are continually being received by the Women's Bureau. The letters come from educators, business and industrial leaders, government officials, and others—as well as from interested individual women. Many inquire about the utilization of educated womanpower and its relationship to the continued growth of our Nation. They are concerned that adequate attention be given to the potential economic contribution of women who have received a good basic education but have been away from the academic or business world for a period of time. As a basis for better understanding of the interests and needs of mature educated women, the Women's Bureau cooperated with the Alumnae Advisory Center, Inc., in an exploratory survey of a small group of alumnae2 of the class of 1945. In the winter of 1960-61, questionnaires were mailed to 674 women. They were asked to describe such factors as their marital and family status, educational attainment, employment interests, training needs, and related matters. All were alumnae of four liberal arts colleges—two coeducational and two women's colleges—which are members of the Center. The number of women who completed the questionnaire was 580, including 500 who had earned a baccalaureate degree and 80 who were nongraduates. The total number of women graduated from college in the school year 1944^45 was estimated at 74,000. Because of the limited coverage, it is important to emphasize that the survey is exploratory and that the findings relate only to the alumnae of the four colleges surveyed. Despite this limitation, however, the study does give a general indication of some of the primary interests and plans of college-educated women and points to the need for, and feasibility of, a more extensive study of this group in the future. The survey findings in some instances varied considerably among the four colleges. However, no attempt was made to analyze the differences because of the small number of colleges involved and the agreement to keep the detailed information confidential. 8 T h e term " a l u m n a e " as used in this report refers to aU members of the class of 1945, both graduates and nongraduates. 2 Survey Highlights The survey's focus on the present employment status and future plans of mature women evidently touched a very responsive chord in this group. More than 85 percent of the alumnae to whom questionnaires were mailed, about 15 years after college, supplied the requested information. The first mailing of the questionnaire and one reminder brought responses from as many as 74 to 79 percent of the alumnae in the four colleges (table 1). Followup communications revealed that some of the nonrespondents had moved from their last reported address and may never have received a questionnaire. The high interest of these college women in future training and employment was revealed in another way. When asked specifically, "Are you interested in obtaining a paid position in the future?" those giving affirmative answers ranged from almost one-half to almost two-thirds of the graduates (from 40 percent in one college to 63 percent in another). Only a few (ranging from 8 to 20 percent) reported no interest in future employment. Many graduates already were employed, although the figures varied considerably among the colleges, ranging from 16 to 45 percent. Large proportions of the college women from each school felt the need of additional training or education to obtain the type of position they would like. This was true of a majority (54 to 71 percent)3 of the alumnae of all the four survey colleges. The proportions were highest (62 to 72 percent) among those who were not employed at the time of the survey. University courses were named much more frequently than nonuniversity courses as the type of further education or training desired; significant numbers wanted to take courses leading toward teacher certification. Relatively few reported interest in business and commercial courses. s T h e figures shown In parentheses throughout the report refer to the range f o r the f o u r colleges; they are included Instead of a single average a s a reminder t h a t the data represent alumnae f r o m only four colleges. 638350—62 2 3 Marital and Family Status Women who had been out of college for at least 15 years were surveyed on the assumption that many are at an age when they are thinking about a new pattern of living. Most have been married for some time, and their children are growing up and spending a good portion of each day in school. These generalizations describe quite well the situation of the alumnae (class of 1945) who participated in the cooperative survey of the Women's Bureau and the Alumnae Advisory Center, Inc. At least 83 percent of the women graduates of each of the four survey colleges reported they were married. Relatively few of the survey graduates were single and even smaller percentages were widowed, separated, or divorced (table 2). More than 90 percent of the married graduates of each college had children, but just a few had small children only. The largest proportions had children of both school and preschool age, and significant percentages had children of school age only. The low percentages of women with small children were related, of course, to the fact that most of the women surveyed were in their late thirties. Interest in changing the pattern of their lives was confirmed by the comments of some of the survey respondents. Such comments often revealed a strong note of hesitancy or doubt about how to proceed, as indicated in the following: . . there will be a great deal more time available to me . . . time I should like to use in as constructive a manner as possible . . . I feel somewhat at a loss as to my future plans . . . . I think I would like first to continue my education, perhaps toward an advanced degree." "These thoughts (about returning to work or returning to school) are constantly on my mind but I haven't decided what I should do or how I should go about it." 4 Education and Training: Past and Present The undergraduate education of the alumnae covered a wide range of specialties—with certain subjects more popular in some schools than in others. Since the cooperating schools were liberal arts colleges, it is not surprising to find that the largest proportions of the graduates had majored in the social sciences, English, psychology, and biological sciences. There were also significant percentages of women graduates with majors in history, chemistry, foreign languages, sociology and social work, and music (table 3). An interesting fact revealed about the undergraduate education of this group of 1945 graduates is that relatively few (1 to 14 percent) had majored in "education"-—the undergraduate specialty of about half the women graduates of all colleges in recent years. For example, 46 percent of all the women who earned a baccalaureate degree in 1959-60 reported an education major. The difference may be due to the types of colleges attended by each of the two groups. The women referred to in the class of 1959-60 covered those from all institutions of higher education, including many teachers colleges and State universities and colleges. The latter might be expected to have larger numbers of "education" majors than do liberal arts colleges.4 Only small numbers of the women had obtained an advanced degree during the 15 years since graduation. Women with doctorates amounted to no more than 4 percent of the graduates from any of the four colleges. Relatively more (8 to 19 percent) had earned a master's degree (table 4). As might be expected, advanced degrees were found more often among the single than among the married women graduates. At the time of the survey—the winter of 1960-61—very few graduates were candidates for an advanced degree or certificate. Most of these were studying for a master's degree, but some were working toward a doctorate or a teaching certificate (table 5). Additional percentages of the women graduates (9 to 32 percent) had taken at least one graduate course not considered to be part of a * There has been, of course, a steady growth and stimulation of interest in teaching as a career. A m o n g all women with earned degrees f r o m all institutions of higher learning* the proportion majoring in "education" h a s increased considerably since 1 9 4 5 . See reports of the Office of Education, U . S . Department of Health, Education, and W e l f a r e . 5 degree requirement. The various graduate courses reported by the women covered many subjects—with "education," sociology and social work, and the health fields mentioned most frequently. Since college, some of the alumnae had also taken one or more undergraduate courses, and some had studied business and commercial subjects. Comparatively few of the survey respondents reported taking preparatory courses for professional nursing, or any other vocational courses. Employment Status in 1960 A majority of the class of 1945 alumnae from each of the four colleges were housewives who were not working outside the home. Of the reporting alumnae, higher proportions of graduates than nongraduates were employed (table 6). This tendency for the employment of women to increase with their level of education resembles the situation in the population as a whole. In 1959, the labor-force participation rate was 53 percent among all college graduates and 40 percent among those with some college but no degree. Of the few alumnae (class of 1945) who had remained single, virtually all were employed at full-time jobs. Many of the single graduates had worked continuously since college and almost all reported at least 10 years of employment. Among those who were widowed, separated, or divorced, at least three out of four from each of the colleges were employed in 1960-61, some in part-time jobs. The work experience of this group varied greatly, ranging from no years of paid work to as many as 15 years. Lower proportions of the married than unmarried alumnae were working outside the home. Even fewer of the married nongraduates were employed than were the married graduates. For married alumnae—both graduates and nongraduates—part-time jobs tended to be more prevalent than full-time jobs. Among the four survey colleges, the proportions of married graduates who were employed ranged from 10 to 36 percent; the proportions of those employed part time ranged from 8 to 19 percent (table 7). Although a majority of the 1945 alumnae of each of the survey colleges were not employed at the time of the survey, large percentages had held at least one paid job between college and the winter of 196061 (table 8). This was true for more of the women graduates than of the women nongraduates. Some of the married alumnae (both graduates and nongraduates) had worked over half of the time since leaving college, but most reported 5 years or less of paid employment. 6 Among the married graduates, about half from each of the colleges had 5 years or less of employment and relatively few had 10 years or more. The work experience was more recent for the surveyed graduates than for the nongraduates. Many of the women graduates had held a paid job since 1955, but most of the nongraduates had not worked since 1950 (table 9). Volunteer Activities Many of the alumnae were active in volunteer services. In fact, much higher proportions (83 to 91 percent) participated in volunteer work in the winter of 1960-61 than worked for pay (16 to 39 percent). Membership in educational, cultural, or recreational organizations was reported by substantial groups of alumnae from all four survey colleges. Many were also associated with civic, political, or welfare service organizations and religious organizations. Relatively small proportions of the alumnae said they were members of professional associations. This may result from the fact that most of the alumnae were not employed at the time of the survey. Some of the alumnae who were busy with volunteer activities had been disillusioned with brief job experiences. For example, a psychology major who was married and the mother of two children had worked about 1 year after leaving college and reported: " I never found a job that utilized my training, intelligence, or aptitudes. Salaries in any interesting fields were not remunerative enough. Some were below minimum wage standards." However, other alumnae who engaged in both volunteer activities and paid employment believed that unpaid volunteer work in some organizations was becoming less attractive. A pertinent comment follows: ''Employees receive more recognition than volunteers. There is need for both, but the paid individual has the edge on the volunteer. The paid person, I believe, receives the more responsible assignments and therefore has more incentive, interest, and satisfaction." 7 Principal Occupations Of the graduates who had had at least one paid job since graduation, a majority reported a professional position as the most responsible one they had held. The proportions ranged from 50 to 73 percent in the four colleges (table 10). Of the graduates with some employment history, a minority (18 to 34 percent) named a clerical job as their most responsible position; the job of secretary or stenographer predominated in this category. Very few of the graduates listed a managerial, sales, or service position as their most responsible one. The undergraduate major of the graduates appeared to have a strong influence on whether or not they had engaged in professional work. There were decidedly larger proportions of professional workers among the graduates who had majored in a technical or specialized skill (nursing or health, chemistry, biological science, sociology and social work, or physical education) than among those with majors in liberal arts subjects (foreign languages, psychology, English, history, music, or social sciences). Conversely, there were more clerical workers among the liberal arts majors than among the technical subject majors. The predominant professional group among the graduates were the teachers (14 to 21 percent of those with some employment history), followed usually by social workers and biological technicians. A fairly wide diversity characterized the professional positions of the remaining graduates. The variety of responsible positions held by the class of 1945 graduates include: budget examiner, college registrar, college residence and admissions officer, director of chemical services in missile research and development, education program coordinator, head computer, physician, research physicist, school psychologist, systems engineer, TV performer and researcher, and university lecturer. This pattern of very diversified professional occupations differs to a marked degree from the job picture reported by recent women college graduates (classes of June 1955, 1956, and 1957) throughout the country. As many as three-fifths of the employed graduates in these later classes were teaching 6 months after graduation. The remaining two-fifths, however, were holding numerous professional positions. The marked difference in the proportion of teachers can 8 probably be traced again to the types of colleges attended by the two groups and to the relatively fewer women who prepare for teaching in the liberal arts colleges. Of the nongraduates with some employment history, the proportions reporting professional positions ranged from only 11 to 29 percent in the four colleges. Clerical work was named by the largest percentages (33 to 63 percent) of the nongraduates. In addition, others reported their most responsible positions as managers, officials, proprietors, or as salespersons. When they considered the appropriateness of their college training in terms of their employment experiences, numerous alumnae criticized the counseling and guidance they had received. Some lamented the lack of information which might have helped them anticipate typical situations arising when marriage and outside work are combined. This viewpoint is expressed by a graduate living in a small town away from the many and varied job opportunities of metropolitan areas, as follows: "We have been trained for careers, rather than for jobs which are available to married women who must live wherever their husbands work.'* Some of the strongest comments stressed the conviction that colleges should provide women with more and better vocational counseling and guidance. Illustrative of this view were the following: " I think the biggest single lack in undergraduate schools is the lack of guidance in choosing a profession for which you are suited and wiU be challenging and rewarding to you." "Strongly recommend a thorough vocational check not later than the end of the freshman year of college." . . perhaps all students in any college or university should be required to take a vocational guidance exam which might be helpful in choosing course of studies." "I would strongly advise more and better job information during college years." There were also some who seemed convinced that secretarial skills were almost a prerequisite for a woman's success in the business world. An especially forceful testimonial came from a history major who had advanced to the position of office manager and secretarytreasurer of an industrial and public relations firm, and who wrote: "Typing and shorthand should be part of a woman's education if she plans to enter the business world. Thefirstjob you get after leaving coUege wiU be a much better one if you have office skills. . . Somewhat similar views were held by an economics major who became a customer relations representative of a utility company and 9 by a political science major who became a copywriter for a radio station. Their respective comments follow: "When first seeking employment, I found the lack of typing knowledge a drawback. . . . I found most employers I contacted wanted this skill even though I was not applying for a typist position as such." "Found it discouraging after graduation to be told that the only openings for women were secretarial." A few of the alumnae offered the opinion that the employment difficulties of themselves or their friends were associated with the fact that they were women. One graduate, although pleased with her own advancement to the position of "radio production officer" in the armed services, stated: "I believe a great deal is still needed to be done regarding employment chances for women. There is still considerable prejudice." A physicist who had worked both for private industry and government also voiced concern about job discrimination against women and noted: "Industrial experiences involved considerable sex discrimination. Research institute and government have been much more satisfactory in this respect." Other comments of the alumnae were related particularly to women's chances for job improvement and advancement, as, for example: " . . . I have found that by working for understaffed, underpaid nonprofit organizations I was able to enlarge the scope of my job more easily than in a more specialized commercial company." "Men still are preferred for positions of authority—to the point where no woman, however well qualified, could hope to be considered for certain executive positions." Future Employment Plans and Interests A majority of the survey alumnae not already employed in the winter of 1960-61 indicated an interest in future employment. Interest was somewhat greater among the graduates than among the nongraduates, although all of the nongraduates from one school reported such interest. However, many of the alumnae also indicated they were 10 not considering seeking a job for at least 5 years and relatively few were thinking of the immediate future ("within 1 year") (table 6). It is especially noteworthy that, of the alumnae who showed some interest in future employment, almost all mentioned a preference for part-time work. This was true both for the graduates (73 to 90 percent) and the nongraduates (83 to 100 percent). Some had already looked for a part-time job and were distressed to find a scarcity of part-time opportunities, particularly in professional fields. The following comments reflect their dissatisfaction with this situation: " Ifindit difficult to secure a part-time job with the pay and responsibility I believe I am capable of." . although I have proved my competence as a biostatistician, I have found very little sympathy when I look for parttime work.*' . . supervisory scientists confided to me personally that I could be of great help even if only part time but that company policy would not permit it." "I have always regretted the unavailabiUty of part-time jobs for college-trained women." Interest in part-time employment is so high that some of the alumnae wish they had considered this factor when choosing their college specialization, as indicated in the following remark: "Guidance while in college toward an occupation which can be done part time would have been very useful." When reporting the type of future job they had in mind, the graduates responded very differently from the nongraduates. Virtually all of the graduates (81 to 88 percent) wanted a professional position— with teaching their greatest preference. Some of the nongraduates (23 to 75 percent) also hoped for a professional job, but many of this group named clerical, sales, or health service work. At first glance, it might seem somewhat strange that teaching should have so much more appeal for the survey graduates in 1960-61 than it did during their undergraduate days. Several comments offered by the graduates, however, may help explain their change of interest. Probably the most frequently expressed comment came from those who had moved to small towns because of their husbands' work and who reported that teaching was the only professional work open to them. Some of the alumnae expressed strong dissatisfaction with the education their own children were receiving and considered it their duty to utilize their education and talents in trying to remedy the situation. Others remarked on teachers' desirable working hours, which allowed them to be at home the same time as their children were. 11 This latter reason was offered by a chemistry major with a master's degree when she commented: "Would actually prefer going back to private industry but because of small children, teaching would seem to be the answer." Plans for Additional Education or Training A strong feeling of need for more education or training existed among the survey alumnae—a feeling that was expressed by large proportions of employed alumnae (44 to 71 percent) as well as by those not employed (62 to 72 percent) (table 11). In fact, some alumnae in both groups reported that they had already made plans to obtain additional employment training. The fact that the graduates and nongraduates alike were interested principally in university courses may be associated with their college background or their desire to study in fields related to their undergraduate major. Among the graduates who specified the kind of additional education or training they wished, the largest group was comprised of those interested in obtaining a teaching certificate. Others named courses in the social sciences and the humanities. In addition, small groups were considering courses in the health fields and in the natural sciences. Only a few of the graduates but relatively more of the nongraduates indicated any interest in business courses or "miscellaneous training courses." Significant proportions of the nongraduates wanted to take undergraduate courses leading to a degree. Some alumnae commented on their need for further preparation before returning to the world of work; others, on their difficulties in finding suitable educational or training facilities in their locality. Among the former were graduates who wrote: "I feel unqualified to do anything but a routine type of job, which would be very dull." "I find myself now, with my children all in school, time on my hands, a desire to add to family income, and having no job training of a practical nature." "Many women in my position would like to work in some constructive way outside the home but are greatly discouraged by lack of recent experience." 12 Those having trouble finding the kind of training they wanted made the following remarks : "Beginning courses in technical fields are generally available but women who have technical majors and need a brush-up course or the latest information in order to return to workfindnothing available." "I feel the need for more educational facilities in this area at modest rates to further my education—for my job and for my children's future." Interest in Vocational Counseling Significant numbers of the women alumnae responded affirmatively when asked if they would like assistance in choosing a suitable field of work. Generally, these were women who had had very little employment experience and weren't sure where or how they might fit into the present working world, as reflected in the following comments: " I should like to return to the labor market but I am not sure what I would be best suited for. I should like to take aptitude tests . . ." "I have a great hunger to return to the 'world' now that my baby-raising years are over, but wouldn't know how to begin . . . . I should be very grateful for guidance." Other alumnae were interested in learning about jobs which would be compatible with the demands of their home life, as, for example: "It seems to me that it would be most welcome and rewarding for mothers returning to work to have information on available opportunities for work that can be done in the house, either partly or completely." As might be expected, assistance in choosing a suitable field of work was desired by more of the women graduates who were not employed (16 to 42 percent) than by the employed graduates (3 to 38 percent) (table 12). Among the nongraduates, on the other hand, there were generally larger proportions of the employed than of those not employed who wished help. However, more of the nongraduates than of the graduates said they had no work plans. The type of assistance or information desired by most of the alumnae included both general facts about employment opportunities and trends and detailed knowledge about the qualifications required for specific occupations. Those who were employed at the time of the survey showed considerable interest in these matters, as did the alumnae who 13 were not employed. This indication of interest might mean that some of the employed women wanted more information to help them advance on the job or make a possible job change. Large proportions of the women alumnae also stated that they wished more information about education or training courses conducted in their local area. This wish prevailed among many employed alumnae as well as those not employed, and supports the premise that many of the employed alumnae are interested in making a job change or in preparing for a better position. Conclusion Even though the information gathered was limited to only a small group of alumnae who had been out of college at least 15 years, the survey provided information about the needs and interests of a significant group of educated women in the country. These women view the roles of wife and mother as the major ones in life. But many also feel that marriage, a natural part of a woman's development, need not be her only concern. In addition to the usual activities connected with housework, child rearing, clubwork, and recreation, these women expressed a strong need for other ways to assert their individuality, to attain personal recognition, and to serve society. Most of the survey alumnae reported that they were doing or had done volunteer work in their community. But some found that such work was not sufficiently satisfying. Volunteer service seemed to offer less recognition than paid employment; in general, the paid employees were favored with the more interesting, responsible, and satisfying assignments. As their children grow older, significant numbers of alumnae indicated interest in working outside the home. Some stated emphatically that their husband's income was sufficient to support the family and that they wanted a job because of their personal need to utilize their minds and skills. Concern about their potentialities and the utilization of their talents was voiced by many of the alumnae. Some of these alumnae—including those with a baccalaureate degree—disclosed, however, that they were at a loss to know how to proceed. They were uncertain about what kind of a job they would like to get, whether or what additional education or training was needed, and which employment fields offered the best opportunities for them. 14 At this period in their life—about 15 years after leaving college— from 16 to 40 percent of the alumnae of the four colleges were working outside the home and a small proportion were thinking of seeking work in the immediate future. Larger percentages thought they might be interested in going to work about 2 to 5 years later. This raises the question whether it might not also be profitable to make a similar study of college alumnae who have been out of school for about 20 years. At other stages of their development, their outlook and needs would probably be very different, as mentioned by a graduate who indicated she had married later than most of her classmates and said: . . my needs would be different if I decided to go back to work at age 46 or 47. I wonder if any jobs exist which would use my abttities?" The questions and doubts raised by the alumnae surveyed underline the necessity of paying more attention to their situation. Cooperative action would seem to be indicated on the part of various groups in our society if the needs made apparent in the study are to be met. Some of the alumnae made it very clear that their desire to get a paying job when their children are older creates special problems and interests which need to be recognized by counseling and guidance personnel. Only then can these women hope to obtain the kind of job information and assistance which will be applicable to their individual and family needs. Some of the alumnae have also pointed out their need for more education and training to better qualify them for entry or reentry into the labor market. To help them attain such training, there is need for educators and training officers to review their training courses and facilities—to see whether such aspects as admission requirements, time schedules, variety of courses offered, etc., are consistent with the interests of the educated women in their area. The employment plans of the alumnae and the initial experiences that some have had in trying to find jobs also established that there is an urgent need for employers, both private and public, to give greater consideration to qualified mature women in hiring for professional positions and to show greater willingness to develop mutually satisfactory working arrangements, such as parttime assignments when feasible. The interests and attitudes expressed by these educated women indicate that efforts to spread awareness of their needs and to provide them with special services can be expected, in most instances, to bring mutual benefits to all concerned. Our entire Nation should profit, since there is need to utilize fully the available talents of all our citizens, especially those who are trained and educated. 15 APPENDIX [Because of rounding, percentages in these tables do not always total 100.] TABLE 1.—Response to Exploratory Study of Women Alumnae, Class of 1945 Total Item Number College A College B College C 100 272 100 147 100 130 100 125 100 Percent College D At Total Alumnae Total questionnaires mailed: Number Percent : 674 Total respondents 580 85 90 84 86 57 19 3 7 55 20 1 9 62 15 5 8 61 18 3 2 54 20 4 7 94 Nonresponse 86 387 126 20 47 1st mailing 2d mailing 3d mailing 4th communication 14 15 10 16 14 100 223 100 111 100 82 100 84 100 69 20 4 7 65 24 2 9 69 17 6 7 79 15 5 1 67 21 5 7 B. Graduates Only 1 Total respondents: Number Percent * 500 1st mailing 2d mailing 3d mailing 4th communication 343 102 19 36 1 Covers alumnae who earned a baccalaureate degree, regardless of whether awarded by the survey college oranother college. TABLE 2.—Marital and Family Status of Alumnae, Class of 19%5 Total Item Alumnae Graduates only Graduates C B D Percent distribution A„ Marital Status Total respondents A — Single Married Widowed, separated, or divorced 100 100 100 100 100 100 8 88 4 9 87 4 11 86 4 5 89 5 4 94 2 12 83 5 B. Family Status 100 100 100 100 100 100 With children 95 94 94 94 96 92 Under 6 years only Both under 6 years and 6 to 17 years.. 6 to 17 years only With no children 11 45 38 5 12 47 35 6 16 43 35 6 10 47 37 6 8 57 32 4 9 46 36 8 Total who are or have been marr ( ed. 16 TABLE 3.—Undergraduate Ma jor of Alumnae, Class of 1945 Total Undergraduate major Alumnae Graduates Graduates A B O D Percent distribution Total respondents Art Biological sciences Chemistry Education English History Languages Mathematics and statistics Music Physical sciences, n.e.c. * Psychology Social sciences, n.e.c. 1 Sociology and social work Other 100 100 100 100 100 100 3 8 7 6 11 8 7 4 6 2 10 13 7 8 2 9 7 5 11 8 7 4 6 3 10 13 7 8 3 7 11 1 12 9 9 4 3 2 9 14 8 8 1 12 5 6 15 8 5 5 3 6 4 21 4 5 1 4 5 14 5 5 8 6 8 4 13 2 5 7 5 6 1 17 1 15 9 6 10 15 4 11 14 * Not elsewhere classified. TABLE 4.—Educational Attainment of Alumnae, Class of 1945 Highest level of education Total A O B D Number Percent 579 100 100 100 100 100 12 77 410 80 26 33 18 3 2 13 71 14 4 6 3 1 4 18 74 4 2 1 1 11 73 15 2 7 5 1 6 68 26 6 14 6 2 13 64 21 11 6 4 1 499 100 100 100 100 100 12 77 410 2 15 82 4 19 77 1 13 86 8 92 3 17 81 Percent distribution A, Total Alumnae Total respondents Doctorate Master's degree Bachelor's degree No degree total 3 to 4 years of college 2 to 3 years of college 1 to 2 years of college Less than 1 year of college - - - - 0) w B. Graduates Only Total respondents Doctorate Master's degree Bachelor's degree i Fewer than 1 percent. 17 TABLE 5.—Formal Education and Training Courses of Alumnae Since College Graduates Alumnae Item Total Nongraduates Graduates 11 1 580 500 30 100 30 100 210 100 210 100 106 100 40 100 142 100 Total respondents.Those who are candidates for a graduate degree or certificate: Number Percent 109 100 55 100 26 100 223 (0 0) Doctorate Master's degree Teaching certificateOther certificate Type not reported... Those "with graduate courses:3 a Number. Percent Education Health fields Sociology and social work.. Social science?, n.c.c. 4 Other graduate courses Those with nongraduate courses: Number Percent Business and commercial courses.., Nursing (professional) courses Teaching courses Other university (nongraduate) courses. Vocational courscs Other nongraduate courses 1 Number of cases too small to show percent distribution, Includes both those who are currently taking courses and thoso who have taken courses. * Includes those who are candidates for a graduate degree or certificate. * Not elsewhere classified. 8 Within this group, the courses most often reported were history, art, psychology, biological science chemistry,English, and foreign languages. 1 TABLE 6.—Employment Status and Plans of Alumnae, Glass of 19^5 Alumnae Item Total Nongraduates Graduates Graduates B A D C Percent distribution 100 100 100 100 100 100 32 25 33 33 36 16 45 ..... 19 13 16 9 19 14 19 14 20 16 7 9 30 15 2 1 2 2 2 1 — 53 49 53 54 50 63 46 Within 1 year About 2 to 5 years Perhaps later— 4 15 34 9 4 36 3 17 33 4 21 29 2 20 28 13 50 2 8 36 Not interested in position 14 25 12 11 12 20 8 Total respondents Currently employed Full time Part time Seeking a position . . . Interested in future position 18 - 100 ^Table 7.—Employment Status and Plans of Married Graduates, Class of 1945 Total Item Number College Percent A B D C Percent distribution Total married graduates 432 100 100 108 25 24 30~ KT 36 43 65 10 15 9 16 13 16 3 17 19 Currently employed Full time Part time Seeking a position 100 100 100 8 8 2 3 2 1 258 60 61 55 68 Within 1 year About 2 to 5 years Perhaps later 10 83 165 2 19 38 4 23 34 2 22 31 14 53 1 10 43 Not Interested in position 58 13 12 13 21 1 0 Interested In future position TABLE 54 8.—Years of Paid Employment Since College, Class of 1945 Graduates Alumnae Years of employment Total Nongraduates Graduates A D C B Percent distribution 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 15 years 14 years 13 years 12 years 11 years s 3 3 2 3 16 7 3 4 3 3 7 3 4 4 5 8 6 4 1 3 2 2 11 5 6 4 4 10 years 9 years 8 years... 7 years 6 years 5 4 5 6 6 5 1 1 5 3 5 4 5 6 6 7 4 6 7 6 4 5 5 7 4 8 8 10 11 8 5 5 12 18 8 9 8 10 10 8 9 9 8 8 6 7 9 5 10 12 Total respondents 5 4 3 2 1 years years years years year Less than 6 months or never employed Median years of employment 5 2 8 11 11 22 16 5 8 5 10 7 10 9 20 8 7 14 5 5 5.5 3.3 5.7 6.4 5.1 4.3 6.5 19 TABLE 9 . — M o s t Recent Year of Paid Employment, Class of 1945 Graduates Alumnae Most recent year of employment Total Nongraduates Graduates A B D C Percent distribution Total respondents 100 TABLE 100 100 31 12 21 27 S Currently employed Last employed 1955-1960.. Last employed 1950-1954 Last employed 1945-1949 Never employed since 1945 24 9 8 41 19 33 13 23 25 6 100 100 100 100 35 12 19 21 14 16 7 33 40 4 45 8 24 18 5 33 17 22 24 4 10.—Most Responsible Position Ever Eeld by Alumnae, Class of 1945 Alumnae Occupation Total Nongraduates Graduates Graduates B A D C Percent distribution Total ever employed 100 Editors, copywriters, reporters Social workers Teachers Technicians, biological Other professional Clerical workers Secretaries, stenographers Other clerical __ 100 100 100 100 100 100 54 Professional workers 16 59 60 73 50 53 3 7 15 4 24 6 2 8 4 8 17 5 26 8 7 14 6 25 14 20 5 34 1 8 14 4 23 5 21 3 24 27 48 24 21 18 31 34 11 17 14 34 10 14 10 11 7 10 8 23 16 18 Managers, officials, proprietors 9 13 9 12 3 9 9 Sales 5 4 4 2 8 3 Other ever employed fi 8 16 3 3 4 3 3 20 TABLE 11.—Training and Education Plans and Interests Employment Status of Alumnaet bp Employed Item Total A B Not employed C D Total A B C D A. Alumnae Percent of respondents with training plans Percent of respondents who feel need of more training 45 43 52 47 41 22 28 21 13 24 65 49 71 69 44 68 72 71 64 62 Percent of respondents reporting Interest in specified type of training or education * Type of training or education: Business courses Refresher courses Teacher certification courses Other university courses Other training 6 5 15 76 8 3 3 23 86 3 3 7 7 73 13 10 10 30 60 12 6 6 71 12 10 2 39 68 2 10 1 38 71 2 11 2 40 71 2 46 44 53 46 43 22 27 21 11 24 54 49 72 64 40 70 71 72 66 69 8 4 43 63 14 33 61 3 B, Graduates Percent of respondents with training plans — Percent of respondents who feel need of more training Percent of respondents reporting interest in specified type of training or education * Type of training or education: Business courses Refresher courses - Teacher certification courses Other university courses Other training.,. ... 4 1 16 83 7 3 3 24 85 3 4 13 8 81 12 25 75 7 86 14 (J) 8 41 73 1 8 3 13 1 38 "~43~ "~50~ 74 74 70 2 10 3 32 71 » Refers to respondents who felt need of more training; some of them reported Interest In more than one rpe of training or education. ' Fewer than 1 percent. 21 TABLE 12.—Assistance or Information Desired ty Alumnae, by Employment Status Employed Item Total A B Not employed C Total D A B O D A. Alumnae Percent of respondents who wish assistance in choosing a suitable field of work 14 16 13 27 8 41 32 32 18 32 Percent of above respondents reporting interest in specified type of information1 Type of information desired: Education or training courses in home area Employment opportunities and trends Qualifications required for specific occupations Other 52 70 60 33 56 56 70 36 53 81 00 C O 67 100 74 76 87 71 53 81 90 100 33 67 61 2 54 2 83 57 7 53 13 15 12 38 3 34 42 32 16 33 B. Graduates Percent of respondents who wish assistance in choosing a suitable field of work - Percent of above respondents reporting interest in specified type of information i Type of information desired: Education or training courses in home area Employment opportunities and trends Qualifications required for specific occupations Other 59 67 75 33 82 89 75 67 76 89 100 33 55 100 56 68 20 57 77 75 95 80 57 57 2 54 2 79 40 10 50 i Some of the respondents reported Interest In more than one type of Information. 22 Questionnaire C N I E TA O FD N I L Form approved Budget Bureau No. UIi-602li 'U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau and the Alumnae Advisory Center, Inc. jointly conduct a S R E O W MN A U N E C A S O I9h$ UVY F OE L M A, L S F Undergraduate college Nm a e City State Please circle O L O E N M E in each question, except where otherwise indicated. N Y N U BR Fill in all blank lines where pertinent, but do not f i l l in boxes (inserted for tabulating purposes). Enter "none" if the item Hoes not apply to you. I. KU T L A D F ML S A U / HA N A IY TT S A. Marital status 1* Single 2* Married 3. Widowed, separated or divorced B* Enter the number of children you have under 17 years of age, by age group: Number of children under 6 years Number of children 6 to 17 years H. E U A I N D C TO A. Highest-level degree received to date: 1* No degree (specify number of years in college) 2. B or B A S 3- M or M A S li. P D or E D h d 5. Other (specify) B. Undergraduate major (specify) C. If you are n w attending or have attended graduate school, what is (was) o your field of graduate study? 23 -2- D- Are you n w a candidate for a graduate degree or certificate? e 1* Yes 2. N o E. If "yes", what degree or type of certificate? F. If you are taking or have taken any courses not leading toward a degree (like teaching, nursing, crafts, or business)— _ > What is (was) your primary field of study? 1 2. N m of school a e m. V L N E R ACTIVITIES OU T E A, If you are at present a member of any voluntary organizations, indicate the types. (Circle one or more.) 1. Civic, political, or welfare service 2. Educational, cultural, or recreational 3. Professional association lw Religious Other (specify) IV. P O E SO A , A M N S R T V , CLERICAL, O O H R P S T O S R F SI N L D I IT A I E R TE OII N A. H w m n years of employment have you had since you left undergraduate o ay college? (Include both salaried and self-employment and count years of both full-time and part-time employment.) B. W e were you last employed? hn 1* N w employed o 2. Last employed in (give year)_ 3* Never employed since college 24 C. Give title and brief description of your present or last position since college. D. In what kind of business or industry is (was) this? What is the most responsible position you have ever held? F. If employed at present, are you working full- or part-time? 1* Full time 2. Part time G If not employed at present, are you n w seeking a position? # o 1. Tes 2. N o H. If not new seeking a position, are you interested in obtaining one in the future? 1. Tes, within one year 2. Tes, about 2 to $ years from now 3. Doubtful, perhaps later U No, not interested * I. If interested in a position later or seeking one at present, what type of position or occupation would you like to find? J* Would you prefer to obtain a full-time or part-time position? 1. Full time 2. Part time F T R T A N N PUNS UU E R I I G A. Have you made any plans to obtain more education or job training? !• Tes 2. N o 25 -liB. D you feel the need for more education or training to obtain the type o of position you would like? 1. Tes 2. N o C. If "yes", what kind of additional education or training are you interested in? (Circle one or more.) 1. Refresher or brush-up course in 2. Teacher certification course 3. Business school courses U. Graduate education (specify the field) Other (specify) D. Would you like assistance in choosing a suitable field of work? 1. Tes 2. N o E. Which, if any, of the following types of information would you like? (Circle one or more*) Information on: 1. Qualifications required for specific occupations 2* Education or training courses in your area 3* Employment opportunities and trends U. Other (specify) . VI. G N R L C M E T E E A O M NS Do you have any general comments to m k concerning your work experiences, argr ae unsuccessful attempts to obtain a job, or w y you are not interested in h returning to the labor market? (Please use the other side of paper if desired.) VII. N m (please print) a e Address Last Middle or maiden First Street City State (All information received will be held confidential, but we are asking for your n m and address to avoid writing you again for a reply.) a e 2$