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fura-1 Land ,-and THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR AND DURING RECONSTRUCTION STATISTICS, PROBLEMS, AND POLICIES RELATING 'FO THE GREATER INCLUSION OF NEGRO WAGE EARNERS IN AMERICAN INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE IZIEORGE E. HAYNES. Ph. D.. Dicto WASHINGTON ”GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1920 41.0.••11•111111 CONTENT3. • ge. ter of transmittal Introduction CHAPTER 1. Migration, its causes and volume II. Creation of office. Director of Negro Economics III. Early results of Negro Economics Service Problems of Negro Labor IV. Cooperation within the department V. Negro labor and racial relationships at Chicago VI. White and Negro workers in basic industries VII. Statistics on the meat-packing and steel industrie VIII. Negro labor in the United States shipyard IX. Report of work in Florida and Georgia X. Report of work in Illinois XI. Report of work in Michigan XII. Report of work in Mississippi XIII. Report of work in New Jersey XIV. Report of work in New York XV. Report of work in North Carolina XVI. Report of work in Ohio -XVI I. Report of workin Pennfrdvania XVI II. Report of work in Virginia X I X. Negro women in industry X X. Recommendations on scope of departmental authority .• TABLES. 14ABLE R. II. IV. V. VI. Unskilled white and Negro male workers in selected typical war industries Average hours of work and average earnings Opinions of 38 employers of Negro labor Meat-packing employees Meat-packing employees (with graph) Negro employees in eight principal shipyard districts APPENDIXES. APPENDIX I. "Labor and Victory" II. Constitution, North Carolina State Committee Constitution, Kentucky State Committee 3 LETTER OF TRANSMITTA L. UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF LAB DIVISION OF NEGRO ECO OR, NOM Washington, D. C., AprilICS, 1, 1920. SIR: I have the honor of tra ing, in brief, some of the wor nsmitting herewith a bulletin cover-established by you on May 1,1 k of the Division of Negro Economics, -iliate office since that time, 918,and functioning through your immethe actual experiences of together with some valuable data giving Negroes in industrial occ 1919. The publication was upa ns, 1918:planned, in part, by my asstio F. Phillips, who also istant, Karl con str contained in the report and ucted the statistical and other tables who from the beginning and the continuation of the throughout work has given a most com -efficient service to the dep petent and highly artment and to the public. You'will note that bulletin contains summarize the policies and plansthe ch you approved for this d statements of 31ego wageoarners, thewhi special service "to ir employers, and associ ates, and that concise statistical-reports.and data hav e bee n included. The graphs ing 0:TC of the larger tables amplifywere prepared bv the Bur :Statistios. II may say tha eau of Labor t the file s of the bivisi of Neg nomies •conSain a mass of sim ro' Ecoilar material, but thatonowi funds .and clerical help it was ng to hick of not pra cticable to endeavor to *1 4ny mere material tha )&0 n tha In transmitting this bul t which appears in the report. . let in I des ire to thank the public-spiri -citizens, white aad col ted gave prompt and vol ored, in organizations and as individuals, who unt ary ass ist anc e of untold value e work throughout the States and localities in which it in promoting ed. I 'desire to thank, als was conductfor their unlimited cooper o, the Federal, State, and private agencies ati on and advice at all times. Wit • department :itself I am hin the - various divisions and grateful to you, to the chief and heads of the bur eau s, and especially to the :Assistant Secretary and of the Solicitor for unfailing office of the :..assistan ce. interest and The office and field staff of lion for untiring zeal and the division deserves special commendaclose application in carrying . many delicate and difficul forward the t tas I desire again to call your ks growing out of the work almost daily. att ent ion to the recommendations cited on pages --- of this bulletin, which, you will recall, in my memorandum rep ort to you on the racial situat were included ion in Chicago. Respectfully, GEORGE E. HAYNES, Dir ector of Negro Economies. -HOB. W. B. WILSON, Secretary of Labor. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR AND DURING RECONSTRUCTION. INTRODUCTION. North The entrance of Negroes into industries, particularly in the induslar particu What ons: questi -*tailing the great war led to many were they most - tries did they enter? In what kinds of occupationslled, or skilled? semiski ed, unskill they igenerialy employed? Were g hohis workin r of e numbe averag the to up e measur they id HowilI What en? workm white the with ed compar as gs -and average earnin How them? who tried ers employ was the estimate and opinion of ts ishmen establ same the in en workm white with re -did they compa work of y qualit ver, turn-o eeism, .1.and; an the same jobs as to absent iFiroziNced,. and speed in turning out quantity? er the beet ,Some- of the chapters of this bulletin bring togeth ons with questi these of some answer t to attemp an in data ahlo :avall necesand scope in limited very is data the facts. Obviously, the and unscientific unwise be re, therefo would, It ntary. fragme sarily d amount of lto make any large generalizations based upon so limite ed and gather ly careful • data. What is presented, however, has been ainform and tions indica e definit gives some re, .coilated, and, therefo r• hatove Vi d. limite very tion where information has been heretofore figures and tables the upon made have been nt • analysis and comme themmay be readily weighed in the light of the accompanying data „selves. Facts and figures, however, are only bases of information supon worker are ,which to build programs and plans Of action. Negro work in the and ers employ :employed for the most part by whiteworkers. :.,same industries and often on the same jobs with white ntly freque s worker other and ers 'Their relations with these employ were as ments adjust assume racial as well as labor aspects. In such as never before required during the war, when industries were calling success ful and proved 4for all kinds of workers, activities which in im-and afners wage-e of these e welfar the valuable in promoting exceed were s worker :proving their relations to employers and other zed production. organi of ery machin the of parts kingly important for dealing The plans and activities of the Department of Labor -instru ctive and ent perman of ences experi are s .4vith ;these matter rese respon ful success and hearty value, especially because of the ies. localit and States ,ceived from white and Negro citizens in many plans and A part of this bulletin, therefore, gives a summary of these of the office the in activities of the Division of Negro Economics m, the progra l genera the shows t accoun Secretary of Labor. The r \ THE NEGRO AT WORK DUIZIN THE WORLD WAL facts and principles upon wbich it Was based; and how it was carrie,d out in the several States with the hearty indorsement and cooperation of governors and other State and local officials and of white and colored citizens, both in organizations and as individuals. The first table of figures of Chapter VI gives clear indications of the distribution in 26 States of 190,091 whi' men and 62,316 Negro men in unskilled occupations of 277 different firms engaged in various war industries in 1918. Table II of the same chapter gives full details of the classification of occupations as skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled, the average number of hours worked per week, and the average earnings per week and per hour of 4,260 white men and 2,722 Negro men in 194 occupations in 23 separate establishments -engaged in basic industrial operations of foundries (both iron and ;steel), slaughtering and meat packing, automobile manufacture, coke ovens, manufacture of iron and steel and their products, and In glass manufacture. This table is accompanied by some comment, analyzing the comparison of white and Negro workmen on the points •covered in each of the three.general occupational classes. A sup- #lementary part of this table gives similar figures for 153 white women 83 Negro women in slaughtering and meat packing. Table III • oltthis Chapter gives in tabular form the opinions of 38 employers of Niegro- wakers as to the attitude of their firms toward Negro labor, the opportunities for promotion, and their opinion on the comparative behavior of White and Negro employees. The 38 firms repre-sented were employing at that time 101,458 white workers,and 6,857 Negro workers. 'these opinions, therefore, are fairly representative of the state of mind of northern employers in 1918-19. Slaughtering and meat packing and iron and steel were such important industries and employed such large numbers of Negroes during the war that special reports were secured through cou0esy -of plants carrying on these two industries. Chapter VII giveis • in considerable detail the tables and analyses of white and Negro workers for the first of these industries and adds additional dis4cussion to that.of Chapter VI on the iron and steel establishments. Tables IV and V of this chapter give the number and per cent of •-distribution of the white and Negro employees, male and female, of two slaughtering and meat-packing plants for 30 weeks beginning -July 13, 1918, and 159 weeks beginning January, 1916, respectively. -On the basis of these tables two diagrams have been made and are included in the chapter, making these figures of the total numbers • and percentages readily perceptible to the casual reader. There was no more important nor interesting work than that in the shipyards ••during the war. "Ships, ships and more ships" was the call from 'Europe. It has not been feasible to get all the figures for all the shipyards where Negroes were employed during the war, but a full record of the Negro employees at shipbuilding plants under the Jurisdiction of the United States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation, were secured through courtesy of that board. This activity oof.Negro wage-earners assumed such important proportions that the , mtteerial.j.ustifies a separate chapter—Chapter \TM. Table VI of this 'chapter gives these figures for occupations of 24,647 Negro men during the war and 14,075 after the war and until September, 1919. They are classified both as a whole into skilled and unskilled and by specific occupations for each of the eight shipyard districts under the •Soturootuap Joj ojus !vont mu alutu poioqut gout.% o.tnquou'Au puu 2imsnpu; u; asuojap Jo Jug p.utf; att; m swam() uouupuaunu(. )4.11tq 0Alafid p `stuatqoad Joqui tupul alua aaaluntoA stiovvfo poaolook puu amqm -qap puu ;mount) Suutu maw; iltuloatu Jo uotivJad000 ott; anpooma a)futu 04attuno.1 pool Siussaoon oql gm% soamtuuma Sios•rn , ‘saltyls II Jo $oma put; ‘stuno `sapunoa, . pool put) 04134s Jo tioyruutioj att; punua,Waq WY' -pu y401.10.11 0.123N pastAJo(Ins pm;saouaaaJuuo JO sauos atti pantolloj ottm. 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Jo uo!sntott1 poluidtualuoo utiounq 54; :toj tiutd* I11t1!2t3o •utujoatto quoN (to AX aa;(Ivqa u; P'11 N: Ja•mhiqo u! '0;110 110 tAx 302d1314()11; Siqulou 'smtuottoOH *o.1.*a_Ni Jo sJosi.uatins aluls 0112 JO sa!mmlou Jo 8730(13.1 oluls 3143 u; putt •Atotaq 53104 ituaAos alp111 uam2 soanOg * alp Jo autos tu p34)111311; am( asato jo autos su ldoaxa `00111.10 ausawop la; pull `aanlinou.tu •satuut u; ‘spuoanut ott; 110 aoqut 144q1 Jo ulupopniati; lou soop sa3tu1J0-3211nt (m2oN Jo Xprils spil toluunlioJuil •aotwoupats mato solumptu .tolcIutto sup ut n0A;11 sa.m:sig 0111 JO sts.:cptuu autos •uoutuo(I.Ioa ;00k4 .4fouo2aatua 110'Ix Jaidwia ,sioutin (1'1110.t1 III. )N'11I i11().A% 0:197,1 1 III CITAPTER I. MIGRATION. Shortage of labor in northern industries was the direct c.ause of "the'increased Negro migration during the war period. This direct • cause was, of course, augmented by other causes, among which were the 'increased dissatisfaction with conditions in the South—the -ravages Of the boll weevil, floods, change of crop system, low wages, •ahld poor houses and schools. A previous bulletin of the department summed up the causes as follows: Other causes assigned at the southern end are numerous: General dissatisfaction with conditions, ravages of boll weevil, floods, change of crop system, low wages, poorohdases on plantations, poor school facilities, unsatisfactory crop settlements, rrougligtoatment, lynching, desire for travel, labor agents, the Negro press, letters from friendfiviii the North, and finally advice of white friends in the South where crops had failed. The Department of Labor estimates the Negro migration in figures ..of from 400,000 to 500,000. Other estimates, ranging from 300,000 to 800,000, have been made by experts and by private bureaus. Such a variation of figures goes to show the wide scope of the migration. 'Prior to the war period the Negro worker had been sparsely located in the North, but the laws of self-preservation of the industrial and agricultural assets of our country and the law of demand and supply turned almost overnight both into war and private industries hundreds of t housands of Negro workers, among whom there were laborers, molde rs carpenters, blacksmiths, painters, janitors, chauffeurs, machinist aliorers, and a mass of workers, comprising, probably, nearly every type of skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled labor. The most marked effects of the migration were easily determinable. 'First, the agricultural regions of the Southern States, particularly Mississippi and Louisiana, began to suffer for want of the Negro • worker who had so long tilled the soil of those regions. On the other hand, the Negro workers who had been turned into the plants of the North faced the necessity of perforthing efficient work in the minimum amount of time, of adjusting himself to northern conditions, --and of becoming a fixture in his particular dine of employment, or becoming a "floater." It is interesting to review for a moment some of the wage scales in Southern States. In 1917 about $12 a month was being paid for .farm labor in many sections. In other sections 75 cents and $1 a day were considered equitable wages. During the harvesting of rice, in the "grinding season" the amount was usually increased to -$1.25 and $1.75 per day, with a possible average of $1.50. Cotton was always considered a cheap-mlvr crop, about which one man has The world has gone on thinking that the farm labor in the South should work for .75 cents or $1 a daY when all other labor is getting $1.50 and $2 per day, 10 THE WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORIrEAJRING 11 to the masses of miThe States which contributtd most largelyna, Florida, Alabama, Caroli South na, Caroli grants were North see. The miTennes and as, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkans mented the Negro workers supple y rapidl States grants from those , New Jersey, Michigan, -already sparsely employed in Pennsylvania a.' Virgini Illinois, and West Office. 1919. Department of Labor bulletin. Government Printing 1 See Negro Migration in 1916-17, ( ITAPTER II. 'CREATION OF THE OFFICE OF DIRECTOR OF NEGRO ECONOMICS. In view of the perplexing questions with regard to Negroes in industry and agriculture and the migration of Negroes from the South to the North during 1916, 1917, and 1918, upon representations of white and Negro citizens and several influential organizations dealing particularly with Negro life and race relations, the Secretary of Labor, Hon. William B. Wilson, after consideration and favorable recommen-dation by his Advisory Council on the war organization of the Depart-inent of Labor, decided to create the position of adviser on Negro labor iin his ;immediate office, with the title of Director of Negro condttiics. The function of this official was to advise the Secretary aalttlib ditedtors and chiefs of the several bureaus and divisions of to !th department on mittters relating to Negro wage earners, and wage Negro between greater on for cooperati plans promote and .nutline ,earners, white employers, and white workers in agriculture and industry. In starting this wink the Secretary stated that as Negroes constitutt :about one-tenth of the total population of the country and •-abotit'une-seventh oftthe working population, it was reasonable and right that they should have representation at the council table when matters affecting them were being considered and decided. In defining the function of the office of the Director of Negro Economics the Secretary decided that the advice of the director should be secured ibefore any work dealing withVegro wage earners was undertaken and that he be kept advised of the progress of such work so that the Department might have, at all times, the benefit of his judgment in ,all matters affecting Negroes. Accordingly, on May 1, 1918, the Secretary of Labor called to that at position Dr. George E. Haynes, professor of sociology and economicson League National the of s secretarie Fisk University and one of the Urban Conditions among Negroes. Dr. Haynes was strongly recommended by many individuals and organizations, among them being —.) .the Commercial Club of Nashville, Tenn., his home city. (See p. Negro of Director of the advice the of with Labor, Secretary The Economics, early in May, 1918, considered and approved plans out4.1ining three types of activities for dealing with problems of Negro "aworkem in their relations to white workers and white employers, as • fallows: I. The organization of cooperative committees of white and colored citizens in the •',States and localities where problems of Negro labor arise, due to large numbers of Negro workers. 2. The development of a publicity or educational campaign to create good feeling between the races and to have both white and Negro citizens understand and cooperate with the purpose and plans of the department. 12 WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD 13 in the States and localities to develop 3. The appointment of Negro staff workers conduct this work of better racial labor relations, 'this organization of committees, toand services of the department in mobilizing and and to assist the several divisions war. astabilizing Negro labor for winning the of this plan, the office In undertaking to carry out the three parts lties: difficu main two ized recogn ary of the Secret feeling of suspicion on the part of the colored 1. The difficulty of forestalling a strongnces in racial and labor matters. experie past their of p ople, growing out wrong impression among white people, especially 2. The difficulty of forestalling a of the department, and of having them understand efforts the about South, those in the in local labor problems by means of its plans. them to help wishes ment depart that the These cardinal facts were also given due consideration: the majority of the em1. The two races are thrown together in their daily work, s with Negro employees ployers and a large number of the employees having relation misunderstandings, prejudices, 'being white persons. These conditions give rise to be recognized and dealt with in must facts ons. These suspici :antagonisms,fears,and a statesmanlike manner. as they do, between local employers 2. The problems are local in character, arising, communities, need the vision of local in , however people, The and local employees. local situations. their to apply to ds standar and 'national policies, plans, upon the desire and need of cooperation 3. Any plan or program should be based s of Negro wage earners, and, wherever • between white employers and representative . earners wage possible, white AVON—CONFERENCES AND COMMITTEES. .ITIBLDO zation was a preliminary "The first st'eirth setting _up the field organi strategic centers in a to tril, of the Ifirector of Negro Economics were of pressing iriumber of States where Negro workers' problemsce, informal conponden imnortance. Through preliminary corres ve white and entati repres with held iews were interv ferences and . These visited Stiife each of Negro citizens from different parts hetic sympat of points first the ished establ ences confer interviews and condilabor ve impro to efforts uent contact for cooperation in subseq tions and race relations.. for subsequent work. These preliminary visits laid the foundationcalled by Hon. T. W. ence, confer na Caroli North Irtir instance, the below, which set the tickett, Governor of the State lend described such a preliminary of out grew , States rn Southe other for Model of Virginia The creation of the Negro workers' committees Society of that State zation Organi Negro the of ation cooper the and results followed the grew out of a similar visit on the trip. Similar connections made in other States. and private schools for Upon the visit to a State, officials of State repres entatives of the e, defens Negroes, of the State councils of yment Service, Emplo States United of rce, the comme of cihambers and assistance ation cooper ed promis and of white and Negro colleges earners by wage Negro ate stimul to tment depar the of in the efforts efficiency their se to increa as way a in such improving their condition for maximum production to win the war. representative white and The first of a series of State conferences of Hon. T. W. Bickett, Negro citizens was called on June 19, 1918, bythe State capitol at in office his at Governor of North Carolina, the most subof 17 ence Raleigh. There were present at this confer citizens, white five and State the of parts stantial Negroes from all 14 D WAIL DVIIING THE-WORL THE NEGRO AT WHIM ference and o presided thmughont the con including the governor, whpro ceedings. the morale took an active part in the t of Labor for increasing Dir men art Dep ector of the The plans of the by workers were outlined and efficiency of Negro ely discussed. At the close of the meeting Negro Economics and fre a temporary committee which drafted a the governor appointedfor a State Negro Workers' Advisory Coming committees. constitution providorg ion of local county and city zat ani the for s and readjustmittee and zation, with slight modification This plan of organias a model for other States in the development of ments, later served was set up in the course of the field organization whichthe tes, and six northern .a voluntary in four other sou rn Sta ths mon ult of the six t nex so highly pleased with the res States. Gov. Bickett wasa statement to the public press saying that conference that he issued most patriotic and helpful conferences he this meeting was one of the held by the had ever attended. and colored citizens was te whi of g tin mee te July 12, 1918. A. Sta gress at Gulfport, Miss., of Negro Ecoor ect &Fitt:hem Sociological Con Dir itation to the inv an ed end ext ss gre citizens, business The con meeting. About 200 white 'mimics to address the about 75 Negro citizens of the State were in of this State gathering to men and planters,and artment took advantageste d in the adjustment of attendance. The dep ere int were especially o wh se ro Ecotho er eth tog l ,cal ress of the Director of Neg add e Th ms. ble m both pro fro or ponse Negro lab ss received a hearty res te citiwhi the of l nomics before the congre era and as a result sev t, sen pre s a plan roe Neg out ked whites and in the conference., which wor zens took an active partion similar to the one adopted by North of State-wide organizat the success Carolina. by Gov. Bickett and gre set ent ced pre the of is ss, Hon. bas Con On the logical of the Southern 'SoCio ference of white and eat the Gulfport meeting of con Florida, called a er full discussion Sidney Catts, Governornville , on July 16, 1918. Aftgra kso Jac m and formed pro Negro citizens at a d ence adopte fer s con thi ure ced representapro of and ed pos of plans s' Advisory Committee com te Council Sta the of es pic <• 41, State Negro Worker aus ns under the ize d cit ore col vice. A Ser and nt te me whi oy tive States Empl ted Uni the e and ens the proDef al ect its obj .of Nation ked out, having as tan employof g din program of activities was worand ers better und a s ion greater dit ter con bet t of tha ion er ,mot roes of Florida in ord great So . ult res .ment matters relating to the Negpli the be es might sup war ns of d and ize foo of cit on cti the odu t Ipr conference tha the of day at the m g, on ias tin mass mee was the enthus d, held a monsternom er oth and , ics .Jacksonville, white and colore Negro Eco of or ect Dir the or, ern 'which the gov Organization .officials spoke. help of the Negro tee of that the h oug thr me, nti mea Commit In the ro Workers' Advisory Society of Virginia, the Neg first supervisor of Negro economics, a State was organized and the experience, T. C. Erwin, was appointed Negro citizen of training and of advisory work in the State. launched in and undertook the direction k and organizationeffort and on The next step was to get the wor ial, init selected for the northern territory. Ohio waswas called by the department with the e enc fer con Employment August 5, 1918, a or of the United States ect Dir l era Fed the of p hel y .heart THE .N EURO AT WORK outoNo 13 WtiI;1.1) WM. nce Service and Hon. James M.Cox,governor of Ohio. This confere met at the State Capitol at Columbus and was notable for the number in attendance, the enthusiasm and the readiness with which they worked Out a plan of State-wide organization. There were present and repabout 125 persons—white employers, Negro wage earners,was closed session on afterno . The resentatives of white wage earners d adopte nce confere The or. the govern by s addres d with a splendi second the Hall, E. Charles and ation the usual plan of State organiz to develop supervisor of Negro economics, was assigned to the State auspices of the under work, the se the organization and to supervi the United States Employment Service office. 6, One other conference, that held in Louisville, Ky., August variation in the need4 to be described as showing one other slight of organization. far-reaching significance of the cooperative plan adopted This conference was unique in that the plan of organization by was tbat of a united war-work committee made up jointlyFoodthose Adrepresenting the State Council of Defense, United States and the ture, of Agricul ment Depart States United ation, ministr s being United States Department of Labor, white and colored citizen conference the persons representing these various interests. The or Kenwas noted for its enthusiasm. Hon. A.0.Stanley, govern of a large and nce confere the tucky, in:Itide an 'enthusiastic address to . evening the in d followe g mass meetin after the first ,• By.ithe time of the Kentucky conference, three monthsnces and their plans were outlined, the influence of the State confere movea State g of startin means a as proved well feasibility were so that other conment and creating good will and favorable sentiment the State work. ferences followed as a matter of course in settihg up i, Illinois, Missour , Additional conferences were held in Georgia Jersey. New Michigan, and of A national informal conference was called by the Secretary This 1919. 17-18, ry Februa C., D. gton, Washin in met Labor and and social conference included men and women representing welfare Negroes and both of South, and North both ations, organiz service ts of all sections white people, in order that the views and interes e of the conferkeynot and of both races might be ascertained. The welcoming the reprein Labor of ry Secreta the ence was sounded by sentatives. He said: Labor made no distinction Congress in defining the duties of the Department of conditio n of servitude. We either as to sex or race, and, I may add, as to previous earners, whether men or women or were authorized to promote the welfare of wage they were native born or alien children, whether they were white or colored, whether welfare of the wage workers we have residents; and in the undertaking to promote the welfare of the wageworker at the not assumed that it was our duty to promote the the welfare of the wageworker, expense of the plans of the community but to promote our population. having due respect to the rights of all other portions of ing the The Assistant Secretary of Labor, Louis F. Post,in address conference said: interests of all wage It is the function of the Department of Labor to look after the sex. either or age, any race, earners of any Special subjects were discussed, as follows: s and Lines of work which should be undertaken for improving race relation dktions of Negro workers. con, THE WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING 16 Negro cooperation and good will between Conduct and toleration as necessary for and white workers. in industry. . Special problems of women farm ers and what agencies may do to help them The Negro land tenants and rs. labor worke Education and Negro rmal conference gave most of its time On the second day the info action in local communities to secure of ity "Un to the general topic: of welfare agencies and methods, by efficiency and cooperationLabo r and other governmental agencies which the Department of ate agencies and organizations." can best cooperate with priv ted and recommended to the Secretary In a set of resolutions adop t points are set forth: rtan of Labor the following impo AT INFORMAL CONIVE ORGANIZATION ADOPTED RESOLUTION ON PLAN OF COOPERAT LEMS, FEBRUARY 17 AND 18, 1918, AS APPROVED FERENCE ON NEGRO LABOR PROB BY THE SECRETARY OF LABOR. improvement Negro wage earners and the Whereas the improvement of conditions ofwage Negro wage earners are of and rs earne white of relations of white employers, of advancement of the welfare of all wage earners questions of great importance for the in America; and ested in promoting ons and agencies specifically inter Whereas the several organizati life need to work in closer ican Amer to rs earne wage Negro the better adjustment of izations cooperation: of such boards, agencies and organ Therefore, It behooves representattives rative organization, of action, coope of res measu adop to interested in such questions ructive work along these lines. to an informal conand of policy that will foster const of such organizations, invited tives senta repre the We, therefore, the of Labor, do hereby recommend and ask tary Secre the by ngton ference in Washi re the organizations represented, and gbefo layin in s office good his use Secretary to rative organization and may be interested, a plan of coope any other organizations thatal . lines gener wing follo re effort on the yers of Negro workers to provide welfa 1. That local efforts to influence emplo agencies attempting to do such work in a the facilities be undertaken, jointly, by all nt of Labor be used as representatives of the Departme methods of the sevcommunity; and that the localthrou and s ience exper gh which the far as practicable as a channel efforts. local these in ange exch seek shall ative of the eral agencies nmental organization or irepresentthe DepartWhere there is no such local gover st reque they that act, to e desir agencies on. Department of Labor, and several erati ,coop of el al chann neutr a such ng ment of Labor to assist them in getti s and organizations, which undertake the organi2. That our several agencies, boarde of any funds for improving the living and neighzation of any work or the expenditur local communities seek to become informed of or borhood conditions of Negro workers in organizations before deciding on plans similar plans of other agencies, boards and n and to g action. takin?j asked to furnish such inforsmatio the Department of Labor be board and organiza3. ies, agenc the ng keepi for sary provide such facilities as are neces s, or proposed undertakings or steps that have been . tions informed Of such plans, effort boards and organizations interestedother agency, undertaken by the several agencies, or any d, sente repre here on izati organ or board 4. That each agency, , as soon as practicable, shall rned conce be fter herea may ties and board or organization that r such parts of its records. facili make available to the Department of Labo nt may have available the rtme Depa the that in sary order neces are opportunities as ration of such agengood offices in furthering the coope information needed for using its That s, or organizations detail for board ies, agenc such ons. izati organ may.be needed for cies, boards, or personnel services of its staff as organ ization may be service in this connection such y, board, or agenc h said in whic effort any of part carrying out the at the time involved. asked to call a second conference, ed to this 5. The Department of Labor is alsothe izations that have been invit ested or organ of tives senta repre of s that seem best, other organizations that may be inter Negro conference; also representatives of such ions involved in connection with the quest of ssion discu r for hithe rned ccconce and unity of plans and s ience exper economics, in order that further exchange of operation may be discussed. %T14E-NA:AU:0 AT W0111: DICRING,11-1F. WOULD WAR. -v17 The fallowing rasolution was adopted by the conference as an addition to the report of the committee: ' 6. That it is the consensus of this body that the representatives of national zations attending this conference request their local representatives in variousorg aniS t ates to cooperate immediately with the representatives of the Director of Negro Econo mica of the United States Department of Labor in all matters affecting the interests o f t he Negro workers. A program of national work was also adopted and recommended to ..the Secretary covering the following matters: I. Survey of Negro labor conditions. 2. The getting of Negro workers into industry. 3. Holding Negro workers in industry, including the improving of living an d working conditions in both agriculture and industry. 4. Training the next generation of workers. 5. The general advancement of Negro wage earners in the United States. The following is a list of organizations signing,and the names o f '.their representatives: f+Istne. Dr. Jesse E, likkhlaNid (chirrnsn) • (Miss) Nfttale ilurroughs • MIss) Mary LS JSckasfr. • John R. Shillady .(Vleo) Walter F. White `..T..S.43ettle Eugene Kinekle Jones Dr. Thomaslesse Jones • C. H. Tobias John T. Emlen Dr. kostel W.Roundy ioWn Rev. Harold Rev. E. W. Moorg., rs.) Etnah R. Beuttee (Miss) Estelle Raskin ohn J. Eagan Dr. James II. Dillard ,r Organization or agency represented. International Committee, Y. M.C. A. The National Training School. War Work Council, Y. W.C. A.(National Board). }National Association for the Advancement of Colored Pe opl e.. War Camp Community Service. National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes. Pheip-Stokes Fund. National War Work Cod'firil, Y. M. C. A. Armstrong Association of Philadelphia. American Missionary Associaiten. Tuskegee Institute. Jeisti_Committee, War Production Committees. Be`ptht Home Missionlety. Circle for Negro War Rel((Inc.). Women's Home Mission Unell—Methodist Pnblishing Bo ard. Commission on Training Camp Activities. Jeanes-Slater Funds. -In carrying out the plans for a publicity gifd edtcational chnipaign 4tO 'crate a better feeling between the races and to have both white :and colored citizens understand and cooperate with the purposes an d 'Plan s of the department, the office of the Director of Negro Econoin ics received the hearty help and cooperation of the Information --and Education Service of the department during the war and until that service was discontinued July 1, 1919. A regular newspaper release was given to both the white press and Negro press which can not be too highly commended for their co.speration. Special mention should be made of the support given by the Negro newspapers of the country, more than 250 in number, who gave without compensation large sections of news columns and advertising space. As an illustration, a news release on that part of th a Secretary's annual report relating to Negro workers was sent out from the office of the Director of Negro Economics through the Information and Education Service. Clippings from white newspapers showed that the release was used 1;:)y -them as far north as Maine, as ,far west as California, and as far south as bouisiana. Nearly all the Negro newspapers, north and south,carried the release—some of them .in full. 1989°-20--2 4 18" THE WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING ay celebrations were Special addresses for use at patriotic and holid gh the advisory throu ers o ,work Negr t,he 4 to out smt prepared and ized. On the • organ were they where 'committees in thieAterrittViesl, 2,000 copies of an address entitled Fourth of July, 1918, more than y and city patriotic- celeor and Victory" were used in. count "Lab 12 States. (For- copy, about and brations iii more than 150 counties see APpendikq.)' of special articles in new,: Statements were prepared for writersMinute Bulletin of the roni Fourthe for papers and magazines and ar material was sent to hunmitt& on Public Information. Simil country. Magazine articles the of parts rent dreds of speakers'in diffe during the. war and recon.defiling with the problems of Negro labor o Economics were preNegr of ion of Divis the work struction and the American Reiiew of The as pared and appeared in such magazines y. Surve The and c, , Publi The Crisis The 'Reviews effort to combat, The 'United States Public Health Service in itsreach all Negroes. to venereal diseases inaugurated a special effort ng that helpi by ce Servi h Healt c Publi the with This office cooperated iorgan field our gh throu rs service to get in touch with Negro worke facts the with inted acqua me beco t migh they -zillion in crder that efficiency. relative to disease as it affected health and organized and held ttees commi ory advis rs' The Negro worke and colored citizens, white both many public meetings, attended by ers were sent to tolliscuss'the problems of labor and the war. Speak month no less each that ate estim We ngs. .hunldre'ds of other meeti were reached iyers of emplc eds than a Million Negro workers and hundr way. and influenced in this CHAPTtR III. EARLY RESULTS OF NEGRO ECONOMICS SERVICE. At the end of the first six months of the work, Negro workers' .advisory committees, by States, counties and cities, had been wholly or partly formed in 11 States, and by' the time the armistice was :signed steps had been taken to establish committees in three other St ates. Nearly all of these committees, both State and local, had white an d Negro members or had cooperating white members representing or ganizations of white employers and white workers. In all, 11 St ate committees and about 225 local county and city committees, wi th a membership numbering more than 1,000, were appointed. One of the most remarkable facts is that out of the invitations and acceptan ces for service of all of these white and colored persons on these • mmittees, so far as we have any record, there was only one case of a member Of one committee whose relationship on the committee do used friction and made necessary a request for his resignation. T here \wits the heartiest regponse from citizens of both races everyw here. 'Many of them used large amounts of time, gave their servie es, and often spent their own money to further the departmental p rogram. It was the expressed opinion of many citizens of wellk mown competence that the holding of these conferences and the ✓ 01 untary cooperation of hundreds of white and Negro citizens on t h ese committees, both north and south, were in themselves sufficiant to justify all the effort put forth by the department. E-ven more significant were the many written statements of commendition from itizens in all parts of the country and from organizations that ooperated and helped in the movement. (See Appendix SELECTION AND TRAINING OF A STAFF. 'T he selection and training of a staff for such work ordinarily would 'hard ly be considered as one of the results of a departmental or organization effort. However, it should be borne in mind that there is usu illy serious doubt about the expert efficiency of Negroes in offioial p3sitions which call for high standards of character and ability. Oftea criticism has bean specially lodged against Negroes in public office. Toerafora, the successful and effective selection and organization of a staff of Negro officials and employees, with the necessary general training, expert knowledge, and experience to carry out the program of work and to achieve the results as shown in the succeeding pa, ,re3, was in itself an achievement. This work of mediation between white workers, white employers And Negro workers called for exceptional qualities of mind and charac-, ter in addition to technical knowledge and efficiency. The spirit of conciliation and cooperation, the ability to see both sides of any issue, .and the combination of initiative and self-control necessary to act 19 0 THE Eano AT WI-HI K 1CG TH E WOULD WAD. effectively when action is called for and to wait with patienc action is not strategic required persons far above the average e when in both character and ability. The office of the Director of Negro Econom may modestly claim this success as a part of the achievement of ics the work, as it demonstrates that such a staff can be built up in the .public service. The department had previously used the services of three Negro -experts from the Department of Commerce. These men were -tamed and their duties readjusted so that throughout the period reof the war and for nearly eight months of reconst they gave effective service—Charles E. Hall as supervisor ofruction Negro economics for Ohio, William Jennifer as supervisor of Negro economics for Michigan, and H trry E. Arnold as an examiner and special tthe United States Employment Service in Pennsylvania agent in . As the organization grew, the following men were added: C. Erwin, risupervisor of Negro economics for Virginia; Dr. A. M. T. visor of Negro economics for North Carolina, who servedMoore, superas a dollar-ayear iman; William M. Ashby, supervisor of Negro econom ics for New .Jersey; W. 0. Armwood, supervisor of Negro economics for 'Florida; Lemuel L. Foster, supervisor of Negro economics for Mississippi, who succeeded J. C. Olden, resigned for other work after doing valuable service; H. A. Hunt, supervisor of Negro economics *Tor G3orgia; and Forrester B. Washington, supervi sor of Negro ..eeonomies for Illinois. In atddition, the ,qualifications and recommendartions of a number of Negro examiners in the United States -Eni2loyment Service, as well as stenographers and clerical assista ware investigated and passed upon by the office of the Directo nts, r of _Negro Ennomics. In the offiee of the Director of Negro Economics Washington ;headquarters, Karl F. Phillips, as assistant to the at directo 'managed the office and closely associated with the directorr, ably in the full supervision of the work. A competent staff of clerical was added as the growth of the work made it necessary. employees These Federal officials performed their duties with enthus iasm, .efficiency, and success under the many trying circum -arose during the strenuous months of the war labor stances which program and the .first months of reconstruction. Their services as a part ment in the Federal. Government's relation to Negro of this experihas been a contribution to the experience with Negroe wage earners s in important administrative positions. . The facts about each State supervisor of Negro econom ics follow in sections describing the activities and results of the work in eich State. PROBLEMS OF NEGRO LABOR. Before entering the detailed discussion of migration and the experiences in 11 States, a summarized statement of the Negro labor during the war and reconstruction period problems of follows: -I. During the war period. 1. The movement of large numbers of Negro workers from the South to the North. 2. The inevitable maladjustment in living conditio ns confronting the neweomers in the North. THE _NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD NVAII. 21 Z. The delicate questions of relations of Negro worker s and white workers in northern industries into which Negroes were for the first time entering in large numbers. 4:'The difficulties and readjustments in southern ltural regions, due to the sudden departure of thousands of tenantsagricu and farm laborers, as well as the readjustments in industrial operations in the South, due to the same causes. 5. The attraction to centers of war industries and tonments, both north and south, due to theconstruction camps and canwages offered, which were higher than those prevailing in post-war ry and agriculture. 6. The serious labor shortage, both north and indust south, white and colored, due to the drafting of millions of men into the Army. If .During the reconstruction period. 1. The thousands of Negro workers in war industries who had to be shifted back to post war industries along with the other worker s called for special attention similar to the period when they were being shifted into war industries. 2. Probably between 400,000 and 500,000 worker s migrated from the South to northern industries. The difficulties of cooper ative adjustment of white .wage earners and Negro wage earners in the industrial communities where they must find community life in contact with '1. Spezial problems connected with the entrance of each other were increased. colored women into industry and special problems in domestic and al service. '4. Toe ,problerni of improving the conditions,person increasing the efficiency, and .oneouraging the thrift of Negro workers were probably greater during the Av )1. and still remain as reconstructi -5c In the S mth the common interests ofon problems. white employers who want to engage Cie services which the Negro wage earner has to offer and the desire of the worker for wages in return make the adjus of the Negro labor situation, one of the most far-reaching factors intment .cable race relations. The migeation and warbringing about just and ami restlessness of the two races 'creates problems which the labor nexus may be very effective in settling. '66. The'Adjuitment of farm tenantry and of the labor situation.in the South is:very largely a problem of Negro 1')T the first 12 months folio ffing thelabor. ice the problem of demobilization of thousands of Negro soldiersarmist called for cooperative action, and m 3re tact and judgment than were proba bly needed during the period when they ware being drafted out of produc tion into the Army. The return of the Negro soldier to civil life with the obligations of the Nation to hi n, has been Ono of the most delica te and difficult labor questions con' fronting, the Nation, n3rth and south. R8.. Tho improvement of living and worki condit ng ions, including such questions as housing, sanitation, and recrea tion of Negro wage earners, should receive more attention during this period time than they did before or during the Greatof reconstruction and peace War period. CHAPTER IV. 'COOPERATION WITH THE SEVERAL BUREAUS AND DIVISIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT. Where matters which manifestly or directly affected Negro wage earners came under the immediate administrative guidance of the several divisions and bureaus of the department, it was the plan of the Secretary that the heads or chiefs of such divisions or bureaus should call upon the Director of Negro Economics for advice. The United States Employment Service, which was dealing with the recruiting and placing of Negro labor in the United States, naturally received the largest amount of such cooperation, advice, and :planning. For instance,questions came up relating to private agencies and their handling of Negro labor on and after August 1, 1918, when .the Employment Service was given the responsibility of recruiting and placing the common labor in war industries employing 100 or more workers. The Director of Negro Economics gathered the facts and proposed a plan and policy for.dealing with this matter. Such plan -and policy were later adopted and put into operation by the Director General of the United States Employment Service. Tiremnembers of the Negro workers' advisory committees in many - 'localities assisted as volunteers during this war-labor recruiting and placing. Eight of the State supervisiors of Negro economics had their offices either with the Federal directors of the Employment :Service or in close connection with them. All of the Federal directors in theft-States turne'd.to these State supervisors for advice and assistance on tpractically all matters relating txi the handling of Negro 'labor in itheir States. The question of location of offices to serve Negro neighborhoods, the formation of policies and piens of the Employment Service to serve them more effectively, the selection of competent Negro examiners, and a number of other questions were 'from time to time presented and handled for the Employment Service. The following excerpts from statements of some of the Federal directors of the Employment Service show their appreciation- of this service given by representatives of the Division of Negro 'Economics: UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE. 74 East Gay Street, Columbus. Ohio, April 9, 1919. Mr. ETHELBERT STEWART. Director of Investigation and Inspection Service, Office of the Secretary, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR MR. STEWART: Mr. Charles E. Hall, who has been supervisor of Negro economics in Ohio, handed me a copy of your letter of March 27 with reference to his reports being made through the office of the Federal director for Ohio. Mr. Hall has been located in the office of the Federal director for the past several 'months and we are very glad to advise that the relationship is very pleasant. We feel that Mr. Hall is a very competent man and especially fitted for the line of work to which he is assigned. This letter is written as an acknowledgment of the receipt of instructions contained An your letter of above date. Very truly, yours, (Signed) C. H. MAYHUGH, 21cting Federal Director for Ohio. _99 THE NEGRO AT WORK 'DURING THE WORLD WAR. 23 1423 NEWTON STREET, Washington, D. C., July 9, 1919. Dr. GEORGE E. HAYNES, Director of Negro Economics, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR Dn. HAYNES: I very much regret to learn that failure of appropriation has made it necessary to discontinue the work which has been carried on by Mr. -Charles E. Hall, supervisor of Negro economics for Ohio. Mr. Hall assisted the Employment Service in every possible way in recruiting labor -'during the war and in the readjustment of labor after the signing of the armistice. The big task before him at this time is to assist in crystallizing the best thought and •-carrying out the best possible plans for improving housing conditions and aiding the Negroes to become satisfactorily adjusted to the new industrial condition which confronts them. His work, I believe, has been a real factor in preventing the development of radical unrest among the Negroes in Ohio. My knowledge of Mr. Hall's work was gained through contact as Federal Director - of Employment for Ohio, from which position I resigned March 15, 1919. Very truly, yours, (Signed) FRED C. CROXTON. UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, Meridian, Miss., January 29, 1919. From: Federal director. To: Director General. ' Subject:\Negri Economics Division. relpling to letter from Assistant Director General, dated January 23, in ref erence to Durision,of Negro Economics. thiEreonneCtion the. writer wishes to state that this service is _providing an -officemn the same floor as theoffice of the Federal director for the supervisor of Negro economics. The present supervisor. L. L. Foster, a young Negro of energy, is conferring almost daily with the Federal director in reference to his work. , 3. The writer attended the meeting of the Negro State advisory board in Jackson. Monday, January 27, at which meeting plans were perfected for the organization of --the Negro boys between the'ages of 16 and 21 in Mississippi in the Boys' Working Reserve. Cooperation has been obtained frOm the State agriculture college, and they have agredd to supply instructors wherever necessary to instruct these Negro boys in - a short•ounrse prepared by the Reserve. Arrangements were made for visiting and organizing reservesin approximately twenty industrial Negro schools' in the State for the giving of this course in connection with these schools in the'ea`rly spring. This Service will then undertake to place these studdnts in active farm work as soon as school is closed. 4. The Negro workers' advisory committee in the State of Mississippi is well oraanized and the work.is prospering very satisfactorily. H. H. WEIR, .(Signed) Federal Director. DErnorr, MICR, July 2, 1919. From: Federal director. To: Director General, United States Employment Service, Washington, D. C. subject: Supervisor of Negro Economics for Michigan. I. On Thursday of last week Mr. William Jennifer, who for the past nine months has been acting as supervisor of Negro economics for Michigan, advised me that he was in receipt of communication from Washington directing him to report there immediately. He left here on Friday morning, and at the time of his leaving stated that, he was somewhat worried in regards to the work, which he had been carrying on here in Michigan, being continued. 2. At the time Mr. Jennifer came to Michigan he at once proceeded to develop the State, and within a short time after his arrival a conference was held here in Detroit, and there was in attendance representatives from 19 different cities in Michigan. An organization was perfected at that time, and great good has come from the results of that meeting. The writer attended this conference and had an opportunity to meet with these representatives, who consisted of ministers, doctors, lawyers, welfare workers, and workingmen. These people went back to their respective localities and proceeded to enlighten the colored people of their community regarding the efforts being made by the Government to assist them in caring for the interests of the Negroes who are rapidly moving here from the Southern States. • 24 -TlfE AT 'nuiu.ro THE WORLD WAR. 3. It would appear to the writer that there is no work of greater importance which the Government might be interested in at this time than that or assisting the colored people to bring about better conditions for their race. 4. Since coming to Michigan, Mr. Jennifer has worked hard and given to the duties assigned to him all his time and efforts. He is a splendid gentleman and his heart is in his work. He thoroughly understands the Negro problem. In the mind of the writer, he is an exception to the average person, and we should very much like to see him return to Michigan to carry on this good work which he has been doing, and .desire to urge upon you the importance of this department being continued. J. V. CUNNINGHAM, (Signed) . Federal Director. 'UNITED STATES Esti'LOYMENT SERVICE, 9 Franklin Street, Newark, N. J., April 2, 1919. Prof. GEORGE E. HAYNES, Director of Negro Economies, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR DR. HAYNES: It is my understanding that you desire an expression of .opinion as to the work of the Bureau of Negro Economics. I am glad to inform you that it is our understanding that Negro advisory committees 'have been organized in the principal industrial centers throughout the State. Those • committees hold regular meetings at which Mr. Ashby (supervisor of Negro economics for. New Jersey) is often present and he addresses these groups on matters relative to theaituation pertaining to Negro labor in the State and advises them as to how they oan make the best of their opportunities. Committees of this character have been hel•Phili in' the )offices in the matter of opportunities for colored men and women, and co.'s°,in molding sentiment in favor of colored workers. 'fIlhe Gallic:len (N. J.) committee is doing an especially fine piece of work in the tittereat-Of the returning colored soldiers. Mr. Ashby personally attends the meetings Of the welfare organizations wherever it is possible in the State, giving specific atten- -tion to'the benefits that may accrue to the colored workers. Personally, I can only speak in the'highett terms of the work which he has been •,enabled to accomplish for the benefit of the Negro workers of New Jersey. I feel quite -satisfied that, responsive to the energeitic work which he has-performed, various ' ,colored organizations throughout the State found,it advisable for their best interests to send telegrams to the various Washington"representatives asking -for continuation ,of the United States EmploymenfService. 'Very truly, yours, J. SiTrz, (Signed) Assistant Federal Director of Employmentfor New Jersey. Also, in Virginia and Alabama service of.cooperation was given to , , the Boys' Working Reserve in assisting its representatives in those -States to secure helpful contacts with Negro boys. When the Women's Bureau was established in the department, it was natural that its scope of activities should include attention to conditions 'affecting colored women workers and that this bureau Ashould counsel and work closely with the office of the Direttor of rNegro Economics, which gave assistance not only in finding and -electing Mrs. Helen B.Irvin as industrial agent for the work among colored women, and in securing Mrs. Elizabeth Ross Haynes (as a dollar-a-year employee) for the direction of the same work, but also in making surveys of Negro women in industrial establishments and in taking other steps for improvement of working conditions and relations of Negro women in industry, carried out in joint cooperation with that service. (For full summary of report see section of "Negro Women in industry," pp. •) These experts entered upon their duties in November, 1918. They performed important field service of a varied character, and the data collected by them, together with their recommendations, after receiving the counsel and advice of the Director of Negro Economics, formed the basis of concrete labor policies which the Women's Bureau • WORLD WAR. THE NEURO AT WORK DURING THE 25 . Some is now putting into effect in behalf of female Negro workersbulletin . -of the facts gathered are published in another section of this (See pp. --.) a number The Investigation and Inspection Service not only made departthe in d involve kinds various of plants of -of investigations upon took service this but ment relating to Negro wage earners ong, Armstr K. Byron Negro, ent compet a of ment employ itself the Negro of r Directo the of office who was also associated with the VIII Economics. The field investigations for the data in Chaptersies in industr basic seven the in s Negroe -and X, which deal with of northern centers were made by him and other representativessobz relation and ons in the conditi ascerta to effort an in that service es. taining between Negro workmen who had entered northern industri from d receive tion the coopera of made be should n mentio Special m the Council of National Defense in starting and developing a progra , council the of office l nationa The South. the in workers Negro '-for our gave s, council State the with dealt at Washington, D. C., which and plans indorsement, together with full information and advice, in s council State of officials The ction. of introdu iurnished letters vely extensi ky Kentuc and a, Virginia, Florida,. Georgia, Alabam promoted the cooperative plan of organization. In Virginia, Kenttucky, and Florida the executive secretary of the State Council of 'National Defense•arranged for an appointment of white cooperating inetrubcrs of the Negro Workers' Advisory Committees. The Georgia ve its advice to our State committee, the governor of the council, having .GeOcittark Hon. Hugh M. Dorsey, as chairman of Alabama Council The . ce.. conferen issitA the invitation for the State to assist with the ary 'auxili Negro a ed appoint l Defense ..of Nationa was the main l Defense Nationa of Avork.. The Kentucky Council iwoggaiRization in promoting the formation of Negro Workers' Advisory -Ootatiatees in its State. both local Thec000peration of private organizations and agencies, practica lly is it that ead widespr and hearty and national, was so coopers such gave that impossible to name.a -list of the organizations ,t ive service. CHAPTER V. TIONSHIPS AT CHICAGOe N EGRO LABOR AND RACIAL RELA ry of Labor, through the Assistr of Negro Economics to the Secreta Ill., and other localities, following lExtract from report of the Directo of Negro labor situation In Chicago, subject the on ry, Secreta . ant o.] race disturbances at Chicag . AUGUST 27, 1919 the Secretary about of e offic the at ved Reports having been recei r places of employothe .disturbance at the stockyards in Chicago and following the race ged, enga been arily ordin have oes ment where Negr I was instructed , rence confe riots in that city, after departmental Louis, Detroit, St. ago, Chic to eed proc to y etar !by the Assistant Secr first hand, tain, ascer to tory terri the in Cleveland, and near-by points rs the cove rt repo This the change, if any, in the labor situation. ries during a day at St. inqui of ago, Chic of results of a rapid survey and Flint, Mich., and some Louis, Mo., during brief visits to Detroit eland on the return trip. Clev in -over stop a statements secured on ts from reliable Negroes, repor of e -I have also included the substanc s.citie r othe _ITS.id.ODLtS QT several N. 'THE CIIICAGO SITUATIO lex comp in Chicago seems to have grown out • ofactor -nre disturbance tions s are , mainly economic. Some of the'f Tundamental condi the results of!the labor ,not altogether labor factors but are largely testimony secured from +the From . tions ian41 other economic condi am convinced, also, that the Chicagor localities other than Chicago, Ifar the underlying ladtors in labo :situatiou iis partly typical, so areas erned. conc and other economic conditions we view conditions that are it, to tion atten g full givin in e, Therefor demand for labor during The rs. cente typical of many industrial ers of Negroes from the South. the past five years drew largo numb the hands of three more or loss in y putt st .They have become almo oyers, (b) white workmen, very. conflicting interests: (a) The empls, the most part unscrupulous largely organized, and (c) politician for the early years of the stockIn tion: 1. Taking,first, the labor situa mainly American, German, yards development the labor supply was When the stockyards were ds. kyar stoc the and Irish that lived near far removed from the time moved to their present location—at thatcity—Irish and German elethe of icts distr ess residential and busin the coming of the Poles and ments settled around the yailds. With strik e of 1904, the Irish were t -other nationalities, following the grea y-ninth Street. The Thirt nd beyo and pushed across Halstead Street r side of the yards othe the on -German element occupies neighborhoods and out toward Englewood. oes in the stockyards, there With the growth of employment of Negrwhit e workers to draw them of part the on t has been continuous effor ally successful. Some parti into their unions. This has been only n workers charged that the idissatisfaction has resulted, and the unio 26 THE NEGIR) AT Woill: Durtisu THE N1:0IZIA) WAIL 27 backers have used Negro leaders to prevent unionizing Negroes. The pickers have denied'any interference with effort to unionize Negroes.. It can not be told how much frictithe on and feeling between the races this has caused. Testimony goes to show, howev er, that there has developed some friction between Negro worke rs and the Irish element at the yards. This did not seem to have any connection with the union situation but with individual contac ts. • Whether this friction had any direct conneetion the rioting 'is not fully established. All the testimony, however,with shows that the . point of greatest friction was where the Negro neigh borhood touched the Irish neighborhood on the South Side. There was considerable bention in the testimony of an Irish athletic associ ation, known as Itegan's Colts. This was started as a sort of cal and athletic association, hut now has a reputation for considpoliti erable rowdyism. 2. The housing situation is another ee,onomic element. those familiar with the conditions preceding the riots claim, Many of that there is little relation between the feelin aroused however, about the housing and the riots. However that may b,g it is certain that a largo influx of Negroes(about doubling the Negro popul go within five years) has created an acute housing situat ation of Chica ion on the South Side. This population has flowed out of the area previo usly oecupied by Negroes and on into the areas orcupied by whites, prossi ng upon the districts known as Englewood and Kenwood. 'dents have organized an assoctiaon of residents. The white resiReliable testimeny, gained confidentially from some of their ngs, establishes the fact that there was considerable agitation,meeti even suggestions Of violence,,to ,keep egroes from renting and buying in the white district. Popularzossip connects the bombing of Negro reside with nces this agitation. 3. The political %ituation is a 'third factor importance. These Innderlying forces Of the attraction duving of the large numbers of Negro workers of the unskilled last five years of . type, the friction over the housing congestion and the tension over politi cal affairs were contimuilly played upon and inflamed by agitation. Some agitation arose from tete persons highly active and prejudiced again st "Negroes. :There were various clashes of individuals here and there. There were opeated attempts to frighten Negroes from residences by bombi ng their houses. There was quite a bit of newspaper public ity during the period of months preceding the riots. All these incidents prepared the for the underlying labor, lhousing, and political fires-of friction way to burst into the flames 'of riot and death. The occasion for the outbr eak on Sunday, July 27, when %White bathers stoned a Negro youth, knocking him from a raft and causing him to drown, was only the match which lighte d the blaze. 4. The situation which developed at the stockyards, result ing in a walkout of many of the union employees, was only ctly the result of the race riot. Some of the leaders of the indire Atfialgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America say that no strike was authorized, but that it is a code of the union s not to work in any place whore police and military guards are over them. Apparently the employers at the stockyards, fearing trouble when the Negroes returned to work on the Thursday following the riots, took the precaution of having extra police guards detail and s of militia. The union workmen interpreted the presence of these guard. s- • 213 THE kHono AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. men as a move against them. Immediately many of the union workers, among them some of the Negro union men, protested by leaving their work and by sending a committee of protest to public officials. Colored union men were on this committee. By Monday of the following week, however, the militia had been removed and the resentment of the union men apparently quieted down. Both the employees and the management of tho stockyards testimen refied that there was no friction within the yards when the ion cooperat and of good s feeling evidence Many work. turned to between white and colored workers were manifested. The occasion was one, of course, when both the leaders of the unions and representatives of the packers were disclaiming any responsibility for the -situation. With this underlying condition confronting the community there was very limited contact between the more thoughtful and liberalminded, social-minded citizens of the two races. Barring the few deaders of the labor unions and a few representatives of philanthropic -organizations there were few contacts through which there might be to • putual understanding between the races. Tao facts also seem from show that the large number of Negro unskilled wirkersindirectly their needs the South, both in their competition for work and and exfor decent houses in good surroundinTs wara bin used commuthe to benefit elms and them, help to forces The ploited. nity, were few and comparatively weak. It was also clear that the full sentiment of the employers, the dargast of whom are the packers, favors the retention of the Negroes fear this in Caicago. On the other hand, the white uhion workers, to enter them induee can unless they workers ompetition of Negro the unions. During the course of the riot the Association of CaranIrce called a ropic fronforence of the representatives of 47 business and philanth outcome Tue Club. League at city Union the the of *organizations appoint tof this meeting was a resolution requesting the governor to economand cal, soeiologi gical, to psycholo the study ee committ at riot ical causes underlying conditions resulting in the present race and to make such recommendation as will tend to prevent a recurrence of such conditiions.in the future." Gov. Lowden told me he had decided to appoint a local commission forehicago only. This will be composed of six white and six colored citizens of the highest standing * * *. to 5. From the nation-wide point of view another factor enters is It ce. importan of and ted complica make the Chicago situation of special concern to this department in its relation to the whole of their ;matter of migration of Negro workers and the adjustment south. relations to white workers and white employers both north andto pubbegan ers newspap Chicago riots the owing Iminediatdiefoll es 'letters, and news items from southern territory invitlish dispatches, to return to the South for good treatment, ing southern _peace, and employment. During the week of my visit representatives of three different plantthat iing interests of Mississippi were in the city, and it was reportedComwas on its way to Chicago from the Chamber of a deleg n New Orleans with a colored man in the party to "pick the merce in right- type of Negroes." * * *. TH WAR. N EOR0 AT -WORK DURINI; TH E WORLD 29. Negroes to It is uncertain just how far such an effort to induce has already effort the but sful, succes be will South the to return t it among Nearoused considerable opposition and discussion againsls. Of course channe other and pers newspa their in both groes d of being accuse being are pers newspa and ers Immediately the minist s in Chicago. Negroe the hold to want who s, packer the by paid such allegations, it is VVaile there are no available facts to supportaccord ing to testimony lly, true that the employers of Chicago genera •ce and other employers Commn of ation Associ ,of the chairman of the upon efforts made ip...touch with the situation, do not look with favor * * * o. Chicag of out to tske Negroes to tell exactly how The week of my visit, of course, was too soon Negroes had been ying emplo about ers employ of ude .attit lar the for Negro labor at calls of ation examin Tne :Affected by race riots. that beginning with August tiff) employment offices showed, however,had been a gradual increase .5-, just after the close of the riots, there , those referred, and wanted help Negro both in the number of calls for a few cases only for d secure be could ation Inform tho3e placed. of the riots and days the during d droppe where Negroes had been d down. The facts quiete ion situat the when ed replac been had not employments where Negroes so far obtainable indicate that in those any material change were used formerly there would probably not be s. worker in the use of Negro Louis, Mo., Before summarizing the impressions gained in St.point out two to well be may it Ohio, and, Clevel Detroit, Mich., and situation in Chicago ether significant factors influencing the xacialfirst place, there was a ns well as in other parts of the country. In the among many very widespread dissatisfaction, bordering on bitterness,the returning from ed receiv have s they report the to due s, Negroe and home. at both in Army, the ent treatm harsh soldiers about their of ings, gather public in and s in France. In many conversationrehearsed and commented upon. are stories Negroes some of these * * * among all classes of In the second place, there is a general feelingsomething to remedy do should .Negroes that the Federal Government ion of evils. their condition. This takes two forms: First, the abolit and lynchmobs that feeling strong and There is a very widespread in hand taken be should s Negroe ng affecti now abuses other ing and to the g lookin are s Negroe , Second . nment b'y the Federal Gover . benefit their for steps uctive constr Federal Government to take some of Labor tment Depar the of action the of rity popula The great giving attention to through the Division of Negro Economics for on to white workers 'relati their .and s Negroe of ions condit working of the Negroes that and whitelmi_ployers is 1arg6lystlue to this feelingFederal Government. the something Arnold be Ilene dor them through Department is meeting Tao Public Irulth service of the Treasury * * -with similar Tasponse. on this point and There is a frequent(comment among Negroes in a large way is ing someth why questions are asked repeatedly ments to depart l Federa by efforts Larger time. this not do a° at receive will s Negroe among ions condit improve !Ex:4g and working them. from se hearty recipsz :30 THE NEGRO Air WORK IWRING THE WORLD WAR. TESTIMONY AND OPINIONS FROM ST. LOUIS, MO., DETROIT AND FLINT, MICH., CLEVELAND, OHIO, AND OTHER POINTS. In St. Louis a committee of colored citizens went to the chief of police during the days of the Washington-Chicago riots. They pledged him their support and made certain suggestions. He and the mayor immediately took steps to forestall any possible outbreaks This, I was informed, led to special instructions to the patrolmen . Some newspaper publicity of a helpful kind was also obtained.. Although several individual clashes were reported, the sentiment seems to be for quiet. It was reported, however, to me on good testimony that large numbers of Negroes have firearms and ammunition preparatory to protecting themselves and their homes in case' disturbances. Detroit, Mich., has had a very large influx again during the past -'summer, the estimate being about 3,000 newcomers during the month of June alone. These newcomers comprise men, women, :And children. While there is considerable congestion in one district there has, however, been considerable distribution of this Negro populationi in,other sections of the city. The race friction.there has seemed to be small, probably due to the fact that the flatland for labor is greater than the supply. Everybody is employed at high wages and so busy that there is hardly time for the,frictimis that go with unemployment. In some of the industrl ptlants-embloying large numbers of Negroes, the superinttenitebts dM take precaution during the days when the newspapers s•were-reliorting the riots in Washington and Chicago to prevent any possible friction between white and colored workers in their plants. For instance one of the automobile accessories companies separated the white arid colored workers in the lunch rooms as a precaution. The testimony indicates that this tended to catise friction rather than to prevent it, as it is reported that the colored workmen refused to t share the lunch room with this new arrangement. It was reported here also that Negroes have provided themselves with considerable firearms and ammunition lest trouble arise. One factor in the situation in Detroit making for harmony is the fact that the largest Negro neighborhood is bordered on one side by Jews, 'largely -Russian, and on the other side by Italians. Cases of friction tresulted only in individual clashes that had no group significance. During the days of the Washington-Chicago riots leading colored 'citizens conferred with the mayor and other officials about precautionary steps to prevent any possible outbreak. In Cleveland, Ohio, there was some fear during the days of the riots elsewhere lest there might be some friction. An editorial in one of the colored newspapers, warning Negroes to arm themselves,_ drew forth an article from one of the white newspapers claiming that the -chief of police had called this editor to task, threatening to arrest him for murder if any riot occurred and any one was killed. This was denied by the chief of police and the incident closed. The colored editor, however, did receive some threatening letters and there was a report of an attack upon a Negro soldier by some white men in a high-powered automobile which ran into a Negro neighborhood. Both of these incidents caused some excitement .among some of the colored people. There was, however, a feeling THE NEGRO AT WORK DU RIN G THE WORLD WAR. 1 among some of the itniluen tial white attd eolored citize disturbance should take pla ns that no race ce in Cleveland. Responsible citizens I- int would welcome any coo atierviewed, said however, that the city' ve effort to study the lab ecoRomic conditions looper or and other kin racial friction in the fnture. g toward measures that would prevent " *From testimony of condit Sumter, S. C., Columbia, S. ions which nearly resulted in riots in hension expressed and tes C., Birmingham, Ala., and from appretimony as to preparations 2.f.al-td colored people in Ne w York City, Jacksonville, madt by white °ry,' Ala., I am led to bel Fla and Montieve that the racial tensio., preaki as to be in fact a mat n is so wideof national concern, callin attention from the National ter g for some Gov ern men t. Respectfully submitted. (Signed) GEORGE E. IInvi,m4, Director of Negro Econom ics. 'fw CHAPTER VI. WHITE AND NEGRO WORKERS IN BASIC INDUSTRIEB. The distribution of Negro workers in industries both as to States and the types of industries in which they were engaged in comparison with other workers in the same States in industries gives a good impression of their general part in war production and of the widespread contact of the racial labor relations. The facts are set forth in the tables of this chapter. The first table (Table I) gives a general view of the white and Negro -men engaged in industrial unskilled occupations in establishments in 1918 or at the height of our drive for war production. These figures were reported from the responsible employers themselves to the United States Employment Service when that service by Executive order took over the work of recruiting and placement of unskilled , labor in all industries employing 100 or more men. The data about establishments selected for this table were taken at random from the records of. the thousands that reported. The . basis of selection was those employing 25 or more Negro workers to show the As many States as practicable were represented, so as include d are wide distribution of employment of Negroes, but those estimate of The ng. reporti only a small part of the total number the numthe percentage of war work each establishment was doing, ber of hours per day, and the rate of wages are exactly as reported by each firm itself. Unfortunately for the present purpose the reports did not showg showin occupational distribution of these employees. The column the firm could be the kind of industrial operation earned on by because of the classified only in the very general way here given, classifications, The . reports the in given tion brevity of descrip or enterplant each of type the of notion general some give r, howeve were of firms number A men. these ing prise which was employ omitted because the descriptions would not allow of even this general , classification. States and Table I, which follows below, shows enterprises in 26ing 190,091 employ 1918, in were, which ia, Columb of t ' the Distric and 14 States rn Southe Twelve white men and 62,316 Negro men. have to seem vania Pennsyl and If Ohio listed. are States rn ,Ndrthe States, other with son compari in listed firms an undue number of entrance of especially in the South, it may be attributed to the large tively limcompara the to es, industri many their into Negro migrants agriculited industrial development in the South, which is largely States other in firms many of on ry exclusi necessa the tural, and to because or Negroes 25 than either because of their employment of less of insufficient information in their reports. ises were The percentage of war work upon which these enterprwar. Out the winning in had man these part large the d shows engage 23 only point this on tion informa of a total of 277 firms which gave 32 . R. WA DURING THE WORLD THE NEGRO AT WORK y 11 of these reported per cent war work and onl reported less than 50war work; 99 firms reported from 50 to 99 per 25 per cent or less151 firms reported 100 per cent war work. There cent war work and me bias in some cases, inasmuch as those firms 'might have been so percentage of war work might have expected having the greatest ng laborers. some priority in securi also very interesting and show unmistakable The wage rates are kind of industry in the different sections of the contrasts for the sameinstance, unskilled workers in foundries were United States. For e of $2.50 per 10-hour day in Alabama; from our day (one firm) ;4employed at the rat y (one firm) to $4.25 per 9-h da ur -ho 10 per 50 culated from straight $3. 10-hour day (one plant cal in Illinois; $3.20 peiiana; $2.50 per 10-hour day in Tennessee (only sourly rate) in Ind to $4 per 10-hour day (calculated from straight one firm) and $3.50 hourly rate) in Virgitha.iron and steel plants were employed at the Unskilled workers in hour day (one firm 9 to 12 hours with wages 10te 'fa of $2.50 to $3 per , one firm 10 to 12 hours) in Alabama; from in day per 79 $3. $2.25 to om straight hourly rate) in ur day (calculated frd ly ent fer dif y da r hou 12 t3 to $4 per 10-ho an $3.60 (8, 9, 10, Illinois; -from $2.75 toin Indiana; $3 per 10-hour day in Kentucky; y da er -p t) an ed from straight hourly four pl 9-hour day (calculat from US$;Fto $4.05 per $3.40 to 84-per 10-hour day (calculated on ed .rate) inNew York; fromOhio; from $3.20,-to $6 (one plant reportrly straight hourly rate) in10-hour day (calculated from straight houlcu(ca -60 cents per hour) per; from $2.40 to $3.20 per 8-hour day nt) per rate) in Pennsylvaniaht hourly rate) and $2.50 to $3 (One pla e plant) in lated from -the straig $2.75 per 12-hour day (ondur d an ; see nes Ten ing the in ntly that 10-hour &w be borne in mind consta uld n the sho tha It ger lon ia. ran gin Vir ly most plants bab pro n tio the. duc me, pro rti r ove worked -stress of wa of their employeesovertime, and in some. ny ma and rs hou r ula for reg y time and a half on of the actual average usual rule being to pa culati cal no ore ref The . (eases double time. men can be made from these rates of pay g unrk win wo sho s, the low fol iearnings of I with details by States The full text of Table male workers in selected typical war indusro skilled white and Neg Vies by States in 1918: 10R9O-20-3 THE, NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 24 war industrirs I.-Unskilled white and Negro mole workers in selected typical work of each enterprise, employing 25 or more Negroes:46U* reported percentage of war hours, and wage rate, by States, 1918. tABLE ALABAMA. Number of onskilled workers, percentage of Number war work I of hour. in which 1 in workers working day. were Negro. eng tged at plant. d of industry of individual enterprise. While. mmuti ition rmy o dnance ment hetrt ic Is (1'031 an . iron 'ortiIizer Found r7r D'o. Alto Do. Iron an I steel Do. • Do. fe Uo -Lu mber 4 Sawmill Do. 4IS hipb ulIdIng Do. Do. , • Steel wire Rail roa 1 Do. lItadiat vs 46 45 102 41 14 3 50 •22 (I) 26 . (') 2.5 1t 544 200 88 122 84 23 75 '178 110 317 25 4A 11. 1 ITII IOW ineo 1 150 750 ..9 • 10 73 1 r...00 '17 - 100 1449 500 211 300 1,420 25 Per hour. Per day. 6 7 5 4 3 2 Rate of wages. 10 10 12 9 10 10 10 10 22.50-3.5 5 190 • 160 100 100 (I) 100 .93 , 100 '100 '100 •l00 25 93 ' . 95 75 100 100 100 98 90 30 100 100 75 10 10 10 10 9-12 10-12 10 10 10 a a ft 10 10 10 9 100 100 90 100 (1) 11 $0.40 .33 .40 a 10 10 10 9 91 $0.40 .40 .40 .ao .37-. 40 .36 $0.30 2.50-5.0 .31 .30-.33 2.50-3.0 2.5 2.5 .23 2.5 3.0 3.0 2.50-2.7 2.25-3.25 2.25-3.79 2.25-2.50 2.00-2.2 2.50 .30,40 .40 , .30-40 .30 .34 .34 .35 CONNI..CTICI7T. Ammunition Iron Metal 'Shells 200 400 1,18)) 219 50 100 45 59 10 10 *3.50-3.90 DELAWARE. "l owdei Do 'y rites hells iteel castings Oar supplies 4.5 60 29 120 28 89 an 44 67 80 27 95 I 100 100 100 100 11X1 90 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Electric equipment Paper 30 30 51 52 100 10 100: 100 100 90 110 10 I 10 10 i it I 10 nrLURIDA. Lumber Do Do Do Naval stores ?32 '#) 20 160 11 217 225 465 350 324 t No figures avails) Ie. $0.25 $2.00 1./10-2. 25 2.00-2.50 • 2.40 InlelegegelMe. 'THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. "TABLE I.— Unskilled white and Negro male workers in selected typical war industriee employing 25 or more Negroes, with retorted percentage of war work of each enterprise, hours, and wage rate, by States, 1918--Uontihued. GEORGIA. Number of unskilled workers. • Kind of industry of individual enterprise. White. 4 3 2 134 (I) 73 Cotton. Iron Lumber Turpentine PercentNumber age of war work of hours in In which workers working day. were Negro. engaged at plant. 169 147 225 300 Rate of wages. Per hour. Per day. 12 go 100 so3 7 6 5 10 10 10 8 80.30 82.00 2.00 .25-.35 ILLINOIS. 1,000 2,921 1,450 1,658 300 2614 350 175 4,110 3,714 1,300 836 250 1,151 3,250 350 Aluminum L'anning listings 7.ork Foundry Do Iron lainiriter Meat: . kieittarakiting Paint Shells Steel Stockyards Do Zinc 500 410 22.5 2141 75 162 150 126 3,244 2,375 AO 417 250 604 1,087 30 go sa 70 35 95 77 40 73 21 /30 80 100 100 23 75 100 8 10 10 9 10 9 10 10 8 8 10 10 10 8 8 8 $3.14 80.40 36 .35 4 3.5C 3.50-4.21 40 2.25-2.7. 40 .40 .35-40 3.51 .30-.3 .40 .40 3.00-3.91 INDIANA. Foundry Gas Iron Do Do Iron and steel ItIcric acid Fifties. Stool _ _ _ _ .. • • 73 470 (9 81 30 154 50 1,350 350 150 156 • 34 112 120 98 50 500 50 70 100 90 95 100 73 100 100 (1) 10 8 10 9 12 8 10 10 b10 '47 9 30 85 8 80.32 .35 82.75-3.18 .3.5 3.64 .30 .40 .42 IOWA. Building Foodstuffs Meat 132 800 860 $4.05 SO.37-.42 40 KANSAS. Meat packing Do Mining 375 2,062 125 75 746 25 No figures available. • 90 40 50 10.37 40 .41 WAR. VIM WORLD K DifirtisiO' TIE NEGlit0 AT 'WOR s al war industriee, kers in selecteil'typicof ris wor e erp mal ent ro h Neg eac d d white an tage of war work 'TAHEE I.—Unskillemore Negroes, with reported percen employing 25 or e, by States, 1918. •hours, and wage rat NENTVCE:Y. Rate of wages. pereent. Number age of war work of hours in in which g workers workin e d ' day. wer age eng ro. Neg at plant. Number of un, skilled workers, ry of individual *Kind of indust enterprise. 1 White. Per hour. Per day. 6 7 1 s 4 3 2 .1 Boilers Boxes Iron Do (leather Lumber Signal corps ... 10 $0 27-0 10 0; .30 1)) .30 ! ?d (I) (1) 55 75 137 43.8 140 994 10 16 27 100 153 40 100 (9 100 225 50 73 56 $1.7Z 3.0( 2.5C a LOUISIANA. 1011111Mi1iding 12. 75-3.00 2.00-2. 50 10 10 100 100 100 100 175 2,000 150 304 45 1,000 50 00 $0.30 .30-.40 10 MARYLAND. AmnittriltiOn CoppPr $3.00 3.20 8 100 100 COO 200 703 2,300 S. MASSACHUSETT Ineetrical work Steel castings ...Sugar •• 4,1 ...I as 100 Sawmill Do 'Wood products 100 100 100 50 50 90 1,200 130 410 $O.28-.30 .37S .37 9 9 10 125 910 900 100 !i0 10 ..... $I. 50-2. 50 1.75 2. 75-3.25 NEBRASKA. 140 400 Meat (I)100 45 100 $0.40 8 . NEW JERSEY :Shells 'Tubes :Shrapnel loading. —•••••••••• d-•••••- 244 200 350 32.5 40 ble. No figures availa 100 100 100 $0.35 22-.40 40 $05.20 37 THE WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING selected typical war iwdustries white and Negro male workers in War work of each enterprise, of tage percen ed report with s, employing 2.5 or more Negroe . inued -Cont 19/8 , States 'hours, and wage rate, by • TABLE 1.-Ungkilled NEW YORK. _ _ Number of unskilled workers. Rate of wages. Percenttage of Number war work of hours in which in workers working were day. Per hour. Per day. Negro. engaged at plant. Kind of industry of individual enterprise. White. .50 "4110" 75 30 40 98 32 50 98 57 750 2,700 1,000 470 600 851 Aluminum 'Chemicals Elevators • Glass Machinery 'Valves • Steel Do /46 SSO 395 600 •Sugar 6 6 5 4 2 1 8-10 $0.34-.40 ,100 '100 100 90 100 100 .98 100 80 100 9 8 10 $3.30 3.23 .35 .3:, .341 9 .32-.5.5 .37-.40 35-. 314 9 9 10 'NORTH'CAROLINA. Alumitttra :et n10611.4. i 3hipbuilding Sewerage 704 792 14 15 YJ 65 200 280 100 48 80 (I) 8 10 11 10 25 son so 10 200 (I) 50 180 100 100 10 10 $2.3 10.15 2.00-2.7. 1.00-2.5 2.25-3.0 .441 1 2. 7. 01110. :Automobiles Bottles Bronze *Casting 'Chain .Do "'Chemicals Fertilizer :Foundry Do Fuses...... *Gun Heaters Ink ,Rolling mill Shells !,Steel 220 300 50 125 4.500 350 *Akiriginum so 45 so so 82 142 50 55 175 150 100 525 117 25 62 26 400 103 143 3 55 423 225 200 580 24 240 58 27 4, 1,300 so 15 40 70 95 100 100 100 100 85 85 98 100 ao 40 100 75 90 80.38 9 . 9 8-10 ' .10-.45 8-9 9-12 .30 10 10 .35 10 10 .4o 10 .ao 10 .35 10 .321 11 .35-.45 10 14.1 10 10 10 Meat packing Petroleum '476 •35 8-13 77 I I No ffgfires available. 3.25-3. 76 3.00 3.50-3. X5 3.75 3.50-3.85 34 .371 .38-.40 ORLAHOMA. :• 52.75-3.50 se.n WAli: THE NEGRO AT WORK DURIA THE WORLD 88 Negro male workers in selected typical war industries TABLE I.-Unskilled white and" with reported percentage of war work of each enterprise , , Negroes more or 25 employing 1918-Continued. Slates, by rate, wage hours, and PENNSYLVgNIA. Number of unskilled workers. • ''Kind of'Industry of individual enterprise, White. if 2 100 Lcids 346 Ler° engines 722 Lir brakes 1,300 Limn intim 1,500 Lmmunition Zi tenni- . , 1,071 toilers loftstiO 0 ioo V35G 262 Ickes 50 4rie'ks 195 50 reinge 14 ilfklif,I; • ' • . 475 .01;.6'• • ' IS '41Stitigl 70 200 • 250 Do 307 Do 430 3bnlent 60 s 3herulcal 119 Do 150 Do 113 •noel 150 Nat'l tar 240 rm 10 Construction 120 Cork 175 Dredges 503 Electric supplies 150 Electric . ,. work 100 Engines 1,701 Explosives 235 Fertilizer 1,413 lasoline 910 .. • . Gas engirres ''450 Ms 589 Do 3 Gypsum 54) Houses 90 Iron 93 190 DO 425 Do 600 Do 729 Do 2,200 Trim and steel 75 Iron bars • 190 1Tb . . .,, Leather 114 • Do -53 Do 180 Lime 40 Lumber ..65 Machirre• 55 Magnesia. . . 120 Do 62 Metal 468 Molding 2,600 Munitions 80 Nuts 6,0410 a Oik .50 glass lea! Opt 2 Plus bonus. 1 No figures available. ' 83 PercentRate of wages. tage of war work Number hours in which of in workers working were day. Per hour. Per day. Negro. engaged at plant. 4 5 45 110 67 100 '400 :13 120 30 100 3.5 29 60 35 20 86 2.5 75 45 100 80 120 40 40 95 100 159 75 33 50 27 25 152 57 25 175 109 359 29 50 100 95 95 90 100 100 100 95 0) 94 65 100 100 9.5 70 100 95 100 100 99 98 95 100 100 100 100 80 9 91 91 9-10 10 10 14 10 10 10i 10 10 10-12 10 11-15 10 91 9 10 9-10 10 10 10 91 10-12 10 10 9-10 ?so 68 200 ao 92 -95 25 150 258 1,808 3.5 55 54 .436 (I) 10 100 95 71 50 75 100 (I) 100 97 ho 10 70 100 100 90 6 6 3 10 10 10 9 91 8 10 9 10 9 8 10 10 12 $0.40 .42 .42 .34-.41 44.0 .371 .38 .37i 3.50 .34/ .35-.45 3.41 3.15-5.I2 .321 .40 .34-.39 .38-.45 .38-.41 .38-.45 .40 .41-.46 .32 .40 .35 .32 .40 .38 .40 3.1 5 3.50-3.4 .• • •• , liiii 10 3.89-4.111 3.140 4.4)0 3.00-3.:10 3.50-4.: 3.410 3.30-3.: 3.1 2.1 4.00-4.! 4., .41 38 .40 .37/ 11 100 35 10 70 38 10 90 .32 10 100 35-.4.5 8-10 '80 324 .., 3.1 6/4 9 .45-.35 100 2.1 9 60 1 16.158 10 90 106 10 .28-.30 100 60 .3.5 10 8.5 90 .35 100 75 (I) 2 .29 101 90 30 .35 101 145 70 4.1 10 loo 40 .28 12 92 32 .39 . 140 1,900 01 .28-.35 19 79 40 10 .40-.45 100 250 2.80-3.6 It 75 85 4 Week. Probab y more than one shift. too ig THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 39 .TADLF: I.-Unskilled white and Negro male ?corkers in selected typical war industries employing 25 or more Negroes, with reported percentage of war work of each enterprise, hours, and wage rate, by States, 1918-Continued. PENNSYLVANIA-Continued. Number of noskilled workers. Kind of industry of individual enterprise. White. k. ; /rdilance 1 ig iron Do Do Do pipe fittings 'late glass 'owder tailroad cars Plate tin Refrigerators Rifles Rivets andltails., - ihells......-.-........................... . Do. .. Do. --•,.-, Rheet eopprr•, Shipbuil(Kng Soap 5teel Do Do DO Do Do /1)0 Do . Do Do De Do Do Do Ole D0 !Steel castings • Do ......• ...., Steel goods Steel hooks Steel plates. Do Sugar Tires Tools. Warehouses Wire 2 PercentRate of wages. Loge of war work Number hours of in which in workers .., working Negro. wer'" day. Per hour Per day. engaged at plant. 3 3,000 29 8.5 '300 1,000 200 150 10015 44 349 497 500 107 50 200 ' 950 150 319 171 7 35 35 54) 76 100 130 150 331 310 470 500 940 701 1,242 3,000 A 350 600 257 7,750 110 725 500 400 650 4 1,5in 5 .loo 40 200 18'0 30 •30 65 46 61 1100 100 100 60 95 • '331 100 100 100 1,500 58 100 95 36 ton 54) loo 90 41) 614 74 81 26 30 30 50 114 30 75 100 97 100 100 (1) 100 54) :12 40 425 150 77 344 543 400 32 45 31 165 206 850 220 20 25 325 25 10-72 10-11 10 10-12 10-12 10 10-11 8 In 111 to 10 105 10 111 10 9 10 12 10 10 10 8 10 10 10 101 100 100 100 100 95 100 100 85 too so 100 98 /00 100 90 100 100 100 75 100 100 87 100 100 100 100 75 6 6 33-.50 3.97-4.21 4.54 3.11 .38 .33 3.2. .38-.45 .371 .38 .30-.32 .35-.371 .35 .42 371 .35 3.4: 3.51 .30 3. 45-3.91 .60 .10 4.54 4.01 .35-.48 .38 4.4( .38 101 • 40 12 .38 12 .38 10 9 10 38 91 .34-.40 9 .38 101 .38 111 10 10 .3o 8-10 10 111 )4 .35 10 •.35 4.11 3.41 ; 3.11 3. 20-3.13A 3.28-3. 8( 3.54 4.54 ._ . .... RHODE ISLAND. linters 92 SOUTH Ifiamber Do 1Do r,s •10 29 196 100 8 $41. 32 CAROLINA. 190 125 218 1 No fig;um available. 3 45 100 10 10 $0.25-.30 10 $2.00-2.50 40 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. _ TABLE l.- Unskilled white and Negro male workers in selected typical war industries employing 25 or more Negros, with reported percentage of war arork of each enterprise hours. and wage rate, by.Sltftes, /9/8--Coritmued. TENNESSEE. Number of unskilled workers. '..Kind of industry of individual enterprise.. . White. Aluminum noxo,s Brake ithoes ChInent Ilhemicals roi'wiry If.ni)o 1$4ty, PlaillIkiiiii:ShelPf .,...,,,,.. ___.. --- l'ercent(age of war work Number in which of hours • in workers working were Negro. day. engaged at plant. T 3 287 i87 4 154 10 130 .375 525 900 143 550 2110 188 154 120 100 1$0 '160 375 600 69 250 4 1 No figures available. 5 Rate of wages. Per hour. Per day. 6 6 100 75 100 100 100 10 11 10 10 10 11 100 98 let 100 ) 1 .-.38 1430 10 8 10 8 10.25 (I) 1.75 2. 40-3.00 (I) 2.5(1 2.40-3.00 .30,40 2.50 .30-. 40 With board. TEX AS. 'Bridges Iron Lumber... Do 3(10 75 40 40 30 45 70 120 80 100 100 100 100 100 10 110.30-. 40 9 .30-.331 10 111 .30 11 100 70 100 100 10 10 10 9 10 $2. 50-6.00 2.75 NIRO INIA. Ammunition boxes. Cement Chains Chemicals Do Commissary contractor Creosoted material Do Foundry Do Guncotton Houses Land and gravel Lime Lumber Do Do Paving Pig iron Pipe Shell loading Tobacco 25 100 250 150 10 16 30 5 12 1,158 'ND 10 57 116 200 (I) (I) 5 70 870 475 125 50 40 75 30 150 ns 53 30 100 90 58 54 5,213 104 40 35 49 100 90 100 100 100 95 78 75 56 100 100 70 100 25 75 30 250 85 7.5 1,336 275 $3.83 3.50-5.00 $0.35 .35 4.00 2.50 10 •35-. 40 .381 10 10 35-. 40 10 .3.5 10 35-.44 8 11 .35-.40 11 10 10 .9 10 12 10 10 4.00 3.75 3.18) 2.50 3. 25-4. 25 3.00-4.00 3.00 3.85 2.75 2.00-S.00 3.84 .33 I No figures availab e. To ascertain mere definitely and more in detail facts needed in understand idle problems invieolvtgA in the Negro's new relation to industry, the Inspection and Investigation Service undertook an intensive study of several basic industries employing Negroes in 191819. Mr. Byron K. Armstrong and two other investigators were sent to visit establishments that were employing perhaps large numbers of N4Nroes. The study had to be discontinued before completion THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 41 because the service under which it was being made after failure of appropriations. The data, therefore, was abolished covers only a few plants in Illinois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania and does ether States as originally planned. The conclusions not include have been drawn, therefore, will necessarily be deferred that might until further data is available. The facts and figures that were secured, however, are illuminating ..and instructive. The table which folloms below (Tabl e II) gives the -details as to kinds of occupations, the average number of hours worked per week, the average earnings per week, and the average 'earnings per hour of 4,260 white men and 2,722 Negro men in 194 .occupations in 23 establishments, for six basic indus alau,,ohtering and meat packing, automobiles, coke tries—foundries, , iron and :steer and their products, and glass manufacturing. ovens A suppl ement to this table (Table II) gives similar figures for 153 white and 83 Negro women in slaughtering and meat packing. The occupations shown in these two tables have been classified as fikilled,-sennskilled, and unskilled. This classification, to he sure is uncertain and open to serious question but is the best designation feasible under our present'lack of occupational analys The friureau of Labdr Statistics, Department of is. introduCtcny statement to the first •report on itsLabor, says in its "Description of 'Occupations": 'Irherte descriptions of occupations are on 'investigations, including d nterviews and correspondence, extendingbased over practically the entire United private States. The ormoutstanding fact coming from this invepti gation or generally accepted occupational iames or alltimtions.is that there are no standards The classification in the tables given below, however, were made as carefully as possible, with the assistance of the emplo erts of the plants visited, upon the basis of descri yment ex ptions of the actual processes the worker performed. They are not presented as 'conclusive, but only as indicative of the standards in proficiency required and'pay received for such work. Some occupations, "carpenters" for instance, have been classed as unskil or semiskilled that on first consideration might be otherwise listedled . This has been done in line with the Classification of work into grade s and placing the work done in a particular establishment in the class that seems most indicative of its grade. Two comparisons from Table II—the average hourly earni ngs of Negro workers and the average number of hours 'ashl for comment. There were 85 occupations worked per week— Negro men and 5 or more white +then each werein which 5 or more engaged in the 23 plants. Of these occupations S were classified as skilled, 25 were classified as semiskilled, and 52 were classified as unskil led. For purposes of these comparisons on the avera ge hours worked per week /cud average hourly earniugs of this table some cases of the same occupations in which five or more Negro workers and five or more white workers were employed were reckoned a different unit of comparison of hours and of wages. The averageasnumbe worked per week and the average weekly earnings are r of hours figures taken from the official records of each establishm based upon The foundries were the only plants that employed any ent. considerable. number of Negroes in skilled occupations. In 6 found ries there were: 41 units of comparison in skilled occupations on the basis here de 42 THE N Ec,R0 AT WORK DLIIKfNG THE WORLD WAR. teribed; meat packing and slaughtering establishments reported only 1 such unit of comparison in skilled occupations; 5 automobile establishments reported no skilled occupations in which 5 or more Negroes were employed; coke oven (1 establishment(and glass manufacturing ti establishment) had no skilled'occupations in which 5 or more Negroes were employed and only 1 out of 8 iron and steel plants reported 1 skilled occupation which has a basis for such unit of com'pailson. , .The fact-thabfoundries'have such a large representation of Negroes In skilled occupations may be explained partly because Negroes have _probably had longer industrial experience in this industry than the other occupations listed, exceilt possibly coke ovens. In the table only 1 coke oven establishment is included, so a comparison can not be made. In the South, for more than a generation foundries have employed Negroes as molders and in other skilled and semiskilled work. When Negro workers migrated North, this was the line in which many of them had good skill and long experience. Their nonappearance in skilled occupationssin iron and steel plants may be partly because their entrance in large numbers into these plants was to replace immigrant and foreign-born laborers who were doing zataiiii.f, semiskilled area unskilled work, partly because of the small preptattiibn of skilled work in the industry, partly because some orounizea crafts in the industry were opposed to the employment of Neilrigcs in their trade, and partly because not a great many Negroes possessed necessary training and experience to quality for skilled work in this field. Taking such comparisons of skilled units in the foundries which were studiedi Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours worked per week than white workers in 3 units and a higher average earnings per hour in 1 unit. In 3 units Negro workers -.showed a lower average number of hours worked per week than white workers and in 5 units a lower average of earnings per hour than white workers. In the one unit of comparison of skilled occupations in slaughtering and meat-packing establishments Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours worked per week and a higher average of earnings per hour than white workers. In the 1 unit of comparison of skilled occupations in the iron and steel industry the Negro workers showed a lower average number of houit worked pi week and lower average earnings per hour than white workers. Turning to units of comparison or occupations clatSed as semiskilled in 5 foundries Negro workers showed a high* average number of hours worked per week than white workers in 3 units and a higher average earnings per hour in 3 units. Negro workers made a lower average number of hours worked than white workers in .2 units and a lower average earnings per hour in 2 units. In slaughtering a,n1I meat packing, in. 1 unit of comparison of semiskilled occupations, Negro workers made a higher average number of hours worked and a higher average earnings per hour than white workers. In automobile establishments in 6 units of comparison of semiskilled occupations, Negro workers showed the same average number of hours worked as white workmen in 6 units and the same average • THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 43 uarnings per hour in 6 units. In the coke ovens establishment, Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours than white workers in 1 unit and a higher average earnings per hour in 1 unit; a lower average number of hours worked than white workers in 2 units and a'lower average earnings per hour in 2 units. In iron and steel plants Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours worked than white workers in 3 units of semiskilled occupations and a higher average earnings per hour in 2 units; a lower average number numb. of hours than white workers in 1 unit and a lower average .earnings per hour in 1 unit. Negro workers showed the average number of hours worked per week as white workerssame in 6 units and the same average earnings per week in 7 units. In glass manufacture Negro workers showed a lower average number of hours worked in 1 unit of semiskilled occupations and a lower average hourly earnings in 1 unit of comparison. Taking the semiskilled group as a whole for all establishments employing 5 or more Negro workers and 5 or more white workers,there are 25 units of comparison. These show that Negro workers had a higher average number of hours worked per week than white workers in 8 units and a higher average earnings per hour in 7 units, about one-third in each. Negro workers showed a lower average number of hours worked ,per week than white workers in'6 units and a lower aver age (earnings per hour in 6 units, one-fourth in each. Negro workers showethe same average number of hours worked per week as white \workers in 12 units and the same average earnings per hour in 13 writs. The occupations classed as unskilled furnish the largest number of units of comparison-52 in all. In the foundries Negro workers showed a higher average number. of hours worked per week than ' white workers in six units and a higher average earnings per hour in five units. They showed a lower average number of 'hours worked per week ihan white workers in two units, a lower average earnings per hour in four units, and the same average number of hours worked per week as white workers in erre unit. In slaughtering and meat packing Negro workers made a higher average number. of hours worked per week than white workers in four units of unskilled occupations and a higher average earnings per hour in two units. They showed a lower average number of hours worked than white workers in four units and a lower average earnings per hour in six units. In automobile establishments Negro workers showed the same average number of hours worked as white workers and the same average earnings per week in seven units of unskilled occupations. At the coke ovens plant Negro workers showed a higher. average number of hours worked per week than white workers in seven ,units and a higher average earnings per hour in five units. They showed a lower average number of houi !. worked per week than white workers• in four "units and lower average earnings per hour than white workers in six units. In the iron and steel industries Negro workers made a higher average number of hours worked per week than white workers in four units and a higher average earnings per hour in six units of unskilled occupations. They showed a lower average hours worked per week than white workers in six units and a lower average earnings per week than white workers in four units. They showed thc 14 THE NEGA0 AT WORK D'URINO THE WORLD WAR. same average number of hours,waiced per week as white workers in 'five units and the same average earnings per week as white workers Th five units. In the glass manufactuting establishment Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours worked per week than white workers and a lower average earnings per week than white workers in two units of comparison of unskilled occupations. Taking'the 52 units of comparison of 'anskilled occupations as a whole, Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours worked per week than white workers in 23 units, nearly one-half of the total and a higher average earnings per week in 18 units, a little more than one-third of the total number. They showed a lower average number of hours worked per week than white workers in 16 units, or a little less than one-third of the total number, and a lower average earnings per hour in 22 units or more than two-fifths of the total number. Negro workers showed the same average number of hours worked per week as white workers in 13 units, or about onefourth of the total number, and the same average earnings per week week as white workers in 12 units of unskilled occupations, or less than one-fourth of the total number. To sum up the comparison of unskilled milts, Negro workers showed A higher average number of hours than white workers in nearly one-half of the total number of units of comparison, a lower arerage number of'hours worked per week in a little less than onethird of the total number, and the same average number of hours worked per week in 'about one-fourth of the total number of units. The Negro workers showed a higher average earnings per week than white workers in a little more than one-third of the total number of units; ia lower average weekly earnings in More than two-fifths of the total nomber of units, and the same average earnings per week as white workers in less than one-fourth of the total number of units of white and Negro workers compared in unskilled occupations. Taking the total 85 units of comparison for the three classifications of skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled occupations in all the establishments, the Negro workers showed a higher average number of hours 'worked per week than white workers in 35 units, or considerably :more than one-third of the total number of units; a lower average .number of hours worked per week in 26 units, or less than one-third, .and the same average number of hours worked per week as white •workers in 25 units, or less than one-third of the total units of comparison. Negro workers showed higher average 'earnings per hour than White workers in 28 units, or about one-third of the total number of units of comparison in the three classes of occupations; they showed lower average earnings per week in 34 units, or considerably more than one-third of the total; and the same average earnings per week in 25 units, or somewhat less than one-third of the total number of units of comparison in all the occupations listed. The figures in detail of Table II, showing classification of occupations, the number of white and Negro employees, and the average .number of hours of work per week and the average earnings per week and per hour of white and Negro workers in the specified occupations follows: TILE NEGRO AT WORK DI:11.1NG THE WORLD wAn. 45 TABLE H.-Comparative table of "average hours of wor,t" and "average earnings" of ,4f male white and Negro employees engaged in spitlh'ed occupations of six basic industries-1918-19. ^S, skilled; S-S,semiskilled; Un-S, unskilled.] stabIS Occupation, No. , Number of employees. Kind of oceupation. A verageMum.. her of hours worked per week. Average earnlogs per week. Average earningS per hour. f *bite. Negro. White. Negro. White. Negro. White. Negro. FOUNDRY(IRON AND STEEL). 1 2 3 5 .Z.%. , f AB , Carpenter Furnace men Grinders Laborers Millwrights. Molders Core makers Chippers Electric welders Grinders Laborers do Molders Core makers Molders 1 do.' Laborers Molders Carpenters Casting chippers Casting cleaners Core-room helpers... Craters Cupola helpers Floor molders Foundry helpers.... Helpers Janitor Laborers Oven tenders Sweepers Yardmen Chippers Cub molders.. Cupola men Japanners Laborers Molders lifolders'apprent.488s. 5110iders' helpers.., Shake-out men S-S... S-13. 8-S.. Un-S 8 59.00 1 38.00 11 67.70 62.00 40.65 45.40 7 233 48.55 46.95 58.75 1 58.25 11 52.75 48.15 1 54.30 56.00 1 43.30 53.00 57.30 57.00 1 48.50 44.90 5 58.30 58.70 59 68.65. 68.20 35 47.20 51.50 38 53.60 47.70 24 49.20 24 53.30 50.8.5 8 50.80 69 48.40 43.30 35 47.90 45. 40 2 .10.40 48.10 69 38.10 48.40 32 40.30 50.60 6 35.30 40.00 1 42.50 28.50 7 3.5.5052.90 40.80 11 37.60 31.00 41.90 17 52.31) 42.70 6 44.80 5 50.00 43.5) 43.00 19 51.50 2 43.10 45.54) 55.90 10 51.00 1 51.00 3 260.25 2 65.00 8 58.30 56.80 62.60 4 65.00 1 2 58.50 258.50 7 2 56.30 263.05 3 2 50.50 2 39.65 6 262.50 '55.40 13 2 64.80 2 54.25 37. 50 2 33. 35 6' S-S... 17n-8. 1 1 16 78 1 12 7 10 3 2 29 42 140 24 29 16 62 33 45 5 5 6 26 1 24 12 6 3 40 2 26 2 17 1 2 3 37 Un-S.. B-S... 8-8... 2 16 1 8. S...... s. 4 3 2 1 1 1 3 1 18 2 1 4 II 5 5 2 2 1 1 6 1 3 1 2 27 5 1 1 1 1 2 14 68.20 67.50 64.50 67.50 74.00 67.50 51.20 68.50 (18.90 67.50 64.00 67.90 67.50 67.50 79.50 55.50 71.50 67.50 54.80 65.50 74.00 67.70 .59.80 68.50 70.60 62.90 67.50 69.80 68.00 (17.50 69.00 63.90 49.44 30.01 31.92 29.03 32.93 33.73 23.17 32.54 27.57 32.07 27.52 45.18 33.75 33.57 34. 19 23.87 51.84 30.04 27.10 28.18 32.93 33.88 34.06 31.85 28.24 29.88 29.03 35.93 34.00 53.67 30.95 27.48 .7241) .44:,)) .4949 .4301 .4450 .5000 .51197 .4750 .4001 .4751 4300 .6654 .5000 .7951 .4301 .4301 .721 4 .44; .48.5 .434 2 .441 .508 .544) .4)11 .40 .48 17 .43 .51 8 .5)3 .79, 1 .44 5 .43 81 .2 .3 .5 1 .11 1 3 70.90 114.20 74.60 457.54) 67.50 71.50 67.50 69.50 341.85 25.144 32.08 30.72 35.10 25.59 29.03 31.63 .5197 .4(81) .4300 .4551 .52 30 .39 pg .43 • 45 1 S S-S... S 8-8... Un-S. Un-S. 8 s s 8 Un-S. S 8-8 S-8 un-s „ S-S S-S... 8-8... s 8-S U n-S. Un-£3. Un-S. 8-8... l'n-S. Un-S. 8-8... 8-8... S.......54_ 823.60 28.79 15.49 17.41 26.44 30.22 28.44 22.98 38.63 27.39 24.70 23.96 25.23 31.12 28.53 28.71 24.91 28.44 20.29 14.97 15.21 12.05 17.56 13.83 25.38 11.78 17.27 18.24 17.74 20.39 14.50 16.95 2 31.85 27.19 31.181 2 32.74 2 23. 18 2 35.89 2 25.00 '29.12 2 37. 21 $15.20 SO. 000 $O. 103 26.47 .4249 .4261 17.71 .3811 .39(8 19.0$ .3585 ,406: 24.76 .4500 .4251 24.88 .5728 .516' 30.3.8 .5237 .542.5 2.5.18 .5307 .4751 39.90 .6742 .70(8 24.08 .5647 .s36 24.54 .4237 .4181 23.56 .3513 .343. 22.00 .4899 .4681 29.24 .6524 .525' 30.99 .5799 .581 4 27.78 .5652 .5463 21.79 .5147 .5032 24.35 .5944 .5363 23.71 .5216 .4929 19.10 .3929 .3946 20.82 .3774 . 111 14.87 .3414 .371 9.23 .4132 .325 22.77 .31329 .430 .6221 21.54 .572 15.76 .3800 .376 30.43 .4404 .3914 15.33 .3648 .3422 18.75 .41311 .4380 20.07 .4731 .31197 19.02 .31, .7 .340 . 442 I 12.67 .248 .730 2 47.50 .42; 28.34 . 16 p., .499 .4709 27.71 .4427 .4615 2 32.85 .5597 .112 '25.98 .4117 .73*)2 .7107 2 29. 19 .41811 .45.9 1 2 205. 88 .4494 .485 2 26.31 234.63 .9922 1.0313 SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING. ' 6 Backers Brinze trimmers Caul pullers Droppers(hoist)._ Fell beaters Gutters Headers Knockers Laborers Leg Inc:times hitchers-up !Bumpers 'Rump sawyers Sptitters Switehers-on rail.... Truckers Beef oafi0X11: (Ott rrunifierS 1.4216.ren Moth igen:len.. .44(1440eM Un-S. S. s. • 8 S. Cu-8. -8 lin-8. s$ .. I 5 1 43 llis44,8.1 99-85... , '• Un-S. S-S... s.. .1 L./iliorebt types of molders. I Compiled on a piecework basis. 46 - WORLD \VAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE work" and "average earnings" of TABLE IT.-Comparative table of "average hours of dusspecified occupations of six male white and Negro employees engaged in tries-.1918-19-Continued. 18,411:tiled; S-S,semiskilled; Un-S, unskilled.) F.st ablish44=4 Occupation. Average numAverage earn, Average earnN amber of em- ber of hours hags per week. ings per hour. Worked per ployees. Kind week. of occupation. Negro. White. Negro. White. Negro. White. Negro. SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING -con. Dry salt: 1 nippers 2 Graders lin-S. . 5 Nailer 3 Un-S. Packers 5 ttu-S . Pliers 5 . Un-S Rubbers 12 LTn-S. Truckers heads: Hog 1,tn-8. 3 Laborers 1 S Skin heads Hog killing: 24 Un-S. Laborers 1 S Shave sides 1 S. Snatchers Sausage-making; 30 Un-S. Laborers Beef killing: 74' 2 8. Backers 2 5 Fell beaters 2 S Fell cutters 3 S Foot skinners 1 Gullet raisers.... 2 S 1C:Milers. 1 S IHeadert.. 2 S 'Knockers. . S 20 Un.. ..... . Laborer*: 4 S Riagibreakers. 3 tRumip sawyers 13 1 8 :Splitters Tigpair department: 52 S Stemrffleters. 6 Cunning department (bacon): 3 S-S Butchers 100 V n-S. Laborers SS..41 Nailer • Reef coolers: 14 S-S... 1143nifemen 20 V n-S. II atlxwers 3 5 IIliceeworkers 66.30 70.90 56.30 52. 20 62.90 64.70 63.50 46.30 51.30 67.00 58.30 63.90 59.90 61.30 20.60 33.03 23.37 22. 70 27.02 241.85 211.20 19.88 22.02 28.81 25.05 27.09 24.83 24.33 .4301 .4298 .4151 .4349 . 4296 .4150 .4000 .4294 .4292 .4300 .4297 .4239 .4145 .4002 4 57. 20 61. 10 68-00 01.10 22.87 27.2*) 27. 20 27.20 .3998 .4452 .4046) .4432 32 2 1 72.30 57.40 97.00 62.30 57. 40 97.00 24.94 26. 10 44.39 24.92 26. 10 44.72 .4003 .4547 -4597 .4000 .4347 .4610 2 47.80 69.30 19. 12 27.67 .4000 .3999 2 2 1 2 2 2 6 2 18 6 3 3 66.00 66.00 59.80 62.30 53.50 66.1)0 65.00 641.00 5G. 20 46. 40 47.30 66.00 66.00 66.00 66.00 43.00 63.80 64.50 64.20 66.00 34.84) 412.30 65.80 66.00 32.2*) 31.4114 33.48) :10. 26 24.54 30.01) 40.18 33.4)4 24.83 24. 10 25.75 57. 24 52.2*) 31.68 37.08 20.68 31.18 35.00 39.76 33.48 23.83 32. 48 35.89 57.24 .7909 .4800 .5619 .4857 .4387 .5455 .6181 .5073 .4347 .5194 .5444 .8673 .7909 .4848) .54111* .4809 .4739 .5426 .6193 .5073 .4349 .5197 .5454 .8673 13 63.70 72.60 37.68 41.76 .5735 .5752 11 84 2 37.70 58.40 56.30 56.90 59. 10 51.50 25.89 25.21 24.85 25.83 25.43 22.80 .4487 .4317 .4414 .4540 .4296 .4427 13 34 4 64.80; 58.70 61.30 67.80 39.90 47.90 27.33 23.41 48.00 29.11 211.88 30.83 .4218 .3988 .7830 .4294 .3987 .6436 4 50.00 50.00 50.00 110.0)) 22.:57 30.00 22.57 22.80 .4314 .6000 .4514 .4560 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.6*) 50.43) 50.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 55.00 35.00 55.00 50.00 50.00 30.00 30.00 35.73 30.00 30.00 38.75 30.00 33.00 20.79 33.55 28.410 26.40 24.20 23.10 26.44) 26.40 23.10 26.40 33.00 26.40 33.00 44.00 22.50 22.50 22.50 22.74) 24.75 30.00 30.41) 3.8. 75 30.00 33.481 20.79 33.55 214.60 26.40 24.20 23.10 26.40 26.40 23.10 26.40 3.4.01) 26.40 33.00 44.00 22.50 22.50 22.54) 22.74) .7150 .8000 .6000 .7130 .6000 .6600 .4158 .6100 .5200 .4800 .4400 .4200 .4800 .4800 .4200 .4800 .6101 .0400 .6411) .8000 .4500 .4250 .6000 .6000 .77.50 .6000 .6609 .41554 .61)5) .5200 .4800 .4400 .4200 .von .4400 .4260 .41400 .6415) 2 5 12 AUfONGBILES. Boiler room Con nect ing rod department. Enamel rubbers Lathe department 8-B... Machine shop Motor assembling.•• Piston depart ment U n-S. Sand-blast room Un-S • Stock tracers S 11 Core maker • 8-8 do Heat er • Un-8. +Inside laborers Un-8. Janitors Un-S. Stock handlers Truck (kit ers.... _ i 8-8.. 8-5"makers_ ..... Un-S 12 Chippers Machine molders.. £1-8.. Un-8 C dude • S-S. Mold rammers 8 Molders Li ii-S. 13 Janitor • Un-S. Laborers ... 1-1}44: . Sweepers Trucker - 10 25 16 60 30 ao 9 15 6 25 22 1214 20 73 19 24 8 '54 10 25 6 10 80 50 Ifs) 4 50.00 1 50.00 1 50.00 1 50.41) 50.00 1 2 50.00 4 50.00 2 55.00 25 55.00 45 55.00 136 55.00: 4109 :55.00 14 - 55.00 3 55.00 134 55.00 12 55.00 15 55.00 4 55.00 23 55.00 .3 55.00 20 50.00 40 50.00 65 ; .541.00 60' 30.41) .45110 . 4500 .6000 .80011 .4518) .45441 . 15011 .451X1 THE NEGRO AT WORK DOtr.NO THE WORLD WAR. lir 47 TABLE N.-Comparative wale white and Negro table of "average hours of work" and average earnings" of tries-1918-19-Conti employees engaged in specified occupa nued. tions of six basic indusIS, skilled; 8-5, semiskilled; rn-S, unskilled.] _ Establish!tient No. Occupation. Kind of oceupotion. Average number of hours worked per week. Number of cmployees. Average earnings per week. Average earnine per hour. COKE OVENS. , Battery-door holsters Battery-house labor- S-S... Un-111. ers. Battery laborer Un-S. By-product labor 17n-S. Coal unloaders 1.7n-S. Coke loaders 17 n-S. Crane engineers 5 Door cleaners UnS. Dryermen Un-S. Firemen UnS . Foremen 8 (1 as tend Un-S. Laborers Un-S. Larrymen S-8... L1dsmen Un-1 11. Luttermen Un-S. l'atchers Un-S. Pencilmen LT n-S. , Pushers S-8... . Salt wheelers Un-S. Standpipe men Un-S. Sulphate laborers Un-S. Water tenders 8-8... IRON AND STEEL AND .: TIIEIR PRODUCTS. , White. Negro. Whi te. Negro. White. Negro. White. Negro. 14 ..,.., cc 10 11 144.90 3 131.30 161.70 '150.00 rcc—ev..,t -" "on .„—m -"cc -2c-cm. _ .. ---------__ 1,1 15 46 9 :3 6 20 1 2 5 149 5 5 31 12 30 12 6 5 30 3 __ 15030 '50 139.60 18156 149. 50 163.20 3 163.60 142.50 '167.50 156.00 3 155.00 165.90 1 143.00 151.70 3 161.70 180.00 3 152.70 158.00 '16)4.00 158.10 3 153.20 149.80 '143.00 108.50 '155.20 160.70 '156.20 152.20 '157.60 148.00 144.00 142.50 154.90 158.30 '1(47.50 133.30 '134.00 160.70 3 144.60 140.90 '168.00 175.00 '180.00 71. 12 77:25 64. 17 70:78 68.68 73.04 65.73 70.70 80.32 75.08 68.62 85.52 96.30 92.75 78.38 (47.72 73.01 77.03 87.50 74.24 98.58 3 104.43 60.10 77.41 76.55 79.08 53.17 76.08 77.36 75.07 73.44 75.90 69.81 611.04 66.35 72.92 77.70 82.16 63.29 72.18 77.21 69.92 66.30 77.24 94.27 97.12 .4908 .4777 .46141 :471 .45442 .4708 .4y22 .4812 .6173 .4638 .4813 .4861 .6319 .5066 .5110 .490o .44414 .4825 .4717 .4656 .49041 .4748 .4807 .4736 .5387 .4684 .4721 .461 .5101 .598' .4734 .47(4. .4861 .6214 .7305;3 .5.531 .4904 .4804 .4814 .472. .4704 .4904 .5387 .44135 .4711 .53.9 - c4 Transportation: Switchmen 45 1 8 Plate mill: 74.35 72.10 41.54 40.47 .5590 Cindersnappers . Un.5589 5. 3 78.0 Hookers 0 60.00 Un-S . 39. 06 30.0 4 2 .5007 66.00 66.00 Laborers .50 57 Un-S . 31.4 4 17 32.16 .4764 67.85 .472 Pusher 70.00 31.51 Un-8. 30.13 5 .4644 73.40 Scrapmen .43 75.80 9 51.7 Un-S . 2 51.68 12 .7046 74.20 .1381 Shear helpers 74.45 51.99 Un-S . 51.33 .7007 22 Blast furnace: .689 77.55 71.05 52.00 50.47 .44705 Cinder laborers .710a Un-S. 36 First helpers 72.35 64.00 35.52 13-S... 31.42 .4909 21 .491 Handymen 69.7 1 61. 5 90 34.14 Un30.31 .4895 1 .489 Keepers,furnace S... S. 78.00 73.80 4s.0. 42.25 , . .5775 18 .5d A Laborers 73.7 75.0 5 40.7 0 3 41.20 Un.5522 121 .5493 64.54) Varrycar helper. Un- S , 62.65 30.04 29.43 .44557 35 .46417 LArryclar opera- S-8 8 . 73.10 62. 00 35.7 30.41 5 .4890 ... .49(15 n 62.44) 63.00 tors. 34.78 33.08 .5555 .521.10 Stoekbousc la- Un-S. 3 54.00 borers. 48.85 25.91 22.85 .4798 .461 15 (las makerS 5-5... 1 67.00 Laborers 69.70 24.74 1Tn 25.5 .36 -S 9 . 93 •3 71 4 16 44.4 4) 46.5 do 18.1 0 16.3 8 8 Un-S . .40Th .35123 212 81.55 69.5.3 do 33.99 3.5. 57 5-5... .41644 51 .51'14 .17 85.85 Car checkers 91.70 43.51 45.29 Un-S. .5068 2 .4539 62. Furnacemen 25 50.0 0 29.13 19.95 Un-S . .4680 8 .391so 67.70 Inspectors.. 62.75 33.84 31.421 S-S„.. .5001 IS .5o:36 61.40 .61.40 Laborers 30.1 32.69 .5002 ITn-S 12 . 53'24 90.95 Machine opera- S-S... 01.50 23.412 20.8.1 .4203. 21 .4 63 55.65 48.40 tors. 3.5.35 25.40 .63 52 .52 48 Spring formers ., S-S.., 21 18 63.05 Assemblers 37.55 54.19 33.00 ' 5-S. .85 93 4444 .447 74 50.00 50.00 Laborers 22.50 22.50 .14)0 I Un10 • 45no 50.00 Machine hands..1 S S 50.00 20.00 20.00 .4000 .1000 145 50.00 Maintenance....I S-S... 50.00 35.0 35.0 0 .700 0 0 .7000 55 50.00 50.00 Ticklers an d S-S 22.5 0 22.s0 .4s00 .4500 143 50.00 50.00 sharers. 22.50 22..0 .45(8) .4. 00 Pinrerrs S-S.. 1 95 50.00 50.00 , 2;2.50 22.50 .45410 11Averafe number of .4500 period of 3 day:, and ithoar( and average earni igs under..this coke-oven schedule wer e available only for 3 was impracticable, th re:ow, to t rv to estilnateithu weekly hou rs and earnings. ...-.- mx,,,gcN c '4 cNcc...c.ic2n - --g-,-, a - - - 1 . ING THE WORLD WAR THE NEGRO AT WORK DUR ings" of work" and "average earn Industable of "average hours of c basi ire six rat of mpa ons -Co pati II. d occu specifie TABDE o employees engaged in male tilltite and Negr . uecl tries-1918-19-Contin 48 d; Un-S, unskilled.] S, skilled; S-S,semiskille Kstablishmein No. Occlipation. Kind of peen'pation. Number of employees. Average number of hours worked per week. White. Negro. White. Average earnings per week. Negro. White. Average earnings per hour. Negro. White. Negro. IRON AND STEEL AND TITEIR PRODIXT4- continued. 181 19 20 21 22 . Blast furnace-Con Punch press hands. Punch press helpers. Stock handlers Ilammerm e n's helpers. Laborers (raw material). Sweepers Truckers Yardmen Nutmakers do Packing Trimmers Coring Forcing Furnace Molding Slack Mom 16 Un-S. 46 Un-S. Un-S. Un-S. S-S Un-S. S-S Un-S. S-S Un-S. S-S... 5-13 Un-S. .57 2 5 3 1 7 29 47 77 15 28 1 ikl:bb 22.50 22.30 .4500 .4:11210 20.00 .4000 .4000 20.00 21.72 .4000 .5201 .4000 .5278 17 50.00 50.00 20.00 14 50.00 41.05 .50.00 41.15 20.00 21.55 52.60 49.25 21.33 19.93 .4055 .4047 23 16.84 17.08 19:39 25.47 18.68 .63 22.79 22.79 22.79 22.79 22.79 .3367 .3238 .3251 .4730 .4500 .4500 .3011 .4300 .4300 .4300 .4300 .4300 .3142 .341Ii .3103 .4750 .3852 .4500 .5894 .4300 .4300 .4300 .4300 .4300 14.09 15.08 21.00 20.21 .3023 .3143 .3095 .30112 .21441 .2974 .3463 .2912 7 18 47 2 1 2 1 28 13 111 47.00 49.25 53.30 53.50 53.30 53.50 33.50 53.00 52.00 53.00 53.00 53.00 53.60 50.00 62. 45 13.50 411.30 53.50 35.00 53;00 53.00 53.00 53.00 53.00 15.112 15.95 17.98 23.47 24.011 24.011 19.32 22.79 22.7 22.79 22.79 22..79 411.140 53.20 211.70 15)10 49.60 50.70 60.60 69.40 14.73 16.72 22.65 111.52 MANUFACTURING GLASS. 23 a Un-S. Keeper S-S... Packers Producermen Un-s. Yard laborers....... 30 27 10 36 10 11 2 6 THE NEt:110 AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 49 Comparative table of "average and Negro employees enga hours of work" and "average earnings" offemale whip ged in specified occupations packing industry. in the slaughtering and meat - tkeupation. , KInu of occupation. Average Number of number of employees, hours worked per week.I Average earnings Per week, Average earnings per hour. Total "regujar" hours per week. -- White. Negro. White. Negro . White. Negro. White. Negro . White. Negro. rO.G-IfEAD PREPARATION. Vashers and: WmMM. , Uti-S. 7 7 57.4 57.4 19.50 19.50 .3397 .3397 48 C 48 48 41 41 AITS‘GE M ANUF ACTURING. timings workers tausage-tying workers. ;turfing -room workers. un-s. un-s. Un-S. 9 6 12 1 4S.8 47.8 49. 1 46.6 1509 14.96 .3092 .3047 14. 48 14. 22 .3019 .3052 20 13 50.5 46.7 16.87 16.04 :3341 .3436 48 41 55.1 17.69 17.41 .315 59.5 18.11 18.87 .3179 36.0 34.11 22.36 .65222 57.3 16. 78 18. 16 .3166 51.5 19.41 17.6.5 .35141 56.2 1.59 17.80 .318 0 56.5 16. 20 17.86 .3164 .3104) .3171 .6211 .3169 .3427 .31117 .3101 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 42 41 41 42 44 44 44 ANNING • DEPARTMENT (BACON). lacon wipers ;an oilers :an painters ;in wipers 'caters.. ;older droppers IVrappers Un-S. Un-S. U n-8. Un-S. Un-S. Un-S. Un-S. 2 9 9 36 22 6 27 8 2 2 19 4 3 12 56.0 57.1 52.3 5:'.0 55.2 50.6 51. 2 I The additional number of hours in excess of 48 should be regar ded as 'overtime." D989°-20--- I , CHAPTER X. itiesfor promotion, and opinthe attitude of .firins toward Negro labor, the opportun s,' 1918-19. employee HI.—Opinions of 38 employers of Negro workers showing colored 6,857 and white s for 101,458 ion on comparative behavior of white and colored employee What time is Is there any What differrequired to s there equal I' Does the Is there a in any, if once, difference the Does break in ernopportunity managein the con- the loss of ma- plovees to the Negro lamanageunskilled for ment reDo the Negro duct and tennis due to t promenoNeg ro workshow behavior defective work- work and wtuit Negr mote Negro men to learn workmen for difference, if To what extent are Negroes cruit , the reskilled • ambition , o. manship be- on Negro workmen admitted to skilled occupa- workmen d semiskille , suits of his advancement. an. white tween white • , the ' to tween tions? white procskilled or . advtee locally or and Negro workers in skilled esses as white from dieemployees? the plant? workers? workmen? twat points, ranks? _ Equal time.... No None Yes 2 .. .......... No Yes Yes, 3; no Locally... Yes No record. No comparison No record small 1 Full opportunity yes, Yes record. Yes -.do number. 2 Extent of ability' No weeks, Two record No Yes........... No Yes No record. Yes equal. :1 Small extent No difference No difference.. No No No Yes week, No One Yes Locally. None No 4 Serne as whites Yes Yes Yes equal. .do 5 do Varies, equal Yes, No record Not ass whole. No... Yes Ye9 do time. 6 Full extent, difference No No None No Yes ,1 Yes for col- No Yes Longer do .. *do Yes' 7 Same basis as white Yes Yes, wo- Yes do ored. S Sldlied women, 135 men. No difference do Yes Yes Yes Yes .do No difference About the same No No 9 To all except office work Yes Yes Yes do Noxecord No record No No 10 Small extent Yes Yes No recruit- Yes 11 To all occupations ing. no do Yes; do None Yes, a few Yes, Yes record. Locally 12 To the majority Two No weeks, None. Yeas Yes 111 Yes Yes do equal. 13 Extent of ability No No record do No few a Yes, Ye Yes do No do do 14 According to ability No Yes Yes Yes do No do do 15 On the same basis Not as a rule.. No Yes. Yes do . No No difference do 16 All branches No Yes Yes Yes do do Less time for No 17 None Not in all cases No No discrim Yes do 11 whites. do 18 ination. No difference. No do No Not as a rule Yes Yes do 19 Aemrdina tn ability Number of persons on t pay roll. , Total. White. New., 118 50G 51 239 45 2 16 2 10 23 2 ".L 591 526 6,200 6,200 6,000 6,000 2 10 2 84 42 2 1,589 1,364 1,326 1,320 3,157 449 4,826 8,396 6,500 3,145 358 4,553 7,719 6,400 42,892 41,963 2 2 ,1 2 11 stl "z1VA. (11210m :gill rABLE Butchers, only as whites No discrimination do Not at all 4.• eeee ..do.. ..do ..do ..do ..do 21 22 23 24 Same 25 26 27 No skilled Negroes. No discrimination ..do ..do. ..do As Same as any other class 29 Molders, only ..do ..do :10 31 32 Not as mechanics ,1 All except pattern making Only to molders 33 34 According to ability Small extent only 35 None in skilled lines. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes,semiskilled. Yes Yes Yes, when, efficient! Yes No's ..do. ...do ..do Yes Yes Yes, molders. Yes do None em- No ployed. Loeafly. Yes 61 1,280 107 67 42 394 51 361 34 37 17 6,346 5,231 1,115 No No No 84 24 107 42 Ii; 70 42 8 37 No No 7,850 277 7,510 201 No Greater for colored. bout the same Same time,both No do do 1,364 1,243 121 191 117 164 23 27 94 3,126 3,060 ec 108,315 101,458 6,837 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes" Yes No Yes No Yes Yes 3 No Same as whites No No Yes No Yes Yes No In rare (uses. No No Yes 3 Non" Yes Not as a rule No 36 37 No limits Semiskilled, only ..do .do Yes Yes,semi- Yes Yes 35 None None employed. No No Not ass rule ............................ No record No difference None do Same time. No record do No difference No record do Longer for colored. Equal time.. None Depends upon do person. No difference. About the same No differencq.. None About the sate The same No record None No difference No do The same Longer for Negroes. No record No No, Nd' No No No No No No No ................ ............ A pproximate number. Negroes are more inclined to loaf. 1 Except as to molders. Except three trades, as to which the union members make objectiop. s Not known as such to the workers. But not as much as might be wished for. records. 7 Negroes are late oftenex and have poorer attendance I From the standpoint of the company, not from the standpoint of the workmen. To a marked degree. to Negro workers"visit" quite a deal of the time. 38 1,920 593 740 518 Yes"..., Yes" Not generally: No No do In some cases No do No Some do same as whites No Total 99 3,300 ' 700 807 560 Yes IS Yes Yes Yes Yes 11 Locally for ordinary labor: Negro skilled workmen not employed. meat curers. 3 Butchers and Plb Negro workers not as serious as white workers. II Conduct and behavior of Negro workers caused by high turnover. Ordinary workmen. 3 Not as steady as whites. 17 Excepting Molders and carpenters. 3 Because of labor troubles. 3 Excepting pattern making. 16 Negro men will not work steadily, ows CHAPTER VII. STATISTICS ON THE MEAT-PACKING AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. One of the evidences of the growing importance of Negroes in northern industries is shown by the increasing percentage of Negroes employed in one or two of the large meat-packing establishments in Chicago during 1916, 1917, and 1918, and a steel company of Indiana Harbor for all the months of 1918. In.the first meat-packing company, beginning July 13, 1918, and running through to February 28, 1919, it is shown that at the beginning of this period there were 4,734 white employees, or 81.89 per cent, and 1,047 colored employees, or 18.11 percent of the labor force. There were 796 white women, or 87.19 per cent, and 117 Negro women,or 12.81 per cent. At the close of the period there were 4,925 white employees, or 83.38 per cent, and 982 Negro employees, or 16.62 per cent of the total number, while there were 821 white women constituting 89.24 per cent, and 99 Negro women, or 10.76 per cent of the total number of employees. These figures indicate the increasing importance in numbers and percentage of Negro workers in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry,, fon the total number of white employees at the beginning of the period was 81.89 per cent and at the close 83.38 per cent and the number of Negro employees at the beginning of the period was 18.11 per cent and at the close 16.62 per cent. This shows that there was a slight reduction in the number of Negro employees, both male and female, during the period, but that the reduction was very slight, being slightly more than 1.5 per cent for Negro men and 2 per cent for Negro women, or a total reduction of 3.5 per cent of Negro employees. The table following shows the details of the variation by weeks:_ 5fte , distributed Iv -Number of employees of the first meat-packing company July 13, 1918. Week No. 1 2 2 4 5 6. 7 8 9 1,0 (2 13. 14 19 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Zi 24 25 20 27 28 29 30- Total number of employees, distributed number Total by color. of employses,white and colored, Percent. Colored. Percent. male and White. female. 5,7R1 5,792 6,802 5,840 5,995 5,937 0,036 5,981 5,916 5,919 5,826 5,852 5,844 5,753 5,445 5,570 5,787 5,803 5,785 6,115 0,045 6,319 6,300 6,5115 6,346 6,380 6,362 6,372 6,180 5,907 4,734 4,714 4,762 4,7111 4,887 4,8111 4,1043 4,873 4,810 4,964 4,824 4,826 4,865 4,775 4,490 4,623 4,779 4,771 4,744 4,994 4,916 5,134 5,166 5,369 5,7.11 5,249 5,284 5,311 5,052 4,925 81.89 81.39 8207 80-75 81.52 81.80 80.89 81.47 81- 30 82.18 82.80 82.47 83.25 143.00 82.46 143.000 /12.58 82.22 82.01 81.117 81.32 81.25 141.23 81.78 82.43 82.12 83.00 83.35 81.75 83,38 1,047 1,07S 1,040 1,124 1,108 1,077 1,153 1,108 1,106 1,055 1,002 1,026 979 978 4. r,5 1,008 1,032 1,041 1,121 1,129 1,185 1,194 1,196 1,115 1,141 1,078 1,061 1,128 982 18.11 18.61 17.93 19.25 18.48 18.14 19.11 18.53 18.70 17.82 17.20 17.53 16.75 17.00 . 14 7:5 17 81 17.42 13.78 17.99 18.33 18.28 18.75 18.77 18.22 17.57 17.88 16.84 16.65 18.25 16.62 by rotor and ser,for a period of 30 successive weeks, beginning Male employees, Total. White. 4,565 4,9W 4,832 4,553 3,938 3,953 3,906 3,883 ::rg 4,874 1::92 3,922 4,907 4,820 4,800 4,765 4,743 1,880 4,721 4,471 4,548 4,1;80 4,735 4,729 4,950 4,977 5,283 5,343 5,499 5,315 5,355 5,874 5,409 5,153 4,987 3,968 3,893 3,920 3,024 3,956 3,921 3,868 3,650 3,725 3,818 3,855 3,834 3,970 3,981 4,232 4,281 4,440 4,334 4,349 4,420 4,463 4,215 4,104 Female employees. Percent. Colored. Percent. 110.90 80.41 80.84 80.01 R0.80 R1.14 89.47 80.86 80.77 81.67 82.35 81.68 82.03 81.93 81.64 81.90 81.54 81.41 81.07 80.20 79.99 80.11 80.12 80.74 81.54 81.21 82.25 82.51 /41.80 82.29 930 963 926 19.10 19.59 19.16 .7..(3) 'a930 1::92: 1;:11 1 .. 143 1) 880 841 887 859 853 821 823 1162 880 895 980 1)96 1,051 1,063 1,059 18.33 17.65 18.32 17.97 18.07 18.36 18.19 18.42 18.59 18.93 19- 80 23.01 19.89 19.88 19.26 1,N. 954 946 938 883 17.75 17.49 18.30 17.71 l',.::;',1 Total. 913 876 970 987 1,,s, ii01,..i 1,096 1,119 1,061 White. Percent. Colored. percent. 7n 7 856 6:7 R7 1114. 2.5 ')1',! r4:1',1 85.20 898 5 r1)1 017 211 1::7 ., ZI:c37, 0 FA744 907 840 8911 961 916 910 1,024 9.15 902 /0.15 929 897 890 Rr68:.F2':7i 87.89 86.24 87.87 86.81 85.77 86.17 87.90 87.55 87.07 87.02 87.15 87.00 86.83 1 000 1,064 1,032 974 1,022 1,107 1,068 1,056 1,165 1,068 1,036 1,017 1,066 1,031 1,025 988 963 1,027 920 'Z ,7:g (F181.50 837 821 89.24 117 115 114 154 165 156 201 169 179 175 161 139 120 125 134 124 146 152 146 141 133 134 132 137 134 135 124 115 190 99 12.81 13.13 11.75 15.60 15.24 14.89 17.30 15.74 16.33 15.14 15.17 13.78 11.2/1 12.11 13.76 12.13 13.19 14.23 13.83 12.10 12.45 12.93 12.98 12.85 13.00 13.17 12.55 11.94 18.50 10.70 t". •ITV.1\ (1-111()AN ....MI 9: TABLE cr4+ • 54 THE NEGRO AT WORT: DURING THE WORLD WAR. The figures of. the second meat-packing compa ny give a very much larger showing of the increasing use of Negro emplo yees in this plant, one of the largest in the industry. period, January, 1916, to February, 1919, orAt the beginning of the the plant was employing a total of 8,361 a period of 159 weeks, yees. Of these, 8,050, or 96.28 per cent, were white and 311, emplo or 3.72 per cent, were colored. The figures cover the period just preced the entrance of the United States into the war, the entire perioding during which our cnuntry was at war, and the three months following the signing of the armistice. The total number of employees of this firm increased until it reached the mark of 16,989 employees gradually during the last week in November, 1918, and 17,434 during the third December, 1918. The number of colored employees, week of increased more rapidly in proportion than the number however, of white employees, reaching a maximum of 24.09 per cent of the total in March, 1918, and ranging from that time on en 17 and 21 per cent of the total. At the close of the periodbetwe , February, 1919, the firm was employing 13,928, or 79.03 per cent of the total, and 2,805, or 20.07 per cent, colored employees. This shows a proportionititir increase, nearly fivefold, in the number of Negro employees. TABLE V.-Number of employees of the second meat-pa cking company, distributed by, color, for a period of 1,59 successive weeks, January, 1916, to January, 1919. (See graphs following.) Total number of employees, ,Total distributed by color, }lumber of employees, Week white No. and NePer gre, White. Per .„,,,,,„,.n. , male cent. Negro. Vind female. AlliiilgPr4n187."""2E11110:411F.5 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 lit 12 13 14 15 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 8,050 7,683 7,699 7,569 7,470 7,527 7,476 7,673 7,637 7,824 7,938 7,795 7,766 7,632 7,591 7,363 6,941 6,604 6,947 6,935 8,900 6,907 7,121 7,101 1 7,184 7,270 7,329 7,532 so 7,309 30 7,312 31 7,495 32 7,657 33 7,831 34 7,837 35 7,654 967,830 96.28 96.17 96.14 95.32 95.48 95.23 94.78 94.92 95.02 95.26 95.29 95.75 95.61 95.75 95.10 94.81 93.62 92.26 92.89 93.10 93.26 93.07 92.42 92.27 91.97 91.60 90.91 90.68 90.45 90.02 88.03 88.20 88.15 87.48 87.60 85.72 311 306 309 372 354 377 413 411 400 389 392 346 357 339 391 403 473 554 532 514 499 514 584 595 627 667 733 774 772 811 1,019 1,024 1,053 1,122 1,083 1,304 3.72 3.83 3.86 4.68 4.52 4.71 5.24 5.08 4.98 4.74 4.71 4.25 4.39 4.25 4.90 5.19 6.38 7.74 7.11 6.90 8.74 6.93 7.58 7.73 8.03 8.40 9.09 9.32 9.55 9.98 11.97 11.80 11.85 12.52 12.40 14.28 Week No. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 63 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 Total number of employee!, Total number distributed by color. of employeem, white and Negre, Per Negro. Pltr 1e White male ' cent. cent' and female. 9,316 9,180 9,425 9,1120 9,872 10,084 10,129 10,229 10,394 10,630 10,749 10,980 10,582 10,135 10,284 10,173 10,255 10,428 10,473 10,188 10,175 10,075 10,102 10,155 10,145 10,036 10,142 10,223 10,115 10,264 10,533 10,646 10,640 10,416 10,452 10,181 8,007 7,927 8,101 8,240 8,344 8,637 8,673 8,686 8,830 8,977 9,057 9,070 8,802 8,450 8,679 8,496 8,598 8,700 8,746 8,614 8,525 8,423 8,469 8,503 8,510 8,372 8,464 8,512 8,243 44,384 8,673 8,697 8,722 8,442 8,504 8,199 85.95 86.35 85.95 85.65 84.52 85.65 8.5.63 84.92 84.95 84.46 84.26 442.60 83.18 83.37 83.42 83.51 83.84 83.43 83.51 84.56 83.78 83.60 83.83 83.73 83.88 83.41 83.45 83.26 81.49 81.68 82.34 81.69 81.97 81.05 81.36 80.53 1,309 14.05 1,263 13.65 1,324 14.05 1,380 14.35 1,528 16.48 1,447 14.35 1,456 14.37 1,543 15.08 1,564 15.05 1,663 16.66 1,012 13.74 1,910 17.40 1,780 16.82 1,685 16.63 1.705 16.58 1,678 16.49 1,657 16.16 1,728 16.67 1,727 16.49 1,574 15.46 1,650 16.22 1,652 16.40 1,633 16.17 1,652 16.27 1,635 16.12 1,664 1.6.59 1,678 16.65 1,711 16.74 1,872 18.51 1,880 18.32 1,880 17.64 1,949 18.31 1,918 18.03 1,974 18.95 1,948 18.66_ 1,983 19.87! THE WORLD WAR. THE N ECHO Al' WORK DC 5.5 TABLE V.-Number of employees of the second meat-packing company. distributed by color, for a period of 159 successive weeks, January, 1916, to January, 1919. (See graphs following)-Continued. Total number of employes, , Total distributed by color. number of employees, Week white No. and Negro, Per Per White. Negro. male cent. pent. , and female. 73' 74 75 76 77 1)4 79 80 81 82 83 84 145 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 ns 99 100 101 103 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112' 113 114 115 116 8,312 , 10,385 8,265 10,353 8,402 10,380 10,534 8,442 8,389 10,465 8,498 10,705 8,401 10,679 8,170 10,522 8,460 10,1353 8,535 10,653 8,436 10,648 8,549 10,821 8,491 10,748 8,387 10,745 8,825 11,375 8,961 11,462 8,902 11,633 9,280 11,842 9,409 11,856 9,384 11,869 13,303 9,794 12,638 10,117 12,846 10,338 13,019 10,611 12,889 10,380 13,30.5 10,903 13,778 11,157 13,726 11,118 14,064 11,129 13,359 10,185 13,654 10,787 14,018 11,043 13,492 10,748 13,878 10,809 13,665 10,681 13,624 10,700 13,858 11,109 13,958 11,367 13,s6.5 10,525 1 ior-i6 11,499 1,1,054 11,026 13,:53 10,924 12,9135 10,351 13,307 10,875 80.04 80.12 81.10 80.14 79.21 79.3$ 78.67 77.65 79.41 80.12 79.23 78.98 79.00 78.05 77.58 78.18 76.52 78.36 79.36 79.06 80.36 80.05 80.48 81.50 80.53 81.95 80.98 81.00 79.13 76.82 79.00 78.78 79.66 77.89 78.16 78.54 80.16 81.44 75.91 81.63 78.45 79.40 80.14 81.17 2,073 2,058 1,958 2,092 2,176 2,307 2,378 3,352 2,193 2,118 2,312 2,275 2,257 2,358 2,550 2,501 2,731 2,562 2,447 2,485 2,409 3,521 2,508 2,408 2,509 2,402 3,621 2,608 2,935 3,074 2,867 2,975 2,744 3,069 2,984 2,924 2,749 3,591 3,340 2,587 3,028 2,834 2,565 2,522 19.96 19.88 18.90 19.86 20.79 20.62 21.33 22.35 20.59 19.88 20.77 21.02 21.00 21.95 22.42 21.82 23.48 31.64 20.64 20.94 19.74 19.95 19.52 18.50 19.47 18.05 19.02 19.00 20.87 23.18 21.00 21.22 20.34 22.11 21.81 21.48 19.84 18.56 34.09 18.37 21.55 20.60 19.86 18.83 Week No. 117 118 119 120 121 132 133 134 135 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 112 143 144 145 116 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 Totql number of employees, Total distributed by color. number of employees, white and Negro, Per Per White. male Cent. Negro. cent. and female. 13,885 10,395 13,359 10,628 13,498 11,002 14,134 11,200 14,672 11,765 14,688 11,719 14,420 11,717 14,519 11,706 14,657 11,719 14,905 12,064 15,040 12,376 15,201 12,155 15,045 11,951 15,533 12,668 15,711 12,936 15,336 12,513 15,249 13,215 15,326 13,416 15,606 12,895 15,347 13,312 14,695 12,042 15,063 11,920 15,481 12,666 15,628 12,842 15,554 12,768 15,181 13,194 14,494 11,652 14,598 11,601 15,530 12,352 15,910 12,765 16,346 13,145 16,730 13,568 16,989 13,779 17,148 13,740 17,222 13,851 17,434 13,813 15,297 12,3146 15,353 12,325 15,168 11,883 15,145 11,747 15,155 11,551 14,565 11,506 13,928 11,123 80.68 79.56 81.51 79.24 80.19 79.79 81.26 80.63 79.95 80.91 82.29 79.96 79.44 81.56 83.34 81.59 80.10 81.01 82.63 80.75 81.95 79.13 81.82 82.17 83.09 80.32 80.39 79.47 79.54 80.08 80.42 81.10 81.11 80.13 80.45 79.23 80.97 80.28 78.34 77.56 74.20 79.00 79.66 2,490 2,731 2,496 2,931 2,907 2,969 2,703 2,813 2,938 2,841 2,664 3,046 3,094 2,865 2,775 2,833 3,034 3,910 2,711 2,935 2,653 3,143 2,815 2,786 2,786 2,987 2,842 2,997 3,178 3,175 3,201 3,162 3,210 3,408 3,371 3,621 2,911 3,025 3,285 3,398 3,304 3,059 2,805 19.32 20.44 18.49 20.76 19.81 20.21 18.71 19.37 20.05 19.03 17.71 20.04 20.56 18.14 17.66 18.11 19. ge 18.99 17.37 19.25 18.05 20.87 18.16 17.85 17.91 19.68 19.61 20.53 20.0 19.92 19.56 18.90 18.89 19.87 19.55 20,77 19.03 19.72 21.66 22.44 21.80 31.00 20.11 56 THE NEGRO AT WORK DITRING THE WORLD WAR. The accompanying diagrams show, graphically, the percentage of distribution by color of the total number of employees of this company by weeks, from January, 1916, to February, 1919, and the percentage of white and colored employees by weeks during this same period. . As • se 1 111 1.1.111 SO SI ... Ifi ... ..f. OF UPI "1; : .. : A 4 ' : 7'' ;:r e 7 / . tr ''' CMORCO arh*PlOrres ' 1111111.r. ..7A/t/y_ ; .7:0CT ',IAN. 7 1iLY APIL.7.0 7 • oa- ,7A.1 AAP_70 J aelr ocr COMPARATIVE INCREASE IN PERCENTAGE AMONG WRITE AND COLORED EMPLOYEES IN ONE MEAT-PACKING PLANT DURING A PERIOD OF 159 WEEKS. The third piece of evidence came from a steel company at Indiana Harbor, Ind., and shows the total number and per cent of white and colored employees from January, 1918, through December of the same year. This shows a total, at the beginning of the period, of 2,020' employees, of which 1,736, or 89.94 per cent, were white, and 284, or 14.06 per cent, were colored. At the close of the period the firm was employing a total of 2,171 employees, of which 1,681, or 77.43 per cent, were white, and 490, or 22.57 per cent, were colored. The number of colored employees showed a steady increase over the original number, running as high as 538 in October, 1918, to the closing number at the end of December, which number showed a considerable increase in total colored employees and a corresponding increased percentage of the total nunnber of employees. Other diScussions of workers in iron and steel have been given in Chapter VI- SD _ — rA710 ed dt7 A 4 3100 J000 iumui_Ai A 0 Ah _ 7 000 7 00 40 Js •A 00 200 _ a //Joao /1000 1.7000 .-----\ -,„..../.\".. _ /1000 11000 /00 . .,---7 ..... . 0000 ....... .0000 11 803-0 7000 io PO APR 30 JWY /96 la JO 3'0 19 7 /00 I/O /20 APR 130 JULY 100 per ' TIM :4' /9 8 011.4/ameER VARIATION, IN PERCENTAGE AND NUMBERS, OF WRITE AND COLORED EMPLOYERS IN ONE MEAT-PACKING PLANT 159 WEEKS. DURING A PERIOD OF Cs. CHAPTER VIII. NEGRO LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES SHIPYARDS. The'Widespread demand for ships to "beat" the unlawful submarine warfare-of'the Germans led the Nation to see that ships were needed to win the war. The building of ships called for labor of all kinds,. skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled, and those who responded to build ships were serving the cause no less than those who responded for service in the Army. During the war the Negroes showed their patriotism in this particular fully as they did in others. In the shipyards under the jurisdiction of the United States Shipping Board— Emergency Fleet Corporation—covering four shipbuilding districtson the Atlantic coast, one on the Gulf coast, two on the Pacific coast,. and one in the Great Lakes district, there were 24,647 Negroes employed during the war and .14,095 employed up to September, 1919,. following the signing of the armistice. In the southern district duringthe war there were 11,991 and for the period after the war 5,504; in the middle Atlantic district there were 4,506 and 5,223, respectively; in the Delaware River district, 5,165 and 2,230, respectively; in the northern Atlantic district, 370 and 297, respectively; in the Gulf district, 1,830 and 309, respectively; in the southern Pacific district, 581 and 399, respectively; in the northern Pacific district, 177 and 96,. respectively; and in the Great Lakes district, 27 and 17, respectively_ Both the numbers involved and the distribution of the numbers, both, during the war and the months following the signing of the armistice,. give ample evidence that Negroes played a large part in the building of the ships. Unfortunately, it has not been feasible to secure the figures of the white workmen under the United States Shipping Board for these districts. We do have, however, a full record of the occupations in which. Negro workmen were engaged. During the war 4,962, or about 20.7 per cent, were engaged in occupations which may be classed as skilled occupations, leaving 19,685, or about 80 per cent, in unskilled occupations, some of which could probably be classed as semiskilled occupations. After the war 3,872, or 27.47 per cent, were in skilled occupations and 10,203, or 72.53 per cent, in unskilled occupations, some of which may be classed as semiskilled. It is significant that the largest number of Negroes in skilled occupations both in steel and wooden ship construction was in the southern district, both during and after the war. The second largest during the war was in the Delaware River district and after the war in the middle Atlantic district. Negroes participated in '46 Of the 55 separate shipbuilding occupations listed during the war period, and in 49 such occupations after the war. In addition, during the war 21 occupations had less than 10 Negroes employed and after the war 17 occupations had less than 10 Negroes employed in them. This leaves 26 occupations with 10 or more Negroes during the war and 28 occupations with 19, or more Negroes employed after the war. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 59 The details are given in full in the accompanying table, but some illuminating comparisons may be made here. During the war there were 1,464 Negro carpenters, 225 calkers, 21. chippers and calkers,631 fasteners, 11 blacksmiths, 10 blacksmiths' helpers, 36 riggers, 22 fore— men, 240 reamers and drillers, 399 bolters. These are important the skilledor semisjilled occupations in the building of ships. After ,. calkers and rs chippe 36 , 59 ers calkers carpent 74 war there were only s. reamer 191 and , helpers 143 fasteners, 7 blacksmiths, 45 blacksmiths' ,. and drillers. There were, however, 49 riveters and 1,116 bolters these occupations showing increases. highly The analysis of these figures indicates that in the more been, has there tions occupa paid skilled and therefore the more highly in. than rds shipya the in s Negroe of r numbe the e in decreas a greater ancr skilled the taking but the less skilled or semiskilled occupations, semiskilled occupations together, Negro workers held their numbers: and showed less decrease after the war than they did in the unskilled occupations, altogether, after the war. The total decrease after thewar of Negroes in all skilled or semiskilled occupations was only 20.7. s inper cent, while the total decrease after the war of Negro worker f._ one-hal nearly or cent, per 48 about was tions occupa ed the unskill highly more the in e decreas d decide While these figures show a very g for skilled occupations, on the whole they make a favorable showinafter and during both y, industr lding Negro workmen in the shipbui the war. Not only did Negroes enter the skilled and semiskilled occupations: occupa— during the war in large numbers but they remained in these ions. tions in larger proportions than in the unsKilled occupat employee The following table shows in detail the number of Negro plants.: lding shipbui at working in skilled and unskilled occupations — —Emer Board ng Shippi States United the of under the jurisdiction eight the in war the gency Fleet Corporation—during and after skilled ancY principal shipyard districts, during 1918 and 1919. The availablethe in ely separat semiskilled workers were not classified ed in theemploy s Negroe of r g numbe showin details full The record. and during tions occupa ed specifi in s district eight principal shipyard after the war are given in the following table: 'TAB1,M VI.—Negro employee s Working at plants under the jurisdiction of the United Stat es Shipping Boa after the war, in the eight prin cipal shipyard districts. rd—Emergency Fleet 0OrpOralion—during and (Columns 1, during the war: columns Southern district, 1 Total number employed' 11,991 Skilled Unskilled 3,578 8,413 ack•handlers 5 lacksmith • 4acksmiths'helper 11 99 .otters 130 loiters' learners.......... .......... . arpenters alkers 182 alkers and chippers 17 ementers leaners 2 ,ranemen 48 Mckmen 37 Milers and reamers 50 Cngineers 10 rector 13 asteners 203 •Iremen 67 •'oremen 22 urnacemen 9 leneral helpers 556 Tandymen 200 ieaters 52 Efewsers 5 Elolders•on 86 Elookers-on.................... .......... Oilmen Passers 54 Punchers 11 Riggers tt 23 i,iii 2 5,504 3,078 2,426 1 4,506 117 4,369 2 5,223 114 5,109 21 5 44 .. 955 136 84 Delaware River district. I Northern Atlantic district. 1 1 5,165 5,165 2 '2,230 99 2,131 2 370 297 257 113 218 79 2, after the war.) Gulf Olstrict. 1 2 Southern Pacific district. 1 Northern Pacific distripl. Great Lakes district. Total. Grand total. 2 1 2 1 2 1,630 309 561 399 177 96 27 541 1,269 109 200 308 273 172 227 141 36 71 25 20 7 I 166 1 69 .. 1 2 17 24,647 14,075 3.8,733 11 6 4,962 3,872 19,685 10,203 8,934 29,688 2 3 35 17 98 88 2 1 28 13 7 21 46 26 10 35 3 ....... 29 31 ........................ 3 5 7 .:. 3 36 125 4 23 43 41 140 1 1 1 . 12 .. 60 5 3 10 6 1 37 316 2 2 ....... 13 10 27 .. 1 22 I 326 53 56 1 49 8 297 8 1 238 2 7 7 11 220 ....... 15 22 4 ..................... 2 134 6 8 22 0i !tIlt 't11111 tlt t 1. III V 1 ....... • ••..... I .. 72 21 . 3 1 21 2 13 8 3 10 4 33 6 19 2 3 1 9 Witt ,...,t, 1 1 3 ....... 3 8 4 2 1 ....... 69 5 126 1 9 ••..... 63 2 I 2 .... 2 1 1 1 3 ,, •,,, 1 it 8 11 102 399 1,464 225 21 2 75 48 17 240 12 13 631 116 23 9 744 204 69 5 115 33 66 II 36 21 7 45 1,116 136 74 60 36 29 57 10 36 191 1 15 143 60 11 23 536 Xi 249 11 247 13 21 147 22 20 29 16 147 1,515 136 1,538 265 57 37 137 5. 75 431 IS 28 774 17e 33 37 1,24 507 3l. If 36 la 5( 215 33 96 THE _NEGRO AT WORK DUR ING THE WORLD WAR , Kind of Occupation.' Middle Altantic district. •Cit, 0 Riveters .I6tago builders Steel construction All other occupations 25 69 150 70 19 17 lit 4 17 13 23 14 9 3 1 2 1 99 414 /3 1.50 70 137 13 220 43 59 102 I This table has been reconstructed from a previous table prepared by the U. S. Sh pping Board. I Includes both wood and steel ship occupations. 3 Includes agencies not directly in the Delaware River district, but under its jurisdiction. • The figures against (this item include every kind of occupation in which Negroes were employed,as reported by the United States Shipping Boardiand should not be pre. sic med to be the totals for the kinds of occupations listed In the first column, which include only such representative occupations as are deemed of particular significance, therefore, of practicable value for tabulation. 3 During the war Delaware River district workers weve not classified by occupations, but after the WBf"agency"workers of this district wereMasstfled. CrD frio 6-2 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR: RECORD-BREAKING NEGRO WORKERS. How a Negro pile-driver gained the world's pile-driving record is told, partially, in his own language, as follows: WORLD'S PILE-DRIVING RECORD SMASHED. Edward Burwell, the Negro pile-driving captain whose Negro: crew of 11 men broke the world s record in driving piles on ship— way No. 46 (Philadelphia, Pa.) was asked how he came to break the standing record. Burwell smiled and pointed to a placard nailed on the pile-driving machine. The placard read: "If at first you don't. succeed, try, try, again." piles in 90 The record prior to Burwell's wonderful drive was 165 and 5: hours 9 in piles 65-foot 220 drove crew his hours. Burwell and a terrificminutes, and a good part of the time the crew worked in 1918, Bur— downpour of rain. Since coming on the job in January, linear feet_ well's crew has driven 4,141 piles with a total of 241,573 McMullen Co. Thecrew under Burwell is employed by the Arthur piles. Burwell and' This company had the contract to drive 21,434 number. his crew drove about 20 per cent of this years ago," Burwell said ink "I went into the pile-driving business 15 on a job as large as this one speaking of his new record. "I was never n an& before. It was due to rivalry between another Negro forema myself that I made up my mind to go after the record of 165 piles helm by another company. "The sign filled our crew with enthusiasm. We decided, one night,. it was. that a new world's record would be made on the morrow, and : of . fretting tead ins and s, trouble cal Of course, we had our little mechani and started in with re— sign the at glanced just men the , fuming and d. newed vigor and the record was smashe Here,if a man can, "I am glad the record was made at Hog Island. e time, no matter schedul on out ships the getting in goods deliver the and same if he is a white man or colored man,he gets the same credit e of how exampl ul wonderf a is It rs. employe his from kind feelings s." German the defeat to we are all working hand in hand of the crew on the day the Capt. Burwell then produced the log interesting reading and is is rather It world's record was made. below: puinted Piles driven. 27 7 a. m. to 8 a. m 23 8a,m.to9a.m hard (Delay 41 minutes due to broken steam line; raining very from 8.15 to 10 a. in.) 28 9a.m.tolOa.m 22 10 a. m. to l 1 a. m (Delay 8 minutes due to pile fall breaking.) 27 11 a. m. to l2 a. m 12 noon to 12.30 p. in. (lunch). 25 12.30 p. in. to 1.30 p.m and from (Heavy rain with electric showers from 1.25 to 2.50 p. m., held 1.25 to 1.40 p. in. air pressure dropped considerably, which up hammer.) 23 1.30 p. in. to 2.30 p. in 23 2.30 p. m. to 3.30 p.m 22 p.m 4.35 to m. p. 3.30 220 Total, 9 hours and 5 minutes in VI piles 165 record, world's Norz.—Total linear feet of piles, 14,260. Previous honniand 15 minutes.. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 63 Of.no less interest is the performance of a gang of Negro riveters working at Sparrows Point,Md.,in the plant of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, in breaking the world's record for driving rivets. One of the gang, Charles Knight, drove 4,875 three-quarter-inch rivets in a 9-hour day. The previous highest record was 4,442, made by a workman in a Scottish shipyard. Mr. Knight is a highly respectable andindustrious citizen of Baltimore, Md., and. a native of Virginia. CHAPTER Ir. REPORT OF WORK IN FLORIDA AND GEORGIA. FLORIDA. Oil July 16, 1918, Hon. Sidney J. Catts, governor of Florida, callec! together representatives of Negro citizens from all parts of the State at Jacksonville,who,with about 15 of Florida's most representative white. employers, met for a day's conference on the labor situation in the State. After a thorough discussion the governor authorized the conference to work out plans with the representatives of the Department of Labor for the organization of the State, county, and city Negro workers' advisory committees. The governor, as chairman. of the State council of defense, accepted the honorary chairmanship. of the committee, and with the executive secretary of the council a plan was worked out so that the colored members appointed on the Negro workers' advisory committees had white members from thecounty councils of defense to act on the,se committees as cooperating members. In this way, in a short time there were developed these. cooperative relationships between white and colored representatives. through the Negro workers' advisory committees in 26 counties in the State, including the important city centers such as Jacksonville,. Tampa, Miami, and Pensacola. The following letters show the spirit and action of the council of: defense, the governor, and other interested parties: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, Washington, July 23, 1918— Gov. SIDNEY J. CArrs, Stale Capitol, Tallahassee, Fla. DEAR SIR: Inclosed is a list of names of representative colored citizens who were. nominated at the conference in Jacksonville on Tuesday to serve as !nembers of the. State Negro workers' advisory committee. Inclosed also is the constitution adcpted at the meeting. Both of these are submitted for your comment and approval. I remember with great pleasure my being in your city last week and your inspiringwords to me. I wish especially to express imy.gratitude to you for the courageous: stand you have taken on the matter of lynching in Florida. This will go a long way, I believe, toward removing the restlessness and dissatisfaction of colored people. If during the coming months I can at any time be of further service, please command me. Yours, very respectfully, (Signed) GEORGE E. HAYNES, Director of Negro Economies. STATE OF FLORIDA; EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, Tallahassee, July 31, 1918. Dr. GEO. E. IlAyNEs, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: I have your letter inclosing list of colored citizens nominated at a con— ference held in Jacksonville, and also copy of their constitution. I thank you for the same and will give it my attention. I am willing to cooperate with your race in every way possible. With best wishes, I am Yours, very truly, SIDNEY.J. CAITS, Governor. (Signed) 64 . TH E NA:4 ; ) WL,T;K DCRING THE NVORLD WAIL 65 STATE COUNCIL OF DEFENSE, Tallahassee, Fla., October 29, 1918. Dr. (,,Eo. E. IIAYNEs, Director of Negro Economi‘,1, Washington, D. C. .DEAR SIR: Yours of the 21st instant, addressed to his excellency Gov. Sidney J. .t'atts, relative to the work of your advisory committee, together with your request for ithe cooperation of county councils of defense has been referred to me for reply. .Replying, beg to advise that at the meeting of our advisory committee October 25, ;inst., this matter was brought before the committee, sod it was agreed to give your .committee the assistance in the capacity requested. Yours, very truly, • (Signed) II. S. HOWARD, Executive Secretary. Following the State conference and the appointment of the Stite Negro workers' advisory committee, upon the recommendation of a umber of white and colored citizens, W. A. Armwood, of Tampa, F la., a graduate of the State college, who had been a successfu ca rpenter and contractor and at that time was principal of thel co bored public school at Tampa and successfully conducting a dr ug business of his own, was chosen as supervisor of Negro economics fo r Florida. He had known many workmen in all parts of the State and very soon was in touch with them in various districts. It was due to his untiring effort that many of the activities of the State w ere developed. One of the first steps taken following the organization of committees was to give Negro workers wholesome advice about the necessity ,of continued and systematic work during the period of the war for the production of such commodities as were necessary to win it. Two methods were used for such advice:. Ifirst, circular letters and bulletins were sent out to the members of the county and city committees touching upon various points for stimulating the morale and efficiency of workers in the different localities of the State. Second, a series of mass meetings of white and colored citizens was planned and carried out in the early fall, following the conference. The Director of Negro Economics was present at a number of these meetings and both white and colored citizens attended in large numbers. There were usually white and colored speakers before the audience on the same platform. One significant service rendered by the State Negro worker' advisory committee was to correct a misapprehension 'and feeling that was growing due to the spread of rumor among employers that Negro women' workers were receiving governmental allotments from male relatives in the Army in large numbers and were taking advantage of this money to refuse to engage in any useful occupation. The committee made a careful State-wide investigation of the facts and found that the rumor was groundless. Wide publicity was •given to the actual facts of the patriotic work being done by colored women throughout the State, and this served to allay feeling and friction. Following is a summary of the other work carried out by the committee: 1. Educational campaigns were carried out in the 26 counties, in various cities of the State, at mass meetings and at the regular gatherings of Negro churches, lodges, and other organizations .to 19S9°-20---.5 '66 - THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAIL inform Negro workers of the necessity of steady and reliable senile() to keep up production for winning the war, to promote prosperity, and to improve the relations between the races. 2. Cooperation was given to the United States Employment Service in the securing and placement of thousands of Negro workers and in the 'placement of returning soldiers. .8. Misunderstandings were adjusted through advisory conferences .of employers and employees and county officials. This work was carried on in the case of both individual workers and employers as well as organizations, and in this way the stoppage of work was prevented. 4. By conferences with State and county officials and cooperation -with the State council of defense, local officials were induced to use the good offices of the Negro workers' advisory committees in persuading Negro workers to work steadily and with enthusiasm. This method was found more effective than the application of compulsory labor regulations advocated by many. 5. Working conditions were improved in many plants voluntarily by employers after conferences and suggestions either from the Supervisor of Negro Economics or from paembers of the advisots, committees. In most cases these conferences were sought in !the first instance by the employers. 6. The health conditions of Negro workers were improved through the advice to both employers and workers on methods of protecting their health. Advertising material and literature along these lines were given out. 7. Besides the cooperation of the State council of defense and the governor of the State, as shown by the preceding correspondence, the following organizations and agencies gave full support to the work in the State: State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes; State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs; local organizations of the Negro National Business League; local lodges; and churches of the several denominations. GEORGIA. On August 9, 1918, a conference of about 75 representative ,colered men met in Atlanta, Ga.,in response to an official invitation issuedby Hon. Hugh M. Dorsey, governor of the State, that they assemble to confer with representatives of the Department of Labor and of the State commission of labor on matters relating to Negro labor. After an all-day session, Judge Price Gilbert, of the Supreme Court and of the State council of defense, met the conference representing the governor and the council of defense. In the course of an interesting all-day session going over the situation of the State and the plans.of the Department of Labor, the conference recommended and adopted an outline of an organization of the State, county, and city Negro workers' advisory committees along lines of those set up in other States. The report adopted by the special committee contained the following recommendations: We, your committee on plans and work, beg leave to render the following report: First, we recommend that a chairman be designated for each county by this.body and that said chairman appoint a committee of nine from different sections of void •county to work with him in coordinating the work of his county. THE NEGPv0 AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 67 Second,that a series of public meetings be held in prominent places,such as churches, lodge rooms, etc., in said counties, under the supervision of said committees and 024 :said committees be requested to invite some of the leading white citizens of their -respective conimunities to participate in said meetings. Third, we recommend plans for labor demonstrations and parades to be made for January 1, 1919. Fourth, that said county committee get in touch with a 'number of open minded, !patriotic white citizens in their respective communities to the end that through them ithe general public may be informed about the doings of the State Negro workers, :advisory committee. Fifth, as a means of recruiting labor in the various communities in our State, We mecommend (1) that laborers be guaranteed protection as citizens; (2) that bette r A:lousing and sanitation conditions be provided;(3)ample school facilities with qoxo,pe gtent and well-paid teachers;(4) pay commensurate with services rendered for laborers ; (5) better transportation and equal accommodations on ,the railroads; in short, mak e !labor satisfied and labor will remain. Respectf ully, 9. B. BU.RNEY E. P. JOHNSON, H. R. BUTLER, H. A. RucKER, J. Q. GASSET, J. P. DAVIS, LONDIE A.NDREWS. E. J. TURNER, C. E. WiLmAnte. After the meeting of the State Conference of Georgia, Prof. H. A . THunt, principal of the Fort Valley High and Industrial School, was i,ppointed as supervisor of Negro economics of the State. Associated -with him as examiner in the United States Employment Service f or ractivity over the State was Mr. Rufus P. Bennett, who assisted th e Federal Director of the United States Employment Service and Prof. Hunt in many of the difficult problems relating mainly to agricultural labor in this large State. THAPTER X. REPORT OF WORK IN ILLINOIS. In the early development of the plans of the department for the Division of Negro Economics it seemed feasible that one man should advise on policies and plans for one district comprising Michigan and Illinois. As the work developed this district was divided into the two States, Michigan and Illinois. At the beginning in June, 1918, Mr. Forrester B. Washington, of Detroit, Mich., was appointed as supervisor of Negro economics in -the district comprising Michigan and Illinois. It had been estimated by the department that about 30,000 Negro migrants had moved into Detroit and that probably 50,000 had come into the Chicago district within the period during 1917 and 1918. Mr. Washington, trained at Tufts College, Columbia University, and the New York School of Philanthropy, had had three years' experience and unusual success as executive secretary of the Detroit Urban League in cooperation with the Employers' Association of Detroit in handling the industrial problems growing out of the influx of the thousands of Negro newcomers. During July and August, he very successfully dealt with these problems of his district, which centered mainly at'Detroit and Chicago. About September 1, Michigan and Illinois were made separate districts and Mr. Washington was transferred to Chicago and began the intensive development of the work in Illinois. He began with a study of the communities of the State where large numbers of Negroes resided and arranged for a State conference, which was held _Monday, September 30, 1918, at Springfield, in the old historic Sangamon County courthouse, so well known in relation to the revered memory of Abraham Lincoln. Delegates.representing Negro workers, white employers, and white workers were present from 14 points in the State. They spent a day in discussing general conditions and .adopted the form of organization of a State advisory committeo with local committes. In the weeks that followed the conference, Negro workers' advisory committees were formed in 17 counties and 9 cities throughout the State to deal with the many delicate and difficult labor problems. Some of the results of the activity under the supervision of Mr. Washington are outlined in the following pages. During sessions of the conference several committees were appointed and made reports, among them the committee on general conditions, which gave such a concrete review of the relationships between Negro workers and white workers and white employers that a greater part of the report is included as follows: We, your committee on general conditions as to labor and general war work relating to Negroes in the State of Illinois, be leave to submit the following report: First. We find that the city of Chicago is the greatest center of Negro influx on account of the conditions produced by the war of any community in the State of Illinois; and that the -cities of East St. Louis, Cairo, Springfield, and Peoria follow in their order. The city of Decatur does not have the same condition as does the cities above named, neither does the city of Danville, nor Quincy, as they are gov. .68 11 'THE -NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 69 .erned in some degree by local conditions which have to do with only their own particular vicinities. We find that in the mining districts in southern Illinois, composing the counties of 'St. Clair, Perry, Jackson, Franklin, and Williamson and adjacent counties, the con.ditions of the colored miners as to housing and economic conditions are on par with -those of the white miners. In fact, all mining districts of the State are guided by the minets' union,and the purpose of the leaders of the miners, and of the mine owners as well in those districts, seems to have been directed to the task of winning the war by ding and giving effective service and every effort has been lent to neutralizing the .opposing forces that both white and colored workers may understand and help each !other and in this way work for a common purpose. OTHER LABOR. In Chicago, at the stockyards, we find that conditions are much improved and lbetter relations created by organization. The colored men and workers and the white brother in toil have been brought together. In the other parts of Illinois we find that the Negro as a laborer is not understood. The white men have been led to believe that the Negro was his common industrial !enemy and as a result some very grave disturbances have taken place, such as the .reccnt one at East St. Louis. In many instances ill feelings have resulted in the employers suffering from short:ages of effective workers and the propagandists of German connection have, no doubt, :seized upon this spirit of unrest to further their wicked ends and many instances of .this spirit have fallen within the knowledge of some of the members of your committee. Some employers have misunderstood,in that they had been led to believe that Negroes - were not faithful nor yet effective workers, but that notion has been pushed into the .discard and now, thanks to the work of the Department of Labor and the leaders of the various organizations having these matters at heart, Negroes are entering all the :avenues of endeavor. Some of the cities above mentioned are not cursed with the bad conditions above !complained of. We are pleased to refer to the city of Decatur as a city where the best ,if relations exist between white and colored people and in the large factories of that rcity. They work side by side in harmony, and general helpfulness results from that .condition. In the capital city of Illinois (Springfield) for many years colored workers have ribt ibeen given employment in many of the factories; but, owing to conditions brought :about by the war, a sign of betterment is seen. Now some of the steam laundries are finding colored workers a decided success. A watch factory has increased its quota of .colored workers, but we find that in many of the factories the closed door stands between the colored worker and employment. Your committee is driven to the conclusion that in many instances the lack of efficiency on the part of the workers who :apply, the lack of attention to duty, the lack of thrift and energetic effort is proving /he undoing of the colored workers. RKSUHR. We recommend that steps be taken to educate both the colored and white toiler to the fact that the interest of both the white and colored toiler and of their employers as well is finally centralized only in the finished products of their toil when it is ready for the markets of the world. We further recommend that an effort be made to bring /he Negro workers of the country into a closer relationship with the employers of labor of the State of Illinois and at the same time with the various labor organizations of this State in order that the interests of all parties, namely, white workers, colored workers, and employers of labor, and the trade-union as a medium of conciliation and arbitration, may all be conserved, remembering at all times that the supreme add .centralizing efforts of every American citizen should be, and is, winning the war. Respectfully submitted by your committee. GEO. W. FORD, Chairman. HUGH SINGLETON. J. B. 0813Y. GEO. W. BUCKNER. A. K. FOOTE. OHAS. S. GIBBS. `VP " THE NEGRO AT WORK DIMINO THE WORLD WAR. The situation in southwestern Illinois, particularly the East St. Louis situation, was so vital with the whole question of Negro labor and war production in this territory that the department soon found it necessary to have the supervisor of Negro economics give attention to St. Louis and to territory in the State of Missouri in further work to adjust relations of Negro workers and white workers. Accordingly, at the request of the Federal director for Missouri of the United States Employment Service, the department called a conference of Negro workers, white employers, and white workers, which was held at St. Louis, Mo., December 18, 1918. An interesting incident in connection with this conference was that it was held in the Poro Building, a new structure just completed by a Negro corporation of unusgal success. The conference was attended by select delegates "from -about 12 centers throughout the State and its significance is shown by the program of work attached. CONFERENCE ON PROBLEMS OF NEGRO PROGRAM OF WORK ADOPTED BY THE MISSOURI LABOR, DECEMBER 18, 1918. 1. Race relations. a. This committee should take steps to get white and colored labor together,ip order to better understand the ideals and ambitions of each. 1. Negro labor leaders shall be urged to teach their people that their interests are common with those of white labor. 2. White labor leaders shall be urged to teach their people that their interests are common with those of colored labor and also instruct them regarding the high standard of living of Negroes. 2. Release of Negro labor. a. Steps should be taken to prevent wholesale discharge of Negroes in order not to cause race friction. committee to 1. Visits should be made by representatives of the localwholesale. factories where they seem to be discharging Negroes 2. Visits should be made by repres?ntatives of the committee to factories where large numbers of Negroes are employed, urging that the latter be discharged only in the same proportion and for the same reason that employees of other races are discharged. 3. Housing. soldiers. a. This committee should make plans to house returning colored in the various 1. By establishing a room registry for colored soldiers communities. 2. The Government shall be urged to grant land to those returning colored soldiers who desire to settle in the agricultural districts. b. The local committee will urge employers that they provide their colored employees with housing that is sanitary. 4. Make plans to create openings for Negroes. a. By investigating every public construction program and ascertaining whether or not Negroes are to be used. b. By encouraging Negroes to go into business for themselves. Z. Distribution of labor. a. Prevent unequal distribution of Negroes through exchange of information re shortage or surplus of colored labor by committeemen from various localities. b. Cooperate with the nearest United States Employment Service office. . Act as agency representing the Negro in soldiers' bureaus—about to be established by the United States Government. 7. Cooperation of agencies. This committee shall seek to develop cooperation in the carrying out of its program from— a. Labor union. b. Philanthropic agencies. c. Churches. d. Lodges. , e. Employers' organizations. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 71 8. Education. a. Negro. 1. Shop talks on efficiency. ' Lectures in colored churches and fraternal organizations on efficiency. '3. Neighborhood visits on better living. 4. Special attention shall be paid to the encouragement of thrift. .b. White employer. 1. Employers should be furnished with information re Negro's efficiency. It may be added that local committees were set up in this State in (only four places, as the restriction of activities developed in this edirection commenced a few weeks after this conference. it should be _added, however, that Missouri offers in many places one of the most important fields where Negro labor may be more efficient and where -there is a necessity for developing better understanding between white workers, white employers, and Negro workers. A large part (of the unskilled labor in the industrial districts in St. Louis and some mining and coal districts make this matter of interest to all, both (employees and employers in this city. The supervisor of Negro ecomomics for Illinois, following the State (conference at Springfield, quickly lined up his work with the private maencies and organizations in various parts of the State. Cotise(quently each city and county Negro workers' advisory committee was able to bring to its assistance the cooperation of many white and (colored citizens; so that.despite subsequent racial disturbances in Chi(cago it may justly be said that much friction, both in Chicago and (elsewhere, was removed by this cordial effort of advisory committees :and local organizations. In fact, in three places—one of them East ;St. Louis—acute racial situations were met and adjusted through this means. One of the first pieces of work was to ascertain the firms employing colored workers, so as to give some substantial idea .of the extent to which they were employed. The list included some .of the largest firms in Illinois, the number of firms in each locality .being as follows: Abingdon Alton Aurora. . Batavia. iBloomington 'Cairo **Canton 'Herrin 'Chicago. ,fChicago Heights -Danville Decatur Dixon East Moline East St. Louis. Freeport. *Granite City St. Louis Hammond Harvey West Harvey. 1 2 2 1 I 6 1 Hoopston Indiana Harbor Nladison Moline Morris. 89 5 2 1 1 2 12 4 3 2 1 6 1 Peoria Quincy Rochelle Rock Island Rockford Rockdale Granite City East St. Louis. Springfield Sycamore. Waukegan North Chicago Murphysboro Onarga 1 Paris 1 1 1 4 11 1 1 1 6 4 1 3 8 1 1 1 1 2 1 The tables and discussion found elsewhere—giving experience of Negro workers in industrial plants, showing wages, conditions, aid cother_pertinent facts—include some of these firms in Illinois. • 72 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. Of particular Significance was the work in Illinois of assisting in the placement in civilian occupations the returning Negro soldiers and sailors. General cooperation in Illinois in the matter of caring for these returning men was well organized. Such organizations as the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A. the Knights of Columbus, the Jewish Wetfare Board, the Chicago Urban League, and many other agencies cooperated effectively and closely with the United States Employment Service, the supervisor of Negro economics, and the State employment office. The State employment service and the United States Employment Service, immediately following the signing of the armistice, adopted the plans of the Federal service for meeting needs of the returning soldiers by the establishment of placement bureaus with the cooperation of private organizations, some of which are named above. In addition to the returning soldiers, many workers had been released from war industries. This complicated the war situation in Chicago and other points in Illinois in the months following the signing of the armistice, and required the most delicate handling in the most sympathetic manner. With the hearty cooperation of the Washington office the plans went forward rapidly, and the work was undertaken in the placement of the 10,000 Negro soldiers who returned to Chicago. In addition to the central office, a special bureau was opened on the South Side of Chicago, in the main district containing large numbers of Negro residents in professions and profitable enterprises. In conducting this special office, however, no restriction was made limiting it to the use of colored soldiers. Its sole purpose was to put the placement facilities within the easiest reach of those whom it was designed to serve. An appeal letter signed by a central committee representing a number of welfare agencies and the Federal Government was sent to over 5,000 employers in Chicago urgin&especially that they give attention to employment of members of the Eighth Ilhnois Regiment just returned from service overseas. This letter was approved by the State Advisory Board of the Employment Service, the executive committee of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Bureau, and the Federal director, United States Employment Service. In addition, a sort of flying squadron of returning soldiers in uniform was sent throughout the city to solicit opportunities for these men. TLe success of this effort as a part of the general response may be judged from the fact that, although there was rather an acute unemployment situation in Chicago at the time, it was not many weeks before the situation had been cleared up and the supervisor reported that it was possible to say that a job could be found for every man that really wanted work. As an example of the activities in the placement of returning Negro soldiers, the following figures for one week are given: Attendance, 468; registrations, 198; help wanted, 152; referred, 156.; reported placed, 114; transferred, 26. Although the following figures were included in the report of the United States Employment Service the following report of the South Side office during the month of May, 1918, is given, as it had more placements than any other office in Chicago for that month: Men.—Attendance, 1,430; registration, 795; help wanted, 824; referred, 637; reported placed, 570; transferred, 3. In all this work special mention should be made of the assistance given by private organizations, especially the Chicago Urban Leagub, THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 13 Which maintained an employment office in cooperation with the ,United States Employment Service and the State employment service throughout the peria_ of the United States Employment Service work in the city of Chicago. One of the special forms of the work in Illinois was to assist in the iimprovement of depressing housing conditions in the State. When the plans of the United States Homes Registration Service had devel.oped to the point that a field worker was needed in this territory, the tsupervisor of Negro economics canvassed urban localities in Illinois, AChicago, East St. Louis, Springfield, Quincy, Alton, Cairo, Peoria, .Bloomington, Centralia, Decatur, Danville, Jacksonville, and Monmouth were covered by the Negro workers'aadvisory committees at 'each point. Through the assistance of these committees, the field :agent of the Homes Registration Service and the Illinois supervisor Negro economics formulated plans for a campaign on housing. • These plans suffered curtailment due to a change in plans of the housling bureau. As a means of developing stability of labor and thrift among Negro workers, a study was made of cooperative store enterprises, and the laws governing same. Thereafter plans of organization were entitled giving details as to incorporation,stock values,share :and loan of capital, stock holders' meetings, duties of boards of directors, management,buying of goods, bookkeeping auditing of accounts, ..dividends and surplus earnings, and similar details. The results of this study were issued in mimeographed form and put into the hands of • Negro workers' advisory committeemen for State-wide distribution. :So valuable does this outline seem that it is_given in full as follows: 116 NORTH DEARBORN STREET, Chicago, Ill., June 17, 1919. f[From the supervisor of Negro economics in Illinois to the Negro Workers Advisory Committee on the subject of cooperative stores.] One of the lines along which the Director of Negro Economics is laying great ern-phasis is that of the development of business enterprises among our people. Because .of the small number of Negroes who handle any large amount of capital the most successful business enterprises among colored people must necessarily be cooperative. lam sending you to-day a brief outline of the method of starting and carrying one *cooperative store. Cooperative stores have been very successful in a great many places in this country sand enormously successful in Europe. Already a cooperative store conducted by Negroes is on foot in Illinois. It is being promoted by the members of Butcher Workmen's Local 651 of Chicago. It seems to me that there are enough colored people in your community to support 'such a store. Too much ot the money that is being earned by the colored group at present remains in their hands only for a short time; then goes to the hands of others, usually foreign born of short residence in this country. A cooperative store planned and carried on by Negroes will mean that a large portion f the money earned by Negroes will be kept within the group. Further information can be obtained by writing to the Supervisor of Negro Economics in Illinois or to the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for Bulletin -394 on cooperative stores, price 10 cents, or to Mr. Duncan McDonald, secretarytreasurer, Central States Cooperative Society, Springfield, Ill., who has issued some xvery interesting pamphlets on this subject at a small cost of not over 5 cents. •Very truly, yours, FORESTER B. WASHINGTON, Supervisor of Negro Economies in Illinois. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. "74 HOW TO ESTABLISH AND CONDUCT A COOPERATIVE STORE. Row to start.—A store should not be started unless at least 100 members can be gsecunill. 11 sufficient interest is displayed, call a meeting to select a committee of five or seven to solicit subscribers, but accept no money until you have amount pledged sufficient to insure success. Amount and value of stock.—According to the laws of Illinois no person can own and control more than five shares of the capital stock of such association. The shares of a share. satock shall be not less than five dollars nor more than one hundred dollars M account of the prevailing high prices, it has been found advisable to make the :sliares•cif stock not less than $10 a share. Not less than 50 per cent of the amount subectibed should be paid in at the time the organization of the store is completed. Details.—As soon as a sufficient amount has been subscribed (not less than $2,500) .calla meeting of a Iltthe subscribers and have them elect a board of directors for different periods of time, so that at least some will hold over. Do not elect anyone simply because he is a good fellow. Require whoever handles the funds to furnish a good bond. No member should be allowed more than one vote, no matter what his shares dr purchases. Share and loan capital.—If a sufficient amount of share capital is not purchased,II store may secure loan capital from members interested in the success of the institution, whose share capital is paid in full, or the accumulated profits or earnings, usually called ofkividends to help finance the store after the share capital subscribed if fully paid. Meeting of stockholders.—A meeting of stockholders should be held every three months. Special meetings may be called by the board of directors or by petition of the members. Duties of board of directors.—The board of directors should meet once a week, pans upon and pay all bills, if correct, receive the report of the manager, and transact euch other business that comes within their scope. Location.—A good location is essential to success. A good building, not necessarily large, but in a good location, is much to be preferred, even at a higher rental. Business management.—Stores should be conducted on a cash basis. Extending credit will ruin a store and the necessity of cash business should be impressed on the minds of all members. an Managers.—Next to the loyalty of the members, a good competent manager, is not neceshonest man,is the most important asset to a store. A technical education given a sary, but a knowledge of business cooperation is. The manager should beturn over great deal of discretion in the general supervision of the store. He should to the treasurer or other authorized officer, at the close of each day's business, the day's receipts and a statement showing the amount of business for that day. Employees.—So far as possible no immediate relative of the manager or a member of the board of directors should be employed in any capacity, as it creates jealousy and bad feeling. work. Managers and clerks should be paid good wages as an incentive to do goodimmense an Buying a stock of goods.—Do not allow anyone to load your store up with shopworn and stock of goods that can not be turned over readily, as they will become turned over as often as possible, have to be sold later on at a loss. Goods should be making money. All bills should as the turnover is an essentially important feature in be cut and no manbe discounted and paid promptly. By no means should prices do so invites trouble ager should be allowed to undersell the surrounding stores. To not only with your competitors, but wholesale houses as well. Bookkeeping—Lack of a good bookkeeping system has been the rock upon which • • many a cooperative store has been wrecked. Banking.—All money taken in should be banked every day except the small amount should be bought goods All business. that is kept on hand to take care of the cash bank. paid for by check. Care should be exercised not to have an overdraft at the Incorporatoin.—All stores should incorporate as a matter of protection. Auditing accounts.—One of the most important features of a successful cooperative of every store should enterprise is a correct auditing system. The books and accounts expert be audited very carefully every three months, and wherever possible by an accountant. Dividends.—Dividends in a cooperative store are paid, not on the investment as in : a privately owned concern, but on the amount of purchases made by the shareholder At quarterly or semiannual periods, as may be determined on, a complete invoice should be taken, the profits ascertained, and after setting aside a substantial amount for a reserve fund (anywhere from 25 to 50 per cent of the profits) the balance should WAR. -75 DURING THE WORLD THE NEGRO AT WORK period, or credited to them basis of purchases during the .be paid in dividends on the is merely the accumulated on their account, m "dividends" as herein used ons Surplus earnings.—The ter of each member, which the society is under obligati ings from dividends d ishe ingu dist be savings or the surplus earnat ld shou a future date and the future the cooperative to repay to the individual ercial transaction and in of "dividends." ead inst .sa applied in the usual comm " ings earn term "surplus establishment and mainthe ng erni imovement should use the conc ion ther informat ro Further information.—Fures can be obtained by writing to the Supervisor of Neg or to the Department of ago, Chic et, tenance of cooperative stor Stre born Dear 116 North erative Stores, pnce 10 cents, Economics for Illinoison, D. C., for Bulletin 394 on Coop ety, Agriculture, Washingt ld, secretary-treasurer, Central States Cooperative Socipric e or to Duncan McDonahas issued a very interesting pamphlet on the subject, s e Street, Chicago, has launched. Springfield, Ill„ who Stat 4300 651, l Loca n's cents Butcher Workmecolored officers. They would be glad to give you the benefit cooperative store with all of their experiences. the State, the depart- ber of activities in ious localities Although there were a num as to racial feeling in var ed orm inf ment was kept fully ing the Chicago riots in July, 1919, regular concerning In the State. Preced ed through official channelsattention of information had been receiv the to The riots brought sharply had long existing conditions. rac ial situation, the intensity of which te acu an y re.hatl the y the countr Jul to or Pri . rict g in this dist State the and Imen observed as developin es one or two Illinois localiti been sporadic clashes inly reported these outbursts. The Chicago .'supervisor had officialan outcome of this disturbance, gives strong 'Race Commission, as uctive effort for preventing such difficulties promise of some constr in Illinois as an the future. the activities and results We may, then, summarize exehange and Missouri resulting in te conferences in Illinois esentatives of Negro workers, white 1. Conferences.—Sta rstanding between repr unde er bett e, and the adoption and s fact of es m a number of localities in the Stat s fro activiti means of which definite -workers and white employer and program of work by acti er underbett in lted resu es viti .of a plan of organization ut the territory. These e three labor interests. -were undertaken througho thes nt of relations between r conditions.—Surveys were made of standing and adjustme ion on Negro labo oximately over 50 per 2. (a) Surveys and informat e Negroes, showing that appr mor or 50 ing remaining 50 per cent The . help :500 firms employ ro Neg g n for retainin the period of activity ng duri en 'cent reported their intentio irm cha 14 reports from of jobsfor Negroes, city scar ing -were noncommittal; (b) The grow d a 1, 1919, indicate in Illinois. June, 1918, to July ted acute in Chicago. counsel were given to the Uni -with conditions most men ts.—Constant advice and ice, and assistance was serv t men loy 3. Board of manage emp e Stat the ches. ice and States Employment Servagement of the Soldiers and Sailors' Bureau and its bran purpose !given to the board of maneen articles in daily newspapers of Illinois for the articles 4. Publicity.—(a) Fift and employment of Negro workers; (b) 14 special ussions of disc ne in azi rest mag inte ing (d) ; ulat ings stim of s in public meet for Negro press; (c) 10 addresse ng colored women. ds of placements shown in work of unemployment situation amo m the usual hundre red for Iiipecially qualified Negroes. 5. Placements.—Besides fro e secu ial opportunities wericul ty in such instances. offices, a number of spec diff l usua phone in the of t oun acc tions of firms over the tele 'These are cited on cita soli thousand ers to Chicago employlett al appe 6. Volunteer work.—(a) One 0 5,00 (b) ing colored soldiers; tion and direction of "fly the interest of returningChic ago employers; (c) organiza . ades comr ers, 3 personal visits to for s tion posi intcit appo soldiers to soli d of management; (b) squadron" of returned sold on iers.—(a) Formation of boar 17,000 Chicago employees of l 7. Returning colored tota a to s esse addr p sho (c) r; cito soli ial spec ment of lving g soldiers. ial investigations invo lair play in jobs for returnin strittl oppor(a) There were three spec indu ns.— atio of stig n inve atio stig ial inve Spec 8. discrimination matters; (b) unions,race relations,andStates, especially the southern Status. r othe in red offe ties 4uni 16 THE NEGRO AT WO RK DURING THE WOR LD WAR. 9. Special conferences.—(a) President Chicago Federati lic works in Chicago; on of Labor; (b) executive committee (c) State Advisory Board, United States Departmenmen of pubSold t of Labor, iers ' Bureau, Assistant Fed 'Employment Service, erintendent Soldiers and eral Director United States 'board of management, sup Sailors' Bureau, chairman representatives of chur of ches 10. Cooperation.—Coo tion was had through , lodges, women's organizations. -and through local Negropera the supe rvisor of Negro economics work ers' advi sory committees with the foll tions: Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. owing organizaA., Chicago Urban'Lea en's Clubs, National Associat gue, Federati ion for the Advancement of Coloredon of Colored WomFederation of Labor, Chambe People, American rs of Commerce, mayor of Cairo, aldermen of *3uperintendent of publ ic Chicago, oaf Jacksonville, and manyschools, Springfield; city attorney of Cairo, Stat other organizations and publ e auditor ic officials.. Miscellaneous.—(a) Addres ses to colored workers in indu sizing regularity, punctual strial plants, lege women; (c) opportun ity, and efficiency, etc.; (b) opportunities for colo emphared colitie s for colo red women in domestic work; (d) AT homes registration serv establishment ice. CHAPTER XII. REPORT OF WORK IN MIC HIGAN. Detroit, of course, is the great industrial center of Michigan, and to this point alone it was between 25,000 and 30,000estimated that in the two years 1916-17 further estimated that the Negro migrants came. The department Alabama, Georgia, Florid se Detroit migrants came mainly from and Tennessee. Reasonabl of migrants in accordancea, e proportion wit 'distributed among other Mic h the calls of industry were, of course, hig an industrial cities, such as mazoo Benton Harbor, Flin Kalat, Grand Rapids, Saginaw, and other cities of equal or less Port Huron, er imp ortance in the indu of Michigan. The. automobil al fabric e industry made Detroit, stri the most important point of necessarily, dest inat ion for the Negro migrants. The United States census rec orded 5,741 Negro inhabi Detroit in 1910, while conservat tants df ive estimates at the clos period placed the number at 35, e of the war 000 . Such an increase in and correspondingly in other Mic Detroit higan cities created farproblems of economics and reaching mad e the State of Michigan one where prompt endeav ntially or on the part of the Departmentesse ought to be made. of Labor The Neg ro resi dent ial district of Det t had become crowded, and as the Negro population spread itroi .difficult to secure houses the various localities. Naturallybecame there came a tendency towin , then, ard ing sharp division betwee neighborhood segregatipn and a resultThese conditions called for n newcomers and the older residents. consideration and sympathy on of every agency, public or the part priv The pressing need of Michig ate, and in the mind of every person. an ente rpri ses for laborers caused her industrial captains to mak ther etofore unheard-of wage cond Aside from the Negro laboe itions. rer, thousands of workmen fro parts of the country and fro m all other m Eur opean cities soon found loca in Michigan. Therefore tion supervise and handle, coo the department sent a Negro expert to per ati vely, the many problems growin of the presence of an unu g out semiskilled, and unskilled.sual number of Negro workers—skilled, It seems pertinent to make a brief mention of some of the which were functioning in eco nomic and civic matters M agencies cities prior to the establish Michigan men t The Michigan State labor dep of the Division of Negro Economics. artment has always been wel ized and had been giv its usual attention to purely local l organThe United States Emping loyment Service of the Department matters. had been well established of Labor its power and capability to in Michigan, and was growing rapidly in tak promoting the welfare of wor e the proper initiative M fostering and kers whenever such workers the supervision of the Gov e under ernment, particularly in regard cam labor program which includ to the war1, 1918, the recruiting anded, in certain instances, beginning August placing of large numbers of wor kers. 77 78 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WA R. No arrangemen had been made Employment Sets ice for handling ,thhowever, by the United States out of the presrv ce of 30,000 or moe unusual problems which grew the private agenen re Negro newc cies which had Detroit district th been doing laudabomers. Among er e ma which had been succes y be mentioned the Detroi le work in the t Urban League, sfully active an problems of Negro d competent in ha bor. In this conn some early experienla ec tion it is interest ndling the ce which the Detr oit Urban League ing to nob(' had. Number of male andfe male worker office and the Detroi s requested by employers through the t Urban League Ju ly 2 to Dec. 23, 19joint employment 17 Laborers Laborers (outsi Truckers (automde) obile) Janitors Molders Machinists (uns Porters (unspecipecified) Laborers' helperfied) s Yardmen Kitchen men and di shwashers Furnace tenders Mechanics Core makers Housemen and bel l boys Chauffeurs and cran kmen Elevator men Coal passers (laborers ) MALE. 846 778 336 225 160 109 102 69 67 54 70 48 45 28 10 26 24 Metal carriers Tool makers Repair vacuum cl eaners Riveters Metal (unspecifi ed) Cutters (unspecifi ed) Watchmen Assembly men (a Assembly men' utomobile) Farm (unspecifis helpers ed) Block testers Pipe layers Rivet buckers Paper hangers Miscellaneous (unspe cified) Total 16 15 14 ... 8 7 6 6 5 26 3 '2 2 2 2 2,431 5,542 FEMALE-. Laundry (day) Maids 123 Factory (cig ar) Factory (garment 45 Cook 18 ) Dishwashers 32 Office 15 General housewor 24 Mi sc ellaneous 2 Ushers (theater) k 25 14 19 Total .Number of Negro wo 317 rkmen employed on Apr. 27, 1917, by firms with which League had touch. Det roi t Ur ba n Packard Motor r Co.(May 18)... Buhl Malleable Ca 1, 100 Detroit Pr Ir on Co es se d Ste Ford Motor Car el Co 280 Hudson Mo 50 tor Car Co Continental MotoCo 200 Detroit Stov 50 e Wo rk Aluminum Castinr Car Co s 20 0 Pa ig De e troit Motor Ca 27 Michigan Steel gs Co r Co 15 0 Sa xo Ca n Mo st 20 to !..Iichigan Copper ings Co 170 Hupp Moto r Car Co (3,-. Brum Co 20 r Car Co Michigan Centra 12 5 De l tr oi Ra 20 t Se ilroad Co amless Tubes Co Mionigali Mallea 100 Monarch Fo 20 General Alu.ninuible Iron Co 100 Michigan Smundry r.. 15 at Br elting & Refining ass Co Chalmers iviotor 65 Co. 100 Car Co 62 Total These data were 2,874 compiled early in 1917 and cate the increase erefore do not indi at the ciimax ofand pressing demand for Negrth o la th bor which existede wa r period. They luemand began to sh ow , ho gr wever, how the ow and how e in in larger number clusion of the Ne s than ever befoth ro in the great indu re , se cu red his economic stworker, stry of Michigan. anding I Reprinted from "Negro Newcomers Rome Missio ns Council, New York City.of Detroit, Mich.," by George E. Haynes, Ph. D., published by THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 79 Such well-organized machinery for handling economic problems as was found in Michigan,lightened the plans of the department and called for a slightly different program from that which was to be followed in other States. Forrester B. Washington, who, as is observed in the Illinois report, had been first appointed by the department as supervisor of Negro economics for Michigan, later, in June, 1918, began work, with headquarters at Detroit. Mr. Washington had been executive secretary of the Detroit Urban League and had handled personally more than 8,000 Negro workers during his earlier work in Detroit. In the following months of July, August, and September Mr. Washington formulated the early plans for the work of the Division of Negro Economics in Michigan. He made a number of surveys of labor in Michigan cities and, under the immediate supervision of the United States Employment Service, gave specific advice with regard to, and handled personally, a great number of Negro labor problems, particularly in the matter of recruiting. The early Michigan plans called for Negro workers advisory committee formations in the industrial district with a supervising State committee of white and colored persons. Consequently the Michigan program was well formulated when, on October 1, 1918, Mr. Washington was transferred to Illinois, being succeeded in Michigan by Dr. William Jennifer,formerly special agent and examiner under the United States Employment Service with official station at Washington, D. C. Dr. Jennifer entered upon the work with a background of years of experience in matters relating to Negroes in the United States Bureau of the Census, where be bad assisted in compiling the bulletin known as Negro Population in the United States 1790 to 1910. Dr. Jennifer took his post under the Michigan Federal director in October, taking up the plan as started by Mr. Washington. Dr. Jennifer at once continued the seeking out of representatives of the industrial ranks, professional men, educators, and churchmen for increased cooperation in Michigan. His itinerary on this mission included Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, Jackson, Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, Benton Harbor, Niles, Cassopolis, Grand Rapids, Saginaw, Bay City, Flint, Lansing, Port Huron, and Pontiac. Later, similar itineraries made possible his planning of the State conference for December 14, 1918. At that conference, which was presided over by the Federal director of the United States Employment Service, the committees on organization plans of work, and women's work made their reports and an open' discussion, in which all were invited to take a part, was had regarding the peculiar local problems of Michigan points. It was interesting to note that several special experiments were being made in Michigan respecting the efficiency of Negro women workers. This group of workers—in industry and in personal and domestic service—was of rather large proportions, hence the committee on women's work at the Michigan conference made a special report which follows. EXTRACT OF REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WolvigN's WORK. . Plans devised for changing industries from a war basis to a peace basis, the main point being to bring about this change without throwing many out of employment. 1. See that the work is the proper sort of work for a woman or girl. 1 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR, 80 2. See that conditions are suitable-(a) From e•lc standpoint. (b) From the moral standpoint. 3. Standards: Work to secure the following: a) Eight-hour day. b) Forty-five minutes luncla hour. c) Ten minutes rest in th morning and 10 minutes in the afternoon. d) No work between 10 p.• e) No sweatshop work. 4. Sanitary conditions (ventilation, lighting, temperature, cleanliness): (a) Such as affect WaShTOOMB, 1GLICh roonas, lockers, toilets. mize hazards connected with eSw 5. (a) Such as result from fumes, dust, chemicals, dampness, and lack GI proper ventilation. b) Good environment. c) Lifting nt o exceeding 25 pounds. 1• d) Wages—a living wage. e) .II. (Conformation to child-labor laws.) (Education-compulsory 1 further promote our plallS, we must have a list of industries in which colored women are employed: (a) Investigate to find out cause where only white women are employed and strive to secure the employment also of colored women where ouch discrimination exists. 7. Efficiency shouM be striven for in seveml different ways: (a) Such as number of hours service given weekly. (b) Quality of service given. (c) Geniality of temperament, pleasing perf.ionality. 8. See if there be segregation in the r est moms,and in the yrages. If so,seek remedy: (a) See that in the training schools the colored girl gets the same advantage as the white girl. (b) See if there be a chance.for promotion of colored girls in the factory or work-place under consideration. (c) Study the class of workers to which we make appeal. (d) Find out the attitude of the employer and employee each to the other. Strive for amicable adjustment of differences. (e) Study how the employer can be best appealed to and reached. ' Sal accepts this outline as a basis for work and will organize undersigned The to put it into operation in accordance with the needs of the inddual localities. Mrs. HELEN B. hoax, Temporary Chairman. Mrs. E. C. HASKELL, Secretary. MTS. MAUD HENDERSON. MTS. E• L. JOHNSON. MTS. MARY E. McCoy. MTS. A. C. HAYFORD. MTS. MATTIE O. REED. MTS. MATTIE L. JOHNSON. MTS. MTS. LUCY L. BERRY. MTS. HELEN B. BROWN. MiSS ETHEL HENSLEY. MiSS O. L. WILLIAMS. Mr. JOHN M. RAGLAND. Inasmuch as there already existed in the Department of Labor a women's bureau which was handling, on a broad basis, policies respecting the ideals and accomplishments of women workers, the plans of this early Negro workers' conference were shaped to include the needs and conditions of women workers tluoughout the State. Out of the conference there grew a State Negro Workers' Advisory Committee, which WU the overhead organization for the following county and city committees: Bay, Berrien, Genesee, Ingham, Jacktilt as Kent, Muskegon, Oakland, Saginaw, St. Clair, son, Washtenaw, Wayne, and Calhoun. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 81 As illustative of the kind of coop erat ion which the department was able to secure in Michigan, the inte rests represented at the conf and oni the State Negro Worker erence Follows:. The Y. W. C. A., the s' Advisory Committee are cited as Y. M. C. A., the State Federation Labor, the State Missionary o' merchants and business men Society, union and nonunion labor , prof essi onal classes, the pres privatc and social welfare agencies and governmental agencies. s, units gave freely, of their infl All these and policies for the welfare of uence in the matter of shaping plans a community of interest indu Negro workers. Where there was such strial conditions and needs the mat of racial adjustments wer te! e remedied with comparatiin ve ease, foi reaching into any plan of soli tial forces from every unit indarity of such a nature there come potenthe community and State and the mate successful results may ultibe At later dates the Michigan anticipated from the very beginning. supe rvisor visited practically every important point where Negro State and the various county andlabor was involved throughout the city committees were given author ity to carry forward concrete pla strikes were investigated. .The ns in labor matters. One or two usua l effo rts in seeking and securing placements for Negro soldiers e made.. .Groups of labo were perhaps on the verge of stnwer king were visited and conf rers who and their employers, where prac erred with, advice. Congested housing cond ticable, were given departmental were given such practical attentioitions in Detroit and other cities n as were possible. Extraordi y efforts were made in seeking pla cements at plants for Negro womnar A number of mass meetings for creating better sentiment and en. morale were held at strategic poin high telephone inquiries were made ts. In pressing cases of placements, employment blanks and notices direct with Michigan factories and were given to men for filling out filing. On Sundays it was poss and ible notices of unusual interests to colo to have read in Michigan chiirches In Michigan, as in other Stat red labor. es, there were found employers who had not employed colo red wor kmen. Such employers were visited personally by the supervis or and were impressed with a stat ment of the efficiency, conduc et, and work of many Negro wor Michigan and elsewhere. kers in In all it would be difficul to tabulate specifically the many varied steps which were takt en and were based upon the complete in Michigan. Such steps, however, pla n of included the same policies that the Dep the Secretary of Labor and to carry out in the interests of all artment of Labor was charged workers of the United Stat white and colored, male or fem es, ale . The Federal director of the Uni ted Stat es Emp loyment commented with great favor upo ice n the work of Dr. Jennifer Serv Michigan supervisor of Negro by the economics. (See letter quoted on p. --.) 1989*-20---6, CHAPTER XII. REPORT OF WORK IN MISSISSIPPI. Mississippi, with its great farm land and cotton areas, its tremendously active lumber interests, its thousands of Negro workers who were performing the greater part of labor in connection with those industries, offered .many .complex problems for the Department of Labor in carrying into this.State the work of the Division of Negro Economics. From the strict standpoint of economics the output from the above industries had been jeopardized throughout the war period by the tremendously large migration northward by Negroes from the agricultural districts of Mississippi. It was difficult to estimate, as has been done in the other Southern States, the exact number of Negroes leaving Mississippi points, for the reason that a great many of them were drawn from between southern and northern Mississinpi, while many others migrated to Arkansas regions and returned to Mississippi. However, of the four to six hundred thousand Negroes who did in fact come from Southern States to the North during the war it is safe to say that Mississippi contributed a larger proportion than any other State in the South. On the part of workers it had long been alleged that Mississippi wages were low. Sawmill wages were quoted in 1916 as $1.10 a day, while ordinary hand labor in the agricultural districts, it is said, was paid for at rates as low as 60 and 75 cents a day. Four dollars a week was said to be a fair wage for domestic and personal service, and even though wages were reported to have increased during the period 1916-1918 from 10 to 25 per cent, northern industries drew from Mississippi thousands and thousands of its Negro workers, male and female. Being an agricultural State, producing cotton, foodstuffs, and the like, and Negro workers performing the bulk of labor in connection with agriculture, Mississippi labor shortage soon became a very serious matter to productivity of this State. When the United States Employment Service with headquarters at Meridian, Miss., arranged to supervise the State work of the Division of Negro Economics, the racial consciousness of Negroes was so strongly developed and interracial relations became so cordial that it was possible at once to bring about an immediate cooperation of State, private, and Federal agencies which was not surpassed by • that of any other State or locality. The State board of education, the Mississippi Welfare League, chambers of commerce throughout the State, the United States Department of Agriculture, the Mississippi Association of Teachers in Colored Schools, the Negro banks, colleges, and various other private organizations promptly pledged their full support to the work of Negro economics. Consequently, following a preliminary trip through Mississippi of fhe Director of Negro Economics and following a meeting of the Southern Sociological Congress on July 12, 1918, the service of Negro economics was established under the immediate supervision of the 82 WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE Rev. J. C. Olden, who was' United States Employment Service, and Mississippi, was appointee of ens well known and respected by citiz State. Prior to that tibia. that for s omic econ o .as supervisor of Negr es Employment Service. Stat ed Unit Mr. Olden had been assisting the and Alabama points in further— district superintendent in Mississippiice and in stimulating the senti— Serv t men ing the aims of the Employ a result, he had built up a. As ment and desires of Negro workers. in the churches and schools. ly cular parti strong chain of support, Negro workers' advisoryAmong the early concrete results of the following: committee there may be cited the three of Meridian. rs worke shop ad the railro 1. Cooperation among Meridian ction with the "work card" system in in 2. Discriminatory practices conne rities and the entire scheme abolished. ; were brought before the proper authoned the entire forces of our advisory committees sitio tor requi direc al 3. The Feder tance in the placing of.: assis t direc of lity nsibi big respo the them to and delegated Negro soldiers. made possible through the It is apparent that these results were er as to his worth as a pro— earn wage o new consciousness of the Negr ng a higher regard for his employer. havi ducing agent and as to his supe rvisor formulated a publicity program In November, 1918, the the State in January, 1919. The which was furthered throughout are given below, and it may be ram prog that of principal purposes of Negro workers' advisory com— -up line noted that through the county h every public and private: mittees in the State it was possible to reac public in general: the as well as e school and college in the Stat tment before to present the work of the depar 1. Members of advisory committee cts where no travel is necessary. ges all schools in their respective distri the work before all schools and colle 2. Supervisor Negro economics to presentto made and specific dates set at thee be ments Allot ment. allot this in not covered . and meeting of State committee (December) to join the ranks and support the work 3. Each school and college will be asked . touch with give a written indorsement of the same the schools will be kept in constant 4. From time to time (afterwards)perso . visits nal our work by means of literature andtion will be asked to indorse our program and re— supervisors.. 5. The State department of educa superintendents and colored lease copies of their indorsement to all white assist in allotting .to asked be will ls schoo 6. Assistant State supervisor of Negro e every schools to committee members. be urged to present our work befor 7. Members of the State committee will us districts. vario their in ble possi ious— relig will be public gathering—fraternal, business, that believe in the uplift of the Negro 8. All white organizations of influenceevery influence toward its accomplishment. lend asked to indorse our program and State will be asked to prepare special sermons,. 9. If possible the ministry of the Sunday in January. emancipation bearing on our work, for the secondttee will be asked to see that in all 10. Members of the State commi nted. prese be shall work our 1 ry celebrations for Janua ntal the record for the depagrtme As being concretely indicative of ment typical owin foll the d ione work in Mississippi there may be i firms, which said: commendations of two large Mississipp and make bly can ian as long as you possias well as to ours 1. We trust that you will remain in Merid employees other to make to you for ble possi cial results of benefi as many talks as it is the to as icited by you 2. We wish to write this testimonial unsolWe were very much impressed with your your inspiring talks to our employees. seemed to enjoy them and profit by them talks and found that our white employees as much as our numerous colored workmen. y committee was effectivel The State Negro workers' advisory having representation at the and organized with a membership of 29 prompt steps were taken beginning from 25 counties of the State and - THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. for the formation in the counties of subcommittees. Prof. R. S. Grossley, assistant supervisor of Negro schools, later field organizerfor the 'United States Employment Service, made a survey of the northern, portion of the State and outlined the organization of the county committees. The State committee decided, that its plan of organization and work should be released to representatives of various welfare organizations of the State and that, as far as possible, the work should be outlined before local societies, such as the Red Cross, insurance companies, and the like. Letters stating the purpose and plans of the committee of organization were released throu&.. the United States Employment Service to its subsidiary officials throughout the State. Of interesting importance in the way of cooperation there should be mentioned the attitude of the Methodist Episcopal Conference of the State of Mississippi, which indorsed completely the departmental program. This conference had previously carried on a campaign in the interest of efficiency of Negro wage earners, and was quick to recognize the facility to be gained through official functions. In January, 1919, the supervisor visited a number of Mississippi counties and cities, among which were McComb,Pike, Amite, Walthall, Lincoln,Marion,and CrystalSprings. At these points county teachers' meetings were attended and full cooperation of the teaching forces secured. Prof. Grossley, representing the State board of education, was present at these meetings and his subsequent work calls for the sincere thanks of the department to him and to the Mississippi State educational department for their constant help, Mr. Grossley having served throughout the work as a dollar-a-year man. The domestic help problem mentioned previously in this report gained particular significance.by March, 1919, and in line with the policies of the United States Employment Service to assist in relieving this problem a survey was made by the supervisor, from which the following facts were adduced: I. Conditions.—(a) Unrest among domestic help; (b) constant shifting of domestic help; (c) lack of interest in work and efficiency among domestic help; (d) absolute refusal to work on part of domestic help. 2. Apparent causes.—(a) Low wages; (b) lack of sympathetic cooperation between women employers and women employees. Concerning (c) and (d) under the conditions we find the following very human attitudes expressed in this simple manner: What's the use of doing good work when we get poor pay? It is better to deb nothing "for nothing" than to work "for nothing." In the way of suggestions for relief the supervisor recommended that a vigorous campaign of conferences with women workers be begun, together with added assistance from the colored ministry to the end that cooperation of the women workers and women employers might bring forth some concession on the part of employers to the efficient women workers in the matter of wages. These conferences were had and, in many instances, the problem was much relieved. The program of work of Negro workers' advisory committees varied to some extent in accordance with the peculiar conditions of each State. The program of work which was outlined for Mississippi is given here below as showing the most stable means of accomplishing the objects of the work in this State. WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING. THE 85 RY COM-MEMBERS OF THE NEGRO WORKERS' ADVISO SUGGESTIONS TO INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION. MITRES FOR FIRST STEPS IN LOCAL will probably be well to call together 1. Calling together colored representotires.—It least one of them should be a woman). (at citizens colored four or five most responsible in detail, the plans and purpose them with over go and city in your county, town, or calling together these persons: In ee. committ y advisor ' workers of the State Negro and women called together men The . avoided be should alism all possible faction the various occupations of theand ,tions organizs various of should be the leaders community. Director of the United States: 2. Get in touch with white employers.—The Federal sor of Negro Economics will give. Supervi the or State. your of Service ment Employ of your community whorop you, if you write him, the names of some white citizensknow some of the most rethese officials depend upon for local matters. You also It will be well to go to themi sponsible and trusted white employers of your locality. people in your efforts on labor for information and advice about cooperation of white not know the name and'address; questions affecting the colored people. In case you do chairman of your State Negro. of the State official, write for the information to the , Director of Negro Ecoworkers' advisory committee or to Dr. George E. Haynes nomics, Department of Labor. Washington, D. C. committee.—The representa3. Explain to white citizens the organization of the State Get in touch with two or ed. be interest should ity commun your in tive white men the organization of the. about tell 2, and them No. under ed suggest as three of them, Explain to them that this committee has; ee. committ y advisor workers Negro State the plan to have a county and neighbor-cooperative white members; explain further AN hite coopenitive members. It is well to ask with ee committ y advisor Negro hood permanent cooperating members of the county their help in securing white citizens assoon as you decide on representative colored' and local advisory committees. As white men who may be recommended men for members of your local committee, and with comments about the persons. their for cooperating members,send those names, n of your State advisory committee. occupations and other connectior.s, to the chairmanumbers of colored people may be large he ion.--T 4. Reaching the colored populat personal visit made by you or somereached through the churches and the lodges. A ng each church and each lodge is; attendi those to talk to other responsible person of their productive labor necessary. They need to be informed about the relation white citizens to talk to, secure to also help will It y. industr and to agriculture ment of Labor in organizDepart the of purpose the about facts The es. Negro audienc be stated (see Article II of the, should ees committ y ' advisor workers Negro ing these labor crisis and the important, constitution of the committee). Explain the present hundred per cent production one getting in play can and playing are Negroes part ctive plans before your comThe Department of Labor desires to get these constru others on the State Committee. As; munity very soon by your help and the help of in operation, please signify that bysoon as you are in a position to put further plans tee or to the Supervisor of Negro. writing the chairman of your State Advisory Commit Economics, Department of Labor, Meridian, Miss. is anything in your community5. Cooperation in adjusting conditions.—If there the colored people and you which is causing restlessness and dissatisfaction among rs go to two or three. employe white of n attentio the to think these should be brought s of your committeemember ting coopera the or trust can you white citizens whom such dissatisfaction before the and ask them to help you get the facts relating to rs. employe or ies authorit local s of member complaints, by all means to hal e Please bear in mind, however, especially in giving satisfy the complaints of the some constructive plans and suggestions to correct andand it is poor policy to go forcolored people. As you will agree, it is not sufficient plans for remedying them.. ward at any time with complaints and not have positive be proposed to remedy Some practical, constructive suggestions and plans which can causes are by all means essential. plans to remedy those conFurthermore, we should not always expect to have our The aim of the Negro plans. better have may ditions adopted. Other citizens and programs to assist plans ctive constru with help workers' advisory committees is to industry and at theand ure agricult in ion product our country in getting the largest earners. Both wage Negro among ons conditi ed improv same time to help secure s. program and plans ctive constru by be reached these ends can beat Employment Service what 6. There is being organized, now, by the United States ntatives of the employers,. represe of up made hoards, labor ity as commun are known You should t.et of the employees, and of the United States Employment Service. board. If lime in touch with the white men who are on your local community labor • 86 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. Is no local board, you should endeavor to obtain, through the Supervisor of Negr• Economics, the names of white citizens with whom you should get in touch on employment matters. In case you do not know who the local members of your community labor board are, you should write to the Federal Director of the United States Employment Service of your State, to your State Supervisor of Negro Economics, or to the Depart. ment of Labor, Washington, D. C. 1. Some of the types of work which you can Segin.—(a) Holding public mass meet. ings to inform the people about the need for systematic labor;(h) Discussions at regu. lar church and lodge meetings and other gatherings; (c) Bringing to the attention of the United States Employment Service any misunderstandings among the color%) people about the use of that service by them. Further suggestions will be furnished you upon request. Any other things which it seems to you it would be well to, do in your community you may take up with the chairman of your State Advisory Committee or with the Supervisor of Negro Economics of your State, if one has been appointed. GEORGE E. HAYNES, Director of Negro Economics. OCTOBER, 1918. January, 19)19,found the work in Mississippi well under way. The program of work had been presented at the Meridan Emancipation celebration exercises. The introductory card made up by the supervisor and approved by the Federal director to be used in connection with the recruiting had been sent out and a subsequent State committee meeting, as the work developed, had been planned. This meeting was held on January 27, 1919, in the Board of Trade Building of Jackson, Miss., and the following points were discussed: 1. Organization. 2. Efficiency of Negro labor. 3. Better conditions for farm labor. 4. Boys Working Reserve. 5. Plantation life in the Delta. The Federal Director of the United States Employment Service was present and emphasized the need for a readjustment between men, races, and nations, and the common basis of understanding of right and justice. A cordial spirit of good will and hearty cooperation existed throughout the meeting and every interest was more strongly linked up than ever before in the purpose of furthering the plans.of the Department of Labor. The organization of the Boys. Working Reserve, an organization of youthful members to substitute for men who were in the Army in planting and harvesting the agricultural crops, was taken up. Later on the Boys Working Reserve Organization among Negro youth of Mississippi became efficientand helpful. At the close of January the plans as applicable to Mississippi were well established for returning soldiers. In Fernery 1919 the Supervisor visited Yazoo City, Greenwood,.Indianola, Greenville and Vicksburg. He reported increased thrift among Negro men and women and full time labor in the cotton fields. He reported, however, that in regions where conditions were particularly bad there were miles and miles of fields of unpicked cotton. In December, 1918, Supervisor Olden, who returned to his rainistry, was succeeded by Lemuel L. Foster, who took over the duties as supervisor of Negro economics for Mississippi. Mr. Foster had been trained at Fisk University, had done considerable welfare and social work in the South, and for one month prior to his appointment, had given voluntary assistance to the United States Employment Service in furthering its work, Mr. Foster took up with vigor the program THE NEORO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 87" begun by his predecessor and supervised the work until its close, June 30, 1918. Among the surveys he made a special report on two of the large lumber companies of Mississippi, which had realized the need of uniformly good working conditions and recreational facilitie% for its workers. He reported in these two instances a contented an& efficient working force and a lack of turnover. These surveys were considered of sufficient importance for a departmental release and the facts were given wide publicity in order to stimulate other employers and other employees, respectively, to establish and to. hope to receive the same treatment. The following letter from the Federal Director of the United Statem Employment Service shows the valuation which he placed upon the economics work as conducted in Mississippi: UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, Meridian, Miss., January 29, 1919. From: Federal Director. To: Director General. Subject: Negro Economics Division. 1. In reply to letter from Assistant Director General, dated January 23, in references to Division of Negro Economics. 2. In this connection the writer wishes to state that this service is providing an office on the same floor as the office of the Federal Director for the Supervisor of Negro Eco— no mics. The present supervisor, L. L. Foster, a young Negro of energy, is conferring: al most daily with the Federal director in reference to his work. 3. The writer attended the meeting of the Negro State advisory board in Jackson,. Monday, January 27, at which meeting plans were perfected for the organizations of the Negro boys between the ages of 16 and 21 in Mississippi in the Boys Working: Res erve. Cooperation has been obtained from the State Agricultural College, and they have agreed to supply instructors wherever necessary to instruct these Negro, boys in a short course prepared by the reserve. Arrangements were made for visiting; and organizing reserves in approximately 20 industrial Negro schools in the State for the giving of this course in connection with these schools in the early spring. This. service will then undertake to place these students in active farm work as soon as: school is closed. 4. Plans are under way to utilize the Negro agricultural college for a more extensivecourse in the early summer which will put Negro boys in line with the same work. proposed for the whites. 5. It might be added that the work of Negro economics, since it has been clearlycoordinated with that of the Employment Service in the State of Mississippi, prom— ises to be of much use from now on. Meetings of Negro school-teachers gathered ink district conferences, with attendance of from two to three hundred, have been addressed and informed as to the work of the Employment Service, Boys Working! Reserve and Negro Economics. About fifty of these conferences have been held. 6. The Negro Workers Advisory Committee in the State of Mississippi is welk organized and the work is prospering very satisfactory. H. H. WEIR, Federal Director. The membership on the advisory committee of white and colored citizens included the former mayor of Meridian, the vice president of the Citizens' National Bank, the clerk of the chancery court, and a prominent business man, all of whom were representative. white citizens, shows again the type of cooperation which the depart— ment was able to secure. • CHAPTER XIII. REPORT OF WORK IN NEW JERSEY. Prior to the war, Negro workers had been employed here and there in industrial and agricultural pursuits in New Jersey. A fairly good wage was paid to the Negro workers in the occupations to which they were admitted. With the increased demands of the war, industries in New Jersey quite naturally became attractive locations for thousands of Negroes who name north. It is estimated that at least 25,000 Negro migrants located in the cities of New Jersey during the period of 1916-17. The probable distribution of these newcomers, on the estimated basis, is indicated in the following table: New York Central camp, Weehawken. Erie camps: Weehawken Jersey City Philadelphia Sr Reading, Pennsylvania R. R., etc., camps Jersey City Newark Carneys Point Trenton Camden Bayonne, Paterson, and Perth Amboy Wrightstown and South Jersey Orange, Montclair, Paterson Total 500 300 100 1,30 3,000 7,000 3,500 3,000 2,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 30,700 Various agencies, Federal, State, and private, were keeping in touch with conditions affecting the labor situation of New Jerselr for some time prior to the establishment of the Division of Negro Economics. Among the more important agencies giving special attention to Negro affairs were the Associated Charities of Newark, the Urban League of Newark, and the State Bureau of Negro Migrants of the State Depa,trment of Labor, under the direction of Col. Lewis Bryant. This work caused increased attention to be given to matters pertaining to Negro workers. Correlating the efforts of these organizations, the United States Employment Service had carried forward the employment policies and developed the recruiting and placement facilities in every field of labor, including Negro labor. It was quite natural, then, that the Department of Labor, having established a special Negro economics service, should turn to these agencies in the beginning for advice and assistance in putting into effect its special plans for improving conditions and relations of Negro workers. A hasty preliminary survey was undertaken in Newark, N. J., by William M. Ashby, at that time executive secretary of the Urban League, at Newark, N. J., and later supervisor of Negro economics for New Jersey. The city of Newark was the largest industrial center.in the State and was a pivotal point from which departmental activities affecting Negro workers might be well directed. 88 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 89 The Negro po_pulation in Newark in 1910 was approximately 10,000.. By 1918 there had been an addition of from 8,000 to 10000 and at the close of 1918 this number had been increased. The mean number of deaths for 1917 was about 550, or probably 20.23 per cent per 1,000, a rather large number, probably on account of the newcomers from the South who were subjected to very unfavorable housing and living; conditions under the severe New Jersey climate, and who were not advised as to proper clothing. These figures were corroborated by prominent insurance companies. Unlike most cities, in Newark there had been previously no distinct Negro quarters. With the influx of newcomers, however, Negro districts formed and from a few families large neighborhoods developed.. The general trend of living conditions indicated a merging together of the older residents and the newer Negro population. Housing conditions were poor and rents were high. In a number of cases 10 and 12 persons lived in two or three rooms. The high purchase prices of properties and excessive rents, which increased in keeping with the law of demand and supply, and the restricted area where colored people could purchase, often keep the newcomers from securing suitable quarters. Negroes were engaged, principally,in the unskilled work in chemical plants, transportation, trucking, shipyard work,leather factories, iron molding, foundries, construction, and team driving. In Newark the Negro construction workers and iron shipbuilding workers formed a union which did not win the recognition of the secretary of the State Federation of Labor because he said the Negroes wanted to choose a. name that was already in use by another union. A smeltermen's union. was organized in Trenton among the Negroes. Their delegate sits in the Federated Union Council of the city. A hod carriers' union,. Local No. 1, elected a Negro as delegate. This union has about 1,200 members, about 50 per cent of whom are white. The teamsters' union of whites and Negroes has a Negro delegate. It is estimated that 6,000 male and 1,000 female workers were employed in the several industries in Newark alone. The Negro female workers found employment in toy factories, shirt factories, clothing factories, and glue factories, at an average wage of about $8 a week.. In the shell-loading plants the pay was much higher. This is true of pieceworkers in other occupations, too. Negro women were also at work in garment factories tobacco factories, toy factories, shellloading plants, celluloid manufacturing, food production, leather-bag making and trunk making, as well as in assorting cores in foundries.. Negro women became reluctant to take positions as domestio servants on account of increasing demands for their services iPn industrial plants. Occasionally, a machinist, a carpenter, a millwright found employment as a skilled worker, and hundreds of riveters were employed in the Federal shipbuilding agencies and districts, not to speak of private concerns. Calkers and shipfitters were also in demand. .Anglesmiths, boiler makers, packers, molders, steel chippers, and stationary firemen found ample employment. As a hopeful sign there may be pointed out the small amount of friction between male workers of the two races; race relations were scarcely ever other than harmonious. Difficulties were more frequent among females. There were difficulties, also, when Negro skilled workers were first put on any job. Also, there were OCCa• 90 WORLD WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE were engaged in sional difficulties where white and colored workers the same plant. for dealing with The Negro church is the most effective agencylarger connection a life church their h throug Negro workers, and was only it nately, unfortu can be made than in any other way, but, age advant ial s industr Negro' the took who rs ministe the individual The . ial virtues industr the him to out seriously and tried to point ant factor to underchurch situation, therefore, is always an import y a Negro Bapinantl is predom Newark ity. commun stand in any the South brought from ts migran cases, some In ity. commun tist they reestabpastors of their own denominations with them and ment found depart The home. new lished their congregations in the and began ms proble ial industr and social ng handli for need a great State. entire the for cautiously to develop a program of work te of Accordingly, William M. Ashby, mentioned above, a graduance in experie l unusua of man a and Lincoln and Yale Universities ation to the industrial and social work, was released by his organizics for New Department of Labor to be supervisor of Negro econom certain of gation investi brief Jersey.. Mr. Ashby at once made a BayCity, Jersey th, of Elizabe cities the g visitin firms, New jersey Dix, Camp on, Paters n, Camde g, Landin onne, Garwood, Mays ic strateg other and s Point, Carney City, c Atlanti , Merritt gamp both ng in d fulfilli engage cities, these in firms ent points. Promin and individGovernment contracts and contracts for private firms ment of Depart the of nce assista the for desire their ed uals, express Labor. To three large firms in Camden the supervisor suggested tliet placement of a Negro foreman, in order to handle with the greates was adopted satisfaction gangs of Negro workers. This suggestionapproa ched by was plant ing shell-load , a Amatol At in each case. r of numbe large a of on diversi the supervisor in the matter of the and d hundre Three City. c Atlanti s from worker women colored days. few a in eighty-five such workers were secured rth of A large plant at Paulsboro, which was running only one-fouby red assiste was e, shortag labor of the t its capacity on accoun in making cruiting workers from Camden. This firm was engaged receive d a French shells. At Camden, a shipbuilding company the supply of Negro workers through the employment activity of supervisor. for For a firm in Garwood, which was making'steel and brass .rods To a Newark from ed recruit were men Navy, States United the meat for Jersey City firm with a Government contract to supply 45 Negro about days, five overseas, the supervisor brought, within per 60 about to only g runnin plant a Lakes, on At Pompt s. worker ng securi in d assiste was e shortag cent of its capacity because of labor n; but about 25 colored men. This plant had feared racial frictio under the advice of the supervisor, no racial trouble came as a result of bringing these colored men. ld, In Grasseli, Newark, Edgewater, Kearney, Lakehurst, Freeho similar gave sor supervi the dates, Chrome, and Bound Brook, at later course of assistance, placing in all over 250 Negro workers in the about three weeks. eth, On another itinerary, the supervisor visited' Paterson, Elizab Park,. Asbury City, c Atlanti n, Trento e, Bayonn Q..range, Plainfield, THE NEGRO AT WORK DURI NG THE WORLD WAR. 91 Perth Amboy, Dover, and Roebling shortages and assisting in recruiting, making observations of labor and placing Negro workers to supply the needs. As samples of such observations and lowed, there are cited below fi've brief practical action which fol— the New Jersey supervisor in Novemberinvestigations conducted by , 1918: 1. A female employee of the — Co., being an operator on a night shift, was overheard by me to complain of unjustitre of the night from the plant of the aforesaidatment on a threat of ejection in the middle. comp any, by one of its assistant foremen.. Fearing that her story, though harmlessly and probably thereby menace the oppor told, would create an erroneous impression. tunit y of other opera tives, I interrupted her and asked her to repeat it to me. tive of the company in this office Upon hearing it in full, I took her to the representa— and with her assis tance an interview with the em— ployment manager and gener tthis interview—at which alsoal manager was secured. The statement of her case in ws made—was thoroughly was the assistant foreman against whom the complaint dered and satisfactorily settled. Thus, cions of other Negro workers consi the suspi— who were 2. In an attempt to produce greater sought for this plant were met and dispelled. of the--Co., I had a lady of our efficiency among the colored women operatives: department, along with the lady in charge colored social settlement, interview the of a. of the company. The superintendent of superintendent of the women's department. as against 12 colored women, the numberthe above-mentioned company reports that; with which they started three mont there are now 122 colored wome hs ago,. that their work is very credi direction of a matron who is colorned.andEffic table under the. iency clubs will be organized 3. A female employee of the -- Co. in this shop.. ained of discrimina the plant for which she worked. The supercompl received at. visor of Negro economicstion had the matter. investigated and received report that this comp any had cease d opera tion on account, of cancellation of contract. Case can not be carri ed further. 4. A general circular form was sent to 55 emplo yers of Negro labor throughout State of New Jersey, to ascertain the ty of the work which is being given the. such labor. The replies are varied, thequali bygeneral tone being very commendable. 5. The investigation at the or ed women operatives whose work is plant revealed that there are now about 60 col— commendable as against the unit star ted there when the opportunity was of 10 which we. opened. In keeping with the plans of the depa rtment, the New Jersey con— ference, drawn along the lines of prio r conferences in other States,, was called and held on Friday, November 22, 1918. Representative. citizens, white and colored, from all over the State werepresent. The. following program was carried out: The constitution of the Negr work ers' advisory committee was adopted, and shortly thereaftero the form ation of committees was begun. On account of the location of persons and problems in the cities of New Jersey, it was more prac formation of the city committees than ticable to begin at first the to follow the plans of other States and form, first, the State and coun ty committees. Accord— ingly Negro workers' advisory comm ittees were soon formed in Pat— erson, Newark, Camden, Trenton, Atlantic City, and several other New Jersey points. These committees function ed under the direction of the State supervisor of Negro econ omic and s with the United States Employment Service in close cooperation and other public and private organizations. As a sample of other activities in this Stat e, the following extracts are given. The following concerns peculiar condition which the the New Jersey supervisor found at Camp Dix, N.J.: 9'2 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. REPORT ON SITUATION AMONG COLORED SOLDIERS AT CAMP DIE, N. J., WTI° ARE TO BE DEMOBILIZED SOON. On Friday, January 3, 1919, I went to Camp Dix. Immediate thy arrival I went to Y. M. C. A. Hut No. 7, which is used by Negro soldiers. ly onShelby Mr. Davidson, secretary, and Mr. C. T. Greene, assistant secretary, were interviewe d. In the course of interview the point of most significance was the fact that there aversion on the part of all the men attaching their names to anything was a decided which spelled United States as most of them believed it meant reenlistment. This corroborate d the statement made by Mr. William Banks, of the Employment Service, now in the camp. The secretary mentioned also the fact that men from the United States Employme nt Service had talked to the colored•men to enlist their interest, but few had gone over. I then went to Building 928, where I met Col. Casper H. Cole, the commandant, and Mr. William Banks, who is in charge of the United States Employment Service in the camp. I inquired whether colored men came into the office in great The answer was negative. The reason for this was, I believe, due to whatnembers. was said above, that men are afraid to sign their names to Governmen t matters. I asked if the,command that all soldiers in the camp be marched to the employmen t office before their demobilization applied to colored as well as white men. The answer was affirmative. After their supper I spoke to about 300 colored men in the Y. M. C. A. and the situation more clearly relative to the Government's position in interestexplained of getting men work as soon as they are discharged. My suggestion on the situation as applicable to all men in the camp, white and colored alike, is that in speaking of railroad opportunities men say "Pennsylvania Railroad," "Reading Railroad," or "Santa Fe,' etc., instead of saying United States Railroad Administration, and also that in speaking of shipyards they say "Submarin e,' "Newport News," "Bristol," "Tampa," etc., instead of United States Shipping Board. This would eliminate from the minds of men the idea of a connection between the idea of a job and the Government. WILLIAM M. ASEBY, Supervisor of Negro Economicsfor New Jersey. The following letter shows- the type of effort inaugurated during the reconstruction period to give first-hand assistance through the United States Employment Service to returning soldiers: Circular letter of advice. MARCH 27, 1919. From: The Director of Negro Economics. To: The Supervisors of Negro Economics. • Subject: Cooperation with War Camp Community Service. 1. I find that the War Camp Community Service has a number of camps for Negro soldiers and sailors, and I am informed that it is cooperating with the United States Employment Service. I have talked with some of the representatives about their colored work and have also taken up the matter with the Director General, United States Employment Service, and the National Director of the Bureau for Placing Returning Soldiers and Sailors. It is agreeable to the national director for you to take up with the Federal director of the employment service of your State the question of utilizing such of these war camps as seem suitable for assisting in placing Negro soldiers and sailors. 2. You will find inclosed a list of the communities where there are activities for colored soldiers, together with the names of the workers. I advise that you take this up with the Federal director and assist him in getting in touch with such of these people as he wishes to. Respectfully, GEORGE E. HAYNES, Director of Negro EconomiesApproved: EDWARD EASTON, Jr., National Superintendent, Bureaufor Returning Soldiers and Sailors. WADE II. SKINNER, Acting Director, Organization Division, U.S. Employment Service THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. ' Some sample replies to letters of the New Jerse visor containt statements regarding the employment of Negry Super worke o rs. These responses were in reply to a questionnaire the object of which was to secure the information: With reference to the questionnaire received from that we are using Negro workers as porters, elevator you, we are pleased to advise. operators, matrons, dishwashers,. and for other miscellaneous positions in the restaurant. During the war we engaged quite a number of colored women to act as elevator operators. In all branches of the work, we have found Negro workers entirely satis— factory. Answering your favor of recent date with reference to the Negro workers in our plant, I beg te state that we are well pleased with their work and I find them to WI good and willing workers under the superv ision of our white foremen, whom we have+ instructed to give every colored man or woman applying for work to this companythe mostcordial treatment, not the variety that will antagonize and drive them away from the job. My personal dealings in the past as Emplo yment and Welfare Manager, with the, white and Negro workers have proven succes sful, as I have found that through kind— ness and friendly treatment, eliminating all profan and personal insults, the major— ity of the Negro workers will do the work assignity ed to them thoroughly and to anyco nipany's satisfaction. At present we have in our employ several,. hundr Negroe s employed as genera' factory helpers only, but in the near future I hope ed to be successful in inducing mycompany to employ Negro mechanics. * * * Answering your inquiry of the 4th inst., advise that about 40 per cent of mut labor is Negro. We do not find them to be would as steady workers as the whites, although„ in some instances, they have proven to be very faithfu We use them largely on work where muscular strengl. th and endurance are of prime. importance and in this they work out quite well. In a very few instances we have them operating machin es, and, although we con-. eider these workers above the average, their work is very satisfactory. Your letter, requesting information regarding our colore d employees, was received:. We have, altogether, about 1,250 colored men and 6 women. Of the latter, 4 are. in our main restaurant as dishwashers, and in our administration buildings, who, keep the ladies' room in order. As a generaltwo Almostall of them are employed on the ships.rule our Negro workers give satisfaction. bolters-up and chippers and caulkers. ThoseThey seem to make very good riveters,. who recently came from the South seem to feel the cold weather, but the others who are acclimated, are as strong and hardy as the white men. Among the number we have there about 75 or 100 West Indian Negroes. There. are no colored men doing clerical workare here at all. There are some working as laborers,. and as far as I know none are in the machi ne shops. The following statements of Mr. Ashby, the New Jersey supervisorof Negro economics,give a very full insight into certain of his activities.. These reports cover various periods follo wing the signing of the, armistice and show the complete turni of departmental' machinery to meet peace-time demands inngtheover indus trial life of the State: I am very pleased to report a slight change for the better on the New Jersey conditions of Negro labor this week. At the opening of the past week the offices found themselves unable to make opportunitie occurred. This was true, particularly, ofs but later in the week new developments during the week, at least 90 per cent of Newark where about 125 men were referred were placed. These openings were mktde possible largely because of personal whom solicitation upon two industries. * * l• WAR. DURING THE. WoliLl THE NEGRO AT WORK sameJersey City now. The particularly acute in to the strike of the Marine is n atio situ ent oym mpl The une porary, due stevedores on both In the former it is tem is true of Camden. the port of New York. Many Negroes are nsportation is-tied tra ut t abo tha and t in fac workers sides and due to theever, the lack of plants-running sey Jer New and k Yor how the New ossible. In Camden, s from Philadelphia make it difficult tip, their work is made imp wding in of applicant cro the also and e tim on full tp do much placing. that of the ned at the present, iswho distinh which I am most concer The great problem wit y commissioned officers and also many men Jersey men. falo regiments are New I mention returning soldiers. Man ed. in the Fifteenth and Buf guished themselves ber of these fellows are especially well preparented; a tractor ly tal real , her etc cil pen An appreciable num and r, near corn strator and pen Rutgers College; an audito two or three—an illu the Scientific Course at of Finance. For the tractor operator, I operator, graduate ofin ool Sch k the New Yor mployed and it is pletion of his course e, a position; but the remaining two are une s we have. tie iev uni bel ort opp I t ordinary love made, r to such men the mos rather criminal to offe 94 CHAPTER XIV. REPORT OF WORK IN NEW YORK. Owing to special complications in the New York situation no State n& conference was held. There was such delay in getting the situatio,. in hand that the supervisor of Negro economics, Mr. Jesse 0. Thomas be-did not enter upon duty until September, 1918, just two months inued' discont were s service his fore the signing of the armistice, and because of lack of funds after the end of that fiscal year. A New-York Negro Workers' Advisory Committee was proposed in coop_era York tion with the United States Employment Service and the New of' ioner commiss sing supervi the with and Service ment City Employ did tee commit this but sion, ial Commis the New York State Industr finance• not get fully to work before the readjustment came in the the, which , under ment Service Employ States and plans of the United States Em-activities were carried on. A branch office of the United jointly with theployment Service was opened in the Harlem district ion, under' State bureau of employment of the State industrial commiss from Oc— this to given sion supervi and s, Edward L. Supt. Prince meeting: in done was work much and tober, 1918, to March, 1919, workers; Negro skilled and lled semiski placing of ms proble t the difficul . A vicinity and City York New in in industrial establishments . The soldiers Negro d large number of these men where returne hav-as larly, particu ned, mentio be may tion Corpora Submarine Boat training: ing taken into employment a number of men of technical , both soldiers Negro ng returni the of s number Large nce. and experie special New York residents and those from other places, called for Gov— service from the placement agencies developed by the Federalsor of' ernment and the State employment department. The supervi pment Negro economics for New York gave special help in the develo ,. of this work. A survey was made of labor conditions in Buffaloof N. Y., in April, 1919,showing considerable unemployment because y de-the closing down of munition plants and because of the militarNegro-. ed Unskill s. oversea from men mobilization returning many labor, however, could be placed without very much difficulty, but places in the. semiskilled and skilled Negro workmen here, as in other Very few in— State, found great difficulty in finding employment. of the Some women. colored ed employ city in the plants l dustria colored no ed , employ workers of ds firms, although employing thousan or only a few, and these only in the menial occupations such as maids. porters, janitors, or unskilled laborers. Similar surveys were made in in Rochester, Albany, and New York City and environs. Both servNegro the State the of parts other , and Buffalo New York City, ice of the department was heartily received by both white and colored citizens, but only got well started before curtailment of appro— priations made it necessary to discontinue its preparations. 95 96 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. Investigations were made of charges of discrimination against colored workers and steps taken, in each case where the facts warranted,, to remove the handicap. When the housing situation began to be acute the supervisor made a survey of important cities of the State to ascertain the exact condition as it related to the Negro wage earners with the view to assisting the United States Homes Registration Service in developing home-finding facilities, if thought advisable. Among the many organizations giving active cooperation special mention should be made of the National Association of Colored Women and its president, Mrs. Talbert, whose particular activity was. in the field at Buffalo, N. Y., and Mrs. Annette W.Erdmann, of the industrial committee of the New York City Urban League, whose untiring effort and hearty zeal were largely responsible for getting such results as were possible under the complicated difficulties and conditions.. CHAPTER XV. - REPORT OF WORK IN NORTH CAROLINA. North Carolina was selected as the State in which the initial effort "oftthe Department of Labor-should be made, and its program establlished for promoting and fostering the welfare of Negro wage earners *through the special service of Negro economics. Consequently, following an official trip of the Director of Negro Economics into imporand ..tant points in the State a conference of representative whiteNorth of ,colored citizens was called by Hon. T. W. Bickett, governor e, 'Carolina, on June 19, 1918. There were present at this conferenc submost the of which was held in the office of the governor, 17 stantial Negro citizens from all parts of the State and five white .citizens, as described in Chapter II. At the close of the meeting the tgovernor appointed a temporary committee which drafted a constiAution provided for the Negro Workers Advisory Committee, and for nan'organization of local county and city committees. The working plan of organization, with slight modifications and adjustments, which :served as a model for the development of voluntary field organizations in other States, has been previously explained M the description of activities in other States. Before discussing the subsequent steps of organization and activity in'North Carolina, brief attention is here given to a few general and :specific industrial and agricultural situations which obtained in North ,Carolin a. These Situations are cited for the purpose of showina the wide :scope of.the field of Negro work into which the policies and plans of .the Diviiion 61 Negro,Economics were to be carried. The chief occupations of Negro women were in the field of agriculture,'laundry work, domestic service, some work in spinning mills (and some in hosiery and underwear), and work in tobacco factories. 'There was a scarcity of female labor and on that account a number of silk mills had been closed. The cotton-mill season extends from May to September, and the tobacco season from September to In many instances the homes of workers were of a poor type; the streets and sidewalks fronting such homes were unpaved and.poorly lighted. Surface drainage existed and general sanitation was• made.quate in some cases. On the other hand, there were large nirmbers of well-cared-for homes in communities of intelligent and progressive Negroes. In one North Cairolinaoitylit was,reported that a Negro union had been organized to which the white workers objected. At New Bern, lumber industries' employing large numbers of Negroes were reported as having "working Leonditions which were unpleasant." At Wilmington Negroes were employed in'the shipyards, but only in the unskilled occupations. At various Other points in North Carolina Negroes found employment in tanneries, hosiery mills, guano plants, box factories, and the like. Throughout the State I.989° -7 97 98 THE :NEGRO AT WORK DUIIING THE WORLD W.I. there were found a number of physicians, dentists, druggists, and a -more than usual ownership of store and office buildings. At Kingston 5,000 Negro women and children were reported working in tobacco factories. At Waynesville there were found mill girls, garment workers, and a few clerks, organized and unorganized. As -a general situation throughout the State, Negro labor was much in deamnd and was affected by the usual factors—(a) the union, (b) low wages, (c) housing conditions, (d) health, (e) opportunity for advancement,(f) the general competition between white and colored workers. Following the conference the plan for cooperation and for the sub-sequent formation and activity of a State committee and subsidiaty -county and city committees was perfected. Among the early agencies of cooperation may be mentioned the United States Public Reserve, the State department of education, the rank and file of 'Negro colleges and universities in North Carolina, chambers of commerce and the Negro private organizations, including the church. An initial State committee of 29 substantial Negro citizens from various sections of the State was formed. The membership of the State committee and its executive board represent the following cities: Winston-Salem, Wadesboro, Winton, Oxford, Charlotte, Henderson, Raleigh, Greensboro, Rocky Mount, Tarboro, Salisbury , :Chadbourn, New Bern, Lumberton, Bricks, Lexington, Durham, -Method, Goldsboro, Wilmington, Wilson, and Asheville, thus bringing into play the influence and forces of the best citizens throughout the State. This committee was supplemented by interested white citizens, who became cooperating members. This State committee and the subsidiary county committee, after adopting the constitution,,started out in their activities under the supervision of Dr. A. M. Moore, who was appointed Supervisor of Negro Economics and special agent of the United States Employment Service. It should be stated that Dr. Moore served the department throughout the entire period of the war and the following seven months as a dollar-a-year man. The early formation of county and city committees included the following counties: Guilford, Craven,Vance, Rockingham, Buncombe, Crranville, Forsyth, Beaufort, Durham, Hertford, Alamance, and Edgecombe, Halifax, and Nash combined. When the work was closed on June 30, 1919, names had been submitted covering practically every county in the State. Inasmuch as the Division of Negro Economics was in the immediate office of the Secretary of Labor, who was also chief administrative officer for the United States Employment Service as well as all the other departmental bureaus and divisions, it was practicable that the North Carolina Negro work, as did the work in other States, should have a close relationship to the United States Employment Service in that State. Consequently under the plan of organization for the State, the Federal Director of the United States Employment Service became an advisory member of the State Negro Workers' Advisory Committee. Also a close relationship• with the governor, the chairman of the State Council of Defense, and other white men acting as advisers to other committees, was perfected and the following initial recommendation for North Carolina was gradually worked -out and approved: ; THE NEGRO AT WORK DT-RING THE WORLD WAR. 99 1. Workers appointed for special activities among Negro wage earners will work 'under the authority of the United States Employment Service to give them official estanding, with cooperation and supervision of the Federal State director. 2. The work shall be undertaken with the advice of the Director of Negro Economics. 3. Matters calling for the expenditure of funds shall be submitted with theapproval .of the Federal director and with the advice of the Director of Negro Economics. 4. All work carried on which relates to the Employment Service shall be undertaken with the approval of the Federal State director. These plans of course were "overhead" plans, but they covered'the znany details which became properly applicable to local committees an the State as they were found. In order to bring the plans to the _attention of the public the special agent succeeded in getting in close touch with the white and Negro members throughout the State, and in making arrangements for a publicity service which would not conflict with the Information and Education Service of the department. Among some of the earlier problems were found (1) that many North Carolina laborers had been recruited through employment agencies and in an indiscriminating way many of the "shiftless" and "unstable" had been imported into North Carolina cities;(2) no particular opportunity- had been offered to thrifty, dependable workmen to buy homes and to become.permanent residents of the State. In subsequent plans of publicity and contact these two problems were dealt with by the North Carolina special agent and the close of the work found at each particular point but a few scattered persons who might be designated "shiftless.' The Supervisor of Negro Economics, having business interests of his own, soon found it necessary to have an assistant who could actively canvass cities throughout the State. Mt. R. McCants Andrews was subsequently detailed for such assistance work. Of the early problems which he faced there came report of race friction in a city of eastern North Carolina at a point in which there were members of the Negro workers' advisory committees. An investigation was made as to the nature of such race friction .and valuable advice was given both to the employing class and to the working class, which resulted in removal of racial friction. In this connection valuable assistance in the matter of sentiment was given by a leading North Carolina paper, to the attention of which was called the value of mediation between white workers, white employers and Negro workers followed by a spirit of conciliation and cooperation and the abilty to see both sides of any issue. It was pointed out also that the common interest of the white employer who wants to engage the service which the Negro wage earner has to offer will make the adjustment of the labor situation a most important one. This paper gave publicity not only to the comment above quoted but also to subsequent 'comment and advice tending to create a better'feeling among the employingand working classes of North Carolina. In carrying out the plan of work of the North Carolina committee, one of the first steps was for the supervisor to inaugurate an educational campaign wherever practical among Negro workers at the various points in the State. Short itineraries were arranged and the supervisor was given permission to address groups of workers at many large plants, and specific health questions, ideals of efficiency and recreational activities, in order to preserve the morale and com- 100 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING .THE WORLD WAR. employers potency of Negro workers. Although in many instancesby to bring there and ams progr r foot simila on put to slow had been g plants leadin many were s, there worker of group about a contented the need of ized recogn ing, the beginn from had, which State the in rs contented. A superinSuch an institution as would make their worke under his sntendent of one of the large North Carolina plants had cally made practi fact, in who, yees, emplo Negro 800 about pervision tion of one forma rly the.ea In State. of the es up one of the small villag saw a splendid oppordent inten super this ttees commi y count of the with the program of tunity presented in being able to link up his plansst, in this connection, intere ular partic of is It ttee. commi the of work had taken in an plant his which steps early to point out some of the s. It was estiworker the endeavor to preserve contentment among eight-hour day the in this plant at r worke ge avera mated that the not was ting, physiwork exhaus The . -was earning $100 a month s. The plant good d to worker allowe was pay ime overt cally, and ain owls, s, porcel washb locker steel with ped equip in question was to the comfort and cleanshower baths, and other facilities necessary the village row sitar liness of its workers, white and colored. Withinhouse s were modern These d. s erecte had been row of new house c lights. and sanitary, with running water,.sewerage, and electri many and low price mely extre an at rs They were rented to worke arhad been purchased on a ten-year plan which the company had nent The nce. perma reside for desire the se increa ranged in order to children of company also paid for a nine-months school for the in business d enaae were es Negro tt, itself e villag the workers. In this of plant. rs worke by ized y patron enterprises which were largel hes churc two and on erecti of course the in was al hospit n A moder had been planned. ttee, under the direction The local Negro workers' advisory commi a in further educational camplant this ed assist of the supervisor, the Negro workers. among thrift paign to promote efficiency and ed and the evensolicit rs were worke ing espect self-r Intelligent and ttee resulted in commi local the by tual outcome of assistance given Who has charge r worke social nent perma a ing retain the company's s. worker of e these welfar the of e a program inofbehaff the supervisor of Negro economics and the Negro As the work and understanding, -workers' advisory committee increased in scopeassist ant for advice.= his and isor various firms called upon the superv their workers. of status mic econo the higher for plans of tion forma the director of the and isor superv d the plant invite One exceptionally large of welfare for its Negro economics to outline a complete program submi tted, and it and Negro employees. Such a plan was made upthe of the firm. ls officia of ion teceived the commendation and adopt mics carecono Negro of isor superv ant assist the aries itiner In his Durham, cities: ing follow the into tment ried the program of the depar New Bern, BurBadin, Oxford, Henderson, Bricks, Tarboro, Dover,Hicko ry, Morganlington, Lexington, Spencer, Charlotte, Statesville,Raleigh, and High ury, Salisb lem, ton, Marion, Asheville, Winston-Sa assistant visited Point. At various other points the supervisor and hisdesire of workers the sing increa and ses Negro schools, making addres n of for greater efficiency and of employers for greater consideratio their workers. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING TB E WORLD WAR. 101 So pleased were the gov or and other State officials work of the Division of Negern with the 1or June 14, 1919, the annualro Economics that the governor called, committee, at which time themeeting of the Negro workers' advisory mendations concerning the worState supervisor submitted his recomtthe universal commendation ofk. Inasmuch as that report received persons throughout the Sta • given in full: te, it is ( U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Supervisor of Negro Economics for Nort h Carolina, Durham, N. C.I ROW TO KEEP NEGRO LABOR. New methods.—How to keep the Negro workers and mak ot is the problem now presente d to the South. It ought e them satisfied with their ff t is not natural for the Negr not be difficult of solu they really do not want to go.oes to leave their old homes in this wholesale fashion,tion. Som and e plan ters and industrial emonstrating by means of bett er pay and greater care for establishments are already c onsiderations will do in keeping thei r empl oyee s what such the Negroes loyally at an ore efficient Negro schools in the South; and the have for years been pointingwork Constructive possibilities.—Th the way. e improvement of race relation :an d rests largely on the s is a matter of time satisfactory solution of the ; 'Sc veml noteworthy tendenci economic problems of farm es were, however, noticeab N egro labor. The first Of these was ly strengthened by the life. loss the of tend ency of the lead oser together. Several State-wi de and county meetingsers of the two races to draw TII igration and the grievanc were held to discuss the es of the Negro. Until more eetings by the white leaders, and unti interest is taken in thes e they l are followed by fo r better law enforcement and educ ation they can not measconstructive programs te ndency of the Ne.„aro to move urab ly influence the . Holding Negro la6or in terest, absolutely,fairon thefarat.—There is a general agreement that friendly pers Ze rms of the contract at dealing in all business transactions, clear understanding ofonal the outset, itemized statemen the an d encouragement of the ts of indebtedness, good housing, Negroes to raise their food to gether, will attract and hold stuf fs as far poss as ible take , n labor on farms. Majority of Negroes are workers. —Since the great majority /class, their permanent interest of Negr oes are in the work ing s are as laborers, and these can ce of living wages and of good interests are in the mainteThe Negro's value to North Caro working conditions. lina.—There is no question as to to the South; but circumst the value of the Negro value also and the Negro, ances are bringing other sections to an appreciation of his too, is coming to uderstand somethin "community. If North Caro g of his worth to roust give more constructivelina would keep the Negro and have him satisfied the she thought than has been her cust •welfare. om to the Negro and his The outline of facts stated abov e should help us to approach 'greater understanding,greater our local problems with satisfactory adjustment. Withsympathy, and a great willingness to cooperate in their this unde rstanding and sympathy we to appreciate the stat are better able esmanlik rmaintaining the work of Negr e policy of the Department of Labor in creating and o econ omic s. On May 1, 1918, the Secretar y of Labor, Hon. William Negro constitutes about Wilson, realizing that the one-seventh of the total workingB.popu appointed a Negro, Dr. Geor lation of the coun ge E. Hayn es, as advi sory to the Secretary with the try 'Director of Negro Economic title ' s. This was done in orde r that the Negro might have representative in council when a dered; and that more extensiv ever matters affecting his welfare were being consie plans might be developed for improvin • and production in agricult g his effi cien cy ure and industry. There were appointed four Southern States and five Northern 'of Negro economics whoin States supervisors have established cooperative comm white and colored citi es of representative to work out together the local itte Negro workers' advisoryzens labo r prob lems. These committees, as they are called, have is carried on by the colored members, the whites serving as a program of work which successful has the work of the cooperating members. So committees proved that the Division have been continued for of Negro Economics separate from the other the important work of reconstruction. This work is not work of the depa rtme nt, but is carried on as an integral part. The supervisors are .United States Employment under the authority of the Federal directors of the Service. 102 North Carolina led the way.—On June 19, 1918, Gov. T. W. Bitkett, called a con ference in his office which was attended by 17 of the most substantial Negro citizens from all parts of the State and 5 white citizens. Out of this meeting came the plan of Negro workers' advisory committees, which is now operating in nine States. A State Negro workers' committee of leading Negro men and women of North Caroline was appointed and plans were formed for the creation of county and city committees. There were on April 1 of the present year 35 of these committees actively at work tu ,our State. The supervisor's report.—The supervisor of Negro Economics for North Carolina and the assistant supervisor have visited 23 counties since their organization, holding onferences with leading white and colored citizens which have been most helpful. On the basis of this personal investigation throughout the State, the supervisor wishce Ito present under separate headings, r summary of conditions as found: White employers and liberal white citizens.—There is the greatest cordiality and will. ingness to cooperate upon the part of these persons. In many instances they rivaled the colored citizens in spirit and enthusiasm. They spoke freely as well as the Ne-groes, and are asking on every hand to be called upon for cooperation. Some of them came from the rural districts and from near-by towns to attend the conferences. Many employers are already offering special inducements to their Negro workers. For example, a cotton oil company is giving free life insurance for $500 to all who remain in its employ for six months; many older employees have.been given free -insurance for $1,000. Knitting mill companies are carefully selecting colored girls for their plants and aregiving employment at good wages throughout the year. Lumber companies are giving bonuses to men who go to the lumber camps. The labor sitwnion in North Carolina.—Broadly speaking there is a scarcity of Negro 'labor in the State. All the industries are feeling this at present. But a greater muttering will be felt in the fall when it is time for crop gathering. The farmers are :suffering moat. Cotton is standing in the fields in all parts of the State from last year. It is highly desirable that leaders of white workmen cooperate with our committees. SPECIAL PROBLEMS INVOLVING NEGRO LABOR. 1. Tobacco, guano, and cotton-oil industries. Tobacco work is seasonal; the wages :are high and no great intelligence is required for much of the work. When the great warehouses open, crowds of workers leave year-round industries, often demoralizing the latter. The work of the industries here mentioned is dirty and does not invite workers of any particular skill. It is hard to promote cleaniness. efficiency, and thrift .among workers whose lives are haphazard, who come and go through the streets in ttheir working clothes and who are not generally considered as advanced workers. 2. Many of the seasonal plants run 12-hour shifts, often doubling the work day of Ithe most faithful employees. This leads to the workers "laying off' on Saturdays and Mondays. In one 12-hour plant visited the colored workers had "struck" for 'Saturdays off. 3. Lumber camps: In some instances the quarters provided for logging and mill 'camps have not attracted respectable workers and their families. "Floaters" and .crap-shooters were mainly the classes who were willing to go to such camps. Their work has, of course, not been satisfactory. On the other hand, one concern visited Thad made its location a real community and stimulated local pride in it. The manager 'of this concern spoke of his success in getting and holding labor of a splendid class in Ilia little town. 4. Hosiery mills: The plants visited are clean.and sanitary, well-lighted, and safe 'They pay good wages and run all the year. The owners are trying to select their workers carefully and to encourage the development of character. But very few of them have been highly successful in getting an adequate force; and most of the girls leave as soon as the tobacco work opens. Some of these plants have never been able to increase their output; and one of them is still compelled to close on Saturdays beeatise of a general shortage of girls. HOW OUR NEGRO WORKERS' ADVISORY COMMITTEES CAN MEET THESE PROBLEMS. In line with our official program of work our committees should— (1) Promote the efficiency of colored workers in order to overcome the loss from shortage of labor. (2) Encourage the use of farm machinery to increase farm production and to create a surplus of farm labor for use in the harvest time. (3) Prevail upon white leaders as well as white employers to cooperate with our 'committees. • THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. - 'THE ZiLtatO 41 WOltli LULING THE NV OitLD WA.11. 103 "(4) Encourage white employers in the tobacco, guano, and cotton oil industries to make the work as clean and as pleasing as possible. The instAlaSion of clothee lockers and washrooms will impress the workers with the advantage of coming and going from work in clean clothes. (5) Advise with employers whose plants are running long hours as to whether shorter hours will not mean greater efficiency and greater regularity. Many workers -are now averaging only four days a week; the proportion of "laying off" on Saturdays and Mondays is distressingly large. (6).Pay close attention to seasonal plants, following especially shortage and surplus, -and endeavoring to assist in transfer of workers to new jobs as these plants close. The United States Employment Service should be aided in recruiting Negro workers so -as not to draw away workers from "year-round" industries. Reports as to shortage nand surplus should be made regularly by the committeemen to the office of the supervisor so that colored workers may secure jobs without going great distances. (7) Suggest to employers of lumber concerns the development of community life In their camps, with better housing and family settlements. (8) Call to the attention of steady and capable young women in the community who are not employed the excellent sanitary condition of the knitting mills and -opportunity for steady employment in them. It is urgently hoped that all public spirited citizens of both races who have at heart rthe agricultural and industrial expansion of our State, and who realize that such expansion and development can only come through the improvement of Negro labor will sustain this far-sighted effort of the Department of Laboi and will give active :support to the program of work of the Division of Negro Economics, and to the under. L-signed, A. M. MOORE, M. D., Special Agent and Superrisor of Aegro Economicsfor North Carolina, Durham, N. C. JUNE, ]919. It is deemed to be in place to quote commendations from Hon. T. W .-1lickett, governor of North Carolina, regarding the Negro economics' work in his State: There is the greatest cordiality and willingness on the part of the white employers 7-.and liberal white citizens to cooperate with the Negroes. In many instances they rival the colored citizens in spirit and enthusiasm. They speak freely and are asking •on every hand to be called into cooperation. * * * This report sets out that in many industries and on the farms intelligent efforts are tbeing made to improve living conditions of the Negro and to afford him every incentive .to put forth his very best efforts. In one plant the committee devised a plan to publish an honor roll containing the names of all Negroes who worked steadily six days cent and there lin the week. Under this system the loafing fist was decreased 57 per * * .was a corresponding increase in the number of steady workers. * The North Carolina Farmers' Conference on Labor Problems, held .at Bricks, N. C., April 21, 1919, brought to the attention of the 'department its report and recommendations made to the State Negro workers' advisory committee concerning farm labor questions as they .affected Negroes in the State. This report and its recommendations are deemed to be of sufficient importance to justify its inclusion in this report, and attention is therefore called to the specific conditions -and recommendations of the farmers' conference: I. Greater use of farm machinery: (a) This committee should encourage greater use of farm machinery as a means of creating a surplus of farm labor. 1. The State and Federal governments should be urged to aid the farmers in securing farm tractors, ditchers, tobacco setters, potato planters. and other needed implements. _2. The owners of adjoining farms should be encouraged to purchase MAxhineu.jointly. 104 THE NE61t0 AT WORE DUR/NG THE WOULD WA11. 2. Cooperative undertakings: (n) Progressive farmers are running cooperative cotton gins, sawmills, and warehouses and are purchasing guano and fertilizer together. Such efforts are not only meritorious as business enterprises; they often help the farmer to market his products quickly, obtain a money surplus, and improve his farm. (b) Cooperative harvesting should be encouraged in order to save the crops. This practice already exists in some communities. 3. Improvement of farm life: ent of farm (a) Every possible encouragement should be given to the improvem life. g "after1. This committee shall cooperate with organizations forwardin . the-war" programs to render rural life more pleasant and profitable 2. Plantation owners and farmers who employ Negro tenants should be urged to provide them with good homes. 3. Full information concerning Government Farm Loans should be secured and given to the farmers. 4. Athletics and outdoor sports and all forms of regulated amusements should be encouraged, as well as indoor entertainments at schools and churches for winter evenings. 4. Student farm labor: labor from the (a) It should be the aim of this committee to divert such student cities, teethe summer vacations, as can be more profitably employed on the farms. acres of 1. Many students are now realizing from $300 to $500 on two (21also. tobacco, having sufficient time left to do general farm work own account should 2. Children of farm owners or tenants farming on their and employers who be encouraged to remain at home, and parents ts with receive the services of students should make such settlemen . schooling them as will adequately provide for the next year's labor: of ion Distribut 5. when seasonal indus(a) Efforts should be made to recruit workers for the farms tries close in the cities. office. (b) Cooperate with the nearest United States Employment Service n: Educatio 6. (a) White farmer and employer: to 1. White farmers and employers of Negro farm labor should be urged of cooperate with Negro farmers in promoting the common interests the rural communities. (b) Negro farmer and farm laborer: with 1. Negro farmers and farm laborers should be urged to cooperate white farmers and employers in promoting the common interests df the rural communities. use 2. Lectures in colored churches and lodges on modern farm methods, of farm machinery, improvement of farm life, race pride, industry and thrift, etc. 3. Farmers' conferences. 4. "Buy-a-farm" movement. 7. Farm demonstrators: (a) City and county officials should be urged to provide funds for the appointment of Negro farm demonstrators. the direction (b) The breeding of registered live stock should be extended under of the county farm demonstrators. before planting (c) Surveys should be made as to shortage and surplus of laboror extended and and harvesting crops so that acreage might be reduced crops saved. -and digest this If every man, black and white, in the United States, could Tead keep and use shall I questions. our all solving toward way great a go would report, it * * * work. future my for basis a as report this United The Chief Justice,of the State, the Federal Director of the ed express all rs employe of number a and Service ment -States employ er charact and scope the with themselves as profoundly impressed ee. committ the by done •of the work CHAPTER XXVI. REPORT OF WORK IN OHIO. The number of Negro migrants who set d in trial centers of Ohio the principal induse large. Estimatestle -centers by investigawer tors of the Departmentsecured upon visits to those of Labor in 1917 give so .4efinite notion of these me are largely general estimanumbers. The following figures, of cou tes rse, and probably should in some cases, increased to be double, and a large extent as of September 1, 1919. , IC leveland 1C incinnati •C olumbus Dayton 'Toledo 'Canton Akron :Middletown "Camp Sherman, Chillicot he Portsmouth Baltimore & Ohio cam 'Pennsylvania Railroadps camps Contraetors 'Traction companies 10,000 6,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 1,000 2,000 300 400 800 1,000 1,000 Total 1 37,500 Negro Migration *Office, Washington. in 1916-1917, Appendix to report of Francis E. Tyson. Gov ernment Printing It will be noticed that All iance, Bellaire, Hamilton, Springfield, Steubenville Ironton, included in this survey , Youngstown, and Zanesville wereLima, not . The se points, as well as 'contained a large nu other cities, mb er of iro n, ste el, coal, coke, and oth industries which called er for the kind of labor whi readily able to supply ch Negroes were . As the fig ure s indicate, large number sof Negroes migrated int Therefore, this State reco Ohio and were distributed over it generallys. eiv the Department of Labor. ed early consideration in the program of Organszation—Su visor of Negro economirs.—The State supervisor ofper departmental Neg ro eco nomics, Charles E. Hall, wa -with the view of general s ointed eff ici enc y to the department and to app "of Ohio. For more than the State 18 years Mr. Hall had been an the Bureau of the Cen employee of merce, and had had consus in the United States Department of Comsid era ble experience in field work. He iipervised the gathering had and preparation of sta ing to the manufacturin tistical material relatg int ere sts an d to the Negro population United States. He in the d received special comm Department of Commha endation from the er ce for thi s wor k. period of Negro mig ing 1916, the early ion to the North, Mr.Dur to the Department rat Hall had been detailed of La work in a report of mo bor for field investigations. His valuable re than ordinary worth, first steps by the Depa served as a basis for rtment of Labor. 105 106 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. Being a native of the Middle West, Mr. Hall enjoyed a wide contact with public officials and representative citizen, through whom it was believed the fullest cooperation could be obtained. He took the field in Ohio on June 17, 1918,just preceding the State conference. The later success of his work gave substantial indorsement to the judgment of the department in assigning him to Ohio. Conference on Negro labor.—Following the assignment of Super. -visor Hall to the State, under the auspices of the United States Employment Service, plans for the Ohio conference on Negro labor were started with the hearty cooperation of both State and Federal officials, the State Council of Yational Defense and a number of private citizens and agencies. Special mention should be made of the personal interest and attention of Gov.James M.Cox and Mr. Fred D. Croxton, chairman of the State Council of National Defense. The conference was called by the Department of Labor to get ac tion upon those things that needed to be done in Ohio to prom ote the welfare of wage erners and to stimulate the production for w inning the war. Dr. F. L. Hagerty, professor of sociology, Ohio S tate University, presided. After considerable discussion and a numb er of addresses the body of the work of the conference was done, through committees, reports from which were adopted for the further guidance of the department's work in the State. Some of the committees' recommendations were as follows; 1. Investigation into the difficulties arising from discrimination against Negroes :by local labor unions. 2. Efforts to stabilize labor by giving new opportunities for promotion,by standardizing wages, by reclassifying work by the employment of colored foremen, and by fedu cational work among the working classes with the view of making them satisfied with their occupations. 3. An endeavor to employ the Negro worker in full accordance with his fitness. 4. The opening of new places of employment in keeping with the fitness of Negro wage-earners. 5. The conducting of welfare work in plants and factories. 43. The setting up of facilities for community recreation. 7. Increased attention to rooms, lockers, ventilation, and adequate space for employ ees. 8. Special attention to health problems. The committee on industrial conditions reported to the conference that -there was sufficient-work to be secured in the State for Negro Laborers in industry doing Government and other work and that the 'Negro laborers were generally reliable. It also reported that in some industries there was discrimination as to the kinds of work and conditions under which the work was done with reference to Negro laborers. The committee stated that the demand for labor was more than the supply and in order that the Government might get the greatest return out of the amount of the actual and potential energy .of the Negro workmen it was recommended that where skilled Negro laborers were doing unskilled work because of their inability to secure work at the skilled trades on account of color that the Government adopt rules for governmental contracts and make a special effort to see that every such man be given the opportunity to do that for which he was best fitted. The final recommendation of this committee closed with the averment that "race or color should be no bar to advancement." THE NEGRO AT WORK D HE WoRLD -WAR. 107 The committee on organization adopted with modifications to meet 'local conditions for use in Ohio the form of constitution for the Negro workers' advisory committee which the department had approved. The _committee on Negro women in industry submitted a report on this subject of such special importance for future procedure that it is reproduced here in full: 1. We, as a committee, recommend that a Negro woman be placed on the State committee of women in industry, recently named by the Ohio Branch, Council of National Defense. 2. We, as a committee, recommend that the 'United States Employment Service place Negro placement secretaries in any employment office where numbers of colored -women seek employment, to be determined by the State director. 3. We,as a committee, recommend that we indorse the standard which the women's committee, Ohio Branch, Council of National Defense, have drawn up through the committee on women in industry. 4. We recommend that this committee bring to the attention of the national committee on housing any housing conditions as they affect Negro women. 5. We recommend that a pamphlet be drawn up stating the necessity of loyalty to duty and efficiency on the part of the worker, and the financial loss entailed through the neglect of such, upon the part of the employer and community, be given each -worker through the employment office. 6. We, as a committee, recommend that a woman be placed on the committee of !hygiene and sanitation, if the committee appointed this morning is a standing coraimi ttee. 7. We recommend that no worker shall be permitteil to leave her present employment without giving a week or more notice before being accepted by another employer. 6. We recommend and urge that a Negro welfare worker be placed in industries .over Negro women as a solution to the employers' problem of adjustment. 9. We recommend the encouragement of an adequate system of training within 'plants which recognizes the difference between showing and teaching for all ntw employees. Respectfully submitted. Miss JENNIE D. PORTER, Chairman, Cincinnati, Ohio. Miss ELME MOUNTAIN, Secretary, Columbus, Ohio. Hon. James M. Cox, governor of Ohio, was present at the conferfence and made the closing address, which included the following remarks: I have no disposition to interfere with your deliberations, but upon the statement 'of Dr. Haynes, with whom I have had a brief but delightful conference with reference to the earnestness of this meeting and the fact that it seems to be the most serious, if -not the most successful, meeting that has been held in any of the States, I felt that we would be derelict in our responsibility to the duties that come and go each day, as ?governor of this State, if I did not come here and express my appreciation of your coming. First, we need your people and need them badly in the war. We, likewise, need your people and need them badly in the industrial life of this country. Last winter I had the privilege of visiting Tuskegee Institute. I had a long visit -with that splendid type of your race, Dr. Moton. The opportunity was mine of making a survey of what was being done at this institute. I took pains to make considerable tinquiry with reference to national and industrial conditions in the State of Alabama, luid I am prepared to say, in the candor of my own judgment, at least, that you, as -representatives of the race, are just now coming into your own. Even in the Southern States, when the great flow started northward, the southern people found they could not get along without the colored people. The war gives you a great opportunity. I can say with pride, now, and reiterate it all through the corridor of time, that not a single member of your race is following the standard of the Kaiser. I have had the opportunity of reviewing colored troops, .and I hope you will not feel that I am speaking flippantly when I recall the circum.8 ' stances of reviewing the troops at Camp Sherman. Capt. Talbott, with Gen. Glenn staff, came over to the reviewing stand and said: "I have just left the colored regiment, and they are so full of pep that if they do not dance the cakewalk when they come by, I will be surprised." They presented the best line of the day—it was 108 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. generally conceded to be the best line of the day by the general, the persons in the reviewing stand, and the thousands of white people who were assembled there. I hope that when the war is over we can then join together members of our race and yours in helping to work out in Ohio what they have in Alabama. The colored man is here, and here to stay, and since that is true we not only want also want to give to improve the educational opportunities that come to him butIwe ask you, as colored . attention to vocational training. A plan is being incubated as we can to the Tuskegee people, to help us in making in Ohio as close an approach you represent the assurance those to home carry to you want I Alabama. Institute in in your State or to the the people to either render, can State this help that whatever desire. your of evidence an but needs front, the at soldiers The Department of Labor takes this special opportunity to thank every agency and every individual who helped to make successful the Ohio conference August 5, 1919. Negroes workers' advisory committees.—Immediately after the confer. ence, Supervisor Hall, with the assistance of public-spirited citizens of Ohio, recommended to the department a number of the strongest ' adpersons for appointment to service on the State Negro workers of 25 ees committ city and county, local, to and ee, visory committ able in consider workers Negro where important centers of the State numbers resided. The complete personnel of the State committee follows: Edward Berry, Athens; Leroy W. Bobbins and Chas. C. Cowgill, Mletown; Chas. L. Johnson and Chas. P. Dunn Springfield; Robert K. Hodges, D. R. Williams, Alexander H. Martin, and (Miss) Hazel Mountain, Cleveland; Chas. W. Bryant, Harry B. Alexander, J. H. Hendrick, and (Mrs.) E. W. Moore, Columbus; J. E. Ormes, Wilberforce; R. E. Holmes, Xenia; F. D. Patterson, Greenfield; Laws, "Joseph L. Jones, H.S. Dunbar,Fred. A. Geier, and (Miss) Anna Scott, Cincinnati; B. M. Ward, B. H. Fisher, and (Mrs.) Minnie H. T. Toledo; Rev. W.0. Harper, and T. E. Milliken, Youngstown;Bates, Elliott, Dayton; Rev. A. M.Thomas,Zanesville;(Mrs.)Stephen Chillicothe; James French, Sandusky; T. E. Greene, Akron. Persons serving on these committees did so at the special request s, where of the Secretary of Labor, and, in but one or two instance , of business pressure extreme with ted were confron the appointees sm were the invitations declined. Thrcrtighout the work the patrioti and spirit of service of the citizenship of Ohio made possible the successful carrying out of virtually- every plan which the department launched, and the Ohio committee, like similar committees in 10 other States, assisted in the handling of industrial problems with -a maximum degree of satisfaction. ns in Surveys of labor conditions.—The general industrial conditio the by or directly or supervis Ohio were investigated either by the of form a on or supervis to the d reporte who s, member ee committ copy: a is g blank, of which the followin NEGRO WAGE EARNERS IN OHIO. - Informationfor supervisor of Negro economics. To members ofcounty and city committees of Negro workers' advisory Please fill out blank and return. 1. Are there many out of work in your city or county? 2. Have many been released during the past 30 days? 3. If so, were they absorbed by other occupations? 4. Have any new avenues of employment been opened? 4. If So, state the kind of work. committee. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING 'THE WORLD WAR. 109 Remarks. (Under "Remarks" please furnish the supervisor with any other information which you think should be brought to his attention.) Information furnished by Address. 'Date: The first general survey developed the following facts: The Negro workers had not been greatly disturbed because of the ,many industrial readjustments and temporary suspensions of the manufacturing enterprises not essential to winning the war, during the war and preceding the signing of the armistice. The counties of Hamilton, Lucas, and Montgomery, whose principal cities are Cincinnati, Toledo, and Dayton, respectively, were largely engaged on war contracts. In Toledo the opportunities for employment were steadily improving. Local industries in Cleveland, Columbus, Youngstown, Akron, Canton, Lima, Delaware, Greenville, 'Steubenville, Zanesville, Chillicothe, Sandusky, Portsmouth, Marietta, and other centers were employing large numbers of Negro workers. In Butler County, the American Rolling Mills were giving emp1 oyment to hundreds of workers. In Lima,the Swift Packing Co.was giving employment to Negro men and women, who were making good. In Youngstown, Mahoning County, an increasing number of elevato r rls and male truck drivers were given employment. In Dayton a large firm was making calls for considerable numbers of Negro laborers. This company was able to guarantee prospective workers housing facilities of the better type. Columbus reported a garment manufacturer who was unable to get a sufficient number of N egro women who could operate power machines. Youngstown rep orted insufficient wages($9 and $10a week)for girls. Dayton reported an industry using from 15 to 30 colored women,sorting rags on a piecework basis, at $15 per week. Job selling.—Among the special conditions found in Ohio was one w hich related to job selling in industrial establishments; and there is in corporated herein a full report of the Ohio supervisor respecting this condition, evidences of which were very apparent. This report was approved by the Director of Negro Economics and sent to advisory committeemen in all parts of the State. JOB SELLING IN INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS TO NEGROES. To prevent job selling by foremen, assistant foremen, "straw bosses" and "go'betweens" a very comprehensive bill was enacted by the last General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Industrial Commission of Ohio, the penalty being as follows: "SacTiorr 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act stall be fined for the first offense not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundted dollars and the vans of prosecution; and for the second or any subsequent offensO not less than two 'hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and the costs of prosedtition.". "Sacnor; 6. The Industrial Commission of Ohio shall have full power, jurisdiction, and authority to administer the provisions of this act." Before the migration of Negroes from the South had reached a considerable vol. time, the foreign-born wage earners were the ones who were the victims of this pernicious system and the Department of Investigation and Statistics secured definite information that the collection of fees for jobs, or assessments of various kinds by foremen was a well-established custom in many of the industrial establishments 'through the State. It was found at the time the investigation was made that the price paid to foremen was generally $15, $20, or $25 for a job paying approximately 25 .pents per hour, and that the custom appeared to have become so well established that 1.1.1) THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. no demand for payment needed to be made as the applicant understood that he must make a payment of money before he got the work. Definite information was secured by the department to the effect that the foreman seldom received the money directly from the applicant, but usuallyshrewd had a number of men who acted as "go-betweens" and who were generally "straw bosses" or workmen. This system of petty graft became so pronounced and the demands of the grafters became so insistent that the investigators experienced no great difficulty in securing the evidence upon which a number.of indictments were made under the old law relating to private employment agencies which was not broad enough in scope, however, to fit the entire situation. The new law includes the acceptance of fees, gifts or gratuities, or promises to pay a fee or to make a gift under the agreement or with the understanding that the grafter will undertake to secure or assist in securing work for the applicant, or with the understanding that he will advance or undertake to secure or assist in securing an advance in pay or prevent or undertake to prevent or assist in preventing the discharge or reduction in pay or position of the worker in the employ of the company. The law which was enacted by the eighty-second general assembly covers all of these points and carries with it the penalty indicated above. There are indication that there has been a revival of the practice of job selling, but that instead of working on the foreigners, the grafters have turned their attention to the helpless, ignorant, and destitute Negroes who are coming from the South to seek opportunities to better their condition, and it is not unlikely that the system of job selling in industrial establishments in Ohio will again be investigated as the practice is not only unlawful and highly dishonorable but has a tendency to destroy the morale of the workers and thereby seriously affect production. All such cases should be reported. CHARLES E. HALL, Supervisor of Negro Economics. Living conditions of Negro workers.—It was the experience of the department that unfavorable living conditions, more than anything else, made difficult the advancement of the Negro worker in efficiency and increased contentment. At times the housing conditions were due to lack of employment; at times the conditions were due to lack of pride on the part of the worker; and at times the boardinghouse keeper of the low type set up conditions which necessity forced the working men to accept. As to the latter class, in one instance Supervisor Hall reported as follows: OCTOBER 11, 1918. Dr. GEORGE E. HAYNES, Negro Virector of Economics, Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: On the evening of October 9, 1918, I visited the boarding and lodging Louse conducted by ,a colored man, for the ,Ohio. Co., This very dilapidated two-story frame building is located at Street, and is known as . It is the most filthy boarding and lodging house that has come under .my observation. A foul-smelling closet adjoins the unclean dining room. I noticed broken windows upstairs in the sleeping quarters, and in the south wing even the skylights were without glass or other protection from the elements. There is no shower or bathroom for the 42 men who occupy this house, and it has been found necessary to borrow a washtub from the neighbors to accommodate the imen who wish to take a bath. The place is heated by small stoves and natural gas heaters and the building is lighted by electricity. The kitchen was fairly clean but the range had no hot-water boiler, which greatly inconveniences the cooks and other kitchen help asI well as the boarders. A number of the dirty sunken floors need jacking up and the rooms would not be less attractive if they were painted or whitewashed. Although there are a few new bed mattresses, I found most of them alarmingly filthy with bed coverings in the same condition. Although the reare plenty of rooms in the house, many of them are unfurnished. Upon inquiry I was informed that the men coming off the night shift are obliged to occupy the rooms just vacated by the men going on the day shift. In some instances four of five men sleep in a room about 10 by 12 at the same time. Some THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING- THE WORLD WAR. 111 of the bed springs are worn out, necessitating the sleeper to lie in most uncomfortable positions, regardless of the fact that he has been working hard and that the efficiency of his work depends largely upon comfortable repose. There is no assembly room, music (except nickel-in-the-slot piano), pool, billiards, or books. For these most inferior accommodations the men are charged $7.25 per week for room and board as compared with $4.55 per week charged by the Co.; located in the same city and within a few blocks. The Co. maintains a large boarding and lodging house, known as "The -,"which is now being pap painted, and generally overhauled. is extremly insanitary and a disease breeder, a condition In my opinion, the which could not have escaped the attention of the local officials of the company, one of whom visits the house daily for the purpose of checking up. These conditions are doubtless the causes of the large turnover and inefficiency of the colored workers of this company. Respectfully, CHARLES E. HALL, Supervisor of Negro Economies, Ohio. This report was approved by the Director of Negro Economics for submission to the general manager of the — Company. Subsequent action by the company in the renovation of this place and change of these conditions followed the receipt of this report by him. Critical housing conditions in Cleveland together with other economic problems,gave to that city a special need which the department planned to give attention to through a local representative member of the Negro workers' advisory committee. This plan, however, was delayed and finally given up because of necessary changes in the policy of the department. Acute housing conditions were found also at Akron, Cleveland, Dayton, Lima, Portsmouth, Toledo, and Youngstown; and, subsequently, the Department of Labor,through the United States Housing Corporation, had surveys made in several of these cities, but the sudden termination of the war, accompanied by a readjustment of the industries to a peace-time basis, threw a great many persons out of work and the housing condition was somewhat relieved through the general exodus of Negro and white wage earners to other localities within and without the State where there was a shortage of labor and where adequate housing facilities obtained. One permanent result in stimulating building and loan associations is fully described below. The failure of congressional appropriations for the furtherance of the Negro economics work unfavorably affected the industrial progress of this class of wage earners who had watched with increasing interest the development of this new agency which was established to better their industrial welfare and to act as a clearing house for industrial opportunities. Men were no longer obliged to live in idleness, because they were able at all times to 1 earn through the supervisor where work could be obtained, the rate of wages, the hours of labor, and the attitude of the residents of any community. toward Negro labor. Negro professional men, skilled and unskilled workers, and others, freely communicated with the Director of Negro Economics and with the State supervisor for the purpose of securing a location or an opportunity in a community where conditions were favorable to their prosperity, and the failure of appropriations to provide for the continuance of this field work was keenly felt. Discrimination in occupations on account of color was one of the conditions which, in some instances, confronted the Negro worker. The Ohio Conference on Negro Labor made recommendations on this point. Whether such discrinlinations were approved by private or 112 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. public employers made a differenee in the zeticn which the department could take. The privatz einr :loyer f__:.,.;ht hire whomsoever he chose. Aside from an appeal for justice and fair play on his part, the department was unable to tal-.3 any specific action in such cases. Where such discriminati6us, however, were all'6ged to exist within the ranks of employers who beemise of war contracts or other relations came under the Jurisdiction of the Federal Government, investigations were made and definite steps taken to remove such discriminations. Complaine;.—CoL4laints, other than those noted above, were generally of three types: 1. Discrimination in the matter of opportunities for the Negro worker. 2. Unfair treatment of the Negro worker by employers. 3. Inefficiency of the Negro workers. On the uhole, there was a minimum amount of complaint in Ohio either by employer or employee. Thc sta ap of efficiency Was often placed upon the Negro 7:orker, and the Negro workur often recognized the effort on the part of employers assuring to hit, equal pays equal hours, recreation facilities, pleasant rektiuns with 7.iiite workers, and decent living conditions. Results.—Under the supervision of the United States .uployment Service, the State supervisor of Negrc economics .1a,cle direct reports of placement of Negro workers to the Federal director. He assisted the employment offices throughout the State with their_probloms placing Negro workers. Reports of the United States ii 1 yment Service give him the recognition for this help. Placemento were many and varied. Services were frequently rendered to filns .rhich had not formerly employed Negro workers. Following sigKing of the armistice and the resulting nonemployment situation the efforts for the returning Negro soldiers and sailors were carried along side by side with the efforts of the Federal and State machinery for the employment of all persons. An outstanding.feature of the Ohio work was the projtct cf furthering the organization of building and loan associations arlong Negroes of the State as one concrete means of remedying the housing situation. In a letter dated May 8, 1919, which was given Statewide publicity, Supervisor Hall made the following points: 1. Industrial opportunities in Ohio are ever opening. 2. The housing facilities offered to Negro workers are inadequate: 3. Negro people themselves should make some of the financial arrangements for meeting the housing situation. 4. Overcrowded and insanitary housing conditions destroy the efficiency of the worker. 5. The home owner is ever a permanent working factor, contributing to the growth of the State and to its civic and commercial progress. Thereafter Supervisor Hall compiled, from the Laws of Ohio, a skeleton outline of the statutes regulating the organizing and conducting of building and loan associations. He also formed a plan and model constitution for such associations among colored people of the several localities. This outline of laws and plans was placed in the hands of members of the Negro workers' advisory committees and of special groups in the cities and counties throughout the THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. State having a considerable Negro popu by talks made by the supervisor to lation. This was supplanted interested groups in various places. Wilberforce University gave speci building and loan matters in three centers al courses of lectures on of the State. So numerous became the requests for additional info rmat found it necessary to prepare a model form of ion that the supervisoi for distribution. In rapid succession buil constitution and by-laws ding and loan associations were organized in several Ohio cities wher e they are greatly needed. Requests for the "Ohio plan" were made by persons living in Colorado, District of Columbia, Georalso Maryland, Michigan, and New York, and several associations ingia, these States have since been organized. All are reported to be doin and.are helping to alleviate the housingg good business financially conditions. Companies in other places are proposed and will doubtles s be launched. As this bulletin goes to press report has come in from another Ohio city in which Negro citizens have incorporated another building and loan association capitalized at $300,000. In carrying out the purpose with which it was charged by Congress, the Department of Labor has steadfastl y trator regarding union and nonunion work been a neutral adminisers, and has endeavored to promote alike the interests of all work white and colored, male and female, union and nonunion. With ers, has sought to keep fully informed of thethis in view, the department tions toward Negroes in territories wher attitude of labor organizae the question is a vital one f)1 amicable relations of the two races in industry.. Consequently, statement of the chan ge in the attitude of organized labor in Ohio during this period of special note. The copy of a letter of Mr. Thomas J. Donnelly,issecr tion of Labor, outlining the attitudeetary-treasurer, Ohio Federaof that organization in the matter of unionizing Negro wage earn ers covers this important point: coLusieus, Oino, January 22, 1919, Mr. CHAs. E. HALL, Supervisor of Negro Economies, Department of Labor, Columbus, Ohio. DEAR Mr. HALL: Supplementing our Negro labor and the unionizing of color conversation recently upon the subject of writing you that at this time best result ed men in this section of the country, I am s would be obtained, in my opinion, if effort should be made to bring into the s cated in the North, where through union those colored men who were born and educonta associ ct and ation with the whites they have famed the same viewpoint on effort, have the same "pep," industrial affairs, see the same necessity for a sustained and the same deter minat prote ion to ct their rights as WAge earners and as citizens. These men can be taken in by the organizations representing both the skilled and unskilled branc hes of the union labor s, and I believe that no great objection would be found, especially if in communities where there large numbers of both white are colored, distinct locals were organized; but where there are only a few whites or and a few colored men following the same trade it would be advisable for them to belong to the same local. A possible objection to a mixed local in communities where there are large numbers of both races employed line .of work is that both eleme in the same nts organization and policies. This might vote along the color line upon questions of of cours e would have a tendency to destroy the solidarity of the organization and to discount its work. I believe that once these colored workers were fairly well organ ized they would be a valued aid in organizing the illiterate ones who have migrated from the South and give them a cleare view northern ideals and the respon r of sibilities accompanying citizenship. While it has been my experience that color ed men as a rule make good union men, P do not think that the color to skilled industry and membeed agricultural illiterates from the South are adaptable rship in unions of the skilled white workers. 1989°-20 S 114 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. Negroes reared in Ohio, having the advantage of the public schools in the State, should be adaptable to skilled industry and no doubt could secure membership in the unions of the skilled white workers or have separate organizations chartered by the international trades-unions. Places could possibly be found for a number of southern colored agricultural illiterates at common labor and in semiskilled trades. They would then be eligible to membership in the unions of the workers in these lines of industry. Improved machinery has greatly lessened the demand for muscle, time has increased the demand for men who are trained to use their but at the same heads as well as their hands. A great number of accidents in the Ohio factories and mills during the past few years has largely been due to the employment of illiterate foreigners from Europe, who formerly followed agricultural pursuits, and the employmentsouthern of numbers of Negroes of the same class from the South would result, no doubt, in alarge like number of accidents. Until they become factory broken, more punctual and dependable in attendance, more intelligent, and more accustomed to the northern method of living they will not really constitute an asset of large value to skilled industry. Yours, very truly, THOS. J. DONNELLY, Secretary-Treasurer, Ohio State Federation of Labor. Iii closing the work in Ohio, after the failure of appropriations, Supervisor Hall gave the following statement of concrete results of his efforts: 1. The growth and stimulation of the opinion among colored workers that the Government has recognized them industrially, that they now have a medium through which to voice their complaints, and that because of the moral effect of such recognition they will be less subject to exploitation. 2'. A more helpful attitude on the 'part of employers and a less hostile one on part of white wage earners brought about through contact with colored membersthe of commit tees. 3. The gradual elimination of racial objection at "the gate" or point of hiring, through the cultivation of superintendents, managers, and directors of employment. 4. The announcement of the official attitude of the Ohio State Federation of Labor concerning skilled and unskilled Negro labor. 5. The increase in efficiency and decrease in labor turnover brought about through the knowledge or belief that they would be given a "square deal" industrially. 6. The awakening of Negroes, through the circulation of frequent State-wide reports, to the industrial opportunities open to them. • 7. The location, through questionnaires sent to county committees, of points where a surplus or shortage of Negro labor obtained, and the adjustment of these conditions, when possible. through the Clearance Division of the United States Employment Service. 8. The placing of movable wooden racks on cold cement floors of shower baths in several industrial plants in order to encourage a more frequent use of the bath. 9. The closing of several dilapidated, filthy, disease-breeding Negro boarding and lodging houses maintained by large manufacturing companies. The personal inspection of other lodging houses, camps, etc. 10. The creation of a better understanding of the functions of the Department of Labor, and a greater appreciation of governmental agencies brought about through the efforts of the State and county Negro worker's advisory committees. 11. The development of cooperative groups through the encouragement and intormation given to committees in communities where the organization of a building and loan association would be both practicable and advisable. 12. The appointment of several colored "labor scouts" whose efficient work in congested industrial centers was of great value to the service and to the Negro wage earners. The opinions and attitude of white and colored citizens of Ohio on the work of Negro economics in that State show something of its effect. A few excerpts from the communications to the department are given below: You have done a great work over this whole State and we all appreciate your worth. That is why we are willing to give our time gratis. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 115 of DecemberYour circular with reference to Negro.economics.in Ohio under date further communication, 14th was received by us and read with lively interest. Anybe appreciated. We areor publication you may have on this subject I am sure will as it ifs interested in this problem as you are, and desire to help in its solution so far possible for us to do so. I sincerely hopeI am glad to know that your work is progressing satisfactorily. Governme nt with that we will continue to hold our own industrially, and thatinthe the Department of. continue to cooperate with as and allow us representation Labor. I shall be glad to cooperate with you to the extent of my ability in trying,to bring• about the conditions we both desire during readjustment. coming. Words are in I received your circular, and most heartily welcome its thing continue to come to express my appreciation. Please let the good this way. I believe that you, The work you are in calls for a first-class race man's efforts, and I am pleased to. should be retained with the Government in thetosame capacity. brought in touch with have met you, to have learned of your work, and have been it, and I believe you will be successful. I am glad you have completed your organization, and I assure you you have my. full support. United States EmployIn returning your information blank, I would state that theand that your methods. ment Service is filling a long-felt need among our people,Let me hear from you at. meet my approval and will receive my earnest support. any time. simply the information is it Congratulations on your report. Keep it up. Just means ultimate solidarity and. tremendous factor in cementing the race, and that sucoess. and labor conditions: Your very concise and yet informative letter relative to labor You are to be eondocument. splendid a is It hand. to came Negroes the among beet and most the tips finger your at have you it in for , production its Fautlated upon Negro in this iminformation it has been my good fortune to receive relative to thein all your efforts._ you success continued wish I Ohio. in endeavor of field portant thank you for the circular letter concerning the readjustment of Negro labor. Keep me posted, and if I can serve you, call on me. Employment. Service, and We have also got good service from the United States Mr. Hall, State supervisor, is doing a great work. doing in Ohio for the I wish to congratulate you upon the excellent work you are opportunity to coopindustrial advancement of our people. We all appreciate the erate with you and the Department of Labor. not for publicatiop't Your letter with the inclosed statement marked "Personal,in sending this inforkindness for your ou to grateful are We received. been has mation. Cincinnati to organize a I wish to advise you that as a result of your efforts here inhave the Industrial Savbuilding and loan association managed by colored men, we d doing business January ings & Loan Co., incorporated for $300,000, which commencenext week or 10 days andt the 31. We will be prepared to make our first loan within opt prospects are very bright for a large and growing company. CHAPTER XIX.. REPORT OF WORK IN PEN NSYLVANIA. 10).e war Conditions.—Negro labor can not any abnormal inclusion in Pennsylvania be said to have enjoyed industries. The historical and political development of Pennsylv ania has not been such as to attract a large Negro population. Pennsylvania labor was pTobab formed, largely, by fore ly laborer in the unskilledigners comprised of the so-called "Hunkie" and class was probably made up semiskilled occupations. The skilled Pennsylvania along with theof American labor which developed in was supplemented, under the development of industry and which of demand and supp artisans and mechanics who law by skilled came into Pennsylvanialy, from other winters. Even the Negro mining class had been employed, previous to the war, in fairly large proporti ons in Pennsylvania mining districts of the southwestern sect ion. In the Pittsburgh district,. more than in any other section, the Negro worker, before the war, probably enjoyed a greater incl n into all branches of labor tha he did at any other point in the usio p State. The Pittsburgh Negro had long sinc e become a very desirable citizen, a competent worker, and mills at Pittsburgh, "rollers" anda thrifty individual. In the steel ployed at salaries sometimes as other types of workers were emlarge as $250 per month. These persons maintained good homes and contributed to a high typ civic life in Pittsburgh. Now and e of then a technical worker fron some of the best American universities was a supervisory in positionx in a steel mill. Industrial advances during the great industries of Pennsylvania uar.—With the stress of war the through sheer necessity, became objective centers of a tremendou,sly never-failing law of demand and supp large mass of workers. The ly was exercising great influence in drawing laborers. To the from locations within the State of Negro worker, whether he came States, or from the South, which Pennsylvania or other Northern was pouring into northern industries its thousands of Negro migr demand and supply was very effeants, the influence of the law of ctive. Consequently Negro lab of every type was drawn or Philadelphia to Pittsburgh.into employment in Pennsylvania, from When the Division of Negro Eco nomics was established, the plans of the Secretary of Labor call ed for the development of this wor the Negro, choosing first the poin k of sections of the country. For ts of the greatest needs in different this reas on the work of the division was somewhat delayed in its The machinery of the Unit beginning in Pennsylvania. ed States Employment Service had been well established in Pennsylvania . work were perfected and a wor and as soon as plans for the Negro tablish a cooperating office, firstker available, it was decided to esofficial, Harry E. Arnold, of the , at Erie, Pa. A competent Negro Was accordingly detailed to thatUnited States Employment Service, city. THE RI NG N EGRt) AT WORK DC THE WORLD WAR. 117 affecting some .very critical problems It that time Erie presentedro workers. At the outset of the war e. But ori the relations of white and Neg ut 300 Negroes residing in Eri 00 persons, 2,0 there was said to be abopop to ulation had increased November 18, 1918, this comers, practically all of whom had come the majority of them new g conditions most seriously affected the from the South. Housin Negro economics activities first looked wded bunk Negroes in Erie. When the ro laborers were living in ncro of Negro fetio in upon the situation, 200 dNeg por ger lar The ps. ice. Conhouses and hastily erecte edcam in domestic and personal serv loy emp e wer s ker wor ed against e ect mal t of employees was dir sin g condisiderable complaint on the paraus hou the and e of this female.. and "irregularity of service." Bec e nover of labor in Erie, mal e rapid and tions, there was a large tur mad es viti acti department's The changes brought by the situation as the following paragraphs the in s nge cha far-reaching Harry E show: Negro special agent, of Labor, Organization of committees.—The ary ret Sec the of n ve-described pla comong str Arnold,following the aboNeg a hed nomics, establis ro purThe through the Director of peratiEco e. ng white members in Eri exy usl vio mittee of colored and coo n pre bee e hav tee h a commit poses and functions of suc eafter, as soon as ther and ed low fol e Eri of plained. A labor survey n well g'ot in hand, similar plans were outthe local situation had bee , Pittsburgh, Washington, Connellsyille, , Wilkinsburg, lined for Meadville, Sharon Beaver Falls, Sewickley nstowa, SteelHarrisburg, New Castle, ong Joh , ahela, Uniontown Braddock, Homestead, Mon , Yor k, Gettysburg, Williamsport, Lan ton, Carlisle, Chambersburg ers. cent al stri indu and other ry a greatercaster, Coatesville, Scranton, , of course, made unnecessa, but during ice ist arm the of g nin nia The sig lva nsy Pen ro labor in development of plans for Neg y, February, and March, 1919, the uar Jan and 8, 191 order to meet December, ried forward such plans in reconstructiore Negro special agent had car in would naturally be foundplus of 100 unemthe readjustments which April, 1919, found a sur a few weeks had of ing inn beg times. The special agent within The rt it was necesployed Negroes in Erie. plus to 48. In this effo m a number.of fro assisted in reducing this suruni e anc s and assist tie ort opp k see to him for e representative sary Negro workers. Thirty-on e ready attenplants in the placement ofiro gav es, stri n and steel indu s are low plants, principally in the of Neg ro labor, and the fol ing fact tion to the employment with its greater inclusion in Pennsylvania significant in connectiond colored men, of which 50 per cent were industries: Four hundre loyed in one of the railroad shops. Six of skilled workers, were emp ed as "first-class mechanics" and were these employees were rat cient in the shops. The officials of a metal ranked among the most effi pany, both of which employed foundry loyees are as company and of a boiler com that their "Negro emp men and skilled workers, stated efficient as the whites." ary for these plants to reduce their forces ence was given, in When it became necess of contracts, preferide nts of the localon account of the cancellat,ion res the permanent to ion uat tin con of ter result was that mat the s had their plants, Thet city. This, of ities wherein these industrieare tha of old residents the permanent employees ng the continuance of home ownership ati mul sti in sts oourse, assi .11711 1 . 118 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAIL Negroes and solidarity of civic life. The special agent reported 200 to the Prior 1918. 7, May on Co. in the employ of the Carnegie Steel 800. to 600 from bly proba was r numbe the ice armist sighing of the of ion inclus the ed retard again ng In this instance, inadequate housi ions condit ry sfacto unsati other s and house Bunk s. skilled worker be discontented with estoppect which the better type of laborer wouldThe American Steel & Wire Co. r. worke Negro d skille the of supply rs, practically all of whom. worke Negro 75 of force r reported a regula were skilled employees. colored workers on The Savage Arms Corporation reported 60 included in this. were ists Government contracts. Two machin number. work The above facts show to a small degree some of the practical time.. of period short a very within on divisi this by lished accomp tmental The adjustments which followed the appointment of a depar uation contin the of need the te indica ia ylvan Penns in ve entati repres Negro. the which in ts, distric ia ylvan Penns in e of such a special servic It. life. rial indust the in workeris striving for a permanent place will State great this in s unitie opport great the that may well be said to the com— at least, in some small degree, be more readily available . future the of r petent Negro worke mics is particularly Cooperation.—The Division of Negro Econo s in Pennsylvania,. zation organi and duals indivi e privat grateful to the who cooperated city, and State, l, Federa ls, as well as public officia Of particular men— city. that in up set work the in ly earted wholeh Interstate Industrial' tion are the Pittsburgh Urban League, theation of Philadelphia_ Associ Arts Association, and the Armstrong al knowledge regard— These organizations, with their wealth of materi of the department ance assist the to come ing Negro life, were quick to ory Committee of Advis rs' Worke Negro The effort. in this special ns of that. citize d colore and white strong of Philadelphia, comprised of the two. help and ies activit the gh throu le possib made city, was at Philadelphia4. last-named organizations. This committee, seatedwould have done. tant, impor very is life Negro which a point in allowed the future had tment the depar for value inestimable work of Economics; Negro the of ete work field compl the of uance contin a Service. has come from Erie,. As this report goes to the press, a statement ry. committee or adviso rs' worke Negro the that effect Pa., to the ry capacity,. adviso an in gs, meetin that city is still holding regular ty. This is that vicini of ems probl t 'labor the presen to with regard has elasped year a nearly that fact the of of special significance in view tment at Erie,. depar the by cted condu work nent perma the since a cordial ceased to function. The statement referred to emphatsizes part of the on respec high a racial relationship at Erie and bespeaks — accom s result the for d, colore and white yees, emplo egaployers and plished by the committee. CHAPTER XVIII. GINIA. PORT OF WORK IN VIR RE y easily launched ion in this State was ver The work of organizat executive committee of the Negro Organizaafter conference with the eady had branch organizations in many tion Society, which alr rural and city. The executive secretary localities of the State, both l of Defense, who very readily approved of the State National Counci chairmen of the county councils throughservice air of our plans and directed the te representatives forisory comwhi ee thr t oin app to te Sta adv out the our local Negro workers' cooperating members for ablished in about, est s tee mit , com ore ref , the ablished at Richmittees. We soon had es of the State and an office est ary of the Negro. ret 60 counties and 5 citiErw sec ive cut in,formerly exe C. T. Mr. h wit nd mo y, in charge. loyers and Negre Organization Societcon ferences between whitet emp al understandings. mis of A. series of loc men ns and adjust pla out ing mak k, Petersburg, for fol s Nor worker Alexandria, Roanoke, were held in Richmond, cial note may be given of the cooprative and Portsmouth. A spe l of National Defense in dealing successfully action of the State Counci ion of friction between white and colored with a very critical situat . ences was the handcarpenters at Camp Lee ng results of these confer The following is a k. One of the outstandi fol Nor shortage at or lab nt are app an ce discovered that. ling of The chamber of commer projects depended tal brief statement of facts: men ern which Gov on y cit the of s tie ivi act re seemed to be ny the ma At the same time was suffering from lack of labor.men in the city. The labor shortage odied t there large numbers of able-bted announcement made thato go to an and oin app n committee was to compel me of officers of the law wor kers very largely, Mr. would be a campaign As ro Neg ed ect aff s thi or to go to jail. advisory committee s' ker wor ro an of the Neg tee, pointin„g out mit com P. B. Young, chairmwit ge rta labor sho the h on sti que kers but to drive the wor up took would not serve to get to them that such a plansubstitute plan was offered by the advisory. them from the city. A an educational campaign, laying before the mcommittee to carry on ge confronting the co gs the labor shortathe h an wit t men ern Gov workers at mass meetin city and to a series of street munity and its meaning to the n was agreed to, and pla his ''T s. eer eet corners in str r ula appeal for volunt pop t ht on the mos nig at de ma campaign of e s' wer day ses res add After a ten s. roe Neg by d nte que fre unt h vol eer workers the districts ces were overrun wit jobs. this kind employment offi the than were needed on reports from over the and there were more men iso r ula reg ed receiv The office of the superv sitruation and gave special assistance as a or lab ro Neg the possible. Special of te Sta labor shortage wherever result in meeting the farm e carried on throughout the State by 119 educational campaigns wer 120 THE NEGRO AT WORN DURING THE WORLD WAR. means of bulletins giving information to the local committees ore war .labor needs and furnishing material on employment, health, inusing, and recreation that might be passed to the congregations within the territory of each committee. The supervisor of Negro economics was also associated with thedirector of the Boys' Working Reserve for the State of Virginia, ana directed the beginning of that work among colored boys of the StateV) assist in supplying the farm labor shortage during the farming season of 1918 and the spring season of 1919. When the Housing Bureau proposed the establishment of a model opmmunity at Truxtun, the supervisor of Negro economics very early was in touch with some of the strong colored citizens of Portsmouth, .by. A _Negro workers' advisory committee, with Mr. W. H.. near, Jennings as chairman, was formed. Through them there was developed contact with the officers of the navy yards, and the Housing Corporation was assisted in getting suitable residents for the houses of the project when opened. A few weeks after the first blocks of houses were occupied there. appeared need for continued assistance in getting these residents adjusted to the new community and in securing cooperation among the families. The supervisor of Negro economics for Virginia therefore gave considerable attention to this in cooperation with the local' advisory committee of Portsmouth for help in stimulating the prideof the new residents in their community and in efforts to makeTruxtun a model in every respect by keeping the buildings in the model condition they were when first occupied, and the lawns and surrounding grounds in first-class condition. After a few weeks it became evident that it was desirable to have, a Negro operating representative put in charge of the project.. The United States Housing Corporation appointed Mr. 14 red D.. McCracken, who had been with the Housing Bureau for more thank a year, first as assistant to the chief of the United States Homes: Registration and Placement Service, in Washington, and later as a. traveling representative of the United States Housing Corporation.. Mr. McCracken took charge as operating representative of Truxtun in July, 1919. This Truxtun project consists of 254 family houses with modern improvements, including electricity, hot and cold water, with garden and lawn space for each house, all being either detached or semidetached residences. There are four stores and a modern brick school with 10 rooms all on one floor. Not only did the operating representative get the support of the Negro Workers' Advisory Committee of Portsmouth, but he soon formed an association of the householders of the community, dividing the town into districts, with a captain over each district. These captains formed a sort of town council for advice and help to the manager in directing the affairs of the town. The project, under his management, has continued with marked, success, including the conduct of the public school as soon as the fine school building was completed. When the time came for selling the homes to the householders the volunteer organization of captains and householders was very helpful in inducing those who were then renting_ the properties to become the purchasers. All of the houses. THE NEGRO AT' WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 121 have•been taken on an easy-payment purchase plan. The Housi ng Corporation no longer furnishes the funds for taking of the publie utilities, these now being supported out of taxescare which the. householders have levied upon themselves. There was inaugurated a system of messages to be deliver edi by representatives of the local advisory committees to Negro audiences gathered on various occasions in different localities. sages acquainted the people with the labor needs, opportThese mes-unities and conditions. At the time the service was discon economic surveys with special intensive survey tinued a series of of Norfolk, Va., were being planned for several cities in cooperation with local officials and citizens. These surveys were to includ e living conditions. of Negro workers, such as housing surveys, sanitation, etc. The constitution of the Negro Workers' Advisory Commi ttee of Virginia is somewhat different from that of the other shows so concretely how effectively cooperative connecStates, and made with the State and local private organization tions were s in existence, that it is incorporated herewith the account of the work of Virginia. instead of in an appendix: CONSTITUTION OF THE NEGRO WORKERS' ADVISO RY COMMITTEE OF VIRGINIA. ARTICLE I. Name.—The name of this committee shall be thel Negro Workers' Advisory Committee of Virginia. ART. II. Purpose.—The purpose of this committee shall be to. study, plan, and advise in a cooperative spirit and manne with r employers of Negro labor, with Negro workers and States Department of Labor in securing from Negro with the United laborers greaterproduction in industry and agriculture for winning the war through increasing regularity, application and efficiency, throug h increasing the morale of Negro workers, and through improving their general condition. ART. III. Membership.—The membership of this commit tee shall' be composed of not more than thirty persons—colored men and women of Virginia. At least five members shall be . Seven members of this committee shall be chosen from the women executive committee of the Negro Organization Society (Inc.)$ who shall be subject to reelection on the same terms of election as other member s. The chairman of the Virginia Council of Defense, the Federal Direct or of the United States Employment Service, the chairman of the War lobbor Board, and such other white citizens as may be appointed by the United States Department of Labor shall be cooperating members. Governor Westmoreland Davis shall be Honorary Chairman. ART. IV. Executive board.—There shall be an executive board of Aline chosen from the general committee. At least two members. of the executive board shall be women, and three members shall c,hosen from the central committee of the Negro Organization Societbe y (Inc.), subject to the same terms of election as othermembers. ART. V. Appointments.—The members of the committee and of the executive board shall upon recommendati appointed by on be‘ the Secretary of Labor, who shall also designate the chairman and the. pecretary. These officers shall serve for both the advisory commit teea,,tid the executive hoard. 12* . EHE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR s of both the the, first appointment, one-third of the member appointed to be l shal d boar e alvisory committe and its executiv 1, 1919; June d to serve until wrve until January 1, 1919; one-thir1, third oneer, eaft Ther . 1920 ary sad one-third to serve until Janu e and its executive board shall be itte 0! the membership of the comm for a term of six months. The slpointed every six months to serveefor periods of six months each, serv l shal y etar secr and euurman be a treasurer appointed by l shal e Ther t. subject to reappointmen r bond for the faithful perunde shall be the executive board. He board may designate. e utiv exec the as formance of such duties advisory committee shall The ART. VI. Meetings.—Section 1. and at such other times as the hs mont six meet at least once every een members shall constitute a executive board may decide. Fift r qu or urn. d shall meet at least once every othe Sec. 2. The executive boar y shall etar secr and rman chai the as s time r month and at such othe ordered by the board. Six members shall e decide, unless otherwisThe chairman shall be required to call a meetconstitute a quorum. upon a written request of five members d ing of the executive boar of board, or of both. .of the advisory committee, the the advisory committee and the of e Sec. 3. The meeting plac e Capitol unless otherwise ordered executive board shall be the Statoved by the Department of Labor. appr by the executive board and e utiv board shall make such byART. VII. By-laws.—The execof business as seem best, subject to uct cond laws and rules for the committee and the Department of the approval of the advisory d Labor. executive board.—The executive boar and ART. VIII. Powers of themak ts, emen agre into r e plans, ente shall transact all business,may be necessary for carrying out the puras acts r othe such perform All such transactions, plans, agreements, pose of this committee. to revision by the advisory committee and zed or acts shall be subject nt of Labor, through its duly-authori the United States Departme representatives. The executive board shall nominate ART. IX. County committees.— ng in their judgment a sufficient havi e of for each county of the Stat Negro workers' advisory committeeen. Negro population a county be wom must m who of t two leas at ons, pers not more than eleven consist of one member from each magisterial This committee shall and three members from the county at large, district in the county sory committee shall consist provided, however, that no county advi bers so nominated are to more than eleven members. Five memr upon recommendation of Labo of nt be appointed by.the Departme ittee. A. Society, (Inc.), or its central commsuch other the Negro Organizationve and nse defe of cils coun ty coun member of the respecti his or , inia Virg of rnor Gove white citizens as may be selected byl the bers of the mem ing erat coop be shal ve, tati duly authorized represen county advisory committee. e board shall nominate for ART. X. City committee.—The executivjudg ment a sufficient Negro r each city of the State having in thei committee of not more population a city Negro workers' advisory whom shall be women. of h -fift than twenty-five members, at least one e shall constitute a quorum A majority of the city advisory committe nominated for this committee for the transaction of business. Those Upon a THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 123 shall be appointed by the Department of Labor upon recommend— ation of the Negro Organization Society (Inc.), or its central com— mittee. ART. XI. Neighborhood committees.—Each district member of the county Negro workers' advisory committee shall appoint in his. district a neighborhood committee consisting of one member for every five to fifteen families in the district.. The district member of the county committee shall be chairman of this neighborhood commit-. tee and shall be held responsible for the work of the committee. ART. XII. Finances.—Iqeither this organization, its executive board, nor the county or neighborhood committees, nor any of their executive boards shall have power or authority to incur expenses or make any financial agreements or contracts, which shall in any way obligate the State of Virginia, the United States Department of Labor, or the Negro Organization Society (Inc.) No debts shall be incurred by this committee or its executive board or by any county or neighborhood committees or their respective executive boards. unlesspreviously provided for. The treasurer of this committee shall keep account of receipts and expenditures and he shall keep. any funds intrusted to him deposited in such banks or trust companiem ss the executive board shall decide. ART. XIII. Amendments.—Amendments may be made to this; constitution by two-thirds vote at a regular and duly called meeting of this committee, provided such amendment shall have been pre— viously approved by the governor of Virginia, or his duly authorized representative, and the United States Department of Loor and the 14.gro Organization Society (Inc), • CHAPTER XIX. NEGRO WOMEN IN INDUSTRY. HELEN B. IRVIN, SPECIAL SUMMARY OF REPORTS MADE BY MRS. AU IN. 1918-19. BURE N'S AGENT OF THE WOME ions affecting women Desiring to give recognition to all major quest se of the United' purpo red decla the mind in ng keepi in industry and develop the and ote, prom r, foste States Department of Labor "to Bureau, n's Wome the s," State ed Unit the of rs welfare of wage earne pro— made ce, Servi try Indus in early in its career as the Woman of Negro lems prob the of y stud a ram prog its vision to include in here given was secured women in industry. The summary of data conditions were known al typic e wher rs cente trial from several indus months beginningseven the n withi made to prevail during visits 1919. 30, December 1, 1918, and endingsJune sive. One hundred and seventy This summary is by no mean extenNegr o workers, were visited, and 0 plants, employing more than 21,00 cover recent phases and nted prese here ments the figures and state tion. situa developments in this industrial were located in Illinois, Ohio, The plants and industries visitedNew Jersey, Pennsylvania, and of ons porti and Missouri, and in dations were made formmen reco Virginia. In a number of cases Wherever subsequent information . tions condi .the improvement of had followed these recom— could be obtained showing that action ience resulted a statement, mendations and some instructive exper has been included in this summary. ITIES FOR NEGRO WOMEN. INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUN age and over who were The total number of Negroes 10 years of the Thirteenth Census by ted as repor 1910 in gainfully employed male workers and 2,013,981 was 5,192,535; of these, 3,178,554 were rs, 1,051,137 were included worke e femal the Of were female workers. ndry. Only 8,313 were husba al ih agriculture, forestry, and anim s,. and.67,967 in manu— ation occup tion porta trans listed in trade and its.' facturing and mechanical pursu de women in all scallions of the country, While these figures inclu of all ages above 10 years, it is reported and of wide range of training, in industry are between 16 and that, on an average, Negro women labor shortage during the war, great the With 30 years of age. n had the opportunity wome ed color especially in northern industries, before. For thethem to to en ter industrial pursuits never opened figures to show able avail no nt prese at country as a whole there are tunities. The oppor the the full extent to which they embracedtypical as to give a good so are ver, , howe figures included below a result of recent migration indication for the territory covered. As new to urban life and to ently frequ n were wome these , in the North therefore, largely in were, They the factory type of community. , climatic, social,. tions condi process of adjustment to unaccustomed occupational, and economic. Tables Nos. Negro Population 1790-1915. General Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 17 and 19. 1 2i 125 WAR. THE N EURO Al' WORK DURING THE WORLD The great need for workers to replace men drafted for Army service brought women into occupations not heretofore considered within the range of their possible activities. Negro women shared to someextent these new fields: In response to the industrial demand, large numbers dropped their accustomed tasks in the home and in domestic service to take up the newer, more attractive work or . supplying the need of the fighting world for the products of industry was: it Negro women g employin plants typical 170 to visits In found that they were working at many different processes and under very different working conditions. Table VII which follows, gives an outline of the kind of work done by the women and the industries; in which they were employed: (approximately) TABLE VII.—Industrial occupations of 21,808 Negro women in specific processes, at 170 plants, during the period Dee. I, 1918, to June 30, 1919. ktimber of plants inspected. Product. Processes at which women were employed. Number of women em-ployed,each. specified process. Assembling, miscellaneous Machine operating Grading broom corn, binding bristles Pitting, packing, crystallizing, and canning fruits and vegetables. Cutting 26 Clothing (men's and women's) Draping Hand finishing Machine sewing 4 Cotton mills(cordage, waste, mops)..... Feeding and tending machines Sorting cotton Elevator operators 31 Department and other store Saleswomen Stock girls, maids • Wrappers Operating lathes 4 Furniture Polishing desks, pianos Making blown glass Glassware Matron, timekeeper Miscellaneous machine operating 7 Hardware punch and drill presses soldering, welding. Finishing knitted garments;operating 4 Hosiery and knit goads Knitting machines Steam and dry cleaning 6 Laundries Washing and ironing by power machinery. Grading,cleaning and curing,tanning 3 Leather goods hides. Meats and meat products (stockyards, Cleaning and curing offal curing, and canning meats Preparing, abattoirs). Testing hides Time keeping Trimming and cleaning viscera Loading shells 2 Munitions h 10 Office work (Government work, mail- Billing machines and addiessograp operators. order houses). Card filing,clerking Expert investigating l'acking and shipping goods Skilled field work (lectures, etc.) Switchboard operating Typists,stenographers, bookkeepers Making and vulcanizing motor tires, 4. Rubber goods tubes,rubber toys,etc. Making cigars 16 Tobacco Prepanngsnuff and chewing tobacco Stemming Weighing and inspecting Cleaning and repairing automobiles 12 Transportation. Flagging trains Salvagingfrom railroad wreckage 3 War apparatus (gas masks, aeroplane Power-machine stitching sails, balloons). Total 1 Bed springs 2 5 Brooms, brushe • Canned foods Total ut mbar of planrs inspected, 170. 75. 16. 1901 311 1 2 s.. 11 632190. 100, 110. 228: 3723. 10Z. , 2 360 692 11 146. 130). 2,9£0• 117 37 136 499 331 2,706, 7182 8 a 2,303 114 48 2,373 5,965. 2215 18 84 57 21,80& 411111 i26; THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAIL It wiillbe seen from a study of this table that the two industries employing the greatest number of Negro women were the meatpacking industry, where 3,282 were employed in the stockyards and, abattoirs, and the tobacco industry, where 5,965 were employed at stemming tobacco, and 2,375 in the preparation of chewing tobacc& and of snuff. Another very large group were doing office work, 5,538 being, employed in ]6 offices. The other occupations ranged from the simple work of sorting and packing to the operation of various. machines requiring skill and dexterity. Some of these occupations,. such as loading shells, operating lathes, cleaning and repairing auto— mobiles, flagging trains, and salvaging from railroad wreckage, were new to all women. On the greater number of processes, however,. white women had been employed many years before Negro women, were taken on. During the war the employment of large numbers of women at. new tasks in munitions plants and other war industries led to tr. shortage of labor in the textile and garment factories, which had' long been great employers of women. As a result many textile, and garment manufacturers, being quite unable to secure the requi— site number of white workers for their plants, accepted and evetr appealed to Negro girls and women to relieve the situation. The work of 1,653 girls and women in textile and garment trades was. carefully observed. Several thousand others were known to be, Similarly employed. In several arsenals and munition plants groups of Negro women were found mixing chemicals, loading shells, making gas masks,. stitching wings for aeroplanes, and engaging in similar processex requiring great care, skillful fingers, patriotism, and courage. Most. were housed in modern fireproof buildings, well i of these industries off the poisonous fumes, asbestos partitioned to. carry to ventilated prevent the spread of flames, and well equipped with hose, fire escapes, and first-aid appara tus for use in the occasional accidentx that appear to be unavoidable in such places. The 556 munition makers were found to be giving satisfaction as a:. whole, and in some instances were reported to respond more readilythan others for doing the heavy and dangerous portions of the work_ Theywere proud of their unusual tasks and of their uniforms, and seem to have appreciated the working day shorter than household hours in domestic and personal service. In abattoirs, stockyards, and tanneries Negro women were en— gaged at different times in all processes except the actual butthering and inspecting of meats. They trimmed,sorted, and graded different, portions of the carcasses; separated and cleaned the viscera; prepared„ cured;and canned the meats; and graded, cleaned, cured, and tanned. the hides for making articles of leather. In Government clothing factories and in private establishments out Government contracts they made overalls, army shirts, anddungarees: in large numbers. In other factories they made bolts, nuts, rivets,. screws, motor accessories, and metal buckets. In rubber plants they made automobile tires, tubes, parts of rubber boots, shoe heels,.toys, and hospital necessities, such as rubber gloves, pads, and hot-waten bottles. lii transportation service they cleaned cars, acted as switch- 1 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. 127- men and flagmen, mended roadbeds, salvaged small parts of engines and coaches from wreckage, painted and made simple repairs on, automobiles, and occasionally acted as chauffeurs. Power-laundry work has furnished the opportunity, for manyNegro girls and women to earn a livelihood. In considerable numbers they have followed into the factory their former occupation of launder— ing clothing. Under good factory conditions this permits of escape from the more undesirable conditions of the .household laundry service. Because of the difficulties and dangers of the work, and because of the traditional linking of Negro women to such tasks, there has been in most places little objection to them or color discrimim in laundries. They have learned, consequently, nation against to operate all kinds of power-laundry machinery; to wash, iron,_ steam or dry clean garments of all sorts, as well as to do the hand' finishing that is still in considerable demand. Many of these industries being essential in peace times, it is probable that large numbers of the Negro women who were drawn into. them during the war emergency, and have made good, will find permanent occupations at more desirable work than heretofore. I n these industries Negro women usually fell heir to the less desirabl e occupations or processes. As a whole, however, they stuck to these jobs and many won advancement to higher places in that way. Many are still to be found spinning coarse yarn; knitting gloves, stockings, and underwear of cheap grades; making lingerie, fine waists, silk and woolen dresses, coats, caps, overalls, and men's shirts. The 8,387 tobacco workers observed in the factories visited were found chiefly in southern or border-line States, and, with the exception of two groups, are working under most objectionable, insanitary conditions. Nearly 6,000 of these young, unskilled girls, work in stemmeries, where they prepare the stemmed tobacco for chewing, cigar making, snuff, and cigarettes. Very few Negro girls are found at the more skilled processes, such as making cigars. For this work of one employment manager insisted upon hiring only pretty types,by, regarded be may they that order e, "in appearanc foreign rather patrons .as Cuban, South American, or Spanish." Two women who were employed as weighers or inspectors were found to be both quick and accurate in their judgment, and are paving the way for others. In hotels many Negro women performed the services of cooks, dishwashers, waitresses, maids, elevator operators, and even bell boys girls. These latter were afterward quite generally replaced by patof luggage the of most handle to and men, the girls being unable trons. The wages of maids and waitresses were usually low, the workers being largely dependent upon "tips." Elevator girls were operating both in hotels and in department, stores as well as in many office buildings. They .worked on altercarried nate long and short "shifts," with brief rest periods, and usually not were they However, required. as freight or passengers have compelled to lift packages into or out of their cars. Not onlymalds„ have these girls succeeded as elevator operators, but also as stock girls, bundle wrappers, and even, where given the opportunity,, fig, saleswomen. Several employers expressed a marked preference 128 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. for Negro stock girls, for reason that a greater variety might be demanded of them. For instance, in some stores of services they came to work 15 minutes before schedule time in order to polish mirrors and display cases: Careful observation showed that bundle wrappe sight of customers of stores were often of types whosers working inwas doubtful, while those behind the screens, as in racial identityshipping departments, were more distinctly negroid in packing and complexion. Three saleswomen of discernible Negro blood were of good ance and showed keen intelligence about their work. Three appearor fourquick and clever stock girls were found acting as sales assista nts. Excepting Government appointees, of whom varying number s: have held positions under civil-service regulations since the period: of reconstruction following the Civil War, comparatively few Negro. women were employed at office work until 1917. The general spurto industry consequent upon America's participation in the war, theshifting of workers from -home and farm to office, factory , and battlefield made opportunities for greater numbers at tasks: than ever before. In this emergency several thousand clerical Negro women . found Opportunities to play their part. The total of 5,380 found doing office work qualified in the offices of shops, mail-order and' other business houses, as typists, stenographers, of and pers,. 2,303 were observed at this work. There were 2,705 bookkee filing clerks, . 531 billing and addressograph operators, and 182 packing and ping clerks. These included, of course, forewomen and super6ship— of the various groups of workers. Clerical work was being donesors: forthe Government under civil-service and special classification. Also, there were 15 special investigators and lecturers and 2 telephone, switchboard operators. A majority of these clerical workers, both in general ciall and industrial plants and in Government service, were commer given temt 'wary appointments under the war emergency. Many of thern. were being released after the armistice to make way soldiers or because need for their services no longer for discharged were frankly told that such positions as remainedexisted. Others: intended for white workers, and that they had beenavailable werebecause no others could at that time be obtained. In aused merely few known. instances, however, Negro girls and women acquitted themse lves in so -satisfactory a manner that they have been retained, these having made permanent places for themselves. Also, a number instances:: of individual success and achievement are known to of rewarded by promotion and by assurance of contin have been uance during, satisfactory service. The signing of the armistice, bringing about a gradua cessationof war industries or a change in factory processes andl product s, probably meant the permanent dismissal of many of Negro. these women industrial workers. Some have been provid ed for in the new plans of their employers and others have returne to their prewar occupations. Subsequent study is in progres d ascerta in s to to what extent these Negro women have found a permanent foothold. in these industrial occupations. WAIL INO T HE WORLD THE NEGRO AT WORK DIM 129 T. CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMEN least e found to vary from thestri al indu In individual plants conditions wer ern mod by ed tory, as judg be to desirable to the most satisfacmpl are ces es of these differen d as standards. Outstanding exa factory work usually denote of s type in arly icul es. stri found part indu cco toba clothing, and e wer "women's trades," such as textile, en wom ro Neg re whe ns itio On the whole, the working conden the conditions appeared to be employed along with white wom strate the situation. e similar. A few typical cases will illu ro women no provision was mades Neg ing loy emp mill In a hoisery liti faci er Oth . uent freq are s dent ht acci for first aid, although slig e at a minimum. The plant had for the comfort of the workers wer were but two toilets and two re The no lunchroom or lockers. a tin cup attached supplied the sinks, and one separate faucet withp. There was neither soap nor were drinking water for the entire grou s, although the workers They warm water for washing the -hand ing. soil any quite free of r. expected to keep the white hosiery ed spot found by the inspecto soil each for a cnt few a d taxe e 's wer men g rin ctu ufa man t, blishmen On the other hand, another esta te qua ade king conditions with shirts, offered thoroughly desirable wor of ng isti cons , h unit Eac s. oyee facilities for the comfort of its empl t tha s esse proc for or an instiuct 140 to 200 girls, was furnished With nd or by power machine.- The -ha were new, whether carried on by with modern hftted and were fitted operators proFicrs were well lighted and the to s give and e m, with a rrachinety that runs with littlel Nis dispensary and first-aid roowith food tection from accident. A smalwas m, an excellent lunch rcc nuiFe, were available. There e lockets, cicon and adequate toilets, wer re The . cost at furnished towels. All workers started with and sinks with soap and sanitary to more highly paid piecework as eases the st ire basic wage, with incrd. stries heretr.pidly as their skill permittewer e found also among indu Good and had conditions men. For instance, a plant manufactofore carried on entirely bysheet-metal products was very poorly turirg buckets and other ed. Its uneven cement floor held pooh heated, lighted, and ventilat from the cooling tanks. Generously of water that had overflowed on unceitain footing in the dim aisles. ed er and spilled paint and solder causfeet , with a single toilet in the corn 12 by 9 ut abo only m, the roc d One ishe furn s, wall the g ches alon with hooks above two ben to change street clothing and working arrangements for women of coats and skirts of changed gat ments. apparel and for the storage ts of workers were frequently repotted There being no lockers, garmensinks just outside the dcor of this room as lost from the hooks. Twocold water, and only roller towels were were supple merely with en each furnished. groups of 35 Negro wom from ked wor Under these conditions two up gro t shifts. One ause Bec h. lunc worked on alternate day and nigh hour at midnight for inconvenience p.in. until 5 a.in., with a half the and t plan tion of this of the extreme suburban loca obliged to walk about half mile across e wer ees loy emp e thes to cars ch was unpleasant ted, wind-swept area whiinclement weather.. an unpaved, poorly lighmid n day, not" to mentio (Wen on a clear winter 1-30 WAR. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD by the local A group of young Negro women, selected and sent nt appeal urge an to in response United States Employment Bureau r first thei on y a bod in ory this fact left or, riet prop from the woman their to onse resp in man a fore of day because of the abusive language which they were expected to r ns unde itio cond the protest against work. itions were those found in an In marked contrast to these cond s, nuts, small parts of motors, bolt ing mak immense plant which was products. The several hundred women and other machine-shop white, Negro, and foreign-born of employees were native-bornworkrooms of this factory were light several nationalities. The y nor overcrowded. The punch and of and clean, neither unduly nois with guards to reduce the number er;11 presses were provided en and were alls over and caps wore wom ro accidents. The Neg man. The plant was adequately equippedn directed by a Negro forewo lockers. There was a plain but clea with toilets, washrooms, and first-aid and visiting-nurse service with lunchroom a dispensary, also a company store where employees ' ge. There was without char ssary r plain clothing, and a few nece ain cert could purchase uniforms, othe red offe ol scho ning trai A k. wee foodstuffs at wholesale rates. ing work each ted number of hours of race, instruction during a limispec use beca e mad ents ngem arra ial There was apparently nowomen worked in a group to themselves and except that the colored a Negro forewoman. seriously were superintended .byopin ion of 'their employers would was the Realizing that made mpt atte an en in industry, ing deal affect the future of Negro wom ials offic r othe or nts of superintende to secure the opinionsthese plants. Of 34 employers who expressed with Negro women inthis subject, 14 said that they found the work 3 a definite opinion on satisfactory as other women workers, and of Negro women as er than that of the white women they were found their work bett laced. Of the 17 employers who felt that working with or had disp not compare satisfactorily with that of the work of Negro women did that irregularity- of attendance was the rted output of the white women, 7 repofact ion, and 7 others felt that the atis diss for e main caus ers. work er slow they were Negro women was less because INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. the strial training is presented by n The chief of the problems of indu atio educ of plan out ghtcarefully thou very obvious need for a morecomp and who stry indu to new y ivel arat for Negro women, who are s upon which to base their estimate of have no adequate standardirements of their occupations. their own worth or the requities were to be generally opened to Negro If private and public facil d not fail to be a very general women for their education there woul en in industry. This is not wom increase in the efficiency of Negrosense, though an impartial enforceeducation in the usually accepted will improve economic conditions ment of the school attendance law is training for efficiency, with its ng for future groups of workers. It ene, industrial sense, increasi ent contributing factors of personal hygi lopm deve the is It on. gati obli eveskill, and realization of contractual ugh the fostering of pride in achi thro s snes ciou cons al stri indu ugh, thro of and t thrif ly fami and ment, through increasing personal RLD WAR. DURING THE WO THE NEGRO AT WWII:, 1:3-1 k or locality.. stancy toward a given tas ker on the wor encouraging an attitude of con the ential in "training ess is ion cat edu of e This typ men on job." new to a situation, Negroinwoall procup gro y an h wit e cas the ng ini As is need of patient, careful tra entering industry have and in the use of all machinery employed in esses required of them ed to them. Such training plus the opporir increasing skill the specific work assign dually or in groups, as the of the employers ivi ind e anc adv to most tunity n found profitable by ro women as workers.. may warrant, has bee Neg of s tie ili sib pos the to e ak aw o had given a trial are who the employers interviewed wh Eighty per cent ofus-opportunity method reported little or no diffised a preference for to the training-pl s, while 30 per cent expres gness, and loyalty lin , culty with these worker wil ess uln erf che of their Negro women becauseatment. in response to fair tre had instituted these courses said: "We aree, the girls wer One employer who more." In this plantspecial training and for ed hop we s' all g ee day gettin irEach girl was given thr doing clerical work. wor e of the visit (1919) the tim the to Up k. e Th to ed. put loy ng emp bei e ore bef large number wer a t tha ory d act goo isf as sat t so girls did jus work was t it had found that Negro bre ng ini tra " -in ng aki management said thate girls as soon as the clerical work as whi e" was dehad been given. ''superintendent of servic another plant, where a individual training for work on small and betailed to superintend grosupreported that there was no difference an d wa it ro, Neg ts, duc te, pro whi e machin the native-born of e anc of end d att kin or rk th3 wo in tween the n workers. This plant showed and foreign-born womethe atmosphere of the workroom the exc:sllent kers. In other women employed and al chance given to all wor the forewoman by en results of the absolutely equ giv ard, being haz hap re mo was ng h ini plants tra from suc esta,blishmnits low workers. It was inefficiency and slowness. and sometimes by fel er of complaints of that the greater numb employer within same. training supplied by the In addition to courses of ited to the actual processes in use in his lim Negro women in the his plant and which are so me opportunities for ht schools. nig or plant, there were found tinuation classes ension work beext h public schools, through ncon suc for on cooperati and a privately s ool In one locality a pla of sch of the public school in question had eau bur l ona ati voc the tween was feasible. The erest the young workcontrolled industrial schlool rses designed to int s quite willing to excou era already launched sev . The principal wa making such course ing girls of that community ro women workers, ld permit. At the Neg to ty tend the opportuni school facilities wou the as practically attractive as ng courses of interest to housemaids, cafehanics, and various time this school was offeri e makers, motor mecoveralls, shirts, and cor rs, che but s, ker wor ia ber luding, makers of sorts of garment workers, inc the average women's clothing. healthful recreation for e, san , ent dec for ities diss tie mun ili com Possib man being in manyactivity is very esNegro working girl and swo al ion se of educat arouse interest tressingly inadequate, thi pha ed wise to attempt toly to warrant IL ear app It y. enc ici ent sential to eff urg med the situation see in this matter wherever I. THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD. WAR. 4 As an instance of what can be done, a community center organization which had previously taken no heed of the 300 to 400 colored girls at work in a local factory was persuaded to provide for them a weekly . of and athletics. The principal meeting place and a leader s' to the school authorities d to .appeal was induce school Negro a of for a joint. to include in their plan for anew building some provision assembly room and gymnasium. Much to the principal's surprise people of the little the appeal met a favorable reception, and the community are now watching the erection of their building with this addition. Several recreational clubs of different sorts have been organized in churches, and a certain war service has given excellent and valuable assistance in this respect, following most willingly any lead or suggestion that might be given. A very important part of the work which was done by the Women's ional talks Bureau in connection with Negro women was the educat the t standards subjec this in ted interes groups s variou explaining to ing women and policies that should attain in establishments employ and girls. availIn addition to the coursea,of training which could be made able for Negro workers in the private or public schools, there could be a most valuable educational stimulus and training given in the various leagues and clubs of industrial women workers which are, organized in different communities. METHODS OF SUPERVISION. industrial If the Negro woman is to keep and increase her hold in for activities of the country, in addition to special tfaining to fit her tand! unders wh13 ers of itibn employ cooperf the need the work,she will who will make the special problems attending her employment, and s methods. Variou s ihgly. policie accord sh establi adjustments and white workers of shop management in plants emplo5ing Negro and of successful together were noted during this survey, and on the basis made for the were ions experiments that were observed reconunebdat ies. localit other in ions of t condit vemen impro ted to In one northern community which had recently been subjec y put into alread had firm nowh well-k one s of Negroe influx large a ions as operation a plan of work for them on equal pay and condit were but ctory satisfa only other workers. The results were not s were worker The pment. develo r le furthe desirab most of ing promis rs naturally making good in every department. The largest numbe were required.. ions operat l manua mainly where ns sectio in found were there were Besides the many operators on punch and drill presses messengers, two clerks, three or two , typists five men, forewo l severa oman, and a. two elevator operators, a first-aid assistant, aapostw sful example succes as woman chauffeur. With this particular firm s similar worker Negro their give to ded were persua three others opportunity. their own kind Negro women supervisors of units of workers of of such superce instan ful success were giving results. One very accomplished be might vision can be used as an example of what of approxunit This plan. the of on l adopti through the more genera about a for worked had yin a large mail-order house 200 &iris imatel TH.11/ WORLD WORK DURING THE NEGRO AT WAR. • 133 o woman. The of an intelligent Negr n io is rv pe e su th ch as bookkeepr su de s, year un office processe all of . d te is ns co ls gir ing office appliances work of these pewriting; and operatment. ty , rk wo ic ph ra og en for ship ing, st d preparing goods ed but were also trained and. as well as packing an is rv pe su ly on t ake no These workers were rewomen. The unit had a slogan, "M oup. gr fo is o th gr of Ne rk the wo instructed by So successful had beenunsympathetic superin." nt ce r pe 0 10 w, good because their dismissal by a ne that shortly after reinstated and their number augmented, of the rk tendent, they were satisfactory in relation to the larger wo so s wa their work a carefully entire plant. ere was a number of examples found of there were n, me th o wo gr gh Ne ou Alth oyment of pl em e th rious and' in se o cy to li n po these wome by thought out de ma on ti na believes. ly mi nt ri te complaints of discnored. If a group of women persis rk, the le wo ab ee gr ig sa di be the most frequent to s, ge wa st ether , we wh off lo e id th n la to be that they are give they will be the firstey will hardlyput theirat th d an , al ri te ma s, th poorest lly warrant their belief eir work. or not the facts fu th of t en em ov pr im e best efforts into th NCLUSION. SUMMARY AND CO e Negro women it would seem that th t un co ac g ial activities,. in tr go us re e in nd From the fo ngly important placthe war. They increased' si ea cr in an n ke ng htave ta and powerlabor shortage duri tobacco industry e largel57 as a result of th in g, in factories,. ck t pa en garm meat in numbers in en y into textile and el rg la d re te d laundries, an ts, and into clerical positions. llent to very munitions plan ns of the places of work varied from exgcewhite women in io nd it ou nd rr ose su The co to be similar to th men workers. poor, appearing re working together. The Negroanwo d opportunities. where the two wention to their industrial training ve tried to do this ha need special atte justment. Where employers cially by persons or for community aditable. Special supervision, espe they found it prof s proven effective. esents no unusual their own race, ha as a worker, the Negro woman pr ice for her in the It appears thatin the matter of securing full just problems except re and hold work. ar to the Negro. opportunity to sesicutuation may be regarded as peculi the main, as an in , e been accepted So far as th s ha e sh at th id plant has been sa woman it may beadmittance to a given occupation orand her continue, r bl he g availa experiment; other workers bein. She was usually Oven the me sa conditioned uponhino e th on up new to Indust/7 nged ance frequently . The N.3gro woman worker beineg attitude both of bs th less desirable jo ssons of routine and regularity; men.workers was, rd Negro wo has to learn its le of other workers towa the employer andy. one of uncertaint CHAPTER XX. RECOMMENDATIONS ON SCOPE OF DEPARTMENTAL AUTHORITY. Flomlitne to time the office of Director of Negro Economics submitted reports and memorandathe to the Secretary of Labor showing the propaganda of a radical was attempted to establish amongand bolshevistic character which it Negr orandum, with supporting document o wage earners. Such a mems and newpaper clippings and exhibits, were submitted to the Secr etar y about a month before the series of riots in Chicago, Ill., Oma ha, Nebr., Washington, D. C., and other places in the summer of . In this memorandu were analyzed the three schools1919 of opinion and activities minthere the adjustment of Negro life, namely, the very radical and revolutionary socialistic and I. W. W. group, the aggressive abolitionist group, and' the conciliatory group. In the course of July 8, 1919, there occurred the followin this memorandum, dated g statements: This state of opinion in the Negro world is especially important with refer to the labor conditions in the ence and points in New Jersey, IndiaStates of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, na, Nebra ska, Iowa. and Kansas. To this territory thousands of Negroes have migrated and are still moving. They into employments very much are coming: mole highly paid than those they left They are badly housed in in the South.. most cases , rathe cooll r y received by the white workers. and populace, segregated little adjusted to the highlinto "ghettos" in the larger industrial centers. They are. y organ ized north ern life into which they have come from more.backward communitie in this territory have looke s in the South. The white workers in many localities time there being considerabd with apprehension upon their settlement, at the present le friction in points like Toledo, Ohio, Omaha, Nebr. The occurrence Chica s at Philadelphia. East St. Louis. and go, Ill., and within the last two years are only indications of what may easily take Chester, Pa... places. The returning Negro soldie place rs are also going in large numbers to these in other * * centersTheir discontent, growing in their new surroundings. out of previous conditions and present maladjustment their unjust discrimination and other desire for American rights, their resentment against for critical developments of unrespractices against them make them a very ripe field the peace of labor conditions but t, friction, and disturbances—dangers not only to. and the Nation. Suspicions of also to the welfare of themselves, the community,. make outbreaks easily possible. white workers at the present time in several places * * * In all this territory there is very little, if any, well-organized and well-directe machinery for assisting Negroes in getti ng into touch with the employment officed' and in getting located and adjusted in their s are coming to places like Chicago and Detronew environment. Thousands of them, it with no direction whatever. They will listen to counsel and guidance from Feder It has been clearly demonstrated that our al agents as from no others. super visor s, working under the United' States Employment Service, with the development of Negro workers' advisory committees in these places, can have the most far-reaching effect upon these workers. During the trying days of Chicago riots the Director of Negro. Economics went to Chicago the and investigated the situation on the ground and on August 27, 1919, he made a full report of the Chicago. situation to the Secretary of Labor, outl ining the underlying laborcauses in relation to white employers, men, housing, political, and other cond white workmen, Negro workitions. This report was sup:- THE NEt.R0 AT WORK DURIANo THE WORLD WAR. 135 ported with a mass of testimony, newspaper clipping s, and other data.. The director also visited and reported upon the feeling between white. and colored workers in St. Louis, Mo., Detroit and Cleveland, Ohio, and several other places. Testimony Flint, Mich.,, and evidence. were also gathered front Sumter and Columbia, S. C., Birmingham,. Ma., New York, N. Y., Jacksonville, Fla., and Montgo mery-, Ala.,, and from this testimony the director said,as a preface to the following: recommendations: Tam led to believe that the racial tension is so widespread as to be, in fact, a matter of national concern calling for some attention from the National Government. He therefore. made the following recommendations which weretransmitted by the Assistant Secretary of Labor and approv ed by the Secretary of Labor September 29, 1919: This report of racial friction, together with my previous memorandum on raciall unrest, submitted July 8, 1919, shows imperative need of some forward steps. When, the Secretary of Labor, furthering the effectiveness of his office, created the position, of Director of Negro Economics there was latently establish ed a information and of cooperation between this department and means of exchange ohi other departments of: government, both State and Federal, through which program for bettering the living and working conditioa large, National constructive ns of Negro workers and im— proving their relations with white workers white employers may be outlined and'. put into operation. The authority of thband Secretary to establish such cooperation, between this department and other departments is given in the organic "Said Secretary [of Labor)shall also have authority to call upon otheract as follows:: departments: of the Government for statistical data and the results obtained by them; and saidt Secretary of Labor may collate, arrange, and publish such statistical ion, obtained in such manner as to him may seem wise." (Sec. 4 of the orgainc informat act creatingthe Department of Labor.) Section 10 of the organic act directed the Secretary report to Congress a plan for coordination of the activities, duties, and powers of his to office those of other offices: so far as they relate to labor. January 0, 1917, the Secretarwith y a plan to Congress with a bill to establish such cooperation andof Labor reported such. coordinat ties, powers, and duties. (See H. Doc. No. 1906, 64th Cong. 2d seas.) ion of activi— Apparently this bill was never enacted into law. However, the Director of Negro Economics has been acting under the authority the Secretary given in section 4 of the organic act suoted above so far as cooperati of could be obtained with other departments in obtaining and furnishin informations g on fer,the advice of the department. In addition to effective cooperat ion of an advisory nature which has been established with the several bureaus and divisions of the Department of Labor, special steps for cooperation with other branches of the Federati Government and with some of the State governments have been successfully undertaken. Special mention may be made of such cooperative effort the StateCouncils of National Defense during the war, with the United Stateswith Public Health, Service, and the War Risk Insurance Bureau of the Treasury Departme nt, and with. Col. Woods's office (Special Assistant to the Secretary of War), and with some of thedemonstration agents of the Department of Agriculture. Based upon this past experience and the authority and powers of the Secretary of Labor for calling upon other branches of the Government for information affecting wage earners, I respectfully recommend: 1. That the office of the Secretary of Labor, by virtue of the aforesaid authority , either through the Division of Negro Economics, or otherwise , as seems best, take steps through the executive of each department, or chiefs of bureaus or comminsion& or boards. (a) to develop cooperation for securing statistical on labor matters from other departments, such data to be collated, arranged, anddata published with reference • to. Negro workers and their relations to white workers and white employer s; (b) to work out plans for practical cooperation of the office of the Secretary such other branches of the executive department of the Governmentof Labor with as deals with questions of labor, such plans to be similar to those already started Health Service, the Bureau of War Risk Insurance of the Treasury with the Public., Department, and the office of Col. Woods, of the War Department. 2. That the Negro Workers' Advisory Committees already established be utilized. for such cooperative service with other departments of the Governm ent for such aleph, aetmey be effective is removing the conditions now causing racial„unrest and frietfuir,. It6 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WA1. as it seems to me that some of the cause s can be effectively removed cooperative efforts of the agencies of the Feder al Governme along the following by lines: (a) Publicity and educational campaigns on the trainingnt of Negro workers, both shop training and unskilled training; (19) impro vement of the housing of Negro worke of encouraging thrift; (d)improvem rs;(c) methods ent of farm labor condi tions and methods of labor management; (f) educational efficiency campa igns on promp tness time work, etc., utilizing Negro , regularity, fullnewspapers, associations, agencies, and speakers; and (g) enlistment of activ public e help of white emplo yers and organizations of white workers. 3. That through the cooperatio some plan for the investigation of n of the other agencies of the Federal Government as possible be undertaken as a Negro affairs and race relations in as many localities means of having information and advice to improve conditions and race relations. 4. That steps be taken with appropriat e departments of State governments simil ar te ;those already established in North Carolina, Ohio, and Illinois.. APPENDIX 1. LABOR AND VICTORY. An address prepare(' and sent out for use in Fourth of July celebrations, 1915. About 2,19.5) copies were' distributed and it is estimated that it was hmrd by more than 1,000,000 Negroes.) This is a world struggle for democracy, and win it we must. How can we win it? There is but one way. Everyone—man,. woman, and child, be he a millionaire or a day laborer—must do his: level best at his work, wherever he may be, whether on the farm, at the docks, in the machine shop, in the mill, at the White House ins Washington, in the kitchen, in the home, or in the trenches. Event wealthy society women in our own country are giving up their luxu— ries, children are giving up their candy, that the children of Europert may have bread. To win this war our soldiers must go to France and fight; but they; can not fight unless they have guns and ammunition. They can not, fight unless they have clothing and shoes, and tents, and plenty of. food. They can not have these things unless there are ships to carry, them to France. We must have ships and more ships. We must.; build steel ships; we must build wooden ships; we must build con— crete ships, to hurry our men and war supplies to the front. Thought-ful men and women, how can our soldiers have clothing and shoes; and food? How can we have ships to carry our boys to France?: There is but one way. Every man, and every child and wotnan, must, work and save, to furnish food, to make clothing and shoes, to make guns and ammunition, and to build ships. And do not forget that any person, black or white, who does not work hard, who lags in anyway, who fails to buy a Liberty bond, or a War Savings stamp if he; can, is against his country and is, therefore, our bitter enemy. Lain happy to say that the majority of our men and women are. working like all other good Americans to make their labor win the' war. Only a few weeks ago the world's record for driving rivets int building steel ships was broken by Charles Knight, a Negro workman, at Sparrows Point, Md. In one nine-hour day he drove 4,875 three— quarter inch rivets in the hull of a steel ship. The newspapers of the' country have lauded him for his work. The British Government sent. him a prize of $125. Again, many of our men and women are making: records as workers in the steel mills, in the coal mines, on the rail— roads, and on the farms. Our thoughtful, interested cooks and other' helpers in the kitchen are really doing service at the front, by saving: all the food they can. The newspapers and journals of the country,. managed and edited by thoughtful men and women, are.creating sentiment that will do much toward winning the war. For instance,, the Albany (Ga.) Herald, a newspaper edited. by Southern white men, advised and suggested to ladies of the city who offered to make andP present to the city a service flag, that a service flag for Albany would not be complete unless there were placed in its field a star not only for every widte soldier. or sailor who has enlisted from Albany but a 137 • 1 138 RLD WAR.. DURING THE WO THE NEGRO AT WORK is e first employee of thar white or black. ThNe st , st an e fir ni th ba d Al an y o, er r gr ev fo a stan my was the National Ar r.. newspaper to join rv sta s hi is ag fl e ic district to. op the Herald's se asked in every city, town, and rural s, are hav— g lk r in fo he be e ot Negroes ar r. We,like wa is th g in nn ery one wi ev t Le join in this work of ce to work and save our country. y. Let it un an rt po ch l op is ua th ing an unus e most of th ke ma helps d an he b, e, jo s ak of -us be wide aw at every time he makes good on hi every time th at nd th mi er in mb reme him Wear y and the. e race. Let him also his country and th on his job, he pulls down his countr wn . le do ib ls ss fal po ss o e war le a Negr thus makeswinning th the Negro entire race, andhs inted a card to helping like this: pr nd ie fr a o ag th nt me mo so ad w re fe rd A ies and shops. The ca w.orkmen in factor . WRY HE FAILED time; He did not report onck; clo the d he tc wa He s was not looking; He loafed when the bos boys all night; He stayed out with the He said, "1 forgot;"on Monday, and He did not show upy every Saturday; He wanted a holida for the truth. He lied when asked e to think about, if we ar thing we ought to ving our country. These r he ot an ll sti is for sa There these opportunities ges are high. make the most oft demands and great prosperity. Wao are working ea t work. Many wh are times of gro will work can ge . Many of our Everybody wh more money than they ever madefr om Uncle Sani now are makingve men in the Army are now getting before. What ha me o ti e wh at any on families an they ever hadw? In the words of the proverbs no more cash money th do to us r her ways and ing fo then is the wise th to the ant, thou sluggard; consider the time to is w o of Solomon: "G yeth up her store in summer." No y hour we er ev rk la wo e to Sh me be wise. w is the ti No n. n. Now ca ca we we ar y ll work every da e time to make and save every do ery War Savings can. Now is th y every Liberty bond we can, and yevhave that liberty Is the time to bucan, in order that our country ma like a man in the stamp that we is fighting. The Negro has fought died to keep the for which she nker Hill toSan Juan Hill. He hasdu ty like soldiers, Bu r battles fromlors flying. Those left behind did theithe front in France American cothere are hundreds of black boys at r you and for me. and to-day their very lives for their country, fo in every week, or laying down cause of your refusal to work six days u can, or because Will you, beyour failure to save as much food as yo to answer to our part, have because of who never rest whatever on your of any lack of inte rn, maimed in battle or even to men on duty, rs ie tu ld re r e so ei ar we, too, boys on th s; er ep ke ' rs he ow men ot ll br fe r r return? We are ousts the destiny of our country and ou ty. du s re s nd hi ha do r n to and in ou s, and asks every ma America needs, expect APPENDIX- II. CONSTITUTION OF THE NEGRO WORK ERS' ADVISORY COM— MITTEE OF NORTH CAROLINA. ARTICLE I. Name.—The name of this committee shall be the: Negro Workers' Advisory Committee of North Carolina. ART. II. Purpose.—The purpose of this committee shall be to, study, plan, and advise in a cooperative spirit employees of Negro labor, with Negro workers, andand manner with States Department of Labor in securing from Negro with the United laborers greaterproduction in industry and agricu for winning the war throughincreasing regularity, application,lture and efficiency, through increasing: the morale of Negro workers, and throu gh improving their general conditions. Arrr. III. Membership—The membership of this committee shall' be composed of not more than 30 persons, colored men and women of North Carolina. At least five members shall be women. Thechairman of the North Carolina Council of Defense, the Federal, director of the United States Employment Service, and the State., agent of rural schools shall be cooperating members. The go;7ernorshall be honorary chairman. ART. IV. Executive board.—There shall an executive board of nine chosen from the general committee. be At least two members of' the executive board shall be women. ART. V. Appointments.—The members of the ttee and or the executive board shall, upon recommendation,commi be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall also designate the chairman andAl the secretary. These Officers shall serve for both the advisory com— mittee and the executive board. Upon the first appointment one-third of the members of both advisory committee and its executive board shall be appointedthe, to. serve until January 1, 1919; one-third to serve until June 1, 1919;, and one-third to serve until January 1, 1920. Thereafter one-third. orthe membership of the committee and its executive board shall be appointed every six months to serve for a term of six months. The chairman and secretary shall serve for periods of six months each,. subject to reappointment. ART. VI. Meetings.--Section 1. The advisory committee shall meet at least once every six months and at such other times as the executive board may decide. Fifteen members shall constitute a Sec. 2. The exkutive board shall meet at least once every other month and at such other times as the chairman and secretary shalli decide, unless otherwise ordered by the board. Six members constitute a quorum. The chairman shall be required to callshall the meeting of the executive board uppa the written request of five DUIrilbers. , TIM NEGRO AT WORK DUR ING THE WORLD WAR. Sec. 3. The meeting plac of the advisory committee executive board shall be the eStat the e Capitol, unless otherwise and by the executive board and orde red roved by the Department ART. VII. By-laws.—The app of Labor. exec utiv e board shall make such bylaws...and rules for the conduct the approval of the advisory of business as seem best, subject to committee, and the Departmen Labor. t of ART. VIII. Powers of the executive boa rd.—The executive board shall transact all business, mak form such other acts as may be.ne plans, enter into agreements, and of this committee. All such tranecessary for carrying out the purpose sactions, plans, agreemen shall be subject to revision by the advisory committee and ts, or acts. States Department of the United Labor, through its duly authoriz sentatives. ed repreAim IX. County commit tee s.— The executive board shall nom for each county of the Stat te having in their judgment a suffina icient Negro population a county eNeg ro work ers' advisory committee of not more than 11 persons. These ons so nominated are to be appointed by the Department of Labpers county council of defense of their or upon recommendation of the men of the respective county counrespective counties. The chaircils of defense and such other white citizens as may be selected by be cooperating members of the countythe Department of Labor shall ART. X. District committees.—The advisory committee. county advisory. committee may be authorized by the State mittee to form district advisory committees for localities in their com respective counties where the Negro population and local labor proble ms justify such district advisory committees. ART. XI. Finances.—Neither this organiza tion, its executive board, or the county and district advisory commit tive boards shall have power or authority tees, or any of their execuany financial agreements or contracts Whito incur expenses or make gate the State of North Carolina or the ch shall in any way obliof Labor. No debts shall be incurred by United States bepartment. tive board or by any county or district this cominittee or its execuexecutive•boards unless previously provcommittees or their respective for. ART. XII. Aniendments.—Amendmenided ts may be made to this constitution by two-thirds vote at a regu lar and duly called meeting of this committee, provided such amendm viously approved by the governor of Nor ent shall have been preth Carolina and the United States Department of Labor. r40 4 APPENDIX - III. CONSTITUTION OF THE NEGRO WORKERS' ADVISORY COM— MITTEE OF OHIO. ARTICLE I. Name.—The name of this organization shall be Negro Workers' Advisory Committe the' e of Ohio. ART. II. Purpose.—The purpose of this committee shall be to study, plan, and advise in a employers of labor,.with Negro cooperative spirit and manner withworkers, and with the United States Department of Labor for the secu ring of additional opportunity foremployment to Negro labor and grea agriculture for winning the war thro ter production in industry and ugh increasing regularity, appli— cation, and efficiency, through impr ovin ers, and through improving their,generalg the morale of Negro work— ART. III. Membership.—The member condition. ship of this organization shall! be composed of not more than 30 persons, men and women, of Ohio.. At least 5 members shall be women. The chairmen of the council of defense, the Federal director of the United States Employment, Service, the Federal director ex officio members. The goveof the Public Service Reserve shall be' rnor of Ohio shall be honorary chair-n. ART.IV. Executive board.—There shall be an executive board or nine chosen from the general committe the executive board shall be women. e. At least two members of' ART. V. Appoiutments.—The members of the committee and or the executive board shall, upon the reco mmendation of the exceutive. board and the indorsement of the ral State director of the' United States Employment Service Fede of Ohio, be appointed by theSbcretary of Labor, who shall also designate the chairim.un and the. secretary. These officers shal l serve for both the advisory committee and the executive board. Thereafter, one-third of the mem—bership of the committee and its exec e board shall be appointed' ever six months to serve for a term utiv of 18 months. Upon the first. apppintment one-third of the member mittee and its executive board shal s of both the advisory com— January 1, 1919. The chairman and l be appointed to serve unfit etary shall serve for periods: of six months each, subject to reap secrtmen t. Membership on the. committee may be vacated on recopoin mmen dati on by a vote of two— thirds of the committee. ART. VI. Meetings.—Section 1. The meet at least once every six months State advisory committee shalr executive board may decide. Fift and at such other times as the een members shall constitute quorum. Sec. 2. The executive board l meet at least once in every two months, and at such other timeshal s as the chairman and secretary shall decide, unless otherwise ordered by the board. Five members shalt ' 141, 142 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. the constitute a quorum. The chairman shall he required tosttall of five reque en writt the upon board meetings of the exec utive members of the board. the execSec. 3. The meeting place of the advisory committee and ed by order wise s other unles ol, capit utive board shall be the State . of Labor nt rtme the Depa by ved appro and hoard the'executive ws by-la such make shall board tive execu —The Alin': VII. By-laws. best, not -inconseem as ess busin its of ct condu the f6r s and 'rule sistent with this constitution. tive board ART. VIII. Powers of the executive board.—The execu ments, and agree into enter , plans make ess, busin shall transact all the purout ing carry for y perform such other acts as may bene-cessar ments, , agree plans ns, actio trans such All ttee. pose of this commi and ttee ory commi advis the by ion comets shall be subject to revis authorized duly its gh throu , Labor of nt rtme Depa s the United State representatives. tive board shall nominate ART.IX. rowdy committees.—The execu g in their judgment a havin , State the in ies count for each of the rs' advisory corn. worke o Negr y sufficient Negro population, a count ns so nominated perso These ns. perso 11 than more mittee of not recommendar upon Labo of nt rtme Depa are to be appointed by the s Employment State d Unite the tion of Federal State Director of Service for Ohio. State advisory committee ART. X. Community committees.—Thettees for localities in their commi ory, advis y unit may form comm o population and local labor respective communities where the Negr ory committees. The ccmadvis y unit comm such fy Rroblems justi rate in every practical and coope shill munity advisory committees labor boards. honorable way with the county this oroganization nor its executive. er ART. XI. Finances.—Neith unity advisory committee, nor any comm nor y count any board,or power or authority to incur exhave shall s their executive board or contracts which shall in. ments penses or make any financial agree or the United States Department Ohio of State the any way obligate by this committee or its execuof Labor. No debts shall be incurredcomm unity committee or their tive board or by any county or previously authorized. s s unles respective executive board Amendments may be made to this conAny. XII. Amendments.— at a regular and duly called meeting of vote hirds two-t stitution by a such amendment shall .have been ded the general committee, provi and the Muted States previously approved by the executive board Department of Labor. or *". '416 APPENDIX IV. TEE' NEGRO WAR WORK COMMIT CONSTITUTION FOR THE KEN TUCKY. OF roe of this committee shall be the Neg ARTICLE I. Name.—The nam ky. tuc Ken to War Work Committee of e of this organization shall be h ART. II. Purpose.—The purpos wit ner man and cooperative spirit study, plan, and advise in ah Negro workers, and with the United employers of Negro labor, witin securing from Negro laborers greater States Department of Laboragri culture for winning the war through production in industry and for work, through increasing the morale efficiency securing wide opportunity ough improving their general of food in of Negro workers, and thr tion erva cons and on ucti prod art— Dep and condition; to promotes the and on rati nist the Food Admi conformity with the planproof Cross, Liberty Red the of k wor the e mot ment of Agriculture; to vities. acti mittee shall loans, and other warshi p.—The membership of this com women of ART. III. Member and men red colo ons, pers than 30 mittee The be composed of not more mem com en. wom bers shall be nse, the, Kentucky. At least six of Defe cil Coun ky tuc Ken on Negro organization of the States Employment Service, theted food Federal director of the Unilic Service Reserve, the Federal Pub the of . ctor Ken in n Federal dire nsio exte m far of the director eutiv exec administrator of Kentucky, the s, Cros of the American Red tatives. esen and tucky, the chairmanCam repr ice, Serv ity mun Com p secretary of the War tions shall be cooperating members. Theof other war organiza l be honorary chairman. e board of governor of Kentucky shal ere shall be an executiv bers of ART. IV. Executive board.—Th mem e thre committee. At least nine, chosen from the general l be women. tee and of' the executive board shal .—The members of this committhir nts tme oin App V. . d of the. ART Oneows: foll as appointed shall be, d e boar the executive board shall be ee utiv exec of the members of general conunittt ofand by the Extensiond thir oneor; Lab by the Food appointed by the Departmen Agriculture; and one-thirded also as theBureau, Department of mem gnat bers shall be desi the war work Administration. These Council of Defense forcha ky tuc Ken the irman and a oommittee of a be l officers shal The le. peop red colo They shall the d. ng boar amo by the executive utive board. secretary, who will be elected exec the mittee and s of both the. serve for both the general com one-third of the memberappo nt tme oin app t firs inted tothe Under be l shal rd boa utive 1, 1919; July advisory committee and its exec l unti one-third to serve eafter, one-third 9; 191 1, y uar Jan l unti e serv uary 1, 1920. Ther board shall be and one-third to serve until Jan tee and its executive months. The mit the com of p of the membershi 18 serve for a term of six months each, appointed every 6 months to of ods peri e for appointed bychairman and secretary shall serv r sure shall be a trea faithful persubject to reappointment. Thelre the for d bon er und be gnate. the executive board. He shal exec desi may rd utive boa k:trim:we of such duties as the 143 1 144 THE NEGRO AT WORK DURING THE WORLD WAR. ART. VI. Meetings.—Section 1. The general committee shall meet at least once every six months and at such other times as the executive board may decide. Fifteen members shall constitute a quorum. Sec. 2. The executive board shall meet at least once every other month and at such other times as the chairman and secretary shall' decide, unless otherwise ordered by the board. Five members shall constitute a quorum. The chairman shall be required to call themeeting of the executive board upon the written request of fivemembers of the advisory committee of the board or of both. The calling of the meetings of both the general committee and of the exec— utive board shall first have the approval of the Negro organization committee of the council of defense. Sec. 3. The meeting place of the general committee and the executive board shall be Louisville unless otherwise ordered by the executive board and approved by the council of defense. Akr. VII. By-laws.—The executive board shall make such by— laws and rules for the conduct of business as may seem best and in conformity with this constitution. ART. VIII. Powers of the executive board.—The executive board shall transact all business, make plans, enter into agreements, and perform such other acts as may be necessary for carrying out thepurpose of this committee. All such transactions, plans, agreements,. or acts shall be subject to revision by .the general committee, the. departments of the 14 ederal Government involved, and the Kentucky Council of Defense. ART. IX. Cou.nty committees.—The executive board shall nominate for each county of the State having in their judgment a sufficient Negro population a county Negro war-work committee of not more than nine persons. The persons so nominated shall be appointed by the Departments of Labor and Agriculture, the Food Administration,. and the council of defense in the same manner as the State committee. and its executive board. ART. X. Community committees.—The county war-work committee may be authorized by the State committee to form community war— work committees for localities in their respective counties where the Negro population and local war-work problems justify such community committees. This committee and its executive board and the.county. and community committees shall cooperate with the community labor boards of.the Department of Labor. ART. XI. Finances.—Neither this organization, its executive board, nor the county or community war-work committees, nor any of'their executive boards shall have power or authority to incur expenses or make any financial agreements or contracts which shall in any way obligate the State of Kentucky or the United States Government. No debts shall be incurred by this committee or its executive board or any county or community committees or their respective executive boards unless previously provided for. ART. XII. Amendments.—Amendments may be made to this constitution by two-thirds vote at a regular and duly called meeting of this committee, provided each amendment shall have been previously approved. by the executive board and the United States departments herein named and by the Kentucky Council of Defense:. 0 •- Signed PRINTER: This illustration to face page MZIMMDM1 ===m=mgmnicssaftm MACHINE OPERATORS MAKING BEDSPR I NI WEBBING. 1100D.) BLISIIMENT. (NOTE THE VENTILATING NEGRO WOMEN IRONER S IN LAUNDRY EST.,