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laLh.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,


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W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary

WOMEN'S BUREAU, Esther Peterson, Asst. Secre!ary; Dll'ector, Women 's Bureau

WOMEN IN THE WORLD TODAY

Publications included in the International Report series

IR-1

Women in High-Level Elective and Appointive
Positions in National Governments

IR-2

Political Rights of Women in Member Nations
of the United Nations

IR-3

Policies of National Governments on Employing
Women

IR-4

Equal Pay in Member Nations of the International
Labor Organization

IR-5

Protective Labor Legislation for Women in
91 Countries

IR-6

Maternity Protection and Benefits in 92 Countries

IR-7

Notes on Women's Emproyment in the United States
and Nine European Countries

Copies may be purchased from the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C . .20402


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'

WOMEN IN THE WORLD TODAY
International Report 5

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES
March 1963

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary

WOMEN I s BUREAU
Esther Peterson, Director
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 30 cents


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PREFACE

In December 1961 the President of the United States
established the President's Connnission on the Status of
Women to review progress and to recommend methods of overcoming remaining discrimination against women in the United
States in economic, civil, political, and property rights,
and in family relations.
The Committee on Protective Labor Legislation of the
President's Commission made an appraisal of Federal and
State labor laws dealing with such matters as hours, night
work, and wages, to determine whether they were accomplishing the purposes for which they were established and whether
they needed to be adapted to changing technological, economic,
and social conditions. This report was prepared for the
Connnittee on Protective Labor Legislation.


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iii


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CONT ENT S

Introdu ction . .

1

Africa . . . .

4

Asia (Far East) . . . .

11

Europe . . . . .

16

Latin Americ a.

24

Near East and South Asia . .

29

Canada and the United States .

33

APPENDIXES
A - Nations Ratify ing Night Work (Women) Conven tion,
1919 (No. 4); Night · Work (Women) Conven tion
(Revise d), 1934 (No. 41); Night Work (Women)
Conven tion (Revise d), 1948 (No. 89). . . . . . . . .

A

Nations Ratify ing White Lead (Painti ng) Conven tion,
1921 (No. 13). . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .

B

B -

C - Nations Ratify ing Underg round Work (Women)
Conven tion , 1935 (No. 45) . . . . . . . .


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C


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INTRODUCTION

The protection of women workers against exploitation
and hazardous conditions of work has been a subject of international concern for more than a century. In order to set up
standards for the protection of women workers, the International
Labor Organization has adopted conventions 1/ limiting hours of
work and prohibiting night, underground, and hazardous work.
It was hoped that these conventions would be used as standards
by nations interested in establishing protective legislation
for women, and that their acceptance would improve labor conditions wherever there was a need.
tions

l/

Today, many nations have ratified various ILO convenwhich provide for the protection of women workers.

Employment of women during night hours is regulated
by three conventions: Night Work (Women) Convention, 1919
(No. 4); Night . Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1934 (No. 41),
closed to further ratification because it is revised; Night
Work (Women) Convention (~lv~sed), 1948 (No. 89). All three
conventions are in force.-

]:_/ Conventions are international labor standards which may
be ratified as treaties. They are based upon careful factfinding
and discussion. Since a two-thirds majority of the International
Labor Con~erence of the ILO is required for adoption of conventions, they represent the general agreement of informed world
opinion. Conventions of the International Labor Co~ference are
not automatically binding on member countries; they must be ratified by the appropriate legislative bodies before they are
binding on governments.
2/ Lists of countries ratifying ILO Conventions 4, 41, 89
(Night Work); 13 (Use of White Lead); 45 (Underground Work) are
in the appendixes.
3/ A convention comes into force 12 months after two members
of the ILO have registered ratification. It comes into force
for each ratifying nation 12 months after the date on which
ratification of the convention was registered.


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- 1 -

The three night work conventions apply exclusively to
women employed in specified public or private industrial undertakings.~/ The 1919 convention applies to any woman in these
undertakings. The 1934 convention excludes women who hold
responsible management positions and are not ordinarily engaged
in manual work. The 1948 convention excludes women not ordinarily engaged in manual work, who hold responsible managerial
and technical positions or are employed in health and welfare
services.
These conventions state the principle that women
should not be employed during the night in any public or private
industrial undertaking. The span of night hours in the conventions is as follows:
1919 (No. 4) - at least 11 consecutive hours, including the
interval between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.
1934 (No. 41) - the interval between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. may
be substituted for the interval between
10 p.m. and 5 a.m. where there are exceptional circumstances.
1948 (No. 89) - a period of 11 consecutive hours, which must
include at least 7 consecutive hours between
10 p.m. and 7 a.m.
All three conventions provide for exceptions in case
of force majeure (work interruption impossible to foresee, not
of recurring nature) or where materials are subject to rapid
deterioration. The 1948 convention adds a provision for full
suspension of the prohibition of night work in case of national
eme~gency. All three conventions further permit reduction of
the restricted night hours where climate renders work during the
day particularly dangerous to health, provided that compensatory
rest is accorded during the day. Also, because of seasonal
demands the night period may be shortened to 10 hours per day
for 60 days of the year.

1/ Industrial activities include activities in the fields
of mining and quarrying, manufacturing ; and construction. For
other activities, it is left to the competent authority in each
country to determine what comprises industry, commerce, and
agriculture.


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There are two conventions protecting women againsl
hazardous employment. The White Lead (Painting) Convention,
1921 (No. 13), prohibits the employment of women in any painting
work of an industrial nature involving the use of products
containing lead pigments.
The Underground Wo·r k (Women) Convention, 1935 (No. 45),
prohibtts employment of any women in underground work in any
mine.11 National laws may except women who hold management
positions and do not perform manual work; women employed in
health and we-lfare services; women who may spend a period of
training, during the course of their studies, in underground
parts of mines; and other women who occasionally may have to
enter underground parts of mines for nonmanual occupations.
In addition to adopting standards set by these eonventions, many countries have included other protective provisions
in their legislation, such as limitations of hours of work for
women and safety measures in factories.
In many countries there are wide discrepancies between
the provisions of protective laws and actual practices. Nevertheless, even when practice does not conform completely to law,
the existence of law provides the basis for improved conditions
and may be enough to prevent the development of certain forms
of exploitation. On the other hand, where practices already
exist or are appearing that are not in conformity with specified legal provisions, in time these practices may modify or
bring about changes in existing law.
The following is a brief summary of legislation limiting
hours of work, night work, and various types of hazardous work in
the 92 countries for which information was available.

5/ Any public or private undertaking for the extraction of
any s~bstance from under the surface of the earth.
711-492 0 - 63 - 2


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PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

AFRICA

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

Lil1ITATION OF NIGHT WORK

Lil1ITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

CENTRAL AFRICAN
REPUBLIC

Work limited to 48 hours
per week in general or
10 hours per day; one
or more rest periqds
required (1961) j_/

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 5 a.m. except
by permission of labor
inspector; rest period
of not less than 11 consecutive hours including
night interval required;
employment prohibited at
stalls outside of shops
after 8 p.m. (1961).

Work prohibited underground
in mines, at machines with
moving unprotected parts,
in jobs which constitute
a danger to moral development. Limits set on
weights which may be
lifted (1961).

CHAD

Became independent August 1960. Act 8-61 of March 1961 amends former French legislation of 1952 and 1954 but retains protective provisions applicable to women.
Work limited in industrial and conunercial
establishments to 10
hours per day; one
or more rest periods
totaling not less
than 1 hour required.

Night work hours fixed by
an order made by chief
officer of country; may
vary according to season; rest period of
not less than 11 consecutive hours including
night interval required.

Work prohibited underground
in mines or quarries, on
machinery with moving or
dangerous parts (unless
guarded), of hazardous
nature, beyond strength or
morally injurious. Limits
set on weights which may be
carried, dragged, or pushed.

6/ Dates in parentheses refer to date of enactment as shown in Legislative Series published by the
International Labor Office. Where dates are not given, information was taken from recent Foreign Service
despatches or other sources which did not provide date of specified law. It is assumed these laws are
currently in force


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PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

AFRICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZAROOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)
Women may be required to
undergo medical examination to determine physical
capacity for specified
work, and may be reassigned·
or dismissed with adequate
termination payment.

CHAD--Continued

CONGO (BRAZZAVILLE)

Became independent August 1960. Information is not available on laws now in force.
French legislation of 1954 included protective provisions. (See Chad)

DAHOMEY

Became independent August 1960. Information is not available on laws now in force.
French legislation of 1954 included protective provisions. (See Chad)

GABON

Became independent August 1960. Information is not available on laws (Labor Code,
January 1962) now in force. French legislation of 1954 included protective provisions.
(See Chad)
Work prohibited underground
except in special circumstances.

GHANA

GUINEA


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Work limited to 40 hours
per week (both men and
women); overtime paid
for work over 8 hours
per day or 40 hours
per week; weekly rest

Night work prohibited
(night includes at
least 7 hours between
10 p.m. and 7 a.m.);
nightly rest period
of not less than 11

Work prohibited which is
dangerous to health
(conditions specified
by public administrative
regulations). Labor inspector may order an

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

AFRICA

GUINEA--Continued

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS
of 24 consecutive hours
required (as a rule
falls on Sunday). Work
limited to 45 hours per
week for government and
public service employees ( 1960).

Lil1ITATION OF NIGHT WORK

consecutive hours including night interval
required (1960).

Lil1ITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
{HEALTH AND SAFETY)
indemnity given to woman
doing work exceeding her
strength. Public decency
and good morals must be
maintained in industries
employing women. These
rules also apply to homework.

IVORY COAST

Became independent August 1960. Information is not available on laws now in force.
French legislation of 1954 included protective provisions. {See Chad)

LIBERIA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day; overtime paid
for work over 48 hours
per week {applies to
both men and women)
(1960).

LIBYA

Work limited to 48 hours
per week, including
overtime; one or more
rest periods totaling
not less than 1 hour
required if daily
hours of work exceed
6.


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Work prohibited between
10 p.m. and 5 a.m.

Work prohibited which regulations specify as generally
hazardous.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

--..J

AFRICA

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

MALAGASY
REPUBLIC

Work limited to 40 hours
per week (men and
women); in agriculture
limited to 2400 hours
a year; weekly rest
period of 24 consecutive hours required.
Decree of 1962 makes
detailed provisions
for weekly rest day
and holidays .

Night work prohibited;
hours specified by
National Labor Council
and vary with season;
rest period of not
less than 11 consecutive hours required.

Work prohibited which is specified by National Labor
Council; women may be
required to undergo medical examination to determine physical capacity
for specified work, and
may be reassigned or
dismissed with adequate
termination payment.

MALI

Became independent June 1960. Information is not available on laws now in force.
French legislation of 1954 included protective provisions. (See Chad)

MAURITANIA

Became independent November 1960. Information is not available on laws now in
force. French legislation of 1954 included protective provisions. (See Chad)

MOROCCO

Work limited to 10 hours
Work prohibited between
per day, with one or
10 p.m. and 5 a.m.;
more rest periods
nightly res-t of 11
consecutive hours
totaling 1 hour required;
including night interrest period of~ hour
val
required.
required for every 6
consecutive hours of
work.

NIGER

Became independent August 1960. Act No. 62-12 of July 13, 1962, repeals and supersedes former French legislation of 1952 but retains most of the protective provisions
applicable to women. (See Chad)


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Work prohibited underground
in mines and quarries, in
dangerous processes, or at
machines with moving unprotected parts. Limits
set on weights which may
be carried, hauled, or
pushed.

PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

AFRICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

NIGERIA

Work in industry normally
44 hours per week, 8
hours per day on weekdays and 4 hours on
Saturday; usually 1
hour lunch break
(without pay).

Work prohibited in industry
for a period of at least
11 consecutive hours including the interval between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.,
in agriculture for a
period of at least 9
consecutive hours
including interval
between 9 p.m. and
4 a.m. Does not
apply to managerial
positions.

Work prohibited underground
except for managerial positions, health work, or
during periods of trairting
in underground parts of
mines; no prohibition
against entering underground parts of mine for
nonmanual purposes.

Work prohibited between
10 p.m. and 5 a.m.;
rest period of at least
11 consecutive hours
required.

Women may be required by
Inspector of Labor and
Social Security to undergo
medical examination to determine physical capacity
for specified work, and
may be reassigned or
dismissed with adequate
termination payment.

CX)

SENEGAL

11

7/ The former French Labor Code covering Senegal was modified and adapted specifically for Senegal
in La; 61-34 of June 15, 1961. (For protective provisions see Chad.)


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PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

AFRICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

SIERRA LEONE
SOUTH AFRICA,
REPUBLIC OF

\0

TANGANYIKA


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LiliITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)
Work prohibited underground

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 46 hours per
week in general; in
some industries contracts provide for
40-hour week; in factories required to
work after 1 p.m.
on only 5 days a
week; in factories and
workshops overtime
limited to 6 hours per
week, 2 hours per day,
and on not more than
3 consecutive days.

Work prohibited from 6
p.m. to 6 a.m.

Work prohibited underground
by Mines and Works Act,
1956.

Work prohibited in industry between 6 p.m. and
6 a.m.; exceptions in
managerial positions,
emergencies, or where
materials are subject
to rapid deterioration
(1955).

Work prohibited underground
except for managerial positions, health work, or
during period,s of training
in underground parts of
mines; no prohibition
against entering underground
parts of mines for nonmanual
purposes (1955) .

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

AFRICA

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

TOGO

Work limited to 10 hours
per day, with one or
more rest periods
totaling not less than
1 hour required.

Work prohibited in industry between 8 p.m. and
6 a.m.

Work prohibited underground
in mines or quarries, at
repairing machines in
operation, at machines with
unprotected moving parts,
or in certain chemical
factories. Limits set on
weights which may be carried,
hauled, or pushed. Employment prohibited producing,
selling, or handling printed
mat2rials restricted under
penal codes as contrary to
good morals.

TUNISIA

Work limited to 40 hours
per week, 8 hours per
day in general, with
one or more daily rest
periods totaling at
least 1 hour required.

Work prohibited between
10 p .m. and 5 a.m.;
rest period of at
least 12 consecutive
hours including night
interval required.

Work prohibited in unhealthy
or dangerous occupations,
at machines with uncovered,
dangerous, or moving parts.
Limits set on weights which
may be carried, hauled, or
pushed.

UPPER VOLTA

Became independent August 1960. Information is not avai.lable on laws now in force.
French legislation in 1954 included protective provisions. (See Chad)

t--'

0


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PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

ASIA (FAR EAST)

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

AUSTRALIA

Workweek of 40 hours
determined by arbitration in the Connnonwealth and most states,
by legislation in New
South Wales and
Queensland.

Night work regulated by
states; for example, in
New South Wales work prohibited between 6 p.m.
and 6 a.m.; exceptions
by order of the Minister
(1912).

Limitations on hazardous
work imposed by states.
In New South Wales work
prohibited cleaning
moving machinery; Minister
of Labour may specify
prohibited dangerous work;
seats must be provided
(1915); limits set on
weights which may be lifted
or carried by hand (1927).
In South Australia work prohibited cleaning moving
machinery and operating
elevators or lifts (1926).
In Western Australia seats
must be provided (1931);
work prohibited on moving
machinery; Minister of
Labour may prohibit specified dangerous or injurious
occupations (1938).

BURMA

Work limited generally to
8 hours per day, 44 hours
per week; in factories
may be extended to 48
hours per week. Work by
women limited to 8 hours
per day except in fish
industry, where spoilage
might result. One day of
rest per week required.

Work in factories permitted between 6 p.m.
and 6 a.m.

Work prohibited in cleaning,
lubricating, and adjusting
moving machinery. Limits
set on weights which may
be lifted in factories.

......
......


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PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

ASTA (FAR EAST)

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

Lll1ITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

CAMBODIA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 per week
(irrespective of sex and
age); excludes agricultural and domestic workers; permanent and temporary exceptions permitted under special circumstances and according to
the nature of work performed; overtime to
recover lost time limited
to 100 hours per year,
except in certain specified industries.

Work prohibited between
10 p.m. and 5 a.m.; an
11-consecutive-hour rest
period required, which
may be reduced to 10
hours in certain specified cases. Night work
for women over 18 may be
authorized by Inspector
of Labor, up to 25 days
per year in food industries, 90 days in fish
industries.

Work prohibited underground
and in certain specified
dangerous occupations.
Work permitted in unhealthy
and dangerous establishments only under certain
conditions (as prescribed
by government orders).

CHINA,

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 6 days per week,
except in national emergency may be extended to
10 hours per day to meet
local conditions.

Work prohibited between
10 p.m. and 6 a.m.

Work prohibited which is
dangerous, hazardous, or
demoralizing.

Work limited to 7 hours
per day, 40 hours per
week; \-hour rest
period required for

Work prohibited between
6 p.m. and 6 a.m.; exceptions in the public
interest or welfare, or

Work prohibited in mines,
pits, or places where
minerals and other
materials are extracted

REPUBLIC OF

INDONESIA


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PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

ASIA (FAR EAST)

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

INDONESIA--Con.

every 4 hours' work
(1951).

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

jobs which due to nature ,
location, and circumstances must be performed
by women (1951).

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)
from the earth; does not
apply to entering underground parts of mines to
perform nonmanual duties.
Work prohibited which is
dangerous , injurious to
health, or may endanger
moral welfare (1951).

JAPAN

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women); overtime limited to 2 hours
per day, 6 hours per
week, 150 hours per
year (1947).

Work prohibited between
10 p.m. and 5 a.m.,
except, with Minister's
approval, on shift work
may be 11 p.m. to 6 a.m.
On rotating shifts women
may be employed until
10:30 p.m. (1947).

Work prohibited underground,
in other dangerous occupations, and conveying
heavy weights (1947).

MAIAYA

Work limited to average
of 48 hours per week,
6 days per week; exceptions include shift
work (applies to both
men and women) (1955).

Work prohibited between
10 p.m. and 3 a.m. with
some exceptions; II-consecutive-hour rest
period required (1956).

Work prohibited underground.
Legislative Council may
prohibit or permit employment (1955).


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PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

ASIA (FAR EAST)

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITA~ION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

NEW ZEALAND

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 40 hours per
week; overtime limited
to 3 hours per day, 9
hours per week; exceptions where raw materials
may deteriorate or to
meet public demand.

Work prohibited in factories between 6 p.m.
and 8 a.m., as shop
assistants after 10:30
p.m., in restaurants between 10:30 p.m. and

Work prohibited in places
using oxide of lead, on
moving unguarded machinery,
other dangerous occupations.
Limits set on weights which
may be lifted.

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 6 days per
week; overtime required
for work on Sundays or
legal holidays, except
in public services;
permit from Secretary
of Labor required for
overtime Sunday and
holiday work.

Work prohibited in industry
between 10 p.m. and
6 a.m., except in national
emergencies, where rapidly
deteriorating materials
involved, or force majeure,
which causes an unforeseen
interruption of work, not
of recurring nature; in
commerce between midnight
and 7 a.m., except for
immediate members of
family owning or operating
business; in agriculture
without 9 consecutive
hours' rest; exceptions in
managerial positions and
health and welfare work
(1954).

PHILIPPINES
t-l
~


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5 a .m.

Work prohibited in shops,
factories, commercial or
industrial establishments
which require employee to
work always standing or to
lift heavy weights (1954).

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

ASIA (FAR EAST)

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

Lil1ITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

THAILAND

Work limited in industry
to 48 hours per week, in
connnerce to 54 hours per
week; 1-hour rest period
required each day after
5 hours' work.

Work prohibi~ed in industry between 10 p.m. and
6 a.m., in agriculture
and connnerce between midnight and 6 a.m.; exceptions by permission of
State Authorization
Officer.

Work prohibited underground
and in other dangerous
occupations. Limits set
on weights which may be
lifted.

VIET-NAM

Work prohibited between
Work limited to average of
8 hours per day, 48 hours
10 p.m. and 5 a.m. in
per week, 6 days per week.
factories and quarries;
11-consecutive-hour
rest period required.

t-'

V1


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Work prohibited underground
and in occupations dangerous to health or public
decency.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

ALBANIA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day for wage and
salary workers; rest
period of not less
than\ hour per day
required; overtime
limited to 8 hours
per week, 4 hours in
2 days, or 180 hours
per year (applies to
both men and women);
overtime prohibited
for pregnant women
and nursing mothers.
Women may be permitted to work 4 hours
a day because of
family circumstances
(1956).

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 6 a.m. for pregnant women and nursing
mothers (1956).

Work prohibited underground
and on arduous or unhealthy
jobs specified by government (1956) .

AUSTRIA

Work limited in agriculture to 54 hours
per week with some
exceptions; overtime
limited to 2 hours
per day on weekdays

Work prohibited in industry between 8 p.m. and
5 a .m.; at least 11cons ecutive-hour rest
period including the
night interval required
(1919); in agriculture
between 7 p .m, and 5
a.m . (1948)


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(1948).

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

BELGIUM

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (1926).

Work prohibited between 9
p.m. and 5 a.m. (1919);
between 11 p.m. and 6
a.m. in exceptional
cases (1936); 11-consecu-tive-hour rest period
including the night
interval required (1919) .

Work pronibited underground
in ore-bearing earth or
peat and in quarries
(1936), in lead processing
and other hazardous work
(1928), in music halls and
similar establishments
(1927).

BULGARIA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 6 hours per
night; overtime limited to 150 hours per
year (exceptions i~
special cases); one
or more rest periods
per day and weekly
rest of 36 consecutive hours required
(applies to both men
and women) (1951).

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 5 a.m. from
March 1 through September 30, between 10 p.m.
and 6 a.m. remainder of
year for pregnant women
and women with children
up to 10 months (1951).

Work prohibited underground
in mines except for managerial positions , health
work, or during periods of
training in underground
parts of mines; no prohibition against entering
underground parts of mine
for nonmanual purposes.
Work prohibited in certain
unheal t hy jobs in specified
industries. Limits set on
weights which may be hau led,
carr~ed, or pushed (1959).

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

Work limited by Lab.or
Code to 46 hours per
week; weekly rest
period of at least
32 consecutive hours

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 6 a.m. for
pregnant women and mothers
of small children.

Work prohibited underground
in mines.

I-'
--.J


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

CZECHOSLOVAKIA-Continued

Lil1ITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

required (applies to
both men and women);
overtime prohibited
for pregnant women
and mothers of small
children.
Work may be prohibited which
is especially laborious,
dangerous, or injurious
(1913). Safety and health
provisions are enforced by
a labor inspector (1954).

DENMARK

Rest period of at least
11 consecutive hours
required in a period
of 24 hours; exceptions in baking industry, loading, and
unloading .

FINLAND

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 45 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women) .

Work prohibited between 9
p.m. and 6 a.m.; exceptions in hospitals,
dairies, bakeries, hotels and restaurants,
and shift work.

Work prohibited underground
in mines except for managerial positions, health
work or during periods of
training in underground
parts of mines; no prohibition against entering underground parts of mine for
nonmanual purposes (1937).

FRANCE

Work limited in factories, stores, and
offices to 10 hours

Work prohibited in industry between 10 p.m. and
5 a.m.; some exceptions

Work prohibited underground;
on repairing machines, mechanical appliances, or

~

00


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PROTECTIVE I.ABOR LEGISI.ATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

FRANCE--Con.

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
·WEEKLY HOURS
per day; at least 1hour rest period
required.

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

for perishable goods
(1928); at least 11consecutive-hour rest
period including the
night -interval required
(1912).

parts in motion; in some
poisonous industries and
specified hazardous occupations; outdoors when
temperature is be"!ow 35° C.
Limit5 set on weights
which may be carried,
hauled, or pushed. Work
prO"hibited producing, selling, or handling printed
materials restricted
under penal codes as contrary to good morals
(1915).

Work prohibited between 8
p.m. and 6 a.m. for
expectant and nursing
mothers.

Work prohibited in coal, ore,
potash, and salt mines;
coking plants; Steel mills;
construction; in other
industries unless safety
provisions obs~rved .

Work prohibited between 9
p.m. and 5 a.m.; exceptions in grape, raisin,
and fig industries
(1932); women over 18
may be employed in dairy
industry between 9 p .m.
and 11 p.m. (1925).

Work prohibited underground
in mines and quarries
(1929).

I-'

\0

GERMANY, FEDERAL
REPUBLIC OF

GREECE


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work limited in certain
occupations and industrial undertakings
to 8 hours per day,
48 hours per week
(applies to both men
and women) (1929).

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 9 1 COUNTRIES

N
0

EUROPE

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

HUNGARY

Work limited to 8 hours
per day; shorter hours
may be prescribed in
hazardous occupations;
daily rest period required (1951).

Work prohibited in industry between 10 p.m. and
6 a.m.; may be prohibited
by Labor Minister between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m.
in certain industries
(1953).

Work prohibited which is
harmful to health (1951)

IGELAND

There are no laws governing hours, night work, and wages. These matters are subject
to negotiation between the employers and the unions , and are covered in collective
agreements.

ITALY

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, in some cases
to 11 hours per day;
for work of 6 to 8
hours, 1-hour rest
period required; for
work over 8 hours, 1\hour rest period
required.

NETHERLANDS


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work prohibited underground
in mines, quarries, or
tunnels; on suspended
bridges, compressed air
caissons, and in other
specified dangerous
occupations; in other
industries unless safety
provisions observed.
Limits set on weights
which may be lifted or
hauled.
Work prohibited in specified
occupations which may endanger health, morals, or
life .

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

POLAND

Work limited to 8 hours
per day during week,
6 hours on Saturday,
46 hours per week;
limitations on overtime (applies to both
men and women) .

Night work prohibited only
for women 4 months pregnant or with children
less than a year old.

Work prohibited in certain
categories of dangerous,
difficult, or unhealthy
jobs.

Work prohibited between 9
p.m. and 5 a.m. from
May to October, between
8 p.m. and 7 a.m. remainder of year.

Work prohibited in unhealthy
and hazardous processes
(1927).

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 6 a.m., in some
cases between 11 p.m.
and 7 a.m. (1952).

Work prohibited which is
heavy or unhealthy for
pregnant women, nursing
mothers, and women in
ill health (1950) .

PORTUGAL

RUMANIA

SPAIN


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 7 hours per
night (1950).

Work prohibited between 9
Work prohiblted in certain
p .m. and 5 a .m.; rest
unhealthy and hazardous
period of not less than
occupations . Limits set on
12 consecutive hours
weights which may be transincluding night interval
ported, pushed, or pulled
required (1927); excep(1957).
tions in agriculture and
where rapidly deteriorating materials are involved.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

SWEDEN

For work of more than 6
hours' duration, one
or more rest periods
required (applies to
both men and women)
(1949).

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 5 a.m.; exceptions in hospitals and
service trades; rest
period of not less than
11 consecutive hours
including night interval
required.

Work prohibited underground
and in processes involving
use of white lead. In
cases of particuiar strain
or danger to health, special conditions for the
employment of women may be
prescribed (1949).

SWITZERLAND§_/

Work prohibited on public holidays.

Work prohibited in indusWork prohibited in particutry between 10 p.m. and
larly dangerous occupa5 a.m.; exceptions in
tions.
national emergencies, seasonal occupations, or where
materials are subject to
rapid deterioration (1922).

USSR

Work limited to 7 hours
per day, 6 hours on
Saturday, 41 hours
per week (applies to
both men and women).

Night work prohibited.

N
N

§_/ Protection varies from canton to canton.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work prohibited in particularly hazardous jobs.
Limits set on weights which
may be lifted or hauled
manually.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

EUROPE

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

UNITED KINGDOM

Work limited in factories
working a 5-day week
to 10 hours per day, 48
hours per week; for
work of 4~ consecutive
hours , \-hour rest
period required; overtime limited to 6 hours
per week and 100 hours
per year. Exceptions
may be granted in special cases.

Work prohibited in industry
between 6 p.m. and 10
p.m.; rest period of 11
consecutive hours including night interval
required; exceptions in
shift work and managerial
positions.

Work prohibited in certain
processes connected with
lead manufacture and involving risk to health,
in glass and salt works,
on machinery with moving
unprotected parts, in
other industries unless
safety provisions are
observed
Limits set on
weights which may be lifted,
carried, moved, loaded or
unloaded, or stacked.

YUGOSLAVIA

Work limited to 42 hours
per week (6 workdays);
overtime limited to 4
hours per week, but
may be exceeded in
certain cases if worker
agrees (a~plies to both
men and women).

Night work prohibited in
industrial and construction enterprises; rest
period of not less than
11 hours including 7
hours between 10 p.m.
and 7 a.m. required;
exceptions in manag~rial
positions, other workers outside of industry
and construction, unless pregnant or with
children less than 1
year old

Work prohibited which is
harmful to health, dangerous to life, or very
difficult manually.

N

w


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

LATIN AMERICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

ARGENTINA

Work limited to 48 hours
per week, 8 hours per
day, with a rest period
of 2 hours required
(1924).

Work prohibited in winter
between 8 p.m. and 7 a.m.,
in summer between 8 p.m.
and 6 a.m.; exceptions
in nursing and domestic
occupations (1924).
Night work hours are
between 10 p .m. and 6
a.m. in three-shift
factory work.

Work prohibited in certain
specified dangerous or
unhealthy industries or
occupations (1924).

BOLIVIA

Work limited to 40 hours
of day work per week;
some exceptions, such
as managerial positions (1939).

BRAZIL

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week; overtime limited
to 2 hours per day;
rest period of at
least 11 hours between
working days required.

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 5 a.m.; exceptions are women over 18
in managerial, health,
and welfare positions,
places of amusement, and
telephone industry.

Work prohibited underground
and in dangerous or unhealthy occupations. Sanitary and safety equipment
must be provided .

CHILE

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women).

Work prohibited between 8
p.m. and 7 a.m. without
special permission by
Ministry of Labor (1931).

Work prohibited underground
in mines and in occupations
dangerous to physical or
morai welfare or beyond normal strength (1931).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work prohibited in industries
judged unhealthy by the
Director General of Sanitation.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

LATIN AMERICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

COLOMBIA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week; workday may
be increased to 9
hours to give employees free Saturday
afternoon.

Night work prohibited only
for pregnant women.

COSTA RICA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women).

Work prohibited between 7
p .m. and 5 a . m.; exceptions in nursing, social
work, domestic service, .
and similar pursuits; in
offices or connnercial establishments work between
tween 7 p.m. and midnight must be approved
by labor inspector.

Work prohibited which is unhealthy, heavy, or dangerous in physical or moral
sense.

DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 44 hours per
week; worktime may
be extended up to 2
hours per day (applies
to both men and
women) (1951).

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 7 a.m.; exceptions in nursing, domestic service, public
connnunications, and
public amusement

Work prohibited which is
dangerous to health or
life (1956) .

N
VI


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(1951).

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

LATIN AMERICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

ECUADOR

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 44 hours per
week; overtime limited
to 4 hours per day, 12
hours per week (1954).

EL SALVADOR

Work limited in connnerce
to 7 hours per day, in
industry to 44 hours
per week.

GUATEMALA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women) (1956).

Work prohibited between 8
p.m. and 5 a.m.; exceptions are nurses and
domestic servants (1947).

Work prohibited which is
unhealthy or dangerous

Work limited in general
to 8 hours per day;
in industry may be 9
hours per day; in
commercial establishments may be 10 hours
per day; however,
total hours ~ay not
exceed 48 per week;
overtime limited to
20 hours per week
(applies to both men
and women) (1961).

Night work prohibited;
exceptions are domestic
servants in private
homes, hospitals, clinics;
in theaters, entertainment, restaurants, and
certain cases which for
special, justifiable
reasons may be authorized
by the Department of
Labor (1961).

Work prohibited underground
in mines (1961).

N

°'
HAITI


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

Work prohibited which is
dangerous or unhealthy.

( 1947).

PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 9 1 COUNTRIES

LATIN AMERICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

HONDURAS

Wark limited to 8 hours
per day, 44 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women); 2-hour
rest period pe~ day
required for women.

Night work prohibited.

Work prohibited which is
dangerous or unhealthy
(specified by Labor Code)

MEXICO

Work limited to 8 hours
per day (applies to
both men and women)
(1931).

Work prohibited between
8 p.m. and 6 a.m.; in
commercial establishments after 10 p .m.

NICARAGUA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 7 hours per
night (between 8 p.m.
and 6 a.m.), 48 hours
per week; no overtime

(195g).

Work prohibited which is unhealthy or dangerous and
in bars selling intoxicating liquors for innnediate
cons·ump tion.

N

.......

(1945).

Work prohibited underground
in mines, in jobs requiring
excessive physical strength,
or in occupations which
would endanger physical or
moral welfare.

PANAMA

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week.

Work prohibited which is unhealthy or dangerous
(specified by Public Health
Code) ( 1947).

PARAGUAY

Wo·r k limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week; in unhealthy
jobs work limited to
6 hours per day, 36
hours per week.

Work prohibited which is
harmful to physic~1 or
n1oral health.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 9 1 COUNTRIES
LATIN AMERICA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

PERU

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 45 hours per
week (must be paid for
48 hours); rest required
on either Saturday
afternoon or Monday
morning ( a:pp lies to
both men and women) •

Wark prohibited between 8
p .m. and 7 a .m. ; exceptions in public entertainment (1919).

Work prohibited in specified
occupations which are ndt
appropriate for WO'Dlen.

URUGUAY

Work limited to 6 hours
per day, 30 hours per
week.

Night work pr'Ohibited .

Wark prohibited in unhealthy
occupations. (Wark accident indemnity is 25 percent higher if the employee
is a woman.)

VENEZUELA

Wdrk limited to 8 hours
per da:y, 48 hours p·er
week (applies to both
men and women) .

N
00


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work prohibited in retail
liquor establishments or
other occupations injurious to moral or physical
upbringing.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES
NEAR EAST AND
SOUTH ASIA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

CEYLON

Work limited to 9 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week.

Work prohibited in -p ublic or Work prohibited on machines
private industrial underwith moving parts; undertskings between 9 p.m. and
ground except for managerial positions, health
6 a.m.; an 11-consecutivehour rest period at least
wark, or during periods of
training in underground
7 hours of which must fall
parts of mines; no proin the night interval rehibition against entering
quired; exceptions in managerial positions, national
underground parts of mine
emergencies, OT where matefor nonmanual purpo-s es.
rials are subject to rapid
deterioration. Work prohibited in commerce between
6 p.m. and 6 s.m.; exceptions in hotels and___ restsurants.

N
\0

CYPRUS

INDIA


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

Work prohibited in private
Work prohibited underground
industrisl undertakings for
irt mines except for man:agerial positions, health
a period of 11 consecutive
hours including the interwo-rk, or during periods of
val between 10- p.m. and 5
training in underground
a.m.; exceptions in certain
parts of mines; no prohibiemergencies or where matetion against entering- underrials are subject to rapid
ground parts of mine for
deterioration.
nonmanual purposes.
Work limited to 9 hours
per day (1948 Factories Act).

Work prohibited in factories, Work prohibited underground
(Mines Act, 1951) and in
mines, and plantations
dangerous
occupations.
between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Limits set on weights which
may be lifted.

PROTECTIVE I.ABOR LEGISI.ATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES
NEAR EAST AND
SOUTH ASIA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

IRAN

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women) (1959).

Work prohibited between 10
p.m. and 6 a.m.; exceptions are hospital nurses
and others specified by
the Ministry of Labor
(1959).

Work prohibited which is
hazardous or injurious
(1959).

IRAQ

Work limited to 8 hours
per day; overtime limited to 2 hours per
day or 10 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women) (1961).

Work prohibited between 8
Work prohibited in certain
specified undertakings
p.m. and 5 a.m.; an 11consecutive-hour rest
(decree of February 1961).
period including night
interval required; exceptions in managerial and
technical positions and
health and welfare services
not involving manual work
(1961).

w
0

ISRAEL

JORDAN


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Work prohibited between
11 p.m. and 6 a.m.; a
rest period of 11 consecutive hours required.
Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women).

Work prohibited in specified
production processes or
places of employment.

Work prohibited which is
Work prohibited between 8
declared to be hazardous.
p.m. and 5 a.m.; exceptions may be specified by
Minister of Social Affairs.

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISIATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

vJ
I-'

NEAR EAST AND
SOUTH ASIA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

LIMITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

LEBANON

Work limited to 48 hours
per week; exceptions
in agriculture (applies
to both men and women)
(1946).

Work prohibited in manual
or mechanical occupations
between 8 p.m. and 5 a.m.
fro~ May 1 to September
30 and between 7 p.m. and
6 a.m. from October 1 to
April 30 (1946).

Work prohibited underground
in mines and quarries and
in other specified dangerous
occupations (1946).

NEPAL

Work limited to 54 hours·
per week, in factories
to 10 hours per day
(applies to both men
and women).

Work prohibited in factories
between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.

PAKISTAN

Work limited to 9 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week; in seasonal factories to 10 hours per
day, 50 hours per week
(1934).

Work prohibited between 7
p.m. and 9 a.m. (1934).

Work prohibited in certain
hazardous occupations
(1934).

SYRIAN ARAB
REPUBLIC

Work limited to 8 hours
per·day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women).

Work prohibited between 8
p.m. and 7 a.m.; order
of 1960 gives exceptions.

Work prohibited in unhealthy,
difficult, or immoral
occupations.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PROTECTIVE IABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

NEAR EAST AND
SOUTH ASIA

LIMITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

LIMITATION OF NIGHT WORK

Lil1ITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

TURKEY

Work limited to 48 hours
per week (1936).

Work prohibited between 8
p.m. and 6 a.m.; exceptions in emergencies
(1936).

Work prohibited underground
or underwater and in other
arduous or dangerous occupations (1936).

UNITED ARAB
REPUBLIC

Work limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours per
week (applies to both
men and women) .

Work prohibited between 8
p.m. and 7 a.m.; exceptions may be prescribed
by the Minister of Social
Affairs and Labor.

Work prohibited in unhealthy,
difficult, or innnoral oceupations.

vJ
N


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

PROTECTIVE LABOR LEGISLATION FOR WOMEN IN 91 COUNTRIES

CANADA AND THE
UNITED STATES

L1MITATION OF DAILY AND
WEEKLY HOURS

L1MITATION OF NIGHT WORK

L1MITATION OF HAZARDOUS WORK
(HEALTH AND SAFETY)

CANADA

Work regulated by five
provinces; some limit
to 8 hours per day,
44 or 48 hours per
week; overtime paid;
weekly rest period
required in most
provinces (applies to
men a:nd women) .

Night work in factories
prohibited in three
provinces without special permit. Women
working at night in
four provinces must be
provided free transportation to residence.

Work prohibited in all provinces
underground in mines; in one
province in abattoir operations and where poisonous
fumes produced or dangerous
explosives handled. Federal
government and one province
prohibit employment of pregnant women where radiation
hazardous. Two provinces
set limits on weights
which may be lifted.

UNITED STATES

Work regulated by 43
States and District
of Columbia:; in 25
States and District
of Columbia work
limited to 8 hours
per day, 48 hours
per week, or both.

Night work prohibited
and/or regulated by
21 States and Puerto

Employment prohibited by 25
States in specified occupations or industries, or
under certain working
conditions hazardous or
injurious to health.
Twelve States set limi-ts
on weights which may be
lifted.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Rico.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

APPENDIX A

Nations Ratifyin g Night Work (Women) Convent ion, 1919 (No. 4);
Night Work (Women) Convent ion (Revised ), 1934 (No. 41);
Night Work (Women) Convent ion (Revised ), 1948 (No. 89).
Afghani stan (4, 41)
Albania (4)
Algeria (89)
Argentin a (4, 89)
Austria (4, 89)
Belgium (89)
Brazil (89)
Burma (41)
Cameroun (eastern ) (4)
Central African Republic (4 , 41)
Ceylon (41)
Chad (4, 41)
Chile (4)
Colombia (4)
Congo (Brazza ville) (4, 41)
Congo (Leopol dville) (4, 89)
Costa Rica (89)
Cuba (4, 89)
Czechos lovakia (4, 89)
Dahomey (4, 41)
Dominic an Republic (89)
France (89)
Gabon (4, 41)
Ghana (89)
Greece (89)
Guatema la (89)
Guinea (4, 41)
Hungary (41)
India (4, 89)
Iraq (41)
Ireland (89)
Italy (4, 89)


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A

Ivory Coast (4, 41)
Kuwait (89)
Lebanon (89)
Libya (89)
Luxembourg ( 4-, 89)
Malagasy Republic (4, 41)
Mali (4, 41)
Maurita nia (4, 41)
Morocco (4, 41)
Netherla nds (89)
New Zealand (89)
Nicaragu a (4)
Niger (4, 41)
Pakistan (4, 89)
Peru (4, 41)
Philippi nes (89)
Rumania (89)
Rwanda (4, 89)
Senegal (4, 89)
South Africa (89)
Spain (4, 89)
Switzerl and (89)
Syrian Arab Republic (89)
Togo (4 , 41)
Tunisia (4, 89)
United Arab Republic (89)
Upper Volta (4, 41)
Uruguay (89)
Venezue la (41)
Viet-Nam (4)
Yugosla via (89)


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APPENDIX B

Nations Ratifying White Lead (Painting) Convention,
1921 (No. 13).
Afghanistan
Algeria
Argentina
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Camero·u n (eastern)
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
Colombia
Congo (Brazzaville)
Cuba
Czechoslovakia
Dahomey
Finland
France
Gabon
Greece
Guinea
Hungary
Italy
Ivory Coast

B

Luxembourg
Malagasy Republic
Mali

Mauritania
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
Nica:ra:gua
Niger
Norway
Poland
Rumania
Senegal
Spain
Sweden
Togo
Tunisia
Upper Volta
Uruguay
Venezuela
Viet-Nam
Yugoslavia

APPENDIX C

Nations Ratifying Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 (No. 45).
Afghanistan
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Brazil
Bulgaria
Byelorussia
Cameroun
Ceylon
Chile
China
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Finland
France
Gabon
Germany, Federal Republic of
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Italy
Ivory Coast


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Japan
Lebanon
Luxembourg
Malaya
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nigeria
Pakistan
Panama
Peru
Poland
Portugal
Sierra Leone
Somali Repub lie
South Africa, Republic of
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tanganyika
Tunisia
Turkey
Ukraine
United Arab Republic
United Kingdom
Uruguay
USSR
Venezuela
Viet-Nam
Yugoslavia

C
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1963 0 - 7ll-492


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A DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATION

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George L-P Weaver, Assistant Secretary, International Affairs