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L~ I 3* ^
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, No. 80

WOMEN
IN

FLORIDA INDUSTRIES




[Public—No.

259—66th

Congress.]

[H. R. 13229.]
An Act To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives oj the
United States oj America in Congress assembled, That there shall be
established in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau.
Sec. 2. That the said
bureau shall be in charge of a director, a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual compensa­
tion of $5,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate
standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage­
earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their
efficiency, and advance their opportunities for profitable employ­
ment. The said bureau shall have authority to investigate and
report to the said department upon all matters pertaining to the
welfare of women in industry. The director of said bureau may
from time to time publish the results of these investigations in such
a manner and to such extent as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe.
Sec. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director,
to be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an
annual compensation of $3,500 and shall perform such duties as
shall be prescribed by the director and approved by the Secretary
of Labor.
Sec. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by said
bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants, clerks, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in such numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
Sec. 5, That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment for the work of
this bureau.
Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.
Approved, June 5, 1920.




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN

OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU,

No. 80

WOMEN
IN

FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

|^NT o>

"s^rcs o^.

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1930

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




State Teacnera College Library

Cape Girardeau, Mor




CONTENTS
Page
VI

Letter of transmittal

*>
r •

%

d

Introduction
Scope and method of survey
Summary
The workers___________________________________________________
Nativity and race-------------------------------------------------------------------------- ,
Age-------------------------------------------------------------------------- :------------------Marital status
Living condition and family responsibility-------------------------------------Time in the trade
Working conditions----------------------------------:------------------------------------------General plant conditions
Floors
Stairways- —
Ventilation
Heating
Lighting------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------Hazard and strain------------------------------------------------------------------------Sanitation____________________________________________
Drinking facilities---------------------------------------------- -------------------Washing facilities-------------------------------------------------------------------Toilet rooms. ----------------------------------------------------------------------Service facilities---- -------------------------- ---------------------------- -------------Lunch rooms
Cloak rooms
Rest rooms________________________________________ __________
Health equipment------------------------------------------------------------------Other welfare provisions----------------------------------------------- — - Employment service
Hours in factories, stores, and laundries-----------------------------------------------Daily hours of white women
Daily hours of negro women---------------------------------------------------- --­
Weekly hours of white women------------------1-----------------------------------Weekly hours of negro women------------------------------------------------------Florida and other States---------------------------------------------------------------Saturday hours
Lunch period----------------------------------------- --------------------------------------Actual hours worked^-------------------------------------Wages in factories, stores, and laundries----------------------------------------------Week’s earnings of white women---------------------------------------------------Timework and piecework-------------------------------------------------------Earnings and time worked-----------------------------------------------------Earnings and hours worked--------------- -----------------------------Earnings and days worked----------------------------------------------Earnfngs of full-time workers-------------------------------------------------Earnings and hours of full-time workers---------------------------------Earnings and rates---------------------------------------------------------'-------Rates and scheduled hours-----------------------------------------------------Earnings and experience--------------------------------------------------------Year’s earnings of white women
Adequacy of earnings----- --------------------------------------------------------------Wages of negro women------------------ -----------------------------------------------Earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers---------------------------Earnings and time worked-----------------------------------------------------Earnings of full-time -workers-------------------------------------------------Earnings and hours of full-time workers---------------------------------Earnings and rates
Rates and scheduled hours
Earnings and experience
Year’s earnings




in

1

3
5
9
9
9
11
11

12
14
14
14
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15
15
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19

19

20

21
23
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25
25
29
29
30
31
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33
33
37
38
39
39
41
43
43
44
46
47
48
49
51
51
52
52
53
53
54
54

IV

CONTENTS
Page

Hotels and restaurants
55
Hours
56
Weekly wage rates
60
Appendix A—General tables_______________________ ____________________
Appendix B—Schedule forms
105

65

TEXT TABLES
Table

1. Number of establishments visited and number of men and
women they employed, by industry_______________________
2. Scheduled daily hours, by industry and race_________________
3. Scheduled weekly hours, by industry and race_______________
4. Week’s earnings, by industry—White women_
5. Median of the earnings of white women who worked the firm’s
scheduled week compared to that of all women for whom time
worked was reported, by industry
42
6. Median of the weekly rates and of the week’s earnings, by
industry—White women
44
7. Week’s earnings, by industry—Negro women________________
8. Median of the week’s earnings, by time worked—Negro women.
9. Employee-days of 8 hours or less and of 10 hours or more, by
occupation and type of establishment—Hotels and restau­
rants
57
10. Scheduled weekly hours of hotels and restaurants, by occupa­
tion. J.____________________________________________________
11. Weekly hours of 48 or less and of 60 or more, by occupation and
type of establishment—Hotels and restaurants____________
12. Median of the rates of women -who lived in and of women who
received neither meals nor lodging, by type of establish­
ment—Hotels and restaurants
61

4
24
26
34

►
50
51

50
59

APPENDIX TABLES
Table I. Nativity of the women employees who supplied personal infor­

mation, by industry and race
65
II. Age of the women employees who supplied personal information,
by industry and race
66
III. Marital status of the women employees who supplied personal
information, by industry and race
67
IV. Living condition of the women employees who supplied per­
sonal information, by industry and race____________________
V. Time in the trade of the women employees who supplied per
sonal information, by industry and race___________________
VI. Type of drinking facilities, by industry_______________________
VII. Unsatisfactory condition of washing facilities and number of
women affected, by industry and race_____________________
VIII. Adequacy of toilet equipment, by industry___________________
IX. Unsatisfactory condition of toilet equipment and number of
women affected, by industry and race_____________________
X. Scheduled Saturday hours, by industry and race______________
XI. Scheduled Saturday hours, by daily hours, industry group, and
race
76
XII. Relation of Saturday hours to daily hours, by industry and race
XIII. Length of lunch period, by industry and race_______________
XIV., Time lost and overtime, by industry—Women whose time
worked was reported in hours
80
XV. Time lost and overtime, by industry—Women whose time
worked was reported in days
81
XVI. Number of timeworkers and of pieceworkers and their median
earnings, by industry-—White women______________________
XVII. Week’s earnings of timeworkers and of pieceworkers, all indus­
tries—White women
82
XVIII. Week’s earnings and time worked, all industries—White
women
83
XIX. Earnings of white women who "worked the firm’s scheduled
week, by industry
85




68
69
70
71
72

73
74
78
79

81

1

CONTENTS

V
Page

Table XX. Median of the earnings by time worked and industry—White

*

women------------------------------------------------------------------- ------XXI. Median of the earnings of white women who worked the
firm’s scheduled week, by industry and scheduled hours . _
XXII. Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings, by industry—White
women
XXIII. Weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, all industries—
White women----------------------------------------------------------------XXIY. Median of the weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, by
industry'—White women------------------------------------------------XXV. Median of the week’s earnings and time in the trade, by in­
dustry—White women---------------------------------------------------XXVI. Year’s earnings of white women for whom 52-week pay-roll
records were secured, by industry----------------------------------XXVII. Length of actual day’s work in hotels and restaurants, by
occupation and type of establishment-----------------------------XXVIII. Over-all hours in hotels and restaurants, by occupation and
type of establishment
XXIX. Scheduled weekly hours in hotels and restaurants, by occupa­
tion and type of establishment----------------------------- ---------XXX. Irregularity of hotel and restaurant days, by occupation---XXXI. Extent of the 7-day week in hotels and restaurants, by
occupation--------------------------------------------------------------------XXXII. Median of the weekly wage rates in hotels and restaurants
according to whether board and lodging supplied, by occu­
pation and type of establishment-----------------------------------XXXIII. Weekly wage rates in hotels and restaurants, by occupation..

86
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
96
98
100
101
102
104

CHARTS

Scheduled daily hours--------------------------------Scheduled weekly hours-----------------------------Week’s earnings of 4,425 white women-------Week’s earnings of 1,266 negro women--------

»




22
22
35
50

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department op Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

_
Washington, May 15, 1930.
.
'.I a?n submitting herewith the report of a survey of women
m Florida industries made at the request of the governor of the State
and of the Florida League of Women Voters. The State is the
twentieth thus surveyed by the bureau.
The report covers hours, earnings, working conditions, and personal
information, and differs from most of the other studies in presen tins;
important data for the hotel and restaurant industry.
Grateful acknowledgment is made of the courteous cooperation of
the employers who allowed their plants to be inspected and their
pay rolls to be copied by the bureau’s agents.
The survey was conducted by and under the direction of Ethel
L. Best, industrial supervisor, and the report has been written by
Mrs. Best and Mary Elizabeth Pidgeon.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. James J. Davis,
Secretary of Labor.
VI




WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
INTRODUCTION
Florida, with its abundant sunshine, its cool breezes, and its
many waters, has from its earliest days been a land of romance.
In such a climate people have expected to find living made easy for
them, and the future has always looked bright and rosy. Ponce de
Leon, the earliest known European arrival, who landed early in the
sixteenth century, was in search of the fountain of eternal youth, and
the explorers who came in the years following did not settle down to
earn a living by cultivating the soil or by trading but spent their
time looking for gold. The name Florida, given by Ponce de Leon
because of the day, Easter (in Spanish, Pascua florida), on which
the country was discovered, seems especially suitable to the flowTery
land. A Portuguese gentleman who visited Florida in the early
days described it as a land “Wherein are truly observed the riches
and fertilities of these parts, abounding with things necessary,
pleasant, and profitable for the life of man.” 1
With the exception of the 20 years when the English were in
possession, this smiling land belonged to Spain until 1821, when,
through a treaty and by payment of a certain sum of money, Florida
became part of the United States. In the hundred-odd years follow­
ing the State has attracted great numbers of people primarily be­
cause of its natural resources and advantages.
The report of a survey authorized by the State legislature of 1927
to ascertain, among other things, “the kind, character, and location
of industries now in operation,” analyzes the growth of industry in
Florida in the period 1907 to 1927. To quote from the study,
“Florida has not been a manufacturing State to any large extent
because emphasis has been placed chiefly on getting out the crude
materials of the forest and mine or earing for tourists.” 2 This con­
dition is changing, however, and the report states further that “ under
pressure of the rapidly increasing population manufacturing plants
have begun to spread over the State * * * [and] the year 1927
began to show an industrial or manufacturing revolution taking place
in Florida.”3
This report contains an article by Paul W. Stewart, of the United
States Department of Commerce, in which is discussed the progress
iu Florida manufactures during the period 1914 to 1925. The
following quotation illustrates the extent to which this change is
taking place: “Manufacturing in Florida in recent years has expanded
at a rate exceeding that of the growrth of industry in the United
States as a whole. The value of manufactured products in Florida in
1925 * * * was three and one-third times greater than that of
1914, while the value for the entire country was a little more than
two and one-half times greater.” The article emphasizes the notice­
able change in Florida industries in the 2-year period 1923 to 1925,
i Fairbanks, George B. History of Florida [etc.]. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1871, p. 48.
! Florida. Department of Agriculture. Florida, an Advancing State, 1907-1917-1927. Tallahassee,
Fla., 1928, p. 21.
* Idem.




1

2

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

when the value of the manufactured products increased by 44 per
cent, while for the entire country the value increased by only 4 per
cent.4
Despite this increase in the value of its manufactures, however,
Florida does not rank as one of the large industrial States, her climate
and fertility being regarded as her principal assets. Of these two
natural advantages, the climate becomes of special significance in the
employment of women, since it is the climate that draws thousands,
of toxirists,. who must be housed and fed and, through shops, must be
supplied with the necessities and the luxuries of life.
A comparison of the census figures for 1900 and 1920 shows that
the number of females 10 years of age and over in Florida in 1920 was
double the number found there in 1900 and that the number gainfully
employed had more than doubled during this period. According to
this same authority, in 1920 one in every four women was gainfully
occupied; 46.4 per cent of the number were in domestic and personal
service, 12.8 per cent in manufacturing and mechanical industries,
and 6 per cent in trade.5 Though the proportion in trade seems small,
it is larger than the proportion of women so employed in 11 States
and in the District of Columbia.
Florida's very high per cent of women engaged in domestic and
personal service—this including hotel and restaurant work—is with­
out doubt caused by the tremendous tourist trade. The State has
the highest proportion of women in this group of all the States in the
Union, and in actual numbers employed it ranks higher than do 26
States.6
Although not a manufacturing State primarily, Florida has a
larger proportion of its gainfully employed women in manufacturing
and mechanical industries than has Georgia, South Carolina, or
Alabama. This is due chiefly to the tobacco industry, which ranks
second among Florida industries in the value of its products7 and
in 1920 employed nearly one-half (49.3 per cent) of the women in
the manufacturing group.8 Not only because of its extent is cigar
manufacturing important, but the fact that the use of tobacco does
not decline materially in times of industrial depression and unem­
ployment gives this industry special value. At such times it can be
depended on to supply employment to a considerable number of
workers.9
In the four principal cities of the State—Jacksonville, Tampa,
Miami, and Pensacola—are concentrated one-third of the wage­
earning women in Florida.10 In 1919 nearly one-half (45.2 per cent)
of the women engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries
were working in these cities, as were two-fifths of all engaged in
domestic and personal service and two-fifths of those employed as
saleswomen. Differences in the general industrial make-up of these
cities are indicated by the fact that in Tampa more than 40 per cent,
and in each of the other three cities less than 10 per cent, of the
1 Florida. Department of Agriculture. Florida, an Advancing State, 1907-1917-1927. Tallahassee.
Fla., 1928, p. 34.
6 Ibid., Bureauandthe Census. Fourteenth Census: 1920, vol. 4, Population, Occupations, pp. 47 and 55.
U. S.
of
6
pp. 54
55.
7 U. S. Bureau of the Census. Biennial Census of Manufactures, 1925, p. 1313.
8Ibid. Fourteenth Census: 1920, vol. 4, Population, Occupations, pp. 56-03.
9 Florida. Department of Agriculture. Florida, an Advancing State, 1907-1917-1927. Tallahassee, Fla.,
1928, p. 37.
10 U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census: 1920, vol. 4, Population, Occupations, pp. 56 and
OVA /JOfl
'




INTRODUCTION

3

employed women were in manufacturing and mechanical industries,
while in Jacksonville alone were found about 20 per cent of all those
in the State who were in domestic and personal service and a similar
proportion of the saleswomen.
Although there were but a little more than half as many negro as
white women in the State, a much larger proportion of the negroes
were gainfully employed. About two of every five negro women and
one of every seven white were so classified. The largest group of
white women (20.3 per cent) were in manufacturing and mechanical
industries, and the largest group of negro women (66 per cent) were in
domestic and personal service.11
Florida industries are markedly seasonal in character, and it has
been frequently pointed out that this type of industry tends to have
unfortunate effects in causing irregular employment. The cause of
fluctuation in the hotel industry is fairly obvious. The effect of this
upon employment in the parts of Florida concerned is somewhat miti­
gated by the fact that certain hotel corporations operate establish­
ments in the North during the summer and large numbers of their
workers are transported from one locality to another at the close of
the season. It is also fairly obvious that the migration of tourists
and of persons owning winter cottages would influence business and
employment in restaurants, laundries, and stores, and that this wrould
be likely to extend over a greater part of the State than that affected
by the hotel seasons. But it is not alone in domestic and personal
service, in laundries, and in trade that fluctuations in employment
are marked. The chief woman-employing manufacturing industry in
the State, cigar making, also is of a distinctly seasonal character, as
are the much less extensive food industries.
The employment figures of the census of manufactures for each
month of 1919 show that in Florida August was the month in which
the fewest women were employed in manufacturing; the number
was greater in September than in any previous month, and from
that time on the progression w7as continuous to the end of the year,
December being the month of greatest employment. Furthermore,
the smallest number employed in any one month was only 70 per
cent of the maximum number, a figure less than that shown for 11 of
the 15 other southern States.11 The figures for Florida are weighted,
12
of course, by the proportion of the women employees found in cigar
making, which industry seems to be more seasonal than the manu­
facturing group as a whole, as appears from a comparison between
employment figures in Jacksonville and in Tampa. In Jacksonville,
where the industries are varied, the minimum employment was 73.3
per cent of the maximum, but in Tampa it was 57.6 per cent, the
much more marked seasonality being due to the cigar industry, since
figures from that city are typical of cigar making rather than of gen­
eral manufacture.
SCOPE AND METHOD OF SURVEY

In the autumn of 1928 the Women’s Bureau of the United States
Department of Labor, following its policy of cooperation with the
States, undertook a study of the women in industry in Florida, at
11U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census: 1920, vol. 4, Population, Occupations, pp. 362 and
902-903.
12 Ibid., vol. 9, Manufactures, 1919, p. 245 and pp. 26-1656, Table 8.




4

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

the request of the governor of the State and of the Florida League
of Women Voters.
Laundries in three important Florida cities—Jacksonville, St,
Petersburg, and Tampa—having been surveyed by the bureau as
recently as March of the same year, it was decided to use the figures
secured at that time, considered fairly representative of the industry
as a whole, and to exclude laundries from the survey that began in
September.
Because of the time and expense involved, it was not possible to
cover every establishment that employed women, but visits were
made to a representative number of factories, stores, and hotels and
restaurants. Eighteen cities and towns were covered, the list being
as follows:
Apalachicola.
Daytona Beach.
De Land.
Fernandina.
Gainesville.
Jacksonville.

Key West.
Miami.
Nassauville.
Orlando.
Palm Beach.
Pensacola.

St. Augustine.
St. Petersburg.
Sanford.
Tallahassee.
Tampa.
West Palm Beach.

A section of the east coast of Florida suffered from a severe hurri­
cane in September, 1928, but the value of the bureau’s study was not
affected by this catastrophe, as the chief manufacturing centers to
be surveyed were not in the area affected. Moreover, considerable
recovery took place before the survey began.
Tabic 1 gives the total number of establishments and of employees
studied, by type of industry. With the exception of stores and the
manufacture of wooden boxes and of bread and bakery products,
in which only white women were found, both white and negro women
were employed in the industries covered by the survey.
Table 1.—Number

of establishments visited and number of men and women they
employed, by industry

Industry

All industries—
Including hotels and restaurants___
Not including hotels and restaurants.

Number and sex of employees
Num­
ber of
estab­
Women
lish­
Men
ments Total
Total White Negro

i 5,725

7,844

5,956

1,888

100

163 113, 569
11, 350

4, 918

6, 432

5,010

1, 422

155

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden......................................
Cigars__ ____ ...__________ '________
Food—
Bread and bakery products.
Fish, canned_________________
Other food products 1
2........ ...........
Other manufacturing 3____________
General mercantile___________________
5-and-10-cent stores............ .........................
Laundries 4________________ ________ _

4
14

672
6,096

377
3,261

295
2,835

295
2,680

3
5
6
3
23
24
18

279
384
467
87
1, 560
630
1,175

241
159
72
23
456
114
215

38
225
395
64
1,104
516
960

38
11
56
63
1,104
516
247

Hotels and restaurants___________ ____

63 i 2, 219

i 807

1, 412

946

1 For 5 hotels and restaurants the number of men was not reported.
2 Chocolate, coffee, grapefruit, mayonnaise, meat packing, and preserves.
3 Burlap bags, men’s shirts, and women’s work dresses.
4 Surveyed 6 months earlier than other industries, See text above.




214
339
1
713
466

5

INTRODUCTION

That the numbers of women studied by the Women’s Bureau
formed considerable proportions of all those reported in the same
industries by the census of 1920 is shown from the tabulation
following:
Number
Women in the
of women
survey
in Florida
indus­
tries
cent
speci­ Number Pertotal
of
fied 1

Industry

10,923
5,380
5,154
2,287
39,602
961
14, 651
1, 322

3,852
2,835
1,542
1, 542
2,372
960
659
671

35.3
52.7
29.9
67.4
6.0
99.9
4.5
50.8

1 IX. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census: 1920, vol. 4, Population, Occupations, pp. 56-73.

Agents of the Women’s Bureau visited each establishment included
in the survey and obtained, through interviews with employers,
managers, or foremen and by examination of pay rolls, information
as to the number of employees, the scheduled hours of the plant,
and the wages of women workers. The agents not only made per­
sonal inspections of the conditions under which women were work­
ing but themselves copied from the pay rolls data for a current
week on the rates, the earnings, and, when available, the time actually
worked by each woman in the plant. In the majority of cases these
records were taken for a pay-roll week in October, November, or
December, 1928, but a few were for a week in January, 1929, and
occasionally an earlier pay roll was selected, so as to make certain
that the figures refated to a normal working week in which there
were no holidays and which was unaffected by seasonal extremes.
In the case of laundries, as already explained, the figures were se­
cured in the spring of 1928.
Year’s earnings also were taken for a representative proportion of
the women who had been with a plant throughout the year and who
had worked for at least 44 weeks of this period.
In addition to the material on hours and earnings, information in
regard to nativity, age, living condition, marital status, and time in
the trade was obtained from questionnaires distributed in the estab­
lishments and filled in by the women employees.
SUMMARY
Date of the survey: Autumn, 1928.
Extent of the survey:
Cities and towns______ __________________
Establishments__________________________
White women____________________________
Negro women_____ ______________________
Industrial distribution:
Cigars___________________________________
Manufacturing other than cigars_________
General mercantile establishments_______
5-and-10-cent stores_____________________
Laundries_______________________________

Hotels and restaurants______ ______ _



________________
18
________
163
________________ 5,956
________________ 1,888
Per cent
White women Negro women

8. 2
29. 3

_____ 45. 0
______ 7. 8
______18. 5
______ 8. 7
............ 4. 1

37. 8

........ 15.9

24.7

6

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
THE WORKERS

Nativity (3,312 white, 1,386 negro):
Native born_________________________________
Foreign born________________________________
Age (3,325 white, 1,120 negro):
Under 20_____ _____ _____ __________________
20 and under 40_____________________________
40 and over_________________________________
Marital status (3,290 white, 1,107 negro):
Single_______________________________________
Married_____________________________________
Widowed, separated, or divorced____________
Living condition (3,092 white, 508 negro):
At home____________________________________
With relatives_______________________________
Independent________________________________
_ With employer (hotels and restaurants)______
Time in the trade (2,938 white, 557 negro):
Under 1 year______________________________ _
1 and under 5 years_________________________
5 and under 10 years________________________
10 years and over___________________________

Per cent
White women Negro women

93. 7
6.3

99. 6
. 4

24. 6
61. 6
13. 8

17. 5
71. 1
11. 4

41. 1
36. 8
22. 1

25. 8
41. 1
33. 1

75.
4.
14.
5.

6
8

71.
4.
19.
4.

5
3
7
5

21.
47.
15.
15.

5
3

17.
45.
21.
15.

4
4

2
4

8
5

6
6

WORKING CONDITIONS
General plant conditions:
Ventilation.—Natural ventilation was good in two-thirds of the hotel and
restaurant workrooms, in all but 3 laundries, and satisfactory in about
half the factories. Artificial ventilation -was provided in all but 3 hotels
and restaurants and in a third of the laundries.
Lighting.—In about two-thirds of the establishments lighting, whether
natural or artificial, was satisfactory throughout the entire plant. Where
this was not the case the usual defect was insufficient natural lighting or
glare in the artificial.
Sanitary provisions:
Drinking facilities.-—Bubblers were found in 23 plants—nearly one-fourth
of those reporting on drinking facilities'—but were of insanitary construction
in all but 9. The common cup was in use in 32 establishments.
Washing facilities.—Provided in all but 8 establishments, 4 of which were
laundries. In 36 no towels were supplied and in 33 a common towel was
provided.
Toilets.—Sufficient toilets, according to the standard of one seat to
every 15 women, were provided in over two-thirds of the plants, but in 46
cases the number was insufficient, and in 4 of these there were 50 or more
women to a seat. There was no outside ventilation in 29 plants, in 18 the
room had no ceiling, and in 36 it -was not clean.
Hazard:
The chief hazard was that of possible falls caused by slippery floors or
obstructions in workroom aisles—in 25 plants, for the most part laundries—
and by stairways that were too steep, narrow, or winding, without a handrail,
or in bad repair (in 21 plants).
Employee facilities:
Some place in which lunch could be eaten was provided in three-fifths of the
163 establishments reported, and over one-fourth had some rest-room
facilities, although very few had separate rest rooms. Only 29 of 100 plants
that reported having cloak rooms provided satisfactory equipment, such as
lockers or racks. In the provision of rooms for lunch, wraps, and rest, hotels
and restaurants and stores made the best showing, while factories made less
provision and laundries least of all. In 70 establishments, employing 1,571
women, first-aid facilities 'were entirely lacking, and here the stores and hotels
and restaurants made a poorer showing than factories, and laundries were
best of all. Nearly three-fifths of the stores gave vacations with pay, and
employee insurance, death or disability, was carried by 7 stores, 7 laundries,
and 2 factories.




7

INTRODUCTION

HOURS «
Daily hours:
A schedule of less than 9 hours was reported for nearly a third of the
white women, and one of 9 hours for over a third of the white women and
for practically a sixth of the negro women. A schedule of 10 hours or more
was reported for 15.3 per cent of the white women and over two-thirds of
the negro women.
Weekly hours:
A schedule of 48 hours or less was reported for only 8 firms, with 4.1 per
cent of the white and 5.1 per cent of the negro women. A long schedule,
over 54 hours, was reported for more than one-third of the white and more
than two-thirds of the negro women.
Saturday hours:
A Saturday shorter than other days was the rule for nearly one-half of the
white and a little over two-fifths of the negro women.
Lunch period:
One hour was the most common period allowed white women for lunch;
a half hour for negro women.
WAGES 14
Week’s earnings (4,425 white, 1,266 negro):
White women Negro women
Median of the earnings
$15. 00
$6. 65
Median of the earnings in chief industries—
Cigars (2,494 white, 155 negro)________________
16. 65
7. 10
General mercantile (760 white saleswomen)____
18. 10
5-and-10-cent stores (516 white)_______________
10. 05
Laundries (229 white, 713 negro)_____________
12.30
7.85
Per cent of white women earning less than $15 in
the chief industries—
Cigars---------------------------------40. 7
General mercantile (saleswomen)_______________
28. 4
5-and-10-cent stores
97.
7
Laundries_ _
_
72. 5
Median earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers—
Timeworkers (1,820 white, 653negro)_________
$12.80
$7.80
Pieceworkers (2,517 white,501 negro)__________
16. 45
4. 40
Median earnings of full-time workers (2,824 white,
357 negro)----------------------------------------------------------15. 60
7. 60
Median of the rates (1,755 white, 594negro)________
12. 90
7. 70
Year’s earnings (139 white, 7 negro):
Median of the earnings_____________________________
$781
$425
Median of the earnings of white women in chief indus­
tries—
Cigars (23 women)____________________________
786
General mercantile (57 saleswomen)____________
1, 020
5-and-10-cent stores (31 women)_______________
576
HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS
Number:
Establishments 63
White women; 946
Negro women 466
Nativity (446 white, 312 negro):
All were native born but 62 white, 6 negro.
Per cent

Chief occupational groups:
White women Negro women
Waitressesand counter girls 69.
5
3. 0
Maids------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22. 3
67. 0
Kitchen help 4.
8
19. 5
Other___________________
3.5
10. 5
xa and 14 Excludes hotels and restaurants. (See below.)




8

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Daily hours;
About three-fourths of the employee-days15 were of 8 hours or less.
Hours of 10 or more were worked on 13.6 per cent of the total number
of days. Kitchen workers had the largest proportion of these long hours.
Weekly hours:
Of 1,371 women, the largest group (38.2 per cent) had a schedule of
48 hours or less; a long week of 60 hours and over was reported for nearly
one-fifth of the women, and more than two-thirds of the kitchen workers
had a weekly schedule of such length. A 7-day week was the schedule
for more than nine-tenths of the women.
Median rate

Rates:
White women Negro women
Highest median, that of kitchen workers$15. 90
$10. 65
Lowest median for white women (waitresses and coun­
ter girls)--------------------------------------------- -----------------5.75
Lowest median for negro women (maids)____________________
8. 00
Where neither room nor meals furnished 12. 35
8. 80
Where room and meals furnished
5. 50
5. 65
is Employee-days are obtained by multiplying each schedule of daily hours by the number of women
working such a schedule in the week for which data were obtained.




THE WORKERS
The purpose of a study such as this is to discover conditions that
affect the women involved. It is important, therefore, to learn
something of the personal history of these women who are contributing
to the industrial life of the State—to ascertain whether they are
American or foreign born, white or negro, young girls or mature
women, single or married, living independently or at home, and
whether they have been at work for a long period or a short one.
To secure such information, cards with questions on race, nativity,
age, marital status, living arrangements, and time in the trade were
distributed to the women in each of the plants visited. Not all the
cards were returned, and some were incompletely filled in, but over
one-half of the white women and nearly three-fourths of the negroes
gave some answers, so the information secured may be taken as
fairly representative of the women employed in the State.
Nativity and race.
Nativity was reported for 4,698 women (see Appendix Table I),
of whom white women formed three-fourths, a proportion larger than
that in the census of gainfully employed women in Florida in 1920,
which was two-fifths. Of the white women whose nativity was
reported, 93.7 per cent were American born. That 6.3 per cent of the
white women were foreign bom is a condition very unlike that of the
neighboring States. Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, and
Georgia, surveyed by the Women’s Bureau in the past 10 years, had
proportions of foreign bom among all the working women reporting
that ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. Moreover, the figures given
for Florida probably underestimate the proportion of the women
in the plants studied who were foreign bom, since in many cigar
factories large numbers of them could not speak English, and for
these personal information could not be obtained.
Of the foreign born in Florida the largest groups were in cigar
factories and in hotels and restaurants. Some were in stores and
laundries and the remaining few were; scattered in the various manu­
facturing industries. Of the 207 white women whose native land was
reported, 76 were from the countries of northern and western Europe
that have provided the “old immigration”; three-fourths of these
were in hotels arid restaurants and stores. Thirty-six women were
from Canada, these being almost wholly in hotels and restaurants
and stores, and 47 from Cuba or other countries in the Western
Hemisphere were principally in cigar manufacturing and in laundries.
Only 6 of the negroes reporting were foreign horn, and these wrere
all from the West Indies and all in hotels and restaurants.
Age.
Age was reported by 3,325 white women and 1,120 negroes, and the
figures relating to this subject are presented in Appendix Table II.
The following summary shows the per cent distribution in the various
age groups.




9

10

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Age

16 and under 18 years. __ __ _
18 and under 20 years.....................
20 and under 25 years_______ _ _
25 and under 30 years_____ _____

White Negro
women women
7.3
17.3
25.5
14.3

5.9
11.6
26.8
20.6

Age
30 and under 40 years. .
40 and under 50 years________
50 and under 60 years. __
___
60 years and over________

White Negro
women women
21.8
10.4
2.8
.6

23. 7
9.6
1.4
.4

The popular belief that most working women are young and in
industry for only a short period is not supported by the findings of
this investigation. It is true that almost one in four of the white
women studied in Florida were under 20 years of age, but more than
one in five were between 30 and 40 and about one in seven were 40 or
more. The proportion of girls under 20 was smaller than that found
in any of the seven other Southern States studied by the Women’s
Bureau—Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi,
South Carolina, and Tennessee—but in all of these, except South
Carolina, there were larger proportions than in Florida of women as
much as'40 years of age.
More than 70 per cent of the white girls under 20 were in cigar
manufacturing and 5-and-10-cent stores, and more than 60 per cent
of the white women of 50 and over were in cigar manufacturing and
general mercantile.
Table II shows that the 5-and-10-cent stores employed a larger
proportion of young women than did other industries; almost threefifths of their employees were between 16 and 20, a majority of these
being as much as 18. In cigar factories the prevailing age—that of
the largest group of women—was 20 and under 25 years; in woodenbox factories, hotels and restaurants, and laundries it was 30 and
under 40; in general mercantile establishments it was about equally
30 and under 40 and 20 and under 25. A few women in general
mercantile establishments, laundries, hotels and restaurants, and
cigar factories were as much as 60; in the last mentioned one woman
reported her age as 66 years.
The age distribution of the negro women w as only slightly different
from that of the white women, though smaller proportions w ere under
20 and as much as 40, and a much larger proportion gave their ages as
25 and under 30. In hotels and restaurants the predominant age
group of negro women was 30 and under 40 years, with more than
30 per cent of those reported. A much smaller proportion than
among the white women were girls under 20. In laundries women of
20 and under 25 years comprised the largest group—27 per cent of the
total—but considerable numbers wrere in the two groups that together
comprised 25 and under 40 years.
In cigar factories, where only about one in seven of the women
reported were negroes, more than' a third of the negro women were
under 20, a proportion appreciably greater than that of the white
girls (23 per cent) who were so young. None of the negro women were
as old as 50, and only 5 (2.7 per cent) had reached the age of 40,
though 11.5 per cent of the white women were 40 or more.10 16
16 Negro women usually were not found in cigar planfe. Those reported were strippers, and all were in
one locality.




THE WORKERS

11

Marital stains.
Another theory not borne out by the data collected in Florida is
that women leave industry at marriage. Figures in regard to the
marital status of 3,290 white and 1,107 negro women are presented in
Table III in the appendix. They show that nearly 60 per cent of the
white women were or had been married. This proportion is greater
than that shown in any one of 10 other States where studies of this
kind have been made by the Women’s Bureau; in only 5 of these
States were the proportions of women who were or had been married
as high as 50 per cent. In Florida the industries having the largest
proportions of women in these marital groups were laundries and the
manufacture of wooden boxes and cigars, in each of which were found
from two-thirds to seven-tenths of the number reporting.
Only in 5-and-10-cent stores was the proportion of single women
great, the number being nearly four-fifths of the women reporting.
This is not surprising when it is remembered how large a per cent of
these women were very young.
The proportion of negro women who were or had been married
was over 70 per cent, even larger than that of the white women.
Nearly all the negroes in fish canneries, nearly two-thirds of those in
cigar factories, nearly three-fourths of those in laundries, and fourfifths of those in hotels and restaurants were or had been married.
Living condition and family responsibility.
Living condition as reported by 3,092 white and 508 negro women
may be studied from Table IV. Of the white women, 75.6 per cent
lived at home—almost half of them with their husbands and some­
what more with other members of their immediate families. Nearly
15 per cent lived independently, and some of those in hotels and
restaurants had rooms provided by their employers. A larger
proportion of negro than of white women lived with their husbands
and a considerably smaller proportion with other near relatives.
A larger proportion of negroes than of white women—19.7 and 14.2
per cent, respectively—lived independently.
Although some differences exist among the various industries in
the proportion of women living at home or independently, the range
is not great and a comparison of industries in this respect has no
special significance. A point that should be emphasized, however, is
that many women who live at home, whether married or single, are
assisting with the maintenance of the family or with the support of
dependents, and consequently their earnings mean quite as much to
them as do those of girls who live independently.
In the study of the laundry industry recently made in 16 States by
the Women’s Bureau17 the investigators visited many women in
their homes in order to obtain a more personal view of their problems.
Included in the number were women working in laundries in three
Florida cities. These Florida records show that all the laundry
workers visited who were single, widowed, separated or divorced
were supporting themselves. Nine of the 22 single women were
assisting their families also; one of them, for example, besides sup­
porting herself was helping a sister to maintain three young children.
Of 33 widowed, separated, or divorced women, 18 were supporting
17 u. S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. A Survey of Laundries and Their Women Workers in
23 Cities. 1930.

115374°—30----- 2




12

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

children and 4 others were assisting their families, some maintaining
aged relatives. Of the group of 18, each of 6 was supporting two
children under 14 years of age, 1 was supporting three children, and
1, with the help of her mother, maintained live. A woman endeavor­
ing to support herself and two children on less than $7 a week said
that her money was spent before it came in, and that she could not
make enough for three meals a day for her family. Another, whose
husband had deserted her a year before the visit by the bureau’s
agent, was supporting herself and three children; she spoke of fearing
a lay off, saying, “Then I don’t know what I’ll do.” The problem
was somewhat less difficult for the woman supporting herself and a
crippled boy on her earnings of $18.90 a week.
Married women formed the largest group of the laundry workers
visited in their homes, and the reason for working was reported by
59 of these. Only two of the reasons reported could be assigned
even remotely to a desire for luxuries, and in one of these cases the
woman was helping her husband to buy a car. These married women
repeatedly made statements that their work was necessary to enable
the family to get along or to keep up with the bills; as one woman
picturesquely expressed it, “We must both put our shoulders to the
wheel.” A young married woman whose earnings as a marker of flat
work were comparatively high—§20.70 a week— was helping to estab­
lish a home. At the other extreme was a woman who, earning $7.50
a week by ironing socks, worked to assist her mother and blind father.
In 24 cases the husband was ill, out of work, or in irregular or
seasonal employment. One was a worker in a fertilizer plant, a
seasonal industry so important in Florida that his case probably was
representative of many. Only three of the working wives of this
group of men earned more than $10; the one receiving the highest
amount for her week’s work ($18.75) had one child under 147 In
addition to her labor outside the home for 61% hours during the week,
she did all the cooking and washing for the family of three. She
said to the investigator, “I am the husband now.” Another woman
who was the sole bread-winner during her husband’s unemployment
had an ill child. Her earnings were $6. And this family had been
endeavoring to pay for their home.
Of the married laundry workers visited, only 25 had children under
14. Three had as many as 4 such children and one had 5, though in
most cases there was only 1. All the mothers were aiding in the
support of their children.
The variety of domestic and economic problems confronting the
individual members of the sample of wage-earning women discussed
in the foregoing may be taken to form a fairly representative cross
section of the types of social responsibility devolving upon the
industrial woman—at least as far as one very typical woman-employ­
ing industry is concerned.
Time in the trade.
Information on industrial experience was secured from 2,938
white but from only 557 negro women. It is presented in Table V.
Only a little more than one-fifth of the white women and an even
smaller proportion of the negro women had been at work for less than
a year. Evidence that many women remain long in the trade is found
in the fact that over 15 per cent of the women, both white and negro,




13

THE WORKERS

reported experience of at least 10 years in the industry in which they
were engaged at the time of the survey. About half of these women
had been in the trade 15 years or longer. Most of the white women
with such experience were employed in cigar factories and general
mercantile establishments; the negro women were in hotels and res­
taurants.
The following summary shows, for each of the industries employing
most women, how long the largest groups of those reporting had been
in the tradeTime in the trade of—

Race and industry

Num­
ber of
wornre­
port­
ing

Largest single group of
women

Half or more of the women
reporting

Women
Years.

Num­ Per
ber cent

Women
Years

Num­ Per
ber cent

WHITE

1,203
162
608
477
406

5 and under 10..

268
29
140
187
98

22.3
17.9
27. 6
39.2
24.1

609
81
254
290
224

50. 6
50.0
•50.0
60. 8
55.2

4 and under 5__

72
94
18

43.4
35.7
17.1

94
153
64

56. 6
58. 2
61.0

NEGRO

166
263
105

i This group is made up chiefly of women in plants largely using machines. If information could have
been obtained for those in plants in which handwork prevailed, the time in .the trade would have been
longer.




WORKING CONDITIONS18
In reporting on working conditions it must be remembered that they
are not all of equal importance in each industry. Where constant
standing or walking is necessary the material of which the floors
are made and the condition in which they are kept are of special
importance; where small parts are handled or inspecting is done the
lighting facilities are a matter of more concern than in stores or
restaurants; in laundries or hotel kitchens ventilation is a problem
far more difficult than in most factories and stores.
GENERAL PLANT CONDITIONS

Floors.
In laundries, where nearly all the work requires constant standing,
10 of the 18 establishments had cement floors. In the other 8 some
of the wooden floors had cement or composition around the machines.
The floors where women were working were in repair and dry in all
but 3 laundries.
_ In manufacturing establishments most of the floors were of wood;
in only 6 were they of cement and in 3 some rooms had cement and
some had wood flooring. All were in repair, but in 6 establishments
not all the floors were clean and in 7 not all were dry.
With the exception of 1 laundry and 1 factory, where those engaged
for other work sometimes cleaned, all laundries and factories reporting
on the subject had cleaning done hy persons employed for the purpose.
More than half (28) of the hotels and restaurants whose floors were
reported had at least some of the workrooms with a flooring of cement.
Five had cement throughout. In 20 establishments at least one of
the rooms had a tile floor, and in 7 of these 20 all workrooms had a
tile flooring.
The floors were clean in all workrooms in the 51 hotels and res­
taurants for which cleanliness was reported, and in only one room (a
hotel laundry) was the floor wet. In more cases than in either
laundries or factories were employees engaged for other work re­
quired to do the cleaning. In small establishments probably there
would be no objection to this, as it hardly would be feasible to employ
a special cleaner.
Stairways.
In a surprisingly large number of plants there were no stairways,
the business being conducted on a single floor. Stairways were
reported in only 69 establishments, and in 48 of these all stairways
were satisfactory, being well constructed and in repair'. In 3 of the
remaining plants where stairs were found they were satisfactory in
part, and the others failed in poor construction, being steep or narrow
in 14 cases and winding in 3. In 5 buildings a handrail was lacking
and in 2 the stairs were in bad repair. Such conditions involve
considerable risk- to the workers hurrying to and from their work,
and they constitute an even greater hazard in case of fire. The
18 In hotels and restaurants, the dining rooms, kitchens, pantries, and counter rooms, and the toilets of the
women employees are reported upon.

14




WORKING CONDITIONS

15

risk from a stairway in bad repair and the lack of a handrail could be
eliminated at very little expense. Practically all stairways were well
lighted.
Ventilation.
In describing the changes brought about by newer theories of air
hygiene two authorities on ventilation make this statement: “The
new conception of air hygiene teaches that the effect of the air is
upon the skin and upon those organs which receive their stimulation
through the skin, * * *. Overheated air is harmful to health
and efficiency.” 19 Therefore, air that is in motion and not too hot
nor too humid should be the desired condition in every industrial
plant.
As the field work in Florida did not extend into the summer, the
problem of ventilation was found to be less acute than might prove
to be the case in hot weather.
In laundries and kitchens the heat and steam from the industry
are such that in most cases even good natural ventilation is not
sufficient to provide satisfactory conditions. The natural ventilation
was good in all workrooms in two-thirds of the 51 hotels and restau­
rants reported and in all but 3 of the 18 laundries; nevertheless,
additional artificial ventilation was found in all but 3 of the hotel
kitchens and in 6 of the laundries.
Different types of artificial aids to ventilation were provided.
For kitchens, electric fans, wall exhausts, and hoods over stoves were
most frequently reported, although in 9 establishments there was a
carrier system that brought fresh air to some of the rooms. Only 6
of the laundries had artificial aids to ventilation, such as wall exhausts
or fans and hoods over flat-work ironers. Hoods over flat-work
ironers, with fans to expel the hot air, are a great aid to better air
conditions, but these were found in only 1 laundry.
In about one-half the factories visited natural ventilation was
repoi'ted good. In 12 plants the natural ventilation was found to be
poor and in 7 others it was unsatisfactory in some departments. It
was aided by artificial means in about one-third of the factories, the
most common method being the installation of electric fans near the
workers. In addition to fans, one plant had a ventilator in the roof
and another was equipped with a wall exhaust and with pipes that
brought in the fresh air.
On the whole, for a southern State such as Florida not enough
attention had been given to the problem of ventilation.
Heating.
Obviously the need for heating equipment in establishments
varies with the part of the country and the kind of work carried on.
In Florida the need for artificial heating is considerably less than in
the northern States; even in the upper part of the peninsula there
are few months in the year when artificial heat is necessary. In some
industries—laundries, for example—the work itself probably provides
sufficient heat during the cooler weather. In others, like stores,
where the wmrker is not very active and where no heat is generated
from the industry, artificial heat for the comfort and well-being of
the workers is necessary on some days, even in Florida. Heating
» Wood, Thomas D., and Ilendriksen, Ethel M. Ventilation of the Industrial Plant.
Management, New York, January, 1927, p. 30,




In Industrial

16

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

facilities were provided in nearly three-fourths of the stores, but, as
would be expected, in only 1 of the 18 laundries, A smaller propor­
tion of manufacturing establishments than of stores were furnished
with heating facilities; in 9 factories no provision was made, and the
industry itself generated no heat.
Lighting.
Just as ventilation is more of a problem in some industries than in
others, the type of work being done in a plant must be taken into
account in any consideration of industrial lighting. Intensity of
light is not required in the same degree in the salesrooms of stores as
for jobs in the workrooms; for this reason, only the stores having
workrooms are included in the tabulation of lighting facilities. In
laundry and hotel work the question of lighting is less important
than in some other industries, such as clothing manufacture or line
assembly work. In a survey such as the present one these varying
needs are taken into consideration, and lighting that would be passed
as satisfactory in one industry might be reported inadequate in
another. With these varying standards in mind, it is significant
that about two-thirds of the establishments reported had natural
lighting satisfactory throughout the entire plant. Where the lighting
was reported unsatisfactory the trouble in all but 2 of the 11 plants
was due to insufficient light. About one-fifth of the establishments
had good lighting in some rooms and poor in others, and in this
group, as in that where poor lighting for the entire plant was reported,
the failure usually was caused by insufficient lighting.
The artificial lighting was pronounced good throughout in 81 of
the 118 plants reported. In one-half of the others some part of the
plant had good lighting. In a little more than one-fifth of the plants,
largely factories and hotels and restaurants, the artificial lighting was
unsatisfactory in all or some of the rooms because of glare. In about
one-eighth of the plants there was an insufficiency of light.
HAZARD AND STRAIN

The industries included in the present survey of Florida do not
show conditions of marked hazard or strain. It is not uncommon in
laundries for unguarded machines or those of old-fashioned construc­
tion to be a source of danger, but in this State the industry has become
important only within the past few years, and most of the equipment
is new and up-to-date. The principal hazards reported in laundries
were hhe conditions that cause falls—trucks and baskets left in aisles
and the wet and slippery floors found occasionally.
In all industries, laundries included, there were but 25 cases of con­
ditions that might constitute a hazard. Wet floors comprised twofifths of these and there were a few cases of poorly guarded elevators
and of stairs in bad repair. In the shrimp-canning industry shuc.kers
complained that sometimes they were poisoned slightly by pinching off
the heads of the shrimps.
There were 10 cases of conditions involving strain. These condi­
tions may be summed up as follows: No seats or very poor ones,
constant standing on cement floors, draft directly on workers, exces­
sive heat in hot weather or inadequate heating facilities in cold, and
the constant use of artificial light. With the exception of the cases
cited, little in the way of hazard or strain was reported.




WORKING CONDITIONS

17

SANITATION

For many months of the year the weather in Florida is warm, and
adequate and convenient drinking and washing facilities are essential.
Besides the demand for these facilities because of the climatic condi­
tions, the type of industry is a factor. Fish canneries and food and
cigar factories should have, for the sake of the consumer as well as the
worker, a plentiful supply of hot water, soap, and towels; and laun­
dries especially need cool drinking water.
Drinking facilities.
Bubblers were found in nearly one-fourth of the factories, stores,
and laundries for which data on drinking facilities were reported.
(See Appendix Table VI.) In only 9 establishments—4 stores and 5
factories—were all the bubblers of sanitary construction. The major­
ity of the plants had bubblers of the insanitary type where the water
falls back on the orifice.
A tank, cooler, or faucet was found in three-fourths (76 per cent)
of the plants and in 4 there were both bubblers and other equipment.
Common cups were in use in 32 establishments, and in 29 no cup what­
ever was provided, the workers supplying their own. Individual cups
were found most often in general mercantile establishments and com­
mon cups in 5-and-10-cent stores.
Washing facilities.
When it is realized that the wage earner spends at least one-half of
her waking hours in the place of work it seems hardly necessary to
emphasize the need of proper washing facilities. In Florida all but 8
of the 152 establishments for which this was reported had made some
arrangements for washing. (Appendix Table VII.) The 8 establish­
ments where no provision had been made included 4 laundries, and
here, though no basin was provided, water probably was available.
However, the tubs in which clothes were being washed could hardly
be termed washing facilities for the workers. In 2 food factories and
2 restaurants there was no provision for washing the hands, and in
work places of this kind the special need for such conveniences is so
obvious as to require no further comment.
Where washing facilities were provided they were not always clean,
and in some cases such necessary equipment as hot water, soap, or
towels was lacking.
The absence of hot water in 95 of the 152 establishments for which
washing facilities were reported was noted especially. No towels
were supplied in 36, and in 33 a common towel was in use. No soap
was provided in 4 of the 14 food factories and in 13 of the 21 other
manufacturing plants. In 8 stores and 9 hotels and restaurants the
employees shared washing facilities with the public, an arrangement
unsatisfactory for both.
Toilet rooms.
In regard to toilet provisions for work places certain minimum
requirements for health and decency usually are embodied in a State
law, but in Florida there is no such general legal provision except for
girls of under 16 years. Some of the plants, however, were under local
regulation as to plumbing, ventilation, and cleanliness, but as these
standards differed in the various localities the plants visited showed




18

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

considerable variation in conditions. In any well-equipped establish­
ment the number of seats should bear a direct relationship to the
number of employees. According to the standard of the Women's
Bureau, there should be one seat for every 15 women employed.
Over two-thirds of the 152 factories, stores, laundries, and hotels and
restaurants for which toilet facilities were reported measured up to
this standard for their women employees, but in 46 cases the seats
were too few and in 4 of these the ratio was as high as 50 women to
a seat. (See Table VIII.) WThat might prove an equally unsatis­
factory arrangement was reported in 9 stores and 10 hotels and
restaurants where the public used the same conveniences as the
workers, and in 11 establishments where the same rooms were used
by both men and women.
Closely tied up with the equipment of toilets are the provisions for
ventilating, lighting, and screening them. In nearly one-fifth of the
establishments there was no direct outside ventilation. Artificial
means were provided in about one-half of these plants. In 18 estab­
lishments the toilet rooms were not completely inclosed—that is,
the walls did not reach the ceiling. Obviously" the effects of such
a condition are most undesirable. Screening of the entrance to the
toilet room so that the interior can not be seen from the workroom
likewise is a requirement of decent provisions, but it was lacking in
41 establishments. Cleanliness and sufficient light, artificial and
natural, are factors that enter into the general upkeep and reveal
to what extent there is good housekeeping.
The following summary of Table IX shows the number of estab­
lishments that had unsatisfactory conditions for their workers.
Number of establishments having toilet room or rooms that—

Industry

Total___________
Factories___________
Laundries..._______
Stores_____
Hotels and restaurants...........

Number
of estab­
lishments
reported

152
18
47
52

Had no outside
ventilation
Artificial No arti­
ficial
ventila­
ventila­
tion
tion
13

11

Had no
Were not Were not artificial Were not
ceiled
screened
light
clean
provided

18

9

10
2

41
8
18

24

36

9

12
9

1

5

A great many women were affected by the lack of screening and
of cleanliness in the toilet rooms. These conditions were most
noticeable in the laundries, and it was in this industry that the per­
cent was highest of plants in which the cleaning was done by workers
employed for other duties and in addition to their usual tasks. In
laundries also a lack of artificial lighting and of properly ceiled
toilet rooms was found.




WORKING CONDITIONS

19

SERVICE FACILITIES

Lunch rooms.
A room where lunch may be eaten is necessary in practically all
establishments unless the workers’ homes are near the plant and the
noon recess is long enough for the employees to go home for lunch.
With less than an hour allowed in 36 per cent of the establishments,
there certainly was need of some provision for the eating of lunch,
but, excepting stores and hotels and restaurants, which generally
had lunch rooms, very few establishments had such provision.
Most of the lunch rooms reported were clean and had satisfactory
lighting. Hot food and drinks were served by two firms and in three
others hot plates were provided so that the workers could make hot
coffee or warm their food. Laundries showed the greatest lack of
special lunch conveniences, not one plant having a room where the
women might eat their meals away from their work, and only 2 of
the 35 factories reported had a special place aside from the workroom
in which lunches could be eaten.
Cloak rooms.
Cloakroom facilities were provided in 100 of the 163 factories, stores,
laundries, and hotels and restaurants. Sometimes an entire room was
provided and sometimes the room was used also as a rest room, lunch
room, wash room, or storeroom. Satisfactory equipment such as
lockers or racks was provided for the cloakroom in 29 cases, but the
majority (69.5 per cent) of those reported were equipped merely with
shelves, wall hooks, or nails. Of the laundries, where the need of
cloakrooms for changing clothing is especially great, only three had a
special room for such purpose, and the equipment in these was of the
simplest. No provision for the care of wraps was made in three facto­
ries and two hotels and restaurants, hats and coats being deposited
wherever space could be found for them. In 19 instances in hotels
and restaurants, in one store, and in one factory wraps wrere hung in
the toilet rooms. When cloakrooms were provided, either as special
rooms or combined with other service, they were reported clean in all
but one-fifth of the plants for which such data were secured.
Rest rooms.
The provision of a rest room or other place to which the worker may
retire when necessary is especially desirable in establishments where
women are employed. Six hotels and restaurants and three stores
had rooms specially equipped, while in 38 establishments—chiefly
stores—provisions for rest were supplied in rooms used for other
service purposes. In 14 cases reporting equipment there were cots
and chairs; in 6, a cot only; and in 7, chairs but no cot. Laundries
and factories had the poorest arrangements and stores had the best.
Rest rooms were reported clean in all but one instance in the stores
and in all but five of the hotels and restaurants. There wrere 116
establishments, 71.2 per cent of the entire number, with no special rest
facilities.
Health equipment.
Naturally, in every place where work is carried on there is a risk of
accident or sudden illness on the part of the workers. To prepare for
such contingencies many firms have provided at least a first-aid kit,
and if large numbers are employed a regular hospital room, with nurse



20

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

and visiting physician, exists in many cases. Of the 162 stores, fac­
tories, laundries, and hotels and restaurants for which such data were
reported, 92, employing four-fifths of all the workers, had some health
service. Among these establishments were practically nine-tenths
(all but 2) of the laundries and two-thirds (all but 12) of the factories,
in contrast to the stores and hotels and restaurants, in which groups
somewhat less than half of the establishments had made provision for
emergencies. First-aid equipment was found in every case where
some form of health service had been provided, although part of the
hospital equipment in one factory and of the dispensary in one store.
Almost as important as first-aid equipment is its administration
when needed. In seven establishments, including factories, stores,
and hotels and restaurants, a nurse was in attendance, and in nine
hotels and restaurants a doctor gave either full or part time. In the
majority of cases, however, the administration of first aid was done by
a person specially appointed, such as the manager, superintendent,
foreman, or forewoman. In a smaller number of plants the care of
the ill or injured devolved upon anyone who was near and willing
when the need developed.
Medical examination was a requirement for employment in 39
hotels and restaurants and 8 factories.
Although, as has been shown, most establishments had some
remedies for use in accident or sudden illness, there were 70 plants,
employing 1,571 women, in which no provision of emergency care was
provided.
Other welfare provisions.
Closely allied to the care of the injured or ill are insurance against
sickness or death and, as preventive measures, such provisions as
vacations with pay and bonuses for length of service. These are
inducements for the workers.to remain with the firm as well as efforts
on the part of the management to shoulder some of the cost of death
or disability. One industry, hotels and restaurants, reported no
special services of this character. The store group was represented
in all the different plans, the most frequent service being a vacation
with pay, reported in 28 of the 47 stores; bonuses for length of service
were given in 24 stores; and insurance, either death or disability, was
carried by 7 stores and by 7 laundries and 2 factories. Undoubtedly,
money and help often were given by the managements of other plants,
but only those with such a regular system that the workers could
definitely rely on aid when needed were recorded by the investigators.
In plants where women handle foodstuffs or work in hot kitchens
there is need of thin washable dresses or cover-all aprons. For ap­
pearance as well as comfort a simple wash uniform usually is found to
be the most satisfactory, and in 56 of the 67 hotels and restaurants
and food factories the managements required the workers to wear
uniforms. These were supplied by the employer in only about twofifths of the establishments, while in the others each of the workers
paid for her own. The reason why these outfits were supplied by the
managements more frequently for dining-room workers than for
women in kitchens, factories, or other work places is obvious. The
expense of special uniforms might not be enormous if the employee
remained for a considerable period with the same organization, but
if for any reason the term of employment should be of short duration




WORKING CONDITIONS

21

the expense of purchasing one or more uniforms that would be useless
elsewhere might prove a considerable hardship.
The laundering of their own uniforms was1;done by the workers in
43 of the establishments requiring uniforms, but in 1 bakery and in
11 hotels and restaurants this was done for them by the management.
Employment service.
From the viewpoint of efficient plant operation as well as of the
welfare of the worker, the hiring, transferring, and discharging of
employees can be better performed with one person in charge than
when the responsibility is divided among several. In many large
organizations an employment manager is in charge, but in smaller
plants the manager, superintendent, foreman, or forewoman does the
employing. In Florida the larger establishments were in most cases
cigar factories, stores, or hotels, but in only one firm—a cigar factory—
was there a regular employment manager. In the other cigar factories
using the centralized method the manager or superintendent did the
employing, and in hotels this usually was done by the manager. In
nearly half of all the establishments reported the manager or owner
was responsible for the employment, and in one-fifth of the plants
the centralized method was used and a superintendent or foreman was
in charge. Having one person in charge was the custom in all but 1 of
the 47 stores and in 13 of the 18 laundries, while 3 of every 5 manu­
facturing establishments and half the hotels and restaurants had
centralized employment systems. In 30 per cent of the establishments,
affecting 49 per cent of the women reported, was found the less desir­
able system of the employing being done by more than one person.




22

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

SCHEDULED DAILY HOURS1
□ white WOMEN 0,875)
UsSnEGRO WOMEN 0,2 52)
Per cent
of women

8 AND UNDER

I 6.3

OVER 8 AND

53.8

INCLUDING 9

16.5

OVER 9 AND

29.0

INCLUDING 10

OVER 10

77.3

1.0
6.2

SCHEDULED WEEKLY HOURS*
□ white WOMEN 0,875)
IHneGRO WOMEN (l,266)

75
4 8 AND UNDER

5.1

OVER 48 AND

60.5

INCLUDING 54

27.6

OVER 54 AND

34.9

INCLUDING 60

.tot

64.5

OVER 60

.4

2.7

1 Excludes hotels and restaurants




HOURS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES 20
The importance to the woman worker and to the community of
reasonable hours of work has been demonstrated again and again.
In all but 5 of the 48 States of the United States and in nearly every
other civilized country the maximum number of hours in a day or a
week for which a woman may be employed for certain types of work
outside the home has been fixed by law. The applicant for work usually
follows the most important question—“What do you pay?”—with
another almost equally important—“What are the hours? ” Realizing
that every girl is a potential mother and that many mothers find it
necessary to work outside of the home, society is interested in pre­
venting overlong hours. The most progressive employers have found
that long hours of work do not result in the greatest efficiency.
The scheduled hours in a given plant are the usual or expected hours
of work, fixed by the employer according to his own ideas and taking
into consideration the law, if there is one, and the hours customary
in his own community and industry. The scheduled hours do not
tell the whole story, however, for occasionally during rush periods
longer hours are required, and sometimes there is not enough work to
fill the usual hours and part time is worked by all or some of the em­
ployees. Moreover, time is lost by the workers through illness and
other personal causes. Thus, the scheduled hours of a group, though
representing the normal or expected hours of employment, are not
always the actual hours worked by each individual. '
Florida is one of the five States that have no law limiting the
number of hours a woman may work. This condition probably is due
to the fact that until recently Florida was almost wholly an agricul­
tural and tourist State, the tourist season lasting for only three or
four months of each year. Gradually, however, the industrial possi­
bilities of this favored State were recognized, and many travelers who
came to visit stayed to live and to work in Florida. Stores, factories,
and laundries were built, hotels and restaurants multiplied, and the
opportunities of work for men and women developed and increased.
As a result, Florida is beginning to have the problems of employment
that confront every growing economic State.
In considering scheduled hours in the woman-employing industries
of Florida it must be constantly borne in mind that at the time of
the survey there was no law limiting hours of work and no law requir­
ing that the actual number of hours worked should be recorded. In
very few establishments, therefore, were hour records kept; in most
plants only the number of days on which work was done was obtain­
able.
Daily hours of white women.
From Table 2, next presented, it is apparent that the largest group
of white women, 37.3 per cent of those reported, had a scheduled day
of 9 hours. Slightly over 30 per cent had a scheduled day shorter
than this—equally divided between 8 hours or less and over 8 hours—
20 For hours in hotels and restaurants see pp, 56 to GO,




23

24

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

and a little less than 30 per cent had a day in excess of 9 hours, some­
what more than half of these having a day of at least 10 hours. The
normal or scheduled hours are shown in the table following.
Table 2.—Scheduled daily hours, by industry and race
Number of establishments and number of women
whose scheduled daily horns were—
Number reported
Under 8

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden___
Cigars........ .................... .............
Pood—
Bread and bakery products.
Fish, canned.. ....................
Other food products......... .
Miscellaneous........................
General mercantile:
Sales................... ................ .
Workroom......... ............... .
5-and-lO-eent stores.......... ................
Laundries______ ____ ___________

100 3,875 1,252
3
100.0 100.0 ....
3
190
110 1,694
i
3
6
3

20
3
50
63

92 i7
2.4

541 i 14
14.0

Establishments

White

Women

o
&
£

2

207
16.5

765

1

89

638 i 40 1, 445
16.5
37.3

151

9
41

1

24

155

55

17
1

58
339
1

23 1, 026
10
78
24
516
17
229

W omen —White

Establishments

Women—White

Establishments

Women—White

Establishments

Negro

White

Women

9

|

1

All industries...........................
P8r cent distribution....... ................

Establishments

Industry

Over 8 and
under 9

8

20
3

22
1

3

5
3
1

699

437

10

49

47

Number of establishments and num­
ber of women whose scheduled daiiy W omen whose hours were—
horn's were—
8 and
under

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden..............................
Cigars................................... ........
Food—
Bread and bakery products.
Fish, canned... .............. .
Other food products.............
Miscellaneous........................ ......
General mercantile:
Sales................ ...........................
Workroom.____ _________
5-and-10-cent stores________ ______
Laundries... ..............

White

12 566 180
14.6 14.4
3 461
3
2

4

3
37

4

13 556 788
14.3 62.9

2

Per cent

17 8.9 64 33.7
89 5.3 379 22.4

10 339

8 103 449

Per cent

37 77 633 16.3 693 15.3 865 69:1
1.0 6.2

1 64
3 379

1

Negro

I

1

&

Per cent

1 1

58

65 118

0

White

Number

Women

White

©

Establishments

Women

|

Negro

White

|

All industries___ ___________
Per cent distribution..........................

Establishments

Establishments

Women

10 and over

Number

10H

10

Number

Over 9 and
under 10
Industry

10 17.9 339 100.0

2

37

77l

440 42.9
49j 9.5
140 61.1 526 75.3

1 Details aggregate more than total where an establishment appears in more than 1 horn- group or work­
rooms in mercantile establishments are shown separately.

Of all the industries included in this section of the report laundries
had the largest proportion of white women with long daily schedules,




HOURS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

25

three-fifths (61.1 per cent) of the women reported having a day of 10
hours or more. The other industries with appreciable proportions of
white women working at least 10 hours were the manufacture of
wooden boxes and the manufacture of cigars.
Shorter hours were reported in general mercantile than hi manu­
facturing establishments or laundries. Over two-fifths of the women
in the stores (48.3 per cent) had a schedule of 8 hours or less and none
was reported as having a day of more than 9 hours. Horn’s were
longer in 5-and-10-cent stores than in general mercantile. No store
had a Monday-to-Friday schedule of more than 9 hours, but the
proportion of women in the 5-and-10-cent stores having a day of 8
hours or less was much smaller than that shown for general mercan­
tile, the figures being 9.5 per cent and 43.3 per cent, respectively.
Daily hours of negro women.
The scheduled day of negro women was, as a whole, longer than that
of white women. (See Table 2 and chart on p. 22.) No negro women
had a schedule of less than 9 hours and 69.1 per cent of them had a
day of 10 hours and over. It must be remembered, however, that no
negro woman was in the store group, where daily hours were shortest,
and the proportion engaged in manufacturing was much smaller than
in the case of white women.
A large majority of the, negro women (82.9 per cent) were found in
laundries and in the manufacture of certain food products in which the *
daily schedule was long for the women of both races; nevertheless, a
larger proportion of negro than of white women in these two industries
had a day as long as 10 hours. In laundries the day was a long one
for more negro women than white, 75.3 per cent of the former, com­
pared to 61.1 per cent of the latter, having a schedule of at least 10
hours. In the manufacture of certain food products 10 hours was the
longest schedule reported. The difference between the two races was
even greater here than in laundries, a day of 10 hours being reported
for all the negro women in the group, though less than 18 per cent of
the white women h ad such a schedule.
Weekly hours of white women.
There is no question that one day of rest during the week is a
necessity if the worker is to obtain rest and give attention to personal
affairs. This one day of rest, sometimes established by law and very
generally by custom, usually is the minimum, since, many industries,
especially in the manufacturing and mechanical group, grant a half
holiday on Saturday and in some plants the whole of Saturday is a
holiday. In stores the 5}(-day or the 5-day week is a rare practice
except in the summer months, and during the remainder of the year
store hours quite commonly are longer on Saturday than on other days
of the week. A long Saturday is the custom in stores in Florida; con­
sequently there are larger proportions of establishments and of women
in the long weekly-hour than in the long daily-hour groups.
More than half of the plants and 35.3 per cent of the white women
for whom data on weekly hours were secured had a scheduled week of
more than 54 hours, while only eight firms and 4.1 per cent of the
women had a week of 48 hours or less. The table following gives the
weekly hours of both races. The chart on p. 22 is a graphic presenta­
tion of the data.




Table 3.—Scheduled weekly hours, by industry and race

to

O
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled weekly hours wereNumber reported
Under 44

44

Over44 and under 48

48

Over 48 and under 50

50

Industry

All industries
Percent distribution______________ _ ...
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden____ __ _ ______
Cigars_____________________ ______
Food—
Bread and bakery products....... ......
Fish, canned
___... ______ _
Other food products
Miscellaneous____________
___
General mercantile:
Sales _______ ________ __________
Workroom___ ____
_ ______
5-and-10-cent stores______ __________ ...
Laundries.. ... ________ ..... .

i 91

3, 875
100. 0

1. 266
100. 0

2

3
i 10

190
1,694

155

2

1
3
6
3

20
3
56
63

58
339
1

23
10
24
i 18

1,026
78
516
229

89
2. 3

89

3

1

26
0. 7

22
1.7

2

42
1.1

43
3.4

1

O
0.1

J4

257
6.6

1
0.1

o

149

1

22

20

1

1
19
713

A

11.8

17

2

9

22

1

20

43

1

1 Details aggregate more than total where an establishment appears in more than 1 hour group or workrooms in mercantile establishments are shown separately.




10.9

49

W O M EN IN FLO R ID A IN D U S T R IE S

Women '
Women
Women
EsWomen
EsEsEsWomen
EsEsEstabtab- Wom­ tabtabtab- Wom­ tabtaben— lishen—
lishlish- White
lishlish- White lishlishments White Negro ments
ments White Negro ments White Negro ments
ments White Negro ments White Negro

r

Table 3.—Scheduled weekly hours, by industry and race—Continued
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled weekly hours were—
Ox
CO

Over 55 and under 58

55

Industry

|°

Women
Women
Es­
Estab­
tablish*
lishments White Negro mcnts White Negro

CO

o

%
St
s

Over 54 and
under 55

54

Over 52 and under 54

52

Women
Women
Women
EsEsEsEs. Estab- "Wom­ tab- Wom­ tabtabtaben— lish- en— lishlishlish- White
lishWhite ments White Negro
ments
ments White N egro ments White Negro ments

CO

*

st-

S

**

16

349
9.0

“

General mercantile:
O*

Si

13

159
4.1

19
1.5

Food—
1

C

32
2.5

Laundries----

------------ -----------------------

299
24

1

5

760
19.6

49
3.9

11

399
10.3

392

2

1
1

2
1 ‘
32

1

8

19

4

6
4

143
8

10
300
24

1

2

34

31
56

47

. .
.
.
.........................................
. .
1 Details aggregate more than tot al where workrooms in mercantile establishments are shown separately.




2

28
0.7

134

609
15.7

206

1

97

4

3

58

6
1
21
3

71
3
420
15

66

9

1
3

100
7.9

208
5.4

1

109
158

1

21

4
3

ill

2

All industries----- ------ ------------Per cent distribution......................................
Manufacturing:

2

3

as

^
(jp

128
10.1

36

100

1
1

16
12

1

2

HOURS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

Over 50 and under 52

to

Table 3.

Scheduled weekly hours, by industry and race—Continued

^

Number of establishments and number of women whose
scheduled weekly hours were—
68

Over 58 and under 60

Women whose hours were—

60 and over

Industry

48 and under

55 and over

A]] industries.................
Per cent distribution.. _
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden___
Cigars___________
PoodFish, canned. _______
Other food products_____
Miscellaneous_______
General mercantile:
Sales. ........................
W orkroom___




2

6
0.2

25
2.0

4

T"

386
10.0
379

33
2.6

7

132
3.4

665
52.5

160

4.1

89

5.3

10

22

25

1

33

5 ,
1

58

326

.3

29

12.7

65 | 9. 1

k

34.6

33.7
40.3

4

2.6

3
10

34.9

3

1, 341

64
682

339

3
3

5.1

64
----- .........
1

1

65

100.00
17.9

58
339

100.0
100.0

74
3
420
85

7.2
3.8
81.4
37.1

450

63.1

851

67.2

W O M E N IN FLO R ID A IN D U S T R IE S

Women
Women
Women
White
Negro
White
Negro
EsEsEstabtabtablishlishlishments White Negro ments White Negro ments W'hite Negro Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber cent ber cent ber
cent ber cent

HOURS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

29

In all but two of the 5-and-10-cent stores and in nearly one-third
of those in the general-mercantile class a week of more than 54 hours
was reported, but this group comprised a relatively small per cent of
the women, as the stores were small. In cigar factories two-fifths
of the white workers had a schedule of over 54 hours. It was impos­
sible to ascertain to what extent these hours actually were worked,
as in most of the plants no record was kept of the number of hours
put in by each worker and the employees were said to come and go
as suited their own convenience. The three industries in which some
plants had weekly hours of 60 or more for white women were the
manufacture of wooden boxes, with one-third of the women workers
on this schedule, laundries with one-fourth, and certain food products
with more than one-sixth.
Weekly hours of negro women.
As was the case with the long daily schedule, more negro women
than white women had long weekly hours. (See Table 3 and chart
on p. 22.) However, the difference in the weekly hours of the two
races was not so great as was the difference in the daily hours. About
two-thirds (67.2 per cent) of the 1,266 negro women had a weekly
schedule of more than 54 hours, and one-half were expected to work
a week of at least 60 hours. On the other hand, about one-sixth had
weekly hours of 50 or less, a small group having as short a week
as 44 hours or under, though there was no negro woman with a daily
schedule below 9 hours. With the exception of wooden boxes,
where no negro women were employed, the industries with long
weekly hours were the same as for white women, namely, certain
food products and laundries, the two groups in which more than
four-fifths of the negro women reported were found.
Florida and other States.
To make possible a comparison of the scheduled hours prevailing
in Florida and those of other States, combinations of the white and
negro women in Tables 2 and 3 have been made. In other surveys
the Women’s Bureau has secured hour data in 18 States, and a
comparison of the scheduled hours of establishments in Florida with
those of establishments in these other places, with and without hour
laws, is of interest.
When Florida’s daily hours are compared with those obtaining in
these 18 States 21 it is apparent that, while a day of 8 hours or less was
found to include only about one-eighth of the women in Florida,
one-fifth of the women in the larger area had such a schedule reported.
Comparing the group of women who had a scheduled day of more than
9 hours, it is found that Florida reported over two-fifths in this group
and the other States combined a little less than one-fourth.
The proportion of women whose scheduled weekly hours were more
than 54 has been arrived at for the 18 States combined.22 The figure
is 17.1 per cent in contrast to the 43.2 per cent of Florida.
Two industries-—general mercantile and the manufacture of
wooden boxes—were found in Florida as well as in most of the other
21 U. S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women
in Industry. Bui. 43, 1925, p. 49; and succeeding buls. 48, 51, 55, 56, and 58. The States are as follows:
Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Mis­
souri, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
22 Ibid., Bui, 43, pp. 52-53, and succeeding reports.




30

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

States surveyed, and a comparison of the women having long weekly
schedules shows that Florida had better hours than the combined
States as far as the manufacture of boxes is concerned.23

State

Percentage of women
with scheduled week­
ly hours of more
than 54 in —
Wooden
boxes

Florida_______
_______________
States (combined)1__________

33.7
65.0

General
mercantile
7.0
3.4

1 Box figures for 12 States and general mercantile for 16.

Saturday hours.
The shorter Saturday apparently bears no relation to the length
of the other week days. (See Appendix Tables X to XII.) It
would appear that where the regular working hours were long there
would be a greater need of adequate rest at the end of the week,
involving a shorter day on Saturday, but the figures show little or
no such relationship. Of five factories with Monday-to-Friday hours
less than 9, three had less than 7 hours on Saturday; and of five fac­
tories whose daily hours were 10, two had Saturday hours of 10.
Of three laundries whose daily hours were 9, one had no Saturday
work and one had Saturday hours under 7; and of eight laundries
with daily hours of 10, four had a 10-hour Saturday also.
For nearly one-half of the white women for whom such data were
obtained Saturday hours were shorter than the regular daily schedules
of the plants, and for a small number no work at all was required on
Saturday. There was, however, a large group of women (41 per
cent) whose Saturday hours were longer than those of the other
days of the week, but these women were all in stores, being employed
cither as saleswomen or in the workrooms. There was one store
whose hours on Saturday were no longer than on the other days of
the week, but in all the others, hours were extended on Saturday.
Almost nine-tenths of the white women in manufacturing plants
and nearly three-fifths of those in laundries had a shortened Saturday,
and in neither of these industries was Saturday longer than the other
days. Twenty-nine women in laundries had no Saturday work.
Of the 13 manufacturing plants with a day of more than 9 hours,
11 had a Saturday shorter than the other days of the week, and
3 of the 5 with daily hours of less than 9 had a shorter Saturday
schedule.
The stores that had the longest daily hours during the week also
had long Saturday hours.
Although Saturday was shorter than the other days of the week
for so many women, it was not necessarily a short day. Only 14.3
per cent of the white women had a Saturday of 6 hours or less, in­
cluding those who had no work on Saturday, while for 37.5 per cent a
so-called shorter day of from over 6 up to and including 9 hours was
reported.
23 TJ. S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for
Women in Industry. Bui. 43, 1925, pp. 54-56, and succeeding reports.




HOUKS IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

31

The Saturday hours of the negro women were, on the whole,
better than those of the white women, chiefly because no negro women
worked in stores, the industry in which Saturday hours were the long­
est. No negro women had a Saturday longer than the other days
of the week. Four per cent of the 1,252 for whom Saturday hours
in relation to daily hours were reported were not required to work
on Saturdays. More than half, 54.4 per cent, had the same hours
on Saturday as on other days of the week.
In manufacturing establishments and in laundries the per cents
of negro women having a shorter Saturday were much smaller than
the per cents of white women. In factories this is due to three-fifths
of the negro women being in certain food products, with six 10-hour
days. In laundries 48.9 per cent of the negro women, compared
to 28.8 per cent of the white, worked all day on Saturday. The
custom of the industry rather than the type of labor would seem
to determine the shorter day on Saturday. Nevertheless, of the
white women in laundries 50 per cent had a Saturday of 7 hours or
under or did not work on Saturday at all, and less than 25 per cent
had a Saturday of over 9 hours; while of the negro women in laundries
less than 24 per cent had the short Saturday or none and practically
46 per cent had one of over 9 hours.
Lunch period.
As Saturday hours determine the length of the week-end rest,
so the lunch period determines the rest during the day’s work.
Table XIII shows that the time off at midday most commonly
allowed was one hour—this for a little more than one-half (53.3
per cent) of the white women and a little more than one-third (34.6
per cent) of the negro women. Four of the laundries, all but 3 of
the 47 stores, and 8 of the 27 manufacturing establishments reported
an hour’s recess at noon. Several factories had no regular lunch
time, the employees eating while at work or taking off—at their own
expense, since all were on piecework—whatever time was required;
as one superintendent said, it was “up to them.” Large groups—
42.7 per cent of the white women and 60.8 per cent of the negro
women—had a 30-minute lunch period. These workers were all in
manufacturing plants or in laundries. In practically all .stores the
time allowance was one hour. Two small establishments allowed
two hours and one of a fair size gave only 45 minutes. The length
of the lunch period and of the workday appeared to be as unrelated
as were short Saturday hours and long daily hours. All the estab­
lishments with daily hours of 8 or less had a lunch period of an
hour or more, while 13 of 15 plants with a day of 10 hours and over
had but half an hour at noon.
Actual hours worked.
In a State where there is no law that requires the keeping of records
of the hours worked by each employee, few firms are sufficiently
interested to keep such books, as is shown by the fact that, of the
5,141 women in the establishments where scheduled hours were
reported, records of hours actually worked could be obtained for only
178 white and 239 negro women. (Table XIV.) More than fourfifths (82 per cent) of these women were in one industry—laundries.
Although variations from the normal hours as shown in undertime
and overtime are not of great significance unless their causes can be



32

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

ascertained, it is of interest to note that in a week considered to be
fairly representative two-fifths of the 178 white women worked less
than their scheduled hours and something over one-fourth worked
overtime. Of the 75 women in manufacturing establishments for
whom actual hours worked were obtained, three-tenths (30.7 per cent)
lost some time in the week reported and about one-seventh (14.7 per
cent) worked longer than the hours scheduled by their plants. Of
those who worked less than their schedule, over one-third lost 15
hours or more, and of those who worked more than their schedule
nearly one-half worked at least 15 additional hours during the week
selected. In laundries more of the women worked undertime than in
excess of their normal hours, most of the overtime workers differing
from their schedule by less than 5 hours and most of the undertime
group about equally divided between under 5 hours and 5 and under
10 hours.
t
Of the 239 negro women in laundries whose hours worked were
reported, slightly more than one-half (52.7 per cent) lost some time, in
most cases less than 5 hours, and slightly more than one-fifth (21,3
per cent) worked overtime, also less than 5 hours in most cases.
Although in Florida it was not customary to keep records of the
number of hours worked, most of the firms visited had recorded for
each woman the number of days on which she had been at work.
(Table XV.) From these figures a general idea of the number of days
lost can be obtained.
In every industry except fish canneries some white women had lost
at least one day, but the number losing such time comprised less than
one-fifth of the 3,473 white women for whom time worked was reported
in days. In wooden-box making and in the miscellaneous manufac­
turing group none of the women for whom a record of days worked
was secured had been present on every day of the week, and' in certain
food products two-fifths of the women had lost one day or more. The
per cent of women working less than the number of days scheduled
by the plant was smallest for laundry workers and for saleswomen in
general mercantile establishments. Twenty-two of the women, only
0.6 per cent of those reported, worked on an extra day. These women
were in cigar manufacturing and in store workrooms.
Days worked were recorded for only 419 negroes, and 381 of these
were in laundries, where five-sixths of the women worked on the
required number of days.




WAGES IN^FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

For the woman in industry, income from sources other than her
labor service is nonexistent or at best negligible. Earnings are,
therefore, of primary importance to her, since they determine her
purchasing power, and this represents the extent to which she can
obtain the chief material needs without which a well-balanced life is
not possible. For most women workers the only basis of maintaining
even the minimum health and decency standards, entirely aside from
any allowance for some degree of pleasure in living, is the amount they
receive for their labor.
The community is vitally concerned with the wage scale, since an
adequate wage tends to insure freedom from the public support of
dependents and forms the basis of individual opportunity for health,
length of life, replacement by the birth of healthy children, and
personal efficiency and happiness. The strictest social economy
demands a wage sufficient to provide at least for the bare support of
life, and this does not even include the exceedingly important item
of savings against unemployment, illness, and old age.
This section excludes data in regard to the wages of women in hotels
and restaurants; since practices in such establishments differ greatly
from those prevailing in the other industries studied, they are con­
sidered separately on pages 60 to 62. The earnings of the negro
women are analyzed on pages 49 to 54; these figures have been kept
separate from those for the white women because of the marked
difference in the earnings of the two groups. The discussion imme­
diately following applies strictly to white women in manufacturing
establishments, stores, and laundries.
WEEK’S EARNINGS OF WHITE WOMEN

Pay-roll records of one week’s actual earnings were taken for 4,425
white women in factories, stores, and laundries. Except in the case
of laundries, most of these records were taken for a pay-roll week in
October, November, or December, 1928; a few were for a week in
January, 1929, and occasionally an earlier period was selected in order
to make certain that the figures related to a normal working week, one
that was not influenced by seasonal fluctuations or unusual circum­
stances affecting time worked.
Table 4 shows the number of women working in each industry and the
earnings they received for the week selected. All the women who
appeared on the pay rolls during the week are included, and as some
of these had worked undertime, some overtime, the range of earnings
is wide—all the way from less than $1 to more than $40. Of course,
the two extremes represent unusual cases that have no general sig­
nificance. The earnings of more than two-thirds of the women were
between $7 and $20; more than one-third had earnings of less than $12.
The consideration of full-time workers only would represent a
somewhat different situation. So far as it is possible to determine
the number who worked full time, the earnings of such women will be
discussed in a later section of this report. (See p. 41.)




33

Table 4.—Week’s earnings, by industry—White women

CO

Number of women earning each specified amount mThe manufacture of—
All industries

Total_____
Median earnings.

4,425
$15.00

Under $1________
$1 and under $2__.
$2 and under $3...
$3 and under $4 _..
$4 and under $5...
$5 and under $6__
$6 and under $7__
$7 and under $8. _ _
$8 and under $9...
$9 and under $10. _
$10 and under $11.
$11 and under $12.
$12 and under $13.
$13 and under $14.
$14 and under $15.
$15 and under $16.
$16 and under $17.
$17 and under $18.
$18 and under $19.
$19 and under $2C.
$20 and under $21.
$21 and under $22.
$22 and under $23
$23 and under $24..
$24 and under $25..
$25 and under $30..
$30 and under $35..
$35 and under $40..
$40 and over_____

3
23
37
46
43
50
74
153
354
263
280
231
272
201
185
268
185
195
246
166
178
118
134
93
64
344
132
44
43

1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.

4

100.0

1

190
$11.05

2,494
$16.65

r-----------

)

2
17
23
32
29
23
40
109
214
74
60
69
102
121
101
142
134
128
147
129
108
100
82
72
55
240
104
26
li 1

3.4

J

.................—

1

l

20.2

j
1

i

26.4

1
i

,

}

24.0

i

}

Cigars

4

2

8

6
13
18
19
24
24
14
17
14
5
11
5
4
1

13.3
7.8
3.0
1.0
1.0

1

Bread
and
bakery
products
38
$11.30

Fish,
canned

Other
food
products

3

54
$9. 35

1

1
1
2
1
4
3
2
2
10
3
3
6
11

0)

1
1
1
6
8
7
10
1
1

2

1
1

dries

Work­
room

Sales

63
$10. 55

760
$18.10

1
1
2
3
5

6

78
$18.45

516
$10.05

229
$12.30
_

8
2
10
5
6
2
4

1
1
2
1
1

5-and-10cent
stores

Miscel­
laneous

1
1

1
8

1
4
9
22
17
27
64
18
43
87
27
45
62
30
51
15
48
13
9
93
22
15
27

10

11
18
91
110
124
68
31
21
8
6

26
32
24
15
9

17

11
9

3

3

------------ 1
5

W O M EN IN FLO R ID A IN D U S T R IE S

Boxes,
Per cent wooden
distribu­
tion

Number




General mercantile

Food

Week’s earnings

WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

35

The accompanying chart gives a graphic presentation of the pro­
portions of women in the various earnings groups. It shows that
one-half the women reported (50.4 per cent) earned as much as $10
but less than $20.

WEEK’S EARNINGS OF 4,425 WHITE WOMEN
EARNINGS

Percent
of women

UNDER $5

$ 5, UNDER #10

20.2

$10, UNDER $15

26.4

$15, UNDER #20

24.0

$20, UNDER $25

13.3

$25, UNDER #30

7.8

$30, UNDER $35

3.0

$35, UNDER $40

1.0

$40 AND OVER

1.0

l

Excludes hotels and restaurants

The median of the week’s earnings of the 4,425 white women
reported is $15. The term median means that one-half of the women
included earned more, one-half less, than the figure given.
There were, of course, great differences in the amounts ordinarily
received by workers in the various industries. The following sum­




36

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

mary gives in descending order the medians of the week’s earnings of
the women reported in the industries having most women:
Industry

Median of
Number of the week’s
women
earnings

General mercantile:
Workroom........... ........................... .
Sales.._ ........... ...............................
Cigars_____ _____________________
Laundries______ _____ __________
Bread and bakery products......................... .........
Boxes, wooden. ____________
Miscellaneous manufactures_______ _
_
5-and-10-cent stores.____ ____________
Other food products_________

$18.45

38
516
54

The women in general mercantile establishments had the highest
earnings, the median for saleswomen being $18.10 and that for women
in workrooms $18.45. Ihe lowest median, $9.35, is for women in
certain food industries. Women workers in 5-and-10-cent stores had
a median of $10.05.
The summary following shows the proportions of the women in the
chief industries investigated whose earnings were as specified in a
representative week.
Per cent of women earning less than $6
All industries..._______________________________________
General mercantile:Sales
L3
Laundries”1
5-and-10-cent stores__________________________________
Cigars------------------------------------------------------------Boxes, wooden___________________________ __________________

4g
3*9
4' 3

5]1

74

Per cent of women earning less than $9
All industries.._____________________________________
17 7
General mercantile: Sales_____ _____________________________
3'3
Laundries _
9’ 2
Cigars---------------------------------------------------- """IIIIIIIII
la 6
Boxes, wooden;
26. 8
5-and-10-cent stores________________________________

27.5

Per cent of women earning less than $12
All industries
35
General mercantile: Sales
12
Cigars------------------------------------------------------------------Laundries
Boxes, wooden._
5-and-10-cent stores
86.

”

2
0
27. 7
45 g
52. 1
0

Per cent of women earning less than $IS
All industries 1 59.
j
General mercantile: Sales.~~
28 4
Cigars.______ _______ ________ __________’III.IIIII
40’7
Laundries__________________________ ______________________
72.5
Boxes, wooden____ _...._____________________________ gg' g
5-and- 10-cent stores’97' 7
‘ The apparent discrepancy between this figure and a median ot $15 is due to the rounding of tho median
to the nearest 5-eent group.




37

WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES
Per cent oj women earning less than $18
All industries__________________________________
General mercantile: Sales___________________________
Cigars______________________________________________
Laundries______ ____________________________________
Boxes, wooden_____________________________________
5-and-'10-cent stores________________________________

64.
49.
50.
84.
96.
99.

7
3
9
7

8
2

In all industries combined nearly 5 per cent of the women earned
under $6, the proportion running as high as 7.4 per cent in the case
of wooden-box manufacture. Of course, these figures include women
who did not work full time, but the amounts earned are significant,
since they represent what these women had to live on in the week
of the survey. Earnings of workers who were on a full schedule are
discussed on page 41, as far as it is possible to ascertain time worked.
More than one-fourth of the women in the 5-snd-10-cent stores and
about the same proportion of those in wooden-box making received
less than $9. While a comparatively small proportion in laundries
earned less than $9, 45 per cent earned less than $12. In wooden-box
making nearly 60 per cent, in laundries over 60 per cent, and in
5-and-10-cent stores 70 per cent of the workers earned $9 and less
than $15. General mercantile establishments and cigar factories
had the largest proportions of women earning as much as $18—
respectively, 50.7 and 43.1 per cent.
Timework and piecework.
In many manufacturing occupations earnings of employees are
figured on the basis of output, the earnings varying with the amount
produced. Such workers are said to be on a piecework basis. Others,
designated timeworkers, are paid according to the number of hours
or days worked. Sometimes the two systems are combined, the
woman being paid partly on a time, partly on a piece, basis.
Of the 4,342 women whose basis of work was reported, 41.9 per
cent were timeworkers, 58 per cent were pieceworkers, and 0.1 per
cent were employed on both timework and piecework. (Table
XVI.) In the manufacturing industries for which records were
secured, 91.1 per cent of the women were pieceworkers. That there
was such a large proportion of pieceworkers was due in part to the
predominance of the cigar industry, in which this system prevails.
The summary following shows • the proportions of timeworkers and
pieceworker's in the chief industries.
Per cent of women on—
Industry

Nuinber of
women

Timework Piecework

Manufacturing:
wo
2,427
85
02
838
516
224
„

i Commission on sales not considered.




37.4
1.6
96.5
82.3
i 100. 0
100.0
100.0

62. 6
98. 3
2.4
17.7

38

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

It will be seen from the foregoing that all women in stores and
laundries and most of those in the manufacture of food products were
timeworkers, and that nearly all in cigar factories and three-fifths
of those in wooden-box making were pieceworkers.
Table XVII in the appendix gives the number of women who were
on each basis of payment and their distribution at various ranges of
earnings. The median of the week’s earnings of timeworkers was
$12.80; that of pieceworkers was considerably more, $16.45. While
earnings under the two systems differ so noticeably, the essential
fact that underlies this situation is that in many cases the occupa­
tions paid according to the two methods differ materially in the degree
of skill required. This fact must be kept in mind throughout the
entire discussion of this subject.
The proportions of timeworkers and of pieceworkers whose earnings
fell in certain specified groups are as follows:
Under $9:
Timeworkers
Pieceworkers
Under $12:
Timeworkers
Pieceworkers
Under $18:
Timeworkers
Pieceworkers

Percent

14.
19.

1
2

42.
28.

9

72.
58.

1
4

6

A considerably larger proportion of pieceworkers than of timeworkers received as much as $18, but it is apparent also that a larger
proportion of pieceworkers than of timeworkers received less than
$9. This illustrates a condition frequently found: That earnings of
the group of pieceworkers are likely to cover a much wider range than
are those of the group of timeworkers.
Earnings and time worked.
Thus far the discussion has been concerned only with the amounts
of money paid to the women during the week surveyed and has dis­
regarded the number of days or hours worked in earning such amounts.
While the sum earned is of first importance, the hours of work re­
quired are a matter of great significance.
In any survey it is not possible in all cases to obtain records of
time worked, and frequently the figures available in the various
establishments are not in comparable form. Definite data on the
number of hours worked usually can be obtained for timeworkers,
but not always even for these. For example, in stores, and some­
times in other industries, attendance reports generally show for each
woman only the number of days on which she was present, regardless
of whether or not she remained throughout the day or half day. In
Florida, firms are less likely to keep records of hours worked than
they are in States where the legal regulation of hours requires that
such records be kept.
For pieceworkers it is especially difficult to get the data on time
worked, since the payment of this class of workers is based upon out­
put, and the plants do not always keep even a record of the days on
which they are present. The significance of this fact will be under­
stood when it is remembered that pieceworkers formed 58 per cent
of all the women for whom a report was made, 91.1 per cent of thewomen in the manufacturing industries and 98.3 per cent of those in
the cigar industry.



39

WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

Earnings and hours worked.—Time worked was reported in hours
for only 178 white women. (See Table XVIII.) Of these, 62.9 per
cent earned $8 and under $14, 22.5 per cent earned $14 or over, and
the median of the week’s earnings of the group was $11.
Women who worked less than 36 hours during the week selected
were either part-time workers or had considerable absence during the
period. It is not surprising that the median of their earnings was
lower than appeared in any other hour classification. Although the
group having the longest hours had the highest median, longer hours
do not always mean higher pay.24 Even in those instances in which
the median increased as the work hours lengthened the increase bore
no direct relation to the differences in time worked. The group of
women whose week was 54 hours had a median lower than that of
women who had worked 48 and under 54 hours, and women working
58 and under 60 hours had a lower median than had those who worked
44 and under 48 hours. Unpublished material shows that 11 women
had worked over 68 hours, and three of these received under $11.
As was to be expected, very few of the women whose time worked
was reported in hours were in the two important piecework indus­
tries—cigar manufacture and wooden-box making. (Table XX.)
The largest number in the group were the 103 women in laundries.
In this industry those reported as having worked over 55 and under
58 hours had a median of earnings considerably below that of the
women who had worked over 44 and under 54 hours. The medians
of the women in laundries during different hour periods were as
follows:
Hours worked

Total
Over 44 and under 54..... ......................... _____________ ____ _______________
Over 55 and under 58__._____

Median of
Number of the week’s
women
earnings
i 103

$11.65

28
21
16
22

9.45
13.25
12.00
18. 75

* Total includes 16 women in groups too small for the computation of medians.

Earnings and days worked.—Time worked was reported in days for
3,473 women and the median of the earnings of this group was
$14.65. (Table XVIII.) Of these women, 73.7 per cent had worked
on six days, and their median was $15.55, but nearly 20 per cent of
these 6-day workers received less than $10 and just over 13 per cent
of them earned $25 or more.
The largest group of women whose time worked was reported in
days were in cigar making. (Table XX.) The piecework system
prevailed in this industry, and it was accompanied by a high degree
of irregularity in work and in earnings. Exact data were not obtain­
able, since the records of establishments did not show whether a worker
actually remained for the whole of each day on which she was reported
present or for only a few hours of work. For this reason it is not sur­
prising that the progression in earnings with each additional day on
2* It is noticeable that most of the women in the group that had the longest hours were laundry workers,
though the 4 working respectively 70, 77)4, 83, and 84)4 hours, and earning $17.50 to $37.07, were in miscel­
laneous manufacturing.




40

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

which work Was done, although marked, was irregular. The medians
of the earnings of the cigar workers reported as present on different
numbers of days were as follows:
Days on which work was done

Total

Number
of women

Median of
the week's
earnings

1,932

$15. 55

43
21
24
68
330
200
1,227
16

2.40
5.15
7. 20
9. 50
12. 65
16, 25
17. 55
28.00

..................... ........ .........................

2_______________
3_________________
4_________________
5________
m.............. ........................................
6_________
7___
1 Total includes 3 women who worked, respectively, 2K, 3%, and

4H days, not shown separately.

In stores the situation differs somewhat from that in cigar manu­
facturing. When a woman was reported as having been present on
such-and-such days it is probable that she had remained throughout
the entire working period. Therefore the figures obtained may be
taken as fairly representative of the actual earnings of women in
stores who had worked for the stated number of days. The median
of the earnings of saleswomen in general mercantile establishments
who had worked on 6 days is contrasted with that of the group who
worked on less than 5 days in the following:
Number of days on which work was done

Number of Median of
the week ’s
women
reported
earnings

Total1_____

$18.10

Less than 5__
6_______

29
685

„_

1 Total includes 11 women who worked on 5 days and 11 women who worked on
separately.

5H

8. 75
18.40

days, not shown

The foregoing shows that the median for women working 6 days
was 52.4 per cent above that of the women working less than 5 days.
In 5-and-10-cent stores there was somewhat less difference in corre­
sponding medians, 47.6 per cent. The following shows earnings of
women working in 5-and-10-cent stores on 6 days and on less than 5 d ays.
Number of days on whieh work was done

Number
of women
reported

Median of
the week’s
earnings

513
6_____
1 Total includes 20 women who worked on 5 days and 15 women who worked on
separately.

Wi

$10. 05

35
443

5.40
10. 30

days, not shown

In laundries the 121 white women for whom time worked was
reported in days had a median of SI2.80. Eighteen of these women



WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

41

had worked on 5% days and the median of their earnings was $15.35;
98 had worked on 6 days and the median of their earnings was $12.75’.
In this industry there is no certainty as to whether a woman who had
been present on a certain number of days had worked throughout
each day.
Earnings of full-time workers.
The preceding section dealt with the actual time worked during
the week but took no account of how this corresponded with the
normal working schedule of the plant. Since the earnings of women
who had'worked the time scheduled by their firms as a regular week
are important as representing the amounts steady workers are likely
to receive, separate consideration is given here to the earnings of
full-time workers.
The tabulation of full-time workers (Table XIX) includes women
whose time was reported in hours and women whose time was reported
in days. It also includes women whose time worked was not re­
ported if their earnings were the same as their rates. In the case of
women whose time was reported in days, if an employee had worked
on the number of days constituting the full schedule of the plant,
she was counted as a full-time worker; it is probable that the time
she had worked was a very close approximation to the regular weekly
schedule of the plant. The table shows the earnings of 2,824 women
who, on the basis described, had worked the firm’s scheduled week,
tabulated according to industry. The median of the week’s earnings
of these women is $15.60—60 cents more than the median found for
all women regardless of the time they worked.
A comparison of the proportions of the full-time workers whose
earnings fell within certain ranges with the proportions of the total
number of women reported in these groups is presented in the follow­
ing summary. It is apparent that the proportion of all women for
whom earnings were reported appearing in the lower-earnings groups
is much larger than is the proportion of full-time workers in these
same classifications.
Proportion of—
Earnings received

Under $6..................... ...................................
Under $9_______ _______ _______
Under $12_____ __________ ______ ___
Under $15____________________ _____
Under $18_____ _________ ________
1 Total number, 4,425.
! Total number, 2,824.

All women
whose earn­ Full-time
ings were workers 2
reported 1
4.0
17.7
35.2
50.1
64.7

0.1
12.5
30.0
45.9
62.0

For definition, see paragraph next but one preceding.

In the industries having the largest numbers reported—cigar
factories, 5-and-10-cent stores, and saleswomen’s occupations in
general mercantile establishments—the proportions of full-time
workers earning given amounts were similar to those of all workers.
In only one instance was the difference as high as 5 points; this was in
5-and-10-cent stores in the group receiving less than $9.




42

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Up to this point the earnings of full-time workers—as far as it could
be approximately ascertained whether or not the women reported
worked the full schedule—have been compared with the earnings of all
women for whom pay-roll records were secured. Included in this
latter group were the women whose time worked was not obtainable,
and undoubtedly some of these must have been full-time workers.
Therefore, a comparison of the earnings of full-time workers with the
earnings of women for whom time worked was reported will give a
more accurate basis for the consideration of the proportions of full­
time workers in different industries and also for a comparison of the
medians of the earnings in these industries. This may be made
from the table following.
Table 5.—Median of the earnings of white women who worked the firmfs scheduled

week 1 compared to that of all women for whom time worked was reported, by
industry
Women who worked the
firm’s scheduled week 1

Industry
Number

All industries - - Manufacturing:
Cigars *............ ........ ........ .......................
Food—
Bread and bakery products............
Other food products.........................
Miscellaneous................................ -........
General mercantile:
Sales_______________ ________ _____
Workroom________________________
5-and-10-cent stores-------- ------ --------------Laundries-------------------------------------------

Median earnings of—

Per cent by
which median earn­
ings of full­
Per cent
time work­
that full­
All workers ers exceeded
time work­
ers consti­ Full-time for whom those of all
time worked women for
tuted of
whom time
women for workers 1
was
reported worked was
whom time
reported *
worked was
reported 1
77.3

$15. 60

s $14. 30

9.1

1,416

73.2

17. 05

15. 50

10.0

35
32
18

92.1
72.7
35.3

11. 50
12. 00
10. 55

11.30
11.00
11.15

1.8
9.1
«5.4

685
63
443
130

93.1
80.8
86.4
58.0

18. 40
18. 60
10. 30
13. 25

18.10
18.45
10. 05
12.40

1.7
.8
2.5
6.9

2 2,824

1 Included as full-time workers are women who worked the hours per week scheduled by the firm, those
who worked on the number of days scheduled, and those whose rates and earnings were identical though
time worked was not reported. In the case of the important piece-work industry, cigar making, the figures
are liable to considerable inaccuracy, since women who were present on a certain number of days wrere less
likely than in most of the other industries to have remained throughout the day.
2 Total includes 2 women in food manufacturing, not shown separately because number too small for the
computation of a median.
2 Total includes also 30 women in wooden-box making (median, $9.75), none of whom worked full time.
4 In this case the median of full-time workers was below that of all women.

The proportion of women who worked full time was large—77.3 per
cent of all whose time worked was reported-—and their median was
only a little over 9 per cent above that of all reporting on time. The
greatest difference in medians was in the cigar industry, where nearly
three-fourths of the women were full-time workers with a median 10
per cent above that of all women with time reported. Of the indus­
tries with considerable numbers the next greatest difference in medians
was in laundries, where less than three-fifths of the women worked
full time and their median was 6.9 per cent above that of all women
whose time worked was reported. Though in cigar factories and in
laundries just over one-fourth of the women lost time, 16.5 per cent
of the women in laundries, in contrast to less than 1 per cent of those
in cigar factories, worked overtime.




WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

43

Of the other important industries, general mercantile establish­
ments and 5-and-10-cent stores show the largest proportions of
full-time workers, and, as would be expected, in each case these had
median earnings of full-time workers only a little above those of all
the women in the same industry whose time worked was reported.
Earnings and hours of full-time workers.
The data secured made it possible to give exact or approximate
hour schedules for 2,332 women—timeworkers and pieceworkers—
considered as having worked the firm’s scheduled week. The medians
of the week’s earnings for each of the different industries are shown by
hour groupings in Table XXI. Where the daily hours scheduled by a
firm were known, a woman whose days worked were reported wras
counted as having worked full time on each day she was present,
although it could not be ascertained from the record whether she
had alwrays remained the full day.
The group of women who had worked scheduled horns of 48 and
under 50 had the highest median of all, $21.50. The group of women
who had worked the scheduled week of over 54 and under 58 hours
was the largest in number, and their median ($10.55) was less than
half the median shown for the 48-and-under-50-hour group.
Laundry work is the only industry in which longer horns were com­
bined with higher earnings. In general mercantile, the industry
having the highest median for women working the scheduled week of
the establishments, the largest group had worked a schedule of over
50 and under 54 hours, yet the median of the earnings of the sales­
women in general mercantile was one-fourth below the median of
the group with hours of 48 and under 50; in 5-and-10-cent stores,
which had the lowest median of any industry for the women whose
working hours corresponded with the schedules of their firms; the
largest number of women had worked a schedule of over 54 and under
58 hours. The median of the earnings of this group ($10.20) is oneseventh less than the median of the women in this industry who had
worked a 50-hour schedule.
Earnings and rates.
The actual amounts that the women receive during a week are not
always the same as the weekly rates that the employer contracts in
advance to pay. Loss of time due to plant or personal reasons causes
a woman’s earnings to fall below the rate, and on the other hand over­
time may be responsible for earnings in excess of the rate. From the
foregoing discussion of earnings may be learned the amount the
worker has to meet her week’s expenses, but the standard of payments
prevailing in an industry must be learned from the rates of pay.
Obviously it is not possible to obtain weekly rates for pieceworkers,
since the earnings of this group depend upon output. Of the women
reported in Florida, pieceworkers constituted 58 per cent, most of
them in the chief manufacturing industry, cigar making. For 1,755
timeworkers whose rates were ascertained, Table XXII in the appen­
dix gives the wreekly rate and the week’s earnings, by industry, and
Table 6, presented next, enables the making of a comparison of the
different industries as to the variation between the rates and the actual
earnings of the women they employ.
115374°—30------ 4




44

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Table 6.—Median of the weekly rates and of the week’s earnings., by industry—
White women

Industry

All industries............................................
M annfactnring;
Boxes, wooden________________
FoodBread and bakery products________ _
Other food products..... .............
Miscellaneous................ ..............
General mercantile:
Sales... _______ ___
Workroom
5-arid-lO-cent stores_____ __
Laundries_________ _

Number of Median of Median of
the weekly the week’s
women
reported
rates
earnings

Per cent
by which
median
earnings
exceeded
(+) or fell
below (—)
median
rate

i 1,755

$12.90

$12.65

68

11.50

10.65

-7.4

38
44
60

10.00
12.00
10.50

11.30
11.00
10.00

-HU. 5
-8.3
-4.8

747
78
516
204

17. 60
18.50
10. 30
12.50

18.15
18.45
10.05 .
12. 05

+3.1
-.3
-2.4
-3.6

-1.9

1 Total includes 10 women in cigars, not shown separately because number too small for the computation
of a median.

The median of the earnings of all women reported fell 1.9 per cent
below the median of the rates. In most industries the loss of time
caused discrepancies much greater than this. The differences were
greatest in certain food products and in wooden-box making, earnings
falling below rates by 8.3 and 7.4 per cent, respectively. In each of
these there was a large proportion of lost time and no offsetting
overtime. In only two groups, a few women in bakeries and 747’
saleswomen in general mercantile establishments, did the median of
the earnings exceed the median of the rates, the differences being 11.5
and 3.1 per cent, respectively. In the case of bakeries the explana­
tion lies in an attendance bonus received by most of the women
included; in that of stores, it lies in the sales commission that usually
is given in this industry, which also had a large measure of full time
worked. Because the saleswomen formed such a large proportion of
those reported, they so affected the total figure as to make it unrep­
resentative of most of the industries.
Rates and scheduled hours.
It has been shown that for the comparatively few women whose
time worked was reported in hours there was no consistent rise in
earnings corresponding to additional hours of work; and that this
was also true for the women—timeworkers and pieceworkers—whose
records showed attendance on the days or hours required. A dis­
cussion of rates in connection with scheduled hours should reveal any
direct relation between the rate of pay offered and the number of
hours of work as set by the management.
Table XXIII in the appendix gives the weekly rate and the sched­
uled weekly hours of 1,737 women. In the following summary of this
table are shown the medians of the women's rates according to hours
required.




45

WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

Scheduled hours

Total1

50

____ _____ _____________ ____________-____ _____

_ ______________

52

________

54

_______________________

________ _______ _____________-

__________________ ______..,_____________________ ____________

Number of Median of
women re­ the weekly
ported
rates
1,737

$12.95

31
259
52
348
79
188
164
28
492
83

11. 70
18.65
11.85
15.30
17.25
16.00
10. 75
10. 50
10. 40
12. 75

1 Total includes 13 women with scheduled hours of 58 and under CO, not shown separately because num­
ber too small for the computation of a median.

The foregoing emphasizes the fact that long hour schedules are no
more likely to mean high standards in rates of pay than are long
hours worked to mean increases in earnings. Women in plants hav­
ing a schedule of 48 and under 50 hours had the highest rate, and
those with 52 hours were next. For the groups having a schedule
of more than 52 hours the median of the weekly rate fell as the hours
lengthened until the group in the 55-and-under-58-hour classifica­
tion was reached, with the lowest median of all—44.2 per cent below
that of the women whose schedule was 48 and under 50 hours.
General mercantile establishments, 5-and-10-cent stores, and
laundries were the only industries in which the numbers of women in
the different hour schedules made the computation of a median
significant. (Table XXIV.) Saleswomen in general mercantile es­
tablishments had median rates for the scheduled hours specified as
follows:
Scheduled hours

Number of Median of
women re­ the weekly
ported
rates
747

$17. 60

198
299
63
120
52

18.95
15. 30
17. 30
18. 65
14.65

1 Total includes 15 women in other hour groups, not shown separately because numbers too small for
the computation of medians.

The saleswomen having the shortest hour schedules had the highest
median rate and, though the regression was not continuous, those
having the longest schedule had the lowest median rate.
For women working the different hour schedules in 5-and-10-cent
stores the following median rates are shown:




Scheduled hours

Number of Median of
the weekly
women
reported
rates
516

$10. 30

49
31
16
420

11.95
9.60
10.35
10. 25

46

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

,
industry the highest median was that of the women with
the shortest hour schedule. Hours for this group exceeded the
shortest hour schedule for saleswomen in general mercantile estab­
lishments, but the rate was considerably lower.
No regular progression in rate corresponding to increased-hour
scheduies was apparent in laundries, which differed from the industries
already discussed m having the highest median rate in a group with
one of the longest hour schedules. Medians for women in laundries
according to hour schedules, were as follows:
Scheduled hours

Number of Median of
the weekly
women
reported
rates

Total 1.

204

$12. 50

20

Over 44 and under 48.
Over 52 and under 54
54________________
Over 55 and under 58.
60 and over________

11.90
12.15

34
56
15
42

12.10

13. 85
12.75

1 Total includes 37 women in other hour groups, not shown separately because numbers too small for the
computation of medians.

Earnings and experience.
Another question of importance in connection with the employment
oi women is that of whether women workers remain a considerable
length of time in their jobs and whether their earnings increase with
experience to such an extent as to warrant their continuance with the
work. 1 able XXV in the appendix shows the medians of the week’s
earnings of 1,786 women according to experience in the industry
More than one-fifth of the women (21.3 per cent) had been in the
trade for fess than a year. However, a considerable degree of stability
is shown in the fact that 28.9 per cent of the total had been in the
trade 5 years or longer, including 7.6 per cent who had worked for 10
but less than 15 years and 6.8 per cent who had remained for 15 years
or more,
During the first five years the successive increases in the medians
niustiate the general situation—that the growth was continuous
alchough not regular. These increases were as follows:
From preceding period to—
1 and under 2 years___
2 and under 3 years___
3 and under 4 years___
4 and under 5 jrears___

Per cent increase
in median

------- 17. 8
---------- 10. 3
--------- 11. 5

---------

2.3

Ap compared with the median of the earnings of women who had
worked less than one year, the increase for those wdio had worked for
longer periods was as follows:
1 and under 2 years

Per cent increase
in median

_ _
47 g
4 and under 5 years______________________________________~~ 43] 4
5 and under 10 years54/ 2
10 and under 15 yearsIIIIIIIIIII ” 72’ 9

This shows that when other groups are compared with women
having less than one year’s experience there was quite a considerable
increase just after the first year, nearly three times as great an increase




WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDIRES

47

in the 4-and-under-5-year period, and worth-while increase in the
groups above that.
It is probable that in the period covering less than a year’s experience
many inexperienced and unstable workers are included, so the grouping
1 and under 2 years may be considered a fairer gauge for comparison.
The increases from this period were as follows:
Per cent increase
in median

4 and under 5 years25. 8
5 and under 10 years'80. 9
10 and under 15 years46. 8

The 4-and-under-5-year median may be taken to represent the
earnings of those who have had considerable experience, and increases
based upon this as a standard are as follows:
Per cent increase
in median

5 and under 10 years 4. 1
10 and under 15 years 16. 7

The difference between the medians with experience of 5 and under
10 years and of 10 and under 15 years is an increase of 12.1 per cent
with the longer service. Women who reported experience of 15 years
or more had a median 5 cents below that of the 10-and-under-15-year
group.
On the whole, it appears that the group having 10 and under 15
years’ experience were in line for the best earnings, although this did
not necessarily mean a continuous increase for every year; for the
women remaining beyond 15 years conditions were slightly less
favorable.
While this was the general situation, there were differences in the
various industry groups. For women in cigar factories, the manufac­
turing industry having not only the largest nvimber of women reported
but the highest median of earnings, the medians rose continuously but
not regularly for the groups given, up to 10 years of experience, after
which they fell. In wooden-box making the median for women who
had worked 3 and under 4 years was below that of those with only 1
and under 2 years’ experience, but after 4 years the medians rose, the
highest being that of women who had been in the trade 15 years or
longer. The earnings of saleswomen in general mercantile establish­
ments fluctuated without regard to experience in the groups who had
worked less than 10 years, but for the women who had worked 10
and under 15 years and 15 years and over the medians rose consider­
ably—22.8 and 30.7 per cent, respectively—above the median of the
5-and-under-l0-year group. In 5-and-10-cent stores too few women
had remained as long as 10 years to make the computation of a median
significant, but prior to that, except for the slight drop in the 4-andundcr-5-year group, the earnings rose for each successive period and
the women in the 5-and-under-l0-year group had the highest median.
YEAR’S EARNINGS OF WHITE WOMEN

Up to this point the discussion has been confined to the earnings
of only one week, and the period selected must have contained no
holidays and no shutdowns or other unusual circumstances; in other
words, it must have been one in which there was no irregular amount
of lost time or of overtime. Few workers are likely to have a full




48

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

succession of such normal weeks throughout the year. While the
woman in industry must meet her expenses for the full 52 weeks, her
earnings often suffer from some loss of time, whether due to plant or to
personal reasons. It is necessary, therefore, to supplement data on
week’s earnings with some material in regard to the full year’s earnings.
Table XXVI in the appendix gives such information for 139 white
women in various lines of employment, including a few in hotels and
restaurants, an industry for which week’s earnings are discussed in a
section of the report separate from the-rest. The fact that year’s
earnings could be obtained for such a small proportion of those for
whom week’s earnings were ascertained—only 3.1 per cent, when
effort was made to get 10 per cent—is due largely to the seasonal
character of Florida industries and the incompleteness of records in
many of the plants.
The women whose year’s earnings were taken were the steady
workers who had been with the plant at least a year and who had
worked 44 weeks or longer. For the 139 women reported the median
was $781. About one-fourth of these women had received less than
$600; about the same proportion $1,000 or more. In the three
industries in which a sufficient number were reported to make possible
the computation of a median, year’s earnings were as follows:
Industry

Cigars__ _________ ____
General mercantile (sales)......... .........................
5-and-10-cent stores..... ........ ...................................

Number
of women
reported
23
57 ;
31

Median of
the year’s
earnings

576

In the food industries nearly all the women reported had received
less than $650; year’s earnings as low as this were found for only 3 of
the 10 women in box factories and 3 of the 23 in cigar making for
whom data on year’s earnings were reported. In general mercantile
establishments, with the exception of one woman who had received
between $600 and $650, all those reported had been paid $700 or more,
while in 5-and-10-cent stores only 5 of the 31 women had received as
much as $700. More than three-fifths of those for whom records were
secured in the 5-and-10-cent stores earned less than $600.
ADEQUACY OF EARNINGS

Measurement of the adequacy of earnings is difficult, since it
involves not only an estimate of the necessary items of expenditure
in a budget but a knowledge of other variant factors, such as fluctu­
ations in costs. However, some indication of what experts consider
an adequate wage may be obtained from certain estimates of mini­
mum-wage commissions and various budget studies, and the amounts
may be compared with the median of the week’s earnings, $15, and
the median of the year’s earnings, $781, of the white women in Florida.
It must be remembered that one-half of the women studied had to
subsist on amounts below the median figure, while the figure given in
budget studies ordinarily represents the minimum for wholesome and
decent living. Official figures from the District of Columbia will serve
as a basis for comparison.
A cost-of-living study made in 1918 by the District of Columbia
Minimum Wage Board found $16 the minimum for an adequate



WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

49

budget. If this be adjusted for 1926 by the cost-of-living index
prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States
Department of Labor from its comprehensive studies of staple com­
modities in all parts of the country, the figure will be found to be
$16.10.* This would give a minimum of $837.20 for 52 weeks.
26
While the median of $15 found in Florida is well below the $16.10
referred to, it is probable that the difference is not unlike that in the
cost of living. In December, 1928, according to figures published by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, meat, butter, and eggs were cheaper
in Jacksonville than in Washington, but the important staples of
milk, bread, cereals, potatoes, sugar, coffee, and even bananas were
dearer in the Florida city.25 In Florida fresh vegetables are more
easily available at low cost at all seasons, rents are not relatively
high, and the expenditures for fuel are certainly less than in Wash­
ington.
Although it is true that a number of the women in Florida industries
received $15 or more, one-half of those for whom earnings were
reported in this survey received less than $15, and more than onethird under $12 a week, and about, one-fourth of those reported
received less than $600 during the year. From this it is obvious that
many women are subsisting on less than what is recognized in recent
available studies as a reasonable American standard of health and
decency.
WAGES OF NEGRO WOMEN

Information on week’s earnings was obtained for 1,266 negro women.
Of these, 56.3 per cent worked in laundries, 12.2 per cent in cigar
factories, and the remainder, excepting 1 woman, in various food in­
dustries. The table next presented shows that the earnings of these
women ranged from less than $1 to $25 and under $30, but 41 per
cent received less than $6 and only 3.2 per cent received $15 or above.
The chart on page 50 gives a graphic presentation.
That the earnings of negro women in Florida industries are ex­
tremely low is apparent. The proportions of women receiving under
$6 were not so great in laundries and in cigar factories as in all indus­
tries combined, being 18.5 per cent in laundries and 32.3 per cent in
cigar factories. Of the two branches of food manufacturing in which
some negro women were found, no woman in the miscellaneous food
group earned as much as $8 and all but one in the fish canneries re­
ceived less than $14. In cigar plants 6 women earned $16 or more,
and in laundries 2 earned as much as $24 and 5 earned $20 and un­
der $22.
The medians of the various industries as shown in Table 7 are as
follows:
All industries $6. 65
Laundries 7. 85
Cigar factories 7. 10
Fish canneries 6. 90
Other food establishments

3. 60

K TJ. S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. The Development of Minimum-Wage Laws in the
United States, 1912 to 1927. Bui. 61, 1928, p. 144.
26 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, February 1929, pp. 153 and 160.




50

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Table 7.—Week’s earnings, by industry—Negro women
Number of women earning eac]
specified amount in —
The manufacture of—
Week’s earnings
All
indus­
tries

Total_______ _ __________
Median earnings.............. .

Food
Cigars

Laun­
dries

Fish,
canned

Other
food
products

1 1, 208
$6. 05

58
$6.90

339
$3.60

713
$7.85

45
77
128
104
138
179
157

Under $1......................... .
$1 and under S2_________ _
$2 and under $3_______
$3 and under $4____________
$4 and under $5 ________________
$5 and under $6___ ____
...
$6 and under $7___..............
$7 and under $8 ... .. __________
$8 and under $9 ...............
$9 and under $10_____________
$10 and under $11_________ .
$11 and under $12._ ____ ____
$12 and under $13....... . _.
$13 and under $14.______ .
$14 and under $15__ ... _________
$15 and under $10___
$16 and under $17___ ______ _____
$17 and under $18_________
$18 and under $19..................................
$19 and under $20____ _________
$20 and under $21_______
$21 and under $22____________
$24 and under $25______ _________ _
$25 and under $30_________

155
$7. 10
4
8
9
12
17
25
31

11
2
3
12
7

93
70
40
17
3

15
20
78
125

78
80
30
40
4
5
5
5
11
8
2
3
l
1

1

1 Total includes 1 woman in a clothing factory, not shown separately. She received $6.

WEEK’S EARNINGS OF 1,266 NEGRO WOMEN1
EARNINGS

Per

of

ce.nr

VYo

UNDER $5

30. I

$5,

UNDER $10

13.2

$15, UNDER $20

10

MM.

53.5

$10, UNDER $15

m&M

2.7

$20 AND OVER

.6

'Excludes hotels and restaurants




51

WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

Earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers.
The method of payment was reported for 1,164 negroes, of whom
56.1 per cent were on timework, 43 per cent on piecework, and the
remaining few on a combination of the two systems. The median
of the week’s earnings of the timeworkers is $7.80; that for the piece­
workers, $4.40. The proportions of timeworkers and of pieceworkers
in certain earnings groups given in the summary following show that
pieceworkers more than timeworkers received the very low amounts.
Under $6:
Timeworkers 18.
Pieceworkers•_
Under $9:
Timeworkers 05.
Pieceworkers 91.

Cor cent

7
70. 5
8
8

The highest earnings of timeworkers—$26.05 and $24.15—were
reported for two women who worked for very long hours in a laundry.
The highest earnings received by pieceworkers were between $19 and
$20, and the largest amount paid to a pieceworker in the laundry
industry was between $12 and $13. While a few of the women paid
according to output might be able to earn fairly high amounts, most
of them received very little, and even the best paid had earnings
considerably less than those of the highest-paid timeworkers. Both
among all women whose basis of payment was reported and among
those in laundry work—the industry in which well over one-half of
those reported were engaged—timeworkers had the more advan­
tageous showing as to earnings. Any discussion of timeworkers and
pieceworkers must never lose sight of the fact that women employed
under these different systems frequently were engaged in processes
requiring entirely different degrees of skill.
Earnings and time worked.
Week’s earnings in relation to time worked were reported for
679 negroes, the median being $7.95. Of the 416 women whose
time was reported in days, earnings ranged from $1 to $20, and the
median was found to be $7.65. For the 263 having time reported by
hours the range was from $1 to $30, and the. median was $9.20.
Table 8 gives the number and the median of the earnings of women
according to the hours or days worked during the week for which
pay-roll records were secured.
Table 8.—Median of the week’s earnings, by time worked—Negro women
A. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS
REPORTED IN HOURS
Number
of
women
reported

Median
of t he
week’s
earnings

Total. .............. .............

263
25

3. 60
6. 70
9. 55
8.25
8.50
10. 40
10.55
7.80

Days on which work was
done

$9. 20

Under 30. -____ __________
30 and under 36.....................

B. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS
REPORTED IN DAYS

Over 44 and under 48
Over 48 and under 54..........
54 and under 58___ _____
58 and under 60
60 and over____ _________ _




11
21
13
17
17
57
102

Number
of
women
reported
416

4_
5
5 H--.
6..............

Median
of the
week’s
earnings
$7. 65

24
22
308

8. 70
7.90

52

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

From the foregoing table it will be seen that the groups having
the highest medians of earnings had worked 58 and under 60 or 54
and under 58 hours. Those who had worked 60 hours and over
constituted the largest group (nearly 40 per cent) of the women having
time reported by hours, but the median of their week’s earnings fell
26.1 per cent below that of the hour group next preceding, and it is
found to be lower than the median of any other group of women
who had worked as long as 36 hours. The 102 women in this longhour group were in laundries, and the woman who received the
highest earnings—$25 and under $30—had worked the longest
hours, 74%. While about one-fourth of this group earned more than
$18—an amount higher than was reported for any woman working
shorter hours in laundries—one-lialf of them earned less than 17.80.
The median of earnings for all negro women whose time worked was
reported in hours is $9.20.
Of the women whose time worked was reported in days, nearly
three-fourths had worked on 6 days; over one-fourth of this group
earned less than $7 and the median of their earnings is $7.90, less
than the amount shown for the 22 women who had worked on 5K
days. Those who had worked on 5% or 6 days may have been full­
time workers; over 12 per cent of them earned more than $12, an
amount higher than was received by any woman in the shorter periods
reported.
On the whole, it may be stated confidently that the increase in
earnings bore no exact relation to the increase in time actually
worked. Of those who had worked the longest hours a few had
earnings considerably above those of other women, but many had
very low earnings, and the medians of earnings of the longest-hour
group were below those of five groups with shorter hours.
Earnings of full-time workers.
There were 357 negro women who had worked the firm’s scheduled
week—52.6 per cent of all women for whom time worked was reported.
The earnings of these women ranged from $5 to $20; 82.4 per cent
received less than $10 and only 2 per cent as much as $15. The
median of the earnings of these full-time workers is $7.60, an amount
4.4 per cent below the median of the earnings of all negro women for
whom time worked was reported. Most of the full-time workers
(345) were in the laundry industry, and for these the median is found
to be $7.55, a figure falling 6.2 per cent below the median of all the
laundry workers whose time worked was reported.
Earnings and hours of full-time workers.
The scheduled hours were reported for 354 full-time workers, and
only 6 of this number earned as much as $15. Three of these had a
schedule of 54 hours, 1 a schedule of 55 and under 58 hours, and 2 a
schedule of 60 and under 62 hours. The summary following gives the
medians of the week’s earnings of the women who had worked the
various hour schedules reported as far as could be ascertained




53

WAGES IN FACTORIES, STORES, AND LAUNDRIES

Number of Median of
women the earnings

Scheduled hours

354!

3
29
22
75
34
25
165

52_________________________________ _________________ _________________
54_____________________________________ _________ ______________ ______

$7.60
<0
5.60
12.25
9.60
8.15
6.55
7.20

i Not computed, owing to the small number involved.

Full-time workers having schedules of 52 and under 54 hours had
the highest median, and for each group thereafter, except for a slight
increase in the 60-and-under-62-hour group, the medians of the week’s
earnings decreased as the hour schedules lengthened.
Earnings and rates.
Data on both earnings and rates were secured for 594 negro women,
all but 1 of whom were in laundries. The median of the weekly
rates of these women is the same as the median of their earnings,
$7.70. Their distribution was as follows:
Number of women
for whom amount
specified was—

Per cent of women
for whom amount
specified was—

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

W eekly
rate

594

594

100. 0

100.0

451
139
4

41
417
130
6

75.9
23.4
.7

6.9
70.2
2L9
1.0

Amount
*

Week's
earnings

The actual earnings of 70.2'per cent of the women included in this
summary were $5 and under $10, and for slightly more than threefourths of all the 594 reported it was not possible to earn more than
this, except by overtime. The earnings of 6.9 percent fell below $5,
but none of the women had a rate so low.
Rates and scheduled hours.
It has been shown that the increase in actual earnings bore no direct
relation to the increase in time actually worked, and that in the case
of full-time workers, when the schedules wrere as long as 54 hours,
earnings generally decreased as the hour schedule lengthened. The
rates of pay offered for the completion of the full hour schedule fixed
by the firm indicate the standards set by an industry for the payment
of its workers. Of 594 women for whom such information was reported,
all but 1 being in the laundry industry, only 4 had rates as high as
$15; 3; of these had a 54-hour and 1 had a 60-hour schedule: The
summary following shows the median rates of the women with various
hour schedules.




54

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Scheduled hours

Median of
Number of the weekly
women
rates
594

52________________ ______________________
54________________________________________ ____
56
58
60.__________

$7.70

18
33
19
24
100
11
55
25
33
276

10. 25
5. 60
30. 90
8.15
7. 95
8. 30
6. 80
7. 85
6. 55
7.80

It is apparent that the rate of pay bore little, if any, relation to the
hours scheduled. Women on very different schedules had medians
below that of all the negro women with these data reported, and the
highest medians were for the women with schedules of 52 and of 44
and under 48 hours.
Earnings and experience.
The summary following shows the earnings of 113 negro women for
whom the length of experience could be ascertained.
Time in the trade

Median of
Number of the week’s
women
earnings

Total_____________

113

$7.15

Under 6 months.................
6 months and under 1 year.
1 and under 2 years______
2 and under 3 years______
3 and under 4 years..........
4 and under 5 years______
6 years and over...........

22

5. 35
7. 40
7.00
7. 60
7.15

22

28

12

17

2

2 10

0)

9. 30

1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.
.
2 Of these women, 1 who had been in the trade 14 years hkd earnings of $9.06; 1, 20 years, had earnings
of $9.78; and 1, 25 years, had earnings of $8.91.

While there were fluctuations in the medians of the week’s earnings
with the differences in experience, there was nothing to show that earn­
ings advanced in proportion to the time spent in the trade. Women
who had remained five years or over had the highest median of earn­
ings ($9.30), but two of the three with 14 or more years of experience
earned less than this amount, the one who had worked longest (25
years) earning the least of the three.
Year’s earnings.
Year’s earnings were ascertained for only seven negro women, all
of whom were in hotels or restaurants. With neither room nor meals
provided, the amounts received by these women during the year
ranged from $300 to $600.




HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

The hours and the earnings of women working in hotels and restau­
rants are reported separately from those of women in other industries
because in many respects they are not comparable. Workers in hotels
and restaurants r«nister directly to the daily needs of the public, and
their hours and their pay reliect this special service. Unlike stores
and factories, hours in a hotel or restaurant usually are not standard­
ized; generally the worker must be on duty for each meal, with free
time in between, though she may work on only the morning or the eve­
ning shift; but, however the work is arranged, the service is likely to
extend over a very long day. Even with a day of 8 working hours,
the hotel or restaurant employee may go to work at 6 a. m. and stay
until 8 p. m., with time off in the morning and afternoon. Further­
more, her days frequently are of different duration with one week,
some being long, others short, and their number may vary from 514 to 7.
Earnings are subject to almost as many different systems as are
hours. In addition to her cash earnings, a hotel worker may be given
lodging and three meals a day, or three meals and no lodging, or two
meals, or one, or neither meals nor lodging. Regular earnings—
particularly of waitresses and less frequently of maids—often" are
supplemented by tips, which may or may not be an important item in
the weekly budget. From these few illustrations it will be seen that
hours and earnings in hotels and restaurants differ in so many respects
from those in other industries that the daily or weekly hours or the
cash wages can not be compared.
It would be almost equally unsound to make a comparison of hotel
and restaurant workers in Florida and those in other States, because
of the large number of seasonal establishments in Florida. The present
study could not, of course, include all the hotels and restaurants in
Florida, but in the sample taken three-fifths (60.3 per cent) of the
workers were in seasonal or resort establishments. As the more
important places were included and records were taken in the larger
hotels and restaurants—both the seasonal and the year-round types—
the data secured probably present a fair picture of the women employed
in hotels and restaurants in Florida. The majority of the women
workers in the seasonal hotels had been brought down from the North,
a fact that accounts for the small proportion of negro women employed
in the seasonal establishments, where only 2 in 11 women were negroes,
in contrast to the establishments open the year around, in which there
were more negroes than white women.
When occupational divisions are considered, the difference in the
composition of the work forces in the two groups was most noticeable
in the case of the maids. In the seasonal group well over three-fifths
(63.6 per cent) of those reporting were white, while in the year-round
establishments the proportion was only 20.3 per cent. The summary
following gives by occupation the relative proportion of white and
negro women in the two hotel and restaurant groups.




55

56

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Number of women
reported
Occupation

Seasonal establish­
ments

YearSeasonal round
establish­ establish­ Per cent
white
ments
ments

All occupations__________ _______
Waitress; counter girl_____
Maid ___________________________ ___
Kitchen worker______ ___ ____
_
Laundry worker___
_______ _
Elevator girl_________________________

851
510
242
70
27

561
161
281
66
23
24
6

2

82.1
08.0
63.6
42.9
55.6

Year-round estab­
lishments

Per ceut Per cent
white
negro
17.9
2.0
36.4
57.1
44.4
%
100.0

44.0
97.5
20.3
22.7
39.1
37.5

Per cent
negro
56.0
2.5
79.7
77.3
CO. 9
62.5
100.0

HOURS

In many cases the employees in hotels and restaurants have hours
that vary from day to day. This being true, the prevalence of long
or of short hours is shown most easily by the use of “employee-days,”
obtained by multiplying each schedule of daily hours by the number
of women working such a schedule in the week for which data were
obtained.
For both races the variety of daily hours in the establishments
covered was considerable. (See Table XXVII.) They ranged from
under 5 to 12 and over, the latter including an establishment with 3
white women working 13 hours and another with 2 white women
working 14 hours on each of the 7 days.27 The difference in the pro­
portions of white and negro women having scheduled hours of 8 and
less was not great; a little more than three-fourths of the employeedays of white women and a little less than three-fourths of those
reported for negro women fell in this group. There is a greater dif­
ference between the two races when the very short day is considered,
due to the fact that the shortest days were those of waitresses and
counter girls, almost all of whom were white. Three-eighths (37 per
cent) of the employee-days of the white women and less than onetenth (9.1 per cent) of those of the negro were included in the group
of under 6 hours. At the other end of the scale the proportions of
employee-days with hours of 10 and over were about the same—13.4
and 14.1 per cent, respectively—for white and for negro women.
The figures follow.
Occupation

Number of
women
reported
White

Proportion of employee-days of—
Number of
employee-days

Negro White

Under 6 hours

10 hours and
over

Waitress; counter girl...... ....................
Maid
_____ _ _______ ___
Kitchen worker___
Laundry worker._______________
Elevator girl. _______
Night cleaner __ ___
«-—...........

Negro

White

Negro

921

446

6,368

3,095

37.0

9.1

13.4

14.1

649
197
42
24
9

14
300
83
26
15
8

4,479
1,378
292
156
63

98
2,097
571
168
105
56

51.4
4.1

81.6
8.7
2.1

16.2
2.5
43.8

4.7
50.8

7.6

11.1

33.3
25.0

White

Negro

.....................................

Hours varied with the occupation. None of the employee-days
reported for the group of laundry workers, both white and negro,
were so short as 6 nor so long as 10 hours. Long days were most
common among the kitchen workers.
27 In both these cases the women were reported as eating their meals while on duty, but in the second
case it was said that they might, “if desired,” take one-half hour for each meal, so they have been tabulated
as working 12}4 hours.




57

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

Hours varied also according to whether the establishment was
open the year round or only for the season.
Table 9.—Employee-days of 8 hours or less and of 10 hours or more, by occupation

and type of establishment•—Hotels and restaurants
WHITE WOMEN
Per cent of employee-days of—
Number of
women
reporting

Number of
employee-days

Occupation
Sea- ■ Yearsonal round
hotels hotels
All occupations_________
Waitress; counter girl _ _
Maid______
Kitchen worker____
Laundry worker. _. _ _
Elevator girl______

Sea­
sonal
hotels

Yearround
hotels

8 hours and
under
Sea­
sonal
hotels

10 hours and
over

Yearround
hotels

Sea­
sonal
hotels

Yearround
hotels

692

229

4,818

1, 550

81.1

58.4

12.8

15.3

500
148
29
15

149
49
13
9
9

3,485
1,036
203
94

994
342
89
62
63

80.8
88.6
39.9
100.0

48.6
88.0
19.1
100.0
66.7

14.3
2.7
43.3

18.4
2.0
44.9

17.3

12.5

2.3
55.4

5.6
46.4

NEGRO WOMEN
All occupations _____
Waitress; counter girl_____
Maid............ ...... _
Kitchen worker____
Laundry worker____
Elevator girL ______
Night cleaner_________

151

295

1,055

2,040

75.5

72.5

10
87
40
12

4
213
43
14
15
6

70
607
280
84

28
1,490
291
84
105
42

100.0
94.7
23.9
100.0

100.0
79.3
29.9
100.0
53.3
100.0

2

14

100.0

33.3

The difference in the length of the workday in the seasonal and the
year-round establishments was especially marked in the case of white
waitresses and in that of negro maids. In the seasonal group fourfifths (80.8 per cent) of the employee-days of the white waitresses and
counter girls were of 8 hours and under and 14.3 per cent were of
10 h!'l\r? °r ,more> while in the year-round establishments less than
one-half of the days were of 8 hours or less and 18.4 per cent were at
least 10 hours long. The employee-days of negro maids in the seasonal
establishments were 94.7 per cent in the shorter group and 2.3 per
cent in the longer, while in the year-round hotels and restaurants
i9.3 per cent of the days were in the shorter group and 5.6 per cent
m the longer.
In some of the establishments a regular time was allowed for meals,
while in others meals wore eaten whenever freedom from work per­
mitted, and in still others time was allowed for some meals but not for
all. The arrangements were influenced by occupation—eating on
duty being almost wholly confined to waitresses, counter girls, and
kitchen help and by whether or not the employee lived at her place
of work.
In most cases the working hours were broken by periods off duty,
and when no time was taken for meals these, without doubt, were used
as meal periods. About 60 per cent of the 783 white women with a
uniform schedule-—that is, the same hours each day—had their work­
day divided into three shifts, with two periods off duty. Of the 227
negro women with a uniform schedule the greatest number had two
shifts, with one period off duty.



58

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Less than one-sixth of the white women but almost one-half of the
negroes had two or more hour schedules in the week. The majority
of these women were maids.
In stores, factories, or laundries the number of hours from beginning
work in the morning to ending work at night generally includes, besides
the hours actually worked, only the period allowed for lunch. Thus
the over-all hours in such establishments are not much greater than
the actual hours worked.
_
_
Some hotels and restaurants have a similar arrangement, but in
many establishments, especially in the_ departments where food is
prepared or served, the schedule is divided into two or three work
periods, with considerable free time between. This results in a very
long over-all period even when the actual hours of work are not
excessive. In seasonal hotels, where usually some or all of the women
workers live in, these long over-all hours are less inconvenient than
where the worker must spend most of the interval going from her work
to her home and back, or, if she lives too far away for this, must find
other ways of passing the time.
_
Because over-all hours include meal periods and waiting time be­
tween shifts, they are, as a rule, much longer than the actual daily
hours scheduled. A day with an over-all period of 12 hours or more
was reported for about 70 per cent of the white women and 22 per
cent of the negro. (See Table XXVIII.) This wide difference in the
over-all hours of white and of negro women was due largely to the
number of white waitresses and counter girls in the seasonal hotels
and restaurants, where, though daily hours usually were not long,
work began fairly early in the morning and ended late in the evening.
Aside from this group, the kitchen help among white women and the
elevator girls among negro women had the longest over-all hours.
In the case of waitresses and counter girls there is little relation
between the actual hours and the over-all hours, since, as stated, even
short hours of work are spread over a long period. The work schedules
show that as many as four-fifths of the employee-days of all the white
women—and the white women are 70 per cent waitresses and counter
girls—were of less than 9 hours, but that only one-fifth of the employeedays had an over-all period of less than 10 hours.
>
The over-all hours in seasonal establishments had a considerably
higher proportion of employee-days with 12 hours and over than was
found in the year-round establishments, but the majority of the work­
ers in the seasonal places lived in, and the inconvenience of the long
over-all hours with the hours off in between was less than if they had
been living at home. In these hotels and restaurants 88.4 per cent of
the employee-days of the white waitresses and counter girls and 77.8
per cent of the days of the white kitchen workers had an over-all of
12 hours or more. The number of negro waitresses and counter girls
in the seasonal establishments was only 10, but 72.5 per cent of the
employee-days of the 40 negro kitchen workers had an over-all of
12 hours or more. In comparing occupational divisions in the two
groups, the proportion of employee-days with an over-all day of
12 horn's and over was a good deal higher for white maids and kitchen
help in the seasonal than in the year-round establishments. For
negro workers the differences were not so great as for white women.
In Florida hotels and restaurants the most common weekly hours
for white women were under 44, the schedule of several hundred
waitresses and counter girls, but the largest groups of negro women



59

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS

had hours of over 50 and under 60, the schedule of more than one-half
the maids. In contrast to the large proportion with short hours,
white women had a higher per cent (19.2) than had the negro women
(15.2) with hours of 60 or more. Among the white women these were
predominantly waitresses and counter girls, and among the negro
women they were kitchen workers.
The table following, drawn from Appendix Table XXIX, gives the
weekly hours by occupation and type of establishment.
Table 10.—Scheduled weekly hours of hotels and restaurants, by occupation
Per cent of women whose scheduled weekly hours were—
Number of
women re­
porting

Occupation

48 and under

Over 48 and
including 50

Over 50 and
under 60

60 and over

White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro
All occupations.

925

446

42.6

29.1

14.1

Waitress; counter girl.
Maid............................
Kitchen worker......... .
Laundry worker____
Elevator girl________
Night cleaner............ .

653
197
42
24
9

14
300
83
26
15
8

53.9
12.2
9.5
50.0
22.2

100.0
31.7
2.4
53.8
13.3
37.5

9.2
34.5
2.4
11.1

8.7

24.1

10.0
7.2

17.3
45.2
26.2
16.7
66.7

37.5

46.8
56.0
20.5
46.2
80.0

19.2

15.2

19.6
8. 1
61.9
33.3

2.3
69.9
6.7
25,0

The occupation with the largest proportions, both white and negro,
having long hours was kitchen work, in which over three-fifths of the
white and about seven-tenths of the negro women had a week of at
least 60 hours. Included in these figures were five white and two
negro women whose regular schedule was one of 80 hours or more,
three of the former working 91 hours. Of the 97 white and 31 negro
women with a weekly schedule of 70 and under 80 hours, the former
were preponderantly waitresses and counter girls and the latter
almost wholly kitchen workers.
By and large, the hours of white women were more favorable in the
seasonal hotels and restaurants and the hours of negro women were
more favorable in the year-round establishments. This is apparent
in the statement following:
Table 11.— Weekly hours of 48 or less and of 60 or more, by occupation and type of

establishment—Hotels and restaurants
Number of women
reported

Per cent of women with scheduled weekly hours of—
48 and under

Seasonal
establish­
ments

Year-round
establish­
ments

Seasonal
establish­
ments

60 and over

Y ear-round
establish­
ments

Seasonal
establish­
ments

Y ear-round
establish­
ments

2

115374°—30------ 5




20.6 36.6
23.5 100.0
16.3 39.0
4. 7
7. 7
11.1 100.0
22.2 13.3
50.0

White

50.0 14.6
63.2 100.0
10.8 13.8
10.3
73.3

Negro

295
4
213
43
14
15
6

White

233
153
49
13
9
9

Negro

Negro

151
10
87
40
12

White

White

692
500
148
29
15

Negro

Negro

All occupations.........
Waitress; counter girl.........
Maid........... ....................... .

White

W hite
T

j

Occupation

15.6
15.8
7.4
62. 1

21.9

30.0
32.0
10.2

2.3
72. 5

166.6

88.9

o
CD

&
11.9
2.3
67 4
6.7

60

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Unlike factories and stores, hotels and restaurants may have con­
siderable variation in daily hours in one week. (See Table XXX.)
In the Florida survey 84.5 per cent of the white and 51.4 per cent of
the negro women were working on the same schedule each day of the
week, but almost 150 white and more than 200 negro women had two
or more different schedules, alternating long and short days or
working on a varying schedule of which the following is a sample:
Time of—
Begin­ Ending
ning work work
Sunday___
Monday___
Tuesday_
_
Wednesday.
Thursday..
Friday........
Saturday.

7 a. ra.
7 a. m.
7 a. m.
7 a. m.
7 a. m.
7 a. m.
7 a. m.

6 p. m.
7 p. m.
9 p. m.
7 p. m.
6 p. m.
7 p. m.
9 p. m.

Hours
worked

10
7
9
7
10
7
9

Although this woman goes to work at the same hour each morning,
her duties end at 6 o’clock on two days, at 7 on three days, and at 9
on two days, and she may work as much as 10 hours, with only 1 hour
off duty, or as little as 7 hours, with 5 hours off.
The irregularities of hours on this type of schedule and the short
time between quitting work at night and resuming it in the morning
make it undesirable from the viewpoint of the worker. Outside
interests can not be carried on when morning, afternoon, and evening
are broken into, and yet more than one-seventh of the white women
and but little less than one-half of the negroes were on these irregular
schedules. Moreover, the lack of uninterrupted leisure in the work
in hotels and restaurants is shown by the fact that more than ninetenths of the women—91.5 per cent of the white and 94.2 per cent of
the negro—worked on every day of the week. (Table XXXI.) Of
these 1,300 women, about 1 in 6 had a shorter day once a week. In a
few cases the shorter day was less than half as long as the others, but
only too often the reduction amounted to but 2 or 3 hours.
One shorter day was found in the schedules of about one-third of all
the maids reported as working on 7 days. Kitchen workers fared
better than did the waitresses and counter girls, as a slightly higher
proportion of the kitchen workers had either a whole day or part of a
day off duty. About one-half of the laundry workers in the hotels
visited had one day’s leave in the week.
WEEKLY WAGE RATES

In the consideration of wage rates emphasis again must be placed
on the fact that the figures used are the cash payments for a week
and that such additions as meals, lodging, or tips are not included in
the cash sums reported. No effort was made to ascertain the amounts
received in tips; these are irregular and uncertain and it is almost
impossible to obtain reliable information concerning them. A record
was made, however, when board or lodging was supplied in addition
to the money wage.
The summary following, drawn from Table XXXII, shows the
medians of the rates being paid to the women employees at the time
of the survey.




61

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS
White women
Occupation

Number
reported

All occupations_______ ______ ______________

940
651
211
45
24
9

Maid
Kitchen worker_________________ _ _ _____
Laundry worker_______ _______
Elevator girl _____________________ ____ _________

Negro women

Median of
the rates

Number
reported

Median of
the rates

$7.05

1 466

$8.80

7.95
15.90
11. 50

312
91
26
15

8.00
10.65
8. 30
9. 75

(?)

1 Total includes 8 night cleaners, not shown separately because number too small for the computation of
a median.
2 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.

The median of the weekly rates of white women was $7.05, and the
median of the negro women’s rates was $8.80. This unusual condition
probably was due to three factors: (1) Practically 70 per cent of the
white women were waitresses and counter girls, with an extremely
low median ($5.75); (2) the proportion of women employed in kitchen
work was considerably higher among the negro than among the white
workers—19.5 and 4.8 per cent, respectively—and for both races this
was the highest-paid work; and (3) a far less proportion of the negro
than of the white women received additions in the form of lodging
or meals (42.9 and 85.9 per cent, respectively, of the women reported),
and usually this affects the wage rate.
The number of white women reported was more than twice that
of negro women and their wage rates had a wider range. (Table
XXXIII.) One white woman had a weekly rate between $3 and $4
and two were in the highest wage group, $40 or more. However,
far more of the wage rates fell in the lower than in the higher groupings.
Only 1 in about 17 of the white women and 1 in 11 or 12 of the negro
women received as much as $15 a week, while nearly one-half of the
white women, in contrast to less than one-eighth of the negro, were
found in the groups receiving under $6.
The lowest median rate for negro women ($8) is that of maids,
but, unlike the group of white women with the lowest median, the
majority of these negro women (69.9 per cent) received neither board
nor lodging. Of the white maids whose median rate was $7.95, only
5 cents lower than that of the negro maids, 68.3 per cent received
both board and lodging; 4 women (less than 2 per cent) were given
one or more meals but not lodging. In contrast to this, only 16.7
per cent of the negro maids lived in, and only 13.5 per cent had one
or more meals provided.
Table 12.—Median of the rates of women who lived in and of women who received

neither meals nor lodging, by type of establishment—Hotels and restaurants
N umber of women reported

Number of women who received—
Three meals and lodging

White

Neither meals nor lodging

Negro
White

Establishments

Negro

White

Negro

Medi­
Medi­
Medi­
Medi­
Medi­
Medi­
Num­ an of Num­ an of Num­ an of Num­ an of N um­ an of Num­ an of
ber
the
the
ber
ber
the
ber
the
ber
the
ber
the
rates
rates
rates
rates
rates
rates
All establishments Seasonal...................
Nonseasonal______

940
695
245

$7.05
5. 75
10. 15

466
152
314

$8.80
8.80
8.80

566
523
43

1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




$5. 50
5.50
5.90

65
63
2

$6.66
5.65
(*)

133 $12. 35
52 12.35
81 12.30

266
20
246

$8. 80
12. 75
8. 55

62

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

The wage rates for white women in all occupations covered showed
a much lower median in the seasonal hotels than in those open the
year around, but this difference was due principally to the fact that
three-fourths of these women received lodging and meals in addition
to their wages, while in the year-round hotels less than one-fifth of
the women had their wages thus supplemented.
The median of the rates was more than twice as high when neither
board nor lodging wras given. Where such provision was made, the
median of the rates of white women in the twro types of establishments
was $5.50, in contrast to a median of $12.35 where the women made
their owTn living arrangements. The seasonal and nonseasonal
establishments seem to have had very similar wage policies regarding
white women where neither board nor lodging was furnished and where
both were supplied; but in the cases where meals only were provided,
the seasonal establishments had a median rate of $10.05 and the
nonseasonal places a median of $9.40.
The median of the rates of negro women in all occupations was the
same ($8.80) in the seasonal and nonseasonal establishments. This
appears strange, in view of the fact that 86.8 per cent of the negro
women in the seasonal hotels were given all their meals, almost half
of these receiving lodging also, while in the year-round establishments
only 21.7 per cent of the women of this race were given meals (5 in
every 6 of these received all three) and only twro women had lodging
free. Where neither board nor lodging was furnished, the negro
workers in the seasonal establishments were much better paid than
were those in the year-round establishments, but the number in the
former was only 20 as compared to 246 in the latter group, which
may mean that these women were employed in a single establishment
where wages were higher than the average or that they had especially
good positions in their occupational groups.
In the seasonal establishments the medians at least bear a relation
to what is supplied in addition:
Median

Board and lodging furnished, 63 women $6. 65
Meals furnished, 69 women 10. 15
Nothing furnished, 20 women 12. 75

In the year-round establishments, curiously enough, it is the other
way about:
Median

Board and lodging furnished, 2 women (28)
Meals furnished, 66 women 29 $9. 75
Nothing furnished, 246 women_____________________ ______

8. 55

From the figures available, the seasonal establishments, both
those furnishing board and lodging and those not furnishing them,
show a slightly higher median of the rates for negro women than for
white, due largely to differences in occupation; while in year-round
establishments the medians are higher for the white than for the negro
women.
38 Rates were $10 and under $11.
38 5 of the women had 1 meal and 5 had 2.







APPENDIXES

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
APPENDIX B—SCHEDULE FORMS

-V

1




*

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
Table I-—Nativity of the women employees who supplied personal information, by industry and race

Number of
women
reporting
Industry

Per cent distribution..................................................................Manufacturing:
Pood—

General mercantile:

J .'All liUiil YYO&l AliUlCO.

Native born
White

Negro

Foreign-born white from—

Foreign born
White Negrc1

Cuba

Eng­
land

Ger­
many

Italy

Scot­
land

Spain

Other 2

36

40

33

13

15

11

16

44

1
28

5

2

12

1

14

9

3,312
100.0

1,386
100.0

3,104
93.7

1,380
99.6

208
6.3

170
1,245

187

169
1,171

187

1
74

3

1
6

2

33
35
58
543
60
491
231
446

26

861
312

33
34
52
512
57
478
214
384

26

861
306

31
3
13
17
62

6
0.4

Can­
ada

1
3

1
2

8

6

1

12

2

6

1
7
2

2
2
12

1

2

7

1

17

1
7

2

6
3
1
5
16

* Sweden, 7; Norway, 4; Hungary, 6; France, 5; West Indies other than Cuba, 5; Ireland, 2; Great Britain (country not specified), 2; and others, 1 each. Includes 1 not reporting
country of birth.




A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

White Negro

Number of women who were—

C5

Ot

Table II.—Age of the women employees who supplied personal information, by industry and race

s

Number of women whose age was—
Industry

Number of
women
reporting

16 and under 18 and under 20 and under 25 and under 30 and under 40 and under 50 and under
18 years
20 years
25 years
30 years
40 years
50 years
60 years

60 years and
over

White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden_______ _____
Cigars___________________
Food—
Bread and bakery products. _.
Fish, canned _________
Other food products____ _
Miscellaneous__________
General mercantile:
Sales________________ ____
Workroom_______________
5-and-10-eent stores..... ........... ......
Laundries___________________
Hotels and restaurants..................




3,325
100.0

1,120
100.0

242
7.3

66
5.9

575
17.3

130
11.6

847
25.5

300
26.8

475
14.3

231
20.6

726
21.8

265
23.7

346
10.4

108
9.6

94
2.8

178
1, 257

186

14
49

24

23
242

40

29
340

58

25
219

30

50
262

29

26
114

5

11
26

32
35
58
511
62
511
231
450

26

2
4
2

1

17
593
315

121
24
9

39
2

7
7
8
38
3
177
33
37

4

75
11

12
7
4
150
3
145
43
114

2

7
9
5

161
79

71
3
35
23
78

3

3
7
22

139
16
22
119
61
79 • 144

6

132
98

1
1
12
72
23
10
36
51

8

16
1.4

20
.6

4
.4

5
2

5

56
39

21
11
1
5
14

3
3
8
6

6
3

3
1

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

All industries................ ........
Per cent distribution....... ........

67

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

Table III.-—Marital status of the women employees who supplied personal informa­
tion, by industry and race
Number of women who were—

Industry

Number of
women re­
porting

Single

Widowed, sep­
arated, or
divorced

Married

White
All industries
Per cent distribution..................... ......

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

3, 290
100.0

1,107
100.0

1,353
41. 1

286
25.8

1,210
36.8

455
41.1

727
22.1

366
33.1

174
1,235

186

52
371

65

72
538

65

50
326

56

Negro

Manufacturing:
Cigars.
Food—

________________

General mercantile:
Workroom______ ...
Laundries....... .................... ..................
Hotels and restaurants




32
35
56
541
60
488
231
438

24

592
305

12
14
14
222
8
388
81
191

3

11
10
28

157.
61

210
31
70
88
152

14

239
137

9
11
14
109
21
30
62
95

7

196
107

Table IV.—Living condition of the women employees who supplied personal information, by industry and race
Number of women who were living—

Industry

Number of
women report­
ing

At home with—
Other immedi­
ate relatives

Husband

Relatives not
reported1

With other rel­ Independently With employer
atives

All industries 2....... .................. ......................... ............
Per cent distribution...................................................................

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

3,092
100.0

508
100.0

1,097
35.5

207
40.7

1,187
38.4

147
28.9

55
1.8

9
1.8

147
4.8

22
4.3

440
14.2

100
19.7

166
5.4

23
4.5

174
1,240

187

72
538

65

67
413

74

1
18

11
60

11

23
211

37

1

2

166

23

Negro

Manufacturing:
Pood—

33
General mercantile:

Hotels and restaurants..............................................................
1 Marital status not reported.
2 Excludes laundries; information not obtainable.




37
59
541
60
506
442

24

11
10
28

297

210
31
70
127

14

128

10
19
26
228
17
342
65

7

66

2
2
5
2
21
3

1

8

21
2
34
17

1

10

9
6
3
77
8
39
64

1

62

W O M E N IN FL O R ID A IN D U S T R IE S

White

Table V.—Time in the trade of the women employees who supplied personal information, by industry and race
Number of women who had been in the trade—
Number of
women re­
porting
Industry

Under 1 year
6 months
and under Total under
1 year
1 year

1 and under 2 and under 3 and under 4 and under 5 and under 10 and under
2 y ears
3 years
4 years
5 years
10 years
15 years

15 years
and over

22
154

39

7
114

23

105
263

Negro

White

387
13.2

73
13.1

377
12.8

61
11.0

250
8.5

29
268

72

19
152

37

15
174

22

18
189

23

14
103

2

12

5

17

5

8
10

6
6

13
16

10
13

41
3
140
(i)
31

16
1
47

56
4
187
1
40

40
4
92
1
39

(i)

9

9

5

12
14

4

4
2
5

1

48
12
16

1

50
9.0

464
15.8

119
21.4

140

3

13
79

2

2

43

1

231
7.9

46
8.3

223
7.6

41
7.4

3

98

4

6'

3

7

3

1

66

74
4
57

1 For 1 white and 12 negro women in the trade less than 1 year the number of months was not reported.




2

1

Negro

White

69
12.4

White

Negro

375
12.8

Negro

White

33

Negro

166

White

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden
162
Cigars_____________ ______
1,203
Food—
Bread and bakery products.
28
Fish, canned_________
Other food products
33
Miscellaneous_______ _____ _
53
General mercantile:
Sales.............. .................. ............. 508
Workroom_____________ _____
59
5-and-lOcent stores......................... .
477
Laundries____
9
Hotels and restaurants
406

1 98
17.6

Negro

Negro

38 i 631
(0
21.5

White

White
209
(0

Negro

Negro
48
to

White

White
421
to

White

Negro

White

All industries.-.................... 2,938
557
Per cent distribution.......................... 100.0 100.0

o
&
©
&

32

46

36
20

46

38
281
1

98

2

5
94

50

32 |

30

27

APPENDIX A— GENERAL TABLES

|

Under 6
months

Table VI.—Type of drinking facilities, by industry

M

Number of establishments that provided—

Industry

Drinking fountain supple­
mented by tank, cooler, or
faucet, with—

Drinking fountain

Total

Some
sani­
tary
and
some
not

Total

Indi­
vidual
cup

Com­
mon
cup

23

9

13

1

4

2

1

4
14
14
3

3
7
2

2
2
1

5
1

i 23
i 24
i 18

Stores:

In­
sani­
tary

1100
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden......................................................

Sani­
tary

6
4
1

3
1

3
3
1

Total

1

2
2

1
1

1

1

Indi­
vidual
cup

Com­
mon
cup

76

19

29

1
7
12
3

No
cup

1

1 Details aggregate more than total, because some establishments had more than one type of drinking facility.




Tank, cooler, or faucet with—

2
2
2

5
4

17
20
16

9
4

5
12
3

No
cup

28

Barrel Total
with
estab­
lish­
com­
ments
mon
having
cups or
pail
com­
with
mon
dipper
cup

2

1

5
4

6
1
3
4
13

32

2

5
13
5

W O M E N IN FL O R ID A IN D U S T R IE S

Num­
ber of
estab­
lishments
re­
ported

4

Table

t

VII.— Unsatisfactory condition of washing facilities and number of women affected, by industry and race
Number of establishments and number of women employees with unsatisfactory washing facilities for some or all of the
women
Number reported

Industry

Manufacturing:
Food products____
Miscellaneous.. ...
Stores_________ _____
Laundries___________
Hotels and restaurants..

152 5,305 1,814
100.0 100.0

105
2,905
1, 620
229
446

Women

49
0.9

553
156
713
392

1 Excludes 11 hotels and restaurants whose employees lived in.




Facilities shared
with public

252
13.9
156

Women

18

517
9.7

27
1.5

Facilities not
clean
Women

2,088
39.4

279
15.4

12

50
427
40

1,990

154
'l25'

No hot water
Women

No soap

No towels

Women

Women

Common towels
Women

81.8

1,344
74.1

1,611
30.4

594
32.7

36 2,166
40.8

789
43.5

760
14.3

17
2,905

397
156

38
155

582
209

4
1,973
15
134
40

15
153

189
208

7
1,473
15

7
463
197
49
44

1,020

112

4

400

1

516
105

149

8.2

79

APPENDIX A— GENERAL TABLES

All industries...
Per cent distribution..

Women

No facilities
furnished

Table VIII.—Adequacy of toilet equipment, by industry

Industry

1152

1

130

11

135

1

30
39
17
44

4
2
2
3

147
118
152

19

120

104

9

9
16

23
33
14
50

20
28
13
43

3
1
2
3

15

21

18

2

5

5
8
5
3

4
6
5
3

1
1

10

1 Details aggregate more than total, because some establishments appear in more than one group.
2 Excludes 11 hotels and restaurants whose employees lived in.




4

2
2

25

24

8

8
6
8
2

8
2

2

6

4
4

2
1

2
1
1

W OM EN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

All industries..........

Number of establishments with one toilet facility for—
Number of establish­
ments with facilities
Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
serving—
15 persons or fewer
25 to 49 persons
50 persons or more
16 to 24 persons
estab­ estab­
lish­
lishments ments
W omen Women
Women Men
Women Men Women
Women Men W omen
having Women Men Women
re­
em­
em­
ported no toilet em­
em­
em­
and Total ployees and
and Total ployees and
and Total ployees and Total ployees and
ployees and
only public
only women public
only women public
only women public
only women

73

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

Table IX.— Unsatisfactory condition of toilet equipment and number of women
affected, by industry and race
Number of establishments and number of women em­
ployees with unsatisfactory toilet equipment for some
or all of the women
Number
reported
Room not
screened

Room not
ceiled

Industry
Women

All industries...
Per cent distribution.

5,305
100.0

Factories____________
Stores.______________
Laundries____________
Hotels and restaurants..

3, 010
1,620
229
4461

W omen

Women

No outside
No artificial ventilation
light pro­
vided
Artificial
ventilation
Women

Women

135
7.5 7.4

1,814

41 1, 355 829
25.5 45.7

1,247
23.5

24 697 1,109
13.1 61.1

709

1,052 496
90

1,131
15

644

100.0

713
392

101

55
158

135

Number of establishments and number of women employees with un­
satisfactory toilet equipment for some or all of the women—Continued

Industry

No artificial
ventilation
Women

Room not
clean

Room cleaned by workers
employed for other work
Swept

Women

Women

Scrubbed
Women

©

S

£
All industries_
_
Per cent distribution..
Factories.............. ........
Stores...... ......................
Laundries__________
Hotels and restaurants.

82
1.5

192

10.6

36 1,190 819 18
22.4 45.1L_
984 264

58
134

444

111..

1 Excludes 11 hotels and restaurants whose employees lived in,




4
7
7

439
24.2

Negro

No outside ven­
tilation—Contd.

83 322
1.6 17.8

No provision
made for
scrubbing

Women

bi
&
<D

78
4.3

35 111
67

48 211

46
32

Table X.—Scheduled Saturday hours, by industry and race
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled Saturday hours were—
Number reported

Over 5 and in­
cluding 6

5 and under

None

Over 6 and including 7

Over 7 and including 8

Industry

All industries..........................
Per cent distribution....................
Manufacturing:
Cigars.............. ................... ......
FoodBread and bakery prod-

General mercantile:

Laundries..................... ...................




4

7

444
11.5

164
13.0

2

82
2.1

7

297
7.7

155

1
1

17
373

149

1

61

2

186

20
3
56
63

58
339
1

1
2

10
42

1

1

21

1

27

1, 026
78
516
229

713

2

2

14

4

84

i91

3,875
100.0

1, 266
100.0

3
110

190
1,694

1
3
6
3
23
10
24
i 18

2

2 :

29
0.7

29

51
4.0

51

102
8.1

619
16.0

126
10.0

3

102

5

598

2

2

21

124

W OMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Women
Women
Women
Women
Women
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­ Wom­ Estab­
Estab­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
en—
ments White Negro ments White Negro ments White Negro ments White ments White Negro ments White Negro

Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled Saturday hours were—Contd.

115374

Over 8 and including 9

Over 9 and including 10

Over 10 and in­ Over 11 and in­
cluding 12
cluding 11

Women whose hours were—
Over 10,

6 and under

Over 12

Industry
lishments

Negro

537
13.9

157
12.4

1

109
112

4

3
9

58.

FoodBread and bakery prodOther food products___
General mercantile:

3
2

227
20

3

37

95

lishments

lishen—
ments -White

lishen—
rnents White

Estab- Wornlishen—
ments White

Negro

Per
cent

Num­
ber

113

694
17.9

666
52.6

1
2

1

10

2
1
1
6

143
8
49
56

706
18. 2

1 24

411
10.6

5

56
1.4

215

17.0

1,173

30.3

8.9
25.6

149

96.1

339

17.9
100.0

327

9
6
3

570
47
89

7
1
17

76
3
332

2

1

100.0

46

656
50
467

63.9
64.1
90.5

555

14.3

Num­
ber

10

3

Per
cent

10
63

64
364

112

Num­
ber

17
434

White

White

Negro

31

13.5

66

9.1

1 Details aggregate more than total where an establishment appears in more than 1 hour group or workrooms in merchantile establishments are shown separately.




Per
cent

A P P E N D IX A ---- G E N E R A L T A B L E S

White

116
Manufacturing:

White

Women

Women

Oi

Table XI.—Scheduled Saturday hours, by daily hours, industry group, and race

-4
05

FACTORIES
Number of establishments and number of women whose Saturday hours were—
Number reported
None
Scheduled daily hours (Monday
to Friday)

i 26
7................ ....................................
S
9.................. ....................... ..............
10___............................ .................... .................... ..................

2,026

2
1
2
9
8
5

89
17
42
924
501
453

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

553

8

Women
Women
Estab­
Estab­ Wom­ Estab­
lish­
lish­
lish­
en—
ments White Negro ments White ments White Negro
9

709

1
1
1
3
3

152
62
339

Over 7 and under 8

7

61
17
22
414
195

1

28

1

150

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

28

281

1

317

2

1
1

150

2

75
206

1

317

2

STORES
Total

9 _

1,620

1
6
12
28

8

47

3
524
596
497
LAUNDRIES

» 17

10

229

699

2

29

51

4

.54

102

3
4
18
2

9

24
65
103
37

55
118
449
77

1

9

8

20

43

5
47
2

32
70

1

1
2
1

i Details aggregate more than total, because some establishments appear in more than 1 hour group.




1

32

1

4

52

1

17

72

1

32

1

4

52

1

17

72

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

Under 7

▼

r

FACTORIES
Number of establishments and number of women whose Saturday hours were—
Over 8 and under 9

9

Over 9 and under 10

10

Over 10 and
under 11

11 and over

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

Women
Estab­
lish­
ments White Negro

Estab­ Wom­
lish­
en—
ments White

Estab­ Wom­
lish­
en—
ments White

Scheduled daily hours (Monday to Friday)

6

135

1

20

4
1

100
15

62

62

4

118

4

2

364

2

364

2

2

118

151

339

2

74

339

1

•

74

49

STORES
Total___________________________
Over 7 and under 8._________________________
8______ _____
Over 8 and under 9____________________
9__________________

2
1
1

173
143
30

1
1

74
74

2

7

|.

LAUNDRIES
Total__________________________
9___ _____________________ ___________
Over 9 and under 10..... ........ ............
. _
10---.............. .............................. ...................
Over 10 and under 11......................................




295

3

37

95

1

10

15

1
1

10
17

46
34

2

18

48

2

18

48

4

38

279

4

38

279

34

620

5
28

3
120
497

3

4

49

151

553

1

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

Total.............................. ......... .............
Over 8 and under 9_.......................................
9________
Over 9 and under 10...................... ...
10............................................. ............ .

-4
OO

Table XII.—Relation of Saturday hours to daily hours, by industry and race
Number of women whose Saturdays in relation to regular daily hours were—
Number reported
Shorter

No Saturday work

Longer

Same

Industry

i 90

1,920
49.5

520
41.5

U6

336
8.7

190
1,694

155

1
9

17
1,666

155

2
1

20
3
56
63

58
339
1

3
2
3

3
37
63

1,026
78
516
229

699

9

134

1

1,590
41.0

22
9
24

997
77
516

2

29
0.7

51
4.1

2

29

51

20

4

19

1
1

58

29
1

7

66

681
54.4

146

173
28

23
10
24
* 17

General mercantile:

27

1
3
6
3

Food—

1,252
100.0

3
10

Manufacturing:

3,875
100.0

339

1

306

342

1 Details aggregate more than total where an establishment appears in more than 1 hour group or workrooms in mercantile establishments are shown separately.




*

i

W OMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Women
Women
Women
Women
Estab­ Worn- Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
ments White Negro ments White Negro ments White Negro ments White ments White Negro

4

•c

*r

Table XIII.—Length of lunch 'period, by industry and race

Number of establishments and number of women whose lunch period was—
Number reported
None

30 minutes

45 minutes

Industry

Over 45 minutes and
under 1 hour

1 hour

2 hours

C G
ape irardeau, M.
o

State Teachers College Ltorarj

All industries......................_____
Per cent distribution_____ _____
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden................
Cigars______________ ____
Food—
Bread and bakery products
Fish, canned_____ ______
Other food products.................
Miscellaneous...........................
General mercantile:
Sales__________ ______________
Workroom. .............................
5-and-10-eent stores...........................
Laundries_________ ________________

192

3,886
100.0

1,266
100. 0

1

61
1 6

28

1,661
42. 7

770

3
10

190
1, 694

155

1

61

2
6

173
1,191

149

2
3
6
3

31
3
56
63

1

11

2
3

37
63

23
10
24
18

1,026
78
516
229

58
339
1

12

85

1

20

1

3
0.1

58
4.6

58

156

2,070
53.3

438
34.6

19

713

14

186

620

9

339

1
1

1 Details aggregate more than total because workrooms in mercantile establishments are shown separately.




3

6
0.2

6
43

93

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

EsWomen
EsEsWomen
Es­
EsEsWomen
Women
Estabtab- Wom­ tabtab- Wom­ tab­
tabtab- Wom­
en—
en—
en—
lishlish- White lishlish- White lish lishlish- White
ments White Negro ments
ments White Negro ments
ments White Negro ments White Negro rnents

o

Table XIV.—Time lost and overtime, by industry—Women whose time worked was reported in hours
........................

Industry

O'

'

Women who worked overtime
Women who lost time
Num­ Number
ber of and per cent
Women who worked overtime—
Women who lost—
women of women
for who worked
Total
Total
whom
full time
Under 5 5 and under 10 and under 15 hours
hours
Under 5 5 and under 10 and under 15 hours
15 hours
10 hours
hours
10 hours
and over
hours
15 hours
worked
and over
were
reported Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber cent ber cent her cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent
178

58

32.6

40.4

2 100. 0
3 100. 0

2
3
29
41
103

72

23
18
17

79.3
43.9
16 5

6
12
49

20.7
29.3
47.6

23

31.9

24

33.3

16.7
16. 7
36.7

27.0

28

58.3

12

25.0

3

6.2

5

10.4

2
5
17

33.3
41.7
34.7

33.3
41. 7
22.4

11
37

26.8
35.9

2
26

18.2
70.3

3
9

27.3
24.3

1
2

9.1
5.4

5

45.5

14.3

51

21.3

29

56.9

8.3

19

26.4

2

2 100.0

1
2
18

48

6

66.7

1

33. 3

1

16.7

3

6.1

2
5
11

NEGRO WOMEN
Laundries-




239

62

25.9

52.7

79

12.7

37.3

5.9

W OMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

All industries......... ..
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden......... .
Cigars.-____________
Food, other than bak­
ery products and
canned fish
Miscellaneous.-........ ..
Laundries

WHITE WOMEN

00

81

APPENDIX A----GENERAL TABLES

Table XV.—Time

lost and overtime, by industry—Women whose time worked was

reported in days

WHITE WOMEN
Number and per cent of women who worked on—
Num­
ber of
women
for
Less than the
More than the
whom
scheduled num- scheduled numdays
ber of days
ber of days
worked
were reported Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Per cent

Industry

All industries________________

3, 473

2,766

79.6

685

19.7

22

0.6

28
1,932

1 416

73.3

28
500

100.0
25.9

16

.8

38
2
15
10

35
2
9

92.1
100.0
60.0

3

7.9

6
10

40.0
100.0

736
78
513
121

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden _______________
Cigars___ ________ ____________
Food—
Bread and bakery products_
_
Fish, canned
Other food products
Miscellaneous....................... ............
General mercantile:
Sales
Workroom
5-and-10-cent stores
Laundries______ _____________ ____

685
63
443
113

93.1
80.8
86.4
93.4

51
9
70
8

6.9
11.5
13.6
6.6

6

7.7

78.7

89

21.2

NEGRO WOMEN
All industries

419

330

Manufacturing:
12

1

8.3

11

91.7

26
381

FoodFish, canned______ ______
Laundries_________________ _

11
318

42.3
83.5

15
63

57.7
16.5

Table XVI.—Number of timeworkers and of pieceworkers and their median earn­

ings, by industry—White women
Women who were on—

Industry

Num­
ber
of
re­
ported

Timework

Num­ Per
ber cent

Both timework
and piecework

Piecework

Me­
dian Num­ Per
earn­ ber cent
ings

Me­
Me­
dian Num­ Per dian
earn­ ber cent earn­
ings
ings

4, 342 1, 820
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden______ ______
Food—
Bread and bakery products.
Fish, canned
Other food products............
Miscellaneous______ ________
General mercantile:
Sales..... ........................................
Workroom
5-and-10-eent stores
Laundries_______ ______________

41.9 $12.80 2, 517

58.0 $16. 45

5

0.1

CO

190
2,427

71
38

37.4
1.6

62.6
98.3

11.30
16.80

4

.2

(*)

38
3
44
62

38

100.0

11.30

44
51

100.0
82.3

11.00
10.05

2

66.7

0)

1

33.3

(‘)

11

17.7

0)

760
78
516
224

760
78
516
224

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

18.10
18. 45
10.05
12. 35

1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




10.55
119
18.65 2,385

82

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Table XVII.—Week’s earnings of timeworkers and of pieceworkers,
dustries—White women

all in­

Number of women who were on—
Week’s earnings

Number of
women
reported Timework Piecework Both time­
work and
piecework

Total
Per cent distribution............................. ............................
Median-------- -----------------------------------------------------

4, 342
100.0
$15.10

Under $1

1
22
34
39
33
43
69
148
352
258
277
226
268
193
180
265
186
• 194
246
165
178
118
133
91
64
339
132

$6 and under $7----------------------------------------------------

$10 and under $11--------------------------- ------------- -----$11 and under $12-------------------------- -------------

44
44
1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




1,820
41.9
$12. 80

2, 517
58.0
$16. 45

5
9
15
9
21
30
37
130
177
204
143
165
59
70
131
47
61
99
40
70
21
54
23
13
108
28
18
33

1
17
25
24
24
22
38
111
222
81
72
82
103
134
110
132
139
133
147
125
108
97
79
68
51
231
104
26
11

o

6
0.1

1

1
1
2

83

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

Table XVIII.—Week’s earnings and time worked, all industries—White women
A.—WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN HOURS
Number of women earning each specified amount who worked—
Week’s earnings

ber of
Over 48
Over 54 58 and 60 hours
women Under 36 and 44 and
and
under under under 54 hours and
re­
36
and
ported hours *
under under
44
54
hours 1 48 hours hours 3
2
58 hours 60 hours over 4

Total
178
Per cent distribution..... ........ 100.0
Median. _ ______________ $11.00
$1 and under $2 _
$2 and under $3
$4 and under $5
$6 and under $7_____ _____
.$7 and under $8
$9 and under $10_________
$11 and under $12

1
1
5
3
4
4
8
17
20
26
25
12
12
5
6
1
4
5
3
3
3
1
2
4
2
1

18
10.1
$6. 65
1
•

4
2
3
2
2
1
2
1

28
15.7
$9.65
1
1
1
1
3
11
3
4
2
1

17
9.6
$11.75

28
15.7
$10. 40

1

1
4
3
3
8

1
5
2
4
3
1

3
2
2
1

28
15.7
$10. 00

18
10. 1
$12.00

13
7.3
$11. 55

2
9
3
4
1
3
1

1
2
G
4
3

12

1
1
1
2
1

1

1

28
15.7
$18. 75

3
3
1
2

1

2
4
3
2
1
1
1
3
1
1

1 Only 3 of these women worked as long as 33 hours.
2 Only 1 woman worked exactly 40 hours; 18 working 36 and under 39 hours had a median of $9.55.
3 No woman worked exactly 48 hours. Only 2 women worked 50 hours; one of these earned $7 and
under $8, and another, $8 and under $9.
4 Of these, 7 worked 69 hours or more and their earnings ranged from $10 and under $11 to $35 and
under $40; one of these worked 83 hours and earned $33, and another worked 84J4 hours and earned $37.




Table XVIII.—Week’s earnings and time worked, all industries—White women—Continued

00

B—WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN DAYS

Week’s earnings

Number
of women
reported

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked on—
1 day

1H days

3,473
100.0
$14. 65

55
1.6
$2. 35

Under $1.........................
$1 and under $2......................
$2 and under $3..............
$3 and under $4...........
$4 and under $5. _____
$5 and under $6____
$6 and under $7.......... ..........
$7 and under $8_______
$8 and under $9_ _________ _
_
$9 and under $10____ .
$10 and under $11__
$11 and under $12___ __________
$12 and under $13______________
$13 and under $14___....... .................
$14 and under $15- _ _________ _____
$15 and under $16_____
$16 and under $17________________
$17 and under $18--________
$18 and under $19....... ...........
$19 and under $20_____ .
$20 and under $21.......... ...............................
$21 and under $22_______ _____
$22 and under $23__________ ____
$23 and under $24.............................. ...... ...
$25 and under $25_____ _____________
$25 and under $30.............. .....................
$30 and under $35____________ _______
$35 and under $40..........
$40 and over...................................................

2
20
24
33
27
32
52
127
316
208
222
181
238
154
154
226
157
169
189
116
159
74
105
77
56
224
64
30
37

2
19
18
13
2

1 Less than 0.05 per cent,
1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




(■)
<!)

i

1

32
0.9
$4.80
1
4
7
5
7
1

2H days

(!)

2
0.1

1
1

3 days

3H days

4 days

39
1.1
$6.90

17
0.5
$6. 75

88
2.5
$9.10

3
8
3

1
6

4Hs days

5 days

5H days

6 days

7
7

(>)

s
0.2

375
10.8
$12. 25

279
8.0
$15. 70

2,561
73.7
$15. 55

16
0.5
$28.00

1

1

4

—

3
1
1

7 days

1
1
1

15
6
2

58
37

W OM EN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Total............................................
Per cent distribution........... .................. ......
Median________ _____

2 days

4

♦

Table XIX.—Earnings of white women who worked the firm’s scheduled week, by industry
Number of women earning each specified amount who worked the firm’s scheduled hours or days in—
The manufacture of—
Week’s earnings

2,824
100.0
$15. 60

1,416
50.1
$17.05

1
1
2
7
88
254
168
187
138
196
122
132
201
119
134
183
99
154
74
96

1
1
2
6
79
159
27
20
38
54
81
67
86
83
82
94
71
90
61
46
57
45
117
32
12
5

54
216
58
28
36
1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




Bread
and bak­
ery prod­
ucts
35
1.2
$11. 50

6
8
7
10
1
1

2

Fish,
canned

Other
food
products

2
0.1

32
1.1
$12.00

1

2
8
3
2
1
11

(>)

1

Miscel­
laneous
Sales
18
0.6
$10. 55

1
2
1
1
7
2
1
1

1

1

1
2

1

1

685
24.3
$18. 40

5
15
13
22
58
10
42
85
26
43
58
25
50
11
47
13
9
90
22
14
27

5-and-10Laundries
cent
stores

Work­
room
63
2.2
$18. 60

1
2
4
10
2
3
16
3
5
1
3
4
3
2
4

443
15.7
$10. 30

' .5
78
102
120
66
31
21
8
6
2
2
1
1

130
4.6
$13. 25

3
13
16
1
30
8
10
13
8
3
10

A PPEN D IX A — GENERAL TABLES

Cigars

Total
Per cent distribution____ __________
______
Median-------------------- ------ ---------------------------------------------- -------

General mercantile

Food

All in­
dustries

7
i
3
4

_____ ______

00.
C51

Table XX.—Median of the earnings by time worked and industry—White women

00

$

Women whose time worked was reported in—
All women for
whom earnings
were reported
Industry

Hours
Total

Under 48 hours

Over 48 and
under 50 hours

50 hours

Over 50 and
under 54 hours

54 hours

Over 54 and
under 60 hours

Total........... ................................
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden _____________
Cigars........................................
FoodBread and bakery products............
Fish, canned__________ _______
General mercantile:
Sales......... .............................
Workroom_______ _____
5-and-lO-cent stores.........................................




«

4,425

$15.00

178

190
2,494

11.05
16. 65

38
3
54
63
760
78
516
229

$11.00

63

$9.00

2
3

«
0

2
3

0
0

11.30
0
9.35
10.55

29
41

8.95
10.50

4
17

18.10
18.45
10.05
12.30

103

11.65

37

12

0

2

0

14

0

28

$10.00

31

0
10.10

1
9

0
0

1
1

0
0

4

0

23
1

9. 50
0

3

9. 75

2

0

10

0

4

0

28

$11. 70

0

11.75

W OMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median
earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­
ber
ings
women ings
women ings
women ings
women ings
women ings women ings
women ings

*

Women whose time worked was reported in—Continued
Hours—
Continued
Industry

60 hours and
over

Days 2
Under 4 days

Total

5H days

5 days

4 days

6 days

7 days

Total........................ .............................

$18. 75

Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden__________ _________ Cigars......... ............. ........ ............-........
FoodBread and bakery products—.........
Miscellaneous-------- ----------------------General mercantile:
Sales_.................................. -.................—
Workroom__________________ _____
f>-and-10-cent stores-----------------------------Laundries__________ ______ ------- -------

6

22

C1)

18.75

3,473

$14.65

146

$4.25

88

$9.10

383

$12.15

279

$15.70

2,561

$15. 55

16

$28.00

28
1,932

28

10.00
15.55

2
90

0
3.70

1
68

0
9.50

4
331

0
12.65

21
200

11.10
16. 25

1, 227

17. 55

16

28.00

38
2
15
10

11.30
0
12.05
0

1

35
2

11.50
0

18.10
18. 45
10.05
12.80

20
1
23
2

685
71
443
98

18.40
18. 55
10. 30
12. 75

736
78
513
121

7

0
0
8.00
0
3.95
0

1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.
2 Records show only that employee worked on so many days, not that full time was worked.




1

1

0

1

0

5
3

7

0

9
1

0
0

13
2
23
2

(>)
<>)

7.85
0

0

9

0

11
4
15
18

0
0
9.40
15.35

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median
ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­
ings
women ings women ings women ings women ings women ings women ings women
women ings

Table XXL -Median of the earnings of white women who worked the firm’s scheduled week, by industry and scheduled hours 1

00

QC
Number of women who worked the firm’s scheduled hours or days and their median earnings in—
The manufacture of—

Scheduled hours

General mercantile

Food

All industries

5-and-10-cent

Cigars
Other food
products 3

Sales

Laundries

Workroom

Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median
ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of earn­ ber of
ber of
earn­ ber of
women ings women ings women ings women ings women ings women ings women ings a women earn­ women earn­
ings
ings
2, 332
36 and under 44 3
44 and under 48 _
48 and under 50 ....... .
50__________
Over 50 and under 54........
54___ ______
Over 54 and under 58___
68 and under 60
60 and under 02

$14.95

939

$15.65

53
11
223
235
599
214
616
356
25

8. 50

53

8.50

21. 50
15. 85
15.80
15.65
10. 55
17. 65
15. 65

189
63
105
184
345

16. 35
11.35
22.75
13.05
17.85

20

$11.85

20

11.85

34

$11.50

(4)
9. 50
c)

$10. 55

685

$18.40

63

$18.60

7
8
9
23
2

18

to
(*)

178

22.55

17

18. 70

3

(*)

455
40
3

(*>
14.00

43

18.40
«

443

$10.30

46

11.90

25
372

9.65
10.20

130

$13.25
«

26
52
15

15.00
12.20
13.50
0)

1
1
, 1 a
was Present on each working day and the record gave the scheduled daily hours, the woman was counted as having worked the full schedule though the record aid
not show that she worked the entire day.
23 Includes canned fish, not shown separately because number too small for the computation of a median.
All 41 hours.
4 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.
J Only 3 women worked 48 hours; these were saleswomen in general mercantile and each earned $12.




WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Bread and
bakery products

Miscellaneous

Table XXII.—Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings by industry—White women
Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was actual week’s earnings in—
General mercantile

68
Total
1,755 1,755
68
Median____ _______________ $12.90 $12.65 $11.50 $10.65
28
9
21
5
1
3
7
29
17
36
6
8
129
4
112
175
11
7
196
17
8
252
203
8
126
140
2
183
160
6
8
4
51
54
3
82
69
5
1
7
143
121
3
77
44
3
5
60
52
1
1
7
145
94
1
33
22
86
69
7
17
47
51
21
1
12
4
11
85
103
15
28
18
15
19
32




3

1

3

2
1

516
516
204
78
10
38
38
44
44
50
747
78
50
747
(») $10.00 $11.30 $12.00 $11.00 $10.50 $10.00 $17.60 $18.15 $18.50 $18.45 $10.30 $10.05 $12.50
13
1
2
1
2
5
3
1
1
2
1
6
1
2
3
I
11
2
1
2
3
5
18
7
3
2
7
4
1
91
81
4
4
1
10
10
4
8
8
5
110
21
124
6
15
5
3
5
2
15
22
148
124
42
8
3
14
2
11
3
10
16
16
1
68
11
76
7
1
2
4
34
6
25
31
47
3
36
10
11
11
3
71
62
4
5
21
2
22
15
5
1
1
2
4
16
8
4
8
11
1
5
1
1
47
43
4
1
16
6
10
7
3
2
96
87
14
10
4
1
2
1
60
27
3
2
3
5
2
1
2
42
45
8
2
17
1
21
3
2
2
1
1
102
61
4
3
19
29
• 8
7
1
1
69
6
1
1
1
51
2
2
5
15
1
1
1
1
•18
2
1
42
3
3
3
1
6
13
9
2
2
4
4
74
93
5
1
1
1
3
4
1
1
11
22
1
2
1
13
15
2
5
14
27
5

1 Exclusive of canned fish, for which rates were not reported.

* Not computed, owing to the small number involved.

Week ’s

earnings

Laundries

rate

5-and-10-cent
stores

Weekly

Week ’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week ’s

rate

W orkroom

earnings

Sales

Weekly

Week ’s

rate

earnings

Miscellaneous

Weekly

Week ’s

earnings

Other food
products 1

Weekly
rate

Week's

earnings

rate

Weekly

Week ’s

rate

10
m

Bread and
bakery
products

earnings

Cigars

Weekly

Week ’s
earnings

rate

Weekly

W eek ’s

earnings

rate

Weekly

Boxes, wooden

Week ’s
earnings

All industries

rate

Food
Amount

Weekly

The manufacture of-

204
$12.05
4
1
4
4
5
3
25
32
22
35
9
10
13
8
5
7
9
1
3
4

Table XXIII.—Weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, all industries—White women
Number of women receiving each specified rate whose scheduled hours were—
Weekly rate

$6 and under $7_ ................. .............. ..............................
$7 and under $8_______________ _________ ... ...
$8 and under $9________ ... ____________________
$9 and under $10______ ________________ _____ _
$10 and under $11......................... ...... . ...
$11 and under $12_______ ________
$12 and under $13_______________________________
$13 and under $14________________
$14 and under $15.........................................................
$15 and under $16________ ________________________
$16 and under $17______ ___ ___________ ____ _______
$17 and under $18___ __________________________ __
$18 and under $19_____________ ____ ________
$19 and under $20_____________ __________________________
$20 and under$21
$21 and under $22.................................. ........... ......................... ......
$22 and under $23________ ___________________ _________
$23 and under $24___ _____
$24 and under $25....... ............. ................. ................................. ..
$25 and under $30___ ___________________________ _____ ..
$30 and under $35...............................................................................
$35 and under $40.......................................... .................... ............ .
$40 and over....... ......................

1,737
$12.95
'

Over 50
and un­
der 52

50

31
$11. 70

1 259
$18. 65

52
$11. 85

2
6
7
10
7

Over 54
55 and
60 and
and un­ under 60 under 62
der 55

54

3

1

Over 52
and un­
der 54

52

7
17
112
188
247
126
180
50
82
143
77
52
144
22
86
7
47
12

12
1
8
2
1

6
2
2
37
1
77
31
26

348
$15. 30

79
$17.25

27
3

19

6

9

164
$10. 75

13
6
5
3
5

31
52
4
42




V

2 505
$10.45

3 83
$12. 75

40

17

24
2
1

28
1
7

9

18

7

26
1

2
1

1
1
1

34
4
27
1
12

9

22
4
2
4

1

4

10
1
2

1
1

3
2
17
5
4
7

1
t_________

1 Only 3 women worked 48 hours, and these earned $12 and under $13.
2 Only 2 women worked 55 hours, and these earned $16 and under $17.
3 All 60 hours but 1 laundry worker, who had a scheduled week of 61H hours.

28
$10. 50
1

1

4

85
15

188
$16.00

2

W OM EN IN FLORIDA IN D U STRIES

Total_____________________ ________ ______
Median.,____________ _________
_

of women Over 44
reported and un­ 48 and
der 48 under 50

Table XXIV.— Median of the weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, by industry—White women

48 and
under 50

Over 50
and
under 52

50

All industries 1.............. ...... ........... . 1, 737 $12. 95

Over 52
and
under 54

52

Over 54
and
under 55

54

55 and
under 60

60 and
over

rate

women

M e d ia n

rate
Number of

women

M e d ia n

Number of

rate

women

M e d ia n

rate

Number of

women

M e d ia n

rate

Number of

M e d ia n

women

rate
Number of

M e d ia n

women

rate

Number of

women

M e d ia n

rate

Number of

women

M e d ia n

rate

Number of

women

M e d ia n

rate

Number of

M e d ia n

1

1

women

rate
Number of
1

women

Number of

Over 44
and
under 48

31 $11.70 2259 $18. 85

52 $11.85

348 $15. 30

79 $17.25

188 $16.00 164 $10.75

28 $10.50 3505 $10.45

83 $12. 75

Manufacturing:

General mercantile:

1
2
3
4

68

11. 50

20
44
50

9.85
12.00
10. 50

747
78
516
204

Food—

17.60
18. 50
10. 30
12. 50

27
20
19

20

11.90

8.50

201
19

11

9. 85

18. 90
18. 80

20

49

11.95

299
24

15.30
18.15

5

«

34

10

10.85
63
8
8

17. 30
«
'(*)'

120
24

18. 65
18. 35

34

12.15

10.90
9.80

9

(<)

31
56

9. 60
12.10

Total includes cigar manufacturing, not shown separately because number too small for the computation of a median.
Only 3 women, all in general-mercantile sales, had scheduled hours of 48.
Only 2 women, both in laundries, had scheduled hours of 55. Only 13, in laundries and general-mercantile sales, had hours of 58 or 59.
Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




41 12,75

16
12

10.35

55
3
420
27

14. 75
(1 2 3
4)
10. 25
14. 90 42

12. 75

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

30-------- 7

j

Industry

M e d ia n

ZA
CO
-4
o

|

115374

Number of women and their median rate whose scheduled hours were—
All women
reported

SO

Table XXV.—Median of the week’s earnings and time in the trade, by industry—White women

c©

Number of women and the median of their earnings with experience in the trade of—
Under 1 year

All women
reporting
Total

<3

X

2

S
,g
a
c8
©
a
3
3
©
a

S
a
1

co
tuD
|

©

X
£

a
1
©
a
.2
©
a

fe

X
fc

a
©
a
.2
3
©
a

§>

£

a
.2
3
©
s

©

£

3 and
under 4
years

4 and
under 5
years

Si
.a

s
.a

w
bO
a
'3
03
©
S
©
X TJ
• 1
£

Si
a
■a
8

a
a
y

X
1

2 and
under 3
years

<3

X
a
a
&

a
.2
©
s

a

©
a
.2
3
©
s

S-4
©

X
1

a

03
©
a
.2
-3
©
s

©
XI
&

5 and
under 10
years

10 and
under 15
years

s

CO
be
a
-a

a
'a

a
©
|

©

X

3

©
s

%

15 years
and over

a
©
I

©
rO

3
©

S

s

fp
a
‘a
CS
©

a
.2
©
s

©
a
3
£

All industries 1......... ............................. .................... 1,786 $14. 45 381 $10. 70 227 $10. 00 154 $12. 45 257 $12.60 235 $13.90 250 $15. 50 146 $15.85 260 $16.60 136 $18. 50 121 $18.45
12.7
13.2
8.2
14.6
7.6
6.8
100. c
21. 3
8. 6
14.4
14.0
Manufacturing:
Boxes, wooden________
Cigars _ ...
Food—

______ _

________

Miscellaneous___ ______ ___________________
General mercantile:
Sales ______________________________________

115 11.60 21 8.75 14 ("1
855 16. 65 201 13. 55 115 11.20
28 11.65
28 11.60
44 10. 50

16 11. 00
11 (2)
11 m

11
6
7

369 15.80
27 17. 90
320 10.00

24 12. 60
1 (2)
96 9.15

13
1
60

1 Excludes laundries, for which this information was not obtained.
* Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




7 m
15 12. 40 13
15 11.40
86 15. 65 117 15. 55 118 17.25 136 18.15

(2)
(2)
(!)

5
5
4

(2)
(2)
(!>

6
10
10

m
(2)

11

(>)

9.15

36

9.20

28 15.00
1 (2)
70 10.00

(2)
(2)
w

4
2
5

(2)
(2)
w

35 12. 75
1 (2)
57 10. 40

1
5

(2)
(>)

56 14.45
4 (2)
33 10.75

9 n
76 18. 75
1

(>)

2

(=)

19 12. 50
95 19.50
1
2
5

(2)
(2)
(>)

27 17.15 103 17. 10
2 C2)
6 (2)
29 10.70 29 11.30

6 (0
57 18. 40
2
3

(2)
c>)

56 21.00
6 (2)
6 (2)

17 13. 25
55 18. 55

3

(!>

40 22. 35
6 (2)

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Industry

1 and
6 months under 2
Under 6 and under years
months
1 year

93

APPENDIX A----GENEBAL TABLES

Table XXVI.—Year's earnings of white women for whom 52-week pay-roll records
were securedf by industry

Number of women earning each specified amount in—
rhe ma mfacture of—
Year’s earnings

Total................................
Median,$459 and under $500
$.500 and under $550
$600 and under $650
$650 and under $700
$700 and under $750_____
$750 and under $800_____
$800 and under $850
$850 and under $900_ _ _ _ __
$900 and under $950. _ _ _____
$950 and under $1,000..... ....._ „
$1,000 and under $1,100__ _ __
$1,100 and under $1,200—.........
$1,200 and under $1,400—
$1,100 and under $1,600 _ ___
$1,600 and under $1,800
$1,800 and under $2,000_____
$2,000 and under $2,100

General mer­
cantile

Food

All
5-andindus­
10-cent
Mis­
tries Boxes,
stores
Bread Other cella­
wooden Cigars and
food
bakery prod­ neous Sales Work­
room
prod­ ucts
ucts
139
$781
4
10
10
11
8
8
12
11
7
8
10
4
9
7
10
7
2
1

10

m

23
$786

1
1
1

1
1
1

2
1
2
1

2
5
3
1
2
2

1

1
2
2

m

4

3

(!)

3
1
1

(>)

3

1

1

«

2

1
1

1

57
$1,020

1
2
5
4
6
6
4
8
5
7
6
2

1

31
$576
2
5
5
7
6
1
3
1

Hotels
and
restau­
rants

i6

1

2
1

1

1

1

1 Included here because receiving neither meals nor room in addition tolearnings. If omitted, the median
for the 133 women is $788.
2 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




94

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Table XXVII.—Length of actual day’s work in hotels and
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS

Occupation

Number
of
employees
reported
©

All occupations_____
Per cent distribution.............

921

Waitress; counter girl........ . _ 649
Maid............ . ... . _
197
Kitchen worker .. .
42
24
Elevator girl
9

Numbor of employee-days 1 whose actual work­
ing hours were—
Under 5

5 and
under 6

o
fee
©

©
2
£

o
©

©
2
£

£

©
2
&

o
fee
©
£

446 6, 368
100.0

3,095
100.0

170
2.7

150
4.8

2,188
34.4

133
4.3

328
5.2

547 1,299
17.7 20.4

4, 479
1,378
292
156
63

98
2,097
571
168
105
56

165
5

80
70

2,137
51

113
12

130
142
28

8

28

23
2.2

o
§
©
£

%

Number of
employeedays 1

14
300
83
26
15
8

<D
+3
2
&

6 and
under 7

1

7 and
under 8
©
2
3=

o
feo
©
fc
856
27.7

18
429
14
24
41
21

587
625
18
62
7

223
4.6

79
7.5

923
19.2

172
16.3

18
5

109
93
21

75
4

455
450
18

127
45

110
5.4

105
6.8

468
22.9

376
24.3

684
33.5

95
7

21
49
7

132
175

8

28

18
354
10
24
41
21

702
66
60
7
21

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations.
Per cent distribution_

692

151

4,818
100.0

1,055
100.0

9
0.2

73
6.9

2,154
44.7

Waitress; counter girl.
Maid_______ _______
Kitchen worker_____
Laundry worker____
Night cleaner....... ......

500
148
29
15

10
87
40
12
2

3, 485
1,036
203
94

70
607
280
84
14

9

70
3

2,109
45

YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations......... .
Per cent distribution.........

229

295

1,550
100.0

Waitress; counter girl............ 149
Maid.. _____
49
13
9
Elevator girl_
_ _________
9

4
213
43
14
15
6

994
342
89
62
63

2,040 161
100.0 10.4
28
1,490
291
84
105
42

156
5

77
3.8

34
2.2

10
67

28
6

62
7

575
21
60
7
21

1 Obtained by multiplying each schedule of daily hours by the number of women working such a schedule.




95

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
restaurants, by occupation and type of establishment
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
Number of employee-days i whose actual working hours were—Continued

58
41

7

7

7




148
4.8

145
2.3

50
1.6

10
63

414
35
52

33
86

7

7

29

138
3

132
13

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS

4
46

169
2.7

179
5.8

31
0.5

46
127

21

127
42

6

10

Negro

142
87
46

508
8.0

White

175
23

80
2.6

12 and over

Negro

218
34
20

141
2.2

11 and
under 12

White

106
3.4

Negro

282
4.4

White

198
6.4

Negro

Negro

279
4.4

White

White

588
19.0

Over 10 and
under 11

10

Negro

Negro

442
62
84

White

279
396
52
94
7

Negro

White
828
13.0

Over 9 and
under 10

9

White

Over 8 and
under 9

8

60
1.9
15
31

96

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Table XXVIII.—Over-all hours in hotels and
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
Number of employee-days1 whose over-all hours
were—

Waitress; counter girl.. 649
Maid___ ____
. 197
Kitchen worker........
42
Laundry worker.......... 24
9
Night cleaner.. ____

14
296
83
26
15
8

4,479
1,378
292
156
63

98
2,069
571
168
105
56

11
4

70

7
15

Negro

70
2.3

White

15
0.2

Negro

3, 067
100.0

White

6, 368
lbo.o

Negro

442

White

All occupations.. 921
Per cent distribution. _

22
0.3

64
2.1

131
2.1

214
7.0

154
2.4

569
18.6

49
7

96
7

4
142
6

16
128
10

8

28

41
21

516
8
24

Negro

s
3

Negro

8 and
under 9

White

7 and
under 8

Negro

6 and
under 7

White

5 and
under 6

Negro

Under 5

White

Occupation

Number
Number
of em­
of em­
ployees ployee-days 1
reported

450 564
7.1 18.4
159
278

6
456

6

60

217
4.5

32
3.0

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations.. 692

151

4,818
100.0

1,055
100.0

9
0.2

Waitress; counter girl__ 500
Maid__________ ____ 148
Kitchen worker
29
Laundry worker..
15
Night cleaner________

8^

3,485
1,036
203
94

70
607
280
84
14

9

40
12
2

3
0.3

8
0.2

65
1.3

17
1.6

127
2.6

111
10.5

3

8

65

14
3

7
110
10

103
8

64
3.2

66
4.3

197
9.8

27
1.7

49
7

31
7

4
128
3

9
18

8

28

41

100
117

18
14

YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations.. 229
Per cent distribution..
W'aitress; counter girl.. 149
Maid
49
Kitchen worker
13
Laundry worker
9
Elevator girl_ ____ _
_
9
Night cleaner.. _____

291 1,550
100.0
—
4
994
209
342
43
89
14
62
15
63
6

2,012
100.0

6
0.4

67
3.3

14
0.9

28
1,462
291
84
105
42

2
4

67

7
7

458 233 532
22.8 15.0 26.4
413
24

59
161

6
438
60

1 Obtained by multiplying each schedule of daily hours by the number of women working such a
schedule.




97

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

restaurants, by occupation and type of establishment
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS

9 and
under 10

10 and
under 11

White

Number of employee-days1 whose over-all hours were—Continued

£

o
ti
o>
£

3

538 592
8.4 19.3

380
6.0

105
3.4

241
3.8

73
338
33
94

299
18
7
56

87
18

105
117
19

o
H
Ofi
0)

fc

488
20
84

11 and
under 12

12 and
under 13

13 and
under 14

14 and
under 15

15 and
16 and
under 16 under 17

17 and
under 18

to

3
3
S

3
3

£

0>
3
&

&

%

z

<£>
3
is

3
£

207
6.7

1,418
22.3

314
10.2

2, 726
42.8

224
7.3

265
4.2

90
2.9

7
0.1

70
64
73

1,017
332
69

57
257

2,607
14
98

18
51
127

171
38
49

77
13

7

14
14

7

o
tH
wo

is

o

ti
<o

o

&

1

o
H
bC
<o

o
®

a>

o
ti
®
£

13
0.4

21
0.3

35
1.1

fc

6
7

—

7

o
H
g
X
6
0.2

14
6
7

35

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
469 442
9.7 41.9

252
5.2

36
3.4

123
2.6

141
13.4

1,141
23.7

179
17.0

2,263
47.0

69
6.5

144 : 19
3.0 j 1.8

39
314
22
94

244
1
7

30
6

7
110
6

70
33
38

803
270
68

2
177

2,201
7
55

29
26

75 !___
34
19
35 ;___

350
8
84

6
0.6

— — ..............

6

14
YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS
69
4.5

150
7.5

34
24
11

138
12

128
8.3
55
17
56

69
3.4

118
7.6

66
3.3

277
17.9

135
8.7

463
29.9

155
7.7

121
7.8

71
3.5

57
12

98
7
13

31
35

214
62
1

55
80

406
7
43

18
22
101

96
4
14

58
13

7

14

7




7
0.5

13
0.6
6

7

7

21
1.4

35
1.7

14

7

35

98

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Table XXIX.—Scheduled weekly hours in hotels and
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
Number of establishments and number of women whose
weekly hours were—
Number
reported
Over 44 and
including 48

Over 48 and
including 50

Over 50 and
including 54

130
14.1

39
8.7

37

100 101
10.8 22.6

11
9
3

60
68
1

30
6

13
22
8

Negro

22

White

Establishments

60
1
10
2
3

Women

Negro

6
7
3
12

Women

White

14
300
83
26
15
g

30
76
3.2 17.0

Establishments

653
197
42
24
9

Negro

50
41
40
5
9
3

23 364
54 21
—- 39.4 12.1 ---- :
11 346
14
3
12
17
35 12
2
1
1
3
1
4
2
2

Women

White

Waitress; counter girl_____
Maid_____ ___ _
Kitchen worker...................
Laundry worker. __ . ...
Elevator girl _______

Negro

925 446
100.0 100.0

Women

White

63

Establishments

All occupations 1
Per cent distribution ___

Negro

Women

White

Establishments

Occupation

Establishments

j

44 and under

53
41
2

91
6

12

35
5.1

9
6.0

28
6

7

6

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations
_..
Per cent distribution_____

26

Waitress; counter girl.. ...
Maid ...

25
14
19
2
1

Laundry worker___
Night cleaner

.

_.

692 151
100.0 100. 0
500
148
29
15

10
87
40
12
2

....

8

326
47.1

6
3

315
ii

12
7.9

7
-—
10
1
2
4
2
1

20
2.9

10
6.6

11

1
5
3
11

10

7
5
2

121
21
17.5 13.9
52
68

16

5
6
3

9
3.9

18
6.1

27

1

YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations
Per C8nt distribution_____

40 233 295 15
38
42 14
100.0 100.0
16.3 14.2
———Waitress; counter girl... __ 25 153
4
5
31
4
2
27
49 213
9
6
33
8
21
13
43
2
1
1
1
Laundry worker__ ____ _
3
9
14
1
4
1
9
9
15
2
Night cleaner
2
6
1

10
66 11
4.3 22.4 ....
5
2
1
2

50
1
10
2
3

4
4

8

1
1

1

65
92
27.9 31.2

8

3

6

1 Details exceed total because some hotels are seasonal for some departments and year-round for others.




%

99

APPENDIX A----GENERAL TABLES
restaurants, by occupation and type of establishment
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
Number of establishments and number of women whose weekly hours were— Continued

22
2.4

19
4.3

20

79
8.5

15
3.4

17
12
11
1
6

60
48
9
4
2

77
11
12
8

8
6
10
1
1

24
12
8
8

5
8

6
2
9

16
3
3

1
18

13
1
11

72
1
6

15




Negro

White

Negro
1

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

YEAR-HOUND ESTABLISHMENTS

18
1.9

16
3.6

6

1
15

4

7
4
1
5

14
4

Negro

16

Women

White

14
3.1

W omen

Negro

52
5.6

I

Women

80 and over

White

Negro

23

Women

Establishments

White

108
24.2

Women

Establishments

123
13.3

Establishments

Negro

133

Establishments

Women

White

65 and under 70 70 and under 75 75 and under 80

Establishments

60 and under 65

Establishments

Over 54 and un­
der 60

7
0.8

4
0.9

5

2

1

100

Table XXX.—Irregularity of hotel and restaurant days, by occupation
Number of women with the same schedule each day whose work was—
Occupation

Number of women
reported

White

Waitress; counter girl.
Maid............................
Kitchen worker_____
Laundry worker.........
Elevator girl________
Night cleaner............




927
100. 0

‘

649
203
42
24
9

442

White

Negro

Broken by one pe­
riod off duty
Negro

White

43

51

272

34
1
7

23
20

153
80
15
24

153

Broken by two pe­
riods off duty
White

Negro

1

s

97
29
26
1
1

White

Two different
schedules

Negro

White

More than two
different schedules

Negro

White

Negro

468

23

783
84.5

227
51.4

119
12.8

149
33.7

25
2. 7

66
14 9

420
36
12

10
3
10

607
117
34
24
1

10
123
59
26
1
8

41
62
8

4
107
24

1
24

66

8

14

100. 0
14
296
83
26
15
8

Total number on
uniform schedules

A

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

All occupations.
Per cent distribution.

Negro

In one unbroken
shift

Number of women working on—

101

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

Table XXXI.—Extent of the 7-day week in hotels and restaurants, by occupation1 2

Number of women who worked on-

Occupation

Number of
women re­
ported

6 days

7 days, but one
day shorter
than others 1

7 days

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

All occupations. ----------------Per cent distribution...........................

945
100.0

466
100.0

80
8.5

27
5.8

865
91.5

439
94.2

72
2 8.5

147
2 35.4

Maid
________________________
Kitchen worker.............. ...................

657
211
44
24
9

14
312
91
26
15
8

65
1
2
12

3
10
14

592
210
42
12
9

14
309
81
12
15
8

16
51
5

120
23

9

1 Included in column next preceding.
2 Based on 851 white and 415 negro women, the number reporting daily hours.




Negro

102

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Table XXXII.

Median of the weekly wage rates in hotels and restaurants
establish
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS
Median of the rate where the
women received also—

All women reported

1 meal
Occupation

White

Negro

White

Negro

Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median
ber of
ber of
ber
rate
ber
rate
rate
rate
women
women
All occupations_________
Per cent distribution______

940
100.0

466
100.0

$8.80

051
211
45
24
9

Waitress; counter girl___ _____
Maid_______________
Kitchen worker_________
Laundry worker_ _ __
_
Elevator girl______ _______
Night cleaner__________ __

$7. 05
5.75
7.95
15.90
11.50
0)

14
312
91
26
15
8

0)
8. 00
10. 66
8. 30
9. 75
0)

3
0.3

(■>

5
1.1

«

3

o

5

(>)

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations___________
Per cent distribution.

695
100.0

$5,75

152
100. 0

$8.80

Waitress; counter girl
496
5.55
10
«
Maid____ ...
154
7. 50
88
5. 95
Kitchen worker. _
30
17.00
40
11.20
Laundry worker________
15
10.70
12
(>)
Night cleaner_ __________
_
2
(>)
-----------■_______________________
'YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS
All occupations______ ______
Per cent distribution____
Waitress; counter girl. ____
Maid____
___ ...
Kitchen worker _______
Laundry worker__________
Elevator girl.___
Night cleaner________

245
100.0

*10. 15

314
100.0

*8.80

155
57
15
9
9

9.20
12. 60
11. 75
C1)
0)

4
224
51
14
15
6

0)
8. 55
9. 95
0)
9. 75
«

1 Not computed, owing to the small number involved.




3
1.2
3

5
1.6
«

5

o

103

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

according to whether hoard and lodging supplied, by occupation and type oj
ment
ALL ESTABLISHMENTS

Median of the rate where the women received also—Contd.
2 meals
White

3 meals and lodging

3 meals
Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

Median where the wom­
en received neither
meals nor lodging

White

Negro

Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­ Num­ Me­
ber of dian ber of dian ber of dian ber of dian ber of dian ber of dian ber of dian ber of dian
wom­ rate wom­ rate wom­ rate wom­ rate wom­ rate wom­ rate wom­ rate wom­ rate
en
en
en
en
en
en
en
en
49 $8.35
5.2
47
2

8.35
0

5
1.1

0

189 $9. 40
20. 1

125 $9.85
26.8

1
2
2

«

158 8. 95
0)
1
30 15. 25

0)
13
35 8.75
75 10. 65

o

2

566 $5.50
60.2
407
144
11
4

5. 40
7. 25
0)
0)

65 $5. 65
13.9
52
1
12

5.55
(0
0

0

133 $12.35
14.1
39
63
2
20
9

10. 35
12.80
0)
11. 65
0)

266
57.1

$8.80

218
13
14
15
6

8.80
0
0

9.75

0

SEASONAL ESTABLISHMENTS
39 $8.26
5.6
39

81 $10.05
69 $10. 15 523 $5. 50
11. 7
75.3
45.4

a 25




62
19

8.70
20. 75

(0
10
27 9. 30
30 11.50

2

(0

385
125
9
4

5.35
7.15
8

63 $5. 65
41.4
50
1
12

5.55
0
0

52 $12. 35
7.5
10
29
2
11

0

12. 60
0)
0

YEAR-ROUND ESTABLISHMENTS
$12. 30

11.25

20 $12. 75
13.2

10. 35
14. 20

11
9

0
0

Table

XXXIII.—Weekly wage rates in hotels and restaurants, by occupation

i—*

Number of women with weekly rate as specified whose occupation was—
Weekly rate

Number of women
reported

White

Negro

940
$7. 05

$3 and under $4......... .
$4 and under $5_____
$5 and under $6____
$6 and under $7____
$7 and under $8____
$8 and under $9_____
$9 and under $10_____
$10 and under $11______
$11 and under $12_________
$12 and under $13
$13 and under $14_____
$14 and under $15. __
$15 and under $16
$16 and under $17 __
$17 and under $18______
$18 and under $19...
$19 and under $20
$20 and under $21....... ........
$21 and under $22.........................
$22 and under $23
$23 and under $24_________
$24 and under $25__________
$25 and under $30.............. . .
$30 and under $35_____ _______
$35 and under $40________ _
$40 and over. ________ _____

1
99
358
8
98
94
37
82
25
51

White

466
$8.80
2
52
12
126
51
45
58
33
21
1
25
18
10
2
6

33
13
6
11
7
1
3

3

$5. 75
1
S3
315
5
49
86
23
61
2
15
5
3
1
1

1
1

.

o

White

Kitchen worker

Negro

$7.95

11
3

$8.00

16
42
3
46
4
9
10
16
33

2
49
9
96
25
32
26
16
16
1
25
7
8

22
2
2
1
5

Laundry worker

White

White

Negro

$15. 90

$10.65

3
4
3
2
3
2
4
4
4
2
1
1
2
1

1
7
2
1
2

1 Not computed, owing to tbe small number involved.




Negro

Maid

6
2
1
2

8
8
28
11
5
8
2
6
3
1

Elevator girl

Negro

White

$11.50

$8.30

1

Night cleaner

Negro

White

Negro

3
10

o

$9.75

p)

2

4
1
1
8

3

3
2

WOMEN IN FLORIDA. INDUSTRIES

Total................. .................
Median......... ..................

Waitress; counter
girl

APPENDIX B—SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule I
[This schedule was used for recording the numbers of employees, scheduled hours, plant policies, and
data on working conditions in factories and laundries.]
U. S. Department

of

Labor, Women’s Bureau

Agent........... .......................................
Date ......................................... ............
1. Name of factory____ Address________________________________________ _______ __________
2. Product________ __________________________ City______________________ _______________
3. Person interviewed Position_____________________________ ____ _________ _________________
Person interviewed Position____________________________________ ____ ______________ _____
4. Number employed:
Day
White
Men_____ ___

Night
Colored

____

Total

White

Colored

Total

____

Girls............................. .............

5. Firm’s scheduled hours:
Begin

End

Lunch

Rest

Total

Sat____________

Begin

End

Lunch

Rest

Total

Sat.______

Reg. wk. days.............. . Reg. wk. hrs. Reg. wk. days________________

Reg. wk. hrs.

6. Seasonal or overtime....................................................................................................................
7. Home work given out Same work done in shop .
Identical rates---------------------------------------------------- ------ ------- -----8. Wages:
Length pay period Vaca.—Without pay
With pay___________________________ ______ __________ _____
Deductions
Bonus or commission
Overtime pay
9.

Employment policy:
Empl. mgr. Other centralized method
Other----- ------ ------- -------------------------- --------------------------Records kept--------------------------- ---------- -----------------------

10. Stairways:
Location

Mate­ Wind­
rial
ing

Light
0. K.

Handrail
0. K.

Nar­
row

Steep

Repair

Other

Notes

11. Employees allowed to use elevators.




105

106

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Schedule I—Continued

Workrooms:
12. Rooms

Workroom

13. Floors

Code FI.

14. Aisles

Mat. Rpr. Cln. Other Obst. Nar.

15. Ventilation
Special
Nat. Art if. prob­
lem

16. Other
problem

________________Li
Notes:

17. Cleaning: Sweep, by whom........... 1_____________ ____ _____ Frequ.
Scrub, by whom___ ________________ __ Frequ.
18. Natural light: __________________________________________________
Shades or awnings
In roof _________
Glare__________
General statement
19.

Art. light: General _
Indiv., hang., or adj.
Glare------------------General statement __

Seats

Foot rests

20. Occupations

Notes
Kind

No. 0. K.

Kind

Need

Sit___ ____________________

21. Heating
22. Drinking facilities
Public______ ____
Conven.-_
Bblr. sari..- ____
.
Bblr. unsan
Tank
___________
Cooler
Faucet
Other______
___ _
Cup, ind .

Notes




23. Washing facilities
Towels

Share
with—

—
Floor Kind

Cln.
M. P.

Hot
wa­ Soap
ter

Individual

Common

Furn.
Kind Frequ. No. Frequ.

107

APPENDIX B—SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule I—Continued
24. Toilets: Kind---------------- Paper.
------------- Instr________ Boom cleaned by—
Seatrpr---------- Clean-------- Hand fl______ Seat 11_______ Sweep.
.
Frequ
Plbg. rpr-------- Clean-------- Auto. 11.. .... Frequ________ Scrub___
Frequ
No. using

Ventilation
No. No.
of
per
seats seat

Fl. Wo men
M. P.

Seat Room Sera.
incl. desig.

Fir.
nonab­
sorb.

Room
ceil.

W. Oth.

Light

Out. A r- Oth. Out. Arwnd. tif. rin. wild. tif.

Room
cln.

'

25. Service facilities:

Lunch

Fl.

Comb.
Artif. Out Toilet Sup­
with— Cln. light wnd. ventil. erv. Cal. Tab. Seat
into

Hot Hot
food drink Ck. conv.

Rest

Cot

Cloak

Lkr. Shivs. Racks Wall hks.

26. Uniforms requ. by firm
Laundered by firm.......
27. Health service:
Hosp------------ First aid.
Other----------- No resp_.

115374°—30-----8




Chairs

Comf. ch.

Bench

Kind................ ........... Supplied by firm................
Free....... ..................... Cost to girl
Ohg. of doctor full time____ Doctor part time
Med. exam............................... other welfare..,.

Seats

108

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Schedule II

[This schedule was used for recording the numbers of employees, scheduled hours, policies, and data on
working conditions in stores]
U. S. Department

of

1. Name of store____

Labor, Women’s Bureau

Address_________
Person interviewed
Position_________

2. Type___________
3. Number employed:

Agent
Date .

DAY

White

Colored

White

Colored

Total

Men______
_______ _____
Women_______________ __
Total_________________ __
EVENING

Men __ .......................... ___
Women_________ __ _
Total___________________

•
Total

4. Firm’s scheduled hours:
Daily: Begin------------- End-------- Lunch period_____ Best period_____ Total
Saturday: Begin-------- End-------- Lunch period......... _ Rest period______ Total
Shifts: Begin------------- End-------- Lunch period......... . Rest period __
Total
Regular weekly number of days____ _____________ Total weekly hours
Shifts—Weekly number of periods________ _____ Total shifts, weekly hours...........
Daily: Begin ------------- End-------- Lunch period_____ Rest period_____ Total
Saturday: Begin........... End-------- Lunch period_____ Rest period_____ Total,
Shifts: Begin-------------- End_____ Lunch period_____ Rest period ........... Total
Regular weekly number of days Total weekly hours
Shifts—Weekly number of periods-------------------- Total shifts, weekly hours"""
5. Overtime or seasonal hours.... ............... ........ .................. ........ .............
6. Employment policy:
Employment manager..................... ___ Other........ .................. Records kept _
7. Halls:
Indirect............. Cl............... Light—Nat. O. K_______ Artif. prov...............
8. Stairways:
No.

.

Location

Wind­ Nat. It. Artif. Handrail
ing
adqt. It. prov. 0. K.

Nar­
row

Steep

.

Elevators for employees.......................................................................
9. Workrooms (describe): Cleanliness, seats, ventilation, crowding
10.

Salesrooms (describe):
Aisles................................................. ......

11.

Natural lighting (describe):
Salesrooms__________
Workrooms__________

12.

Artificial lighting (describe):
Salesrooms___________
Workrooms__________

13.

Heating system:

14.

Ventilation: Salesrooms




Tables in center, etc.

Cln.

Rpr.
0.

K.

Other

Other

•

-

109

APPENDIX B—SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule II—Continued
Sanitation:
15. a. Drinking facilities:
Bblr.---------- San.......... . Tank............. Cooler............. Used by workers only
Faucet______ Other ______ Cup—Common______ Indiv. ______ Kind
b. Washing facilities: For workers only For workers and public
Where located Clean By whom Frequ.
Hot water ____________ ______ Soap............................. ...... Towels___________
c. Toilets: workers and public-------------------- Location Screened
Kind__________ ____ ____________ For workers only ______
For
Room ceiled..................... ........ Nat. vent. Nat. light
Artif. light Clean By whom................................................................. Frequ.
Number of seats ......... .......................... . Number of women per seat
16. Lunch room: Combined with____________ __ Prov.
Kind__________________ ____
Loca._______ Equip. O. K._______ Cln.......... ....... Lt.—Nat._______ Artif. .
Vent. 0. K._____ ________ _________ Prov. food or drink only
Cooking convncs. Superv______________________ ____________ If none

a

17. Rest room: Combined with ________ ______ Prov. .............................. Loca.
Equip. O. K.______ Cln............... Lt.—Nat.______ Artif.______ Vent. O. K.
Superv._________ ____ __________________ If none_______________ _______ ___
18.

Cloakroom: Combined with ............... Prov. _________ Loca. _______
Conv.
Lkrs. ... Shivs,... Hangers.
Wl.hks.--_ Seats... Clean... Lt.—Nat. ... Artif.
Vent. O. K. ... Superv. ... If none ... Lkrs. ... Shivs. ... Hngrs. ... Wl. hks. ...

19.

Health service: First aid

20.

Other welfare

21.

Seats: Type

I

App. suffic. no. -------

Dispensary

Rules for use-------

Room to pass behind seats and counters

Schedule III
[This schedule was used for recording the numbers of employees, scheduled hours, policies, and data
on working conditions in hotels and restaurants.]
U. S.

Department

of

Labor, Women’s Bureau

Agent_________________________ _
Date
1. Firm name--------------- -------------------------------- A ddress
2. Type of establishment___________________ _
City____
3. Person interviewed
Position
Person interviewed Position__________________ _____
4. Location of bldg__________________ ____________ __________________________ _______ ___ ___
5. Employment policy:
Ernpl. mgr. Oth. centr. method Other_____________________________________________
Records kept________ _____________ ___ __________ _________________ _________________
6. Number employed: Day
White

Colored

7. Hours open for business
Total

Girls________________
Total.................
8. Stairways:
Location

Mate­
rial




Wind­
ing

Light

Handrail
0. K.

Nar­
row

Steep

Repair

Other

Notes

110

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Schedule III—Continued

Workrooms:
13. Cleaning

Whom

Scrub

Whom

Sweep

Vent. 0. K.

Special problem

Artif.

5

12. Ventilation

Nat.

ft
Ph

Nar.

s

Other

Mat.

Code

Workroom

11. Aisles

Obstr.

10. Floors

9. Roonjs

3
©

3
1
B
bn

Notes:

14. Natural light
Type
wind.

Code

No.
side

Curt.

15. Artificial light
Glare 0. K.

Ceil.

Ind. Shades Glare O.K.

Notes

.

17. Uniforms

16. Occupations

Company
Describe duties

Occup.

18. Seats
Cost to girl

Kind

Kind No. O.K.
Req. Furn. Ldr. Uniform Laundry

Notes:

20. Washing facilities

19. Drinking facilities

Towels

Notes:




Common

©
£

Frequ.

Frequ.

Individual

Kind

Furnished

Soap

Hot water

Public

Men

Kind

Convenient

Cup

Cool

Type

Convenient

Code

Share
with—

111

APPENDIX B—SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule III—Continued
21. Toilets: Kind-------------- Paper_________ Irstr._________ Room cleaned by whom ___
Seatrpr---------- Clean_____ Handfl. _____ Seatfl._____ Sweep_____ Frequ.
Plbg. rpr.------- Clean---------Auto, fl..........
Frequ. ........... Scrub_____ Frequ.
No. using

Ventilation

Fl. Women
M. p.

No. No.
of
per
seats seat

W. Oth.

Light

Fir;
Seat Room Scm. nonab- Room
Room
incl. desig.
cln.
sorb. ceil. Out.
Oth. Out.
wnd. Art. rin. wnd. Art.

Notes:
22. Service facilities:

Lunch

Comb,
with—

Artif.

Toilet
ventil. Su­
into per v.

drink

Notes:
Rest:
Cot

Chairs

Comf, cli.

Lkr.

Shivs. Racks Wall hks.

Bench

Notes:
Cloak:

Notes:
23. Hosp._______
Other_______

First aid_______
Noresp. ............

Notes:




Chg. of doctor full time
.........
Med. exam. Other welfare

Doctor part time

Seats

112

WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES
Schedule III—Continued

24. Hours worked by employees:
Worker------------------------------- Race-------------------------------

Occupation

Hours
M
12 1 2 3 4

Meals

M On
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 duty

5

Total
Hours

OH
duty

Sunday........... .
Monday______
Tuesday______
Wednesday... .
Thursday_____
Friday____ ...
Saturday______
Total weekly__________ ______
[Such individual record of hours worked was repeated for each employee.]
Schedule IV
[Pay-roll information was copied onto this card, one card being used for each woman employee. Cer­
tain information was added later from Schedule V.]
U. S. Department

Establishment

of

Labor, Women’s Burea

Employee’s No.

Department

Name

Male

Address

Female

Age

Conjugal condition

Occupation

M

Rate
of
pay

Piece

Days
worked

Regular
weekly
hours

Hour

Day

Week

$0.

Country of birth
At home

$

$

Hours
worked
this period

Overtime
hours

K Month

Undertime
hours

N R

Month

$
Earnings

Additions

$
Deductions

This period Computed for
regular time

Began work
Age
Board

$

W

$
Time at work

$
In this trade

$
This firm

Pay-roll period
---- days ending

Schedule V
[This schedule was distributed in the factory to be filled out by each woman employee
information was transferred later to Schedule IV.]

Certain

U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau
Establishment------------------------ Employee’s No. Department
Name ----------------------------------------------------------- Male or female _.........................
Address
Single, married, widowed, separated,
................................... -..................................................
or divorced_____________ ____________________
Country of birth..................... ....................... ................... ............ Age ...
How old weie you when you began to work for wages? ________ _______ ______
How long have you been in this trade or business?___ __________
_
"
How long have you been working for this firm?__________________
_
What is your regular work here?.......... _______________
__
Schooling—Last grade completed?..................................................
Do you live with your family?________ With other relatives?'
Do you board or room with persons not relatives?




113

APPENDIX B—SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule VI

[Pay-roll information for each week in the year was recorded for a representative number of women em­
ployees a year or more with the establishment, this schedule being used.]
U. S.

Department

of

Labor, Women’s Bureau

Firm

City
1

2

3

1
Occupation

Name

P. T. B.

Name
P. T. B.

Name
P. T. B.

Date of pay
roll

Earnings

Earnings

Earnings

Date of pay
roll

1__________
2__________
3_________
4__________
5__________
6__________
7__________
8__________
9__________
10__________
11__________
12.__________
13__________
14__________
15__________
16__________
17__________
18__________
19__________
20__________
21__________
22__________
23__________
24__________
25__________
26__________

2

Earnings

3

Occupation Occupation

Earnings

Earnings

27__________
28__________
29__________
30_
_
31....................
32_
_
33
34....... ............
35__________
36-..
37...................
38 ...
39....... ...........
40 _
41
42__________
43 _______
44
45__________
46 47 ..
48
49. _.
50___
51 ..
52_
_
1

Total, $ ................ ..................... .
Weeks worked
Weeks not worked
Average wage for weeks worked.__
Average for 52 weeks...................




2

3

Total, $
Total, $
Weeks worked
Weeks worked
Weeks not worked
Weeks not worked
Average wage for weeks worked... Average wage for weeks worked..
Average for 52 weeks
Average for 52 weeks

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
[Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request]

No.
No.
No.
♦No.
No.
No.
♦No.
*No.
*No.
No.
♦No.
No.
♦No.
No.
No.
No.
♦No.
No.
♦No.
No.
♦No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 16 pp. 1918.
2. Labor Laws for Women in Industry in Indiana. 29 pp. 1919.
3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 8 pp. Third
ed., 1921.
4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
5. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919.
6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United
States.- 8 pp. 1921.
7. Night-Work Laws in the United States. (1919.) 4 pp. 1920.
8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920.
9. Home Work in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920.
10. Hours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia.
32 pp. 1920.
11. Women Street-Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1921.
12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920.
13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 pp.
1921.
14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20 pp.
1921.
15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women.
26 pp. 1921.
16. (See Bulletin 63.)
17. Women’s Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. 11 pp. 1921.
19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
20. Negro Women in Industry. 65 pp. 1922.
21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922.
23. The Family Status of Breadwinning Women. 43 pp. 1922.
24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
25. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp.
1923.
26. Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923.
27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
28. Women’s Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923.
29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
30. The Share of Wage-Earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp.
1923.
31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
32. Women in South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
33. Proceedings of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923.
34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924.
35. Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
36. Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
37. Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924
38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924.
39. Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
40. (See Bulletin 63.)
41. Family Status of Breadwinning Women in Four Selected Cities. 145
pp. 1925.
_
42. List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States
and Canada. 42 pp. 1925.
Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 68
pp. 1925.
44. Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1925.
45. Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in
Coal-Mine Workers’ Families. 61 pp. 1925.
CO

♦No.

Supply exhausted.

114




WOMEN IN FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

115

No. 46. Facts about Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on
Census Statistics. 64 pp. 1925.
No. 47. Women in the Fruit-Growing and Canning Industries in the State of
Washington. 223 pp. 1926.
*No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Women Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925.
No. 50. Effects of Applied Research Upon the Employment Opportunities of
American Women. 54 pp. 1926.
No. 51. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 52. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. The ^Status of Women in the Government Service in 1925. 103 pp.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

No. 61.
No. 62.
No. 63.
No. 64.
*No. 65.
No. 66.
No. 67.
No. 68.
No. 69.
No. 70.
No. 71.
No. 72.
No. 73.

Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
Women in Mississippi Industries. 89 pp. 1926.
Women in Tennessee Industries. 120 pp. 1927.
Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
Women in Delaware Industries. 156 pp. 1927.
Short Talks About Working Women. 24 pp. 1927.
Industrial Accidents to Women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
316 pp. 1927.
The Development of Minimum-Wage Laws in the United States, 1912
to 1927. 635 pp. 1928. Price, 90 cents.
Women’s Employment in Vegetable Canneries in Delaware. 47 on
1927.
State Laws Affecting Working Women. 51 pp. 1927. (Revision of
Bulletins 16 and 40.)
The Employment of Women at Night. 86 pp. 1928.
The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Opportunities of
Women. 498 pp. 1928.
History of Labor Legislation for Women in Three States; Chronological
Development of Labor Legislation for Women in the United States.
288 pp. 1929.
Women Workers in Flint, Mich. 80 pp. 1929.
Summary: The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Op­
portunities of Women. (Reprint of Chapter 2 of Bulletin 65.)
22 pp. 1928.
Causes of Absence for Men and for Women in Four Cotton Mills.
24 pp. 1929.
Negro Women in Industry in 15 States. 74 pp. 1929.
Selected References on the Health of Women in Industry 8 dd
1929.
Conditions of Work in Spin Rooms. 41pp. 1929.
Variations in Employment Trends of Women and Men. 143 pp.

No. 74. The Immigrant Woman and Her Job. 179 pp. 1930.
No. 75. What the Wage-Earning Woman Contributes to Family Support.
20 pp. 1929.
No. 76. Women in 5-and-10-Cent Stores and Limited-Price Chain Department
Stores. 58 pp. 1930.
No. 77. A Study of Two Groups of Denver Married Women Applying for Jobs.
10 pp. 1929.
No. 78. A Survey of Laundries and Their Women Workers in 23 Cities.
166 pp. 1930.
No. 79. Industrial Home Work. 18 pp. 1930.
No. 80. Women in Florida Industries.
No. 81. Industrial Accidents to Men and Women. (In press.)
Annual Reports of the Director, 1919*, 1920*, 1921*, 1922, 1923, 1924* 1925
1926, 1927*, 1928*, 1929, 1930.
’
* Supply exhausted.




O


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102