View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U3£:?t
: ;

OLi

* COLLEGE

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BULLETIN

OF

THE

WOMEN’S

BUREAU,

NO.

76

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES
AND LIMITED-PRICE CHAIN
DEPARTMENT STORES




[Public—No. 259—66th Congress]
[H. R. 13229]
An Act To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the

Women’s Bureau

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be
established in the Department of Labor, a bureau to be known as. the
Women’s Bureau.
Sec. 2. That the said bureau shall be in charge of a director, a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual compensa­
tion of $5,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate
standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage­
earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their
efficiency, and advance their opportunities for profitable employ­
ment. The said bureau shall have authority to investigate and
report to the said department upon all matters pertaining to the
welfare of women in industry. The director of said bureau may
from time to time publish the results of these investigations in
such a manner and to such extent as the Secretary of Labor may
prescribe.
Sec. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director, to
be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an an­
nual compensation of $3,500 and shall perform such duties as shall
be prescribed by the director and approved by the Secretary of
Labor.
Sec. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by said
bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants, clerks, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in such numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
Sec. 5. That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment, for the work of
this bureau.
Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.
Approved, June 6, 1920.




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN

OF

THE

WOMEN’S

BUREAU,

NO. 76

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES
AND LIMITED-PRICE CHAIN
DEPARTMENT STORES
By MARY ELIZABETH PIDGEON

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1930

For sal© by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




-

-

Price 10 cehts




CONTENTS
Page

Letter of
transmittal
Part I. Introduction
Scope and method of investigation_________________________
Summary of outstanding facts
II. Personal information
Nativity
Age----------------------------------------------------------------Living condition
Marital status
10
Time in the trade
11
Summary of personal data_____________________
III. Scheduled hours*______________________________________________
Daily hours
13
Lunch period
13
Saturday hours
13
Weekly hours
14
Relation of hour schedules to hours legally permitted in
States"_________________________________________________
Hours in different chains
16
Summary of hour data
18
IV. Earnings, 1920 to 1925______________
Week’s earnings
19
Earnings and rates of pay_____________ ____________________
Proportions of women earning certain amounts_____________
Earnings and time in the trade
20
Earnings in limited-price stores compared to those in other
industries
21
Year’s earnings
23
Summary of earnings, 1920 to 1925
V. Earnings in 1928
Week’s earnings
25
Earnings and days worked
25
Earnings and rates of pay
27
Rates by size of town or city
30
Rates in various chains
31
Earnings in 1928 compared to those in earlier years________
Summary of 1928 findings
37
Appendix.-—General tablesJ_____________

v
1
4
6
9
9
9
9
11
13

15
19
19
20

24
25

35
39

TEXT TABLES
Table 1. Scheduled daily and weekly hours, by chain or other class of
store
16
2. Relation of daily and weekly hours to hours legally established,
by chain or other class of store
17
3. Relation of median earnings in limited-price stores to those in
other industries, by State
22
4. Medians of the weekly rates and of the week’s earnings, by State
or city—1928 figuresj______________________________________
5. Extent to which actual earnings were less than lowest rate
reported, by State or city—1928figures______________________
6. Highest rates and earnings, by State or city—1928 figures______
7. Number of women in the various chains and the medians of
their rates, by size of town or city and both including and
excluding California—1928 figures
32
8. Proportions of women with rates in the various ranges, by chain
and both including and excluding California—1928 figures_
_
9. Median rates in Florida and in Ohio, by size of town or city and
by chain—1928 figures
34




hi

27
29
29

34

IV

CONTENTS
APPENDIX TABLES
Page

Table I. Age of women employees who supplied personal information,
by State
39
II. Living condition of women employees who supplied personal
information, by State
39
III. Marital status of women employees who supplied personal
information, by State
40
IV. Time in the trade of women employees who supplied personal
information, by State
41
V. Scheduled daily hours, by State
42
VI. Scheduled Saturday hours, by State
43
VII. Scheduled weekly hours, by State
44
VIII. Relation of scheduled daily, Saturday, and weekly hours to hours
legally established, by State
45
IX. Weekly rates and actual week’s earnings, by State and year___
X. Median of the week’s earnings, of the weekly rates, and of the
year’s earnings, by State and year__________________ _______
XI. Median of the week’s earnings and time in the trade, by State
and year1
XII. Median earnings of all women and number of women receiving
$10 and over and $15 and over, according to time in the trade,
by State and year
50
XIII. Earnings of women who worked on six days, by State or city—1928 figures
51
XIV. Week’s earnings, by State or city—-1928 figures________________
XV. Weekly rates in the various chains, by size of town or city and
both including and excluding California—1928 figures54-55
XVI. Weekly rate, by size of town or city—1928 figures______________




46
48
49

52
56

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department op Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, August 14, 1929.
I have the honor to submit the report of this bureau’s study of
women in 5-and-10-cent stores and limited-price chain department
stores.
In 18 State surveys in the past nine years information has been
secured on the earnings, hours, and personal history of several
thousand girls and women employed in these industries, and this is
brought together and analyzed in the present bulletin. Because of
the differences in date of the various surveys, the material on earnings
has been supplemented by figures for a week in the closing months of
1928, more than 6,000 women being reported upon.
The cooperation of the employers and of the workers in supplying
the information is gratefully acknowledged.
The report has been written by Mary Elizabeth Pidgeon, assistant
editor of the bureau.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. Jambs J. Davis,
Secretary of Labor.
\
Sir:




WOMEN IN 5-AND-IO-CENT STORES AND LIMITEDPRICE CHAIN DEPARTMENT STORES
PART I
INTRODUCTION
An outstanding development that has taken place during recent
years in the field of retail merchandising has been the organization
and growth of the chain store, which is directed in policy from a
central office through district managers, purchases in large quantities,
and sells over a wide area at comparatively low prices.
One of the oldest and best-known types of chain is the 5-and-10cent store, which began its rise 50 years ago and which, unlike most
other large chains, did not originate in a large city, such as New York
or Chicago, where it would be subject to higher rents and other costs
greater than in smaller cities.
The rapid growth in the sales of 10-cent chains, a growth that
ordinarily outruns that in other lines of distribution, may be seen
from figures published by the United States Department of Commerce.
According to these, the increase in business from 1923 to 1924 was—
Per cent

For wholesale trade
9.
For department stores
4.
For 5-and-10-cent chains 10.

7
0
6

From 1924 to 1925 the increase was almost negligible in wholesale
trade; sales in the department stores increased 6.7 per cent and sales
in the 10-cent chains increased 16.7 per cent.1
From the same source may be obtained the figures of the monthly
sales in four 10-cent chains up to 1923 and in five chains since that
time and, in addition, index numbers that show the relation of the
average monthly sales in each year to the average for 1919. The
latter are comparable for the entire period, since allowance for the
extra chain was made in the base begmning in 1923. A summary of
the average monthly sales and of the index numbers relative to 1919
is as follows:2
Average
monthly sales

1919________________________ _________-...........$17, 100
1920
20, 491
1921
21, 160
1922
23, 875
1923
28, 172
1924
31, 574
1925
35, 761
1926
39, 112
1927
43, 008

Index* *

100
120
124
140
165
185
209
229
251

1 U. S. Department of Commerce. Survey of Current Business, February, 1925, p. 9, and February,'
1926, p. 9.
* Ibid., February, 1928, Table 95, p. 118, and Table 96, p. 119.




1

2

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

The per cent of increase, in thousands of dollars of sales, may
be followed from year to year from the same source and thus sum­
marized :3
Per cent
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

1921-....................
1922_____________________________________________
1923
1924------1925_ ___________
1926______ _____
8. 9
1927
Nov. 1, 1928, cumulative monthly-------------------------

4.8
13.6
17. 9
12.2
13.4
10. 2
7. 7

It will be seen that even from the year of peak high prices, 1920, to
that of heavy depression, 1921, there was an increase in sales of 4.8
per cent. That the chain store is less subject to fluctuations due to
business depression than are independent establishments is common
knowledge, since in hard times more people are likely to patronize the
limited-price stores. In an investigation made by the New York
State Department of Labor it was found that one of the chains
included had declared a special dividend on common stock in addi­
tion to its regular dividend in February, 1921, when the country was
suffering from heavy business depression.4 In relation to the same
period, a representative of a banking firm that has financed six large
chains is quoted as having made this statement:
During the first half of 1921 the decrease in sales prices was so rapid that the
problem was to take in enough for operating expenses *• * *.
_
The price declines in 5-and-10-eent stores have been nearly as drastic as in the
grocery stores. By an increase in the rapidity of turnover, however, the 5-and10-cent chains have been able to side-step losses which occurred to others during
the price decline.6

In this connection the fact must not be overlooked that only one
large chain was able to come through the war period and still main­
tain its 10-cent price-limit.
A sales increase marvelous in its proportions is testified to by the
figures published in the golden-anniversary booklet of the pioneer
chain. These indicate that for this chain, in the years 1920 to 1927,
inclusive, the increase was 93.6 per cent and in the period since 1912
it was 350.4 per cent. The book cites the existence of over 2,100
stores of this chain, located in 1,500 cities in five countries of the
world, and claims a sales volume for 1927 exceeding the receipts of
each of five large railroad systems, of a well-known mail-order house,
and of each of three great manufacturing, corporations.9
The explanation of the continuous growth in the profits of these
limited-price stores includes savings in overhead and rapid sales
turnover. Overhead savings are effected by centralized purchasing
and quantity buying; by paying cash, which enables taking advan­
tage of discounts; by selling for cash, which eliminates bad sales and
makes drastic reductions in clerical forces; and by abolishing the cost
of delivery and much of the expense of advertising.
i jbld . March, 1922, p. 32; February, 1923, p. 40; February, 1924, p. 52; March, 1925, p. 44; March, 1926,
p 42; March, 1927, p. 51; March, 1928, p. 43; and December, 1928, p. 43.
< New York State. Department of Labor. The Employment of Women m 5 and 10 Cent Stores, 1921,
P'^Hayward, Walter S., and White, Percival. Chain Stores. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (Inc.), 1922, p. 144.
• Weir, Catherine McNelis-Hugh, for F. W. Woolworth Co. Ftfty Years of Woolworth. The Cuneo
-Press (Inc.), 1929.




INTRODUCTION

3

One of the telling maxims of Frank W. Woolworth was, “Small
profits on an article will become big if you sell enough of the article.”7
His stores exemplify this principle, and it has been stated of them
that—in one year they sold nearly 90,000 pounds of candy, enough to fill a train of
freight cars 24 miles long. This was not inferior candy. But the enormous
volume of sales enabled the manufacturer to make a profit on pure candy even
at the low prices. Illustrating this point further, in one year Woolworth sold
more than 9,000,000 yards of curtain material, 350,000 barrels of glassware,
20,000,000 pieces of enamelware—enough to load a freight train 7J^ miles long.
In 1918, the year of the influenza epidemic, they sold 54,000,000 handkerchiefs
at the regular price limit.8

Many factors combine to produce these extensive sales, not the least
of which is the choice of goods. It has been stated that over 90 per
cent of the stock of such a store consists of everyday necessities.9
These include such staple articles as sewing thread, elastic, tape,
pencils, screws, bolts, and nuts; goods of well-known and advertised
brands, which may be manufactured under contract, such as certain
tooth pastes, soaps, and facial creams; articles especially made to
draw trade, such as kitchenware, china, or other things, giving the
impression of a great deal for the money and proving a continual
fascination and marvel to the consumer unacquainted with sales
methods.
Another element conducive to the large sales of the limited-price
store is the selection of a strategic location, usually in a recognized
shopping center and often near a large department store or other
point of attraction for many people.
In addition to choice of location, other methods that the limitedprice stores employ to attract the attention of possible buyers are in
their general appearance, both external and internal. The stores
usually are painted in brilliant colors and a similarity exists in those
of the same chain in different cities. The windows are conspicu­
ously dressed, the most telling location for different departments
within the store is carefully studied, and goods are arranged on the
counters in such a way as to meet the eye and thus to sell themselves.
All the factors just enumerated—type of goods, location, appear­
ance, and manner of display—aid in producing the enormous sales
of these well-known chains.
The 5-and-10-ccnt store, and later the limited-price department
store, usually has had to contend with inefficient sales forces. The
idea that the arrangement of goods was such that little skill in selling
was required has, in the past, induced the payment of a low wage,
with consequent lack of interest and high labor turnover. However,
there are indications that this condition is improving in many chains.
In the New York study already referred to 10 it was found that—Selection of the girls for the job was governed by what type of girl could be
obtained at the particular time she was needed for the lowest wage the market
could stand. * * *
A few progressive local managers were trying out schemes of their own, how­
ever, even though no direct stimulus came from the central office.
’ Hayward, Walter S., and White, Pereival. Chain Stores. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (Inc.), 1922, p. 144.

«Ibid., p. 75.
“ Ibid., p. 106.
w New York State.
pp. 13, 14, 15.

Department of Labor.

67294°—30------2




The Employment ol Women in 5 and 10 Cent Stores, 1921,

4

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STOKES

In two of the eight chains studied in New York it was found that
effort was being made to teach salesmanship, and this “showed
results at least in the prevailing spirit in their stores.” In one of
these the type of salesgirl “was strikingly higher than in any of the
other stores visited.” Of this chain it was stated in addition that—
The frank and open desire of the central executives and of the local managers
in this chain to talk over their problems and to secure ideas from other progressive
establishments on hours, wages, and methods of employment was in striking
contrast to the hidebound, overorganized spirit shown in some other instances.
SCOPE AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

In studies of industries in 18 States, all but one of which were sur­
veyed in the years 1920 to 1925, inclusive, the Women’s Bureau has
included investigation of 5,282 women in 253 limited-price depart­
ment stores. Most of these were 5-and-10-cent or 5-10-and-25-cent
chain stores, but a few were independent establishments and a few
sold goods up to 50 cents or a dollar. Definite information as to
numbers of employees, hour schedules, wages, and working condi­
tions was recorded by investigators from interviews with employers
and managers, from time-book records of hours worked and amounts
paid, and from personal inspection of the plants. In order that com­
parable material should be secured, records ordinarily were copied
directly from pay rolls by the agents of the Women’s Bureau. In
every store included the agent took down the actual amount paid to
each woman employed in a week that fell within the same current
month or season for all firms studied in the same State. Every
effort was made to insure that the week taken represented normal
business conditions and contained no holidays and that no unusual
circumstances had affected earnings or time worked. Employees
were asked to furnish information as to nativity, age, living con­
dition, marital status, and experience in the trade. In some cases
this was supplemented by facts obtained from home visits. The
States included, dates of surveys, and numbers of establishments
and of women studied were as follows:
Number of—

Number of—
State

Year of
survey

i1920-1925
1922
1922
1924
1928
1920 and
1921
1924
1920
1920

State

Estab­
lish­ Women
ments

Year of
survey

2 253

5, 282

1921

13
11
7
24
11

206
163
99
516
258

20
9
35

546
301
287

1921
1924
1922
1922
1922
1924
1920
1921
1925

Oklahoma-------- ------ --

Estab­
lish­ Women
ments
9
8
4
14
11
13
15
20
6
9
14

236
145
194
442
309
420
341
213
207
335

i See footnote on p. 5.
* Includes some stores selling goods at 25 cents to a dollar.
* Excludes Baltimore, which see.

The hours of work and the character of the personnel as regards
nativity, age, marital and living condition, and experience in the
trade are factors that ordinarily differ but little during a period of




5

INTRODUCTION

years. Earnings, on the other hand, are likely to show a considerable
variation from year to year, though the chain stores are less subject
to severe financial fluctuations than are most other industries. The
data on earnings in any one State are comparable as far as that State
is concerned, but various surveys were made over a period extending
from 1920 to 1925, inclusive.11 For this reason the original data have
been supplemented by securing a week’s earnings in 1928. In most
cases the week selected was in October. These figures were obtained
for 6,061 women in 179 establishments in 18 States and 5 additional
cities. Of the women reported, 3,387 were employed in the same
States, and in most cases in the same cities, for which earnings had
been taken at an earlier period, many identical establishments being
included; the remaining 2,674 women were in States and cities not
before surveyed by the bureau. In addition, earnings were ascer­
tained for 1,776 women whose regular work was on Saturday only.
The following summary shows the States and cities included and
the number of establishments and of women whose earnings were
ascertained in 1928:
Number of—
State or city

All places..................................

179

6,061

Arkansas.......... ...........................
California....................................

6
35
4
24
5
13
2
5
5
3

114
916
46
516
88
205
65
97
549
45

Kentucky......................... ...........
Maryland........................ .
Michigan _ ....................... .......
Mississippi-................................

State or city

Estab­
lish­ Women
ments

State:

Florida_________ __________
Georgia

Number of—
Estab­
lish­ W omen
ments

State—Continued:
New Jersey.--_________ ___

City:

4

161

317

380

.11 In the case of Florida the State survey was made in 1928, but its data on hours and personal informa­
tion have been tabulated with those of earlier surveys because, as described at ove, a difference in date
ordinarily does not make such material noncomparable.




SUMMARY OF OUTSTANDING FACTS
Scope.
1. State surveys:
States visited_______*____________________
Stores visited_______________________________
Women employed in these stores____________
2. Earnings in 1928:
Stales in which earnings wore taken_________
Additional cities in which earnings were taken
Stoies reporting_____________________________
Women for whom earnings were reported____
The workers.
1. Nativity, reported by 2,946 women:
American-born______________________________
Foreign-born___________________________~~~ "
2. Age, reported by 3,086 women:
Under 18 years______________________________
18 and under 20 years___________________
20 and under 26 years______________________
25 years and over__________________________
3. Living condition, reported by 3,047 women:
Living with relatives________________________
Living independently_______________________
4. Marital status, reported by 2,938 women:
Single______■_______________________________
Married_______________________________
_ Widowred, separated, or divorced_____________
5. Time in the trade, reported by 2,730 women:
Under 1 year______________________________
1 and under 2 years______________________
2 and under 3 years________________________
3 and under 4 years______________________ _
4 and under 5 years________________________
5 and under 10 years______________________ ~
10 years and over_________________________
Hours.
1. Daily hours, scheduled for 5,224 women:
.
Under 8 hours__________________________
- 8 hours_______________________________
Over 8 and under 9 hours________________
9 hours________________________________
2. Saturday hours, scheduled for 5,219 women:
8 hours and under_______________________
_
Over 8 and under 9 hours_______________ '
9 hours_______________________________
Over 9 and under 10 hours__________________
10 hours_______________________________l l
Over 10 and under 11 hours__________________
11 and under 12 hours_________________
■
12 and under 12)4 hours_____________ ""
u Excludes 1,776 women whose regular work was on Saturday only.

6




Number

18
253
- 5, 282
18
5
179
12 6, 06 x
Per cent

96. 7
3. 3
28.
28.
26.
17.

3
3
2
1

92. 0
8. 0
82. 1
11. 4
6. 5
41.
21.
14.
8.
4.
8.
1.

2
8
4
0
9
3
5

5.
32.
32.
30.

0
5
0
6

3.
18.
19.
4.
24.
7.
14.
7.

9
0
9
3
1
3
5
9

7

INTRODUCTION

Hours—Continued.
Per cent
3. Weekly hours, scheduled for 5,224 women:
5.9
48 hours and under------------------------------------------------------------57. 9
Over 48 and under 54 hours-----------------------------------------------11. 8
54 hours
8. 7
Over 54 and including 55 hours------------------------------------------15. 8
Over 55 and under 60 hours-----------------------------------------------4. Relation of hour schedules to hours legally permitted in the
Number
State:
14
States that restricted daily hours----------------------------- .'VUI
States restricting daily hours in which all women included
10
had a daily schedule shorter than the legal maximum-----States in which the legal maximum was less than 10 hours...
1
13
States that restricted weekly hours.-----------------------States restricting weekly hours in which all women included
7
had a weekly schedule shorter than the legal maximum----- .
3
States in which the legal maximum was less than 60 hours------

Earnings.

1. Week’s earnings in States studied from 1920 to 1925:

States in which week’s earnings were taken .. ..........................
States in which more than one-half of the women reported
earned under $9------------------------ -----------------------------------­
States in which more than one-half of the women reported
earned $10 or over---------------------------------2 Week’s earnings and weekly rates in States studied from 192U to

14

3

States in which earnings and rates were taken..
-----------Id
States in which the median of the earnings of the women
included fell (by 1.1 per cent to 7.8 per cent) below the
median of their rates----- -------- ------------------------------12
States in which more than one-half of the women reported had
rates under $9------ -------- --------------------------------------2
States in which more than one-half of the women reported had
rates of $10 or over-------------- ■ ----------------------- - -,y-5
States in which more than one-half of the women reported had .
rates of $12 or over--------------------------2
3 Week’s earnings and time in the trade in States studied from
'
1920 to 1925:
, ,
,
,
Percent
Women who had been in the trade less than 1 year who re­
ceived $10 and over.-------- ---------------------------------24- 4
Women who had been in the trade 5 and under 10 years who
received $10 and over---------------------- ----------------- :,U" 78' S
4. Earnings in limited-price stores compared to those in other
industries:
. ,,
.
•
■* j „
Per cent by which median of the earnings in limited-price
stores fell below highest median in other industries m
same State or city--------------------------r-------y---.-- 3?' 4 to 53' 7
Per cent by which median earnings in limited-price stores
rose above lowest median in other industries m same State
or city--------- ---------------- ----------------------------------------- Llt° V
Number

States in which median earnings in limited-price stores were
lower than those in any other industry in the State.............
6. Year’s earnings in States studied from 1920 to 1925.
States in which year’s earnings were taken.. -.-----------------States in which the median of the earnings of the women re­
ported was under $500--------------------- -------- ----------------------States in which the median of the earnings of the women re­
ported was over $600-------------------------------------------------------




4

4

8

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

Earnings—Continued.
6. Week’s earnings in 1928:
Number
States in which week's earnings were taken_____________
18
Additionai cities in which week’s earnings were taken
5
Establishments reporting__________________
179
Women for whom earnings were reported111111""”"“
Median of the earnings of these women-----^ 6, 061
$12
Per cent of the women reported who earned" under $10"I"
Per cent of the women reported who earned $15 and over’""" 25. 6
btates m which more than one-half of the women reported 29. 8
earned under $10______________________ __ _
1
7
States in which more than one-half of the" women "reported
earned $12 or over__________________ _
___
6
Cities in which more than one-half’ of "the women’ "reported
earned $12 or over____________________
_
5
States in which the median of" the earning's of" the'women "in­
cluded fell (by 2.2 per cent to 10 per cent) below the
median of their rates_____________ 11

4

11 Esdudes 1,776 women whose regular work was on Saturday only.




PAST II
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Before considering scheduled hours and earnings in limited-price
department stores it is of interest to know something of the personal
history of the women involved, to ascertain whether most of them
were American or foreign born, were young or old, lived, at home or
independently, were single or had been married, and had been in
such stores for longer or shorter periods.
Nativity.
The proportion of foreign born among the 2,946 women reporting
on nativity was very small, only 3.3 per cent. In five States Arkansas, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, and Oklahoma all those
reporting were American born. In Delaware and in Kentucky only 1,
in Alabama and in Tennessee only 2, and in Maryland and in South
Carolina only 4 were reported as foreign born. The other States
had the following numbers of foreign born: Ohio, 8; Florida, 9;
Missouri, 10; Illinois, 16; New Jersey, 19; and Rhode Island, 20. A
very few of those in each of five States were negro women, as follows:
9 in Alabama, 2 each in Arkansas and in Missouri, and 3 each in
Kentucky and in Ohio.
Age.
.
The data on age reported by 3,086 women may be seen in Table I in
the appendix. As was to be expected, the proportion of young women
was large. Of the total number reporting age nearly 60 per cent
were less than 20 years old and well over a fourth were under 18.
Nearly 83 per cent were under 25 years of age, and of these nearly
the same proportions were 16 and under 18, 18 and under 20, and
20 and under 25. More women were found in each of these groups
than were 25 years and over.
In 12 States more than one-half and in 3 other States nearly onehalf of the women reporting were under 20. The largest group of
those reporting in each of the following 9 States was 16 and under 18
years: Alabama, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri,
New Jersey, Rhode Island, and South Carolina, the largest proportions
being in Kansas, Maryland, and New Jersey—43 per cent in each
case. In the States of Florida, Illinois, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Ten­
nessee the largest group was 18 and under 20, the proportions at
these ages ranging from 29.6 per cent in Illinois to 44.3 per cent in
Oklahoma. In each of the following States the largest group was
20 and under 25: Arkansas, 40.7 per cent; Mississippi, 35.1 per cent;
and Delaware, 34.5 per cent.
Living condition.
Living conditions of the women are reported in Appendix Table II.
Of the 3,047 women reporting living condition only 8 per cent lived
independently, that is, boarded and lodged with people to whom they




9

10

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

were not related. The remaining 92 per cent lived with relatives, a
proportion that is not surprising, since so many of the women were
girls under 20. Some of the women lived with parents, sisters, or
other relatives and some were married. The data for one State
showed the relationship of the women to those with whom they lived
and in this case more than 85 per cent of the girls with relatives were
daughters living at home.
•
In this connection attention should be drawn to a matter recognized
by economists—that it is very poor social economy to proceed on
the theory that the unmarried woman at home should be paid a low
wage because she can live more cheaply at home. While it is true
that the family life can effect some saving, the amount thereof often
is greatly exaggerated. To the extent that the employed girl is
unable to maintain herself entirely she becomes dependent upon her
family, and thus contributes materially to any precarious financial
condition existing within the family while actually spending her time
and energy in work that should afford her a living. More than this,
in the case of the girl receiving somewhat more adequate return for
her labor it has been shown repeatedly that a large majority of those
living at home must contribute to the support of others besides them­
selves if the family is to be maintained above the subsistence level.
It is interesting to compare the proportions of the workers in the
limited-price stores who lived with relatives with the proportions of
the women in the same States who were in general mercantile estab­
lishments and who lived with relatives, women who tend to be some­
what older in years than those in the limited-price stores. The
Women’s Bureau studies include 16,003 women in general mercantile
establishments in the 17 States under consideration, and in every
State a larger proportion of those in the limited-price stores than of
those in general mercantile establishments lived with relatives, the
proportions differing by more than 10 per cent in Maryland, Illinois,
and Kansas, and by more than 9 per cent in Missouri and Delaware.1
Of the total number of women in general mercantile establishments
84.5 per cent lived with relatives; in three States more than 90 per
cent were with relatives.
Marital status.
Of the 2,938 women who reported upon whether they were single
or had been married, 82.1 per cent were single. Only 6.5 per cent
were widowed, separated, or divorced. The largest proportions of
single women were in New Jersey and in Kansas, in each of which
more than 90 per cent were unmarried. Between 85 and 90 per cent
were single in the States of Oklahoma, Delaware, Tennessee, Missis­
sippi, Rhode Island, and Alabama, and between 80 and 85 per cent in
Arkansas, Florida, and Maryland. Women who were or had been
married predominated in no State, but the largest proportion was in
Georgia, in which more than a third of those reporting had been
married. In Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky, South Carolina, and Illinois
approximately a fourth were or had been married. The marital
status of the women reporting may be seen in Appendix Table III.
1 In Alabama and Georgia women in all stores were included, those in 5-and-lQ-eent stores being thrown
with others. There were 1,263 women included in these States.




PERSONAL INFORMATION

11

Tims in the trade.
The time 2,730 women reporting had worked in the trade appears
in Appendix Table IV. Frequent change is indicated, since more
than two-fifths had been in the trade for less than a year and nearly
a fourth had worked for one and under two years. About a fourth
of all the women reporting had been in the trade less than six months,
and less than 10 per cent had worked for as much as five years.
In South Carolina and in Illinois the largest group of women, 33
and 29.5 per cent, respectively, had been in the trade for one and
under two years. In every other State the largest group had worked
for less than a year, and this group included more than half of the
women reporting in Oklahoma, Maryland, and Kansas. In the
last named, two women in three had been at work less than a year
and practically half the women reporting had less than six months’
experience. More than 30 per cent of the women included in Mary­
land and Kentucky, more than 25 per cent of those in Oklahoma,
Rhode Island, Missouri, New Jersey, and Ohio, and more than 20
per cent of those in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Delaware had worked
in these stores less than six months.
While such large proportions of the women studied had been in
the trade for only a short time, in 3 States from 12 to 15 per cent
and in 11 others'from 5 to 10 per cent had been in the trade for 5
and under 10 years. In no State had more than two of the women
studied been in the trade for as long as 15 years, and in only three
States had as many as six women done such work for 10 years.
SUMMARY OF PERSONAL DATA

Of 2,946 women reporting nativity 96.7 per cent were American
born. In five States none were foreign born, and in each of the five
States in which negroes were found they were few in number.
Of 3,086 women reporting age 82.9 per cent were under 25, 56.6
per cent under 20, and 28.3 per cent under 18. In each of 12 States
more than half of the women and in each of 3 States almost half were
under 20.
Of 3,047 women reporting living condition 92 per cent were with
relatives. Only 8 in every 100 women were living independently.
Of 2,938 women reporting marital status more than 8 in every 10
were single. In two States over 90 per cent and in six other States
over 85 per cent were single. In one State over a third and in three
States about a fourth were or had been married.
Of 2,730 women reporting time in the trade 41.2 per cent had been
in their trade for less than a year and practically a fourth for less than
six months. In 15 States the largest group had worked less than a
year and in no State had one-half of the women reporting worked for
as much as two years.
67294°—30------ 3







PART III
SCHEDULED HOURS
Daily hours.
The regular schedules of working hours were reported for 252 estab­
lishments, employing 5,224 women. Three-eighths of these women,
in nearly a third of the establishments, had a day of 8 hours or less.
A 9-hour day was scheduled for about 30 per cent of the women, em­
ployed in almost half of the stores included. The remaining women
had a day of over 8 and under 9 hours.
There was considerable difference among the States in regard to the
proportion of women who had a day of 8 hours or less. Appendix Table
V shows by State the daily hours scheduled in the establishments and
the numbers of women affected. All the women in Baltimore, 92.9
per cent of those in Delaware, over four-fifths of those in Ohio, about
three-fourths of those in Illinois and Kentucky, and approximately
two-thirds of those in Iowa, Maryland, New Jersey, and Rhode
Island had a schedule of 8 hours or less. A schedule of over 8 hours
applied to all women in the States of Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri,
Oklahoma, and South Carolina, and to the following respective pro­
portions of those in 'Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, and
Kansas: 98.1, 91.9, 90.5, 84.2, and 63.1 per cent. In all other States
less than one-half of the women had hour schedules so long.
Lunch period.
The time allowed for lunch and rest in the middle of the day was
one hour for about 90 per cent both of the establishments and of the
women studied. It was less than an hour in only 8 of the 218 estab­
lishments reported, running as short as 30 minutes in four of these,
three of which were in Maryland and one in Oklahoma. The longest
period was an hour and a half, allowed in two stores in Rhode Island.
More than an hour was allowed by two other establishments in that
State and by seven in other States. About 6 per cent of the women
studied had less and 4 per cent had more than one hour for lunch.
Saturday hours.
As mercantile establishments have shown a tendency to shorten
their hours and to introduce a shorter Saturday in the summer, a
very real problem has been created in the management of the limitedprice stores, for which Saturday is almost always the big trading
day. While none of the women had a Monday-to-Friday schedule
of oyer 9 hours, nearly 60 per cent of them, in about the same pro­
portion of the establishments studied, had a schedule of more than
9 hours on Saturday. Table VI gives, by State, the Saturday hour
schedules in the establishments studied and the number of women
affected.
About a fourth, both of the establishments and of the women, had
a schedule of 10 hours on Saturday; more than a fifth worked more
than 10 but loss than 12 hours. The women in 15 stores in four




13

14

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

States had a 12-hour day on Saturday and those in 8 establishments
in two States a Saturday of over 12 and under 12}£ hours.
As in the case of daily hours, there was considerable difference
among the States in the proportions of women with a relatively
long Saturday. In Ohio and Missouri, which showed a tendency to
short daily hours for the larger groups, Saturday hours showed a
similar tendency, and the same was true for the city of Baltimore.
In Illinois, while considerable numbers of women had a Saturday of
10 hours, well over half had a shorter schedule. In Mississippi,
Kentucky, and New Jersey most workers had a 10-hour Saturday.
While the women in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma
generally had more than an 8-hour day, only one store reporting in
these States had a Saturday of more than 9 hours. In three States in
which many women had short daily hours—Delaware, Iowa, and
Maryland—considerable numbers had long hours on Saturday.
However, only one of the Baltimore stores reporting had a long Satur­
day. In Mississippi, while all had more than an 8-hour day and none
had a Saturday shorter than It) hours, a few had a schedule of more
than 10 hours on Saturday. In Tennessee more than half the women
had a Saturday longer than 10 hours. Daily hours were above the
average and Saturday hours were very long for large groups in the
States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina.
Weekly hours.
In any industry the total time worked during the week is perhaps
of greater significance than is the length of the day. In the limitedprice department store this is of especial importance, because the
Saturday hours ordinarily are longer than those on other days and
give insufficient time for recuperation from fatigue. In addition,
most of the workers in these stores are quite young, and, while their
recovery from fatigue may for the time being appear more rapid, the
constant drain on their physical powers is, because of their youth,
more likely to be communicated to the race.
Appendix Table VII shows the weekly hour schedules applying to
the stores and to the women studied. Only about 3 per cent of the
women included had a weekly schedule of 48 hours, the equivalent of
8 hours on 6 days of the week; another group of almost the same size
had a week shorter than 48 hours. Approximately 70 per cent of
the women had a week of more than 48 and including 54 hours,
roughly the equivalent of a 9-hour day for 5% or 6 days. For about
a fourth of the women studied the weekly schedule was longer than
54 hours.
The proportions of women having reasonable schedules of weekly
hours differed greatly among the States. All the women in Rhode
Island, over 90 per cent of those in Baltimore, and more than threefourths of those in Ohio had a week of less than 50 hours. In Ohio
and in Baltimore no woman had a schedule in excess of 50 hours.
Other States in which the schedule for all was 54 hours or less are
Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, New Jersey, and Oklahoma. In
Illinois and Kentucky between 70 and 80 per cent of the women had a
week of 50 hours or less and in the former nearly 60 per cent had a
schedule of less than 50 hours. In Iowa nearly 70 per cent had a
schedule of less than 52 hours and nearly 60 per cent had one of less
than 50. In Arkansas over nine-tenths of the women and in Okla­




SCHEDULED HOUKS

15

homa about three-fourths had a schedule of 54 hours. From 60 to
100 per cent of those in Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina,
and Alabama had a week of more than 54 hours. In Mississippi
over 90 per cent of the women had a schedule of 55 hours. In
Florida more than 80 per cent, in South Carolina and in Alabama
nearly 60 per cent, and in Georgia about 25 per cent of the women
had a schedule of over 55 hours.
Relation of hour schedules to hours legally permitted in States.
In spite of the somewhat difficult adjustment between the needs
of its business and the shifting hour standards, the limited-price
department store in many cases appears to have given employees the
advantage of hours shorter than those legally permitted, even in
respect to the Saturday schedule. Appendix Table VIII shows the
number of women with schedules shorter than the legal maximum of
daily and of weekly hours in 14 States in which standards had been
established by law.
Of the 3,988 women studied in these States 86.7 per cent had daily,
36.6 per cent had Saturday, and 70.6 per cent had weekly hours
shorter than the legal maximum. A number of these States allowed
a day of 10 hours or more, but no store had hours in excess of 9.
Five States fixed a daily maximum of 9 hours and also a weekly limit,
and of the 1,640 women reported in such States 67.6 per cent had a
day, 62 per cent a week, shorter than the limit permitted. In the
9- hour States 33.5 per cent of the women had a Saturday shorter
than the legal day, and this was true of 27.1 per cent of those in the
10- hour States. Thus, in 10 of the States under consideration the
women in all the stores included had a daily-hour schedule shorter
than that permitted by law. One of these, Ohio, had a legal limit of
9 hours, while seven fixed a 10-hour limit and two permitted a day
of longer than 10 hours.
It has been noted that Saturday tends to be the longest workday
in the stores. About half of the establishments studied in Ohio, and
about three-fourths of the women, had a Saturday hour schedule
shorter than the legal limit of 9 hours. Of the women in the 10-hour
States none in Mississippi nor in New Jersey had less than 10 hours
on Saturday; in one-half of the establishments in Illinois and Rhode
Island the Saturday schedule was shorter than the legal limit; and a
Saturday of less than 10 hours was scheduled for about nine-tenths
of the Baltimore women, about a third of those in other Maryland
towns, and about a tenth of those in Kentucky, and for a few women
in Delaware. For the two States that allowed a day of more than
10 hours it will be seen that in Tennessee the Saturday schedule in
about a third of the establishments was less than the 10% hours
allowed by law, affecting 43 per cent of the women studied, and in
South Carolina somewhat more than a fourth of the women, in about
half of the stores included, had a Saturday schedule of less than the
12 hours legally permitted.
When weekly hours are compared with the legal requirements in
the various States it is found that many limited-price stores showed a
tendency to be well ahead of the laws in the shortening of hours for
their employees. In Ohio, where the legal maximum was 50 hours,
76.2 per cent of the women, found in slightly over one-half of the
stores included, had a week of less than 50 hours. In the 54-hour




16

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

States all the women in all stores included in New Jersey and Rhode
Island, 93.4 per cent of the women in Missouri, 68.2 per cent of those
in Kansas, 24.9 per cent in Oklahoma, and 6.7 per cent in Arkansas
had a schedule of less than the legal maximum, and in Kansas and
Missouri well over one-half of the establishments studied had adopted
a shorter week than the law permitted. In Delaware 55 hours was
the limit fixed, but the women in all but one establishment, 99 per cent
in all, had a shorter week. The legal standard was 57 hours in Ten­
nessee, 60 hours in the States of Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi,
and South Carolina, but every store included in these States had fixed
a shorter schedule. The States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Iowa,
and Illinois had no restriction on weekly hours in stores," although
Illinois fixes a 10-hour day. A week of 54 hours or less was observed
in all establishments in Iowa, in 17 of the 20 in Illinois, in 4 of the
13 in Alabama, in 2 of the 11 in Georgia, and in 2 of the 24 in Florida,
and this affected respectively 100, 95.4, 38.3, 25.6, and 15.5 per cent
of the women studied in these States. Both in Iowa and in Illinois
nearly 60 per cent of the women had a week of less than 50 hours,
although neither of these States fixes a legal limit to weekly hours
and the 10-hour daily limit in Illinois would admit of a 70-hour week.
Hours in different chains.
An explicit hour policy to be applied to all its branches is not fixed
by the management of the limited-price-department-store chain, but
hours differ somewhat with the locality and with other conditions.
In some States all the stores in one or more of the cities showed the
same hour schedule no matter what chain they belonged to, while
those in other parts of the State, although belonging to the same
chains, had different hours. Some variation among the different
chains in the shortening of hours may be indicated by the table fol­
lowing, which also includes the independent stores and a few in smaller
chains.
Table 1.—Scheduled

daily and weekly hours, by chain or other class of store
Establishments in which
daily hours were—

Chain or other class

Chain I________ _____ ___________
Chain 11...................... .............. ............
Chain III*...... .............. .........................
Chain IV......................... .................
Chain V
Smaller chains and independent
stores.................................. ................

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments Under
8

1119
» 50
25
19
5

7
2
2

J 28

1

Over
8 and
under
9

8

30
3
16
6
3

27
16

7

8

9

55
36

Establishments in which
weekly hours were—
Over
50
55
54
48
48
and
and and under and and
under under
under under
54
55
60
50
7
2

13
3

42
12

1

24
22
1

12

1

4

11

7

34
18
10
6

i Details aggregate more than total, because some firms appear in more than one hour group.

A daily schedule of 8 hours or less was the practice in more than
70 per cent of the stores in Chain III, in 60 per cent of those in V, in
about 30 per cent of these in I and IV and the independent establish­
ments, but in less than 10 per cent of those in Chain II. A day of 9
hours was the schedule in widely different degrees in the various chains,




17

SCHEDULED HOURS

04 per cent of the stores in Chain II having 9 hours, 58 per cent in
IV, 46 per cent in I, 43 per cent in the independent stores, 20 per cent
in Chain V, and only 4 per cent in III.
In weekly hours, also, the chains varied. The weekly schedule
shows that less than 54 hours prevailed in 23 of 25 stores in Chain
III, in 4 of 5 stores in Chain V, and in more than half the establish­
ments in Chain I and the independent stores. A week of 55 hours
and over was the schedule in more than a fourth of the establishments
in Chain I, in nearly a third in II, in more than half in IV, in more
than a fifth in smaller chains and independent stores, but in no
establishment in Chains III and V.
A tendency in all chains to fix hours shorter than the maximum
permitted by law is indicated in Table 2. In the establishments
affected by legislation hours were shorter than the legal maximum
in about 60 per cent of the stores in Chain II, in 70 and under 80 per
cent of those in Chains I and V, and in 80 to 100 per cent of those in
Chains III and IV. Both daily and weekly hours were shorter than
the legal maximum in about three-fourths of the independent and
smaller chain establishments affected by legislation.
Table 2.—Relation of daily and weekly hours to hours legally established, by chain
or other class of store
Establishments for which Establishments for' which
weekly hours were—
daily hours were—
Restricted bylaw
Chain or other class

Chain IIT__...................................................
Smaller chains and independent stores..

Number
of estab­
lishments

119
56
25
i9
5
28

Restricted by law

Not
Not
Having
Having restrict­
restrict­
hours
hours
ed by Num­ shorter ed by Num­ shorter
law
law
ber than legal
ber
than legal
maxi­
maxi­
mum
mum
24
13
4
10
1
5

95
43
21
9
4
23

74
26
20
9
3
17

39
14
8
10
1
5

180
2 42
8 17
9
4
23

57
25
14
8
3
17

1 Excludes 15 establishments in Illinois, in which the law limits daily hours only.
2 Excludes 1 establishment in Illinois.
8 Excludes 4 establishments in Illinois.

As has been pointed out, most of the States in which these stores
were located had a legal day of 10 hours or over; a few had no limit.
In the five States that had a 9-hour day and a 50-hour or a 54-hour
week were 68 stores belonging to Chains I and II. Of those in
Chain I, somewhat loss than half had a day shorter than the legal maxi­
mum and nearly three-fifths had a week shorter than was allowed by
law. In Chain II, about two-fifths had both a shorter day and a
shorter week than was permitted by law.
The foregoing discussion indicates that while there may have been
some difference in the degree in which various chains were in advance
of the legal standard in shortening their hours, all had introduced
into many of their stores hour schedules shorter than the maximum
permitted by law. This principle was applied even in the States in
which legislation required hour schedules shorter than those per­




18

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STOKES

mitted in the majority of the States included, and in the State regu­
lating daily hours but fixing no maximum for the week (Illinois)
nearly 60 per cent of the women had a week of less than 50 hours.
SUMMARY OF HOUR DATA

Scheduled hours were reported for 5,224 women, of whom 37.4 per
cent had a day of 8 hours or less and 30.6 per cent a day of 9 hours;
the remainder had a day of over 8 and under 9 hours. The lunch
period was one hour for about 90 per cent of the women reported.
About a fourth of the women had a Saturday schedule of 10 hours,
more than a fifth a schedule of over 10 and under 12 hours, and
practically a twelfth a schedule of 12 to 12% hours. The weekly
schedule of about 70 per cent of the women was in the groups of
over 48 and including 54 hours, and four-fifths of the remainder had
hours longer than these.
In the States having legislation regulating hours 3,988 women
were reported. The daily, weekly, and Saturday schedules were
shorter than the legal maximum for, respectively, 86.7, 70.6, and
36.6 per cent of the women in these States. In five States in which
the law restricted hours to 9 daily, with a weekly limit, 67.6 per cent
of the women had daily, 62 per cent had weekly, and 33.5 per cent
had Saturday hours shorter than the maximum permitted. The
data show that all chains had introduced into many of their stores
hour schedules shorter than those allowed by law.




PART IV
EARNINGS, 1920 TO 1925
Week’s earnings.
Week’s earnings were ascertained for 3,444 women in States studied
at some time from the second half of 1920 to early 1925, inclusive.
The data for the stores in any one State are comparable, but figures
for the various States can not be considered so, owing to differences
in business conditions at the different dates and sometimes to other
reasons as well.
Table X in the appendix gives the median of the earnings of the
women studied in each State, with year and month. The median
means that one-half of the women included earned more and onehalf earned less than the figure given. The highest median—$11.90
for 157 women in Rhode Island—was of earnings toward the end of
1920, just at the close of the postwar high-price period in Rhode
Island and before the heaviest effects of the ensuing depression had
been felt there. In September, 1922, when prices had again reached
practically their 1919 level, 309 women in New Jersey had a median
of $11.30 and 420 women in Ohio had a median of $10.55. In none
of the other States was the median so high as $10, although in seven
of them practically all the women were full-time workers. In five
States the medians were less than $9. Three of these were based
on earnings during the severe business depression in effect in these
States in 1921 and early 1922. Mississippi’s median was of earnings
at the end of 1924 and practically all the women included were full­
time workers. The remaining median, that of Kansas, was based
on the earnings of workers nearly 30 per cent of whom were not on
full time.
Earnings and rates of pay.
Obviously, the amount earned may differ from the rate of pay
bargained for if overtime is worked or if time is lost through illness
or other cause. During the 5-year period both earnings and rates
were reported for 3,051 women. The extent to which the amounts
actually earned by these women varied from their rates may be seen
from Tables IX and X in the appendix. In every State but one the
median of earnings was below that of rates, the variation ranging
from 1.1 per cent in South Carolina to 7.8 per cent in Georgia.
The highest median of rates was that of $12.30 in Rhode Island,
where wages were secured at the end of 1920. In New Jersey, sur­
veyed in September, 1922, when business recovery from depression
was practically complete, the median for 281 women was $12.25.
The median of the’actual earnings of the Rhode Island women fell
3.3 per cent below that of their rates, that of the New Jersey women
3.7 per cent below their rates. The lowest median of rates was $8.20,
that of 193 women in Mississippi, at the end of 1924, and the median
67294°—30
19
4




20

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

of their earnings was 2.4 per cent above this figure though below
earnings in every other State except one studied early in 1922 while
still suffering from the effects of depression.
Proportions of women earning certain amounts.
Even more telling than the medians of earnings discussed in the
foregoing are the proportions of women who earned certain amounts
or who had certain rates. The distribution of women at the various
ranges of earnings and of rates in 13 States may be seen from Table IX
in the appendix.
Of the 3,051 women included only 14 had rates of as much as $20.
These were distributed among 10 States, 2 of them being in each of
the States of Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey, and Rhode Island.
Three of these women had rates as high as 125. There were 38 women
who had rates of $18 or over. These included 2.5 per cent of those
in New Jersey and in Rhode Island and 1 per cent or more of those
in each of six other States. Altogether, 151 women had rates of $15
or over. Neither Delaware nor Mississippi had any women earning
so much, but in the other States the proportions ranged from less
than 2 per cent in Tennessee, Alabama, and Oklahoma to 8 per cent
in Ohio and New Jersey and 12.1 per cent in Rhode Island.
In eight States more than half of the women had rates less than $10.
There were 343 women with rates less than $8 and 52 in nine States
with rates below $7. In the remaining five States more than half of the
women included had rates of $10 or over. These were in New Jersey,
Rhode Island, Ohio, Georgia, and Missouri, in which respectively
92.9, 80.3, 71.4, 55.7, and 53.2 per cent of the women had such rates.
In New Jersey 59.8 per cent and in Rhode Island 58.6 per cent of
the women had rates of $12 or over.
As is generally the case, larger numbers of women had low earnings
than had low rates. In every State but two, in one of which the
numbers were equal, more women earned under $10 than had rates
as low as this. The proportion having earnings of less than $10
exceeded by more than 10 per cent the proportion having rates of
less than $10 in Georgia, New Jersey, Ohio, and Oklahoma.
Rates and earnings each less than $10 applied to over 90 per cent
of the women studied in Mississippi, to over 80 per cent of those in
Alabama, and to over 70 per cent of those in South Carolina. Figures
for the last two States were taken in a period of depression. Rates
and earnings each $10 or more applied in Ohio to over 60 per cent
of the women included, in Rhode Island to over 70 per cent, and in
New Jersey to over 80 per cent. Rates for nearly 60 per cent of the
women and earnings for nearly 50 per cent were $12 or above in
New Jersey and Rhode Island, and both rates and earnings of over a
third of the women in Ohio were $12 or more.
Of all the women for whom rates and earnings -were obtained just
over one-half had rates of less than $10, but about 57 per cent had
earnings that fell below that figure.
Earnings and time in the trade.
It is of interest to know to what extent the women who had remained
in the limited-price stores for a considerable time received higher
wages than were paid to those who had worked for shorter periods.
Earnings and time in the trade as reported for 2,065 women in 14
States are given in Table XI in the appendix.



EARNINGS, 1920 TO 1925

21

In 11 States enough of the women included had worked for as much
as two years to make possible a comparison of their medians with
those of women having less experience. In nine of these there was
a continuous increase in the medians with increased time in the
trade. In three States a .general increase up to 10 years of service
was indicated. In four States the medians of the earnings of women
who had been in the trade for one and under two years were 13 per
cent or more above those of women who had worked less than a year.
It is of especial importance to consider the earnings of women who
had been in the trade 5 and under 10 years in relation to those of women
with experience of less than a year. The former represent the more
stable workers and those who might be expected to receive the highest
payments made, while the latter include the beginners. In Table
XII in the appendix may be found data for such a comparison.
Of the 2,065 women for whom earnings and time in the trade were
reported, 872, or about 42 per cent, received $10 or over, and 69,
or about 3 per cent, received $15 or more. In no State did any woman
who had been in the trade less than a year receive as much as $15,
and in two States no woman in this service group received as much
as $10. Of the remaining 824, in 12 States, who had been in the trade
less than a year, about a fourth received as much as $10; of these
none received as much as $15. Of the 165 who had been in the trade
5 and under 10 years more than three-fourths received at least $10
and nearly a fifth received as much as $15.
Of 28 women who had been in the trade for 10 years or longer more
than half earned at least $12 and a fourth earned as much as $15.
Eight earned less than $10, the rate in some cases running down to
$9 or less.
.
In 12 of the 14 States for which earnings and time in the trade
were reported the highest earnings in each case went to the women
who had worked 5 and under 10 years, although in 4 of these
States other women who had worked for shorter periods earned the
same amounts. The largest sum paid for a week’s work was $25,
earned by a woman in South Carolina in 1921; a woman in Kentucky
in the same year received over $24. Both of these workers had been
in the trade 5 and under 10 years. The largest sum earned by any
woman who had been in the trade for less than a year was $14 and
under $15, and such an amount was received by five women in three
different States in 1920 or in 1922.
Earnings in limited-price stores compared to those in other industries.
A study of the earnings of women in limited-price stores in compari­
son with those of women in other industries may be made from the data
in Table 3.




22

Women

in

5-and-io-cent

stores

Table 3.—Relation of median earnings in limited-price stores to those in other
industries, bij State

Per cent by which
median in limitedprice stores—

Total industries stud­
ied and rank of
limited-price stores
as regards median
earnings

Number of Median
of the
women
reported
earnings
in limited- in limited- Was below Was above
price stores price stores
highest
lowest
Number of Rank of
median
median
limitedfor other
for other industries
price
studied
Industries industries
stores
studied
studied

State

Rhode Island. _.
New Jersey___
Atlanta 1_____
Ohio..______
Florida 2______
Missouri____I_.
Delaware_____
Arkansas______
Oklahoma_____
Georgia 3______
Tennessee_____
South Carolina..
Kentucky.........
Mississippi.........
Kansas.................
Alabama............

157
309
40
420
516
440
99
137
340
190
317
155
215
194
237
194

$11.90
11.30
10. 85
10. 55
10.05
9. 80
9. 75
9. 50
9. 45
9.25
9.20
8.90
8. 75
8.40
8. 10

8.05

42.5
50.9
32.4
40.2
44.5
38.4
40.5
39.3
46.6
41.8
42.9
42.6
37.7
43.6
53.7
53.5

1.9
7.5
20.4
11.8
1.1

10.8

17.1
16. 7
20.9
17.5

9th.
29th.
6th.
23d.
7th.
15th.
11th.
8th.
9th.
8th.
22d.
8th.
17th.
6th.
10th.
7th.

1 See also Georgia.

fn generalVnJyTn'thifsection mornings in'lda’®01' of industries- but earnings in Florida are discussed
Excludes Atlanta, which see.

in

n!k'luin

',a,''',nn-

ln limited-price stores fell below the highest median

in 3 States and in AtW« hl?h,®st lndustrieswere general mercantile
n 2 clotW in 3 i
l printing and publishing in 3 States, cigars
packingInstate’ e“ h
’ “‘riC81 applUm!es' ™bber, *nd meat

IF--s:£s

improvement.*




°r that ma^ P«* out potties fa

EARNINGS, 1920 TO 1925

23

In a discussion of the low wage scale it must be remembered that in
the limited-price stores goods often of a high grade are sold at a very
low price, and this in itself forms a considerable service to the com­
munity, provided that it can be done without taking the legitimate
profits of the business out of the pay envelopes of the employees.
The great majority of the girls working in these stores are young
and inexperienced, and it is possible that in many cases they could
find other employment with difficulty. Since it must contend with
a high labor turnover and often with poor salesmanship, the manage­
ment is not unlikely to consider the low wage a sufficient payment
where so little sales ability and initiative is required. The managers
of the single stores in the chain have a responsible job and often
they are well paid for it, but women were not found in these positions.
Where the heads of companies have been able to rise by their own
initiative from small financial beginnings, their experiences have
accustomed them to the strict personal and business economies that
were necessary for their advance. Therefore, it is not unnatural for
them to consider that their employees can live as cheaply to-day as
they themselves did at the time of their start. These are factors
particularly characteristic of this industry that may offer some
explanation of the low wage paid.
On the other hand, attempts are being made to mitigate the low wage
by the installing of a form of bonus plan or vacation system, and a
very real pride is taken by some chains in the success of such plans.
These systems supplement, in a small degree, the low earnings of
some of the workers, and undoubtedly could be extended with profit
to employees in health and to employers in the good will and renewed
effort created.
The successful existence of limited-price stores is due in large part
to the rapid turnover of enormous quantities of goods and to various
economies of organization, the payment of a wage below that paid
in most other industries being only a contributing factor. The
financial reports of these chains usually show very high profits. This
would indicate the possibility of paying a considerably better wage
and of improving the selling standards within the business without
raising the price of the goods. That at least one chain is making
efforts in this direction is evidence of its practicability.
Year’s earnings.
More significant than the earnings during a single week are those
during a 12-month period, since the expenses of the worker continue
throughout the year whether or not she receives normal payments
every week. Medians of the year’s earnings of women in 14 States
may be seen in Table X in the appendix.
In every State but one the earnings for the 52-week period preceding
the week for which current earnings were reported were taken for a
representative number of employees in each establishment.1 To be
included the women must have worked during at least 44 of the 52
weeks. On the whole, the earnings of these women may be consid­
ered the best possible ones in the limited-price stores in the State and
period in which taken, since they are the earnings of the steadier and*
* A very few establishments that had been operating for less than a year were omitted. The exceptional
State was Kansas, in which the figures taken were based on 50 or more weeks instead of a 52-week period
chd, consequently, are not entirely comparable with those in other States.




24

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

more responsible workers. The medians rose highest, $613, $622, and
$667, in Ohio, Missouri, and New Jersey, respectively. Since these
States were studied just after an abnormal business period, a good
deal of the time included in these figures was during the depression, but
business fluctuations appear to influence a high or low wage in the
limited-price department chain, and, in fact, in all chain stores, less
than they do in many other industries. The medians in seven States
ran from $506 to $604, and of these two were surveyed in 1920, two
in 1921, two in 1924, and one in 1925. The States having the lowest
medians of earnings for the 52-week period were Mississippi, Alabama,
and Arkansas, and in these one-half of the women included received
more, one-half less, than $431, $438, and $496, respectively. The
year for which earnings were taken in Alabama and Arkansas ended
early in 1922 and thus included the depressed time of 1921; that for
Mississippi closed at the end of 1924 and the figure, therefore, is based
on earnings for that year.
SUMMARY OF EARNINGS, 1920 TO 1925

Week’s earnings were ascertained for 3,444 women in 14 States
studied from 1920 to 1925, inclusive. The highest median was $11.90,
and in 11 States the median was less than $10. In one State earnings
were above rates; in all others they fell below by from 1.1 to 7.8 per
cent. In eight States more than half the women had rates of less
than $10; only 151 women had rates of $15 or over. The median of
the earnings ordinarily showed an increase with length of service,
although in most cases the proportion of increase was not continuous
in relation to the time worked. Of those who had been in the trade
less than a year none received as much as $15 and all but about a
fourth were paid less than $10. Of those in the trade 5 and under 10
years, nearly a fifth earned $15 or more and more than three-fourths
received at least $10. The median of the year’s earnings ranged
from $667 to $431.
In 4 of 15 States the median of the week’s earnings was lower than
that in any other industry surveyed; in 5 it was next to the lowest
and in the remaining 6 it was from 8 to 21 per cent above the lowest
median for any industry.2 In each State the median for women in
limited-price stoYes fell from about 38 to about 54 per cent below the
highest median in any other industry. It was 32.4 per cent below'
in the city of Atlanta.*
* See Table 3 and footnote 2, p. 22.




PART y
EARNINGS IN 1928
Week’s earnings.
While giving a true picture of the situation in any one place at the
time taken, the earnings discussed in the foregoing section are not
necessarily representative of present conditions. For this reason
the earnings of women during a week in the last quarter of 1928 were
secured for limited-price stores in 18 States and 5 additional cities.1
These data, covering 6,061 women in 179 establishments, are shown
in Table XIV in the appendix.
One-half of the women included received less than $12, one-half
received more, for the week’s work. The medians differed consider­
ably in the different States. The lowest was that for 97 women in
five establishments in Maryland, and was $8.80; over a third of these
women earned less than $8. The median was $9 in the six States of
Alabama, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennes­
see. The State having the highest median was California, and the
figure was $16, which is the minimum permitted by law for experi­
enced workers. The median in Michigan was $15, that in Kentucky
was $14, but in each of these States the stores included were located
in the largest cities. Of the separate cities studied Boston had the
lowest median, $12, and this was based upon 376 women in three
stores. In New York City the median for 380 women in seven stores
was $14. The highest was in Chicago and was $18. While this was
based upon but two stores, they were of different chains and employed
223 w'dmen, and the figures may bo taken as representative.
In every locality but Georgia, Rhode Island, and South Carolina
there were women whose earnings for this week were less than $5—■
as many as 21 in one State and 14 to 16 in several others. At the
other end of the scale, two saleswomen in Boston earned $40, and a
floor woman in Ohio $45, three women in Chicago received $35 or
more, and three each in Michigan, Boston, and Chicago earned $30
or more. These very low or very high figures, however, were excep­
tional. The highest amount earned in any other State was under $30;
in nine States it was under $18, in four of these under $15, in Georgia
under $14, and in Mississippi under $12.
Of the women studied only 7 per cent earned as much as $18,
70.2 per cent earned less than $15, 44.1 per cent less than $12, and
25.6 per cent less than $10.
Earnings and days worked.
More than 80 per cent (81.8) of the women studied had worked the
full week of 6 days, and more than 85 per cent had worked on 5% or 6
days. While the median for all women reported was $12, it was $13i
i Most of the data apply to a week in October, 1928, but in the case of a few establishments the figures
are for a week early in 1929.




25

26

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

for those working 6 days. The following summary shows the days
worked during the week and the medians of the women’s earnings:
Number of days worked

Total.....................
1............
i H..................... -..........................
2____
214--__________ ___________
3................

Number Median
of women
of the
reported earnings
6,036

$12.00

71
13
76
14
104

2.00
3.00
4. 00
4. 65
6.00

Number of days worked

3%.........

4...........
4 y2-.5____
53^__
6 .

Number Median
of women of Ihe
reported earnings
36
138
60
374
213
4,937

$7.00
8.05
9.00
10. 05
11.00
13.00

The foregoing shows a fairly regular progression of earnings with
number of days worked. However, women who had worked on 4
or 5 days had a median slightly more than four or five times that
for 1 day, and those who had worked on 6 days had a median six
and a half times as great as that for the 1-day workers and considerably
above that of the 5^-day workers. In effect, this puts the premium
of an additional half-day’s pay upon work during a week that lacks
an afternoon of freedom.
For each State or city the proportion of women who had worked
on 6 davs and their respective earnings may be considered from
Table XIII in the appendix. In Rhode Island 93.2 per cent of (1 e
women had worked on 6 days. In 4 other States over 85 per
cent of them, in 8 States and 3 cities 80 to 85 per cent, and in
5 States and 2 cities less than 80 per cent had worked on 6 days.
In States in which 6-day workers formed the largest propor­
tions their medians were not necessarily closer to the medians of all
workers than were those in States having smaller proportions of 6-day
workers. In 11 States and 4 cities the median was the same for all
women and for those working on 6 days; in 7 States and 1 city those
working on 6 days had higher medians than had the total number of
women, usually by the amount of $1.
Since those who had worked on 6 days may be considered the
steadiest and most responsible workers, "the amounts they received
may be taken as representative of the best actual earnings in a State
or city. In each of 7 States the largest group of these 6-day
workers earned less than $10. The range in the proportions of women
having such low earnings ran from 47.9 per cent in Kansas, through
South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Maryland, and Mississippi, to
85.8 per cent in Alabama. In 4 States—Oklahoma, Arkansas,
Florida, and Rhode Island—the largest groups of 6-day workers earned
$10 and under $12. In Florida the proportion was 42 per cent, and
nearly as many earned less than $10. In five States—Kentucky,
Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and Delaware—the largest group of
6-day workers earned $12 and under $15. In Michigan 55.9 per cent
and in California 77.6 per cent earned $15 and under $18. The
State in which the largest proportion of the women who had worked
on 6 days received $18 or over was Michigan, and these formed
28.4 per cent of the total in that State, in which, it will be remem­
bered, all the Stores surveyed were in large cities.




27

EARNINGS IN 1928

Except a very few women in New York, none of the 6-day workers
in the separate cities earned under $10; none in Milwaukee and
Indianapolis and only a few in the other cities received less than $12.
In Boston 81 per cent, and in all other cities but one the largest
group, earned $12 and under $15. In Chicago 62.5 per cent received
$18 and over.
The heavy trading on Saturday in the limited-price stores and the
consequent long hours on that day often make it necessary to employ
extra help for Saturday only. Earnings were ascertained for 1,776
women whose regular work was on Saturday only. The largest group
of these—23 per cent—earned $1.50 for Saturday work, 18.9 per cent
earned $2, 11.6 per cent $2.50, 9.5 per cent $1.25, and 8.4 per cent—
women who were in California, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio,
and Chicago—received $2.67 or more, 2 women in Chicago being
paid as much as $3.50. The remaining 28.6 per cent had earnings
scattered in various ranges, 23 women in Maryland, Missouri, and
Tennessee earning as little as $1 each. No women in any of the 5
cities were paid less than $1.75 for their Saturday’s work, and most
of these earned $2 to $2.50.
Earnings and rates of pay.
Both actual earnings and rates of pay were secured for 6,001 women.
In the main, the rates fixed may be expected to correspond quite
closely to the earnings that have been discussed for women who had
worked on 6 days. The medians of both rates and earnings are
shown by State or city in Table 4.
Table 4.—Medians of the weekly rates and of the week’s earnings, by State or city—

1928 figures
Median of the—
Number
of women
reported

All places___
State:
Alabama...........
Arkansas..........
California.........
Delaware_____
Florida..............
Georgia........ .
Kansas_______
Kentucky____
Maryland____
Michigan..........
Mississippi.......
Missouri...........
New Jersey___
Ohio................. .
Oklahoma____
Rhode Island..
South Carolina.
Tennessee..........
City:
Boston_______
Chicago______
Indianapolis_
_
Milwaukee___
New York.........




Weekly
rates

Week’s
earnings

6,001

$13.00

$12.00

144
114
916
46
516
88
205
65
97
549
45
521
161
598
347
73
100
317

9.00
10. 00
16.00
11.00
10.00
9. 00
10.00
14.00
9.00
16.00
9. 00
13.00
13. 00
12. 00
10.00
11.00
10.00
9.00

9.00
10.00
16.00
11.00
10.00
9.00
9. 00
14.00
8.80
15.00
9. 00
13.00
13.00
12.00
10. 00
11.00
9.00
9.00

376
210
84
49
380

12.00
18.00
13.00
14. 00
14.00

12.00
18.00
13.00
14.00
14.00

Per cent by
which the
median of
the earn­
ings fell
below that
of the rates
7.7

10.0
2.2
6.3

10.0

28

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STOKES

The median of the rates of all the women included was $13, but the
median of the earnings fell 7.7 per cent below this. Rates and earn­
ings medians were the same in all but four cases, the exceptions being
that earnings fell below rates by 10 per cent in Kansas and South
Carolina, by 6.3 per cent in Michigan, and by 2.2 per cent in Mary­
land. The relative proportions of women having rates and earnings
in the highest range and in ranges considerably lower may be seen
from the following:
Women having—
Range of payment

Rates as specified Earnings as specified
Number Per cent Number
101
1,053
3,942
224

1.7
17.5
65.7
3.7

487
1,518
4,203
214

Per cent
8.1
25.3
70.0
3.6

From the foregoing it appears that the proportion of women having
rates of $20 and over is similar to that of women having earnings in
the same range—in both cases less than 4 per cent of the total. While
17.5 per cent of the women reported had rates below $10, considerably
more—25.3 per cent—had earnings as low as this.
The highest or lowest rates fixed for individual workers are of less
importance than is the foregoing consideration of groups of women
earning certain amounts, and they have little value as representing
numbers of women; nevertheless, it is of interest to notice their in­
dications as to the differences among States in earning possibilities
for the lowest paid and for the exceptionally well paid. The entire
range of the rates set ran from under $6 to $45. The lowest rate
ranged from less than $6 for a woman in Ohio (although only one
other woman in that State had a rate below $8) and from less than
$7 in Tennessee and Florida to $11 and under $12 in California and
Kentucky of the States, and to $12 and under $13 in Indianapolis
and $13 and under $14 in Milwaukee of the cities. The lowest rate
was as much as $10 in only four States; it was below $10 in only one
city, New York.
In seven States and two cities 10 per cent or more of all the women
reported had actual earnings below the lowest rates fixed. Table 5
shows the lowest rate found in each State and city and the number
and per cent of women who earned less than this.




EARNINGS IN 1928

29

Table 5.—Extent to which actual earnings were less than lowest rate reported by
State or city—1928 figures

Amount at or above which all rates fell

Women whose
earnings
were
less than lowest
rate reported

State or city i

Number
$5............................
$6_.........................

12
16
22
15

Florida............... .............
Arkansas................
Delaware................ .
Kansas____ _____ ____
Maryland..................... .......
Mississippi................ .......
Missouri. .................

$8................. .........

21
13

Oklahoma___
South Carolina..........................

$9.................
$10...........................

$11--........ -.....................................

13.4

30
5
36

10.4
9.0

27
28
23
37

New Jersey.......................
Boston................ ............
Chicago.......................

5.1

61

Kentucky.........................

$12.................................
$13...........................

Per cent

11
11

13.1
24.4

------------ Island no earnings fell below the lowest rate, which was $7.
----------------------1 In Rhode
—

At the other end of the scale, in every State but one and in every
city, the highest earnings found equaled but did not exceed the high­
est, rate. In Kansas the highest rate was under $18, in Delaware
and Oklahoma under $17, in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina
under $16, m Maryland and Arkansas under $15, and in Mississippi
under $12. In every other State some women had rates of $20 or
over; m five States and four cities some had rates of $25 or over,
lable 6 shows the numbers of women having rates and earnings
of $20 or over and the highest ranges of rates and earnings found.
Table 6.—Highest rates and earnings, by State or city—1928 figures

State or city

Number Women having rates and earnings
of—
of women
reported
$20 or over
$25 or over

State:
California.

916

11........................... 4.

Florida__
Kentucky.
Michigan.

516
65
549

2............................
2_______ ______
Rate 66.................
Earnings 63

Missouri............

521

Highest rates and earnings above $25

Rate and earnings, $27.50 for 1
woman, $26.50 for 1.
1 woman had a rate of $33, earnings
of $34.73; 1 a rate of $30, earnings of
ton co

New Jersey___

161

Rate 19............ . 4.....................
Earnings 16. ...
Rate 8................ 2...........................

Ohio...................

598

13...........................

Rhode Island..
Tennessee..........
City:
Boston................

73
317

1............................
1............................

376

7............................ 6............................

Chicago

210

Milwaukee.
New York.

4,9
380




Earnings 5

°

Rate and earnings, $26 for 1 forelady
and for 1 woman selling music.
Rate and earnings, $45 for 1 floorwoman, who also did selling.

Rate and earnings for 2 saleswomen,
$40; for 3, $30.
Rate 81.............. .
7 floor women had rates and earnings
Earnings 78____ Earnings 21........
ranging from $28 to $39; the highest
for any saleswoman was $27.
1............................

30

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

Rates by size of town or city.
Up to this point the discussion has taken account of the differences
in payment in the various States or large cities and the differences
between rates and earnings, but there has been no general considera­
tion of the variations in rate according to size of town or city. The
data are arranged in such a manner in Table XVI in the appendix.
The medians in this table, which show wide variations in the rates
fixed for women working in places of different sizes, are as follows:
Number of—
Median of
the rates

Size of town or city
Stores

Women

179

6,001

$13.00

27
52
22
26
27
16
9

332
771
580
944
1,314
1,470
590

9. 50
9. 50
10.00
10.00
13.00
15.00
15.00

This summary shows that the median of the rates was the same for
women in towns having fewer than 10,000 inhabitants as in those
having 10,000 and under 25,000. It was a little more than 5 per cent
higher for women in places of 25,000 and under 50,000, and was the
same here as in places of 50,000 and under 100,000. In cities of
100,000 and under 500,000 the median rose above that of the class
just below by 30 per cent, and in those of 500,000 and over it rose
above the class below by 15 per cent. In the largest cities the median
of the rates was 57.9 per cent higher than in towns of under 25,000.
In towns of less than 25,000 population the highest rate was under
$19, in those of from 25,000 to 500,000 the highest rate was $27.50,
and in the largest cities a few women had higher rates. The propor­
tions of women having rates of $15 or over, according to size of
place, were as follows:
Size of town or city

Per cent
of women
with rates
of $15 or
over
15.9
21.0
27. 0
56. 9
63. 1

The foregoing summary shows quite clearly that much larger pro­
portions of women had rates above $15 in the larger cities than in
the smaller towns. While the proportion advanced somewhat with
each successive group of the population classification, the greatest
increase came between the class 100,000 and under 500,000 and the
class 500,000 and under 1,000,000.
The proportion of women having rates of $20 or over was nearly
10 per cent greater in cities of 1,000,000 and over than in cities of




EABNINGS IN 1928

31

500,000 but under 1,000,000. However, there was much less differ­
ence than this between the cities last mentioned and those of 100,000
and under 500,000.
In connection with these differences in rate of payment it shoidd
be remembered that the cost of living ordinarily is much higher in
the larger places.
Rates in various chains.
In addition to differences in locality and in size of city a factor
that may affect payments is the possibility of variation in the stand­
ards of the employing chains. A basis for the indication of such
variation may be found in Table XV in the appendix, which shows
by size of place the rates of the women in each of five chains. Many
of the women reported in Chains I and II were in California, and
this State differs from every other included in having a legal provi­
sion for a minimum wage. Because of this, rates in California are,
from a reason aside from the standards of payment that may exist
elsewhere in these two chains, higher than in other States, except for
some instances in the very large cities. In Table XV, therefore,
figures both including and omitting the women who worked in Cali­
fornia are given.
Table 7, taken from the appendix table cited, shows the number
and the median rates of the women in the various chains, by size of
place and both including and excluding California.




Table 7.—Number of women in the various chains and the medians of their rates, by size of town or city and both including and excluding
California—1928 figures
In States exclusive of California

In all States reported
Chain III

Chain II

Chain 1

Chain IV

Chain II

Chain I

Chain V

Size of town or city

All places............... .......... .
Under 10,000__________ _______
10.000 and under 25,000........... .
25.000 and under 50,000........ .......
50.000 and under 100,000...........
100.000 and under 600,000--------500.000 and under 1,000,000..........
1,000,000 and over____ ________

956
114
85
192
130
155
280

Median Number Median Number Median Number Median Number Median Number Median Number Median
of the of women of the of women of the of women of the of women of the of women of the of women of the
rates
rates
rates
rates
rates
rates
rates
$14.00
9.00
16. 00
13.00
16. 00
12.00
16.00

*Not computed, owing to small number involved.




1,885
94
555
196
612
199
86
143

$10.00
12.00
9.00
9. 00
10.00
10. 00
16.00
15.00

2,088
44
31
16
899
898
200

$14.50
10. 50
10.00
13.00
13.00
15.00
18.00

506

$11.00

107
53
86
37

9.00
10. 00
10.00
9.00

223

14.00

329

26
99
23
157
24

$12.00

10. 09
11.00
11.00
12.00
14.00

500

$12.00

1,460

$10.00

89
9
107
44
136
115

9.00
<’)
11.00
9.00
12. 00
14.00

47
513
127
496
134

9.00
9.00
9.00
10. OO
10.00

143

15.00
------------- \

WOMEN IN 5-AND- 1 0-CENT STORES

Number
of women

33

EARNINGS IN 1928

The chains having the highest rates reported, according to size of
city, were as follows:
Chain having highest
median rate—
Size of town or city

In States
In all States exclusive
reported
of Cali­
fornia
III

Under 10,000 1............................................................. .
25,000 and under 50,000........................................
50,000 and under 100,000.........................................................................................
100,000 and under 500,000*...................................
500,000 and under 1,000,000®__
1,000,000 and over7.......... .................................................

III

II
I
I
I
III
I and II
III

C1)
w
I
III
III
III
III

1 Includes no stores of Chains III and V.
*The median rate in towns under 10,000 was the same in all chains.
1 Includes no stores of Chain V.
4 The indication is that Chain I had the highest rates, but the median was not computed, owing to the
small number involved.
6 Includes no stores of Chain IV.
eIn2ludes no stores of Chain IV and, in California, none of Chain II.
7 Includes no stores of Chain I.

The foregoing shows that, in general, with the exclusion of the
California figures, Chain III had the best median rates wherever
this chain was found, the only exception being the cities in the second
and third groups. In the smallest towns included in the study no
stores of Chain III were found, and the median rates were alike in
the other chains located in these places. When the California
figures are included the definite influence of the minimum wage
appears and the median rates in Chains I and II in cities of certain
sizes rise to a point above the rate in Chain III—a chain that has
no stores in California.
Omitting the California figures, the size of city in which each chain
paid best was as follows:
Size of city in which median rate was—
Chain number
Highest
I_____ ______
500,000 and under 1,000,000___
II................... .
Ill.........................
IV..............
V................

Next to highest
(>).
50.000 and under 100,000 and 100,000 and under 500,000.
500.000 and under 1,000,000.
10.000 and under 25,000 and 25,000 and under 50,000.
500.000 and under 1,000,000.

1 The indication was that cities of 10,000 and under 25,000 had the rate next to the highest, but the median
was not computed, owing to the small number involved.

Since no stores of Chain I were included in the largest towns,
the foregoing shows that in every chain the highest rates prevailed
in the largest cities in which the chain in question was found; the
rates next to the highest were in the city next in size in Chains III
and V, but were in the smaller towns in Chains II and IV.




34

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

Table 8.—Proportions of women with rates in the various ranges, by chain and
both including and excluding California—1928 figures
In States exclusive of California

Chains I and II in all States reported

her of
women

I........................... .
II______________
III.-.
IV
V

Per cent of women who had
weekly rates of—

Per cent of women who had
weekly rates of—

Chain number

956
1,885

Un­
der
$10
11.6
34.3

$10 and
under
$15

$15
and
over

42.5
42.4

45. 9
23.2

$20
and
over
1.7
.2

..............

Number of
women

500
1,460
i 2,088
506
329

Un­
der
$10
22.2
44.3
.1
28.9
10.6

$10 and
under
$15
63.0
48.9
50.1
55.5
81.2

$15
and
over

$20
and
over

14.8
6.8
49.7
15.8
8.2

1.4
.2
9.2
1.2
1.5

i Of these women, 9.6 per cent were in Chicago, and a number in that city were highly paid, some being
floor women. If the Chicago rates be excluded from this chain, 44.3 per cent of the remaining women
had rates of $15 or over and 55.7 per cent had rates of $10 and under $15; the median for all women in the
chain would then be $14.

The proportions of women in the various chains who had rates
falling in the different ranges are shown in Table 8. From this it
will be seen that, considering the group from which California figures
are excluded, practically half the women in Chain III had rates of
$15 or over, while the corresponding figure was 15 or 16 per cent
in Chains I and IV and 7 or 8 per cent in Chains II and V. The
largest proportion of women with rates belowT $10 was in Chain II.
Chain III thus appears to 'rise rather considerably above the other
four and Chain II to pay rather below the remaining three. With
the omission of the Chicago women having high rates in Chain III,
the proportion having rates of $15 or over still was 28.5 per cent
higher than in the chain having the next high proportion with rates
of $15 or over—Chain IV.
To estimate somewhat more definitely the influence upon rates of
size of city or of employer’s policies, a more detailed study may be
made of different chains and of towns of different size in certain
States the data from which lend themselves to such a study. In
each of five States studied over 500 women were included. In two
of these, Florida and Ohio, the women studied were in cities of four
or more classifications as regards size and in stores in four chains.
These States, therefore, furnish a basis for the somewhat more
detailed study of the possible effect of size of city or of difference in
chain upon the standard of rates of payment to the women employed.
Table 9.—Median rates in Florida and in Ohio, by size of town or city and by
chain—1928 figures
FLORIDA
Chain I
Size of town or city

60,000 and under 100,000.................




172

$9. 00

89

All places.................................

Chain II

Chain IV

Chain V

Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num- ]Median
of the
ber of
of the
of the
ber of
of the
ber of
ber of
women rates women rates women rates women * rates

52
31

10. 00
9.00

$10.00

184

$10.00

11. 00
8. 00
10.50

78
17
52
37

9.00
9.00
11. 00
9.00

9.00

111
40
26
45

49

'

49

$11.00

1

11.00

35

EAENINGS IN 1928

Table 9.—Median rates in Florida and in Ohio, by size of town or city and by
chain—1928 figures—Continued
OHIO
Chain I
Size of town or city

Chain III

Chain IV

Chain V

Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median Num­ Median
ber of of the
ber of
of the
ber of
of the
ber of of the
women rates women rates women rates women rates
328

10,000 and under 25,000...................
25,000 and under 50,000..............
50,000 and under 100,000.................
100,000 and under 500,000.............
500,000 and under 1,000,000_____

■

$12.00

9
55
13
136
115

12.75
11. 00
11.00
12. 00
14. 00

214

$13.00 .

31

10. 00

183

17

$9. 00

17

9. 00

i

i
1
I

$10.25

26

13. 00

26

10. 25

•

.

According to Table 9, no chain in Florida showed regular progres­
sion of payment according to size of city. The highest median, $11,
was found in three chains, Nos. II, IV, and V, in each case in a city
of a different size. The lowest, $8, was in Chain II; the same chain
paid a rate more than a third higher than this in a small town. Chain
IV had a low rate in cities of three sizes, Chain I in cities of two sizes.
In the State as a whole 41.3 per cent of the women had rates below
$10. In Chains I, II, and IV the respective proportions having
rates of less than $10 were 58.7 per cent, 30.6 per cent, and 42.4 per
cent. No women in Chain V had earnings below $10, but this chain
was found only in cities of the largest class in the State. In cities of
the largest size Chain II likewise had no women with rates below $10,
and Chains I and IV had, respectively, 83.9 per cent and 16.8 per cent
with such rates. In cities next smaller in size these low rates applied
to no women in Chain IV, to 23 per cent in Chain I, and to most of
those in Chain II.
Only 5.2 per cent of the women reported in Ohio had rates below
$10. The lowest median rate was in Chain IV. Chain I usually
had rates high as compared to those of other chains in cities of the
same size. No women in Chain IV and very few in Chain V had rates
of $15 or over, though in Chain III 17.5 per cent and in Chain I 21.6
per cent had such rates.
In cities of 25,000 and under 50,000 in Ohio no women in Chain III
and very few in Chains I and V had rates of as much as $15. In
cities of 100,000 and under 500,000, 14.7 per cent of those in Chain I
and 26.2 per cent of those in Chain III had rates of $15 or more.
From the foregoing consideration of conditions in two States having
considerable numbers of women reported from several chains in cities
of several different sizes, no generalizations can be made as to the effect
on rates of size of city or of difference in chain. This does not mean,
however, that there are no indications of the effect of such factors
within any one State.
Earnings in 1928 compared to those in earlier years.
The earlier studies were taken in 1920 to 1925, inclusive, a period of
great business fluctuation. The number of women studied in any
one year was too small to warrant comparison with the data for
1928, except in the case of 1922, a year following great depression and
conditions within certain months of which could not be taken as
representative of normal times. In 1928 it was not always possible
to secure data for the same establishments or even the same cities as



36

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

those surveyed in earlier years; in some cases additional cities were
taken to give a more accurate picture for 1928. Owing to these and
other factors (see footnote 2, Appendix Table XIV), it is not possible
to make adequate general comparisons of the 1928 figures with those
secured earlier.
An interesting condition is found in South Carolina, where the
median of earnings in 1928 was 10 per cent below that of rates, though
in 1921, a year of depression, earnings and rates were practically the
same. In 1928 the median rate was about 11 per cent higher than the
1921 figure. In this State the stores in Chain II, taken in the same
three cities in 1921 and in 1928, show the following proportions of the
women included as having rates and earnings in the groups specified:
Per cent of women having—

Under $10 as—

Rate
54.5
31.1

Earnings
56.3
37.7

$10 and under $15
as—
Rate
36.4
68.9

Earnings
33.3
62.3

$15 or over as—

Rate
9.1

Earnings
10.4

Of the women working in Chain II in these cities nearly 20 per cent
more in 1921 than in 1928 had earnings below $10 and over 30 per cent
more in 1921 than in 1928 had rates so low; but while some had rates
and earnings of $15 or over in 1921—ranging as high as $25 for one
woman—none in 1928 had either rates or earnings of as much as $15.
Thus, while the proportion of women paid at the lowest rates was
smaller in 1928 than in 1921, no woman in 1928 was paid so high as
were about 10 per cent of the women in 1921, a year of depression.
The greatest difference between the median rate for an early year
and that for 1928 occurred in Kentucky, another State that was
studied in the depressed year of 1921. The stores surveyed in 1928
were in two large cities, and Chain III was studied in these cities in
both years. For this chain the figures were as follows:
Year

1921..............................................................................................................................................
1928..............................................................................................................................................

Number of Median of
the rates
women
74
65

$10
14

In 1928 the median in this chain for stores located in these two
cities was 40 per cent above the 1921 figure. Nearly a fourth of the
women had rates and actual earnings of $16 or over in 1928 and only
three had rates so high in 1921.
In Tennessee rates were ascertained for exactly the same number
of women (317) and in the same cities in 1925 and 1928. The median
of the rates was in the same range in the two years, and in each year
only one woman earned as much as $20. The following gives the
proportions of women having rates in the lowest ranges in the two
years for which figures were obtained in Tennessee.




37

EARNINGS IN 1928

Amount

Per cent of women who Per cent of
had rates specified in—
women
who had
earnings
specified
1925
1928
in 1928
63.1
93.1

57. 1
92.1

61. 2
92.7

The foregoing shows that in this State the proportions of women
with rates below $10 and below $12 were smaller in 1928 than in 1925.
SUMMARY OF 1928 FINDINGS

Median of the earnings.
In 1928 the median of the week’s earnings of 6,061 women studied
in 179 stores in 18 States and 5 additional cities was $12. The
medians for the various States ranged from $8.80 in Maryland to $16
in California. In every locality but Georgia, Rhode Island, and
South Carolina some women earned less than $5. The highest
earnings in a State ranged from less than $12 in Mississippi to $45
in Ohio.
Earnings of 6-day workers.
More than 80 per cent of the women studied in 1928 had worked
on 6 days during the week; the highest proportion in any one State
was 93.2 per cent, the figure for Rhode Island. In seven of the
States studied considerable proportions of the 6-day workers earned
less than $10, these per cents ranging from 47.9 in Kansas to 85.8 in
Alabama. In the large cities studied no women received so little as
this, except a very few7 in New York. In four States the largest
groups of 6-day workers earned $10 and under $12, in five States $12
and under $15, and in two States $15 and under $18. In four cities
the largest groups earned $12 and under $15, and in one $18 and over.
Earnings of Saturday workers.
In addition to the 6,061 women who form the basis for the 1928
study 1,776 women wTere scheduled who worked only on Saturday.
Their earnings for this day ranged from $1, received by some women
in Maryland, Missouri, and Tennessee, to $3.50 received by two
women in Chicago.
Median rates of pay.
The median of the weekly rates for all women reported in 1928
was $13, 7.7 per cent above the median of their earnings. In 14
States and 5 cities the median of the rates was the same as that of the
earnings; it was above that of the earnings in 4 States, in 2 of
these by as much as 10 per cent. The lowest rates ranged from $5
and under $6 in Ohio to $11 and under $12 in California and Ken­
tucky; in cities, from less than $10 in New York to as high as $13
in Milwaukee. In every State but one and in every city some women
earned less than the lowest rates, the proportions of the total ranging
from 2 per cent in Ohio to 24.4 per cent in Milwaukee. No woman
had earnings in excess of the highest rate fixed.




88

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

Rates of pay in relation to size of town or city.
While much larger proportions of the women in the larger cities
than of those in the smaller towns had high rates, and while the
women in each group of cities showed some advance above those in
the group of cities next smaller in size in the proportion having the
higher rates, the greatest increase came between the classes of 100,000
and under 500,000 and those of 500,000 and under 1,000,000 popula­
tion. The median of the rates for cities in the classes up to 100,000
varied by no more than 6 per cent, in those over that figure by about
15 per cent, but between the class containing cities of 50,000 and
under 100,000 and that containing cities of 100,000 and under 500,000
there was a difference of 30 per cent. It must be remembered that
living costs usually are higher in the larger than in the smaller cities.
Standards of rates of pay in different chains.
From the figures available there appeared to be some variation in
the standards of the rates paid by different chains, those in Chain II
showing some tendency to be low and those in Chain III to be high.
Earnings in 1928 compared to those in earlier years.
In most cases such factors as the differences in identity of estab­
lishments, of chains, or of cities, or the difficulty of measuring business
fluctuations in the different years of study, made it impossible to give
accurate comparisons, on any wide scale, of earnings in 1928 with
those in earlier years.
Of 13 States for which it is possible to make the comparison 10 had
rates higher in 1928 than at the earlier survey.
Three somewhat small and scattered cases offer definite bases for
comparisons of 1928 with earlier years. In one State in which an
identical chain was studied in the same three cities in 1921, a year
of depression, and in 1928, smaller proportions of the women studied
in 1928 than of those studied in 1921 had very low rates and earnings,
but no women in 1928 had earnings so high as had over 10 per cent
of the women in 1921. In another State in which an identical chain
was studied in the same two cities in 1921 and in 1928 the median
rate in 1928 was 40 per cent above that in 1921, and in 1928 nearly a
fourth of the women had both rates and earnings at a figure attained
by only three of the women stuffied in 1921. In the State in which
the same number of women (317) were studied in identical cities in
1925 and in 1928 the median of the rates showed little change; fewer
women in 1928 than in 1925, by about 9 per cent, had rates below $10.
These rather fragmentary and scattered cases in which valid com­
parisons are possible indicate some decrease in the proportions of
women paid at the lowest rates, but give no positive indication of any
general increase in the groups having rates or earnings in the highest
ranges.




APPENDIX.—GENERAL TABLES
Table

I.—Age of women employees who supplied personal information, by Slate
Number of women whose age was—
Number
of women
16
18
20
25
30
40
50
60
report- Under and and and and and and
ing
years
under under under under under under
16
and
18
20
25
30
years
40
50
60
years years years years years years years

State

All States____
Per cent distribution.

3,086
100.0

Alabama........ ............
Arkansas......... ............
Delaware....... .............
Florida..... ....................
Georgia.......................
Illinois........ .............. .
Kansas......................
Kentucky.................
Maryland__________
Mississippi.................
Missouri...... .............. .
New Jersey.......... ......
Ohio______________ ’
Oklahoma_________
Rhode Island______
South Carolina_____
Tennessee...............

135
113
84
337
150
233
286
152
149
114
260
149
244
201
112
106
261

Table

II.

31
1.0

7
11
5

8

843
27.3

874
28.3

809
26.2

256
8.3

38
18
26
76
37
41
123
40
64
24
90
64
43
25
40
37
57

35
30
21
109
30
69
70
34
28
32
63
43
91
89
24
20
86

32
46
29
102
32
67
49
39
22
40
56
31
64
67
22
29
82

13
11
6
27
14
28
17
15
17
12
25
7
18
10
9
6
21

174
5.6
15
7
1
16
14
16
9
21
8
2
14^
2
19
7
7
5
11

77
2.5

17
0.6

8.2
—

1
1
1
1
1
3

1
1

2

14
8
7
3
5
4
7
1
8
3
1
4
4

3

1

Living condition of women employees who supplied personal informa­
tion, by State

State

All States.................
Per cent distribution.........
Alabama_____
Arkansas..............
Delaware.
Florida.............
Georgia........ ............
Illinois................
Kansas____ ____
Kentucky...............
Maryland.............
Mississippi___
Missouri...... .........
New Jersey_____
Ohio................
Oklahoma.............
Rhode Island____
South Carolina.........
Tennessee...............




Number
of women
report­
ing

3,047
100.0

84

Number of women
who were—

Per cent

living
Living
Living with relar
with rela­ independ­ tives
tives
ently
2,803
92.0

92.0
12

88.3
89.3

16

91.7
96.6
86.1
91.5

39

40
Table

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES
III.—Marital status of women employees who supplied personal information,
by State




Number of women who were—
State

Number
of women
report­
ing

Single

Per cent
of women
Widowed, who were
Married separated,
single
or divorced

2,938
100.0

2,411
82.1

335
11.4

192
6.5

2, 411
82.1

131
in
84
325
132
231
285
150
144
110
256
118
193
199
112
100
257

112
94
74
262
87
178
259
113
116
96
190
109
142
179
97
77
226

10
9
6
44
28
27
18
21
21
9
47
7
31
13
10
15
19

9
8
4
19
17
26
8
16
7
5
19
2
20
7
5
8
12

85.5
84.7
88.1
80.6
65.9
77.1
90.9
75.3
80.6
87.3
74.2
92.4
73.6
89.9
86.6
77.0
87.9

Number of women who had been in the trade—
Number
of
State

report­
ing

Under 1 year

Total

■

10 and
5 and
15 years
under 10 under 15 and over
years
years

1 and
under 2
years

2 and
under 3
years

3 and
under 4
years

4 and
under 5
years

133
4.9

227

4

9

1,124
41.2

2,730
100.0
125
109
71
320
133
193
237
139
137
103
255
143
179
182
123
103
178

6 months
Under 6
and
months under 1
year
668
24.5

456
16.7

595
21.8

392
14.4

218
8.0

50
37
26
96
39
53
. 158
58
71
45
115
58
74
104
49
28
63

25
15
60
18
18
117
42
45
23
70
39
46
53
35
18
24

12
11
36
21
35
41
16
26
22
45
19
28
51
14
10
39

27
27
15
70
36
57
32
30
29
25
39
28
33
42
20
34
51

25
19

10
13

57
23
26
17
19
14

33
15
22
12
8
8

40
25

24
10

13
18
18
30

10
10
6

26

15
0.5

10
29
9
8
5

8

1
1

7
8
3

2
1

26
16
8

1
1
1

A PPEN D IX . — GENERAL TABLES




Table IV.—Time in the trade of women employees who supplied personal information, by State

42

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES
Table V.—Scheduled daily hours, by- State
Number
reported

State

Number of establishments and number of women whose
daily hours were—

Over 8 and
Under 8
8
9
under 9
Establish- Women EsEsEsEstabtabtabtabments
lish- Women lish- Women lish- Women lish- Women
ments
ments
ments
ments

All States...........
Per cent distribution.

i 252

5. 224
100. 0

12

259
5. 0

Alabama........................
Arkansas___________
Delaware.......................
Florida...........................
Georgia..........................
Illinois............................
Iowa...............................
Kansas....... ..................
Kentucky................. .
Maryland 1 * *
4_..................
Baltimore............. .
Mississippi__________
Missouri........................
New Jersey...................
Ohio................. .............
Oklahoma....................
Rhode Island.............. .
South Carolina........... .
Tennessee.....................

i 13
11
7
24
11
20
9
a34
9
8
4
14
11
13
15
20
6
9
14

206
103
99
516
258
546
256
274
236
64
145
194
442
309
420
341
213
207
335

1

4

2

38

65

1,697
32. 5

4
1
1
7
5
10
5
5
3

92
49
21
364
176
85
185
32
82

2

16

1
1

10
63

1

48

7
14

149
345

4

80

1

64

2

53

60

1,670
32. 0

116

1,598
30.6

3
1

79
9

2
6
7
4
7
2
1

47
171
109
80
84
30
14

10
10
23
21
4
4

123
154
7
420
66
35

15
2
1

89
21
8

8
5
1
2
1
3
7

413
112
75
81
69
83
214

14
3

194
29

18

260

6
5

124
68

1 Details aggregate more than total, because some firms appear in more than 1 hour group.
* Includes an establishment with 1 woman working 11 hours on 2 days in the week.
• Excludes 1 firm not reporting daily hours.
4 Excludes Baltimore, which see.




Table VI.—Scheduled Saturday hours, hy State
Number of establishments and number of women whose Saturday hours \

All States______ h 251 5,219
Per cent distribution.__!100. 0
Alabama............... ...........j 13
Arkansas............... ......... i n
Delaware____________
7
Florida.....................
24
Georgia........................
n
Illinois.______________| 20
Iowa_____________
i9
Kansas........... ...........
a 33
Kentucky......... .......
9
Maryland 3......................
8
Baltimore. ............_.
4
Mississippi_______
14
Missouri...... .............
11
New Jersey_______
13
Ohio...........................
15
Oklahoma________
Rhode Island_____
South Carolina____
Tennessee..................
14

1 20

206
163
99
516
258
546
256
269
236
64
145
194
442
309
420
341
213
207
335

16
0.3

188
3.6

1
1
2

98 j
54
8

941
18.0

1
2
3

168
74
46 |

70 1,038
19.9

3
1
25

224
4.3

1

15
296

69

262
5.0

27
........ 44
8

497
9.5

3
2

89
48

9
2

226
41

1

46

4
1

89

Women

52
4

2

122

15

262
5.0

8

151
2.9

4
4

62
89

........ .......... ..........

......
........ .

......

..........

2

16

7

90

1

16
..........

100

a8gregate more than total, because some establishments appear in more than 1 hour group
J Excludes 2 establishments not reporting Saturday hours.
v
* Excludes Baltimore, which see.




12

_____ _____
309 .......... ..........

8

55
'144*
.

!

12
—
24
2

13
178

315

IS

381
7.3

212 ........ - .......... .......... -........
20
1
12

132

305

18
..........
1

4
92
_____ _____
2
59

37
18
195

~127

1, 259
24. 1

Establishm ents

Women

Establishm ents

j

Women

Over 12 and
under 12%

22

A PPEN D IX . — GENERAL TABLES

Establishm ents

State

Over 11 ant
under 12

n

Establishm ents

■Over 10 and
under 11

Women

Over 9 and
under 10

Establishm ents

Over 8 and
under 9

Under 8

Women

Number
reported

9 j
1

191

7

1

CO

Table VII.—Scheduled weekly hours, by State
Number of establishments and number of women whose weekly hours were—

All States.............. i 252 5.224
Per cent distribution...
100.0

Illinois_______ _______

i 13
11
7
24
11
20
19
3 34
9
8
4
14
11
13
15
i 20
6
9
14

206
163
99
516
258
546
256
274
236
64
145
194
442
309
420
341
213
207
335

8

146
2.8

1

162
3.1

32 1,023
19.6

22

522
10.0

1

1

63

2

45

1
1
2

98
54
10

1
3
2
6
2
3
2

21
202
92
58
24
21
69

1
8

17
21
16

a
©
a
o
it

03
H

48
320

4

85

3
1
1

161
6
13

4
7

84
100

763
14.6

a

a
©

£

9
92

79
1.5

1

24

23
30
91

2

1

14

15

30

637
12.2

49

614
11.8

52
2
1

1
9

27
152

1
4
3
2
2
1

45
72
73
12
30
14

2

405
51

3

65

8

47

31

1
1
14

10
6
87

p
©
a
£

P
1
o
it

172
3.3

1
1
3
1

5
16
64
6

18

280
5.4

2
2

62
19

2

178

826
15.8
123

1
21
4

1
420
66

21

12

50
10

8

29

85

18

256

16
166

1

16

8

2

16

6
5

124
68

61

1
5

P
©
a
o
it

1
3

1
3
3

7
2

1 Details aggregate more than total, because some establishments appear in more than 1 hour group.
* This woman worked part time—34 hours weekly, 5 hours daily. Other women in this firm worked 54 hours,
s Excludes 1 firm not reporting weekly hours.
4 Excludes Baltimore, which see.




£

p
©
a
o
£

1

168

2
2
8

p

a
o

2
1
1

4

49

4

30

1
4

4

4

1
1
2

X
1

Establishm ents

P
©
a
o
£

CO

p
©
a
1
3
jtfl
CO
w

Over 55 and
under 60

55

Establishm ents

£

p
©
a
o

§

Over 54 and
under 55

54

Establishm ents

a
o

a

Establishm ents

a

CO

45

Over 52 and
under 54

52

Establishm ents

P
©
a
o
it

Establishm ents

Establishm ents

o
is

Establishm ents

a

©
i

Over 50 and
under 52

50

......
1
1

51
30

WOMEN IN 5-AND- 1 0-CENT STORES

Establishm ents

State

Over 48 and
under 50

48

Under 48

Establishm ents

Number
reported

Table VIII.

Relation of scheduled daily, Saturday, and weekly hours to hours legally established, by State
Daily and Saturday hours

Weekly hours

Number reported

Number having hours shorter
than maximum permitted by
law

Number having hours shorter than maximum permitted
by law
Stats

All States................................................ .
Total in States fixing 9 hours and a weekly
limit...
Total in States fixing 10 hours and a weekly
limit______
Arkansas..........................................
Delaware.......................
Illinois________
Kansas.................................
Kentucky.............................
Maryland 3___
Baltimore____ ________
Mississippi.........................
Missouri....................
New Jersey_________
Ohio............................. .
Oklahoma...................
Rhode Island................... .....................
South Carolina...............................
Tennessee........................

Daily hours

Estab­
lish­
ments

Maxi­
mum
hours per­
Estab­
mitted
lish­
by law
ments

Saturday hours

Women
Number Per cent

Estab­
lishments

Women

Women

Number

Per cent

Number

Per cent

1,461

36.6

549

1 33. 6

41

1,016

62.0

342

27.1

60

1,259

99.9

2
7
367
2 70
24
21
132

1.2
7.1
67.2
26.0
10.2
32.8
91.0

54
55

2
6

11
98

6.7
99.0

54
60
60
60

20
9
8
4

187
236
64
145

68.2
100.0
100. 0
100.0
93. 4

195

3,988

149

91

31,640

45

1,108

67.6

61

1,260

61

1,260

100.0

11
7
20
2 34
9
8
4
14
11
13
15
20
6
9
14

163
99
546
274
236
64
145
194
442
309
420
341
213
207
335

1
7
20
19
9
8
4
14
8
13
15
2
6
9
14

9
99
546
185
236
64
145
194
413
309
420
81
213
207
335

5.5
100.0
100.0
67.5
100.0
100.0
100.0

2
3
10
27
2
3
3

93.4

2

127

28.7

54

8

413

100.0
23.8
100.0
100.0
100.0

7
3
3
4
5

305
45
158
59
144

72.6
13.2
74.2
28.5
43.0

50
54
54
60
57

8
3
6
9
14

320

76.2

213
207
335

A PPEN D IX . — GENERAL TABLES

Estab­
lish­
ments

Maxi­
mum
daily
hours per­
mitted
Women
by law

100.0
100.0
100.0

9
10
10
9
10
10
10
10
9
10
9
9
10
12
10K

3,456

86. 7
21

2,817

70.6

* Total for Saturday hours, 1,635, owing to variation in Kansas. Per cent having shorter Saturday hours based on 1,635.
* Saturday hours reported for 33 establishments, employing 269 women.
* Excludes Baltimore, which see




Oi

Table IXWeekly rates and actual week’s earnings, by State and year

CD

Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was week’s earnings

Amount

Georgia, 1920 and
1921

Delaware, 1924

Arkansas, 1922

Alabama, 1922

Mississippi, 1924

Kentucky, 1921

Missou ri, 1922

Number of women reported........
Median for all women..—..........
Per cent of women receiving—
$10 and over---------------------$12 and over..............................
$15 and over_...........................

$6 and under $7...............................
$7 and under $8...............................
$8 and under $9.............. —..........
$9 and under $10--------------------$10 and under $11-------------------$11 and under $12..........................
$12 and under $13............................
$13 and under $14--------------------

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week's
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

W eekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week's
earnings

Weekly
rate

190
$8. 45

190
$8.10

137
$9. 75

137
$9. 50

77
$9. 75

77
$9. 45

230
$10. 20

230
$9.40

215
$8. 95

215
$8. 75

193
$8.20

193
$8.40

410
$10.15

410
$9.95

17.9
4.7
1.6
1.1

15.3
4.2
1.6
1.6

42.3
26.3
4.4
1.5

37.2
22.6
4.4
1.5

40.3
7.8

33.8
2.6

55.7
22.6
5.7
.4

40.9
18.3
4.8
.4

33.5
17.2
5.6
1.4

30.7
15.3
5.1
1.4

8.8
1.6

9.3
4.7

53.2
22.7
7.3
1.7

48.5
21.0
6.1
1.5

20
49
57
30
21

13
6
15
14
43
47
23
21

17
17
45
17
5
7
19
4
4

2
2
6
5
18
19
34
15
5
5
16
4
4

3
7
45
47
65
11
27
6
6
8
1
3
1

19
1
8
13
18
43
34
40
12
21
6
4
6
1
3
1

l

4
1

i
1

$18 and under $19_ .........................
$19 and under $20—----------------$20 and under $21...........................
$22 and under $23...........................
$23 and under $24,.........................

1
1

1

$25 and under $30........................... ..................




1

1

’

1

1
I

2
3
8
33
20
5
5
1

3
1
2
3
8
12
22
16
8
2

1
7
36
65
33
23
12
12
6
7
9
1

9 ..................
5
8
6
19
75
25
72
56
23
27
8
21
6
12
3
9
7
6
7
i
l

—

.................. ...... ...........

........... ........... .................. .................. _____ _____
................. ..........

..............2 .............. ¥

-----—

9 —-..........
2
2
6
13
24
42
29
74
133
33
84
6
41
3
34
6
16
3
13
12
8
3
3
2
1
...........

12
6
3
23
28
32
107
73
40
30
17
14
10
6
3
3
1
1

..
........... ----------- —!------------- i
-------------

WOMEN IN 6-AND- 10-CENT STORES

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was week’s earnings Contd.

Amount

New Jersey, 1922

Rhode Island, 1920

Oklahoma, 1924

Ohio 1922

South Carolina,
1921

Tennessee, xJ25

$18 and over_..................................................................

Weekly
rate

Week's
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

W eekly
rate

281
$12. 25
Per cent of women receiving—

Week's
earnings
281
$11. 80

350
$10. 80

350
$10.55

340
$9. 90

340
$9. 45

157
$12. 30

157
$11.90

154
$9.00

154
$8.90

317
$9. 55

317
$9.20

92.9
59.8
8.2
2.5

81.9
48.8
7.1
2.5

71.4
37.7
8.0
1.7

60.9
33.1
7.4
1.7

46.5
9.7
1.8
.9

36.2
7.4
1.5
.9

80.3
58.6
12.1
2.5

73.2
49.0
9. 6
1.9

29.9
9.7
4.5
1.3

29.9
9.7
4.5
1.3

36.9
6.9
1.3
.3

30.9
6.0
.9
.3

1
35
64
92
26
72
18
14
12
8
2
5

10
6
7
16
7
28
63
71
26
62
15
13
10
8
2
5

18
64
100
113
12
19
3
5
2
1

15
4
12
9
26
62
89
87
11
12
3
5
1
1

1
23
53
31
21
10
7

2

2

2
14
12
3
25
9
46
19
8
8
5
2
2

1
3
3
8
20
46
27
21
10
7

1

1

1

2
2
16
77
16
104
28
13
12
3
1

7
2
3
4
5
10
20
77
16
78
25
14
11
1
1
5

1
1

1
1

* This woman had a rate of $15 a week and earned




1

1

i

3
1
1
1

1
3
1
1
1

1

16
10
4
4
3

12
7
11
11
18
85
75
65
14
8
4
4
2

1

2
1
4
16
15
4
24
14
37
18
7
6
4
2

Week’s
earnings

A P P E N D IX — GENERAL TABLES

Weekly
rate

1

5
20
84
91

79

1
1

1

1

a $10 commission.

•vl

Table X.—Median of the week’s earnings, of the weekly rates, and of the year’s earnings, by State and year

State and year

Median

July-August................................................

237
157

$8.10
11.90

(<)....................................................-............

230

........ do............................................................

1920

1920 and 1921

Median
of the
rates

Per cent
Median by which Number
of the
earnings
of
earnings fell below women
rates

1924

February......................................................

157

w
$12. 30

(>)
$11.90

<*>.
3.4

i 26
21

* $460
604

9.40

230

10.20

9.40

7.8

28

510

215
155

8. 75
8.90

215
154

8.95
9.00

8.75
8.90

2.2
1.1

23
21

565
506

8. 05
9.50
9.80
11.30
10.55

190
137
410
281
350

8.45
9. 75
10.15
12.25
10.80

8.10
9.50
9.95
11.80
10.55

4.1
2.6
2.0
3.7
2.3

36
19
66
34
81

438
496
622
667
613

99
340
194

1922

9. 75
9. 45
8. 40

77
340
193

9. 75
9. 90
8.20

9.45
9.45
8.40

3.0
4. 5
•2.4

19
59
34

525
510
431

317

9.20

317

9.55

9.20

3.7

38

510

o

1 Year’s earnings were secured from 52-week pay-roll records for all States except Kansas. Tn Kansas, records were for 50 or more weeks.
* Month or other period including the week in which earnings were taken in most of the establishments visited.
* No rates were reported for Kansas. There were 170 full-time workers and the median of their earnings was *9.15,
4 Irregular.
* In this case earnings exceeded rates by the per cent reported




Median

194
137
440
309
420

1921

1925

Number
of
women

WOMEN IN 5-AND- 10-CENT STOKE3

Number
of
women

Month 1

Year’s earnings1

Week’s earnings and weekly rates

Week's earnings

Table XI.—Median of the week’s earnings and time in the trade, by Slate and year
Women who had been in the trade—
All women
reported
State and year

Under 1 year

1 and under
2 years

2 and under
3 years

3 and under
4 years

4 and under
5 years

5 and under
10 years

10 and under
15 years

15 years and
over

Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­ Num­ Medi­
ber
ber
ber
ber
ber
ber
an
ber
ber
an
an
ber
an
an
an
an
an
an

New Jersey, 1922.________________________
Oklahoma, 1924_________ ______ __________
Rhode Island, 1920 . ..

182
113
103
178

$8.25
9. 55
10.10
9.95
8.10
9.00
8. 55
10.20
12. 05
10. 45
9.45
12.20
9.00
9. 40

iNot computed, owing to small number involved*




50
37
26
38
158
59
45
115
58
104
42
28
63

$7.55
8. 45
9.15
9. 25
7.85
8. 45
8. 20
9. 55
10.80
10.10
8.90
10. 55
8.25
8.65

27
26
15
36
32
30
25
39
28
33
42
19
34
51

$8. 30
9. 80
10. 05
9.20
8. 35
8.80
8. 50
10. 30
12. 20
10. 30
10.10
12. 55
8. 75
9.25

25
18
12
23
17
19
12
40
25
24
13
18
18
30

$8. 55
10.20
(i)
10. 50
8.50
9.90
(i)
10.90
12.25
10.70
(■)
12.00
9. 75
9.65

0)
10
c)
12
(>)
2
16 $10. 65
(0
12
to
8
(l)
8
24 12. 25
(0
10
(0
14
f‘)
10
(')
8
(0
6
(l)
13

4
<■)
3
<>)
(>)
10
9 $10. 75
<■)
5
7
0)
(>)
7
(■)
7
o
9
0)
8
0)
3
7
(')
(')
8
4
C1)

(0
9
7
(>)
(')
6
9 $11. 75
0)
11
w
10
5
24 12. 50
CO
10
26 12.00
(')
8
16 15.00
8
16 11.00

1

(■)

1
1
4
1
4
2

(*)
to
(i>
(0
0)
0)

1
1
2

«
<>)
(■)

2
1

(■)
(>)

1
1
1
1

«
(■>
(')
(!)

i
2

o)
0)

A PPEN D IX . — GENERAL TABLES

Kansas, 1920...................................... ...................
Kentucky, 1921..... ................................................

125
104
71
133
237
139
103
255
143

CC

Table

XII.—Median earnings of all women and number of women receiving $10 and over and $15 and over, according to time in the trade, by
*
State and year
’

Or

O

Number of women who had been in the trade—
Number of women
receiving—
Under 1 year
State and

year

Number receiving—
$10 and
over

Alabama, 1922........... .
Arkansas, 1922______
Delaware, 1924______
Georgia, 1920 and 1921
Kansas, 1920________
Kentucky, 1921............
Mississippi, 1924..........
Missouri, 1922_______
New Jersey, 1922____
Ohio, 1922___________
Oklahoma, 1924______
Rhode Island, 1920___
South Carolina, 1921...
Tennessee, 1925......... .




$8. 25
9. 55
10.10
9. 95
8.10
9.00
8. 55
10.20
12. 05
10.45
9.45
12.20
9.00
9.40

125
104
71
133
237
139
103
255
143
179
182
113
103
178

5 and under 10 years

$15 and
over

21
40
37
65
20
46
13
139
121
114
65
94
31
66

1
2
7
1
7
15
11
3
2
13
7

Total
$10 and
over
50
37
26
38
158
59
45
115
58
74
104
42
28
63

1
5
7
10
5
7
37
44
40
19
29
15

$15 and
over

Number receiving—
Total
$10 and
over
9
7
6
9
11
10
5
24
10
26
8
16
8
16

$15 and
over

5
6
7
4
9
20
10
21
7
15

2
7
4
3

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

Median Number
rnings of women
reporting

Table XIII.—Earnings of women who worked on six days, by State or city—1928 figures
Um,

- ____— --------------------------------------------------------------- : ----------------All women
reported
State or city
Number

Women who worked on 6
days

Median
of the
Number
earnings

Per cent of women working on 6 days who
earned—

Per cent
of total

Median
of the
earnings

Under
$10

$15 and
$10 and $12 and
under $12 under $15 under $18

6,036

$12.00

4,937

81.8

$13.00

17.9

18.1

28.7

9. 00
10.00
16.00
11.00
10.00
9.00
9.00
14.00
8.80
15.00
9.00
13.00
13.00
12.00
10.00
11.00
9. 00
9.00

120
96
753
39
443
77
165
57
76
447
36
410
127
498
267
68
89
268

83.3
84.2
82.2
84.8
86.4
87.5
80.5
87.7
78.4
81.4
80.0
78.7
78.9
79.9
76.9
93.2
89.0
84.5

9. 00
10.00
16.00
12.00
10.00
9. 00
10.00
14.00
9. 00
16. 00
9.00
14.00
13. 00
12.50
10.00
11. 00
10.00
9.00

85.8
33.3

10.8
45.8

15.4
41.8
62.3
47.9

33.3
42.0
33.8
41.8
3.5
31.6
.4
22.2
8.8
24.4
24.9
56.2
41.2
36.0
36.9

2.5
20.8
17.1
35.9
13.5
3.9
8.5
54.4
5.3
15.2

Tennessee--------------------- ------------ ---------------------- --------- -....................

144
114
916
46
513
88
205
65
97
549
45
521
161
623
347
73
100
317

New York------- ------ --------------------------- ----------------------------------------




376
223
84
49
380

12. 00
18.00
13.00
14.00
14.00

311
184
70
39
297

82.7
82.5
83.3
79.6
78.2

12.00
19.00
13.00
14.00
14.00

63.2
77.8
7.8
6.0
34.1
13.2
49.4
54.5

.3
.5
.3

1.0

27.0

8.3

0.8
77.6
15.4
1.8

5.3
.9

1.8
29.8

12.3

55.9

28.4

52.2
50.4
47.0
7. 1
33.8
13.5
7.5

24.6
15.7
17.7
2.6
7.4
1.1
.7

6.6
9.4
4.4

81.0
3.3
68.6
69.2
51.2

12.5
33.7
24.3
28.2
38.0

4.4
.4
6.1
62.5
7. 1
2.6
9.4

A PPEN D IX . — GENERAL TABLES

All places___________________ _____ _________ _____ ___ _____ ____

$18 and
over

Cn

Cn
to

Table XIV.—Week’s earnings, by State or city—1928 figures
Number of women with earnings as specified in—
Week’s earnings

All
places

Ala­
bama

Arkan­
sas

Dela­
ware

Cali­
fornia

Florida

Georgia

Michi­
gan

Mary­
land

Ken­
tucky

Kansas

Missis­
sippi

Per cent of women receiving—
$15 and over_______________ __________________




6
144
$9.00

6
114
$10.00

35
916
$16.00

4
46
$11.00

24
516
$10.00

5
88
$9.00

13
205
$9.00

2
65
$14.00

5
97
$8.80

5
549
$15.00

3
45
$9.00

74.4
29.8

12.5
.7

59.6

95.1
70.4

76.1
13.0

51.2
2.3

34.1

42.4
1.5

92.3
36.9

29.9

94.9
71.2

17.8

174
68
96
163
381
670
749
369
640
493
454
415
806
159
141
67
64
31
31
25
11
39
9
3
3

9
2
4
19
24
68
11
3
1
1
1
1

4
5
2
6
2
27
30
16
9
11
2

10
7
4
1
19
4
16
25
85
40
60
19
553
33
26
3
5

1
1
1

16
6
11
18
91
110
124
68
31
21
8
6

11
3
7
18
21
58
53
17
10
3
1
1
1
1

3

5
2
6
23
14
18
23
2
3

10
10
1
4
1
2
12
7
30
47
34
132
76
52
45
23
20
11
12
6
5
6
3

2
1
1
2
16
15
2
6

2

3
5
6
8
9
3
3
3
3

2
2

1
2
2
19
34
21
6
2
1

1
1
2
2
16
7
9
8
8
1
5

1

2

1
1

4
i

i

i

WOMEN IN 5-AND- 1 0-CENT STORES

179
i 6,061
$12.00

Number of women with earnings as specified in—
Week’s earnings
Missouri

$9 and under $10........................... ......................................
$10 and under $11................ ................................................
$11 and under $12..................................................................
$12 and under $13............................. ...................................
$13 and under $14____________________ ____________
$15 and under $16.................................................................

$19 and under $20................................................................
$20 and under $21........................................... ................ .
$21 and under $22.................................................................
$23 and under $24.............................................................
$30 and under $35................................................................
$35 and under $40................................................................

Okla­
homa

Ohio

Rhode
Island

South
Carolina

Tennes­
see

Boston

Chicago

Indian­
apolis

Mil­
waukee

New
York

9
521
$13.00

4
161
$13.00

18
645
$12.00

11
347
$10. 00

2
73
$11.00

4
100
$9.00

8
317
$9.00

3
376
$12.00

2
223
$18.00

2
84
$13.00

1
49
$14.00

7
380
$14.00

81.6
25.5

85.7
21.1

81.6
17.7

51.3
2.0

82.2
11.0

47.0
1.0

38.8
.9

90.2
15.4

97.3
84.3

91.7
27.4

89.8
24.5

90.5
37.1

21
3
6
9
16
41
36
30
61
67
98
48
48
8
9
4
8
2
1
1

14
2
2
2
2
1
29
9
10
47
9
9
7
5
4
2
2
2

16
6
7
15
21
54
98
72
116
60
66
51
31
10
6
3
5

7
11
9
9
51
82
110
41
12
8

15
1
15
14
44
105
90
10
8
6
6
1

9

3
6
16
28
22
12
4
3
5
1

1
4

1

2
4

3
2
1
11

9
15
15
15
83

1

4

2

1
1
1
4
1

3
4

4
5
4
19
10
13
4
6
1
2
2
1
1 ........ "T"

1

9
6
11
2
22
2
172
50
35
22
12
5
9
3

1
1
1
1
3

1
1
4
3
8
6
8
22
29
17
18
22
15
15
12
14
3
15
3
3

3
1
3
24
14
8
3
6
2
1

9

1
2

1

1

70
28
15
14
5
5
1
1

A PPEN D IX . — GENERAL TABLES

Number of establishments.................................................
Number of women reported.............................................
Median of the earnings 1
2.....................................................
Per cent of women receiving—
$10 and over..................................................................
$15 and over...................................................................

New
Jersey

2

1 Excludes 1,776 women whose regular work was on Saturday only.
2 Unlike wage studies covering a variety of industries, considerable numbers of women in the present survey had exactly the same earnings and were paid in even dollars.
For this reason the usual statistical formula for locating the median has not been used, as in each case it would have resulted in uneven dollars-and-cents figures not true of
actual conditions. The median given here is the amount received by the middle woman or women in the group, one-half earning more and one-half less.




CJi

GO

54

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES
Table XV.—Weekly rates in the various chains, by size of town or
Chain 11

Chain II i

Number of women in places of—

Number of women
in places of—

8

o.'C
8

§ S3

d
a

R.'d

3
69
7
5
4
280 1,885
94
155
130
29.3 100.0
5.0
13.6
16.2
$9. 00 $16.00 $13.00 $16.00 $12.00 $16- 00 $10.00 $12.00

36
956

114

100.0

11.

$14.00

7
85

8.

1

5.
5.
11
32
16

6
68

94
43
145
64
60
37
328
33
19

35
555
29.4
$9.00

8
192

20.1

37

6

do
'do

03 ©

•gi
S te

11
3
46

22

20

16
8
4
58

16

32

20
112
18
8

8

2

1

43
143
460
424
134
108
61
73

29
99
214
77
54
22

10

7
3
36

66

330
19
19

2

1

.

5_

1,000,000 and

5 0 0 ,0 0 0 and
under 1,000,000

1 0 0 ,0 0 0 and
under 500,000

un­

der 100,000

50,000 and

25,000 and u n ­
der 50,000

All classes

and
1,000,000

over

un­

der 100,000

All classes

Weekly rate

50,000 and

Number of women in places of—

25,000 and u n ­
der 50,000

Number of women in places of—
10,000 and un ­
der 25,000

Chain V

Under 10,000

Chain IV

over

_
Number of establishments_
Number of women reported..
Per cent distribution----------Median of the rates________
$5 and under $6.........................
$6 and under $7.........................
$7 and under $8........................
$8 and under $9........................
$9 and under $10.......................
$10 and under $11.....................
$11 and under $12.....................
$12 and under $13...... ..............
$13 and under $14........... .........
$14 and under $15.....................
$15 and under $16.....................
$16 and under $17.....................
$17-and under $18....................
$18 and under $19.....................
$19 and under $20.....................
$20 and under $21....................
$21 and under $22.....................
$22 and under $23....................
$23 and under $24....................
$24 and under $25
$25 and under $30................... .
$30 and under $35.....................
$35 and under $40.....................
$40 and over..................... .........

do
flo

fl

Weekly rate

2
9
Number of establishments.
3
3
2
3
3
1
2
20
9
1
37
23
24
53
86
223
329
26
99
157
Number of women reported
107
506
7.3
7.3 44.1 100.0
7.9 30.1
7.0 47.7
10.5 17.0
Per cent distribution.......... 100.0 21.1
Median of the rates............. $11.00 $9.00 $10.00 $10. 00 $9.00 $14.00 $12.00 $10.00 $11.00 $11.00 $12.00 $14.00
1
1
1
1
10
29
19
1
1
8
1
1
34
26
10
3
32
19
18
14
21
82
29
25
1
23
26
11
38
3
9
75
15
3
9
8
21
3
26
2
18
6
44
7
3
3
2
146
6
11
4
121
4
15
1
40
7
30
2
92
1
3
86
1
1
17
9
53
5
1
2
55
1
1
29
13
4
1
6
1
1
29
3
2
1
16
16
12
12
2
2
2
1
1
11
4
11
5
5
2
1
1
4
4
1
..........
1
1
1
1
1

1

1

1

1 In interpreting figures relating to Chain I and Chain II it must be remembered that, except in cities of
in other States because of the legal provision for a minimum wage. See last two sections of table.




55

APPENDIX.—GENERAL TABLES
city and both including and excluding California—1928 figures 1
Chain III

Chain II *—Continued

3
1
81

1
1

1

16
899
43.1
$13.00

7
898
43.0
$15.00

55
48
206
179
171
106
56
30
13
4
15
2
3
3
2

3
8
133
73
90
212
136
66
62
35
22
14
14
6
7
10
6

2

6

10 .........
2 ......

l

1
200
9.6
$18.00

28
33
18
24
16

21
12

19

6
3
14
4
2

1

31
20
4
1
1

3
4
1

11
32
16
17
12
3
4

..........

26
3
7
2
1
3
2

25
13
51
18
8
10
7
1
1

3

11
3
22
20
14
20
11
4
2
3
2

1
43
143
460
424
133
48
61
48
66
19
8
3

4
47
3.2
$9. 00
4
10*
14
12
3
1
2
1

10
26
62
10
6
2
1C
1

8
120
261
65
23
14
1
1
3

1,000,000 and

50
64
5
4
6
4
1

over

4
11
2
3
127
496
134
143
8.7
34.0
9.2
9.8
$9.00 $10.00 $10.00 $15.00

100,000
and
under 500,000

32
513
35.1
$9.00
1
29
99
214
77
54
18
1C
6
3
1
1

50,000 and un ­
der 100,000

25,000 and un ­
der 50,000

Under 10,000

All classes

over

500,000

500,000

under

1
56
3
2
115 1,460
136
44
23.0 100.0
8.8
27.2
$9. 00 $12. 00 $14. 00 $10.00
1

37
68
94
43
97
53
98
86'

10,000 and un ­
der 25,000

1
5
9
107
1.8
21.4
to
$11.00

100,000

10,000 and un ­
der 25,000

All classes

Under 10,006
6
89
17.8
$9.00

and

Number of women in places of—

and

Number of women in places of—
50,000 and un ­
der 100,000

Chain II, exclusive of California

25,000 and un ­
der 50,000

Chain I, exclusive of California

18
500
100.0
$12.00

over

1
16
0.8
$13.00

4
2
2
2
2
2

1,000,000 and

over
19
36
61

7

1
24
2
4

100,000
and
under 500,000

i7

3
4
103
21
9
71
353
8
1
255
265
2
348
227
114
101
55
58
28
361..............
15!---........
12
30

10

8
6
11

un­

501
64

2
31
1.5
$10.00

der 100,000

8
120
261
65
52

10
6
8
10

4
44
2. 1
$10.50

31
2,088
100.0
$14. 50

50,000 and

26

25,000 and u n ­
der 50,000

and
3
143
7.6
$15.00

10,000 and u n ­
der 25,000

and
500,000
under 1,000,000
2
86
4.6
$16. 00

All classes

100,000
and
under 500,000

3
199
10.6
$10.00

1,000,000

50,000 and u n ­
der 100,000

13
612
32.5
$10. 00

25,000 and u n ­
der 50,000

6
196
10.4
$9.00

500,000
and
under 1,000,000

Number of women in places of—

Number of women in places of—Contd.

19
36
61
15
6
3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1,000,000 and over, many of the women included were in California, a State in which rates were higher than
* Not computed, owing to small number involved.




56

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STOKES
Table XVI.—Weekly rate, by size of town or city—1928 figures
Number of women with rate as specified in places of—
Weekly rate

All
places

Number of establishments ............
179
Number of women reported.......... 6,001
Per cent distribution....................... 100.0
Median of the rates____________ $13.00
$5 and under $6.................... ............

$9 and under $10..... .................. .......
$10 and under $11_ __________
$11 and under $12............................
$12 and under $13..... .......................
$13 and under $14_
$14 and under $15____ _____ ____
$15 and under $16. ............ .............
$16 and under $17______________
$18 and under $19...........................




1
2
98
271
681
767
325
796
525
476
497
936
180
156
66
72
30
40
17
13
37
10
2
3

Under
10,000

10,000
and
under
25,000

25.000
and
under
50.000

50.000 100,000 500,000
and
and
and
under under
under
100.000 500,000 1,000,000

27
332
5. 5
$9.50

52
771
12.8
$9. 50

22
580
9.7
$10. 00

26
944
15.7
$10. 00

23
68
76
50
17
22
11
4
2
55

1
44
105
238
125
72
47
14
11
5
103
3
3

4

27
1,314
21.9
$13. 00

16
1,470
24.5
$16.00

1,000,000
and
over
9
590
9.8
$16.00

1
28
60
112
98
50
44
30
18
6
112
11
5
1

1
38
190
301
97
83
32
21
11
146
11
1
4

2
1
2

2

1

50
156
73
279
207
192
118
143
36
18
5
17
3
4
3
2

12
36
13
315
124
132
233
312
88
77
38
25
14
14
6
8

1
3

3
1
3
6
107
98
122
65
38
13
7

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU

57

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
[Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request]
No.
No.
No.
No.
*No.
No.
No.
*No.
*No.
*No.
No.
*No.
No.
*No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
*No.
No.
*No.

1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries
of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 16 pp. 1918.
2. Labor Laws for Women in Industry in Indiana. 29 pp. 1919.
3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 8 no
Third
ed., 1921.
4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
6. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919.
6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United
States. 8 pp. 1921.
7. Night-Work Laws in the United States. (1919.) 4 pp. 1920.
8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920.
9. Home Work in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920.
10. Hours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia 32
pp. 1920.
11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1921.
12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920.
13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 on
1921.
14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20 dd
1921.
15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women. 26
pp. 1921.
16. (See Bulletin 63.)
17. Women’s Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. 11 pp. 1921.
19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
20. Negro Women in Industry. 65 pp. 1922.
21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922.

No. 23. The Family Status of Breadwinning Women.

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

No. 42.
No. 43.
No. 44.
No. 45.
No. 46.
No. 47.

43 pp.

1922.

Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923.
Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923.
The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
Women’s Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923.
Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
The Share of Wage-Earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp.
1923.
What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
Women in South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
Proceedings of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923.
Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924.
Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924.
Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924,
Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
(See Bulletin 63.)
Family Status of Breadwinning Women in Four Selected Cities. 145
pp. 1925.
List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States
and Canada. 42 pp. 1925.
Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 68
pp. 1925.
Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1925.
Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in Coal­
Mine Workers’ Families. 61 pp. 1925.
Facts about Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on
Census Statistics. 64 pp. 1925.
Women in the Fruit-Growing and Canning Industries in the State of
Washington. 223 pp. 1926.

Supply exhausted.




58

WOMEN IN 5-AND-10-CENT STORES

*No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Women Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925.
No. 50. Effects of Applied Research upon the Employment Opportunities of
American Women. 54 pp. 1926.
*No. 51. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 52. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. The Status of Women in the Government Service in 1925. 103 pp.
1926.
No. 54. Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
No. 55. Women in Mississippi Industries. 89 pp. 1926.
No. 56. Women in Tennessee Industries. 120 pp. 1927.
No. 57. Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
No. 58. Women in Delaware Industries. 156 pp. 1927.
No. 59. Short Talks About Working Women.

24 pp.

1927.

No. 60. Industrial Accidents to Women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
316 pp. 1927.
No. 61. The Development of Minimum-Wage Laws in the United States, 1912
to 1927. 635 pp. 1928. Price, 90 cents.
No. 62. Women’s Employment in Vegetable Canneries in Delaware. 47 pp.
1927.
No. 63. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 51 pp. 1927. (Revision of
Bulletins 16 and 40.)
No. 64. The Employment of Women at Night. 86 pp. 1928.
*No. 65. The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Opportunities of
Women. 498 pp. 1928.
No. 66. History of Labor Legislation for Women in Three States; Chronological
Development of Labor Legislation for Women in the United States.
288 pp. 1929.
No. 67. Women Workers in Flint, Mich. 80 pp. 1928.
No. 68. Summary: The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Oppor­
tunities of Women. (Reprint of Chapter II of Bulletin 65.) 22 pp.
1928.
No. 69. Causes of Absence for Men and for Women in Four Cotton Mills.
24 pp. 1929.
No. 70. Negro Women in Industry in 15 States. 74 pp. 1929.
No. 71. Selected References on the Health of Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1929.
No. 72. Conditions of Work in Spin Rooms. 41 pp. 1929.
No. 73. Variations in Employment Trends of Women and Men. (In press.)
No. 74. The Immigrant Woman and Her Job. 175 pp. 1929.
No. 75. What the Wage-Earning Woman Contributes to Family Support. 20
pp. 1929.
No. 76. Women in 5-and-10-Cent Stores and Limited-Price Chain Department
Stores. 59 pp. 1929.
No. 77. A Study of Two Groups of Denver Married Women Applying for Jobs.
10 pp. 1929.
Annual reports of the Director, 1919*, 1920*, 1921*, 1922, 1923, 1924*, 1925,
1926, 1927* 1928, 1929.
Supply exhausted*




O


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102