View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

17 LABOR MARKETS
1 9 5 5 -5 6

0

O c c u p a t io n a l E a r n i n g s

0

E a r n in g s T re n d s

0

In t e r c it y C o m p a r i s o n s

0

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e

0

S u p p l e m e n t a r y P r a c t ic e s

R e la t io n s h ip s

Bulletin No. 1188

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR S A I T C
TTSIS
Ewan Clague, C m i
o m ssioner




8 4 th C o n g r e s s , 2 d S e ss io n

H ou se D ocum ent N o . 4 8 6

W a g e s and R e late d B e n e fits
17 L A B O R M A R K E T S
1955-56


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ or s a l e b y
F
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

0

O c c u p a t io n a l

§

E a r n in g s

#

I n t e r c it y

#

O c c u p a t io n a l

#

S u p p le m

E a r n in g s

T r e n d s

C o m

p a r is o n s

W

e n t a r y

a g e

R e la t io n s h ip s

P r a c t ic e s

Bulletin No. 1188

UNITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T

OF

LABOR

James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
Novem ber 1956

th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts, U . S. G o v e r n m e n t P rinting O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n 2 5 , D . C.

P rice 5 0 cen ts




Preface

Contents

The Com m unity Wage Survey P ro g ra m
The B ureau o f L a b or Statistics regu larly conducts
areaw ide wage su rv ey s in a num ber o f im portant industrial
ce n te rs .
The stu d ies, m ade fr o m late fall to ea rly spring,
p rov id e data on occu p ation al earnings and related supple­
m en tary b en efits.
A p re lim in a ry rep ort is available on
com p letion o f the study in each a rea , usually in the month
follow in g the p a y ro ll p e rio d studied.
The prelim in ary r e ­
p ort is supplied fr e e o f ch a rg e .
This is follow ed within a
m onth by an a rea (for sa le) sum m ary bulletin that p rov id es
additional data not included in the e a rlie r rep ort.
T hese
in clude:
F o r each occu p a tion — areaw ide and in ­
d u stry -g rou p a v e ra g e earnings and em p loy­
m ent, and d istrib u tion s of w ork ers by ea rn ­
ings in terv a ls.
F o r each rela ted ('’fr in g e " ) benefit and
supplem entary wage p r a c tic e —selectiv e d is ­
tribu tion s of freq u en cy of the p ra ctice and
s e r v ic e req u irem en ts (where pertinent) by
areaw ide and in d u stry -g rou p p rop ortion s of
o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s to whom applicable.
A scop e ta b le— showing the num ber of
establish m en ts in s c o p e , the num ber studied,
and co rresp on d in g o ffic e and plant w orker
em ploym ent, in the a re a and industry groups,
as defined.
T his con solida ted a n alytical bulletin su m m arizes the
re su lts fo r the su rveys m ade during late 1955 and ea rly
1956.
A lis t o f the fo r sale bulletins fo r the a rea s su r­
veyed ap p ears on the la st page.




Page
Introduction __________________________________________________________
Industrial com p osition of the 17 a rea s _________________________
C om parability of a rea data ______________________________________
Summa r y _____________________________________________________________
T rends of occupational earnings, 1953-56 _________________________
M ovem ent o f w ages, a ll in d u stries, 1953-56 __________________
C overage and m ethod of com puting the indexes _________________
L im itations o f the d a t a ___________________________________________
Occupational earnings ______________________________________________
Women*s o ffic e occu pation s _____________________________________
Men*s o ffic e occu pation s ________________________________________
P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical occu pation s _________________________
Skilled maintenance w o r k e r s _____________________________________
C ustodial and m a teria l-m ov em en t occu pation s _________________
Interindustry co m p a riso n s ______________________________________
Wage d iffe r e n c e s am ong la b or m a r k e t s ____________________________
Method of com puting area re la tiv es ____________________________
In terarea com p a rison s ___________________________________________
Job groups _____________________________________________________
Industry groups ___ . ____________________________________ ____
_
In tra -a re a com p a rison s _________________________________________
Occupational wage relation sh ips ___________________________________
Method of m easu rem en t _________________________________________
Plant jo b s ________________________________________________________
O ffice jo b s ________________________________________________________
Industry d iffe r e n c e s _____________________________________________
R egion al d ifferen tia l patterns ___________________________________
L o n g -te rm t r e n d __________________________________________________
E stablishm ent p r a c tic e s and supplem entary wage p r o v i s i o n s ____
M inim um entrance rates fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s ____________________
Scheduled w o r k w e e k s _____________________________________________
W orkw eeks under 40 hours ___________________________________
W orkw eeks o v e r 40 hours ___________________________________
R edu ction s in w eekly h o u r s ___________________________________
L a te -sh ift pay p ro v isio n s (m anufacturing) ______________________
P aid h olidays _____________________________________________________
P aid vacations ___________________________________________________
Health and insurance plans ______________________________________
R etirem en t plans ________________________________________________
P r o fit-s h a r in g plans _________________________ ______ _____________

1
1
2
5
7
7
8
8
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
29
29
29
29
30
30
33
33
33
34
34
34
35
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
47
48
49
50
50

C harts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
iii

R elative em ploym ent in se le cted industry d iv ision s,
17 la b or m a r k e t s _ ...____________________________________ _
_
R elative em ploym ent in se le cted m anufacturing
industry grou ps, 17 la b or m arkets _______________________
Occupational wage relation sh ip s, 17 la b or m arkets _______
O ccupational wage rela tion sh ip s, m anufacturing and
nonm anufacturing, 17 la b o r m ark ets ______________________

3
4
36
37

Contents - Continued

Contents - Continued

Page

Page
T ables: - Continued

T ables:
T rend s of occupational earnings:
1. Wage in d exes, o ffic e and plant _______________________
2. P e rce n t in cre a s e , o ffic e and p la n t____________________
3. P a y ro ll p e rio d s c o v e re d ______________________________

A:

B.
9
10
11

Occupational earnings:
A verag e earnings fo r selected o ffic e
occu pation s A - l : A ll in d u s t r ie s __________________________________
A - 2: M a n u fa ctu rin g ______________
A - 3: Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
A - 4: P u b lic u tilities ________________________________
A - 5: W holesale trade _______________________________
A - 6: R etail trade ____________________________________
A - 7: F in a n c e _________________________________________
A - 8: S e rv ice s _______________________________________

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
21

A verag e earnings fo r selected plant
occu pation s A - 9:
A ll in d u s t r ie s _________________________________
A - 10:
M anufacturing ________________________________
A - 11: Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
A - 12:
P ublic u tilities _______________________________
A - 13:
W holesale trade _____________________________
A - 14:
R eta il trade __________________________________
A - 15:
F in a n c e _______________________________________
A - 16:
S e r v ic e s _____________________________________

22
23
24
25
25
26
26
27

Wage
4.
5.
6.

d iffe re n c e s am ong la b o r m arkets:
Interarea pay c o m p a riso n s, o ffic e w o rk e rs _________
In terarea pay c o m p a riso n s, plant w ork ers __________
Nonmanufacturing and manufacturing pay
com p a riso n s _________________________________________

Occupational wage rela tion sh ips:
7. Occupational wage relation sh ip s by industry
d iv ision ______________________________________________
8. Occupational wage rela tion sh ip s, a ll in du stries
by area ______________________________________________
9. O ccupational wage rela tion sh ip s, manufacturing
in d u stries by a rea _________________________________




31
31
32

38

E stablishm ent p r a c tice s and supplem entary
wage p ro v isio n s:
B - 1:
Minimum entrance rates fo r w om en o ffice
w ork ers (all in d u stries) __________________________
B -2 :
Minimum entrance ra tes fo r wom en o ffic e
w ork ers (m anufacturing) _________________________
B -3 :
Scheduled weekly h ou rs (all in d u stries) ---------------B -4 :
Scheduled weekly h ou rs (m anufacturing) --------------B -5 :
Scheduled weekly h ou rs (public u tilitie s ) --------------B -6 :
Scheduled weekly h ou rs (w h olesale tra d e) ________
B -7 ;
Scheduled weekly h ou rs (reta il tra d e) _____________
B-8*. Scheduled weekly h ou rs (fin ance) __________________
B - 9: Scheduled weekly h ou rs (s e r v ic e s ) ________________
B -10:
Shift d ifferen tial p ro v is io n s (m anufacturing) -------B-ll:
Shift d ifferen tial p r a c tic e s (m anufacturing) ______
B - 12: Paid
holidays (all in d u strie s ) ___________________
B - 13: Paid
holidays (m anufacturing) __________________
B - 14; Paid holidays (public u t i l i t i e s ) _____________________
B - 15: Paid holidays (w holesale trad e) ___________________
B -16: Paid holidays (retail t r a d e ) ______________________ —
B - 17: Paid
holidays (finance) «.______ - __________________
B - 18: Paid
holidays ( s e r v i c e s ) _________________________
B - 19: Paid vacations (all in d u s t r ie s )_____________________
B -2 0 : Paid vacations (m anufacturing) ----------------------------B - 2 1: Paid vacations (public u t il it i e s ) ___________________
B - 22: Paid vacations (w h olesale tra d e) _________________
B - 2 3: Paid vacations (reta il trad e) _____________________
B - 24*. P aid vacations (fin ance) ___________________________
B - 25: Paid vacations (s e r v ic e s ) __________________________
B -2 6 : Health, insurance, and p en sion plans
(all in du stries) ___________________________________—
B -2 7 : Health, in su ran ce, and pen sion plans
(m anufacturing) ___________________________________
B -2 8 : Health, insurance, and pen sion plans
(public u tilities) ___________________________________
B -2 9 : Health, insurance, and p en sion plans
(w holesale trad e) _________________________________
B -3 0 : Health, insurance, and pen sion plans
(retail trad e) ______________________________________
B -3 1 : Health, insurance, and p en sion plans
(finance) ___________________________________________
B - 32: Health, insurance, and p en sion plans
(s e r v ic e s ) _________________________________________
B - 33: P ro fit-sh a rin g plans (by type o f plan) ------------------B -3 4 : P ro fit-sh a rin g plans (all typ es by a r e a ) --------------

A ppendixes:
A: Scope and method of su rvey -----------------------------------------B: Occupational d e scrip tion s _____________________________

40
42
iv

52
53
54
55
56
57
57
58
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
83
87

W ages and Related Benefits, 17 Labor Markets, 1955-561
Intro du ction

The U. S. D epartm ent o f Labor*s Bureau o f L abor S tatistics
con ducted su rv ey s o f occu p a tion a l earnings and related p r a c tic e s in
17 im portant la b o r m ark et a re a s during late 1955 and e a rly 1 9 5 6 .2
T hese studies a re d esig n ed to m eet a variety o f governm ental and
nongovern m en tal n eeds fo r in form ation on occupational earnings, e sta b ­
lish m en t p r a c t ic e s , and rela ted wage p r o v is io n s . O ccupations c o m ­
m on to a v a riety o f m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing in d u stries
a re studied on a com m un ity wide b a sis in selected a r e a s . The a rea
su rveys p ro v id e earn in gs data fo r the follow ing types of occu p ation s:
(a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical; (c) maintenance and
pow erplant; and (d) cu stod ia l and m a teria l m ovem ent. Data a re a lso
c o lle c te d and su m m a rize d on shift operations and d ifferen tia ls, w eekly
w ork sch ed u les, and supplem entary wage benefits such as paid v a ca ­
tion s and p aid h olid a y s. T h ese data, p resen ted in detail in the in d i­
vidual a rea b u lletin s, a re su m m arized and analyzed in the p resen t
bu lletin . 3

The establish m en ts within the scop e of the su rveys in the
17 a re a s p ro v id e d em ploym ent to an estim ated 7 .0 m illion w ork ers,
o f whom 5. 8 m illio n w e re plant and o ffic e w o rk e rs , as defined on
page 83.
The la r g e s t a re a la b o r fo r c e (New Y ork C ity p ro p e r) is m ore
than 20 tim e s the size of that o f the sm a llest a rea (M em phis), and
m o r e than 10 tim e s as la rg e a s that in either Atlanta, D allas, Denver,
New O rlea n s, P ortlan d, o r P ro v id e n ce . The 4 la r g e s t a r e a s — hicago,
C
D etroit, L o s A n g e le s-L o n g B each, and New Y ork C ity—account fo r
m o re than h alf o f both the m anufacturing and the nonm anufacturing
em ploym ent in the 17 a re a s com bin ed .
Industrial C om p osition o f the 17 A re a s
The 17 a re a s c o v e r e d by this rep ort had a com bined popula­
tion o f a lm o st 37 m illio n in 1950— a lm ost a fourth o f the Nation*s
tota l.
Sixteen States a re re p resen ted , perm ittin g som e examination
o f in terreg ion a l as w ell as in traregion al variation s in pay le v e ls and
a sso cia te d p r a c tic e s .

E ach o f the detailed a rea bulletins p resen ts areaw ide in fo r ­
m ation com binin g data fo r six m a jo r industry groupings.
Separate
data fo r the industry grou p s a re provid ed w here fe a sib le , depending
la r g e ly on the rela tiv e s iz e and im portan ce o f the industry group
within a given a r e a . Thus, the sam pling techniques perm itted c o m ­
putation o f separate data fo r m anufacturing and public u tilities in each
o f the 17 a r e a s ; re ta il tra d e in 13; finance in 11; w h olesale trade in
10; and s e r v ic e s in 5.

The individual industry groups have about the same relative
im p orta n ce in the 17 a re a s a s a group as in the Nation as a whole
(chart 1).
M anufacturing, con stru ction , and trade are somewhat
m o re im portant in the Nation than in the 17 a re a s; the re v e rse ap­
p lie s to pu blic u tilitie s, finan ce, and s e r v ic e s . Am ong the 17 a rea s,
the in du strial co m p o sitio n o f the individual a re a s v a ries substantially.

1 P re p a re d in the Bureau*s D ivision o f Wages and Industrial
R ela tion s.
A re a studies w e re su p ervised by the B u r e a u s R egional
Wage A n a ly sts.
2 The studies in 6 o f the a rea s w ere made subsequent to the
change in the F e d e ra l Wage and Hour Law which in cre a se d the m in i­
m um wage req u irem en t fr o m 75 cents to $1 an hour, e ffe ctiv e
M a rch 1, 1956.
S ince 1948, the B ureau has conducted 1 o r m o re areaw ide
su rv ey s in 51 la b o r m a rk e ts.
The e a rlie st surveys c o v e re d o ffic e
w o r k e r s on ly. S u rveys co v e r in g both o ffic e and plant w o rk e rs w ere
con ducted in 40 a re a s in late 19 5 1 -ea rly 1952; in 20 a rea s in 1952-53;
and in 17 a re a s in ea ch o f the la st 3 y e a r s . (Although sim ila r te c h ­
niques w ere u sed in p rep a rin g a F eb ru a ry 1956 study in an 18th a re a —
L a w ren ce, M a s s .— the data a r e not included in this b u lle tin .) Some
a re a s a re studied annually and oth ers biennially. A listin g o f a rea
r e p o rts iss u e d p r e v io u s ly , including item s co v e re d , is a vailable in
D ir e c to r y o f C om m unity Wage Surveys; co p ie s are available upon r e ­
quest fr o m the B ureau o f L a b or S ta tistics, Washington 25, D. C .,
o r any of its 5 reg ion a l o ffic e s .
3 See listin g o f occu p ation al wage survey bulletins on la st page.




In fou r a r e a s —D etroit, M ilwaukee, N e w a rk -J ersey C ity, and
P ro v id e n ce — m o re w o rk e rs a re em ployed in m anufacturing industries
than in a ll nonm anufacturing industry grou ps com bin ed . N early half
o f the la b o r fo r c e in C h ica g o, Philadelphia, and St. L ouis are em ­
ployed in m anufacturing (chart 1). On the other hand, Atlanta, D allas,
D enver, M em phis, New O rlean s, P ortlan d, and San F ra n cisco-O a k la n d
a re a re a s in which m anufacturing em ploym ent is relativ ely le s s
im portant, em ploying le s s than a th ird o f the la b o r fo r c e — few er
w o r k e r s, in fa ct, than in the area*s w h olesale and reta il trade estab­
lish m en ts.

S im ila r em ploym ent variation s a re evident among the sub­
group com ponents o f the broad industry d iv isio n s.
Thus, m arked
d iffe r e n c e s am ong the a re a s a re shown in relativ e em ploym ent in the

(i)

2

variou s m anufacturing industry groups (ch art 2 ). M etals and m e ta l­
w orking fir m s em ploy the la r g e s t segm ent o f the m anufacturing la b o r
fo r c e in m ost a r e a s — fr o m 50 to 85 p ercen t in C h ica go, D etroit, L os
A n g e le s-L o n g B each, and M ilw aukee.
In seven a re a s in which the
m etals in d u stries em ployed fe w e r than a th ird o f the m anufacturing
w o rk e rs , equal o r la r g e r p ro p o rtio n s w ere em ployed in other indus­
tr ie s o r groups o f in d u stries— apparel in d u stries in New Y ork C ity;
tex tiles and apparel in Atlanta; fo o d , ru bber, and printing in d u stries
in D en ver; food p rod u cts and ap p arel in New O rlea n s; lu m b er, fu r ­
niture, and paper in P ortlan d and M em phis; and te x tile s in P ro v id e n ce .




C om parability of A rea Data
A reaw ide (all industry) estim a tes o f wage le v e ls and related
p r a c tic e s a re a ffected to som e extent by the in du strial com p osition of
an a re a .
D iffe re n ce s in estim a tes m ust, th e r e fo r e , be view ed in
te rm s of in terarea d iffe r e n ce s in the p rop ortion o f em ploym ent a c ­
counted fo r both by the r e sp e ctiv e broad industry d iv ision s and th eir
subgroups.
In a few a re a s, additional lim ita tion s on a r e a -t o -a r e a
com p a rison s a r is e fr o m in com p lete co v e ra g e o f certa in in d u stries;
these a re indicated in the footn otes to the table on page 85.

3

Chart I RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED INDUSTRY DIVISIONS
:
17 Labor Markets

UNITED STATES
17 AREAS COMBINED

E H H B 1 S 1 1 E S H - 3
-------------------

D e troit
P r o v id e n c e
—

M ilw a u k e e
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C ity

■•

:

^...........................................................................................................................

St. Louis
P h ila d e lp h ia
C h ic a g o
Los A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P aul
N e w Y o r k C ity
M e m p h is
P o rtla n d ( O r e g .)
A tla n ta

r > ".1
*

D a lla s

v*-

>
.

L*
-*

i.

a1< - li-i^
j

...........

S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d

V-* ^ JV.V V
<V \V',V V
N

i''

N e w O r le a n s
D enver

L^V

□
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

• K UO L IO SAI TC
U A F A I TTSI S




MANUFACTURING

CONSTRUCTION, FINANCE,
PUBLIC UTILITIES, AND SERVICE

luj-LA^. Vjlvlv^^<

?/-<

■ ^1■
<
-V '»

TRADE

Source: C
ounty B
usiness Patterns. U . D
S eoartm of C m
ent
om erce.
E ploym in first qu
m
ent
arter of 1 5 u der O ge
93 n
ld-A
and Survivors Insurance P
rogram
.

4

Chart 2: RELATIVE EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY GROUPS
17 Labor Markets
O

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

PERCENT
100

UNITED STATES
17 A R E A S C O M B IN E D

D e tr o it
M ilw a u k e e
L os A n g e le s -L o n g B e a ch
C h ic a g o
S t. L o u is
D a ll a s
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C it y
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P a u l
S a n F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d
P h il a d e l p h i a
N ew

O rle a n s

P o r tla n d ( O r e g .)
P r o v id e n c e
D enver
M e m p h is
A tla n ta
N ew

Y o r k C it y

METALS AND
METAL PRODUCTS

U IT D STATES D
N E
EPARTM T OF LABOR
EN
BRA O LB RSAISIC
UEU F AO T T T S




MANUFACTURING OTHER THAN
METALS, METAL PRODUCTS,
TEXTILES AND APPAREL

TEXTILES AND APPAREL

Source: County Business Patterns, U Departm of Commerce.
.S.
ent
Employment in First Quarter of 1953 under Old-Age
and Survivors Insurance Program
.

5

A v e r a g e w e e k ly and h o u r ly w a g e s in 17 m a jo r la b o r m a r k e t s
in la te 1955 and e a r ly 1956 w e r e g e n e r a lly h ig h e r than th o s e r e ­
c o r d e d f o r c o m p a r a b le jo b s a y e a r e a r lie r . S u p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits
w e r e a l s o a p p lic a b le to in c r e a s e d p r o p o r t io n s o f the w o r k e r s in the
in d u s tr ie s and a r e a s stu d ie d .

S lig h tly m o r e than h a lf o f the w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s had
4 0 -h o u r w o r k w e e k s .
M o s t o f the r e m a in d e r t y p ic a lly w o rk e d a
37 V 2 -h ou r o r o th e r w o rk w e e k o f l e s s than 40 h o u r s . E igh ty p e r c e n t
o f the plan t w o r k e r s w o r k e d 40 h o u r s .
M o s t o th e r s had lo n g e r
s c h e d u le s .

W age le v e l s a s m e a s u r e d b y B u rea u in d e x e s in c r e a s e d m o r e
d u rin g 1955 th an in 1954, but som ew h a t l e s s than in 1953.
D urin g
1955, w a g e le v e l s o f w o m e n o ffic e w o r k e r s in c r e a s e d 4 . 7 p e r c e n t ,
in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s 4 . 8 p e r c e n t , s k ille d m ain ten an ce w o r k e r s 5. 2 p e r ­
c e n t, and u n s k ille d m e n p la n t w o r k e r s 5 .9 p e r c e n t.

A b ou t 5 p e r c e n t o f the e s ta b lis h m e n ts r e p o r t e d that c u r re n t
w o rk w e e k s w e r e lo w e r than 3 y e a r s a g o .
M o st f ir m s that re d u ce d
the w o rk w e e k a l s o r e d u c e d the m a x im u m s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r s a fte r
w h ich p r e m iu m o v e r t im e is p a id .

In g e n e r a l, e a r n in g s in c o m p a r a b le o ffic e and p la n t o c c u p a tio n s
te n d e d t o b e h ig h e r in m a n u fa ctu rin g than in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s ­
t r i e s , and h ig h e r f o r m e n than f o r w o m e n . O ffic e o c cu p a tio n a l e a r n ­
in g s d if f e r e d l e s s f r o m a r e a to a r e a than d id th o se f o r plant w o r k e r s .
D a r n in g s f o r u n s k ille d p la n t jo b s v a r ie d m u ch m o r e fr o m a r e a to
a r e a than th o s e f o r s k ille d jo b s .
T h e l o n g - t e r m tr e n d to w a r d n a r r o w e r s k ill d iffe r e n t ia ls h as
a p p a r e n tly le v e le d o ff, at le a s t te m p o r a r ily , w ith lit tle ch a n g e o c c u r ­
rin g in the p a s t 3 y e a r s in th e a r e a s stu d ied .
The a v e r a g e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p a y s it s s k ille d m a in ten a n ce m en fr o m 35 to 45 p e r c e n t
m o r e p e r h o u r than it p a y s its ja n it o r s .
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
o f m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e g e n e r a lly l e s s than th o s e o f s k ille d
m a in te n a n ce w o r k e r s .
W om en in m any o ffic e o c c u p a tio n s r e c e iv e
l e s s p a y than m a te r ia l-h a n d lin g la b o r e r s in in d iv id u al e s ta b lis h m e n t s .

C o m p a r is o n s o f in te r a r e a pay r e la tio n s h ip s in d ica te that
h o u r ly p a y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o ffic e and sk ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s
a v e r a g e d 31 p e r c e n t h ig h e r in the h ig h e st w age a r e a than in the l o w ­
e s t w ag e a r e a . F o r m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t and c u s to d ia l jo b s , the m a x i­
m u m in t e r a r e a s p r e a d in e a r n in g s w as 69 and 9 5 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
O ffic e pa y le v e l s w e r e h ig h e s t in D e tr o it and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d
and lo w e s t in N ew O r le a n s .
S k illed m a in ten a n ce w o r k e r s w e r e
h ig h e s t p a id in C h ic a g o and D e tr o it and lo w e s t in the sou th ern a r e a s
an d P r o v id e n c e . P a y f o r m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t and c u s to d ia l jo b s a v e r ­
a g e d h ig h e st in San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d and lo w e s t in N ew O r le a n s .
M a n u fa ctu rin g p a y le v e l s f o r o f f ic e and c u s to d ia l jo b s w e r e ty p ic a lly
h ig h e r than n o n m a n u fa ctu r in g .
T he r e v e r s e w as tr u e f o r s k ille d
m a in te n a n ce and m a te r ia l-m o v e m e n t jo b s .
M o r e than h a lf o f th e e sta b lis h m e n ts v is it e d had e s t a b lis h e d
m in im u m e n tr a n c e p a y p r o v i s io n s f o r h irin g in e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts o r
o th e r in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s .
T h e m o s t c o m m o n ra te w a s
a b ou t $ 4 0 in 11 a r e a s an d $ 4 2 .5 0 o r m o r e in oth er a r e a s .




T h e g r e a t m a jo r it y o f m a n u fa ctu rin g plant w o r k e r s w e r e
e m p lo y e d in f i r m s that h ave p r e m iu m pay p r o v is io n s fo r la t e -s h ift
w o rk .
In t e r m s o f th o s e e m p lo y e d , a fifth o f a ll m a n u fa ctu rin g plant
w o r k e r s w e r e e m p lo y e d on la te s h ifts .

V a c a tio n s w ith p a y a r e w ith in r e a c h o f v ir tu a lly a ll o ffic e and
plant w o r k e r s . A lm o s t h a lf the w o r k e r s ca n r e c e iv e so m e v a ca tion
pa y a ft e r 6 m onths* s e r v i c e . V ir t u a lly a ll ca n g et a w eek*s pay a fte r
a y e a r * s s e r v ic e ; o v e r 95 p e r c e n t can get at le a s t 2 w eeks* pay a fte r
5 y e a r s ; a fo u rth , 3 o r m o r e w eeks* pay a ft e r 10 y e a r s ; and t h r e e fo u rth s , 3 o r m o r e w eeks* pay a ft e r 15 y e a r s . One out o f e v e r y 6
can r e c e iv e 4 o r m o r e w eeks* pay a ft e r 25 y e a r s .
P a y p r o v is io n s
a r e t y p ic a lly m o r e lib e r a l f o r o f f i c e than f o r p la n t w o r k e r s .
F or
9 out o f e v e r y 10 w o r k e r s , v a c a tio n pa y is e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s o f
r e g u la r o r a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r a stated n u m b er o f w e e k s.

A lth ou gh 6 p a id h o lid a y s w a s the n u m b er m o s t u su a lly p r o ­
v id ed , m o r e than 60 p e r c e n t o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s and 40 p e r ce n t o f
plant r e c e iv e d 7 o r m o r e p a id h o lid a y s .

P a r t o r a ll o f the c o s t o f on e o r m o r e ty p es o f e m p lo y e e
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p la n s is p a id b y e m p lo y e r s o f v irtu a lly
a ll o f f ic e and pla n t w o r k e r s . O n this b a s i s , life in s u r a n ce is a v a ila ­
b le to about n in e -te n th s o f the w o r k e r s ; h o s p it a liz a t io n in s u r a n c e ,
s u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e , and e it h e r p a id s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c ­
c id e n t in s u r a n c e a r e e a c h a p p lic a b le to t h r e e -fo u r t h s o r m o r e ; and
f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s , p e n s io n p la n s a r e a v a ila b le . P e n s io n s a re a v a ila ­
b le to s e v e n -te n th s o f the p la n t w o r k e r s .
B oth m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ,
and a c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t in s u r a n c e apply to su b ­
sta n tia l p r o p o r t io n s o f o f f ic e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
C a ta strop h e (e x ­
ten d ed m e d ic a l) in s u r a n c e is a v a ila b le to 16 p e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s
and 7 p e r c e n t o f pla n t w o r k e r s . P r o fit -s h a r in g p la n s w e re fou nd in
e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g 8 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s .




7
Trends of Occupational Earnings, 1953-56

W a ge l e v e l s co n tin u e d to r is e du rin g 1955 a c c o r d in g to c o m ­
p a r is o n s o f the r e s u lt s o£ o c c u p a tio n a l w age stu d ies m a d e by the
B u r e a u in 17 la b o r m a r k e t s d u rin g the w in ter o f 1 9 55 -56 w ith e a r lie r
w a g e s tu d ie s m a d e in th e s e a r e a s . 4
W age le v e ls , a s m e a s u r e d by
th e B u r e a u 's in d e x e s o f e a r n in g s f o r fo u r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g r o u p s ,
i n c r e a s e d m o r e d u rin g 1955 than in 1954, but a little l e s s than d u rin g
1953. 5*
D u rin g 1955, w ag e le v e ls o f w om en o f f ic e w o r k e r s in c r e a s e d
4 . 7 p e r c e n t , s k ille d m e n m a in te n a n ce w o r k e r s 5. 2 p e r c e n t , and u n ­
s k ille d m en p la n t w o r k e r s 5 .9 p e r c e n t , c o m p a r e d w ith an in c r e a s e
o f a b ou t 3V2 p e r c e n t in e a r n in g s o f th e se g ro u p s du rin g 1954.
T he
s a la r ie s o f w o m e n in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s in c r e a s e d 4 . 8 p e r c e n t, c o m p a r e d
w ith 4. 5 p e r c e n t in th e p r e c e d in g y e a r . 8
M o v e m e n t o f W a g es,

A ll In d u s tr ie s ,

19 5 3 -5 6

B e tw e e n 1953, the b a s e y e a r o f the in d e x e s, an d 1956, a v e r a g e
h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f u n s k ille d p la n t w o r k e r s r o s e 1 5 .6 p e r c e n t , c o m ­
p a r e d w ith an i n c r e a s e o f 1 3 .7 p e r c e n t in s a la r ie s o f w o m e n o ffic e
w o r k e r s . S a la r ie s o f w o m e n in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s r o s e 15. 2 p e r c e n t and
a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f m e n in s k ille d m a in ten a n ce tr a d e s r o s e
15 p e r c e n t .
F o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , the in d e x e s r e la te
to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s o f w o rk , that is , the
sta n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id .
F o r the p la n t -w o r k e r g r o u p s , th e in d e x e s m e a s u r e ch a n g es in s tr a ig h ttim e a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pa y fo r o v e r t im e
an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts.
T h e m e th o d s
u s e d in c o n s tr u c tin g the in d e x e s and the lim ita tio n s o f the data a r e
e x p la in e d on p a g e 8.

th e fo u r

O v e r th is 3 - y e a r p e r io d m o s t o f the e a rn in g s i n c r e a s e s in
jo b g r o u p s w e r e b e tw e e n 13 and 16 p e r c e n t in in d iv id u a l

4 C o m p a r is o n s a r e lim it e d to a r e a s w h ich w e r e s u r v e y e d in
the y e a r s f o r w h ich e a r n in g s data a re bein g c o m p a r e d .
5 I n c r e a s e s a r e n o t lim it e d to th ose w hich o c c u r r e d du rin g
the c a le n d a r y e a r bu t a r e the in c r e a s e s w h ich o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n
s u r v e y s in an a r e a .
T h e p a y p e r io d s stu d ied w e re s t a g g e r e d o v e r
s e v e r a l m on th s in d iffe r e n t a r e a s but in m o s t c a s e s the len gth o f
tim e b e tw e e n s u r v e y s w as a b ou t the s a m e . S ee ta b le 3 f o r p e r io d s
c o v e r e d in e a c h o f the 17 a r e a s .
8 I n c r e a s e s sh ow n a r e s im p le a v e r a g e s o f the in c r e a s e s in the
13 a r e a s c o v e r e d in b oth the 1 9 5 4 -5 5 and 1 9 5 5 -5 6 s u r v e y s . P r o v i ­
d e n c e , N ew O r le a n s , D e t r o it , and M ilw a u k ee w e re n ot am on g the
a r e a s stu d ie d d u rin g the w in te r o f 1 9 5 4 -5 5 . T h e in d e x e s o f s a la r ie s
o f w o m e n in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s w e r e added this y e a r to g iv e r e p r e s e n t a ­
tio n to the p r o f e s s io n a l jo b s c o v e r e d b y the co m m u n ity w a g e s t u d ie s .




areas.
T he s m a lle s t v a r ia tio n a m o n g a r e a s w a s r e c o r d e d in the
p e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in s a la r ie s o f w om en o f f ic e w o r k e r s ; th ese
ra n ged fr o m 1 0 .1 p e r c e n t in M ilw au k ee to 16 p e r c e n t in P o rtla n d .
V a r ia tio n s w e r e g r e a t e s t f o r u n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s w ith in c r e a s e s
ran gin g fr o m 1 0 .5 p e r c e n t in P r o v id e n c e to 2 3 .8 p e r c e n t in D en v er,
the la r g e s t in c r e a s e n oted a m on g a r e a s and jo b g r o u p s . The s m a lle s t
r i s e w as 9. 8 p e r c e n t in the a v e r a g e s a la r ie s o f in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s in
D a lla s .

Within the sa m e a r e a , v a r ia t io n s in a m ou n ts o f in c r e a s e in
e a r n in g s a m on g th e fo u r jo b g ro u p s w e r e s m a lle s t in P h ila d elp h ia .
P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e f o r the fo u r jo b g ro u p s in P h ila d e lp h ia w e re :
W om en o f f ic e w o r k e r s — 1 4 .6 ; w om en in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s — 1 5 .1 ; m en
u n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s —1 5 .5 ; and m en in s k ille d m a in ten a n ce tra d es —
1 6 .4 p e r c e n t .
T h e g r e a te s t d iffe r e n c e s w e r e in A tlan ta w h ere the
a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f m en u n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s r o s e 2 2 .6 p e r ­
cen t o v e r the 3 y e a r s , c o m p a r e d w ith an 1 1 .8 - p e r c e n t in c r e a s e in
the s a la r ie s o f w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s . V a r ia tio n s in th e p e r ce n ts o f
in c r e a s e in w age le v e ls by a r e a and b e tw e e n jo b g ro u p s have r e s u lte d
in s o m e sh ifts in the ran kin g o f a r e a s by e a r n in g s f o r jo b g r o u p s .7

P e r c e n ta g e d iffe r e n c e s in p a y b e tw e e n s k ille d and u n sk illed
jo b s h ave n a r r o w e d o v e r a lo n g p e r io d o f y e a r s . 8 H o w e v e r , su r v e y s
in r e c e n t y e a r s h av e in d ic a te d a m o d e r a tin g tr e n d and th is is b orn e
out by a c o m p a r is o n o f the in d e x e s f o r s k ille d m a in ten a n ce w o r k e r s
and u n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s .
P a y l e v e ls o f both jo b g rou p s have
in c r e a s e d b etw een 15 and 16 p e r c e n t s in c e 1953. I n c r e a s e s in e a r n ­
in g s o f the s k ille d m a in ten a n ce g rou p w e r e h ig h e r than fo r the u n ­
s k ille d plant g rou p o v e r th is 3 -y e a r p e r io d in 8 o f the 15 a r e a s .
D u rin g the p a st few y e a r s , th e r e h a s b e e n a g r e a t e r ten d en cy to
m a in tain p e r c e n ta g e d iffe r e n t ia ls a m on g o c c u p a tio n s by granting la r g e r
w ag e in c r e a s e s to s k ille d w o r k e r s .

It sh ou ld be n oted that in c r e a s e s and d iffe r e n t ia ls r e fe r r e d
to in e a r lie r p a ra g r a p h s a r e p e r c e n ta g e i n c r e a s e s o r d iffe r e n t ia ls .
A r e a s w ith the h ig h e st p e r c e n ta g e in c r e a s e s w e r e not n e c e s s a r ily
the a r e a s w ith the h ig h e s t in c r e a s e s in t e r m s o f c e n ts p e r h ou r.
F o r e x a m p le , the e a r n in g s o f u n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s r o s e 1 7 .2 p e r ­
cen t in M e m p h is and 14. 1 p e r c e n t in San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d . T h e se
p e r c e n ta g e in c r e a s e s w e r e eq u iv a len t to abou t 17 ce n ts in M em p h is,
c o m p a r e d w ith a b ou t 23 c e n ts in San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d .
D esp ite
the n a r ro w in g o f the p e r c e n ta g e d if f e r e n c e s b etw een s k ille d and u n ­
s k ille d w o r k e r s ' r a t e s , a b s o lu te d if f e r e n c e s , a s m e a s u r e d in ce n ts
p e r h o u r , h ave con tin u ed to in c r e a s e b etw een th e s e jo b g ro u p s.

7 See W age D iffe r e n c e s A m on g L a b o r M a r k e ts ,
8 See O ccu p a tio n a l Wage R e la tio n s h ip s , p . 3 3 0

p. 29.

8
L im ita tio n s o f the Data

C o v e r a g e and M eth od o f C om p u tin g the In d ex es
N e a r ly h a lf o f the w o m e n o ffic e e m p lo y e e s w ith in the s c o p e
o f th e s u r v e y s w e r e e m p lo y e d in the 18 o c c u p a tio n s u se d in c o n s t r u c ­
ting the o ffic e w o r k e r s 1 in d e x . T h e 10 jo b s u se d f o r the s k ille d m a in ­
te n a n ce in d e x in clu d e a ll the n u m e r ic a lly im p o rta n t m a in ten a n ce jo b s .
In c a lc u la tin g the in d e x f o r u n s k ille d m e n p{.ant w o r k e r s , on ly th r e e
jo b s w e r e in clu d e d , but th e s e w e r e a m on g the m o s t im p o rta n t u n s k ille d
jo b s , n u m e r ic a lly . N e a r ly a tenth o f a ll p la n t w o r k e r s in the 17 a r e a s
w e r e e m p lo y e d in the jo b s u s e d in com p u tin g the in d e x e s f o r s k ille d
and u n s k ille d w o r k e r s , the m a jo r it y o f w h om w e r e u n s k ille d . A la r g e
m a jo r it y o f the s k ille d m a in ten a n ce w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by the in d ex
w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts , w h e r e a s the un­
s k ille d w o r k e r s w e r e about e v e n ly d iv id e d b e tw e e n m a n u fa ctu rin g and
n on m a n u fa ctu rin g .
A la r g e p r o p o r t io n o f o ffic e w o r k e r s w e r e e m ­
p lo y e d in n on m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s . The o c c u p a tio n s u se d in
c o n s tr u c tio n o f the in d e x e s a r e lis t e d b e lo w .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e
c o m p u te d f o r the s p e c ifie d o c c u p a tio n s in e a ch a r e a .
The av erag e
s a la r ie s o r h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r e a c h o c c u p a tio n w e r e then m u ltip lie d
by the a v e r a g e o f 1953 and 1954 e m p lo y m e n t in e a c h jo b in the p a r ­
t ic u la r a r e a . T h e s e w eig h ted e a r n in g s f o r in d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n s w e r e
then a d ded to obtain an a g g r e g a te f o r e a c h o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p . F in a lly ,
the r a tio o f th e s e g rou p a g g r e g a te s f o r a g iv e n y e a r to the a g g r e g a te
fo r the b a s e p e r io d (1 9 53 ) w as co m p u te d and the r e s u lt m u ltip lie d by
the b a s e y e a r in d e x (10 0) to g et the in d e x f o r the g iv en y e a r , a s
fo llo w s :
In d ex f o r y e a r Y




A g g r e g a te f o r y e a r Y
A g g r e g a te f o r b a s e y e a r

X 100

T h e in d e x e s m e a s u r e p r in c ip a lly the e f fe c t s o f ( l ) g e n e r a l
s a la r y and w age ch a n g e s; (2) m e r it o r o th e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e iv e d
b y in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the s a m e jo b ; and (3 ) ch a n g e s in the
la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c ­
tio n s , and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t p a y l e v e l s . C h a n g e s in the la b o r f o r c e ca n
c a u s e in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in th e in d e x e s w ith ou t a c tu a l w a g e
c h a n g e s.
F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e e x p a n s io n m ig h t in c r e a s e the p r o ­
p o r tio n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t io n and r e s u lt in
a d r o p in the in dex, w h e r e a s a r e d u c tio n in th e p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r
p a id w o r k e r s w ou ld h ave the o p p o s it e e ffe c t .
The m ovem ent of a
h igh payin g
e sta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u ld c a u s e th e in d e x to
drop,
even though no c h a n g e in r a te s o c c u r r e d in o th e r a r e a
e s ta b lis h m en ts.

The u s e o f con sta n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a t e s th e e f f e c t s
o f ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h jo b in ­
c lu d e d in the in d ex .
T o illu s t r a t e , an in c r e a s e in the p r o p o r t io n o f
o f f ic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d a s s e c r e t a r i e s s im u lta n e o u s ly w ith a d e ­
c r e a s e in the r e la t iv e n u m b er o f s t e n o g r a p h e r s w ou ld not c a u s e the
in d e x to r is e , d e s p ite the fa c t that s e c r e t a r i e s r e c e i v e la r g e r s a la r ie s .
N o r a r e the in d e x e s in flu e n c e d b y c h a n g e s in sta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u le s
o r in p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t im e , s in c e th ey a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r
s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r s .

W om en o f f ic e w o r k e r s

S k illed m en m a in ten a n ce w o r k e r s

B i l l e r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a c h in e )
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s
C le r k s , f i l e , c la s s A
C le r k s , f i l e , c la s s B
C le r k s , o r d e r
C le r k s , p a y r o ll
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s
O ffic e g ir l s
S e c r e t a r ie s
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l
T y p is t s , c la s s A
T y p is t s , c l a s s B

C a r p e n te r s
E le c t r ic ia n s
M a c h in is ts
M e ch a n ic s
M e ch a n ic s (a u tom otiv e)
M illw r ig h ts
P a in t e r s
P ip e fit t e r s
S h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s

U n sk ille d m en plant w o r k e r s

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h an d lin g
W atchm en

9

Trends of Occupational Earnings
Table 1: Wage indexes, office and plant
(in d e x e s o f a v e r a g e w eek ly ea rn in gs o r a v e ra g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l gro u p s in 15 la b o r m a r k e t s , 1 9 5 3 -5 6 2)
(1953 = 100)
In d u stria l n u r s e s
(w om en)

W om en o f fic e
w o rk e rs

S k ille d m ain ten an ce tra d es
(m en )

U n sk illed plant w o rk e rs
(m en )

A rea
1954

1955

1956

1954

1955

1956

1954

1955

1956

1954

1955

1956

A ll in d u s trie s
N o rth e a s t:
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C i t y ______________________
N ew Y o r k C ity ________ ____________________
P h ila d e lp h ia _______________________________
__ _
P r o v i d e n c e _________ ____________

1 0 5 .7
1 0 4 .3
107. 1
X3 )

1 0 9 .8
1 08 .0
1 1 0 .8
( 3)

1 1 4 .0
1 1 4 .3
114. 6
1 1 3 .0

1 0 5 .2
104.r2
107. 1
(3 )

1 0 9 .7
1 0 9 .9
1 1 0 .3
(3 )

11 1 .2
1 1 5 .5
115 .1
114. 5

105. 6
1 0 4 .5
1 0 7 .2
(3)

109. 5
109. 7
1 1 1 .9
(3)

115. 4
1 1 3 .4
1 1 6 .4
1 1 3 .8

10 7 .1
1 0 5 .4
104. 5
(3)

1 1 1 .5
1 08 .1
1 0 9 .0
(3)

1 1 8 .2
113. 5
115. 5
110. 5

South:
A tla n ta _
D a ll a s ______________________
M em p h is ___________________

__ _
__ _

1 0 3 .0
1 0 5 .6
104 .1

1 05 .2
1 1 0 .9
106 .2

1 1 1 .8
1 1 5 .3
1 1 3 .2

1 0 5 .3
9 9 .2
106. 7

1 0 9 .9
1 0 6 .8
1 1 4 .3

1 1 9 .8
1 0 9 .8
1 2 1 .0

1 0 5 .3
1 0 5 .9
1 0 3 .5

1 0 8 .3
1 0 9 .9
106. 5

114 .1
1 1 5 .0
1 1 5 .2

-1 0 5 .9
103. 6
1 0 5 .2

1 0 7 .9
1 0 7 .1
1 0 8 .8

122. 6
112. 1
1 17 .2

M id d le W est:
C h ic a g o ____________________________________
M il w a u k e e _________________ _______
M in n e a p o lis -S t . P a u l -------------------------------S t. L o u is ----------------------------------------- ---------

1 0 5 .8
1 0 4 .5
1 0 6 .3
105. 7

1 0 9 .5
(3)
1 0 9 .9
110 .1

1 1 4 .3
110. 1
114. 1
1 1 4 .7

1 0 5 .9
105. 5
1 0 9 .4
1 0 6 .4

1 1 0 .3
(3 )
1 1 4 .2
1 0 9 .6

1 1 6 .9
11 5 .0
118 .1
1 1 6 .8

1 06 .3
1 0 5 .9
106. 6
107 .1

1 0 9 .8
(3 )
1 1 0 .2
1 1 0 .5

1 1 5 .5
1 1 3 .0
1 1 5 .5
1 1 7 .3

105. 7
1 0 4 .6
1 0 6 .4
1 0 8 .5

1 0 9 .4
(3)
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .7

1 1 4 .4
111. 1
117. 1
116. 6

105. 7
1 0 4 .6
104. 7
1 0 4 .4

1 0 8 .8
1 0 8 .4
1 10 .3
1 0 7 .6

1 1 3 .3
1 1 3 .5
1 1 6 .0
1 1 2 .7

1 0 8 .0
1 0 5 .4
1 0 1 .6
1 0 4 .3

1 0 8 .0
108 .1
1 0 8 .5
1 1 0 .9

1 1 5 .2
112. 8
1 1 3 .2
1 1 3 .8

108 .1
105. 5
105. 5
1 0 4 .0

1 1 3 .0
108. 7
109. 6
106. 5

1 2 0 .9
1 1 4 .8
1 1 5 .0
1 1 0 .4

1 0 8 .0
1 0 6 .0
104. 9
1 0 6 .1

1 1 4 .2
1 0 9 .8
1 1 0 .6
1 0 9 .3

1 2 3 .8
1 1 3 .6
1 1 3 .9
114 .1

________
________

F a r W est:
D enver

L o s A n g e le s - L o n g B e a ch ___ _____ __ _
P o r t la n d ___ ________________ _______________
San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d ___________________

M a n u f a c t u r in g
N o rth e a s t:
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C i t y ______________________
N ew Y o r k C ity -------------------------------------------P h ila d e lp h ia _______________________________
P r o v i d e n c e ------ ------------------------------------- _

1 0 5 .9
1 05 .2
1 0 6 .6
(3)

10 9 .8
110 .2
1 1 1 .6
( 3)

113. 9
119. 7
114. 6
1 1 4 .0

1 0 5 .2
1 0 8 .0
1 0 7 .9
(3)

1 0 9 .7
1 1 5 .9
1 1 1 .0
( 3)

1 1 1 .2
1 2 1 .7
1 1 6 .5
1 1 5 .4

1 0 5 .5
1 0 5 .2
1 0 7 .2
(3 )

1 0 9 .4
1 0 9 .6
1 1 1 .4
(3 )

1 1 5 .7
1 1 3 .2
1 1 5 .7
113. 6

1 0 7 .8
1 0 6 .3
1 0 3 .3
(3)

1 1 2 .3
1 1 0 .3
1 0 7 .9
( 3)

120. 1
1 1 4 .5
113. 9
105. 6

South:
A tla n ta _____________________________
D a lla s __________________ ____ _________ ___
M em p h is -------------------------------------------------------

1 0 3 .8
1 03 .3
1 02 .3

10 5 .8
1 0 8 .4
106 .2

110. 5
1 1 2 .7
1 1 0 .7

(4 )
9 7 .0
(4 )

(4 )
106. 7
(4 )

1 1 8 .5
108. 1
(4 )

1 0 4 .9
1 07 .0
1 0 1 .6

1 0 8 .2
1 1 0 .7
1 0 3 .9

1 1 3 .6
1 1 4 .6
1 1 3 .2

1 0 4 .9
1 0 9 .5
1 0 3 .4

1 0 6 .7
1 1 3 .8
107. 7

1 1 8 .9
1 15 .0
1 1 1 .6

M id d le W est:
C h ic a g o - ______ ______________________ _____
M ilw a u k ee _______________________________ _
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l _____________________
St. L o u is _________________________ _____

10 6 .2
105. 5
1 0 5 .8
105. 5

1 0 9 .8
(3)
1 0 9 .6
10 8 .8

1 1 4 .4
112. 6
1 1 3 .3
113. 9

105. 9
105. 5
1 0 9 .4
105. 6

1 1 0 .3
( 3)
114. 8
1 0 9 .6

116. 9
1 1 5 .0
1 1 7 .2
1 1 6 .8

1 0 5 .8
1 0 6 .3
1 0 6 .7
1 0 7 .0

1 0 9 .0
(3 )
108. 1
1 1 0 .0

1 1 5 .4
1 1 3 .6
1 1 3 .9
1 1 6 .8

1 0 4 .8
1 0 5 .8
1 0 5 .8
1 0 7 .4

1 0 7 .6
(3)
1 1 0 .9
1 1 0 .2

1 13 .0
1 1 3 .6
1 1 5 .5
11 5 .2

F a r W est:
D e n v e r ----- ------------- __ ---------------------------L o s A n g e le s - L o n g B e a ch ________________
P o r t la n d ------------------------------------------------------San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d ___________________

1 0 5 .8
10 5 .2
10 4 .3
104. 5

1 0 9 .8
109 .0
110 .0
1 07 .0

1 1 6 .5
1 1 3 .7
1 1 4 .6
1 1 2 .8

(4 )
1 0 6 .8
1 0 0 .8
105. 1

(4 )
1 0 9 .5
108. 6
1 1 1 .6

(4 )
1 1 4 .2
114. 1
1 1 4 .5

1 0 9 .2
1 0 5 .8
1 0 4 .6
1 0 4 .0

1 1 2 .5
1 0 8 .9
1 0 9 .6
1 0 6 .3

120 .0
1 1 5 .2
115 .1
1 1 0 .7

1 1 2 .4
104. 9
105. 5
1 0 4 .2

1 1 8 .9
1 0 8 .6
1 1 2 .5
108. 5

124 .1
1 1 2 .9
1 16 .0
11 3 .2

1 A v e ra g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s r e la te to standard s a la r ie s that are p aid f o r sta n d a rd w o rk s c h e d u le s .
A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a rn in gs a r e s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou r ly e a rn in g s e x clu d in g p rem iu m pay fo r
o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts .
2 S ee table 3 f o r p a y r o ll p e r io d s c o v e r e d in e a ch a r e a . Indexes w e re not c o m p u te d f o r D e tr o it o r N ew O r le a n s . T h e se a r e a s w e re not s u r v e y e d during the b a s e y e a r (1 9 5 5 ).
3 N ot s u r v e y e d d u rin g this p e r io d .
4 In s u ffic ie n t data to w a r ra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




10
Table 2: Percent increase, office and plant
(P e r c e n t o f in c r e a s e in a v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in gs o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly ea rn in gs 1 f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s 2 and s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s in 14 la b o r m a r k e t s )

A rea

W om en o f fic e
w ork ers
1953
to
1954

1954
to
1955

In d u stria l n u r s e s
(w om en )
1955
to
1956

1953
to
____ 1954

1954
to
. 1955

S k illed m a in ten a n ce tr a d e s
(m en )
1955
to
1956

1953
to
1954

U n sk illed plan t w o r k e r s
(m en )

1954
to
1955

1955
to
1956

1953
to
1954

1954
to
1955

1955
to
1956

A ll in d u s tr ie s
N orth ea st:
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C i t y ---------------------------------N ew Y o r k C i t y -------------------------------------------P h il a d e l p h i a ------ -----------------------------------------

5. 7
4 .3
7. 1

3 .9
3 .5
3 .4

3. 8
5 .9
3 .4

5 .2
4 .2
7. 1

4 .3
5 .4
3 .0

1 .4
5 .1
4 .3

5 .6
4 .5
7 .2

3 .7
5 .0
4 .4

5 .4
3 .4
4 .0

7 .1
5 .4
4 .5

4 .2
2 .6
4 .3

6 .0
5 .0
6 .0

South:
A t l a n t a --------------------------------------------------------D a l l a s ---------------------------------------------------------M e m p h i s ------------------------------------------------------

3 .0
5 .6
4 .1

2 .2
5 .0
2 .1

6 .3
4 .0
6. 5

5 .3
(3)
6. 7

4 .3
7 .6
7 .1

9 .0
2 .8
5 .9

5 .3
5 .9
3 .5

2 .9
3 .8
3 .0

5 .4
4 .6
8. 1

5 .9
3 .6
5 .2

1 .8
3 .3
3 .5

1 3 .6
4. 7
7. 7

M id dle W est:
C h i c a g o -----— ----------------------------- ----------------M il w a u k e e ---------- ------- -----— ------------------- —
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l ------- -------— ; -----------St. L o u i s -----------------------------------------------------

5 .8
4 .5
6 .3
5 .7

3 .6
(4)
3 .3
4 .2

4 .3
(4)
3 .8
4 .2

5 .9
5 .5
9 .4
6 .4

4 .2
(4)
4 .3
3 .0

6 .0
(4)
3 .4
6 .6

6 .3
5 .9
6 .6
7 .1

3 .3
(4)
3 .3
3 .2

5. 1
(4)
4 .9
6 .1

5 .7
4 .6
6 .4
8 .5

3 .5
(4)
4 .9
3 .0

4 .6
(4)
4 .9
4 .4

F a r W est:
D e n v e r ---------------------- ----------------------------------L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h ------------------------P o r t l a n d -----------------------------------------------------San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d -----------------------------

5. 7
4 .6
4. 7
4 .4

2 .9
3 .6
5 .4
3 .0

4 .2
4. 7
5 .2
4 .8

8 .0
5 .4
1 .6
4 .3

0 .0
2. 5
6 .9
6 .3

6 .7
4 .3
4 .3
2 .6

8. 1
5. 5
5 .5
4 .0

4. 5
3 .0
3 .9
2 .4

7 .0
5 .6
4 .9
3. 7

8 .0
6 .0
4 .9
6 .1

5. 7
3. 6
5 .4
3 .0

8 .4
3 .4
3 .0
4 .4

M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o rth ea st:
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C i t y -------------- ------------------N ew Y o r k C i t y -------------------------------------------P h il a d e l p h i a ------------------------------------------------

5 .9
5 .2
6 .6

3. 7
4. 7
4 .6

3 .8
5 .3
2 .8

5 .2
8 .0
7 .9

4 .3
7 .4
2 .9

1 .4
5 .0
5 .0

5 .5
5 .2
7 .2

3. 7
4 .2
3 .9

5 .8
3 .2
3 .8

7 .8
6 .3
3 .3

4. 1
3 .8
4. 5

6 .9
3. 8
5. 5

South:
A t l a n t a --------------------------------------------------------D a lla s
..............
..............
M e m p h i s ------------------------------------------------------

3 .8
3 .3
2 .3

1 .9
5 .0
3 .9

4 .4
3 .9
4. 7

(5)
(3)
(5)

<
5)
9 .9
(5)

8 .8
1 .4
(5)

4 .9
7 .0
1 .6

3 .1
3 .5
2 .3

5 .0
3 .5
8 .9

5 .0
9 .5
3 .4

3 .9
4 .0
4 .2

1 .4
1 .1
3 .6

3 .4
(4)

4 .2

5 .9
5 .5

4 .2

M id d le W est:
C h i c a g o -------------------------------------------------------M ilw a u k e e ---------- --------------- ------- -----------------

6 .2

M inneapolis-St. P a u l ----------------------------St. L o u i s ---------- --------- ----------------------------

5. 5
5.8
5.5

3 .6
3.1

(4)
3 .4
4 .8

9 .4
5.6

(4)
5.0
3 .8

F ar West:
D e n v e r -------------- —
------—
----------------------—~
Los A ngeles-L ong B e a c h ----------------------P o r t la n d -------------------------------------------------San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d --------------------------

5.8
5.2
4 .3
4 .5

3.8
3 .6
5.6
2 .4

6.1
4 .3
4 .0
5 .4

(5)
6. 8
.8
5. 1

2.5
7.8
6.2

1
and f o r
a
3

(5)

6 .0
(4)

5 .8
6 .3

3 .1

5 .8

4 .8

2. 7

5 .0

2 .0
6 .6

6. 7
7.0

(4)
1.4
2.9

(4)
5 .4
6 .2

5. 8
5 .8
7.4

(4)
4 .8
2.6

(4)
4 .2
4 .6

(5)

9.2
5.8
4 .6
4.0

3.1
2.9
4. 7
2.2

6 .6
5 .8
5. 1
4. 1

2 .4
4 .9
5 .5
4 .2

5 .8
3 .5
6. 7
4 .2

4 .3
3 .9
3. 1
4.3

4 .3
5.0
2 .6

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s re la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a r e pa id f o r stan dard w o r k s c h e d u le s . A v e ra g e h o u r ly e a rn in gs a r e s t r a ig h t-t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s e x c lu d in g p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e
w o r k on w ee k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts .
See table 3 f o r p a y r o ll p e r io d s c o v e r e d in e a ch a r e a .
S a la r ie s d e c lin e d du rin g this p e r io d . T h is d e c lin e w as p r o b a b ly due to a ch an ge in p e r s o n n e l r a th e r than a d e c lin e in s a la r ie s as su ch .
4 Not s u r v e y e d du rin g 1955.
5 In s u fficie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .







11

Table 3: Payroll periods covered
(Payroll periods covered in the community wage surveys, 17 labor m arkets, 1 95 3 -5 6 l )
Area
Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C it y -----------------------------New York C i t y --------------------------------------Philadelphia ----------- —---------------------------Providen ce — ----------- — ------------------------South:
A tla n ta --------------------------------------------------D a lla s -------— ----------------------------------------

Middle West:
Chicago —-------------------—------------ ------——
D e t r o it -------—---- —
--------- -----------------------M ilw a u k ee-------— ---- ---- —---- ---------- —
---M inneapolis-St. Paul ---- --------------- ------St. L o u i s ----------------------------------------------Far West:
Denver — —-------------------------- ---- ------- ----Los A ngeles-Long B e a c h ----- —
—---------P o r t la n d ----- -— — ------------------------ --------San Francis co-Oakland — --------------- -----F isca l year ending June 30,

1953

1954

1955

1956

N ovem ber 1952
F ebruary 1953
October 1952
D ecem ber 1952

Decem ber 1953
F ebruary 1954
October 1953

D ecem ber 1954
M arch 1955
Novem ber 1954

D ecem ber 1955
A p ril 1956
Novem ber 1955
March 1956

M arch 1953
August 1952
January 1953

M arch 1954
Septem ber 1953
January 1954
Novem ber 1953

M arch 1955
Septem ber 1954
F ebruary 1955

A p ril 1956
O ctober 1955
F ebruary 1956
Novem ber 1955

M arch 1953

M arch 1954
October 1953
A p ril 1954
N ovem ber 1953
January 1954

A p ril 1955

A p ril 1953
Novem ber 1952
D ecem ber 1952

Novem ber 1954
F ebruary 1955

A p ril 1956
O ctober 1955
Novem ber 1955
D ecem ber 1955
February 1956

Novem ber 1952
F ebruary 1953
Septem ber 1952
January 1953

D ecem ber 1953
M arch 1954
Septem ber 1953
January 1954

Decem ber 1954
M arch 1955
A p ril 1955
January 1955

D ecem ber 1955
M arch 1956
A p ril 1956
January 1956




13
Occupational Earnings

Occupational pay levels among the 17 areas surveyed in late
1955 and early 1956 were generally highest for women office workers
in Los Angeles-Long Beach and Detroit, and for plant workers in
San Francisco-Oakland, Chicago, and Detroit. On the whole, the
lowest averages for office workers were found in Providence and
New Orleans and for plant workers in Memphis and New Orleans.9
Wage differences among these areas were smaller for office workers
than for plant workers and, within the latter group, they were much
greater for unskilled workers than for skilled maintenance workers.
In general, earnings of office and plant workers tended to be higher
in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing industries, and men earned
more than women workers in comparable occupational categories.
Womens Office Occupations
Numerically, secretaries, general stenographers, and routine
copy typists (class B) were the most important womens jobs studied.
Secretaries had the highest average weekly salaries in 15 of the
17 areas; their average salaries ranged from $61.50 in Providence
to $81 in Detroit and were $70 or more in 13 of the 17 areas.
The salaries of stenographers were, on the average, about $ 12
below those of secretaries and about the same amount ($11.50)
higher than those of class B (copy) typists. Among the 17 areas,
the difference between the salaries of secretaries and general stenog­
raphers ranged from $8. 50 in Memphis to $ 16 in Milwaukee and the
difference between the salaries of stenographers and copy typists
ranged from $6.50 in Providence to $16 in Detroit.
Accounting clerks (class A) generally had next to highest
salaries among the women1s office jobs studied. Their salaries were
higher than those of secretaries in Memphis and New Orleans but
were generally from $1 to $5 less in other areas.
Among the lower paid office jobs, class B typists generally
earned about $3.50 more per week than routine file clerks and office
girls. The average salaries of file clerks ranged from $40.50 in
Dallas to $52 in Los Angeles-Long Beach.
Men's Office Occupations
Class A accounting clerks had the highest weekly salaries
among the six men's office jobs studied. Their salaries ranged from
$75 to $95.50, and in 10 of the 17 areas they were between $85
and $87.50. Men's salaries were higher than women's in comparable
jobs in all except three areas; In Providence and St. Louis, office
girls earned slightly more than office boys; and in San FranciscoCakland their salaries were the same. In the other areas, office boys

earned from 50 cents to $4.50 more than office girls. In other oc­
cupations, the average amount by which salaries of men exceeded those
of women were as follows; Accounting clerks, $ 14; order clerks, $ 17;
payroll clerks, $16; and tabulating-machine operators, $9.50.
Professional and Technical Occupations
The weekly salaries of industrial nurses, the only women's
professional occupation studied, ranged from $67 in Providence to
$84 in Los Angeles-Long Beach in 1955-56 (table A -l). Their salaries
were commonly from $1 to $4. 50 a week higher than the salaries of
secretaries, the highest paid of the women's office jobs studied.
However, in Milwaukee, Newark-Jersey City, Portland, and San
Francisco-Oakland secretaries earned up to $2 a week more than
industrial nurses and in St. Louis their salaries were the same.
Among men professional and technical workers, salaries of
senior draftsmen averaged more than $95 in 12 of the 17 areas and
ranged from $84. 50 to $120.50; those of junior draftsmen ranged from
$62 in Providence to $90 in Detroit. Differences in salaries between
senior and junior draftsmen ranged from $17.50 in San FranciscoOakland to $36.50 in New York City.
Skilled Maintenance Workers
Skilled maintenance workers in the areas studied generally
averaged $2 or more an hour except in Providence and the four
southern areas, where they averaged less in a few trades (table A-9).
Tool and die makers, the highest paid skilled maintenance workers
studied, had average hourly earnings ranging from $2.31 in Providence
to $2.79 in Chicago. In Detroit, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and the three
Pacific Coast areas, average hourly earnings in this trade also were
$2. 65 or more. Automotive mechanics generally had the lowest aver­
age hourly earnings among the skilled maintenance trades studied.
They averaged less than $2 an hour in the four southern areas and
were highest paid in San Francisco-Oakland ($2.55). In most of the
other areas, the average hourly earnings were between $2.20 and
$2.40 an hour. The majority of the automotive mechanics were
found in nonmanufacturing establishments, whereas a majority of the
other skilled maintenance workers studied were in manufacturing.
Custodial and Material-Movement Occupations

The highest pay levels for all of the custodial and materialmovement jobs covered were found in San Francisco-Oakland, Detroit,
or Chicago with the exception of truckarivers (one of the more impor­
tant jobs numerically)and drivers of industrial power trucks— other
than forklift (table A-9). Workers in the latter job averaged $2.10
9
For a more detailed description of intercity wage differences, Portland— 2 cents more than in San Francisco-Oakland. Truckin
see Wage Differences Among Labor Markets, p. 29.
drivers were highest paid in Newark-Jersey City ($2.42); next highest
409983 0 - 56 - 2




14

earnings ($2. 36) were found in New York City and in San FranciscoOakland. A large proportion of the truckdrivers in Newark-Jersey
City and New York City manufacturing establishments were paid under
a bonus system, whereas in San Francisco-Oakland the drivers were
on an hourly rate. In nonmanufacturing establishments, San Francisco
truckdrivers averaged $2.35, compared with $2.23 in Newark-Jersey
City, and $2.31 in New York City. Averages of less than $2 were
recorded for this job in Denver and Providence ($1.81 and $1.83,
respectively) and in the South where they ranged from $1.29 in New
Orleans to $1.57 in Atlanta.
Among the unskilled jobs covered, straight-time average
hourly earnings of mate rial-handling laborers ranged from $1. 16 in
New Orleans to $2.03 in San Francisco-Oakland. In Newark-Jersey
City, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Portland laborers also averaged $1.90
or more an hour. In the four southern areas, these workers averaged
from $1.16 to $1.35 an hour. Laborers earned from 15 to 35 cents
an hour more than janitors in the 17 areas studied. Janitors1 and
watchmen's rates were about the same except in Detroit, Milwaukee,
and Chicago where janitors1 rates exceeded those for watchmen by
18, 19, and 35 cents, respectively.
Darnings data for 1955-56 were collected for three women's
nonoffice jobs— operators of passenger elevators, packers for ship­
ping, and janitresses (table A-9). Shipping packers were the highest
paid of these women workers, with average hourly earnings ranging
from 92 cents in New Orleans to $1.84 in Detroit. Janitresses1
earnings ranged from 61 cents in New Orleans to $ 1. 60 in San Francisco-Oakland; they averaged from 74 to 81 cents in other southern




areas, about $ 1. 10 in Philadelphia and Providence, and $ 1. 15 or more
in the other areas. Earnings of women elevator operators ranged
from 52 cents in Atlanta to $1.63 in San Francisco-Oakland. They
averaged 55 cents in Memphis, 59 cents in New Orleans, 75 cents in
Dallas, 99 cents in Denver, and more than $ 1 in the other areas.
Typically, men in these jobs earned from 16 to 36 cents an hour
more than women. 1
0
Interindustry Comparisons
In the 17 areas studied, pay levels were generally higher
among the manufacturing industries than in the nonmanufacturing
industries as a group, but manufacturing averages were frequently
exceeded in 1 or more of the 5 broad nonmanufacturing groups.
Public utilities, followed by wholesale trade, generally had the high­
est earnings levels among the nonmanufacturing-industry groups sur­
veyed. Averages for workers in these groups usually exceeded manu­
facturing averages. For example, average salaries of secretaries
were higher in public utilities than in manufacturing in 11 of the
14 areas in which comparisons were possible. In a few of the non­
office jobs studied, averages in retail trade were frequently higher
than manufacturing. The higher earnings of the nonmanufacturing
industry groups were found more often in office occupations than
in plant.

10
A comparison of occupational earnings of men and women in
the same establishment might record differences of lesser or greater
magnitude. See p. 29 for an examination of Occupational Wage Rela­
tionships based on comparisons within individual establishments.

A

Occupational Earnings

15

Table A-1: Office occupations (all industries)
(A v e r a g e w eek ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s studied in 6 b r o a d in d u s try d iv is io n s )

Phila­ P ro v i­
delphia2 dence

Atlanta

Far West

Middle West

South

Northeast
Newark- New
York
Jersey
City2
City2

Sex, occupation, and grade

L os
Minne Angeles - Portland
M il­
New
a p o lis - St. L ouis2 Denver
C hicago2 D etroit2
Dallas M emphis2
Long
waukee
Orleans
St. Paul
Beach2

San
Franc is c o Oakland2

O ffic e c le r ic a l
Men
C lerk s:
Accounting, c la ss B

. . __

P a yroll ... T , __
_ _ __
O ffice b o y s _________________________________

69.00
46.00
70.50

$85. 50
72.00
84.00
85.50
55.00
82.00

$86.00
67.00
80.50
79.50
49.50
85.50

$85.50
72.00
85.00
84.50
52.00
77.50

-

54.50
55.00

60.00
69.50

58.50
52.50

61.50

62.00
52.00

61.50
53.00

65.50
51.50

75.00
57.00

69.50
55.50

74.00
58.50

69.50
56.00
58.50
46.50
56.00
59.50
55.50

66.50
52.00
55.00
44.00
54.00
59.00
57.00

70.00
54.00
58.50
45.50
53.50
60.50
58.00

63.50
55.00
53.00
45.50
52.50
59.00
54.00

76.00
64.00
63.50
52.00

74.00
60.50
61.50
48.00
59.00
64.00
61.00

75.00
62.00
64.00
50.00
69.50
71.00
65.00

58.50
64.50
49.50
81.00
69.50
81.0 0
63.00
62.50
68.50

53.50
55.00
43.50
74.50
58.50
53.00
56.00
61.50

51.50
50.50
4 1.50
68.50
56.50
55.00
52.00
58.50

53.50
57.00
47.00
73.00
59.00
64.00
55.50
54.00
70.50

-

59.50
67.50
52.00
79.50

59.50
63.00
52.00
79.00
68.50

63.50
67.00
53.50

53.00
58.00
48.50

53.00
54.00
4 7.50

$87.00
71.50
76.50
75.00
46.50
82.00

$79. 50
63.00
76.00
46.0 0
69.50

$86.50

82.50
52.00
77.50

$ 9 5 .5 0
76.00
91.00
87.0 0
50.00
8 3.00

61,00

63.50

54.50

-

52.00
56.00

58.00

-

73.50
62.00

73.00
58.50

66.00
54.50

76.00

51.00
61.50
68.50
65.50

78.00
60.50
65.50
48.5 0
63.00
70.50
67.00

41.50
51.50
64.00

52.00
36.50
67.50
54.50
42.00
50.50
60.50

56.50
63.50
51.50
78,50
66.50
73.00
62.50
62.00
71.00

47.50
49.50
42.00

63.50
65.00
55.50

$86 .50
77.00
80.50
83.00
46.50
73.00

$ 82.50
62.50
71.50
76.00
46.50
70.00

$82.50
64.00
71.00
75.00
42.00
67.50

$87. 50
73.00
70.50
76.00
42.00
68.50

$83.00
64.00
71.00
72.00
45.5 0

$87.50
66.50
64.00

68.00

$85.00
68.50
72.50
77.50
42.50
70.00

44.50
76.00

$79.50
57.00
64.00
70.00
37.00
70.00

60.00
57.00

62.50
62.00

55.50
54.00

47.00
45.50

53.00
51.50

53.50
52.00

49.00
43.50

47.00
46.50

61.00

62.00
54.00

__________

66.00

49.00

61.00

56.00
49.50

60.00

59.00

62.50
51.50

60.00
51.00

59.00
46.00

71.50
58.50
57.00
47.50

73.50
58.50
63.50
49.00
60.00

64.00
52.00
56.00
41.00
51.50
58.50
54.50

58.50
49.50
52.50
42.50
51.00
52.50
51.00

68.00

53.50
56.00
4 4.5 0
50.50
58.50
57.00

64.50
54.00
49.50
40.50
54.00
58.50
56.50

64.00
51.00
49.50
42.50
53.00
56.50
51.50

68.00

55.50
57.50
46.00
78.50
63.00
72.50
62.00
60.50

44.50
49.00
42.50
61.50
51.50
59.50
50.50
48.50
57.00

48.5 0
53.50
4 4.5 0
71.00
59.50
4 8.0 0
52.50
61.00

54.50
52.50
41.00
70.00
60.50
48.50
54.50
61.00

46.00
53.00
42.50
62.50
54.00

-

$87. 50
69.00

86.00

68.00

75.00
80.50
46.50
75.50

$75.00
64.00

68.00

Women
B ille r s , m achine:
B illing m achine _____ __________________
Bookkeeping m achine ___________________
B ookkeeping-m achine op era tors:
C lass B
C lerk s:
A ccounting, cla ss A _ ____
A c c o u n t in g ,

c la s s

__ __ __

B

F ile , cla ss A ___________________________
F ile , cla ss B ____________________________
P a yroll
C o m p to m e te r o p e ra to rs

Duplicating - m achine operator s
(m im eograph or ditto) ____________________
Key-punch o p e r a t o r s _______________________
O ffice girls

60.00
63.50
63.50

68.00

63.50

54.50

50.50
51.50
41.50
49.50
54.00
51.00

-

61.00
61.00

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s

59.50
57.50
63.50

66.00

48.50
54.00
41.00
70.50
56.50
66.50
55.00
52.50
61.00

T ra nscribing-m achin e op era tors,
g e n G r al
t...... .
T yp ists, cla ss A _______________________
T yp ists, cla ss B _______________________

56.00
58.50
51.00

63.00
61.50
53.50

51.50
54.00
46.00

48.50
50.50
45.00

54.00
53.50
4 7.00

50.50
54.00
46.50

52.00
54.00
43.50

129.50

144.50
108.50
72.00

132.50
97.50
73.00

113.00
85.00
62.00

138.50
96.0 0

_

_

99.50
67.50

94.50
69.50

106.00

_

72.00

70.50

„ „,,.

. . _

.

Stenographers, general ____________________
Stenographers, technical __________________
Switchboard operator s ____________________
Switchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s _______

54.00
58.50
45.00
75.50
61.50

66.00

-

68.00
72w50
68/50

66.00

50.50
53.00
67.50

79.50
63.00
64.00
77.00

55.00
62.00
45.50
75.00
63.00
53. 50
58.50
69.00

54.50
58.50
49.50

55.00
55.50
48.5 0

59.50
64.00
55.00

58.00
60.00
51.00

63.00
62.00
54.00

-

56.50
43.00
70.50
59.50

66.00

68.00

-

63.00
62.50
72.50

Professional a n d te c h n ic a l
Men
Draftsm en, l e a d e r _________________________
Draftsm en, senior --------------------------------D raftsm en, ju n io r ______________________
T race rs

100.00
71.50
58.00

_

_

_

69.50
_

107.50
84.50
63.50
52.50

82.00

72.50

67.00

78.50

72.50

_

_

_

78.00
63.00

120.50
90.00
71.50

98.50
78.00

106.00
79.50

129.50
104.00
84.50

130.50
98.50
80.50

118.00
97.50
79.50

118.50
94.50
77.00

_

93.50
75.50
62.50

79.50

8 1.50

73.00

75.00

73.00

72.00

84.00

73.00

78.50

130.50

_

-

-

-

-

-

W omen
N u rses, industrial (r e g is t e r e d ) __________

1
2

74.50

E a rn in g s r e la t e to sta n d a rd s a la r ie s that a r e p aid fo r standard w o r k s c h e d u le s .
E x c e p tio n s to the sta n d a rd in d u s try lim ita tio n s a r e shown in fo o tn o te s 4 a n d /o r 6 to the ta b le in ap p en d ix A .

N OTE:

D a s h e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w arrant p r e s e n ta tio n .




16

Table A-2: Office occupations (manufacturing)
(Average weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in 6 broad industry divisions)

New
York
City

New
Dallas Memphis Orleans Chicago D etroit

P r o v i­
dence

Atlanta

$84. 50
68. 50
72. 00
75.00
44. 50
70. 00

$89. 50
58. 00
70. 50
74.00
43. 00
59. 50

$86.00
66. 50
73.00
68. 50
47. 50
83.00

$92.00
73.00
71.00
81. 50
43.50
77. 50

$86.00

57. 00

51.00

53.00
-

57. 50
55.00

55.00
51.00

-

54.00

P hila­
delphia

F a r W est

Middle West

South

Northeast
NewarkJ ersey
C ity

Sex, occupation, and grade

L os
MinneA ngeles M il­
a p o lis- St. L ouis Denver
Long
waukee St. Paul
B each

Portland

San
F ranc is co Oakland

O ffic e c le ric a l
Men
C lerks:
Accounting, cla ss A ---------------------------------Accounting, cla ss B ------------------------------—

$85. 00
66. 00
71. 50
77.00
47.00
75. 00

56.50
59. 50

63.00

59.00

Office b o y s _______ _
—
- Tabulating-machine op erators ---- -----------------

$86.00
68. 50
81. 50
83.50
48.50
77. 00

68.00

69. 50
64. 50

73. 50
59. 00
58. 50
51. 50
64. 00
64. 00
64.00

74. 50
60.00
66. 50
53. 00
63. 50
67. 50
67. 50

54.00
59.00
47. 50
53.00
58. 50
59.00

51.50
60.00
47. 50
75. 50
63. 00
61.00
64.00
57. 50

51.00
56. 50
44. 00
73. 50
59.00
68. 00
63. 50
54. 00
68. 50

44. 00
50.00
43.00
62. 50
52. 50

68.00

55. 50
61. 50
48.00
81. 50
66. 50
74. 00
66. 50
60. 50
-

58.00
59. 50
53.00

64. 50
65. 50
57.00

123.50
99.00
70. 50

74. 50

$78.50
57.00
66. 50
72. 50
38.50

$89.00
76.00
83.50
83. 00
51. 50
78. 00

$95.50
82. 00
97.00
91.00
52. 50
84. 50

$89.00
71.00
79. 50
47.00
82. 00

$78.50
63.00
76. 50
45. 50
74. 50

$88.50
71. 00
80. 50
81.00
48. 00
75. 50

$74. 50
73. 50
69. 50
71. 50

$85. 50
68. 50
89.00
80.50
56.00
81.00

$86.00
91.00
44. 50
“

$87.50
79. 00
87. 00
89. 50
52. 50
82.00

-

50.00
-

60.00
-

67.00
-

60.00
-

*

59. 50
-

"

62. 50
69. 50

61. 50
■

69. 50
~

68.00

56. 50

59. 00
59. 50

74.00

66.00

74. 50
67. 50

69. 50
57.00

58.00

57. 50

66. 50

56. 50

77.00
71.00

68. 00
60. 50

76. 50
70. 50

76.00
58. 50
51. 50
60. 50
58.00
63.00

67. 50
55. 50
47. 50
47. 50
54. 50
59.00
57. 50

72. 50
52. 00
50.00
51.00
57.00
59.00

77.00
64. 50
60. 50
52. 50
63.50
68. 50
67.00

85.00

72.00
59.00
60. 50
51. 50
56. 50
59. 50
57.00

63. 50
54. 50
54. 00
45. 00
59.00
58. 00
58.00

72. 00
58.00
59. 50
46. 50
53. 50
58. 00
58. 00

69. 00

59.00
51. 00
54. 00
60. 50
58. 50

77. 00
65. 50

73.00
59. 50
53. 50
63. 00
65.00
61. 50

57.50
45.00
65.00
55. 50
54. 50
-

70. 50
57. 50
53. 50
-

56. 50
64. 00
52. 50
80. 50
67. 00
67. 00
63. 50
-

60. 50
68.50
52. 50
85.00
72. 00
70. 50
65.00
78. 50

57.50
59.00
47. 50
77. 50
61.00
64. 00
59.00

53. 00
57. 00
76.00
60.00
65. 00
64. 00
54. 50
68. 50

60. 50
73. 50
61.00
*
61. 50
52. 00
-

63.00
69. 50
55. 50
79.00
70. 00
89. 50
71.00
64. 00
78. 00

60. 00
50. 50
73. 50
63. 50

62.00

54. 50
43. 00
70. 50
57. 50
60. 50
54.00
-

60. 00
*

59.00
65. 00
54. 50
85. 00
73. 00
•
72. 50
64. 50
73. 00

62.00
-

-

72. 50

Women
B ille rs, machine:
Billing m a c h in e ____ _ — ---- --Bookkeeping m a c h in e ------------------------------Bookkeeping-m achine operators:
C lass A « „ , T .
.
f
~
_ _
C lerks:
Accounting, cla ss A ____ ________________
Accounting, cla ss B _ __ _ _______ _ _
F ile, cla ss B _____________________________
OrHftr
C om ptom eter op erators
---— ---Duplicating-m achine op erators
(m im eograph o r ditto) . . .
. . .
Key-punch op erators _ _ . - -----Office g i r l s __________________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s

,

___

Stenographers, general --------------------------------Stenographers, technical _
. . . . .
Switchboard o p e r a t o r s __ _
—
—
Switchboard op era tor-recep tion ists _ __ .
Tabulating-machine o p e r a t o r s ______________
Transcribing-m achine op era tors,
Typists, cla ss A ________________________________
Typists, cla ss B ____ . . . .
_ _ ____ .

61.00

61.00
62.00
68. 50

63.00
54. 50
49. 50
41. 50
51.00
51. 50
52. 50

58.00

68. 50

55.00
69.00
57.00
51. 50
60.00
65.00

68. 50

53. 50
72. 00
73.50
70.50

60. 00

68.00
68.00

60.00

72.00
69. 50

82. 00
69. 50

68. 00
59.
70.
70.
68.

50
50
50
50

-

-

54.50
48. 50
56.00

65.50
_
73.00
60.00
60.00
49.50
-

61. 50
62. 50
72.00
65. 50
61.00
53. 50
-

54. 00
59.00
49. 50

48.50
55. 50
47.00

51. 50
64.00
51.00

62.00

52.00
54. 50
45. 00

52. 50
45.00

63. 50
65.50
56. 50

66.00
68.00

54. 50

58.00
62. 50
51.00

51. 50
54. 50
50.00

55. 50
59. 50
51. 00

61. 50
58. 00
52. 50

57.00
70. 00
60. 00

61. 50
64. 00
53. 50

65. 00
67. 50
60.00

145.00
105.50
72. 00

132. 50
97. 50
73.00

113.00
85.00
61.00

143.00

94. 00
81.00

_

62.00

101.00
67. 50

_
95. 50
71. 50

103. 50
76. 50

117. 50

71.00

88.00

98. 50
77. 50

93. 50
74. 50

106.50
79.00

104. 00
90. 50
69. 50

129.50
97. 00
77. 50

97. 00
79. 00

95.00
77. 50

84. 00

74. 00

67. 50

80.00

73.00

-

71. 50

79.50

82. 00

73.00

75.00

73. 00

84. 50

73.00

79.00

-

51. 50

57.00

P ro fe ssio n a l a n d te ch n ical
Men
Draftsmen, leader . .
. _
.... . . .
Draftsmen, s e n i o r ___________________________
Draftsmen, junior
_ __ _ __ _ _____

96.00

Women
N urses, industrial (r e g is t e r e d )____

__ ..

E a rn in g s r e la te to stan d ard s a la r ie s that a r e pa id f o r stan d ard w o r k s c h e d u le s .
N O T E: D a sh es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




17

Table A-3: Office occupations (nonmanufacturing)
(Average weekly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in nonmanufacturing)

Sex, occupation, and grade

Far West
Los
San
Minne­
AngelesFranNew
Mil­
Memphis2 Orleans Chicago2 Detroit2 waukee apolis - St. Louis2Denver Long Portland ciscoSt. Paul
Beach2
Oakland2
Middle West

South

Northeast
NewarkJersey
City2

New
Phila­
York delphia2 Provi­
dence
City2

Atlanta Dallas

O ffic e c le ric a l

Men
Clerks:
Accounting, class A __
__
_ _
Accounting, class B — _
Order . ..
__ _
Payroll
__
_____
Office boys
_ __
Tabulating-machine operators
. . .

$87.00
.
79.50
_
45.00
70.00

$82.00
62. 00
71. 50
75.00
46.00

69.00

$79.50
61. 50
71.00
39. 50
65. 50

$86.00
80. 50
_
41. 50
76.00

$82.00
63. 00
70. 50
45.00
64. 00

$82.00
65.00
72. 50
75.00
42. 50
66. 00

$69. 50
63. 50
44. 50
78.00

$79. 50
57.00
63. 50
67. 50
36. 50

64. 50
55.50

62. 50
62. 50

54. 50
50. 50

47.00

53.00
50. 50

51. 50
51.00

49. 50
43.00

46.00
45. 00

57.00
51. 50

65.50
58. 50

59.50
48. 50

47-. 50

59. 50
53. 50

61. 50
50. 50

60. 50
49. 50

68.00

58.00
56. 50
46.00
56.00
61. 50
63. 50

73. 50
58. 50
62. 50
48.00
57. 50
68. 50
62. 50

61.00

51.00
53.50
40.00
49. 50
58.00
52. 50

56. 50
44. 00
56. 50
42. 50
49. 50
54. 50
49.00

68. 00

53.50
53.00
43. 50
50.00
57. 50
56.00

62. 00

52. 50
48. 00
40. 00
51.00
59.00
55.00

51.50
57.00
44.00
75.00
59.50
69.00
57.00
58.00
60.00

55. 50
57.00
45. 50
77. 50
62. 00
72.00
61. 00
60. 50
69.00

44. 50
52. 00
39.00
66. 50
53.50
51. 50
51.00
57. 50

48.00
59. 50
50. 50
49. 50
49.00
58. 00

51.00
44. 50
70. 00
59. 50
45. 50
54. 00
56. 50

54. 50
56.50
49. 50

62. 50
60. 50
53.00

50. 00
51. 00
44. 00

48. 00
48. 00
42.00

103.00
78. 50

110.50
71. 50

97.50
-

-

80. 50

68. 50

69.00
46.00
70.00

$85. 50
76. 50
82.00
97.00
54.00
83. 50

$86. 00
66. 00
77.50
53. 50
86. 00

$82. 00
67. 50
84.00
79.00
51.50
75. 00

57. 00
-

54. 50
-

59. 50
69. 50

57. 50
52. 50

64. 00
61.00

50.00

59.00
50.00

64. 50
50.00

73. 50
55. 00

70. 50
54. 50

72. 50
56. 50

67. 50
54.00
42. 50
56.00
60. 00
53. 50

67. 00
51. 50
56.00
44. 00
52.00
60.00
56. 50

68. 00

52. 50
56. 50
45.00
53. 50
64. 50
58. 50

62. 00

75. 50
63.00

74. 50
60. 50
61.00
47. 00
58. 00
63. 50
60. 50

73. 50
59.60
63. 50
49. 50
69.00
71.00
64.00

56.00
59.00
47. 50
75.00
64. 50
57. 50
60.00
63.00

40. 50
70. 50
55.00
49. 50
52. 50

54. 00
57. 00
48.00
68. 50
58.00
52. 50
54.00
72. 50

55. 50
42. 50
69. 50
59.00
48.00
53. 50
65. 50

54. 50
66. 00
49. 50
79. 50
66. 00
74. 00
60. 00
64. 00
76. 50

53.00
62. 50
44. 50
75. 50
63.00
53. 50
57. 50

60.00
62.00
50. 50
75. 50

61.00

50. 50
49. 00
41. 50
66. 50
55. 50
53. 50
50. 50
56.00

62. 50
63. 50
51.00

49. 50
51.00
45. 50

53. 50
53.00
46. 50

53. 50
57. 50
48. 50

53. 50
55. 00
47. 50

61.00
59.00
52. 00

68. 50

56. 50

62. 50
60. 50
53.00

95.00
-

110.50
90. 50

110.00

-

-

-

-

83. 50

92. 50
■

78. 50

-

-

-

-

-

82. 00

-

-

$86. 00 $95. 00
63. 50
69. 00
87.00
87. 50
80. 50
52.00
48. 00
77.00
81.00

$80.00
72. 50

$83. 50

-

$80. 00
63.00
75. 50
46.00
67.00

62. 00

60. 00
-

50.00
-

51. 50
56.00

57. 50
44. 50

73. 50
60. 50

71. 50
56.00

52. 50

62. 50
50.00
_
41. 50
51. 50
53. 50
49. 50

66.00

75. 50
59. 50

50.00
60.00
69.00
64.00

74.00
57. 50
61. 00
47. 50
59. 50
65. 50
61. 50

50.00
39.00
69.00
57. 50
46. 50
55.00
60. 00

46.00
51.00
41. 50
61. 50
53.00
40. 00
49. 50
-

48. 50
36.00
65. 50
53.00
41.00
48. 50
-

57.00
62. 50
51. 50
77.00
65. 50
61.00
61.00
70. 50

54.00
52. 50
46. 00

50.50
52.00
44.00

52. 00
54. 00
43.00

46. 50
49.00
41. 50

63. 50
64. 50
54. 50

_
-

95. 50
67. 50

90.50
-

-

92. 50
-

111.00

-

-

-

-

-

66.00

-

66.00
71.00
44. 50
75. 50

$75. 00
64. 50

66.00

Women
Billers, machine:
Billing machine . . . __
.
__
Bookkeeping machine_______________
Bookkeeping-machine operators:
Class A __ __
— _ ----- ----- Class B __ ..
. _ ____
Clerks:
Accounting, class A .
.....
Accounting, class B _________________
File, class A _ ____ .. - __
File, class B
. . . ____ _ — ---Order __
.. __ ----- _
— .. _
- __
Payroll . . . _ _ - __ ___
Comptometer operators________________
Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograph or ditto)________________
___ _ ___ _
Key-punch operators ..
Office g ir ls .................................... ..........
Secretaries _. . . . . . . . .. _. _____
Stenographers, general ________________
Stenographers, technical .
.
.
Switchboard operators_________________
Switchboard operator-receptionists_____
Tabulating- mac hine operators__________
Transcribing-machine operators,
gene ral
,
______ .
.
Typists, class A
Typists, class B __ __
_. _ _____

50. 00
51. 50
40. 50
49. 50
51. 50
48. 50

60. 50

61.00

54. 00
52. 50
45. 00
51.50
57. 50
53.00

61.00
48.00
67. 50
73.00
68. 00

68.00
50.00

66.00
-

61.00

61. 50
72. 50

Professional a n d te c h n ic a l

Men
Draftsmen, senior_____________________
Draftsmen, ju n ior_____________________

98. 50

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) _________

1 Earnings relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work schedules.
2 Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 a n d /or 6 to the table in appendix A.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data o r insufficient data to warrant presentation.




18
Table A-4:

Office occupations (public utilities)*

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu died in tr a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th er p u b lic u t ilit ie s )

Sex, occupation, and grade

NewarkJ ersey
C ity

New
York
City 2

P hila­
delphia

$ 82.00
49.00

$8 9 . 0 0
50.50
79.50

$88.50
42.00
76.00

57.50

85.00
67.50
53.00
65.50

67.50
64.50
51.00
54.00

Far West

Middle West

South

Northeast
Atlanta

$ 9 2 .0 0

P r o v i­
dence

L os
M inneA n geles- Portland F ranM il­
New
Dallas Memphis 2 Orleans Chicago 2 D etroit 2 waukee a p o lis - St. Louis Denver
cis co Long
St. Paul
Oakland 2
Beach

$81.50

Office clerical
Men
C lerks:
Accounting, cla ss A ______
Office boys ___________________
Tabulating -m achine operator s

_

-

-

66.50

$74.50
37.00

67.50

-

$92.50
58.50
83.50

$95.50
52.50

$ 85 .00
-

-

-

-

$ 86.50

$ 85 .50
52.50

8 3.00

Women
C lerks:
Accounting, cla ss A _____________________
Accounting, cla ss B _____________________
F ile, cla ss B ____________________________
P a y r o l l ___________________________________
Comptometer o p e r a t o r s ____________________
Key-punch op erators _______________________
Office g irls _________________________________
S e cre ta rie s __________________________________
Stenographers, general ____________________
Switchboard o p e r a t o r s ______________________
Switchboard o p e ra to r-re ce p tio n is ts ------------Typists, cla ss A ___________________________
Typists, cla ss B _______________________ ____

68.00

43.50
82.50
61.00
65.00
54.50
54.00

_

59.50
43.50
83.50
62.00
64.00
63.50
59.00
58.00

58.00

_
_
_
_

89.00

60.00
65.50
59.00

_

66.00

79.00
_

$59 .00
_
_
_

52.50

_

51.00
60.50

_

59.50
45.00
_
_

61.50

56.50

_

_

82.50
62.50
61.50
65.00
53.50
51.00

72.50
56.50
55.50
60. 50
53.50
46.50

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

$60 .50
_
.
_

Earnings relate to standard sala ries that are paid for standard w ork schedules.
One or m ore utilities are m unicipally operated, and th erefore excluded from the scope o f the studies.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
1
2

N OTE:

D a sh es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




-

62.00

51.00

67.50
67.00

_
-

67.50
51.00
47.50

-

-

84.00
72.50
68.50

-

-

50.00
43.50

69.50

81.50
64.00
44.00
63.00
59.00
61.50
54.00
89.50
68.00

69.50
58.00
71.50
56.50

-

$60.00
-

49.00

$ 5 7 .0 0
47.5 0
60.50

$ 7 9 .00
59.00
50.50
64.50

$ 6 6 .5 0
56.50
-

77.50
71.00
62.50

59.00

6.0
80

-

-

-

52.00
4 9.5 0
69.5 0
62.0 0
65.0 0

65.0 0

60.00

61.50
71.00

-

78.00
6 0.00
56.50
55.00
53.00

-

-

-

57.00

54.50

See footnote 4 to the table in appendix A .

61.50

73.50
65.00
58.00
77.00
72.50
70.50

-

78.50
63.50

67.5 0
55.50
6 9.50

-

81.50
68.50
68.50
73.00

6.0
00

8 3 .0 0
64.5 0
63.5 0
6 1.0 0
57.50

79.00
69.00
70.50
72.00

6.0
60
55.00

19
Table A-5:

Office occupations (wholesale trade)

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied in w h o le s a le tr a d e )

Sex, occupation, and grade

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

$9 6 . 0 0

$84. 50

$ 82 .00
64. 50
69.50
45. 50

Atlanta

F ar West

Middle West

South

Northeast

Chicago

Detroit

Minne­
a p o lisSt. Paul

St. Louis

Los
A ngelesLong
Beach

San
F ran­
cis co Oakland

Office clerical
Men

C lerk s:
A ccounting, cla ss A
A ccounting, cla ss B
O rder ■■
■
—.... — —
O ffice boys
> ■—------■
■

68.00

81.00

71.00
47.00

$81 .50
65. 50
71.50
47.00

56.00
60.00
57. 50

73.00
63.50

71.50
57.00
.
47.50
52.00
61.00
57. 00
52.00
47. 00
71.00
63.50
53.50

79.50
62.00
60.50
53.50
64.50
70.00
65. 50
54.00
79.00
67.00
67.00
61.50

57.00
56.00
49.00

62.00
68.50
55. 50

$73. 50
75.00

63.00

68.00
88.00

$85 .50

$88.00

$79.00

•
-

81.50

84.00

_

$88.00

61.50

51.00

Women

B ille rs , m achine (billing m achine) -----------B ookkeeping-m achine op era tors:
C lass A ---------------------------------------------------C lass B ---------------------------------------------------C lerk s:
A ccounting, cla ss A ----------------------- —----A ccounting, cla ss B —---- -----------------------F ile , cla ss A -----------------— ---- — — -----F ile , cla ss B ----------- —— ----------— ------O rder ■>■ ---- --------------- ------------------- ----P a y r o l l --------- —
---------- —..............................
C om ptom eter operators — — —---------- ------—
Key-punch o p e r a t o r s ------— — ----------------- —
O ffice g i r l s -------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s ----- ------ --------- ■ ----------- -— -------Stenographers, gen era l— ---------------------------Switchboard o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------Switchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ----------Transcribing-m achin e op era tors,
general ---- --------------- — — ------------------- ----T yp ists, cla ss A ---- —------------- -------- --— -----T yp ists, cla ss B ------------------------------------------

1

63.00
56.50
61.50
45. 50
57. 50
67.00
59.00
73.00
61.50
61.50
_
54.50

74.00
63.50

56. 50

75.50
62.50
61.50
51.00
57.50
71.00
64. 50
60.00
_
78.50
64.50
64.50
61.50

70.00
58.00
60.00
46.00
58.00

66.
66.

53.50
56.50
49.00

50
50
57.50

55.50
58. 50

_

67.00
59.00
61.50
50.50

Earnings relate to standard sala ries that are paid fo r standard work schedules.

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to warrant presentation.




-

-

68.00

.
64.00
53.00
64. 50
77.00
65.00
-

54.00
-

53.00
49.00
•
65. 50
56. 00

62.00

•
50
58.50
52. 50

-

55. 00

55.50

50.00

68.

76.50
50

72.00
62.00

56.00
*
50.00
“
67. 50
56. 00
”
•
69.00
58.00
*

78.00
65.50
64.00
53.00
73.50
71.00
69.50
69.50
52.50
79.00
67.50
64.50
66.50

76.00
65.00

*
52. 50

63.00
64.00
55.50

62.00
63.50
54.00

$57.00

66.

-

51.50
-

75.50
64.00
70.50
79.00
69.00
63.00
60.00

20

Table A-6:

Office occupations (retail trade)

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s studied in r e ta il tr a d e )

Sex, occupation, and grade

NewarkJersey
C ity 1
2

New
York
C ity 2

Middle West

South

Northeast
P ro v i­
dence

Atlanta

Dallas

New
Orleans

Chicago

$ 7 6 .5 0

P hila­
delphia 2

$ 7 2 .5 0

$ 7 3 .5 0

45.00

54.00

-

59.50

-

W e st

San
F ra n c is c o Oakland

$ 84.00

4 8 .0 0

F a r

M innea p o lis St. Paul

D etroit 3

Denver

P ortland

Office clerical
Men
C le r k s ,

accounting, cla ss A

$ 7 8 .50

. .

Women
B ille rs , m achine (bookkeeping m achine) —
Bookkeeping-m achine op era tors,
rlasB R
_
___________________
C lerks:
Accounting, cla ss A ___________________
Accounting, c l a s s P
........... - _
F ile , c la s s p
.........
.......
flrrlpr
_ ____________ _
P a yroll
_____________________ _
C o m p t o m e t e r operators ...... ___
K^y-pnnrh operators
_________ _____
S erretaries
_
__
Stenographers, g e n e r a l------------------------------Switchboard op erators -------------------------------Switchboard op era tor-recep tion ists ---------Typiat«J r1a«ft A
Typist®, cla ss R
_
_______

61.00
59.00
$ 58 .00
51.50
58.00
68.50
57.00
51.00
4 7.5 0

71.00
54.00
46.50
57.00
63.50
60.00
55.00
74.00
61.00
58.00
59.00
59. 50
50.50

$ 5 1 .0 0
52.50
6 1 . 00
4 9.00
38.50
46.00
53.00
52.50
52.50
67.00
53.00
47. 00
53.00

$ 4 6 .0 0
4 6.0 0

4 1.0 0
4 6.0 0

45.00

D a s h e s in d ica te n o data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




52.00
66.00

4 3.5 0
51.50
4 9.0 0
55.00

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to stan dard s a la r ie s that a r e pa id f o r standard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
2 E x clu d e s data f o r l im i t e d -p r i c e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
3 E x clu d e s data f o r 2 la r g e d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e s .
NOTE:

-

-

48.50
4 1.50
4 4.50
54.00
54.00
4 8.5 0
66.5 0
52.50
4 9.0 0
58. 00
4 6.5 0

49.5 0
57.00
44. 00
36.50
4 1.0 0
56.50
53.50
67.50
53.50
4 3.5 0
4 7.5 0
55.00
4 5.5 0

44.50
57.00
48.0 0
38.00
43.50
47.50
44.50
46.50
62.50
50.50
39.50
46.00

77.00
57.00
50.00
54.00
67.00
63.50
59.00
74.50
59.50
57.50

41.00

52.50

$ 5 3 .0 0

$ 5 2 .5 0
45.0 0
51. 50
62. 50
74. 50
61. 00
60.50
57.50

50.5 0
44. 00
4 6 .0 0
58. 00
58.00

48.5 0

4 3.5 0

6 5.0 0
53.50
50.00

-

-

$ 62.00

$ 5 2 .0 0

$ 5 4 .5 0

6 1.0 0

56.50
52.50
4 7.5 0

6 9.0 0
56. 00
-

53. 50
52.50

57. 00
54.50
52.50
63. 50
52.5 0
4 9 .0 0
4 9 .0 0

73. 00
58.0 0
51.00
59.0 0
6 5.5 0
6 3.5 0

62.00

56.50
4 7 .0 0
50.50
54. 50
4 8 .0 0

4 5.0 0

73.50
66 .0 0

6 0.5 0
59.0 0
55.50

21

Table A -7: Office occupations (finance)* *
(A v e ra g e w e e k ly earnings 1 f o r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s stu d ied in fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te )

Northeast

Middle West

South

F ar West

Minne­
apolis St. Paul

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

$79.50
44.00
-

$78. 50
46.00
65. 50

$77.50
37.50
59.00

$79. 50
43.00
60.50

$71 .00
42.50
64. 50

$ 83.50
52.50
73.50

$43.50
-

$64.00

50.00

57.00

46.50

50.50

49. 50

59.50

54.00

46. 50

61.00

72.00
56. 50

57.50
47.00
50.50
39.00
58.50
47.50
48. 50
37.00
63.50
50.00
50.50
55. 50
46.50
50.00
42.00

60.00

51.50
47.50
47.00
38. 50
58. 50
53.00
45. 50
39.00

72.00
58. 00
61.00
48. 50
70.50

69.00
53.50
60.50
47.50
57.50
57.50
46.50
72.00
63.50
58.00
49.00

66.00

-

42. 50
48.00
40.00

47.50
54.00
43.00
52.50
62.50
54.00
50.50
45.00

NewarkJersey
City

Sex, occupation, and grade

Dallas

Detroit

Chicago

St. Louis

Los
Angeles Long
Beach

San
F ranc is c o Oakland

Office clerical
Men
C le rk s, accounting, cla ss A ----------------------O ffice b o y s ------------- -------------------------------------Tabulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s --------------------

-

-

-

$76 .00
49.00
77. 50

-

$51.50
70.50

Women
B ookkeeping-m achine op e ra to rs,cla ss B —
C lerk s:
Accounting, cla ss A -------------------------------Accounting, cla ss B -------------------------------F ile , cla ss A ------------------------------------------F ile , cla ss B ------------------------------------------P a y r o l l ----------------------------------------------------Com ptom eter o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------Key-punch o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------O ffice g i r l s --------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s ----------------------------------- -— — ——
Stenographers, g e n e r a l------- -----------------------Switchboard o p e ra to rs ---------------------------------Switchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ----------Tabulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s -------------------Transcribing-m achine op era tors, general —
T ypists, cla ss A -----------------------------------------T ypists, cla ss B — —
---- ---------------------------------

56.00
53.50
44.00

61.00

47.00
71.50
62.00
55.50
46.00
78.00
60.50
62.00
59.00

-

58.00
41.00
73.00
55.50
56.00
60.00
53.00
54.00
47.00

66.00

59.50
57.50
51.00

47.00
52.50
41.50
-

47.50
44.00
65. 50
56.00
56.00
45.50
52.50
52.00
49. 50
44.50

69.00

54. 50
57.00
52.50
49.00
51.00
42. 50

61.00

61.00
49.50
76.00
63.50
64. 50
57.00
62.50
62.00

54.00

$46.00

68.00

53.00
55.00
54.00
52.50
50.00
44. 50

1

E a rn in g s r e la te to sta n d a rd s a la r ie s that a r e paid f o r standard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .
N OTE:

D a sh es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p re se n ta tio n .




Table A-8: Office occupations (services)
(A v e ra g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu died in s e r v ic e s )
N o rth e a st
Sex, o ccu p a tio n , and grade

N ew
Y ork
C ity

P h ila ­
d elph ia

M id dle W est

C h ic a g o

D e tro it

$60. 00
5 0 .5 0

$ 7 6 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
4 8 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
7 2 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
5 0 .0 0
6 3 .0 0
"

F a r W est
L os
A n g e le s L on g
B e a ch

Office clerical
W om en
C le r k s :
A cco u n tin g , c la s s A _ _
A cc o u n tin g , c la s s B
F i l e , c la s s B
____ _ _
P a y r o l l ________
S e c r e t a r ie s ___________________________________
S te n o g r a p h e r s, g e n e r a l __________
_______
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a to r s
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s _______
T y p is t s , c la s s A ____________________________
T y p is t s , c la s s B __
-------------------------------------

$71. 00
5 9 .5 0
4 9 .0 0

68.00

7 4 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
60. 00
6 4 .0 0
5 5 .5 0

$ 6 0 .5 0
5 3 .0 0
3 7 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
5 3 .0 0
4 3 .5 0
5 0 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
4 5 .0 0

68.00

78. 00
67. 00
55. 00
6 5 .0 0
65. 00
57. 00

1 E a rn in g s r e la te to standard s a la r ie s that a r e p aid f o r standard w o rk s c h e d u le s .
2 E x clu d e s m o t io n -p ic t u r e p ro d u ctio n and a llie d s e r v ic e s ; data f o r t h e s e in d u s tr ie s
in d u s t r ie s " and "n on m an u factu rin g. "
NOTE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data t o w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .

are

in clu d e d ,

$ 7 4 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
4 7 .5 0
7 2 .0 0
7 4 .5 0

62.00

5 2 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
5 0 .5 0

how ever,

in

"a ll

53. 50

54.50

67. 50
54.00
55. 50
45.00

68.00

68.00

59.50
46.00
74.00
63.50
56.00
59.00
73.00
57. 50
55.50
51.00

56.00
61.50
46.50
69.50
56.00
58.50
49.50
74.50
65.00
62.50
60.50
67.00
62.00
59.00
51.50

22

Table A-9.

Plant occupations (all industries)

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 f o r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s stu d ied in 6 b ro a d in d u stry d iv isio n s )

Occupation*

N ew a rk Jersey
C ity 3

M id dle W est

South

N o rth e a st
N ew
P r o v i­
P h ila ­
Y o rk
d elph ia 3 d e n ce
C ity 3

M em ph is 3

A tlanta

D allas

$ 2 .0 5
2 .2 7
1.7 7
1 .4 6
1 .5 8

$ 2 .0 6
2 .1 7

$ 1 .9 8
2 .3 0

1 .5 6
1 .4 5
2 .0 3
2 .1 5

1 .1 4
1 .2 3

San
Los
F ra n A ngeles* Portland
c is c o Long
Oakland 3
Beach

M in n e­
M il­
N ew
C h ic a g o 3 D e t r o it 3 w aukee a p o lis - St. L o u is 3
O rleans
St. P a u l

M aintenance an d pow erplant
C a r p e n te rs -------------------------------------E le c t r ic ia n s --------- -— ---- ---------------Engineers, s ta tio n a ry -------------------F irem en, stationary b o i l e r ----------H elpers, t r a d e s --------------- —----------M achine-tool op era tors, toolroom
M a ch in is ts -------------------- ---------- -----M e c h a n ics --------------------------------------M echanics, automotive ■
M illwrights — — -----------O i l e r s -------------------- —
---P a in t e r s -----------------------Pipefitters — ---------------P lu m b e r s -------------— ——
Sheet-m etal w orkers —
T ool and die m akers —

$ 2 .4 3
2. 51
2 . 52
2. 02
1 .9 3
2 . 37
2 .4 3
2 .3 8

2.22
2 . 39
2.01

$ 2 .2 9
2 . 33
2 .3 7
1 .9 1
1 .8 2
2. 35
2 .4 5
2. 30
2 .2 3
2 .2 9
1 .9 1

2 . 30
2 .5 6
2 . 51
2 .4 8
2 .5 3

2 . 36
2 .1 4
2 .3 8
2 .5 6

2.12

$ 2 .3 7
2 .3 5
2 .0 8
1 .8 2
1 .9 0
2 .1 9
2 .3 7
2 .2 7
2 .1 9

$ 1 .9 8
1 .9 5
2 .0 9
1 .6 5
1 .5 6
1 .9 7

1. 73
2 .1 4
2 .3 7

1 .4 8

2 .2 8
2 .4 9

2 .0 9
2 .3 1

2.26
2.11

2.00
1. 79
2.01
1.86
1.88
1 .9 6

.

.

2 .1 8

2.00
1 .9 0
_

1 .4 5
2 .0 7
2 .3 8

.

_

1.86

2.00
1 .91
.

1 .6 5
1 .9 7

.

2. 10
.

2 .3 3

2.00
.

$ 1.91

2.20
1 .7 6
1 .3 8
1 .5 7

-

2 .2 9
1 .9 9
1.81

2 .1 7
2 .0 8
1 .9 4

1 .8 3
1 .8 7
2 .3 7

1 .4 9

2.22
-

-

-

1.88
1 .9 4

-

2 .4 2

$ 2 .5 8
2 .6 5
2 .6 1
2 .1 3
1 .9 9
2 .4 8

2.61

2 .3 7
2 .4 8
2 .4 4
1 .9 9
2 .5 9
2 .5 4
2 .7 9
2 .5 5
2 .7 9

$ 2 .5 1

2.60
2 .5 7
2 .1 4

2.10
2.62

$ 2 .3 5
2 .4 7
2 .3 6

1.98
1.86

$ 2 .4 8
2. 52
2 .2 8
2 .0 4

1.96
2.20
2.4 6
2.22
2. 19

$ 2 .4 1
2 . 50
2 .4 4

2.20

2 . 07
2 .4 2
2 . 54
2 .2 9
2 .2 5
2 .4 7
2 .0 7
2 .4 3
2 . 52

2 .6 4
2 .5 9
2 .3 9
2 .5 4
2 .0 8
2 .4 1
2 .5 4

2 .3 9
2 .5 6
2 .3 0
2 .2 5
2 .3 0
2 .0 9
2 .3 1
2 ,3 7

2 .5 3
2. 75

2 .4 3
2 .6 5

2 .4 5
2 . 55

1 .3 4
1 .0 3
1.8 1
1 .5 7
1 .2 5

1 .2 8
1 .3 2
1 .8 3
1 .4 6
1 .2 8
1 .8 2
1. 77
1. 81
1 .3 2
1 .9 3

1 .1 5
1 .0 8
1 .8 2
1. 4 5
1 .1 5
1. 73
1. 75
1 .7 1
1. 35
1 .8 7
1 .9 3
1 .9 1
2 .1 3
2. 01

1.69
1. 78

-

-

2 . 37
1 .9 6
2 .5 3
2 . 52

-

2 .2 5
2 .1 8
2 .2 3
2 .1 4
2 .2 8

■

$ 2 .4 3
2 .5 7
2 .5 0
2 .0 3
2 .0 8
2 .4 7
2 .5 7
2.33
2. 36
2 .4 8
1 .94
2 .3 6
2 .5 9
2 .4 7
2. 52
2 .6 7

•2 .4 9
2 .4 9
2 .3 4

$ 2 .5 0
2 .4 9
2 .4 0

1 .97
2 .3 6
2 .4 4
2 .4 0
2 .3 2
2 .4 3
1 .96
2 .5 3
2 .4 2

2 .0 8
2 .3 7
2 .5 0
2 .4 4
2 .5 5
2 .4 5

2 .4 6

2 .4 6

1.22

21
.1

2 . 50
2 . 67

1 .5 6

$ 2 .2 8
2 .2 5

1.32
1 .15
1.92
1 .54
1.36
1.90
1.91
1.81

1.54
1.63
1.78
1. 70

2.10

26
.6

22
.1

2.00

2.41
2 .5 0

26
.8

Custodial, w arehousing, an d shipping
Elevator op era tors, passenger (m e n )---Elevator op era tors, passenger (w om en)G u a r d s ----------- —— -----------------------------------Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (men) —
Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (women)L a b orers, m aterial h a n d lin g------------------Order fille r s
P a ck ers, shipping (m e n )---P ackers, shipping (women)
R eceiving clerk s --------- -— —
Shipping clerks
Shipping and receiving clerks
T ruckdrivers 4
Light (under l l/a t o n s ) -----------------------—
Medium ( l l Jz to and including 4 tons) —
Heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler t y p e ) --------Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
T ru ck ers, pow er (forklift) — ------- —
---------T ru ckers, power (other than fo r k lift )------Watchmen
— -----------------------------

1. 38
1 .0 8
1. 84
1 .6 0
1 .2 9
1 .9 2

1 .5 8
1.4 1

1.66

1 .3 8
1 .1 9
1 .6 7
1 .4 3

1 .3 0

1.02

2 . 50
2 .5 3

1 .4 9
1. 30
1. 68
1.7 6
1 .5 2
1 .4 0
1. 78
1 .8 7
1. 82
2 . 36
2. 07
2 . 30
2 .3 4

1 .6 5
1. 71
1. 56
1 .2 7
1 .7 1
1 .8 5
1 .9 4
2 .0 8
1 .9 2
2 ,0 7
2 .1 8

1 .4 4
1 .3 1
1 .0 8
1 .5 0
1 .4 5
1 .3 4
1 .1 3
1 .5 3
1 .6 5
1 .6 7
1 .8 3
1 .3 4
1 .8 2
1 .8 0

2 .1 7
2. 02
1 .8 2
1 .5 3

2 . 63
2 .0 8
1 .9 9
1 .5 3

2 .0 7
1 .8 3
1. 77
1 .4 0

1 .7 7
1 .7 0
1 .5 5
1 .2 8

1.88

1. 71
1 .3 1
1 .91
1 .9 9
1 .91
2 .4 2

1.11

.5 2
1 .8 2

1.12

.8 5
.7 5
1 .6 4

1.11

. 76
1 .3 5
1 .3 4
1 .3 0
1 .3 3
1 .5 6
1 .5 9
1 .7 0
1 .5 7
1 .3 0
1 .5 6
1 .7 7

.8 1
1 .2 9
1 .3 5
1 .3 5

1 .5 8

1 .5 6
1 .6 9
1 .0 8

.

1 .5 8
1 .6 4
1 .7 2
1 .5 5
1 .3 8

1.61

1 .6 5

.66
.5 5
1 .7 2
1 .0 7
.7 4
1 .2 3

1.26
1 .3 0
1 .0 8
1 .5 9
1 .6 4
1 .6 3
1 .4 7

1.11
.9 1

.61
1.16
1.26
1 .1 9
.9 2
1 .4 9
1 .4 8
1 .4 7
1 .2 9

1 .8 9
1 .1 8
1.81
1 .6 3
1 .4 7
1 .7 8
1 .7 8
1 .7 2
1 .5 5
1 .9 5

2.00

1.11

2.10
1 .7 2
1 .2 9
1 .9 3
1 .9 3
1 .9 6
1 .8 4

2.01
2 .1 5
2 .0 8

1.86
1 .9 0
1 .8 7
1 .4 2
1 .9 2
1 .9 5
2 .0 4

1.22

1 .9 5
2 .2 7
2 .2 8

1 .4 5
1 .6 4

1 .2 4
1 .3 7

2.20

2.20
2 .0 3
2.20

2 .3 1

2 .2 4

2.22

1.5 1
1 .4 6
1 .4 9
.9 3

2 .3 0
1 .9 7
1 .9 4
1 .2 8

2 .2 7

2.20

1 .4 4
1 .4 9

2 .0 3
1 .5 4

1 .9 5
1 .9 4
1 .3 8

1.00

_
1 .1 9

.7 7
.5 9

1.00

2.01

2.12
2.01
2 .0 4

1.98
1 .9 2

2.02
2.02
2.01

2.12

2 .0 3

2 .1 8

2 .0 4
1 .9 3
1 .8 9
1.5 6

1. 89
1 .8 2
1. 36

-

.9 9
1.75
1 .34
1.19
1.71
1.61
1.49
1.23
1.65
1.69
1. 72
1.81
1 .6 4
1.82
1.97

1.29
1.95
1.56
1.32
1.90
1.94
1.83
1 .6 7
1.99
2 .0 8

1.82
1.81

2 .2 5
2 .0 5
2 .0 3

1 .3 4

2.01
2 .1 5
1.90

2.10
2.20

16
.0

1.89
2 .0 5
2 .0 3

21
.0

1.92
2 .0 5

22
.2
21
.1
1.99

2.10
1.65

1.60
2 .03
2 .0 3
1.93
1.52
2 .0 7
2 .1 3
2 .1 6
2 .3 6

22
.6

2 .3 5
2 .4 6
2 .3 8

21
.1
2 .0 8
1.73

Excludes premium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
* Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
. . .
A
3 Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations a re shown in footnotes 4 a n d /o r 6 to the table m appendix A .
.
tv _ e o f truck ooerated
a re now included
« Includes all d riv ers, regard less o f s iz e and type o f truck operated.
D rivers of m o re than 1 type of truck, fo rm e rly cla ssified to the m a jo r type o f truck operated, a re now included
only in the general average fo r tru ckd rivers.
Data fo r individual types th e re fo re may not be strictly com parable to the ea rlier studies.
1

NOTE:

D ash es in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




23

Table A-10:

Plant occupations (manufacturing)

(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in m anufacturing)

Occupation 1
2

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

Phila­ P r o v i­
delphia dence

Atlanta

Dallas

Far West

Middle West

South

Northeast

Memphis

New
Chicago Detroit
Orleans

M il­
waukee

L os
San
Minne A n geles- Portland Frana p o lis- St. Louis Denver
c is c o Long
St. Paul
Oakland
Beach

M aintenance an d pow erplant

C arpenters ____________________ _______ ___
E lectrician s ________________________________
E ngin eers, sta tion a ry_______________________
F irem en , stationary b o i l e r _________________
H elp ers, trades ____________________________
M ach in e-tool o p era tors, t o o lr o o m _________
M achinists __________________________________
M echanics ___________________________________
M echanics, autom otive ____________________ _
M illw rights
O ilers
Painter s ___ ________________________________
P ip e fit t e r s _______ ___ ____________________
S heet-m etal w ork ers ________________________
T ool and die m akers
_____________

$2.3 9
2.48
2 .5 4
2.04
1.95
2.37
2.43
2.41
2.42
2.37
1.99
2.31
2.54
2.47
2.53

$ 2.2 8
2 .4 5
2.53

1.86
1.66

1.76
1.52
1.45
1.71
1.64
1.51
1.42
1.94

2.1 6

1.79
2 .35
2.41
2 .3 4
2.28
2.33
2 .01

2.36
2 .36
2 .36
2.56

$ 2 31
2 36
2 15
1 87
1 94
2 19
2 35
2 26
2 .,2 0
2 .,26
1 . 73
,
2 ..26
2 , 37
.
2 ..27
2 . 49

$1 97
1 94
1 94
1 57
1 54
1 97
2 00
1 78

1 .79
1 . 53
1 . 29
1 . 67
1 . 68
,
1 , 64
.
1 , 50
.

1 .45
1 .33
1 .2 0
.
1 , 43
1 ..42
1 . 37
1 . 13
1 , 56
.
.
1 , 63
1 , 67
.
1 , 58
.
1 .36
1 .74
1 .74

1.
,86
1 ..48
1 . 92
1 .,95
2 . 09
2 .31

$ 2 05
2 27
2 21
1 50
1 . 63
2 16
1 96
1 . 97
1 . 45
2 . 22
2 . 37

$2
2

16
24

1 67
1 47
2 03
2 24
2 02
1 ..83
1 .,67
2 ..09

2

. 33

$ 2 . 36
2 . 55
2 . 52
2 . 05
1 . 97
2 . 48
2 . 60
2 . 36
2 . 38
2 . 44
1 . 96
2 .,35
2 . 49
2 . 55
2 . 79

$ 2 . 50
2 . 60
2 . 66
2 . 21
2 . 12
2 . 62
2 . 65
2 . 59
2 . 41
2 . 54
2 . 09
2 . 44
2 . 53
2 . 53
2 . 75

$ 2 . 32
2 .,44
2 ..38
1 . 99
1 . 83
2 . 39
2 . 57
2 . 31
2 .,35
2 . 30
2 . 09
2 . 29
2 . 38
2 ..44
2 .,65

$ 2 . 38
2 .,48
2 .,30
2 . 09
1 . 93
2 . 20
2 .,45
2 .,21
2 .,26
2 . 37
1 . 96
2 .,46
2 ., 50
2 .,46
2 ., 55

$ 2 .,41
2 ..49
2 ..53
2 .,22
2 .,09
2 .,42
2 ..55
2 .,29
2 .,34
2 ,,47
2 ..08
2 .,40
2 ..52
2 ..50
2 ..67

$ 2 .,27
2 ..23
2 .20
1 . 93
1 .,78

1 , 48
.
.
1 , 46
1 , 42
.
1 , 37
.
1 , 24
.
1 .37
1 .54

1 , 85
.
1 .,6 6
1 ..49
1 .,73
1 . 79
1 . 78
1 ., 58
2 .,01
2 ., 10
1 ..92
2 .,33
2 . 43
2 ..23
2 . 32

2 ., 13
1 .,85
1 .,6 8
1 , 95
2 .,00
1 .,97
1 . 88
2 . 07

1 , 82
.
1 . 67
1 . 48
1 . 89
1 .,8 6
1 .,87
1 ..50
1 . 94
1 . 94
2 . 05
1 . 99
.
1 , 87
.
1 , 93
2 .23

.
1,88
1 , 62
.
1 . 45
1 ..78
1 ..78
1 ..76
1 ..39
1 , 99
.
1 . 97
1 . 93
.
2 , 07
2 , 15
.
2 .04

1 .8 8
.
1 , 58
1 , 29
.
1 , 71
.
1 ,,71
1 ,.72
1 . 32
1 , 89
.
1 , 95
.
1 , 91
.
.
2 ,20
2 .08
2 .2 1
2 .28

1 .92
1 , 53
.
1 , 44
.
1 , 63
.
1 , 74
.
.
1 , 58
1 , 25
.
1 ,86
.
1 , 78
.
1 .66
1 , 78
.
1 .62
1 .84

1.52
1,. 16

1,.95
1. 92
1,. 6 0

2.
.01

1,.94
1. 56

1. 8 6
1,. 8 8

1. 8 8
1.82

1.72
1.39

$ 1 . 90
2 .,36
2 . 07
1 . 14
1 . 21

$ 1 .,95
2 .. 19
,
1 . 74
1 . 45
1 . 58

2 .,30
2 .,0 2
1 . 69
,
2 .22
1 , 90
.
2 .,05
2 ..37

2 .. 16
2 .,08
1 ..87

2

.
1 , 51
2 . 06
1 ..91

. 42

2 .,25
2 ., 17
2 ., 13

2.
,21
2 ..29
2

..32

$ 2 .,38
2 ..52
2 ., 50
2 . 10
2 . 08
2 . 47
2 . 55
2 . 33
2 . 36
2 .,48
1 ..94
2 ., 35
2 . 59
2 ..51
2 .,67

$ 2 . 43
2 ..47
2 . 34
2 . 05
1 . 96
2 . 36
2 . 45
2 . 40
2 . 29
2 . 43
1 . 95
2 . 50
2 . 42

$2.49
2.52

2 .,66

2.68

1 .,69

1.93
1.84
1.70

2 .62

2.25
2.11

2 .37
2.50
2.45
2 .5 4
2.45
2.00

2.46
2.50
2 .46

Custodial, w arehousing, a n d shipping

Guards
Janitors, p o rte rs , and clea n ers (m e n )_____
Jan itors, p o rte rs , and clea n ers (w om en )__
L a b o re rs , m aterial handling _
O rder fille r s ________________________________
P a ck e rs , shipping ( m e n )____________________
P a ck er s , shipping (w om en) _________________
R eceiving c l e r k s ____________________________
Shipping clerk s
__________ __ ____________
Shipping and receiv in g clerk s _ ____ ____
T ru ck d riv e r s 3 _______________________ __ .
Light (tinder 1 V2 tons) __ ______________
Medium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 t o n s ) ___
Heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r t y p e ) _______
Heavy (over 4 ton s, other than
tra ile r type) ____________________________
T ru ck e rs, power (fork lift)
___
__ __
T ru ck e rs, power (other than fo r k l i f t ) ______

1.45
1.93
1.81
1.74
1.32
1.89
1.93
1.91
2 .76
_

2.01

1.72
2.47
2.16

2.94

2 .4 5
2.36

2.17
1.99
1.79
1.57

2.76
2 .0 5
1.46

2 .88

i ,.83
1 . 88
1 , 90
.
.
2 , 07
.
1 , 85
2 , 10
.
.
2 , 05
2 . 05
1 .80
1 . 76

1. 48

1 .60

1.67
1.55
1.24

1 . 94
1 , 35
,
1 .,06
1 , 29
1 . 31
1 . 38

1 .74
.
1 , 32
1 . 10
.
1 , 38
1 ..58
1 .,48

.
1 , 77
1 , 26
.

1 ., 57
1 .,64
1 ., 77
1 . 33
1 .,44
1. 2
.2
1 , 49
.

1 , 89
.
1 , 79
.
1 . 72
.
1 , 56
1 , 44
.
1 . 52

i .63

1 , 39
.
1 .46

1. 65
1.. 15

1 .62
1 , 78
.
1 . 17

1,. 57
1,.72
1,.07

.98
.
1,22
1 . 29
,
1 . 26
1 . 08
1 , 84
.
1 , 69
.
.
1 , 58
1 . 34

1 .58
1 ,20
.
1 , 08
.
1 ,22
.

.98
1 , 28
.

2

. 17

2 ..19
2 .. 18

1.,84

.
1 , 93

1 .67

.60

1 , 95
.
1 ..70
1 , 62
.
1 ..89
.8
1. 6
1 ..83
1 ..67
1 ,.94
2 , 09
.
2 ,01
.
2 ,11
.
.
1 , 85
2 , 16
.
2 . 16
2 .21

1,.98
1,.92
1.64

1 .,88
2 .,06
1 .,73
2 .,05
2 .. 10
2 . 05
2 . 14
1 .88
2 . 09
,
.
2 , 23

2.00
2.11

1.93
2.07
2.09
2.09
2.41
2.40
2 .4 5
2.40

2 , 18
.

2.31

2

2.13
1.80

1.98
,. 10
1. 6 8

2 .10

E xcludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherwise indicated.
Includes all d riv e r s , reg a rd less of size and type o f truck operated.
D riv ers o f m ore than 1 type o f truck, fo rm e rly cla ssifie d to the m ajor type o f truck operated, are now included
only in the general average fo r tru ck d rivers. Data for individual types therefore may not be strictly com parable to the ea rlie r studies.
1
2
3

NOTE:

D a s h e s in d ica te no data o r in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p re s e n ta tio n .




24

Table A-ll:

Plant occupations (nonmanufacturing)

(Average hourly earnings 1 fo r selected occupations studied in nonmanufacturing)
Northeast
Occupation 2

NewarkJ ersey
City*

New
York
City 3

South

Far W est

Middle West

San
Los
Minne­
\ New
, M il­
F ra n t C h ica go 3 D etroit 3
Dallas Memphis 3
a p o lis - St. Louis 3 Denver , A n geles- Portland
Orleans
waukee
c is co Long
St. Paul
Dakland 3
B e a ch 3

Phila­ P ro v i­
Atlanta
delphia 3 dence

M aintenance an d powerplant
C a r p e n te rs ---------- -------------- -— -------------------E le c t r ic ia n s ------------------------ -------- --------------E ngineers, s ta tio n a ry ------------------ ---- --------F irem en, stationary b o i l e r -----------------------H elpers, t r a d e s ------------------------------------------Mechanics ---------------------------------------------------M echanics, a u to m o tiv e ------------------------------P a in t e r s ------------------—
---------------------------------P lu m b e r s -----------------------------------------------------

$ 2 .6 4
2. 77
2 .4 8
1.95
1.87
2. 17
2 . 16
2 .2 5
-

$ 2.2 9
2 .2 6
2 .29
1. 78
1.84
2 .1 9

1.34
1.07
1.80
1.49

1.57
1.41
1.64
1.47
1.30
1.63
1.81
1.53
1.38
1.70
1. 78
1.91
2.31
1.97

2.22

2 .0 6
2.11

$2.51
2 .3 5
1.94
1. 58
1 . 81
2 .32
2.19
2 .01
2.0 2

$2.0 1
2.00

-

1. 77
2.03
•
-

$2 . 0 1
1.97

$ 2 .0 5
2 .2 7
1.59
1.55
2 . 12
1.89

1.68

1.41
1.91
1.93
1.91

1.86

"

$ 2 .0 5
.
1.90
1.27
1. 72
1.83
1.71
-

$ 1.8 9
2 .2 4
1.78

.60
.5 5
.
.90

. 75
.59
.93
.80
.59

1.00

1.50
.
1.96
1.70
-

$ 2.5 5
$ 2 .9 8
2.71
2 .3 4
2.09
2 .4 4
2.51
.

2.6 2

2 .39
1.91
1.93
2. 54
2 .3 7
2 .3 4

$2.39
-

_
.

$2.6 1
2 .6 5
2 .2 6
1 .9 8
-

.
*

2 .2 3
2 . 19
2 .5 7
-

1.02

1.27
1.32

2.21

.
$ 2. 15
1.95
2 .3 2
2 .2 3
.
“

$ 2 .3 0
2 .2 9
1.31
1.79
2 .2 4
.
-

$ 2 .5 8
2 .8 3
2. 50
2 .0 7
2 .3 2
2 .3 6
2.41
-

$ 2 .5 9
2. 73
2 .3 2
-

1.21

1 .86

1.32
1. 15
.
1.42
1.34
1.91
1 .87
1 .8 4
1. 83

-

.
2 .3 2
2 .6 0
-

$ 2 .5 3
•
2 .2 5
2 .3 6
2 .5 5
2 .3 4
-

Custodial, w arehousing, an d shipping
Elevator op era tors, p assenger (m e n )-------Elevator op era tors, passenger (women) —
Guards — -----------------------------------------------------Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (m e n )------Janitors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (women) —
L a b orers, m aterial h a n d lin g---------------------Order f i l l e r s -----------------------------------------------P a ck ers, shipping (m e n )----------------------------P a ck ers, shipping (w o m e n )------------------------R eceiving c l e r k s -----------------------------------------Shipping c l e r k s -------------------------------------------Shipping and receiving c l e r k s --------------------Truckdrivers 4 --------------------------------------------Light (under Ll/z t o n s ) ---------------------------Medium (I 1/* to and including 4 tons)----Heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler t y p e ) ---------Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
tra iler t y p e ) .........................-.. ....—
---------T ru ckers, power (fo r k lift )-------------------- ----Watchmen — ---- --------- —--------------------------------

1.21

1.92
1.92
1.54
1.99
1.91
2.23
-

2.12

2.21

2.43

2.33

2. 17
2 .0 8
1.45

2 .5 7
2. 13
1.56

1.36
1. 13
1.37
1.31
1.06
1.61
1. 72
1.37
1.09
1. 54
1. 75

1. 54
1.16
.
1.47
1. 74

1 .96

1 .66

2 .0 9
1 .9 4
2 .0 5
2 . 19

1.95
1.26
1.87
1.82

2 .0 8
1.92
1.28

1.08
1.01

.
1.26
1.01
1.68

1.85
1.88

1.50

. 76
. 75
1.36
.9 7
. 76
1.23
1.27

.52
1 .44
.9 6
.6 7
1.39
1.36
1.25
1.24
1 .55
1.53
1.65
1.64
1.27

1 .22

.
1 .26

1.41
1. 73
1.55
1.36
1.62

1 .66
1.86

1.66

•
1.36
1.26

________

.66

1.24
1.25
1.33
1.07
1.39
1.59
1.75
1.51
.97
1.48
1.67
.

1.45
.9 8

1.12

.90

1.12

1.28
1.15
1.50
1.49
1.51
1.27
1.22

1.19
1.34
1.51
1.34
.8 7

1.88
1 . 16

1.74
1.59
1.47
1.83
1.78
1.64
1.44.
1.90

1.23
1.11
1.68

1.36
1.13
1.83
1.88

.
-

1.77
2 .2 4
2. 15
2 .2 4

1.33
1.08
1.80
1.93
1.89
-

1.88

1.61

1.08
1.06
1.34

1.35

1 .20

1.20

1.21

1.16
1.74
1.55
1.34

2.0 1

1 .08
1. 78
1.79
1.69
1.81
1.89
1.91
2 . 11

-

1.88

1.85
1. 77
1 .84
1.24
1.8 6

2.20

1.88
2.2 2

2.16
2.09

2 .01

2 .0 5

2.31

2 .2 8

2 .22

2 .0 3

2.16

2.0 2

1.99
1.14

1.87
1.99
2.25
2.09

2. 30
2.05
1.15

2.31
2.03
1.26

2.19
-

.9 8
1.33

1.99
1.92

1.99
1.48

-

1 .5 5
1 .6 4
1 .84
1.82
1.65
1.81
1 .9 7

1.27
1 .98
1 .45
1 .2 7
1.91
1.96
1.84
-

2 .0 6
2 .0 7

2.0 2

2 .1 6
1.95
2 .0 7

2 .0 3
2 .0 9
1 .97
2 .0 5

2 .2 2

2.2 0

2.0 0

1. 53
1.60
1.59
1.63
1.59
2 .0 6
2 .0 0

1.92
2 .0 8
2 . 18
2 .21

2 .3 5
2. 17
2 .3 2
2 .4 7

1.86

2 .2 7

2 .0 9

2 .4 0

1 .9 4
1 .2 8

2 .2 0

2.01

2 .1 6

1.52

1.53

1.63

.

Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
Exceptions to the standard industry limitations a re shown in footnotes 4, 6 , and 7 to the table in appendix A.
Includes all d rivers, regard less of siz e and type of truck operated.
D rivers of m ore than 1 type o f truck, fo rm e rly cla ssified to the m a jo r type o f truck operated, a re now included
only in the general average fo r tru ckd rivers.
Data fo r individual types th erefore may not be strictly com parable to the e a rlie r studies.
1
2
3
4

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data o r insufficient data to warrant presentation,




25

Table A-12: Plant occupations (public utilities)*
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities)

NewarkJersey
City

Occupation 2

New
York
C ity3

Far IYe st

Middle West

South

Northeast
Phila­
delphia

P ro v i­
dence

Atlanta

New
Dallas Memphis 3 Orleans

$1.81
1.97

$ 1 .6 6
1.94

$1.51
2 .04

$ 1 .5 2
1.91

1.54

1.24

1.26
1.08
1.51
1.77
1.79
1.77
1.57
1.09

1.11
.9 4
_
1.83
1.79

San
Los
Minne­
A n geles- Portland F ranM il­
a p o lis- St. Louis Denver
C h ica go3 D etroit3
c is c o Long
waukee
St. Paul
Oakland 3
Beach 3

M a in te n a n c e a n d p o w e rp la n t
C a r p e n te rs _________________________________
H e lp e rs, t r a d e __________ ___________________
M echanics, a u tom otiv e_______________ —------

$2.49
1.79

$2.41
1.84
2.19

$ 2.1 8
1.83
2.15

1.71

1.61

1.65
1.42
1.84
2.00
2.02

-

-

-

-

-

$1.9 6

$ 2.5 0

$2.39

$ 2.2 3

$2.1 5

1.70
1.47
2.07
2 .2 4
2 .16
2.29

1.72

1.63

1.58
1.37
1.85
2 .1 4
2.07
2.19

$ 2.2 9
2.35

$2.4 2
2.33

$2.39
2.56

1.44

$ 2 .2 2

1.11
_
1.20
1.43
1.40
1.37
1.36
.96

$ 2.2 4

-

1.67

1.63
1.43
2.04
2.05
2.04
2.11

1.65
1.49
2.20
2.37
2.31
2.48
2.26

C u sto d ia l, w a re h o u sin g , a n d sh ip p ing
Jan itors, p o rte rs , and clea n ers (m en )____
Jan itors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (wom en)__
L a b o re rs , m aterial handling_______________
T ru ck d rivers 4 - r_^____________ ____________
Medium ( 1 V 2 to and including 4 to n s )___
Heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r t y p e )----------T ru ck e rs, pow er (fo rk lift)_________________
W atchm en--- ---- ---------------- ----------------------------

2.02
2.33
2.21
2.41
2.09
1.57

1.82
2.27
2.25

_

1.82
1.82
■

1.97
1.42

1.64

1.77
1.89
1.89
1.91

1.74
1.82

1.40

_
-

.9 4

-

-

2.11
2.31

-

2 .20
2.20
2.22

-

2.33
2.09
1.72

-

-

-

1.98
2.01
2.01
-

-

1.94
1.91
1.90
2.02
2.10

-

1.67

-

2.00
2.09
2.08
2.10
2.15

-

1.51

'

1 E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts*
2 Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherwise indicated.
3 One or m ore utilities are m unicipally operated, and therefore excluded from the scope o f the studies. See footnote 4 to the table in appendix A .
4 Includes all d r iv e r s , reg ard less o f size and type of truck operated. D rivers of m ore than 1 type o f truck, fo rm e rly cla ss ifie d to the m ajor type of truck operated, are now included only
in the general average fo r tru ck d riv ers.
Data for individual types th erefore m ay not be strictly com parable to the e a rlie r studies.
* T ransportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public utilities.
NOTE:

Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to warrant presentation.




Table A-13: Plant occupations (wholesale trade)
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations studied in wholesale trade)

New
York
City

P hila­ Atlanta
delphia

Far West

Middle West

South

Northeast
NewarkJersey
C ity

Occupation 2

Los
MinneA n gelesChicago Detroit a p olis- St. Louis
Long
St. Paul
Beach

San
Franc is c o Oakland

M a in te n a n c e an d po w erplant
M echanics, automotive __

_

$ 2 .3 2

$ 2.4 8

$ 2 .3 2

$1.8 6

-

$2.3 3

-

C u sto d ia l,w are h o u sin g , an d shipping
Janitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e r s __________
L a b o r e r s , m aterial handling______________
O rder fille r s
__ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a ck ers , shipping--------------------------------------R eceiving clerks
---------- _
Shipping clerk s _
_
_ _
__
Shipping and receiving c le r k s _____________
T ru ckd rivers 3 -------------------------------------------- (
Medium ( l 1 to and including 4 tons)___
/*
Heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler t y p e )______
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than
tra ile r type) _ _ __ __ _ ______ _
T ru ck ers , power (fork lift)_________________
Watchmen
_ _ __
__ __ _
__ ----

_
1.87
2.25
2.07
2.56

$ 1.4 8
1.75
1.78
1.53
1.86
1.85
1.91
2.32
2.22
-

1.40
1.57
1.63
1.40
1.70
1.83
2.13
2.20
2.15
2.27

1.31
1.14
1.35
1.27
1.55
1.63'
1.69
1.32

2.19
1.95
1.37

1.68

2.12
1.12

1.31
1.41

1.54
1.92
1.84
1.58
-

1.26

-

$1.5 3
1.79
1.77
1.67
2.00
1.91
2.05
2 .2 8
2 .2 4
-

1.66
1.81
1.89
2.21
-

$ 1.49
1.86
1.89
1.87
1.98
1.99
1.99
2.02
2 .0 2
2.05

$ 1.39
1.70
1.79
1.90
2.10
2 .0 4
-

1.65
1.93
1.95
1.84
1.99
2 .08
2.19
2.09
2. 32

$ 1.7 4
1.97
2.00
1.94
2.09
2.16
2.29
2.30
2 .24
-

-

-

-

-

2.36
2.21

2.36
2.09

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Data lim ited to men w ork ers.
3 Includes all d riv e rs, regardless of size and type o f truck operated. D rivers o f m ore than 1 type of truck, fo rm e rly cla ssifie d to
the m ajor type of truck operated, are now included only in the general average for tru ck d rivers. Data fo r individual types th e re fo re
may not be strictly com parable to the e a rlie r studies.

26

Table A-14: Plant occupations (retail trade)
(A v e ra g e

h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d in r e t a i l tr a d e )

Northeast
Occupation 2

N ewarkJ ersey
City *

New
York
C ity 3

South

P hila- ,
delphia 3

P r o v i­
dence

Atlanta

Dallas

F a r West

Middle West
New
Orleans

Chicago

D e tro it4

Minne a p o lisSt. Paul

Denver

San
F ranc is c o Oakland

Portland

M a in t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p la n t
C a rp e n te rs __ _______ __ _______ _______
E ngineers, stationary ______________________
M echanics, a u tom otive__ ____ ___________

_

$ 2 .2 8

$ 2.4 3
2 .3 8
-

$ 2 .9 2
2.21
2 .1 7

_
1.31
1.29
1.51
1.92
1. 51
1.54
1.67
2.53
2 .0 7

1.24
1.23
.99
1.57
1.66
1.31
1.43
1.90
2.05
1.95
1.92
1.35

$ 2.2 0
_
1. 52

$ 2 .1 9
1.62
1.60

$2.2 5
2 .0 7
-

.
$2. 75
2. 50

_
-

_
.8 7
. 77
1.07
1.36
1.16
1.51
1.28
1.46
1.25
1. 15
1.34
1.20

.
_
-

. 77
.91
. 65
1.03
1.38

.
.70
.50
.98
1.01
1.03
1.23
1.29
1.20
1.15
1.22

1. 17
1.33
1.24
1.67
.
1.55
1.85
1.75
_
2 .2 9
_
2 .0 7
1.36

$ 1 .0 0
1 .24
1.06
1.68
1.89
.
.
2 .1 7

_

.
-

-

$ 2 .2 7

$ 2 .3 5
-

1. 12
1.38
_
1.63
1.90
1.76

1.62
1.62
i . 63
2 .0 9
2 .0 5
1 .86
2 .0 7

1.95
2. 13
2 .0 9

2 .01
2 .4 5
2 .4 8

C u sto d ial, w a re h o u sin g , an d shipping
Elevator op era tors, passenger (w o m e n )___
Janitors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (m e n )______
Janitors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (w o m e n )___
L a b orers, m aterial handling _______________
O rder fillers _______________________________
P a ck ers, shipping (men) - ____ ___________
R eceiving clerk s _____ __ ___________ ____
Shipping clerk s _____________________________
Shipping and receiving clerks ______________
T ru ckdrivers 5 .......................................................
Medium (1V2 to and including 4 t o n s ) ___
T ru ck ers, power (forklift) _________________
Watchmen _______ _________ ____________

1.04
1.28
1.08
1.67
2 .0 2
_
1.82
_
_
_
2 .1 3

_

1.44

_
$1. 13
_
1.42
_
_
1.43
_
_
1.46
_
-

-

1.23
_
.
1.26
1. 16
_

1.05

_

.86

_

_

$ 1 .0 9
1.07
1. 11
1. 56
1.40
1.23
1.45
_
_
1.78
1. 77

-

1.24

$ 1.3 1
_
1.51
_
1. 76
_
_
2 .01

_

_

_

1.34

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
3 Excludes data fo r lim ited -p rice variety s to r e s.
4 Excludes data for 2 large department stores.
5 Includes all d r iv e r s, regard less of size and type o f truck operated. D rivers o f m ore than 1 type o f truck, fo rm erly cla ssified to the m ajor type o f
only in the general average for tru ck d rivers. Data for individual types therefore may not be strictly com parable to the e a rlie r studies.

_

1.33

-

truck op erated , are now included

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data o r insufficient data to warrant presentation.

Table A-15: Plant occupations (finance) * *
(Average hourly e a rn in g s1 fo r selected occupations studied in finance, insurance, and real estate)
Northeast
Occupation 2

Newark J ersey
City

New
York
City

South
P h ila ­
delphia

Middle West

Atlanta

Dallas

Chicago

Detroit

_

$0.81
1.40
.8 7
.74
-

$ 1 .9 9
.
1.71
1.94
1.50
-

$1. 12
1.62
1.35
1.11
-

M inne­
apolis St. Paul

F a r West
St. Louis

L os
Angeles Long
Beach

San
Fran­
c is co Oakland

C u sto d ia l, w are h o u sin g , a n d sh ip ping
Elevator op era tors, passenger (m e n )_____
Elevator op era tors, passenger (w om en)___
Guards
__ ____ __
Janitors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (men) ____
Janitors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (w o m e n )__
Watchmen _______ _____________________ __

$ 1.5 2
-

1.54
1.46
1.21
1.49

$ 1.6 3
-

1.81
1.65
1.33
1. 70

$ 1 .3 7
1.35
1.32
1.33
1.06
1.29

$ 1 .4 8
.8 4
.63
-

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data o r insufficient data to warrant presentation.




$ 1 .4 0
_
-

$ 1 .0 5
1.35
1 .0 4
1.05

$ 1 .2 6
_
1. 50
1.31
1.22
1.34

$ 1 .6 3
_
1.66
1 .64
1.61
-




27

Table A-16: Plant occupations (services)
( A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r

s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s

s t u d ie d in s e r v i c e s )

Middle West

N ortheast
Occupation 2

New
York
City

P h ila ­
delphia

Chicago

D etroit

F ar West
Los
A n gelesLong
B each3

M a in te n a n c e an d p o w erp lant
E ngin eers, s ta tio n a r y --------------------------------

$ 2 .1 9

1.32
1.36
1.36
1.25
1.30

1.08
.99
. 90

$ 2 .3 2

$ 1 .7 9

C u sto d ia l, w are h o u sin g , an d shipping
E levator op era tors, passenger (m e n ) -------E levator op era tors, passenger (w om en)----J an itors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (men) ^ —
Jan itors, p o rte rs , and cleaners (women)—
W atch m en---------------------- -------------------------------

-

-

•
$ 1 •39
1.47

$1. 11
1.29
1.20

1.07
*
1.35
“
1.33

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Data lim ited to men workers except where otherw ise indicated.
.
3 E xcludes data for m otion-picture production and allied s e rv ice s ; data fo r these industries are included, how ever, m
in d u s trie s" and "nonm anufacturing."
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data or insufficient data to warrant presentation.

all




29
Wage D iffe re n c e s Among L a b o r M arkets

O ccu pational wage ta b les p resen ted on pages 15 to 27 p e r ­
m it a co m p a riso n o f pay le v e ls , fo r any o f the job s studied, am ong
industry d iv isio n s within a p a rticu la r la b o r m arket as w ell as am ong
the va riou s la b o r m a rk e ts.
E stim ates o f pay relation sh ips within
and am ong m a rk ets vary som ew hat, depending upon the occu pation s
se le cte d fo r co m p a ris o n .
By averaging the pay fo r groupings o f
occu p a tion s, u sefu l b en ch m a rk s can be p rovided fo r o ffic e , sk illed
m aintenance, cu stod ia l, and m ate ria l-m o v e m e n t w o r k e r s. In terarea
pay rela tion sh ip s fo r th ese fie ld s o f em ploym ent w ill not n e c e s s a r ily
a g re e with m e a su re s b a se d on av era g es fo r broad er groups of w o rk ­
e r s o r occu p ation al a v e ra g e s fo r a s p e c ific industry.

A gg reg a tes fo r each occu pation al group and industry group
a re e x p re sse d as p ercen ta g es of like groups in New Y ork C ity. Wage
data fo r New Y ork City relate to A p ril 1956.
M ost of the other
a re a s w ere studied e a r lie r . D allas, D etroit, M ilw aukee, New O rleans,
and P hiladelphia w ere studied during O ctober o r N ovem ber 1955.
The tim ing o f wage adjustm ents v a rie s am ong in d u stries and e s ­
ta b lish m en ts.
The F a ir L a b or Standards Am endm ents o f 1955 raised
the m inim um wage fr o m 75 cen ts an hour to $ 1 , e ffe ctiv e M arch 1,
1956. E stim ates of com p a ra tive pay p osition should, th e re fo re , be
view ed in light of the variation s in the dates when data w ere collected .

The use o f data fo r the sam e jo b s in each la b o r m ark et,
togeth er with the assu m p tion o f a constant em ploym ent relation sh ip
betw een jo b s in all m a rk e ts, elim in ates in tera rea d iffe r e n c e s in o c ­
cupational co m p o sitio n a s a fa c to r in examining pay le v e ls .
Indus­
tr ia l co m p osition , h ow ev er, v a rie s substantially among la b or m a rk ets.
T his type o f variation is n e c e s s a r ily re fle cte d in and, in fa ct, tends
to explain the a rea pay re la tiv e s p resen ted in tables 4 to 6.

Interarea C om p a rison s

P ay fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s and skilled m aintenance w o rk e rs in
the highest wage a rea ex ceed ed that in the low est area wage by
31 p e rce n t. The in tera re a wage spread fo r m a teria l-m ov em en t w o rk ­
e r s was 69 p e rce n t and that fo r cu stodial w ork ers was 95 p e rce n t.
T his v ariation in in te ra re a wage spread by job group is la rg e ly
a ccou n ted fo r by the nature o f the wage structure in southern c o m ­
m u n ities w h ere m ost, but not a ll, of the low est jo b s a v e ra g e s w ere
re c o r d e d .
P ay le v e ls fo r w h ite -c o lla r em ployees and sk illed plant
w o r k e r s in the South co m p a re m ore favorably with pay in other
reg ion s than is the ca s e with sem isk illed and unskilled plant w o r k e r s.
M ethod of C om puting A r e a R ela tives
The follow in g m ethod was used in computing the data used in
the co m p a ris o n s . F o r ea ch a re a , a ggregates fo r a ll in du stries c o m ­
bined and fo r m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing w e re com puted by
m ultiplying the a v era g e standard weekly salary for each o f 18 o ffic e
jo b s and the a v era g e stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings (excluding p r e ­
m ium pay fo r o v e rtim e and nightw ork) fo r each o f 17 plant jo b s by
estim ated total em ploym ent in the jo b in a ll in du stries and a rea s
com bin ed . 1
1 The p ro c e d u r e assum ed a constant em ploym ent r e la ­
tionship betw een jo b s in a ll a r e a s — in m anufacturing, nonm anufactur­
ing, and fo r both grou ps com bined .

Job G ro u p s. — O ffice c le r ic a l pay le v e ls in D etroit and L os
A n g e le s-L o n g B each w ere 106 p ercen t o f New Y ork C ity le v e ls (table
4); C hicago and San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d w ere r e co rd e d at 104 percent
o f the New Y ork City le v e l. N e w a rk -J e rse y C ity and P ortlan d (O reg.)
a lm ost equaled New Y ork City (98-99 p ercen t) with pay relatives fo r
other a rea s ranging fro m 94 fo r M ilwaukee and St. L ouis to 81 p e r ­
cent fo r Mew O rlea n s. T hese estim ates a re based on average stand­
ard w eekly sa la rie s fo r jo b s ranging in pay fro m e n try -le v e l work to
s e c r e ta r ia l and accounting c le r k c a te g o rie s .
Scheduled w eekly h ours of w ork varied somewhat among
a rea s studied with the low est w eekly h ours found in New Y ork City.
A cco rd in g ly , tabulations based on average hourly rates would in di­
cate somewhat d ifferen t pay relation sh ip s. 1
2
B ased on a ll-in d u stry avera g es fo r six sk illed maintenance
tra d e s, C hicago and D etroit w o r k e r s 1 h ourly pay was 110 percen t of
the New Y ork C ity le v e l (table 5). San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d at 108 p e r ­
cent ranked third with L os A n geles and P ortland tied fo r fourth at
106 p e rce n t.
T hree other m idw estern a rea s and N ew a rk -J ersey
C ity had pay rela tiv es o f 103-104 fo r these skilled w o rk e rs.
The
low est area pay r e la tiv e —84 p ercen t in P ro v id e n ce —was about 5 points
below those re c o r d e d in the fou r a rea s studied in the South.
Pay r e la tiv e s fo r cu stodial w o rk e rs (guards, ja n itors, ja n i­
t r e s s e s , and w atchm en) ranged fro m 115 p ercen t in San F r a n c is c o Oakland to 59 p ercen t in New O rlean s.
N e w a rk -J e rse y City in the
N ortheast, C hicago, D etroit, and M ilwaukee in the M iddle West, and
L o s A ngeles and P ortland in the F a r West held a pay position in ter­
m ediate betw een New Y ork City and San F r a n c is c o .

1
2
A verag e w eekly h ours fo r sten ograp h ers, fo r exam ple, w ere
1
1
The o ffic e o ccu p a tion s co v e re d 5 m en’ s and 13 w om en 1s jo b s ,
as fo llo w s: New Y ork C ity—36 h ou rs; N ew a rk -J ersey C ity and P h ila­
and the plant jo b s in cluded 6 maintenance trades and 4 cu stod ial and
delphia—38 h ours; San F ra n cisco-O a k la n d —3 8 .5 h ours; and all oth ers—
7 m a te ria l-m o v e m e n t jo b s , a ll o f which w ere m en1s occu pation s e x ­
fr o m 39 to 40 h ours.
cept for ja n it r e s s e s in the cu stod ial group.
409983 0 - 5 6 - 3




30
The m easu rem en t o f in tera rea wage d iffe r e n c e s fo r m a te r ia lm ovem ent jo b s was based on a v era g es (and em ploym ent) fo r fo rk lift
o p e ra to rs , m ateria l-h a n d lin g la b o r e r s , o r d e r fille r s , shipping p a ck e rs,
shipping and rece iv in g c le r k s , and tr u c k d r iv e r s . W ork ers in th ese
jo b s gen erally earn m o re than cu stod ial w o rk e rs but le s s than the
sk illed m aintenance w o r k e r s . A s in the c a s e o f the cu stodial group,
San F ra n cisco-O a k la n d ranked highest and New O rleans low est with
115 and 68 p erce n t o f New Y ork City pay, re sp e c tiv e ly .

the maintenance tra d e s, som e o f the in tera rea variation in pay is
attributable to the fa ct that som e fir m s pay the ty p ica lly higher co n ­
struction industry rates fo r at le a s t som e o f th eir m aintenance
w o r k e r s.
V ariation among in d u stries and c it ie s in the p ro p o rtio n s
paid con stru ction rates is a ls o a fa c to r in d eterm in in g pay re la tio n ­
ships between manufacturing and nonm anufacturing in individual c it ie s .

Industry G ro u p s. —E xcept fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s, as shown below ,
m axim um wage d iffe r e n c e s am ong a re a s w ere g rea ter in nonm anufac­
turing than in m anufacturing.

C om p arison s o f m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing pay
le v e ls within la b or m arkets showed a con sisten t wage advantage fo r
o ffic e and custodial w ork ers in m anufacturing, w h ereas m aintenance
and m a teria l-m ov em en t w o rk e rs in a m a jo rity o f a re a s had h igh er
earnings in nonm anufacturing. P ay le v e ls in nonm anufacturing in du s­
tr ie s a re ex p re sse d as p e rcen ta g es o f m anufacturing pay in table 6.

P ercen ta g e d iffe re n ce between
highest and low est a rea re la tiv es
Job group
O ffice w o r k e r s ___________
Plant w o rk e rs ____________
M a in te n a n ce ___________
C u s t o d ia l_______________
M ateria l m ovem ent ___

M anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

32
50
35
51
65

27
66
50
108
77

The sm a lle r d eg ree o f wage d is p e rsio n am ong m ark ets in
m anufacturing is b e lie v e d to be accounted fo r in part by the fa ct
that wage stru ctu res in som e m anufacturing in d u stries, notably tr a n s ­
portation -equ ip m en t p r o d u c e r s , a re la r g e ly industry orien ted and a re
not establish ed on an a r e a -b y -a r e a b a s is .
E xcluding the 4 a re a s in the South and the New England a rea
(P rov id en ce), the m axim um wage d iffe r e n c e s among the 12 other a re a s
ranged fr o m 16 p e rce n t fo r m aintenance w o rk e rs in m anufacturing to
36 p ercen t fo r cu stod ia l w o rk e rs in nonm anufacturing. E stim ates fo r
other jo b -in d u stry ca te g o r ie s fe ll in the 2 0 - to 24-point range.
P ay rela tion sh ip s shown separately fo r m anufacturing and
nonm anufacturing in ta b les 4 and 5 d iffe re d , fo r som e c it ie s , fr o m
the relation sh ip s based on a ll-in d u stry a v era g es fo r jo b s studied.
One o f the m o re striking d iffe r e n c e s was noted in the rela tiv e pay
p osition o f cu stod ia l w o rk e rs in D etroit.
In m anufacturing, c u s to ­
dial w o rk e rs in D etroit w ere the highest paid among the 17 a r e a s —
averagin g 21 p ercen t m o re than in New Y ork C ity; in the nonmanu­
facturing com p a riso n , h ow ever, D etroit held eighth p osition with pay
equaling 91 p erce n t o f the New Y ork C ity pay le v e l. In the ca se o f




In tra -a rea C om p a rison s

O ffice w ork er a v era g es fo r nonm anufacturing ranged fr o m
88 p ercen t (D allas) to 98 p ercen t (P ortlan d ) o f pay fo r com p a ra b le
w ork in manufacturing. The lo w e r sa la ry le v e l in nonm anufacturing
was o ffse t in m ost a re a s, h ow ever, by sh o rte r w ork w eek s. 1
3
C u stod ia l-job pay showed the g rea test d iffe r e n c e s betw een
manufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. In the fou r southern
a re a s and in D enver, D etroit, M ilw aukee, and St. L ou is, cu stod ial
w o rk e rs in nonmanufacturing av era g ed fo u r -fifth s o r le s s than th eir
counterparts in m anufacturing. The sm a llest d iffe r e n c e s (4 p e r c e n t­
age points) w ere found in New Y ork C ity and P ro v id e n ce .
Skilled maintenance w o r k e r s 1 pay d iffe r e d betw een m an u fac­
turing and nonm anufacturing by 5 points or le s s in 14 a r e a s , higher
a v e ra g e s being r e co rd e d in nonm anufacturing in 10 of th ese a re a s .
Nonmanufacturing pay le v e ls in D allas and M em phis w e re 92 and
88 percen t, re sp e ctiv e ly , o f m anufacturing p ay. C h icag o m aintenance
w o rk e rs averaged 12 p ercen t m o r e in nonm anufacturing.
M a teria l-m ovem en t jo b pay a ls o d iffe r e d (between the broad
industry groups) by only a few p ercen ta g e p oin ts in m ost a r e a s . The
g rea test d iffe re n ce s w ere noted in D allas and P ro v id e n ce .

1
3
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls fo r w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs am ong
5 industry d ivision s within nonm anufacturing a re p resen ted in Wage
D ifferen ces and E stablishm ent P r a c t ic e s , 17 L abor M ark ets, 195354, BLS Bull. 1173.

W age

D iffe r e n c e s

A m ong

L abor

M a rk ets

31

Table 4: Interarea pay comparisons, office workers
(Relative pay levels for o ffice w orkers in 17 labor m arkets by industry division and sex, winter 1955-56)
(New York City s 100)
A ll industries
Labor m arket

Men
and
women

Northeast;
N ew a rk-J ersey C ity _
New Y ork C i t y ___________________________
Philadelphia
P roviden ce ____________ ________________

Men

98

89
84

Women

107
98

South:
Atlanta
Dallas _
_
_ _
Memphis _________________________________
New O rleans
______ ___

90
89
83
80

94
95

118
107

11
1

103
104
93

107
95

105

93

91
106
99
104

92

100

95
105

100

91
89
85
83

99
99
103
91

90
87
82
82

110

103
99

106
93
87
91

101

93

109
118
106
97
105

92
105
96
108

110
107
111

92
105
94
107

91
104
99

88

101

94

96

100

82

89
81
92
94
84
87

102

90
105
97
103

96

108

100
86

103
103
97
91

87

Women

Men

97

100

98
96

86

88

112
109
110

94

100

90
82

Men
and
women

Women

105

95

82

Nonmanufacturing

Men

100

100
11
0
11
0

104
106
94
90
94

F a r West:
Denver __________________________________
L os A n geles-L on g Beach _______________
Portland _________________________________
San F ran cisco-O aklan d
__ _

Men
and
women

100
88

102

91
90
85
81

Middle West:
C h i c a g o ___ ___
Detroit _____
_____
Milwaukee _______________________________
M inneapolis-St. Paul _
St. L o u i s _________________________________

97

10
0

100

Manufacturing

104

85
79

115
103

90
89
93

88
88

100
102

91

96
113

90
103
98

110

102

101

108

Table 5 Interarea pay comparisons, plant workers
**
(Relative pay levels for plant w orkers in indirect jobs in 17 labor m arkets by industry division and work ca tegory, winter 1955-56)

Labor m arket

N ortheast:
N ew a rk -J ersey C i t y _____________________
New Y ork C i t y ___________________________
Philadelphia _____________________________
P roviden ce ______________________________
South:
Atlanta
-------------------------------------------------D a lla s ____________________________________
Memphis _________________________________
New O rleans -------------------------------------------Middle West:
C h ic a g o _____________________________ ___
D e t r o it ___________________________________
Milwaukee -----------------------------------------------M inneapolis-St. P a u l -----------------------------St. L o u i s -------------------------------------------------F ar West:
Denver
-------------------------------------------------L os A n geles-L on g B e a c h ________________
P o rtla n d _________________________________
San F rancisco-O akland ________________




Custodial

M aterial
movem ent

no

Maintenance,
custodial,
Maintenance
and
mate rial
m ovement
103

Custodial

107

Maintenance,
custodial,
M aterial
Maintenance
and
movem ent
m aterial
movement
114

106

107

Custodial

100
100
86
86

Material
movement

108

107

104

100

100

100
99
86

100

99
84

100
94
86

100

96
85

100
95
88

100
102
86

81
79
76
70

90
89
90
89

77
75
72
59

78
77
73

81
84
78
76

89
89

87
85
81
80

74
81
71
69

80
74
72

94
84
80
91

68
66
62

80
74
73

53

66

106
no
104

106

103
109

104

107

102

120

104
91

106
102
100

105
106
106
104

96

112
105
102
101

104
108

102
100

no
no
103
103
104

94
107
106
113

97
106
106
108

92
106
106
115

94
107
106
115

94
107
107
114

100

100

105

Nonmanufactur ing

Manufa ctur ing

A ll industries
Maintenance,
custodial,
Maintenance
and
m aterial
movement

112
102
100

96
85

68

109
97
83

97
80

88

87

121

101
100
102

102

93
103

101
112

102
106

107
106

113
119

96
82

109
105

100
100
92
106
106
114

68
108
103

100
102
98

93
108
105
113

109
103
108
107
99

111
109
107

86

93
81
83

101
98
110

100
96
91

102
95
109
108
117

32




Table 6: Nonmanufacturing and manufacturing pay comparisons
(Pay levels in nonmanufacturing industries as percentages o f manufacturing pay levels by job group, 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56)
_____________________

(Manufaxturin^^

Labor m arket

Office
w orkers

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey City ---------------------------------YnrIc City
_
_________ _
Philadelphia ------------- -----------------------------Providen ce -----------------------------------------------South:
Atlanta

________

_____

.

___ . . .

_______
^X*»pr^pViis
Or 1ps n a
Middle West:
ntii ra go

______ _____________

.

___

___

_____ _______________
___________ ____ _____________

Milwaukee
_________ _____ _
-_
Minneapolis —
St. Paul
______ _________
fit . Tjoni s
_ ________ _
Far W est:
-

_ — ...r T ,r r r « .--

X 08 A n g f R ^ a r V i
j
p n rfl and
_______ _
San Franc is co-O akland
_______ _

_
_

area and job^roug^_J_00)__________
Plant w orkers in indirect jobs
Maintenance,
custodial,
and
m aterial
movement

Maintenance

Custodial

M aterial
m ovem ent

96
94
90
94

94
98
95
104

101
97
102
103

90
96
84
96

94
99
98
110

92
88
93
90

96
87
90
88

102
92
88
101

75
75
74
64

107
91
101
95

96
89
90
95
94

102
89
93
98
94

112
98
99
105
101

93
72
77
84
76

102
96
99
103
101

93
93
98
89

96
98
96
97

102
105
103
98

79
87
84
89

102
102
100
101

33
Occupational Wage Relationships

The av era g e establish m en t pays its skilled m aintenance men
fr o m 35 to 45 p e rce n t m o r e than it pays its ja n ito rs.
Men o ffic e
w o rk e rs g e n era lly r e c e iv e d le s s than the skilled maintenance w o rk e rs
and pay fo r m o st w om en 1s o ffic e occupations ranked below that fo r
m ate rial-h an d lin g la b o r e r s . 1
4 (See table 7 .)
Skill d iffe re n tia ls w e re sm a lle r in the manufacturing indus­
t r ie s than am ong the nonm anufacturing d iv ision s included in the study.
The s e r v ic e and re ta il trad e d iv isio n s had the highest pay d iffe re n tia ls.
A m ong a re a s studied, the greatest wage d iffe re n tia ls w ere
found in the fou r southern a r e a s . D iffe re n ce s in pay betw een skilled
and u nskilled w o rk e rs w e re gen erally sm allest in the W est C oast
a re a s and som e o f the M iddle W est a re a s (table 8).
The lo n g -te r m tren d tow ard narrow ing o f skill d ifferen tia ls
has le v e le d o ff te m p o r a r ily , at lea st, with skilled manual w o rk e rs,
o ffic e w o rk e rs , and u n skilled w o rk e rs maintaining th eir rela tive pay
p o sitio n in the past 3 y e a r s .
M ethod o f M easu rem en t
O ccu pational a v e ra g e s obtained in a wage su rvey a re o b ­
tained fr o m ra tes o f pay that com m only d iffe r among in du stries and
am ong establish m en ts in the same industry.
Owing to d iffe r e n c e s
in occu p ation al staffing req u irem en ts, individual establishm ents m ay
be re p re se n te d in varyin g p ro p o rtio n s in a verages com puted fo r the
o ccu p a tion s studied. B e ca u se of these fa c to r s , the pay relation sh ip
obtainable fr o m a v e ra g e s m ay fa il to re fle c t a ccu ra tely the wage
sp rea d o r d ifferen tia l m aintained among jo b s in individual esta b lish ­
m en ts.
It is fo r this r e a so n that exam ination is made h ere of wage
rela tion sh ip s found in individual establish m en ts.
A s in a s im ila r study made in 1953, the average hourly e a rn ­
ings fo r m en ja n ito rs in each establishm ent was used as a base
(100). 1
5 A v e ra g e h ou rly earn in gs fo r each other occu pation studied
in that establish m en t w e re con verted to a percen tage o f that b a se .
J an itors w ere se le cte d b e ca u se they a re em ployed in m ost e sta b lish ­
m ents and in g re a te r num ber than m ost of the other jo b s studied. 1
6
B eca u se o f th eir p o sitio n near the bottom of the wage sca le , the
p ercen ta g e d iffe re n tia ls betw een them and higher paying jo b s can be
rea d ily obtained by su btracting 100 fr o m the p ercen ta g es shown in
the ta b les.
1 See appendix B fo r d e scrip tio n s o f jo b s co v e re d in the study.
4
1 See Wages and R elated B en efits, 20 L abor M ark ets, 1952-53,
5
BLS B ull. 1116.
16 A p p rox im a tely th re e -fo u rth s o f the m o re than 4, 000 e sta b lish ­
m ents studied em p loyed m en ja n ito rs.
These establishm ents w ere
a p p rox im ately even ly divided between m anufacturing and nonm anufac­
turing in d u stries.



T o obtain a b a sis o f com p a rison fo r each a rea and industry
group, the m edian o r m idpoint in an a rra y o f establishm ent rela tives
fo r the sam e occu pation was se lected .
Indications of the variation
in w a g e-settin g p r a c tic e s am ong establish m en ts a re p rovid ed in som e
of the accom pan yin g tables in the fo r m o f M iddle ra n g e s "— the ce n ­
m
tra l part of the a r r a y excluding the upper and lo w e r fourths of the
esta b lish m en ts. Since co m p a rison s w ere m ade only in establishm ents
that em p loyed m en ja n ito rs and w ork ers in at lea st one o f the other
jo b s used in the study, the num ber of establish m en ts involved varied
som ewhat am ong the jo b p a irin g s.
The 1953 study was lim ited to se le cte d plant occu pation s in
the m anufacturing and p u blic u tilities in d u stries. This study attem pts
to broad en the exam ination to other industry groups and a lso to make
o b serv a tion s on the relation sh ip of o ffic e jo b s to the manual jo b s .
Plant Jobs
T o o l and die m a k ers, the highest paid manual w ork ers studied,
averaged 56 p e rce n t above the jan itor rate in this la test study. The
m edian wage d iffe re n tia ls fo r oth er sk illed m aintenance w ork e rs ranged
fr o m 36 p e rce n t fo r pain ters and m illw righ ts to 48 p ercen t fo r plum b­
ers.
M edian d iffe re n tia ls fo r m aintenance ca rp e n te rs, m ach in ists,
and e le c tr ic ia n s w ere 42, 45, and 46 p ercen t, re sp e ctiv e ly . O ilers
and m aintenance h e lp e r s 1 rates averag ed 14 p ercen t above jan itor
rates in these sam e establish m en ts.
Am ong the cu stodial and m a teria l-m ov em en t jo b s studied,
la b o r e r s and guards avera g ed fr o m 6 to 8 p ercen t m o re than ja n itors;
tr u ck d riv e rs fr o m 19 to 32 p ercen t, depending on type o f truck;
o r d e r fille r s , 11 p e rce n t. Shipping c le rk s held a higher position in
the wage sca le than re ce iv in g cle rk s (26, com p a red with a 2 1 -p ercen t
d ifferen tia l o v e r ja n ito r pay).
Watchmen a vera ged 1 p ercen t m o re than ja n ito rs . Pay fo r
wom en ja n ito rs and elev a tor o p e ra to rs was about 7 p ercen t below men
ja n ito r s .
A s m ight be exp ected , the sm allest variation s in relative
p osition within a jo b as m ea su red by the m iddle range 1 was found
7
am ong the lo w e r paid jo b s such as eleva tor o p e ra to rs, watchmen,
guards, o ile r s , la b o r e r s , and p a ck e rs.
G reatest variation s w ere
found in the h igh er paid jo b s and p a rticu la rly am ong those where
sk ill o r r e sp o n sib ility am ong individual jo b s have con sid era b le d i­
v e r sity , such as stationary e n g in eers, ca rp e n te rs, and pain ters.
G rea ter u n iform ity in pay relation sh ip s was noted in the
m anufacturing d iv isio n than in any of the nonm anufacturing d iv ision s.
17
The m iddle range as used h ere is the cen tra l part of the
a rra y , excluding the upper and low er fourths of the establish m en ts.

34
O ffice Jobs
P ay fo r only one o f the m e n ^ o ffic e jo b s studied was c o m ­
parable to skilled m aintenance w o r k e r s . A ccounting c le r k s (c la ss A )
averaged 37 p ercen t above the ja n itor ra te — the pay p osition of auto­
m otive m ech a n ics, p a in ters, and p ip e fitte rs.
P a y r o ll c le r k s and
tabulating-m achine o p e ra to rs g en era lly ranked with tr u ck d riv e rs and
firem en .
S tenographers shared the sam e com p a ra tive pay p osition
with mate rial-h an dlin g la b o r e r s ; typists (c la ss A ) and C om ptom eter
o p e ra to rs w ere paid about the sam e as watchm en and ja n ito rs.
Routine copy typists* (c la s s B ) and d u plicatin g-m ach in e operators*
pay ranked slightly below that fo r w om en elev a tor o p e ra to rs and
ja n itr e s s e s .
The d ifferen tia ls fo r the men*s jo b s w ere ty p ica lly 10 to
20 p ercen tage points higher than the sam e c la s s ific a tio n fo r w om en.
The only exception was fo r the o ffic e boys* and o ffic e girls* c la s s i­
fica tion .
Both w e re n ea rly 20 p ercen t below the ja n itor rate and
the girls* d ifferen tia l was often higher than the b o y s 1. Am ong the
fa cto rs that m ay influence the indicated pay p osition of mien and
wom en in the sam e jo b cla s s ific a tio n a re d iffe r e n c e s in length o f
se r v ic e o r e x p e rie n ce , p o s s ib le variation in duties and r e sp o n si­
b ilitie s, as w ell as d iffe r e n c e s in the establish m en ts w here they
are em ployed.
Industry D iffe re n ce s
Although the manual jo b s studied w ere se le cte d b ecau se they
are found in a variety o f in d u strie s , th eir o c c u r r e n c e rate is often
m uch higher in the m anufacturing establish m en ts than in the nonmanu­
facturing in d u stries within the scop e o f the study.
F o r exam ple,
tool and die m ak ers and m illw rig h ts a re gen era lly found only in
m anufacturing.
E leva tor o p e r a to r s , on the other hand, w ere m o re
often rep orted in nonm anufacturing esta b lish m en ts.
Skill d ifferen tia ls in nonm anufacturing establish m en ts w ere
alm ost con sisten tly g rea ter than in m anufacturing.
The only e x ­
cep tion s among the manual jo b s studied w e re the three w om en 's o c ­
cupations which cam e n ea rer to the ja n ito r a v era g e in m anufacturing
plants.
Am ong the skilled m aintenance jo b s , the d iffe re n tia ls in
nonm anufacturing w ere g en era lly 10 to 20 points g re a te r and among
other m aintenance jo b s gen era lly 5 to 10 points la r g e r .
Although
skill d ifferen tia ls w ere g re a te r in nonm anufacturing, the actual le v e ls
o f w ages w ere g en era lly higher in m anufacturing, e s p e c ia lly fo r the
unskilled occu p a tion s.
A m ong the nonm anufacturing in d u stries the la r g e st d iffe re n ­
tials w ere found in the reta il and s e r v ic e d iv isio n s, with the fo r m e r
gen erally having the la r g e r d iffe re n tia ls of the tw o.
D ifferen tia ls
in w h olesale trade and public u tilities w e re a lso g e n era lly la r g e r
than in m anufacturing but usually by only a few points.



The d ifferen tia ls in m anufacturing in d u stries fo r o ffic e w o r k ­
e r s w ere a lso con sistently sm a lle r than th ose in each of the nonmianuf a cturing industry d iv isio n s.
The g rea test d iffe re n tia ls fo r
o ffic e w ork ers in nonm anufacturing w ere gen era lly found in the s e r v ic e
d iv ision s follow ed by finance and reta il tra d e. D ifferen tia ls fo r o ffic e
w o rk e rs in public u tilities and w h olesa le trad e w ere la r g e r than in
m anufacturing and to a g rea ter d e g re e than they w ere fo r manual
w o rk e rs.
The 1953 study showed that the size of establish m en t in te rm s
o f em ploym ent had no con sisten t e ffe ct on sk ill d iffe re n tia ls, but
con sid era b le variation in wage d iffe re n tia ls w as noted am ong m anu­
facturing in d u stries. L a rg er than a v era ge d iffe re n tia ls w ere found in
the new spaper, m alt liq u or, p ap erb oa rd con tain er, and b a s ic steel
in d u stries.
Sm all d ifferen tial in d u stries w ere in d u strial ch e m ica ls ,
paper, a u tom obiles, and p etroleu m refin in g.
M anufacturing in d u s­
tr ie s with the least variation in pay d iffe re n tia ls am ong e sta b lish ­
m ents w ere au tom obiles, m eatpacking, and cotton te x tile s .
Widest
ranges w ere found in m alt liq u o rs , n ew sp ap ers, and drugs and m e d i­
cine in du stries. Although no co m p a riso n s w ere m ade in the cu rren t
study, it is believed that this b a sic pattern rem ain s la rg e ly unchanged.
R egion al D ifferential P atterns
The d ifferen tia ls fo r plant w o rk e rs did not vary g reatly from
one region to another except in the South w h ere the d iffe re n tia ls fo r
skilled w ork ers w ere much g re a te r. A co m p a riso n o f a v era ge h ourly
earnings by occupation, h ow ever, in d ica tes that the la r g e r d ifferen tia l
is tra cea b le to the low er rates paid in the South to u n skilled w o rk e rs .
P ay fo r skilled w o rk e rs in the South com p a red fa vora b ly with that of
w o rk e rs in com parable jo b s in som e of the n orth ern a re a s .
Sm allest d ifferen tials w ere fa irly con sisten tly found in the
w estern areas fo r skilled m aintenance jo b s .
D ifferen tia ls in the
cu stodial and mate ria l-m o v em en t jo b s w ere quite u n iform in a ll a re a s
except fo r the se m ic le r ic a l types o f jo b s such as shipping and r e ­
ceiving c le r k s .
In these c a te g o r ie s , the southern a re a s again r e ­
fle cte d the greatest d iffe ren tia ls.
Outside of the fou r southern a r e a s , the m edian d ifferen tia ls
fo r o ffic e w ork ers in the other a re a s w e re fa ir ly c lo s e to the m edians
fo r the 17 a rea s com bined.
The southern a re a d ifferen tia ls w ere
con sistently la r g e r , with the la rg e s t d iffe re n tia ls found in New O rleans
and next la rg e st gen erally in D allas.
Sm allest d ifferen tials fo r o ffic e w ork w e re found in the M il­
waukee and M inneapolis-S t. Paul a r e a s follow ed c lo s e ly by San F ra n ­
c is c o and Portland. Other a re a s with re la tiv e ly sm all d iffe re n tia ls
w ere D etroit and N e w a rk -J ersey C ity.
The only citie s ou tside of
the South with d ifferen tia ls above a v era g e w ere the New Y ork C ity
and Denver a re a s.
The other a r e a s , P ro v id e n ce , P hiladelph ia,
C hicago, St. L ou is, and L os A n g e le s -L o n g B each gen era lly had d if­
fe re n tia ls v ery c lo s e to the 1 7 -a rea m ed ian s.

35
No con sisten t rela tion sh ip was found between le v e ls of w ages
and the amount o f sk ill d iffe re n tia l.
P rov id en ce, with the low est
wage le v e ls o f the 13 a r e a s outside of the South, had am ong the
sm a lle st d iffe re n tia ls .
The southern a re a s, a ll re la tiv e ly low in
g en era l wage le v e ls had the la rg e st d ifferen tia ls.
San F r a n c is c o Oakland and D etroit, both high in wage le v e ls , had re la tiv e ly sm all
d iffe re n tia ls w h ereas L o s A n g e le s and C hicago, which a ls o rank among
the high wage a r e a s , had d iffe re n tia ls gen erally approxim ating those
fo r the 17 a re a s com b in ed .
L o n g -T e r m T ren d
E a r lie r B ureau studies on occupational wage rela tion sh ip s 1
8
have noted the tren d o f n arrow ing skill d ifferen tia ls fr o m 105 p e r ­
cent (of the u n skilled w o r k e r s rate) in 1907 to 37 p e rce n t in 1953.
Skill d iffe re n tia ls in the p ast have tended to narrow during p e rio d s
o f full em ploym ent and to widen during p e rio d s o f unem ploym ent. The
1953 study in dicated that the narrow ing trend had slow ed to som e
extent and a ls o noted that m o r e labor-m an agem en t n egotiations w ere
re co g n izin g the p ro b le m o f maintaining skill d ifferen tia ls. A recen t
a n a ly sis o f wage settlem en ts made by the B u re a u 1 indicated that
9

18 Ibid., and O ccu pational Wage D iffe re n tia ls , 1907-1947, Monthly
L a b or R eview , August 1948 (p. 127).
1 C u rren t Wage D evelopm en ts, No. 98, F ebruary 1956.
9




about o n e -th ird o f the settlem ents s p e cifica lly dealt with the m ain­
tenance o f skill d iffe re n tia ls and these a greem en ts co v e re d even a
higher p rop ortion of w o rk e rs (40 p ercen t). T his cu rren t study in di­
ca tes that during the past 3 y e a r s the d iffe re n tia ls, w here com p a rison s
p rov ed fe a s ib le , have rem ained about the sam e. A figu re com parable
to the 1953 study estim ate o f a 37-p e rce n t sk ill d ifferen tia l fo r skilled
m aintenance w o r k e r s in m anufacturing w as com puted cu rren tly to be
38 p e rce n t. 20
A s pointed out in p re v io u s re p o rts , the red u ction s in skill d if­
fe re n tia ls have p r im a r ily resu lted fr o m the e m erg en ce of the industrialtype union, the w id esp rea d p r a ctice o f granting flat ce n ts -p e r-h o u r
in c r e a s e s during the p ostw ar p eriod rather than percen tage wage
in c r e a s e s , and m inim u m -w age le g isla tio n .
Other fa cto rs such as
plant m ech an ization, in c r e a s e d m inim um livin g c o s ts , and greater
educational opportunities have a lso contributed to the trend. T here
is a lso som e eviden ce that part of the sk ills o f the top manual jo b s
have been tra n sfe r r e d to sa la ried tech n ician s, and that broad a ll­
round skill req u irem en ts have been redu ced by sp ecialization .
The e ffe c t of som e o f the above fa cto rs m ay have been sm all,
but a ll have contributed to the co m p re s s io n in wage stru ctu res as r e ­
fle cte d in inter jo b pay r e la tiv e s.
20
B ased on a co m p a rison of 12 jo b s in m anufacturing estab­
lish m en ts in 15 a re a s that w ere included in both su rv eys.

36

C h art 3 :

PAY

R E L A T IO N S H IP S

BETW EEN

SELECTED

O C C U P A T IO N S

AND

MEN

J A N I T O R S IN I N D I V I D U A L

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S

ALL INDUSTRIES, 17 LABOR MARKETS
M e n J a n ito rss lO O

P la n t W o r k e r s
O C P T NA D S X
C U A IO N E

M D N P R E TA E A D M D R N EW IN W IC O E A O ESTABLISH EN F L
E IA E C N G N ID LE A G ITH
H H N -H LF F
M TS E L

MD N
E IA

MEN
Tool and die makers
Engineers, stationary
Electricians, maintenance
Machinists, maintenance
Carpenters, maintenance
Machine-tool operators, tool'room
Mechanics, maintenance
Mechanics, automotive ( maintenance)
Pipefitters, maintenance
Painters, maintenance
Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Shipping clerks
Truckdrivers, medium (lj to and including 4 tons)
Firemen, stationary boiler
Receiving clerks
Truckdrivers, light (under l£ tons)
Helpers, trades (maintenance)
Truckers, power (forklift)
Order fillers
Packers, shipping
Guards
Laborers, material handling
Watchmen
Elevator operators, passenger
W OMEN
Packers, shipping
Elevator operators, passenger
Janitors, porters, and cleaners

156
148
146
145
142
142
140
139
137
136
132
126
123
123
121
119
114
113
11
1
109
108
106
101
100
_^ _1 ----------------- |
-----------------1--------------- ---------------- 1
---------------- 1
-----------------1
---------------- 1
---------------- 1
---------------- 1
-----------------1
-----------------1

r

=

W OMEN
Secretaries
Clerks, accounting, class A
Tabulating-machine operators
Stenographers, general
Clerks, accounting, class B
Switchboard operators
Typists, class A
Comptometer operators
Key-punch operators
Typists, class B
Office girls
U
NITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B R A O L B RS A IS IC
UE U F A O T T T S




i

|

|

3
O ffic e

MEN
Clerks, accounting, class A
Clerks, order
Tabulating-machine operators
Clerks, accounting, class B
Office boys

i

W ork ers

---------------- 1
---------------- ( --------------- 1
---------------- 1
---------------------------- 1
---------------------------------------------------1
-------------------------------------------- 1
------------------

|

|

|

|

37

C h a rt 4 :

PA Y

R E L A T IO N S H IP S B E T W E E N

SELECTED

O C C U P A T IO N S A N D

MEN

J A N IT O R S

IN I N D I V I D U A L E S T A B L I S H M E N T S

MANUFACTURING A N D N O N M A N U FA C TU RIN G , 17 LABOR MARKETS
M e n J a n ito r s * 1 0 0

M a n u fa c tu r in g
M
edian Percentage and M
iddle R
ange W
ithin W O alf of E
hich ne-H
stablishm F
ents ell
O C P T NA D SE
C U A IO N X

MD N
E IA

Electricians, maintenance (men)
Carpenters, maintenance (men)

142
137

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)(men)

135

Clerks, accounting, class A (men)
Painters, maintenance (men)
Secretaries (women)

131
131
124

Receiving clerks (men)

118

Tabulating-machine operators (men)

118

Order fillers (men)

109

Laborers,material handlina (men)

105

Stenographers, general (women)

102

Switchboard operators (women)

101

Comptometer operators (women)

97

lanitors, porters, and cleaners (women)
Typists, class B (women)

95
87

Office girls

81

Office boys

78

Carpenters, maintenance (men)

163

Electricians, maintenance (men) .

160

Painters, maintenance (men)

160

Clerks, accounting, class A (men)

147

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) (men)

146

Secretaries (women)

136

Receiving clerks (men)

126

Tabulating-machine operators (men)

126

Order fillers (men)

114

Laborers, material handling (men)

110

Stenographers, general (women)

109

Comptometer operators (women)

105

Switchboard operators (women)

105

Typists, class B (women)

95

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women)

87

Office boys

85

Office girls

82

U ITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
N
B R A O L B RS A IS IC
UE U F A O T T T S




38
Occupational Wage Relationships
Table 7: Occupational wage relationships by industry division
(Job averages as percentages o f pay fo r men ja n ito rs 1 in 17 areas combined)
Median establishment relative in—
Occupation and sex

Retail
trade

All
industries

Manu­
facturing

Nonmanu­
facturing

Public
utilities *

137
115
129
122
82
121

131
111
129
120
78
118

147
119
130
130
85
126

135
115
127
82
122

140
117
130
128
83
123

152
123
136
131
85
125

159
121
88
129

163
128
134
88
136

102
107
117
105
125
104
104
87
103
112
101

101
103
113
103
121
101
99
84
105
108
97

104
108
121
107
129
107
110
90
100
119
105

102
126
102
125
102
110
89
110
107

104
115
107
128
105
103
85
106
118
103

104
106
124
109
129
106
105
91
95
115
105

122
101
130
107
111
90
123
108

111
130
133
116
141
118
113
98
126
121

89
99
81
129
105
115
104
103
113
102
101
91

88
95
81
124
102
110
101
101
111
99
98
87

93
103
82
136
109
123
105
107
114
104
105
95

90
99
78
131
105
122
102
105
111
100
102
90

91
101
82
129
107
105
104
112
100
102
92

93
106
88
135
112
103
107
118
107
105
97

97
101
81
140
111
127
111
113
116
107
110
95

106
92
147
121
106
115
109
106

197
152
117

193
150
116

222
166
126

149
120

167
126

199
142

121

117

132

132

122

131

Wholesale
trade

Finance **

S ervices

O ffic e cle rica l
Men
C lerk s, accounting, cla ss A ___ ______________ __ ---------C lerks, accounting, cla ss B ------------ ------------ ---~ _
C lerks, o rd er ______________________________________________
C lerk s, payroll - — — __________ -___ ____ ____ ____ O ffice b o y s _________________________________________________
Tabulating-machine o p e r a t o r s ___________________________ _
Women
B ille rs , machine (billing m achine) _
__ ___
__ __ __ _
B ille rs , machine (bookkeeping m a c h in e )__________________
Bookkeeping-m achine op era tors, cla ss A ____________ ___
Bookkeeping-m achine op era tors, cla ss B ________________
C lerk s, accounting, cla ss A _______________
____ __ _
C lerk s, accounting, cla ss B _______________________________
C lerk s, file , cla ss A ______________________________________
_______
C lerks, file , cla ss B _______ — __ _______ —
C lerk s, o r d e r ________ ____ ______ ____ ___
___ __ _
C lerk s, p a y r o ll_______ _______ — „ __
__ _______
Com ptom eter operators ____________________ ______ „ _
Duplicating-m achine operators
(m im eograph o r ditto) __ __ ____ ___
_________ ___ _
Key-punch o p e r a t o r s _______________________________________
Office girls
S ecretaries
S tenographers, general ______________ __ _____
___
Stenographers, technical
__
__ __ ____ _______ __ _
Switchboard operators __
—
__
__ _
— __ __
Switchboard op era tor-recep tion ists ___
T abulating-machine o p e r a t o r s __
___ __
---T ranscribing-m achine op e ra to rs , general _ __ ------- —
T yp ists, cla ss A ________
__
__
__ __
T yp ists, class B ------------------------------------------------------------------

P rofession a l a n d tech n ica l
Men
Draftsmen, leader __________________________________ — ------Draftsm en, s e n i o r _______ __ ____ ____
__ __
Draftsm en, junior ___ __ _____
___
______ __ _

_
173
■

Women
N u rses, industrial (r e g is t e r e d )___

____

___

See footnote at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public utilities
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.




140

137

39

T a b le

7:

O c c u p a t io n a l w a g e

r e la tio n s h ip s

by

in d u s tr y

d iv is io n

- C o n tin u e d

(J o b a v e ra g e s as p e r c e n ta g e o f p a y f o r m e n ja n it o r s 1 in 17 a r e a s co m b in e d )
M edian e s ta b lis h m e n t r e la tiv e in—
O cc u p a tio n and s e x

A ll
in d u stries

M anu­
fa c tu rin g

N onm anu­
fa c tu rin g

P u b lic
u t ilitie s *

W h o le s a le
trad e

R e ta il
trad e

S e r v ic e s

M a in te n a n c e a n d p o w e r p la n t
M en
C a r p e n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ___
E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in ten a n ce
_. . _
________
_
..
E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a r y
F i r e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i l e r _
H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n ce ________
M a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m
___
_
M a c h in is t s , m a in ten a n ce __
....
M e c h a n i c s . a u to m o tiv e (m a in ten a n ce ) _
_____ ...
M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e _______
__ _ .
_
... _
M illw r ig h ts _____ ___
O il e r s _ ____________________
P a in t e r s , m a in ten a n ce
_
..
P i p e f it t e r s , m a in ten a n ce
_
... _
P l u m b e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ____________ _____ _____ _____
S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a in t e n a n c e __
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s _ _ _ _ _
___„ ______ , .

142
146
148
123
114
142
145
139
140
136
114
136
137
148
138
156

137
142
141
122
113
142
145
135
140
136
113
131
137
139
138
156

100
108
106
111
109
121
126
126
119
123
132

101
106
105
109
109
118
124
124
117
120
128

128
113
110
101

93
92
99

163
160
164
128
117

139
146
140
117
no

146
146
146
_
132
160
148
158
147

143
143
139

130
146
141
_
_
_
_

195
201
171
142
127

172
178
185
148
123

137
139

149
158

174
157

_
141
138
140
_

_
_
_
_

187
_
182

177

-

-

-

-

100
111
110
114
no
126
130
129
121
133
139

100
no
115
118
_
120
_
124
119
128
133

109
111
no
123
130
129
112
128
135

100
108
111
121
109
131
133
132
128
144
146

101
no
103

126
111
109
101

135
122
115
101

125
122

137
115

100

101

147
131
118
104

94
95
100

92
87
96

88
104

89
84
96

166

C u s t o d ia l , w a r e h o u s i n g , a n d s h ip p in g
M en
E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r __
...
_ , ,
G u ard s __
____ ______
. _
.
... _________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h an d lin g
_ _
_ ....
O rd e r fille r s
______
____
P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g _______ _____ _____ ________ __ _____ _
R e c e iv in g c le r k s ______ ________________________ ______ __ _
Shipping c le r k s _______ _____ ___________________ ________ _
S hipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s ________
_
r ..... ........
T r u c k d r i v e r s . lig h t (u n d er l 1 ton s) _
/*
T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( lVz to 4 t o n s ) ______________________
T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , t r a il e r type)
T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r than
t r a il e r type) — ------------- ------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift )
_ _ __ _______
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than f o r k lift )
W a tch m en _________________ _____ __ __ __ __ _____ _______

_

123
133
133
139

100

W om en
E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
_
P a c k e r s , sh ippin g _______ _______________

_... .
__________________

T h e se p e r c e n t a g e s sh ow the r e la tio n s h ip betw een a v e r a g e ea rn in gs f o r s e le c t e d j o b s .
e a r n in g s f o r o th e r jo b s w e r e c o n v e r t e d to a p e r c e n ta g e o f that b a s e .
* T r a n s p o r ta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
NOTE:

D a sh es in d ica te in s u ffic ie n t data to w arra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .




91
90

97
90

In e a ch e sta b lis h m e n t stu d ied the a v e r a g e e a rn in g s f o r m en ja n ito r s w as u s e d as a b a s e (100); a v era g e

40

T a b le 8 :

O c c u p a t io n a l w a g e

r e la t i o n s h i p s , a ll in d u s t r ie s b y a r e a

(Job a v e r a g e s a s p e r c e n t a g e s o f pay f o r m en ja n ito r s 1)

O ccu p a tio n

M edian

M id d le
ran ge 2

South

N o rth e a st

T o ta l
17 a r e a s

New*ir k Jersey C ity
M id d le
M edian
ran ge

N ew Y o r k C ity
M edian

M id d le
range

P h ilad elp h ia
M edian

M id dle
range

P r o v id e n c e
M edian

M id dle
range

Atlanta
M edian

M id dle
range

M em p h is

D alla s
M ed ian

M id d le
ra n ge

M edian

M id d le
ran ge

N ew O:rlea n s
M ed ian

M id d le
ran ge

O f c ceia
f i e lrcl
M en
C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s A
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B ,
C le r k s , o r d e r ________________
C le r k s , p a y r o ll ______________
O ffic e b o y s
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s

B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B ___________________________
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B
C le r k s , f il e , c la s s A ________
C le r k s , file , c la s s B ------------C le r k s , p a y r o ll ______________
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ___________________
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g is t e r e d ) ----------O ffic e g i r ls .
S e c r e t a r ie s .
S te n o g r a p h e r s, g e n e r a l --------------------S w itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ----------------------S w itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s --------T y p is t s , c la s s A ______________________
T y p is t s , c la s s B ------------------------ .--------

175
138
144
162
93
152

97
135

1 34 -19 2
1 12 -19 2
1 1 6 -1 7 3
8 8 -1 1 2
106 -15 9

197
139
139
177
90
158

1 4 7 -2 3 4
1 18 -16 6
126 -16 1
14 1 -2 0 0
7 5 -1 0 3
1 29 -19 2

130 -16 9

163

12 6 -1 7 4

150

125 -17 6

1 1 4 -1 4 2
1 2 8 -1 7 0
1 0 6 -1 4 0
1 10 -13 7
9 7 -1 1 2
1 14 -16 5
1 09 -14 3
10 8 -1 3 6
122 -16 6
8 2 -1 1 2
1 33 -18 9
111 -14 1
108 - 140
10 9 -1 4 2
1 2 0 -1 7 8
1 08 -13 9
9 9 -1 2 4

127
144
125
112
104
135
115
109
143
100
146
120
123
112
115
107

10 8 -1 4 4
1 2 8 -1 7 2
1 0 9 -1 5 0
1 02 -13 3
9 6 -1 1 4
1 17 -15 7
104 -12 9
9 8 -1 2 0
1 1 5 -1 8 2
8 9 -1 0 5
1 28 -16 9
1 07 -14 1
105 -14 1
1 03 -13 5
102 - 140
9 4 -1 1 9

132
170
129
125
107
141
124
129
163
100
171
132
126
116
113
112

112-161
134 -19 5
1 11 -16 7
110 -13 7
1 00 -12 2
1 2 4 -1 8 8
10 7 -1 4 3
111 -15 5
1 31 -20 5
8 3 -1 0 6
13 5 -2 1 0
1 15 -16 5
11 0 -1 4 4
1 03 -13 3
103 -14 7
1 00 -12 9

155
161
168
113
114
155
153
150
125
179
144

1 4 0 -2 4 3
1 4 8 -1 9 0
1 45 -26 7
104 -11 9
1 06 -12 9
1 47 -16 5
1 40 -18 6
143-171
1 13 -13 5
1 37 -24 4
14 0 -1 4 8

178
186
210
115
127
150
175
152
114
162
139

1 38 -22 9
1 48 -23 1
1 53 -27 4
109 -16 1
1 0 8 -1 6 0
14 1 -1 8 6
1 40 -20 1
14 1 -2 1 0
1 08 -13 5
1 27 -23 5
1 34 -15 6

1 47 -20 5
12 3 -1 5 9
1 2 5 -1 7 3
14 0 -2 0 0
8 7 -1 1 8
1 2 6 -1 7 8

137
115
129
122
82
121

121-161
101 -13 2
112 -14 6
1 11 -14 0
7 2 -9 3
110-137

125
110
135
116
80
122

108 -14 2
1 02 -12 0
112 -14 5
103 -12 8
6 7 -8 9
103-131

139
116
134
128
80
122

122 -16 4
9 7 -1 3 1
103-151
113-142
7 0 -9 3
106 -13 8

142
119
131
124
77
116

1 25 -16 3
9 6 -1 3 2
108 -15 2
1 09 -14 0
6 8 -9 0
107 -13 2

146
112
80
126

121-177
9 7 -1 3 3
76-8 5
114-139

168
131
142
130
100
132

144 -20 6
114 -15 1
120 -16 0
1 22 -16 3
8 6 -1 0 8
119 -17 2

117

105 -13 6

112

100-123

119

106 -14 0

124

108 -14 5

110

102-126

138

119 -15 7

149

1 4 0 -2 0 8
1 4 1 -1 9 0
1 44 -19 9
11 7 -1 6 1
10 7 -1 3 4
1 37 -19 1
13 8 -1 6 7
13 9 -1 8 0
1 0 8 -1 2 8
1 3 0 -2 2 8

160
131
136
-

105
125
104
104
87
112
101
99
121
81
129
105
104
103
113
101
91

9 2 -1 2 0
1 12 -14 3
9 2 -1 1 9
9 3 -1 1 9
7 7 -9 9
9 9 -1 2 9
9 2 -1 1 4
8 9 -1 1 0
110-135
7 2 -9 2
1 14 -14 8
9 4 -1 2 0
9 5 -1 1 5
9 2 -1 1 8
102 -12 6
9 1 -1 1 3
8 1 -1 0 3

98
119
100
97
80
107
97
94
118
75
124
101
102
104
108
97
87

89 -1 0 9
110 -13 7
9 0 -1 1 0
9 2 -1 0 7
7 4 -8 8
9 6 -1 1 9
9 0 -1 1 1
8 7 -1 0 4
105 -12 9
6 6 -8 7
111-137
9 4 -1 1 1
9 4 -1 1 0
9 4 -1 1 9
9 7 -1 2 1
86 -1 0 1
8 0 -9 7

108
133
109
109
88
123
108
98
133
78
137
108
107
115
117
105
95

9 3 -1 2 7
119-151
9 5 -1 2 5
9 8 -1 2 5
7 7 -9 9
109 -13 8
9 6 -1 2 0
9 0 -1 1 3
122 -14 3
7 1 -8 8
121 -15 4
9 7 -1 2 4
100-119
102 -13 2
1 06 -13 0
9 5 -1 1 8
84 -1 0 9

103
127
101
105
84
114
102
97
122
79
131
104
102
103
109
103
89

8 7 -1 2 2
108-137
9 0 -1 1 9
9 9 -1 2 2
7 5 -9 5
101-133
9 3 -1 1 1
8 9 -1 0 8
111 -13 4
7 2 -9 0
118-153
9 3 -1 1 8
9 4 -1 1 3
9 1 -1 1 8
102 -11 8
9 2 -1 1 3
8 0 -1 0 2

104
124
105
97
84
106
96
97
122
83
129
101
103
100
108
98
91

9 5 -1 1 2
110-143
8 6-112
9 0 -1 1 9
7 8 -9 1
9 2 -1 1 4
87-109
9 0 -1 0 1
111-137
6 9-89
114 -13 8
9 1 -1 1 0
9 5 -1 1 2
9 2 -1 1 2
100-119
87-111
8 4 -1 0 0

119
151
119
120
101
129
120
113
152
97
149
125
120
117
131
120
107

107 -13 2
134 -16 6
106 -13 4
109 -13 5
9 4 -1 1 0
116-149
106-137
106-129
127 -18 4
8 5 -1 0 1
136-179
1 07 -13 8
107 -14 0
103-133
122 -16 0
110 -13 3
9 6 -1 1 9

126
144
120
120
103
135
125
123
152
98
158
121
123
123
139
120
109

142
146
148
123
114
145
139
140
114
136
137
156

131-165
135-165
134-173
114 -13 5
107 -12 5
135 -16 0
129 -15 5
131-154
108-122
127 -16 0
130-147
147 -17 0

138
141
142
124
110
140
134
135
111
130
139
156

129 -15 0
132 -15 3
132-161
115 -13 4
105 -11 8
134 -15 0
128 -14 1
125 -14 4
107-117
119 -13 7
132 -14 6
147-166

142
144
157
124
114
145
132
143
116
136
135
157

131 -16 0
133 -16 4
140-177
114-135
108-124
133 -16 2
125-157
133-159
112-131
126 -15 0
129 -14 8
150 -17 0

143
148
140
120
114
145
138
139
115
135
138
153

131-162
135 -16 4
129 -16 3
112 -12 8
108-122
137-154
131-155
131 -16 2
109 -12 0
127-150
131-147
145-163

140
140
134
118
113
145
125
127
113
131
137
173

128-151
131-156
127-162
112-129
108-125
132 -17 3
110-141
121-140
106-116
118-144
124-143
154 -19 2

168
173
166
117
117
165
154
162
111
157
144

138-211
1 48 -19 6
140 -19 5
100-129
106 -13 3
140 -18 3
138-187
143 -18 0
107 -11 2
138 -18 7
132-175
"

175
159
169
128
120
144
151
152
115
160
162

1 4 7 -1 8 8

108

102 -11 5

107

100 -11 3

105

100-111

106

101 -11 5

105

101 -11 0

119

110 -13 8

no

1 07 -12 6

117

104-121

115

1 0 1 -1 3 6

92
106
109
121
126
119
123

8 3 -9 9
100 -11 5
103 -11 8
112 -14 3
114-143
109-131
114-142

90
106
108
120
119
111
125

8 3-97
101 -11 4
103 -11 6
111 -13 3
110 -14 0
107 -12 2
115 -14 7

89
109
110
121
125
124
135

7 9 -9 6
100 -12 0
103-119
110 -13 8
115 -14 6
115 -15 3
120 -15 3

92
107
112
119
126
123
127

8 2 -1 0 0
101 -11 3
106-129
111-133
117 -14 4
115-141
119-151

95
105
104
122
124
117
117

8 6 -1 0 0
100-112
9 9 -1 1 5
111-137
111 -14 8
110-129
111-159

93
102
106
131
135
109
109

8 3 -9 7
100 -11 0
100-111
116 -15 9
119-159
100-121
101 -13 5

89
106
116
133
134
119
131

8 1 -9 6
1 0 0 -1 1 9
10 9 -1 2 5
1 2 1 -1 4 6
121 -15 1
10 9 -1 3 9
11 4 -1 4 5

91
101
106
124
139
108
112

8 2 -1 0 0
100-109
100-117
115-141
115 -16 4
105 -12 5
106 -12 3

87
104
106
130
136
120
116

7 2 -9 5
9 9 -1 1 3
1 0 0 -1 2 3
116 -16 1
115 -15 3
1 05 -13 8
1 0 7 -1 5 0

132
113
101

1 19 -14 8
108-122
9 5 -1 0 8

146
113
102

130-166
108 -12 0
9 2 -1 0 9

147
121
100

130-165
111 -13 3
9 5 -1 0 7

137
112
102

125-155
107 -12 0
9 7 -1 0 9

125
113
105

116-145
108-129
9 7 -1 0 9

147
110
105

1 32 -16 0
107-119
100-121

118
113
106

11 1 -1 2 3
1 08 -12 5
9 4 -1 1 4

no

132

111 -15 8
104 -11 8
9 9 -1 1 6

125
112
104

1 18 -15 6
104 -11 9
9 7 -1 1 6

Maintenance and powerplant3
C a r p e n te r s , m a in t e n a n c e ----------------------E le c t r ic ia n s , m ain ten a n ce _____________
E n g in e e rs , s t a t io n a r y ----------------------------F ir e m e n , s ta tion a ry b o i l e r ---H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in t e n a n c e ------------M a c h in is ts , m ain ten an ce ----------------------M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in ten a n ce) .
M e c h a n ic s , m a in ten a n ce _______________
O i l e r s ---------------------- --------------------------------P a in t e r s , m a in ten a n ce _________________
P ip e fit t e r s , m ain ten an ce ______________
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s ___________________

-

-

C s o il warehousing, s i p n 3
u t d a,
and h p i g
G uards __________________________
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r s (w om en ) ____________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g __
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g --------------------R e c e iv in g c le r k s -----------------------Shipping c le r k s
T r u c k d r iv e r s , ligh t (under 1 *iz t o n s ) -----T r u c k d r iv e r s , m ed iu m (lYa to 4 to n s )-----T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a il e r ty p e )
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( fo r k lift )
W atchm en ---------------------------

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f table




104

41

T a b l e 8*. O c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e

r e la t i o n s h i p s , a ll in d u s t r ie s b y

(J o b a v e r a g e s a s p e r c e n t a g e s o f pay f o r m e n ja n it o r s

area

- C o n tin u e d

l )

F a r W est

M id d le W est
O cc u p a tio n

C h ic a g o
M edian

M id dle
range

D e tro it
M edian

M iddle
range

M ilw aukee
M edian

M id d le
range

M in n e a p o lis St. P a u l
M id dle
M edian
ran ge

Den\re r

St. L o u is
M edian

M id dle
ra n ge

M edian

M id dle
range

L o s Angj e l e s L on g B ea ch
M id dle
M edian
ran ge

P o r t l and
M edian

M id dle
ran ge

San Frai a c i s c o Oaklcmd
M iddle
M edian
range

O f c ceia
f i e lrcl
M en
C le r k s ,
C le r k s ,
C le r k s ,
C le r k s ,

a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A -----------------a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ____________
o r d e r __________________ _________
p a y r o l l ____________________________

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s __________

132
109
129
122
84
118

121-149
9 8 -1 2 2
114-145
113-136
7 4 -9 4
106-137

135
113
134
114
79
114

125-154
104-134
111-164
9 9 -1 3 6
7 0 -8 6
109-134

130
110
111
123
74
121

118-147
9 5 -1 1 9
102-133
1 06 -13 0
6 5 -8 6
109-129

123
103
121
116
73
111

1 11 -14 8
9 2 -1 1 7
110 -13 3
9 6 -1 3 3
6 6 -8 2
9 7 -1 2 7

141
113
128
118
79
122

113

104-129

114

97 -1 3 9

107

9 8 -1 1 8

102

9 6 -1 1 3

-

128
110
129
120
89
127

113-131
9 1 -1 1 5
114 -12 8
111-131
7 4 -8 6
110-125

82
123

7 5 -8 9
116-131

111 -13 2

107

1 00 -11 8

105

98 -1 2 1

1 01 -11 8
113 -13 4
9 8 -1 1 6
9 9 -1 1 8
8 2 -9 5
107-129
9 7 -1 1 4
9 9 -1 1 2
115 -13 2
7 4 -9 1
1 13 -14 0
100 -11 5
100 -11 3
9 4 -1 1 1
112-134
9 5 -1 0 8
8 6 -9 9

106
126
97

9 4 -1 1 4
111 -13 2
8 4 -1 0 6

99
114
92
103
83
102
92
95
113
81
118
100
96
94
109
94
85

9 0 -1 1 5
105-126
8 4 -107
9 4 -1 1 4
7 8 -8 9
9 3 -1 1 4
8 8-102
8 7-105
107-124
7 1 -8 7
107-126
9 1 -1 0 8
8 9 -106
82 -1 0 6
103-117
8 7 -105
7 8 -9 1

130-173
131-155
127-156
114-133
109-121
130-151
132-153
126-139
109 -11 8
125-162
126-142
145-156

139
126
134
121
87
124

117 -16 4
107-147
115-161
102-125
7 6 -1 0 2
110-149

-

119

106 -12 8

118

131 -16 0
1 39 -16 0
133 -16 0
117-139
106-124
138-157
129 -14 8
134-147
1 09 -11 8
130 -16 0
125-147
149-161

126

1 17 -13 8

121
104
122
122
79
116

i 14-142
103-119
111 -14 2
1 13 -13 3
7 8 -9 6
116 -14 0

123 -16 2
102-131
114 -14 6
104 -12 9
7 0 -8 9
108-131

-

128
-

-

113-141
-

W om en
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A __________________________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ___________________________________
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ____________
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ----------------—
C l e r k s , f ile , c la s s A _____________________
C l e r k s , f il e , c la s s B _____________________
C l e r k s , p a y r o ll ___________________________
C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s _________________
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s _____________________
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) ________
O ff ic e g i r ls _______________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s _______________________________
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l -------------------------S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ___________________
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ----T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s __________
T y p is t s , c la s s A __________________________
T y p is t s , c la s s B ----------------------------------------

105
120
103
100
86
109
101
100
120
82
127
103
102
106
114
102
90

9 4 -1 1 7
109-137
9 3 -1 1 5
90 -1 1 1
7 8 -9 4
9 8 -1 2 1
9 3 -1 1 0
9 0 -1 1 2
112-131
7 3 -9 2
113 -14 0
9 4 -1 1 3
94 -1 1 2
9 6 -1 1 6
102-131
9 3 -1 1 1
8 2 -1 0 0

99
121
98
98
83
104
96
93
113
80
123
100
103
98
106
97
86

89-111
110-137
85-111
89 -1 1 3
69-9 2
94 -1 2 2
88-104
85-101
105-133
7 0 -8 8
111-144
9 1-117
9 4 -1 1 5
9 0 -1 1 0
9 9-119
88-109
75-96

91
117
98
93
72
102
90
86
111
69
118
91
93
96
100
90
79

8 4 -1 0 3
106 -12 8
83 -1 0 5
84-9 9
6 7 -8 2
9 3 -1 1 5
8 2 -9 9
7 8 -9 2
103-117
6 3 -8 0
105 -13 6
8 4-101
89 -1 0 2
8 6-107
9 0 -1 0 7
8 5 -9 5
7 1 -8 6

93
111
96
94
78
94
85
117
71
118
94
96
93
101
90
80

8 3 -1 0 3
9 7 -1 2 8
84 -1 0 5
8 5 -1 0 3
6 7 -8 8
7 8 -1 0 5
7 6 -9 7
104 -12 7
6 6 -8 0
105 -13 5
8 6 -1 0 7
8 6 -1 0 3
8 4 -1 0 3
9 1 -1 1 3
7 9 -1 0 0
6 9 -9 1

105
131
103
101
84
107
99
97
114
80
125
103
105
96
120
103
90

9 3 -1 1 7
1 19 -15 0
9 3 -1 1 6
9 2 -1 1 8
7 5 -1 0 0
9 3 -1 2 1
8 8 -1 1 2
8 8 -1 0 6
105-126
6 9 -9 4
111-147
9 2 -1 1 9
9 7 -1 1 5
8 5 -1 0 8
103 -13 3
9 3 -1 1 6
8 0 -9 9

109
118
108
107
95
116
104
103
121
86
131
108
106
101
116
107
94

9 6 -1 2 2
104 -12 8
9 7 -1 2 0
9 4 -1 1 4
83 -1 0 1
1 01 -12 8
9 7 -1 1 5
9 1 -1 1 2
106-132
7 6 -9 4
116 -14 4
9 6 -1 2 3
9 8 -1 1 6
9 2 -1 1 5
112-134
9 5 -1 1 6
8 5 -1 0 2

107
122
104
107
90
115
104
105
123
84
126
106
106
103
120
101
90

145
149
147
127
114
151
138
140
114
136
139
170

134-166
141-171
138 -17 8
116 -14 0
109-126
141-171
129-151
132-156
107-124
130-161
131-152
155 -18 8

137
140
148
123
118
140
133
141
111
134
137
147

131-165
134-150
139-187
114-130
110-129
133-146
125-139
132-144
108-118
128-165
131-140
144-150

136
141
144
123
113
142
133
138
117
133
135
150

130 -14 8
135 -15 3
133-161
115 -13 8
108-119
133 -15 6
127 -14 3
129 -14 4
111-125
126-141
131-143
141-167

147
150
142
127
116
145
134
134
112
153
142
153

131 -18 7
1 38 -18 6
132 -16 7
1 18 -14 3
1 06 -12 0
1 30 -16 0
1 24 -14 6
125 -14 6
106 -12 5
1 29 -18 4
127 -16 5
142 -16 2

144
150
148
124
117
153
136
142
115
134
137
174

130 -16 0
135 -16 0
137-161
116-139
108 -13 2
1 34 -16 4
128 -15 4
132-159
109 -12 6
127 -14 6
1 28 -14 8
169 -18 8

138
139
156
127
113
139
139
131

129 -17 6
130-157
137-169
110 -13 6
103-125
130-147
122 -15 8
124-135

136

121-169

142
147
140
127
111
147
137
141
113
137
137
156

-

-

84
105
98
92
115
80
117
97
96
93
112
94
82

7 6 -9 6
9 1 -1 1 5
9 3 -1 1 2
8 4 -1 0 3
103 -12 8
7 5 -8 6
1 07 -13 4
8 8 -1 0 6
9 2 -1 0 0
8 0 -1 0 8
104 -13 0
8 3 -1 0 4
7 4 -9 1

138
134
150

129 -19 2
123-151
128-181
104-117
126 -14 2
1 24 -15 5
128 -14 2
104-112
1 28 -19 0
1 25 -13 4

144
138
133
120
115
137
143
131
114
138
133
152

Maintenance and powerplant 3
C a r p e n t e r s , m a in ten a n ce _______________
E l e c t r ic i a n s , m a in ten a n ce --------------------E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a ry ----------------------------F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a ry b o i l e r ______________
H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in t e n a n c e __________
M a c h in is t s , m a in ten a n ce -----------------------M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n ce ) __
M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e ______________—
O i l e r s ______________________________________
P a in t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ----------------------------P i p e f it t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s _____________________

■

"

-

107
131
136
130
109
144
131
‘

C s o i l warehogsing,ands i p n s
utda,
hpig
107

102-115

109

102-114

104

100-111

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r 8 (w om en ) ----------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g -----------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ________________________
R e c e iv in g c l e r k s __________________________
Shipping c l e r k s ____________________________
T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t (u n der l^ z t o n s ) ----T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (l
to 4 t o n s ) —
T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,

92
106
109
120
125
130
135

78-9 7
100-115
102-118
113-134
116-143
121-140
124-154

90
105
107
113
115
111
112

8 1-98
102-113
103-112
107-131
109-141
109-120
109-121

87
107
110
117
121
115
119

7 4 -9 5
102-115
104 -11 4
112-131
112 -13 2
109 -12 6
1 13 -12 8

T r u c k e r s , p ow er ( f o r k l i f t ) ---------------------- 1
3
2

143
113
100

126-154
109-120
91 -1 0 7

120
109
103

111-135
107-116
97 -1 1 1

123
113
103

116-129
109-121
9 8 -1 0 9

100-109

108

104 -11 4

110

101 -11 4

112

106 -11 6

-

103

9 9 -1 1 0

89
108
112
121
127
121
126

8 3 -9 6
102 -12 1
104 -12 2
114 -13 3
117 -13 6
1 12 -13 3
113 -14 2

96
107
111
119
125
119
123

8 7 -1 0 0
101-115
105 -12 0
113-132
112 -14 2
108-135
115 -14 0

97
107
108
120
125
120
126

9 0 -1 0 0
102 -12 0
101-119
111-139
112-137
111-135
114 -14 8

97
110
105
119
130
115
119

9 0 -1 0 0
103-117
102-111
111 -13 0
120 -14 0
108 -12 2
114-131

89
111
111
118
128
114
130

8 3 -9 6
103-127
1 02 -12 3
113 -13 5
1 14 -13 8
105 -12 3
115 -14 4

100
107
107
118
120
127
134

9 4 -1 0 0
103-123
104-121
108 -12 8
111-135
121-140
122 -14 3

129
114
101

113-151
109 -12 6
100 -10 5

132
113
100

122 -14 2
108 -12 2
9 0 -1 0 7

138
120
100

109-172
112-132
8 9 -1 0 8

128
115
100

122-137
109 -12 2
9 6 -1 0 5

133
111
100

123 -15 6
109 -11 6
9 7 -1 0 1

139
114
100

127 -15 0
109-121
9 7 -1 0 3

111

1 S ee fo o tn o te 1, ta b le 7.
2 T h e m id d le ra n g e is the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r r a y e xclu d in g the u p p e r and lo w e r fo u rth s o f the e s ta b lis h m e n ts .

d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w hen o th e r w is e n o te d .
3 L im ite
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ s in d ica te in s u ffic ie n t data to w arra n t p re s e n ta tio n .
NOTE: D ashe
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

_

42

T a b le 9 :

O c c u p a t io n a l w a g e

r e la t io n s h ip s , m a n u f a c t u r in g

in d u s t r ie s b y

area

(Job a v e r a g e s a s p e r c e n ta g e o f pay fo r m en ja n it o r s 1 )

O ccu p a tio n

South

N o rth e a st

T o ta l
N e w a rk 17 a r e a s
J e r s e y C ity
M id dle
M id a ir M edian
M edian
ran ge
ra n g e2

N ew Y o r k C ity
M edian

M id dle
ran ge

M edian

M id dle
ra n g e

M edian

M iddle
ran ge

M edian

M em p h is

D a lla s

A tlanta

P r o v id e n c e

P h ila d e lp h ia

M id dle
ra n g e

M edian

M id d le
ra n g e

M ed ian

M id d le
ra n ge

N ew 0 r lea n s
M ed ian

M id dle
ra n g e

O f c ceia
f i e lrcl
M en
a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A _____________
a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B ____________
o r d e r _____________________________
p a y r o ll ___________________________

T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ___________

131
111
129
120
78
118

119 -14 9
1 0 0 -1 2 5
112 -14 8
109 -13 7
7 0 -8 8
108-131

121
115
137
116
77
122

105 -13 9
9 7 -1 2 0
112 -14 9
1 03 -12 3
6 9 -8 7
1 09 -13 3

133
106
129
121
76
119

1 1 9 -1 5 4
9 8 -1 1 9
9 7 -1 5 3
111 -13 8
6 9 -9 4
110 -13 7

135
103
133
122
75
115

113

104 -12 7

115

1 08 -12 6

124

107 -14 7

114

103
121
101
99
84
108
97
95
117
81
124
102
101
101

100
117
99
97
80
105

98
87

9 1 -1 1 6
109 -13 6
9 0 -1 1 3
9 0 -1 1 2
7 5 -9 5
9 7 -1 2 1
8 9 -1 0 8
8 7 -1 0 5
107 -12 9
7 1 -9 0
112-139
9 2 -1 1 3
9 4 -1 1 1
9 1 -1 1 4
102 -12 3
9 0 -1 0 7
7 9 -9 7

94
115
79
122
101
103
103
110
97
87

9 2 -1 1 0
107 -13 5
8 9 -1 0 9
9 3 -1 0 8
7 5 -9 2
9 6 -1 1 7
8 9 -1 1 1
8 7 -1 0 0
1 04 -12 6
7 0 -9 6
11 1 -1 3 4
9 3 -1 1 1
9 5 -1 1 1
9 2 -1 1 6
102 -12 1
8 9 -9 9
7 9 -9 6

123
132
108
109
92
124
105
101
130'
76
135
110
108
118
121
103
97

9 6 -1 2 7
115 -15 0
97 -1 2 1
10 0 -1 3 4
7 9 -1 0 2
108-139
9 4 -1 1 6
9 2 -1 1 4
119-141
7 0 -9 2
120 -15 0
9 8 -1 2 3
9 8 -1 1 7
103 -13 3
114 -13 7
9 4 -1 1 4
8 6 -1 0 7

137
142
141
122
113
145
135
140
113
131
137
156

130 -14 6
1 34 -15 5
132 -15 4
113-131
108-122
135 -15 7
128 -14 4
131 -15 0
108 -11 9
123 -13 8
1 30 -14 4
147 -17 0

136
140
139
123
110
140
133
134
111
126
138
154

1 28 -14 2
132 -15 2
131 -14 9
115 -13 1
1 0 6 -1 1 5
134 -14 8
125 -13 9
126 -14 2
106 -11 7
1 18 -13 3
1 31 -14 5
146 -16 7

136
140
145
121
113
145
130
139
114
130
134
157

106

C le r k s ,
C le r k s ,
C le r k s ,
C le r k s ,

102 -11 2

107

100-111

95
105
109
118
124
117
120

8 9 -1 0 0
100 -11 1
103-117
111-131
113 -14 0
1 09 -12 5
1 11 -13 3

92
105
109
118
117
113
121

128
111
101

118 -14 0
108 -11 8
9 6 -1 0 7

136
112
100

122 -14 8
9 0 -1 2 4
113-162
107 -13 6
6 5 -8 3
108 -12 7

_
-

'

79
126

-

7 6 -8 6
115 -13 4

191
131
146
124
100

141 -20 9
112 -15 7
112 -18 6
1 14 -14 6
8 3 -1 0 9

155
132
-

160
91

1 2 2 -2 0 3
7 9 -9 3

-

-

147
120
133
157
79

1 33 -20 6
110 -13 9
116 -16 1
1 2 0 -1 8 3
7 2 -9 3

-

-

-

136

1 21 -18 3

1 07 -15 9
1 18 -15 8
1 04 -13 8

123
149
n o

107 -14 7
1 20 -17 7
102 -12 7

1 39 -17 9
1 1 8 -1 4 7
-

148

135 -18 8

W om en
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A __________________________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B ___________________________________
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A ____________
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B ____________
C le r k s , f il e , c la s s A ____________________
C le r k s , f i l e , c la s s B _____________________
C le r k s , p a y r o l l ___________________________
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s __________________
K ey -p u n ch o p e r a t o r s _____________________
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _________
S e c r e t a r ie s _________________________________
S te n o g r a p h e r s, g e n e r a l __________________
S w itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ___________________
S w itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ------T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ___________
T y p is ts , c la s s A _________________________
T y p is t s , c la s s B __________________________

111

97

101 -14 2

_

99
118
96
100
81
111
98
93
119
78
126
100
100
101
109
100
85

8 7 -1 1 4
104-131
9 0 -1 0 8
9 0 -1 1 1
7 0 -8 9
9 9 -1 2 5
9 3 -1 0 6
8 6 -1 0 3
109 -13 0
6 9 -9 0
116 -14 3
9 1 -1 0 8
9 3 -1 0 9
9 0 -1 1 3
102-119
9 0 -1 0 6
7 6 -9 5

104
133
108
97
84
103
96
100
124
83
130
103
107
100
113

1 28 -14 4
131 -15 2
134 -16 7
112 -12 8
110-121
133-161
121 -13 3
1 29 -15 3
110 -12 3
122-137
127-141
150 -17 0

136
144
137
122
114
145
136
139
115
131
137
154

105

101 -10 9

8 7 -9 8
100-111
104 -11 6
111 -13 0
109 -13 7
108 -12 1
115 -13 2

90
108
112
124
127
130
134

130 -16 6
107-119
9 0 -1 0 8

138
117
100

-

9 8 -1 0 6
115 -14 5
97 -1 1 8
8 8 -1 1 8
7 5 -9 6
9 1 -1 1 3
8 7 -1 0 9
9 1 -1 0 7
109-136
74-91
116-138
9 2 -1 1 3
9 5 -1 1 9
93 -1 0 9
105-133

-

118
152
119
-

101
126
-

121
145
-

150
125
-

117
-

-

1 05 -13 3
128-169
103-132
-

9 8 -1 1 0
115-141
-

108 -13 8
111-162
-

134-171
101-139
-

1 03 -13 5
-

-

118
138
120
-

102
115
115
108
125
-

139
113
114
115
-

1 0 9 -1 3 6
1 1 8 -1 8 3
1 0 2 -1 3 5
-

9 7 -1 0 9
1 0 4 -1 5 4
9 8 -1 2 7
1 0 0 -1 3 7
1 1 9 -1 4 2
-

12 7 -1 6 2
10 6 -1 4 0
9 9 -1 2 3
9 8 -1 2 7
-

91

8 4 -101

113

91 -1 2 1

114
100

9 7 -1 2 3
9 3 -1 1 0

131-147
133 -15 4
128-151
112-128
109-120
138 -15 4
130 -14 3
132-152
109 -12 0
125-141
131 -14 5
146 -16 3

137
140
131
117
113
145

127-149
130-149
127-150
109-128
110 -12 5
135-173

143
164

135 -15 8
142 -18 6

146
148

1 2 5 -1 7 3
1 3 4 -1 7 6

127
114
131
137
173

121-138
105-117
120-142
125-144
154-192

106

1 03 -11 4

105

101-111

-

8 4 -9 8
10 1 -1 2 4
1 03 -12 4
1 11 -14 5
118-149
115-159
121 -15 2

95
105
112
117
124
126
126

9 2 -1 0 0
101-111
107 -13 3
111 -13 0
1 16 -13 4
115-139
118-139

97
105
107
119
125
117
115

9 5 -1 0 0
100-109
100-122
109-130
109-155
111-129
111 -14 5

95
102
107
127
134
116
108

130 -16 0
111 -12 6
9 3 -1 0 6

133
111
103

123-139
107-118
100 -10 6

111
105

_

-

134
133
121
-

102
122
105
-

132
114
-

107
-

-

9 3 -1 1 5
1 0 5 -1 4 5
9 1 -1 1 6

-

124
108

-

137

1 17 -15 0
1 0 1 -1 3 4

138
118

-

9 6 -1 2 7
-

100

9 4 -1 1 0

142
151
147
no
no
155
145
151
125

132-151
145-161
1 34 -16 5
10 3 -1 1 4
1 05 -14 3
1 46 -16 3
1 2 6 -1 5 5
1 43 -17 0
1 13 -13 5

-

-

I ll
-

-

1 10 -13 7
9 6 -1 2 3
-

121 -16 7
-

1 2 7 -1 6 4
1 06 -13 7
-

1 00 -13 0
-

103
103

9 3 -1 1 0
8 7 -1 2 3

145
157
146
113
114
148
144
149
113
133

136 -17 9
1 41 -20 9
1 35 -17 9
1 0 8 -1 4 5
1 07 -14 3
139 -17 8
138 -18 2
14 0 -1 7 6
1 08 -11 9
12 1 -1 5 0

Maintenance and powerplant3
C a rp e n te rs , m a in ten a n ce ________________
E le c t r ic ia n s , m a in t e n a n c e _______________
E n g in e e r s , s ta tio n a r y ____________________
F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a ry b o i l e r ______________
H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___ ____ __
M a c h in is ts , m a in ten a n ce ________________
M e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e (m a in te n a n c e )___
M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e _________________
P a in t e r s , m a in ten a n ce _______________ __
P ip e fit t e r s , m a in ten a n ce ________________
T o o l and die m a k e r s _____________________

_

_

-

119
117
164
146
157
111
139
-

-

1 02 -13 4
108 -13 7
139 -18 3
136-179
143 -17 9
107-112
129 -15 2
-

-

121
139
149
150
114
130

-

1 0 8 -1 2 9
1 33 -19 1
1 3 6 -1 5 3
1 3 4 -1 6 8
1 0 8 -1 2 7
1 1 8 -1 5 6

-

-

144

140 -14 8

-

1 03 -11 1

109

1 04 -11 8

-

-

94
104
114
127
129
113
114

9 1 -1 0 0
10 0 -1 1 0
1 0 9 -1 2 3
1 1 4 -1 4 5
1 20 -15 1
1 0 5 -1 2 4
10 5 -1 3 0

98
101
104
123
139

8 7 -1 0 0
1 0 0 -1 0 5
101-110
113 -14 2
116 -16 9

-

-

118
111
104

1 1 1 -1 2 3
10 7 -1 1 9
1 0 0 -1 1 0

-

-

162

-

108

9 2 -1 0 0
100 -10 8
101-113
110 -14 6
116 -18 2
107-121
101-118
_

-

14 7 -1 8 8

C s o i l warehousing,ands i p n 3
utda,
hpig
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s ,
and c le a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ___________________
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ____________
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g _________________________
R e c e iv in g c le r k s __________________________
Shipping c le r k s ___________________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (under lVa t o n s ) ____
T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d i u m ( l 1 to 4 t o n s ) __
/*
T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a ile r ty p e ) _____________________________
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) _______________
W atchm en _________________________________

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le




_

_

108 -12 3
9 9 -1 0 9

_

111
102

108 -11 8
100-109

-

109
-

no
101

-

105 -11 3
-

1 04 -11 5
9 7 -1 1 3

100
-

9 9 -1 0 7
-

126
130
114
111

1 13 -13 9
11 5 -1 5 3
1 0 4 -1 2 3
1 07 -14 2

124
no
100

1 13 -15 0
1 0 3 -1 2 0
9 4 -1 0 5

43

T a b le 9 : O c c u p a t io n a l w a g e

r e la tio n s h ip s , m a n u fa c t u r in g

in d u s t r ie s b y

area

- C o n tin u e d

(J o b a v e r a g e s a s p e r c e n ta g e o f pay f o r m e n ja n i t o r s 1)
M id d le W est
D e tro it

C h ica g o

O cc u p a tio n

M edian

M id dle
ran ge

M edian

M id dle

M ilw au k ee
M edian

M iddle
ra n ge

F a r W est
M in n e a p o lis S t. P a u l
M id d le
M edian
ra n g e

S t. 1jo u is

D en ver

M edian

M id d le
ra n g e

M edian

134
109
129
119
74
118

123 -14 6
102 -11 6
115-141
104 -13 2
6 7 -8 1
104 -12 7

123
126
_
-

112 -15 3
1 13 -16 5
_
-

_

M id d le
ra n g e

L o s A n g e le s L on g B e a ch
M id dle
M ed ian
ra n g e

P o r t la n d
M edian

M id d le
ra n g e

1 16 -13 7
1 10 -13 6
_
-

San F r a n c i s c o O akland
M id dle
M edian
ran ge

O f c ceia
f i e lrcl
M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B ______________
C l e r k s , p a y r o ll
___
O ffic e b o y s „
__
T a b u la tin g * m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ____________

121
100
119

108 -14 5
8 6 -1 0 7
106 -13 0
.
6 4 -7 5
9 5 -1 1 9

121
107
123
115
77
115

115-132
102 -12 3
104 -12 8
108 -12 9
7 2 -8 6
1 06 -12 0

-

123
104
134
118
88
118

114 -13 3
9 5 -1 1 6
127 -14 3
112 -12 2
7 9 -9 4
110 -13 0

121
120
_
-

I ll

105 -12 2

116

111 -12 5

-

8 5 -1 1 1
114 -13 5
8 9 -1 1 4
8 9 -1 1 3
7 2 -9 0
8 9 -1 1 4
8 6 -1 0 9
8 8 -1 0 3
104 -12 3
109 -13 7
8 8 -1 1 1
8 9 -1 0 6
8 4 -1 0 5
9 7 -1 2 6
9 3 -1 1 3
7 5 -9 1

106
105
100
_
105
99
_
_
«r 122
100
108
100
-

8 6 -1 1 5
9 8 -1 1 8
9 1 -1 1 7
_
8 8 -1 2 5
7 9 -1 0 8
_
113 -14 5
9 1 -1 1 9
8 9 -1 1 9
8 1 -1 1 3
-

86

7 7 -9 6

106
116
101
99
88
112
105
101
120
84
119
104
104
103
118
100
88

9 8 -1 1 4
112 -12 9
9 6 -1 0 6
9 2 -1 0 3
8 2 -9 3
1 10 -11 5
9 7 -1 1 3
9 2 -1 0 6
112 -12 9
7 4 -9 1
112-131
9 8 -1 1 0
9 8 -1 0 9
9 2 -1 0 7
112 -12 4
9 4 -1 0 5
8 5 -9 4

123
95
_
87
102
96
93
114
109
92
89
91
80

_
1 11 -13 5
8 3 -1 0 2
_
7 0 -9 9
8 6 -1 1 2
9 3 -1 1 1
8 9 -1 0 4
102 -11 9
9 7 -1 2 6
8 4 -1 0 2
8 0 -1 0 2
8 0 -1 0 2
71 -1 0 1

99
no
92
_
82
101
94
93
112
82
115
97
97
92
111
93
85

9 1 -1 1 3
103 -12 4
8 5 -1 0 0
_
7 5 -8 7
9 0-111
8 8 -1 0 1
8 3 -1 0 2
103-119
7 4 -8 7
1 08 -12 5
9 1 -1 0 7
9 5 -1 0 8
8 3 -1 0 0
101 -11 7
8 7 -1 0 2
8 0 -9 1

144
151
147
125
118
153
131
145
115
131
136
174

1 31 -15 5
135 -15 9
139 -15 7
1 19 -13 8
10 9 -1 3 5
1 3 6 -1 6 4
1 26 -14 7
1 33 -15 9
1 09 -12 6
1 27 -14 5
1 28 -14 7
169 -18 8

132
138
142
125
109
139
126
131
_
130
-

126-138
130 -15 0
133-161
1 09 -13 5
102 -12 0
130 -14 6
120-139
123 -13 4
_
117 -13 6
-

1 30 -14 5
133 -15 2
131 -14 3
_
104 -12 3
135 -15 6
126 -14 0
133 -14 5
109-118
127-138
125-147
149-161

129
132
140
_
106
131
132
131
109
131
130
-

124-138
1 23 -14 4
126 -18 2
_
104 -11 7
129-142
126 -14 9
128 -14 0
104 -11 0
12 4 -1 4 4
1 29 -13 5
-

133
136
131
118
114
137
137
131
114
129
135
152

125-142
131-152
122 -14 0
110 -12 5
109-121
130-151
126 -14 5
127 -13 6
109-119
124-137
1 27 -14 0
145 -15 6

107

104 -11 2

104 -11 6

-

-

105

9 9 -1 1 0

_

_

9 3 -1 0 0
100-188
102-112
107-119
110 -12 6
121-142
121-141
121 -14 5
108-116
9 6 -1 0 3

131
111
130
122
84
118

122-146
101-123
118-139
113 -13 5
7 5 -9 2
110-135

134
115
140
118
73
113

124-147
107-130
114-170
101-134
6 6-81
109-129

129
110
122
_
74
121

118 -14 6
9 2 -1 2 0
104 -13 6
_
6 5 -8 6
1 10 -13 0

69
111

115

107 -12 6

99

9 2 -1 1 8

108

9 7 -1 1 7

_

108
120
104
101
86
110
102
99
120
83
125
105
102
105
114
102
90

9 8 -1 1 8
109 -13 3
9 4 -1 1 2
9 0 -1 1 1
8 0 -9 4
100-120
9 6 -1 1 0
9 0 -1 0 5
112-127
7 5 -9 2
116-136
9 7 -1 1 1
9 6 -1 1 3
9 8 -1 1 4
104-118
9 5 -1 1 1
8 2 -9 8

92
114
95
_
75
99
92
89
108
74
114
96
96
95
104
93
81

8 6 -1 0 3
102-130
8 1 -1 0 2
6 7 -8 1
90 -1 1 1
8 2 -9 7
8 3 -9 5
103-117
67-8 1
107-129
8 7 -1 0 3
9 0 -1 0 3
8 9 -1 0 1
9 6 -1 0 7
8 5 -1 0 2
7 1-88

91
118
98
93
71
100
88
88
109
73
116
94
93
98
100
90
79

8 4 -9 7
1 05 -13 4
8 3 -1 0 6
8 4 -1 0 5
6 8 -8 4
9 3 -1 1 0
8 0 -9 4
8 0 -9 3
102 -11 5
6 3 -8 0
104 -13 2
8 4 -1 0 0
9 0 -1 0 1
8 8 -1 1 0
9 0 -1 0 6
8 6 -9 8
7 2 -8 3

94
108
90
88
72
95
86
84
111
69
no
93
95
92
82
76

8 4 -1 0 2
8 8 -1 2 6
8 3 -1 0 0
8 4 -1 0 0
6 5 -8 1
8 5 -1 1 0
7 8 -9 7
7 4 -9 3
102-121
6 4 -7 6
1 02 -12 3
8 5 -1 0 3
8 2 -1 0 1
7 7 -1 0 1
7 5 -9 1
7 2 -8 6

95
125
102
97
79
99
95
94
113
118
97
100
91
119
102
82

141
147
144
123
114
152
136
140
112
132
138
170

131 -15 5
138-157
135 -15 7
114-133
109-122
142-171
129-140
133 -15 0
107-119
126-138
1 30 -14 4
155-188

133
139
142
123
116
140
133
141
111
132
137
146

128-138
133-141
132-149
114-130
111-124
134-146
129-137
132-142
108-117
123-135
131-140
144-150

136
140
140
121
113
144
136
140
117
129
136
150

131-141
135-151
1 32 -15 4
114-131
110 -12 0
136 -16 0
1 2 9 -1 4 4
1 30 -14 5
110 -12 5
126 -13 6
1 31 -14 4
1 41 -16 7

141
146
136
125
116
145
134
134
112
133
136
153

130 -15 9
1 34 -15 6
125-151
1 1 4 -1 3 4
10 6 -1 2 3
1 30 -15 9
1 27 -14 3
12 5 -1 4 6
1 06 -12 5
125-151
1 27 -15 3
142 -16 2

104

101 -11 4

105

101-112

105

101-111

111

100 -11 8

W om en
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A
_
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B

______

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ______________
C l e r k s , f i l e , c la s s B _____________________
C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _____________________________
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s __________________
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) __________
O ffic e g i r l s _______ _________ _____ ____________
S e c r e t a r ie s ___ __
______________
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ___________________
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s
_
_ __ ______
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t i o n i s t s _____
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___________ _
T y p is t s , c la s s A
_
,
T y p is t s , c la s s B
$

_

_

_

-

-

-

Maintenance and powerplant

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ____ _________ ___
E l e c t r ic i a n s , m a in ten a n ce
E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y ______________________
F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i le r
__ _
H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e ____________
M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce
M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ( m a in t e n a n c e ) ___
M e c h a n ic s , m a i n t e n a n c e __________________
O il e r s r
„.. _
P a in t e r s , m a in ten a n c e _____________________
P i p e f it t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e __________________
T o o l and die m a k e r s ______________________

-

-

138
143
136
_
no
147
135
140
112
133
137
156

-

-

111

C s o i l warehousing,and shipping3
utda,
G u a rd s
_
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r s (w om en ) _
_ _ ...... ..
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l han dling
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g __________________________
R e c e iv in g c le r k s
___
__
Shipping c le r k s _____________________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (u nder lVa t o n s ) _____
T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (1 Va to 4 t o n s ) ___
T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a il e r typ e) ____ _______________ _____
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( fo r k lift )
W atch m en __ __ ___ ___ __ __ __ __ __

95
105
108
121
129
127
132

9 2 -9 9
100-112
102-118
113-133
119-149
121-132
115 -14 3

97
105
107
110
114
110
110

8 8 -1 0 0
102-109
103-111
106-116
106-123
109-114
108 -11 4

92
107
no
116
121
115
119

8 6 -9 8
1 02 -11 4
1 04 -11 4
113 -12 2
112-131
107 -12 2
114 -12 5

93
104
112
119
121
120
123

8 8 -1 0 0
1 01 -11 0
1 02 -12 0
113-131
1 15 -13 0
112 -13 2
111 -13 9

97
104
109
118
121
118
123

9 1 -1 0 0
100-111
1 04 -11 5
1 12 -12 7
112 -13 2
1 07 -12 7
115 -12 9

107
107
118
125
114
119

102-113
9 9 -1 1 9
109 -12 6
112 -13 6
110-130
110 -14 0

99
no
105
115
127
114
119

8 9 -1 0 0
103 -11 6
102 -11 0
108 -12 6
120-138
108-121
114-131

143
113
102

134 -15 0
109-119
9 3 -1 0 7

112
108
100

110-121
107-111
9 6 -1 1 0

123
113
104

117 -12 9
108-121
100 -11 0

113
100

1 08 -12 4
1 00 -10 7

125
112
101

1 1 9 -1 3 5
1 08 -11 8
9 6 -1 0 9

_
117
98

_
111-127
8 5 -1 0 8

128
115
100

124-139
109-119
9 5 -1 0 3

1 See fo o tn o te 1, ta b le 7 .
2 See fo o tn o te 2 , ta b le 8 .
3 L im ite d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o th e r w is e n o te d .


N O T E : D a s h e s in d ica te


_

in s u ffic ie n t data to w a rra n t p r e s e n ta tio n .

105

1 01 -11 0

117
127
_
128

1 13 -12 0
1 13 -14 3
_
109 -14 3

100
104
106
111
116
125
129

_
111
100

_
108 -11 2
9 6 -1 0 2

130
112
100




45

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

M in im u m E n tr a n c e R a te s f o r O ffic e

W o r k e rs

H a lf o f th e f o u r -t h o u s a n d -o d d e sta b lis h m e n ts v is it e d in the
s u r v e y r e p o r t e d e s t a b lis h e d m in im u m en tra n ce rate p r o v is io n s f o r
h ir in g in e x p e r ie n c e d t y p is t s (ta b le B - l ) .
F e w e r than a fo u rth had
n o s e t p o li c y and th e r e m a in in g fou rth e ith e r did not h ir e in e x p e r i­
e n c e d w o r k e r s o r did n ot u s e ty p is ts . T h r e e -fift h s o f th e e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts had a m in im u m h ir in g ra te p o lic y fo r oth er in e x p e r ie n c e d
c l e r i c a l h e lp .

T h e m e d ia n h ir in g ra te f o r ty p is ts w as $ 4 5 and f o r o th e r
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , $ 4 2 . 5 0 . 21 H o w e v e r , the m o s t c o m m o n h irin g ra te
w a s ab ou t $ 4 0 f o r b oth g r o u p s in e v e r y a r e a e x c e p t P o r tla n d ($ 4 2 . 50),
N ew Y o r k C ity ( $ 4 5 ) , and C h ic a g o , D e tr o it, L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B e a c h ,
an d San F r a n c is c o -O a k l a n d w h e r e the p r a c t ic e w as l e s s c le a r ly d e ­
fin e d and g e n e r a lly h ig h e r r a t e s p r e v a ile d .

T h e r e w a s no a p p r e c ia b le d iffe r e n c e in h ir in g ra te p o l i ­
c ie s f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s b e tw e e n m a n u fa ctu rin g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s .

S c h e d u le d W o r k w e e k s
S lig h tly m o r e than h a lf o f the w om en o f f i c e w o r k e r s in
17 m a jo r la b o r m a r k e t a r e a s had 4 0 -h o u r w o rk w e e k s (ta ble B - 3 ) .
N e a r ly a ll o f th e r e m a in d e r w o r k e d fe w e r than 40 h o u r s . A 3 7 y 2 -h o u r
w o r k w e e k a p p lie d to m o r e w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s in e a c h a r e a e x ­
c e p t D a lla s and N ew Y o r k C ity than did an y o th e r sc h e d u le o f fe w e r
than 40 h o u r s .

E ig h ty p e r c e n t o f th e c o m b in e d plant (n o n o ffic e ) w o rk f o r c e
in th e 17 a r e a s w o r k e d 40 h o u r s a w eek ; m o s t oth er p la n t w o r k e r s
h ad lo n g e r s c h e d u le s .

R e la t iv e ly fe w o f th e e s ta b lis h m e n ts v is ite d r e p o r t e d r e d u c ­
t io n s in th e ir w o r k w e e k f o r e ith e r o f f ic e o r plant w o r k e r s s in c e
J a n u a ry 1, 1953. O f th e f i r m s that had r e d u c e d the w o rk w e e k , m o s t
h ad a l s o r e d u c e d th e m a x im u m s t r a ig h t -tim e h ou rs (a fte r w h ich p r e ­
m iu m o v e r t im e w a s p a id ). F o r e x a m p le , w ith a d e c r e a s e fr o m 44 to
42 h o u r s , p r e m iu m p a y w a s g ra n ted a ft e r 42 in stea d o f 44 h o u r s a s
w a s p r e v io u s ly d o n e .

th e

21
date

the

T he g r e a t m a jo r it y o f m a n u fa ctu rin g plan t w o r k e r s w e r e
e m p lo y e d in f i r m s that had s p e c if i c p a y p r o v i s io n s f o r la t e -s h ift
o p e r a t io n s . A fifth o f a ll m a n u fa ctu rin g pla n t w o r k e r s in the 17 a r e a s
w e r e e m p lo y e d on la te s h ifts .
A 4 0 -h o u r w e e k a p p lie d to t h r e e -fo u r t h s o f the c o m b in e d
o f f ic e and plan t w o r k e r s in the 17 a r e a s . The p r o p o r t io n f o r w om en
o ffic e w o r k e r s w a s a th ir d in the fin a n ce an d s e r v i c e s g r o u p s , m o r e
than a h a lf in w h o le s a le tr a d e , and ab ou t t w o -t h ir d s in the o th e r th re e
m a jo r g r o u p s . The p r o p o r t io n s o f pla n t w o r k e r s w ith 4 0 -h o u r s c h e d ­
u le s ra n g e d fr o m a b ou t t w o -t h ir d s o f the to ta l in r e ta il tr a d e and
s e r v i c e s , to m o r e than n in e -te n th s in p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

W o r k w e e k s u n d er 40 H o u r s . — In a m a jo r it y o f the 17 a r e a s
som ew h a t fe w e r than a fo u rth o f th e w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s had w o r k ­
w e e k s o f l e s s than 40 h o u r s . H o w e v e r , in P h ila d e lp h ia and N ew ark J e r s e y C ity about t w o -t h ir d s h ad w o r k w e e k s o f l e s s than 40 h o u r s ;
in N ew Y o r k C ity a l l but abou t o n e -e ig h th o f the w om en o f f ic e w o r k ­
e r s w o r k e d fe w e r than 4 0 , t y p ic a lly 35 h o u r s p e r w eek .
In the c o m b in e d n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s slig h tly m o r e
than h a lf the w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s w o rk e d fe w e r than 40 h o u r s a
w eek.
T h e p r o p o r t io n ra n g e d fr o m 26 p e r c e n t (r e ta il tr a d e ) to
68 p e r c e n t (fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ).
M a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s , w h ich a c c o u n te d f o r a th ir d o f
the w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s w ith in the s c o p e o f the stu d ie s in the
17 a r e a s , r e p o r t e d 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e ir w o m e n w o r k e r s at l e s s than
40 h o u r s (ta b le B - 4 ) .
N in e out o f 10 w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s in New
Y o r k C ity f a c t o r i e s w e r e s c h e d u le d to w o rk fe w e r than 40 h o u r s a
w e e k . In o th e r a r e a s , the p r o p o r t io n ra n g e d fr o m a h a lf in N ew ark J e r s e y C ity and P h ila d e lp h ia , a th ir d in C h ic a g o and San F r a n c i s c o O akland, to a fifth o r l e s s in 12 a r e a s .
A 4 0 -h o u r w e e k a p p lie d to the o v e r w h e lm in g m a jo r ity o f
p la n t w o r k e r s . O nly 7 p e r c e n t o f the plant w o r k e r s in the 17 a r e a s
had w e e k ly s c h e d u le s o f l e s s than 40 h o u r s .
T h is p r o p o r t io n w as
e x c e e d e d in on ly N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity , P h ila d e lp h ia , San F r a n c i s c o O akland, and w ith the h ig h e s t p r o p o r t io n (19 p e r c e n t ), N ew Y o r k C ity .

F e w e r than a tenth o f th e plant w o r k e r s in any in d u stry
d iv is io n in the 17 a r e a s c o m b in e d w o r k e d l e s s than 4 0 -h o u r s c h e d u le s .
In m a n u fa c tu r in g , a fo u rth o f the w o r k e r s in N ew Y o r k C ity had
s c h e d u le s u n d er 40 h o u r s .
In on ly th r e e o th e r a r e a s — N e w a rk J e r s e y C ity , P h ila d e lp h ia , and San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d — w e r e a s m any
a
M o s t o f th e c i t i e s w e r e s u r v e y e d p r io r to M a r c h 1, 1956, s 10 p e r c e n t o f the fa c t o r y p la n t w o r k e r s o p e r a tin g on s c h e d u le s o f
l e s s than 40 h o u r s p e r w eek .
n ew F e d e r a l m in im u m ra te o f $ 1 b e c a m e
e ffe c t iv e .

409983 0 - 56 - 4




46
The c o m b in e d n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s had as m a n y as
6 p e r c e n t o f th e ir p la n t w o r k e r s a t le s s than 40 h o u r s — a p r o p o r t io n
that w as e x c e e d e d in o n ly N ew Y o r k C ity , P r o v id e n c e , and San
F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d .
In N ew Y o r k C ity , su ch s h o r t e r w o rk w e e k s
a p p lie d to m o r e than a fo u r th o f the n o n o ffic e w o r k e r s in r e t a il tr a d e ,
and to a se v e n th in w h o le s a le tr a d e ; in P r o v id e n c e , to a fifth in r e t a il
tr a d e . In San F r a n c i s c o , the la r g e s t p r o p o r t io n s w ith s c h e d u le s u n d er
40 h o u rs w e r e in r e t a il tra d e and the s e r v i c e in d u s t r ie s .

W o r k w e e k s o v e r 40 H o u r s . — R e la t iv e ly fe w o f the w o m e n
o f f ic e w o r k e r s in any a r e a had lo n g e r than 4 0 -h o u r w o r k s c h e d u le s .
On th e o th e r hand, su ch lo n g e r s c h e d u le s a p p lie d to 1 out o f e v e r y
8 plant w o r k e r s in the c o m b in e d a r e a s .
A m o n g a r e a s , the h ig h e s t
p r o p o r t io n s o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s (an eig h th ) and plan t w o r k e r s (about
a t h ir d ) at m o r e than 4 0 -h o u r s c h e d u le s w e r e r e c o r d e d in D a lla s ,
M e m p h is, and N ew O r le a n s . F e w e r than a tenth o f the plant w o r k ­
e r s w e r e on the lo n g e r s c h e d u le s in N ew Y o r k C ity , P h ila d e lp h ia ,
St. L o u is , and the th r e e W est C o a s t a r e a s .

A m on g in d u str y g r o u p s in the c o m b in e d a r e a s , th e p r o p o r t io n s
o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s on the lo n g e r w o r k w e e k s w e r e h ig h e st in
r e ta il tr a d e and s e r v i c e s .

R e d u c tio n s in W ee k ly H o u r s . — E m p lo y e r s v is it e d b y B u re a u
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s w e r e a s k e d i f an y r e d u c tio n s in s c h e d u le d w e e k ly
h o u r s had b e e n m a d e s in c e J a n u a ry 1953.
On th e a v e r a g e , r e d u c ­
tio n s in the w o r k w e e k s o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e r e c o r d e d in 1 out o f
e v e r y 25 f i r m s v is it e d , an d f o r p la n t w o r k e r s in 1 out o f e v e r y
20 f i r m s .
S om e r e d u c tio n s w e r e n o te d in e a c h c it y stu d ied .
O nly
1 in e v e r y 50 f ir m s in th e 3 W est C o a s t a r e a s had r e d u c e d the
w e e k ly h o u r s o f e ith e r o f f i c e o r plant w o r k e r s b e lo w th e 1953 s c h e d u le .
A m on g a r e a s , D e n v e r , M ilw a u k e e , and the 4 sou th ern a r e a s r e p o r t e d
the m o s t fr e q u e n t r e d u c tio n in s c h e d u le d h o u r s ; in d u s tr y w is e , su ch
r e d u c tio n s w e r e m o s t c o m m o n in n on m a n u fa ctu rin g .

A th ir d o f the f i r m s that s h o r te n e d the w o r k w e e k s o f w o m e n
o f f ic e w o r k e r s a l s o r e d u c e d th e m a x im u m s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r s b e y o n d
w h ich o v e r t im e is p a id . In ab ou t h a lf su ch f i r m s , m o s t ly in n o rth e r n
c i t i e s , the s t r a ig h t -t im e r e d u c tio n w a s fr o m 40 h o u r s to an am ou n t
l e s s than 40 h o u r s . M o r e than h a lf th e f i r m s that r e d u c e d th e w e e k ly
h o u r s o f plant w o r k e r s a l s o r e d u c e d the w e e k ly m a x im u m s t r a ig h t -t im e
h o u r s . In 1 in e v e r y 5 su ch f i r m s , the new m a x im u m p r o v id e d f o r
o v e r t im e pa y a ft e r fe w e r than 40 h o u r s 1 w o r k p e r w e e k . In 2 out o f 5,
h o w e v e r , the new m a x im u m , th ou gh lo w e r than f o r m e r l y , w a s s t ill
in e x c e s s o f 40 h o u r s ; f i r m s r e p o r t in g th e s e ty p e s o f a d ju s tm e n ts w e r e
in the r e ta il t r a d e , s e r v i c e , and tr u ck in g in d u s t r ie s .




L a te -S h ift P a y P r o v is io n s (M a n u fa c tu r in g )

Seven out o f e v e r y 8 m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t w o r k e r s in th e c o m ­
b in e d a r e a s w e r e e m p lo y e d in e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g s p e c i f i c pay p r o ­
v is io n s fo r s e c o n d -s h ift w o r k , e it h e r th r o u g h a la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t
a g r e e m e n t o r b y o th e r f o r m a l m e a n s .
M o r e than 3 out o f 4 w e r e
in f i r m s w ith s im ila r p r o v i s io n s r e la t in g to th e o p e r a t io n o f a th ir d
sh ift (ta b le B -1 0 ).

A m on g a r e a s , the p r o p o r t io n o f m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t w o r k e r s
in f i r m s h aving s p e c ifie d s e c o n d -s h ift p r o v i s i o n s r a n g e d f r o m a p p r o x i­
m a te ly tw o -th ir d s in New Y o r k C ity an d N ew O r le a n s to v ir t u a lly
a ll w o r k e r s in D e tr o it.
T h e p r o p o r t io n w a s ab ou t 90 p e r c e n t in
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity and the M id d le W est and W est C o a s t a r e a s stu d ied ,
and 80 p e r c e n t in o th e r c i t i e s . T y p ic a lly , so m e w h a t f e w e r w o r k e r s
in e a c h a r e a w e r e c o v e r e d b y p r o v i s io n s f o r t h ir d - s h if t o p e r a t io n s
than f o r s e c o n d sh ift.

P ay d iffe r e n t ia ls f o r la t e - s h i f t w o r k w e r e a lm o s t u n iv e r s a lly
s p e c ifie d in ea ch a r e a e x c e p t A tla n ta , M e m p h is , N ew O r le a n s , and
P r o v id e n c e .
In th e s e a r e a s , th e sh ift p r o v i s io n s f o r a b ou t a six th
o f the w o r k e r s d id not s p e c ify a p a y d iffe r e n t ia l.

The c o m m o n p r o v is io n in m o s t a r e a s w a s f o r a u n ifo r m
c e n t s - p e r - h o u r a d d itio n to f i r s t - s h i f t r a t e s . T h e n ext m o s t c o m m o n
p r o v is io n , e x ce p t in F a r W est a r e a s , w a s f o r a u n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e
a d d itio n to the day r a t e s .
P e r c e n t a g e d iffe r e n t ia ls w e r e th e ty p e
m o s t c o m m o n ly s p e c ifie d in N e w a r k - J e r s e y C ity , P h ila d e lp h ia , and
D e tr o it.

S e c o n d -s h ift pay p r o v i s io n s c o v e r in g up to a th ir d o f the
m a n u fa ctu rin g plant w o r k e r s in W e s t C o a s t a r e a s s p e c if i e d o th e r
ty p e s o f shift d iffe r e n t ia ls su ch a s a fu ll day*s p a y f o r r e d u c e d w o r k
h o u r s , o r m u ch m o r e fr e q u e n tly , th is p r o v i s i o n in c o m b in a tio n w ith
a c e n ts o r p e r c e n ta g e d iffe r e n t ia l.
S u ch nc o m b in a tio n ” ty p e p r o v i ­
s io n s f o r t h ir d -s h ift w o rk a p p lie d to up to a h a lf o f the p la n t w o r k e r s
in W est C oa st a r e a s ; up to a fo u r th in A tla n ta , D a lla s , and St. L o u is ;
and to a tenth in D e n v e r , M ilw a u k e e , N ew Y o r k C ity , and P h ila d e lp h ia .

A w ide v a r ie ty o f c e n t s an d p e r c e n t a g e d e n o m in a tio n s w a s
in u s e in m o s t a r e a s . No s in g le d e n o m in a tio n o f e it h e r ty p e o f d i f ­
fe r e n t ia l a p p lied to a m a jo r it y in any a r e a e x c e p t D e t r o it . H o w e v e r ,
a s fe w a s 2 o r 3 d e n o m in a tio n s , ta k en t o g e t h e r , t y p ic a lly c o v e r e d a
m a jo r it y o f the m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t w o r k e r s w ho w e r e s u b je c t to
sh ift p r o v i s io n s .

47
T h e fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n sh ow s the tw o m o s t c o m m o n s e c o n d an d t h ir d - s h if t d iffe r e n t ia ls in e a c h a r e a .
E a ch su ch p a ir o f d if ­
f e r e n t ia ls in e ig h t a r e a s (s e e a s t e r is k ) w as a p p lic a b le to h a lf o r
m o r e o f th e p la n t w o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts that had p r o v i s io n s f o r
the in d ic a t e d s h ift.
In th e r e m a in in g a r e a s , the p a ir s a p p lie d to a
th ir d t o a h a lf o f th e w o r k e r s .

S e c o n d -s h ift w o r k e r s (e v e n in g ) g e n e r a lly ou tn u m b ered t h ir d sh ift w o r k e r s (n igh t) b y 3 o r 4 to 1. T h e r a tio o f ev en in g to night
w o r k e r s in in d iv id u a l a r e a s , h o w e v e r , r a n g e d f r o m 2 t o 1 in M e m p h is,
St. L o u is , and P o r tla n d to 6 to 1 in M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l and L o s
A n g e le s .

Most common shift differentials
Second shift
(rank)

Third shift
(rank)

_1__________ 2_________ I___________ 2
Newark- Jersey City * _____________
New York C i t y -------------------------------P h ila d elp h ia *---------------------------------P ro v id en c e --------------------------------------

10
10
10
5

percent
percent
percent
cents

10
10
5
4

A tlanta* -----------------------------------------D a l l a s * -------------------------------------------Memphis -----------------------------------------New O r le a n s ------------------------------------

12
12
5
6

cents
cents
cents
cents

5 percent
10 cents
3 cents
4 cents

C h ic a g o * -----------------------------------------D etroit* ------------------------------------------Milwaukee --------------------------------------M inneapolis-St. P a u l_____________
St. L o u is ------------------------------------------

10
5
5
10
5

percent
percent
cents
cents
cents

10
8
5
6

Denver ___________________
L os A ngeles-L on g Beach
Portland (O r e g .)* _______
San Francisco-O akland *

6 cents
10 cents

(
(

:i

7
8
7
6

cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents

10
10
10
10

percent
percent
percent
cents

( 1)
( 1)
3 cents
6 cents
10 percent
10 percent
10 cents
10 cents
10 cents
10 cents
( 1)
( *)
( 1)

M o r e than a fifth o f a ll m a n u fa ctu rin g w o r k e r s in the 17 a r e a s
w e r e a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on la te s h ifts at the tim e o f the su r v e y
(ta b le B - l l ) .
A m on g a r e a s , the p r o p o r t io n o f la t e -s h ift w o r k e r s
ra n g e d fr o m a b ou t an eigh th o f the p la n t w o r k e r s in N ew Y o r k C ity
to a th ir d in D e tr o it.

10 cents
10 cents
10 cents
7 cents
10 percent
10 cents
5 cents
12 cents
10 cents
5 percent
12 cents
15 cents
( 1)
12 cents
7cents
12cents

1 Combination type— typically, a full day1s pay for reduced hours, plus a
cents differential.

C e n ts d iffe r e n t ia ls f o r s e c o n d -s h ift w ork f o r a m a jo r it y o f
w o r k e r s w e r e l e s s than 10 c e n t s an h ou r, e x c e p t in N ew Y o r k C ity ,
A tla n ta , C h ic a g o , D a lla s , L o s A n g e le s -L o n g B ea ch , and M in n e a p o lis St. P a u l.
R e la t iv e ly fe w w o r k e r s in any a r e a w e re s u b je c t to d i f ­
fe r e n t ia ls o f 13 c e n t s o r h ig h e r .

P a id H o lid a y s
T h e m o s t c o m m o n p a id h o lid a y p r o v i s io n in the 17 a r e a s
c o m b in e d c a lle d f o r 6 p a id h o lid a y s . A lm o s t t w o -t h ir d s o f the o f f ic e
w o r k e r s and t w o -fift h s o f th e p la n t w o r k e r s w e r e in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
p r o v id in g s e v e n o r m o r e p a id h o lid a y s .
P r o v is io n s fo r m o r e than
eig h t h o lid a y s w e r e not c o m m o n f o r p la n t w o r k e r s , but n e a r ly a th ird
o f o f f ic e w o r k e r s w e r e in e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g su ch p r o v is io n s
(ta ble B - 12).
T h e m o s t l ib e r a l h o lid a y p r o v i s io n s w e r e r e p o r t e d in the
n o rth e a s t a r e a s , p a r t ic u la r ly in N ew Y o r k C ity w h e r e o v e r h a lf o f
the o f f ic e w o r k e r s and a fifth o f the pla n t w o r k e r s r e c e iv e d 11 o r
m o r e p a id h o lid a y s .
W o r k e r s in 3 o f th e 4 s o u th e rn a r e a s had the
fe w e s t p a id h o lid a y s w ith la r g e p r o p o r t io n s o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s (n e a r ly
60 p e r c e n t in M e m p h is ) r e c e iv in g 5 o r fe w e r p a id h o lid a y s .
A bou t
40 p e r c e n t o f the p la n t w o r k e r s in th o s e a r e a s r e c e iv e d fe w e r than
6 p a id h o lid a y s and an a d d itio n a l 15 p e r c e n t r e c e iv e d no p a id h o lid a y s .
In N ew O r le a n s , w h e r e o n ly 14 p e r c e n t had fe w e r than 6 paid h o li­
d a y s , a la r g e p r o p o r t io n o f pla n t w o r k e r s (23 p e r c e n t ) had no p a id
h o lid a y s .
T h e M id d le W est a r e a s g e n e r a lly p r o v id e d 6 o r 7 h o lid a y s
to both p la n t and o f f ic e w o r k e r s w ith on ly C h ic a g o and St. L o u is
h avin g a p p r e c ia b le n u m b e r s r e c e iv in g 8 o r m o r e .
In the F a r W est
a r e a s , ab ou t h a lf the w o r k e r s r e c e iv e d 6 p a id h o lid a y s e x ce p t in the
San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d a r e a w h e r e 7 d a y s w a s m o s t p r e v a le n t and
8 d a y s w e r e fr e q u e n tly g ra n te d .

C e n ts d iffe r e n t ia ls f o r t h ir d -s h ift w o rk w e r e c o m m o n ly 10 to
15 c e n t s an h o u r in M ilw a u k e e , M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l, L o s A n g e le s L o n g B e a c h , an d San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d .
T h ey 'w ere t y p ic a lly l e s s
than 10 c e n t s in s o u th e r n a r e a s e x c e p t D a lla s , and f r o m 5 to 10 c e n ts
an h o u r in o t h e r a r e a s .

M o r e than 15 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s n ow r e c e iv e pa y f o r
at le a s t 1 h a lf h o lid a y in a d d itio n to t h e ir fu ll h o lid a y s , 1 o r 2 h a lf
d a y s b e in g the u su a l a m ou n t.
A m o n g in d u s tr y d iv is io n s , p a id h a lf
h o lid a y s w e r e m o s t fr e q u e n t a m o n g o f f ic e w o r k e r s in the fin a n ce ,
s e r v i c e s , and m a n u fa ctu rin g d iv is io n s , and a m o n g plan t w o r k e r s in
m a n u fa ctu rin g and w h o le s a le tr a d e . In D e tr o it, t h r e e -fo u r t h s o f the
m a n u fa ctu rin g w o r k e r s r e c e iv e d 2 h a lf h o lid a y s .

P e r c e n t a g e d iffe r e n t ia ls w e r e p r o v id e d e x t e n s iv e ly in on ly
N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity , N ew Y o r k C ity , P h ila d e lp h ia , C h ic a g o , D e tr o it,
an d St. L o u is . In m o s t o f th e s e and oth er a r e a s , th e c o m m o n am ou n t
w a s 10 p e r c e n t f o r e a c h s h ift. H o w e v e r , 5 p e r c e n t w a s th e p r e d o m i­
nant p e r c e n t a g e d iffe r e n t ia l f o r s e c o n d -s h ift w o rk in D e t r o it , A tla n ta ,
D a lla s , and M ilw a u k e e .

M a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s a s a g ro u p u s u a lly did not p r o v id e
a s m an y fu ll-d a y p a id h o lid a y s a s m o s t o f the n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s­
t r y d iv is io n s .
In m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , m o r e than h a lf o f
both p la n t and o f f i c e w o r k e r s r e c e iv e d 6 p a id h o lid a y s .
A lth ou gh
su b sta n tia l n u m b e r s r e c e iv e d 7 o r 8 h o lid a y s , r e la t iv e ly fe w had
9 or m ore.




48
B y c o n t r a s t, a m o n g th e n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s (ta b le s
B -1 4 to B - 1 8 ) , p a id h o lid a y p r a c t i c e s w e r e m o s t lib e r a l in the fin a n ce
and p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n s .
H a lf o f the o f f i c e w o r k e r s in the
fin a n ce g ro u p w e r e g iv e n 11 o r m o r e h o lid a y s .
N e a r ly a th ir d o f
p u b lic u tility o f f ic e w o r k e r s and a fo u rth o f su ch plant w o r k e r s
r e c e iv e d 9 o r m o r e p a id h o lid a y s .
M o s t w h o le s a le tr a d e e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d 6 o r 7 p a id
h o lid a y s , but o v e r a th ir d o f the o f f ic e w o r k e r s and a fo u rth o f the
n o n o ffic e w e r e in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g 8 o r m o r e .
R e la t iv e ly
few w o r k e r s in r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s r e c e iv e d m o r e than 7 h o lid a y s .
T w e lv e p e r c e n t o f n o n o ffic e w o r k e r s in r e t a il tr a d e r e c e iv e d fe w e r
than 6 h o lid a y s and a n o th e r 7 p e r c e n t had no p a id h o lid a y s .

P la n s w h ich e x p r e s s e d v a c a tio n p a y a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f the
w o r k e r s * annual e a rn in g s a p p lie d t o 2 p e r c e n t o f th e o f f i c e and
10 p e r c e n t o f the plant w o r k e r s .
T h e g r e a t m a jo r it y o f w o r k e r s
w ith in the s c o p e o f the su r v e y w ho w e r e c o v e r e d b y p e r c e n t a g e -t y p e
p la n s w e re e m p lo y e d in the p r o d u c tio n d e p a r t m e n ts o f m a n u fa c tu r in g
fir m s .
A lthough a p p lic a b le to o n ly a fe w w o r k e r s in s o m e a r e a s ,
the m eth od a p p lie d to a lm o s t a t h ir d o f th e m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t w o r k ­
e r s in P r o v id e n c e and to a fo u rth in P h ila d e lp h ia ; 1 in e v e r y 6 in L o s
A n g e le s and M ilw a u k ee; 1 in 8 in A tla n ta and M e m p h is ; and 1 in 12 in
D e tr o it and St. L o u is .
F la t-s u m and o th e r ty p e s o f v a c a tio n p a y m e n t a p p lie d to l e s s
than 1 p e r c e n t o f a ll o f f ic e and p la n t w o r k e r s . 2

T h e s e r v i c e s in d u s tr ie s r e p o r t e d the g r e a t e s t v a r ia tio n in
p a id h o lid a y p r o v i s io n s b e tw e e n plant and o f f ic e w o r k e r s .
P r o v i­
sio n s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s c o m p a r e d fa v o r a b ly w ith o th e r in d u stry
d iv is io n s , abou t 40 p e r c e n t b e in g in o f f i c e s h avin g 8 o r m o r e pa id
h o lid a y s .
N e a r ly a fifth o f the p la n t w o r k e r s in s e r v i c e s r e c e iv e d
no p a id h o lid a y s and an a d d itio n a l fifth r e c e iv e d fe w e r than 6.

T y p ic a lly , p r o v is io n s w e r e m o r e l i b e r a l f o r o f f i c e e m p lo y e e s ,
p a r t ic u la r ly a s to the m a x im u m a m ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y su ch e m ­
p lo y e e s m ight ev en tu a lly r e c e i v e . T h e s e p r o v i s io n s w e r e a l s o m o r e
l ib e r a l f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s a s to the a m ou n t o f pa y g ra n te d f o r c o m ­
p a r a b le s e r v ic e o r s e n io r ity .
T h e s e o b s e r v a t io n s
a p p ly to the
17 a r e a s a s a g rou p , a s w e ll a s to e a c h in d iv id u a l a r e a . T h e y a r e
a l s o tr u e o f in d iv id u a l in d u stry g r o u p s w ith fe w e x c e p t io n s .

P a id V a c a tio n s

M axim u m v a c a tio n pay o f 4 w e e k s o r m o r e w a s a v a ila b le
to 28 p e r c e n t o f the o ffic e w o r k e r s but to o n ly 13 p e r c e n t o f the
plan t w o r k e r s .
A s m u ch a s 3 w eek s* pa y (but l e s s than 4 ) w a s o f ­
f e r e d to a m a jo r it y o f both g r o u p s .
C o n v e r s e ly , m o r e plant w o r k ­
e r s (29 p e r c e n t), a s a g a in st 16 p e r c e n t o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s , h ad m a x i­
m u m v a ca tio n pay p r o v is io n s o f l e s s than 3 w e e k s .

V a c a tio n pa y to d a y is w ith in r e a c h o f 99 p e r c e n t o f the
w o r k e r s in the in d u s tr ie s and a r e a s s u r v e y e d (ta b le B - 1 9 ) . With few
e x c e p t io n s , th e am ou n t o f p a y i s g ra d u a ted on a s lid in g s c a l e , b a s e d
on len g th o f s e r v i c e , ra n g in g fr o m a s lit tle a s 1 day*s pay f o r a
sh ort len g th o f e m p lo y m e n t to a s m u ch a s 4 o r m o r e w e e k s 1 pay
fo r lo n g s e r v ic e w ith th e e m p lo y e r .
N e a r ly h a lf the 5 % m illio n
o ffic e and pla n t w o r k e r s in s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y s a r e p r o v id e d v a c a ­
tion pa y a ft e r a s lit t le a s 6 m o n th s 1 s e r v i c e .
A s len gth o f s e r v ic e
i n c r e a s e s , w o r k e r s in th e s e a r e a s m a y p r o g r e s s i v e l y e a rn the f o l ­
low in g b e n e fit s :
V ir t u a lly a ll ca n q u a lify f o r at le a s t 1 w e e k 's
v a ca tio n p a y by c o m p le t in g a y e a r * s s e r v i c e ; m o r e than 95 p e r c e n t
can q u a lify f o r 2 w eek s* pay a ft e r 5 y e a r s 1 s e r v ic e ; 3 o r m o r e w eeks*
pa y is a v a ila b le to a fo u rth a ft e r 10 y e a r s , and to a lm o s t t h r e e fo u rth s o f the w o r k e r s a ft e r 15 y e a r s * s e r v i c e .
One out o f e v e r y
s ix o f f ic e an d p la n t w o r k e r s can r e c e iv e 4 o r m o r e w eek s* pay a ft e r
25 y e a r s* s e r v i c e .
In a d d itio n to the 17 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s w ho m a y e v e n ­
tu a lly q u a lify f o r v a c a tio n pa y o f 4 w e e k s o r m o r e , 57 p e r c e n t can
r e a c h a m a x im u m o f at le a s t 3 w eek s* pay but l e s s than 4 w e e k s ;
23 p e r c e n t ca n e v e n tu a lly g et 2 w e e k s but l e s s than 3; and the r e ­
m a in in g 3 p e r c e n t ca n g et top v a c a tio n pa y o f l e s s than 2 w e e k s .
F o r m o s t w o r k e r s , v a c a tio n p a y w as e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s o f
r e g u la r o r a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r a stated n u m b e r o f w e e k s ,
depen din g u pon len gth o f s e r v i c e w ith the e m p lo y e r . N in ety p e r c e n t
o f the o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s in the 17 a r e a s w e r e o r c o u ld b e ­
c o m e e lig ib le f o r b e n e fit s u n d er su ch a r r a n g e m e n t s . S om e p la n s o f
th is ty p e a l s o p r o v id e 1 day*s p a y f o r e a c h y e a r o f s e r v ic e a s a
m e a n s o f p r o g r e s s i o n f o r in te r m e d ia te y e a r s .




V a ca tion pay p r o v is io n s f o r o f f i c e e m p lo y e e s w ith r e la t iv e l y
sh o rt s e r v ic e (6 m on th s; 1, 2, 3 y e a r s ) lik e w is e w e r e m o r e li b e r a l
than f o r plant w o r k e r s w ith c o m p a r a b le p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e . P r o v i ­
s io n s w e r e ab ou t the sa m e f o r both g r o u p s f o r e m p lo y e e s w ith 5 y e a r s *
s e r v ic e .
H o w e v e r , v a c a tio n p a y a r r a n g e m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d in g to
10, 15, 20, and 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e p r o g r e s s i v e l y fa v o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s ,
ten d in g to p r o v id e su ch w o r k e r s w ith 3 and 4 w eek s* v a c a tio n a ft e r
fe w e r y e a r s than plant w o r k e r s w e r e r e q u ir e d to s e r v e to b e e lig ib le
f o r c o m p a r a b le v a ca tion a llo w a n c e s .
Tw o o r m o r e w eeks* p a y w a s o f f e r e d to v ir t u a lly e v e r y
o f f ic e w o r k e r in ea ch o f the in d u s tr y d iv is io n s stu d ied :
M a n u fa c ­
tu r in g ; p u b lic u t ilitie s ; w h o le s a le and r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e ,
and r e a l e sta te ; and s e le c t e d s e r v ic e in d u s t r ie s .
F o r a s lit tle a s 6 m onths* s e r v i c e , 89 p e r c e n t o f th e o f f i c e
w o r k e r s in fin a n ce w e r e o ffe r e d a w e e k o r m o r e and 20 p e r c e n t w e r e
o ffe r e d 2 w eeks* pay c o m p a r e d w ith 63 p e r c e n t and 3 p e r c e n t , th e
a p p ro x im a te r e s p e c t iv e p r o p o r t io n s in m o s t o f the o th e r in d u s tr y
d iv is io n s studied in the 17 a r e a s . 2
22
In p r e p a r in g the ta b u la tio n s , a ll p e r c e n t a g e - and f l a t - s u m ty p e p a y m en ts w e r e c o n v e r te d to t h e ir " l e n g t h - o f - t i m e " eq u iv a le n t;
f o r e x a m p le , 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's
pay.

49

T h r e e o r m o r e w e e k s 1 pay m a y b e ea rn ed b y 64 p e r c e n t o f
o f f i c e w o r k e r s in s e r v i c e s , b y abou t 75 p e r c e n t in tr a d e , and about
90 p e r c e n t in the m a n u fa c tu r in g , fin a n c e , and p u b lic u t ilit ie s b r a n c h e s .
H o w e v e r , a lm o s t h a lf the w o r k e r s in s e r v ic e s m ay g et th is am oun t
f o r 10 o r fe w e r y e a r s 1 s e r v i c e , w h e r e a s in e a c h oth er in d u s tr y d iv i­
sio n the l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e in n u m b e r q u a lify in g fo r 3 w e e k s 1 v a c a tio n
o c c u r s at 15 y e a r s . F o u r w e e k s 1 pay can b e e a rn ed by a lm o s t h a lf
th e w o r k e r s in r e t a il tr a d e and fin a n ce — m o r e than tw ic e the p r o ­
p o r t io n in any o th e r in d u s tr y d iv is io n . A lm o s t 20 p e r c e n t in fin a n ce
w e r e o ff e r e d th is am ou n t f o r 20 y e a r s 1 s e r v ic e c o m p a r e d w ith
10 p e r c e n t in r e t a il tr a d e .
A m o n g th e fiv e in d u s tr y d iv is io n s f o r w h ich data a r e p r e ­
se n te d f o r p la n t w o r k e r s , p u b lic u tilitie s le a d s in the p r o p o r t io n o f
w o r k e r s (n e a r ly h a lf) w ho w e r e o ffe r e d a w e e k Ts pay f o r a s lit tle a s
6 m o n th s 1 s e n io r it y , and 2 w e e k s 1 a fte r 1 y e a r .
T w o o r m o r e w e e k s 1 pay is u ltim a te ly a v a ila b le to 97 p e r c e n t
o r m o r e o f th e p la n t w o r k e r s in e a ch in d u stry d iv is io n e x c e p t s e r v i c e s
w h e r e the a v a ila b ilit y w a s slig h tly l e s s (89 p e r c e n t). P u b lic u tilit ie s
and r e t a il tr a d e e a c h p r o v id e abou t 80 p e r c e n t o f th e ir e m p lo y e e s w ith
2 w e e k s 1 pa y a ft e r 2 y e a r s , w h ile a ft e r 3 y e a r s th is p r o p o r t io n r o s e
to a b ou t 95 p e r c e n t .
In c o n t r a s t , on ly 55 p e r c e n t o f the fa c t o r y
w o r k e r s s u r v e y e d c a n b e c o m e e lig ib le f o r 2 w e e k s 1 v a c a tio n a ft e r
3 y e a r s 1 s e r v i c e (ta b le B - 2 0 ) .
L o n g e r v a c a t io n s — 3 w e e k s 1 pay o r m o r e — can be a c h ie v e d
b y 91 p e r c e n t o f the p la n t w o r k e r s in p u b lic u tilitie s , 76 in m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g , 70 in w h o le s a le tr a d e , 62 in r e ta il tr a d e , and 20 p e r c e n t
in s e r v i c e s .
P u b lic u t ilit ie s a r e a ls o in the fo r e fr o n t in p r o v id in g
89 p e r c e n t o f th e ir p la n t w o r k e r s 3 w e e k s 1 pa y fo r 15 y e a r s 1 s e r v ic e ,
a lth ou g h 30 p e r c e n t in r e t a il tr a d e can e x p e ct v a c a tio n s o f th is len gth
f o r 10 y e a r s 1 s e r v i c e .
R e t a il tr a d e , n ext to lo w e s t am on g in d u stry d iv is io n s in the
p r o p o r t io n o f p la n t w o r k e r s w ho w e r e o ffe r e d 3 w eek s o r m o r e , le a d s
a ll d iv is io n s in o ffe r in g 4 w e e k s 1 pay to 28 p e r c e n t o f its n o n o ffic e
w o r k e r s , a s a g a in s t a p r o p o r t io n o f 19 p e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
o f f e r e d 4 w e e k s 1 p a y in th e n ext h ig h e st in d u stry d iv is io n — p u b lic
u t ilit ie s .
S om e m a r k e d d if f e r e n c e s f o r both o ffic e and pla n t w o r k e r s
w e r e n oted a m o n g the a r e a s , not on ly in r e s p e c t to m a x im u m pay
o f f e r e d but a l s o a s r e g a r d s len gth o f s e r v ic e . M o r e o v e r , not a ll o f
th e a r e a s that o f f e r the m o s t (o r le a s t) lib e r a l v a c a tio n p r o v is io n s
f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s h e ld the sa m e r e la tiv e rank w ith r e s p e c t to plant
w ork ers.
T o s o m e ex te n t, su ch v a r ia tio n s r e fle c t the l o c a l i m p o r ­
ta n c e o f p a r t ic u la r in d u s t r ie s .
In New Y o r k C ity , f o r e x a m p le ,
fin a n c ia l in s titu tio n s and in D e tr o it the a u tom ob ile in d u str y , p r o v id e
e m p lo y m e n t to an u n u su a lly h igh p o r p o r t io n o f the to ta l o f f ic e and
m a n u fa c tu r in g pla n t w o r k e r s , r e s p e c t iv e ly , in the a r e a . T h u s, v a c a ­
tio n p r a c t i c e s in th e s e in d u s tr ie s in flu e n ce d the o v e r a ll data f o r th o se
c i t i e s . A ll a r e a s had in c o m m o n , h o w e v e r , the p r a c t ic e o f at le a s t
1 w e e k ! s pa y f o r 1 y e a r * s s e r v i c e — a p p lic a b le to 99 p e r c e n t o r m o r e
o f the o f f ic e and 91 p e r c e n t o f the plant w o r k e r s in e a ch a r e a .




V a ca tio n pay o f 3 w e e k s o r m o r e f o r b oth o ffic e and plant
w o r k e r s a p p e a r e d le a s t w id e s p r e a d in P r o v id e n c e a.nd the sou th ern
a r e a s , and m o s t e x te n s iv e in N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity , N ew Y o r k C ity ,
P h ila d e lp h ia , San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d , and M id d le W est a r e a s . A m on g
the 17 a r e a s , the o f f ic e w o r k e r p r o p o r t io n s e lig ib le f o r 3 w e e k s 1
v a c a tio n ra n g e d fr o m 44 p e r c e n t (N ew O r le a n s ) to 91 p e r c e n t (D e tr o it);
and f o r plant w o r k e r s the s p re a d w a s fr o m 31 p e r c e n t (New O rle a n s )
to 8 6 -8 7 p e r c e n t (M ilw a u k ee and D e tr o it).
The p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s w ho m a y u ltim a te ly b e c o m e e l i g i ­
b le f o r p a id v a c a tio n s o f 4 w e e k s w e r e lo w e r —ran gin g from . 9 to 44 p e r ­
cen t f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s in P r o v id e n c e and N ew Y o r k C ity , r e s p e c t iv e ly ,
and 3 to 23 p e r c e n t f o r p la n t w o r k e r s (P r o v id e n c e and M in n e a p o lis St. P a u l)— but a ls o v a r ie d c o n s id e r a b ly w ith in the b r o a d r e g io n s .
H ealth and In su ra n c e P la n s
L ife in s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e w a s the m o s t c o m m o n b e n e fit p r o ­
v is io n .
It w a s a v a ila b le to 90 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f w o r k e r s in ea ch
in d u str y d iv is io n e x c e p t r e ta il tr a d e and s e r v i c e s , w h e r e about 80 p e r ­
cen t w e r e c o v e r e d (ta b le s B -2 7 to B - 3 2 ) .
T h e m o s t w id e s p r e a d h ea lth in s u r a n c e p r o v is io n w as fo r
h o s p it a liz a t io n , c o v e r in g 78 p e r c e n t o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s and 85 p e r c e n t
o f plant w o r k e r s .
In r e c e n t y e a r s , m a n y o f th e s e p la n s have b een
b r o a d e n e d to c o v e r s u r g ic a l and to a l e s s e r ex ten t so m e m e d ic a l
expen ses.
T h u s, the to ta l w o r k e r s c o v e r e d f o r s u r g ic a l a r e now
on ly 3 p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts l e s s than th o s e c o v e r e d f o r h o s p ita liz a tio n .
M e d ic a l- c a r e p r o v is io n s now c o v e r 56 p e r c e n t o f o f f ic e w o r k e r s and
61 p e r c e n t o f pla n t w o r k e r s .

In su ra n ce c o v e r a g e in the c o m b in e d a r e a s w as g e n e r a lly
m o r e p r e v a le n t in m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s than in n on m a n u fa c­
tu r in g . A m on g the n on m a n u fa ctu rin g d iv is io n s , life in s u r a n ce c o v e r ­
a g e w a s h ig h e s t in fin a n ce and p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
C o v e r a g e o f oth er
ty p e s o f in s u r a n c e w a s g e n e r a lly h ig h e st in w h o le s a le t r a d e .

P r o v is io n f o r e m p lo y e e i l l n e s s e s m a y take the fo r m o f s ic k
le a v e w ith fu ll o r p a r t ia l pa y o r in s u r a n c e b e n e fit s . M any e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts p r o v id e d both s ic k n e s s in s u r a n c e and s ic k le a v e .
A bout
80 p e r c e n t o f both o f f ic e and plant w o r k e r s w e r e c o v e r e d by at le a s t
so m e type o f s ic k n e s s pa y.
S ic k -le a v e p la n s p r o v id in g f o r fu ll p a y and r e q u irin g no
w aitin g p e r io d w e r e m u ch m o r e p r e v a le n t f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s than
f o r plant w o r k e r s , 55 p e r c e n t , c o m p a r e d w ith 15 p e r c e n t .
On the
o th e r hand, s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e w a s m o r e c o m m o n ly
p r o v id e d f o r plant w o r k e r s , 65 p e r c e n t , c o m p a r e d w ith 43 p e r c e n t
fo r o f f ic e w o r k e r s .
L im it e d -t y p e s ic k le a v e r e q u irin g a w aitin g
p e r io d o r p r o v id in g p a r t ia l pay o r b oth w as p r o v id e d to about 10 p e r ­
cen t o f the w o r k e r s .
I lln e s s p la n s w e r e m o r e p r e v a le n t in m anu ­
fa c tu r in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s than in n on m a n u fa ctu rin g d iv is io n s e x ce p t

50

p u b lic u t ilit ie s . S om e s ic k le a v e w ith fu ll pay w a s p r o v id e d to m o r e
than 60 p e r c e n t o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s in the p u b lic u t ilit ie s and fin a n ce
d iv is io n s and to a th ir d o f the p la n t w o r k e r s in p u b lic u tilit ie s and
w h o le s a le tr a d e .
R e tir e m e n t P la n s
R e t ir e m e n t p la n s w e r e som ew h a t m o r e p r e v a le n t f o r o ffic e
w o r k e r s than f o r pla n t w o r k e r s . A b ou t 75 p e r c e n t o f o f f ic e w o r k e r s
and o v e r 60 p e r c e n t o f pla n t w o r k e r s in m a jo r la b o r m a r k e t s stu d ied
a r e now c o v e r e d b y p la n s .
In p u b lic u t ilit ie s , the c o v e r a g e w a s
about 90 p e r c e n t f o r both g r o u p s . L o w e s t p e n s io n pla n c o v e r a g e w a s
in s e r v i c e s and r e t a il t r a d e .
P e n s io n c o v e r a g e f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s ra n g ed fr o m 50 p e r c e n t
in N ew O r le a n s to m o r e than 80 p e r c e n t in N e w a r k -J e r s e y C ity and
A tla n ta . H ig h est c o v e r a g e f o r pla n t w o r k e r s w a s in D e tr o it (79 p e r ­
c e n t) and lo w e s t in P r o v id e n c e (31 p e r c e n t ).
C o v e r a g e in the in d i­
vidu al a r e a s , h o w e v e r , v a r ie d w id e ly am on g in d u stry d iv is io n s .
P r o fit -S h a r in g P la n s
T he ex ten t to w h ich v a r io u s ty p e s o f p r o fit -s h a r in g p la n s
w e re m a d e a v a ila b le to w o r k e r s w a s stu d ied fo r the f i r s t tim e in
the B u r e a u l s w ag e s u r v e y s o f m a jo r la b o r m a r k e t s . P r o f it - s h a r in g
p la n s o f a ll ty p e s s u r v e y e d , in w h ich e lig ib ilit y to p a r t ic ip a te w a s
ex ten d ed to a m a jo r it y o f the o f f ic e o r plant w o r k e r s , w e r e r e p o r t e d
by e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g abou t 13 p e r c e n t o f the o f f i c e and 7 p e r ­
cen t o f the p la n t w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f th e s e stu d ie s in the 17 a r e a s
c o m b in e d .
T h e c o lle c t io n o f data w a s lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s :
( l ) H avin g d e fin ite fo r m u la s f o r com p u tin g p r o fit s h a r e s to b e d i s t r i ­
bu ted a m on g e m p lo y e e s ; (2) w h o s e fo r m u la s w e r e c o m m u n ic a te d to
e m p lo y e e s in a d v a n ce o f the d e te rm in a tio n o f p r o f it s ; and (3 ) in
w h ich e lig ib ilit y f o r p a r t ic ip a t io n e x ten d ed to a m a jo r it y o f the o f f ic e
o r plant e m p lo y e e s .
T h e w id e v a r ie ty o f su ch p la n s found w e r e
c la s s if i e d in to fo u r b r o a d g r o u p s a c c o r d in g to p r o v is io n s f o r d i s ­
trib u tin g p r o fit s h a r e s to e m p lo y e e s :
(1 ) C u r r e n t o r c a s h d i s t r i ­
bu tion o f p r o fit s h a r e s w ith in a s h o r t p e r io d a ft e r p r o f it s w e r e d e ­
te r m in e d ; (2 ) d e fe r r e d d is tr ib u tio n o f p r o fit s h a r e s , a ft e r a s p e c ifie d
n u m b er o f y e a r s ; (3 ) d e fe r r e d d is tr ib u tio n o f p r o fit s h a r e s , p r im a r i ly
upon r e t ir e m e n t ; and (4) c o m b in a tio n o f c u r r e n t and d e f e r r e d d i s t r i ­
bution o f p r o fit s h a r e s (ta b le B - 3 3 ) .
A m o n g the fo u r ty p e s o f p la n s stu d ied , th o s e d e fe r r in g the
d is tr ib u tio n o f p r o fit s h a r e s to e m p lo y e e s u n til r e t ir e m e n t w e r e by
fa r the m o s t p r e v a le n t in a ll in d u s tr ie s c o m b in e d a s w e ll a s in e a ch
in d u stry d iv is io n .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith su ch p la n s a c c o u n te d f o r
10 o f the 13 p e r c e n t o f o f f ic e w o r k e r s and 5 o f the 7 p e r c e n t o f
plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts r e p o r tin g the e x is t e n c e o f
p r o fit -s h a r in g p la n s .
T h e s e r e t ir e m e n t -t y p e p la n s p r o v id e f o r the
ir r e v o c a b l e d e p o s it o f p r o fit s h a r e s a llo c a te d u n der the p r o fit -s h a r i n g
fo r m u la to e a c h p a r tic ip a n t w ith a t r u s te e until su ch tim e a s the
e m p lo y e e b e c o m e s e lig ib le f o r r e t ir e m e n t .
A lth ou g h w o r k e r s who
con tin u e to b e e m p lo y e d w ith the c o m p a n y n o r m a lly do not r e c e iv e




p a y m en t until r e tir e m e n t, th e s e p la n s t y p ic a lly p r o v id e fu ll o r p a r ­
tia l v estin g r ig h ts to p r o fit s h a r e s a ft e r a s p e c if i e d n u m b e r o f y e a r s
o f p a r t ic ip a tio n and p a ym en t m a y b e m a d e u pon s e p a r a tio n , d i s a ­
b ilit y , death , o r a p p ro v e d e a r l i e r r e t ir e m e n t .
P r o v is io n s s o m e ­
t im e s a r e m a d e fo r p a r t ic ip a tin g e m p lo y e e s to b o r r o w a g a in s t a
p o r tio n o f th e ir d e p o s its fo r c e r t a in p u r p o s e s , s u b je c t to a p p r o v a l
o f the tr u s te e s o f the fund.
P r o v i s i o n s f o r p a y m en t u pon r e t i r e ­
m en t m a y p e r m it the o p tion o f p a y m e n t in a lu m p su m (c a s h o r in
s o m e in s ta n ce s com p a n y s t o c k ); p a y m e n t o v e r a s p e c ifie d p e r io d o f
y e a r s ; o r p u r c h a s e o f a life a n n u it y .23* H o w e v e r , th is op tio n m a y
b e s u b je c t to a p p ro v a l o f the t r u s t e e s .
When fu ll p a y m en t to th o s e
w ho d r o p out o f the plan p r i o r to r e t ir e m e n t is not p e r m it t e d , the
am ou n t le ft in the fund is s h a r e d a m o n g r e m a in in g p a r t ic ip a n t s . In
a d d itio n to th e se f o r fe i t u r e s , p a r t ic ip a n t s e lig ib le f o r r e t ir e m e n t
sh a re in a c c u m u la te d d iv id e n d s o r in t e r e s t on in v e s te d p r o f it s h a r e s
to th e ir c r e d it, and in the in c r e a s e d (o r d e c r e a s e d ) v a lu e o f th e s e
in v e s tm e n ts .
The se c o n d m o s t p r e v a le n t ty p e o f p la n w a s the c u r r e n t o r
c a s h p la n , alth ough e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g o n ly s lig h tly m o r e than
1 p e r c e n t o f the o f f ic e w o r k e r s and a b ou t 1 p e r c e n t o f th e p la n t w o r k ­
e r s r e p o r t e d such p la n s .
P r o f it s h a r e s u n d e r th e s e p la n s a r e d i s ­
tr ib u te d , u su a lly in c a sh , w ith in a s h o r t p e r io d a ft e r p r o fit s h a v e
b e e n d e te rm in e d f o r a g iven a c c o u n tin g p e r io d , w h ich is at le a s t
o n ce e a ch y e a r .
P la n s that d e fe r r e d p a y m e n t o f p r o f it s h a r e s to e m p lo y e e s
f o r a s p e c ifie d n u m b er o f y e a r s w e r e in e f f e c t in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith
l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t o f the o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
F o r e x a m p le ,
a m on g such pla n s w e r e th o s e that p r o v id e d f o r the p a y m e n t o f e a c h
e lig ib le e m p lo y e e ^ sh a re o f annual p r o f i t s , a s d e t e r m in e d u n d e r the
p r o fit -s h a r in g fo r m u la , in to a tr u s t fu n d. T h e s e fu n d s a r e in v e s te d
b y the t r u s te e s o f the fund a s p r o v id e d f o r in th e p la n . E a ch y e a r ,
a ft e r the fifth y e a r o f p a r t ic ip a tio n , th e e m p lo y e e is p a id o n e -fift h o f
the a c c u m u la te d valu e o f p r o fit s h a r e s to h is c r e d i t . T he p a y m e n ts
in clu d e ea ch e m p lo y e e ^ p o r tio n o f the m a r k e t valu e o f in v e s te d p r o ­
fit s h a r e s , in te r e s t and d iv id e n d s on th e s e in v e s tm e n t s , and f o r f e i ­
tu r e s fr o m a c c o u n ts o f p a r t ic ip a n ts w ho le a v e the co m p a n y b e f o r e fu ll
v e s tin g rig h ts a r e a c q u ir e d .
T h e s e p la n s a r e fr e q u e n t ly d e s c r ib e d
a s th r ift or sa v in g s p la n s , and u n d er s o m e o f th e s e p la n s e m p lo y e e s
a r e p e r m itte d the op tion o f le a v in g t h e ir s h a r e s in th e fund u n til th ey
r e t ir e o r a r e s e p a r a te d .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g p la n s p r o v id in g f o r a c o m b in a tio n o f
c u r r e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f p a rt o f e a c h e m p l o y e e ^ p r o fit s h a r e and d e ­
f e r r e d d is tr ib u tio n o f the r e m a in d e r a l s o a c c o u n te d f o r l e s s than
1 p e r c e n t o f the o ffic e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
In clu d e d in th is g ro u p
w e r e e s ta b lis h m e n ts that had 2 s e p a r a te p la n s , 1 p r o v id in g f o r c u r ­
ren t d is tr ib u tio n o f p r o fit s h a r e s and the o th e r a d e f e r r e d d is t r ib u ­
tio n p la n , if e lig ib ilit y in both p la n s a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the
23 R e t ir e m e n t-ty p e p la n s that p r o v id e d f o r r e g u la r p a y m e n ts
to r e t ir e e s f o r the r e m a in d e r o f t h e ir l i v e s w e r e a ls o in c lu d e d in th e
ta b u la tion o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s .

51
o f f i c e o r p la n t w o r k e r s .
A m a jo r it y o f the c o m b in a tio n p la n s p r o ­
v id e d f o r d is t r ib u t io n o f th e d e fe r r e d p o r tio n upon r e t ir e m e n t , o r
u p on e a r l i e r s e p a r a tio n , o f th e e m p lo y e e .
E s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith p r o fit -s h a r in g p la n s w e r e fou nd in a ll
in d u s tr y d iv is io n s , a lth ou g h th e y w e r e s e ld o m r e p o r t e d in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts w ith in the p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n and the p r o p o r t io n v a r ie d
w id e ly a m o n g o th e r in d u s tr y d iv is io n s . P la n s o f a ll ty p e s c o m b in e d
w e r e a v a ila b le to the h ig h e s t p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s in r e t a il tr a d e ,
w ith a b ou t 29 p e r c e n t o f th e o f f ic e w o r k e r s and 15 p e r c e n t o f the
n o n o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts having p r o fit -s h a r i n g
p la n s a s d e fin e d f o r th e stu d y.
D ep a rtm en t s t o r e s , m a i l - o r d e r
h o u s e s , an d fo o d c h a in s in s o m e a r e a s , a c c o u n te d f o r a h igh p r o ­
p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s in r e t a il tr a d e e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith su ch p la n s .
T h e fin a n ce d iv is io n , m a in ly ba n k s and in s u r a n ce c o m p a n ie s , ran ked
s e c o n d in p r o p o r t io n o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith p la n s
(18 p e r c e n t ), fo llo w e d b y s e r v i c e s (16 p e r c e n t), m a n u fa ctu rin g , and
w h o le s a le tr a d e (9 p e r c e n t in e a c h ). F o r n o n o ffic e w o r k e r s , w h o le ­
s a le tr a d e ra n k e d a h ea d o f m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s (8 and 6 p e r c e n t ,
r e s p e c t iv e ly ) , and the p r o p o r t io n o f th e s e w o r k e r s in s e r v ic e in d u s ­
t r i e s (2 p e r c e n t ) w a s m u ch lo w e r than the p r o p o r t io n o f o f f ic e w o r k ­
e r s , p a r t ly b e c a u s e a n u m b e r o f th e s e e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith p la n s e m ­
p lo y e d m a in ly o f f i c e w o r k e r s . 24
P r o f i t - s h a r i n g p la n s that a p p lie d to both o f f ic e and plant
w o r k e r s o f the e s t a b lis h m e n t w e r e in the m a jo r ity ; 1 in 7 p la n s
a p p lie d to o f f i c e w o r k e r s o n ly , and none o f the p la n s a p p lie d e x ­
c lu s iv e ly to p la n t w o r k e r s .
C la s s ifie d a c c o r d in g to n u m b e r o f e m ­
p lo y e e s , 3 o f e v e r y 5 p la n s w e r e in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith fe w e r than
500 w o r k e r s , a lth ou g h p la n s in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith m o r e than

500 w o r k e r s w e r e a v a ila b le to a la r g e r p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r s . 25
C o m p a r a t iv e ly few v e r y la r g e m u lt ie s ta b lis h m e n t f i r m s w ith p r o f i t sh a rin g p la n s a c c o u n te d f o r a s iz a b le p r o p o r t io n o f th e em p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith p r o fit -s h a r i n g p la n s .
A m o n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith p r o f it - s h a r i n g p la n s , 4 p e r c e n t
o f the o f f i c e w o r k e r s and 42 p e r c e n t o f th e pla n t w o r k e r s w e r e in
e s t a b lis h m e n t s that had la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t s c o v e r in g a
m a jo r it y o f th e s e w o r k e r s .
T h e s e p r o p o r t io n s w e r e c o n s id e r a b ly
lo w e r than the c o v e r a g e o f su ch a g r e e m e n ts in a l l e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s c o p e o f th e study. 26 In d u stry d iv is io n s that ran k ed h ig h e st
in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith p r o fit -s h a r in g
p la n s (su ch a s r e ta il tr a d e , fin a n c e , and s e r v ic e in d u s tr ie s ), g e n ­
e r a lly ra n k ed lo w e s t in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by la b o r m a n a g em en t a g r e e m e n t s .
In s o m e in s t a n c e s , th e p r o fit -s h a r in g
p la n w a s a p a rt o f the la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t.
A m o n g the 17 a r e a s s u r v e y e d , p r o f it - s h a r i n g p la n s w e r e the
m o s t p r e v a le n t in C h ic a g o , w h e r e 21 p e r c e n t o f the o f f ic e w o r k e r s
and 13 p e r c e n t o f the plant w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f th e study w e r e
e m p lo y e d in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith su ch p la n s . A m o n g the o th e r a r e a s ,
the p r o p o r t io n s ra n g e d f r o m 4 to 17 p e r c e n t f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s and
f r o m 2 to 12 p e r c e n t f o r plant w o r k e r s . A r e a s w ith a b o v e a v e r a g e
p r o p o r t io n s w e r e w id e ly d is tr ib u te d g e o g r a p h ic a lly .
M uch o f the
v a r ia t io n a m on g a r e a s in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith p la n s a p p e a r e d to be a c c o u n te d f o r by d if f e r e n c e s in the exten t
to w h ich the v e r y la r g e m u lt ie s ta b lis h m e n t f i r m s w ith p r o fit -s h a r in g
p la n s w e r e lo c a t e d in an a r e a (ta b le B - 3 4 ) .

25 P r o f it - s h a r in g p la n s o f m u ltie s ta b lis h m e n t f i r m s w e r e cou n ted
s e p a r a te ly f o r e a c h e s ta b lis h m e n t and c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g to th e ir
e m p lo y m e n t in e a c h a r e a .
26 F o r in fo r m a t io n on c o v e r a g e o f la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n ts
b
24
T h e r e la t iv e l y fe w n o n o ffic e w o r k e r s in banking and in s u r ­ y a r e a and in d u s tr y d iv is io n , see W age D iffe r e n c e s and E s ta b lis h ­
m en t P r a c t i c e s BL.S B u ll. 1173 (p. 17).
a n c e e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e r e n ot in clu d e d in ta b u la tio n s.




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

52

Table B-l: Minimum entrance rates1 women office workers (all industries)
for
(D is trib u tio n o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied b y m in im u m h ir in g rate fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tion s )

N ew ark Jersey
C ity
271

N ew
Y o rk
C ity

P h ila ­
d elp h ia

544

322

P r o v i­
A tlan ta
d en ce

128

191

D allas M em phis

174

West
Far 1

M id dle W es t

South

N o rth e a st
M in im u m rate
(w e e k ly s t r a ig h t-t im e s a la r y )

134

N ew
C h icago D e tr o it
O rlean s

154

M inne M il­
a p o l i s - St. L o u is
w aukee
S t. P a u l

Los
A n g e le s P o r t la n d
D enver
L on g
Bsas-h___

San
F ran c is c o O akland

177

234

224

139

304

145

248

146

104

128

129

58

160

61

114

.

_

_

1
1
8
9
33
15
12
7
11
4
2
1
-

6
6
12
11
43
23
9
7
7
3
"
1

„
2
2
4
9
38
25
17
12
10
2
3
1
3
1

_

15
13
38
54
49
23
18
6
10
1
5

_
2
5
3
3
18
18
23
15
23
13
9
8
4
1
1

-

"

427

254

I e p r e c d t pss
n x e i n e y it
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having a s p e c ifie d
157
$ * 0 ,0 0
$ 3 0 .0 0 and u nd er $ 3 2 .5 0 _________________
$ 3 2 . 50 and und er $ 3 5 . 00 -----------------$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 * . no
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0

and
and
and
atH
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 4 0 .0 0 ------------------------un d er $ 4 2 . 50 ________________
un d er $ 4 5 .0 0 --------------$ 4 7 . 50
u n d er $ 5 0 . 00 -------------------- _
under $ 5 2 . 50 ------------------------u nd er $ 5 5 .0 0 -------------------- _
un d er $ 5 7 .5 0 ------------------------u n d er $ 6 0 .0 0 ________________
u nd er $ 6 2 .5 0 ------------------------u n d er $ 6 5 .0 0 ------------------------o v e r __________________________

E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d
m in im u m ------------------------------------------------------E s ta b lis h m e n ts w hich did not e m p lo y
w o r k e r s in this c a t e g o r y ----------------------------In form a tion not a v a ila b le ------------------------------

286

173

78

51

48
2
5
7
9

235

1
1
1
-

1
4
7
11
27
12
7
3
5
1
-

3
6
5
5
17
6
3
_
2
2
1
1
-

14
5
2
_
3
-

:

-

-

-

1

74

30

30

30

24

39

91

43

27

63

74
1

24
1

70
1

65
1

58
1

66
1

101

63
2
*

44
2

42
1

_
1
3
8
43
28
94
27
52
9
13
3
3
1
1

5
8
27
24
36
14
26
10
11
8
4
"

49

109
147
2

90

_
3
50
13
10
4
5
3
1
1

5
1
2
8
48
13
28
13
18
7
6
4
2
1
1

64
1

73

3
2
6
53
6

1
2

4
3
7
11
7
9
8
3
2
4
~
“
-

*
1
1
12
15
18
15
27
12
14
12
9
7
17

62

37

32
1

44

1
2
1
9
12
8
2
6
6
10

_
~

1

2
8
13
16
11
15
13
9
14
1
1
5
7

72

49

67

71

34
1

66
1

169

64

128

~

4
20
19
22
15
23
10
16
9
10
6
14

*
1
2
1
11
13
9
3
6
7
8
2
1
“

*
1
1
4
12
12
17
12
19
9
16
13
4
5
3

’
1

o
C

’

Other i e p r e c d c e i a work r 3
n x e i n e lrcl
es
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having a s p e c ifie d
m in im u m 2 ^ r , , , ...............
.

...

U nder $ 3 0 .0 0 --------------------------------------------$ 3 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 3 2 .5 0 ------------------------$ 3 2 .5 0 and un d er $ 3 5 .0 0 ------------------------$ 3 5 .0 0 and un d er $ 3 7 .5 0 --------------------- _
$ 3 7 .5 0 and u nd er $ 4 0 .0 0 ------------------------$ 4 0 .0 0 and un d er $ 4 2 .5 0 ________________
$ 4 7 . *0 And un d er $ 4 5 . 00
. . . . . . . ..
$ 4 5 .0 0 and u nd er $ 4 7 .5 0 --------------------- _
$ 4 7 .5 0 and un d er $ 5 0 .0 0 ------------------------$ 5 0 .0 0 and u nd er $ 5 2 .5 0 ________________
$ 5 2 .5 0 and un d er $ 5 5 .0 0 ------------------------$ 5 5 .0 0 and nndpr $ 5 7 . 50 . .
$ 5 7 .5 0 and u nd er $ 6 0 .0 0 ________________
$ 6 0 .0 0 and u nd er $ 6 2 .5 0
...
$ 6 2 . 50 and under $ 6 5 .0 0
_
_
$ 6 5 .0 0 and o v e r ______ ________ _______
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d
m in im u m _________________________________ _
E s ta b lis h m e n ts w hich did not e m p lo y
w o rk e rs in this c a t e g o r y ------------------------- In form a tion n ot a v a ila b le ___________________

165

6
1
5
9
58
12
28
13
12
6
6
3
3
1
2

58
47
1

311
_
1
15
16
78
42
88
21
22
12
12

185

14

7
30
29
48
12
20
6
8
8
3
-

4

_

-

86

120
2

50
1

94

86

57

54

252

164

123

132

138

71

4
5
12

.
1
2
2
27
20
59
43
44
20
16
4
8
1
5

1
1
6
5

-

2
3

35
17
26
14
22
9
7
5
5
3
1

1
3
1
13
13
43
13
11
12
6
5
2
~

"
5
8
4
19
9
8
6
3
4
4
1
~

2
1
_

35
9
1

3
1
2
_

1
_
_

4
5
2
8
4
17
7
2
2
3
2
.
1
_
-

-

8
1
4
4
60
3

-

I ll

83

-

-

1
1

52

36

39

48

106

45

29

58

64

37

73

45

69

51
1

37
1

51
1

69

43
2

23
2

43
1

21
1

31

61
1

35
1

50
1

1
1
1
8
53
8
7
4
5

44
1

2
5
4
19
11
22
8
4
1
8
1

7
13
4
3
4

7

7
6
12
18
46
17
10
4
7
4
1
“

7
12
46
25
15
11
8
3
2
1
2
1
~

1 L o w e s t fo r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d s a la r y r a t e . I n e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s a r e b y d e fin itio n e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in gs tabu lation s (S e r ie s A t a b le s ).
2 R e g u la r s t r a ig h t-t im e s a la r y c o r r e s p o n d in g to em p lo y e e * s stan d ard w o rk w e e k . D ata a r e p r e s e n t e d fo r a ll w ork w eek s co m b in e d .
3 R a tes a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f fi c e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c l e r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .




1
-

53
Table B-2! Minimum entrance rates1for women office workers (manufacturing)
( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d b y m in im u m h i r i n g r a t e f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s )

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d ________________

N ew ark Jersey
C it y

____

141

N ew
Y ork
C it y
177

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

145

M id d le W e s t

S o u th

N orth ea st
M in im u m r a t e
(w e e k ly s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r y )

P r o v i­
A t la n t a
den ce

70

60

D a lla s

M e m p h is

55

52

N ew
O rle a n s

53

C h ic a g o

16 5

In e x p e r ie n c e d
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d
m in im u m 2 ___ ___________________________
$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 3 2 .5 0
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

93

u n d e r $ 3 2 . 5 0 __________________
u n d e r $ 3 5 .0 0
..............................
u n d e r $ 3 7 . 5 0 __________________
u n d e r $ 4 0 . 0 0 _______________ _
u n d e r $ 4 2 . 5 0 __________________
u n d e r $ 4 5 . 0 0 .................................
u n d e r $ 4 7 . 5 0 ___ __ ___ __
u n d e r $ 5 0 . 0 0 _____
________
u n d e r $ 5 2 . 5 0 _______ __ „
_
u n d e r $ 5 5 .0 0
----------------u n d e r $ 5 7 . 5 0 __________________
u n d e r $ 6 0 .0 0
_____________ _
u n d e r $ 6 2 . 5 0 _______ _____ _
u n d e r $ 6 5 . 0 0 __________________
o v e r _____________ ________________

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c if ie d
m in im u m _
_ — -------------------- — __
----- _
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p l o y
w o r k e r s in t h is c a t e g o r y __________
___ _
I n f o r m a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e ___________ __________

_
_
1
4
25
6
23
8
12
4
4
3
2
1

93

_

85

43

21

20

17

15

_

3
_
6
7
24
5
16
6
8
6
4
_
_
_

_
1
1
37
3
1
_
_
_

.
.
7
3
6
1
1
_
2
1
.
.

-

-

-

_

1
5
3
5
2
3
1
_

3
1
5
5
_
1
1
1
.
.

-

-

103

D e tr o it

87

M il­
w aukee

F a r W est

M in n e ­
a p o l i s - S t. L o u is
S t. P a u l

D enver

Los
A n g e le s - P o r tla n d
Long
B ea ch

San
F ran c is c o O a k la n d

86

86

104

46

111

62

81

53

44

64

22

67

22

43

.
3
1
18
10
8
5
4
2
2
-

1
2
4
2
13
10
6
3
2
1
-

2
5
15
12
10
8
8
1
2
1
-

_
2
1
4
3
3
5
1
3
-

-

-

-

_
1
3
3
6
5
14
6
11
8
6
3
1

_
1
4
4
3
1
6
1
1
1

_
1
2
3
4
9
6
3
9
4
2

ty p is ts
61

1
3
6
2
1
1
.
1

_
5
2
16
21
25
13
8
5
4
1
3

1
1
6
5
8
6
10
8
6
6
2
1
1

-

_
.
1
15
7
27
7
17
4
7
3
3
1
1

20

34

33

21

15

11

10

16

42

17

21

28

29

13

23

23

20

28

50
-

27

6
-

24

24

25

22

20

12

17

18

■

11
“

21

"

14
“

11

-

8
1

*
*

•

-

-

•

“

O ther in e x p e rie n ce d c le ric a l w o rk e rs3
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d
m i n i m u m 2 ------------------------ -------------------------$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 3 2 . 50
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

u n d e r $ 3 2 .5 0
u n d e r $ 3 5 .0 0
u n d e r $ 3 7 .5 0
u n d e r $ 4 0 .0 0
u n d e r $ 4 2 .5 0
u n d e r $ 4 5 .0 0
u n d e r $ 4 7 .5 0
u n d e r $ 5 0 . 00
u n d e r $ 5 2 .5 0
u n d e r $ 5 5 .0 0
u n d e r $ 5 7 . 50
u n d e r $ 6 0 .0 0
u n d e r $ 6 2 .5 0
u n d e r $ 6 5 .0 0
o v e r ___

_

96

__________________
_____________ _
..................................
__ __ ___
__________________
___ _____
_______________ _
__________________
_______________ _
..............................
__________________
_______ __ „ _
__ __ ________
__________________

_

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c if ie d
m i n i m u m -------------------------------------------------------------E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p l o y
w o r k e r s i n t h is c a t e g o r y ________________
I n fo rm a tio n n o t a v a ila b le
____

100

_

43

21

20

_

3

2
-

3

-

1

7

17
19
13
6
3
3
1

8
9

-

-

-

*

26

39

39

23

28

14

18

19

38

22

4

11

21

-

-

-

"

*

2

1
1
1
6
6
9
4
10
6
-

-

-

1
1

3

48

6
4
4
6
-

2

4
_

3

6

22

2
2

1
_
_

4

2

3
7

69

-

22

_
_
_

7
3

21

3
5
15
13
9

1

.
6
1
.
1
_
-

10

62

1
1

2

2
2

5
1
_

41

1
3

9
5

2

22

7

59

_
1
1

1
1

1
1
6

27
5
15

56

18

_
3
1
6
5
1

.
_
_
10

.
8

101

21

_
1
1
39
1
_
1
_
_
_
.
_
_

.
3
4
28
8

_
1
4
27
8
26
6
11
5
8

84

1
_
.
_

2
-

7

.
1
.
1

2

2

5

7

3

2

4
5

2

1
-

1
1
1

3
-

1
3
6
9
3
13
6
12
8
5
1
2

7
4

2

2

24
8
8
6

3
16
9
6
-

7

2
1
5
3
3

2
2

1

-

3

*

-

-

-

21

38

19

22

22

30

13

23

19

19

13

14

26

23

12

12

14

“

“

“

19
“

21

“

11
1

2

5
“

L o w e s t f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d s a l a r y r a t e . I n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s a r e b y d e f in it i o n e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s t a b u la t io n s ( S e r i e s A t a b l e s ) .
H o u r s r e f l e c t t h e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s . D a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d .
R a te s a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c l e r ic a l jo b s a r e n ot c o n s id e r e d .




"

54
Table B-3: Scheduled weekly hours (all industries)
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in all establishments by scheduled hours of work per week)
P la n t w o r k e r s 2

O ffic e w o r k e r s 1
U n der 40 h o u rs

A r e a o r in d u s tr y d iv is io n

38%

T o ta l3

40
h ou rs

O ver
40
h ou rs

U nder 40 h o u r s
U nder
37%

35

36V .

37%

17 a r e a s c o m b i n e d ______________________________

16

4

15

5

46

53

t

M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _____________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e __ ___ — ---------- __ —

t
6
3
8
5

10
17
16
14
13
20
21

6
5

t
t

33
52
38
42
26
68
61

66
47
62
56
70
32
35

t
t
t
t
t

t
t
r
t
xxx

_______________________________________

13
18
21
18
4
19
26

4

5

N o rth e a s t:
N e w a r k - J e r s e y C i t y 4 ______
— _ N e w Y o r k C i t y 4 _____________________________
P h il a d e l p h i a 4 ________________________________
P r o v i d e n c e ------------------------------------------------------

16
50
9
3

4
9
7
7

28
18
27
15

t

65
87
61
39

35
13
39
60

t
t
t
t

7
13

t

t

17

66
76
74
66

4
12
14
11

p

,

S e r v ic e s

S ou th :
A t l a n t a --------

___________________

--------

--------

--------

---------------

5

t

3
M e m p h i s 4 ------- -------- —
_ —
N ew O rle a n s
_ _____________ __

— —
-----------

M id d le W e s t :
C h i c a g o * ______ __
___ _
_ __ __ _______
D e tr o it4
_ --------— — ------- —
M ilw a u k e e _ __ _____
______ _ _________
M in n e a p o l is - S t . P a u l _______ _____
_ —
St. L o u i s * ------------------------------------------------------

F a r W est:
D e n v e r __ __ _ „
_
_____ ___ ___ ___
L o s A n g e l e s - L o n g B e a c h 4 _________________
P o r t l a n d ___ ___ __
—
_
S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d 4 ___________________

1
2
3
*
f
*
**
xxx

t
t

_

4

3

t
t
t
3

f
t
t
t

t
t

3
t

t

t

3
8
3

8
11
7

4

t

10
4

6
15

t
t

31
12
12
23

14
9
10
15
8

8
3
3
9
4

36
16
17
29
18

63
83
81
69
80

t
t
t
t
t

4

3
3

14
15
15
37

82
84
84
63

4
t
t

8
8
17

6
10

T o ta l3

40
hours

O v e r 40 h o u rs
T o ta l3

44

42

3

7

80

13

t

t

5

3
3

8
6

9
18
6
10
25

t
t
t
t

t
t

3

3

xxx

xxx

t
t

4

8

t
t
t

t
t
t

4
7
8
6

11
11
11
13

4
8

3
3

4

t
t
t

7

5
4
4
4

t
t

t

t

9

t
t
"

64

26

3
5
5

10
19
8
3

78
72
84
78

12
9
8
19

t
t
t
t

t
t
t
t

3
4

27

t

39
32
30

t
t
t

3

70
58
67
67

78
85
78
77
86

16
12
16
17
7

t
t
t
t
t

77

19
8

t
t
t
t

4
t
t
t

3

t

4

9

xxx
t

t
t
t

-

3
5

xxx

-

t

3

3

t
3
3

t
t
t

t

5

6
3
6
6
7

t
t
3
t

3
3
t

3
3
4

11

13

90
93
86

3
t

3

3
5

t
t
10

xxx

t

3
4

t

xxx

4
8

xxx
4

t

t

xxx
5

3
5

t

4

3

t
t
t
t
t
xxx
t

82
76
93
86
67

t

O ver
48

48

45

4

D a ta r e la te to w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s o n ly .
D a t a f o r fin a n c e a n d i n s u r a n c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d .
I n c lu d e s w e e k ly s c h e d u l e s o t h e r th a n t h o s e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y .
E x c e p t i o n s t o th e s t a n d a r d i n d u s t r y l im i t a t i o n s a r e s h o w n in f o o t n o t e s 4 a n d / o r 6 , t o th e t a b le in a p p e n d ix A .
L e s s th a n 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .
N u m b e r o f p la n t w o r k e r s t o o s m a l l to j u s t i f y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a .




37%

t
3

7

6

t
t

3
5

t

t
6
t

3
t
“

8

3
t
t

t
5

4

3

55

Table B-4: Scheduled weekly hours (manufacturing)
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y s c h e d u l e d h o u r s o f w o r k p e r w e e k )

Plant w orkers

O ffice w orkers 1
Under 40 hours

A rea

T o ta l2

40
hours

Under 40 hours

Over
40
hours

Under
37ya

37 y2

T o ta l2

40
hours

48

9

3

3

78
69
84
83

11
5
6
15

t
t
t
10

4
t
t
3

5
t
t
t

4
t
t
5

86
77
82
82

11
21
17
14

6
8
7

6
t
3
5

t
10
t

4
t
t
t
6

8
3
6
8
7

77
92
78
73
88

15
5
16
19
5

5
9
9
-

3
4
3
5
t

5
t
t
5
t

6
4
t
10

8
4
7
12

87
88
91
87

6
8
t
t

t
t

3
3

t

36 y.

37 y2

38%

________________________

13

t

10

6

33

66

t

5

3

8

82

Northeast:
N ewark-Jer sey C ity ____ ________ _
New Y ork City _________________________
Philadelphia . ____ ____ ____
P roviden ce ____
___
____________ __

7
71
3
t

4
4
6
5

14
14
25
3

17
t
18
3

50
92
54
13

50
7
46
87

t
t
t
“

9
24
t
t

3
t
6
t

11
26
10
t

f

6
t
3
5

t
_
5

10
t
4
12

88
93
86
79

3
4
10
9

t
3

4
t
t

14
3
5
6
5

13
t
3
4
3

36
5
8
20
10

64
95
92
77
89

t
t

4
t
3
5
t

t
f
16

t

5
t
3
33

93
97
97
67

t
t
t

t
t
6
t

South:
Atlanta.
.. _
Dallas
............... _
_
Jrffvmphis _____ _
N»vr Orl pa n s

-

_______
____
......

M iddle West:
C h ic a g o ____

___
___
— ~ ---....
r
_____
MilwaukAA
__
_
___
^ipnpapnlia.fii'. Paul
........ .......
St. L ouis _______________________________

t
t

3

_

t

_

t

t

t

-

-

F a r West:
L o s A ngeles-Long B each ----------------------_________ ,
San F ranci sco-O a k la n d ---------------------------

t

t

10
!

1 D a ta r e l a t e t o w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s o n l y .
2 I n c lu d e s w e e k l y s c h e d u l e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y ,
t L e s s th an 2 .5 p e r c e n t .




3
t

bver
48

45

|

35

17 a rea s com bined

hours
Over 4C►
Total 2

56
Table B-5* Scheduled weekly hours (public utilities)*
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in public utilities establishments by scheduled hours of work per week)
Plant w ork ers

O ffice w orkers 1
Under 40 hours

Area

Under 40 hours

40
hours

Over
40
hours

37 y2

T o ta l2

40
hours

O ver 40 hours
Total 2

93

6

t

t
5

48

45

O ver
48

t

______ 1_____

5

35

17 a reas com bined

________________________

Northeast:
Newark-Jer*«ty City
....
_
__
New York C ity 3 -------------------------------------PhilaHpIphia
.....
.... . ..
__ .... _
pTfivirlfinre
....
South:
Atlanta.
Da 11a a
MpmpliiR ®
^Jow Orleans

_
r ^ „
. . ..........
_
..
___________ _____
........ .

37 y2

383
/4

T o ta l2

21

16

t

38

62

t

t

- .....t

74
64
13
t

t
15
55
83

t
t
-

76
80
70
84

24
20
30
16

-

5
-

5
t
-

99
90
99
86

14

-

"
3

9
t

61
t
60
46

_
_
_

70
3
60
61

27
92
33
39

3
6
7
-

t

t

58
64
67
95

42
36
33
5

t
17
11
5

9
3
7
“

6
5

3
54

t
t

5
54
t
t
8

95
46
99
99
91

t

_
-

_

t
“

t

-

t
4
t
4

“

-

100
98
96
98
96

-

t

-

97
100
96
83

4
t

3

t

83
95
100
98

5

_

17
5

4
16

6

Middle West:
riptrftit ^

. . . . . . _______ —

Minneapolis-St. Paul __________________—
St. Louis ^ , ......
.......

t
t
4

t
t

t

F ar West:
L os A ngeles-Long B e a c h 3 ----------------------Pn-ftland
....... . . .
San F ranci sc o-Oakland 3 -------------------------

t

4
6

7

1 D a ta r e l a t e t o w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s o n l y .
2 I n c lu d e s w e e k ly s c h e d u l e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y .
3 O ne o r m o r e u t ilit ie s a r e m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a t e d , a n d t h e r e fo r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s tu d ie s ,
f L e s s th a n 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .




t
t

3
"

t

._

S e e f o o t n o t e 4 t o th e t a b le in a p p e n d ix A .

t

.

“

-

”
t

57
Table B-6: Scheduled weekly hours (wholesale trade)
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in wholesale trade establishments by scheduled hours of work per week)
P la n t w o r k e r s

O f f ic e w o r k e r s 1
U n d er 40 h ou rs
35

36

lU

37

Va

3 8 3/ 4

17 areas c o m b in e d --------

18

6

14

t

N ortheast;
N ew a rk -J ersey City New York C i t y --------Philadelphia —
— ■

4
50

11
12

t

t

23
26
15

-

-

17

South:
X tla n ta ---------------------M iddle W est:
C hicago —

t
-

F a r West:
Los A n geles-L on g Beach •
San F ra n cis co-O akland —

_

6

37

Va

T o ta l2

t

t

7

14

t

t

95
86
98

t

t

68

29

57
9
65

-

6

-

•

3

19

77

4

-

t

- t_
t

76
81
91
93

3
4

-

21
16
9
7

6
6

10
21

90
79

t

.
-

3

t

_

t

-

.
.
-

-

84
79
97
93

5
9

90
91

48

3

t

t

-

..

t

"

-

-

”
3

-

10

10
3
8

10

7

-

-

3

3

*

"

3

5

_

*

_

„

.

14
20
3
7

3
9

“

_ t

O ver
48

45

44

T o ta l2
10

43
91
35

5

t

O v er 40 h ou rs

86

10

=

40
h ou rs

4

3

t

t
t

t

"

U nder
3 7 Va

56

3
9

-

U n d e r 40 h o u r s

42

10
12
7
3

3
.
3

6

M inneapolis-St. Paul •
St. L o u i s --------------------

T o t a l 23
4

40
h ou rs

O ver
40
h ou rs

“

_
”

'

1 Data relate to wom en office w ork ers only.
2 Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented separately,
t L ess than 2 .5 p ercen t.

Table B-7: Scheduled weekly hours (retail trade)
(Percent of office and plant workers em ployed in retail trade establishm ents by scheduled hours of w ork p er week)
Plant w orkers

Office w orkers 1
Under 40 hours

A rea
35
17 a reas co m b in e d -----------N ortheast:
N ew a rk -J ersey C it y 3 New York C it y 3 ---------Philadelphia 3 — —— —
——
P r o v id e n c e ------------------South:
Xtlanta ---------— ---------D a lla s --------------------------New Orleans --------— —
M iddle W est:
C hicago -----------------------D e tro it4 ----------------------M inneapolis-St. Paul —
F a r W est:
Denver ------------------ ------P o r tla n d ----------------------San F rancisco-O akland
1
2
3
4
f

3 6 l/4

37 Va

38 3U

T o t a l2

4

3

13

3

26

8
16
3
-

13
5
3

5
-

22
37
12
8
6
3
7

_
-

70

4

33
74
27
53

67
25
72
39

t
t
t
8

9
14
10

82
66
65

9
20
26

5
t
7

t

-

t
3
-

5
10
12

93
86
86

.

_

.

t

-

9

18
3
-

18
3
9

72
94
91

t

Data relate to wom en o ffice w ork ers only.
Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented separately.
Excludes lim ite d -p rice va riety s tores.
Excludes data fo r 2 la rge department stores,
Less than 2. 5 p ercen t.




4
10
28

40
hours

Over
40
hours

Under 40 hours
Under
37 l /a

40
hours

Over 40 hours
T o ta l2

Over
48

42

44

45

48

3

3

5

8

t
6
3

22
14
“

3
5
4
*

t
7

37 Va

T o ta l2

5

8

67

25

-

3
16
6
3

5
27
7
19

67
53
78
28

28
20
16
54

-

9
-

51
31
38

49
61
62

6

.

8

5
12
t

15
3
6

10
23
26

11
8
9

5
-

78
34
85

22
62
15

3
11
t

3
11
6

3
3
*

11
10
t

“

70
94
83

30
4
t

5
t

.

t

18
t

1-

7
-

_
-

-

t
4
t

t

t

10
3
*

-

_
13

.

t

-

14

5
26

-

-

*

,

J L -

5
-

58
Table B-8! Scheduled weekly hours (finance)**
(Percent of office workers employed in finance establishments by scheduled hours of work per week)
O ffice workers 1
40
hours

Under 40 hours

A rea
35

36 V*

37 lk

T o ta l2

38 V*

Over
40
hours

17 areas com bined __ __ ______ ___ _ -------

19

8

20

8

68

32

t

Northeast:
N ew a rk-J ersey C i t y ______________________
New Y ork C it y ____________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia __ _ __ ____
____ ___

17
43
22

5
13
16

62
11
28

t
5

99
88
90

t
12
10

t
-

South:
Atlanta ______ ____ ______ _
Dallas _________ _ ________ ___________ _

3
5

-

12
-

32
13

48
23

52
77

t
t

Middle W est:
Chicago ________ __ ____ ___________________
Detroit _______ ___
____ ____ ____ M inneapolis-St. P a u l_____________________
___ __ __ ____ ____
___ _
St. Louis

5
5
t
11

8
t

29
5
36
20

10
10
23
11

69
25
62
49

31
75
38
51

-

Far W est:
Los A n geles-L on g B ea ch ________ _______
San Francisco-O akland
__________ __ _

-

3

t

19
24

9
17

40
54

60
46

4

-

-

‘

1 Data relate to women o ffice w orkers only.
2 Includes w eekly schedules other than those presented separately,
t L e s s than 2 .5 p ercen t.
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table B-9: Scheduled weekly hours (services)
(Percent o f o ffice and plant w orkers em ployed in s e rv ice s establishm ents by scheduled hours o f work per week)
Plant w ork ers

O ffice w ork ers 1
Under 40 hours

A rea

40
hours

4

5

4

9

64

26

13
42

-

t

6
-

t
t

7
t

83
64

10
34

55
47

42
48

3
6

7
5

~

9
5

62
59

42

57

t

"

t

t

87

17 areas c o m b in e d ___________________________

26

5

21

3

61

35

Northeast:
New Y ork C it y _____ ____ ___________ __
Philadelphia ______________________________

50
6

7
t

24
46

_
3

87
57

Middle W est:
Chicago
D etroit

10
22

t

13
13

9
11

6

5

28

-

Far W est:
L os A ngeles-L ong B ea ch 31
2
2
T

_ _ _ _ _
_______

Data relate to wom en o ffice w orkers only.
Includes weekly schedules other than those presented separately.
Excludes m otion-p icture production and allied s e rv ice s ; data for these industries are included, how ever, in "all in d u strie s."
L ess than 2 .5 percen t.




Over 40 hours

Total 2

37V2

_
_

40
hours

37 V2

36V4

___

Under 40 hours
Under
37 Vz

T o ta l2

35

_

383
/4

Over
40
hours

O ver
48

45

48

7

5

10

-

26

5
-

3
7

t

29
37

12
25

-

12
5

5
7

11

-

t

9

T o t a l2

44

t .....
-

59
Table B-10* Shift differential provisions

(manufacturing)

(Total plant workers in establishm ents having form a l provisions fo r late shift operation)
P ercent o f manufacturing plant workers
Shift operation and shift pay d ifferential

Total plant w orkers in m anufacturing establishm ents ----------Second s h i f t ---- — ------------- — ------- —
With shift-pay d iffe r e n t ia l------U niform cents (per hour) —
Under 5 c e n t s ----------------5 and under 6 cents ———
6 and under 7 cents — ---7 and under 8 cents — ---8 and under 9 c e n t s -------9 and under 10 cents —
10 and under 11 cents ---11 and under 12 cents
12 and under 13 cents ----13 and under 14 cents — 14 and under 15 cents ——
15 and under 16 cents — -

NewarkJersey
City

100.0

100.0

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

P ro v i­
Atlanta
dence

Third s h i f t ------------------------------------With shift-pay d iffe r e n t ia l------U niform cents (per h ou r)-—
Under 5 cents — ———
——
—
5 and under 6 cents ———
6 and under 7 cents — ——
7 and under 8 cents
8 and under 9 cents — —9 and under 10 c e n t s ------10 and under 11 cents —
—
11 and under 12 cents ——
12 and under 13 cents ----13 and under 14 cents — 14 and under 15 cents ——
15 and under 16 cents ——
16 cents and over —-----—
7 and under 8 p ercen t ——
8 and under 10 p ercen t —
11 and under 15percent —
15 p ercen t and o v er — — Other ^ ----------------------- ---------No shift-pay d ifferential —
—------- —

New
Dallas Memphis Orleans Chicago Detroit

100.0

100.0

81.0
81.0
72.6
12.2
18.4
15.2
7.0
11.6
.7
- •
7 .6
•6
•
-

9 3 .8
9 3 .8
7 0.4
1 .8
5 .8
5.0
1.1
15.9
.5
19.5
.9
15.9
2 .2
1 .0
.8
11.7
5. 5

9 0.0
83.9
56.0
4 .0
6 .7
6 .4
19.2
.5
13.1
2.9
3.2
-•
3.5
-

9 3 .8
9 3 .8
4 2.9
2 .8
4 .2
13.1
1.6
1.0
10.8
6 .9
1.4
1.0
15.8
6 .8

11.3
9 .6
6 .3
“

•6
7 .8
•

.6
5 .6
11.7
*

3 .5
24.4
6.1

9.1
35.1
*

8 6 .8
8 6 .8
5 0.4
*
3 .2
1 .5
1 2.8
2 1 .5
.3
5. 8

7 1.6
71.6
5 9.8

83.5
8 3.5
2 4.3
*
3 .6
1.1
~
1 .4
6 .6
1.0
.3
*
5 .9
4 .3
7.2
•
.7
•6
6 .0

84.6
84.6
46.0
•
.9
1.5
19.1
.3
6.9
2 .6
*

9 1.3
91.3
34.3
“
1.0
2. 8
1.0
*
5.4
4 .2
~
10. 3
1.0
•6
4 .9
3 .2
14.3
*
*

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 .9
.5
3 3.2
t
1 5 .4

88.8
88.8
38.7
.7
10.7
3 .7
2 .6
1.1
1.5
11.8
3. 5.
2 .0
.
.
.4
.6
4 7.3
.7
5.2

64.1
62.5
35.1
•
4 .9
3.0
2 .4
1.0
.3
10.0
.
4 .9
6.2
.
2 .4
.
26.2
1.6

81.8
75.9
33.4
.3
11.8
6.1
5.1
.
.9
6 .5
1 .0
1 .5
.
.
•
3 7.5
6 .6

76.1
60.2
4 2 .4
9 .1
12.5
3 .7
7.1
3.1
6.1
.9
.
.
.
13.3
2 .5

7 9.4
6 5.6
4 7 .7
5 .5
6 .2
2 .7
2 .3
2 .6
.9
6 .7
2 0 .2
.6
.
1 6.2
1 4.6

7 7 .7
7 4.4
6 6.6
1 .5
11.9
1 .7
10.2
19.0
2 0.1
2 .2
7 .8
7 .8

76.0
55.0
39.9
13.5
12.6
2 .7
2 .2
2 .5
4 .8
1 .6
13.6
4 .9

7 1.7
53.8
53.0
15.2
1 0.4
18.0
3 .5
4 .4
1.5
-

92.3
9 1.2
4 8 .7
.6
4 .9
7 .3
2 .8
1 .8
4 .4
18.9
.8
.9
.5
5 .0
.9
39.9
8.1

9 9.3
9 8 ,4
29.1
4 .7
5.1
5.3
2 .0
.5
7 .0
1.3
1 .4
1 .7
6 8.0
6 3.5

9 3 .6
9 1.9
78.4
1.1
17.6
2 .8
10.8
17.4
3.1
10.7
10.7
1.3
2 .9
12.9
8.3

86.9
86.2
6 6.6
13.5
.4
2 .4
3 .5
7 .7
2 8 .5
1.3
3 .2
2.1
3 .3
.5
18.6
2 .3

8 9 .4
8 9.4
52.3
3 .2
17.0
12.0
2 .6
.2
5 .4
9 .8
2 .3
3 1.0
.7
9 .3

3 .0
14.0
.8
5.1
2 .6

4.1
37.3
.
2 .8
-

2 .5
16.9
5.1
1.2
1.6

5.3
2 5.7
5 .0
5.9

2 .8
8 .0
4 .5
15.9

1 .6
1 .7
13.8

.
.
3 .3

1.3
7 .4
1 .5
2 1 .0

.8
17.9

1 .2
2 8 .8
1 .8
2 .5
1.1

2 .4
2 .1
1.3
.9

3 .5
1.2
.6
1 .7

1 0.4
5.9
.9
.7

78.6
78.9
78.1
78.5
34.7
3 3.6
.
.3
.4
1 .6
.7
1 .5
1.1
1 .9
_
.8
4 .8
.9
14.4
1 0.8
.4
1.1
3 .5
5.2
.7
.5
1.2
4 .4
4 .4
2 .6
5.2
29*5
4 0 .6
.7
.5
5 .8
2 .4
.4
.3 *
33.7
2 0 .2
.8
1.9
1 .6
1.9
3.1
14.9
.8
.2

4 9.8
4 8 .8
22.2
.
2 .0
.9
1.1

74.3
73.4
29.2

6 1.5
6 1.5
41.1
.9
5 .6
11.7
2 .9
.7
16.3
.
.9
1.2
•
1.0
.
17.4
3 .2
2 .8
7.1
4 .3
3 .0
*

7 1.7
6 6 .7
2 8 .4
9 .8
1 .6
3 .6
1 .6
2 .7
5 .3
1 .4
1 .4
14.5
.8
2 .1
1 1.6
2 3 .8
5 .0

6 1 .4
6 0 .5
29.1
2 .8
1 .5
1 .8
.
1.1
15.6
2 .6
1 .5
2 .2
5 .6
5 .6
2 5 .8
.9

67.1
50.3
3 5.0
11.1
8 .9
1.3
2 .5
6 .5
•
1.1
2 .0
1 .6
13.6
2 .4
3 .8
7 .4
1. 7
16.8

58.7
4 9 .4
4 3.3
3.3
7.0
11.9
1.7
1 .8
6 .6
1.0
8 .5
1 .4
6.1
9 .3

81.6
8 0.5
36.6
.6
.7
.8
.6
10.5
11.3
•6
2 .0
.9
.7
6 .2
1 .7
3 6 .8
.7
2 .9
2 7 .2
1.3
4 .7
7.1
1.1

94.1
94.1
2 5 .0
1 .0
1 .3
2 .1
1 .5
4 .7
6 .4
2.0
•6
.8
2.1
2 .5
6 5.7
2 2 .7
4 2 .5
.5
3 .4

85.1
84.5
61.3
.4
3.1
2 .7
2 .5
15.9
3 .4
14. 2
6 .0
7 .2
5 .8
12.9
“
3. 5
9 .4
10.3
.6

78.6
78.6
59.0
2 .5
1.3
1.1
7 .7
1 6.8
1.2
4. 5
.8
2 .8
10.5
9 .7
18.6
2 .3
“
2 .2
14.1
.9

8 7.9
8 5.3
4 7 .0
1 .6
8 .2
5 .8
4 .1
4 .0
1 .9
1 2.4
.6
4 .4
1 .6
U

1.9
8 .9
.
.6
.
5.6
1.2
17.8
2 .5
.
9 .8
5.5
8 .8
.9

3 .3
.3
1.2
.6
2.1
14.9
_
5.1
1 .6
.1
3 5.8
1.1
6 .9
2 5.8
1.9
8 .5
.9

4 .4
.9
1 8.4
.6
1 .6
•3
1 3.6
1 .3
1 .0
18.0

100.0

San
Francis c o Oakland

100.0

100.0

1 Pay at regular rate fo r m o re hours than worked, or a paid lunch period not given firs t-s h ift w o rk e rs.
cents o r percentage differential fo r hours actually worked,
f L ess than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.




M il­
waukee

F ar West

Los
Minne­
A ngelesPortland
a p o lis- St. Louis Denver
Long
St. Paul
ELsaafr

100.0

Over 5 and under
10 p ercen t — — —
—— — —
11 p ercen t and o v e r ---- —
Other 1 ---------------------------------No shift-pay differen tial -------—

Middle W est

South

Northeast
17
areas

14. 5
11.6
15.4
15.4
*
•
2 .9
“
■
*
*
11.7

51.9

“
.7
13.9
•1
2 .6
*
“
“
1.9
*
*
.7
36.0

10.1
4 .2
4 2.7

M ost "o th e r" w o rk e rs, how ever, w ere in establishm ents which provid ed , in addition, a

60

Table B-lt Shift differential practices (manufacturing)
(W orkers em ployed on late Shifts at time o f survey)
P ercen t of manufacturing plant w orkers
Shift operation and shiftpay differential

Total plant workers in manufactoring esta b lish m en ts_____ —

17
areas

100.0

Northeast
Newark J ersey
City

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

100.0

100.0

100.0

14.1
14.1
6 .2
.1
1.4
.5
.4
.3
.3
2 .0
.7
.3
.
.1
t
7.3
.1
.8

10. 7
10.6
8.1
>
.5
.4
.7
.2
t
1 .7
.
.8
3. 1
_
.7
_
2 .4
.2

15.5
14.1
6.1
.1
2 .5
1.0
.9
.1
1.0
.3
.2
_
6 .7
1.3

Second shift em p loy m en t_________
With shift-pay d ifferen tia l-------Uniform cents (per h o u r)---Under 5 c e n ts ___________
5 and under 6 c e n t s _____
6 and tinder 7 c e n t s _____
7 and under 8 c e n t s -------8 and under 9 c e n t s _____
9 and under 10 c e n ts ------10 and under 11 c e n t s ---11 and under 12 c e n t s ___
12 and under 13 c e n t s ___
13 and under 14 cents ___
14 and under 15 c e n t s ___
15 and under 16 c e n t s ---16 cents and over ____ _
U niform percentage -------Under 5 percent
------5 percen t ____________
O ver 5 and under
10 p e r c e n t ____ ____ _
10 p ercen t ___________
11 percen t and o v e r ___ _
O th e r' _____________________
No shift-pay d iffe re n tia l-----------

17.9
17.3
9 .7
.4
1 .4
1.3
.8
.9
.2
2 .2
.1
1.2
.5
t
.5
.1
6 .6
t
3 .8
.5
2 .2
.1
1.0
.5

.6
5 .9
•
.5
-

.4
1.3
.6
.1
.1

1.1
4 .3
1.4
1.4

Third shift em ploym ent ---------------With shift-pay d iffe r e n t ia l____
U niform cents (per h o u r)___
Under 5 cents ___________
5 and under 6 c e n t s _____
6 and under 7 c e n t s _____
7 and under 8 c e n t s _____
8 and under 9 c e n t s _____
9 and under 10 c e n t s -----10 and under 11 c e n t s ---11 and under 12 cents ___
12 and under 13 c e n t s ---13 and under 14 c e n t s ---14 and under 15 cents ___
15 and under 16 c e n t s ---16 cents and over _______
U niform p e r c e n t a g e ________
Under 7 percen t
------7 and under 8 p e r c e n t ---8 and under 10 percen t —
10 p ercen t _________ __ _
11 and under 15 p e rce n t__
15 percen t and o v e r _____
O th er1
..............................
No shift-pay d iffe re n tia l_______

5.2
5.1
3 .0
t
.1
.3
.2
.1
.7
.7
t
.3
t
t
.2
.3
1.3
t
.4
t
.8
t
.1
.8
.1

4.1
4.1
3 .3
.
.1
_

2 .7
2 .4
1 .5

4 .7
4 .7
2 .6
.3
.1
.1
.1
.2
1. 1

See footnote 1, table B -10 .
t L ess than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.
1




.1
.9
.2
.6
.2
.2
1.1
.5
t
t
.4
t
t
.3
t

-

.
_
.1
_
.3
.6
_
.1
_
_
.5
.2
-

t
-

.2
.7
.2

.7
-

t
1.2
.3
1.0
.9
•

P r o v i­ Atlanta
dence

100.0

100.0

Dallas Memphis

100.0

F ar West

Middle West

South

100.0

New
Chicago D etroit
Orleans

ban
L os
M inne­
FranAngeles M il­
apolis - St. Louis D enver
P ortland c i s c o Long
waukee St. Paul
Oakland
Beach

«
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

25. 7
2 5 .4
6 .6
1.0
1.5
1.0
.4
.2
1 .6
.2
.2
.6
18.3
17.8

18.2
17.8
14.6
.3
3 .0
.7
2 .3
3 .6
.2
1.1
2 .5
.1
.8
2 .8
1 .9

1 3.4
13.2
9 .8
2 .0
.4
.7
.1
4 .0
.1
.8
.4
1.0
.2
3 .2
.1

17.0
17.0
10.0
.8
2 .9
3 .0
.5
t
.3
2 .0
.4
5 .7
.2
1.3

1 2.7
1 2.7
1 2.6
3 .5
4 .4
2 .3
.4
.7
1 .3
-

2 0.0
2 0 .0
1 5.8
.4
.6
1.1
.3
3 .8
.1
3 .6
.2
4 .9
.5
.2
.3
1 .6
~
1.0

1 6.9
15.3
1 1.6
.5
.3
1 .6
4. 6
•1
2 .6
1 .0
.9
.9
-

1 5.9
1 5.9
9.1
.6
.4
2 .5
.4
.2
2. 5
2 .0
.3
1 .7

2 .7
1 .6
1.2
-

.2

.6
2 .5
*

.9
2 .8
1 .6

1 .7
5. 1
~

7 .7
7 .7
6 .3
1.1
.2
1 .4
2 .1
t
.7
.8
.1
.4

4 .0
4 .0
3 .9
-

3 .4
3 .4
1 .8
-

2 .9
.2
.3
.5
“
“
“
“
"
"
.1

.7
.1
.3
.4
t
t
.1
.3
.1
"
"
•
.1
“
1 .6

8 .4
8 .4
6 .4
.2
.3
2 .9
.1
1.2
.1
.1
1 .5
.1
“
■
.1
“
1 .9

5 .5
5. 5
4 .7
.1
.6
.2
.9
1.2
.1
.1
.3
1.1
.1
“
.1
-

17.6
14.0
12.9
1.0
1.0
.9
.6
.1
.8
8 .4
.
.
.3
.2

14.9
14.1
1 1.4
.4
1.5
.1
2 .0
.
1 .4
5 .7
.3
.
2 .7
2. 7

13.2
10. 6
8. 7
4 .2
1.6
.
.1
1.0
.2
.6
.
1.0
.
1 .9
.1

15.4
11. 7
11. 7
2 .5
2 .7
3 .8
1.2
.9
.6
-

19.2
18.8
10.4
.1
1.1
1.8
.7
.5
.6
3 .4
.3
.2
.2
1.4
.1
7 .8
1.9

.1
.6
.
.8
2 .4

.1
.8
3. 6

.
.8

.2
1 .6
2 .6

3 .7

.1
5. 5
.3
.6
.4

.2
.3
.5
.3

.9
.2
.4
.4

1 .9
1.2
.3
.3

5.3
5.3
4 .3
.3

5 .7
4 .3
2 .0
.9
.1
.3
.5
.1

6 .8
5.1
4. 7
2 .8
.5

5 .5
5.2
4 .7
.1
.6
1.9
.4
.3
1.1
-

-

-

-

6 .5
6 .4
3 .6
.1
.2
t
1 .7
.8
t
.2
.1
.3
.1
2 .0
.2
1 .4
t
.4
.9

7.0
7.0
2 .6
.2
.3
.1
t
.9
.4
.2
t
.1
t
.3
4 .3
1. 9
2 .3
.1
.2

4 .6
4 .5
2 .9
t
.2
.1
.8
.8
.5
.2
.5
.7
•
“
.4
.3
.9

2 .3
2 .3
1 .9

T

3 .4
3 .3
2 .2
t
.3
.2
.3
.5
.1

12.1
9 .7
7 .8
2. 7
2 .2
.5
.9
.5
.8
.2
1.1
.3

-

1.8
.3
1 .6
.
.1
.2
.
_
_
1.0
.2
.8
-

*
*

-

.
_
.l
.l
.l
.
2 .3
1 .4

_
t
.7
.3
.3
.8
.1

-

.1
t
1.1
-

-

t

.3
t
.5
.3

.1
t
.4
t
.4
1 .7

T
.1
1.1
t
t
t
.1
.2
.3
.3
*
t
t
.2
.2

.1
.3
*
1.1

-

t

.7

t

t
*

‘

61

Table B-l2s Paid holidays (all industries)
( P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and p lant w o r k e r s em p lo y e d in a l l e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p a id h o lid a y s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1 )

South

Northeast
Number of paid holidays

17
areas NewarkJ ersey
C ity*

New
Phila­ P ro v i­
Atlanta
York
delphia * dence
C ity*

Middle West

New
M il­
Chicago*1Detroit* waukee
Dallas M emphis *
Orleans

F a r W est

LOS
San
Minne­
A n gelesF ranPortland
a p o lis- St. Louis* Denver
Long
c is c o St. Paul
Oakland *
B each*

O ffic e w o rk e rs
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays ■■-.... ......... .......................
■
----- ----------Under 5 h o l i d a y s -------—
5 h o l i d a y s ---------------------------- -------F u ll days o n l y --------------------------Plus 1 o r m o re half days -------6 holidays — — —
— --------------------------F u ll daya o n l y ------------------ —---Plus 1 o r m ore half days — ——
7 holidays ■ —------------------------- — —
■
F ull days o n l y ----------— -------—
—
Plus 1 o r m o re half days — — •
8 holidays — ------- .-----------------------—
F ull days only — -------——
Plus 1 o r m ore half days —- ■ ■
9 holidays ............. ■ ■•
■ .......... —
-----F ull days only — ... ............... —
Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s -------10 holidays —............................... .... —
F ull days only --------------------- -- Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s -------11 holidays ———
—---------------- -----F ull days only ■ — ■
■
■
——
Plus 1 o r m o re half days —
——
Over 11 holidays ■
---W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays — ----- ------ ---- ---------

99
t
t
t

99
t
t
t
t
34
26
8
21
19
t
12
10
t
7
5
t
4
3
t
14
12
t
6

6
4
t
26
22
4
16
13
3
11
11
t
t
t
t
6
5
t
33

99
t
t
t
13
11
t
11
8
3
13
11
t
9
7
t
43
36
7
9

t

t

100
t
t
t

98
t
t
t

25
20
5
24
20
4
17
17
t
4
4
t
5
4
t
t
T
T
23

8
6
t
8
7
t
14
14
31
31
22
20
t
14
14
-

t

t

99
t
37
31
6
35
29
7
16
14
t
9
8
t
t
t
t
t
-•

99
10
29
22
7
41
38
3
15
15
4
t
3
-

t

100
4
54
53
t
17
14
3
20
19
t
5
t
3
-

99
t
t
t
56
49
7
22
21
t
7
5
t
3
3
t
i
T
t
9
8
t
-

99
t
83
31
52
8
8
f
t
t
T
5
5
t
3
3
t

99
65
50
15
24
23
t
10
3
7
t
t
-

t

t

99
t
t
t
T
64
42
21
14
12
t
18
9
9
3
2
t
t
t
-

t

t

100
66
51
15
24
17
7
6
3
3
4
4
•
*
*

99
t
t
48
43
5
22
22
29
29
I
T
-

t

t

99
t
t
33
28
6
41
38
t
23
23
t
•
“
*
“
t

t

99
3
t
t
42
37
5
43
42
t
10
10

91
t
t
T
61
61
t
18
18
11
11

100
t
t
53
49
4
25
20
5
15
14
t
t
I
T
t
t
3
1
T
*
*

99
t
t
49
49
36
36
10
6
4
4
4
t
~
t

100
t
t
t
5
5
t
50
48
t
36
34
t
7
4
3

•
“

t
_

i
i
t
t

t

Plant w ork ers 3
W orkers in establishm ents providing

F ull days o n l y ------------------ ------Plus 1 or m ore half days ~ —■
—
6 holidays ................. ................... — —
---F ull days only
Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s -------7 holidays — - —■■-------------- -----------■■
■■
F u ll days only -----------------------Plus 1 o r m o re half days ———
8 h o lid a y s ------------------------- ----------...... ———
—
F u ll days only ■
■
Plus 1 o r m ore half days — —
9 holidays —
—— ——— — -------- ------—
F u ll days o n l y ------------------ --Plus l o r m ore half d a y s -------10 h o lid a y s ...... .. ..
F ull days only — --------•■
■■
Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s -------11 holidays
——
........ .......
F ull days only ...........——----------Plus 1 o r m o re half days ..—...

Over 11 holidays
——
-----—
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays .
.
.... ..

1

96
3
3
3
t
48
36
12
25
23
t
10
9
t
3
t
T
T
t

98
t
f
t
15
11
4
42
35
7
20
16
5
8
7
t
t
t

3
3

6
5

98
4
.
.
16
16
t
29
24
v5
14
13
t
9
6
3
5
5
t
18
17

t
t

t
4

t
t

4

t

t

-

99
t
t
t
39
35
4
37
34
3
15
15
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
-

97
3
4
4
25
23
3
14
14
20
20
27
27
4
4

.83
8
30
28
t
38
30
9
6
6
t
t
t

87
18
24
22
t
28
25
3
16
16
t
t

85
12
32
32
.
23
19
4
16
16
t
t
t

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13

15

t
T
t
T

77
10
4
3
t
40
36
3
12
11
t
11
11
t
t

-

-

-

t

-

-

t

3

17

-

-

-

98
t
t
t
«
90
30
60
7
7
t
t
t
t
t
-

3

t

97
6
t
t
61
53
7
21
21
t
6
6
t
t
t

-

-

23

-

94
t
t
t
t
70
55
15
17
17
5
5
- •
•
t
t

98
t
t
t
73
61
12
18
16
t
6
5
t

-

6

94
t
t
t
59
53
6
24
24
t
9
9
t
t
-

89
t
t
t
55
55
28
28
4
4
*
-

95
3
4
4
12
10
t
49
47
t
27
26
t
t
t
“
•
-

6

1
1

5

-

t

t

9

-

-

Estim ates relate to fu ll-d a y holidays provided annually, as in ea rlie r studies. These a re further divided between w orkers who re ce iv e m e re ly the indicated number o f full-d ay holidays, and
those who re c e iv e 1 o r m ore half holidays in addition.
a E xceptions to the standard industry limitations a re shown in footnotes 4 a n d /o r 6 to the table in appendix A.
Data fo r finance and insurance establishm ents a re excluded,
f L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.

3


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
409983 0 - 5 6 - 5
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

62
Table B-13: Paid holidays (manufacturing)
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e paid h o lid a y s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1 )

Northeast
Number o f paid holidays

17
Newark- New
areas
Jersey
York
City
C ity

Phila­
delphia

South
P r o v i­
dence Atlanta

Middle W est

Dallas Memphis

New
Chicago Detroit
Orleans

M il­
waukee

F a r W est

Los
M innea p o lis - St. Louis Denver A n gelesLong
St. Paul
Beach

Portland

San
F ra n c is co Oakland

O ffic e w o rke rs

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays------------—
---------------Under 5 holidays ----- -------------- —
5 holidays------------- -----——
----- —
.
Full days only — —■■ - . ■ »■
■
Plus 1 or more half days------6 holidays .... ..................— -------Full days on ly----- ---------- —
---Plus 1 or more half days —— •
—
7 holidays---------------------— ------—
Full days only ——
-----------------Plus 1 or more half days------8 holidays-------- —
—- .................
Full days only ---------- -----------Plus 1 or more half days------9 holidays ------ — — - -- ..........
Full days on ly----------------------Plus 1 or more half da ys-------10 holidays------------------------------Full days only — .....................
Plus 1 or more half days-------11 holidays---------—-----------------F u ll days o n l y -----------------------------

Plus 1 or more half days-------Over 11 holidays --- ------------------Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays...................... ...... ■
■

99
t
t
t
t
52
35
17
24

22
t
1
1
10
t
4
3
t
4
3
t
3
3
1

T

100

100

100
-

-

-

t
t

-

t
t

-

-

-

t
t

33
23

99
t
t
t

9
5
4
42
37

6

31
26
5

8
8

t
t
t
T
5
3
I

T

T

1
1
7
4

26
19
7
18
14
4

10

38
33
5

21
21
t
3
3
t
3
3

21
18
*
5

_

21
17
4
t

99
t

22
22
-

-

14

10

4
15
14
t
25
25

69

60
10
4
t
t
t
t

99
5
19
18
t
44
41
3
31
31
.

t
t

100
5
32
31
t

26
22
4
31
28
3
5
5

99

55
38
18
17

68
57
10

16
t
20

100

.

t
t

-

100

•

t
t

.

-

.
.

66
49
17
32
32

-

.

-

6
6

t
t

78
54
24
17

8
10

37
34
3
53
46
7

100

_

t
t

_

95
18
77
5
5

100

„

-

•

25
24
t

100

_

.

t
t
76
70
7

64
64

26
13
13

20

7
t

1
1
1
1

19
t
4
4

_

-

_

32
32

-

11
9
3
69

68

.

.

8

5
4
t

100

t
t

.

76
50

100

.

-

t
t

15
5
5
4
t

-

-

t
t
t

.

-

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t
19
19

-

-

.

t
t

100

t

-

.

38
38

99
t
t
t

.

t
t
t

_

t
t

t

-

-

-

-

99
t
t
t

89
t
t
t

92
t

47
47

13
13

73
64
9
21
20
t
3
3

-

-•
*

-

■
*
*

16
11
4
56
53
3
20
18
t

-

4

t

1
1

•

•
-

-

-

-

-

-

*100
t

98
t
t
t
f
67
50
17
22
22

98

100

96

-

-

t
t

3
t
t
41
35
6
47
45
t
9
9

-

-

-

t
t

t

t

t

-

t

t

-

P la n t w o rke rs
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays — — — ---------------- ----—
Under 5 holidays
—
—
5 holidays — --------- ---- ------— —— —
Full days o n ly --------- ---- -----------Plus 1 or m ore half d a y s --------6 holidays - ...— ---- —---------------------F ull days only — ---------- —— ----~
Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s --------7 h o lid a y s ---------- -------—
----------------Full days o n ly --------------------------Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s --------Full days o n ly -----------------------—
Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s --------9 holidays — ---- — ------- ------------------Full days o n ly --------------------------Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s --------10 h o lid a y s --------- --------------------------F ull days o n l y --------------------------Plus 1 or m ore half d a y s --------1 h o lid a y s ---------- —-----------------------1
Full days o n l y -------------------------Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s --------Over 11 holidays ------------- -— -------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h o lid a y s ------------------— --------

98
t
t
t
t
54
35
19
24
22
t
11
10
t
3
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

t

99

99
7

t
t

.
-

17
12
5
42
36
6
26
20
6
6
5
t
t
t

19
17
t
14
8
6
25
22
3
14
9
6
9
8
t

*

5

4
t

1
1
9
t
t
t

99
t
t
t

98
t
5
5

•

-

*

•

36
29
7
42
37
5
17
17

29
26
3
17
17

52
38
14
3
t
t
t
t

-

23
23

78
6
14
14

.

.

t
t
t

21
21

t

.
-

91
7
22
20
t
40
35
6
21
21
-

t
t

88
7
23
23
•

34
28
6
21
20
t
3
3

68
11
t
t

•

«

29
29
t
13
13

61
50
11
25
24
t
8
8

-

10
10

t
t
-

t

*

•
«

.
-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

t

22

12

32

9

99
t
3
3

-

3
3

-

93
19
74
6
6

-

•
-

•

t

-

t

-

t
t

-

6
6

•

75
54
21
11
11
t
11
9
t
-

t

58
57
t
25
25
-

•

-

-

39
39
-

t
t

«
•

-

8

1 E stim ates relate to full-d ay holidays provided annually, as in e a rlie r studies.
These a re further divided between w orkers who re ce iv e m e re ly the indicated number o f fu ll-d a y holidays,
and those who receiv e 1 o r m ore half holidays in addition.
* The in crease from 82 percen t reported in a sim ilar study made in October 1953 resulted ch iefly from con version to paid holidays in establishm ents which fo rm e rly gave pay in lie u o f h o lid a y s,
t L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.




63
Table B-14* Paid holidays (public utilities)*
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plant w o rk e rs e m p lo y e d in p u b lic u tilitie s e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p a id h o lid a y s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1)

17
areas

N ewark Jersey
C ity

New
Y ork
C ity 1
2

M id d le W e st

South

N o rth e a st
N u m b er o f p a id h o lid a y s

P h ila ­
delph ia

P r o v i­
d en ce

A tlan ta

D allas

M e m p h is 2

M il ­
N ew
C h ic a g o 2 D e t r o i t 2
w aukee
O rle a n s

F a r W est

M in n e­
a p o lis - S t. L o u is
S t. P a u l

D enver

L os
A n g e le s P o rtla n d
L on g
B e a ch 2

San
F ran c is c o O akland2

O ffic e w o rk e rs
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
p a id h o lid a y s ____________ __ ___
U n der 5 h o lid a y s
------- __
5 h o l id a y s _______
___
_ — __
F u ll days o n l y __________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
6 h o lid a y s __ _____ — _____
F u ll d ays o n l y ________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
7 h olid a y s
F u ll days o n l y __ — — — —
P lu s l o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
8 h o l id a y s ___________________________
F u ll d ays o n ly _
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s - ___ . .
9 h o lid a y s F u ll d a y s o n ly - __
__ —
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s __ _
10 h o lid a y s . __
F u ll d a ys o n ly _
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s __ __
11 h o lid a y s _ __ __
F u ll d ays o n ly _ __
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
O v e r 11 h o lid a y s ----------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no p a id h o lid a y s

99
t
t
t
t

16
14
t

30
28
t

21
20
t

100
.
t
t
t
t
t
_

4
3

42
42

t

t
t
t
-

-

9
7

7
7

t

-

t

5
5
.

.

100

t

49
49

.

100

t
t
.
_
_
_
-

7
7

4
4

100

9
3

6

13
13

5
5

t

t

5
5

t

31
26
5

-

92
92

-

71
69
3

-

41

t

3

-

-

-

“

•

19
18

5
5

t
t
t

t

100
10

100
t

100
t
12
12

27
27

18
15
3
36
36

.

_

_

63
63

43
43

48
48

.
-

-

-

-

■

*

“

9
t

3
3

-

39
39

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

-

-

-

-

-

t
t
-

-

-

-

32
5
27
30
26
4
30

13

53
50
3
47
47

84
53
31

36
35

18
18

16
16

3
3

31
31

t

-

-

-

-

46
46

41
41

14
14

41
41

-

64
38
26

-

-

-

-

-

35
35

43
43

82
82

27
27

72
72

-

“
-

“
-

*
*
•

t
t
•
t
7
t
-

•

“

“

"

t

“

1
2
t

63
63

t
t
-

-

-

•

"

“

1
1
19
8
8

t
t
-

16
16

23
23

t
t
t
t
-

20
20
t

P la n t w o rke rs
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
p a id h o lid a y s
U n d er 5 h o lid a y s
__ __ __
5 h o l id a y s ______________________ ____
F u ll d a y s o n ly _
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s --------6 h o lid a y s ,
, ,,
,
F u ll d a y s o n ly P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf days
.......
7 h o lid a y s _ __
F u ll d a y s o n ly _
— P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ____ _
8 h o l id a y s ____ ___ - F u ll d a ys o n l y ---------------------------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
9 h o lid a y s .
F u ll d a y s o n ly _
— —
- —
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
10 h o lid a y s _
F u ll d a y s o n l y __ — -------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf days — ----11 h o lid a y s __
F u ll d a y s o n l y __
—
—
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s --------O v e r 11 h o l i d a y s ..
—
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no p a id h o l id a y s __

97

99

99

t
t
t
t

t
„
t
t
.

.

23
23
t

28
27
t

19
19

97

98

98

93

95

88

-

-

-

-

-

t
t
-

-

-

-

-

27
27

30
30

18
18

30
30

57
55

44
44

33
33

31
31

33
33

7
7

.

.

-

t

-

-

37
37

40
40

t

-

39
39

54
42

33
33

30
30

.
.
-

.
.
-

.
.
-

-

-

-

-

32
32

33
33

62
62

-

t

15

12

7

33
33

4
4

43
43

_

_

.

.
.
-

5
5

20
20
-

.
.
.
_
.
-

3
3

25
25

15
15

17
17

67
67

t

-

36

-

3

t

t

t

3
t
t

97

-

t

6
6
.
22
22

22
22

17
17
.

t

-

23
15

71
71

8
-

-

4

100

79

85

-

18
18

19
19

100

88
20
20

99

.

-

5
5

100

.

-

-

100

.

15
13
t

88

32
32

42
42

41
41

t

70
19
9
9

.

-

t
t
*
-

1
2

-

-

3

3

t

t

27
27
t
t
-

21

26
26

'

i

11
11
22
22

-

-

34
34

23
23

-

-

21
21

70
70

*
“

-

“

5

12
'

Estim ates relate to fu ll-d a y holidays provided annually, as in e a rlie r studies. These are further divided between workers who receiv e m erely the indicated number o f full-day holidays, and
those who r e c e iv e 1 o r m ore half holidays in addition.
2 One o r m ore utilities are m unicipally operated, and th erefore, excluded fro m the scope o f the studies. See footnote 4 to the table in appendix A .
t L ess than 2 .5 p ercen t.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public utilities.
1




64
Table B-15: Paid holidays (wholesale trade)
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in w h o le s a le tr a d e e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p ro v id e pa id h o lid a y s b y n u m b er o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1 )

N u m ber o f pa id h o lid a y s

N ew arkJ ersey
C ity

N ew
Y ork
C ity

P h ila ­
d elp h ia

A tlanta

F a r W est

M id d le W e s t

South

N o rth e a s t
17
areas

C h ica g o

D e tr o it

M in n e a p o lis S t. P a u l

S t. L o u is

L 08
A n g e le s L on g
B e a ch

San
F ran c is c o O akland

O ffic e w ork ers
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
U nder 5 h o lid a y s

__

___

______

F u ll d ays o n ly ____________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
F u ll day 8 o n l y ----------------- ---------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _______
F u ll d ays o n l y ___________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _______

P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
9 h o lid a y s
------- ----------------------F u ll days o n l y ___________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _____
10 h o lid a y s
__
Full d ays on ly
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
11 h o l i d a y s __ ______________________ _
F u ll day 8 o n l y ___________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _______
O v e r 11 h o l id a y s ____________________
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
n o p a id h o lid a y s ______________________

99
t
3
3
_
30
27
3
29
28
t
12
10
t
9
7
t
6
4
t
9
9
t
t
t

100
12
8
4
25
16
8
t
t
16
16
7
6
t
22
22
16
*

100
t
t
19
19
t
18
12
6
22
16
6
14
9
5
25
24
t
•t
-

100
13
12
t
46
42
4
28
28
11
11
t
t
t
”

100
36
36
56
51
5
8
8
t
t
-

100
69
62
7
25
25
4
4
t
t
t

100
77
64
14
19
19
4
t
3
•
-

"
-

“
-

100
45
42
3
49
44
5
6
6
•
"
"
"

97
3
3
27
24
3
63
63
5
5
"
"
~
"
"

100
*
•
43
41
t
37
34
t
20
20
“
”
~
~
“

100
•
9
9
75
75
*
15
15
“
~
~
~

~
~

“

3
*

P la n t w o rk e rs
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
_
_
paid h o lid a y s
U nder 5 h o lid a y s ___________________
5 h o lid a y s ......
F u ll d a y s on ly ,
__
___
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
6 h o lid a y s
______ __ __ __ __ __
F u ll d a y s on ly
...
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _______
7 h o lid a y s
_____________ __ ____ _
F u ll d a ys o n ly
. ...
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf days
8 h o lid a y s ___________________________
F u ll d a y s on ly ...
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ______
9 h o lid a y s _ ____ ___ ___________
F u ll d ays on ly __________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d ays ______
10 h o l i d a y s __________________________ _
F u ll d a y s o n ly
__ _ _
_ __
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _______
11 h o lid a y s __________
F u ll d a y s o n l y __ _________________
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s _______
O v e r 11 h o lid a y s ___________________
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
no p a id h o lid a y s _
_ .._ ....

98
t
5
5
_
40
37
3
27
26
t
10
10
t
4
4
t
3
t
t
7
7
t
t
t

99
_
_
_
3
3
_
25
24
t
12
11
t
11
9
t
11
10
t
33
31
t

94
40
40
45
37
8
8

9

4

97
5
5
_
19
19
40
39
t
22
22
9
9
t
t
_
t

4

t

3

6

96
_
_
_
28
22
6
15
10
5
15
15
6
6
25
25
-

8
_
t
t
*
-

100
t
t
75
72
3
18
18
5
3
t
t
t
-

96
6
6
75
69
6
12
12
-

100
53
50
4
47
47
-

-

:

3
3
~

-

4

■
■
-

97
46
46
30
29
t
21
21
”
“

100
7
7
57
57
36
36
“

~
~

~

“
“

"
■
~
~
~

-

3

-

100
6
6
30
22
7
60
60
4
4
"
"
“
"
-

1 E stim ates relate to full-day holidays provided annually, as in ea rlie r stu dies. These a re further divided between w orkers who re c e iv e m e re ly the indicated number o f fu ll-d ay holidays,
and those who receiv e 1 or m ore half holidays in addition,
t L ess than 2 .5 p ercen t.




65

Table B-16: Paid holidays (retail trade)
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s em p lo ye d in r e t a il tra d e e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p a id h o lid a y s by n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v id e d 1 )

17
areas

! N ew ark Jersey
C ity 1
2

New
Y ork
C ity *

P h ila ­
delphia *

P r o v i­
d e n ce

Atlanta

F a r W est

M id d le W est

South

N o rth e a st
N u m b er o f p a id h o lid a y s

D allas

N ew
O rlean s

M in n e­
a p o lis St. P a u l

C h ic a g o

D e tr o it3

99
97
97
-

100

100

96
82
14

93
93
7

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

D en ver

P o r tla n d

98
-

98
98
98
*

100

O ffic e w o rke rs
W orkers in establishm ents providing
99
Under 5 holidays —---------- --------- ----5 holidays ------------- -------------------------F ull days o n l y --------------------------Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s --------6 holidays
——— -------------------—
F ull days only .....—
Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s --------7 h o lid a y s --------------------—
F ull days o n l y ----------------------- —
Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s --------8 holidays —---- ---------------------------F ull days o n l y -------- ------- -— ——
Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s --------9 h o lid a y s -----------------------—
F ull days o n ly ---------------- ----------Plus 1 o r m o re half days --------10 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------Full days o n ly -------------- — — -----Plus 1 o r m ore half d a y s ------—
11 holidays — ------------- ------—-----------F ull days o n l y ----------—
Pius 1 o r m o re half d a y s --------Over 11 h o lid a y s ---------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h o lid a y s -----------------—

97

t

t

98

100
t
t

.

t

_

.
.
_

54
52

7
7

f
f

72
72

25

57
55

59
58

23

t

t
f
t

t

5
4

t

t

22
4
3
t

t

4
4
.
.
28
15
13
-

t

3

4
t
t

3

t
t

3
+

8

1
2
1
1

t
t

4
4
.
.
-

t

-

3
4

1
1
5

6
12
5
7

8
6

93
.
•
5
5
.
.

100

-

3
93
60
33
3
3
.
.
.
-

99
44
30
30
.
26
26
„
•
•
-

7

-

t

8
8

79
79
t
t

99
t

85
79

6
-

10
10
4
4
t

t
t

t
f

T
9
9
78
71

-

6

t
t
t

t

-

“

-

90
90
3
3
4
4
*
•
•

t

-

-

t

t

-

96
7
82
82
-

93
85
83

91

92
4
-

99

t
t

-

t
t

-

t

-

t

t

6

9
9
3
3
"
-

Plant workers
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid h o lid a y s ------------------------------------Under 5 h o lid a y s ---- --------------- ------5 h o lid a y s ------------------ —-------- ---- ----F ull days o n l y ------ --------------------Plus 1 o r m o re half days ——
——
6 h o lid a y s -------------------- -----------------F ull days o n ly ---- --------- ------- -----Plus 1 o r m o re half d a y s --------7 h o lid a y s ------—------------------------------Full days o n l y ----- — ----------—
-----Plus 1 or m o re half days — -----8 h o lid a y s — ----------------------—-----F ull days o n ly ---------------------------Plus 1 or m o re half days — -----9 holidays
------------- — 1--------------F ull days o n l y ---------------------------Plus 1 or m o re half d a y s --------F ull days only — -------------- ---- —
Pius 1 or m o re half d a y s ---- ----11 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------F ull days o n l y --------------------------Plus 1 or m o re half d a y s ------—
Over 11 holidays — -------- --------- ----W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h o lid a y s -------- — ---- -— ------—

93
7
5
4
t

43
43

93
t

•

1
0
9

+

73
47
26

8
_
.
.

t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

7

t
t

100
10
t
t

4
3

55
55
_
30
30
_
3
3
.
_
.

f

_

t
t

t

30
27
4
3

95

74

62
12
t
t
t

4
4
.
.
_

8
8

.
-

5
5
*

.
“

72
72
.
.
.
.
•
“

7

5

-

9

3
3
.

.
.
_
_

t
t

.
.
.
.

1 E s tim a te s r e la te to f u ll - d a y h o lid a y s p r o v id e d ann ually, as in e a r lie r s tu d ie s .
th o s e w h o r e c e iv e 1 o r m o r e h a lf h o lid a y s in ad d itio n .
* E x clu d e s l im i t e d - p r i c e v a r ie t y s t o r e s .
3 E x clu d e s data f o r 2 la r g e d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e s ,
f L e s s than 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .


409983 0 - 5 6 - 6


91
7
-

93
13
78
71
7
t
t

88
47
30
28
3

12
12

.
64
64
9
9
-

100
3
82
82
15

t
t
t

87
87
-

88
88

16

4
4
62
60

-

*

12

12

6
6

4
3

t
t

4
4
-

-

-

_

.
.
.
•
-

7

88
16

_

_

-

9

8

t

-

-

4

t

t

7

12
3

-

t
t

t

15
15
t
t

*
“

T h e se a r e fu r th e r d iv id e d betw een w o r k e r s w ho r e c e iv e m e r e ly the in d ica ted n u m ber o f fu ll-d a y h o lid a y s , and

66

Table B-R Paid holidays (finance)**
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in fin a n ce e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e pa id h o lid a y s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v id e d 1)

South

Northeast
17 areas

Number of paid holidays

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

Phila­
delphia

Atlanta

Middle West
Dellas

Chicago

Detroit

MinneapolisSt. Paul

St. Louis

100

100

100

Far West
San
Los
AngelesFranciscoLong
Beach
Oakland

Office workers
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays_________________________
Under 5 holidays
------- _
._
5 h olidays__________________________
Full days only _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Plus 1 or more haK days
6 holidays
__ _
.
..........„----- _
Full days only
Plus 1 or mono half days
7 holidays
- ._
--------------Full days only --- _ _ ...
Mue I or more half days
8 holidays
Full days only
Plus 1 or more half days
9 holidays
_
_
Full days only
_ _
Plus 1 or more half d a y s ____ _____
_______
10 holidays
Full dsys only
Plus 1 or more half days
11 h o l i d a y s

______________

_______

Full days only . - - - - _____________________
Plus 1 or more half days
r iv e r

11 h o l i d a y s ..... _

_

Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays______________ __ _

_

99
t
t
t
13

*0
3
10

7
3
13

8
5
10
8
t
3
3
t

33

26
7
17

100
-

100
-

-

-

-

t
t
t
t
t

6

4
t
t
t
-

92

1
2
1
2

100
-

t
t
t
3
t
t

6
6
-

t

5
5
t

t
t

t

65
52
13

20

7
3
4
75

t

1
Estimates relate to fold-day holidays provided annually, as in earlier studies.
and those who receive 1 or more half holidays in addition,
f Liens than 2. 5 percent.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




100

100

-

43
23

98

-

39
35
4

1
2
4
8

17

1
2

20

50
45
5
-

5
29
25
4

7

-

-

-

7

-

-

-

-

4

-

_
-

.
26
18
9

8

5
3
17

6
1
1
4
3
t
3

_
_
-

_
42
31

1
1
t
t
t
t

35
34
t

20
20

-

-

4
-

-

40
37
3

-

-

-

-

t

t
t

_
_

_

_
60
38

21
15
15
.

1
2
t
10

100

«

_

t
t

100

_

15

8

7
7
7
74
74
-

13
_
13
-

-

-

-

-

3

-

_
23
23
f
39

_
_
_

t
t

21

27
27

6

51
47
5
15

18
13
7
7
7
-

6
6
t
12
7
4
-

_

8
8

t
t

5
-

5
-

t

These are further divided between workers who receive merely the indicated number of full-day holidays,

67
Table B-18s Paid holidays (services)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s em p lo ye d in s e r v ic e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts that p r o v id e p aid h o lid a y s by n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s p r o v i d e d 1)

17

areas

New
Y ork
C ity

P h ila ­
d elph ia

C h ica g o

D e tr o it

L os
A n g e le s L on g
B e a ch *

17

areas

N ew
Y ork
C ity

99

99

100

100

t
t
t
t

-

-

t

33
29
4
24
17
7
14
13

7
7
29
18
11
18
18

.

t

t

6
3
3
5
5

8
4
3
11
10

t

t

11
9

22
20
3
4

t
t
t

t

P h ila ­
d elph ia

99
3

100

-

81
13
5
4

93
6

-

72
72

-

-

26
25

10
10

-

-

-

60
40
20
36
26
10
4
4

65
59
6
22
17
4
3
3

96
80
16

53
52

-

t

t

16
16

14
14

-

t

t

-

17
17

5
5

12
12

4
4

“

6
6

3

3

-

D e tr o it

83
59

-

94

-

-

C h ic a g o

F a r W est
L os
A n g e le s Long
B ea ch *

P a t workers
ln

O f c workers
fie
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
p a id h o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------—U nder 5 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------5 h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------- ------ —--------F u ll d ays o n l y -------- ------------------ — --------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ---------- —-------h o lid a y s
■ ■ -....... F u ll days o n ly — -----------------------------------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s --------------------7 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------F u ll d ays o n l y ----------------------------- -----------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s --------------------8 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------F u ll days o n l y ----------------------------------------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d ays -----——---------9 h o lid a y s — ------------------------------------------------F u ll d a y s o n ly — -----------------------------------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf days — ———--------10 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------F u ll d ays o n l y ---------- -----------------------------P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s ---------- ---------11 h o l i d a y s ------------------------------- — — -----------F u ll days o n l y ------- ------------------ — —— —
P lu s 1 o r m o r e h a lf d a y s --------------------O v e r 11 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
n o p a id h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------

M id d le W est

N o rth ea s t

F a r W est

M id d le W est

N orth ea st
N u m ber o f p a id h o lid a y s

t

t
39
38

42
42

-

-

-

14

3

t

t
t
t
t

5
4

12

“

t
t
t

67
5

t
t

-

-

23
23

62
60

49
49

t
t
t
t
t
t

t

-

*
"
•
"

9
9

-

-

-

3
3

7
7

-

-

“
•
*
”
-

t

t

t

-

19

6

7

17

t
t
t

65

t
t
-

t
t

-

t
t
t
-

t
“

-

■
•
•
-

35

33

*

1 Estim ates relate to fu ll-d ay holidays provided annually, as in ea rlie r studies.
These are further divided between w orkers who re ce iv e m e re ly the indicated number of full-day holidays, and
those who receiv e 1 or m ore half holidays in addition.
* Excludes m otion -p ictu re production and allied s e rv ice s ; data for these industries a re included, how ever, in "a ll in d u s trie s."
f L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.




68

Table B-19* Paid vacations (all industries)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g pa id v a c a tio n s by am ount o f v a c a tio n pay p r o v id e d an d b y s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v i c e p e r io d s )
N o rth e a st
A m oun t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1
and s e r v ic e p e r io d

17
areas

N ew arkJ ersey
C it y 1
2

N ew
Y ork
C ity*

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia 2

South
P r o v i­
den ce

A tlan ta

M id d le W est

D a lla s M em p h is'

i

N ew
; M il­
C h ic a g o 2 D e tr o it 2
w aukee
O rle a n s

F a r W est

San
L os
M in n e F ran a p o l i s - St. L o u is 4 D en v er A n g e le s - P ortla n d
1
c is c o L on g
St. P a u l
O aklan d2
B ea ch 2

Ofc w r e s
fie o k r
1 w e ek o r m o r e ________________ __
6 m on th s
____________ _______
1 y e a r _______ ____________ _

99
69
99

100
75
100

99
86
99

99
69
99

100
73
100

99
59
99

2 w eek s o r m o r e __________ _ _
6 m on th s ____________________ _
1 y e a r __________ _ _
2 years
3 years
____ , „
5 y e a r s __ _
__
...... __

99
7
82
96
98
99

99
6
93
97
98
99

99
12
93
98
98
99

99
17
81
95
97
99

97
14
76
78
84
97

78
92
95
98

66
87
92
97

3 w eek s o r m o r e ______________ __
3 y e a r s _________________________
5 years
10 y e a r s
_ _
., ___
15 y e a r s __ ________________
20 y e a r s ________________________
25 y e a r s ___________ __ _ ____

84
3
9
34
79
83
84

87

85

7
26
81
87
87

88
3
16
49
85
87
88

62
4
7
24
56
60
62

65
3
11
61
65
65

4 w eek s o r m o r e ________
___
10 y e a r s _______________________
15 y e a r s
__ . ______
20 y e a r s _______________________
25 y e a r s

28

31

44

9

t
t

t
t

t

22
_
_
3
22

9
28

t

17
31

5
15
44

t

7
28
78
83
85
24
-

t

3
24

t
t

8
9

98

t

99
54
99

100
54
100

99
67
99

99
63
99

99
78
99

99
49
99

98

99

95
6
73
86
89
95

99
6
79
97
98
99

99

99

65
82
92
99

88
96
98
99

50
92
95
99

69
90
98
99

54
3
6
46
51
54

64
4
16
46
61
64

44
4
9
39
43
44

87
4
5
30
84
86
87

91

88

85

t

4
64
90
90
91

t

3
24
83
84
88

t

5
32
84
85
85

14
_
-

15

31

14

13

t

t
t
t

31
_

3
15

t
t

t

13
4
13

t

14

t

t
t

3
10
31

t

5
14

t

13

99
57
99

99
56
99

99
34
99

100
51
100

100
48
99

100
66
100

99

99
4
69
87
94
99

99

99
5
80
96
99
99

100

100
9
82
99
100
100

t

t

6
31

81
3
6
22
79
80
81
16
6
7
16

t
59
87
94
99
77
3
15
71
74
77

81
5
7
18
74
80
81

14

16

t
t

t
t

t

4
14

6
16

t

64
85
98
100
76

t
t

16
66
75
76

86
4
8
19
70
83
86

17
_
4

19

17

19

t
t

4

P a t workers3
ln
1 w eek o r m o r e
. .......
6 m onths ____
__ __
1 y e a r ---------------------------------------

99
20
99

2 w eek s o r m o r e _________________
6 m on th s _______________________
1 y e a r __________________________
2 y e a r s ________________________ _
3 y e a r s __ _______
_
___
5 y e a r s ___ _ _

24
47
68
96

28
44
63
97

43
70
87
95

24
35
57
95

15
19
35
87

71

78

69

45

t

t

t

t

3 w eek s o r m o r e __________
_ _
3 y e a r s _ _______
5 y e a r s _________________________
10 y e a r s _______________________
15 y e a r s
___________
20 y e a r s _______________________
25 y e a r s
____
4 w eek s o r m o r e _________________
10 y e a r s _______________________
15 y e a r s _______________________
20 y e a r s _______________________
25 y e a r s __
_
.
.

96

t

100
27
99
98

t

98
37
98
96

t

6
19
69
70
71

7
21
76
78
78

62
5
14
31
62
62
62

13

16

12

t
t

t

4
13

3
6
16

t

4
5
12

99
22
99

98
25
98

96
19
96

98
15
98

98
16
97

91
21
91

96

87

86
_
33
50
67
83

87
20
45
72

86
12
26
54
84

26
39
53
77

20
52
70
98

45
-

31
-

83
4
6
25
81
82
83

t

4
24
66
66
69
11
-

t

11

t

3

8

39
43
45
3

t
t
t

3

43
3
11
41
43
43
9
5
9

85

42

t
t
t

t

78

t

t




98
7
98

99
11
99

99
11
99

99
14
99

99
12
99

99
21
99

100
5
99

100
30
100

99

98
7
18
40
98

18
45
79
99

99
15
32
62
98

95
17
38
71
95

97

t

98
9
25
40
97

99

t

99
_
14
36
68
99

99
_
29

87

86

76

t

80
3
3
15
80
80
80

56

t

t

4
9
87
87
87

6
27
72
73
76

18

23

t

t
t

6
39
41
45

4
29
31
31

7
_
-

6
.
-

5
-

22

8

t
t

t

t

t

8

t
t

4

22

8

7

6

5

t

3
19
85
85
86

36
39
42

Includes p ercen tage- or flat-sum -typ e payments converted to equivalent w eek s 1 pay.
Exceptions to the standard industry lim itations are shown in footnotes 4 a n d /or 6 to the table in appendix A .
Data for finance and insurance establishm ents are excluded,
t L ess than 2 .5 percent.
1

3

99
15
98

4
5
18

3
23

13
-

t

3
13

t

3
7
55
55
56
10
10

t

36
67
88

97
64
4
7
15
62
63
64
8

t
t
t
8

52

t
t

10
46
51
52
6
_
-

t

6

81

93
99
69
5
9
15
67
69
69
10

t
t
t

10

69
Table B-20* Paid vacations (manufacturing)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and p lan t w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in m an u factu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g pa id v a c a tio n s b y am ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y p r o v id e d and b y s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v ic e p e r io d s )
South

N orth ea st
A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 1
and s e r v i c e p e r io d

17
areas

N e w a rk Jersey
C ity

New
Y ork
C ity

P h ila ­
delphia

P r o v i­
d e n ce

A tlanta

D allas

M id d le W e st

M em p h is

New
C h ic a g o D e tr o it
O rlean s

M il ­
w aukee

F a r W est

M in n ea p o l i s - St, L ou is
St. P a u l

D en v er

L os
A n g e le s P ortla n d
Lon g
B e a ch

San
F ran c is c o Oakland

O f c workers
fie
99
65
99

100
78
100

100
81
100

100
75
100

100
61
100

99
32
99

99
38
99

100
46
100

99
54
99

100
64
100

100
93
100

100
43
100

99
67
99

99
54
99

100
13
100

100
37
100

100
55
98

100
61
100

100
5
90
94
97
99

100
5
94
99
99
100

99
5
86
94
94
99

93
3
59
60
70
93

97

96

88
93
96

100
40
90
92
100

99

77
81
84
95

100
8
83
95
98
100

100

79
87
93
97

99
64
79
92
99

95

2 y e a r s ------------------ — ----------- -----3 years
---------- ----------------5 years
—------- — --------- —

99
3
85
94
97
99

99
4
74
86
93
99

100
66
81
90
100

99
89
96
98
99

100
3
73
90
94
100

100
93
99
100
100

86
4
9
37
84
86
86

87

86
10
37
85
86
86

52
-

31
15
31
31
31

56
4
7
56
56
56

60
-

91
5
6
33
88
91
91

83

84
4
7
18
83
83
84

75
-

21
49
58
60

51
4
18
48
51
51

91
-

6
25
86
86
87

89
8
24
48
88
89
89

95

3 y e a r s ---------— —— ------ ■ ■ .... ..... ■
5 y e a r s ------- ------ - —— -----------------10 y e a r s --------------------------------- ----15 y e a r s --------------------------------------20 y e a r s ---------- — —--------------- — 25 y e a r 8 ——— ----------------------------

16
75
75
75

85
9
11
21
85
85
85

70
9
9
17
56
65
70

82
7
7
24
80
82
82

15

18

8
-

.
-

t

17
17

9
t
9

20
5
20

22
3
3
7
22

15
15

8

t

32
7
11
14
32

t

t

t
t
3
8

7
t
7

18
4
18

100
t
99

100
29
100

6 m o n t h s ---------- —------------- ----- -----1 y e a r ---------------------- ------- -----------2 w e e k s o r m o r e --------------- -----—
6 m o n t h s ------------------------------- ------

4 w e e k s o r m o r e -----—---------------------10 y e a r s —------- -------------— ---------15 y e a r s ------------------------- -— -----20 y e a r s ------ ------------------------------25 y e a r s ---------- ------------------------

3
5
15

t

3
4
18

t
t
8

t

6
40
48
52

t

-

t

61

t

t

t

96
98
99
100

t
t

t

77
90
97
99

t

77
95
95
95

21
89
89
91

t

11
45
81
82
83

t
-

6
-

27
-

t

t

t

t
t

t
6

t
27

13
7
7
13

t

P a t workers
ln
1 w e e k o r m o r e --------------------------— 6 m on th s ---------—------ —---------- -----1 y e a r -------------------------------------------

9 9
14
9 9

100
16
9 9

98
23
98

100
25
100

98
18
98

95
8
95

98
6
96

9

2 w e e k s o r m o r e ——-------------- -— —
6 m on th s —------------- ------------------ —
1 y e a r -----——--------------------------------2 y e a r s -------------—------ —------ -------3 yc3.rs —» n----------.--------------------,—
—m
r,
5 y e a r s -----------------------------------------

97

92

97

t

25
26
48
96

86
.
5
5
24
86

83
.
29
38
56
81

87
9
30
71
87

84
-

38
56
73
89

t

96

99
.
17
33
52
97

10
40
82

76

84

59

4

t

35
6
35
35
35

44

t

40
-

44

3

67
-

t
t
t

t
t

-

t

*

3 w e e k s o r m o r e -----------------------------3 y e a r s ------------------- ---------------------

5 y e a r s ------------------------------ — ——
10
15
20
25

y e a r s --------------------------------------y e a r s ------------— ----------------- ----yG2l¥S -| ---------- 1-■
,■1rm Tn T
ni■ .-r l
—
y e a r s ----------------- — -----------------

4 w e e k s o r m o r e -----— -----: ----- -------10
15
20
25

y e a r s --------------- — ----------- —
y e a r s --------------------- ---------------y e a r s -----—
—-------- -— ------- -—
y e a r s --------------------------- ----------

1

t

t
19
33

55

9
16
34
59
59
59

6
18
74
75
76

6
18
81
83
84

9

15

7

t
t

t

t

3

3

4
15

5
7

3

9

21
65
65
67
7
-

t

7

4

34
39
40

t

88
9
88

100
13
99

100
5
99

100
t
99

100
7
100

9 9
11
99

100
7
100

100

82
8
17
43
81

99

100

t

t

100
4
10
23
98

100
8
25
67

98
13
24

100
13

55

99
26
69
88

99

61
100

99
11
19
48

98

98
40
59
85
98

99

99

93
-

85

85

70

58

69

t

5

t

8

4
4

67
-

8

3
3

13
91
92
93

35
82
83
85

t

11
84
84
85

12
67
67
67

16
70
70
70

9
46
54
58

12
"
5

25
*

12
”

13
“

6

t

t

■

6

5
25

43

42

44
44

44
44

36
6
34
36
36

6

3

6

•

-

-

-

t

6

3

-

Includes p ercen ta g e- o r flat-su m -ty p e payments converted to equivalent w e e k s' pay.
Less than 2 .5 p ercen t.




9

7
97

-

3
6

15
40
59

99
88
6
7
28
87

18
4
18

88
88

4
10
32
100
93

t

2
8

93
93
93
3

2
3

12

t

3
3

12

33

13

16

100

t
t

•
-

6

t

9
10
20
67
69
69
14
“

■

t

14

10
Table B-21: Paid vacations (public utilities)*
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in p u b lic u t ilitie s e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s by am ount o f v a ca tio n pay p r o v id e d a ft e r s p e c i fi e d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v i c e p e r io d s )

Northeast
Amount of vacation pay 1
and s erv ice p eriod

17
areas

NewarkJ ersey
City

New
York
City 2

South

P hila­
delphia

P ro v i­
Atlanta
dence

Middle West

Dallas Memphis

2

New
Chicago 2 D e tro it 2 M il­
Orleans
waukee

F a r West

L os
San
M innea p o lis - St. Louis Denver A ngeles- Portlam i
F.ran'
Long
c is c o St. Paul
B each2
Oakland 2

O ffic e w ork ers

1

2

week o r m o r e ___________ _____
6 months ____ _______________
1 year --------------------------------------

99
63
99

100

100

100

99

92

56

74

75

72

53

10 0

10 0

100

100

100

64
99

93

1 00

100

100

100
26
100

99
29
99

weeks or m o r e ________________
6 months _____________________
1 y e a r ________________________
2 yea rs ----------------------------------3 yea rs _____________ ..________
5 yea rs _______________________

99

100

100

99

100

10 0
12

100

100

99

99
45

100

67
96
99
99

100
100
100

100
100
100

86

66

91
98

56
96

100

100
100

100
100

99
34
94
99
99

10 0

91

94

t

t

93
5

91
-

97
32
97
97
97

93
50
92
93
93

92
35
92 .
92
92

3 weeks or m ore __ _____________
3 yea rs _______________________
__________________
5 years
10 y e a r s ---------------------------------___ _________
15 yea rs «
2 0 y e a r s ______________________
25 yea rs ______________________
4 weeks or m ore _______________
10 y e a r s ______________________
15 y e a r s ______________________
2 0 y e a r s ______________________
25 y e a r s ----------------------------------

f

5
14
89
91
91
16

100

t

100

100

100

100

52
97
99
99

52
90

100

100

100
100

97
98

98

95
42
95
95
95

91
3
7
83
91
91

79
-

4
-

t
t

10

12
21

93
93
93

14
96
96
98

3

6

t
t
t

-

_
-

6

~

9
-

16

9

t

3

io a

91
98
99

94
94
94

t
t

4

100

-

4
4

62

78
79
3
3
3

28
98

72
10 0
10 0
100

100

t

100

100

10 0

10 0

35

52

36

53

1 00

100

1 00

100

100

1 00

10 0

1 00

100

100

91
99

40
83
99

100

100

100
100

89
-

90
3
16
16
90
90
90

29
89
97

-

21

95
99
10 0

24
91
92
92

91
91
91

t

94
4
91
94
94

20
6

5
-

28
-

48
-

44
-

26

-

39
-

7

-

-

-

-

-

20
20

5
5

17
28

t

48

44

26

5
39

6

10 0

55
10 0

77
17
17
65
69
77

92
-

100

7
10 0

47

8

10 0
100
100

t

88
88
88

78
89
89

84
4
4
34
84
84
84

_

24
24

7
7
7

100

88

f

-

“

39
93

5
t
t
t

5

P la n t w o r k e r s
1

2

week o r m ore _________________
6 months _____________________
1 year ------------------------------------

99
48
99

100

100

100

79

87

32

61

48
100

100

100
16
100

100
21
100

48

100

99
38
99

25

100

43
95

41

100

51
97

7

100

100

100

10 0

100

100
28
100

100

weeks or m ore _______________
6 months __ __________________

99

100

100

100

100

100

91

100

100

100

100

1 00

100

98

10 0

10 0

t

t

97
35

100

t

t

-

44
81
99

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22

22

34

78
98

72
96

86

13
81
96
98

36
74

39
99

10 0
10 0

100
10 0

1 year
2 yea rs

-----------------------------------

3 y eat r s
5 years

__________________

_—- _______________

47
81
95
99

3 weeks or m ore _______________
3 years
_____________________
5 yea rs _______________________
10 yea rs _____________________
15 -/ears _____________________
2 0 yea rs _____________________
25 yea rs _____________________

3
19
89
90
91

4 weeks or m ore

19

year8
15 y ea rs
2 0 yea rs
25 yea rs
10

1
2
t
*

_
. ..
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_______________

91
f

t
t
8

19

100

100

79
82

87
92

100
100

100
100

80
3

94
4

100

44
63
73

100

38
82

10 0

100

84

84

73

99

99

99

97

98

71

84

75

88

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

64
70
84

18
84
84
84

t
t

72
73
73

5
99
99
99

99
99
99

37
97
97
97

48
98
98
98

71
71
71

7
76
84
84

29
75
75
75

88
88

48
-

51
-

12

40
~

-

T

"

19
"
~

8

-

11

52
4

-

8

-

-

51

52

12

40

90

-

-

3

37

45

21

88

88
88

100
100
100

85
90
90
18
18
18

_

-

-

3

11

~

t

98

100

100

11

66

3

10

4

-

-

3
3

10
10

4
4

In c lu d e s p e r c e n t a g e - o r f la t - s u m -t y p e p a ym e n ts c o n v e r t e d to e qu ivalen t w eeks* p a y .
One o r m o r e u tilit ie s a r e m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a te d , and t h e r e fo r e e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f the s tu d ie s .
L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o rta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilit ie s .




75

100

t
t

3
3
3
3

100

100

88

18
-

1 00

100
100

82
95

12

100

100

100

24
94
94
94

100

49
77
85
91

100

8

25
63
90

5

28
75
83

86
86
100

25
80
80
80

18

44
72
99

100

37
75

t

41
48

4
45
99
99
99

S ee footn ote 4 to the table in a pp en dix A .

.

19

~
~

8
8

6
6
88

i'
T
t
t

71

Tobk ft-22: Paid vacations (wholosaU trade)
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and plan t w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in w h o le s a le trade e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g pa id v a c a tio n s by am ount o f v a c a tio n pay p r o v id e d a ft e r s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v ic e p e r io d s )

Amount o f vacation p a y 1
and se rv ice p eriod

NewarkJersey
City

New
York
City

P hila­
delphia

Atlanta

Far West

Middle West

South

Northeast
17
areas

Chicago

Detroit

Minne. a p o lisSt. Paul

St. Louis

L os
Angeles Long
Beach

San
Franc is c o Oakland

O f f i c e w o r k e rs

1

week or m ore ___________________
6 m o n th s ____ ________ ________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

2

weeks o r m o r e __ _________________
1
2

year _.
yea rs r„T

57

71

79

46

37

56

42

32

56

40

29

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

100
6

98
87
95
95
96

100

100

100

100

100

100

75
95
99

78
92

63
82

65
97

100
100

100
100

63
80
99

75
_
3

77
7
42
77
77
77

85
31
85
85
85

65
-

74

12

20

57
63
65

69
73
74

3
79
79
79

16
-

26
-

12

-

18
-

15
•

12

18

15

100

97
18
97

100
8
100

97
33
80
94
97

100

90
9
9
90
90
90
6

t

T ^

5 yea rs ----------------------------------------

81
94
99
99

_
90
96
96

100

5
98

77
93
98

100
100
100

100

73
_
3
19
70
73
73

65
_
56
62
65

75
75
75

100

10

y e a rs

yCftf M
25 ye a rs

rT..ir.r-.

20

4 w eeks or m o re . . .
15 y e a rs .

T
T

29
85
85
87
22

22

21

f
3

_______

82
_
3
38
80
82
82

21

.. .. . . ...-

87

t

T
ri_

76
t
3
25
74
75
76

3
3
3

_
3

-

17
•

25
3
3

21

3 ye a rs

22

22

21

17

25

6

6
6

20

8

t
t

10 0

100
100

t

4

t

6

16

26

98
26
96

100

100

24

18

33

100

100

10 0

98
35
63
82
98

100

100

100

40
72
79
87

39
69
81

31
70
95

30
62
96

100

100

56
-

50
-

77
-

68

10

4
37
47
50

t

16

18
73
75
77

89
29

14
_

8

19

-

t
t

-

-

14

8

72
100
100
100

79
-

t

P lant w o rk e rs
1 w eek o r m o re
1 year

45

56

100

100

90
18
90

98
29
98

,, . .

„ _r„

100

97

10 0

1 ye SIT
2 y e a rs

^

100

99

90

42
72

65
84

68

86

2 w eeks or m ore

100
100

33
45
73
90

t

iim iiiim
m

_ .......... _ _

5 y e a rs ----------------------------------------

97

3 weeks o r m o r e ______ _________ __
3 y e a r s _____________________ _____
5 y e a rs
__________ r
10 y e a rs
,
15 yea r s
....
2 0 ye a rs

70

69
70

91
23
40
89
89
91

4 weeks or m ore

14

10

15 ye a rs
. ..
2 0 yea rs ------------------------- -----------25 y e a r s __________________ _____
1

f

t
6
20
68

t
t
4

14

t
t
10

90
91
99
74

t

15
31
74
74
74
18
•

t

18

56
56
56

Includes p ercen ta g e- o r flat-su m -ty p e payments converted to equivalent weeks* pay.
L ess than 2 .5 percen t.




94
20

94
88

t

7
19

•

100

68
68
68

88
88

89

62

74
t
30
69
71
74

24
-

16
16

5
5

9
3
9

23

10

24

62
-

27
99
99
100

6

72
Table B-23: Paid vacations (retail trade)
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and p lant w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in r e t a il tr a d e e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s b y am ount o f v a ca tio n pay p r o v id e d a ft e r s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v i c e p e r i o d s )

Amount of vacation pay 1
and s erv ice p eriod

NewarkJersey
C ity 4

New
York
C ity 2

P hila­
delphia 2

P r o v i­
dence

Atlanta

Dallas

F a r West

Middle W est

South

N ortheast
17
areas

New
Orleans

Chicago

D e tr o it 3

M innea p o lis St. Paul

Denver

Portland

San
F ra n cis co Oakland

O f c ceia
f i e lrcl
99
42
99

100
26
100

10 0

30

19

100

100
12
10 0

100

100

97

98

80

10 0

10 0

18
78
89
94

43
67
71
80

99
t
31
99
99
99

41
94
10 0
10 0

23
80
95
100

71

73

99
33
99

100

100

10 0

100

100

74

55

16

81

37

100

100

10 0

100

100

99

100

100

69
96
99

47
97
99
99

22
86

99

87
95
95

5 yea rs ---------------------------------

99
t
37
92
97
99

3 weeks or m o r e _______________
3 yea rs _____________________

72
t

52

1

2

week or m ore

_____________

weeks or m o r e _________ ____
6 months ___________ _______
1 yea r ----------------------------------2 yea rs _____________________

12

___________________
____________________
-----------------------------------------------------------

34
70
71
72

4 weeks or m ore ______________
10 y ea rs ________ __ —
15 y ea rs ___________________
2 0 yea rs ___________ _______
25 y ea rs ------------------------------

46
t
t

yea rs
15 yea rs
2 0 yea rs
25 yea rs
10

10

46

100

100

100

41
90
91
96

71
t
29
56
69
69
71

91

40

73

50

14

88

12

t
t
38
46
50

21

5

18
70
73
73

11

14
14

88
88
88

47
70
71
71

71
72
73

56

58

30

11

76

41

46

12

42
3
4

35
41

11

8

42

56

100

15
46
52
52
52
41

12
8

35
86

87
91

32
33
39
40
40
29
27
27
28
29

t
35

10

16

30

11

100
10 0

100
21
10 0

97
13
26
83
94
96

100

100

88
10 0
100

100
10 0

74
13
18
18
73
73
74

46

66

7
46
46
46

66
66
66

29

14

29

14

100

15
76

15
41

t
46

43
13
13
14
43

100

10 0

11
11

58

99
25
99

t

19

38
99

8

13

P a tw r e s
ln okr
1 w eek o r m o r e
___
6 months ____________________
1 yea r __ __ — --------------------

99
28
99

weeks or m o r e _______________
6 months ___________________
1 y e a r ____ ________________
2 yea rs --------------- ----------------3 y ea rs _____________________
5 yea rs _____________________

97
t
32
81
93
96

2

3 weeks or m ore _____________
3 yea rs
___________________
5 yea rs _______________ ___
10 y ea rs ____________________
15 y ea rs __
------- ----------2 0 yea rs ______________ ___
25 yea rs __ ----------------- -----4 weeks or m o r e _______________
10 yea rs ___________________
15 y ea rs ------- -------------------2 0 y ea rs ----------------- ----------25 yea rs ___________________

62

t
11

30
58
60
k

62

28
t
4
9
28

100

95
56
94

97
38
97

97
15
97

94
33
93

99

92

92

89

64

100

100

100

69

46

9

100

100

1 00

100

73
94
99
99
52
18
35
52
52
52
34
12

31
34

t
46
99
100
100
68

t
18
50
68
68
68

35
3
8
10

35

86

61
84
85
91
53




10 0
20
10 0

98

10 0

100
12
1 00

98
X

100

10 0

93

10 0

10 0

46
75
83
87

22

62
76
85

35
51
51
64

38
91
93
98

17
60
95

38
79
98

6

100

100
100

28
95
98

100

17
58
89
93

100

46

29

62

5
39
79
79
86

35

27
30
50
52
53

13
59
59

31

8

15
26
53
54
54

t
t
18

4

26

32

74

53

17
33
72
74
74

8

6
6

6

49
52
53

44
44
46

29
29
29

62

29

15

16

11

t
29

15

16

11

31

8
8

11

4

42

11

4

16
42

21
21

5
35

23

16

26

32

64

79
30
78
79
79

26

12

8

54

8

Includes p ercen tage- or flat-sum -typ e payments converted to equivalent w e e k s' pay.
E xcludes lim ite d -p rice variety stores.
E xcludes 2 large department stores,
t L ess than 2. 5 percen t.

1
2
3

15
10 0

T

14
59
93
99

98

29
100

33
o
7
9
17
33

7

10

73
Table B-24: Paid vacations (finance)**
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in fin a n ce e sta b lish m e n ts p r o v id in g p a id v a c a tio n s by am ount o f v a c a tio n p a y p r o v id e d a fte r s p e c ifie d l e n g t h - o f - s e r v ic e p e r io d s )

17 a r e a s

N e w a rk Jersey
C ity

N ew
Y ork
C ity

M id d le W est

South

N orth ea st
A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1
and s e r v i c e p e r io d

P h ila ­
delp h ia

A tlanta

D a lla s

C h ic a g o

D e tr o it

M in n ea p o lis St. P a u l

F a r W est

St. L o u is

L os
A n g e le s L on g
B e a ch

San
F ran c is c o O akland

O ffice w o rk e rs

1 w e e k o r m o r e _________________ _____ ____
6 m on th s „ „ ________________________ ______

99
89
99

100
62
100

99
97
99

99
87
99

100
91
100

100
69
100

99
89
99

100
82
100

100
86
100

100
78
100

100
82
100

100
96
100

2 w «ftka o r m o r p
, .
..........
6 m on th s
... ........ _ r

99
20
98
99
99
99

100
13
100
100
100
100

99
26
98
99
99
99

99
48
92
99
99
99

100

100
5
100
100
100
100

99
11
97
99
99
99

100
97
100
100
100

100
t
97
100
100
100

100
10
100
100
100
100

100
20
99
100
100
100

100
24
100
100
100
100

90
t
7
37
78
86
90

92

96
t
13
59
89
92
96

85
_
3
17
65
81
85

79
-

50
4
8
44
47
50

93
3
35
88
88
93

87
8
62
84
87
87

94
-

88
6
10
19
81
81
88

81
3
3
15
61
77
81

93
t

73
_
3
23
73

44

44

_

-

18
-

34
-

36
-

4
44

18

20
11
14
20

27
3
19
27

28
-

8

34
3
11
34

3 years
5 years

3 week® ot m o r e
3 years

_______
._
___________

4 w eeks or m o r e
]0 years

________

____
__ _

.. .
_ _

10 y e a r s
15 year® .....
?r y e a r s
5

___

...

___________________ ____
,.
______
..... ._ .

_ _____________

_ _ _______________________

48
t
18
48

1

11
29
74
92
92
63
_
48
63

44

Includes percen ta g e- o r flat-su m -ty p e payments converted to equivalent weeks1 pay.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate,
f L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.




3

96
96
96
100

7
74
79
79

t

18
34

20
91
94
94

18
36

f

16
55
90
93

8
28

74
Table B-25: Paid vacations (services)
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in services establishments providing paid vacations by amount of vacation pay provided after specified length-of-service periods)
Northeast
Amount o f vacation pay 1
and serv ice period

17
areas

New
Y ork
City

Middle West

P hila­
delphia

Chicago

F a r West

Detroit

1.6s
A ngelesLong
Beach 2

Northeast
17
areas

New
York
City

O f f i c e w o r k e rs

Middle West

P h ila ­
delphia

C hicago

F a r West

D etroit

L os
A n gelesLong
B each

P la n t w o r k e rs

1 week o r m ore _ ___________________________
6 months
_______________ ____ ____
1 year __ __ __ ____ ____________________

99
66
99

100
77
100

100
68
100

100
58
100

99
58
99

100
49
98

97
12
96

99
16
99

100
6
100

96
4
93

94
8
93

90
13
86

2 weeks or m ore ___________________________
6 months _
_
_
__ ...._______
1 y e a r ____________ _____
2 yea rs __________________ _____ _______
3 yea rs ___________________________________
5 y e a r . ------------------------------------------------------

99
3
79
90
96
99

100
4
88
94
99
100

92
8
67
85
87
92

100

99
t
72
83
83
99

98

72
98
99
99

76
83
98
98

89
t
16
43
76
88

97
t
16
45
96
97

61
6
33
41
61

93
.
9
52
84
93

87
8
21
29
87

84
4
27
57
79
84

3 weeks or m ore
— _ ___________ _
3 yea rs
_ __ ____ _________________
5 yea rs
__ ____ ____ __ _______ __
10 y e a r s __ __ __ __ . __________ __
15 y ea rs
______ — __ _ __ __ __ ____
20 y e a r s ___________ ________________
25 y e a r s __
__ ____________________

64
6
21
47
60
61
64

74
3
29
58
72
72
74

53
r
4
50
51
52
53

57
22
24
46
51
53
57

64
7
60
61
61
64

49
t
12
27
48
48
49

20
t
t
6
17
18
20

33
t
3
6
28
28
33

19
3
3
3
9
13
19

15
t
t
3
11
15
15

10
t
t
t
t
t
10

14
4
4
7
14
14
14

---- 4 weeks or m ore
_ --------- ------10 year 8 _____ ________________ _________ _
15 y e a r s _______
__ ____
__ _ ------20 y ea rs ______________________________ ___
25 y e a r s __
__ ______
__ _________

18
5
7

28
8
13
17
28

-

11
5
7
7
11

6
5

21
t
t
t
21

t
t
t
t
t

t
t
t
t
t

„
-

t
t
t

t

9
18

6
6

t

t
’

1 Includes p ercen tage- or flat-su m -typ e payments converted to equivalent w eeks' pay.
2 E xcludes m otion-picture production and allied s e rv ice s ; data fo r these industries a re included, however, in "a ll in d u strie s."
■ L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.
f




t
t
t

4

4
4
4
4

75

Table B-26: Health, insurance, and pension plans (all industries)
(Percent of office and plant workers em ployed in all establishm ents with form al provisions other than legally required
by type o f plan, in 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56
Insurance plans

Sickness and accident insurance
a n d /or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (part pay
T o t a l1
and accident
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
period)
period)

P ofi rdrviA r
tf* No health,
xvctirunic u(
insurance,
pension
or pension
plan
plan

Life

Accidental
death and
dism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

Surgical

O ffice w orkers (17 areas) _

93

44

78

75

56

16

78

43

55

8

74

t

Northeast:
N ew a rk -J ersey C ity 2 ________________
New Y ork C it y 2
_
Philadelphia 2 ________________________
__ _
____
____
P r o v id e n c e __

93
92
93
81

35
40
33
38

75
75
63
92

73
70
54
82

53
49
31
41

6
14
9
3

83
87
74
51

3 41
41
43
24

54
3 74
52
33

13
4
6

t

83
78
78
56

t
t
t
t

South:
Atlanta
______________ _ __
Dallas _ _ __
Memphis 2 ______ ___________ ______
New Orleans ________________________

98
90
91
89

52
46
50
43

81
74
85
67

80
72
85
63

45
62
44
41

30
15
10
14

70
69
62
51

38
33
37
23

42
41
28
25

14
14
13
9

84
64
61
50

t

Middle W est:
C h ica g o 2 ______ _ __
__
____
D e tro it 2 __________
__ __
M ilw a u kee____________________________
M inneapolis-St. P a u l ________________
St. L o u is 2 ___________________________

93
94
93
91
94

42
46
48
45
54

79
86
87
76
75

78
86
86
75
73

51
77
64
60
68

17
14
9
10
11

75
84
81
70
78

44
67
65
42
53

35
56
37
42
50

16
18
6
4
8

73
78
77
74
73

3
3
3

F ar W est:
Denver ______ __ __ ______
Los A ngeles-L ong B e a c h 2 ___________
P o r t la n d _____________________________
San F ra n cisco-O akla n d 2 ____________

81
95
85
95

22
64
41
42

58
84
76
77

57
84
76
76

45
68
69
63

4
34
9
15

68
77
70
66

19
. 40
45
3 30

46
63
38
47

13
3
8
6

64
64
74
70

10

7

80

65

15

10

61

4

5

75
85
88
35

59
68
79
26

15
3 24
12
9

15
10
8
3

70
69
56
31

t
t

72
56
60
62

58
43
48
50

18
9
11
8

12
12
11
8

60
49
42
34

7
20
17

t

87
93
85

5

6

91

73
88
77
70
79

9
4
16
10

14
4
7
13
12

64
79
63
58
63

4
4
3

5

66
66

15
35

21

17

9
20

38
48
49
51

A rea

M edical

Plant w orkers (17 areas) _______________

91

51

85

82

61

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C it y 2
New Y ork C it y 2_______________________
Philadelphia 2 ________________________
P r o v id e n c e ___________________________

92
91
91
81

47
40
45
54

82
86
79
92

81
83
74
80

55
55
45
44

South:
Atlanta _
_ ____________ _
Dallas _____ _ _
______ __ __
Memphis 2
_______
New O r le a n s __ ________
__

93
84
72
74

53
47
41
42

83
74
66

55

82
73
64
47

47
56
32
30

92
97
92
93

47
57
50
48
70

86
92
91
78
86

83
92
89
76
82

81
64
53
69

72
93
70
95

31
68
45
49

56
89
78
79

89
78
79

Middle West:
C h ica g o 2___
____
D e tro it2 —
.... .. _ _____ ______ , _ „
Milwaukee __
____ _
_ ___
M inneapolis-St. P a u l ------ ------- _ __
St. Louis 2 ___________________________
F ar W est:
Denver ___ _
__
___
L os A ngeles-L ong B e a c h 2 __________
P o r t la n d ________ ___________________
San F ra n cisco-O a k la n d 2 _

1
2
3
f

88

55

55

45
79
71
74

Catastrophe

t

4

t
16
10

5
8
7

3
4

22
3

8

Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
Exceptions to the standard industry limitations are shown in footnotes 4 a n d /o r 6 to the table in appendix A .
Not com parable with results in ea rlier surveys,
L ess than 2 .5 percen t.




88

71

55

43
40
61
3 23

6

8

4

t
5

6
t
t
6

t

3
4

5

3

t

18
3
12

t

76

Table B-27: Health, insurance, and pension plans (manufacturing)
(Percent of office and plant w ork ers em ployed in manufacturing establishm ents with form al provisions other than lega lly required
by type o f plan in 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56)
Insurance plans

Sickness and accident insurance
a n d /or sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(part pay
T o t a l1
2 and accident (full pay and
no waiting
o r waiting
insurance
p e rio d )
p eriod )

R etirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
o r pension
plan

Life

A ccidental
death and
d ism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

Office w ork ers (17 a rea s) _____________ _

95

58

88

87

68

17

84

64

54

8

72

t

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey City ------- ----------------New York City _______________________
Philadelphia _______ ______________ _
P roviden ce ___________________________

95
89
92
83

47
40
46
57

82
79
75
98

81
75
72
87

54
50
45
50

3
5
6
t

90
86
80
39

2 62
42
69
27

53
*70
49
21

2 13
5
t

81
75
76
39

t
t
t
t

South:
A tla n ta _______ ______________ _______
____ __
Dallas __ _________
Memphis
___________________________
New Orleans
____ _ _______ __ __

99
96
91
85

70
64
60
55

95
91
86
64

92
93
85
63

65
76
50
41

44
9
5
8

78
83
73
71

74
61
69
42

61
50
22
35

3
t
5
-

79
78
52
43

t
t
5
8

Middle West:
Chicago ________ ______ _______ _________
Detroit
__ ____ „
______ __
Milwaukee _________________ ________ _
Minneapolis-St. Paul _________________
St. Louis _
____
_ __ ------------

97
98
98
95
97

53
56
64
54
71

88
97
99
85
89

87
97
99
82
88

59
90
75
58
78

9
18
t
10
16

84
95
92
82
84

67
92
89
71
71

39
56
36
36
55

9
27
t
t

77
88
81
70
72

t
t
t
t
t

F ar West:
D e n v e r__
___ _ _
_
___
L os A ngeles-Long Beach
___ _ _
Portland __
__ _
__
__ _
San Francisco-O akland
___ ________

90
96
86
94

60
84
56
55

72
94
84
86

72
94
83
86

64
85
74
73

54
4
12

78
83
75
57

41
57
50
*27

46
66
47
44

3
t
t

55
50
60
70

8
t
10
t

Plant w ork ers (17 a rea s) _

— _

94

57

92

90

68

7

83

76

10

6

64

t

Northeast:
Newark-Jer sey C it y ___________________
New Y ork C it y __ — ________ ______ _
Philadelphia __ ____ __ ______________
P roviden ce
— _ ------------------- —

94
95
90
82

50
36
49
58

87
94
88
95

86
89
84
83

59
59
52
49

4
t
4
t

77
81
92
29

66
78
87
26

11
2 14
7
4

14
3
5
t

74
70
59
28

t
t
3
t

South:
Atlanta _
__ ______ _
—
Dallas ____ _______ ____ ___ —
.
------—
--------Memphis __
New O r le a n s ____ — __ — -------------

97
90
69
74

67
51
51
49

96
84
70
60

94
85
67
53

57
65
40
30.

22
8
3
4

79
61
66
79

79
57
64
72

21
6
4
7

t
3
5
3

62
57
45
33

4
3
23
14

Middle West:
C h ic a g o ---- ------- — — ------- — — —
X G r Oit
^t
1 |__M --T r __r --I_n f w »
_-T-r r -J - _r-1 i
n
__ ,
Milwaukee
,
hi
jj
Minneapolis-St. Paul -------— ------------—
__ --------------- —
St. L o u i s __ - __

97
99
97
89
95

54
58
59
48
74

91
98
99
89
91

90
98
98
86
89

60
87
72
62
75

5
t
5
8

92
96
93
90
94

84
95
92
85
86

t
3
t
8
6

11
t
t
14
10

69
89
65
64
65

2

F ar West:
Denver ,__ __ _
_ ----------Los A ngeles-Long Beach _
_______
P o r t la n d _____________________________ _
San F rancisco-O akland
. - _
_

85
95
83
98

43
80
57
65

70
96
88
90

70
96
88
90

64
84
81
80

-

30
7

77
70
72
46

66
51
71
231

6
36
t
13

20
4
t
5

36
44
44
52

12
t
12
t

A rea

----

Surgical

M edical

Catastrophe

1 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave o r sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
2 Not com parable with results in e a rlie r surveys.
■ L ess than 2 .5 percent.
f




t
3
t

77

Table B-28: Health, insurance, and pension plans (public utilities)*
(Percent of office and plant workers em ployed in public utilities establishm ents with fo rm a l provisions other than legally required
by type of plan, in 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56)
Insurance plans
A rea
Life

Accidental
death and
dism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

S urgical

M edical

Catastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
and/ o r sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and
(part pay
T o ta l1 and accident
or waiting
no waiting
insurance
period)
p eriod )

Retirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

O ffice w orkers (17 a r e a s ) --------- ---- --------

96

23

42

40

32

8

92

23

63

23

91

t

Northeast:
N ew a rk -J ersey C i t y ------------— ——
— ——
Ne'w Y ork C ity 3 ---- ---------- ------------- ---Philadelphia
------------ ---- - - —
P r o v id e n c e ------------------------------- —--------

*95
98
97
96

2 5
37
10
25

16
47
15
44

16
45
4
41

12
35
4

5

2 5
20
41
325

46
*79
82
57

*49
8
9

“

96
91
93
80

t

94
93
93
95

t

t

South:
A tla n ta --------------- — — ------- --------- ■——
D a l l a s -------------------------------------------------M em phis 3 ------------—■ -----—------------ —
—
New O r le a n s ----------------------------------------

100
98
100
99

38
43
34
10

47
43
59
66

47
42
59
62

28
36
37
54

6
5
7
19

89
74
85
59

45
29
47
7

20
27
27
29

43
39
42
26

89
85
59
78

M iddle W est:
C h ica g o 3 -----— ----------------------— ----------D e tr o it3 ----------------- —
---------------------- —
Milwaukee — ---------- --------—— ..— —.......
M inneapolis-St. P a u l -------------------- -—
St. Louis —----------- ---- -— --------------------

96
98
99
96
96

18
9
36
19
18

42
60
55
32
49

41
60
53
32
27

18
54
35
26
44

16
7
29

95
97
95
95
95

30
14
35
24
24

35
92
50
84
40

49

92
91
91
77
85

t

44
6
47

F a r W est:
Denver — — —-----------------------------—
L os A n geles-L on g B ea ch 3 — --------- —
Portland — — —
----------------------- —----------San F ra n cisco-O a k la n d 3 ------------- ------

75
99
83
95

13
25
7
13

44
40
51
33

44
40
51
33

40
39
38
33

-

13
4
8

94
95
96
91

14
20
41
*16

69
82
56
58

21
10
17
29

83
99
80
87

t
t

Plant w ork ers (17 a r e a s ) -------- ------------ —

96

31

50

47

34

7

93

34

34

38

89

2 98
96
100
100

*28
40
14
46

48
53
31
58

48
45
22
47

32
31
14
14

3
*

88
99
100
88

*19
28
72
46

32
*34
30
“

42
48
29
42

85
92
84
86

*
*

100
96
83
84

49
49
35
23

63
49
44
43

63
47
44
43

31
29
19
43

9
3
27

89
83
78
49

55
43
57
12

5
24
5
7

46
36
41
34

90
82
63
72

4
17
16

29
20
44
29
41

56
63
76
44
67

56
63
76
44
51

26
58
65
22
50

20
4
19

St. Louis —— — ——
—
—---------—-----------

96
97
100
97
100

96
100
99
97
99

47
22
46
28
47

33
40
8
39
32

38
37
65
34
37

85
99
90
85
93

2
-

F a r West:
Denver -------- -------------- ----------------------—
L os A n geles-L on g B e a c h 3 ---------------P o r t la n d ---------------------------------------------San F ra n cisco-O akla n d 3 ---- --------------

85
100
71
94

30
33
8
14

56
49
55
23

56
49
55
23

52
46
45
23

10
8

84
85
100
85

26
23
51
2 8

19
67
17
34

44
9
45
49

65
96
96
94

-

Northeast:
N e w a rk -J ersey C ity —
-----------------— New Y ork C ity 3 ---------------------------------P h ila d elp h ia ----------------------------------------South:
A tla n ta ------------------------------------------------Dallas -------------------------------------------------M emphis 3 — --------- — ------- —-------------- New O r le a n s -------------------------------------- M iddle W est:
-----Chicago"3
D e tro it3 ---------------------------------------------M ilw a u k e e -------------------------------------------

1
a
3
t
*

t

t
t

t

t

Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving s ick leave o r sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
Not com parable with results in ea rlier surveys.
One o r m ore utilities a re m unicipally operated, and th erefore excluded from the scope of the studies. See footnote 4 to table in appendix A .
L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.
Transportation (excluding ra ilroa ds), com m unication, and other public u tilities.




t

3

t
-

t
-

t
-

t
t
t

•

78
Table B-29: Health, insurance, and pension plans (wholesale trade)
(P ercen t o f o ffice and plant workers em ployed in wholesale trade establishm ents with form al provisions other than legally required
by type of plan, in 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56)
Insurance plans

Sickness and acc ident insurance
and /or s:ick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (part pay
T o ta l1
2 and accident
o r waiting
no waiting
insurance
period)
period)

L ife

A ccidental
death and
dism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

Surgical

M edical

90

52

78

77

55

9

75

43

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C it y _________________
New York City _______________________
Philadelphia — ......................... ................

97
86
85

2 83
51
44

85
69
76

81
70
67

66
47
39

10
7
7

75
86
72

54
47
44

South:
A tlanta_______________________________

94

60

83

81

46

14

81

D etroit -_________________ - _________
M inneapolis-St. P a u l------------------------St. L o u is _____________________________

91
82
89
93

58
48
52
65

82
83
89
83

81
81
89
83

58
72
70
74

7
16
14
3

F ar West:
Los A ngeles-L ong B ea ch ------------------San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d -------------------- -

96
99

47
56

83
83

83
79

61
70

-

89

51

81

80

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C it y -------------------------New York City ----------------------------------Philadelphia ---------------------------------------

96
96
76

2 65
56
41

84
78
78

South:
Atlanta ______________________ ____

-

94

50

Middle West:
Chicago -------- — ------- -------------------Detroit ____________________________ M inneapolis-St. Paul _______________
St. Louis ----------------------- ------------------

87
93
97
93

F ar West:
Los A ngeles-L ong Beach ___________
San F ra n cisco-O a k la n d ________ — -

90
100

Area

Middle West:

Plant w orkers (17 areas)

— _______

Catastrophe

No health,
insurance,
o r pension
plan

57

4

66

3

54
__
72
64

3
t
t

59
71
79

t
6

36

52

10

78

67
76
64
77

38
53
49
50

44
68
28
44

4
t
5
14

68
52
71
67

4
5
7
3

9
14

69
66

32
2 22

55
47

3
9

59
47

t
t

56

6

75

52

34

12

55

5

78
78
74

62
48
41

8
8
5

66
93
77

53
64
51

18
2 67
31

7
11
7

53
74
55

4
15

73

71

28

6

69

45

24

9

54

51
58
69
63

78
82
99
79

76
82
99
79

51
54
70
65

5
4
5
4

66
90
87
81

53
74
77
54

21
40
23
50

7
5
4
12

55
45
63
64

8
4

43
67

86
87

86
87

72
83

4

75
64

44
2 6

27
11

17
49

46
35

3

1 Unduplicated total of w orkers receivin g sick leave o r sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
2 Not com parable with results in e a rlie r su rveys,
t Less than E.5 p ercen t.




R etirem ent
pension
plan

2

7

79
Table B*30t Health, insurance, and pension plans (retail trade)
(P ercen t of office and plant workers em ployed in retail trade establishm ents with form al provisions other than legally required
by type o f plan, in 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56)
Insurance plans

Sickness and accident insurance
a n d /o r sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and
(part pay
T o ta l1
and accident
no waiting
or waiting
insurance
period)
period)

Retirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

Life

Accidental
death and
dism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

Surgical

____ _ __

79

33

76

71

40

23

75

34

27

29

51

9

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C it y 2 _______ ____ __
New Y ork C ity 2 _____________________
Philadelphia 2» 3 _____________________
P roviden ce __ _ -------—------- _ ______

80
79
94
83

3 29
36
20
13

89
85
79
80

80
81
73
76

64
54
21
18

19
14
33

76
86
86
80

51
51
42
6

41
3 44
28
76

9
11
39

55
57
67
15

t
t
t
7

South:
Atlanta
D a l l a s ________________________________
New Orleans __ __ _ — __

92
82
83

17
60
45

88
75
50

88
70
40

28
60
32

40
38
16

77
60
50

10
20
27

12
19
13

56
42
14

82
48
28

t
7
14

Middle W est:
C hicago
___ ____ ________,______ _____
D e troit4
__ _______ ______ - ____
M inneapolis-St. P a u l _____ __ ____

82
73
64

24
62
30

79
48
48

68
48
48

21
44
30

39
15

83
69
74

23
48
30

5
35
35

59
13
14

64
18
42

13
16
20

F ar W est:
Denver
„_ . .. _
P o r t la n d _____
__
San Franc is co-Oakland

L ^
,
____
. _

59
35
76

23
29
38

46
47
78

44
47
83

29
44
80

12
9
15

45
30
41

11
16
3 29

20
11
17

25
9
9

48
23
26

26
32
7

A rea

O ffice w orkers (17 areas) _ _

____

M edical

Catastrophes

Plant w orkers (17 a r e a s ) _______________

80

39

77

72

50

7

69

46

21

15

43

8

N ortheast:
N ew ark-Jersey C ity 2 — ____ _______
New Y ork C it y 2 _____________________
P h ilad elp h ia2 * 3 -------------------------------P r o v id e n c e ____ ______ __ _ _ __

74
83
92
73

3 22
37
40
23

79
94
70
84

70
92
64
73

55
62
30
15

14
3
6
“

66
83
75
67

48
67
59
18

35
3 29
16
49

14
4
15
”

59
59
44
24

5
4
t
8

South:
Atlanta _____ _____ _____
__
nail a a
_
.......
.....
New O r le a n s ____ _____________________

87
71
74

28
46
41

79
64
47

79
58
34

40
45
26

14
20
7

62
39
48

18
22
37

16

31
21

6

8

58
33
27

5
12
21

Middle W est:
C h i e a g o _____ ,_ __________ , __, .
_
D e tro it4
. _
M inneapolis-St. P a u l ________________

77
86
77

32
69
48

80
66

66
66
60

38
50

11
_

60

44

4

74
76
80

49
65
50

3
33
24

29
9
6

53
24
41

7
3
11

F ar W est:
Denver ------- __
. . . .
_
__
P o r t la n d ______ ______ ___
San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d ______________

53
38
86

17
32
29

40
62
93

37
62
93

18
52
91

13
14
10

47
42
46

20
30
*28

26
10
20

16
12
12

37
30
25

25
18
t

1
2
3
4
f

Unduplicated total o f w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
E xcludes lim ited -p rice variety stores.
E stim ate(s) not com parable with results in ea rlier surveys.
E xcludes data fo r 2 la rge department stores,
L ess than 2. 5 percen t.




8

80

Table B-31: Health, insurance, and pension plans (finance)*'*
(Percent of office w orkers em ployed in finance establishm ents with form al provisions other than legally required
by type o f plan in 17 Labor m arkets, 1955-56)
Insurance plans

sicKness and accident insurance
and/or sick leave
S ick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (part pay
T o ta l1
and accident
no waiting
o r waiting
insurance
p eriod )
p eriod )

Life

A ccidental
death and
d ism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

S urgical

96

36

81

76

55

22

72

31

62

t

92
98
96

18
37
22

82
83
54

79
74
34

65
52
22

12
27
9

69
89
60

217
44
10

*62
*81
54

3

__
_____ r

100
81

53
35

87
79

85
73

48
69

41
21

57
66

21
14

51
53

Middle West:
Chicago
,
_____ __ , . ,
Detroit _____________________________ __
M inneapolis-St. Paul
. ...
.... .
St. Louis
.. _ _T _ T...
_

97
92
97
97

40
20
45
22

84
77
87
49

88
77
85
55

65
61
82
54

30
12
12
15

58
46
50
55

27
9
15
26

40
42
47
51

4
-

95
100

49
39

88
83

88
83

52
61

21

68
77

28
242

58
56

t

A rea

___

Office w orkers (17 a rea s)

,

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C ity___________________
New York C ity ____ __ _ ____
P h ilad elp h ia___________________________
South:
Atlanta _ __________
Dallas
_.
_

.
-

_
_

Far West:
L os A ngeles-L ong Beach __
_
San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d ___
1
2
t
**

_

„
-

J

M edical

Catastrophe

2 1
1

R etirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
or pension
plan

83

t

t

92
85
85

t

7

92
58

7

t

73
73
96
81

8
3

t
3

_

82
84

-

t
t
5

Unduplicated total o f w orkers receivin g sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
Not com parable with results in ea rlier surveys,
L ess than 2 .5 percent.
Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.

Table B-32: Health, insurance, and pension plans (services)
(Percent o f office and plant w orkers em ployed in se rvice s establishm ents with form al provisions other than legally req u ired
by type o f plan in 17 labor m arkets, 1955-56)
Insurance plans
A rea
Life

A ccidental
death and
d ism em ­
berm ent

H ospitali­
zation

Surgical

M edical

Catastrophe

Sickness and accident insurance
a n d /o r sick leave
Sick leave
Sick leave
Sickness
(full pay and (part pay
and accident no waiting
T o ta l1
o r waiting
insurance
p eriod )
p eriod )

Retirem ent
pension
plan

No health,
insurance,
o r pension
plan

O ffice w orkers (17 a r e a s )_________________

81

37

63

59

45

3

62

26

47

3

55

5

Northeast:
New Y ork City _ _
Philadelphia _

84
79

43
26

63
42

57
38

46
34

8

t

84
40

35
22

*72
28

t
t

64
41

t
16

Middle West:
Chicago _
...
Detroit
........

71
77

21
33

60
71

62
71

40
34

7
-

46
51

18
34

25
37

10
-

38
30

9
8

_

Far West:
Los A ngeles-L ong Beach3 _
Plant w orkers

(17

__

a rea s)

Northeast:
fcew York City ................... . _
Philadelphia ___________________________
Middle W est:
dhicago __
D e t r o i t __
_ _
_
Far West:
Los A n geles-L on g B ea ch 2 _____________

88

53

75

75

45

11

35

6

78

74

t

63

54

14

5

58

46

69
58

3

82

34

14

87
88

54
64

83
68

82
56

55
54

t

84
69

75
58

*21
26

4
5

68
4

8
9

86
89

26
38

87
80

80
80

70
67

5

76
80

72
79

10
3

t
-

22
10

9
11

82

51

78

78

70

t

7

14

4

34

16

1
8

2 Unduplicated total o f w ork ers receivin g sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately.
3 Not com parable with results in ea rlier surveys.
Excludes m otion-p icture production and allied s e rv ice s ; data for these industries are included, how ever, in "a ll industries,
t L ess than 2 .5 percent.




81
Table B-33: Profit-sharing plans (by type of plan)
(Percent of office and plant workers employed in establishments having profit-sharing plans 1 in 1 areas combined by type of plan and industry division)
7
Plant w orkers

Office w orkers
Type of plan

W orkers in 17 a rea s com bined ------— ------—

A il
industries

Manufac­
turing

Public
utilities *

D eferred distribution plans providing
fo r distribution o f p ro fit shares
upon r e t ir e m e n t ------------------------------------

.8

.5

W orkers in establishm ents having no
p ro fit-sh a rin g plans --------------- ------------------

87.2

90.9

P ublic
utilities *

W holesale
trade

Retail
trade

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

7

2 8 .6

18.4

16.0

6 .5

5.8

0 .3

7 .7

15.5

1.8

.1

.4

1.8

1 .4

.3

.9

1.2

.2

.9

.9

.2

t

t

.1

1 .4

5 .5

.2

.3

.

1

1.0

8.1

2 6 .7

13.6

10.2

5.1

4.1

.

1

.2

.3

-

9 3.5

94.2

1.4

6.9

Manufac­
turing

100.0

1.1

10.0

2

100.0

1.1

Com bination plans providing fo r
current and d eferred distribution
o f p rofit shares to em p loy ees, or
both a current and a d eferred
distribution p l a n ----------------- -------- ---------

A ll
industries

100.0

9.1

.4

S ervices

100.0

100.0

.9

Finance **

100.0

100.0

12.8

D eferred distribution plans providing
fo r distribution o f p rofit shares to
em ployees a fter a sp ecified number
of years

Retail
trade

100.0

100.0

W orkers in establishm ents having
Current distribution plans providing
fo r distribution of p rofit shares to
em ployees within a short p eriod
—
after determ ination of p r o f i t s ------- —*

W holesale
trade

.

98.9

100.0

8.

2.0

.2

91.3

71.4

81.6

_

84.0

9 9 .7

.2

6 .5

.3

92.3

14.4

1.5

-

84.5

98.2

1 The study was lim ited to form a l plans: (l) Having definite form ulas fo r computing profit shares to be distributed among em ployees; (2) whose form ulas w ere com m unicated to em ployees in
advance o f the determ ination of p rofits; and (3) in which eligibility extends to a m ajority o f the o ffice o r plant w orkers.
2 Includes data fo r rea l estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately,
f L ess than 0. 05 percen t.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.

409983 0 - 5 6 - 7




82

Table B-34: Profit-sharing plans (all types by area)
(P ercen t of office and plant w orkers em ployed in establishm ents having profit-sharin g p lan s1 by area and industry division)
Plant w orkers

O ffice workers
A rea

Manufac A ll
turing
industries 2

W holesale
trade

Retail
trade 3

All
industries 4

M anufac­
turing

W holesale
trade

18

16

7

6

8

15

22
16
(5)

(5)
18
18
(5)

4
3
6
5

t

t

19
13
14

( 5)
T

t

(; )

( !)
( !)

8
11
10

23
25
(*)

El

4

17 areas co m b in e d ---------------------------------------

13

9

9

29

Northeast:
N ew ark-Jersey C it y -------------------------------New York City ____ — — ------------ —
Philadelphia _____________
-............... P r o v id e n c e ----------------------------------------------

4
16
15
6

5
13
11
11

3
8
19
( 5)

28
24
38

South:
Atlanta
_________________ — ------—
Dallas _
- ..........................
M e m p h is -------------------------------------------------New Orleans — ----------------------------------------

16
13
14
10

8

t
<;
( !)
( 5)

43
42
(5)
18

26
18
<;>
r)

SI

10
3
(5)
8
4

38
26
(5)
23
(5)

26
17
(5)
10
16

22
23

( 5)
10
(*)
3

12
(5)
14
10

(5)
21
(5)
6

Middle West:
D etroit ---------------------------------------------------M ilw a u k ee_______________________ —------—
M inneapolis-St. P a u l ----------------------------St. Louis ------------------------- --------------------

7
“

21
7
9
9
7

20
3
10
6

9
10
17
4

27

Far West:
Los A n geles-L on g Beach -------------------- —
Portland
-------------- — ------------------------San F ra n cis co-O a k la n d _____ ___

t

5

5

18

t

t

13
4

4

5
6

6
4

5
4-

T

14

t
t

4
16
( 5)

5
Ssl

9

il)

13

(•)

11
*

4

3

t

(5)
10

10
5

16

(5)
7
(5)

El
H

1
1
t

5

1
1

4

t

S e rv ice s

j . _______

\/

\ )

12
3

1 See footnote 1 to tableB-33 fo r types o f p rofit-sharin g plans included in the study.
2 Includes data for public utilities (excluding railroads) in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Exceptions to the standard industry lim its, made in som e a rea s, are shown in footnotes 4 and 6 to the table in appendix A.
4 Includes data fo r public utilities (excluding railroads) and rea l estate in addition to those industry division s shown separately.
5 Survey coverage was insufficient to justify separate presentation o f data,
f L ess than 2. 5 percen t.
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.




R etail
trade 3

S ervices

Finance **

t

22
22
( 5)
7
(5)

(5)

7
( 5)
20
10

l!l

i)

(5)

83
A p p e n d ix A : Scope

Industry and E stablish m en t L im itations
The a re a su rv ey data a re obtained by p erson a l v isits o f
B ureau fie ld agents to rep resen ta tiv e establishm ents within six b road
in du stry d iv is io n s :
( l ) M anufacturing; (2) tran sportation (excluding
r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilities; (3) w h olesale
tra d e; (4) re ta il tra d e ; (5) fin a n ce, in su ran ce, and re a l estate; and
(6) se le cte d s e r v ic e s . E xclu d ed fr o m the scop e of the stu dies, b e ­
sid e s ra ilr o a d s , a re govern m en t in stitu tio n s,2® and the con stru ction
and ex tra ctiv e in d u strie s .
The scop e o f the studies is further lim ited within each o f
the six m a jo r in d u stry grou pin gs to establishm ents w hich em ploy
m o r e than a sp e cifie d m inim u m num ber o f w o rk e rs, as indicated in
the follow in g ta b le. S m a ller establish m en ts a re om itted b eca u se they
fu rn ish in su fficien t em p loym en t in the occu pation s studied to w arrant
in clu sion .
O ver 4, 000 establish m en ts w ere included in the B ureau 1s
sam ple out o f m o r e than 2 1 ,0 0 0 establishm ents within the scop e o f
the studies in the 17 a r e a s .
To obtain appropriate a c c u r a c y at
m inim u m c o s t, a g re a te r p ro p o rtio n o f la rg e than o f sm all e sta b ­
lish m en ts w as studied.
In com bining the data, h ow ever, a ll e sta b ­
lish m en ts w e re given th eir a p p rop ria te weight. E stim a tes a re p r e ­
sented, th e r e fo r e , as relatin g to a ll establishm ents in the industry
grou pin g and a re a , but not to th ose below the m inim um siz e studied;
an excep tion , h ow e v e r, is the tabulation o f m inim um entrance ra te s,
w hich re la te s s o le ly to p ro v is io n s in the establish m en ts actu ally
v isited .
O ccu pational E arn in gs
W ork e rs a re c la s s ifie d by occupation on the b a sis o f uni­
fo r m jo b d e s crip tio n s d esign ed to take account of m in o r in te re sta b ­
lish m en t v a ria tion in du ties within the sam e jo b ; these jo b d e scrip tio n s
a re liste d in appendix B .
A v e ra g e earn in g s a re p resen ted in the A -ta b le s , beginning
on page 15,
Data a r e shown fo r fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs, i. e . , th ose
h ired to w ork a fu ll-tim e schedule fo r the given occu pation al c l a s s i ­
fica tio n . E arn in g s data exclu d e prem ium pay fo r ov ertim e and nightw ork , and fo r w ork on w eekends and h olida ys. N onproduction bon uses
a r e exclu d ed a ls o , but c o s t -o f-liv in g bon uses and in cen tive earnings
27 A m o r e tech n ica l d e scrip tio n o f the m ethodology o f c o m ­
m unity and oth er ty p es o f earnings studies is included in Studies o f
O ccu pational W ages and Supplem entary B en efits, Monthly L a b or R eview,
M a rch 1954 (p. 292).
28 See footn ote 4 to the table on page 85, fo r a r e a s in which
p u blic u tilities a r e m u n icipa lly operated and have been excluded.




id M e th o d o f Survey

27

a re in cluded. A verage w eekly earnings fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l, p r o fe s ­
sion al and tech n ica l occu p ation s relate to standard sa la rie s that are
paid fo r standard w ork sch ed u les, i. e . , to the stra igh t-tim e salary
co rre sp o n d in g to the w o r k e r l s n orm a l w eekly w ork schedule ex ­
cluding a ll o v e rtim e h ou rs.
W eekly earnings have been rounded to
the n ea rest h alf d o lla r.
E stablishm ent P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P ro v is io n s
In form ation is p resen ted (in the B - s e r ie s ta b le s) on selected
establish m en t p r a c tic e s and supplem entary ben efits as they relate to
o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s . The te rm " o f fic e w o rk e rs , " a s used in these
stu d ies, in clu d es a ll o ffic e c le r ic a l em p loyees and exclu d es ad m in is­
tra tiv e , ex ecu tiv e, p r o fe s s io n a l, and tech n ica l p erson n el.
"P lant
w o r k e r s " include w orking fo re m e n and a ll n on su p erv isory w ork ers
(including leadm en and tr a in e e s) engaged in n on office functions.
A d m in istra tiv e, e x ecu tiv e, p r o fe s s io n a l, and tech n ica l em p loyees,
and fo r c e a ccou nt con stru ction em p loyees who a re u tilized as a sep ­
arate w ork fo r c e a re exclu d ed .
C a feteria w o rk e rs and routem en
a re exclu d ed in m anufacturing in d u stries but a re included as plant
w o rk e rs in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.
M inim um entrance r a te s . —T ables B - 1 and B -2 relate only to
the establish m en ts v isited . They are p resen ted on an establishm ent
rather than on an em ploym ent b a s is .
The d etailed tables in the
individual a rea bulletins a ls o p resen t data fo r nonm anufacturing indus­
tr ie s as a group; the entrance ra tes a re a ls o p resen ted in term s
o f the m ost com m on w ork w eek s fo r which they w ere re co rd e d .
S h ift-d iffe re n tia l data. — T a b les B -1 0 and B - l l are lim ited to
m anufacturing in d u strie s. T his in form ation is p resen ted both in term s
o f (a) establish m en t p o lic y , 29 and (b) effe ctiv e p r a c tic e s fo r w ork ers
actu ally em p loyed on extra shifts at the tim e o f the su rvey. Tabula­
tion s relatin g to establish m en t p o licy a re p resen ted in term s o f total
plant w ork em ploym ent; estim a tes in the secon d tabulation relate only
to th ose w o rk e rs a ctu ally em p loyed on the sp e cifie d shift.
Scheduled h o u r s ; paid h o lid a y s; paid v a ca tion s; p rofit-sh a rin g
p lan 8; and health, in su ra n ce, and peiTsion plans a re treated statisti­
c a lly on the b a s is that th ese a re ap p licable to all plant o r o ffice
w o r k e r s if a m a jo rity o f such w o rk e rs a re elig ib le or m ay even­
tually qualify fo r the p r a c tic e s lis te d . 30 B eca u se o f rounding, sums
o f ite m s in th ese tabulations do not n e c e s s a r ily equal tota ls.
29 An establish m en t was co n sid e re d a s having a p o licy if it
m et eith er o f the follow in g con d ition s:
( l ) O perated late shifts at
the tim e of the su rvey, o r (2) had fo rm a l p ro v is io n s cov erin g late
sh ifts.
30 Scheduled w eekly h ours fo r o ffice w o rk e rs (first section of
ta b les B - 3 to B -9 ) a r e p resen ted in te rm s o f the p rop ortion o f wom en
o ffic e w o rk e rs em p loyed in o ffic e s with the in d icated w eekly hours
fo r w om en w o rk e rs.

84
The su m m ary o f vacation plans is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r ra n g e ­
m en ts, excluding in fo rm a l plans w h ereby tim e o ff with pay is granted
at the d is cre tio n o f the e m p lo y e r .
In the tabulations o f vacation
allow an ces by w eeks o f pay and y e a rs o f s e r v ic e , paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere con v erted ; fo r ex a m p le , a paym ent o f 2 p e rce n t
o f annual earnings was co n s id e re d as the equivalent o f 1 w eek 1 s p ay.
The pay amounts and s e r v ic e p e rio d s fo r which data a re p resen ted
are ty p ica l but not u n iv e rsa l. Data fo r in term ediate s e r v ic e p e rio d s
w ere not tabulated.
C om plete data fo r in term ed iate paym ents are
available in the individual a rea b u lletin s, as is a lso a tabulation o f
e m p loy er p ra ctic e in com puting vacation paym en ts, such as tim e
p aym en ts, p erce n t o f annual ea rn in g s, o r fla t-s u m am ounts.

which have enacted te m p ora ry d isa b ility in su ran ce law s w hich r e ­
q u ire em p loyer con trib u tion s,
plans a re in cluded on ly i f the e m ­
p lo y e r (1) con tribu tes m o re than is le g a lly re q u ire d , o r (2) p ro v id e s
the em ployee with ben efits w hich e x ce e d the req u irem en ts o f the law .
Tabulations o f paid s ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ited to fo r m a l plans
which provide fu ll pay o r a p ro p o rtio n o f the w ork er* s pay during
absen ce fr o m w ork becau se o f illn e s s . S eparate tabulations are p r o ­
v id ed accord in g to (l) plans which p ro v id e fu ll pay and no w aiting
p e r io d , and (2) plans p rov id in g eith er p a rtia l pay o r a waiting p e r io d .
In addition to the p resen tation o f the p ro p o rtio n s o f w o rk e rs who are
p rovid ed sick n ess and a ccid en t in su ran ce o r paid s ic k le a v e , an un­
duplicated total is shown o f w o rk e rs who r e c e iv e eith er o r both types
o f ben efit.

Data are p resen ted fo r all health, in su ra n ce , and pension
plans fo r which a.t le a s t a p art o f the c o s t is born e by the e m p lo y e r ,
excep tin g on ly le g a l req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 1 s com p en sa tion
and s o c ia l se cu rity (tables B -2 7 to B -3 2 ). Such plans include those
underw ritten by a c o m m e r c ia l in su ran ce com pany and those p rov id ed
through a union fund o r paid d ir e c tly by the e m p lo y e r out o f cu rre n t
operating funds o r fr o m a fund set aside fo r this p u rp o se . Death
ben efits a re in cluded as a fo r m o f life in su ra n ce.

Catastrophe in su ra n ce , so m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as extended
m e d ica l in su ra n ce, includes those plans w hich are d esign ed to p ro te ct
em p loyees in c a se o f sick n ess and in ju ry in volvin g exp en ses beyon d
the n orm al co v e ra g e o f h osp ita liza tion , m e d ic a l, and s u rg ica l p la n s.
M ed ica l in su ran ce r e fe r s to plans p rov id in g fo r com p lete o r p a rtia l
paym ent o f doctors* fe e s . Such plans m a y b e underw ritten by c o m ­
m e r c ia l insurance com pan ies o r n on p rofit org a n iza tion s o r they m ay
b e s e lf-in s u r e d . Tabulations o f re tire m e n t p en sion plans are lim ite d
to those plans that p rov id e m onthly paym ents fo r the rem a in d er o f the
w o rk e r* s life .

S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce is lim ite d to that type o f
in su ran ce under which p red eterm in ed cash paym ents are m ade d ir e c tly
to the in su red on a w eekly o r m onthly b a sis during illn e s s o r a c c i ­
dent d isa b ility . In form ation is p resen ted fo r a ll such plans to which
the em p loy er co n trib u te s.
H ow ever, in New Y ork and New J e r s e y ,




31
The tem p ora ry d isa b ility law s in C a lifo rn ia and R hode Islan
do not req u ire e m p lo y e r . co n trib u tio n s.

Labor m a r k e t1

M inim um -size establishment and estim ated number o f w orkers in establishm ents within scope o f survey by industry division
for 17 labor markets studied by the Bureau o f Labor S tatistics, winter 1955-56
______ _______________________________________(in thousands)
_
_
___
MinimumNumber o f w orkers in establishm ents within scope o f studies 2
size
P a yroll
Nonmanufactur ing3
Manufacturing
A ll industries
estabp eriod
Plant
Total
O ffice
O ffice
Plant
O ffice----- Plant
Total
Total
lishm ent

Northeast:
New Y ork C it y ___ __ _ __
P h ila d elp h ia ________________
P r o v id e n c e ________________
South:
Atlanta ____________________
D a lla s ________________ ____

Total

P ublic utilitiess *
!Plant
O ffice

395.5
1,345.0
575.0
144.1

69.2
401.0
9 6.6
16.2

259.4
618.1
381.2
109.1

267.0
429.3
355.3
111.9

32.5
77.8
39.9
8 .4

196.3
267.1
260.8
90.2

128.5
915.7
219.7
32.2

36.7
323.2
56.7
7 .8

63.1
351.0
120.4
18.9

33.9
182.7
4 9 .3
8 .4

7 .3
38.8
8 .5
1.7

21.0
8 0 .4
32.4
5.6

161.8
150.4
8 0.3
117.2

30.7
3 1.4
11.1
15.8

103.1
8 9 .6
56.8
74.7

7 8.0
6 6 .4
39.7
4 5 .3

7 .6
7.1
3.1
3.6

59.0
4 5.9
31.7
35.8

8 3.8
8 4 .0
4 0 .6
7 1.9

23.1
2 4.3
8 .0
12.2

44.1
4 3.7
25.1
38.9

2 0 .6
2 0.3
7.1
2 4.7

4 .3
5 .2
1.0
3.2

10.6
10.7
4 .6
8 .9

(5)
(*)
51
51
(*)

1,086.6
797.7
241.5
227.3
316.6

223.0
120.2
39.0
4 6.6
52.0

693.5
568.5
172.4
140.9
213.2

634.5
598.7
169.2
113.2
216.3

8 9.3
7 5.4
2 2.5
16.2
26.7

463 .4
456.5
126.2
7 7.2
161.3

452.1
199.0
7 2.3
114.1
100.3

133.7
44.8
16.5
30.4
25.3

230.1
112.0
4 6.2
63.7
51.9

8 6 .4
46.1
16.9
2 5.8
31.7

21.1
10.3
3.9
4 .5
5 .5

4 7.3
22.6
10.9
16.4
17.9

51
(*)
51
(5)

9 5.4
894.3
101.4
315.1

19.4
191.7
17.6
8 0 .5

6 0.3
547.7
6 6 .4
176.3

34.6
541.7
4 9.9
129.3

3.9
9 2 .0
3.8
22.7

2 6.3
357.4
38.0
8 8 .0

6 0.8
352.6
51.5
185.8

15.5
99.7
13.8
57.8

34.0
190.3
2 8.4
8 8.3

18.6
77.1
15.1
54.3

5 .0
16.4
3. 3
8 .8

9.7
47.6
7 .9
29.9

D ecem ber 1955
A p ril 1956
N ovem ber 1955
M arch 1956

(*)
(5)
(5)
51

F ebruary 1956
O ctober 1955
February 1956
N ovem ber 1955

51
51
51
51

New Orleans ______________
Middle West:
Chicago ____________________ A p ril 1956
D etroit ____ ________ ____ O ctober 1955
Milwaukee _ ______________ N ovem ber 1955
D ecem ber 1955
St. L ouis __________________ F ebruary 1956
Far W est:
Denver _____________________ D ecem ber 1955
L os A n geles-L on g B e a c h __ M arch 1956
P ortland
_
. . . . . . . A p ril 1956
San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d ___ January 1956

85

-------------- W holesale trade
O ffice
Plant
Total
Northeast:
Newark-.Tersey City
____________
New Y ork City _____________
Philadelphia
P roviden ce
South:
Atlanta
_
_
_
Dallas ______________________
Memphis
... __ . _ .
New O r le a n s ________________ ______________________________ _________
Middle W est:
Chicago
D etroit .
_________
Milwaukee __________________
M inn eapolis.St. Paul
St. L o u is ____________________ ______________________________ ____________
Far W est:
____________
Denver _____________________ __________________
L os A n o d e s -L o n e Beach
Portland
_
____ ____ __ _
San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d ____ ------------------ -------- —
—

Total

R etail trade®
O ffice

Plant

Finance 7
O ffice
Total

8 .1
35.7
12.9
t

2 5.9
174.9
72.2
13.2

2 .4
25.1
9 .2
1.3

2 0.8
125.1
55.7
10.4

2 7.6
233.9
4 5.4
5 .0

19.6
160.8
2 8 .3
t

2 2 .6
182.8
2 4.7
2 .8

18.5
141.4
28.1
2 .8

4 .4
57.8
7 .7
t

Total

S ervices"
O ffice
t
4 0.7
3 .0
t

Plant
t
89.7
16.8
t

15.6
11.0
8 .7
11.0

5. 1
t
t
t

7 .2
t
t
t

26.1
28.2
13.9
23% 1

3 .4
3 .3
t
2 .3

19.5
2 1.7
t
18.3

12.5
15.3
4 .0
6.1

8 .5
10.6
t
t

9 .0
9 .2
6 .9
7 .0

t
t
t
t

79.7
25.8
8 .7
17.1
19.0

2 3 .5
6 .2
t
5 .9
6 .0

3 6.4
11.3
t
6 .8
8 .5

135.9
68.9
2 9.8
4 2.1
17.7

25.1
t
t
5 .5
t

96.2
t
t
32.0
t

7 8.4
2 8.0
8 .6
18.4
17.6

4 9 .4
17.5
t
13.3
9 .4

71.7
30.2
8 .3
10.7
14.3

14.6
4 .8
t
t
t

4 1 .4
18.3
t
t
t

8 .5
57.1
9 .3
30.3

t
17.7
t
9 .4

t
24.9
t
12.6

21.8
8 1.8
17.1
4 2.2

2 .6
f
2 .1
5.8

16.8
t
13.2
31.6

5 .9
6 0.6
5.9
37.6

t
4 4.8
t
2 9.6

6 .0
9 55.3
4 .1
2 1 .4

t
10.0
t
t

t
31.6
t
t

t
t
t
t

1 Standard m etropolitan a rea s, with the following exceptions: N ew ark-Jersey City A rea (E ssex, Hudson, and Union Counties); New York City A rea (Bronx, New Y ork, Kings, Queens,
and Richm ond C ounties); Philadelphia A rea (Philadelphia and Delaware Counties, P a .; and Camden County, N. J .) ; Chicago A rea (Cook County).
2 T otals include executive, techn ical, p rofessional, and other w orkers excluded fro m the separate o ffice and plant ca tegories.
3 Includes data fo r 5 broad nonmanufacturing industry groups shown separately.
4 T ransportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities. Taxicabs and se rv ice s incidental to water transportation are a lso excluded, as are m unicipally operated
establishm ents.. A ll o r m ajor lo ca l transit operations in Chicago, Detroit, New York C ity, and San F ra n cis co w ere m unicipally operated, as w ere e le ctric utility operations in L os A ngeles,
and e le ctric and gas operations in M em phis.
5 M in im u m -size establishm ent (employment wise) was 51 w orkers in the wholesale trade, finance, and s e rv ice s industry groups; and 101 in the m anufacturing, public u tilitie s, and retail
trade groups.
® Estim ates fo r N ew a rk -J ersey City, New York City, and Philadelphia exclude lim ite d -p rice variety stores; those fo r D etroit, 2 la rge department stores; L os A ngeles-L ong Beach, depart­
T .s t ir r
P
ment sto res; and St. L ou is, department, and lim ited -p rice variety stores. In each instance, how ever, the rem ainder of retail trade is appropriately represented in the A - and B-table estim ates
fo r all industries com bined, and, where presented, nonmanufacturing.
7 Finance, insurance, and rea l estate. Data for nonoffice (plant) w orkers in finance and insurance establishm ents are excluded fro m the total, as w ell as fro m the B -table estim ates fo r
all industries com bined, and nonmanufacturing. Data fo r plant w orkers in real estate, not presented separately, how ever, a re included.
8 Hotels; p ersonal s e rv ice s ; busin ess serv ices; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television ; m otion p ictu res; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and a rch itec­
tural s e rv ice s .
9 E xcludes data fo r m otion-p icture production and allied service s; data fo r the industries a re included, how ever, in "a ll industries" and "nonm anufacturing.'
f This industry d ivision is represented in estim ates fo r "all industries" and "nonm anufacturing," although covera ge was insufficient to justify separate presentation of data.




NOTE:

The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate d escrip tion
of the size and com position o f the labor fo r c e included in the surveys. The estim ates a re not intended, how­
ever, to serve as a b asis of com parison with other area employment indexes to m easure employment trends or
levels since ( l ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishm ent data com piled con siderably in advance
of the pay period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.




87
A p p e n d ix B : O c cu p a tio n a l Descriptions

The p r im a r y p u rp o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e s c r ip t io n s f o r the B u r e a u ’ s w ag e s u r v e y s is to
a s s i s t its fie ld sta ff in c la s s ify in g in to a p p r o p r ia te o c cu p a tio n s w o r k e r s w ho a r e e m p lo y e d u n der
a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll title s and d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n ts fr o m e s ta b lis h m e n t to e s ta b lis h m e n t
and fr o m a r e a to a r e a .
This is e s s e n t ia l in o r d e r to p e r m it the g rou p in g o f o c cu p a tio n a l w age
r a te s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a ra b le jo b c on ten t.
B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a sis on in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t and
in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ility o f o c cu p a tio n a l con ten t, the B u r e a u ’ s jo b d e s c r ip t io n s m a y d iffe r s i g n ifi­
c a n tly fr o m th o se in u se in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r th o s e p r e p a r e d fo r o th e r p u r p o s e s .
In
a p p ly in g th e se jo b d e s c r ip t io n s , the B u r e a u ’ s fie ld r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s a r e in s tr u c te d to e x clu d e w o r k ­
in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n tic e s , le a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a in e e s , h a n d ica p p ed w o r k e r s , p a r t -t im e ,
t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

Of f i c e
B IL L E R ,

M A C H IN E

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R - C on tinu ed

P r e p a r e s s t a te m e n ts , b i lls , and in v o ic e s on a m a ch in e oth er
than an o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic ty p e w r ite r . M ay a ls o k eep r e c o r d s
a s to b illin g s o r sh ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r fo r m oth er c l e r i c a l w o r k in ­
c id e n ta l to b illin g o p e r a tio n s *
F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s ,
m a c h in e , a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f m a ch in e , as fo llo w s :

C la s s A - K eep s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n ow led ge o f
and e x p e r ie n c e in b a s ic b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s and fa m ilia r it y w ith
the s t r u c tu r e o f the p a r t ic u la r a c c o u n tin g s y s te m u s e d .
D eter­
m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and d is tr ib u tio n o f d eb it and c r e d it item s
to b e u se d in e a ch ph ase o f the w o r k . M ay p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a te d
r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e ts , and o th e r r e c o r d s b y hand.

B i l l e r , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ) - U ses a s p e c ia l b illin g
m a ch in e (M oon H op k in s, E llio tt F is h e r , B u rro u g h s, e t c . , w h ich
a r e c o m b in a tio n typ in g and adding m a c h in e s ) to p r e p a r e b i lls and
in v o ic e s fr o m c u s to m e r s * p u rc h a s e o r d e r s , in te r n a lly p r e p a r e d
o r d e r s , sh ip p in g m e m o r a n d a , e t c .
U su a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a tio n
o f p r e d e te r m in e d d is c o u n ts and sh ipp in g c h a rg e s and e n try o f
n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y not be com p u te d on the
b illin g m a c h in e , and to ta ls w h ich a r e a u to m a tic a lly a c c u m u la te d
b y m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a t io n u su a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b er o f
c a r b o n c o p ie s o f the b i ll b ein g p r e p a r e d and is often done on a
fa n fo ld m a c h in e .

C la s s B - K eep s a r e c o r d o f on e o r m o r e p h a ses o r s e c tio n s
o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u su a lly r e q u ir in g little k n ow led ge o f b a s ic b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c tio n s in clu d e a c c o u n ts p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s to m e r s * a c c o u n ts (not in clu d in g a s im p le type o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d
u n d er b i l l e r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is tr ib u tio n , e x p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n , in ­
v e n t o r y c o n t r o l, e t c . M ay c h e c k o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r a tio n o f tr ia l
b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e ts f o r the a cco u n tin g d ep a rtm en t.

B i lle r , m a ch in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e ) - U ses a b ook k eep in g
m a ch in e (S u n d stra n d , E llio t t F is n e r , R em in gton R and, e t c . , w h ich
m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s to m e r s *
b i lls a s p a r t o f the a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a tio n .
G e n e r a lly
in v o lv e s the sim u lta n e o u s e n try o f fig u r e s on c u s to m e r s * le d g e r
record .
T h e m a ch in e a u to m a tic a lly a c c u m u la te s fig u r e s on a
n u m b er o f v e r t ic a l c o lu m n s and com p u tes and u su a lly p r in ts a u to ­
m a t ic a lly the d e b it o r c r e d i t b a la n c e s . D oes not in v o lv e a k n ow l­
ed g e o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o rk s fr o m u n ifo rm and stan d ard typ es o f
s a le s and c r e d i t s l ip s .
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s a b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e (R em in gton R and, E llio tt
F i s h e r , S u n d stra n d , B u r r o u g h s , N ation al C a sh R e g is t e r , w ith o r w ith ­
out a ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to k eep a r e c o r d o f b u sin e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .




CLERK,

A C C O U N TIN G

C la s s A - U n der g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t­
ant, h as r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r k eep in g one o r m o r e s e c t io n o f a c o m ­
p le te s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e la tin g to one p h a se o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t’ s b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s . W o rk in v o lv e s p o s tin g and b a la n cin g
s u b s id ia r y le d g e r o r le d g e r s su ch as a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o r a c ­
cou n ts p a y a b le ; e x a m in in g and cod in g in v o ic e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith
p r o p e r a c c o u n tin g d is tr ib u tio n ; r e q u ir e s ju d g m en t and e x p e r ie n c e
in m a k in g p r o p e r a s s ig n a tio n s and a llo c a t io n s .
M ay a s s i s t in
p r e p a r in g , a d ju stin g , and c lo s in g jo u r n a l e n tr ie s ; m a y d ir e c t c la s s
B a c c o u n tin g c le r k s .
C la s s B - U n der s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m s one o r m o r e rou tin e
a c c o u n tin g o p e r a tio n s su ch a s p o s tin g s im p le jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s ,
a c c o u n ts p a y a b le v o u c h e r s ; e n te r in g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r r e g is t e r s ;
r e c o n c ilin g bank a c c o u n ts ; p o s tin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e r s c o n t r o lle d
b y g e n e r a l le d g e r s .
T h is jo b d o e s not r e q u ir e a k n ow led ge o f
a c c o u n tin g and b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s but is fou nd in o ffic e s in
w h ich the m o r e r ou tin e a c c o u n tin g w o r k is su b d iv id ed on a fu n c ­
tio n a l b a s is am on g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

88
CLERK, FILE
, Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers1 orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
CLERK, PAYROLL

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers1
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker^ name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

89

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
tion
type
This
time

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker*s
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form. May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records. May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

T e chni c a 1

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following;
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

90

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL, (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare
simple drawings and do simple lettering.

and

Powerplant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in £ood repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician’s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

91

MACHINE*TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary Adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtoois in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making ail necessary
adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

MILLWRIGHT

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning ana laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist's handtoois and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relate
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembing and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtoois and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re­
ducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

92
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to Locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
rimarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
eating systems are excluded^

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating ail
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtoois in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtoois and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of v/ork, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker’s work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.



TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

93

LABORER, MATERIAL. HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchan­
dise on or From freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows;
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
customers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices^ routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness ol shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, ware­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers' houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver
'truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under 1l h tons)
medium (l x a to and including 4 tons)
/
heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
'trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.




Occupational W a g e Surreys

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has released the last of this year's occu­
pational wage surveys for major labor markets. The studies cover 18 areas and
were conducted during the winter 1955-56. The individual bulletins provide earn­
ings information on about 60 jobs selected from several categories: Office cleri­
cal, professional and technical, maintenance and powerplant, and custodial and
material movement.

.c j

5

In addition to areawide averages and distributions of workers by earnings
classes for each job, information is provided wherever possible by major indus­
try division, including manufacturing, public utilities, finance, trade, and services.

o

^ -G r£
< rl

a*? w

• 2

o «

§ «P |

3
$

*r §

8 §S5 z * *r
s

The areas covered, survey date, bulletin number, and price are as follows:

•am
“

J

S

C/3

o i._a •s<
c £

-§ g .S

Atlanta..................................... ....... April 1956 .......... - 1188-18
Chicago .................................... ........ April 1956 ............ ... 1188-15
D allas........................................
... 1188-1
Denver .....................................
- 1188-6
Detroit ......................................
... 1188-2
Lawrence .................................
... 1188-11
Los Angeles-Long B ea ch .... ......... March 1956.......... ....1188-13
Memphis....................................
... 1188-12
Milwaukee ...............................
... 1188-3 *
Minneapolis-St. P a u l..............
.... 1188-8 *
New Orleans ...........................
... 1188-5
New York City ....................... .........April 1956 ............ .... 1188-17
Newark-Jersey City ............... ........ December 1955 ... ... 1188-10
Philadelphia...........................
... 1188-4
Portland (Oregon)................... .........April 1956 ............- 1188-16
Providence ............................. .....
March 1956 ........ ... 1188-14*
St. L o u is ..................................
.... 1188-9
San Francisco-Oakland......... ........ January 1956 ...... ... 1188-7 *

i

«

>1 §

ds* w mo
° C Tf o o co
O
S f-H eo
w

Cents
25
25
30
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
25
25

.rc/5 ®
— 2r
IB C

«

LO rH VO

0
CQ

-Q
u
O

o|

o
o

C
O

o

C
O

a ®
8 .2

Address

Also presented are data for paid holidays; paid vacations; scheduled weekly
hours, health, insurance, and pension plans; minimum entrance rates; and shift
differential practices.

a a"
§ 0 -8
"2 e a
§ « ®

W

H

§ S to
.2 d a
5 « -a

S , > «o

* Out of print.




c

S" o «

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O - 409983