View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U. S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
R O YAL M E E K E R , Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES
B U R E A U OF L A B O R STA TISTIC S
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

}
S'

' * ’

LABOR

/WHOLE
i NUMBER

SERIES:

No.

U 7
1 1 /
9

W AGES AND REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT
IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY
W IT H PLAN S FOR

APPRENTICESHIP FOR CUTTERS AND THE
EDUCATION OF W ORK ER S IN THE INDUSTRY




JU N E 13, 1914

W A S H IN G T O N
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O FF IC E
1915




CONTENTS.
Page.
Part I.— Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry:
Week workers in the industry in New York City............................................. 7-68
Introduction...................................................................................................... 7-10
Summary............................................................................................................. 10-12
Scope of the investigation and methods employed.................................... 12-14
Proportion of week workers’ wages to total pay roll..................................
15
Character of data as to employment and earnings......................................
16
Weekly pay rolls for all productive labor in 75 association shops.......... 17-18
Weekly earnings of week workers in 21 occupations in 90 association
shops................................................................................................................. 18-19
Fluctuations in employment and earnings in 90 association shops, by
occupations..................................................................................................... 19-32
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings in 90
association shops, by occupations.............................................................. 32-38
Relation between employing capacity of shops and variation in em­
ployment in 90 association shops................................................................ 39-41
Opportunity for permanent employment in 90 association shops............ 41-49
Fluctuations in employment and earnings in 13 nonassociation shops,
by occupations................................................................................................ 49-53
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings in 13
nonassociation shops, by occupations....................................................... 54-56
Seasonal fluctuations in employment in association and nonassociation
shops................................................................................................................. 56-67
Average weekly earnings of cutters and pressers in association and non­
association shops............................................................................................
68
Week workers in the industry in Boston......................................................... 69-108
Scope of the investigation and methods employed.................................... 69-71
Wages and hours of labor before and after signing of protocol................ 71-73
Proportion of week work in the larger shops of the industry....................
73
Seasonal fluctuations in weekly pay rolls for all productive labor and
for week workers only................................................................................... 73-76
Fluctuations in employment and earnings in association shops, by
occupations..................................................................................................... 76-93
Seasonal fluctuations in Boston and New York City pay rolls com­
pared ............................................................................................................... 93, 94
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings in asso­
ciation shops, by occupations............................................................ .
94-103
Actual earnings of 312 week workers in the shops investigated.......... 103-105
Annual earnings of week workers......... .................................................... 105-107
Comparative earnings of workers in Boston and New York City........ 107,108




3

4

CONTENTS.
Page.

Part II.— Occupations in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City,
with plans for apprenticeship for cutters and the education of workers In the
industry;
Introduction........................................................................................................... 109,110
Descriptive analysis of occupations................................................................... 111-129
Designers.......................................................................................................... 111-114
Cutters.............................................................................................................. 114-120
Tailors, liners, finishers, operators, etc..................................................... 121-127
Pressers.......................................................................................................... 127-129
Comparative study of pressers and cutters.................. ................................... 130-172
Mobility of the workers................................................................................ 131-135
Use made of periods of unemployment........................................................
135
Method used in this study........................................................................... 135-138
Individual records of pressers..................................................................... 138-141
Individual records of cutters....................................................................... 142-145
Age, country of birth, and conjugal condition........................................ 145-149
Age at entering the industry and number of years in the industry... 150-154
Years in the United States of foreign born and years in the United
States before entering the industry....................................................... 155-158
Previous occupation and method of learning the trade........................ 158-160
School attendance............. ............................................................................ 161-164
Command of language................................................................................... 164-169
Summary...................................................... .................................................. 169-172
Apprenticeship plan for cutters........................................................................ 172-179
Rules and plan of procedure adopted by the joint board of exam­
iners for cutters’ apprentices................................................................... 173,174
Proposed grades, definition, length of service, and minimum weekly
wage............................................................................................................. 174-177
Proposed form of apprentice certificate.......................................................
177
Outline of examinations suggested to determine promotions.............. 178,179
Education for the workers in the industry....................................................... 179-191
Commission on industrial education..............................................................
182
Proposed part-time and factory school...................................................... 182-186
Certification of apprentices..............................................................................
186
Financial organization................. ................................................................186,187
Capacity of school................... ..................................................................... 188,189
Per capita costs..................................................................................................
190
Relation of the industrial school to the protocol................................... 190,191




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
W H O L E N O . 147.

W ASHINGTON.

JU N E 13, 1914.

PART I - W A G E S AND REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT
IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY.
FOREWORD.
Unemployment is now recognized as perhaps the most serious of
our social problems. Much of the present unemployment is due to
business depression incident to the war, but even in "g ood times”
the aggregate of unemployment is very great. The consequent waste
and demoralization frustrate in large measure all other attempts to
lessen the prevailing poverty and misery. The disease of unemploy­
ment is chronic. It results from the irregularity of our industrial
operations, and the failure to organize labor supplies. The Govern­
ment— Federal, State, and municipal— can aid through the establish­
ment of comprehensive and effective labor bureaus and a, wiser plan­
ning and distribution of public work. But the remedy for unem­
ployment must come mainly through a change in the conditions of
private businesses. There is some irregularity of employment in
every branch of business, and in nearly every business concern; but
the extent and conditions of unemployment differ widely in the sev­
eral businesses. Diagnosis of the disease must precede the devising
of remedies. If the disease of unemployment is to be fully elimi­
nated, the diagnosis must be made of each branch of business, and
indeed of each business concern. Not until the facts are known
accurately and the extent of the evil appreciated can we hope for
that widespread individual effort in social industrial invention and
the comprehensive cooperation of the community, without which the
regularization of employment now seems impossible of attainment.
It is believed that the study of unemployment in an important
branch of the garment trade now presented will be of aid also to all
those who may attempt to improve conditions in other lines of
business.
The great strike of the New York garment workers in 1910 was
settled on September 2 by the signing of the first protocol. That



5

6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB, STATISTICS.

agreement was entered into by the Cloak, Suit & Skirt Manufac­
turers’ Protective Association, acting on behalf of the employer, and
by the Joint Board of Cloak Makers’ Union of Greater New York,
and the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union, acting on
behalf of the employees. The protocol settled all then existing
grievances in respect to wages, hours, and conditions of employment,
but it did far more than settle the strike: It established in a sense
an industrial government. It introduced the preferential union shop.
It perfected machinery for the avoidance or settlement of future
grievances.1
Under the terms of the protocol, amendments to its provisions,
including requests for increases of wages fixed therein, are considered
in the first instance by the board of grievances, in which the em­
ployers and the employees have equal representation. In case of a
deadlock in that board, the matter may be taken to the board of
arbitration. In the spring of 1913 the unions requested that the
wages of cutters, pressers, and other employees paid at weekly rates,
be increased— the increases varying in different occupations from
about 13 per cent to 57 per cent. No decision being reached by the
board of grievances, the matter was presented to the board of
arbitration. At the hearing before the arbitrators, it appeared that
for many occupations the existing rates of wages were relatively
high, the minimum for cutters being $25 a week, for sample makers
$22, and for jacket upper pressers $21, but it was shown that the
annual earnings of a large number of the workers were very small,
because their employment was irregular and there were long periods
of unemployment.
The arbitrators concluded that they could not pass properly upon
the proposed increase of wages until they should have before them
reliable data concerning the annual earnings of the workers in the
several occupations, the character and degree of unemployment, the
amount earned through supplemental employment, and the possi­
bility of making more regular the employment of persons engaged
in this industry. An investigation into these and related matters
was thereupon undertaken at the joint expense of the manufac­
turers7 association and of the unions. The investigation was under
the supervision of the board acting through Dr. Walter E. Weyl,
1 See Bulletins of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, No 98, Conciliation, arbitration,
and sanitation in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry in New York City, and No. 144, Industrial court
of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

7

one of its members. By permission of the Secretary of Labor, Mr.
Charles H. Winslow, of the United States Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, who had previously made an extensive study of this industry
and of its operation under the protocol, was granted leave of absence
and assumed immediate charge of the investigation. It was obvi­
ously desirable to obtain for purposes of comparison similar data
concerning the conduct of the industry in other cities. The Bureau
of Labor Statistics, acting through Mr. Charles H. Winslow, upon
due invitation, extended its investigation to the Boston shops,
which are governed by a similar protocol (dated March 8, 1913).
The board of arbitration will present later its conclusions and
recommendations on this subject.
Louis D. B r a n d e i s ,
Chairman.

WEEK WORKERS IN THE INDUSTRY IN NEW YORK
CITY.
INTRODUCTION.
Under the protocol agreement of September 2, 1910, the Joint
Board of Cloak Makers7 Unions of Greater New York, on May 21,
1913, addressed to the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers7 Protec­
tive Association of that city the following communication:
Inquiry into the nature and causes of the numerous disputes
arising daily between the members of our organization and the mem­
bers of your association has led us to the conclusion that certain
provisions of the protocol and of the rules of the board of grievances,
approved by the board of arbitration on March 11, 1911, are in need
of revision and amendment in the light of experience gained in the
course of their practical application. Our joint board, therefore,
authorized its president to appoint a committee, with himself as
chairman, to consider and formulate proposed amendments to the
protocol and the rules of the board of grievances and to confer with
representatives of your association in relation to the same. The
committee appointed by the president includes Messrs. * * *
After hearing the report of the committee, the joint board approved
the inclosed propositions, to be submitted to a conference of repre­
sentatives of your association and our committee.
We deem it desirable to have Mr. Louis D. Brandeis preside at
the conference, and we are informed by him that he would be willing
to attend the conference. He suggested Saturday, June 7, as the
date for holding the same.
If agreeable to you, we would suggest that an invitation to pre­
side at the conference be tendered to him by your association as well
as by our joint board.




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

If you have any propositions that you desire to submit to the con­
ference for discussion, we should thank you for advising us of the
same in advance of the conference, so as to expedite its proceedings.
Please let us know whether the date suggested by Mr. Brandeis
is satisfactory to you.
Very truly, yours,
(Signed)
T he Conference Committee.
In all, 15 propositions in the nature of desired amendments to
the protocol of 1910 were submitted by the unions for the con­
sideration of the joint conference just described.
The first of these, bearing particularly on this report, referred to
the desired changes in the minimum weekly rates of the various
occupations, established by the signing of the protocol. The unions
maintained that as the prices of commodities of life have risen con­
siderably since the signing of the agreement, rates of wages then
specified should be correspondingly increased.
All the propositions that were submitted by the unions were under
consideration at five full sessions of the joint conference, and at four
sessions of a subcommittee of the conference appointed for that
special purpose. At these conferences the representatives of the
manufacturers’ association took the position that because of the
pending changes in the tariff laws of the country and general busi­
ness conditions the time was not opportune for the granting of the
desired increases of wages to the week workers. As the joint con­
ference could reach no decision in the matter, all the propositions
of the union were referred to the board of arbitration of the industry
for final consideration.
The following is an extract from the findings of the board with
particular reference to the question of raising the rates of the week
workers:
The board rules that, before finally passing on this proposition,
an investigation of the industry covering the annual earnings o f
week workers and other relative matters be instituted under the
direction of Dr. Walter E. Weyl, member of the board.
Upon motion, the president of the manufacturers’ association,
the chairman of the joint board of cloak makers’ unions, and the
chairman of the board of arbitration sent a joint request to the Sec­
retary of Labor, at Washington, to permit Mr. Charles H. Winslow,
of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, to assume immediate
charge of the investigation. After permission was duly received,
on August 6, 1913, offices for the created bureau of investigation
were opened in the Fifth Avenue Building, New York City.
The following table shows the specific changes demanded in the
wage rates for each occupation:




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

9

INCREASES DEM ANDED IN W E E K L Y W AGE R A TE S OF W O R K E R S .

Occupation.

Cutters..............................................................
Sample makers...............................................
Liners...............................................................
Jacket upper pressers...................................
Jacket under pressers........... *.....................
Reefer upper pressers...................................
Reefer under pressers...................................
Dress upper pressers.....................................
Dress under pressers.................................
Piece pressers..................................................
Skirt upper pressers.......................................
Skirt under pressers..........................
Drapers, female..............................................
Basters, female..............................................
Skirt finishers..............................................
Cleaners............................................................

Existing Rate de­
rate.
manded.
$25
22
0)
21
18
18
14
0)
0)
13
19
15
0)
14
10
0)

$30
25
18
25
22
25
22
25
22
16
23
19
16
16
12
8

1 No existing rate.

As can be seen, the contemplated increases vary greatly in specific
occupations, from 57.1 per cent, the highest, for reefer under pressers,
to 13.6 per cent, the lowest, for sample makers. Specifically, the
desired increases, by occupations, were: Reefer under pressers, 57.1
per cent; reefer upper pressers, 38.8 per cent; skirt under pressers,
26.7 per cent; piece pressers, 23.1 percent; jacket under pressers, 22.2
per cent; skirt upper pressers, 21.1 per cent; skirt finishers, 20 per
cent; cutters, 20 per cent; jacket upper pressers, 19.1 per cent;
basters, female, 14.3 per cent; and sample makers, 13.6 per cent.
A preliminary report covering the results obtained from an inves­
tigation of 45 representative shops of the industry was submitted to
the board of arbitration at its session of October 13, 1913. On the
basis of that report the board granted substantial increases to pressers.
The increase given to upper pressers was $2.50 per week and to under
pressers $1.50 per week. These increases went into effect imme­
diately, but were not retroactive. However, they were to be of a tem­
porary nature, to cease on July 31, 1914, unless “ rendered permanent
either by mutual agreement or by some future award of the board.”
At the same time, recognizing the incompleteness of the information
obtained up to that date, the board of arbitration deemed it necessary
to continue and complete the statistical investigation. The inves­
tigation, however, was unexpectedly terminated in the first week of
February, 1914.
In this investigation the pay-roll records of 302 establishments man­
ufacturing cloaks, suits, and skirts in New York City were examined.
Of these, 260 belonged to members of the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manu­
facturers’ Protective Association, the party to the protocol, and the
other 42 had individual shop contracts with the unions, on terms essen­
tially the same as those stipulated in the protocol agreement of Sep­
tember 2,1910. Th6 association shops examined included practically
the shops of the entire membership of the manufacturers’ association.



19

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Ill all, the records of earnings of 14,301 workers during the year
ending July 31, 1913, were secured. As stated above, these workers
were found employed in 302 establishments; this number is about
one-sixth of the total number of establishments of this kind in the
city of New York. The number of people employed in all of the
shops covered by this investigation, including pieceworkers, accord­
ing to information furnished for each of the shops by the joint board
of sanitary control of the industry, at the peaks of the seasons, was
29,000, 24,000 of whom were found in 251 shops belonging to members
of the association. The former number, 29,000, is estimated as con­
stituting one-half of the total number of people required to man the
entire cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.1
The average number of people found in each of the association
shops was 95, slightly higher than the average for the 51 nonassocia­
tion shops investigated, 82.
The results presented in this report are based on information
obtained from 90 of the association shops investigated, among which
will be found some of the largest of the industry. As the work was
done in a rather hurried manner, at times under peculiarly discour­
aging conditions, no effort could be made to distinguish between shops
on the basis of the grade of goods manufactured. In fact, though of
interest, this kind of information was not at all called for, as the agree­
ment provides for flat uniform minimum rates irrespective of the
kind of goods that specific establishments may manufacture.
The nonassociation shops were tabulated and analyzed separately
with a view of making them the basis of comparison of standards of
wages and hours in association and nonassociation shops.
As the investigation was terminated unexpectedly, there still
remain a great number of shops whose records of the earnings of week
workers are complete, ready for tabulation and analysis.
A vigorous effort was made to secure information regarding the
hours of work as well as of earnings of week workers employed by socalled contracting establishments. Field agents reported that all of
the establishments visited— about 40— had no records whatsoever.
Most of the contractors, in paying off their help, use what they call
“ memorandum slips” ; the payments due to various workers are
figured out on slips of paper, which, after the payments have been
made, are destroyed.
SUMMARY.
The report shows great seasonal variations in employment in the
cloak, suitj and skirt industry. Pay-roll data for all productive labor
in 75 association shops indicate that the year is made up of two busy
1 General Survey of Sanitary Conditions in Shops of the Cloak Industry, Joint Board of Sanitary Con­
trol, p. 7.




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

11

seasons and two dull seasons, the busy seasons lasting 14 weeks, from
the end of July to the latter part of October, and 12 weeks, from the
latter part of January to the middle of April, and the dull seasons
lasting 12 weeks, from the end of October to the latter part of January,
and 14 weeks, from the middle of April to the latter part of July. The
pay roll for the busiest week in the year (the last week in February)
was over 280 per cent greater than that for the dullest (the second
week in December).
The number of week workers in 21 occupations in 90 association
shops and their earnings from week to week indicate similar busy and
dull seasons, the number of employees in the maximum week being
90 per cent greater than the number in the minimum week and their
earnings 196 per cent greater in the maximum than in the minimum
week.
Exact conclusions as to the proportion of employees permanently
employed, that is, employed up to the full extent of employment
afforded by the industry, can not be drawn from the data secured, but
the available information indicates that the proportion is small. A
total of 4,858 individual schedules covering 16 occupations were
obtained in the 90 association shops investigated and of these 860
showed that the employee had worked from 40 to 52 weeks. Assum­
ing that employees working this length of time in one shop were per­
manently employed, this would seem to show that less than 18 per
cent were permanent. It is apparent that this, however, is below the
real proportion because the above figures include many duplications,
the elimination of which would reduce the total number and at the
same time, by combining the time each individual had worked in
the various shops, would tend to increase the number of those in the
group working from 40 to 52 weeks, thus increasing the proportion of
workers in that group. It was not possible to eliminate the dupli­
cations for all the occupations, but an effort to do so for cutters
resulted in reducing the total number from 1,295 to 1,045 and in
increasing the number reported as working from 40 to 52 weeks from
184 to 202, thus increasing the per cent of cutters classed as per­
manently employed from 14.2 to 19.3.
While the schedules show that after eliminating duplications 1,045
individual cutters were actually employed during the year, the pay
rolls indicate that when the 90 shops are considered together 518
was the maximum number employed in any week, and was therefore
a sufficient number to do this work for the whole year. The pay rolls
of the 90 shops combined also indicate that 227 was the maximum
number needed from 40 to 52 weeks, or in other words, that 43.8 per
cent of the maximum number required for the shortest period could
be permanently employed. But as explained on page 34 the fluctua­
tions in number of employees in the shops taken separately are not



12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

uniform and individual schedules show that after all possible elimina­
tion of duplications only 202 cutters were actually employed 40 to 52
weeks, or only 39 per cent of the number necessary for the season
requiring the greatest number of cutters.
Among the 16 occupations studied cutters, however, had the small­
est percentage of permanent employment. Approximate figures for
these 16 occupations indicate that after complete elimination of dupli­
cate records about 50 per cent of the number required in the maxi­
mum week were employed from 40 to 52 weeks, though the proportion
of these to the whole number actually employed during the year as
shown by individual schedules would be considerably less.
According to the pay rolls only 1,952 employees in the 16 occupa­
tions studied were required in the week showing the largest number,
while the individual schedules, as stated above, show a total of 4,858.
If the same proportion of duplications were eliminated from this total
as w^cre eliminated from the total for cutters in the special study of
that occupation (19 per cent) the number would still be more than
twice the maximum number required according to the pay rolls.
Whatever may be the cause it is apparent that there is a considerable
surplusage of workers actually employed during the year above the
number required at the busiest season.
Regarding the earnings of the employees, the surplusage just men­
tioned would lead to the conclusion that a considerable number do
not receive for their work in the 90 shops investigated an adequate
amount during the year for their support. Thus, if employment were
equally apportioned, the average yearly earnings possible for cutters,
based on the maximum number required in the 90 shops in any week
(518) and the total annual pay roll ($433,315), would be $837, but a
comparison of the actual number employed during the year (1,045)
with the pay roll would indicate average actual earnings of only $415.
As the individual schedules for other occupations than cutters also show
a great excess in the number actually employed during the year as com­
pared with the maximum number required at the busiest season, the
above conclusion as to the insufficiency of the earnings in the 90
shops for the number of persons actually employed in all the occupa­
tions would seem to be justified.
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION AND METHODS EMPLOYED.
The primary purpose of this investigation was to ascertain what the
w eek workers in each of the occupations included in the cloak, suit,
T
and skirt industry of New York City earn at their trade— not in a day,
a week, or a month, or for the season, but in the course of a year.
It was not necessary to seek information or to tabulate the data ob­
tained so as to show rates of pay, because by reason of the protocol
agreement between the unions and the manufacturers’ association



WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

13

the rates are definitely established for each occupation among the
workers who are employed and paid on a weekly basis.
Only week workers were covered in this study, because pieceworkers
often work in teams or employ a helper or helpers whose names and
earnings do not appear separately on the books of the manufacturer.
Moreover, certain week workers, notably the sample makers, have
been omitted, since they are not uniformly paid on a time basis, and
because many of them alternate between two distinct occupations,
i. e., sample makers and piece tailors, in both of which they are
likely to employ helpers.
There are two general methods in use in such investigations as this.
The first is sometimes called the “ census” method; that is, it is a
complete enumeration of all the facts which have a bearing upon the
situation. The second is called the representative method, and
consists in taking a sufficiently large number of cases or facts to
warrant a conclusion respecting all cases or facts.
It was deemed best in this investigation to make the Study as
intensive and complete as possible. The original purpose was there­
fore to make a complete enumeration of the employees and earnings
in all of the shops operated by members of the Manufacturers’ Pro­
tective Association. An effort was made also to secure similar data
from as many as possible of the nonassociation, or “ independent,”
shops, as those which are not under the protocol are called.
A complete census of the industry was, however, found to be
impracticable. Full information was obtained from only 13 inde­
pendent shops, and owing to changes of ownership and management,
or to imperfect or incomplete records, the data secured from a con­
siderable number of the association shops could not be tabulated.
Finally, it was deemed advisable to confine the tabulation and analysis
of statistics to 90 association shops and 13 independent shops. The
result is, therefore, a representative study rather than a complete
census, though by reason of the amount of data secured it may be
regarded as quite as satisfactory in many ways as a full enumeration
would be.
There are two ways of ascertaining yearly earnings: First, from
the individual employee, and second, from his employer or em­
ployers. Each of these sources of information has its advantages
and disadvantages. It is apparent that to gather information at first
hand from all of the individuals employed in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry would be financially impracticable, if not physically impos­
sible. Moreover, if made, such a census would be unreliable, because
individuals generally do not keep books, and can not remember
accurately their working experience during a complete year.
Attempts were made to secure information directly from employees
in two ways. In one of these, personal interviews were had with a



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

certain number of cutters and pressers, but the number who could be
reached in this way was so small, and it was so unusual to find
persons who could give accurate information that the plan was given
up.
The other method was based upon schedules filled out by
workers in these shops and gathered through the shop chairmen. In
this way 1,429 schedules were obtained and tabulated, but subsequent
investigations showed them to be so full of errors that they were
discarded as entirely unreliable. Only one way remained, therefore,
to obtain the information desired, namely, to go to the employers’
books.
Having access to the employers’ books, the question arose as to
what was to be done with them. A simple count could have been
made of the number of employees in each week, in each occupation,
and the amount of the weekly pay roll by occupations could have
been taken from the different employers’ books. This was not
deemed sufficient, however, and it was decided to prepare a separate
schedule for each employee, which should contain the name, sex,
and occupation of the employee, with full information concerning
his days, hours (regular and overtime), and earnings for each of
the 52 weeks of the year in which his name appeared on the
pay-roll books. It is apparent that by combining these separate
individual schedules by shops, and then grouping the shops together,
a knowledge would be obtained of the amount of employment
afforded by each shop and by the industry as a whole, and of
the distribution of employment throughout the year. Moreover, it
was hoped that it would be possible, by the use of these individual
schedules, to trace the individual workers from shop to shop, and so
to obtain the still more important information as to individual
opportunities for earning a livelihood in the industry.
Occupations for which information was secured were: Head cutter,
skirt cutter, canvas cutter, cutter, head presser, dress upper presser,
jacket upper presser, jacket under presser, reefer upper presser, reefer
under presser, skirt upper presser, skirt under presser, piece presser,
sample liner, skirt baster, jacket finisher, skirt finisher, draper, trim­
mer, cleaner.
It sometimes happened, however, that employees who worked at
practically the same sort of work in the occupations just mentioned
were carried under different designations, in which case the instructions
were that cards should be filled out, and if they did not come within
the scope of the investigation they were canceled.




WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

15

PROPORTION OF WEEK WORKERS’ WAGES TO TOTAL PAY
ROLL.
As has been noted, this inquiry covered only those persons employed
and paid on a time basis. It was deemed desirable to ascertain what
proportion the wages of these week workers bore to the total pay roll
of the industry. A second schedule was used for this purpose, and
the total weekly pay roll of each shop, exclusive of salaried em­
ployees, office force, foremen, models, designers, and salesmen, was
obtained for each week and for the year as a whole. It was found
impracticable to secure the data called for in this schedule from all
of the 90 shops covered by the tabulations presented in this report.
Data were available, however, from 32 firms, and from these data the
following table was prepared.
T able

1.—PROPORTION OF T O TA L W A G E S OF W E E K W O R K E R S TO THE T O TA L P A Y
R O LL, IN 32 SHOPS, A U G U ST , 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

Shop.

N o. 6...............
No. 16.............
No. 17.............
No. 20.............
N o .21.............
No. 25.............
No. 27.............
No. 32.............
No. 3 6 ...........
No. 50.............
No. 58.............
No. 61.............
No. 62.............
N o .65.............
No. 80.............
No. 84.............
No. 122...........

Total
wages of
week
workers.

$15,522
61,608
17,885
9,291
25,809
21,849
15,344
60,716
14,859
16,397
12,502
16,413
6,394
18,929
29,249
18,723
35,254

Total pay
roll for all
employees.

$66,961
302,707
64,953
28,535
81,636
89,997
58,909
173,423
38,103
42,663
53,401
99,214
38,318
79,456
93,276
77,297
132,699

Per cent
week
workers’
wages are
of total
pay roll.
23.2
20.4
27.5
32.6
31.6
24.3
26.0
35.0
39.0
38.4
23.4
16.5
16.7
23.8
31.4
24.2
26.6

Shop.

Total
wages of
week
workers.

Total pay
roll for all
employees.

Per cent
week
workers’
wages are
of total
pay roll.

No. 136...
No. 159...
N o .160...
No. 168...
No. 172...
No. 179...
No. 210. . .
N o .217...
No. 223...
No. 228...
No. 240...
No. 254...
No. 262...
No. 270...
No. 276...

$10,576
8,411
19,549
9,625
10,166
15,601
13,361
16,833
105,506
14,517
32,867
39,294
17,764
10,382
18,082

$31,445
29,470
67,730
30,044
39,908
56,580
67,690
63,246
502,869
40,057
201,809
112,901
56,563
38,850
77,750

33.6
28.5
28.9
32.0
25.5
27.6
19.7
26.6

Total

739,278

2,938,460

25.2

21
.0

36.2
16.3
34.8
31.4 '
26.7
23.3

It will be noted that the proportion of the pay roll going to week
workers varies considerably. In some shops it is as high as 38 or 39
per cent; in others, only a little above 16 per cent. It was not within
the scope of this investigation to make a close study of the character
of the business or the methods of work in the different shops, therefore
it is not possible to say why these variations occur. This list of 32
shops was so selected, however, as to warrant the conclusion that the
average, 25.2 per cent, is fairly representative of the industry as a
whole.




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

CHARACTER OF DATA AS TO EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS.
Schedule 1 calls for the number of days worked in each week, but so
few shops afforded complete records of this fact that it was found
necessary to abandon the attempt to secure this information. All
tabulations contained in this report, therefore, which show extent of
employment, are based either upon the week or upon the hour as a
unit. These two units give somewhat different results, both as to
average earnings and as to actual amount of employment. In every
case an hour means the actual amount of time spent at work. A
week, on the other hand, may mean anything from 1 hour to 50 hours,
or even 62J hours where the full allowable amount of overtime is
worked. In other words, a week means simply that an employee
appeared upon the pay roll of a shop in that week. It should be
noted, however, that the schedules disclose very few individuals who
worked less than one day in a week, and, on the other hand, that the
full 50-hour week was the rule, though in the dull season broken weeks
were very common.
Earnings computed on an hourly basis will be found to vary from
the established rate in only one direction, because regular hours were
paid for at full rates and overtime hours at higher rates—usually
double. On the other hand, weekly earnings will be found to fluc­
tuate both above and below the established rate, part time tending
to put them below, and overtime and extra rates of pay, which occurred in a number of instances, tending to carry them above.
The year chosen for this study was necessarily a 12-month period
which had ended prior to the beginning of the field work. Obviously
it was desirable to bring the period covered as close as possible to
the time of making the investigation, in order that fairly fresh records
might be dealt with and to disclose conditions approximately as
they were at the time the demand for increased wages was made.
The year opened and closed in the early part of the busy summer
season.
AH of the tabulations show a wide fluctuation during the year*
both in number of employees and in earnings. It was well known to
those acquainted with the industry that the employment afforded by
it was highly irregular. The dull and busy seasons could also have
been located with a fair degree of precision without a statistical
investigation, but the present study has provided the first and only
real opportunity to measure accurately the degree of fluctuation and
to show the exact extent of the dull and busy periods.




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

17

WEEKLY PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 75
ASSOCIATION SHOPS.
In Table 2, which follows, the total pay roll of 75 association shops
is given week by week and for the entire year. While there was some
variation as to pay-roll periods in individual establishments, the
periods shown in this and other tables of the report are believed to
be fairly representative of the whole industry and begin with the
first full week in August.
2 .—TOTAL W E E K L Y AMOUNT OF P A Y R O LL FOR A LL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN
75 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AND PER CENT OF A V E R A G E W E E K L Y AM OUNT, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T able

Month.

August...........

September. . .

October........

November...

December___

January.........

Week
No.

Amount
of pay
roll.

Per cent
of aver­
age
weekly
pay roll.

$97,807
108,268
119,427
127, 786
125,940
101,237
120,705
126,015
122,968
129,446
133,683
118,942
87,283
62,907
63,264
55,968
42,838
43,109
40,741
47,271
52,042
57,654
82,565
94,001
113,005
124,495

103.6
114.7
126.5
135.4
133.4
107.3
127.9
133.5
130.3
137.2
141.7
126.0
92.5
66.7
67.0
59.3
45.4
45.7
43.2
50.1
55.1
61.1
87.5
99.6
119.7
131.9

Month.

February.

March.,

April..

May..

June.

July.

Total.......
Average..

Week
No.

Amount
of pay
roll.

$131,623
127,052
146.148
155.148
152,640
152,119
143,904
134, 834
118,227
102, 869
82,540
65,845
62,501
62,030
61,475
54.695
47', 798
54,125
55,904
69,745
80,141
69,495
83, 725
92,937
100,041
100,586

Per cent
of aver­
age
weekly
pay roll.
139.5
134.6
154.9
164.4
161.7
161.2
152.5
142.9
125.3
109.0
87.5
69.8

6 .2
6

65.7
65.1
58.0
50.6
57.4
59.2
73.9
84.9

73.6
88.7
98.5
106.0
106.6

.4,907,514
J 94,375

It will be noted that the year is made up of two busy seasons and
two dull seasons. The third week in October and the last in Febru­
ary are the busiest weeks in the two busy seasons, and the second
week in December and the last in May the dullest in the two dull
seasons of the year. It is apparent from the column of index num­
bers showing percentage that each weekly pay roll is of the average
for the year, that from the latter part of July until the latter part of
October, or for 14 weeks, the amount of employment is above the
yearly average. Then for 12 weeks, earnings are below the average.
This is followed by a period of 12 busy weeks, which in turn is suc­
ceeded by 14 weeks of low earnings. It should be observed that the
pay roll for the busiest week in the year, the last week in February,
4 0 1 6 9 ° — B u -l -l .- 2- 1 - 4 7 — 1 5



18

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

is over 280 per cent greater than that for the dullest week, the second
week in December. The fluctuations indicated in this table are
graphically shown in the accompanying chart (Chart 1).
1 .— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 75 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS IN NEW YOR K CITY, AS SHOWN B Y W E E K LY P A Y
ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

C h art

{Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

WEEKLY EARNINGS OF WEEK WORKERS IN 21 OCCUPATIONS
IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS.1
The following table, which gives the total number of week workers
employed each week in 90 association shops and their earnings, week
by week, indicates the same busy and dull periods as Table 2, though
the low points of the two tables do not exactly coincide. The busy
season apparently opens a little earlier for the week workers than for
the pieceworkers, whose earnings constitute 75 per cent oi those in
Table 2. The correspondence between these two tables is so close,
however, that there can be no doubt of the reliability of either as ail
indication of the fluctuations of the industry as a whole.
1 The test analysis of the data relating to 90 association shops in New York City was made by C-arroli
W . Doten.




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.
T

19

3 .—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES AND T H E IR EARNINGS EACH W E E K A N D PER
CENT OF TH E RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FOR THE Y E A R , IN 21 OCCUPA­
TIONS IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

able

Per
cent
of aver­
age
number
Num­
of em­
Total
weekly ployees
Month. Week ber of
em­
No.
in each
ployees. pay roll. week
(aver­
age =
100 per
cent).
r
August . 1
I
(
Septem­ I
ber___ 1
I
f
October. 1
1
I
[
Novem­ 1
ber... 1
I
[
Decern - I
ber___ i
I
f
T
Ja n u a r y .... \
I

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

1,756
1,862
1,987
2,053
2,048
2,007
2,033
2,021
2,003
2,002
1,975
1,847
1,621
1,363
1,355
1,302
1,183
1,120
1,134
1,207
1,233
1,340
1,597
1,768
1,905
2,015

$31,280
35,343
38,887
41,078
41,728
30,299
39,496
39,148
38,051
41,275
40,104
35,923
27,467
20,770
20,625
19,593
16,635
15,749
15,935
18,117
18,647
20,466
26,397
31,196
35,378
38,919

103.4
109.6
117.0
120.9
120.6
118.1
119.7
119.0
117.9
117.8
116.3
108.7
95.4
80.2
79.8
76.6
69.6
65.9
66.8
71.1
72.6
78.9
94.0
104.1
112.1
118.6

Per
cent
of aver­
age
weekly
pay roll
in each
week
(aver­
age =
100 per
cent).

102.8
116.2
127.8
135.0
137.1
99.6
129.8
128.7
125.1
135.6
131.8
118.1
90.3
68.3
67.8
64.4
54.7
51.8
52.4
59.5
61.3
67.3
86.8
102.5
116.3
127.9

Month.

Per
cent
of aver­
age
number
Num­
of em­
Total
Week ber of
weekly ployees
em­
No.
pay roll. in each
ployees.
week
(aver­
age =
100 per
cent).

f 27
Febru­ J 28
a r y .... i 29
I 30
( 31
J 32
nr v
.
Marcn...
i 33
I 34
f 35
36
A
*
1
April.. . .
i 37
I 38
f 39
40
M ay----- \ 41
42
1 43
f 44
I 45
Ju n e ,
1 46
I 47
f 48
49
July...... I 50
51
I 52
Total
Aver­
age..

2,067
2,078
2,122
2,152
2,158
2,133
2,092
2,014
1,885
1,753
1,640
1,507
1,477
1,465
1,393
1,332
1,182
1,228
1,309
1,488
1,608
1,550
1,655
1,739
1,787
1,786

$41,571
43,288
45,981
46,711
45,605
44,215
43,260
39,652
34,489
30,021
27,240
21,517
21,106
21,823
21,033
19,493
17,273
19,185
19,746
24,812
28,036
25,124
28,704
30,608
31,926
31,320

Per
cent
of aver­
age
weekly
pay roll
in each
week
(average=
100 per
cent).

121.7
122.3
124.9
126.7
127.0
125.6
123.1
118.6
111.0
103.2
96.5
88.7
86.9
86.2
82.0
78.4
69.6
72.3
77.1
87.6
94.5
91.2
97.4
102.4
105.2
105.1

136.6
142.3
151.1
153.5
149.9
145.3
142.2
130.3
113.3
98.7
89.5
70.8
69.4
71.7
69.1
64.1
56.8
63.1
64.9
81.5
92.1
82.6
94.3
100.6
104.9
102.9

100.0

100.0

1,582,245
1,699

30,428

The fluctuations in Table 3 are not quite so great as those in Table
2, the earnings for the busiest week being only 196 per cent greater
than for the dullest week. The number of employees shows even
less variation, the largest number being only 90 per cent in excess of
the least number. This variation between the index for earnings
and that for number of employees is due, on the one hand, to full­
time and overtime work in the busy seasons, and, on the other, to
part-time or fractional weeks in the dull seasons.
FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS IN 90 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS, BY OCCUPATIONS.
No average weekly earnings are shown in Table 3, because they
would be practically meaningless owing to the wide range in rates of
pay among the 21 occupations included. In all other respects this
table is like the following table which covers each of the principal
occupations.




20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table No. 4 was constructed by merely adding together the data
on the individual schedules and shows the number of employees and
amount of earnings each week for the 52 weeks of the year. Atten­
tion is again called to the fact that the unit upon which this table
is based is not necessarily a full week, but may be only one day in
some cases. In other words, a week merely means that a worker
appeared on the pay roll of the shop in which the schedule is taken in
that particular week.
The number of employees, in column 3 of the table, is the number
of persons shown by the records to have worked in the 90 shops dur­
ing each of the weeks. The total in this column is the number of
weeks of work for one man in the 90 shops during the entire year, or,
as it is sometimes called, the number of “ man-weeks.”
The total weekly pay roll, in column 4 of the table, represents the
total amount paid out in all of the shops to all of the workers in a
specific occupation.
The average weekly earnings, in column 5 of the table, were ob­
tained by dividing the figures of column 4 by the figures in column 3,
for each week and for the total of 52 weeks. The figure shown in
the last line of the table as the average weekly earnings for the year
represents the average amount earned by a worker during each of
the weeks when he was employed. It does not represent, however,
the average amount earned during each of the 52 weeks of the year,
but only during those weeks in which he worked.
The last two columns of the table show for each week the relative
number of employees and the relative weekly pay roll and are de­
signed to bring these two items to a comparable basis. The relative
for each week was obtained b}7 dividing the amount for each week
by the average for the year, the result being expressed as a percent­
age. In Table 4, for cutters, for example, the relative number of
men in the first week (111.4) means that the number of cutters in the
first week (331) was 11.4 per cent higher than the average weekly
number for the year.




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY—-N E W YORK.
T

21

4 . — N U M BER OF EM PLOYEES AND T H EIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF TH E RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

able

C U TTER S.

Month.

cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week em­
weekly ploy­
pay
No.
earn­ ees in
ploy­ roll.
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =.

Month.

10 10
0
0

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week em­
weekly ploy­
No. ploy­
pay
earn­ ees in
roll.
ings. each
ees.
week
(aver­
age =

0
10 10
0

per
per
cent) cent).

$ ,2 0 $24. 20
9 2;

381
421
450
464
456
436
434
435
453
459
429
359
267
207
206
199
169
170
187
227
234
251
311
386
442
479

August—

September

October...

November

December.

January...

10,763!
11,723
12,090
11,837
8,655
10,339
10,939,
11,4851
11,880;
10,950
8,809
6,270
4,604
4,728
4,471
3,595
3,546
4,093
5,082
5,349
5,714
7,268
9,029
10,725
11,987

25. 57
26.05
26.06
25.96
19. 85
23. 82
25.15
25.35
25. 88
25.52
24.54
23. 48
22.24
22.95
22. 47
21.27

2.8
06
21.89
22.39

2. 8
26

22. 76
23.37
23. 39
24. 26
25.03

111.4
123.1
131.6
135.7
133.3
127.5
126.9
127.2
132.4
134. 2
125.4
105.0
78.1
60.5
60.2
58.2
49.4
49.
54.7
66.4
68.4
73.4
90.9
112.9
129.2
140.1

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =

per
per
cent). cent).

110.6

129.2
140. 7
145.1
142.1
103.9
124.1
131.3
137.8
142.6
131.4
105.7
75. 2
55.3
56.7
53.7
43.1
42.6
49.1
61.0
64.2

490 $12,916 $26. 36 143.3 155.0
504 13,868 27.52 147.4 166.2
518 14,136 27.29 151.5 169.5
507 13,377 26.38 148.2 160.4
490 12,510 25. 53 143.3 150.1
461 11,851 25. 71 134.8 142.2
459 11,572 25. 21 134.2 138.9
428 10,753 25.12 125.1 129.0
351
8,487 24.18 102.6 101.8
7,529 23. 75 92.7 90.4
317
6,684 23. 87 81.9 80.2
280
248
5,633 22. 71 72.5 67.6
4,904 21.89 65.5 58.9
224
224
4,730 21.12 65.5 56.8
4,501 2 .1
2 59.4 54.0
203
4,196 2 . 2 55.3 50.4
189
2 0
3,852 22. 79 49.4 46.2
169
4,615 22.51 59.9 55.4
205
5,396 2 . 2 71.0 64.8
21
243
6,828 23.22 86.0 81.9
294
7,373 24. 33 88.6 88.5
303
284
6,738 23. 73 83.0 80.9
7,794 23.83 95.6 93.5
327
8,716 24. 08 105.8 104.6
362
9,459 24. 32 113.7 113.5
389
404
9, 746 24.12 118.1 117.0

Febru­
ary....

March..

April___

May..

June___

6.
8

87.2
108.4
128.7
143.9

July..

433,315
8,333

Total
Average

100.0 100.0

S K IR T C U T T E R S .

August___

Sepi ember

O c t o b e r ...

November

December.

January...

ll
2!
3i
4!
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26




11
13
14!|
15
15
13
14
14
14
13
12
12
ni
11
12
9
9
10!
11!
12;
11
1
10:
!
is;!
14i

17 1
16j

j
$229 $20. 82:j 71. •
2811 21.-62! S!.
s
317! 22. 64| 90. <
>
320 21. 33 j <7. '4
335 22. 33 97. 3.
212 16. 31 84. 3
284 20. 29 90. 8
310 22. 14 90. 8
298 21. 29 90. 8
289 22. 23 84. 3
•270 22. 50 ; 77. 8:
254 21. 17i 77. 8
207 18. 82 , 71. 3i
208 18. 91 71. 3
201 16. 75 77. 8
175 19. 44 58. 4
187! 20. 78 58. 4
178 S 17- 80 64. 8
209i 19. 00 71. 3
236 j 19. 67 77. 8
213! 19. 36 71. 3
205! 20. 50 64. 8
272,| 18. 13 97. 3
294 21. 00 90. 8
374; 22. 00 110. 2
364: 22. 75 103. 8
|

1

70. 8
86. 9!
98. 1
'
99. O
103. 6,j
65. 6!
87. 9
95. 9j
92. 2|
89. 4;
83. 5
78. 6
64. 0
64. 3
62. 2
54. l!
57. 8!
55. i;
64. 7j
73. 0
65. 9i
63. 4
84. 1
90. 9
115. 7
112. 6

i

(
Februa ry.... i
f
March...

i
[
(
A
1— J
April.
1
I
[
May

T

\

I
r
I
e •— i
I
f

July

! Total
I Average

\
[

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

17
15
14
15
18
17
16
17
21
19
19
19
16!
18
19
17
17
20
21
20
20
23
25
20
15
16

$405 $23. 82 110. 2 125. 3
350 23. 33 97. 3 108. 3
364 26. 00 90. 8 112. 6
402 26. 80 97. 3 124. 4
432 24. 00 116. 7 133. 6
396 23. 29 110. 2 122. 5
372 23. 25 103. 8 115. 1
367 21. 59 no. 2 113. 5
381 18. 14 136. 2 117. 9
431 22. 68 123. 2 133. 3
4341 22. 84 123. 2 134. 3
346 18. 21; 123. 2 107. 0
316 19. 751 103. 8 97. 8
383 21. 28 116. 7 118. 5
413i 21. 74 123. 2 127. 8
354 J 20. 82 110. 21 109. 5
3531 20. 76 110. 2 109. 2
369; 18. 45 129. 7 114. 2
448! 21. 33 136. 2 138. 6
402 20. 10 129. 7 124. 4
:
427 21. 35 129. 7 132. 1
436 18. 96 149. 1 134. 9
462 18. 48 162. 1 142. 9
397 19. 85 129. 7 122. 8
328 21. 87i 97. 3 101. 5
322 20. 13j 103. 8 99. 6

15.42

16,812
323.23 “ 26!‘96 'ioo' 0 " m . 0
1

22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 4 . — NUM BER

OF EM PLO YEES AND T H E IR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF THE R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FOR THE Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued
CANVAS CUTTERS.

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
age of em­
Week ber of weekly weekly
ploy­
No. em­
pay
ploy­ roll. earn­ ees in
ings. each
ees.
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).
f
1
1
I
f

1
2
3
4
5

[

August—

7
8
9
10
11

September J
1

October... {
I
(
X
T
1
jNovemuer 1
1
I
i
December J1
1
January... \
I

f

August—

J

1

{
beptemo or 1
1

I

October... I

I
X
T
^
MovemDer

f

1I
f

u ecem der.

i
I

January... \
[

1132

14
15
16
17!
18l
i
1^
9;
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

49
50
53
60
56
53
6
55
54
51
51
50
48
36
33
30
27
28
27
28
30
31
37
47
53
54
54

Per i
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
Month.
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

$780 $15.92 112.8 109.5
866 17.32 115.1 121.5!
957 18.06| 122.1 134.3
1,033 17.221 138.2 145.0
|
992 17.71 129.0 139. 2:
704 13.28 122.1 98. 8
|
888 16.15 126.7 124. 6
905 16.76 124. 4 127.0!
902 17.69 117.4 126.6
964 18.90 117.4 135.31
894 17.88 115.1 125.5;
812 16.92 110.5 113.9
600 16. 67 82.9 84.21
534 16.18 76.0 74. 9;
488 16. 27 69.1 68.5
422 15.63 62.2 59.2
421 15. 04 64.5 59.1
396 14. 67 62.2 55. 6
417 14.89 64.5 58.5
443 14. 77 69.1 62.2
477 15.39 71.4 66.9
532 14. 38 85.2 74.7
689 14.66 108.2 96.7
792 14.94 122.1 111.1
845 15.65 124.4 1 118.6
922 17.07 124.4| 129.4
1

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age j age
num-; week­
Num­
Total Aver­ ber | ly
of
Week ber of weekly , age ' em-l pay
em­
weekly ploy-1 roll
pay
No. ploy­
earn- < in | in
ees
roll.
ees.
ings. each |each
week j week
(aver-: <
(aver­
age= |
age^
100 ; 100
per i per
cent). cent).

{
J eoruary J
b
1
T/T U
L
Marcn

I
f
I
]
I

K *
1
April— J
\
[
f
May...... 1
j
I
(
I
Ju n e- - - - i
I
(
J u ly .... \
I

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Total
Average

J A C K E T UPPER P R E S S E R S .
!
j
I
378 $(>,752: $17.861 97.6: 98.8^
( 271
1
400 7,693■ 19.23I 103.3 112.6 February J 28
2 8,573■ 19.71 ! 112.3■ 125.4
: 1 29
3! 435! 9,361 20.991 115.2
4i 446>
137.0
! 1 30
5i
451 9,536i 21.141 116.51 139.5
U 31;
i
32!j
6h 4491 6,827' 15.20; 116. C 99.9 1 Marcn... !
467' 9,506> 20.36! 120.6> 139.1
)
331
7
l
34!
§1 457' 9,027’ 19.75, 118. C 132.1
S 1 447r 8 ,18C 18.30; 115.4: 119.7
1
f 35!
3
6|
1C 1 444; 9,512! 21.42! 114.7' 139.2 j .
111 456i 9 ,62C 21.10: 117. b 140.8 April —
3
7
1
i
12!
38|
m i 9,42£> 21.14; 115.2! 138.0
421. 7,6K> 18.10 108.7■ 111.5
1 2!
f &)
4t)
>
14I 361. 5 ,29C 14.68; 93.2: 77.5
1
n i 34£\ 5,045! 14.49. 89. £ 73.8 May....... i 41
>
331. 4 ,82c) 14.58i 80. ci 70.6
4I
5
ie
r 5 301l 4,004I 13.30! 77.7’ 58.6
I
45
5
1
5 27<) 3,541j 12.71! 72.1 51.9
t
)
282: 3,376) 11.9:r 72. £ 49.4 j T
;
5
I 4
.:)
2)
C
28C 3,726) 13.31 72.5! 54.5 j une----- 1 4(j
)
280 3,531. 12.61! 72.5I 51.7
4-n
21
22!
3071 3,87^I 12.62: 79.55 56.7
48;
221 358| 5, 111> 16.13! 92. i> 84.5
41
9
24I 386j 6,81i) 17. o;r 99.77 99.8 July....... \ 50!
21i
406) 7,615I 19.0:J 103.51 111.4
511
2f> 4277 8 ,28() 19.4 L 110.51 121.2
J
{ 52j




1

!

Total
Average

57
56
54
55
54
52
51
51
49
46
39
31
28
32
32
27
23;
26!
35;
38;
44
42!
44!
48
50
49j

$971 $17.04 131.3| 136.3
991 17. 70 129. O 139.1
i
1,024 18.96 124. 4 143.7
1
1,056 19.20 126. 7 148.2
i
996 18. 44 124.4 139.8
916 17.62 119.8 128.5
901 17. 67 117.4 126. 4
884 17.33 117.4 124.1
796 16.24 112.8 111.7
713 15.50 105. 9 100.1
|
602 15. 44 89.8 84.5
443 14.29 71.4 62.2
472 16.86 64.5 66.2
455 14.22 73.7 63.9
472 14.75 73.7 66.2
387 14.33 62.2 54.3
365 15.87 53.0 51.2
407 15.65 59.9 57.1
503 14.37 80.6 70.6
599 15.76 87.5 84.1
698 15. 86 101.3 98.0
665 15.83 96.7 93.3
703 15.98 101.3 98.7
772 16.08 110.5 108.3
791 15.82 115.1 111.0
798 16.29 112.8 112.0

: 37,055
43.42 ! 712.60

i
430!
432;
443
447I
459h
471
465!
445!
437 1
416>
404
37S»
37C
l
3581
34S;
336>
2 -1
8t
286»
292!
3351
357
342!
367'
391
40£5
397r
387. It)

$8,769
9,122:
9,863
10,302
10,528i
10,350i
10,071
8,996'
8,347
7,070(
6,365
4,718
4,898;
5,131
4,831
4,351
3,472:
3,993;
3,714i
5,01ci
6 ,05£i
5,154I
6,225i
6,601.
7,234[
6,871

16.41 100.0 100.0

: 20.39i 111.1 128.3
21.12: 111.6, 133.5
22.26i 114.4 144.4
23.05 115.4 | 150.7
22.94 118.51 154.0
21.97 121.6 151.4
21.66i 120.1 147.4
20.22: 114.9 131.6
19.10l 112.9 122.1
17.001 107.4 103.4
15. 751 104.3 93.1
12. 45i 97.9 69.0
13.24 95. 6 71.7
14. 33; 92.5 75.1
13.88! 89.9 70.7
12.951 86.8 63.7
12.23; 73.3 50.8
13.96> 73.9 58.4
12.72! 75.4 54.3
15.06 86.0i 73.4
16.96> 92.2: 88.6
15.077 88.3; 75.4
16.96j 94.8; 91.1
»
16.8£\ 101. C 96.6
17.755 105.4: 105.8
17.31. 102.51 100.5

3-15,394I
6,83c> 17.6c> 100. e1 100,0

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.
T

23

4 .—NU M BER OF EM PLO YEES AND TH EIR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF THE R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVE R A G E S FOR TH E Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGU ST, 1912, TO JU LY , 1913—Continued.

able

J A C K E T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .

Month.

Num­ Total Aver­
age
Week ber of weekly weekly
em­
No.
ploy­ pay­ earn­
roll. ings.
ees.

f

J
1
1
I
I
if
September J
I

August —

i
October . .

\
I
[

November
1

f

December. 1
1
I
f
January... {
1

1
3
4
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
ber
ly
of em­ pay
ploy­ roll
ees in in
each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age^ age =
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

Month.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ly
ber of weekly age of em­ pay
Week em­
weekly ploy­ roll
No.
earn­ ees in in
ploy­
r^lf.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age = agers
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

303 $4,324 $14.27 103.3 102.5
329 5,074 15. 42 112.2 120.3 February
2
347 5,730 16.51 118.4 135.8
364 6,290 17.28 124.2 149.1
371 6,528 17.60 126.5 154.7
5
364 4,495 12.35 124.2 106.5
6
March...
369 6,221 16.86 125.9 147.4
369 6,121 16.59 125.9 145.1
357 5,538 15.51 121.8 131.3
355 6,398 18.02 121.1 151.5 April___
354 6,343 17.92 120. 7 150.4
342 5,693 16.65 116.6 134.9
.
307 4,090 13.32 104.7| 96.9
241 2,705 11.22 82.2 ; 64.1
234 2,263
9.67 79.8 53.6
226 2,278 10.08 77.1 54.0
193 1,719
8.91 65.8 40.7
8.24 56.3 32.2
165 1,360
7.96 53.9 29.8
158 1,258
1,453
8.65 57.3 34.4 June.. . .
168
9.56 61.1 40.6
179 1,711
215 2,364 11.00 *73.3 56.0
266 3,398 12.77 90.7 80.5
303 4,475 14.77 103.3 106.1 July.......
325 5,058 15.56 110.8 119.9
352 5,803 16.49 120.1 137.5

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37,
38
39;
40S
41 1
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

369
371
375
391
405
405
374
365
347
294
265
246
243
237
210
199
175
183
192
247
289
274
297
300
322
315

|

Total
Average

293.19

$6,301 $17.08 125.9 149.3
6,486 17.48 126.5 153.7
7,138 19.03 127.9 169.2
7,459 19.08 133.4 176.8
7,472 18. 45 138.1 177.1
7,309 18.05 138.1 173.2
6,812 18.21 127.6 161.5
6,284 17.22 124.5 148.9
5,110 14.73 118.4 121.1
3,820 12.99 100.3 90.5
3,290 12. 42 90.4 78.0
2,226
9.05 83.9 52.8
2,172
8.94 82.9 51.5
2,230
9.41 80.8 52.9
2,084
9.92 71.6 49.4
9.41 67.9 44.4
1,873
1,514
8.65 59.7 35.9
1,857 10.15! 62.4 44.0
1,866
9. 72 65.5 44.2
3,244 13.13 84.2 76.9
3,946 13.65 98.6 93.5
3,194 11.66 93.5 75.7
4,097 13.79 101.3 97.1
4,278 14.26 102.3 101.4
4,522 14.04 109.8 107.2
4,123 13.09 107.4 97.7
219,397
4,219

14.39 100.0 100.0

S K IR T U PPER P R E S S E R S .
f
August___

I
i
September 1

I
I

f

October...

\
{
1

November

December.

J
1
I
f
1
1
I
f

January... \
1

1
2
3
4
^
6
”
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

95 $1,576 $16.59 103.8 105.0
95 1,655 17.42 103.8 110.3
102 1,859 18.23 111.4 123.9 February
107 1,955 18.27 116.9 130.3
105 2,030 19.33 114.7 135.3
104 1,450 13.94 113.6 96.6
March...
99 1,869 18.88 108.1 124.6
104 1,924 18.50 113.6 128.2
102 1,797 17.62 111.4 119.8
99 1,816 18.34 108.1 121.0 April___1
98 1,782 18.18 107.0 118.8
!
94 1,505 16.01 102.7 100.3
87 1,152 13.24 95.0 76.8
72
771 10.71 78.6 51.4
78.6
1 572 913 12.68 80.8 60.8 May.......
59.8
12.14
i
1 674 898 11.44 72.1 50.3
66
755
17
66
759 11.50 72.1 50.6
1 867 717 10.70 73.2 47.8
June___
70
865 12.36 76.5 57.6
882 12.78 75.4 58.8
69
74 1,047 14.15 80.8 69.8
'
87 1,210 13.91 95.0 80.6
90 1,401 15.57 98.3 93.4 July.......
94 1,596 16.98 102.7 106.4
94 1,670 17.77 102.7 111.3




Total
Average

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

94 $1,774 $18.87 102.7 118.2
94
1,821 19.37 102.7 121.4
102
2,051 20.11 111.4 136.7
106
2,264 21.36 115.8 150.9
107
2,194 20.50 116.9 146.2
110
2,213 20.12 120.1 147.5
113
2,295 20.31 123.4 152.9
no
2,060 18. 73 120.1 137.3
102
1,783 17. 48 111.4 118.8
100
1,679 16. 79 109.2 111.9
99
1,646 16.63 108.1 109.7
97
1,400 14. 43 105.9 93.3
96! 1,345 14.01 104.9 89.6
95! 1,494 15. 73 103.8 99.6
93| 1,389 14.94 101.6 92.6
91j 1,297 14.25 99.4 86.4
84] 1,175 13.99 91.7 78.3
79! 1,184 14.99 86.3 78.9
79
1,139 14. 42 86.3 75.9
1,286 15. 49 90.7 85.7
83
86
1,343 15. 62 93.9 89.5
84
1,288 15.33 91.7 85.8
1,464 16. 45 97.2 97.6
89
96
1,620 16.87 104.9 108.0
93
1,531 16.46 101.6 102.0
93
1,438) 15. 46j 101.6 95.8
91.56

78,0271
1,501!
I

1
i
1 6 . 3 9ioo. o j 100.0
j

24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4 .—NUM BER OF EM PLO YEES AND TH EIR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF T H E R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V ER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued.

S K I R T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week
weekly ploy­
em­
No. ploy­ pay
earn­ ees in
roll.
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
100
por
cent).

August—

September

October...

November

December.

January... •
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

37
41
45
47
47
45
45
42
39
37
40
38
31
19
23
21
17
16
17
14
13
25
30
36
44
45

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week
weekly ploy­
em­
No.
earn­ ees in
ploy­
ro !
P
ings. each
ees.
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

$482 $13.03 115.4 113.4
566 13.80 127.9 133.1
677 15.04 140.4 159.2 February ’
734 15.62 146.6 172.6
767 16.32 146.6 180.4
534 11.87 340.4 125.6
702 15.60 140.4 165.1 March...
644 15.33 111.0 151.5
612 15.69 121.7 143.9
600 16.22 115.4 141.1
April___ ‘
601 15.03 124.8 141.3
506 13.32 118.5 119.0
235
7.58 96.7 55.3
111
5.84 59.3 26.1
202
8.78 71.7 47.5 May.......
164
7.81 65.5 38.6
112
6.59 53.0 26.3
8.81 49.9 33.2
f
141
113
6. 65 53.0 26.6 June. . . . I
134
9.57 43.7 31.5
1
129
9.92 40.6 30.3
1
253 10.12 78.0 59.5
f
344 11.47 93.6 80.9
453 12.58 112.3 106.5
<
580 13.18 137.3 136.4
{
649 14.42 140.4 152.6
Total
Average

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

44
46
44
44
42
44
41
41
38
35
32
30
28
27
22
25
19
19
18
20
21
23
22
29
30
29
32.06

1

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

$715 $16.25 137.3 168.x
755 16.41 143.5 177.6
781 17.75 137.3 183.7
808 18.36 137.3 190.0
767 18.26 131.0 180.4
754 17.14 137.3 177.3
705 17.20 127.9 165.8
663 16.17 127.9 155.9
519 13. 66 118.5 122.1
409 11.69 109.2 96.2
309
9. 66 99.8 72.7
254
8.47 93.6 59.7
264
9. 43 87.3 62.1
306 11.33 84.2 72.0
246 11.18 68.6 57.9
232
9.28 78.0 54.6
188
9.89 59.3 44.2
220 11.58 59.3 51.7
182 10.11 56.1 42.8
188
9.40 62.4 44.2
262 12.48 65.5 61.6
237 10.30 71.7 55.7
272 12.36 68.6 64.0
354 12.21 90.5 83.2
349 11.63 93.6 82.1
328 11.31 90.5 77.1
22,112
425.23

13.26 100.0 100.0

PART PR ESSER S.

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26




100 $1,159 $11.59 118.7 112.3
101 1,295 12.82 119.9 125.4 February
108 1,373 12. 71 128.2 133.0
107 1,441 13.47 127.0 139.6
104 1,488 14.31 123.5 144.1
9.80 128.2 102.5 March...
108 1,058
105 1,503 14.31 124.7 145.6
106 1,354 12.77 125.8 131.1
102 1,300 12. 75 121.1 125.9
103 1,527 14.8) 122.3 147.9 April___
102 1,529 14.99 121.1 148.1
95 1,368 14.40 112.8 132.5
91 1,013 11.13 108.0 98.1
737 10.38 84.3 71.4
71
776 10.93 84.3 75.2 May___
71
65
627
9.65 77.2 60.7
60
8.00 71.2 46.5
480
411
7.34 66.5 39.8
56
53
443
8.36 62.9 42.9 June___
52
442
8.50 61.7 42.8
59
477
8.08 70.0 46.2
608
9.65 74.8 58.9
63
84
918 10.93 99.7 88.9
87 1,030 11.84 103.3 99.8 July-----96 1,233 12.84 114.0 119.4
110 1,448 13.16 130.6 140.2
Total
Average.

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

111
101
108
108
104
105
98
97
90
85
82
68
72
67
64
59
50
46
56
69
80
75
81
84
81
80
84.23

$1,590 $14.32 131.8 154.0
1,501 14.83 119.9 145.4
1,090 15.65 128.2 163.7
1,805 16.71 128.2 174.8
1,645 15.82 123.5 159.3
1,576 15.01 124.7 152.6
1,553 15 85 116.3 150.4
1,314 13.55 115.2 127.3
1,121 12. 43 106.8 108.6
950 11.18 100.9 92.0
871 10.62 97.4 84.4
559
8.22 80.7 54.1
577
8.01 85.5 55.9
618
9.22 79.5 59.9
607
9. 48 76.0 58.8
573
9. 71 70.0 55.5
450
9.00 59.4 43.6
505 10.98 54.6 48.9
514
9.18 66.5 49.8
853 12.36 81.9 82.6
938 11.73 95.0 90.9
853 11.51 89.0 83.6
949 11.72 96.2 91.9
1,070 12. 74 99.7 103.6
1,019 12.58 96.2 98.7
939 11.74 95.0 90.9
53,688
1,032

12.26 100.0 100.0

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

25

4 . — NU M BER OF EM PLOYEES AND TH EIR EARN IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF TH E R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FOR THE Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AU G U ST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913— Continued.

T able

B A S T E R S (M A L E ).

Month.

Num­
ber of
Week
em­
No.
ploy­
ees.

August—

September

October...

November
'

December.

January...
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Aver­ ber
Total
age of em­
weekly weekly ploy­
pay
earn­ ees in
roll.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age100
per­
cent).

10
9
10
11
10
9
9
9
9
8
9
8
7
8
8
7
6
5
5
7
6
8
9
8
9
10

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age100
per
cent).

$147 $14.70 124.7 107.3
156 17.33 112.2 113.9
175 17.50 124.7 127.7
158 14.36 137.2 115.3
184 18. 40 124.7 134.3
134 14.89 112.2 97.8
173 19.22 112.2 126.3
169 18. 78 112.2 123.4
174 19.33 112.2 127.0
163 20.38 99.8 119.0
158 17.56 112.2 115.3
141 17.63 99.8 102.9
126 18.00 87.3 92.0
122 15.25 99.8 89.1
112 14.00 99.8 81.8
90 12.86 87.3 65. 7
83 13.83 74.8 60.6
74 14.80 62.4 54.0
82 16. 40 62.4 59.9
110 15. 71 87.3 80.3
103 17.17 74.8 75.2
133 16.63 99.8 97.1
149 16.56 112.2 108.8
122 15.25 99.8 89.1
155 17.22 112.2 113.1
171 17.10 124.7 124.8

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week
weekly ploy­
em­
pay" earn­ ees in
No.
ploy­
roll.
ings. each
ees.
week
(aver­
ag e 100
per
cent).

February

March...

April___

'

May. . . .

June___

July___ .

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Total
Average

10
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
7
7
9
8
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
7
9
9
9
8.02

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age100
per
cent).

$162 $16.20 124.7 118.2
157 17.44 112.2 114.6
160 20.00 99.8 116.8
182 20. 22 112.2 132.8
186 20. 67 112. 2 135.8
187 20. 78 112.2 136.5
189 21.00 112.2 138.0
177 19.67 112.2 129.2
188 20. 89 112.2 137.2
146 16. 22 112.2 106.6
144 18.00 99.8 105.1
112 16.00 87.3 81.8
122 17. 43 87.3 89.1
151 16.78 112.2 110.2
143 17.88 99.8 104.4
84 14.00 74.8 61.3
101 16.83 74.8 73.7
84 14.00 74.8 61.3
74 12.33 74.8 54.0
99 16.50 74.8 72.3
84 16.80 62.4 61.3
78 15.60 62.4 56.9
106 15.14 87.3 77.4
148 16.44 112.2 108.0
148 16. 44 112.2 108.0
148 16.44 112.2 108.0
7,124
137. 00

17.08 100.0 100.0

F I N I S H E R S (M A L E ).
1
2
3
4
5
%
7
8
9
10
11
12

August—

September

October...

November

December.

January...
.

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

9
9
10
10
10
9
10
10
9
11
10
8
9
9
8
8
10
8
8
9
9
10
10
10
8
8




$134 $14.89 98.3 99.7
133 14.78 98.3 99.0
142 14.20 109.2 105.7
143 14.30 109.2 106.4
155 15.50 109.2 115.4
109 12.11 98.3 81.1
156 15.60 109.2 116.1
135 13.50 109.2 100.5
128 14.22 98.3 95.3
154 14.00 120.2 114.6
144 14.40 109.2 107.2
137 17.13 87.4 102.0
137 15.22 98.3 102.0
121 13.44 98.3 90.1
104 13.00 87.4 77.4
103 12.88 87.4 76.7
126 12.60 109.2 93.8
107 13.38 87.4 79.6
106 13.25 87.4 78.9
116 12.89 98.3 86 3
123 14.00 98.3 93.8
133 13.30 109.2 99.0
154 15.40 109.2 114.6
148 14.80 109.2 110.1
125 15.63 87.4 93.0
131 16.38 87.4 97.5

[
February J
j
1
f
I
March...
|
1
f
J
April___
I
I
{
May. . . . \
[
f
I
June___
1
I
f
July----- \
I
Total
Average.

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

8
9
9
11
11
11
11
11
12
11
9
9
9
9
9
8
7
6
7
6
8
8
10
10
9
9
9.15

$138 $17.25 87.4 102.7
143 15.89 98.3 106.4
160 17.78 98.3 119.1
181 16.45 120.2 134.7
190 17.27 120.2 141.4
194 17.64 120. 2 144. 4
192 17.45 120.2 142.9
180 16.36 120.2 134.0
197 16.42 131.1 146.6
165 15.00 120.2 122.8
129 14.33 98.3 96.0
108 12.00 98.3 80.4
108 12.00 98.3 80.4
125 13.89 98.3 93.0
119 13.22 98.3 88.6
116 14.50 87.4 86.3
87 12. 43 76.5 64.7
90 15.00 65.5 67.0
89 12. 71 76.5 66.2
92 15.33 65.5 68.5
li9 14.88 87.4 88.6
119 14.88 87.4: 88.6
133 13.30 109.2 99.0
139 13.90 109.2 103.4
133 14.78 98.3 99.0
134 14.89 98.3 99.7
6,987
134.37

14.68 100.0 100.0

26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

4 .—N UM BER OF EM PLO YEES AND TH EIR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF TH E R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FOR TH E Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913— Continued.

T able

S A M P L E F I N I S H E R S (M A L E ).

Month.

Num­ Total
W eek ber of weekly
em­
No.
pay
ploy­ roll.
ees.

Aver­
age
weekly
earn­
ings.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
ber
of em­
ploy­
ees in
each
week
(aver­
age =

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
ag e-

Month.

Num­ Total Aver­
Week ber of weekly age
em­
weekly
No.
pay
earn­
ploy­
roll.
ees.
ings.

0
10 10
0

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
ber
of em­
ploy­
ees in
each
week
(aver­
age =

10 10
0
0

per
per
cent). cent),
$161 $17.89 121.2 115.0
161 17.89 121.2 115.0
146 18.25 107.8 104.3
146 18.25 107.8 104.3
162 20. 25 107.8 115.
123 15.38 107.8 87.8
174 21.75 107.8 124.3
1.57 19. 63 107.8 112.1
155 19.38 107.8 110.7
18
175 2 . 8 107. 8 125.0
142 23.6'
80.8 101.4
143 23.83 80.8 102.1
123 20.50 80.8 87.8
1 0 18.33 80.8 78. 6
1
138 17. 25 107.8 98.6
158 17.56 121.2 112.8
145 18.13 107.8 103.6
148 16.44 1 1 105.7
2 .2
131 16. 38 107. 8 93.6
2 .2
147 16.33 1 1 105.0
2 .2
160 17. 78 1 1 114. 3
145 18.13 107.8 103.6
129 16.13 1 r
0 92.1
119 17.00 94.3 85.0
116 16.5’ 94.3 82.8
116 19.33 80.8 82.8

_
August_

September

October..

November

December.

January..

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =

per­
per
cent). cent)*

February

March...

April..

May

July

Total .
Average.

6
5
6
6
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
9
8
8
8
7
|
7
7
7
7.42

$118 $19.67
84.3
137 22.83 80.8 97.8
148 24.67 80.8 105.7
147 24.50 80.8 105.0
152 25.33 80.
108.6
136 22.67 80.8 97.1
144 24.00 80.8 102.8
142 23.67 80.8 101.4
145 24.17 80.8 103.6
141 23.50 80.8 100.7
134 22.33 80.8 95.7
93 18. 60 67.4 66.4
97 16.17 80.8 69.3
107 17.83 80.8 76.4
147 14.70 134.7 105.0
171 17.10 134.7 1 2
2 .1
174 17.40 134.7 124.3
182 18.20 134.7 130.0
152 16.89 1 1 108.6
2 .2
135 16.88 107.8 96.4
134 16. 75 107.8 95.7
132 16.50 107.8 94.3
124 17. 71 94.3 88
.6
124 17.71 94.3 88.6
113 16.14 94.3 80.7
1 2 17. 43 94.3 87.1
2
7,281!.
140.02;

S K I R T F I N I S H E R S (M A L E ).

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

1
2
1
3
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
2
8
2
9
2
10
2
11
2
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
2 0 _____
21
22
23
24
1
25
1
1
26




2 2 241.1
1 .2
2 1 .5 2 2 220.2
1 0 0 1 .2
43 14.33) 318.4 450.8
25 12.50| 2 2 262.1
1 .2
2 1 .0 2 2 230.6
2 1 0 1 .2
2 10 0 2 2 209.7
0 * .0 1 .2
24 12.00 212.2 251.6
2 10.50 212.2 220.2
1
26 13.00 212.2 272.6
2 1 .0 212.2 230.6
2 10
1 1 .0 106.1 125.8
2 20
1 lO.OOj 106.1 104.8
0
1 .1 .0 ; 106.1 125.8
2 20
1 11.00j 106.1 115.3
1
7.00; 106.1 73.4
7
1 11. 00! 106.1 115.3
1
8 8. O j 106.1 83.9
O
6 6. 00, 106.1 62.9
1 10.00 106.1 104.8
0
1 12.00 106.1 125.8
2
1 11.00 106.1 115.3
1

$23 $11. 50;
February
$12 $12.00 106.1 125.8
13 13.00 106.1 136.3
12 12.00 106.1 125.8
7
7.00 106.1 73.4
6.50 212.2 136.3 March...
13
16
8. 00 212.2 167. 7
8.50 212.2 178. 2
17
14
7.00 212. 2 146.8
April...
9
4.50 212. 2 94.4

M ay. . .

1

June___

6
10
10

6.00 106.1 62.9
10.00 106.1 104.8
10.00 106.1 104.8

July.

Total.
Average.

496
9.54

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

27

4 .—NU M BER OF EM PLOYEES AND TIIEIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUG UST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Continued.

T able

R A S T E R S (F E M A L E ).

Num­ Total Aver­
age
Week ber of weekly weekly
em­
No.
earn­
ploy­ pay
roll.
ings.
ees.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =

100

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
ber
of em­
ploy­
ees in
each
week
(aver­
age =

100

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week
em­
weekly ploy­
No.
earn­ ees in
ploy­
?o!
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
100

per
per
cent). cent).
1
2
3
4
5

August___

6

a
b 8p tB in ber

October...

in o v e in

oer

T > Dor.
\
jLJecem1

January... •

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

|

j

100

per
per
cent). cent).

$204 $12.00 86.4 82.4
f
241 12.68 96.6 97.4
I
299 13.59 111.8 120.8 February )
323 14.04 116.9 130.5
1
334 13.92 122.0 135.0
{
208
9.04 116.9 84.1
J
Miiicli... ]
330 13.75 122.0 133.4
351 14.04 127.1 141.9
I
340 13.60 127.1 137.4
341 13.12 132.2 137.8
1
310 12.92 122.0 125.3 April___ )
264 12.00 111.8 i 106.7
I
159
8.37 96.6 64.3
f
108
S. 31 66.1 I 43.6
176
9.78 91.5 i 71.1 Mav....... \
179 11.93 76.2 i 72.3
144
9.60 76.2 i 58.2
I
145
9.06 81.3 i 58.6
f
152
8.44 91.5 i 61.4 T
1
129
8.06 81.3 I 5 2.i J une. . . . |
172 10.12 86.4 j 69.5
I
218 11.47 96.6 ! 88.1
(
249 13.11 96.6 I 100.6
\
268 13.40 101.7 ! 108.3 July
272 12. 95 106.7 ! 109.9
I
322 14. 04 111.8 ! 130.1

17
19
22
23
24
23
24
25
25
26
24
22
19
13
18
15
15
16
18
16
17
19
19
20
21
22

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =

j

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

24
24
26
24
25
22
24
24
21
19
18
15
17
17
16 i
17 j
12i
15j
16<
19i

48

16i
17 |
IS i
17
20

49
50
51
52

Total
Average

IS i

19. 67

$352 $14.67 122.0 142.3
342 14.25 122.0 138.2
378 14.54 132.2 152.8
394 16.42 122.0 159.2
394 15.76 127.1 159.2
350 15.91 111.8 141.5
394 16.42 122.0 159.2
333 13.88 122.0 134.6
291 13.86 106.7 117.6
247 13.00 96.6 99.8
91.5 88.1
218 12.11
169 11.27 76.2 68.3
170 10.00 86.4 68.7
186 10. 94 86.4 75.2
210 13.13 81.3 84.9
189 11.12 86.4 76.4
110
9.17 61.0 44.5
162 10. 80 76.2 65.5
161 10.06 81.3 65.1
205 10. 79 96.6 i 82.9
255 14.17 91.5 ! 103.1
188 11.75
81.3 1 76.0
218 12.82 86.4 | 88.1
230 12. 78 91.5 : 93.0
217 12.76 86.4 ! 87.7
265 13.25 101.7 : 107.1
|
12, 866i ............
247. 42i 12.58 100.0 | 100.0
i

F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
[
J
1
I
i
September I
I
1
i

August___

October... ^
l
(
J
November
1
I
(
Decern] >er. 1
1
1
f
January... \
{

1
2
3
4
^
6
”
8
9
10
ii
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

25
23
28
27
27
26
28
27:
27'
31
32
29
26
21
221
26
26
25
26
24
26
24
31
31
34
33




$252 $10.08 85.3 ' 78.8
271 11.78 78.5 84.8!
295 10.54 95.5 92.31 February
314 11.63 92.1 98.2
324 12.00 92.1 101.4!
8.58 88.7 69.8i March...
223
326 11.64 95.5 102.0
330 12.22 92.1 103.2
341 12.63 92.1 106.7
361 11.65 105.8 112.9 April___
364 11.38 109.2 113.9
356 12.28 99.0 111.4
254
'
9.77 88.7 79.5
192
9.14 71.7 60.1
202
9.18 75.1 63.2 M a y ....
9.92 88.7 80.7
258
229
8.81 88.7 71.6
.
249
9.96 85.3 77.9
235
9.04 88.7 73.5 June.. . .
233
9.71 81.9 72.91
249
9.58 88.7 77. 9j
9.58 81.9 72.0
230
282
9.10 105.8 88. 2:
321 10.35 105.8 100. 41 July
351 10.32 116.0 109.8!
407 12.33 112.6 127.3
.
Total
Average

271
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

34!
35
35
36
34
35
34
31
32
35
34
33
34
34
31
32
25
26
23
26
26
29
25
33
34
33
29.31

$433
424
424
440
426
449,
452
375
365
389
370
324
354
367
313
311
256
258
224
269
297
298
292
340
367,!
355;
16,62l!
319.63

$12. 73
12.11
12.11
12. 22
12. 53
12.83
13.29
12.10
11.41
11.11
10.88
9.82
10.41
10.79
10.10
9.72
10.24
9.92
9.74
10.35
11.42
10.28
11.68
10.30
10.79
10.76

116.0
119.4
119.4
122. 8
116.0
119.4
116.0
105.8
109.2
119.4
116.0
112.6
116.0
116.0
105.8
109.2
85.3
88.7
78.5
88. 7
88.7
99.0
85.3
112.6
116.0
112.6

135.5
132. 7
132.7
137. 7
133.3
140.5
141.4
117.3
114.2
121.7
115. 8
101.4
110.8
114.8
97.9
97.3
80.1
80.7
70.1
84.2
92.9
93.1
91.4
106.4
114.8
111.1

10.91 100.0 100.0

28
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

4 . -N U M B ER OF EM PLOYEES AND TH EIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF TH E R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY. 1.913—Concluded.

able

S A M P L E F IN IS H E R S (F E M A L E ).

Month.

Per ! Per
cent ; cent
of ! of
aver-; aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ly
age of em­ pay
Week ber of weekly weekly ploy­ roll
em­
No. ploy­ pay
earn­ ees in in
rob.
ings. each each
ees.
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age = age =
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).
$114 $11.40
10.00
10.10
9.80
11.78
11.33
12.50
' 13.22
i 12.89
13.56
12.89
13. 70
11.75
11.75
12, 10
i 11.23
; 12.17
> 11.92
' 11.21
11.75
: 11.08
1 11.27
t 10.93
!
9.94
1 13.00
! 12.46

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

81.5
81.5
81.5
81.5
73.4
73.4
81.5
73.4
73.4
73.4
73.4
81.5
97.8
97.8
81.5
106.0
97.8
106.0
114. 1
97.8
97.8
122.3
122.3
130.4
106.0
106.0

79.7
69.9
70.6
68.5
74.1
71.3
87.4
83.2
81.1
85.3
81.1
95.8
98.6
98.6
84.6i
102.1
102.1
108.4
109. 8
’
98.6
93.0i
118.2
114.7
111.2!
118.2
113.3

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week
weekly ploy­
em­
No.
pay
earn­ ees in
ploy­
roll.
ings. each
ees.
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

February

March...

April___

May.......

June-----

Julv

Total
Average

13
12
10
10
10
10
11
10
12
12
12
12
16
16
15
14
14
15
16
15
16
16
14
15
12
14
12.27

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

$163 $12.54 106.0 114.0
161 13.42 97.8 112.6
140 14.00 81.5 97.9
140 14.00 81.5 97.9
134 13.40 81.5 93.7
133 13.30 81.5 93.0
136 12, 36 89.7 95.1
126 12. 60 81.5 88.1
159 13.25 97.8 111.2
157 13. 08 97. 8 110.0
146 12.17 97.8 102.1
101 . 8.42 97.8 70.6
171 10.69 130.4 119.6
193 12.06 130.4 135.0
162 10.80 122.3 113.3
148 10.57 114.1 103.5
137
9.79 114.1 95.8
176 11.73 122.3 123.1
146
9.13 130.4 102.1
145
9.67 122.3 101.4
186 11.63 130.4 130.1
177 11. C 130.4 123.8
6
167 11.93 114.1 116.8
161 10. 73 122.3 112.6
144 12. (X 97.8 100.7
)
167 11.93 114.1 116.8
1
l
..........
7,436 ........... 1
n.fitv-I inn n 100.0
143. 00
.....

S K I R T F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26




52
58
56
67
58
57
58
57
58
57
54
53
42
35
40
33
33
34
33
36
36
42
52
55
64
64

$424
524
549
525
616
391
623
592
591
528
514
469
253
228
293
243
208
227
201
258
304
303
415
508
607
672

$8.15
9.03
9.80
9.21
10.62
6.86
10.74
10.39
10.19
9.26
9.52
8.85
6.02
6.51
7.33
7.36
6.30
6. 6S
6.09
7.17
8.44
7.21
7.98
9.24
9.48
10.50

85.4
95.2
91.9
93.6
95.2
93.6
95.2
93.6
95.2
93.6
88.7
87.0
69.0
57.5
65. 7
54.2
54.2
55.8
54.2
59.1
59.1
69.0
85.4
90.3
105.1
105.1

72.1
r
89.1
I
93.3 February }
89.2
1
104.7
f
66.5
March... J
105.9
1
100.6
I
100.4
[
89.7 April___ 1
87.4
79.7
I
I
43.0
38.8
49.8 May....... 1
41.3
35.4
I
f
38.6
34.2 June___ I
43.9
I
51.7
I
51.5
(
70.5
86.3 Julv
\
103.2
I
114.2

1

Total
Average

28
29!
30!
31i
32|
33!
34|
35!
36j

3
7
3«!
39
40

4
1
42
43
44
45
46
47

4!
8
49
50
51
52

70
66
67
71
75
81
88
85
85
86
83
75
76
81
77
69
62
60
61
63
75
75
73
69
61
59
60.90

!
1
$704 $10.66
711 10.77
795 11.87
853 12. 01
915 12.20
963 11.89
1.062 12.07
953 12.11
883 10.33
914 10.63
858 10.34
677
9.03
654
8.61
804
9.93
774 10.05
656
9.51
590
9.52
608 10.13
9.62
587
601
9.54
721
9.61
711
9.48
703
9.63
668
9.68
585
9.59
579
9.81
30,595
588.36

114.fr
US. 4i
110.01
116.6
123.1
133. 0
144.5
130.6
130.6
141.2
136.3
123.1
124.8
133.0
L'6.4
113.3
101.8
98.5
100.2
103.4
123.1
123.1
119.9
113.3
100.2
96.9

119.7
12.). 8
135.1
145.0
155.5
163.7
PU5
162.0
150.1
155.3
145.8
115.1
111.2
136.6
131.6
111.5
100.3
103.3
99.8
102.1
122.5
120.8
119.5
113.5
99.4
9S.4

9.66 100.0 100.0

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N EW YORK.

29

The first occupation presented is that of cutters, and Table 4
shows this to be a very irregular occupation. The earnings in the
busiest week are 299 per cent in excess of those in the dullest week,
while the largest number of employees in any week is 207 per cent
greater than the minimum. It will be noted that these percentages
are much greater than those for all week workers combined and are
even greater than the range of fluctuation in the total pay roll, includ­
ing pieceworkers.1
The skirt cutters appear to have a busy season in the summer
months, corresponding approximately to the dull season in the cloak,
suit, and skirt industry taken as a whole. This same tendency ap­
pears in the section of the table showing the seasonal distribution of
employment and earnings for skirt finishers. On the other hand, the
figures for both upper and under skirt pressers seem to indicate that
this part of the industry conforms fairly closely to the industry as a
whole, though its busy spring season extends a little further into the
summer. It is possible, therefore, that the apparent variation of the
seasonal employment of the skirt workers may be due to changes in
method of employment. The number of skirt cutters, for example, is
small, and if only a few regular cutters during the dull season were
replaced by or became skirt cutters, who earn a smaller rate of pay,
this would account for the apparent conditions in this occupation. The
large number of skirt finishers in the summer weeks might be ac­
counted for by a change from piecework to week work during that
season.
In order to ascertain the real seasonal variations in the employment
and earnings in this branch of the industry, a complete separation of
skirt workers engaged as pieceworkers and as week workers would be
necessary. As it was impossible, however, to determine the number of
pieceworkers in the industry as a whole, it was manifestly out of the
question to undertake such a separation. The figures obtained from
10 Boston shops and from 13 independent or nonassociation shops indi­
cate no definite tendencies, owing to the small number of employees,
and consequently throw no light on the question, which must be left
unsettled until an investigation of the skirt houses in New York, com­
parable with this study in scope and method, has been made.
The figures for canvas cutters show much the same tendencies as
those for the regular cutters. One feature of this occupation is highly
significant, namely, the average weekly earnings. The scale for can­
vas cutters is only $12 a week, but their earnings range from $13.28 to
$19.20 and average $16.41 for the entire year. This remarkable show­
ing may to some extent be regarded as confirmation of the claim of
the cutters that these employees are not real learners or apprentices,
but are in many cases underscale cutters.




1 See Table 2.

30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The table shows that the jacket upper pressers have approximately
the same busy and dull seasons as the cutters. It is worthy'of note,
however, that the number of employees does not vary so greatly as in
some of the other occupations. The largest number in any one week
is less than 70 per cent in excess of the least number, as compared with
207 per cent in the case of the cutters. On the other hand, their
weekly earnings in the busiest week are 212 per cent greater than they
are in the dullest week. This seems to show that employers are in­
clined to give this class of workers more permanent employment than
other classes, or at least to keep in touch with them during the dull
seasons by giving them some w
rork to do even though they are not
employed for full time. This point will be discussed more at length in
a subsequent part of this report.
The jacket under pressers are apparently not employed so regularly
as the upper pressers. The greatest number is 156 per cent above the
least number, and the earnings in the busiest week exceed those of the
dullest week by 494 per cent. The lowr average wages of all classes
of pressers indicate a distribution of work during the slack seasons
among a considerable number of employees retained on some system
of part-time employment rather than the employment of a smaller
number on a more nearly full-time basis, as is evidently the case with
the cutters.
The skirt upper pressers appear to have approximately the same
busy and dull seasons as the jacket upper pressers, and are employed
about as regularly.
The earnings of the skirt under pressers are extremely irregular, as
is also the number employed at different seasons. The largest number
is 262 per cent greater than the smallest number and the earnings of
the busiest week exceed those of the dullest week by 628 per cent.
The numbers involved are so small, however, as to render it unsafe to
base any conclusions on this table.
The fluctuations in the employment and earnings of the part pressers
correspond very closely to those of the jacket under pressers. The
average weekly earnings for the year ($12.26) are substantially below
the rate ($13) fixed by the protocol and indicate that the classification
is more strictly adhered to than that among the cutters, where the
canvas cutters had average earnings much above the protocol rate.
The number of male basters and finishers of various kinds is so small
that no conclusions based upon the following tables seem worth while.
It is apparent that so far as week workers are concerned these occu­
pations are primarily for female employees. The scale of pay was
evidently fixed for women workers rather than for men, as the men in
practically every case show average earnings much above it.
The female basters and finishers are much more numerous than the
male employees in these occupations. The same seasonal fluctuations



WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

31

in earnings and in numbers employed are found here, as elsewhere in
the industry, except in the case of the skirt finishers— already alluded
to in connection with skirt cutters— and of the sample finishers. The
latter, like the sample makers, who have not been tabulated, have
their busy seasons during the dull seasons of the other occupationsTables 5 and 6, which follow, bring into comparison for the principal
occupations the fluctuations in amount of employment and in earnings
from week to week during the year, as shown by the pay rolls for the
90 shops.
5 .—COMPARISON OF TH E FLU C TU ATIO N S IN AM O U N T OF E M P LO Y M E N T IN
T H E PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, AS SH O W N B Y T H E PER CEN TAG E OF TH E
A V E R A G E N U M BER OF EM PLO YEES IN EACH W E E K IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS,
A U G U ST , 1912, TO J U L Y , 1913.

T able

Per cent of average number of employees in each week.
Week No.

Jacket
upper
Cutters. Canvas
cutters. press­
ers.

1
.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1.
0
1.
1
1.
2

13.
14.
15.

111.4
123.1
131.6
135.7
133.3
127.5
126.9
127.2
132.4
134.2
125.4
105.0
78.1
60 5
60.2

16.

58.2

17.
18.
19.

49.4
49.7
54.7
66.4
68.4
73.4
90.9
112.9
129.2
140.1
143.3
147.4
151.5
148.2
143.3
134.8
134.2
125.1
102.6
92.7
81.9
72.5
65.5
65.5
59.4
55.3
49.4
59.9
71.0

2.
0
2.
1
2.
2
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

2.
.8

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.




86.0
88.6

83.0
95.6
105.8
113.7
118.1

112.8
115.1
122.1
138.2
129.0
122.1

126.7
124.4
117.4
117.4
115.1
110.5
82.9
76.0
69.1
62.2
64.5
62.2
64.5
69.1
71.4
85.2
108.2
122.1

124.4
124.4
131.3
129.0
124.4
126.7
124.4
119.8
117.4
117.4
112.8

105.9
89.8
71.4
64.5
73.7
73.7
62.2
53.0
59.9
80.6
87.5
101.3
96.7
101.3
110.5
115.1
112.8

97.6
103.3
112.3
115.2
116.5
116.0
120.6

118.0
115.4
114.7
117.8
115.2
108.7
93.2
89.9
85.5

77.7
72.1
72.8
72.3
72.3
79.3
92.5
99.7
103.3
110.3

111.1
111.6
114.4
115.4
118.5
121.6

120.1
114.9
112.9
107.4
104.3
97.9
95.6
92.5
89.9

86.8
73.3
73.9
75.4

8 .0
6

92.2
88.3
94.8

101.0

105.4
102.5

Jacket
under
press­
ers.

Skirt
upper
press­
ers.

Skirt
under
press­
ers.

103.3
112.2
118.4
124.2
126.5
124.2
125.9
125.9
121.8

103.8
103.8
111.4
116.9
114.7
113.6
108.1
113.6
111.4
108.1
107.0
102.7
95.0
78.6
78.6
80.8
72.1
72.1
73.2
76.5
75.4
80.8
95.0
98.3
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
111.4
115.8
116.9
120.1
123.4

115.4
127.9
140.4
146.6
146.6
140.4
140.4
131.0
121.7
115.4
124.8
118.5
96.7
59.3
71.7
65.5
53.0
49.9
53.0
43.7
40.6
78.0
93.6
112.3
137.3
140.4
137.3
143.5
137.3
137.3
131.0
137.0
127.9
127.9
118.5
109.2
99.8
93.6
87.3
84.2

121.1

120.7
116.6
104.7
82.2
79.8
77.1
65.8
56.3
53.9
57.3
61.1
73.3
90.7
103.3

110.8
120.1

125.9
126.5
127.9
133.4
138.1
138.1
127.6
124.5
118.4
100.3
90.4
83.9
82.9
80.8
71.6
67.9
59.7
62.4
65.5
84.2
98.6
93.5
101.3

102.3

109.8
107.4

120.1

111.4
109.2
108.1
105.9
104.9
103.8
101.6
99.4
91.7
86.3
86.3
90.7
93.9
91.7
97.2
104.9
101.6

101.6

68
.6

78.0
59.3
59.3
56.1
62.4
65.5
71.7

68
.6

90.5
93.6
90.5

Part
press­
ers.

118.7
119.9
128.2
127.0
123.5
128.2
124.7
125.8
121.1

122.3

121.1
112.8
108.0
84.3
84.3
77.2
71.2
66.5
62.9
61.7
70.0
74.8
99.7
103.3
114.0
130.6
131.8

119.9
128. 2
128.2
123. 5
124.7
116.3
115.2
106.8
100.9
97.4
80.7
85.5
79.5
76.0
70.0
59.4
54. 6
66.5
81.9
P5.0
89.0
96.2
99.7
96.2
95.0

Skirt
Fin­
B ast­
fin­
ers,
ishers,
female. female. ishers,
female.
86.4
96.6

127.1
127.1
132.2

85.3
78.5
95.5
92.1
92.1
88.7
95.5
92.1
92.1
105.8

122.0

109.2

111.8

116.9
122.0
116.9
122.0

111.8
91.5
76.2
76.2
81.3
91.5
81.3
86.4
96.6
96.9
101.7
106.7

99.0
88.7
71.7
75.1
88.7
88.7
85.3
88.7
81.9
88.7
81.9
105.8
105.8
116.0

132.2

116.0
119.4
119.4

96.6
6 .1
6

111.8
122.0
122.0
122.0

127.1
111.8
122.0
122.0

106.7
96.6
91.5
76.2
86.4
86.4
81.3
86.4
61.0
76.2
81.3
96.6
91.5
81.3
86.4
91.5
86.4
101.7

12
1 .6
12
2 .8

116.0
119.4
116.0
105.8
109.2
119.4
116.0

12
1 .6

116.0
116.0
105.8
109.2
85.3
88.7
75.5
88.7
88.7
99.0
85.3

12
1 .6
116.0
12
1 .6

85.4
95.2
91.9
93.6
95.2
93.6
95.2
93.6
95.2
93.6
88.7
87.0
69.0
57.5
65.7
54.2
54.2

55.8
54.2
59.1
59.1
69.0
85.4
90.3
105.1
105.1
114.9
108.4

10
1 .0

116.6
123.1
133.0
144.5
139.6
139.6
141.2
136.3
123.1
124.8
133.0
126.4
113.3
101.8
98.5

10
0 .2
103.4
123.1
123.1
119.9
113.3

10
0 .2

32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

COMPARISON OF T H E F LU C TU AT IO N S IN W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S IN THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, AS SH O W N B Y T H E PE R CEN TAG E OF TH E A V E R A G E
W E E K L Y P A Y R O LL IN EACH W E E K IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AUGUST, 1912, TO
J U L Y , 1913.

T a b l e 6 .—

Per cent of average weekly pay roll in each week.
Y/eek No.

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

Jacket
upper
Cutters. Canvas
cutters. press­
ers.

10
1 .6
129.2
140.7
145.1
142.1
103. 9

7.

124.1

8.
9.

131.3
137.8
142.6
131.4
105.7
75.2
55.3
56.7
53. 7
43.1
42. 6
49.1
61.0
64.2

1.
0
1.
1
1.
2
13.
14.
1 5.

16.
1 7.

18.
19.

2.
0
2.
1
2.
2
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
5 0.

51.
52.

68
.6

87.2
108.4
128.7
113.9
155.0
166.2
169.5

160.4
150.1
142.2
138.9
129.0

11
0 .8
90.4
80.2
67.6
58.9
56.8
54.0
50.4
46.2
55.4
64.8
81.9

8 .5
8

80.9
93.5
104. 6
113.5
117.0

109.5

121.5

134.3
145.0
139.2
98.8
124.6
127.0
126.6
135. 3
125. 5
113.9
84.2
74.9
68.5
59.2
59.1

6.6
5
58.5
62.2
66.9
74.7
96.7

11
1 .1
118 6
129.4
136.3
139.1
143.7
148.2
139.8
128.5
126. 4
124.1
111.7

100.1

84.5
62.2

6 .2
6
63.9
6 .2
6

54.3
51.2
57.1
70.6
84.1
98.0
93.3
98.7
108.3

11
1 .0

112.0

98.8
112.6
125.4
137.0
139.5
99.9
139.1
132.1
119.7
139.2
140.8
138.0
111. 5
77.5
73.8
70.6
58.6
51.9
49.4
54.5
51.7
56.7
84.5
99.8
111 4

121.2

128.3
133. 5
144.4
150.7
154.0
151.4
147.4
131.6
122.1

103.4
93.1
69.0
71.7
75.1
70.7
63.7
50.8
58.4
54.3
73.4

88.6

75.4
91.1
96.6
105.8
100.5

Jacket
under
press­
ers.

Skirt
upper
press­
ers.

Skirt
under
press­
ers.

102.5
120.3
135.8
149.1
154.7
106.5
147.4
145.1
131.3
151.5
150.4
134.9
96.9
64.1
53.6
54.0
40.7
32.2
29.8
34.4
40.6
56.0
80.5
106.1
119. 9
137.5
149.3
153.7
169.2
176.8
177.1
173.2
161. 5
148.9

105.0
110.3
123.9
130.3
135.3
96.6
124.6
128.2
119.8

113.4
133.1
159.2
172.6
180.4
125.6
165.1
151.5
143.9
141.1
141.3
119.0
55.3
26.1
47.5
38.6
26.3
33.2
26.6
31.5
30.3
59.5
80.9
106.5
136.4
152.6
168.1
177.6
183.7
190.0
180.4
177.3
165.8
155.9

121.1

90.5
78.0
52.8
51.5
52.9
49.4
44.4
35.9
44.0
44.2
76.9
93.5
75.7
97.1
101.4
107.2
97.7

121.0

118.8
100.3
76.8
51.4
60.8
59.8
50.3
50.6
47.8
57.6
58.8
69.8
80.6
93.4
106.4
111.3
118.2
121.4
136. 7
150.9

146.2
147.5
152.9
137.3
118.8
111.9
109.7
93.3
89.6
99.6
92.6
86.4
78.3
78.9
75.9
85.7
89.5
85.8
97.6
108.0
102.0

95.8

122.1

96.2
72.7
59.7
62.1
72.0
57.9
54.6
44.2
51.7
42.8
44.2
61.6
55.7
64.0
83.2
82.1
77.1

Part
press-

112.3
125.4
133.0
139.6
144.1
102. 5
145. 6
131.1
125.9
147.9
148.1
132.5
98.1
71.4
75.2
60.7
46.5
39.8
42.9
42.8
46.2
58.9
88.9
99.8
119.4
140.2
154. 0
145. 4
163.7
174.8
159.3
152. 6
1:0.4
127.3
108. 6
92.0
84.4
54.1
55.9
59.9
58.8
55.5
43.6
48.9
49.8
82.6
90.9
83.6
91.9
103.6
98.7
90.9

Skirt
Fin­
B ast­
fin­
ers,
ishers,
ishers,
female. female. female.
82.4
97.4
120.8
130.5
135.0
84.1
133.4
141.9
137.4
137.8
125.3
106.7
64.3
43.6
71.1
72.3
58.2
58.6
61.4
52.1
69.5

78.8
84.8
92.3
98.2
101.4
69.8
102.0
103.2
106.7
112.9
113.9
111.4
79.5
60.1
63.2
80.7
71.6
77.9
73.5
73.0
77.9
72.0

108.3
109.9
130.1
142.3
138. 2
152.8
159.2
159.2
141.5
159.2
134. 6
117. 6
99.8

100.4
109.8
127.3
135.5

8 .1
8
10 6
0

8 .1
8

68.3
68.7
75.2
84.9
76.4
44.5
65. 5
65.1
82.9
103.1
76.0

8 .1
8

93.0
87.7
107.1

8 .2
8

72.1
89.1
93.3
89.2
104.7
66.5
105.9

100.6

100.4
89.7
87.4
79.7
43.0
38.8
49.8
41.3
35.4
38.6
34.2
43.9
51.7
51.5
70.5
86.3
103.2
114.2
119.7

132.7

120.8

132.7
137.7
133.3
140.5
141.4
117.3
114.2
121.7
115. 8
101.4

135.1
145.0
155.5
163.7
180.5
162.0
150.1
155.3
145.8
115.1

110.8

111.2

114. 8
97.9
97.3
80.1
80.7
70.1
84.2
92.9
93.2
91.4
106.4
114.8

136.6
131.6
111.5
100.3
103.3
99.8

11
1 .1

102.1

122.5
120.8

119.5
113.5
99.4
98.4

SEASONAL DEMAND FOR EMPLOYEES AND OPPORTUNITY
FOR EARNINGS IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, BY OCCUPA­
TIONS.
The following table (Table 7) is derived from the data contained in
Table 4. It shows how many employees in each occupation were
required to man the 90 shops during the year. It will be apparent
from an examination of the data for cutters in Table 4, for example,
that the least number employed in any week in the year was 169,



WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

33

in the last week of November and the last week of May. Evidently
this number of cutters was required for the entire 52 weeks of the
year. The next higher number was 170, in the first week of Decem­
ber. This number was not required for more than 50 weeks, since for
two weeks only 169 were employed. Therefore 170 was the maxi­
mum number required for 50 to 52 weeks. A further examina­
tion of Table 4 shows that 187, or 17 more persons, were employed
in the second week in December. These were needed for 49 Aveeks.
The next higher number, 189, or two more, were employed in the
third week in May, and so on. Thus 205, or 35 more, was the maxi­
mum number required for 45 to 49 weeks, 227, or 22 more, for 40 to
44 weeks, etc. The maximum number required at the busiest sea­
son was 518 in the third week in February.
Accordingly, this column shows the greatest number of cutters
required in the nine busiest weeks of the seasons. The second line
shows that in five other weeks of the year, with a decreased volume
of work, the greatest number of cutters required in all of the 90 shops
was 59 less than the greatest number required in the nine busiest
weeks. Each succeeding line indicating weeks of gradually declining
volumes of work shows a gradual decline in the number of cutters
required, until, in the last line, headed “ 50 to 52 w eeks/7 the number
of cutters required shows the number of workers in the occupation
that were necessary throughout the year.
The third figure column of Table 7 shows the number required for
the full year (50 to 52 weeks) and the additional number required
in each period as compared with the next longer period, and the
fourth column, what percentage of the total number required at the
peak of the busy season was added in each of the periods indicated.
The last two columns give the possible earnings in each group on
the basis of the average weekly earnings shown in Table 4 and on
the basis of the rate of pay in this occupation prescribed by the
protocol.
These earnings have practical significance only on the assumption
that the 90 shops were actually operated as one shop, that 170 employ­
ees were given practically a full year’s employment (50 to 52 weeks),
that 35 additional employees were given an opportunity to work
for 45 to 49 weeks, and so on. This is an assumption, however, which
is quite contrary to the probabilities of the case in view of the fact
that the 90 shops are not one shop, but independent and competing
establishments, and that the mobility of labor in passing from shop
to shop is by no means perfect. It will be shown, by definite figures,
also, in a subsequent table, that these hypothetical opportunities
for employment and annual earnings do not correspond closely to
the facts of the case.
49169°— Bull. 147— 15-------3




34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOK STATISTICS.

It is not safe to assume even that 169 individual cutters were
afforded a full year’s employment in this industry, for while this is
the minimum requirement, it should be remembered that the fluctua­
tions in the number of employees in the different shops are far from
uniform. In other words, the low and high points do not necessarily
coincide in the different establishments. If, therefore, the minimum
number of employees in each shop were taken, irrespective of the
week in which it occurred, and these minima were added together,
the total would be considerably below 169.
It is safe, however, to conclude that 170 is the largest number of
cutters who could have had a full year’s employment in the 90 shops.
The actual number constantly employed was considerably less than
this, as is indicated by the figures in Table 8.
7 . — SEASONAL DEM AND
FOR EM PLOYEES AN D POSSIBLE EARN IN G S AS
SHOW N B Y COMBINED P A Y -R O L L D ATA FOR 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPA­
TIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY , 1913.

T able

CU TTER S.
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $24.36 and full weekly scale of $25.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.
Up to 9 weeks.,
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..

518
459
436
421
362
311
267
227
205
170

100.0

88
.6

84.2
81.3
69.9
60.0
51.5
43.8
39.6
32.8

Number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

59
23
15
59
51
44
40

2
2

11.4
4.4
2.9
11.4
9.8
8.5
7.7
4.2

6.8

32.8

518

Total.

35
170

O n basis of
average
w eekly
earnings.

Up to
$244 to
365 to
487 to
609 to
731 to
853 to
974 to
1,096 to
1,218 to

$219
341
463
585
706
828
950
1,072
1,194
1,267

O n basis of
full w eekly
scale.

Up to
$250 to
375 to
500 to
625 to
750 to
875 to
1,000 to
1,125 to
1,250 to

$225
350
475
600
725
850
975
1,100
1,225
1,350

100.0

S K IR T C U T T E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $20.96 and full weekly scale of $21.)
Up to 9 weeks.
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..
Total.......




100.0
76.0

68.0
68.0
60.0
60.0
56.0
48.0
44.0
40.0

24.0

8.0

8.0
4.0

8.0
4.0
4.0
40.0
100.0

Up to $189
$210 to 293
314 to 398
419 to 503
524 to 608
629 to 713
734 to 817
838 to 922
943 to 1,027
1,048 to 1,090

Up to $189
$210 to 294
315 to 399
420 to 504
525 to 609
630 to 714
735 to 819
840 to 924
945 to 1,029
1,050 to 1,092

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

35

7 .—SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLOYEES AND POSSIBLE EARNINGS AS
SHOW N B Y COMBINED PAY-ROH L D A T A FOR 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPA­
TIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued.

T able

CAN VAS C U TTER S.
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of §16.41 and full weekly scale of $12.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks..............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

60
54
52
50
49
44
37
32
28
27

100.0
90.0
86.7
83.3
81.7
73.3
61.7
53.3
46.7
45.0

Number.

10.0
3.3
3.3
1.7
8.3
11.7
8.3
6.7
1.7
45.0

60

Total....................

6
2
2
1
5
7
5
4
1
27

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

Up to $148
$164 to 230
246 to 312
328 to 394
410 to 476
492 to 558
574 to 640
656 to 722
738 to 804
821 to 853

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

Up to $108
$120 to 168
180 to 228
240 to 288
300 to 348
360 to 408
420 to 468
480 to 528
540 to 588
600 to 624

100.0

JA C K E T U PPER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $17.65 and full weekly scale of $21.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

100.0
94.9
94.1
90.7
84.9
80.5
76.0
72.6
63.9
59.4

Total....................

24
4
16
27
21
21
16
41
21
280

5.1
.8
3.4
5.7
4.5
4.5
3.4
8.7
4.5
59.4

471

471
447
443
427
400
379
358
342
301
280

100.0

Up to $159
$177 to 247
265 to 335
353 to 424
441 to 512
530 to 600
618 to 688
706 to 777
794 to 865
883 to 918

Up to $189
$210 to 294
315 to 399
420 to 504
525 to 609
630 to 714
735 to 819
840 to 924
945 to 1,029
1,050 to 1,092

JA C K E T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $14.39 and full weekly scale of $18.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total....................




405
369
355
342
307
294
247
234
193
165

100.0
91.1
87.7
84.4
75.8
72.6
61.0
57.8
47.7
40.7

36
14
13
35
13
47
13
41
28
165
405

8.9
3.5 .
3.2
8.6
3.2
11.6
3.2
10.1
6.9
40.7
100.0

Up to $130
$144 to 201
216 to 273
288 to 345
360 to 417
432 to 489
504 to 561
576 to 633
648 to 705
720 to 748

Up to $162
$180 to 252
270 to 342
360 to 432
450 to 522
540 to 612
630 to 702
720 to 792
810 to 882
900 to 936

36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 7.*— SEASONAL

DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AND POSSIBLE EARNINGS AS
SHOW N B Y COMBINED P A Y -R O L L D A T A FOR 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPA­
TIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued.

S K IR T U PPER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $16.39 and full weekly scale of $19.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks.............
20 to 24 weeks...........
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks___ _____
50 to 52 weeks...............

113
102
99
96
94
93
89
84
74
67

100.0
90.3
87.6
85.0
83.2
82.3
78.8
74.3
65.5
59.3

Number.

9.7
2.7
2.7
1.8
.9
3.5
4.4
8.8
6.2
59.3

113

Total...................

11
3
3
2
1
4
5
10
7
67

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

Up to $148
$164 to 229
246 to 311
328 to 393
410 to 475
492 to 557
574 to 639
656 to 721
738 to 803
820 to 852

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

Up to $171
$190 to 266
285 to 361
380 to 456
475 to 551
570 to 646
665 to 741
760 to 836
855 to 931
950 to 988

100.0

S K I R T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $13.26 and full weekly scale of $15.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

100.0
93.6
87.2
80.9
74.5
63.8
53.2
46.8
40.4
34.0

Total...................

3
3
3
3
5
5
3
3
3
16

6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
10.6
10.6
6.4
6.4
6.4
34.0

47

47
44
41
38
35
30
25
22
19
16

100.0

Up to $119
$133 to 186
199 to 252
265 to 318
332 to 385
398 to 451
464 to 517
530 to 583
597 to 650
663 to 690

Up to $135
$150 to 210
225 to 285
300 to 360
375 to 435
450 to 510
525 to 585
600 to 660
675 to 735
750 to 780

PART PR ESSER S.
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $12.26 and full weekly scale of $13.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

Ill
105
102
97
87
81
72
67
59
52

100.0
94.6
91.9
87.4
78.4
73.0
64.9
60.4
53.2
46.8

5.4
2.7
4.5
9.0
5.4
8.1
4.5
7.2
6.3
46.8

111

Total...................

6
3
5
10
6
9
5
8
7
52

100.0

Up to $110
$123 to 172
184 to 233
245 to 294
307 to 356
368 to 417
429 to 478
490 to 539
552 to 601
613 to 638

Up to $117
$130 to 182
195 to 247
260 to 312
325 to 377
390 to 442
455 to 507
520 to 572
585 to 637
650 to 676

R A S T E R S (M A LE ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $17.08 and full weekly scale of $14.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks.............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total...................




11
9
9
9
9
8
8
7
6
5

100.0
81.8
81. 8
81. 8
81.8
72. 7
72.7
03. 6
54.5
45. 5

2

18.2

1

9.1

1
1
1
5

9.1
9.1
9.1
45.5

11

100.0

Up to $154
$171 to 239
256 to 325
342 to 410
427 to 495
512 to 581
£98 to 666
683 to 752
769 to 837
854 to 888

Up to $126
$140 to 196
210 to 266
280 to 336
350 to 406
420 to 476
490 to 546
560 to 616
630 to 686
700 to 728

WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

37

T abl£ 7 . —SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AND POSSIBLE E AR N IN G S A S
SHOW N B Y COMBINED PA Y -R O L L D A T A FOR 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPA­
TIONS, AUG UST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Continued.

F I N I S H E R S (M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $14.68 and full weekly scale of $10.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Number.

2

100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
75.0
75.0
75.0
66.7
66.7
58.3

1

8.3

1

8.3

1
7

Total...................

16.7

8.3
58.3

12 |

12
10
10
10
9
9
9
8
8
7

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks.............
15 to 19 weeks.............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks.............
30 to 34 weeks.............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

Up to $132
$147 to 206
220 to 279
294 to 352
367 to 426
440 to 499
514 to 573
587 to 646
661 to 719
734 to 763

100.0

Up to $90
$100 to 140
150 to 190
200 to 240
250 to 290
300 to 340
350 to 390
400 to 440
450 to 490
500 to 520

S A M P L E F I N I S H E R S (M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $18.86; no weekly scale.]
10
9
8
8
8
7
6
6
6
6

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total _ _

____

100.0
90.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

1
1

10.0
10.0

1
1

10.0
10.0

6

60.0

10

i

Up to $170
$189 to 264
283 to 358
377 to 453
472 to 547
566 to 641
660 to 736
754 to 830
849 to 924
943 to 981

100.0

S K I R T F I N I S H E R S (M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $10.12 and full weekly scale of $10.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

3
2
2
1
1
1

100.0
66.7
66.7
33.3
33. 3
33.3

1

33.3

1

33.3

1

33.3 |

Up to $91
$101 to 142
152 to 192
202 to 243
253 to 293
304 to 344

Up to $90
$100 to 140
150 to 190
200 to 240
250 to 290
300 to 340

i

Total...................

3

100.0

R A S T E R S (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $12.58 and full weekly scale of $14.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total..............




26
24
23
21
19
18
17
17
16
15

100.0
92.3
88.5
80.8
73.1
69.2
65. 4
65.4
61.5
57.7

2
1
2
2
1
1

7.7
3.8
7.7
7.7
3.8
3.8

1
1
15

3.8
3.8
57.7

26

100.0

Up to $113
$126 to 176
189 to 239
252 to 302
315 to 365
377 to 428
440 to 491
503 to 554
566 to 616
629 to 654

Up to $126
$140 to 196
210 to 266
280 to 336
350 to 406
420 to 476
490 to 546
560 to 616
630 to 686
700 to 728

38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

7 . —SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLOYEES AND POSSIBLE EARNINGS AS
SHOW N B Y COMBINED PA Y -R O L L D A T A FOR 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPA­
TIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Concluded.

T able

F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $10.91 and full weekly scale of $10.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks..............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

Number.

2
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
23

100.0
94.4
91.7
88.9
86.1
75.0
72.2
72.2
69.4
63.9

Total...................

5.6
2.8
2.8
2.8
11.1
2.8
2.8
5.6
63.9

36

36
34
33
32
31
27
26
26
25
23

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

100.0

Up to $98
$109 to 153
164 to 207
218 to 262
273 to 316
327 to 371
382 to 425
436 to 480
491 to 535
546 to 567

Up to $90
$100 to 140
150 to 190
200 to 240
250 to 290
300 to 340
350 to 390
400 to 440
450 to 490
500 to 520

S A M P L E F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $11.66; no weekly scale.]

Up to 9 weeks..............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks.
45 to 49 w eeks.............
50 to 52 weeks...............

16
15
14
13
12
12
10
10
10
9

1
1
1
1

12.5

1
9
!
|

Total...................

6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3

2

100.0
93.8
87.5
81.3
75.0
75.0
62.5
62.5
62.5
56.3

6.3
56.3

16

100.0

Up to $105
$117 to 163
175 to 222
233 to 280
292 to 338
350 to 396
408 to 455
466 to 513
r25 to 571
583 to 606

S K I R T F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $9.66 and full weekly scale of $10.]

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...........
40 to 44 weeks...........
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total...................




88
75
71
66
61
58
57
53
40
33

100.0
85.2
80.7
75.0
69.3
65.9
64.8
60.2
45.5
37.5

13
4
5
5
3
1
4
13
7
33

14.8
4.5
5.7
5.7
3.4
1.1
4.5
14.8
8.0
37.5

88

100.0

Up to $87
$97 to 135
145 to 184
193 to 232
242 to 280
290 to 328
338 to 377
386 to 425
435 to 473
483 to 502

Up to $90
$100 to 140
150 to 190
200 to 240
250 to 290
300 to 340
350 to 390
400 to 440
450 to 490
500 to 520

39

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

RELATION BETWEEN EMPLOYING CAPACITY OF SHOPS AND
VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS.
Table 7 shows, perhaps more clearly than Table 4, the wide range
between the maximum and the minimum requirements of the indus­
try for employees in the different occupations. It shows also what
the greatest opportunity was for permanency of employment in each
occupation. This table, however, can not be safely read except in
connection with the following table (Table 8), which covers the
16 occupations, 12 for males and 4 for females, included in Tables
4 and 7 and shows the total number of schedules taken in the 90
shops in each of these occupations and for all of them combined.
It should be noted that there are undoubtedly many duplications in
Table 8, particularly in the cases of the shorter periods. This is due
to the fact that individuals worked in more than one shop, often in
three or more, during the year. A separate schedule was made out
for each employee in each place, showing simply the amount of time
he was employed in that shop. The result is that this table shows
too large a total number of employees and too high a degree of irreg­
ularity of employment. The truth lies somewhere between the
extremes of Table 8 and Table 7.
Table 8 .—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES W O R K IN G EACH CLASSIFIED N U M BER OF W E E K S
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS ACCORDING TO IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES T A K E N IN
90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AND E Q U IVALEN T N UM BER OF FULL-TIM E W O R K ER S,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.
fin this table no attempt has been made to eliminate duplications from the records.]

Occupation.

MALE.
Cutters.............
Skirt cutters...
Canvas cutters.
Jacket u p p e r
pressers .........
Jacket u n d e r
pressers .........
Skirt u p p e r
pressers .........
Skirt u n d e r
pressers ..........
Part pressers...
Basters.............
Finishers
Sample finishers
Skirt finishers..
Total

Equiv­
alent
num­
ber of
full­
time
work­
ers.

Total
num­
ber
re­
port­
ed.

329 1,295
64
15
44
116

Number reported as working each classified number of weeks.

1

2

3

273
20
15

167
8
9

106
5
5

5
to
9

4

66
3
5

10
to
14

15
to
19

20
to
24

194
7
19

99
1
13

63
5
3

35
to
39

30
to
34

25
to
29

40
to
44

37
2
6

35
2
4

40
1
2

31
1
5

56
3
8

45
to
49

41
2
6

50
to
52

87
4
16

326 1,247

378

107

66

41

121

58

67

53

28

35

34

45

83 131

237 1,119

316

105

62

50

156

72

56

42

39

34

33

43

66

45

78

230

44

24

8

11

27

10

10

7

5

6

13

13

14

38

25
72
8
9
7
1

99
240
27
23
17
4

25
40
5
5
2
1

6
27
6
1

7
13
2

1
8
3

4
9

10
12
1

2
7
1
1

5
10
1

6
10

7
15
1
1

3

3
21
1
2
2
1

2
7
1

1

16
35
1
6
4
1

5
26
4
6
5

1,151 4,481 1,124

460

275

191

587

283

214

161

136

130

133

184

2
7

2
2
1
8

1

2
4

1
7

1

1

236 367

FEMALE.
Basters.............
Finishers
Sample finishers
Skirt finishers..
Total
Grand to­
tal

17
28
ni
54

56
103
54
164

6
26
14
20

4
8
8
14

3
5
7
11

4
11
1
<
7

9
12
5
20

7
3
7
17

4
5
2
7

11

2
4
2
7

110

377

66

34

26

23

46

34

18

20

15

13

9

1,261 4,858 1,190

494

301

214

633

317

232

181

151

143

142

197




7

4
9
1
11

6
7
5
17

13

25

35

261 402

40

BULLETIN OF TIIE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The first column in Table 8 shows how many full-time workers
would have been required to do the work performed by the much
larger number irregularly employed. It is the number that could
have been employed continuously throughout the entire year, with­
out loss of time, if the work had been uniformly distributed over the
entire period of 52 weeks.
The two parts of the table are not strictly comparable, however,
as the first column is based upon the actual number of hours worked;
to obtain this figure all the hours of overtime as well as regular time
in each occupation were added together and the sum was divided by
the total number of working hours in the year (2,518). At 50 hours
per week for 52 weeks, the total would be 2,600, but it was found
that the holidays amounted to 82 hours which must be deducted to
obtain the actual working time.
The total number actually employed does not represent exactly
the number of different individuals, as there undoubtedly were a
large number of duplications in the cases of men who worked in more
than one shop during the year. It is certain, however, that there
were no duplicates in the cases of men reported as having worked 30
weeks or more, and probably very few in the other groups, except in
the cases of those working less than 10 weeks.
In order to show how the equivalent number of full-time workers
differs from the average number, obtained by dividing the total
number of man-weeks in Table 4 by 52, the following table has been
prepared:
T a b l e 9 .—COMPARISON

OF E Q U IVAL EN T NUM BER OF FULL-TIM E W O R K ER S AND
A VER AG E NUM BER EM PLO YED PER W E E K , B Y OCCUPATIONS, FOR 90 ASSOCIATION
SHOPS.
Equiva­ Average
lent
number number
(Table 8). (Table 4).

Occupation.

Excess of average
over equivalent
number.
Number. Per cent.

MALE.

____________
f!nt.t.p,rs
Skirt cutters............................................................................................
Canvas cutters........................................................................................
Jacket upper pressers........ ...................................................................
Jacket under pressers............................................................................
Skirt upper pressers...............................................................................
Skirt under pressers...............................................................................
Part pressers............................................................................................

329
15
44
326
237
78
25
72
8
9
7
1

342
15
43
387
293
92
32
84
8
9
7
1

1,151
17
28
11
54

Finishers..................................................................................................
Sample finishers.....................................................................................
SVirt. finishers____________ __________________ _________ _____________

Total.....................

13

4.0

11
61
56
14
7
12

1 2.3
18.7
23.6
18.0
28.0
16.7

1,313

162

14.1

20
29
12
61

3
1
1
7

17.6
3.6
9.1
13.0

FEMALE.
Bastars _ . _____________
'Finishp.rs _________________________________________________________
Ramnlft finishers_______
Skirt, finishers______________________________________________________

Total

.........

110

122

12

10.9

Orand total_____

1,261

1,435

174

13.8




1 Less than equivalent number.

WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

41

This table indicates clearly what has already been noted, mainly,
that the pressers, as a rule, are employed for part time more generally
than the cutters are; that is, they have more fractional weeks in the
course of the year. This accounts, in part at least, for the low average
weekly earnings of pressers as shown in Table 4.
OPPORTUNITY FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS.
The following tabulation, derived from Table 8, is based upon the
assumption that employees who worked 40 weeks or more in one shop
were permanently employed in the industry.
T able 1 0 .—NUM BER AND PER CENT OF CUTTERS AND PRESSERS P E R M A N E N TL Y
EM PLO YED, IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES,
BEFORE ELIM INATION OF DUPLICATIONS.

Occupation.

Total
number
reported.

E m p 1 o y e e s re­
ported as em­
ployed 40 to 52
weeks.
Number. Per cent.

Cuttors..........................
Skirt cutters................
Canvas cutters............
Jacket upper pressers.
Jacket under pressers.
Skirt upper pressers..
Skirt under pressers..
Part pressers...............

1,295
64
116
1,247
1,119
230
99
240

184
9
30
259
154
65
18
51

14.2
14.1
25.9

All occupations...........

4,8

860

17.7

20.8
13.8
28.3
18.2
21.3

This table apparently indicates a larger proportion of permanent
employees among the pressers, with the exception of jacket under
pressers, than among the cutters. In explanation of this difference
in the permanency of the two occupations it may be said that a
skilled presser is more necessary for giving a stylish appearance to a
garment, especially a cheap one, than a good cutter, hence the
employer is apt to retain his best pressers more permanently than
his cutters.
The table is significant not only as showing the comparative per­
manency of the two occupations, but also as indicating the small per­
centage of the total number of employees permanently employed in
the industry. These percentages are somewhat misleading, how­
ever, because the total number employed is swollen by a large number
of duplications.
It was hoped that much of this duplication could be eliminated by
matching up the individual schedules obtained from the various
shops. This was undertaken in the case of the cutters but was not
entirely successful. It was found that many shop pay rolls gave




42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

only the first or last names of the employees. In some cases num­
bers only were given and a key to these numbers was not obtainable.
Even where full names were found, identification was impossible in
many cases because of the large number of identical or similar names.
This was particularly the case with such names as Cohen, Levy,
Levine, Schwartz, Rosenberg, and Friedman. Every effort was
made, however, to trace each individual cutter’s working history for
the year covered by this investigation.
A search was made through all the schedules taken in other asso­
ciation shops not tabulated in this report, in independent shops, and
so far as possible by means of the records at the headquarters of the
cutters’ union. The results of this effort to eliminate duplication of
cutters are set forth in the following table:
1 1 .—NUM BER OF IN D IV ID U A L CUTTERS EM PLO YED EACH W E E K IN 90 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS, AS SHOW N B Y SCHEDULES, AND PER CENT OF THE AVERAGE
NUM BER EM PLOYED PER W E E K AND OF THE TO TAL NUM BER EM PLOYED
DURING THE Y E A R , AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T able

[Data are for a total of 965 individual cutters ascertained by eliminating duplications from the schedules
and excluding 80 whose names were so common as to render a satisfactory matching of records impos­
sible.]

Number
employed
each
week.

Week
No.

Month.

f

1

August___
1

1
4

f

5

I

?
8

f

9
10
u
12
13

September

October... 1
I

14

November i1

15
16
17

I

18
19

December.

January. . \

20
21
22
23
24

[

25
26

1

f

422
461
493
507
497
471
470
464
483
495
459
385
292
223
225
210
172
177
191
234
246
274
335
405
463

505

Per cent
of average
number
employed
per week
(average=
100 per
cent).
116.1
126.9
135.7
139.5
136.8
129.6
129.4
127.7
132.9
136.2
126.3
106.0
80.4
61.4
61.9
57.8
47.3
48.7
52.6
64.4
67.7
75.4
92.2
111.5

127.4
139.0

Per cent
of total
number
(965) em­
ployed
during

Week
No.

Month.

Number
employed
each
week.

year.

43.7
47.8
51.1
52.5
51.5
48.8
48.7
48.1
50.1
51.3
47.6
39.9
30.3
23.1
23.3
21.8
17.8
18.3
19.8
24.2
25.5
28.4
34.7

42.0
48.0
52.3

f
1
February 1
I

f
March. . iI
1
f
il
April___ li
I
If
i
\
I

June___ 1
1
I
f

July....... \
I
Average

27
28
29
30

31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

50
51
52

530
544
552
545
522
494
482
446
363
329
290
254
228
224
206
199
172
217
260
309
323
301
349
382
398

Per cent
of average
number
employed
per week
(average^
100 per
cent).
145.9
149.7
151.9
150.0
143.7
136.0
132.7
122.8
99.9
90.6
79.8
69.9
62.8
61.7
56.7
54.8
47.3
59.7
71.6
85.0
88.9
82.8
96.1

415

105.1
109.5
114.2

363

100.0

Per cent
of total
number
(965) em­
ployed
during
year.

54.9
56.4
57.2
56.5
54.1
51.2
49.9
46.2
37.6
34.1
30.1
26.3
23.6
23.2
21.3
20.6
17.8
22.5
26.9
32.0
33.5
31.2
36.2
39.6

41.2
43.0
37.6

For the reasons already stated, certain names were left out in the
above table and in that which follows. They are, however, included
under a separate caption in Table 13. Table 11 is constructed in the
same manner as Table 4, except that earnings are not included.
It is a summary of 965 individual schedules, giving a composite




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

43

record of employment for the year in all shops where each individual
was found. These schedules, therefore, included some work done
outside of the 90 shops covered by previous tabulations. It is sig­
nificant that Table 11 shows a higher degree of irregularity of em­
ployment than Table 4 for cutters employed in the 90 shops alone,
the percentage of excess of the largest number employed in any one
week over the least number employed being 221 in the former and
207 in the latter. This seems to indicate that in securing work in
other shops, supplemental to their employment in the 90 shops, they
obtain such employment, as might naturally be expected, during the
rush season rather than in the dull season. It does not seem that there
was a larger amount of short-time employment in the other shops or
that the seasonal fluctuations in those shops w greater. Table 12,
ras
which follows, shows the seasonal demand for cutters, as indicated by
the records for 965 individuals.
1 2 __ SEASONAL DEMAND FOR CUTTERS EM PLOYED IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS,
AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES, AND THEIR POSSIBLE EARNINGS, AUGUST,
1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T able

[Data are for 905 individual cutters employed during the year. The periods of employment include some
time at work outside the 90 shops.]

Maximum number re­
quired in each period.

Cutters required for a
full year and addi­
tional cutters re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
r
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total....................

552
494
470
446
385
329
290
234
217
177

! Per cent of
total in pe­
riod em­
ploying
greatest
number.
100.0
89.5
85.1
80.8
69.7
59.6
52.5
42.4
39.3
32.1

Number.

Per cent of
total in pe­ On basis of av­
riod em­
erage weekly On basis of full
weekly scale
ploying
earnings
($25).
($24.36).1
1
greatest
number.

58
24
24
61
56
39
56
17
40
177

10.5
4.3
4.3
11.1
10.1
7.1
10.1
3.1
7.3
32.1

552

100.0

Up to
$244 to
365 to
487 to
609 to
731 to
853 to
974 to
1,096 to
1,218 to

$219
341
463
585
706
828
950
1,072
1,194
1,267

Up to
$250 to
375 to
500 to
625 to
750 to
875 to
1,000 to
1,125 to
1,250 to

$225
350
475
600
725
850
975
1,100
1,225
1.300

j '

i

1 The average weekly earnings used as the basis for the figures in this column were obtained from the
shop tabulation of 90 firms. See Table 4.

The above table shows a somewhat different distribution of the
demand for employees than is indicated by Table 7 for cutters, though
the variations are not great.
In the following table the total number of cutters who were em­
ployed in the 90 shops is given. The number considered in the two
preceding tables (965) and the number of those bearing the names
which were so common as to render a satisfactory matching of records
and the preparation of composite schedules impossible or inadvisable




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

are included under separate headings. The total figures are compar­
able with those in the original tabulations and will be used for that
purpose.
T a b l e 1 3 . — IN D IV ID U AL

CUTTERS IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS E M PLO YED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF W E E K S, AS SHOW N B Y SCHEDULES, AND A V E R A G E NUMBER
EM PLOYED PER W E E K . AUGUST.. 1912, TO JULY. 1913.
[The periods include some time at work outside the 90 shops.]

Group.

Total
num­
ber
actu­
ally
en­
gaged.

Cohens...........
Friedmans.. .
Levines.........
Levys.............
Rosenbergs ..
Schwartzes...
Other names.

80

Number of cutters working each classified number of weeks.

1

16

2

4

3

Aver­
age
num­
ber
5 to 10 to 15 to 20 to 25 to 30 to 35 to 40 to 45 to 50 to em­
14
24
9
29
34
44
19
39
52 ployed
49
per
week.

9

6

3

7

10

7

3

8

3

1

1

6

21

965

97

76

46

37

149

94

75

57

46

53

40

61

45

89

363

T otal.. 1,045

113

85

52

40

156

104

82

60

54

56

41

61

46

95

384

By comparing this table with Table 8 it will be noted that 250
duplications have been ehminated. The average number of workers
for the 52 weeks has been increased to 384, but as this figure is not
based upon hours it is not exactly comparable with the 329 full-time
workers in Table 8. It is comparable, however, with the average
number (342) in Table 9, and therefore indicates that in tracing the
working history of these cutters in other shops 42 man-years have
been added. There is no doubt that a considerable number of dupli­
cations remain in Table 13. It is also true that it does not give a
complete working history of the individuals included, for there are
hundreds of shops, in New York and in other cities, w^here they may
have been employed during some portion of the year. Moreover,
they may have sought and found additional employment in other
branches of the clothing industry in New York City or elsewhere.
The most significant feature of this table is the marked reduction
in the number of individuals employed for 9 weeks and under, and the
increase in the numbers of those who had employment for longer pe­
riods. It is especially noteworthy that 18 individuals have been added
to the groups working 40 to 52 weeks, bringing the number of those
who had practically permanent employment up to 202. A count of
the number of weeks worked by this class shows that about one-half
of all the cutters1work was done by these 202 individuals who earned
from $974 to $1,267 during the year.
Comparison of Tables 12 and 13 brings out the fact that over against
the 234 workers required for 40 weeks or more, there were 202, or 86.32




WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY— ;N E W YORK.

45

per cent, who really had that amount of employment. Without doubt
a complete elimination of duplications would have increased this per­
centage somewhat.
These 202 workers constitute 19.3 per cent of the total number,
1,045. If the employees with similar or identical names, whose
records could not be matched up satisfactorily, are left out and only
the 965 other names are included, the percentage becomes 20.9.
The following tabulation has been prepared to bring out more
clearly the contrast between Table 7 and Tables 8 and 13, and to show
the changes of distribution by periods of employment effected through
the elimination of duplications, so far as it was possible to accomplish
that purpose:
1 4.—D ISTRIBUTION THROUGH SPECIFIED EM PLOYM ENT PERIODS OF CUT­
TERS IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS AS SHOW N B Y A D D IT IO N AL NUM BER REQ U IRED
AT EACH SHORTER PERIOD, N UM BER R EPOR TED B Y IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES,
AN D ACTUAL NUM BER A F T E R ELIM INATIO N OF DUPLICATIONS.

T able

Cutters required for
a full year and ad­
ditional cutters re­
quired for each
specified shorter
period.
Period.

Cutters employed each classified num­
ber of weeks.

As reported by in­
dividual schedules.

After elimination of
duplications from
individual sched­
ules.

1
Per cent of
total (518)
in period
Number. employing
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
greatest
number.

Up to 9 weeks...............................................
10 to M weeks................................................
15 to 19 weeks................................................
20 to 24 weeks................................................
25 to 29 weeks................................................
30 to 34 weeks................................................
35 to 39 weeks................................................
40 to 44 weeks................................................
45 to 49 weeks................................................
50 to 52 weeks................................................

59
23
15
59
51
44
40
22
35
170

11.4
4.4
2.9
11.4
9.8
8.5
7.7
4.2
6.8
32.8

806
99
63
37
35
40
31
56
41
87

62.2
7.6
4.9
2.9
2.7
3.1
2.4
4.3
3.2
6.7

446
104
82
60
54
56
41
61
46
95

42.7
10.0
7.8
5.7
5.2
5.4
3.9
5.8
4.4
9.1

Total....................................................

518

100.0

1,295

100.0

1,045

100.0

The foregoing tables make it perfectly apparent that a large number
of cutters are employed for only a few weeks each year. Some of
these were doubtless just entering the occupation as beginners or new
arrivals in the city, or, on the other hand, were dropping out through
death, disability, departure from the cit}^, or abandonment of the field
for some other form of occupation. But when all deductions of this
sort are made, it is probable that a very large number remain who are
entirely dependent on this industry for support and who, by reason of
the highly seasonal character of the business, may be called peak load­
ers. These persons find employment in the busy seasons, but not
enough of it in the course of the year to support them in comfort or
even decency.




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The difficulty experienced in tracing* the cutters’ records was prob­
ably not so great as it would have been in the case of most of the other
occupations. But no test could be made because the relations between
the unions and the employers’ association became somewhat strained
immediately after the regular tabulations of the data for the 90 shops
had been completed and the statistical bureau was closed before any
further work could be undertaken.
It is necessary, therefore, to depend solely upon Tables 7 and 8 as to
conclusions concerning the remaining occupations, but it is safe to
assume that tendencies disclosed in the special study of the cutters
would hold good in other occupations. For example, there were 184
cutters who had employment for 40 to 52 weeks, according to Table 8,
while the corresponding number in Table 13 is 202. This is an increase
of 18, or 10 per cent. In the following table this percentage of
increase has been applied to the figures shown in Table 8 for each
occupation.
1 5 .—NUM BER OF PERSONS AC T U AL LY EM PLO YED 40 TO 52 W E E K S IN EACH
SPECIFIED OCCUPATION AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES, COMPARED W IT H
NUM BER REQ UIRED FOR TH AT PERIOD AS SHOW^N B Y TH E P A Y ROLLS OF 90 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS T A K E N AS A W H O L E .

T able

Number actually
employed 40 to
52 weeks.

Occupation.

Number
required
40 to 52
weeks as
shown As report­
After
ed by in­ elimina­
dividual tion of
br0r
y
sched­
duplica­
ules.
tions.1

Deficiency in num­
ber employed as
compared
with
number required.

Number.

Per cent.

MALE.

Cutters...................................................................................
Skirt cutters.........................................................................
Canvas cutters.....................................................................
Jacket upper pressers.........................................................
Jacket under pressers.........................................................
Skirt upper pressers...........................................................
Skirt under pressers...........................................................
Part pressers........................................................................
Basters..................................................................................
Finishers..............................................................................
Sample finishers..................................................................
Skirt finishers......................................................................

227
12
32
342
234
84
22
67
7
8
6

184
9
30
259
154
65
18
51
5
7
5

202
10
33
285
169
71
20
56
6
8
6

25
2
21
57
65
13
2
U
1

11.0
16.7
2 3.1
16.7
27.8
15.5
9.1
16.4
14.3

Total...........................................................................

1,041

787

866

17&

16.8

4
4

FEMALE.

Basters...................................................................................
Finishers...............................................................................
Sample finishers................................................................
Skirt finishers......................................................................

17
26
10
53

12
20
6 1
35 |

13
22
7
38

15

23.5
15.4
30.0
28.3

Total...........................................................................

106

73 |

80

26

24.5

Grand total................................................................

1,147

946

201

17.5

860~
i

3

1 In this column the number of cutters shown is the number found to be actually employed 40 to 52 weeks
after elimination of duplications. It was not possible, as explained on page 11, to eliminate duplications
from the schedules for other occupations, hence the numbers for those occupations are estimated on the as­
sumption that the schedules named show the same proportion of duplications as was found for cutters.
2 Excess in number employed over number required.




WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

47

The above table shows that on the average the actual employment
apparently falls short of the highest degree of permanency that the
90 shops could possibly provide by about 17.5 per cent. Too much
emphasis should not be put, however, upon the percentages in this
table, especially where small absolute numbers are involved. When
account is taken of the fact that the requirement or demand for
workers comes from 90 separate shops and that the fluctuations of
employment in the single shop are much greater than for the whole
number of shops, 17.5 per cent does not seem too much of an allow­
ance for lack of mobility on the part of employees in seeking and
obtaining employment. It should be remembered, also, in this con­
nection that this class of employees is composed very largely of those
who work in only one shop during the year. The figures in the third
column of Table 15 are for those who worked 40 to 52 weeks in only
one shop.
Attention has already been called to the higher degree of regularity
of employment afforded by this industry in some occupations than in
others. Table 16, which follows, has been prepared to bring this
point more clearly into view.
1 6 .—O PPO R TU N ITY FOR PER M AN ENT EM PLOYM ENT FU RN ISHED B Y THE
IN D U ST R Y AS SHOW N B Y COMPARING THE NUM BER E M PLO YED AT THE PERIOD
EM PLOYING TH E GREATEST NUM BER (ASSUMED TO BE TH E M AXIM U M FORCE
N EED ED DU RING THE Y E A R ) W IT H THE NUM BER EM PLO YED 40 TO 52 W E E K S
(ASSUMED TO BE THE NUMBER PER M A N E N TL Y N E ED ED ), B Y OCCUPATIONS.

T able

[This table is based on the combined pay-roll data for 90 association shops, as shown in Table 7.]
Greatest Employee)s required
52
number for 40 to i weeks.
Occupation.

employed

in any
week.

Number. Per cent.

MALE.

Cutters.........................................................................................................................
Skirt cutters......................................................................................... .....................
Canvas cutters...........................................................................................................
Jacket upper pressers...............................................................................................
Jacket under pressers...............................................................................................
Skirt upper pressers........................................................................
Skirt under pressers................................................................................................
Part pressers..............................................................................................................
Basters.........................................................................................................................
Finishers........ ........................................................................................................
Sample finishers........................................................................................................
Skirt finishers..........................................................................................................

518
25
60
471
405
113
47
111
11
12
10
3

227
12
-32
342
234
84
22
67
7
8
6

43.8
48.0
53.3
72.6
57.8
74.3
46.8
60. 4
63.6
66.7
60.0

Total.................................................................................................................

1,786

1,041

58.3

26
36
16
88

17
26
10
53

65.4
72.2
62.5
60.2

FEMALE.

Basters.........................................................................................................................
Finishers.....................................................................................................................
Sample finishers.................................................................................................
Skirt finishers............................................................................................................
Total.................................................................................................................

166

106

63.9

Grand total......................................................................................................

1,952

1,147

58.8




48

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 16 shows that, based on the seasonal demands for employees
as shown by the combined pay rolls of 90 association shops, the oppor­
tunity for permanent employment furnished by the industry ranges
from 43.8 per cent for the cutters to 74.3 per cent for the skirt upper
pressers, and that the average for both sexes and all occupations is
58.8 per cent. By comparing the total number actually employed
40 to 52 weeks, after elimination of duplications as shown in Table 15,
with the maximum employed in any week as shown in Table 16, it
will be seen that approximately 48 per cent of all the workers necessary
to man the industry in the busiest season were actually able to obtain
employment for 40 to 52 weeks during the year.
It is probable that a complete elimination of duplicate records
would bring the number employed for 40 to 52 weeks up to 50 per
cent of the maximum number required in the busiest week. A glance
at the possible earnings of this class of employees in each of the occu­
pations, as given in Table 7, shows that these earnings are adequate
and probably satisfactory. Table 7 shows, then, that the maximum
requirement is about double the number who actually find employ­
ment for 40 to 52 weeks, but it is probable that a somewhat larger
number are actually dependent upon the industry for support, for it
is reasonable to suppose that there is some unemployed labor, even
at the height of the busy season. Temporary disability, illness, and
imperfect mobility must result in keeping a certain number of per­
sons out of the shops even when the demand for their services is the
greatest. How large this surplusage of labor is can not be ascer­
tained from the data at hand. The total number of persons engaged
in the industry, however, must lie somewhere between the extremes
shown by Tables 7 and 8. Table 7 shows that only 1,952 emp^yees
were required at the busiest season in the 90 shops in the 16 occupa­
tions tabulated in this report, while Table 8 discloses a total of 4,858
individual schedules for the same shops. Even if this number is
reduced by 17.5 per cent, which was the approximate extent of the
reduction, as shown in Table 16, the resulting number would still be
4,008, or over 100 per cent above the maximum requirement (1,952)
and 249 per cent above the number required for 40 to 52 weeks
(1,147). It can not be possible that all of this excess is due to further
duplication of records, though a considerable part of it may doubtless
be so explained. The probabilities are, as these figures seem to indi­
cate, that there is a considerable surplusage above the maximum
number of employees required at the busiest season.
But assuming that this is not the case, it may be worth while to
see whether the wages paid are sufficient to afford satisfactory earn­
ings to the number unquestionably required by the industry as it is
now conducted. This is shown in the following table, which also
presents in a parallel column the average earnings based on the total
number of individuals employed during the year, as shown by indi­
vidual schedules.



WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- NEW YORK.

49

17 .—AN N U A L PAY R O LL, AND A V ER AG E Y E A R L Y EAR N IN G S BASED ON
GREATEST NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES IN A N Y ONE W E E K AS SHO W N B Y THE COM­
BINED P A Y ROLLS AND ON TH E NUM BER EM PLO YED D U RING TH E Y E A R AS
SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES, IN 90 ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS.

T able

Occupation.

Average earnings
based on—
Greatest Individ­
uals
Annual number actually Greatest Number
pay roll. employed employed number actually
at any
during employed employed
season.
year.i
at any
during
season.
year.

MALE.

Cutters............................................................ ..................... $433,315
16,812
Skirt cutters.......... .............................................................
37,055
Canvas cutters................................ ...................................
Jacket upper pressers......................................................... 355,394
219,397
Jacket under pressers....... ............. .......................... .......
78,027
Skirt upper pressers..........................................................
22,112
Skirt under pressers...........................................................
53,688
Part pressers........................................................................
7,124
B asters..................................................................................
6,987
Finishers............................. ................................................
7,281
Sample finishers....................................................... : ____
496
Skirt finishers......................................................................

518
25
60
471
405
113
47
111
11
12
10
3

1,045
52
93
1,006
903
185
80
194
22
18
15
3

8837
672
618
755
542
691
470
484
648
582
728
165

$415
323
398
353
243
422
276
277
324
388
485
165

26
36
16
88

45
83
44
132

495
462
465
348

286
200
169
232

FEMALE.

Basters..................................................................................
Finishers...................... . . . . . ...............................................
Sample finishers............... : ...............................................
Skirt finishers......................................................................

12,866
16,621
7,436
30,595

i This column shows the number reported on individual schedules, after elimination of duplications.
It was possible to make actual eliminations only in the case of cutters, as explained on page 11. The
numbers for other occupations are estimated on the assumption that the schedules for these would show
the same proportion of duplication as was found for cutters.

The average earnings based on the greatest number of employees
at any season, as shown in the above table, have significance only
as indicating the best that could be hoped for in the way of general
support for the workers in this industry with its present seasonal
fluctuations. They indicate the amounts which the employees in
each occupation could earn in the course of the year if the 90 shops
were combined into one shop and the employment which they now
provide were equally apportioned. In striking contrast with this
is shown in the last column the average earnings per employee if the
total amount paid in wages by the industry were distributed among
all the individuals employed during the year.
FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS IN 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS, BY OCCUPATIONS.
Shops in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City that
have collective agreements with the unions, but do not belong to mem­
bers of the Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Manufacturers’ Protective Association
are known as “ independent” or nonassociation shops. As stated
elsewhere in this report, the terms on which these agreements are
based are essentially the same as those stipulated in the protocol of
peace of September 2, 1910. An effort was therefore made to find
out the actual earnings of workers in these shops as compared with
earnings of workers employed under the protocol.
49160°— Bull. 147— 15-------4




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

50

As the nonassociation manufacturers were not a party to the
statistical investigation of the industry undertaken by its board of
arbitration it was rather difficult to gain access to the pay-roll records
of the nonassociation shops.
This report presents the results of investigation of pay rolls of 13
relatively large nonassociation shops. The total pay roll for all
productive labor for the year of these 13 firms was somewhat over
$850,000.
The following table, which is similar in form to Table 4, shows for
week workers in each of 6 occupations in the 13 nonassociation shops
the number employed and their total and average earnings each week
during the year August, 1912, to July, 1913. Columns also are given
showing the fluctuations in employment and earnings from week to
week expressed in percentages that the number employed each week
and their total earnings are of the average number of employees and
average pay roll per week for the year.
1 8 .—N UM BER OF EM PLOYEES AN D T H E IR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF TH E RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FO R TH E Y E A R IN 13 NONASSO­
CIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGU ST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

T able

C U TTER S.
i

Month.

Num­
Week ber of
em­
No. ploy­
ees.

(
August___

1

J 2
I
I

f
September J

3
4

5
6

1 7
I 8

f

9
10

October... \

1
1

12
{ 13
{
November 1 15

14

1 I6
I 17

f I8

December. 1 19
I 20

I 21
f 22

23
January... \ 24
25
I 26




Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
ber
Total Aver­
age
weekly weekly of em­
ploy­
Fol earn­ ees in
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
=
100
per
cent).

54 $1,255 $23.24
64 1,534 23.97
72 1,677 23.29
78 2,005 25.71
85 2,112 24.85
74 1,466 19.81
75 1,759 23.45
70 1,678 23.97
71 1,605 22.61
75 1,825 24.33
75 1,832 24.43
64 1,536 24.00
45 1,054 23.42
42
909 21.64
962 23.46
41
42
964 22.95
842 22.16
38
558 21.46
26
566 20.96
27
742 21.82
34
854 23.08
37
48
985 20.52
59 1,386 23.49
47 1,164 24.77
54 1,335 24.72
61 1,446 23.70

103
122
137
148
162
141
143
133
135
143
143
122
86
80
78
80
72
49
51
65
70
91
112
89
103
116

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly

Zy
i

Month.

in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).
101
124
135
162
170
118
142
135
129
147
148
124
85
73
78
78
68
45
46
60
69
79
112
94
108
117

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
age
Week ber of weekly weekly of em­
ploy­
em­
No. ploy­
earn­ ees in
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

f 27
F e b r u ­ J 28
ary— 1 29
I 30
31
March... J 32
1 33
I 34
f 35
J 36
April___ ) 37
( 38
f 39
40
May....... \ 41
42
1 43
f 44
45
June___ 1 46
1 47
f 48
49
July....... { 50
51
[ 52
Total
Average.

72 $1,701 $23.63
74
1,848 24.97
80
1,973 24.66
2,161 24.56
88
1,825 24.01
76
72
1,756 24.39
72
1,755 24.38
65
1,635 25.15
1,186 22.38
53
51
1,231 24.14
40
895 22 38
32
734 ?2. 94
31
707 22.81
613 21.14
29
31
719 23.19
26 ^
618 23.77
25 !
537 21.48
34 !
803 23.62
38
920 24.21
41
981 23.93
45
1,127 25.04
43
1,013 24.26
43
1,009 23.47
'942 23.55
40
40
913 22.83
34
775 22.79
52.56

64,458
1,240

23.59

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly

£«

in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

137
141
152
167
145
137
137
124
101
97
76
61
59
55
59
49
48
65
72
78
86
82
82
76
76
65

137
149
159
174
147
142
142
132
96
99
72
59
57
49
58
50
43
65
74
79
91
84
81
76
74
63

100

100

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

51

T a b l e 1 8 . — NU M BER

OF EM PLO Y EES AN D TH EIR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R IN 13 NONASSO­
CIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Continued.

S K IR T C U T T E R S .

Month.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ly
ber of weekly age of em­ pay
Week em­
weekly ploy­ roll
pav
No.
earn­ ees in in
ploy­ roll.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age =» age =
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

f
August___ J

1

September

I
[
I

1
I
f

October... \

1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8

9

10
H

12
I 13

[

November

1
I

14
15

16
17

r 18

1
9

December. i

20

I

21

f 22
23
24
25
( 26

January... {

5
8
7
9
9
8
8
8
8
4
6
6
6
4
6
8
6
8
6
9
4
4
6
9
9
9

$87 $17.40
157 19.63
151 21.57
193 21.44
193 21.44
112 14.00
144 18.00
172 21.50
172 21.50
88 22.00
124 20. 67
104 17.33
130 21.67
88 22.00
130 21.67
170 21.25
98 16.33
172 21.50
130 21.67
189 21.00
88 22.00
74 18.50
125 20.83
173 19.22
193 21.44
191 21.22

67
107
94
121
121
107
107
107
107
54
81
81
81
54
81
107
81
107
81
121
54
54
81
121
121
121

57
103
99
127
127
74
95
113
113
58
82
68
86
58
86
112
65
113
86
124
58
49
82
114
127
126

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week em­
weekly ploy­
No. ploy­
earn­ ees m
JSK
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

27
28
29
30
31
32
M arch..
33
34
35
36
April___ ' 37
38
39
40
• 41
42
43
44
45
June___ ' 46
47
48
49
50
July.......
51
52
F e b ru ­
a r y ....

Total. .
Average.

8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
8
5
7
8
8
7
8
4
8
8
7
7
9
10
10
7.44

$172 $21.50
192 24.00
207 25.88
207 25.88
193 21.44
193 21.44
195 21.67
200 22.22
193 21.44
160 20.00
80 10.00
168 21.00
84 16.80
138 19.71
154 19.25
158 19.75
137 19.57
172 21.50
88 22.00
158 19.75
150 18.75
138 19. 71
151 21.57
187 20. 78
206 20.60
168 16.80

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).

107
107
107
107
121
121
121
121
121
107
107
107
67
94
107
107
94
107
54
107
107
94
94
121
134
134

113
126
136
136
127
127
128
132
127
105
53
111
55
91
101
104
90
113
58
104
99
91
99
123
136
111

20.41

100

100

$760 $19.49
816 20.92
809 19. 73
823 21.10
883 21.54
874 19.86
965 21.93
765 17. 79
699 17.05
711 18.71
720 18.95
411 12.09
372 12.00
444 13. 45
316 10.90
305 11. 73
295 12.29
239
9.19
250 11.90
382 11.94
476 16.41
520 16.77
633 18.09
679 17.87
634 16.26
623 15.97

J ll
111
117
111
117
125
125
122
117
108
108
97
88
93
82
74
68
74
60
91
82
88
100
108
111
111

130
140
139
141
151
150
165
131
120
122
123
70
64
76
54
52
51
41
43
65
82
89
108
116
109
107

100

100

7,897
151.86

JA C K E T U PPER P R E S S E R S .
1
2
3
4
5
6
September ‘
7
8
9
10
October... • 11
12
13
14
15
November
16
17
18
19
December ' 20
21
22
23
January...
24
25
26
August—

38
40
40
40
40
39
42
43
44
39
41
38
35
34
32
32
32
30
26
24
25
25
28
32
37
39




$716 $18.84
752 18.80
797 19.93
779 19.48
803 20.08
537 13.77
820 19.52
801 18.63
818 18. 59
776 19.90
799 19.49
673 17. 71
507 14. 49
473 13.91
473 14.78
444 13.88
388 12.13
9.63
289
7.54
196
8.33
200
217
8.68
286 11.44
379 13.54
595 18.59
738 19.95
707 18.13

108
114
114
114
114
111
119
122
125
111
117
108
100
97
91
91
91
85
74
68
71
71
80
91
105
111

123
129
136
133
138
92
140
137
140
133
137
115
87
81
81
76
66
49
34
34
37
49
65
102
126
121

27
28
29
30
31
32
March...
33
34
; 35
36
April___
37
38
; 39
40
41
May___
42
43
44
45
June___
46
47
48
49
J u ly ....
50
51
. 52
Feb r uary.
‘

Total
Average

39
39
41
39
41
44
44
43
41
38
38
34
31
33
29
26
24
26
21
32
29
31
35
38
39
39
35.17

30,367
583.98

16.60

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR 'STATISTICS;

T a b l e 1 8 . — NUM BER

OF EM PLO YEES AND TH EIR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF TH E R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FOR TH E Y E A R IN 13 NON ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY. 1913—Continued.

J A C K E T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age of em­
Week em­
weekly ploy­
No.
pay
earn­ ees m
ploy­ roll.
ees..
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).
$443 $16.41
451 15.55
540 16.36
507 16.90
540 18.00
401 13.37
495 17.07
476 17.00
444 17.08
481 17.18
431 15.39
377 13.96
267 11.61
206 10.30
259 11.77
311 13. 52
253 12.65
193
9.65
61
4. 36
107
8.92
7.41
126
187 10.39
250 11.36
420 17.50
419 19.05
463 17.15

August.

September

October...

November

December.

January...

108
116
132
120
120
120
116
112
104
112
112
108
92
80
88
92
80
80
56
48
68
72
88
96
88
108

Month.

127
129
155
145
155
115
142
136
127
138
124
108
77
59
74
89
73
55
17
31
36
54
72
120
120
133

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­
Aver­ ber
ly
Total
ber of weekly age of em­ pay
Week em­
weekly ploy­ roll
No.
earn­ ees in
in
ploy­
U
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age = age =
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

27
28
29
30
31
32
March...
33
34
35
36
A *
1
April___
37
38
39
40
41
May___
42
43
44
45
JUU0.
46
47
' 48
49
J u l y ....
50
51
52
F e b raary

—

...

Total
Average

27
28
35
38
33
31
29
28
26
26
26
23
23
24
20
16
15
18
20
25
23
22
30
30
30
28
25.06

$494 $18.30
498 17.79
510 14.57
640 16.84
529 16.03
513 16.55
506 17.45
373 13.32
376 14.46
388 14.92
361 13.88
198
8.61
200
8. 70
248 10. 33
108
5.40
155
9.69
132
8.80
111
6.17
129
6. 45
214
8.56
312 13. 57
336 15. 27
450 15.00
454 15.13
406 13.53
385 13. 75

142
143
146
184
152
147
145
107
108
111
104
57
57
71
31

108
112
140
152
132
124
116
112
104
104
104
92
92
96
80
64
60
72
80
100
92
88
129
120
120
112

38
32
37
61
89
96
129
130
116
110

13.92

100

100

$331 $16.55
364 20.22
359 18.89
374 22.00
393 23.12
399 22.17
378 19.89
301 18.81
245 14. 41
307 18.06
323 19.00
192 12.00
178 11.13
215 13.44
232 14.50
217 13. 56
209 13.06
190 12. 67
203 14. 50
190 13. 57
196 13.07
220 14.67
250 14.71
240 16.00
267 15.71
258 16.13

124
112
118
106
106
112
118
100
106
106
106
100
100
100
100
100
100
93
87
87
93
93
106
93
106
100

128
141
139
144
152
154
146
117
95
119
125
74
69
83
90
84
81
74
79
74
76
85
97
93
103
100

100

100

18,134
348.63

44

S K IR T U PPER P R E S S E R S .

August___

Septembi

October.

November

December.

January...

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26




19
18
19
19
19
17
17
17
19
19
19
18
16
13
14
13
12
13
13
11
11
11
13
15
15
17

$325 $17.11
318 17.67
342 18.00
388 20. 42
382 20.11
236 13.88
300 17. 65
332 19. 53
312 16.42
319 16. 79
316 16.63
284 15. 78
195 12.19
173 13.31
160 11.43
154 11.85
144 12.00
173 13.31
139 10.69
144 13.09
131 11.91
152 13.82
193 14.85
236 15. 73
276 18. 40
277 16.29

118
126
112 | 123
132
118
118
150
118
148
106
91
106
116
106
129
118
121
123
118
118 | 122
112
110
100
75
81
67
87
62
81
60
75
56
67
81
54
81
68
56
68
51
68
59
81
75
93
91
93
107
106
107

27
28
29
30
31
32
March...
33
34
35
36
April___
37
38
39
40
May----41
42
43
' 44
45
June___
46
47
48
49
July___
50
51
. 52
F ebru­
ary ....

Total
Average

20
18
19
17
17
18
19
16
17
17
17
16
16
16
16
16
16
15
14
14
15
15
17
15
17
16
16.08

13.432
258.38

16.07

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK. IN D UbTitY ~— NEW YOEK.

53

T a b l e 1 8 . — NUM BER

OF EM PLO YEES AND T H E IR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AN D PER
CENT OF T H E R ESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A VER AG ES FOR T H E Y E A R IN 13 N O N ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUG UST, 1912, TO J U LY , 1913—Concluded.

S K I R T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .

Month.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num week­
Num­
Aver­ ber
ly
ber of Total
age of em­ pay
weekly weekly ploy­ roll
Week
em­
No.
pay
earn­ ees in
in
ploy­
roll.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age = age =
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).
$135 $15.00
139 15. 44
168 15. 27
151 15.10
154 15. 40
115 10.45
121 13. 44
163 14. 82
144 13.09
136 12.36
126 11. 45
113 10. 27
100 10. 00
93 10.33
75 10.71
105 15.00
93 11.63
105 13.13
120 13.33
95 13. 57
66
8.25
71
8.88
109 13. 63
94 11.75
98
9.80
111 10.09

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

117
106
106
117
96
117
117
117
117
117
106
96
74
74
85
85
96
74
85
85
85
85
106
117

116
119
144
129
132
98
104
140
123
116
108
97
86
80
64
90
80
90
103
81
56
61
93
80
84
95

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ber of weekly age , of em­
Week em­
weekly ploy­
No. ploy­
earn­ ees m
?o¥.
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
ag e100
per
cent).
$127 $11.55
115 10.45
163 16.30
153 17.00
149 14.90
182 16.55
156 15.60
152 15.20
134 13.40
130 13.00
136 13. 60
6.50
65
8.67
78
99 11.00
114 12.67
124 13.78
104 11.56
104 11. 56
9. 78
88
8.44
76
94 10. 44
8.88
71
104 11.56
95 10. 56
124 13. 78
138 13.80

F ebru­
ary...

March...

April___

May.......

June___

July___

Total.

117
117
106
96
106
117
106
106
106
106
106
106
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
85
96
96
96
106

6,075 t.
116.83 |

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week
iy
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =
100
per
cent).
!
i
I
j
i
j
;
;
I
I
i
!

109
' 98
140
131
128
156
134
130
115
111
116
56
67
85
98
106
75
65
80
61
89
81
106
118
100

S K IR T F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
1
2
3
4
5
6
September
7
8
9
10
11
O ctober...
12
13
14
15
November i 16
17
18
December. \ 19
20
21
22
23
January... 1 24
25
26
August___

12
$116
12
125
12
129
12
130
122
12
12
85
12
116
12
131
12
117
11
81
11
90
12
100
12
125
11
102
84
10
103
10
10
93
10
98
113
10
94
10
10
61
10
69
94
10
84
10
11
83
95
11 i




$9. 67
10. 42
10. 75
10. 83
10.17
7. 08
9. 67
10.92
9.75
7. 64
8.18
8. 33
10. 42
9. 27
8.40
10.30
9. 30
9. 80
11.30
9. 40
6.10
6.90
9.40
8. 40
7. 55
8. 64

109
109
109
109
109
109
109
109.
109
100
100
109
109
100
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
100
100

115
124
128
129
121
84
115
130
116
83
89
99
124
101
83
102
92
97
112
93
60
68
93
83
82
91

f 27
J 28
u- 1 29
ary.
I 30
31
nr v
.
Marcn... 1 32
1 33
1 34
( 35
A
A p ril.... j 36
| 37
I 38
f 39
40
May___ 1 41
42
I 43
44
T
1 45
j une —
1 46
I 47
f 48
49
July------ < 50
51
I 52
.r e

d

r

Total
Average
i

11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
10
10
11
11
11
12
12
11
10
11
1
1
10
11

$96
102
127
134
124
122
129
120
115
109
100
54
71
93
92
99
90
96
84
93
95
82
84
102
93
96

10.98

5,245
100.87

$8. 73 •
9. 27
11. 55 ,
12.18
11.27
11.09
11.73
10.91
10. 45
9.91
9.09
4.91
6. 45
9.30
9. 20
9.00
8.18
8. 73
7.00
7. 75
8. 64
8.20
7.64
9. 27
9.30
8.73
9.19

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
91
91
100
100
100
109
109
100
91
100
100
91
100

95
101
126
133
123
121
128
119
114
108
99
53
70
92
91
98
89
95
83
92
94
81
83
101
92
95

100

100

54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

SEASONAL DEMAND FOR EMPLOYEES AND OPPORTUNITY
FOR EARNINGS IN 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS, BY OCCU­
PATIONS.
The following table is derived from Table 18 and shows for the six
occupations specified the number of employees required to carry on
the work in the 13 nonassociation shops during the year. This
table is constructed on the same plan as Table 7, to the analysis of
which reference should be made for an explanation of the method of
tabulation employed. The last two columns show possible earnings
in each period of employment based on average weekly earnings
and on full weekly scale.
1 9 — SEASONAL DEMAND FOR EM PLO YEES AN D POSSIBLE EAR N IN G S, AS
SHOW N B Y COMBINED P A Y -R O L L D AT A FOR 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T able

CU T TER S.
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $23.59 and full weekly scale of $25.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.
Per cent of
total in
period

Total.

employing

Number.

great&st
number.
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

88
74
71
61
51
43
41
38
32
26

100.0
84.1
80.7
69.3
58.0
48.9
46.6
43.2
36.4
29.5

Total...................

Per cent of
total in
On basis of
period
On basis of full
employing average weekly weekly scale.
earnings.
greatest
number.

14
3
10
10
8
2
3
6
6
26
88 |

16.0
3.4
11.3
11.3
9.1
2.3
3.4
6.8
6.8
29.5

Up to
$236 to
354 to
472 to
590 to
708 to
826 to
944 to
1,062 to
1,180 to

$212
330
448
566
684
802
920
1,038
1,156
1,227

Up to
$250 to
375 to
500 to
625 to
750 to
875 to
1,000 to
1,125 to
1,250 to

$225
350
475
600
725
850
975
1,100
1,225
1,300

100.0

S K IR T C U T T E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $20.41 and full weekly scale of $21.]
Up to 9 weeks..
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..
Total___




100.
90.
80.
80.
80.
80.
70.
60.
60.
40.

10.0
10.0

10.0
10.0

20.0
40.0

Up to $184
$204 to 286
306 to 388
408 to 490
510 to 592
612 to 694
714 to 796
816 to 898
918 to 1,000
1,021 to 1,061

Up to $189
$210 to 294
315 to 399
420 to 504
525 to 609
630 to 714
735 to 819
840 to 924
945 to 1,029
1,050 to 1,092

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

55

T able 1 9 .—SEASONAL' D EM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AN D POSSIBLE E AR N IN G S, AS
SHOW N B Y COMBINED PAY-R O LL D A T A FOR 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued.

JA C K E T U PPER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $16.60 and full weekly scale of $21.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each, period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks.............

44
41
39
39
38
35
32
31
26
24

Per cent of
total in
eriod
employing
greatest
number.

Number.

Per cent of
total in
On basis of
period
average weekly On basis of full
employing
weekly scale.
earnings.
greatest
number.

Total...................

3
2

6.8
4.5

1
3
3
1
5
2
24

2.3
6.8
6.8
2.3
11.4
4.5
54.5

44

100.0
93.2
88.6
88.6
86.4
79.5
72.7
70.5
59.1
54.5

100.0

Up to $149
$166 to 232
249 to 315
332 to 398
415 to 481
498 to 564
581 to 647
664 to 730
747 to 813
830 to 863

Up to $189
$210 to 294
315 to 399
420 to 504
525 to 609
630 to 714
735 to 819
840 to 924
945 to 1,029
1,050 to 1,092

JA C K E T UNDER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $13.92 and full weekly scale of $18.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

38
30
28
28
26
24
23
22
20
15

100.0
78.9
73.7
73.7
68.4
63.2
60.5
57.9
52.6
39.5

21.1
5.3

2
2
1
1
2
5
15

5.3
5.3
2.6
2.6
5.3
13.2
39.5

38

Total....................

8
2

Up to $125
$139 to 195
209 to 264
278 to 334
348 to 404
418 to 473
487 to 543
557 to 612
626 to 682
696 to 724

100.0

Up to $162
$180 to 252
270 to 342
360 to 432
450 to 522
540 to 612
630 to 702
720 to 792
810 to 882
900 to 936

S K IR T U PPER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $16.07 and full weekly scale of $19.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks.
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks.
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total...................




20
19
17
17
17
16
15
15
13
11

100.0
95.0
85.0
85.0
85.0
80.0
75.0
75.0
65.0
55.0

1
2 1

5.0
10.0

1
1

5.0
5.0

2
2
11

10.0
10.0
55. 0

20

100.0

Up to $145
$161 to 225
241 to 305
321 to 386
402 to 466
483 to 546
562 to 627
643 to 707
723 to 787
804 to 836

Up to
$190 to
285 to
380 to
475 to
570 to
665 to
760 to
855 to
950 to

$171
266
361
456
551
646
741
836
931
988

56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1 9 .—SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AN D POSSIBLE EAR N IN G S, A 6
SHOW N B Y COMBINED PA Y -R O L L D A T A FOR 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Concluded.

T able

S K IR T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $12.40 and full weekly scale of $15.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional’ employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.
Per cent of
total in
period
employing
greatest
number.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

11
11
10
10
9
9
9
9
8
7

Number.

100.0
10 to 14 weeks
100.0
90.9
90.9
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
72.7
63.6

Per cent of
total in
On basis of
of full
period
average weekly On basisscale.
weekly
employing
earnings.
greatest
number.

9.1

1

9.1

1
1
7

9.1
9.1
63.6

11

Total...................

1

Up to $112
$124 to 174
186 to 236
248 to 298
310 to 360
372 to 422
434 to 484
496 to 546
558 to 608
620 to 645

Up to $135
$150 to 210
225 to 285
300 to 360
375 to 435
450 to 510
525 to 585
600 to 660
675 to 735
750 to 780

100.0

S K I R T F I N I S H E R S (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $9.19 and full weekly scale of $10.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 21 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks....... .......
Total...................

12
12
11
11
11
11
11
10
10
10

100.0
100.0
91. 7
91. 7
91.7
91. 7
91. 7
83.3
83.3
83.3

1

8.3

1

8.3

10

83.3

12

Up to $83
$92 to 129
138 to 175
184 to 221
230 to 267
276 to 312
322 to 358
368 to 404
414 to 450
460 to 478

Up to $90
$100 to 140
150 to 190
200 to 240
250 to 290
300 to 340
350 to 390
400 to 440
450 to 490
500 to 520

100.0

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT IN ASSOCIATION
AND NONASSOCIATION SHOPS.
The totals of the annual pay rolls of the 13 association and of the
13 nonassociation shops upon which this comparison is based were
$844,082 and $852,023, respectively. The average weekly pay rol1
for the year used as the base (or 100) in computing the percentages
showing fluctuations from week to week was $16,232 for the asso­
ciation and $16,385 for the nonassociation group.
Table 20, here presented, and Chart 2, which follows, show that
the busy and slack periods occur at approximately the same parts of
the year. However, the major fluctuations of the pay roll in the
nonassociation shops are not as violent as those in the association
shops in the corresponding periods of the year; that is, in the non­
association shops the peaks of the year are not as high and the
declinations of business during the slack seasons not as low as in the




WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN TH E CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

57

ghops belonging to members of the Manufacturers’ Protective Asso­
ciation. The highest and lowest percentages of the average weekly
pay roll in the association and the nonassociation shops were as
follows:
Highest.
Association shops.......................................
Nonassociation shops....................................

173.6
151.2

Lowest.
38.5
58.2

The' following table shows the fluctuations from week to w
reek:
T able 2 0 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYM ENT IN 13 ASSOCIATION AND 13
NONASSOCIATION SHOPS, EXPRESSED IN PERCENTAGES OF THE AVER AG E
W E E K L Y P A Y ROLL FOR A L L PRODUCTIVE LABO R , AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.
Per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—

Per cent of average
weekly pay roll in—
Week No.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21.
22.
23
24.
25.
26.

Week No.

13 non­
13 associa­ association
tion shops.
shops.

102.

13 non­
13 associa­
association
tion
shops.

113.
128.
149.
137.
104.
131.
144.
136.
152.
153.
133.
89.
64.
60.
50.
38.
38.
38.
38.
46.

106.3
117.1
123.7
140.2
123.0
105.3
120.7
124.4
120.4
132.2
127.3
109.1
90.5
72.3
80.6
80.1
63.6
59.8
58.2
59.6
64.0

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

43.

62.9

48.

78.5

79.:
89.!
119.:
135.1

88.3
88.9
101.6
121.5

49
50.
51
52.

92.9
112.2
113.5
105.6

144.3
145.6
173.6
160.9
155.4
160.6
151.9
148.4
116.4
96.0
70.9
62.8
63.6
62.2
59.4
61.2
49.0
55.5
55.7
86.2
99.2

128.7
123.3
136.8
144.5
149.4
151.2
145.8
128.1
118. 7
117.4
84.2
66.7
64.9
75.6
72.3
67.2
64.2
72/8
72.3
94.9
94.5
83.2
92.0
95.2
104.2
110.4

It has been shown in Table 20 and in Chart 2 that fluctuations of
employment in association and nonassociation shops, though vary­
ing here and there, indicate substantially the same dull and busy
seasons, but that employment in nonassociation shops throughout
the year seems to be somewhat more regular than in association shops.
The following table and the accompanying charts (Nos. 3 to 9)
show fluctuations of employment in association and nonassociation
shops for each of the principal occupations of the industry. For
the cutters’ occupation the differences in the fluctuations in both
groups of shops are shown to be almost negligible, and the cutters’
seasons in nonassociation shops follow very closely the seasons for
the same kind of work in association shops. This statement holds
equally true of the occupations of jacket and skirt upper pressers,
and to a somewhat smaller degree, of the occupations of jacket
under pressers and part pressers.




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 13 ASSOCIA­
TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YO R K CITY, AS
SHOWN BY W E E K LY PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

Ch a r t




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

59

With reference to the occupations of skirt under pressers and
finishers (female), the seasonal fluctuations in association shops as
compared with those in nonassociation shops seem to vary to a con­
siderable degree. In these occupations the nonassociation shops
represent somewhat more regular employment throughout the year,
the seasonal peaks are not as high, and the falls of the pay roll during
the slack periods not as marked as in shops belonging to members
of the association.
2 1 .—FLUCTUATIONS OF EM PLOYM ENT IN SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONS IN 90 ASSO­
CIATION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS AS SH OW N B Y PERCENTAGES OF A V E R ­
AGE W E E K L Y P A Y R OLL, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T able

Jacket
I
Jacket
upper press- j under press­
ers.
i
ers.
Week
No.

1.

110.6

10
11
12
13
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

49.1

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
24.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32
33
34
35
36
37
38.
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

61.0
64.2

9

Skirt under
pressers.

Part press­
ers.

Skirt
finishers,
female.

NonAsso­ associa­
ciation.
tion.

NonAsso­ associa­
ciation.
tion.

Asso­ Noncia­ association.
tion.

NonAsso­ associa­
ciation. tion.

Asso­ Nonassocia­
ciation.
tion.

102.5
120.3
135.8
149.1
154.7
106.5
147.4
145.1
131.3
151.5
150.4
134.9
96.9
64.1
53.6
54.0
40.7
32.2

127
129
155
145
155
115
142
136
127
138
124
108
77
59
74
89
73
55

105.0
110.3
123.9
130.3
135.3
96.6
124.6
128.2
119.8

116
119
144
129
132
98
104
140
123
116
108
97
86
80
64
90
80
90

112.3
125.4
133.0
139.6
144.1
102.5
145.6
131.1
125.9
147.9
148.1
132.5
98.1
71.4
75.2
60.7
46.5
39.8

118
112
137
123
123
82
104
116
95
118
118
91
72
74
78
70
59
34

17

47.8

54

31
36
54
72
120
120
133
142
143
146
184
152
147
145
107
108
111
104
57
57
71
31
44
38
32
37
61

57.6
58.8
69.8
80.6
93.4
106.4
111.3
118.2
121.4
136.7
150.9
146.2
147.5
152.9
137.3
118.8
111.9
109.7
93.3
89.6
99.6
92.6
86.4
78.3
78.9
75.9
85.7
89.5
85.8
97.6
108.0

56
51
59
75
91
107
107
128
143
139
144
152
154
146
117
95
119
125
74
69
83
90
84
81
74
79
74
76
85
97
93
103
100

113.4
133.1
159.2
172.6
180.4
125.6
165.1
151.5
143.9
141.1
141.3
119.0
55.3
26.1
47.5
38.6
26.3
33.2
26.6
31.5
30.3
59.5
80.9
106.5
136.4
152.6
168.1
177.6
183.7
190.0
180.4
177.3
165.8
155.9
122.1
96.2
72.7
59.7
62.1
72.0
57.9
54.6
44.2
51.7
42.8
44.2
61.6
55. 7
64.0
83.2
82.1
77.1

72.1
89.1
93.3
89.2
104.7

118.8
110.3
76.8
51.4
60.8
59.8
50.3
50.6

126
123
132
150
148
91
116
129
121
123
122
110
75
67
62
60
56
67

103

42.9

49

81
56
61
93
80
84
95
109
98
140
131
128
156
134
130
115
111
116
56
67

42.8
46.2
58.9

38
21
11
61
125
137
161
165
152
156
159
150
146
118
89
146
110
106
49
82
89
82
70
47
74
70
74
93
146
156
154
106
82

NonAsso­
cia­
c ra­
tion. tion.

129.2
140.7
145.1
142.1
103.9
124.1
131.3
137.8
142.6
131.4
105.7
75.2
55.3
56.7
53.7
43.1
42.6

2.
3.
4.
5.
6
7.
8

Skirt upper
pressers.

68.6

87.2
108.4
128.7
143.9
155.0
166.2
169.5
160.4
150.1
142. 2
138.9
129.0
101.8
90.4
80.2
67. 6
58.9
56. 8
54.0
50.4
46.2
55.4
64.8
81.9
88.5
80.9
93.5
104.6
113.5
117.0

101
124
135
162
170
118
142
135
129
147
148
124
85
73
78
78
68
45
46
60
69
79
112
94
108
117
137
149
159
174
147
142
142
132
96




NonAsso­ associa­
ciation. tion.

112.6

125.4
137.0
139.5
99.9
139.1
132.1
119.7
139.2
140.8
138.0
111.5
77.5
73.8
70.6
58.6
51.9
49.4

54.5
51.7
56.7
84.5
99.8
111.4
121.2

128.3
133.5
144.4
150.7
154.0
151.4
147.4
131.6
122.1

103.4
93.1
69.0
71.7
75.1
70.7
63.7
50.8
58.4
54.3
73.4
88.6
75.4
91.1
96.6
105.8
100.5

123
129
136
133
138
92
140
137
140
133
137
115
87
81
81
76
66
49
34
34
37
49
65
102
126
121
130
140
139
141
151
150
165
131
120
122
123
70
64
76
54
52
51
41
43

108
116
109
107

29.8

34.4
40.6
56.0
80.5
106.1
119.9
137.5
149.3
153.7
169.2
176.8
177.1
173.2
161.5
148.9
121.1
90.5
78.0
52.8
51.5
52.9
49.4
44.4
35.9
44.0
44.2
76.9
93.5
75.7
97.1
101.4
107.2
97.7

129
130
116
110

121.0

102.0

95.8

106
75
65
80
61
89
81
106
118

119.4
140.2
154.0
145.4
163.7
174.8
159.3
152.6
150.4
127.3
108.6
92.0
84.4
54.1
55.9
59.9
58.8
55.5
43.6
48.9
49.8
82.6
90.9
83.6
91.9
103.6
98.7
90.9

66.5

105.9
100.6

100.4
89.7
87.4
79.7
43.0
38.8
49.8
41.3
35.4
38.6
34.2

43.9
51.7
51.5
70.5
86.3
103.2
114.2
119.7
120.8

135.1
145.0
155.5
163.7
180.5
162.0
150.1
155.3
145.8
115.1
111.2
136.6
131.6
111.5
100.3
103.3
99.8
102.1

122.5
120.8
119.5
113.5
99.4
98.4

115
124
128
129
121
84
115
130
116
83
89
99
124
101
83
102
92
97
112
93
60
68
93
83
82
94
95
101
126
133
123
121
128
119
114
108
99
53
70
92
91
98
89
95
83
92
94
81
83
101
92
95

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

C h a r t 3.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­

TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YORK CITY, AS
SHOWN BY W E E K LY PAY ROLLS. AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 CUTTERS.




[Average weekly payroll for the year=100.]

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN TH E CLOAK INDUSTRY— N E W YORK.

61

inkART 4 .— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION AND 1 3 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YO R K CITY, AS
SHOWN B Y W E E K LY PAY ROLLS, AUGUST, 1 9 1 2 , TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 JACKET UPPER PRESSERS.




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

5.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YrORK CITY, AS
SHOWN BY" W E E K LY PAY ROLLS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 JACKET UNDER, PRESSERS.

Ch a r t




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

WAGES AND EM PLOYM ENT IN TH E CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

63

Chart 0.—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS O F EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YOR K CITY, AS
SHOWN B Y W E E K LY PAY ROLLS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 SKIRT UPPER PRESSERS.
[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]
August

Septem October ■Novem Decem January fehrvary March Apr//
ber
ber
ber




/Yfat/

June

Ju/y

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

C h a r t 7.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­

TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW Y O R K CITY, AS
SHOWN BY W EE K LY PAY ROLLS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 SKIRT UNDER PRESSERS.




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

WAGES AND EM PLO YM EN T IN THE CLOAK INDUSTRY---- N E W YORK.

65

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YO R K CITY, AS
SHOWN B Y W E E K LY PAY ROLLS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 PART PRESSERS.

Chart 8 —

[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

49160°— Bull. 147— 15------ 5




66

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

9.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 90 ASSOCIA­
TION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS IN NEW YOR K CITY, AS
SHOWN BY W E E K LY P A Y ROLLS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1 9 1 3 SKIRT FINISHERS, FEMALE.

Ch a r t




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- N E W Y O R K .

67

The following table shows the percentage of employees in associa­
tion and non association shops who worked from 25 to 39 weeks and
from 40 to 52 weeks as compared with the highest number employed
at any season:
2 2 .— O P PO R TU N ITY FOR EM PLO YM ENT IN 90 ASSOCIATION AN D 13 NON­
ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AS SH O W N B Y PERCENTAG E OF TH E HIG H EST NUM BER
E M PLO YED A T A N Y TIME TH AT W O R K E D EACH CLASSIFIED N U M BER OF W E E K S ,
A U G U ST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

T able

Per cent of highest number employed
at any time who worked—
25 to 39 weeks.

40 to 52 weeks.

Occupation.
90 asso­
ciation
shops.

Cutters ...................................................................................................
Skirt cutters............................................................................................
Jacket upper pressers............................................................................
Jacket under pressers............................................................................
Skirt upper pressers .
....................................................................
Skirt under pressers................................................................................

13 nonassocia­
tion
shops.

90 asso­
ciation
shops.

69.9
60.0
84.9
75.8
83.2
74.5

58.0
80.0
86.4
68.4
85.0
81.8

43.8
48.0
72.6
57.8
74.3
46.8

13 nonassocia­
tion
shops.
43.2
60.0
70.5
57.9
75.0
81.8

The actual seasonal fluctuations of employment in association and
nonassociation shops are graphically shown in charts. This table
shows, in a rough way, the percentages of two groups of workers of
the industry: (a) Workers “ almost” permanently employed, who
^worked from 25 to 39 weeks, and (b) those classed as permanent
workers of the industry, who worked between 40 and 52 weeks.
With reference to the latter group there is a marked difference
between association and nonassociation shops in the case of skirt
under pressers, the nonassociation shops having 81.8 per cent em­
ployed in this occupation more or less permanently as compared
with 46.8 per cent in the association shops. Skirt cutters also show
a considerable difference.




68

BULLETIN OF TH E BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS OF CUTTERS AND PRESSERS
IN ASSOCIATION AND NONASSOCIATION SHOPS.
The following table gives a comparison of actual average weekly
earnings of cutters and pressers in both classes of slxops; as shown by
the pay rolls:
2 3 .—COMPARISON OF ACTUAL A V ER AG E W E E K L Y EARN IN G S OF CUTTERS AN D
PRESSERS IN 90 ASSOCIATION AND 13 NONASSOCIATION SHOPS., AUGUST, 1912, TO
JU LY, 1913.

T able

Averagei weekly
eamin]gs i n Occupation.
90 asso­
ciation
shops.

Cutters..............................................................
Skirt cutters....................................................
Jacket upper pressers...................................
Jacket under pressers...................................
Skirt upper pressers.......................................
Skirt under pressers.......................................
Part pressers....................................................

13 nonassocia­
tion
shops.

$24.36
20.96
17.65
14.39
16.39
13.26
12.26

$23.59
20.41
16.60
13.92
16.07
12.40
12.11

As can readily be seen, the differences in actual weekly earnings of
cutters and pressers in association and non association shops are very
small indeed.




WEEK WORKERS IN THE INDUSTRY IN BOSTON.
This study was undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Statistics at
the formal request of representatives of the Boston Ladies7 Garment
Manufacturers’ Association, operating under the protocol agreement
of March 8, 1913.
Before making this request, officers of the association had visited
New York City for the purpose of inquiring into the scope and methods
of a similar investigation then being carried on by the board of arbi­
tration of the New York cloak, suit, and skirt industry. Boston
manufacturers were particularly anxious to ascertain actual earnings
of workers in the shops of their association as well as the extent and
precise nature of unemployment due to the seasonal character of the
industry.
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION AND METHODS EMPLOYED.
The objects of this study were: (a) To ascertain the earnings of the
week workers, and (b) to determine the degree, precise nature, and
specific dates of unemployment in the various occupations, due to the
seasonal character of the industry.
The main purpose of this, as of similar studies published recently
by this Bureau, was to show the possibilities for the regularization of
employment in the garment trade through possible synchronization
of the seasons in allied branches. If such possibilities could be estab­
lished, ways might be devised whereby workers laid off in one branch
of the needle trades could apply for employment in similar occupations
in the allied branches.
Only week workers were covered by this study, for the following
reasons: (1) In order to make results comparable with results ob­
tained for similar occupations in the city of New York, and (2)
because pieceworkers frequently work in teams or employ helpers
whose names or separate earnings seldom appear on the pay-roll
books of the employers.
Full information was obtained from about one-fourth of the total
number of shops, comprising the 10 largest firms in the city. It is
estimated that these 10 firms produce over one-third of the total
output of cloaks, suits, and skirts in the city of Boston.




69

70

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The information was gathered on two separate schedules: Schedule
No. 1, an individual schedule, on which the earnings of each of the
week workers for 52 consecutive weeks were recorded; and Schedule
No. 2, an establishment schedule, on which the total expense for all
productive labor— week workers as w as pieceworkers— for each firm
reli
for each week of the year were recorded. The latter was for the pur­
pose of obtaining a graphic picture of the movement of the season
and satisfactorily determining the exact proportion of w
rork done on
the week basis and by the piece.
Schedule No. 1, on which individual earnings were recorded, also
called for information with reference to sex, specific occupation, and
hours and days worked each week. As not all the shops could furnish
reliable information as to the number of days worked each week,
all tabulations showing extent of employment were based either upon
the week or upon the hour as a unit. In every case an hour means
a unit of actual work. A week, on the other hand, may mean any­
thing from one hour to a full week. In other words, a week simply
denotes that the individual appeared on the pay roll of the shop some­
time during the week. A close examination of the schedules, how­
ever, shows that very few people ever worked less than one day— that,
in fact, the majority of them worked full weeks.
The period covered by this investigation embraces a full year—
August, 1912, to July, 1913. This period includes nearly five months
during which the standards of wages and hours stipulated in the
so-called protocol of peace of March 8, 1913, were in effect.
Thus this study, aside from its value for comparative purposes with
reference to earnings of workers in identical occupations in the city
of New York, affords some measurement of (a) the extent of unemployment due to the seasonal character of the industry, and (b)
changes in the earnings of w
reek workers following the signing of the
collective agreement of March 8, 1913.
The data presented are based upon the records of earnings of over
400 week workers in the 10 largest establishments manufacturing
cloaks, suits, and skirts in the city of Boston. These workers were
employed at 23 specific occupations, of which only the 15 most im­
portant ones were tabulated and analyzed.
The number of shops investigated comprises one-fourth of the total
number in the city of Boston. A careful estimate of the total work­
ing force of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of that city puts it at
about 3,000. Of these, on the basis of figures given elsewhere, 1,200
worked by the week. Thus, this study covers approximately onethird of the total number of week workers in the industry. The total
annual amount of wages paid for all productive labor by the 10 firms
investigated was $354,970, their total output, valued at about
$1,000,000, being one-third of the total output of the industry.



W AGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IK

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

71

Not all of the shops furnished complete information of earnings of
week workers for each of the main occupations; the information
obtained was as follows: For cutters, 10 shops; for pressers, 7 shops;
for finishers, 8 shops. The defective records for pressers and finishers,
in each instance, were found in three of the smallest shops inves­
tigated.1
Of all of the week workers for whom records of earnings were
secured, tabulated, and analyzed (312 individuals) only one, or less
than one-third of 1 per cent, worked in more than one of the shops
investigated.
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR BEFORE AND AFTER SIGNING
OF PROTOCOL.
No direct information of the actual differences in the earnings of
the week workers before and after the signing of the protocol agree­
ment could be obtained because of the fact that the specific number
of hours worked each week, for both of the periods, could not in many
cases be ascertained from the pay rolls. There was, however, a fairly
reliable method for the determination of actual changes in wages due
to the signing of the agreement, namely, a comparison of rates
actually paid to workers in similar occupations before and after the
agreement was signed. This comparison was made. Table 24
shows that in every occupation of week workers a considerable raise
in wages immediately resulted. The average increase for all occupa­
tions was 11.7 per cent. In specific skilled occupations, excluding
head cutters, increases varied from 8 per cent, the lowest, given to
canvas cutters, to 23.4 per cent, the highest, granted to skirt under
pressers.
In all the establishments visited the rates paid for overtime work
were increased 50 per cent. Previous to the signing of the agree­
ment none of the firms paid more than the regular rate for overtime.
The increase in average weekly rates for each specified occupation,
and also for four groups of occupations after the protocol went into
effect, is shown in the following table. The average weekly rates for
the various occupations, before and after the protocol, were found in
each instance by calculating the average of the lowest and highest
rates paid each individual and dividing the total of these averages in
each occupation by the total number of individuals in the occupation.
1 The protocol specifies that most of the finishing departments be put on a piecework basis. There
was a mutual understanding, however, that its introduction be somewhat gradual. At the time of the
investigation, 8 of the 10 shops still had large parts of the finishing department on a weekly basis.




72

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2 4 ___ COMPARISON OF PREPROTOCOL AND POSTPROTOCOL W E E K L Y R A T E S
OF W AGES A C T U A L L Y PAID, IN 10 SHOPS AN D 21 OCCUPATIONS, AU G U ST, 1912, TO
JU LY, 1913.

T able

[Data obtained from only 7 shops for pressers, and from 8 shops for finishers.]

Preprotocol.

Occupation.

Head cutters..........................
Suit cutters............................
Skirt cutters..........................
Trimming cutters.................
Canvas cutters......................
Apprentice cutters...............
Head pressers........................
Jacket upper pressers.........
Jacket under pressers.........
Skirt upper pressers...........
Skirt under pressers...........
Part pressers..........................
Jacket finishers, skilled___
Skirt finishers, skilled.........
Jacket finishers, unskilled..
Skirt finishers, unskilled . . .
Sample finishers...................
Basters....................................
Cleaners..............................
Sample skirt makers........
Sample jacket makers____

Num­
ber of
work­
ers.
2
17
11
14
2
10
1
9
9
11
7
6
21
24
29
74
6
2
16
15
9

Range of
weekly
rates of
wages.
$23 to $27
18 to 25
17 to 22
13 to 20
12 to 13
5 to 10
22
IS to 24
13 to 19
16 to 21
11 to 16
8 to 14
9 to 14
7 to 13
6 to 10
5 to 10
15 to 18
14 to 15
3.50 to 7
15 to 22
16 to 22

Increase in aver­
age weekly
rates.

Postprotocol.

Num­
Average ber of
weekly
work­
rate.
ers.
$25.00
20.81
18. 82
15.64
12.50
7.40
22.00
21.00
16.06
17.95
13.79
11.67
11.46
9.70
8.38
7.28
16.50
14.50
5.31
18.50
19.53

2
15
15
13
2
6
1
13
13
19
12
5
15
16
24
49
2
2
17
15
8

Range of
weekly
rates of
wages.
$23 to $28
19 to 25
19.50 to 25
16 to 20
12 to 15
5 to 12.50
24
20.70 to 24
16.10 to 20
19.50 to 22
15 to 18.40
11.50 to 16
11 to 14
9 to 14
7.15 to 10
6 to 10
18
15 to 17
4 to 7
18 to 22
20 to 24

Average
weekly Amount.
rate.

$25.75
22.53
22.57
18.08
13.50
8.25
24.00
23.28
18.33
20.48
17.01
14.15
12.51
10.50
9.00
7.85
18.00
15.75
5.81
21.03
22. 21

$0.75
1.72
3.75
2.44
1.00
.85
2.00
2.28
2.27
2.53
3.22
2.48
1.05
.80
.62
.57
1.50
1.25
.50
2.53
2.68

Per
cent.

3.0
8.3
19.9
15.6
8.0
11.5
9.1
10.9
14.2
14.1
23.4
21.3
9.2
8.2
7.4
7.8
9.1
8.6
9.4
13.2
13.7

AVERAGE INCREASE, BY GROUPS.

Cutters..........................................................................................................................................................................11.0
Pressers......................................................................................................................................................................... 16.7
Finishers...................................................................................................................................................................... 8.5
Sample makers............................................... ............................................................................................................ 13.4
All occupations........................................................................................................................................................... 11. 7

Prior to the signing of the agreement the 10 shops investigated had
the following schedules of hours per week: 1 shop, 49 hours; 5 shops,
50 hours; 1 shop, 52 hours; 2 shops, 53 hours; and 1 shop, 54 hours.
The agreement introduced a working week of uniform length— 50
hours from September to May, and 49 hours from June to August.
No statistical analysis of overtime hours worked before and after the
protocol was signed is possible for the following reasons: (1) The
agreement imposes no limitations upon the amount of overtime to be
worked except that no overtime work can be done on Saturday, and
(2) the actual overtime hours just previous to the signing of the agree­
ment were abnormal and not representative of the industry under
ordinary conditions. This was due to the fact that the manufacturers,
having anticipated the coming general strike long in advance, worked
their factories at top speed.
Generally speaking, no uniform rates of wages for specific occupa­
tions were in vogue previous to the introduction of collective bargain­
ing. Bargaining was then on a purely individual basis. The pro­
tocol introduced minimum standard rates for eight of the principal
occupations of week workers. The changes stipulated were to be
introduced as follows: (a) In cases of workers whose former rates of
wages were near the specified minimum standard, the stipulated
minimum was to be granted immediately; (b) In cases of those whose



WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

73

former rates of wages were far below the stipulated minimum, the
mutual understanding was that the advancement to the minimum
should be gradual— a 15 per cent increase was to be given im­
mediately, the remainder, to reach the minimum, was to be granted
in increases of 10 per cent each six months.
PROPORTION OF WEEK WORK IN THE LARGER SHOPS OF
THE INDUSTRY.
As stated above, this report relates only to week workers. The
proportion of week work in the shops investigated may be ascertained
by comparing the total pay roll of the week workers, as indicated by
the aggregate of the individual schedules of all week workers, with the
total annual pay roll for all productive labor. As shown in Table 25
which follows, the per cent which the week workers’ pay roll is of the
total pay roll varies from a maximum of 50.3 in shop No. 1 to a mini­
mum of 27.6 in shop No. 3, the average for all the shops being 39
per cent. As the seven shops upon the records of which this table is
based were without doubt the largest establishments of their kind in
Boston, this average may be considered as a fair indication of the
average proportion of week work in the larger shops of that city.
2 5 .—PROPORTION OF W E E K W O R K IN 7 LAR G E SHOPS, AS SH O W N B Y THE
AMOUNTS OF M O N EY A N N U A L L Y PAID OUT TO W E E K W O R K E R S AS COMPARED
W IT H AM OUNTS PAID OUT FOR A L L PRODUCTIVE LA B O R , AU G U ST, 1912, TO
JU LY, 1913.

T able

Total annual amount
of pay roll for—
Shop.
All pro­
ductive
labor.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1 .................................................................................................................
2 ................................................................................................................
3 ................................................................................................................
4 ................................................................................................................
5 ................................................................................................................
8 ................................................................................................................
1 0 ..............................................................................................................
Total...................

.........................................................................

All week
workers.

Per cent
week
workers’
pay roll is
of total
pay roll.

$20,433
74,931
50,684
37,614
37,997
34,367
37,992

$10,279
24,242
14,011
14,434
18,750
13,390
13,645

50.3
32.4
27.6
38.4
49.3
39.0
35.9

294,018

108,751

139.0

1 The average per cent of week work in 32 shops in New York City is 25.2, the range in individual shops
having been from 16.3 to 39. See page 15 of this Bulletin.

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN WEEKLY PAY ROLLS FOR ALL
PRODUCTIVE LABOR AND FOR WEEK WORKERS ONLY.
In the following tables and the accompanying chart (No. 10) are
shown for the 10 shops investigated the fluctuations from week to
week in the pay rolls for all productive labor and in the aggregate
amounts paid to week workers. These fluctuations are expressed
by percentages which the totals paid in wages each week are of the
average for the 52 weeks.



B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR- STATISTICS.

74

2 6 . — TO TAL W E E K L Y
AMOUNT OF P A Y ROLL FOR A L L PRODUCTIVE
LABOR IN 10 SHOPS, AN D PER CENT OF A V E R A G E W E E K L Y AM OUNT AUGUST,
1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

T able

Amount
of pay­
roll.

Per cent
of the
average
weekly
pay roll.

$8,161
7,943
8,530
8,168
7,507
6,650
8,111
8,988
9.181
8,503
7,925
7,240
6,734
5,776
4,481
4,880
3,968
4,414
3,794
4,137
3,886
4,173
5,000
5,628
6,360
7,277

Week
No.

Month.

119.6
116.4
125.0
119. 7
110.0
97. 4
118.8
131. 7
134.5
125.4
116.1
106.1
98.6
84.6
65.6
71.5
58.1
64.7
55.6
60.6
56.9
61.1
73.2
82.4
93.2
106.6

August___

September

October...

November.

December.

January...

Week
No.

Month.

Amount
of pay
roll.

Per cent
of the
average
weekly
pay roll.

$8,041
8,438
8,464
8,704
5,987
5,016
9,526
9,984
10,008
9,896

February.

March.

April.

9,121

7,664
7, 747
7,431
6,973
6,492
5,703
5,402
6,519
5,377
6,536
5,159
4,315
5,636
6,013
7,343

May.

June.

July.

Total.
Average___

117.8
123.6
124.0
127.5
87.7
73.5
139.5
146.3
146.6
145.0
133.6
112.3
113.5
108.9
102.1

95.1
83.5
79.1
95.5
78.8
95.7
75.8
63.2
82.6
88.1

107.6

354,970
6,826

T able 2 7 .—T O TAL W E E K L Y AM OUNT OF P A Y R O LL OF W E E K W O R K E R S , IN 7 SHOPS,
AND PER CENT OF A V E R A G E W E E K L Y AM OUNT AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

Month.

Week
No.

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...




Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

165
170
172
172
171
171
174
172
176
169
171
167
166
152
140
134
127
122
117
113
110
109
124
146
148
155

Per
cent of
Amount aver­
of pay
age
roll.
weekly
pay
roll.
$1,865
1,985
1,986
1,976
1,852
1,656
1,971
2,064
2,202
2,071
2,026
2,006
1,854
1,544
1,367
1,325
1,202
1,183
1,113
1,177
1,082
1,135
1,327
1,620
1,665
1,796

99.5
105.9
106.0
105.4
98.8
88.4
105.2
110.1
117.5
110.5
108.1
107.0
98.9
82.4
72.9
70.7
64.1
63.1
59.4
62.8
57.7
60.6
70.8
86.4
88.8
95.8

Week
No.

Month.

(
February............ |
|
f
1
A
T U
i
I
f
J
A "i
\
[
r
{

T in

[
f
1
1
1
r
^
{

Total.........
Average...............

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
.45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Per
Num­
cent of
ber of Amount aver­
em­
of pay
age
roll.
weekly
ploy­
ees.
pay
roll.
158
164
168
171
168
176
197
203
201
191
198
186
184
180
172
171
166
168
170
163
160
159
124
135
140
155

SI, 872
1,978
2,028
2,028
1,460
1,496
2,758
2,911
2,924
2,765
2,833
2,308
2,507
2,358
2,174
2,067
1,914
1,680
2,136
1,751
2,019
1,655
1,333
1,708
1,755
1,981

99.9
105.5
108.2
108.2
77.9
79.8
147.2
155.3
156.0
147.5
151.2
123.2
133.8
125.8
116.0
110.3
102.1
89.6
114.0
93.4
107.7
88.3
71.1
91.1
93.6
105.7

8,341
160.4

97,449
1,874

100.0

W AGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

75

There are in this industry four main seasonal periods. As shown in
Table 26 and Chart 10 the first busy season for the industry at large
begins about the last week of the month c
iiiy and lasts approxi­
mately about 12 weeks. This is followed by a relatively short dull
season, from the last week in October to the fourth week in January.
Then the spring season, the busiest one of all, arrives. It lasts for
over three months, till about the third week in May. The second
slack season, lasting for about 10 weeks, then ensues.
Chart 10.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN BY
W EE K LY PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 10 SHOPS
AND FOR WEEK WORKERS IN 7 SHOPS, BOSTON, AUGUST, 1912, TO
JULY, 1913.
[Average weekly pay roll for the year = 100.]

The busiest week was the first week in April; 146.6 per cent of the
average pay roll was paid out to the workers during that week. The
dullest week was the second in December; only 55.6 per cent of the
average pay roll.1
In the week-work part of the industry the general trend of these
fluctuations is substantially the same as for the industry at large,
though, as a matter of fact, the specific high and low points do not
exactly coincide.
1 The sudden falls of the pay rolls of both groups in weeks 31-32 are abnormal; they are due entirely to the
general strike which took place during these weeks just before the signing of the so-called protocol of peace of
March 8,1913.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

76

That the movement as shown by the curve for the industry at large
is substantially correct can be seen by comparing it with the curve
showing the seasonal"- 7' >,tuations for the week-vvork part of the
industry. Both curves, though varying slightly in fluctuations of
minor importance, are surprisingly alike.
FLUCTUATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS IN
ASSOCIATION SHOPS, BY OCCUPATIONS.
In Table 28, which follows, is given for the 15 principal occupations
in 10 association shops of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of Boston
the number of employees from week to week during the year from
August, 1912, to July, 1913, as shown by the pay rolls, together with
their total and average earnings each w
reek and for the year. Col­
umns are also given showing the fluctuations in the number of em­
ployees and in the pay roll from w
reek to w^eek, expressed in percent­
ages that these items are of the averages for the year. This table
corresponds to Table 4, showing similar information for New York
City.
T a b l e 2 8 . — NUM BER

OF EM PLO YEES AND TH EIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AGES FOR TH E Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.
[Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; from 7 shops for pressers; from 8 shops for finishers.]

C U TTER S.

Month.

Num­
Week ber of
em­
No. ploy­
ees.

f
August___ J
1
I
(
September J
1
I

f

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

10
October... \ 11
12
I 13
( I4
November J 15
1 16
I 17
/ 18
December.

J

1 20
I 21
22
23
January... { 24
25
[ 26

9

13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
13
12
11
13

11
11
19 9
10
9
10
10
12
11
12




Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Aver­ ber
ly
Total
age
weekly weekly of em­ pay
ploy­ roll
pay
in
earn­ ees in
roll.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age = ;age =
100
100
per 1 per
cent), cent).
$272 $20.92 111.0 1112.4
288 20.62 111.0 110.7
275 21.15 111.0 113.6
276 21.23 111.0 114.0
287 20. 50 119.5 118.6
277 19.79 119.5 114.5
304 21.71 119.5 125.6
302 21.57 119.5 124.8
320 22. 86 119.5 132.2
314 22.43 119. 5 129.7
303 21.64 119.5 125.2
297 21.21 119.5 122.7
263 20.23 111.0 108.7
226 18.83 102.5 93.4
211 19.18 93.9 87.2
225 17.31 111.0 93.0
203 18.45 93.9 83.9
191 17.36 93.9 78.9
180 20.00 76.8 74.4
207 20. 70 85.4 85.5
169 18. 78 76. 8 69.8
183 18.30 85.4 75.6
196 19. 60 85.4 81.0
229 19.08 102.5 94.6
229 20.82 93.9 94.6
257 21.42 102.5 106.2

Month.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week
Num­
Aver­ ber
iy
Total
age
Week ber of weekly weekly of em­ pay
em­
ploy­ roll
pay
No. ploy­
earn­ ees in
in
roll.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (aver­
a g e age =
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

f 27
F e b r u ­ J 28
a r y .... i 29
I 30
f 31
I 32
March...
1 33
I 34
f 35
J 36
April___
j 37
I 38
f 39
40
May....... 1 41
42
I 43
f 44
1 45
June___ ) 46
I 47
48
49
July....... \ 50
51
I 52
Total
Average

12
13
12
12
12
12
12
1?
12
13
13
12
12
10
10
10

11
11
11
11
11

9
8
9

11
10
11.7

1265 $22.08 102.5
265 20.38 111.0
257 21.42 102.5
248 20.67 102.5
194 16.17 102.5
222 18.50 102.5
299 24.92 102.5
283 23.58 102.5
288 24.00 102.5
300 23.08 111.0
302 23.23 111.0
249 20.75 102.5
258 21.50 102.5
224 22.40 85.4
220 22.00 85.4
216 21.60 85.4
203 18. 45 93.9
200 18.18 93.9
238 21.64 93.9
215 19.55 93.9
223 20.27 93.9
160 17.78 76.8
152 19.00 68.3
171 19.00 76.8
241 21.91 93.9
232 23.20 85.4
12.589
242. 09

20.67

109.5
109.5
106.2
102.5
80.2
91.7
123.5
116.9
119.0
124.0
124.8
102.9
106.6
92.6
90.9
89.2
83.9
82.6
98.3
88.8
92.1
66.1
62.8
70.7
99.6
95.9

1 0 0 . 01 0 0 . 0

W AGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y — BOSTON.

77

T a b l e 2 8 . — NUM BER

OF EM PLOYEES AND TH EIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY , 1913—Continued.

S K IR T C U T T E R S .

Month.

Num­
Week ber of
em­
No. ploy­
ees.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Aver­ ber
Total
age of em­
weekly weekly ploy­
pay
earn­ ees in
roll.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age =
100

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
?o5
in
each
week
(aver­
age =

Num­
Aver­
Total
Week ber of weekly age
weekly
em­
No.
pay
earn­
ploy­
roll.
ings.
ees.

100

per
per
cent). cent).
1
2
3
4

5
September

October...

November

December.

January...

6

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26

6
6

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
7
5
5
7
9

$96 $16.00 88.1
73.5
88.1 86.5
113 18.83
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18. 00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18 00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
103 14.71 102.8 78.8
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
90 18.00 73.4 68.9
109 15.57 102.8 83.4
171 19.00 132.2 130.8

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age =

100

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
ber
of em­
ploy­
ees in
each
week
(aver­
age =

100

per
per
cent). cent).
27

Febru­
28
a r y .... ■ 29

March...

A
A p r'1l....
i

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

44
45
46
47
' 48
49
July.......

50
51
52

Total
Average

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

7

9
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
9

9
10

6.8

$153 $19.13 117.5
155 19.38 117.5
156 19.50 117.5
155 19.38 117.5
146 18.25 117.5
99 12.38 117.5
176 22.00 117.5
176 22.00 117.5
173 21.63 117.5
172 21.50 117.5
177 22.13 117.5
151 18.88 117.5
163 20.38 117.5
168 21.00 117.5
150 21.43 102. 8
184 20.44 132.2
165 20.63 117.5
157 17. 44 132.2
176 22.00 117.5
148 18.50 117.5
183 22.88 117.5
165 18.33 132.2
147 18.38 117.5
208 23.11 132.2
193 21.44 132.2
218 21.80 146.9

6,796
130. 69

117.1
118.6
119.4
118.6
111.7
75.8
134.7
134.7
132.4
131.6
135.4
115.5
124.7
128.5
114.8
140.8
126.3
120.1
134.7
113.2
140.0
126.3
112.5

159.2
147.7

166.8

i.9*20 ioo.’ o* ‘ ioo.'o

T R IM M IN G C U T T E R S .

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
. 26

11
11
10
10
10
10
11
10
11
10
10
10
10
10
9
9
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
10
12




$172 $15.64 101.8 99.1
170 15.45 101.8 98.0
157 15. 70 92.5 90.5
159 15.90 92.5 91.6
157 15. 70 92.5 90.5
159 15. 90 92.5 91.6
175 15.91 101.8 100.8
161 16.10 92.5 92.8
180 16.36 101.8 103.7
163 16.30 92.5 93.9
162 16.20 92.5 93.3
159 15.90 92.5 91.6
156 15. 60 92.5 89.9
146 14.60 92.5 84.1
134 14. 89 83.3 77.2
133 14.78 83.3 76.6
118 14.75 74.0 68.0
112 14.00 74.0 64.5
118 14.75 74.0 68.0
135 15.00 83.3 77.8
135 15.00 83.3 77.8
154 15. 40 92.5 88.7
158 15.80 92.5 91.0
171 15.55 101.8 98.5
157 15.70 92.5 90.5
188 15.67 111.0 108.3

27
28
29
30
31
32
March...
33
34
35
36
April___
37
38
39
40
May___
41
42
43
44
45
June___
46
47
48
49
July.......
50
51
. 52
Fe b r u a r y ....

Total
Average

12
12
12
12
12
11
13
13
13
13
12
13
12
12
12
11
10
12
12
11
11
11
10
11
11
11
10.8

$198 $16.50 111.0
196 16.33 111.0
189 15. 75 111.0
191 15.92 111.0
157 13.08 111.0
143 13.00 101.8
252 19.38 120.3
244 18. 77 120.3
242 18.62 120.3
241 18.54 120.3
214 17.83 111.0
204 15.69 120.3
202 16.83 111.0
196 16.33 111.0
206 17.17 111.0
179 16.27 101.8
161 16.10 92.5
180 15.00 111.0
207 17.25 111.0
161 14.64 101.8
188 17.09 101.8
173 15.73 101.8
155 15.50 92.5
189 17.18 101.8
191 17.36 101.8
177 16.09 101.8
9,025
173.56

114.1
112.9
108.9
110.0
90.5
82.4
145.2
140.6
139.4
138.9
123.3
117.5
116.4
112.9
118.7
103.1
92.8
103.7
119.3
92.8
108.3
99.7
89.3
108.9
110.0
102.0

16.05 ioo.’ o* ’ ioo.’ o

B U L L E T IN

78

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2 8 .—N UM BER OF EM PLO YEES AND THEIR EARN IN G S EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY. 1913—Continued.

Table

J A C K E T UPPER P R E S S E R S .

Month.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ly
ber of weekly age of em­ pay
Week em­
weekly ploy­ roll
No. ploy­
earn­ ees m
in
Fol
ings. each each
ees.
week week
(aver­ (aver­
age- ag e100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

f
I
August___ \
(
f
J
September
1
I
f
October... 1
{
{

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

November \
I
f
December.
1 20
I 21
22
23
January... { 24
25
1 26

7
7
7
1

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
4
5
3
4
2
3
3
3
3
2

$156 $22.29 89.0 99.4
163 23.29 89.0 103.9
166 23.71 89.0 105.8
173 24.71 89.0 11C 3
181 22.63 101.7 115.4
146 18. 25 101.7 93.1
196 24.50 101.7 124. 9
196 24.50 101.7 124.9
206 25. 75 101.7 131.3
221 27.63 101.7 140.9
220 27. 50 101.7 .140.2
199 24.88 101.7 126.9
184 23.00 101.7 117.3
145 18.13 101.7 92.4
104 13.00 101.7 66.3
92 13.14 89.0 58.6
58 14.50 50.9 37.0
72 14.40 63.6 45.9
35 11.67 38.1 22.3
50 12. 50 50.9 31.9
32 16.00 25.4 20.4
30 10.00 38.1 19.1
40 13.33 38.1 25.5
64 21.33 38.1 40.8
61 20.33 38.1 38.9
44 22.00 25.4 28.0

Month.

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­
Aver­ ber
ber of Total
age of em­
Week em­ weekly weekly
ploy­
No.
pay
earn­ ees in
ploy
roll.
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age100
per
cent).

27
28
29
30
31
32
March...
33
34
35
36
April___
37
38
; 39
40
41
42
43
44
45
June___
46
47
48
49
July....... • 50
51
52
Feb ruary ....

Total
Average

2
3
3
3
3
6
12
13
13
12
13
13
13
13
12
12
12
12
12
11
12
11
9
9
10
10
7.9

$49 $24.50 25.4
81 27.00 38.1
70 23.33 38.1
68 22.67 38.1
41 13.67 38.1
72 12.00 76.3
309 25. 75 152.6
365 28.08 165.3
380 29.23 165.3
343 28. 58 152.6
347 26.69 165.3
273 21.00 165.3
291 22.38 165.3
266 20.46 165.3
195 16.25 152.6
200 16.67 152.6
191 15. 92 152.6
143 11.92 152.6
218 18.17 152.6
179 16.27 139.9
196 16.33 152.6
127 11.55 139.9
95 10.56 114.4
124 13.78 114.4
117 11.70 127.1
183 18.30 127.1
8,157
156. 87

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(aver­
age100
per
cent).
31.2
51.6
44.6
43.3
26.1
45.9
197.0
232.7
242.2
218.7
221.2
174.0
185.5
169.6
124.3
127.5
121.8
91.2
139.0
114.1
124.9
81.0
60.6
79.0
74.6
116.7

19.94 100.0

100.0

$96 $19.20 60.9
93 18.60 60.9
96 19.20 60.9
96 19.20 60.9
56 11.20 60.9
78 13.00 73.1
242 22.00 134.0
271 22.58 146.1
276 23.00 146.1
287 22.08 158.3
272 20.92 158.3
215 17.92 146.1
256 19.69 158.3
218 16. 77 158.3
194 14.92 158.3
170 13.08 158.3
148 11.38 158.3
116
8.92 158.3
162 12.46 158.3
132 10.15 158.3
165 12.69 158.3
134 10.31 158.3
87
8.70 121.8
112 12. 44 109.6
108 10.80 121.8
167 12.85 158.3

74.3
72.0
74.3
74.3
43.3
60.4
187.3
209.7
213.6
222.1
210.5
166.4
198.1
168.7
150.1
131.5
114.5
89.8
125.4
102.1
127.7
103.7
67.3
86.7
83.6
129.2

JA C K E T U N D ER P R E S S E R S .
I
August___ I
1
I
f
September

1
2
3
4
5

I
f

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

October... i
I
(
November
1
I
f
December. 1
1
(
f
January... \
1




7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
7
5
5
6
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
5

$117 $16.71
126 18.00
117 16. 71
117 16. 71
126 18.00
100 14.29
139 19.86
138 19. 71
144 20.57
139 19.86
138 19. 71
125 17.86
128 16.00
92 13.14
67 13.40
66 13.20
70 11.67
49 12. 25
49 12.25
46 11.50
44 14.67
48 12.00
52 13.00
69 17.25
76 19.00
91 18.20

85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
85.2
97.4
85.2
60.9
60.9
73.1
48.7
48.7
48.7
36.5
48.7
48.7
48.7
48.7
60.9

90.5
97.5
90.5
90.5
97.5
77.4
107.6
106.8
111.4
107.6
106.8
96.7
99.0
71.2
51.8
51.1
54.2
37.9
37.9
35.6
34.0
37.1
40.2
53.4
58.8
70.4

Feb r u a r y ...

March...

April___

•
.
'
J u n e .... ‘

July....... •
.
Total
Average

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

5
5
5
5
5
6
11
12
12
13
13
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
10
9
10
13
8.2

6, 720
129. 23

15. 74 100.0

100.0

W AGES A N D E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON .

79

2 8 .—N UM BER OF EM PLOYEES AND THEIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A V E R A G E S FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Continued.

Table

S K IR T UPPER P R E S S E R S .

Month.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ly
ber of weekly age of em­ pay
Week em­
weekly ploy­ roll
No.
pay
earn­ ees in in
ploy­ roll.
ings. each each
ees.
week week
(aver- (average=
100
per
per
cent). cent).

Month.

Week
No.

Num­ Total Aver­
ber of weekly age
em­
weekly
pay
earn­
ployroll.
ings.

afe
o<r

$150 $16.67
165 18.33
167 18.56
158 17.56
143 15.89
127 14.11
133 14. 78
156 17. 33
161 17. 89
136 15.11
124 13. 78
151 16. 78
149 16. 56
113 14.13
114 14. 25
103 14. 71
126 14. 00
132 14. 67
106 13.25
114 14. 25
99 14.14
93 15. 50
112 16. 00
123 17.57
124 17. 71
103 17.17

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
74.7
74.7
65.4
84.0
84.0
74.7
74.7
65.4
56.0
65. 4
65.4
65. 4
56.0

81.7
89.9
91.0

$115 $19.17 56.0
116 19.33 56.0
118 19.67 56.0
115 19.17 56.0
89 14.83 56.0
135 11.25 112.0
257 18. 36 130.7
280 20.00 130.7
279 19. 93 130.7
266 19.00 130.7
305 20. 33 140.0
248 16. 53 140.0
296 19. 73 140.0
283 18. 87 140.0
291 19.40 140.0
261 17. 40 140.0
250 17. 86 130.7
226 15. 07 140.0
288 18.00 149. 4
249 15. 56 149.4
307 19.19 149.4
269 16. 81 149.4
233 15. 53 140.0
287 19.13 140.0
294 18.38 149.4
305 19.06 149.4

Feb r uary ....

86.1

77.9
69.2
72.5
85.0
87.7
74.1
67.6
82.3
81.2
61.6
62.1
56.1
68.7
71.9
57.8
62.1
53. 9
50.7
61.0
67.0
67.6
56.1

March...

April___

May..

June___

July..

Total.
Average

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
ber
ly
of em­ pay
ploy­ roll
ees in
in
each each
w
^eek week
(aver- (average= age=
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).

10.7

9.544
183.54

62.7
63.2
64.3
62.7
48.5
73.6
140.0
152.6
152.0
144.9
166.2
135.1
161.3
154. 2
158. 5
142.2
136.2
123.1
156.9
135.7
167.3
146.6
126.9
156.4
160.2
166.2

17.13 100.0

100.0

$71 $14.20 93.9
71 14. 20 93.9
77 15. 40 93.9
77 15. 40 93.9
46
9.20 93.9
82 10.25 150.2
161 16.10 187.7
171 15. 55 206.5
166 15.09 206.5
142 15. 78 169.0
154 17.11 169.0
127 14.11 169.0
145 16.11 169.0
133 14. 78 169.0
124 13. 78 169.0
115 12.78 169.0
119 14. 88 150.2
102 11.33 169.0
128 14. 22 169.0
97 10. 78 169.0
115 12. 78 169.0
87
9. 67 169.0
81 10.13 150.2
100 12. 50 150.2
91 10.11 169.0
102 12. 75 150.2

103.3
103.3

S K IR T UN D ER P R E S S E R S .

August-----

September

f
J
I
I
{
J
1I
[

October... \

1
I

6

7

9
112
1

8

10

[ I4
I 15
November
I 16
(
I
December. i
1
f

1
2

3
4
5

18
19
20
21
22
23
January... \ 24
25
I 26

13
17

3
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5




$33 $11.00
37 12. 33
25 12. 50
26 13.00
20 10. 00
31 10. 33
37 12. 33
26 13.00
26 13.00
15
7. 50
6. 50
13
21 10. 50
24 12.00
16
8.00
8. 50
17
11
5. 50
21 10. 50
21 10. 50
12
6.00
8. 50
17
26 13.00
27 13. 50
46
71
70

9.20
14. 20
14.00

56.3
56.3
37.5
37.5
37.5
56.3
56.3
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5
37.5

48.0
53.8
36.4
37.8
29.1
45.1
53.8
37.8
37.8
21.8
18.9
30.6
34.9
23.3
24.7
16.0
30.6
30.6
17.5
24.7
37.8
39.3

93.9 66.9
93.9 103.3
93.9 101.9

f 27
Feb r u- I 28
ary— i 29
I 30
f 31
J 32
T/fqrnli
V
*
iviciitn...
1 33
I 34
f 35
A M . J 36
April—
1 37
I 38
f 39
40
May....... 1 41
42
[ 43
f 44
j
I 45
June----- i 46
I 47
f 48
49
July
\ 50
51
I 52
Total
Average

5
5
5
5
5
8
10
11
11
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
8
5.3

3,573
68.71

12.90 100.0

112.1
112.1

66.9
119.3
234.3
248.9
241.6
206.7
224.1
184.8
211.0

193.6
180.5
167.4
173.2
148.4
186.3
141.2
167.4
126.6
117.9
145.5
132.4
148.4

100.0

B U L L E T IN

80

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2 8 .—N UM BER OF EM PLOYEES AND THEIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY , 1913—Continued.

T able

PART PRESSERS.

Month.

Per
Per i
cent cent !
of
of i
aver­ aver-!
age
age
num­ week­
Num­
Aver­ ber
ly
ber of Total
age of em­
W eek em­ weekly weekly ploy­ pay
roll
Month.
No.
pay
in
earn­ ees m
ploy­ roll.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver­ (average- age=
100
100 !
per
per !
cent). cent).!
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

August___

September

October...

November

December.

January...

4
4
4
4
4
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
4
5
5
5
4
3
3
2
2
2

$55 $13.75 99.0 122.1
49 12.25 99.0 108.8
51 12. 75 99.0 113.2
41 10.25 99.0 91.0
40 10.00 99.0 88.8
48 12. 00 99.0 106.6
50 10.00 123. 8 111.0
54
9.00 148.6 119.9
73 12.17 148.6 162.1
12.17 148.6 162.1
73
67 11.17 148.6 148.8
70 11.67 148.6 155.4
64 10. 67 148.6 142.1
56 11.20 123.8 124.3
42
8. 40 123.8 93.3
43
8. 60 123.8 95.5
35
8. 75 99.0 77.7
36
7.20 123. 8 79.9
43
8.60 123.8 95.5
49
9. 80 123.8 108.8
36
9.00 99.0 79.9
25
8.33 74.3 55.5
27
9.00 74.3 59.9
19
9.50 49.5 42.2
22 11.00 49.5 48.8
24 12.00 49.5 53.3

:
;
!
;

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Num­
Aver­ ber
ly
Total
Week ber of weekly age of em­ pay
em­
weekly ploy­ roll
No.
pay
earn­ ees in
ploy­
in
roll.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver- (average= age=
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).
2
2
2
2
2
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

f 27
Feb r u- I 28
ary— 1 29
I 30
( 31
I 32
March... i 33
I 34
f 35
J 36
A pril.... i 37
I 38
f 39
40
May....... \ 41
42
{ 43
{ 44
45
June___ i 46

July..

I 47
f 48
49
. \ 50
51
I 52

Total
Average

4.0

$28 $14.00 49.5
30 15.00 49.5
28 14.00 49.5
27 13. 50 49.5
20 10.00 49.5
8. 20 123.8
41
56 14. 00 99.0
57 14. 25 99.0
58 14. 50 99.0
58 14. 50 99.0
59 14. 75 99.0
54 13.50 99.0
55 13. 75 99.0
57 14.25 99.0
48 12.00 99.0
46 11.50 99.0
40 10. 00 99.0
32
8.00 99.0
36
9.00 99.0
33
8.25 99.0
42 10. 50 99.0
41 10.25 99.0
43 10. 75 99.0
54 13. 50 99.0
54 13.50 99.0
53 13.25 99.0
2,342
45.04

62.2
66.6
62.2
59.9
44.4
91.0
124.3
126.6
128.8
128.8
131.0
119.9
122.1
126.6
106.6
102.1
88.8
71.1
79.9
73.3
93.3
91.0
95.5
119.9
119.9
117.7

11.15 100.0

100.0

$39 $13. 00 98.7
41 13. 67 98.7
40 13.33 98.7
44 14. 67 98.7
29
9. 67 98.7
27
9.00 98.7
53 13.25 131.6
70 17. 50 131.6
69 17.25 131.6
66 16. 50 131.6
65 16. 25 131.6
50 12. 50 131.6
47 11.75 131.6
34 11.33 98.7
25 12. 50 65.8
9. 67 98.7
29
25 12. 50 65.8
20 10.00 65.8
25 12. 50 65.8
23 11.50 65.8
25 12. 50 65.8
25 12. 50 65.8
17
8. 50 65.8
25 12. 50 65.8
25 12. 50 65.8
25 12. 50 65.8

106.9
112.4
109.6
120.6
79.5
74.0
145.3
191.9
189.
180.9
178.2
137.1
128.8
93.2
68.5
79.5
68.5
54.8
68.5
63.0
68.5
68.5
46.6
68.5
68.5
68.5

JA C K E T F IN ISH E R S B 2 (M A L E ).

August—

r
J
I
f

i
2
3
4
5

September
1
f
October... \
I
(
November

1
1
(
J
December.
)
I
f
January...
{

?
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
I6
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26




3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

$30 $10. 00 98.7 82.2
42 10. 50 131.6 115.1
44 11.00 131.6 120.6
43 10. 75 131.6 117.9
31
7. 75 131. 6 84.8
36
9.00 131.6 98.7
57 11.40 164. 6 156.2
62 12. 40 164.6 170.0
68 13. 60 164. 6 186.4
63 12. 60 164. 6 172.7
51 12. 75 131.6 139.8
51 12. 75 131.6 139. 8
47 11.75 131.6 128.8
29
9. 67 98.7 79.5
9.33 98.7 76.8
28
8. 67 98.7 71.3
26
20 10.00 65.8 54.8
22 11.00 65.8 60.3
22 11. 00 65. 8 60.3
22 11. 00 65.8 60.3
18
9. 00 65.8 49.3
22 11.00 65.8 60.3
25 12. 50 65.8 68.5
25 12. 50 65. 8 68.5
25 12. 50 65.8 68.5
25 12. 50 65.8 68.5

Feb r uary___

March...

April—

June___

July.......

Total
Average

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3.0

1,897
36. 48

12.01 100.0

100.0

W AGES AN D E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLO AK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON .

81

2 8 .—N UM BER OF EM PLOYEES AND TH EIR EAR N IN G S EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOTS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Continued.

Table

S K IR T F IN ISH E R S A1 (M A L E ).
Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
age of em­
ber of
Week em­ weekly weekly ploy­
No.
earn­ ees in
ploy­ r^lL
ings. each
ees.
week
(average=
100
per
cent).

Month.

[
August—

1

J

2

1
I
f

5

3
4

September
1
f

?
8

9

10

October... 1

11

November J
I
I
[
December.
i
1
f

15

12
I 13
f 14
16
17
18

j 20
1
9

21
22
23
January... \ 24
25
I 26

2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
4
4

$13
14
21
23
20
9
14
18
19
16
17
18
13
15
11
7
9
9
7
8
6
8
20
28
27
26

$6.50
7. 00
7.00
7. 67
6.67
4.50
7.00
9.00
9.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
6.50
7.50
5.50
3.50
4.50
4.50
7.00
4.00
6.00
4.00
6. 67
7. 00
6. 75
6. 50

72.7
72.7
109.1
109.1
109.1
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
36.4
72.7
36.4
72.7
109.1
145.5
145.5
145.5

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(average=
100
per
cent).

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
age of em­
ber of
Week em­ weekly weekly ploy­
No.
earn­ ees in
ploy­
ro¥.
P
ings. each
ees.
week
(average=
100
per
cent).

Month.

68.6
73.9
110.9
121.4
105.6
47.5
73.9
95.0
100.3
84.5
89.7
95.0
68.6
79.2
58.1
37.0
47.5
47.5
37.0
42.2
31.7
42.2
105. 6
147.8
142.5
137.3

f 27
Feb r u- J 28
a r y .... i 29
I 30
( 31
32
March... i 33
1 34
f 35
April— J 36
i 37
I 38
f 39
40
\ 41
42
[ 43
{ 44
1 45
June----- i 46
[ 47
f 48
49
July....... I 50
51
I 52

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
waek
(average=
100
per
cent).

$6.67
6. 67
7.00
7.33
5.17
5.50
9.20
9. 80
9. 80
10.00
8.20
6.75
8. 67
7.00
5. 00
6.50
7.00
3.00
8.50
4. 00
6.00
6.50

109.1
109.1
145.5
218.2
218.2
218.2
181.8
181.8
181.8
181.8
181.8
145.5
109.1
109.1
109.1
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7
72.7

105.6
105.6
147.8
232.3
163.7
174.2
242.8
258.7
258.7
264.0
216.4
142.5
137.3
110.9
79.2

1
1
1

2
1
3

2.00
1.00
3.00

36.4
36.4
36.4

10.6
5.3
15.8

2. 8

Total
Average

5
5
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

$20
20
28
44
31
33
46
49
49
50
41
27
26
21
15
13
14
6
17
8
12
13

985
18. 94

6. 89 100.0

100.0

3
3
4
6
6
6

68.6

73.9
31.7
89.7
42.2
63.4
68.6

S K IR T F IN IS H E R S A 1 (FE M A L E ).
(
J
1
I
f
1
September
I
I
f

August—

1
2

3

4
5
6
7
8
9
!0
October... \ n
12
{ 13
( 14
November
I
f
December. I
1
I
f

1
5
1
6

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
January... \ 24
25
I 26

39
41
40
39
36
34
34
34
37
35
36
38
37
34
33
30
28
25
28
26
25
20
26
34
34
34

$254
286
285
265
214
168
202
241
258
241
226
261
228
183
170
163
123
115
125
154
127
110
170
237
238
233

$6.51 125.4
6.98 131.8
7.13 128.6
6.79 125. 4
5.94 115.8
4.94 109.3
5.94 109.3
7.09 109.3
6.97 119.0
6.89 112.6
6.28 115.8
6.87 122.2
6.16 119.0
5.38 109.3
5.15 106.1
5.43 96.5
4.39. 90.0
4.60 80.4
4.46 90.0
5.92 83.6
5.08 80.4
5.50 64.3
6.54 83.6
6.97 109.3
7.00 109.3
6.85 109.3

127.8
143.9
143.4
i133.3
107.6
84.5
101.6
121.2
129.8
121.2
113.7
131.3
114.7
92.0
85.5
82.0
61.9
57.8
62.9
77.5
63.9
55.3
85.5
119.2
119.7
117.2

f 27
F e b ru- I 28
ary . . . i 29
I 30
f 31
I 32
March...
1 33
i 34
f 35
April___ I 36
1 37
I 38
39
40
{ 41
42
I 43
[ 44
June___ 1 45
| 46
I 47
( 48
49
July....... \ 50
51
I 52

......

Total i
Average I
i

49169°— Bull. 147— 15------ 6




36
37
39
42
40
32
35
37
35
31
36
30
29
30
25
26
25
25
25
24
23
22
17
19
18
22

$266
282
308
315
219
132
265
293
277
236
274
197
202
208
170
169
149
125
166
138
143
97
76
108
111
135

31.1

10,338
198.81

$7.39
7.62
7.90
7.50
5.48
4.13
7.57
7.92
7.91
7.61
7.61
6.57
6.97
6.93
6.80
6.50
5.96
5.00
6.64
5.75
6.22
4.41
4. 47
5.68
6.17
6.14

115.8
119.0
125.4
135.1
128.6
102.9
112.6
119.0
112.6
99.7
115.8
96.5
93.3
96.5
80.4
83.6
80.4
80.4
80.4
77.2
74.0
70.7
54.7
61.1
57.9
70.7

133.8
141.8
154.9
158.4
110.2
66.4
133.3
147.4
139.3
118.7
137.8
99.1
101.6
104.6
85.5
85.0
74.9
62.9
83.5
69.4
71.9
48.8
38.2
54.3
55.8
67.9

6.39 100.0

100.0

82

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2 8 ,—NUM BER OF EM PLOYEES AND THEIR EARNINGS EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y AVER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS. AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1013—Continued.

Table

S K IR T F IN ISH E R S A 2 (F E M A L E ).

Month.

Per
Per
1 cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age ! age
num­ week­
Num­ Total Aver­ ber
ly
ber of weekly age of em­ pay
Week em­
weekly ploy­ roll
No. ploy­ Pay
earn­ ees in in
roll.
ees.
ings. each each
week week
(aver- (aver­
age= age100
100
per
per
?ent). cent).
f

August___

1
(

September

1

2

3
4
5
?
8

I
1 9

iO
11
12
1 13
1
If 14
November ! 15
!) 16
| 17
October...

December.

\

f 1
8
1 1
9

1 20
1 21
f 22
23
January...
24
25
{ 26

14
14
14
15
16
15
15
15
16
14
15
14
13
13
12
11
13
13
12
12
12
12
11
13
13
15

$124
125
135
148
132
100
130
138
151
120
130
129
111
103
106
98
111
106
111
106
98
105
106
122
122
145

$8.86
8.93
9.64
9.87
8. 25
6.67
8.67
9.20
9.44
8.57
8.67
9.21
8.54
7.92
8.83
8.91
8.54
8.15
9.25
8.83
8.17
8. 75
9.64
9.38
9.38
9.67

113.0
113.0
113.0
121.1
129.2
121.1
121.1
121.1
129.2
113. 0
121.1
113.0
105.0
105. 0
96.9
88. 8
105. 0
105. 0
96.9
96. 9
96.9
96.9
88.8
105.0
105.0
121.1

1
107.9
108.8
117.5
128.8
114.9
87.0
113.1
120.1
131.4
104.4
113.1
112.2
96.6
89.6
92.2
85.3
96.6
92.2
96.6
92.2
85.3
91.4
92.2
106.2
106.2
126.2

Month.

i
;
!
;
|
!
1

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
num­
Num­
Aver- ber
Total
ber of weekly
of em­
Week em­
weekly ploy­
No.
pay
earn­ ees m
ploy­
roll.
ees.
ings. each
week
(aver­
age100
per
cent).

( 27
F e b ru28
ary . . . \ 29
30
( 31
32
March... \ 33
I 34
f 35
36
April___ \ 37
( 38
f 39
40
May.......
41
42
1 43
f 44
June___ J 45
46

14
15
16
16
16
16
15
15
13
9
13
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
9
10
9
8
7
8

I 47
f 48
49
July....... { 50
51
I 52
Total
Average

12.4

$142 $10.14 113.0
146
9.73 121.1
155
9.69 129.2
163 10.19 129.2
122
7.63 129.2
120
7.50 129.2
148
9.87 121.1
146
9.73 121.1
9.54 105.0
124
91 10.11 72.7
136 10.46 105.0
88
9.78 72.7
95 10.56 72.7
94 10.44 72.7
97 10.78 72.7
98 10.89 72.7
94 10.44 72.7
90 10.00 72.7
110 11.00 80.7
100 10.00 80.7
95 10.56 72.7
95
9.50 80.7
88
9.78 72.7
74
9.25 64.6
73 10.43 56.5
80 10.00 64.6
5,976
114.92

9.28 100.0

Per
cent
of
aver­
age
week­
ly
pay
roll
in
each
week
(average=
100
per
cent).
123.6
127.0
134.9
141.8
106.2
104.4
128. 8
127.0
107.9
79.2
118.3
76.6
82.7
81.8
84.4
85.3
81.8
78.3
95.7
87.0
82.7
82.7
76.6
64.4
63.5
69.6
100.0

1
J A C K E T F IN IS H E R S B1 (F E M A L E ).
f
1
September

1

2
3

August___

f
1
1

4
5
?
8
9
10

October...

1 11
12
1 13
f 14
1 15
November
16
I 17
18
December. \ I t
I 20

I 21
22

23
January... 1 24
25
I 26




23
23
24
24
24
25
27
25
26
25
25
21
21
17
16
14
11
11
9
8
9

11

17
18

20
21

i $183
i 195
1 187
| 204
178
130
185
217
230
220
214
180
142
100
93
97
56
59
44
47
47
65
108
128
149
182

$7.96
8.48
7.79
8.50
7.42
5.20
6.85
8.68
8.85
8.80
8.56
8.57
6.76
5.88
5.81
6.93
5.09
5.36
4.89
5.88
5.22
5.91
6.35
7.11
7.45
8.67

119.4
I
119.4
124.6
124.6
124.6
129. 7
140.1
129. 7
134.9
129. 7
129. 7
109.0
109.0
88.2
83.0
72.7
57.1
57.1
46.7
41.5
46.7
57.1
88.2
93.4
103.8
109.0

I
;127.3
f 27
!135. 6 1 F ebru- J 28
130.1
ary ...; 1 29
141.9
I 30
123.8
31
90.4
March... J 32
128.7
1 33
150.9
I 34
160.0
f 35
153. 0
J 36
148.8 April___ i 37
125.2
I 38
98.8
39
69.5
40
64.7
< 41
67.5
42
38.9
{ 43
41.0
{ 44
30.6
June___ 1 45
32.7
I 46
32.7
1 47
45.2
48
75.1
49
89.0
July....... \ 50
103.6
51
126.6
jl 52
1
1
j Total *
! Average
I

13
13
16

$184
186
196
187
119
137
206
207
211
208
191
179
174
166
181
158
110
109
129
89
119
61
58
82
85
105

19.3

7,477
143.79

22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
23
22
23
21
21
21
21
19
19
19
17
16

12
10

$8.36
8.45
8.91
8.50
5.41
6.23
8.96
9.00
9.17
9.04
8.68
7.78
8.29
7.90
8.62
7.52
5.79
5.74
6.79
5.24
7.44
5.08
5.80
6.31
6.54
6.56

114.2 128.0
114.2 129.4
114.2 136.3
114.2 130.1
114.2
82.8
114.2
95.3
119.4 143.3
119.4 144.0
119.4 146.7
119.4 144.7
114.2 132.8
119.4 i 124.5
109.0 121.0
109.0 115.4
109.0 125.9
109.0 109.9
98.6
76.5
98.6
75.8
98.6
89.7
88.2
61.9
83.0
82.8
62.3
42.4
51.9
40.3
67.5
57.0
67.5
59.1
83.0
73.0

7. 46 100.0

100.0

W AGES AN D E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BO STON .

83

2 8 .—NU M BER OF EM PLOYEES AND THEIR, EARNINGS EACH W E E K AND PER
CENT OF THE RESPECTIVE W E E K L Y A VER AG ES FOR THE Y E A R , IN ASSOCIATION
SHOPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Concluded.

T able

J A C K E T F IN ISH E R S B 2 (F E M A L E ).

Month.

Num­
ber of
Week em­
No. ploy­
ees.

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
Aver­ ber
ly
Total
age of em­ pay
weekly weekly ploy­ roll
pay
earn­ ees in in
roll.
ings. each each
week week
(aver- (average= age=
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).
$108 $10.80 97.0 95.3
112 11.20 97.0 98.8
132 11.00 116.4 116.5
139 11.58 116. 4 122.7
132 10.15 126.1 116.5
7.71 !135. 8 95.3
108
137 10.54 126.1 120.9
141 10.85 126.1 124.4
156 13.00 !116.4 137.7
145 13.18 |
106. 7 128.0
157 13.08 ;116.4 138.6
131 11.91 106. 7 115.6
132 11.00 116.4 116.5
116 10.55 106. 7 102.4
111 10.09 106. 7 98.0
116 10.55 106. 7 102.4
8.91 106.7 86.5
98
111 11.10 97.0 98.0
89
9.89 87.3 78.5
82 11.71 67.9 72.4
77
8.56 87.3 68.0
91 10.11 87.3 80.0
131 10.92 116.4 115.6
144 12.00 116.4 127.1
142 11.83 116.4 125.3
137 11.42 116.4 120.9

Month.

Num­ Total Aver­
ber of
age
Week em­ weekly weekly
No. ploy­
earn­
nSI
ings.
ees.

)
I
f

1
2 1
3 !
4
5
6

September

I 7
i 9
8
j

October...

\n
12

10

1
f
j
November
1
1
1
December. 1
I
f
January... \
I

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

10
10
12
12
13
14
13
13
12
11
12
11
12
11
11
11
11
10
9
7
9
9
12
12
12
12

$132 $12.00 106.7
132 12.00 106.7
141 12.82 106.7
139 12. 64. 106.7
86
7.82 106.7
8.18 106.7
90
143 13.00 106.7
153 13.91 106.7
157 14. 27 106.7
148 13.45 106.7
149 13.55 106.7
123 11.18 106.7
138 12.55 106.7
130 11.82 106. 7
112 10.18 106.7
112 10.18 106. 7
102
9.27 106.7
88
8.00 106.7
103 10.30 97.0
71 10.14 67.9
64
9.14 67.9
56
8.00 67.9
22
7.33 29.1
31 10.33 29.1
9.25 38.8
37
9.67 58.2
58

r 27
28
29
30
1 31
32
) 33
I 34
( 35
J 36
i 37
I 38
[ 39
40
1 41
42
I 43
f 44
J 45
i 46
( 47
f 48
49
\ 50
51
{ 52

11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
10
7
7
7
3
3
4
6

Total
Average'.........

f
August___

10.3

5,892
113.31

10
10
10
10
10
10
12
13
14
14
13
13
13
12
12
10
10
9
11
11
10
10
3
8
6
9

$50
55
56
56
46
29
64
71
85
81
73
66
66
68
65
51
47
28
48
36
40
28
7
21
17
29

F e b ru- j
ary
March...

April___

May.......

June___

July.......

Per
Per
cent cent
of
of
aver­ aver­
age
age
num­ week­
ber
ly
of em­ pay
ploy­ roll
ees m
in
each each
week week
(aver­ (average- age=
100
100
per
per
cent). cent).
116.5
116.5
124.4
122.7
75.9
79.4
126.2
135.0
138.6
130.6
131.5
108.6
121.8
114.7
98.8
98.8
90.0
77.7
90.9
62.7
56.5
49.4
19.4
27.4
32.7
51.2

10.99 100.0

100.0

$5.00
5.50
5.60
5.60
4.60
2.90
5.33
5.46
6.07
5.79
5.62
5.08
5.08
5.67
5.42
5.10
4.70
3.11
4.36
3.27
4.00
2.80
2.33
2.63
2.83
3.22

115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
115.3
138.4
149.9
161.4
161.4
149.9
149.9
149.9
138.4
138.4
115.3
115.3
103.8
126.8
126.8
115.3
115.3
34.6
92.2
69.2
103.8

120.9
133.0
135.4
135.4
111.3
70.1
154.8
171.7
205.6
195.9
176.6
159.6
159.6
164.5
157.2
123.3
113.7
67.7
116.1
87.1
96.7
67.7
16.9
50.8
41.1
70.1

4.77 100.0

100.0

CL EAN ER S (F E M A L E ).
{
August___ J
I
I

1
2

3
4
5

September
1

?
8
9
10

October... 1

11

12
I 13

1
4

November

December.

1 15
I 16
I 17
18

19
1 20
I 21
f 22
23
January... 1 24
25
I 26

5
6
6
8
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
4
5
6
6
6
5
6
6
7
8
8
8




$24
33
33
35
34
31
32
43
52
51
46
48
47
26
9
19
21
28
26
20
22
29
33
42
40
43

$4.80 57.6 58.0
5.50 69.2 79.8
5.50 69.2 79.8
4.38 92.2 84.7
4.86 80.7 82.2
4.43 80.7 75.0
4.57 80.7 77.4
5.38 92.2 104.0
6.50 92.2 125.8
6.38 92.2 123.3
5.75 92.2 111.3
6.00 92.2 116.1
5.22 103.8 113.7
3.25 92.2 62.9
2.25 46.1 21.8
3.80 57.6 46.0
3.50 69.2 50.8
4.67 69.2 67.7
4.33 69.2 62.9
4.00 57.6 48.4
3.67 69.2 53.2
4.83 69.2 70.1
4.71 80.7 79.8
5.25 92.2 101.6
5.00 92.2 96.7
5.38 92.2 104.0

( 27
F e b ru- J 28
ary . . . i 29
I 30
f

March... J
1
I
f
J
April___ |
I
f
\
(
f
J
June___
]
I
f
July...... i
I
Total
Average

31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

8.7

2,150
41.35

84

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

For purposes of graphic representation of the extent of employ­
ment; as shown in the above table, only the principal occupations
were selected. Whenever possible, substantially similar occupa­
tions were combined into one “ principal” one. Thus, we have only
one chart for cutters, which combined suit, skirt, and trimming
cutters, and one for jacket and skirt upper pressers combined.
The jacket and skirt under pressers could not be combined for two
reasons: (a) The minor fluctuations of each were too widely different
to permit averaging, and (6) no skirt under pressers appeared on any
of the pay rolls during the second week in January. This fact is not
surprising because, although skirt under pressers were found in a
majority of the shops investigated, the bulk of the workers in this
occupation were found working in one establishment, a firm manu­
facturing skirts exclusively. As the work in the establishment of
this firm is highly specialized and greatly subdivided, it might well
have happened that no under pressing of skirts was done during the
second week in January.
The figures upon which the charts (Nos. 11 to 16) showing seasonal
fluctuations of employment in the principal occupations are based
are given in Table 29, which follows. The fluctuations are expressed
in terms of percentages that the specific amount expended during
each of the weeks of the year constitutes with reference to the pay
roll for the specific occupation during the average week of the year;
that is, the total pay roll for the year for each occupation was
divided by 52, the resultant being considered 100 per cent. All of
the amounts of specific weeks of the year were then reduced to a
percentage of this unit. Thus, the movement of employment with
reference to a more or less normal representative point of the year
was obtained.
In any discussion or examination of the charts which are intended
to show seasonal fluctuations of employment one fact must be borne
in mind in order to be subsequently discounted, viz, the occurrence
of a general strike in the industry in Boston during the early part
of March; 1913. As the manufacturers anticipated the approaching
crisis it is apparent that they worked their establishments at top
speed just prior to March of that year. For this reason the curves
of employment show rather early activity during the spring season
of the year under investigation. For the same reason, the length of
the spring season appears to be somewhat greater than usual. It
may be safely asserted that, had the strike not taken place, each of
the curves would have appeared somewhat less violent in its fluctua­
tions during weeks 25 to 40, or from the fourth week in January to
the second in May. Taken as a whole, however, it is believed that
though the strike might have affected the minor fluctuations, it
affected very little the general tendencies of the movement of the




WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

TH E

CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

85

season of the industry. As brought out in many other connections in
this study, and as shown graphically in the charts, the general
seasonal fluctuations of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry in Boston,
where the strike occurred, are surprisingly like those in the same
industry in New York City, where no strike took place.
2 9 .—SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EM PLOYM ENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCUPA­
TIONS IN ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AS SHO W N B Y PER CENT T H A T THE AMOUNT
OF P A Y R O LL EACH W E E K IS OF THE AVERAGE W E E K L Y AMOUNT FOR THE
Y E A R , AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

T able

[In this table cutters represent a combination of suit, skirt, and trimming cutters (10 shops); upper
pressers a combination of jacket and skirt upper pressers (7 shops); and skilled finishers, female, a com­
bination of skirt finishers A2, and jacket finishers B2 (8 shops).]

Month.

Week No. Cutters.

if

August............................................

September......................................

October........................................... ■

November.......................................>

December.......................................•

February........................................ •

March.............................................. >

April................................................<

June.................................................
I
July..................................................-




1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

98.8
100.9
95.5
96.1
97.7
96.3
104.1
101.2
108.0
103.8
101.6
99.9
93.2
84.6
79.6
82.0
75.2
71.9
71.0
79.1
72.1
80.5
81.3
89.7
90.6
112.7
112.7
112.7
110.2
108.7
91.0
84.9
133.1
128.7
128.7
130.5
126.8
110.6
114.0
107.6
105.4
106.0
96.8
98.3
113.7
95.9
108.7
91.2
83.1
104.0
114.4
114.8

Upper
pressers.

89.9
96.4
97.8
97.2
95.2
80.2
96.6
103.4
107.8
104.9
101.1
102.8
97.8
75.8
64.0
57.3
54.1
59.9
41.4
48.2
38.5
36.1
44.7
54.9
54.3
43.2
48.2
57.9
55.2
53.8
38.2
60.8
166.3
189.5
193.6
178.9
191.5
153.1
172.4
161.3
142.8
135.4
129.6
108.4
148. 6
125 . 7
147 . 8
116.3
96.4
120.7
120.7
143.4

Finisher;?, skilled.

Jacket
under
pressers.

Part
pressers.

90.5
97.5
90.5
90.5
97.5
77.4
107.6
106.8
111.4
107.6
106.8
96.7
99.0
71.2
51.8
51.1
54.2
37.9
37.9
35.6
34.0
37.1
40.2
53.4
58.8
70.4
74.3
72.0
74.3
74.3
43.3
60.4
187.3
209.7
213.6
222.1
210.5
166.4
198.1
168.7
150.1
131.5
114.5
89.8
125.4
102.1
127.7
103.7
67.3
86.7
83.6
129.2

122.1
108.8
113.2
91.0
88.8
106.6
111.0
119.9
162.1
162.1
148.8
155.4
142.1
124.3
93.3
95.5
77.7
79.9
95.5
108.8
79.9
55.5
59.9
42.2
48.8
53.3
62.2
66.6
62.2
59.9
44.4
91.0
124.3
126.6
128.8
128.8
131.0
119.9
122.1
126.6
106.6
102.1
88.8
71.1
79.9
73.3
93.3
91.0
95.5
119.9
119.9
117.7

Male.
82.2
115.1
120.6
117.9
84.8
98.7
156.2
170.0
186.4
172.7
139.8
139.8
128. 8
79.5
76.8
71.3
54.8
60.3
60.3
60.3
49.3
60.3
68.5
68. 5
68.5
68.5
106.9
112.4
109.6
120.6
79.5
74.0
145.3
191.9
189.1
180.9
178.2
137.1
128.8
93.2
68.5
79.5
68.5
54.8
68.5
63.0
68.5
68.5
46.6
68.5
68.5
68.5

Female.
101.7
103.8
117.0
125.8
115.7
91.1
117.0
122.2
134.5
116.1
125.8
113.9
106.5
96.0
95.1
93.8
91.6
95.1
87.6
82.4
76.7
85.9
103.8
116.5
115.7
123.6
120.1
121.8
129.7
132.3
91.1
92.0
127.5
131.0
123.1
104.7
124.9
92.5
102.1
98.1
91.6
92.0
85.9
78.0
93.3
74.9
69.7
66.2
48.2
46.0
48.2
60.5

86

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

11.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 10 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS IN BOSTON, AS SHOWN B Y W E EKLY PAY ROLLS,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY. 1913— CUTTERS.

Ch ar t




[Average weekly pay roll for the year = 100.]

W AGES A N D E M P L O Y M E N T IN T H E CLO AK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON .

87

12 — SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OP EMPLOYMENT IN 7 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS IN BOSTON, AS SHOWN BY W E E K LY PAY ROLLS,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—UPPER PRESSERS.

Ch a r t




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.J

88

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

C h a r t 13.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS

OF EMPLOYMENT IN 7 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS IN BOSTON, AS SHOWN B Y W E E K LY PAY ROLLS.
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913-JACKET UNDER PRESSERS.




[Average weekly pay roll for the year = 100.]

WAGES A N D E M P L O Y M E N T IN

TH E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

89

14.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 7 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS IN BOSTON, AS SHOWN BY W E E K LY PAY ROLLS,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—PART PRESSERS.

Chart




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

90

B U L L E T IN OF T IIE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

15.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 8 ASSO­
CIATION SHOPS IN BOSTON, AS SHOWN B Y W E E K LY PAY ROLLS,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913— FINISHERS. SKILLED, MALE.

Chart




[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

TH E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

91

16.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN 8 ASSOCI­
ATION SHOPS IN BOSTON, AS SHOWN BY W E E K LY PAY ROLLS,
AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY. 1913— FINISHERS, SKILLED, FEMALE.

C h art




[Average weekly pay roll for the year-=100.]

92

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The group cutters, as shown in the above table an 1 in Chart 11,
includes cutters of three descriptions, viz, suit cutters, skirt cutters,
and trimming cutters. It shows the least influence of seasonal fluc­
tuations; that is, the major fluctuations are not as violent and pro­
nounced as in other occupations or even the industry at large.
The cutting occupations of Boston have a short busy season in
the fall extending over the last three weeks in Jufy, and, to a certain
extent, 11 weeks in August, September, and October. The highest
point of this season in terms of the average week’s pay roll was 114.8
per cent. The second busy season of the year for cutters begins in
the last week of January, and extends over a period of about four
months. Allowing for the general strike that occurred, as registered
by the sudden drop of the pay roll during the first two weeks in March,
the normal spring season for cutters in the city of Boston is presumed
to be about 20 weeks.
The highest point registered by the cutters’ pay roll during this
year was 133.1 per cent of the average, just about one-third above
the average of the year. This point, had the strike not taken place,
would have been low^er, almost normal. Apparently, the cutters,
unlike their fellow workers in the remainder of the occupations,
enjoy relatively steady employment, a condition rather unusual in the
garment-manufacturing trades.
Generally speaking, the greatest fluctuations in emplo}anent
are found in the pressing occupations. Most of the pressers, in spite
of the relatively high minimum weekly rates received, earn less
money than workers in occupations paying smaller weekly rates.
Few of even the most skilled among them earn $600 per year. The
reason for this, of course, is to be found in the unsteady seasonal
demands for their labor.
A cursory inspection and comparison of the seasonal fluctuations
in employment of cutters and pressers reveal this point. During the
second busy season the highest pay-roll percentage reached by the
cutters was 133.1. For the pressers the highest point was over the
200 mark— to be precise, 222.1 for under pressers of jackets and 193.6
for upper pressers. A comparison of the lowest points shows the
same tendency— that is, for employment in the occupations of pressers
to fall far below the average week. The lowest point reached by the
cutters’ group during the year was 71 per cent of the average, in the
second week in December. The least amount of employment for
pressers occurred during the first week in January, the total earnings
of jacket under pressers during that week having been only one-third
of the average, twice as low as that of the cutters.
The seasonal fluctuations in the employment of part pressers—
chiefly apprentices and learners in the trade— are somewhat different
from the fluctuations in other occupations. For this group of w
rork-




WAGES A X D E M P L O Y M E N T IN TH E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

93

ers the busiest part of the year occurrcd in the fall weeks. The per­
centage of the average pay roil reached during this period was 162.1.
This busy part of the year was rather short— only three or four weeks.
After the third week in October employment began to decline very
rapidly till in the third week in January it reached the lowest point
of the entire year, wiien the pay roll w 42.2 per cent of the average.
^as
With the coming of the third week in March began the spring busy
season of the year, extending to the fourth week in May. The highest
point of this busy season w reached during the third week in April,
ras
the pay roll registering 131 per cent of the average.
The seasonal fluctuations for finishers, skilled, are shown on two
charts, Nos. 15 and 16, for males and females separate^. An interesting
illustration of the law of so-called ‘ ‘economic determinism ’ ’ is afforded
by a comparison of the fluctuations of employment in the same occu­
pation for the males and females. Though the general tendencies
of the season were substantially the same, twT busy seasons each
o
followed by periods of comparative slackness, the women seem to
have had relatively more steady employment than the men. It is
apparent that in laying off this kind of workers, the employers, on
account of the lower rates that they pay to women, prefer to retain
them. The relatively more steady employment of women is
strikingly shown by a compaiison of the lowest and highest points
for each, as follows:
Highest.
Males.................................................................
F emales............................................................

191.9
1 3 4 .6

Lowest.
46. 6
4 6 .0

The more regular nature of employment of the females is thus
readily seen: The highest point of the season is not as high and the
lowest is not as low for females as for the male finishers; that is, the
work of the females is more evenly distributed. Tables of earnings
of various groups of workers, shown elsewhere in this study, confirm
this fact: earnings of female finishers are far more steady than those
of the males.
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN BOSTON AND NEW YORK CITY
PAY ROLLS COMPARED.
The following chart represents seasonal fluctuations in the cloak,
suit, and skirt industries of Boston and New York City during the
period covered by this investigation, based on the per cent which the
amount of each w eekly pay roll for all productive labor was of the
T
average weekly pay roll for the year in 10 Boston shops and 16 shops
in New York City. The New York shops were selected chiefly on




94

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the basis of their size in order to make them comparable with the
shops covered by the Boston investigation.
As can readily be seen, except for the sudden decline of the Boston
pay rolls caused by the general strike of 1913, the fluctuations due
to the seasonal character of the industry are surprisingly alike. If
not for this abnormal occurrence, the last busy season of the year in
Boston would have begun somewhat earlier, almost exactly at the
point when the New York curve of employment begins to rise. The
17.— SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AS SHOWN B Y
W E EKLY PAY ROLLS FOR ALL PRODUCTIVE LABOR IN 10 BOSTON
AND 16 NEW YOR K CITY SHOPS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

C h art

[Average weekly pay roll for the year=100.]

beginning of the decline of this very season would then coincide with
a similar point in the second busy season in New York City, the first
two weeks in March.
SEASONAL DEMAND FOR EMPLOYEES AND OPPORTUNITY
FOR EARNINGS IN ASSOCIATION SHOPS, BY OCCUPA­
TIONS.
In connection with Table 28 and derived therefrom is here pre­
sented Table 30, similar in form to Table 7 for New York City, and
showing for each of the 15 occupations the seasonal demands for
employees, and their possible earnings on the basis of average weekly



W AGES A N D E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U S T R Y ---- BOSTON.

95

earnings and of the full weekly scale. It must be remembered that
this table can be interpreted only as showing possible conditions in
the industry 011 the assumption that the shops reported were operated
as one shop. The method of tabulation employed is similar to that
used in connection with Table. 7, an explanation of which is given on
page 33.
SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AN D POSSIBLE E AR N IN G S AS
SHOW N B Y P A Y -R O L L D A T A T AK EN AS A W H O L E FOR ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y
OCCUPATIONS, AU G U ST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

T able 3 0 .—

[Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; from 7 shops for pressers; from 8 shops for finishers.]
CUTTERS.
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $20.67 and full weekly scale of $24.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a'full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.
Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks............. .
30 to 34 weeks............. .
35 to 39 weeks.
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
T
50 to 52 weeks...............

14
13
13
12
12
12
U
11
10
9

100.0
92.9
92.9
85. 7
85.7
85.7
78.6
78.6
71.4
64.3

Number.

1

7.1

1 |

7.1

!
7.1

1
1
9

7.1
7.1
64.3

14

Total....................

1

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

$186
$207 to 289
310 to 393
413 to 496
517 to 599
620 to 703
723 to 806
827 to 909
930 to 1,013
1,034 to 1,075

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

$216
$240 to 336
360 to 456
480 to 576
600 to 696
720 to 816
840 to 936
960 to 1,056
1,080 to 1,176
1,200 to 1,248

100.0

1
S K IR T C U T T E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $19.20 and full weekly scale of $24.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks.
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
___
35 to 39 weeks.
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks.
50 to 52 weeks...............

10
8
8
8
8
6
5
5
5
5

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
60.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0

2

20.0

2
1

20.0
10.0

5

50.0

10

Total

$173
$192 to 269
288 to 365
384 to 461
480 to 557
576 to 653
672 to 749
768 to 845
864 to 941
960 to 998

$216
$240 to 336
360 to 456
480 to 576
600 to 696
720 to 816
840 to 936
960 to 1,056
1,080 to 1,176
1,200 to 1,248

100.0

T R IM M IN G C U T T E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $16.05 and full weekly scale of $18.]
Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks.
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total....................




13
12
12
11
11
11
10
10
10
8

100.0
92.3
92.3
84.6
84.6
84.6
76.9
76.9
76.9
61.5

1

7.7

1

7.7

1

7.7

2
8

15.4
61.5

13

100.0

$144
$161 to 225
241 to 305
321 to 385
401 to 465
482 to 546
562 to 626
642 to 706
722 to 786
803 to 835

$162
$180 to 252
270 to 342
360 to 432
450 to 522
540 to 612
630 to 702
720 to 792
810 to 882
900 to 936

96

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3 0 . — SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AND POSSIBLE EARN IN G S AS
SHOW N B Y P A Y -R O L L D A T A T A K E N AS A W H O L E FOR ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y
OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913—Continued.

T able

J A C K E T UPPER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $19.94 and full weekly scale of $24.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks..
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks.,
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..

Number.

7.7
7. 7
15.4
7. 7

100.0

92.3
84.6
69.2
61.5
61.5
53.8
30.8
23.1
15.4

7.7
23.1
7.7
7.7
15.4

Total..

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

$179
$199 to 279
299 to 378
399 to 479
499 to 578
598 to 678
698 to 778
798 to 877
897 to 977
997 to 1,037

On basis of
fall weekly
scale.

$216
$240 to 336
360 to 456
480 to 576
600 to 696
720 to 816
840 to 936
960 to 1,056
1,080 to 1,176
1,200 to 1,248

100.0

JA C K E T UND ER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $15.74 and full weekly scale of $19.]

100.0

Up to 9 weeks..
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 w^eeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..

100.0

7.7
23.1
15.4

92.3
69.2
53.8
53.8
46.2
38.5
30.8
30.8

7.7
7.7
7.7

$142
$157 to 220
236 to 299
315 to 378
394 to 456
472 to 535
551 to 614
630 to 693
708 to 771
787 to 818

$171
$190 to 266
285 to 361
380 to 456
475 to 551
570 to 646
665 to 741
760 to 836
855 to 931
950 to 988

13

Total..

S K IR T UPPER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $17.13 and full weekly scale of $22.]
16
15
15
14
9
9
9
8
7
6

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks.
...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total___________

100.0
93.8
93.8
87.5
56.3
56.3
56.3
35 to 39 weeks
50.0
43.8
37.5

6.3
6.3
31.3

1
1
1
6

6.3
6.3
6.3
37.5

16

i

1
1
5

100.0

$154
$171 to 240
257 to 325
343 to 411
428 to 497
514 to 582
600 to 658
685 to 754
771 to 839
857 to 891

$198
$220 to 308
330 to 418
440 to 528
550 to 638
660 to 748
770 to 858
880 to 968
990 to 1,078
1,100 to 1,144

S K IR T UNDER P R E S S E R S .
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $12.90 and full weekly scale of $17.]
Up to 9 weeks..
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..
Total..




11

100.0

81.8
81.8
72.7
45.5
27.3
18.2
18.2
18.2
18.2

2

18.2

1
3
2
1

9.1
27.3
18.2
9.1

2

18.2

11

100.0

$116
$129 to 181
194 to 245
258 to 310
323 to 374
387 to 439
452 to 503
516 to 568
581 to 632
645 to 671

$153
$170 to 238
255 to 323
340 to 408
425 to 493
510 to 578
595 to 663
680 to 748
765 to 833
850 to 884

WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

97

3 0 .—SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AN D POSSIBLE EAR N IN G S AS
SH OW N B Y P A Y -R O L L D A T A T A K E N AS A W H O L E FOR ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y
OCCUPATIONS, AU GUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued,

T able

PART PRESSERS.
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $11.15; no weekly scale.]

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.
Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

6
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2

100.0
83.3
66. 7
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7
33.3
33.3

Number.

1
1

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.
16.7
16.7

2

33.3

I

2

33.3

i

Total...................

l
!
!
!
;

6

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

$100
$112 to 156
167 to 212
223 to 268
279 to 323
335 to 379
390 to 435
446 to 491
502 to 546
558 to 580

100.0

.................... i
J A C K E T F IN IS H E R S B 2 (M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $12.01; no weekly scale.]

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks.
...
3-0 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 w eeks.............
40 to 44 w eeks.............
45 to 49 w eeks.............
50 to 52 w eeks.............

5
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

100.0
80. 0
80.0
60.0
60. 0
60. 0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

1

20.0

1

20.0

1

20.0

2

40.0

5

Total....................

$108
$120 to 168
180 to 228
240 to 288
300 to 348
360 to 408
420 to 468
480 to 528
540 to 588
601 to 625

100.0

j
1

S K IR T F IN IS H E R S A 1 (M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $6.89; no weekly scale.]

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks..............
15 to 19 weeks__
20 to 24 weeks .
25 to 29 weeks
30 to 34 w eeks.............
35 to 39 weeks
40 to 44 weeks
. ..
45 to 49 weeks
50 to 52 weeks

6
4
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
1

Total...................

49169°— Bull. 1 4 7 -1 5 -




100.0
66.7
50.0
50.0
33.3
33.3
33.3
33.3
33.3
16.7

2
1

33.3
16.7

1

16. 7

1
1

16. 7
16.7

6

100. 0

$62
$69 to 96
103 to 131
138 to 165
172 to 200
207 to 234
241 to 269
275 to 303
310 to 338
345 to 358

98

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3 0 .—SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLO YEES AN D POSSIBLE EAR N IN G S AS
SHOW N B Y P A Y -R O L L D A T A T A K E N AS A W H O L E FOR ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y
OCCUPATIONS, AUG UST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913—Continued.

T able

S K IR T F IN IS H E R S A 1 (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $6.39; no weekly scale.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.

Total.

42
37
36
34
34
30
28
25
24
19

Up to 9 weeks.,
10 to 14 weeks..
15 to 19 weeks..
20 to 24 weeks..
25 to 29 weeks..
30 to 34 weeks..
35 to 39 weeks..
40 to 44 weeks..
45 to 49 weeks..
50 to 52 weeks..

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Number.

100.0
88.1
85.7
81.0
81.0
71.4
66.7
59.5
57.1
45.2

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

$58
$64 to 89
96 to 121
128 to 153
160 to 185
192 to 217
224 to 249
256 to 281
288 to 313
320 to 332

11.9
2.4
4.8
9.5
4.8
7.1
2.4
11.9
45.2
42

Total..

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

100.0

S K IR T F IN ISH E R S A 2 (FE M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $9.28; no weekly scale.]
16
15
15
14
13
12
11
9
9
8

100. 0
93.8
93.8
81! 3
75. 0
68.8
56.3
56.3
50.0

Total .

1

6.3

1
1
1
1
2

6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
12.5

1
8

6.3
50.0

16

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 w eeks.............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............

100.0

$84
$93 to 130
139 to 176
186 to 223
232 to 269
278 to 316
325 to 362
371 to 408
418 to 455
464 to 483

JA C K E T F IN IS H E R S B 1 (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $7.46; no weekly scale.]
Up to 9 w eeks ...........
T
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks___ _____
25 to 29 weeks
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total

100.0
85. 2
85.2
81.5
77.8
77. 8
66. 7
59.3
44.4
33.3

...........

4

14.8

1
1

3. 7
3.7

3
2
4
3
9

11.1
7.4
14.8
11.1
33.3

27

27
23
23
22
21
21
18
16
12
9

100.0

$67
$75 to 104
112 to 142
149 to 179
187 to 216
224 to 254
261 to 291
298 to 328
336 to 366
373 to 388

JA C K E T F IN IS H E R S B 2 (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $10.99; no weekly scale.]
Up to 9 weeks
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks
20 to 24 weeks
25 to 29 weeks. . .
30 to 34 weeks.............
35 to 39 weeks
40 to 41 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks . .
50 to 52 weeks...............
Total




14
12
11
11
11
11
11
10
7
4

100.0
85.7
78. 6
78.6
78.6
78. 6
78. 6
71. 4
50.0
28.6

2
1

14.3
7.1

1
3
3
4

7.1
21.4
21.4
28.6

14

100. 0

$99
$110 to 154
165 to 209
220 to 264
2"5 to 319
330 to 374
385 to 429
4^0 to 484
495 to 539
550 to 571

. .

''

. 1.'
1

............

W AGES AN D E M P L O Y M E N T IN T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON .

99

3 0 .—SEASONAL DEM AN D FOR EM PLO YEES AND POSSIBLE EAR N IN G S AS
SHOW N B Y P AY -R O L L D A T A T A K E N AS A W H O L E FOR ASSOCIATION SHOPS, B Y
OCCUPATIONS, AUGU ST, 1912, TO J U L Y , 1913—Concluded.

T able

C L E A N E R S (F E M A L E ).
[Possible earnings based on average weekly earnings of $4.77; no weekly scale.]

Maximum number of
employees required
in each, period.

Employees required for
a full year and addi­
tional employees re­
quired for each speci­
fied shorter period.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Per cent
of total
in period
employing
greatest
number.

Possible earnings per employee
in each group.

Period.
Total.

Up to 9 weeks...............
10 to 14 weeks...............
15 to 19 weeks...............
20 to 24 weeks...............
25 to 29 weeks...............
30 to 34 weeks...............
35 to 39 weeks...............
40 to 44 weeks...............
45 to 49 weeks...............
50 to 52...............
weeks
Total....................

14
11
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
5

100.0
78.6
71.4
71.4
57.1
57.1
57.1
42.9
42.9
35.7

Number.

3
1

21.4
7.1

2

14.3

2

14.3

1
5

7.1
35.7

14

On basis of
average
weekly
earnings.

On basis of
full weekly
scale.

$43
$48 to 67
72 to 91
95 to 114
119 to 138
143 to 162
167 to 186
190 to 210
215 to 234
239 to 248

100.0

The method employed here of showing the seasonal demand for
workers in terms of the highest number required in the week showing
highest number of employees is introduced for two reasons: (a)
To corroborate the results based on the total number found in each
occupation, and (b) because it is a fact borne out by statistics that
even at the busiest point of the season there are to be found unem­
ployed workers. This fact can in no way be charged up to the
seasonal character of the industry; it is due more or less to the
inability of society to adjust the supply exactly to the demand. On
the other hand, the highest number ever required, considering things
as they are, is due entirely to the character of the trade. It is a fact
to be reckoned with in a scientific study of the industry. The indus­
try, seasonal as it is, would surely fail to accomplish its functions
if the required extra workers were not on hand at the proper moment.
The table which follows shows by occupations what per cent of
the highest number of employees worked each classified number of
weeks or more, thus summarizing the seasonal demand for workers
as shown by the pay rolls. For purposes of still clearer analysis
the 15 occupations are combined into four groups, three for males
and one for females. The group of cutters includes suit cutters,
skirt cutters, and trimming cutters. The group of pressers includes
jacket upper and jacket under pressers, skirt upper and skirt under
pressers, and part pressers. The group of finishers, male, includes
jacket finishers, skilled, and skirt finishers, unskilled. For the females,




100

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the group designated as finishers includes every grade of work in the
finishing departments of the shops taken, not excluding cleaners.
3 1 .— SEASONAL DEM AND FOR EM PLOYEES IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS IN
ASSOCIATION SHOPS AS SHOW N B Y PER CENT OF HIGHEST NUMBER REQUIRED
W HO W O R K E D EACH CLASSIFIED NUM BER OF W E E K S OR MORE.

T able

[Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; 7 shops for pressers; 8 shops for finishers.]
Per cent of employees working each classified number of weeks or more.
Occupation.
1 to 9

10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 52

MALE.

Cutters:
100
100
100

92.9
80.0
92.3

92.9
80.0
92.3

85.7
80.0
84.6

85.7
80.0
84.6

85.7
60.0
84.6

78.6
50.0
76.9

78.6
50.0
76.9

71.4
50.0
76.9

64.3
50.0
61.5

Average fo r
group...........

100

89.2

89.2

83.8

83.8

78.4

70.3

70.3

67.6

59.5

Pressers:
Jacket upper___
Jacket under----Skirt, upper-----Skirt under........
Part presser........

100
100
100
100
100

92.3
100.0
93.8
81.8
83.3

84.6
92.3
93.8
81.8
66.7

69.2
69.2
87.5
72.7
66.7

61.5
53.8
56.3
45. 5
66.7

61.5
53.8
56.3
27.3
66.7

53.8
46.2
56.3
18.2
66.7

30.8
38.5
50.0
18.2
66.7

23.1
30.8
43.8
18.2
33.3

15.4
30.8
37.5
18.2
33.3

Average fo r
group............

100

91.5

86.4

74.6

55. 9

52.5

47. 5

39.0

30.5

27.1

Finishers:
Jacket, skilled...
Skirt, unskilled.

100
100

80.0
66.7

80.0
50.0

60.0
50.0

60.0
33.3

60.0
33.3

40.0
33.3

40.0
33.3

40.0
33.3

40.0
16.7

Average fo r
group...........

100

72.7

63.6

54. 5

45. 5

45.5

36.4

36.4

36.4

27.3

Finishers:
Jacket, skilled...
Skirt, skilled___
Jacket, unskilled
Skirt, unskilled.
Cleaners..............

100
100
100
100
100

85.7
93.8
85.2
88.1
78.6

78.6
93.8
85.2
85. 7
71.4

78.6
87.5
81.5
81.0
71.4

78.6
81.3
77.8
81.0
57.1

78.6
75.0
77.8
71.4
57.1

78.6
68.8
66. 7
66.2
57.1

71.4
56.3
59.3
59.5
42.9

50.0
56.3
44.4
57.1
42.9

28.6
50.0
33.3
45.2
35.7

Average fo r
group...........

100

86.7

84.1

80.5

77.0

72.6

67.3

58.4

51.3

39.8

Skirt....................

FEMALE.

As compared with the maximum number required for the shortest
period 59.5 per cent of the cutters in the shops investigated worked
between 50 and 52 weeks. That chances of the pressers for more
or less permanent employment, for 50 to 52 weeks, were less than
one-half as large as those of the cutters, is shown by the fact that
only 27.1 per cent of the maximum number of pressers required
worked 50 to 52 weeks. The male finishers fared only a trifle better
than the pressers; 27.3 per cent of them worked between 50 and 52
weeks.
The table shows that, compared with the maximum number re­
quired, 67.6 per cent of the cutters, 30.5 per cent of the pressers,
and 36.4 per cent of the male finishers worked 45 weeks or more;
39.8 per cent of the females in all of the finishing occupations worked
50 to 52 weeks, and 51.3 per cent of them worked 45 weeks or more.
An interesting side light on existing conditions with reference to
males ami females working in the same or identical occupations is



WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

101

shown by comparing the seasonal demands for male and female
finishers. The female finishers seem to be more steadily employed,
having larger percentages of the respective highest numbers than
the male finishers in each group of weeks.
This phenomenon can be interpreted easily when the average
weekly earnings of males and females in identical occupations are
compared. The average weekly earnings of males and females in
the finishing departments investigated were $12.01 and $10.99 re­
spectively. These figures would tend to show why, when the dull
season appears and help is being laid off, females are more often
retained.
In all male occupations 49.5 per cent of the highest number re­
quired at any time were employed 40 weeks and over during the year
under investigation. The females, generally speaking, seem to have
been more steadily employed; 58.4 per cent of the highest number
ever required worked over 40 weeks. The average for all occupa­
tions was 54.1 per cent; that is, only 54 individuals of every 100
employed during the week employing the highest number were given
an opportunity to work between 40 and 52 weeks. These facts are
brought out in the following table (No. 32), derived from Table 30:
3 2 . — M AXIMUM NUMBER OF W O RK ER S REQUIRED DURING THE BUSIEST
W E E K AND NUMBER AND PER CENT EM PLOYED FOR 40 TO 52 W E E K S, B Y SEX AND
OCCUPATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T able

[Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; from 7 shops for pressers; from 8 shops for finishers.]
[
Workers em­
ployed 40 to
52 weeks.

Occupation.

Maxi­
mum
number
Per cent
required
of maxi­
during
mum
busiest
week of Num­ number
ber. required
the year.
during
busiest
week.

MALE.

Rnit cutters________________
Skirt cutters................................................................................
Trimming cutters.............................................................................................................
Jacket upper pressers.................................................................................................
Jacket under pressers......................................................................................................
Skirt upper pressers........................................................................................................
Skirt under pressers........................................................................................................
Part pressers.....................................................................................................................
Skirt finishers, unskilled................................................................................................
Jacket finishers, skilled___________ _________ ____________________ ____________

11
5
10
4
5
8
2
4
2
2

78. 6
50.0
76.9
30. 8
38.5
50.0
18.2
66.7
33.3
40.0

107

Total...............................

11
10
13
13
13
16
11
6
6
5

53

49.5

42
16
27
14
14

25
9
16
10
6

59. 5
56.3
59.3
71. 4
42.9

113

66

58.4

220

119

54.1

FEMALE.

Skirt finishp.rs. unskilled . _ . _ _
Skirt finishers, skilled
....................................................................................
Jacket finishers, unskilled.............................................................................................
Jacket finishers, skilled.................................................................................................
Cleaners__________________________________________ __________ __________ _____
Total . . . .

........... .

Grand total_______




102

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The following table, based on individual schedules, shows the
number of workers in each specific occupation that were found work­
ing in one or more of the shops investigated during the year, August,
1912, to July, 1913. Of these, 47.6 per cent were females, who were
employed chiefly at basting, skirt and jacket finishing, and cleaning.
3 3 .—NUM BER OF E M PLO YEES W O R K IN G EACH CLASSIFIED NUM BER OF W E E K S
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS ACCORDING TO IN D IV ID U A L SCHEDULES T A K E N IN
ASSOCIATION SHOPS, AUG UST, 1912, TO J U LY , 1913.

T able

[Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; from 7 shops for pressers; from 8 shops for finishers.]

Occupation.

Total
num­
ber
re­
port­
ed.

Number reported as working each classified number of weeks.

1

2

3

4

5
to
9

10
to
14

15
20
to
to
24
19
____ i

25
to
29

30
to
34

40
to
44

1

1

35
to
39

1

2

1

2
1

2
1

1

1

45
to
49

50
to
52

MALE.

Head cutters.................
Regular cutters (suit). Skirt cutters..................
Canvas cutters..............
Trimming cutters........
Apprentice cutters.......
Head pressers...............
Jacket upper pressers..
Jacket under pressers..
Skirt upper pressers . . .
Skirt under pressers.. .
Part pressers.................
Apprentice pressers—
Basters............................
Skirt finishers, Group
A l ................................
Skirt finishers, Group
A2 . . .
.. ..
Jacket finishers, Group

2
20
17
2
15
16
1
19
15
20
14
8
12
1

1
2

2
1

2

1
2

1
1

2

4
1

1
1

1

1

2
4

1

2

1

1

2
1
1
2

2
3

8
4
2
1

1

1

1
1

2
1

8

1

2

1
1

1

1
1
6
3
8
4
3
4

2

1
1

2

1
1
1
1

1

B 2 ................................
Sample finishers...........

7
8

1

1

3

Total....................

187

8

8

10

75

4

2

4

23

1

1

31

3

1

1

2

1
2

2

2
7
5
1
6
2
1
2
4
6
2

2
1

3
1

2

3

20

16

20

31

9

3

3

5

5

11

4

8

10

5

4

3

2

9

4

4

3

2

1

1

1

1

2

6

2

2

7

6

4

4

3
2

3
2

1
8

43

FEMALE.

Basters............................
Skirt finishers, Group
A l ................................
Skirt finishers, Group
A 2 ................................
Jacket finishers, Group
B 1 ................................
Jacket finishers, Group
B 2 ................................
Cleaners..........................

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

2
1

1
3

1
2

5

2
1

1

1

6

5

8

21

11

17

15

6

8

7

14

22

20

14

15

1
1

41

27

37

46

15

11

10

19

30

63

16
24

2

2

Total....................

170

10

Grand total.........

357

18

1

The positions of head cutter and of head presser are of a super­
visory nature, and it is therefore no surprise that all the employees
in these occupations whose records were secured— a total of 3— were
employed steadily during the year, for 50 to 52 weeks.
The actual differences between the occupations of canvas cutter and
of apprentice cutter are rather small. The canvas cutter is in reality
a learner. The apprentice cutter gets his experience through cutting
canvas. Hence these occupations, for purposes of analysis, were
combined.
Out of a total of 18 that were found in the canvas and apprentice
cutter occupations, 12, or two-thirds, worked 24 weeks or less. Only



W AGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN T H E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

103

5 individuals, or about 28 per cent of the total, could be considered
as more or less permanently employed, having worked 40 to 52 weeks.
Of these 5 only 3, or about 16.6 per cent of the total, were permanently
employed during the year.
As in the case of the canvas and apprentice cutters just described,
and substantially for the same reasons, the occupations of apprentice
presser and part presser, for purposes of analysis, were combined.
Of the 20 workers doing part or apprentice pressing three-quarters
worked 29 weeks or less during the year under investigation. Of
these, 5 worked from 40 to 52 weeks and 3 worked between 50 and
52 weeks.
Eight sample finishers, all of them men, were found in the shops
investigated. None of these were employed for more than 29 weeks;
6, or 75 per cent, of all the sample finishers worked 9 weeks or less.1
ACTUAL EARNINGS OF 312 WEEK WORKERS IN THE SHOPS
INVESTIGATED.
The table which follows is based upon schedules of individual
workers found working in one or more of the shops investigated.
The actual number of workers employed in each occupation is inva­
riably larger than the highest number ever required. Even in the
busiest part of the season, though “ manless job s” may exist, there
are also to be found “ jobless men.” As the object of this table was
chiefly to show the opportunities for earnings that workers had in
the shops investigated during the period covered, it was deemed
advisable to figure the percentages in terms of total number employed
in a specific occupation during the year i n s t e a d of taking the highest
number ever required as the base.
As will be shown elsewhere, the actual annual earnings of individ­
uals could not be ascertained for several reasons, chiefly (a) because
not all the shops in Boston were investigated, and (b) because even if all
the Boston shops had been taken, no absolute figures showing annual
earnings of individuals could be obtained for the reason that New
York City, which is the main cloak, suit, and skirt center of the
country, is so near by. It is well known that many garment workers
travel from Boston to New York in search of employment. Some
of these undoubtedly secure employment.
In all, the following table gives information of actual earnings in
the shops investigated of 312 week workers, by sex and occupation.
Before discussing the figures, an explanation is necessary with ref­
erence to the occupation of finishers, male as well as female. There
were found two distinct grades of finishers— finishers, skilled, desig­
i The difference in the total number of workers found in each occupation and the far smaller number
required at the busiest points of the season is apparently due to the fact: (a) That some of the workers in
each occupation are unemployed even at the busiest points of the seasons, and (&) that some might have
been working during the year in shops other than those investigated.




104

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

nated as finishers A2 for skirts and B2 for jackets, and finishers,
unskilled, designated as A l for skirts and B l for jackets. This classi­
fication refers to male as well as to female workers. The unskilled
finishers, whose work consists chiefly in sewing on buttons, hooks, and
eyes, receive a smaller wage than the skilled finishers. The skilled
finishers are engaged in tacking on belts and bottoms on skirts, and
in sewing in the lining in jackets.
PER CENT OF W E E K W O R K E R S (143 MALE AND 169 FEM ALE) IN 15 OCCU­
PATIONS EAR N IN G EACH CLASSIFIED AM OUNT, AS SHOW N B Y IN D IV ID U A L SCHED­
ULES, AUGUST, 1912, TO JULY, 1913.

T a b l e 34=.—

[Each of the 312 individual workers shown in this table had been traced through all of the shops investi­
gated—10 shops for cutters, 7 shops for pressers, and 8 shops for finishers. None of the 312, save 1 female
finisher, worked in more than 1 of the shops investigated. The female finisher mentioned worked in
shop No. 4 from the fourth to the sixteenth week as cleaner and in shop No. 3 as an A l skirt finisher;
total earnings $149.1
MALES.
Per cent earning each classified amount.
Classified amount
of actual earnings.

Jacket
Trim­ upper
Skirt
Suit
ming
cutters. cutters.
press­
cutters.
ers.
31.6

38.9
11.1

Under $100.................
$100 to $199................
$200 to $299................
$300 to $399................
$400 to $499................
$500 to $599................
$600 to $699................
$700 to $799................
$800 to $899
.$900 to $999................
$1 000 and over.........

5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
31.6

16.7
16.7

6.7
6.7

Total................

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of workers.

19

18

15

!
$20. G ! $19.20
7

$16.05

A v e r a g e weekly
earnings..................

10.6
5.3

6.7
13.3

5. 6

6.7

11.1

6. 7
6.7
46.7

Jacket
under
press­
ers.

Skirt
upper
press­
ers.

Skirt
under
press­
ers.
21.4
21.4
28.5
14.3
7.1

25.0

15.0
15.0
40.0

7.1

12.5

6.7
10.5
5.3
42.2
31.6

26.6
26.7
j

Jacket Skirt
finish­ finish­
ers B2. ers A l.

42.9
28.6

37.5
12.5
12.5

i3.3
6.7

!
5.3 |
5.3

50.0
37.5
12.5

28.6

13.3
6.7

15.0
10.0
5.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

15

20

14

8

7

8

$15.74

$17.13

$12. 90

$11.15

$12.01

$6. S9

100.0
19 |
$19.94

Part
press­
ers.

i

FEMALES.
Per cent earning each classified amount.
Classified amount of
actual earnings.

Finishers.
Cleaners.
Skirt Al.

Skirt A 2.

Under $100.....................
43.4
$100 to $199....................
31.6
13.1
$200 to $299....................
$300 to $399....................
11.8
$400 to $499..................
$500 to $599....................
$600 to $699....................
$700 to $799....................
i
$800 to $899...................
i
*900 to $999___________
SI .000 and o v e r ___________ ! _______________________ i ______

j

Jacket Bl.
19.4
12.9
16.2
48.4

34.7
17.4
8.6
4.3
17.4
13.0
4.3

Jacket B2.
18.8
6.3
12.5

73.9
8.7
17.4

43.8
3.2
18.8
I

____ __________

Total....................

100.0 |

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of workers___

76 |

23

31

16

23

$9.28

$7.46

$10.99

$4.77

Average weekly earn­
ings..............................




$6.39

WAGES AND E M P L O Y M E N T IN

TH E CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

105

Considering first the male employees, this table shows that 31.6 per
cent of the suit cutters, 16.7 per cent of the skirt cutters, and 6.7
per cent of the trimming cutters earned $1,000 and over; 66.8 per
cent of the trimming cutters, 52.8 per cent of the suit cutters, and 33.4
per cent of the skirt cutters earned $600 and over. The average
weekly earnings were as follows: Suit cutter, $20.67; skirt cutter,
$19.20; trimming cutter, $16.05.
None of the under pressers were in the group earning $1,000 and
over; only 5.3 per cent of the jacket upper and 5 per cent of the
skirt upper pressers earned $1,000 and over; 42.2 per cent of the
upper pressers of jackets and 40 per cent of the upper pressers of
skirts, 26.7 per cent of the under pressers of jackets, and 14.3 per
cent of the under pressers of skirts earned from $300 to $399. Tho
average weekly earnings of the pressers were: Jacket upper, $19.94;
skirt upper, $17.13; jacket under, $15.74; skirt under, $12.90; part
presser, $11.15.
Male finishers were found in only two branches of the finishing
departments of the eight shops investigated—jacket finishers, skilled,
and skirt finishers, unskilled. Of the jacket finishers, 28.6 per cent
earned from $600 to $699; the remaining men of this group, 71.5
per cent, earned below $200. Of the unskilled male finishers, 87.5
per cent earned under $200; 12.5 per cent of them earned from $300
to $399. The average earnings of the finishers were: Jacket fin­
ishers, skilled, $12.01; skirt finishers, unskilled, $6.89.
None of the female workers were found in the group $700 to $799,
or any of the higher earning groups. Only 18.8 per cent of the
skilled jacket finishers and 4.3 per cent of the skilled skirt finishers
earned from $600 to $699. None of the unskilled finishers on skirts
earned over $399, but 43.8 per cent of skilled jacket finishers earned
$400 to $499. The average earnings of the female w
rorkers were as
follows: Jacket and skirt finishers, skilled, $10.99 and $9.28, respec­
tively; jacket finishers, unskilled, $7.46; skirt finishers, unskilled,
$6.39.
Of the cleaners none earned over $300; 73.9 per cent earned under
$100; 8.7 per cent, from $100 to $199; and 17.4 per cent, from $200
to $299. The average w
reekly earnings were $4.77.
ANNUAL EARNINGS OF WEEK WORKERS.
It is obvious that the key to individual annual earnings, provided
the w
rork be equally distributed, is to be found in the amounts of
money paid out each week for labor of specific occupations. More­
over, the changes in these amounts from week to week register the
amount of employment in the industry at large. Generally speak­
ing, when the busy periods of the year are on the decline, there is
little chance for workers to retain their old positions or to secure
new ones.



106

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Considering the amount expended during the highest week as 100
per cent, the relative part of this percentage that the pay roll of the
average week of the year would constitute might be considered as a
reliable indication of the amount of money that the industry expends
each week of the year for specific labor; this means that, if the work
to be performed be equally distributed among all the workers em­
ployed, the proportion of the average weekly earnings of individ­
uals to their earnings during the busiest week would be the same as the
proportion of the average- pay roll to the pay roll for the busiest week.
Calculating the average weekly earnings per individual on this basis
and multiplying the result bv 52, a fairly close estimate of the annual
earnings of individuals in specific occupations is secured.1
The following table presents such an estimate, the figures being
obtained specifically in the following manner:
In column 2, showing the pay roll of average week in percentage
of highest week, the figures w ere obtained by dividing the amonnt
T
expended for each specific occupation during the busiest week into
the amount expended during the average week of the year. Column
3, showing average individual earnings in the highest week, was
obtained by dividing the total expended for the specific occupation
during the highest week by the number of workers in that occupa­
tion employed during the same week. Column 4, showing individual
earnings in average week of the year, was obtained by multiplying
figures of column 3 by respective figures of column 2. In column
5 the estimated possible annual earnings were obtained by multiply­
ing the figures in column 4 by 52.
T a b le

3 5 .— ESTIM ATED AN N U A L EARNINGS OF W E E K W O R K E R S IN SPECIFIC OCCU­
PATIONS, AUGUST, 1912, TO JU LY, 1913.

[Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; from 7 shops for pressers; from 8 shops for finishers.]

Occupation.

M A LE.
Cutters:
Suit.. ................ .
Skirt...................................................................................................
Trimming.........................................................................................
Pressers:
Jacket upper....................................................................................
Skirt upper.......................................................................................
Jacket under.....................................................................................
Skirt under.......................................................................................
Part............... ....................................................................................
Finishers:
Jacket, skilled..................................................................................
Skirt. unskilled................................................................................
FE M A LE .
Finishers:
Jacket, skilled____
Skirt, skilled.....................................................................................
Jacket, unskilled.............................................................................
Skirt, unskilled................................................................................
Cleaners..............................................................................................

Pay roll Average Individ­
of aver­ individ­ ual earn­
Esti­
age week ual earn­ ings in
mated
in per
average possible
ings in
cent of
week of
annual
highest
highest
entire
earnings.
week.
week.
year.

75.7
60.0
68.8

$22.85
21.80
19. 38

$17.30
13.08
13.33

$900
680
693

41.2
59.7
45.0
40.1
61.6

29.23
19.19
22.07
15. 55
12.17

12.04
12.49
9. 93
6.25
7.49

626
650
516
325
389

52.1
37.9

17.50
10.00

9.12
3. 79

474
197

72.1
70.5
62.5
63.1
48.6

13.65
10.19
8. 85
7.50
6.07

9. 85
7.18
5.53
4. 73
2.95

512
373
288
246
153

1 Similar results will be obtained if the total amount expended annually on specific occupations be di­
vided by the number of workers required during the busiest week.




W AGES AN D E M P L O Y M E N T IN

T H E CLO AK IN D U ST R Y ---- BOSTON.

107

In the foregoing table, column 2 represents the relative unsteadiness
of work in specific occupations. Male unskilled skirt finishers show
the least steady employment, the percentage of the average week
compared with the highest being only 37.9. The suit cutters are the
most steadily employed, the figure for this group being 75.7. Gen­
erally speaking, the pressing occupations afford the least steady
employment. Female finishers seem to have the advantage over
their male competitors in securing steadier employment. This fact
corroborates a statement made elsewhere in this report that in retain­
ing finishers employers, apparently, prefer females because their rates
of pay are lower than those of the men in the same occupations.
The table further shows that workers with lower weekly minimum
rates may earn more money in the course of the year than some of their
fellow workers receiving higher weekly rates. In the city of Boston
the rate of trimming cutters is $18, $6, or 33 per cent less than the
weekly rate of jacket upper pressers, yet the annual earnings of
the trimming cutters were higher than those of the pressers. The
same holds true of skirt upper pressers, their annual income, in spite
of a higher weekly rate, having been less than that of trimming
cutters.
Only in five of the ten occupations in which males were employed
had the workers an opportunity of earning over $600 during the year.
Skirt under and part pressers earned less than $400. Unskilled
female finishers earned less than $300. Cleaners earned only $153.
As these calculations take full cognizance of the seasonal character
of the entire industry, there is very little probability that the esti­
mated possible earnings have been supplemented by earnings in shops
other than those investigated. As the movement of the season for
the same occupations in New York City, appearing elsewhere in this
study, is substantially the same, it is rather improbable that the
workers, at least most of them, laid off in Boston secured employ­
ment in the same industry" in New York City.
COMPARATIVE EARNINGS OF WORKERS IN BOSTON AND
NEW YORK CITY.
Table 36, which follows, brings into comparison the average weekly
earnings of week workers in identical occupations in Boston and New
York City, and in this connection Table 37 is also presented, show­
ing the wage scales in the two cities.




108

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3 6 .—A V E R A G E W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF W E E K W O R K E R S ENGAGED IN ID E N ­
TICAL OCCUPATIONS IN BOSTON AND N E W Y O R K CITY SHOPS, AUGUST, 1912. TO
JU LY, 1913.

T a b le

Average
weekly
earnings in—
Occupation.1

I 90 New
Boston J York
shops.2
City
! shops.

MALE.

Cutters, suit.....................
Cutters, skirt....................
Jacket upper pressers. . .
Jacket under pressers. . .
Skirt upper pressers.......
Skirt under pressers.......
Part pressers....................
Finishers, jacket, skilled

$20.67
19.20
19.94
15.74
17.13
12.90
11.15

12.01

$24.36
20.96
17. 65
14.39
16.39
13.26
12.26
14. 68

10.99
9.28

10.91
9.66

FEM ALE.

Finishers, jacket, skilled
Finishers, skirt, skilled..

1 The designations “ trimming cutter ’ ’ and “ skirt finisher, unskilled/'’ for male occupations, and “ jacket”
and “ skirt finishers, unskilled,’7 for female occupations, as found in Boston, are not to be found in New
York City.
2 Data obtained from 10 shops for cutters; from 7 shops for pressers; from 8 shops for finishers.
T a b le

3 7 .—COMPARISON OF W A G E SCALES PAID TO W E E K W O R K E R S IN IDENTICAL
OCCUPATIONS IN BOSTON AN D N E W Y O R K CITY.
Per cent of excess
in

Rates in—
Occupation.
Boston.

Cutters, suit............................................................................................
Cutters, skirt...........................................................................................
Cutters, trimming..................................................................................
Jacket upper pressers........
Jacket under pressers........ ................................................................
Skirt upper pressers.. .
Skirt under pressers ..............................................................................
Sample jacket makers.
.
Sample skirt makers.............................................................................

$24
24
18
24
19
22
17
24
22

New
York
City.

Boston
New
over N ew York City
York City over Bos­
ton rate.
rate.
4.2

$25
21

14.3

(0
2 21
3 18
19
15
22
22

14.3
5.6
15.8
13.3
9.1
i

iNot reported.
2 Since the signing of the New York City agreement an increase of $2.50 per week has been granted by
the board of arbitration to upper pressers of skirts and jackets.
3 Since the signing of the New York City agreement an increase of $1.50 per week has been granted by
the board of arbitration to under pressers of skirts and jackets.

In five of the male and in one of the female occupations the actual
average weekly earnings were higher in New York City than in Bos­
ton. These occupations were: Suit cutter, skirt cutter, skirt under
presser and part presser, and jacket finisher, skilled— all male— and
skirt finisher, skilled, female. This is rather interesting in view of
the fact that in at least two of these occupations— skirt cutter and
skirt under presser— the minimum weekly rates are higher in Boston
than in New York City. Apparently, the working periods are more
intensive in New York City— that is, the workers, relatively speaking,
are kept busier.




PART II.— OCCUPATIONS IN THE CLOAK, SUIT, AND
SKIRT INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY, WITH PLANS
FOR APPRENTICESHIP FOR CUTTERS AND THE EDU­
CATION OF WORKERS IN THE INDUSTRY
.1
B Y W IL L IA M

T. BAW DEN.

INTRODUCTION.
The traditional necessities of the human being are food, clothing, and
shelter, but for civilized man each of these has been developed into an
elaborate formula. There is even a tendency to apply the term neces­
sity progressively to other items formerly classified as conveniences or
luxuries.
To provide clothing for the human race requires now a minimum of
attention on the part of each individual and the entire time and
energy of many thousands. The making of hats and caps for men and
boys, millinery, boots and shoes, hosiery, gloves^-each of these is an
immense industry in itself, and some of these are subdivided. In the
making of garments, strictly speaking, the following distinct indus­
tries are now to be found, each with its own methods of production,
kinds of raw material, factory organization, and labor problems:
Men’s and boys’ clothing.
Custom tailoring.
Raincoats and waterproof clothing.
Cloaks, suits, and skirts.
Ladies’ tailoring.
1The apprenticeship plan for cutters here given is the result of a request by the board of arbitration
made to Mr. Chas. H. Winslow while carrying out the investigation of wages and regularity of employ­
ment, etc., that an attempt be made to work out an apprenticeship plan for cutters acceptable to both
employers and employees. Conferences for the working out of the plan were thereupon held, consisting
of representatives of employers and employees, and Dr. Walter E. Weyl representing the board of arbi­
tration, Mr. Chas. H. Winslow of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the author of this description of the
plans for apprenticeship for cutters and the education of workers in the industry. The plan here described
is the result of those conferences.
The plan for education of workers in the industry was worked out following the tentative acceptance
by both employers and employees of the apprenticeship plan for cutters upon a further request from the
employers’ association and the unions.




109

110

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Dresses and waists.
Wrappers and kimonos.
Children’s and misses7 garments.
Woolen underwear.
Corsets.
White goods: Muslin underwear and lingerie.
The following report deals with occupations in the cloak, suit, and
skirt industry of Greater New York. It admits of presentation as a
study logically complete in itself, but it is also to be considered as an
integral part of a much larger investigation conducted by the board of
arbitration during the winter of 1913-14.1
It will be found that this report is characterized by certain omissions
and limitations. This is due partly to conditions under which the
work was done and partly to the policy by which it was guided. It
was believed to be more profitable to undertake a limited piece of
work and to attempt to do it thorough^ than to spread a superficial
inquiry over a wider area.
The objects of study in the following pages are: The kinds of proc­
esses engaged in by the workers in this industry and the qualifications
necessary for success in the same; provision made by the industry, as
now organized, for the promotion of the individual from the less skilled
and lower-paid occupations to those of higher grade; the possibility of
so organizing the industry as to make this provision more successfully
and economically, through apprenticeship, industrial education, or
otherwise ; racial and personal characteristics of the individuals em­
ployed. Consideration of wages is only incidental, in view of the
attention given to this subject in another part of the general investi­
gation. No attention is here given to the physical conditions in the
factories, because of the adequate provision made for dealing with this
problem by the joint board of sanitary control.
The methods employed in prosecuting this inquiry are perhaps of
equal interest with the results, hence the description includes sufficient
reference to details to enable others to check up the results and also to
make other investigations whose results might be comparable.
If this study contributes something to the understanding of condi­
tions in the industry and to the improvement of those conditions
through the adoption and perfection of measures for the adequate
training of the worker, it will have served its double purpose.
i The general inquiry into conditions in the industry was under the immediate supervision of one of the
membersof the board, Dr. Walter E. Weyl, who placed its direction in the hands of Mr. Charles H. Winslow,
special agent of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. To the writer of this report was assigned the
problem of analyzing and describing the occupations in the industry and assisting in the development
of plans for apprenticeship.




O CCU PATIO N S IN CLO AK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C IT Y .

Ill

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATIONS.
In order to prepare a description of the kinds of processes carried
on, numerous visits were made to factories and extended conferences
were held with employers and with expert workers in all divisions.
The various groups of occupations were written up and the written
accounts gone over carefully, paragraph by paragraph, by both
employers and employees in many different factories. The state­
ments as here presented, therefore, have received the critical exami­
nation and final approval of numerous individuals who know the
industry from extensive inside acquaintance. At the same time they
represent the personal observations of an outsider.
The first point that impresses the investigator as he examines the
factory methods in this industry is that subdivision of labor has not
been carried to anything approaching the extremes that characterize
many other lines of work. The occupations are much more specialized
even in other branches of garment making, as in men’s clothing, or in
dresses and waists. The number of individuals engaged in monoto­
nous and repetitive processes is very small, if not negligible.
The occupations are conveniently divided into four groups, those
connected w ith:
1. Planning and designing the garment and making the pattern.
2. Cutting the cloth from the pattern.
3. The actual construction of the garment.
4. Pressing.
DESIGNERS.

The first person involved in the process of manufacturing a cloak,
suit, or skirt, is the designer. At the beginning of the season the
first thing that is done is to settle upon a standard or foundation
garment (also called body garment) for each of the various distinct
styles or lines that it is proposed to make. This standard garment
is one made on plain simple lines, and in some cases holds over from
season to season with no substantial changes. The principal qualifi­
cation is that it shall fit and hang properly. The standard garment
is to the work of the designer what the fondant is to the work of
the candy maker, who from one common base is able to produce a
great variety of confections. The accompanying diagram shows the
draft of a pattern for a plain standard jacket (light lines), and the
pattern for a style derived from it (heavy lines). The shaded portions
represent the parts of the vest.
From the pattern for the standard garment the designer has the
sample maker make a model, using for this purpose pressing cloth.
This material gets its name from the use made of it by the presser (who
is described later), who places a piece of it between the hot iron and
the garment on which he is working during the process of pressing.




112

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Pressing cloth is a light weight of unbleached linen duck. Aside
from the uses mentioned, it is sometimes used in making pockets
in trousers in cheap grades of men’s clothing.
The designer places the model made of pressing cloth on a dummy
form and uses it as a basis from which to derive a new style. With a
piece of black crayon lie indicates on the goods the various changes
that will produce the new' garment that he has in mind. By changing
the location of seams, size and shape of lapel, style and position of
pocket or cuff, amount of cutaway, or length, a new" garment is
created. The pressing-cloth model is then taken apart and cut on
DRAFT OF PATTERN FOR PLAIN STANDARD JACKET.

the new" lines as indicated by the black-crayon marks. The separate
pieces are then pressed out, and laid in position on a large sheet of
paper. After making the necessary allowances for seams the exact
shape of each piece that is to enter into the garment is traced on the
paper. The paper is then cut on the lines as drawn, and the several
pieces of paper resulting constitute the pattern for the proposed
new garment. The original pattern is always made in size 36.
A sample cutter cuts out the material for a model or trial garment,
again using the pressing cloth, without lining or interlining, and the
sample maker puts it together. This model is examined very care­




O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

113

fully by the designer to determine whether it fulfills the requirements
in every respect. If necessary, it is ripped apart, alterations are
made, and it is fitted on a dummy figure, until finally it is accepted
as satisfactory. If alterations are made in the model the corre­
sponding alterations are made in the pattern.
The pattern is then sent to the cutting department, where a cutter
(who is described later) cuts out the material for a sample garment,
including the cloth, lining, and interlining. This bundle of material,
together with the necessary trimmings and buttons, is then sent to
the sample maker, a skilled tailor who, working under the immediate
direction of the designer, makes a sample garment.
The different parts of the garment are basted together by hand,
and the partly finished garment is placed on a dummy figure, or a
living model, according to the importance of the work or the grade
of the output, and carefully examined at the different stages in the
process of making. Because of the care with which the work must
be done, and the necessary interruptions for trial and fitting, the
sample maker takes very much longer in the making of this first
garment than is required by the worker in the factory under the
usual methods of production. The sample maker may spend two
or three weeks on a garment that the piece tailor can make in one day.
For this reason, principally, the sample maker is always employed
on a week-wage basis.
In addition to assisting the designer in developing new ideas and
styles by trying on, as indicated, models are also used in the show­
rooms in the display of garments for the inspection of buyers.
It is to be understood that from a single satisfactory standard
pattern, as described, the designer usually develops a number of
variant styles. This is accomplished by designing for use with a
suitable body pattern two or more forms of sleeve, collar, lapel,
pocket, etc., and also by different uses and combinations of trimmings.
Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e D e s i g n e r . — The designer must have an
understanding of the work of all branches of the business and himself
be a skilled mechanic, as otherwise lie could not hope for success in
designing garments that can be manufactured practically and eco­
nomically. Almost all of the designers in the United States, it is said,
began work as boys and learned their trade as tailors and cutters in
Europe. They have come from Germany, Russia, Austria, France,
and Italy, and in many cases have served regular apprenticeships.
Designers range in age from 25 to 45 years.
The designer must make a thorough study of the requirements
of the trade served by his house, as it would be disastrous to produce
a line of goods either too elaborate and high priced or of too low
grade.
49160°— Bull. 147— 15------ 8




114

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The house usually purchases the material and puts up to the
designer the problem of turning out garments that will sell. The
designer is constantly on the lookout for new ideas. Those employed
by the best houses regularly visit Paris and other European cities
in search of the novel and the attractive. Styles which have been
created by high-class custom tailors for exclusive patrons are fre­
quently drawn upon for new ideas by designers who are able to
reproduce from memory, with substantial accuracy, details from
costumes seen in the market, in the hotel lobbies, theaters, cafes, and
elsewhere.
A high degree of skill is sometimes shown by the designer in
planning garments that can be cut out of the goods with a minimum
waste of material. When garments are to be made in large quan­
tities, and when low cost of production per unit is the important
consideration, rather than style, it is necessary that the garments
be capable of being put together by the tailor, or the operator at the
machine, with a minimum of trouble. This means a lower manu­
facturing cost because of the lower piece rate for labor. The one
thing that all manufacturers and designers strive for, however, is
that elusive quality called “ style.” Without this quality a gar­
ment may not bring $10 in the market; with it, another garment,
costing no more for material and labor, may bring $30 to $50.
W a g e s . — The earning capacity of designers varies greatly, of
course, as does their individual ability. The wages paid vary from
$25 per week, or even less, for a beginner who is willing to work and
wishes to gain experience under favorable conditions, to $8,000 or
$10,000 per year in a few exceptional cases. Models earn from $15
to $25 per week.
CUTTERS.
G r a d i n g t h e P a t t e r n s . —The foreman cutter, or head cutter, takes
the pattern which has been, made by the designer, and gives it to
the grader, who grades it to the sizes required by the orders which
are to be filled. This means the making of a set of paper patterns
by reducing and increasing, proportionately, the dimensions of the
original pattern in order to produce patterns for the sizes smaller
and larger than size 36, respectively. To do this work of grading
skillfully requires considerable knowledge of drafting as well as of
the work of the cutter.
D i r e c t i o n C a r d a n d C u t t i n g T i c k e t . — The head cut ter also makes
out the direction card, on which are enumerated all the component
parts of the garment. From orders received the office makes up a
cutting ticket for each lot of garments to be made, and sends it to the
head cutter. The cutting ticket specifies style, sizes, and quanti­
ties of garments to be made. Facsimiles of this card and ticket
follow.




OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK INDUSTRY OF N E W YORK CITY.

115

T rimmings and Combinations. A s soon as a sample is made,
and as a part of the process of making up the estimate, a trimming
girl prepares a list of buttons, hooks, ornaments, etc., that are used.
A calculation slip, facsimile of which is here presented, is prepared
for use in figuring the manufacturing cost of a garment. The trim­
mings are distinguished from the combinations as including items
SAMPLE OF DIRECTION CARD, SHOWING COMPONENT PARTS OF
GARMENT.

CLOTH CARD.
Style No. 2 S 3 3 ..... .
Cutters must Compare their Tickets with Material and Patterns
by the Direction Card.

Shade
S k ir t:

Width 36inch
Fron t o f sk irt 2o63

E st .

_
______2 - pie.ce, 3<xc.k 2 5 1 __________________ _
6

________ F ly

___ r _
__

__ Ja c ke 11^2 -pie c e jFro n t 2 c u ± s ) £ / / f _______

____

-.. ..

gore.

. . ___J___ _________

__________ 1st p a rt o f B ack___2±L£j 2C _ _ ____
*2 ft J
2aoJ

___________ 2 C o lla rs b i a s
*2 S / e e y e s

..Yoke.
______

_________
_____

4 6 / ________________

2 B ia s p ie c e s

6 *

/ S _________

TRIMMING CARD.
_________Style No. ^ 38...
L IN IN G .

ShadeNo._

---- *_ Wldth

F o iL n d a tio n

■C a n va s

4~ strip s

-----E st.

F ron t F a cin g

Co /!4 r

**

,

c Joth f> atfern

. «

"

%Skirt

that are furnished to the operator or tailor ready made. Combina­
tions is a term used to cover all kinds of cloth different from that which
constitutes the main part of the garment (excepting linings and
canvas), as well as trimmings, ribbons, laces, etc., that require the
cutting out of material from patterns. Trimming girls earn from
$4 to $15 per week.



116

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

V e r i f y i n g S p e c i f i c a t i o n s . — The first work of the. cutter is to
take the direction card, cutting ticket; and piece goods supplied by
the stock boy, and verify the number of yards of cloth required as
specified on the direction card. This is done by laying out on the
goods the pattern for size 36. The narrowest piece of goods is selected
for this test in order to avoid any difficulty caused by variation
in width, which may be due to unequal shrinkage or to lack of uni­
formity in the run of the mill. Stock boys earn from $5 to $15

SAMPLE OF CUTTING TICKET, SHOWING STYLE, SIZES, AND QUAN­
TITIES OF GARMENTS TO BE MADE.
F c .b

Date

Date Cut / r e £
Cutter

Style ffo.

f*J

Order No-

2!
4 o c 2

- /£ 3

/2JO

SIZES

S AE S AE S A S S A S S AS S AE S AS S A S
HD HD H D H D HD HD HD H D

643 644 6 4S 646 67o

14

16
18

E MB 3
E AK

»

/
/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

. j*

/

/

/

/

/

2

/

/

/

30
32
34

/

36
38

/
/

40
42
44

/
/
/

46
I

per week. This work frequently leads to a position as cloth buyer,
in charge of the cloth department, paying sometimes as much as $40
to $50 per week.
If the specifications are correct, the work of marking and cutting
proceeds. Suits are usually marked out and cut one size at a time;
but if there is plenty of table room available, two or more sizes may
be marked out at the same time.



O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

117

M a r k e r , L a y i n g U p . — The pattern is marked out on the cloth
with chalk and a piece of goods of the required length is cut off.
This piece of goods with the pattern drawn on it is called the marker.
The cutter then lays up the cloth to a number of thicknesses of this
length, places the marker on top, and cuts all at one time. On
special orders or garments the cloth is frequently, if not generally,
cut one thickness at a time. When garments are made in quantities,

SAMPLE OF CALCULATION SLIP FOR FIGURING MANUFACTURING
COST OF GARMENT.

Number .4-. op Z .
Shade
YDS

6 + 6

MATERIAL

4 -

... Z...

..... ^

/

Cloth .....................
Silk..........................
Satin............. ..........
Velvet.....................

'

PRICE

/o
9?

TOTAL

SO
So

A

3 00
..........

,06

/£

Farm Satin.............
Foundation - :........

.........

2 ..,.

/J
Lining

3

02 .

Button Holes • ___

.

os

Buttons Small........

3

.

,0 3

/

Buttons L arg e^ —
Braiding.................

.

Ornaments.............
/

/&

Lace Wide .............

,

/S

4 Nanow
Gimp Wide..............
• Narrow..........
*
Ribbon Wide...........
“

Narrow........

Fur...........................
Cutting & Pressing

.../
&

So

/.S o

,2 S
2S
2S S. 2S
J 4 -.2 b

and the work is done up to the capacity of the tools used, from 15 to
40 or more thicknesses of cloth may be cut at one time— depending
on the weight and quality of the goods.
T r i m m e r . — After the cloth cutter has finished his work the cutting
ticket is turned over to the trimmer who cuts out the linings and
combinations.



118

B U L LE TIN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

C a n v a s C u t t e r . — While this is being done the canvas cutter is
cutting out the canvas or buckram (or other material used for inter­
lining), which is used for the stiffening in the collar, front, cuffs, etc.
This work is the least skilled of the cutting and it is here that the
beginner usually gets his st art.
A s s o r t e r . — When the garments are cut out in sizes they are sent
to the assorter, who assembles the pieces according to the system
used in the house. In some cases the assembling is done by single
garments, in others by lots. The bundles are then ready for the
foreman tailor. The assorting is usually done by girls, and the
wages paid range from $10 to $15 per week, depending upon the skill
and speed of the individual. It is important that the assorting be
done accurately in order not to get the different garments, sizes, and
styles mixed in the bundles.
With reference to the work of the cutters, it may be said further
that a good trimmer is usually a good cloth cutter, and vice versa, so
that these classes of employees are interchangeable when the require­
ments of the work make it desirable. In some of the large houses,
also, there is more subdivision of labor among the cutters than would
be inferred from the foregoing description. The work of cloth cut­
ting, for example, is sometimes divided so that one man does the
“ laying u p " of the goods, another the “ marking,” while others do
the cutting.
S p e c i a l O r d e r C u t t e r s . — The foreman cutter, when he does not
give his entire time to supervising the work of the cutting shop, some­
times cuts out special orders, though some houses have special order
cutters to take care of this work. A reproduction of a special order
slip is given herewith.
The cutters are in a sense the aristocracy of the industry, earning
higher wages per week than other week workers and possessing
generally greater intelligence and skill. This particular division of
the industry has been Americanized to a greater extent than any
other. Only among the cutters are there to be found any consider­
able number of American-born English-speaking workmen.
T o o l s . — The tools used in the actual work of cutting are: Shears,
which may be used when 2 to 4 thicknesses of cloth are to be cut at
one tim e; the short knife, for cutting from 3 to 4 thicknesses up to
8 or 10; the long knife, for cutting more than 8 or 10 thicknesses;
and the electric machine cutter.
The machine cutter is used where the volume of work and quality
of material are such as to warrant it. The machines cut any number
of thicknesses of cloth up to their capacity, from a pile 1J to 3 inches
thick for those driving rotary knives up to 8 or 9 inches for the
larger sizes of machines with oscillating knives.




119

O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

O w n e r s h i p o p T o o l s . -W ith the exception o f the machine cutters,
the shears and knives used are the property of the worker and mugt
be kept in repair and sharpened by him. The advantage of the

SPEC IAL ORDER SLIP.
Cutter

Date Feb /<?
STYLE........

/ <4

Order

......-........

SHADE.......... 6

JACKET M EASU RE

4

6

.....................

S K ir t M e a s u r e

'3-o Around N e c k ................................................

10-2 Side Under Arm .....................

A to A — Around W aist

'8-9 Across Chest .................................................

7-3 Length of Shoulder .................

B. to B—

10-11 Across Bust .......................................... ..

10-10 Armhole ....................................

V l Around Bust . . . . ; ^

.........................

13 Arm Muscle ..................................

2-2 Around W aist .......................... ..................

14 Around arm below E lb o w ....

4-4 Around Hips ................................ ...............

15

5-6 Length of W aist in front............... ..

wrist

...............................

18-20 Back of Neck to Center B ust...........

18-19 Length of Waist in b a c k ...

18-6

“

18-10

“

"

Front of W aist.

17-21 Shoulder to Elbow .................

u

"

u ' Arm Pit ...............

"

W aist at s id e ...

below Waist .............................. .
C to D Length Fronts
E to F

) “
f <
•
>

37

Left S i < 3 / e
«• , 2 7 J L
Right

21-22 Elbow io W r i s t . . . . . . . ...........

■
“

18-2

“

Hips 6 inches

J. to J-Around Hips 9 inches ...

16-17 Across back .............................

“

“

below W aist...............

Total length front from Neck . . .

10-12 Inside Sleeve . ...........1 7 ....................

back

“

... Whits, peaiLcftz c y g n e-

Remarks

G to H —

“

Back 3 3

,^ 2 e .

/ tn /n
.............£>...

machine cutter is in its rapidity of operation, but a skilled cutter
can also do much better and cleaner work with it than can be done
by hand.




120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

S t a n d a r d D a y ’ s W o r k . — The cutting o u t b y hand of eight suits,
each consisting of coat and skirt, one size at a time, one thickness at
a time, is regarded by expert cutters as a standard day’s work. The
number of suits actually cut out in a day can be greatly increased by
cutting several thicknesses at one time, due allowance being made
for the time required for laying up the cloth.
S c a l e o f W a g e s . — The minimum weekly wages paid to cutters
are as follows:

Head cutters................................................................................................... $30
Graders............................................................................................................. 25
Machine cutters.............................................................................................. 25
Regular cutters, on cloth............................................................................. 25
Lining cutters (trimmers)............................................................................ 25
Canvas cutters................................................................................................ 12
Skirt cutters.................................................................................................... 21
A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . — The cutters have for some time been urging
the reestablishment of an apprenticeship system, in accordance with
which a beginner would serve a definite minimum period and receive
definite training and instruction in the technic of the trade and
ultimately attain a status as skilled mechanic that, under present
conditions, is practically beyond the reach of the ordinary worker.
The industry is greatly in need of a higher level of skill and efficiency
among cutters as a class. The result of an effort to assist in the or­
ganization of a plan to meet this need is to be found in another part
of this study.1
The chief source of supply of cutters for the past 10 or 15 years
has been through such training as the shops have been able to
give. A man would get employment in the cutting room as a helper
or as a canvas cutter and receive sufficient instruction to enable
him to handle the simpler processes. After acquiring a little skill
and confidence (more frequently, and in larger degree, the latter), he
would improve his situation both as to remuneration and kind of
work by applying for work in a new shop, representing that he is
capable of doing such and such kinds of work and asking to be taken
on trial. Even if his efforts do not meet with complete and unquali­
fied success, so that he is perhaps discharged at the end of the week
for which he is hired, he can go to the next shop with this additional
experience and with the claim that he has been employed on this
kind of work. During the busy season, especially, when there is a
strong demand for workers, and individual records are not carefully
scrutinized, the facilities for moving about from shop to shop and
gradually improving in skill and remuneration are fairly abundant.
An unorganized system of this character is, however, manifestly
inefficient and uneconomical in the extreme, and conserves the inter­
ests of neither the worker nor the manufacturer.




1 See page 172.

OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY.

121

TAILORS, LINERS, FINISHERS, OPERATORS, ETC.

Practically all of the workers who are engaged in the processes of
constructing the garment, as distinguished from designing, cutting,
and pressing (and excepting the sample maker, whose work has been
described), are employed on a piece-rate wage basis. They constitute
approximately 80 per cent of the workers in the cloak, suit, and skirt
industry as at present organized.
The desire to confine this study to the lowest possible limits con­
sistent with adequate treatment of the specific problems selected pre­
vents an excursion at this point into the very interesting history of
the struggle connected with the development of week-wage and piecerate wage systems. For references that throw further light on this
question the reader is referred to authorities cited by Webb and
Stowell.1
S h o p C h a i r m a n . —Before proceeding to a discussion of the occu­
pations in this division of the industry, it may be said that the piece­
workers in each shop have a simple form of organization for the purpose
of dealing collectively, rather than individually, with the employer.
This organization provides for a shop chairman and a price committee.
The shop chairman is elected at a regular meeting of the shop force.
There is no designated term of office, and reelection during satisfac­
tory service is the usual thing. The workers in each shop may hold
a meeting at any time at the call of the chairman for the considera­
tion of matters of interest, or at the call of the business agent of the
union to receive communications or instructions. These meetings
are held in the evenings in halls rented for the purpose by the unions,
and assigned in accordance with a booking arrangement which is
under the direction of the complaint clerk in each district.
One of the important functions of the shop chairman is to take
charge of the bundles of cloth which are to be made up into garments,
as they come from the cutting room, and distribute the work to the
employees. This prerogative has been taken over by representa­
tives of the workers in this manner, by mutual understanding with
the employers, in order to minimize the possibility of unfair discrimi­
nation among the workers, which formerly constituted a prolific
source of discontent.
In a shop, for example, a quantity of garments are to be made;
for some of these the tailor is to receive $10 for the labor of making,
for others $7.50, and for others $5. It may be understood, even by
the novice (though it is not easily explained), that the tailor can earn
money faster by working on the $10 garments than on those at $5.
i Webb: History of Trade Unionism; also Seasonal Trades; Longmans, New York.
Stowell: Studies in Trade Unionism in the Custom Tailoring Trade; published by Journeymen Tailors'
Union of America, Bloomington, 111.




122

B U L L E T IN

OF TH E BU REAU OF LABOR STxlTISTICS.

Consequently if, in tlie distribution of the work, one tailor gets only
$10 garments to make, and another only $5 garments, dissatisfaction
is bound to arise. On the other hand, the tailors in a shop are not
all of equal skill, so that a mere arithmetical distribution of all grades
of garments will not satisfy the manufacturer, who insists that the
higher grades of work shall go only to mechanics who are able to do
the work properly.
The manufacturer, therefore, reserves the right to refuse payment
for garments that do not meet the test of inspection for quality of
workmanship; and in this way his interests are taken care of. The
interests of the workers are provided for by this method of super­
vising the distribution of the bundles of work through their own rep­
resentative. If for any reason they are dissatisfied with the way in
which this task is performed, the remedy lies in their own hands—
the election of a new chairman.
For the service thus rendered, the shop chairman is, in many
instances, remunerated by a small weekly assessment levied upon
all the pieceworkers in the shop.
P r i c e C o m m i t t e e . — The shop organization includes also a price
committee, of which the shop chairman is a member. Whenever the
manufacture of a new style is begun, a sample garment is made as
already described, the price committee meets with a representative
of the firm, and a piece price for the labor is agreed upon. The price
thus settled holds for the season. The committee usually consists
of three persons, but in large shops there may be five or more
members.
The psychology of the conference on prices offers an interesting
problem for further study. The manufacturer always names a price
lower than he is willing to pay, and the price committee names a
figure higher than it hopes to receive, and the final compromise is
reached by a process of haggling, and even browbeating, that to an
outsider is somewhat puzzling. W hy it should always be so is not
easy to explain, but no matter how closely similar this garment may
be to one made last season for $9, the price asked now is $13, and
there is only one way apparently of reaching a settlement.
S y s t e m s o f T a i l o r i n g . — Coming now to a description of the occu­
pations, there are two distinct methods of conducting the shops in
which the tailoring work is done. By the first method, the garments
are made by piece tailors, assisted by liners; by the second, the gar­
ments are made by finishers and operators, assisted by liners.
The question as to whether a given, garment shall be made by the
first plan or the second is not decided by a choice as between two
plans equally appropriate, nor by the preference of the manufacturer
for one type of shop organization as compared with the other. The




OCCUPATIONS IN CLO AK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C IT Y .

123

method of making is determined by the character of the garment
itself, and the distinction between those that must be made by the
first method and those that can be made by the second is not easy
of explanation. The difference is partly a matter of quality or
grade of garment, the higher grades requiring the skilled tailor even
on the machine work, and partly a matter of elaborateness of style
and construction. A garment whose construction requires hand
skill beyond a certain rather indefinable point must be made by a
tailor; a garment requiring less skill may be made by a finisher
and an operator; in each case a liner usually assists, as indicated
hereafter.
T a i l o r s a n d L i n e r s . — In this system the bundles of cloth are
distributed to the tailors, who are held responsible for the quality of
the work turned out and who perform all the work of making the
completed garment except the pressing. The work of inserting the
lining and felling the edges, however, requires considerably less skill
than the other processes, so that it is almost a universal practice in
this industry for tailors to employ liners to assist them in this part of
the work. This arrangement is a form of subcontracting, in that the
liners are employed by the tailors and not by the firm.
Much of the lining is done by women, whose quickness and deft­
ness enable them to line a garment in perhaps half the time that
would be required by the tailor. Many of the liners also are super­
annuated tailors and men who are not skilled enough to secure
employment as tailors.
A capable woman will put the linings into 10 garments in a day,
whereas the tailor may be able to complete only 2; consequently
several tailors are required in order to supply one liner with work.
Since no single tailor can provide the liner with enough work to
insure a living w
rage, and since the manufacturer assumes no respon­
sibility in the matter, the position of the liner in the system is always
a precarious one.
W a g e s . — Since the work is paid for at piece rates, the wages of the
tailor vary with his skill, as well as with the seasonal fluctuations of
the industry and the amount and character of the work offered him
to do. With the tailor, as with the cutter and the manufacturer
himself, the question of the duplication of garments affects economy
of production. The manufacturer makes more money if he sells in
large lots; the labor of cutting 6 or 8 garments at once is practi­
cally the same as in cutting one, and the tailor can turn out work
faster and earn more money, other things being equal, by making
10 garments of one style than he can by making 2 of one style, 3
of another, and 5 of another.




124

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Tailors, liners, and finishers usually belong to the same unions.
The average weekly earnings of skilled tailors during the busy season
are reported at $30 to $40.
F i n i s h e r s , O p e r a t o r s , a n d L i n e r s . — In this system the bundles
of cloth go first to the finishers, who baste the different parts of the
garment together. The different pieces of cloth are first basted on
to a foundation of canvas or some kind of interlining and then the
parts are basted together so that the seams can be run. Operators
then sew the seams on power-driven sewing machines, after which
the garments are returned to the finishers. The operator is held
responsible for the machine work on the garment, and the finisher
for the handwork.
Finishers are usually assisted by liners, as is the case with the
tailors in the first system, and in many shops there is a still further
subdivision of labor in the employment of an unskilled group of
workers, usually girls, who pull out basting threads, attach hooks
and eyes, sew oh buttons, rosettes, and other ready-made ornaments
or trimmings.
For the reason that has been suggested in a previous paragraph, the
finisher ordinarily possesses less mechanical skill than the piece
tailor, but more than the liner. The operating of the sewing machine
is not regarded as requiring a high degree of skill, though the demand
varies with the grade of the product and the shop. It is asserted that
an ordinarily intelligent adult can, in three months, master the proc­
esses sufficiently to enable him to earn a living wage as an operator
at the prevailing piece rates, whereas most of the tailors now at work
in the industry began to learn the trade as }^oung boys in the Euro­
pean countries from which they have come.
I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e O p e r a t o r . — In respect to these methods of
manufacture the industry has undergone certain radical changes
during the past 10 to 20 years. Formerly the operator was the most
important factor in the production of the garment. It was customary
for a firm to employ operators only, who in turn hired finishers to
assist them, responsible only to themselves. Gradually, however,
the work of the operator has become relatively less skilled and less
important and that of the finisher more so, until at the present time
the operator is probably entitled to credit for not more than onefourth to one-half of the effort and skill that go into the production
of the garment after it leaves the cutter’s hands.
There is another class of skilled work that is done by the foreman
or the assistant foreman, which includes the locating of belts, laps,
vests, false pockets, etc. These parts are attached to the garment in
their proper places by pins. The finishers then sew them on and
remove the pins.




OCCUPATIONS I X

CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF’ N E W Y O R K CITY .

125

B u t t o n h o l e M a k e r . — The foreman also indicates on each gar­
ment the location of the buttonholes by means of chalk marks, and
the work is done on a machine by a buttonhole maker, wiio comes in
from the outside for this special purpose. The buttonhole maker
usually owns a machine in each of several shops and makes the
rounds from one to the other cleaning up the work that has accu­
mulated for him at each place. Several hundred buttonholes can be
made in the course of a few hours. This work is paid for at an
agreed price per hundred.
Elaborate or fancy buttonholes that can not be made by machine
are made by hand by girls who are paid an agreed price per piece.
B u s h e l e r . — The busheler, or bushelman, in the high-grade shops
is an expert tailor, usually the assistant foreman, whose work it is to
examine the garments after the final pressing to see that the work­
manship is up to the standard and to see that nothing has been
overlooked. If the garment passes this inspection it is sent to the
stock room or to the shipping room. There are shops, however, in
which the busheler is not a skilled tailor, but is assigned to an inferior
grade of work. The busheler, or inspector, on high-grade work
usually has the assistance of a model for trying on garments before
final approval.
D r a p e r G i r l . —A dress is a garment consisting of waist and skirt
fastened together, as distinguished from a suit, which consists of two
pieces, a coat or jacket, and a skirt. In the manufacture of a dress
it is necessary to fasten the waist and skirt together in such a way as
to secure the proper fit and hang of the completed garment in order
that the operator may sew the seams correctly. This work is done
by draper girls, who hang the parts of the garment on a dummy
figure and fasten them together with pins. These girls are also called
pinners and joiners. They earn from $12 to $18 per week, according
to their experience and ability and the grade of the output. Very
little instruction is neccssary in order to make a beginning at pinning
the simpler garments, and progress to more difficult and better-paid
work is largely a matter of experience and individual aptitude.
C l e a n e r . — After the finisher or tailor has completed his work on
a garment it goes to a cleaner, who picks off the loose threads, etc.,
before the garment is sent to the upper presser for the final pressing.
The gii*ls who do this work earn from $6 to $9 per week.
F a c t o r y T i c k e t . — Each garment has a conspicuous label or fac­
tory ticket attached to it, containing a separate coupon for operator,
finisher, and sometimes presser. Each employee who performs any
work upon the garment enters his number in the appropriate blank
space in order that any defect or damage may be traced and also in
order that proper credit may be given for work turned out. Only




126

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

one operator, one presser, and one finisher perform any work upon a
single garment. In some shops a factory ticket without coupons is
used. Following are given samples of these labels or tickets.
SAMPLES OF LABELS OR FACTORY TICKETS, WITH AND WITHOUT
COUPONS.
’M a t c h i n g

Tailor Madt.
Spec. No......... ............No. .32.0.5.0.
Style....... ................................. .

3202

No.
O rder

17143Q

No.
S ize

C loth...................................................................

S iz e ............... ..............................................

Style

3o»2

No.

Operator............................... ...................

F
inisher................. ..........................

vUTTER

REM ARKS:

O p er a to r 2 $

No W ork will be pud for until Checked and Examinee

Finisher N
o
..3205Q...
O'

S;

i.Cohc.n O

Ship . . . . * .......................................................

Index * ............... ....* ...................................

m

joints her ^4-0

Style....................................
P

Cloth...................................

— ,)

3202

N o Work will be paid for until Checked and Examinee}

Operator

No

M a tc h in g !

32050

cd

No.

»)
Cloth...................................

I

O rder

No.

t 7 /< 4 ~

S iz e
S ty le

No.

3

3

-

i 3 o o 2 .

H
it

Cutter

\ S h a p ir o

2
-■CO

O p e r a to r

SKIRTS

2 7

F i n i s h c r

6

No Work will be paid for until Checked and Examined

S k ir t B a s t e r s a n d F i n i s h e r s .— Tailors, operators, and finishers
are divided into two distinct classes, those who work on jackets or
coats, and those who work on skirts. The two kinds of work are




OCCUPATIONS IN CLO AK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C IT Y .

127

quite different in respect to the amount of skill required and, of course,
the number of garments produced in a given time. The work of the
skirt bas ter and skirt finisher is of lower grade, requires less skill, is
lower paid, and is further differentiated from that of the other em­
ployees mentioned by being put upon a week basis. Most of the
tailors and operators are men, while about 50 per cent of the finishers,
as well as skirt basters and skirt finishers, are women and girls.
S a m p l e M a k e r s . — Sample makers are men chosen from among
the more skillful tailors, who work under the immediate direction of
the designer making one original sample garment from each pattern
created. This work is done at week wages while it lasts, after which
the men return to the status of tailors, at piecework.
S a m p l e L i n e r . — The sample liner is a finisher who assists the
sample maker by inserting the linings in the garments upon which
he works. Lining is a distinct division of the work, and, as has been
pointed out, can be performed by cheaper labor in a great many cases.
There are some shops, however, making a high-grade product, where
the lining is regarded as of equal importance with the other processes,
and in such shops the sample maker is not permitted to turn this
work over to an inferior workman.
W a g e s . — Tailors and operators earn from $30 to $40 per week
during the busy season, while finishers earn about $20 per week.
During the time that the tailor works as a sample maker he is paid
from $22 to $30 per week. Skirt basters, on the week basis, are
paid $14 per week, and skirt finishers, $10.
E q u i p m e n t . — According to Paragraph V III of the contract shop
agreement which is in force in a number of establishments, “ The
firm is to furnish to all employees, free of charge, sewing machines
driven by electric power, which are to be in charge of competent
machinists, and all requisites for work, such as needles, cotton, silk,
oil, straps, etc.”

PRESSERS.
P i e c e P r e s s e r s . — As soon as the operator or tailor begins his
work of putting together the various parts of a garment, the assistance
of a presser is required to press out the seams as the work progresses,
and also to press out various parts of the garment as they are com­
pleted, such as sleeves, pockets, collars, cuffs, belts, etc. This is the
work of the part presser, or piece presser, who is the least skilled of
all the pressers.
U n d e r P r e s s e r . — The work is then returned to the operator after
pressing. After the garment has been put together by the operator
it goes to the under presser, who presses out the seams, etc., before
the lining is inserted. This pressing is, of course, done principally
on the inside, or the underside, of the garment. In shops where




128

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

piece pressers are not employed the garment goes from the operator
to the under presser and back again a second time before the com­
pletion of the tailoring work.
U p p e r P r e s s e r . — The final pressing of the finished garment is
done by the upper presser, or up presser, and requires more skill than
any of the preceding pressings. In shops where the cheaper grades
of clothing are manufactured the pressing is depended upon to
produce a considerable proportion of the shaping or molding of the
garments.
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d S c a l e . —Pressers are further divided into
classes according to the garments upon which they work. There are
upper pressers and under pressers for skirts, upper pressers and under
pressers for jackets, for reefers— that is, children’s clothing— and for
dresses— that is, one-piece suits. There are but a very few houses in
this industry making dresses, however; these are made principally
by houses in the dress and waist industry.
The following is a list of the classes into which pressers are divided,
and the minimum weekly wages paid:
Head pressers..............................................................................................
Jacket upper pressers...................................................................... .........
Jacket under pressers................................................................................
Skirt upper pressers...................................................................................
Skirt under pressers...................................................................................
Dress upper pressers..................................................................................
Dress under pressers..................................................................................
Reefer upper pressers................................................................................
Reefer under pressers................................................................................
Piece pressers...................................................................... .......................

$21
21
18
19
15
New.
New.
18
14
13

D i s t r i b u t i o n . — Estimates by union officials and employers place
the proportions of the various classes of pressers employed in the
industry as follows:
Per cent.

Jacket and reefer upper pressers................................................................
Jacket and reefer under pressers................................................................
Skirt upper pressers.......................................................................................
Skirt under pressers.......................................................................................
Part pressers....................................................................................................

42
25
10
20
3

100
A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . — There is no apprenticeship system in this
division of the industry, though employment as a part presser serves
this purpose to a degree. There is practically no control exercised
over the conditions under which an applicant may engage in the
occupation.
Men usually begin as piece pressers, where the least skill is required.
Many individuals have made a start in the small places where cleaning
and pressing work is done. After equipping himself with whatever




OCCU PATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

129

degree of skill is obtainable at this kind, of work, the man applies to
some new shop for employment as an under presser at a time when
the demand for workers is good. In a similar manner he later works
in as an upper presser.
Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r U n i o n M e m b e r s h i p .— There is no general
rule about the length of service necessary for a presser to secure the
higher grades of work and pay. In general, promotion from one
grade to another in the same shop is difficult to secure. When a
presser feels that he has the requisite skill and experience he applies
at a new shop for work at the higher scale. From one to two years
is usually required in order to reach the status of an upper presser.
If a man can secure employment at the regular scale for any grade
he is accepted by the unions for membership.
E x a m i n a t i o n . — Aside from this method of qualifying for member­
ship the unions provide an examination in which they require the
candidate to demonstrate his ability to do the work before admitting
him to membership. One union, Local No. 35, which maintains a
system of sick benefits, requires also that the candidates pass suc­
cessfully the medical examination given by the joint board of sanitary
control.
C o m p a r i s o n o f P r e s s e r s . — The larger number of jacket pressers
required in the industry, as compared with skirt pressers, is explained
partly by the fact that in the manufacture of a suit the pressing of the
j acket usually takes more time than the pressing of the skirt. Roughly
speaking, it may be said that, with workers of equal skill, two skirts
can be pressed in the time required for one jacket. The length of
time varies considerably with the shop and the character of the
output.
In the shops of the high-class manufacturers it is not easy for the
worker to learn new processes, and thus to progress from a lower grade
of work to a higher. On the other hand, there are some shops in
which upper pressers are employed to do the under pressing at the
same scale of wages as the upper pressing, in order to secure the
better quality of workmanship.
E q u i p m e n t . — The necessary equipment is furnished by the em­
ployer, and consists of irons, cloths, sponges, and a variety of ironing
boards and pads. These latter include the principal pressing board,
or buck; the shoulder pad, and breast pad, which are placed on the
buck to assist in the pressing of these parts of the garment; the sleeve
pillow, which is inserted in the sleeve during the pressing; and the
flattener, a block of wood.
The irons are heated by a combination of gas and compressed air,
and in a few shops by electricity.
49169°— Bull. 147— 15-------9




130

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS,

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRESSERS AND CUTTERS.
The most promising point at which to make a more intensive
study of occupations in this industry seemed to be a comparison
between pressers and cutters, for the following reasons:
1. Pressers and cutters are the tw~o largest groups of workers who
are paid on a week-wage basis instead of a piecework basis. Having
this characteristic in common, and being by it differentiated roughly
from the remaining mass of workers, they constitute convenient
units for investigation.
2. Estimates based on the membership records of the unions
place the number of pressers and cutters at 8,000 to 10,000 in each
occupation, out of a total of 50,000 to 60,000 for the cloak, suit,
and skirt industry in Greater New York. It is evident, therefore,
that these two groups taken together constitute a very important
fraction of the total number of workers.
3. The preliminary and more superficial investigation was suffi­
cient to disclose certain distinguishing characteristics which of
themselves invite more careful study. Among these may be men­
tioned the difference between the two groups of workers in the
degree to which they have yielded to influences that may be described
as wAmericanizing.”
4. The preliminary investigation seemed to indicate, further, that
in one of these occupations would be found the most favorable oppor­
tunity for beginning such an analysis as might lead to the formu­
lation of plans for securing greater efficiency, and hence greater
earning capacity, for the workers through appropriate industrial
education or apprenticeship plans. In the case of the cutters, in­
deed, some consideration had been given to the possibility of reviving
in a modified form the apprenticeship system that had been in opera­
tion in the trade in former years. While it is true that an apprentice­
ship system to meet present needs must be radically different from
one that might have served the purpose twenty or more years ago,
still, in a sense, it is a question of restoring an institution that has
fallen into decay quite as much as it is of organizing new machinery
to deal with new conditions.
5. Finally, a very important reason for selecting these two occu­
pations for further intensive study is found in the fact that the
pressers and cutters, more than any other groups in the industry,
have taken the initiative in intelligent and aggressive study of their
own economic and industrial status. The interest of the cutters in a
revival or reorganization of an effective apprenticeship scheme has
been already referred to. The pressers, especially those of Local
No. 35, have inaugurated a comprehensive system of individual card
records that in the course of a few years will yield invaluable data
for the study of the occupation. The records now being compiled




O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

131

include details as to actual weekly and annual earnings under the
conditions of seasonal fluctuations, earning capacity, conditions
relating to the health and efficiency of the individual worker, etc.
The pressers are cooperating with the director of the joint board of
sanitary control, in a careful analysis and study of diseases, and
especially occupational diseases, among their own membership, and
are attempting to develop methods of increasing individual efficiency
through the raising of standards of living, schemes of social insurance,
and the like. Local No. 35 is unique, apparently, among the unions
in having established a tuberculosis benefit fund for members, which
it is using as an argument for demanding physical examination of
candidates for membership.1
It may be appropriate to note in this connection that the joint
board of sanitary control is establishing an industrial clinic for the
purpose of facilitating a more intensive study of occupational diseases
and hygiene in this industry than has been possible hitherto. By
means of a number of instruments which are now being perfected it
is proposed to conduct examinations in the shops, including tests
of blood pressure, rate of respiration, circulation, and other tests,
before work, during working hours, and after the day’s work is
ended. The advantages, to the individual and to society, of such
industrial studies as these can hardly be overestimated.
MOBILITY OF THE WORKERS.2

The first attempt to make an intensive study of cutters and pressers
concerned itself with the problem of the mobility of the workers.
The primary object of the general investigation in the industry was
to ascertain the facts as to the earnings of workers who are paid on a
week-wage basis, as distinguished from those paid on a piece-rate
w'age basis. Examination of factory pay rolls disclosed the names
of large numbers of workers who were employed only a portion of the
time in any single factory. In order to secure complete individual
histories, therefore, it was necessary to piece together the periods of
employment in the different factories concerned.
The attempt to secure the necessary data on wiiich to base this
study did not meet with the success anticipated, but the results are
presented here for what they are worth. When the investigator
visited a factory for the purpose of taking the information from the
pay rolls, he supplied the shop chairman with a quantity of schedules
with the request that he secure from each week worker, in addition
to the necessary identification data, a list of all the shops in which he
had done any work during the year under consideration, August 1,
1912, to August 1, 1913.
1 Third Annual Report, Joint Board of Sanitary Control, in the Cloak, Suit, and Skirt, and Dress and
Waist Industries of Greater New York, December, 1913; 31 Union Square West, New York, N. Y .
2 In the prosecution of this inquiry the writer was assisted by Mr. Boris Emmette.




132

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The obstacles encountered in the carrying out of this plan, which
need not be detailed here, and the pressure of other work, led to its
abandonment after several weeks of effort. Schedules were secured
for 1,429 males and 86 females.
A . — NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALE W O R K E R S EM PLOYED IN EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF SHOPS DURING THE Y E A R AUGUST 1, 1912, TO JULY 31, 1913,
B Y OCCUPATIONS.

T a b le

Males who worked in each specified number of shops during the year.
Number of shops
in which employed
during year.

All occupations.
Num­
ber.

.................

Per
cent.

Pressers.
Num­
ber.

1
2...................................
3...................................
4...................................
5...................................
6
7
......................
8...................................
9

68.30
18. 82
7.28
3.15
1.54
.49
.07
.21
.14

565
157
38
13
2

.....................

976
269
104
45
22
7
1
3
2

Total................

1,429

100.00

775

....................

Per
cent.
72.90
20. 26
4.90
1. 68
.26

Tailors.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

141
29
19
3

72.31
14.87
9.74
1.54

2
1

1.03
.51

Cutters.
Num­
ber.

Finishers.

Per
cent.

246
56.68
82
18. 89
47
10.83
29
6. 68
4.61
20
5 . 1.15
3
2

100.00

195

100.00

100. 00

Per
cent.

24
1

96.00
4.00

25

100.00

.69
.46

431

Num­
ber.

Table A shows the distribution of males according to the number
of shops worked in during the year, from which it appears that 976,
or 68.30 per cent, were employed in one shop only. It is believed
that if all the facts were available the percentage of those working
in one shop only would probably be somewhat diminished, since the
absence of an entry in the appropriate place on the schedule may
mean either that there was nothing to report or that there was unwill­
ingness or inability to give the information. The item on the sched­
ule was a request for the “ names of all other shops in which you have
worked since August 1, 1912.”
Disregarding the small number of finishers, the cutters seem to be
at a disadvantage in the amount of migration experienced as com­
pared with pressers and tailors, for only 56.68 per cent of the cutters
worked in one shop only, as against 72.90 per cent of pressers and
72.31 per cent of tailors. Considering those who were forced to find
work in three or more shops during the year, the differences are even
greater. The figures are: Cutters, 106 out of 434, or 24.42 per cent;
tailors, 25 out of 195, or 12.82 per cent; pressers, 53 out of 775, or
6.84 per cent.




133

OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W l rORK CITY".

B .—N U M BER AN D PER CENT OF FEMALE W O R K ER S EM PLO Y ED IN EACH
SPECIFIED N UM BER OF SHOPS DU R ING T H E Y E A R AUGUST 1, 1912, TO JU LY 1, 1913,
B Y OCCUPATIONS.

T a b le

Females who worked in each specified number of shops during the year.
Number of shops
in which employed
during year.

All occupations. Skirt finishers.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Basters.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Cleaners.
Num­
ber.

Examiners.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

1...................................
2...................................
3...................................

64
21
1

74. 42
24. 42
1.16

50
18
1

72. 46
26.09
1.45

11
3

78. 57
21. 43

2

100

1

100

Total................

86

100.00

69

100.00

14

100.00

2

100

1

100

Table B shows the corresponding figures for the female workers
studied. The facts presented hardly justify comparisons among
the occupations represented in Table B, but the comparison between
males and females, Table A and Table B, seems to be of some signifi­
cance. The male workers move about from shop to shop much more
than the female workers.
The unsatisfactory nature of the data collected by the plan just
referred to led to an effort to secure in a number of individual cases
more complete records. For this purpose a selection was made of
34 cutters and 34 pressers, and a further study undertaken through
personal interviews.
The individuals to be studied were selected at random from several
thousand schedules collected in the course of the wage inquiry. For
convenience only schedules bearing names that were easily traceable
were chosen. Some of the workers were induced to visit the office of
the board of arbitration, and the remainder were interviewed at
union headquarters.
The inquiry was continued until 34 cutters and 34 pressers were
found who could give complete records for the 52 weeks. In no case
was such a record secured without much patient checking and com­
paring. A great deal of difficulty was experienced in recalling names
of employers, and periods and dates of employment, even though
there was apparent willingness to furnish the desired information.
In many cases the workers did not know the meanings of the English
names for the calendar months, and were able to recall experiences
only by connecting them with the month in which some holiday
occurred, or some religious festival or other notable event.
One of the best records, for example, was that of a presser who
produced a record in writing of all his earnings. He gave the names
and addresses of the people for whom he had worked during the year.
Subsequently the records of these firms were secured and comparisons
made. The dates were found to be badly mixed up, and considerable
effort was required to straighten them out.



134

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUKKATJ OF LABOR STATISTICS.
T a b le C — M OBILITY OF 34 CUTTERS A N D 34 PRESSERS DURING ONE Y E A R .

j Number
iof cutters.

Number of shops.

Number
of
pressers.

Number of shops.

Number Number
of
of cutters. pressers.

.-------------------------------------------------------------- (_

12 |

HI

I:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!
3
4
5

i

4

10.................
No report...

1

6

!
I

Total.

7.................................................... 1

Table C shows a marked difference in the amount of moving about
from shop to shop, in favor of the pressers. Twenty-three pressers
worked in only one or two shops during the year, as compared with 9
cutters. But that this tells only a part of the story is evident from a
comparison of the amount of unemployment.
Of the 5 cutters who worked in one shop only, for example, 2
reported 22 weeks each of idleness, and 1 was idle for 6 weeks.
Of the 12 pressers who worked in one shop only, 1 reported 36
weeks of idleness, 2 reported 27 weeks each, and 3 reported 1, 3, and
22 weeks, respectively.
T a b le

D .—

UNEM PLOYM ENT R EPORTED B Y 34 CUTTERS AND 34 PRESSERS.

Number of weeks.

1 to 4 ............................................
5 to 8............................................
9 to 12 ........................................ !
13 to 16........................................ i
17 to 20........................................ :
21 to 24........................................
25 to 28.........................................

Number
of
cutters.
2
i

1
6
t
4

Number
of
pressers.

Number of weeks.

Number Number
of
of
cutters. pressers.
1

2
1
2
3
7
3
3

29 to 32.........................................
33 to 36.........................................
37 to 40.........................................
No report....................................

5

4

Total.................................

34

34

4

7
2

From Table D it appears that for cutters the periods of idleness
range in length from 1 to 32 weeks, one-half of the cases falling in the
groups from 13 to 24 weeks. For pressers the periods range in
length from 1 to 40 weeks, more than half of the cases (20) falling
in the groups from 17 to 32 weeks. From this point of view a con­
siderable part of the apparent advantage in mobility in favor of the
pressers disappears.
T a b le

E.—NUM BER OF PERIODS OF UNEM PLO YM EN T R EPORTED B Y 34 CUTTERS
AND 34 PRESSERS.

Number of periods.

1.....................................................
2....................................................
3
4 ....................................................
5....................................................




Number
of
cutters.

Number
of
pressers.

5
4
16
3
1

6
9
11

Number of periods.

6....................................................
No report....................................
Total.................................

1Number
|
of
1 cutters.
1
!

Number
of
pressers.

5

1
7

34

34

O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

135

A comparison between cutters and pressers in the number of
periods of unemployment reported, Table E, shows little difference
between the occupations.
USE MADE OF PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

Most of the cutters, according to their statements, spent the
periods of unemployment in idleness. One reported that he “ was
helping out his father” ; one was employed at clerical work; three
worked on raincoats; one worked on shirtwaists; three obtained work
as salesmen in retail stores; and one was employed as a traveling
salesman.
Two pressers reported having endeavored to earn a living at “ ped­
dling” while out of employment in this industry; one worked at “ odd
job s” ; two worked for contractors at irregular intervals; one found
employment at pressing at piecework; one worked in a store. The
rest reported having spent the time in idleness. Two of these, when
asked how they managed to live, said that their wives took in
washing.
The fact that 24 cutters and 27 pressers (out of 34 individuals in
each group) reported inability to find employment when thrown out
of their positions in this industry seems to be the most striking con­
tribution of this study. It is impossible to say whether organized
and cooperative effort would provide employment in other industries
for any considerable number of the surplus workers of this industry
during the dull seasons. But so far as this hasty and superficial
glance at the situation shows anything, it is that under existing con­
ditions there is very little of this transfer of activities.
Without question the inquiry described in the preceding pages
should be carried further. If undertaken with more time and more
ample facilities than were available when this work was attempted,
and on a scale sufficiently large to justify the drawing of conclusions
from the findings, such a study would be most fruitful of results.
METHOD USED IN THIS STUDY.

It was decided to make a selection of 100 pressers and 100 cutters,
and to secure from each individual certain significant facts concern­
ing his history. For convenience in recording and handling the
desired data, printed schedules were prepared with blanks to be filled
in. The following form of schedule was used:
I n q u ir y B l a n k : E m p l o y e e s .

1. Name.......................................................................................... Male----- Female___
Home address..........................................................................................................................
3. Place of birth..........................................................................................................................
4. Year of birth...........................................................................................................................

2.




136

B U L L E T IN

OF TH E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Single...................... Married......................
Came to the United States in..................(year).
Member of what union..........................................................................................................
Union card No.................................
Present occupation................................................................................................................
Employed by..........................................................................................................................
Business address.....................................................................................................................
Record of work done:
1912 worked as................................................. at $.......................per week.
1911 worked as................................................. at $ .......................per week.
13. Began to work a t ..............years of age as................................at $ .................per week,
in.................................................................
14. Method of learning trade......................................
(a) Learned from other members of family.................................................................
(b) Served apprenticeship, of about.............. years, in..............................................
(c) Learned in trade or technical school, in................................................................
(d) Worked as helper.................... in..............................................................................

(e)
15. Amount of schooling:
(a) Attended public school about..............years, in..................................................
(b) Attended high school, college, gymnasium , etc., about........years, in.............
(c) Attended private school about..............years, in................................................
(d) Attended evening school about..............years, in...............................................
16. Languages you can speak.....................................................................................................
17. Languages you can read.......................................................................................................
18. Languages you can write......................................................................................................

Since it was known in advance that a considerable number of men
would be found unable to speak English, several assistants were
chosen having speaking knowledge of Yiddish, Russian, or German.
These assistants were chosen from the staff of investigators employed
by the board of arbitration, and were carefully instructed as to the
purpose of the study and the use of the schedule. Care was taken to
secure uniform interpretation of the various matters inquired into,
so far as possible. All of these assistants had had several months’
experience in other phases of the investigation conducted by the
board of arbitration, and hence were thoroughly conversant with the
conditions which it was proposed to study.
The schedules were taken during the month of January, 1914. By
previous arrangement in each case, the officials very kindly reserved
a room, equipped with tables and chairs, at the union headquarters
for the use of the investigators. Each investigator sat at a table,
with a chair at his side for the workman to be interviewed. The
writer of this report was personally assisted by an officer of the union
T
who acted as an interpreter when necessary.
The desired information was secured by individual conferences,
all of the writing on the schedules being done by the investigators.
It was thus possible to pursue any given point by question and
answer until it was reasonably certain, first, that the subject under­
stood the question, and, second, that, the interviewer understood the




OCCU PATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y OR K C ITY .

137

answer. Individuals were admitted to the room one at a time to
each investigator, so that the work proceeded expeditiously and
without interruption. On the other hand, it was possible to take
as much time for each individual case as was deemed necessary.
The basis of selection is, of course, a very important matter when
a study of several thousand men is undertaken through a scrutiny
of 100 individuals. It is believed that the conditions under which
this work was done insure a random and fairly representative
sampling. These conditions may be outlined as follows:
1. The workers were sought at their union headquarters where
they are accustomed to congregate.
2. The days of the week and the hours for the visits were chosen,
after inquiry, so as to coincide with the expected presence of the
largest possible numbers.
3. No attempt at selection from those who presented themselves
was made. On each occasion the interviewing proceeded until there
were no more men left, or, on the last day, until the required number
of schedules had been secured. In each occupation 110 schedules
were secured, and from these there were selected later the 200
schedules containing the most complete records, the fewest errors,
omissions, etc.
4. Although appointments were made beforehand with the officers
of the unions, the men themselves were not notified and had no
knowledge in advance of what was being undertaken.
5. It might be objected that the individuals interviewed did not
constitute a representative sampling on the ground that, being found
at union headquarters during working hours, they probably included
too large a proportion of those who were out of work because of
inefficiency, unwillingness to work, or some other characteristic
that would tend to rate them far below the standard of the whole
group on certain of the points tested. It is believed that this objec­
tion is met satisfactorily by pointing out, in addition to what has
been said above, that the month of January, during which the inquiry
was made, marks the lower limit of one of the semiannual dull seasons
characteristic of this industry. It has been estimated that during
the month in question not more than 10 to 15 per cent of the pressers
and cutters in the industry were employed. It can be maintained,
therefore, that the unemployed at that time included representatives
of all classes and degrees of efficiency, inefficiency, etc., and that it is
reasonable to assume that groups found in union headquarters would
be fairly representative of the occupation. This assumption appears
the more tenable when it is explained that both occupations under
consideration are practically 100 per cent organized in this industry
in this city.




138

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Such, comparisons as may be instituted between pressers and
cutters on the basis of the data presented herein are of course sub­
ject to qualification on account of the small number studied, and no
proof is offered to show that a study of all individuals in these occu­
pations would confirm the conclusions reached. On the other hand,
it is believed that under the method of selection adopted the data
obtained are typical and fairly represent conditions among pressers
and cutters in New York City.
INDIVIDUAL RECORDS OF PRESSERS.

The following individual records will serve to indicate the character
of the data secured and the way in which it was recorded, and will
give an insight into certain features of the study supplementary to the
statistical presentation. Entries that would lead to the identification
of the individual have been eliminated, but otherwise the statements
are transcribed from the original schedules with no substantial
changes.
It should be noted that the conditions under which this investiga­
tion was made rendered it impracticable to refine the data relating to
age, number of years in the United States, age at entering the industry,
and number of years in the industry. No effort was made to ascertain
the month and day of month of the events referred to. In order to
secure comparable results in the tabulation, however, the schedules
were all carefully edited, and the years given as “ 3-ear of birth,”
7
‘ ‘ year of arrival in United States,” etc., were uniformly subtracted
from 1913, and the results noted on the schedules. The amount of
labor in the actual tabulation was thus measurably reduced, as well as
opportunities for errors, and the work of checking the tables was
greatly facilitated.
By this method an unascertained fraction of a year is neglected
in practically every case, but it is believed that the results secured
are sufficiently valid and significant to justify the method by the
enormous saving in time.
Concerning the thirteenth item 011 the schedule (p. 136), it should be
said that the age at which the individual “ began to w ork” was inter­
preted to mean the age at which he “ entered this industry” as a
cutter or presser, or as a learner or apprentice in one of these specific
occupations. In the inquiry concerning the method of learning the
trade, “ apprenticeship ” was interpreted somewhat narrowly to mean
a formal, definitely organized plan of learning and teaching a trade,
involving a contractual relation with mutual obligations. In this
sense, as noted elsewhere, there is no apprenticeship system in either
of these occupations at the present time, but it was expected that a
few at least of the older men would report apprenticeship as a stage
in their earlier histories. As may be seen by reference to the tables,




O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K CITY .

139

the great mass of the workeis studied learned their trades by picking
up the requisite skill “ in the shop,”
All of the information given was recorded upon the unsupported
testimony of the individuals interviewed, and is dependent for its
accuracy upon the efficiency of individual memories, perhaps upon
individual willingness to give accurate information, and perhaps upon
other factors. These factors should be taken into consideration in
weighing the statements concerning schooling, and especially concern­
ing facility in the use of language.
It should be explained that during the summer of 1910 the industry
was completely paralyzed by a strike lasting about two months. After
the settlement of the strike, in September, practically every indi­
vidual in the 200 studied was earning more than before the strike.
In the case of the pressers, wages were raised in October, 1913, when
the board of arbitration awarded certain increases, but these latter
increases are not included in the tabulations.
P r e s s e r N o . 1.— Born in Russian Poland, in 1877; married; 3
children; came to United States in 1910, and entered the industry
within a year, at the age of 33; in Russia was a bookkeeper; came to
New York after the strike in 1910, learned the trade by working
as a helper in a shop where he worked for 6 weeks as a learner without
wages; at the end of his first year he was earning $18 per week,
and during the last two years he was making $19; attended gymna­
sium in Russia about 3 years, also a commercial school on Sun­
days for 3 years while engaged in business; speaks Yiddish, German,
Russian, Polish, and “ a little” English and French; reads and writes
the same languages, and also reads Hebrew.
P r e s s e r N o . 2.— Born in Russian Poland, in 1883; single; came
to United States in 1910; 3 years in United States, and 3 years in the
industry; in Russia was a wood turner for 17 years; worked in
London, England, for a few weeks learning to press before coming to
New York; entered the industry at 27 years of age, in London, as
a piece presser, earning $1 per week; in New York he secured work
as a piece presser at $13 per week, and before the end of his first year
was an under presser and piece presser at $16; during his second year
he made $16, and the third year, $18; attended a Yiddish school in
Russia for about 5 years; speaks Yiddish, Polish, Russian, German;
reads and writes Yiddish, Polish, Russian.
P r e s s e r N o . 3.— Born in Russia, in 1887; single; came to United
States in 1907; worked at common labor in Newark, N. J., for several
weeks, in New York as a painter for several weeks, and as operator of
a street photographing machine for several months; about one year
after arrival in the United States, at 21 years of age, entered the
industry; learned the trade in the shop, beginning as a piece presser;
worked two weeks for nothing as a learner, then 3 weeks at $3, then a




140

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

few weeks at $3.50, then a few months at $5, and by the end of his
first year had worked up to $8 as an upper presser on skirts; in 1910 he
was making $10, which was increased to $16 after the strike; during
1911 he was out of work, except about 3 months while he was with a
circus; during 1912 he worked as a reefer upper presser at $14, and in
1913 as a jacket under presser at $18; was a railroad porter and clerk
in Russia; attended a Yiddish private school in Russia for about 6
years, and evening school in New York for one year studying English;
speaks, reads, and writes Russian, Yiddish, and “ a little” English.
P r e s s e r N o . 4.— Born in Russia, in 1878; married; 2 children;
worked in an envelope factory in Russia; came to the United States in
1905; in New York worked about 6 months as a waiter and dishwasher
in a restaurant, and about a year in an iron works; after about 2 years
in New York, entered the industry at 29 }rears of age, learning the trade
in the shop; began as an under presser, working for 5 weeks at $4,
and then for 2 years at $7; in 1910 he made $9 as under presser, but
after the strike made $15 as piece presser; since 1911, under presser
at $18; in Russia attended public school about 3 years, and Yiddish
private school about 5 years; speaks, reads, and writes Russian,
Yiddish, Hebrew, and “ a little” English.
P r e s s e r N o . 5.— Born in Roumania, in 1861; married; 4 children;
had a small business of his own in Roumania; came to United States
in 1902 and entered the industry at once, at 41 years of age; began as
piece presser, working 2 weeks for nothing, then for 3 months at $3
per week, then at $7; for 2 years worked at $9; by 1910 was making
$12 and $13 per week, and since the strike $19 as skirt upper presser;
learned the trade in the shop from other workers; attended public
school about 5 years in Roumania; speaks, reads, and writes Rou­
manian and Yiddish.
P r e s s e r N o . 6.— Born in Russia, in 1874; married; 5 children; was
a shoemaker in Russia; came to United States in 1904, where he was a
peddler with a pushcart for about a year and a half; after about 2
years in the United States, at 32 years of age, began as skirt under
presser, learning the trade in the shop ; worked 2 weeks for $5 per
week, then several months at $8, then a year at $12, and by 1910 was
making $16, and by 1912 became a jacket upper presser at $21;
attended a Yiddish private school in Russia about 6 years; speaks,
reads, and writes Russian and Yiddish.
P r e s s e r N o . 7.— Born in Russia, in 1877; married; 3 children; was
in business for himself in Russia; came to United States in 1905,
entering this industry at once, at 28 years of age; learned the trade in
the shop, beginning as a reefer presser; worked 6 months at $8 per
week, then at $10, and at end of first year was making $11; then made
$12 until 1910, with the exception of a few months before the strike
when he was in business for himself as a contractor presser, making




OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

141

$18 to $20 per week; since the strike has been making $21 as jacket
upper presser; attended Yiddish private school in Russia about 9
years; speaks, reads, and writes Yiddish.
P r e s s e r N o . 8.— Born in Russia, in 1879; married; 3 children;
kept a small dry-goods store in Russia; came to United States in 1906,
entering this industry at once, at 27 years of age; learned the trade in
the shop, beginning as under presser and piece presser; worked 2
weeks for nothing, then 2 weeks at $3, then 3 months at $5, then at
$8, and by end of first year was making $10 as under presser; then
worked at $12 until 1910, and since the strike has made $18 as jacket
under presser; had about 7 years’ schooling in Russia, part of the
time in public and part in Yiddish school; speaks Russian, Polish,
and Yiddish, but reads and writes “ very little.7
7
P r e s s e r N o . 9.— Born in Russia in 1874; married; 7 children;
worked in leather factory in Russia; came to United States in 1903,
entering this industry at once at 29 years of age; learned the trade
in the shop, beginning as skirt under presser; paid $5 for the privi­
lege of learning and in addition worked two weeks without pay, then
a few weeks at $3 and a few weeks at $6, up to $11 at end of first
year; from the end of 1904 to 1910 was a presser on piecework,
making about $19 average; since the strike in 1910 has been making
$19 as skirt upper presser and $21 as jacket upper presser; attended
Yiddish private school in Russia about 8 years; speaks and reads
Yiddish, Hebrew, and Russian; writes Yiddish and Hebrew.
P r e s s e r N o . 10.— Born in Russia in 1877; single; learned the
trade as operator and presser in the Russian army, where he served
for 3 years; came to United States in 1903, and notwithstanding his
previous experience paid $10 for the privilege of learning, and in
addition worked 4 weeks without pay in Baltimore; after that he
worked for a time at $10 per week, then 2 years at $15, then at $18
until 1910; since the strike has made $21 as jacket upper presser;
attended Yiddish private school in Russia about 6 years and even­
ing school 1 year in Chicago; speaks, reads, and writes Yiddish and
Polish.
P r e s s e r N o . 11.— Born in Austrian Poland in 1862; married; 9
children, 6 of whom are married; was in business for himself in
Poland; came to United States in 1905, entering this industry at
once, at 43 years of age, learning the trade in the shop as a helper
and piece presser; earned from $7 to $11 the first year, then worked
2 years as jacket under presser at $15.50; then was presser in the
neckwear industry at $20 until 1910; after the strike returned to the
cloak, suit, and skirt industry as jacket under presser at $18; had 15
years’ private tutoring at home in Poland; speaks, reads, and writes
Yiddish, German, Polish, Russian, Hebrew, and “ a little” English.




142

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

INDIVIDUAL RECORDS OF CUTTERS.
C u t t e r N o . 1.— Born in Italy in 1890; single; came to United
States in 1900 and 6 years later, at 16 years of age, entered the indus­
try, learning the trade in the shop; began as a learner, making $5 to $8
the first year; worked one year as a canvas cutter at $10, then 2 years
as a cloth cutter at $14 and $16; at the time of the strike in 1910 he
went into business for himself, manufacturing willow plumes; in 1912
returned to the industry as a cloth cutter at $25; attended public
school in Italy about 5 years and in New York about 6 years; speaks,
reads, and writes Italian and English.
C u t t e r No. 2.— Born in Germany in 1873; married; no children;
came to United States in 1884 and secured work as an errand boy at
$3 per week; 2 years later, at 13 years of age, entered this industry
as apprentice canvas cutter, earning $12; a year later he became a
trimming cutter at $15, and the next year made $18, after which he
was a cloth cutter for 8 or 9 years at $24; then with a partner ho kept
a small hotel for a year, returning to this industry as a cloth cutter at
$24 until 1910; since the strike he has been making $25 as cloth cut­
ter; attended evening school in New York for about a year and a
half, studying English and the common branches; speaks, reads, and
writes English and German.
C u t t e r N o. 3.— Born in New York, N. Y., in 1893; single; in 1907
went to work as an errand boy at $4 per week; in 1908 was collector for
a cotton house at $7, and in 1909 shipping clerk in a cloak house at $7;
in 1910, at 17 years of age, he entered this occupation as a learner at
the cutting table, starting at $4 and working up to $11 in 6 months; at
the time of the strike in 1910 he went to Detroit, where he secured a
job as a mechanic in an automobile factory at $15; in 1911 he returned
to New York, making $25 as a cloth cutter since that date; attended
public school in New York for about 8 years; speaks Yiddish and
English, and reads and writes English.
C u t t e r N o . 4.— Born in United States in 1891; single; respon­
sible for partial support of 3 other members of family; in 1904 went
to work as a stock clerk at $6, the next year making $8; the following
year was office boy and apprentice draftsman in an architect’s office
at $10, and then for 2 or 3 years was shipping clerk, stock clerk, and
factory bookkeeper at $12; after the strike in 1910 he entered this
industry, at 19 years of age, as a canvas cutter at $12; during the past
2 years has been a cloth cutter at $25; learned the trade in the shop,
beginning as canvas cutter; is a graduate of the public elementary
school in New York, having attended about 7 years; attended even­
ing high school, commercial course, in New York for 1 year; speaks
English, Yiddish, and German; reads and writes English and “ a little ”
Yiddish and German.




OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK INDUSTRY OF N E W YORK CITY.

143

C u t t e r N o. 5.— Born in Russia in 1878; .married; 3 children;
came to United States in 1888 and went to work as a newsboy in Troy,
N. Y . ; in 1895 was a pattern boy at $5 per week, and a year later
canvas boy at $6; a few months later, at 17 years of age, he entered
this occupation as a learner; learned the trade in the shop, working
from $6 up to $10 in about 5 years; from 1901 he worked as skirt cut­
ter for a time at $16, then as cloth cutter up to $24 in 1910; since the
strike in 1910 he has been cloth cutter at $25; attended public school
in Troy about 2 years; speaks Yiddish and English ; reads and writes
English.
C u t t e r No. 6.— Born in Russia in 1891; single; principal support
of family of 4; helped father in business in Russia; came to United
States in 1902 and worked in leather trade 4 years; in 1906, at 15
years of age, entered this industry as canvas cutter; learned the trade
in the shop, paying $25 for the privilege and in addition working 4
weeks without pay; after that received $6 per week, and in 2 years
was making $14 as trimming cutter; since the strike in 1910 has been
making $20 as trimming cutter; attended Yiddish private school in
Russia about 6 years, and evening school in New York about 2\ years;
speaks, reads, and writes Yiddish and English.
C u t t e r No. 7.— Born in France in 1882; married; no children;
came to United States in 1886; in 1895 began to work in a machine
shop at $2.50 per week; then employed irregularly as telegraph mes­
senger boy for 2 or 3 years at $3.50 to $9; then went to sea for a time,
working as sailor and steward; in 1899, at 17 years of age, entered
this industry as helper trimming and cloth cutter at $5 to $9; by 1910
he had worked up to $24 as cloth cutter, and since the strike has been
making $25; attended public school in New York about 6 years, also
1 year evening school; speaks, reads, and writes English, German,
and French.
C u t t e r No. 8.— Born hi Italy in 1874; married; 7 children;
came to United States in 1877 ; went to work in 1886 pulling bastings
at $1.25 to $2 per week; beginning in 1889 was for several years an
operator on men’s clothing at $3 to $9, and then jacket tailor at $10;
then for 3 years a contractor in men’s clothing line; in 1900, at 26
years of age, he entered this occupation, learning the trade by taking
private lessons from a cutter in the latter’s home; made $20 as cutter
on men’s clothing and $22 on cloaks and suits up to 1910; since the
strike in 1910 has been making $25 as cloth cutter on cloaks and suits;
attended public school in New York about 2 years, also a private Italian
church school one-half year, and evening elementary school one year
studying English; speaks English, Italian, Yiddish; reads and writes
English and Italian.
C u t t e r No. 9.— Born in Russian Poland hi 1866; married; 3
children; entered this industry at 15 years of age, in 1881, by serving




144

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

an apprenticeship in London, England, beginning at 75 cents and
making $7.50 at the end of 4 years; came to the United States in 1885
and secured work at once as regular cloth cutter at $18, going up to
$20 in 5 years; in 1900 was making $23, and in 1905, $24; since 1910
has been making $25; attended public school in London about 6
years; speaks, reads, and writes English.
C u t t e r , N o . 10.— Born in Austrian Poland in 1892; single; from
1905 to 1909 worked as a grocery clerk in Poland for $25 per
year and board; in 1909 came to United States and entered this
industry at once, at 17 years of age, learning the trade in the shop as a
helper trimming cutter; began at $3 and was making $8 in 1910 as
assistant trimming cutter; since the strike has been making $18 as
trimming cutter; attended public school about 8 years in Poland, and
evening school in New York about 4 years; speaks Yiddish, German,
Russian, Polish, English; reads and writes Yiddish, German, English,
and Polish.
C u t t e r N o . 11.— Born in Austria-LIungary, in 1889; married;
no children; came to United States in 1898; in 1910, at 21 years of
age, entered this industry as a helper in the shop; worked 2 months
without pay, and in addition paid $50 for the privilege of learning,
one-half of which went to the boss and one-half to the foreman cutter;
after the strike he received $6 to $8; the next year worked as canvas
cutter at $12, the following year on linings and canvas at $15, and in
1913 as cloth cutter at $20 up to $25; attended public school in Aus­
tria about 4 years, also in New York about 5 years; speaks, reads,
and writes English and Yiddish.
C u t t e r N o . 12.— Born in Russia, in 1890; single; came to the
United States in 1903, and for 3 years worked in a leather-goods fac­
tory and at several odd jobs; in 1906, at 16 years of age, began as
canvas cutter; worked 6 weeks without pay in order to learn, then 6
months at $3, then for a time at $7; the next year earned from $10
up to $14, and the following year as lining cutter from $8 to $10; then
as cloth and trimming cutter from $9 to $14, and in 1910, $18; since
the strike has been making $25 as cloth cutter; attended public
school in Russia about 5 years, also 1 year in New York, and evening
school in New York 2 years; while out of work has been studying in a
private preparatory school in New York in order to take the regents’
examinations; speaks, reads, and writes Russian, Yiddish, German,
and English,
C u t t e r N o . 13.— Born in Russia, in 1885; married; 1 child; came
to the United States in 1906, entering the industry at once as a canvas
cutter; learned the trade in the shop, supplemented by 8 months7
instruction in a private designing and cutting school; worked 4
months at $5, then up to $10; in 1908 was making $12 as cloth cutter^
$15 in 1909, and $22 in 1910; since the strike in 1910 has been making




OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y OR K CITY .

145

$25; attended public school in Russia about 10 years, and evening
school in New York about 5 years; speaks, reads, and writes Russian,
Yiddish, and English.
AGE, COUNTRY OF BIRTH, AND CONJUGAL CONDITION.
A g e . — Table

F, which follows, shows that the median age for 100
pressers studied falls in the group 35 to 39 years, while that for
cutters falls between 29 and 30, which means an age difference of 7
or 8 years. The mode (the group containing the largest number) for
pressers is the 35 to 39 group, while that for the cutters is the 25 to
29 group. One-fifth of the pressers are 45 years old or over, as
against one-tenth of the cutters. Only one-twelfth of the pressers
are under 25 years of age, as against one-fourth of the cutters. About
one-fourth of the pressers (28) are under 30 years of age, compared
with one-half of the cutters (50). The accompanying chart (No. 18)
indicates graphically the preponderance of cutters in the lower age
groups and of pressers in the higher.
C o u n t r y o f B i r t h . — Table F shows that 21 cutters were born in
the United States, whereas all of the pressers were foreign born.
Russia is the country of birth for the largest group in each occupa­
tion— 70 pressers and 46 cutters (58.2 per cent of the 79 foreign-born
cutters).
The median age for pressers born in Russia is 35 to 39, practically
determining the median for the entire 100. The median age for cut­
ters born in Russia, however, is 25 to 29, 10 years younger than for
pressers and lower than the median for the 100 cutters, while the
median age for 21 American-born cutters is 30 to 34, higher than that
for the entire 100. Chart 19 shows the distribution.
T a b le

F .—

AGE AND CO UNTR Y OF BIRTII.
Number in each classified age group.

Country of birth.

Under
18 to 20 21 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 years Total.
18
and
years. years. years. years. years.
years. years. years.
over.

PRESSERS.

Russia........................
Russian Poland........
Austr ia-Hun gary___
Austrian Poland___
Roumania.................

18
2
2
5

7
1
1

3

7
1
1
6

8

20

15

27

9

12

13

8

7

3

3
3

1
4
1

2
3

1

1
1

7

____1 __ _ .

Total................

17

1

9

5
1
1
2
1

70
5

11

10

100

1
1
1
1

1
1

46
1
11
12
1
4
1
2
21
1

2

5

19
1

CUTTERS.

Russia........................
Russian Poland........
Austria-Hungary
Austrian Poland___
Roumania..................
Germany....................
France
.............
Italy
.
.............
United States...........
England.....................
Total................

1
1

2
2

6

4

21

25

49169°— Bull. 147— 15------ 10




2

3

1
2
1

4

2

17

12

11

1
1
2

4

6

100

146

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

CHART 18.— DISTRIBUTION OF 100 PRESSERS AND 100 CUTTERS, BY
AGE GROUPS.

PRESSERS

CUTTERS

and

by

AGE-GROUPS

In d i v i d u a l s

30

I= P r e sse r s

C U D 'C

u t t e r s

25

20

15

10

A ge

18
20
to




21
TO
24

25
TO
29

30
TO
34

35 40
TO TO
39 44

45
TO
49

50
&
Up

OCCUPATIONS 11T CLOAK INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY.
S

147

CHART 19.— COUNTRY OF BIRTH OF 100 PRESSERS AND 100 CUTTERS.

PRESSERS

a no

CUTTERS
b y COUNTRY

B IR T H

of

In d iv id u a ls
« Pr e s s e r s

70

=C u tters

60

50

i

4-0

§
30

20

■

10

1
i

1

0
C ountry
of

B ir t h

Ru s s ia




U.S.

A u s t r ia n
Po l a n d

Ot h e r
C o u n t r ie s

148
T a b le

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
G .—

CONJUGAL CONDITION AN D NUM BER OF CH ILD REN , B Y AGE GROUPS.

Age group
(years).

Number having—
Num­ Num­
ber
ber
Total. sin­ mar­
4
2
5
No
3
7
6
8
9
1
gle. ried. chil­ child. chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­
dren.
dren. dren. dren. dren. dren. dren. dren. dren.

Me­
dian
num­
ber of
chil­
dren.

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
chil­
dren.

PRESSERS.

Under 18..............
18 to 20.................
21 to 24.................
25 to 29.................
30 to 34.................
35 to 39.................
40 to 44.................
45 to 49.................
50 and over.........

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

4
2
1
1

Total.........

100

8

Under 18.............
18 to 20.................
21 to 24.................
25 to 29.................
30 to 34.................
35 to 39.................
40 to 44.................
45 to 49.................
50 and over.........

4
21
25
17
12
11
4
6

4
15
10

Total.........

100

4
18
14
26
9
11
10

3
2
2
1

92

8

3
6
5
2
2

1

6
15
17
10
9
4
5

34

66

18

1
4
2
1
1

4
3
5

5
4
10
3

1

1

3
3
5
1
2
3

9

13

23

17

1
7
7
1
2

2
2
3
3
3
1
1

2
2
1
2

15

7

!

0.3
2.2
2.3
3.2
4. 4
5.9
5.1

2
3

1
2
3
1

1
1

1

2
2
3
4
6
4

5

7

2

1

3

3.4

1
1
2
2
3
3

.8
.7
1.3
2.6
1.6
4.3
4.0

1

1.7

3
2
2

CUTTERS.

2
2

18

I
I
1 1
!
i
1

i
1
........1
........
1 .. . 1...
1 I 1
1
1
j
i

i

2

2

1

1
2

1

C o n j u g a l C o n d i t i o n . — Table G shows that 92 per cent of the
pressers are married, as against 66 per cent of the cutters; 8 of the
pressers who are married (8.7 per cent) have no children, as against
18 cutters (27.3 per cent of the married). The average number of
children in the families of the pressers who are married is 3.4, with
the median at 3; for cutters the average is 1.7 and the median 1.
At each age group also the median number of children per family is
consistently larger for pressers than for cutters.
Twenty-two of the 28 pressers under 30 years of age are married
(78.6 per cent) and average nearly 2 children per family (1.82), while
only 21 of the 50 cutters under 30 j^ears of age are married (42 per
cent), with an average of less than 1 child per family (0.76).
All of the 30 pressers who are 40 years of age or over are married,
and the average number of children is 5.2; 18 of the 21 cutters (85.7
per cent) of the corresponding group are married, and the average
number of children is 2.8; the median number of children is 5 for
pressers and 2 + for cutters.
From Table H it appears that while Russia furnishes 70 per cent of
the pressers, and 69.6 per cent of those married, only 46 per cent of
the cutters are Russian born, and 48.5 per cent of the married. Of
the 70 Russian-born pressers 64 are married, 91.4 per cent, while of
the 46 Russian-born cutters only 32 are married, 69.6 per cent, a con­
dition which can be accounted for perhaps by the 10 years’ difference




O CCU PATIO N S IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K CITY .

149

in age groups, as shown in Table F. Of the 21 American-born cutters,
however, with a median age slightly higher than that of the entire
group, only 12 are married— 57.1 per cent, as against 66 per cent for
the 100.
The average number of children in the families of the 64 Russianborn pressers is 3.4, and of 18 born in Austrian Poland, 3.1; the aver­
ages for the corresponding groups of cutters are 1.6 and 1.6, respec­
tively. The average number of children for 8 cutters born in AustriaHungary, and 12 born in the United States, are 2.3 and 1.8, respec­
tively. The differences again can be accounted for partly by the differ­
ences in age. Of the natives of Austrian Poland the median age for
pressers, as shown in Table F, is 30 to 34, and for cutters, 25 to 29; of
the natives of Austria-Hungary the median age for pressers is 35 to 39,
and for cutters, 30 to 34. It is quite possible that other factors are
involved, such as standards of living, but these age differences must
be regarded as significant.
When the comparison is made between pressers and cutters of the
same age groups, however, not only is marriage more common among
the pressers, but the number of children per family is progressively
greater. This is clearly seen in the charts.
T a b le

H .—

CONJUGAL CONDITION AND NUM BER OF CH ILD R EN , B Y CO U N TR Y OF
BIRTH.

Country of birth.

Number having—
Num­ Number
ber
Total. sin- mar­ No
4
3
5
6
7
1 2
ried. chil­ child. chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­ chil­
dren.
dren. dren. dren. dren. dren. dren. dren. dren.

PRESSERS.

Russia.........................
Russian Poland........
Austria-Hungary----Austrian Poland.......
Roumania..................
Total.................

23

100

CUTTERS.

Russia..........................
Russian Poland........
Austria-Hungary___
Austrian Poland.......
Roumania..................
Germany....................
France.........................
Italy............................
United States............
England......................
Total.................




100

34

6
6

18

18

17

150

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AGE AT ENTERING THE INDUSTRY AND NUMBER OF YEARS IN THE
INDUSTRY.
A g e a t E n t r a n c e . — We may now compare the pressers and
cutters with reference to the ages at which they entered the industry,
and for this purpose present Tables I and J.
T a b l e I . — AGE

AT EN T E R IN G THE IN D U ST R Y , B Y CO U N TR Y OF B IR T H .
Number entering industry at ageTotal.

Country of birth.
Under
18 to 20 21 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49
18
PRESSERS.

Russia........................................
Russian Poland
.............
Austria-Hungary....................
Austrian Poland......................
Roumania.................................
■ Total..........................

3

10
1
1
2

6
1
1
1

29

14

9

5

6

1

1

2

11

14

3

1
1

1
3

4

5

15

18

14
1
5

18

3

4
1
1

18
2
2

7

1
1

70
5
5
19
1

2

100

2
1
10

CUTTERS.

Russia........................................
Russian Poland .....................
.............
Austria-Hungary
Austrian Poland......................
Roumania.................................
Germany...................................
France........................................
Italy...........................................
United States. .
.............
England...........
.................
Total...............................

T a b le

1
1
1
12

4
1

1
1

11
12
1

1

4

1
6

2

1

2

1

21
1

1
38

46

30

14

12

4

1

1

100

J.—AGE AT ENT ER IN G THE IN D U S T R Y , B Y AGE GROUPS.

Number entering industry at ageAge group (y£ars).

Under
18 to 20 21 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49
18

Total.

PRESSERS.

Under 18...................................
18 to 20.......................................
21 to 24.......................................
25 to 29......................................
30 to 34......................................
35 to 39......................................
40 to 44.......................................
45 to 49
...............................
Total...............................

3

4
8
1
2

1
10
3
3
1

2
10
15
1
1

50 and over
3

15

18

Under 18...................................
18 to 20.......................................
21 to 24.......................................
25 to 29.....................................
30 to 34.......................................
35 to 39.......................................
40 to 44.......................................
45 to 49.......................................
50 and over...............................

4
13
9
5
4
2
1

7
11
6
3
1

1
5
4

2

Total...............................

38

30

29

8
1
2
2

1
4
2
2

5
5

1
1

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

14

9

10

2

100

1

4
21
25
17
12
11
4
6

1

100

i

CUTTERS.




2
2

1

2

2
5
3
1
1

14

12

4

1

2

OCCUPATIONS IK CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OE N E W Y O R K CITY .

151

The median age at entrance for pressers lies in the 25 to 29 group,
and that for cutters at IS to 20. Of the pressers, 18 entered the
in d u s tr y under 21 years of age, as against 68 cutters; and of those
who entered after 30 years of age there are 35 pressers and 6 cutters.
Of 70 Russian-born pressers, 20 per cent (14) entered the industry
under 21 years of age, as compared with 69.6 per cent (32) of the
Russian-born cutters. Of the pressers, only 3 of the 19 Austrian
Poles entered the industry under 21 years of age, as compared with
7 out of 12 cutters of the same nativity.
In view of the fact already noted that the median age of the
American-born cutters is slightly higher than the median for the 100,
it is interesting to note that the percentage entering the industry
under 21 years of age, 85.7 (18 out of 21), is higher than for any other
nationality group having more than one representative. The fact
that more than one-third of the cutters (38) entered the industry
under 18 years of age is perhaps as significant as any other single
item in the table in suggesting a radical difference between the two
occupations. The accompanying chart (No. 20) represents the
numbers of individuals entering the industry at ages given, and
illustrates the dissimilarity of the two distributions.
Table J makes it possible to compare ages at entrance for different
age groups. Of 72 pressers who are 30 years of age or over, only 3,
or 4.2 per cent, entered the industry under 21 years of age; the cor­
responding figures for cutters are 24 out of 50, or 48 per cent. Study­
ing each age group separately it will be observed that the cutters
uniformly enter the industry at earlier ages than the pressers.
Y e a r s i n t h e I n d u s t r y . — Obviously if cutters at all age groups en­
tered the industry younger than pressers, the former have been in
the industry for longer periods. These facts are shown in detail in
Tables K and L, from which it appears that the median number of
years in the industry is 7 for pressers, and 9 for cutters. The mode
for pressers falls at 7 years, and that for cutters even lower, at 6
years.
Comparing Russian-born cutters and pressers the median number
of years in the industry is found to be the same. The only other
considerable group of pressers, Austrian Poles, has the same median.
The higher median for cutters is brought up principally by the num­
ber of American born who entered at very early ages.
From Table L it appears that of 72 pressers who are 30 years of age
or over, 24, or 33.3 per cent, have been in the industry less than 7
years, as compared with 3 out of 50 cutters, or 6 per cent. On the
other hand, of 30 pressers who are 40 years of age or over, 11, or 36.7
per cent, have been in the industry 15 years or over, as compared with
15 out of 21 cutters, or 71.4 per cent.




152

B U L L E T IN

Chabt

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

20.— AGE AT ENTERING THE INDUSTRY OF 100 PRESSERS AND
100 CUTTERS.

AGE

at

ENTERING

th e

INDUSTRY

No,
40

30

20

10

0

A ge

Djd
UND

ie

18

TO




20

ill
TO
24-

25
TO

29

30
TO
34-

35
TO

4-0
TO

39

44

45
TO

49

153

O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K CITY\
T a b le

K .—NUM BER OF Y E A R S IN THE IN D U ST R Y , B Y CO U N TRY OF B IRTH .
Employees reporting each specified number of years in the industry.

Country of birth.

Total.
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

5
3
2

6

6

9

8

14

9

5

5
1

Me­
dian
num­
30
10 to 15 to 20 to 25 to and ber of
24
14
29
19
over. years.

PRESSERS.

70
5
5
19
1

1

Russian Poland.. . .
Austria-Hungary...
Austrian Poland. . .
Roumania................
Total..............

100

1

1

8
1
1
5
1

6

4
1

2
1

4

2

2

1

8

10

2
8

13

16

7

7

16

7

5

2

4

10

5

3

4

7

6

2

1
1

1

1
2

1
1

1
4

2
1

1

i

1
2

7
1

1

7
1

7

CUTTERS.

46
1
11
12
1
4
1

Russia
...........
Russian Poland. . . .
Austria-Hungary...
Austrian Poland. . .
Roumania................
Germany . .
France
Italy
United States.
England
Total..............

T a b le

3

__I__
t
!
|
|

1

i

i

j
21
1 ___ i___

1

6

ioo :

2

5

!
j
l

6

12

1
1
9

3

7

9

1
1
1
5
1
21

i

1
1

1

7
9
8

2

3

2

1

2

12

12

5

2

6

9

L — NUM BER OF Y E A R S IN THE IN D U ST R Y, B Y AGE GROUPS.
Employees reporting each specified number of years in the industry.

Age group (years). Total.
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

3
4
3
3

3
4
2
4
2
1

9

8

Me­
dian
num­
30
10 to 15 to 20 to 25 to and ber of
19
24
29
14
over. years.

PRESSERS.

Under 18..................
18 to 20....................
21 to 24......................
25 to 29......................
30 to 34......................
35 to 39......................
40 to 44......................
45 to 49......................
50 and over. . . .

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

Total..............

100

1
1

1
1
4 ”3
1
i
l
l
4

t

3

3

2
1
3
1

2

1

6
6
6
7
14
7
11

1

1

7

5

1

7

3
1
1

2
2

1
2
9
1

2

1

4
4
1

2
1

10

8

8

13

16

7

7

16

1
3
1

1
1
3
1

5
5

3
5
1

2
4
1

2
4
2

1
3
9
5
2
1

3
4
4
1

3
1
1

2

21

12

5

2

CUTTERS.

18 to 20 ..
....
21 to 24......................
25 to 29......................
30 to 34......................
35 to 39..................
40 to 44......................
45 to 49.
. .
50 and over..............

4
21
25
17
12
11
4
6

2
4

Total..............

100

6

1

1

1
5

6

12

1
9

7

9

1
5

3
6
7
11
16
15
18
30

6

9

The following chart (No. 21) indicates graphically the preponder­
ance of pressers who-have been in the industry less than 10 years,
and of cutters who have been in 10 years or over.




154

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

C h a r t 2 1 .—

NUMBER OF YEARS IN THE INDUSTRY" FOR
AND 100 CUTTERS.

NO.

OF YEARS IN THE

100

PRESSERS

INDUSTRY

mmrn
<

INDIVIDUALS

* P re sse rs

.1 = C u t t e r s

60

1

40
1

30

20

I

I

10

I
I
0
YEARS
in t h e

1-4

INDUSTRV




5-9

10-14

15-19

2 0 -Uc

155

O CCU PATIO N S IN CLO AK IN D U S T R Y OF N E W Y O R K C IT Y .

YEARS IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN BORN AND YEARS IN THE
UNITED STATES BEFORE ENTERING THE INDUSTRY.
Y e a r s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s . — It may be pertinent now to compare
pressers and cutters with respect to the number of years since com­
ing to the United States, eliminating, of course, the American-born.
Table M shows the facts. For pressers the median and mode both
fall at 7 years; for cutters the median is 11 years, while the mode is
8 years. With the exception of the single age group, 25 to 29, the
median number of years in the United States is consistently greater
at all ages for cutters than for pressers.
Of 57 pressers who are 35 years of age or over, 29, or 50.9 per cent,
have been in the United States less than 10 years; the corresponding
figures for cutters are 2 out of 25, or 8 per cent. On the other hand,
of 30 pressers who are 40 years of age or over, 11, or 36.7 per cent;
have been in the United States more than 15 years, as against 10 out
of 15 cutters— 66.7 per cent.
T able

M . — N UM BER

OF Y E A R S IN THE U NITED
AGE GROUPS.

STATES OF FOREIGN BORN, B Y

Foreign born reporting each specified number of years residence in the
United States.
Age group (years).

Total
for­
eign
born.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Me­
dian
num­
30 ber of
10 to 15 to 20 to 25 to
and
14
24
19
29 over. years.

i!

PRESSERS.

Under 18..................
18 to 20......................<
21 to 2 4 ....................
25 to 29
30 to 34......................
35 to 39
40 to 44
___
45 to 49
50 and over
Total..............

1

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

1

100

1

1
2

2
1

3
4
3
2

3
7
2
3
2
3

.........1.........
2
1
2

1

1

n
7
7
9
14
9
11

6

5

1

1

7

4
1
2
1
2
1

1
3
1
1

1
2
1
1

1
2
1
3

10
7
11
+20
+ 16
17
+30

11

6

5

7

11

!

3
2
2

2
3
2

2
1
1

8

7

1

1
4

2

2
2

1
10
1
1
3

2
2
2

"T

3
3
1

11

16

12

20

8

1
4

1
5
2

4
3
1

CUTTERS.

Under 18...................
18 to 20
21 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34......................
35 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 49
50 and oyer

2
19
19
14
10
7
4
4

Total..............

79

1
2

1

'

Y
i

1
6
3
5
2

i
1
1

1

2

3

5

8

9

3

19

Y e a r s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s b e f o r e E n t e r i n g I n d u s t r y . — A very
marked difference between the two occupations is found upon ex­
amination of the comparative readiness with which the newly arrived
immigrant finds his way into them. Table N shows the number of
years of interval after coming to the United States before entering




B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

156

the industry. Deducting those who had already entered the industry
before coming here, and those born here, it appears that 84 out of 96
pressers, 87.5 per cent, were absorbed into the industry within a
year after arrival, as against 36 out of 78 cutters, 46.2 per cent.
Only 7.3 per cent of the pressers failed to get into the industry within
2 years after coming to the United States, while 37.2 per cent (29)
of the cutters required more than 2 years, and 26.9 per cent (21)
required 6 years or more.
Taking the Russian-born groups by themselves, an even greater
disparity between pressers and cutters is observed. Chart 22 shows
the distribution reduced to percentages of the total foreign-born
pressers and cutters, respectively, and the distribution for the Rus­
sian born, reduced to percentages of the Russian born.
The facts here brought out are of interest particularly in con­
junction w^ith the previously emphasized facts that the cutters are 7
to 8 years younger than the pressers (comparing the median ages),
and in general enter the industry about 2 years earlier.
T able

N .—LENGTH OF TIME IN THE U NITED STATES BEFO R E E N T ER IN G THE IN D U S ­
T R Y , B Y CO U N TR Y OF B IR T H .
Foreign born residing in the United States before
entering the industry—
Country of birth.

Total
foreign
born. Under
1 year.

1 year. 2 years. 3 years.

4

years. 5 years.

6 years
and
over.

PRESSERS.

4

18
1

58
5
3
17
1

i 96

i 84

5

Russia.......................................................
Austria-Hungary....................................
Austrian Poland.....................................
Roumania................................................
Germany..................................................
France.......................................................
Italy..........................................................
England....................................................

46
11
12

22
3

2

9
1
1

2

Total...............................................

2 78

Russia.......................................................
Russian Poland......................................
Austria-Hungary....................................
Austrian Poland.....................................
Roumania................................................

67
5

Total...............................................

3

2

1

1
1

3

4

CUTTERS.

1
4
1

6

3

2

1

2
1

1

10
4
1

2

1
1

2

2

1

1

2 36

4

9

3

3

2

21

1 Not including 4 who entered the industry before coming to the United States, 1 bom in Austrian
Poland and 3 in Russia. All went to work in the industry within 1 year after arrival.
2 Not including 1 born in Russian Poland, who entered the industry before coming to the United States,
lie went to work in the industry within 1 year after arrival.

From Table O it appears that of 40 foreign-born cutters under 30
years of age, 18 entered the industry within a year after arrival, and
the same is true of 18 out of 38 who are 30 years of age or over,
indicating no significant difference between the younger and the older
groups. The corresponding quantities in the table for pressers are
too small to give any indication of a tendency.




OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

157

Chart 22.— PER CENT OF FOREIGN-BORN AND OF RUSSIAN-BORN
PRESSERS AND CUTTERS, B Y CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF YEARS IN
THE UNITED STATES BEFORE ENTERING THE INDUSTRY.

PERCENTAGE o f FOREIGN BORN HAVING GIVEN
N 0.YRS in U.S. BEFORE ENTERING INDUSTRY

Pe r c e n t
Fo r e ig n B o r n

R u s s ia n B o r n

100
<
0
&

>
o
€0
N

90
80
70

60
50

(0
$

v
D

I

40
K
;
v
©

30

C
M

Cs

ON

v
O

*
0

C
sJ

<M

20
C —
\
J
10 *0

10

i

0

Y ears

LESS
THAN
I YR




flm

1

2-5

ill m.

& U
6-Up

LESS

THAN
IY R

I

2-5

6-Uc

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

158
T able

O .—

L EN G TH OF TIME IN THE U N ITED STATES B EFO R E E N T E R IN G THE INDUS­
T R Y , B Y AGE GROUPS.
Foreign born residing in the United States before
entering the industry—

Age group (years).

Total
foreign
born. Under
1 year.

1 year. 2 years. 3 years. 4 years. 5 years.

6 years
and
over.

PRESSERS.

Under 18...................................................
18 to 20......................................................
21 to 24................... ...............................
25 to 29......................................................
30 to 34.................................... ..................
35 to 39......................................................
40 to 44......................................................
45 to 49......................................................
50 and over...............................................

8
19
14
26
8 !
1
11 1
10

8
16
13
22
8
9
8

1
1

2
2

2
1

1
1

3

4

1

i 96

i 84

5

Under 18...................................................
18 to 20......................................................
21 to 24.............. .......................................
25 to 29....................................................
30 to 34......................................................
35 to 39......................................................
40 to 44......................................................
45 to 49......................................................
50 and over...............................................

2
19
19
14
10
7
3
4

6
12
9
3
2
3
1

1
2
1

1
2
1
2
1
2

Total...............................................

2 78

2 36

4

9

Total...............................................
CUTTERS.

1
7
1
3
6
2

1
2

2

1

1

1

3

3

2

21

1

1 Not including 4 who entered the industry before coming to the United States, 1 each in age groups 25
to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 39, and 40 to 44. All went to work in the industry within 1 year after arrival.
2 Not including 1 in age group 45 to 49, who entered the industry before commg to the United States.
He went to work in the industry within 1 year after arrival.

PREVIOUS OCCUPATION AND METHOD OF LEARNING THE TRADE.
P r e v io u s O c c u p a t i o n .— Since so large a proportion of both press­
ers and cutters entered the industry as adults after coming to the
United States, the next important question to be studied relates to
the previous occupations. This part of the inquiry was limited to
occupations in Europe, for interest centers in the effort to determine
what influence, if any, such occupations have upon the conditions of
entrance into this industry. Whatever other occupations were
engaged in after arrival in this country in most cases seem to have
been regarded as merely temporary in nature.
The first fact that arrests the attention in Table P is that only five
pressers and five cutters learned the trade in which they are now
employed before coming to the United States.
Among the pressers, by far the largest group, 48, is made up of those
reporting themselves as having been salesmen, or in business for them­
selves. Inquiry into details elicited the information that in Russia
to be a ubusiness man” does not involve anything like the investment
of capital or completeness of establishment that are implied by the
t}^pical American when he uses that expression. It was found in
some cases, for example, that the “ business” consisted of a push­
cart, or a peddler’s outfit, or other equally modest undertaking.
This fact should be kept in mind, therefore, in studying the table.
One is not prepared to find the larger number of the skilled mechanics
drawn into this industry as pressers rather than cutters. The fact




o c c u p a tio n s

in

c lo a k

IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y OR K CITY .

159

that cutting ranks higher as a skilled trade than pressing would lead
one to expect that the former would attract most of the skilled
workers that might be found among a miscellaneous aggregation of
candidates for entrance into the industry. The explanation for this
seeming anomaly, however, as well as for the comparatively large
number of cutters with no previous occupation reported, is probably
the large number of cutters belonging to the younger age groups—
too young to have engaged in any occupation before coming to this
country, and certainly too young to have acquired a skilled trade.
The occupations specified and listed in connection with Table P
are interesting as indicating the great variety of sources from which
the cutters, and especially the pressers, have come. The following
chart (No. 23) based on this table, shows the distribution in summa­
rized form.
This table indicates the small proportion of those who learned their
present trades in any other way than “ on the job ,” seven among the
cutters and none at all among the pressers. The industry seems to
have made a kind of provision for such training as is absolutely
necessary, but the provision, such as it was, apparently offered less
resistance to the presser than to the cutter.
T a b l e P .—

PREVIOUS OCCUPATION IN EU R OPE, AND METHOD OF L EAR N IN G TRADE
IN UNITED STATES.
Learned
trade
in shop
after
Sales­ Miscel­
Total.
Pres­
No
Profes­ Skilled man or jlaneous Farm occupa­ coming
ent
to
trade. in busi­ occupa­ or for­ tion re­
occupa­ sion.
estry.
ness.
tions.
tion.
ported. United
States.
Previous occupation in Europe.

Country of birth.

PRESSERS.

4

20
1

70
5
5
19
1

4

Total.............................

100

5

M

2 23

48

3 11

Russia......................................
Russian Poland.....................
Austria-Hungary...................
Austrian Poland....................
Roumania...............................
Germany...............................
France
...............................
Italy
.............................
United States.........................
England..................................

46
1
11
12
1
4
1
2
21
1

2
1
2

6

3

17

7
1

Total.............................

100

5

2

66
5
5
18
1

6

4 95

16

2

2

1

28
2
4
13
1

5
1

43

6
3
3
1
2

Russia ....................................
Russian Poland.....................
Austria-Hungary...................
Austrian Poland....................
Roumania...............................

9
12
1
3
1
1
17
1

31

s 88

1
3
3

CUTTERS.

1

3
5
1
1

3

1
&6

64

28

72

3

1 Includes teachers, 2; students, 2.
2 Includes carpenters, 5; bakers, 2; shoemakers, 2; tobacco cutter, 1; millers, 2; locksmiths, 3; butchers,
3; brass polisher, 1; ironworker, 1; brash maker, 1; woodturner, 1; boot and shoe laster, 1.
3 Includes soap maker, 1; worker in leather factory, 2; conductor, 1; agent at railroad station, 1; drivers,
2; worker in brewery, 1; bookkeeper, 1; railroad porter and clerk, 1; common laborer, 1.
4 Five others learned the trade before coming to the United States.
5 Students.
6 Includes plasterer, 1; baker, 1; bookbinder, 1; tinsmith, 1.
7 Includes worker in match factory, 1; worker in saloon, 1.
8 In addition to these, 7 others learned their trade in the United States, 5 by apprenticeship and 1
each by private instruction and from member of his family; 5 others learned their trade before coming
to the United States.




1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -

PREVIOUS OCCUPATION




C

utters

in

EUROPE

of

FOREIGN BORN

P r e sse r s
P r e se n t O c c u p n

Fa r m , Fo r e s t r y

M

is c e l l a n e o u s

Pr o

S

f e s s io n

k il l e d

Trade

OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY.

161

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.

Each individual was asked to state how many years he had gone
to school, where the school was located, and the character of the
school. The information thus given is classified and presented in
Tables Q and R, but not with the idea that detailed comparisons are of
great significance or profit. It has not been possible to attempt to
evaluate in any way a year of training in the public elementary schools
of New York in terms of training in the schools in Russia, Poland, and
elsewhere, attended by these subjects. Much less is there available
any definite measure of the comparative value of the work of the
so-called public schools in Russia, in which the pupils pay tuition, and
the Yiddish parochial or private schools, and other types which have
been mentioned in the schedules. Further, before giving great weight
to the findings of such an inquiry as this it would be desirable to
classify the communities supporting the schools, roughly at least, as
to their probable educational standards. If no more could be done
than to classify the schools as rural, village, and urban, in accordance
with some predetermined population scale, their products might be
somewhat more comparable than is the case in the present study.
Nevertheless it is believed that certain rough comparisons may be
made on the basis of the data as collected. In order to separate
incommensurable elements so far as possible, the tables are divided
into three sections, each section exclusive of the others— attendance
at: (1) Day school in Europe, (2) day school in the United States,
and (3) evening school in the United States.
Concerning day-school attendance in Europe, Table Q shows that
all but 2 of the pressers, 98 per cent, went to school at least one year;
of 79 foreign-born cutters, 64, or 81 per cent, went to school in Europe.
The number of those attending day school in the United States is 2
for pressers and 40 for cutters. The report of evening-school attend­
ance is 21 pressers and 47 cutters; 5 pressers report two or more years
of evening-school attendance, as compared with 34 cutters.
A rough composite of the three sections of the table as shown in
Chart 24, which follows Table Q, seems to indicate a somewhat better
showing for cutters than for pressers, so far as amount of schooling
is concerned.
49169°— Bull. 147— 15------ 11




162

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
T able

Q .—

SCHOOL ATTEND ANCE, B Y COUNTRY OF BIRTH.

[A fraction of a year equal to one-half or over is recorded as one year. Private lessons are arbitrarily
recorded as equivalent to one-half the same length of time in regular day schools.]
Number reporting given number of years
of day schooling.

Country of birth.

Num­
ber re­
port­
ing
Total.
no
school­
ing.

In United States.

In Europe.

Number reporting given
number of years of even­
ing schooling in United
States.

10
10
0 1 to4 5 to 9 yrs.
0 1 to4 5 to 9 yrs.
0
yrs. yrs. yrs. and yrs. yrs. yrs. and yrs.
over.
over.

1
yr.

4
2
3 yrs.
yrs. yrs. and
over.

PRESSERS.

Russia......................
Russian Poland
Austria-Hungary..
Austrian Poland...
Roumania...............

70
5
5
19
1

2

Total.............

100

2

Russia.....................
Russian P oland...
Austria-Hungary..
Austrian Poland...
Roumania...............
Germany.................
France................. ..
Italy.........................
United States.........
England..................

46
1
11
12
1
4
1
2
21
1

1

Total.............

100

1

49
4
3
10
1

14

8

67

8

8

2
1

1
1

22
1
8
7
1
3

5
1
2
i

66
5
5
19
1

2

23

96

2

7

33
1
8
11
1
4

7

2
7

53
4
4
15
1

13
1

1

2

1
2

1

77

16

4

' 17
i 1
8
5
1
2

8

12

5

3

2

3
3

1

1

6

4

1

CUTTERS.

1
1
1
21

3

10

44

1

1
1

1

1
1
17

3

1
16
1

9

27

4

52

1

1
35

5
2
1

10

59

2
1
1
1

4

13

24

A comparison of ago groups, Table R, discloses the following facts:
Of 28 pressers under 30 years of age, 23, or 82.1 per cent, have had at
least 5 years of schooling in Europe, as against 26 out of 50 cutters,
52 per cent. Of the same groups, no pressers have had 5 years of
schooling in the United States, as against 16 cutters, or 32 per cent;
10 pressers under 30 years of age have had one year or more of even­
ing school, 35.7 per cent, as against 26 cutters, 52 per cent. Of those
30 years of age or over, 67 out of 72 pressers, or 93.1 per cent, have had
at least 5 years of schooling in Europe, as against 28 out of 50 cutters,
56 per cent. Of the same groups, no presser has had any day school­
ing in the United States, as against 18 cutters, 36 per cent; 11 pressers,
or 15.3 per cent, have had one year or more of evening school, as
against 21 cutters, 42 per cent.




NO.YRS SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

U.S.

D ay Sch . in Europe

O a y S c h . in

£ v g .S c h .(n

U.S.

i

In d iv id u a ls

otters

TO
i = C

60
I

50

I

4.0

30
20
1
10

Y e a rs




I -4-

5~9

CZL

IQ-Ur

1-4-

n

3 -9

10-Up

i

13Z23U

3-Up

164

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
T able R

—SCHOOL ATTEN D AN C E, B Y AGE GROUPS.
Number reporting given number of 3
rears
of day schooling.

Num­
ber re­
port­
Age group (years). Total.
ing
no
school­
ing.

In Europe.

In United States.

Number reporting given
number of years of even­
ing schooling in United
States.

10
10
0 1 to 4 5 to 9 yrs.
0 1 to 4 5 to 9 yrs.
0
yrs. yrs. yrs. and yrs. yrs- yrs. and yrs.
over.
over.

1
yr.

4
2
3
yrs.
yrs. yrs. and
over.

PRESSERS.

Under 18.................
18 to 20....................
21 to 24....................
25 to 29....................
30 to 34....................
35 to 39....................
40 to 44....................
45 to 49....................
50 and over.............

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

Total.............

100

1
4
4
8
2
2
2

7
18
15
27
9
10
10

1
1

1

5
13
10
17
7
8
7

8

67

23

96

2

2
2
1
2

1

1
2

4

13
12
23
5
10
10
77

4
4
2
3
3

16

2
1

1

1

1

4

CUTTERS.

Unde* 18.................
18 to 20....................
21 to 24....................
25 to 29....................
30 to 34....................
35 to 39....................
40 to 44....................
45 to 49....................
50 and over.............
Total.............

4
21
25
17

1
2
1
1

1

3
6
8
6
5
5

4
3

1
1
1

4

6

10
0

2

1

35

1
10
10
8
6
3

2

1
4

2

.....

2

4

1
0

44

1
0

1
11
16
10
7
6

2
4

1
2

2
3

4
4

59

3
7
5
5

2
9

27

3

1 10
1
1
1 8
1 6
1 6
2

4

2
3
2
1
1

1
4
8
4
3
3

2
2

1
2
1

6

4

1
1

1

6

4

52

13

24

COMMAND OF LANGUAGE.

The last section of the schedule consisted of questions as to the
languages the individual is able to speak, read, and write. The re­
sults, as presented in Tables S to Y, are far from satisfactory as a
basis upon which to make detailed comparisons. The unreliability
of data secured in the manner described has already been pointed
out. It is possible that in the inquiry as to the number of languages
these subjects can speak, read, and write, the influence of suggestion
played some part in determining the answers.
The original intention was to prepare a series of tests for dictation
and oral and written exercises, the use of which would have made
possible a more accurate measure of ability. Series of sentences in
each of the different languages, arranged in ascending order of diffi­
culty of comprehension or of expression, given with a time limit or
some other easily applied uniformity of method, would have yielded
more valuable results than were here actually obtained. Consid­
eration of the amount of time and effort that would have been en­
tailed by such a procedure, the possible unwillingness to cooperate
on the part of the subjects, and the probable significance of the results
in comparison with what it was hoped could be secured by a much
simpler method, resulted in the decision to adopt the latter.




O CCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

165

It is believed that the results of the inquiry, crude as it was, are
sufficiently significant to be worthy of presentation, at least in the
following particulars:
1. For the evidence given as to the polyglot character of the people
engaged in these two occupations, reflecting to a considerable degree
the conditions in the entire industry.
2. For a comparison of the pressers and cutters with respect to the
use of Yiddish, suggesting the extent to which the industry is influ­
enced by racial considerations.
3. For a comparison with respect to the use of English, and by
implication the extent of adjustment to American ideals andstandards.
Taking up the question of Yiddish first, the tables show that 9 press­
ers speak Yiddish only, 1 speaks Yiddish and English, 1 speaks Yid­
dish and Polish, and 19 speak their native language and Yiddish.
Table Y presents an analysis of the facts reported in the last column
of Table S, showing that all of those reporting ability to use more
than two languages (70) speak Yiddish. All of the 100 pressers, there­
fore, speak Yiddish; and by a similar calculation it is shown that 52
pressers speak English. The corresponding numbers for cutters are:
82 speak Yiddish; 85 speak English.
Tables U and V show that all but 8 pressers reported ability to
read, and all of the 8 unable to read were 25 years of age or over;
24 pressers read one language only, Yiddish, while 19 cutters read
one language only; in 16 cases, English. Combining the data in
Tables U and Y, 90 pressers report ability to read Yiddish, and 35
ability to read English; whereas 68 cutters read Yiddish and 81 read
English.
Tables W and X show that 12 pressers, ranging in age from 25 to
over 50 years, were unable to write; 22 pressers write one language
only, Yiddish, while 25 cutters write one language only, of whom 20
write English. Combining the data in Tables W and Y, 88 pressers
report ability to write Yiddish, and 33 ability to write English;
whereas 65 cutters write Yiddish, and 81 English. Charts 18 and
1 9 ‘ (pp. 146 and 147) present a summary of the more important
figures in graphic form.




166

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

S

_ LAN G U AG E-SPEAK IN G A B IL IT Y REPO R TE D , B Y CO U N TR Y OF BIRTH .
_
One language
only.

Country of birth.

Two languages.

Yiddish and—

Total.
Eng­
lish.

Yid­
dish.

More
than
two
lan­
guages.

Native and—
Total.

Eng­
lish.

Eng­
lish.

Polish.

Yid­
dish.

Ger­
man.

PRESSERS.

Russia........................
Russian Poland........
Austria-Hungary___
Austrian Poland___
Roumania.................

70

100

1

17 :

15

45

1

Total................

1

8

5
5

'

19
1

5
4
16

3

1

1

9

. . . . . . . . i. . . . . . . . .

1

1

19

2
1

70

1

1

35

CUTTERS.

Russia........................
Russian Poland........
Austria-Hungary . . .
Austrian Poland___
Roumania.................
Germany...................
France........................
Italy............................
United States...........
England.....................
Total................

11

46

100

1
11
12
1

1
!

1
4

4 j . . . . . . . . ! . . . . . . 16 . ............. !
. .

5

T

1
1

1

10

1

T able

4

1

i
i
j

2
1

7
11
1

1

4

1
2
21
1

1

4

10

4

1
4
!

4

!

j
i

35

5

61

|

!

— L AN G U AG E-SPEAK IN G A B IL IT Y REPO R TED , B Y AGE GROUPS.
One language
only.

Age group (years).

Two languages.

Yiddish and—

Total.
Eng­
lish.

Yid­
dish.

Native and
Total.

Eng­
lish.

Eng­
lish.

Polish.

Y id­
dish.

More
than
two
lan­
guages.

Ger­
man.

PRESSERS.

Under 1 8 ............... i
18 to 20................____________
8
21 to 24....................... !
20
25 to 29....................... 1
30 to 34....................... i
15
35 to 39.......................
27 '
40 to 44.......................
9 !
45 to 49.......................
11
50 and over...............
1 0 : .............
Total................

100

2
3
1
1
1
1

9

1
3
2

1
1

i
I

:
1

1

2
3
2
7

6
1
4
2

4

14
12
19
7

1
4

6
8

19

I
1

2
21

70

2
1
5

3
8

1
13
17
11

CUTTERS.

Under 18....................
18 to 20.......................
21 to 24.......................
25 to 29.......................
30 to 34.......................
35 to 39.......................
40 to 44.......................
45 to 49.......................
50 and over...............

4
21
25
17
12
11
4

Total................

100




1
1

6

1

:
!

3
3 !
3

1

4

............ !1
16

8
6

2

2

6

i
i

3

2

2

4

4

35

2

i
!

5

10 !
!

3

8

I

6
3
2
61

167

OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY.
T able

U .—L A N G U AG E-R EA DIN G A B IL IT Y R EPO R TE D , B Y CO U N TR Y OF B IR T H .
Two languages—
One lan­
guage only.

Country of birth.

To­
tal.

Yiddish and—

Native and—

Ger­
man
and
Eng­ Yid­ Eng­ Pol­ He­ Eng­ Yid­ Ger­ Pol­ French. Eng­
lish.
lish. dish. lish. ish. brew. lish. dish. man. ish.

More
than
two
lan­
To­ guag­
tal.
es.

PRESSERS.

70
5
5
19
1

18
1
1
4

1

Russian Poland___
Austria-Hungary.
Austrian Poland. . .
Roumania
___
Total..............

100

24

1

1

1

18

21
2
1

2
1
1

27
3
3
11

24

44

4

18

24

1

2
1

7
10
1

21

1

CUTTERS.

2
1
1
1

Russia ....................
Russian Poland----Austria-Hungary. . .
Austrian Poland. . .
R oum ania.............
Germany..................
France....................
Italy ........................
United States.........
England ...............

46
1
11
12
1
4
1
2
21
1
100

16

13

1

10
1

Total..............

2 !

T able

IS

2 '
4
1

2
3
3

15

1

6

5

1

8

5

1

1

4
1
2
9

2

37

44

V .—LAN G U AG E-R EA D IN G A B IL IT Y R EP O R TE D , B Y A G E GROUPS.
Two languages—
One lan­
guage only.

Age group (years).

To­
tal.

Yiddish and—

Native and—

Ger­
man
and To­
Eng­ Yid­ Eng­ Pol­ He­ Eng­ Yid­ Ger­ Pol­
Eng­ tal.
French.
lish. dish. lish. ish. brew. lish. dish. man. ish.
lish.

More
than
two
lan­
guag­
es.

PRESSERS.

Under 18..................
18 to 20......................
21 to 24......................
25 to 29......................
30 to 34......................
35 to 3 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40 to 44.
...............
45 to 49......................
50 and over..............

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

2
5
1
6
4
5
1

1

Total..............

100

24

1

1

2
1
4
7
2
2
3

1

1

21

1

3
4
9
2
2
3

3
12
8
11
3
3
4

24

44

1

9
11
5
3
4
5

11
11
9
5
4
3
1

1

37

44

CUTTERS.

Under 18..................
18 to 20.....................*
21 to 24......................
25 to 29......................
30 to 34......................
35 to 39.....................
40 to 44.....................
45 to 49......................
50 and over..............
Total..............




4
21
25
17
12
11
4
6

3
1
3
2
3
3
1

1

100

16

3

1
1

6
7
2

1
1
1
2

2
2
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

2
15

1

1

2

6

8

5

1

168

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

W .—

LAN G U A G E -W R IT IN G A B IL IT Y R E P O R TE D , B Y CO U N TR Y OF B IRTH .
Two languages—
One lan­
guage only.

Country of birth.

To­
tal.

Yiddish and—

Native and—

Ger­
man
and
Eng­ Yid­ Eng­ Pol­ He­ Eng­ Yid­ Ger­ Pol­
Eng­
lish. dish. lish. ish. brew. lish. dish. man. ish. French. lish.

To­
tal.

More
than
two
lan­
guag­
es.

PRESSERS.

Russia.......................
Russian Poland___
Austria-Hungary. . .
Austrian Poland. . .
Roumania................

70
5
5
19
1

18
1
1
2

2

Total..............

100

22

2

3

10

2

2

1

1

19

1

24

2
1
1

1

22

1

2
1
1

22
3
3
11

27

39

4

15

24

1

2
1

6
10
1

CUTTERS.

4
1
1
1

Russia......................
Russian Poland___
Austria-Hungary. . .
Austrian Poland...
Roumania...............
Germany..................
France......................
Italy..........................
United States.........
England...................

46
1
11
12
1
4
1
2
21
1

12
1

Total..............

100

20

T able

4
1
2

5

12

1

6

2

4

1

7

4

1

1

4
1
2
7

2

32

43

X .—L A N G U AG E-W R IT IN G A B IL IT Y R E P O R TE D , B Y AGE GROUPS.
Two languages—
One lan­
guage only.

Age group (years).

To­
tal.

Yiddish and—

Native and—

Ger­
man To­
and
Eng­ Yid­ Eng­ Pol­ He­ Eng­ Yid­ Ger­ Pol­
Eng­ tal.
lish. dish. lish. ish. brew. lish. dish. man. ish. French. lish.

More
than
two
lan­
guag­
es.

PRESSERS.

tinder 18..................
18 to 20.....................
21 to 24......................
25 to 29......................
30 to 34......................
35 to 39......................
40 to 44......................
45 to 49.....................
50 and over..............

8
20
15
27
9
11
10

3

Total..............

100

22

9

1
5
4
5
1

1

1

2

2
6

2
6

1

1

7
1
2
3

1

10
1
3
3

3
11
6
10
3
2
4

1

1

22

1

27

39

1

7
9
4
3
4

11
11
9
5
4
3

1

32

1
2

CUTTERS.

Under 18..................
18 to 20......................
21 to 24......................
25 to 29......................
30 to 34......................
35 to 39......................
40 to 44......................
45 to 49......................
50 and over..............

4
21
25
17
12
11
4
6

3
3
4
3
3
3
1

1

Total..............

100

20

5




1
1
1

5
5
2

1
1
1
2

1

1
2
1
1
1

1
1
1

2

12

1

1

2

6

7

4

5
1

43

OCCUPATIONS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C ITY .

169,

T able Y .—COMMAND OF ENGLISH AND Y ID D ISH B Y THOSE R EPO R TIN G A B IL IT Y TO
USE MORE T H AN TW O LANG U AG ES.

Occupation.

Number able to
use more than two
languages.

English: Ability to—

Yiddish: Ability to—

Speak.
Pressers.....................................
Cutters.......................................

Read.

Write.

Speak.

Read.

Write.

Speak.

Read.

70
61

44
44

39
43

51
60

34
43

31
42

70
56

43
41

Write.
40
40

From Table S it appears that 70 pressers and 61 cutters speak
more than two languages; 9 pressers speak one language only, Yid­
dish; 4 cutters speak one language onty, but the language is English.
The 9 pressers speaking only one language are distributed over six
age groups, from 21 to 49 years; whereas the 4 cutters are all over 35
years of age and under 50.
About twice as many pressers (19) as cutters (10) speak their
native language and Yiddish, of those speaking two languages only;
but 16 cutters speak Yiddish and English, as against 1 presser.
In order to obtain a comparison in respect to speaking knowledge
of Yiddish and English, it is necessary to combine the data separated
in the tables in three sections.
SUMMARY.

For convenience of reference the more important facts that appear
in the tables may be summarized, as follows:
Median age for 100 individuals: Pressers, 35 to 39; cutters, between
29 and 30.
Modal age group: Pressers, 35 to 39; cutters, 25 to 29.
Number who are 45 years of age or over: Pressers, one-fifth (21);
cutters, one-tenth (10).
Number under 25: Pressers, one-twelfth (8); cutters, one-fourth,
(25).
Number under 30: Pressers, about one-fourth (28); cutters, onehalf (50).
Born in United States: Pressers, none; cutters, 21.
Born in Russia: Pressers, 70; Cutters, 46.
Median age for Russian born: Pressers, 35 to 39; cutters, 25 to 29.
Median age for American born: Cutters, 30 to 34.
Number who are married: Pressers, 92; Cutters, 66.
Percentage of married having no children: Pressers, 8.7; cutters,
27.3.
Children in families of the married: Pressers, average, 3.4, median,
3; cutters, average, 1.7, median, 1.
Percentage married of those under 30 years of age: Pressers, 78.6,
average number of children, 1.82; cutters, 42, average number of chil­
dren, 0.76.




170

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Percentage married of those 40 years of age or over: Pressers, 100,
average number of children, 5.2; cutters, 85.7, average number of
children, 2.8.
Comparing pressers and cutters of the same age groups, not only
is marriage more common among pressers, but the number of chil­
dren per family is progressively greater.
Median age at entrance into the industry: Pressers, 25 to 29; cut­
ters, 18 to 20.
Number entering the industry under 21 years of age: Pressers, 18;
cutters, 68. Under 18 years of age: Pressers, 3; cutters, 38.
Number entering the industry after 30 years of age: Pressers, 35;
cutters, 6.
Percentage of Russian born who entered the industry under 21
years of age: Pressers, 20; cutters, 69.6.
Percentage of American-born cutters who entered the industry
under 21 years of age, 85.7, is higher than for any other nationality
group having more than one representative.
Percentage of those 30 years of age or over who entered the indus­
try under 21 years of age: Pressers, 4.2; cutters, 48. Comparing
each age group separately, the cutters uniformly entered the industry
at earlier ages than the pressers.
Median number of years individuals have been in the industry :
Pressers, 7; cutters, 9.
Number of those 30 years of age or over who have been in the
industry less than 7 years: Pressers, 24 out of 72, 33.3 per cent; cut­
ters, 3 out of 50, 6 per cent.
Number of those 40 years of age or over who have been in the indus­
try 15 years or over: Pressers, 11 out of 30, 36.7 per cent; cutters, 15
out of 21, 71.4 per cent.
Median number of years in United States for those of foreign birth:
Pressers, 7; cutters, 11. With the exception of the single age group,
25 to 29, the median number of years in the United States is con­
sistently greater at all ages for cutters than for pressers.
Number of those 35 years of age or over who have been in United
States less than 10 years: Pressers, 29 out of 57, 50.9 per cent; cutters,
2 out of 25, 8 per cent.
Number of those 40 years of age or over who have been'in United
States more than 15 years: Pressers, 11 out of 30, 36.7 per cent;
cutters, 10 out of 15, 66.7 per cent.
Number of those foreign bom who entered the industry within a
year after arrival in the United States: Pressers, 84 out of 96, 87.5
per cent; cutters, 36 out of 78, 46.2 per cent.
Of 40 foreign-born cutters under 30 years of age, 18 entered the
industry within a year after arrival in this country, and the same is




OCCU PATIO N S IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y OF N E W Y O R K C IT Y .

171

true of 18 out of 38 who are 30 years of age or over, indicating no
significant difference between the younger and the older groups.
Only 5 pressers and 5 cutters learned their trades before coming to
this country.
Previous occupations in Europe include:
Pressers.

Cutters.

5
4
23
48
3
11
6

5
6
4
28
3
2
31

100

Present occupation........................................
Profession.........................................................
Skilled trade...................................................
Salesman, or in business..............................
Farm, or forestry............................................
Miscellaneous..................................................
No occupation reported...............................

79

The proportion of those who learned their trade in any other way
than “ on the jo b ” is small, including none of the pressers and only
7 cutters, of whom 5 report having served apprenticeship, one learned
his trade from a relative, and one by private instruction.
Number of those having one year or more of day schooling in
Europe: Pressers, 98; cutters, 64 (81 per cent of the foreign-born
cutters).
Number of those having one year or more of day schooling in
United States: Pressers, 2; cutters, 40.
Number of those having one year or more of evening-school attend­
ance in United States: Pressers, 21; cutters, 47. Number having 2
years or more: Pressers, 5; cutters, 34.
Number of those under 30 years of age who have had 5 years or
more of schooling in Europe: Pressers, 23, 83.1 per cent; cutters, 26,
52 per cent. Having 5 years of day schooling in United States:
Pressers, none; cutters, 16, 32 per cent. Having one year or more
of evening schooling in United States: Pressers, 10, 35.7 per cent;
cutters, 26, 52 per cent.
Number of those 30 years of age or over who have had 5 years or
more of schooling in Europe: Pressers, 67, 93.1 per cent; cutters, 28,
56 per cent. Having one year or more of day schooling in United
States: Pressers, none; cutters, 18, 36 per cent. Having one year or
more of evening school in United States: Pressers, 11, 15.3 per cent;
cutters, 21, 42 per cent.
Tables S to Y .— Number of pressers who speak two or more lan­
guages, 91; cutters, 96. Number who read two or more languages:
Pressers, 68; cutters, 81. Number who write two or more languages;
Pressers, 66; cutters, 75.
Number of pressers reporting inability to read, 8; inability to
write, 12; there are no cutters reporting inability to read or write.




172

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The differences between the numbers of pressers and cutters who
speak, read, and write one language only, respectively, are not large
enough to be significant in themselves, but when the languages are
taken into consideration it is seen that the groups thus compared are
made up of entirely different elements. Number who speak one
language only: Pressers, 9, Yiddish; cutters, 4, English. Number
who read one language only: Pressers, 24, Yiddish; cutters, 19, of
whom 16 read English. Number who write one language only:
Pressers, 22, Yiddish; cutters, 25, of whom 20 write English.
Comparing pressers and cutters with respect to ability to use
Yiddish and English, irrespective of command of other languages,
very decided differences in the composition of the two groups are
found. Number who speak Yiddish: Pressers, 100; cutters, 82.
Number who read Yiddish: Pressers, 90; cutters, 68. Number who
write Yiddish: Pressers, 88; cutters, 65. Number who speak Eng­
lish: Pressers, 52; cutters, 85. Number who read English: Pressers
35; cutters, 81. Number who write English: Pressers, 33; cut­
ters, 81.
APPRENTICESHIP PLAN FOR CUTTERS.
In the inquiry concerning the method of learning the trade, appren­
ticeship was interpreted somewhat narrowly to mean a formal,
definitely organized plan of learning and teaching a trade, involving
a contractual relation with mutual obligations. In this sense, as
noted, there is no apprenticeship system for either pressers or cutters
in this industry at the present time, and there has been none in recent
years. The necessity for some means that will accomplish the
training of beginners and raise the general average of skill and
efficiency exists in both occupations now as in the past, however,
and the practical disappearance of apprenticeship has stimulated
the development of various private agencies for the purpose and of
informal agreements between employer and employee.
Examples of these arrangements will be found referred to in the
individual histories, pages 142 to 145. In some cases the employer, or
the foreman, or a fellow workman undertakes to teach the beginner for
a financial consideration— a plan which, it is pretty well understood,
works to the disadvantage of both worker and employer. It is not a
good plan for the worker, for in its informality there is no guaranty
of protection or consideration of his rights, and, as a matter of fact,
there is usually great discrepancy between what he is led to expect
to have done for him and the service actually rendered. The plan
is equally unsatisfactory to the employer, especially when it is carried
on surreptitiously, as it frequently is.
Other attempts to meet the situation have resulted in the organ­
ization of so-called cutting or designing schools. These are for the




A P P R E N T IC E S H IP PL A N FOE CUTTERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

173

most part small establishments, lacking in adequate facilities for
imparting a practical training.
In the case of pressers the usual conditions of the factory shop
seem to make it possible for the ordinary individual without experi­
ence or special training to acquire the necessary skill on the job and
Work up to a fairly satisfactory wage-earning status in a reasonable
length of time. There are those among both employers and
employees, however, who believe that the industry is seriously handi­
capped by the lack of suitable provision for a supply of skilled
cutters.
Recognizing this favorable attitude on both sides, it was decided
to undertake the formulation of an apprenticeship plan for cutters.
With this object in view, a series of conferences was arranged with a
number of skilled mechanics from among the officers of the Cutters’
Union, Local No. 10, at which the entire field was gone over very
carefully and in great detail.
After each conference the points developed and discussed to the
stage of agreement were reduced to writing, and copies distributed at
the next meeting for further discussion and revision. The final
result of several weeks of this process appears in the following pages:
RULES AND PLAN OF PROCEDURE ADOPTED BY THE JOINT BOARD OF
EXAMINERS FOR CUTTERS’ APPRENTICES.1
The Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Manufacturers’ Protective Association, of New York
City, and the Joint Board of Local Unions of the International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, of New York City, hereby mutually agree and concur in the organ­
ization of a joint board of examiners for cutters’ apprentices for the cloak, suit, and
skirt industry of Greater New York, to be governed by the following rules and plan
of procedure:
I. Immediately upon the adoption of these rules and plan of procedure, the par­
ties to this agreement shall appoint, respectively, three (3) persons representing the
association, and three (3) persons representing the cutters’ union, who shall constitute
themselves into a board, and shall thereafter be known as “ The joint board of exam­
iners for cutters’ apprentices.” Hereafter in these rules it will be referred to as
“ the board.L
?
2
II. The board shall immediately elect two chairmen, one from each side, who shall
preside alternately for two weeks. These officers shall hold office for one year, or
until their successors are elected.
III. The members of the board shall be appointed by the parties to this agreement,
as follows: One representative from each side for a term of one year; one representa­
tive from each side for a term of two years; and one representative from each side for a
term of three years. Thereafter, one representative from each side shall be appointed
each year for a term of three years, and the term of office for members of the board
shall be three years, or until their successors are appointed.
i After this agreement had been formulated, as the result of the series of conferences as noted else­
where, it was used by representatives of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education
as a model in drafting a similar agreement to be submitted to the unions and manufacturers in the
dress and waist industry. See Bulletin No. 145.




174

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

IV.
As soon as practicable after its organization, the board shall appoint two deputy
examiners, to be hereafter known as clerks, one representative of each side, who shall
act as joint secretaries of the board.
Y. The duties of the clerks shall include:
1. The maintenance of a system of card records, certificates of apprenticeship, and
other forms, as may be determined hereafter by the board.
2. The examination of apprentices, and applicants for admission to the industry as
cutters, at such times and in such manner as may be determined hereafter by the
board.
3. Such other duties as may be determined hereafter by the board.
VI. The parties to this agreement shall defray, in equal proportions, the actual and
necessary expenses of the board. The services of members of the board shall be
rendered without compensation. The compensation of the clerks shall be determined
by mutual agreement of the parties to this agreement, and paid by the same in equal
proportions.
VII. A chairman shall preside at all meetings of the board.
V III. Four (4) members, including two representatives from each side, shall con­
stitute a quorum of the board for the transaction of business.
IX . The board shall meet at such times and places, or in accordance with such
regular program or schedule, as shall be determined hereafter by mutual agreement
at any regular meeting of the board.
X . The board shall have general jurisdiction over the cutters’ apprentices in the
cloak, suit, and skirt industry in Greater New York from the time of entrance into
the industry until the attainment of the status of full journeyman cutter, including
the examination and certification of all candidates for apprenticeship or for admission
to the industry as cutters, and the enforcement of such rules and regulations as shall
be hereafter adopted. All applications for admission to apprenticeship shall be made
through the board.
X I. The following conditions governing grades of apprenticeship, length of service,
and minimum weekly wage shall prevail.

PROPOSED GRADES, DEFINITION, LENGTH OF SERVICE, AND MINIMUM
WEEKLY WAGE.

Grade 1.—Canvas cutter—grade A (rough canvas): This term is to mean the cutting
of canvas or percaline larger than the cloth, where the cloth is cut exact, leaving it to
the operator or finisher to trim the canvas exactly to the cloth after the stitching around
the seams. Period of service, 6 months; minimum weekly wage, $6.
Grade 2.— Canvas cutter— grade B (canvas exact): This term is to mean the cutting
of the canvas or percaline exactly to the pattern for those parts of the garment where
the class of material or the style of the garment require it. Period of service, 6 months;
minimum weekly wage, $9.
Graded.— Canvas cutter— grade C (full canvas cutter): This term is to mean that
the worker must be able to take the direction card with the lot of garments as cut
and cut the canvas or percaline required for the lot, according to the direction card.
Period of service, 6 months; minimum weekly wage, $12.

4

Grade .— Lining cutter— grade A: This term is to mean the cutting of linings upon
markers supplied by the trimmer. Period of service, 12 months; minimum weekly
wage, $14.
Grade 5.—Lining cutter—grade B: This term is to include the marking of linings and
the exact cutting of same, also the exact cutting of all outside trimmings. No appren­
tice of this grade shall be employed in any shop that does not also employ, at the
same time, a full journeyman mechanic in the trimming department. Period of
service, 12 months; minimum weekly wage, $17.




eekly

CUTTERS

Wage

FE
O

W

PLAN

P r o p o sed

# 30

APPRENTICESHIP

PROPOSED APPRENTICESHIP GRADES and WAGES
cloak, suit ; ANO SKIRT INOU&TRY
GREATER NEW YORK

I
N

rade

A

verage

175




INDUSTRY.

O u R a t io n

CLO
AK

G

176

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Grade 6.—Cloth cutter—grade A: This term is to mean the cutting of cloth upon
markers supplied by the cloth cutter. Period of service, 6 months; minimum weekly
wage, $18.
Grade 7 .— Cloth cutter—grade B: This term is to include the marking and cutting
of all cloth required for a garment. No apprentice of this grade shall be employed in
any shop that does not also employ, at the same time, a full journeyman cutter.
Period of service, 12 months; minimum weekly wage, $20.
X II. As soon as practicable after its organization, the board shall formulate and
announce arrangements for the examination and certification of all cutters now
employed in the industry or to be employed hereafter, and shall proceed to carry the
same into effect.
X III. The following rules and regulations shall govern the apprenticeship system
for cutters:
1. Applicants for admission to the trade as cutters’ apprentices must be not less than
sixteen (16) years of age. No applicant may be admitted to apprenticeship who has
passed his eighteenth (18th) birthday.
2. The board shall draft a suitable blank form of application for admission to the
trade as an apprentice of grade 1, which shall be filled out by each applicant. Each
such application must be indorsed by the prospective employer of the apprentice.
3. The board shall furnish to each successful applicant a certificate, valid in any
shop in the industry, permitting the holder to work as an apprentice cutter of grade 1.
Upon the submission by the holder of a grade 1 certificate of proof of six months’
service in grade 1, the board shall issue in exchange therefor a certificate permitting
the holder to work as an apprentice cutter of grade 2. Similarly, upon the submission
by the holder of a grade 2 certificate of proof of six months’ service in grade 2, the
board shall issue in exchange therefor a certificate permitting the holder to work as an
apprentice cutter of grade 3.
4. No apprentice shall be permitted to apply for an examination for entrance upon
grade 4 until after a minimum total period of service, in one or more shops, of 18
months.
5. Beginning with grade 3, there shall be an examination of each apprentice at
the completion of service in each grade, in order to authorize promotion into the
next grade. After such examination, the board shall furnish to each successful appli­
cant an appropriate certificate.
6. Beginning with grade 4, the board may permit a shortening of the proposed peri­
ods of service, to not less than a minimum of two-thirds ( f ) of the total time required,
for individuals of demonstrated exceptional ability; and shall require longer periods
of service than the maximums designated from individuals who show inability to
meet the requirements.
7. The board shall draft a suitable blank form of application for examination which
shall be filled out by each applicant, and shall determine the conditions under which
requests for examination will be granted.
8. No apprentice shall be employed on work of a grade higher than that for which
he holds a certificate issued by the board.
9. Provision shall be made in the industry, through the joint action of the parties
to this agreement, for a system of training supplementary to the work of the shops,
under the control of the board, for the purpose of facilitating and encouraging indi­
vidual advancement.
10. Whenever provision shall have been made for the establishment of a system
of supplementary training, the following principles shall govern the operation of the
same:
a. The work of the proposed school, or classes, shall be carried on principally during
the slack seasons.
b . The apprentice shall be required to pay into the treasury of the board a weekly
assessment, to be hereafter determined, during the period while he is employed.




A P P R E N T IC E S H IP P L A N FOE CUTTERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

177

c. The employer shall pay into the treasury of the board a weekly assessment^
to be hereafter determined, for each apprentice in his employ, during the period
while the apprentice is receiving instruction in the classes provided by the board.
d. The funds acquired by the treasury of the board, as provided herein, shall be
used toward defraying the necessary expenses incurred in the instruction of appren­
tices under its control.
e. The necessary expenses incurred in the instruction of apprentices by the board*
as provided herein, over and above the amounts received in assessments, shall be
defrayed by contributions from the parties to this agreement in equal proportions.
X IY . The employment of apprentices shall be subject to the following conditions:
1. The number of apprentices in any shop shall be determined by the number of
full journeymen cutters employed therein. The number of apprentices to which
any shop shall be entitled, therefore, shall vary with the season.
2. Any shop employing one (1) or more full journeymen cutters shall be entitled
to one apprentice of any grade.
3. Any shop employing six (6) or more full journeymen cutters shall be entitled
to two (2) apprentices.
4. Any shop employing nine (9) or more full journeymen cutters shall be entitled
to three (3) apprentices.
5. No shop shall be entitled to more than one (1) apprentice of the same grade
nor to more than a total of three (3) apprentices at any one time.
6. After the completion of his apprenticeship, the graduate apprentice shall not
be eligible to employment in the shop in which he completes his apprenticeship in
preference to other mechanics already employed therein.

PROPOSED FORM OF APPRENTICE CERTIFICATE.
A p p r e n t ic e C e r t i f i c a t e —grade

1.

No................

Canvas cutter—grade A.
JOINT BOARD OF EXAMINERS FOR CUTTERS’ APPRENTICES, CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT
INDUSTRY, GREATER NEW YORK.

Office, — West — th. St.

Telephone, Gramercy — .

Mr................................................................................................................................................... .
Address............................................................................................................................................
is entitled to work as an apprentice canvas cutter, grade A, while employed by
Address...........................................................................................................................................
Issued..............................1914.
............................................. Cleric.
N o t e . — The holder of this certificate is required to report weekly to the office of the joint board of
examiners.

Print certificates on stock approximately 3 by 5 inches, using a different color
for each grade of certificate.
Provide a suitable leather pocketbook in which to carry the certificate, similar
to the books in which traveling men carry railroad passes. The book should have
two flaps made of celluloid, under one of which the certificate should be slipped,
while under the other a photograph of the holder should be sewed.
Provide a copy of the “ Rules and regulations” in small booklet form, for insertion
in a pocket in the certificate book.
Print on the reverse side of the certificate the following notice:
N o t e . — The attention of the apprentice is directed to the circular of instructions containing extracts from
“ The rules and plan of procedure adopted by the joint board of examiners for cutters’ apprentices.”

49169°— Bull. 147— 15-------12




178

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

OUTLINE OF EXAMINATIONS SUGGESTED TO DETERMINE PROMOTIONS.

Examination at end of grade 3, for entrance into grade 41. State what is meant by cutting canvas in the rough.
2. State what is meant by cutting canvas exact.
3. State what parts of a jacket require canvas.
4. Describe two of these parts.
5. Describe the kinds of garments that require the cutting of canvas exact.
6. State what is meant by the foundation of a garment.
7. Without a direction card, how would you find out what canvas parts are required
in a garment?
8. Describe the parts of the canvas that are to be cut straight, and the parts that
are to be cut on the bias.
9. Practical test: Supply the candidate with a set of patterns, cutting tickets, and
the necessary materials. Required: To cut out the canvas exact for one pattern, six
up, according to instructions on the cutting ticket .

Examination at end of grade 4, for entrance into grade 5.
1. On a two-sized lay of silk, would you face the lining? Why?
2. What silks have a right side and a wrong side?
3. Upon receiving a single-sized marker, on the open, how would you lay up the
silk?
4. Practical test: Supply the candidate with a marker, cutting tickets, and the
necessary materials. Required: To lay up the goods ready for cutting.

Examination at end of grade 5 , for entrance into grade 6.
1. Describe the parts of the suit that are lined.
2. Describe what is meant by:
a. A full-lined garment.
b. A half-lined garment.
c. A yoke-lined garment.
3. Describe how you would cut the linings for:
a. A full-lined garment.
b. A half-lined garment.
c. A yoke-lined garment.
4. Describe what is meant by outside trimmings.
5. Describe how you would make a chart (or schedule) from the cutting tickets.
6. State several color schemes that provide satisfactory contrasts or combinations.
7. When is it necessary to use interlinings?
8. When is it necessary to use percaline?
9. Practical test: Supply the candidate with a set of patterns, cutting tickets,
direction card, and the necessary materials. Required: To draft a chart from the
cutting tickets, make a practical lay from the patterns and materials supplied, and a
practical demonstration of satisfactory color schemes.

Examination at end of grade 6, for entrance into grade 7.
1. Describe the different cloth parts of:
a. A jacket.
b. A skirt.
c. A cloak.
2. Describe the kinds of cloth that require to be cut in one direction only.
3. In cutting a garment on the open, when is it necessary to face the layers?
4. If the garment has a breast pocket, which side would you cut it in?
5. Practical test: Supply the candidate with marker, cutting tickets, and the
necessary materials. Required: To lay up the goods ready for cutting.




P L A N FOR EDUCATION OE W ORKERS I X

CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ,

179

Examination at end of grade 7, for status offull journeyman cutter.
Style N o. 745.
Shade.
Black.
Tan.
Brown.
Silver gray.

32

Shade.
Black.
Gray.
Mahogany.
New blue.

32

"i
l

34
1

1
1
i

36
'i
i
l

38
1
1
1
1

40

38
2
1

40

42

44

42

44
1

l
l

Style No. 745.
34

36
2

"i
*i
l

1

‘i
1

2

1

*i
l

'i

38
1
2

40

42

l

1

U
l

38
3
3
2
1

40

42
2
1

u
1

'i

Sty LE No. 745.
Shade.
Black.
Red.
Tan.

32

34

1

'i
1

Shade.
Black.
Blue.
Brown.
Green.

32
1
1
1

36
1
2
1

Style No. 745.
34

2
2
2
1

36
3
3
2
1

2
1
1

1. Given the foregoing orders: Make a chart, covering these orders, showing the
method by which you would cut out the sizes required with the greatest economy
of goods, together with the fewest number of markers.
2. A certain style of suit requires 3J yards of goods in size 36. Given a piece of
goods of 50 yards: How would you arrange your scale of 34, 36, 38, and 40 sizes in Order
to use up the piece to the best advantage?
3. Describe the effects produced by cutting velours with the nap, and against the
nap.
4. How would you proceed to make a shaded lay?
5. Practical test: Supply the candidate with a set of patterns, cutting tickets,
direction card, and the necessary materials, including plaids, striped goods, figured
goods, and chevrons. Required: To draft a chart from the cutting ticket; to make a
practical lay from the patterns and materials supplied; and to give a practical demon­
stration of the process of cutting a cloak or jacket with a longer or shorter waist than
the pattern given.

EDUCATION FOR THE WORKERS IN THE INDUSTRY.
The facts which have been set forth in the foregoing pages empha­
size two significant characteristics of pressers and cutters which must
be taken account of in any plans for education: (1) The workers
in these two occupations are predominantly a foreign-born nonEnglish-speaking group; (2) They are distinctively an adult group,
three-fourths of the cutters being 25 years of age or over, and threefourths of the pressers being 30 years of age or over. The impres­
sion gained from visits to numerous factories, and confirmed by
employers and union officials alike, is that these conditions are
characteristic of the entire industry. Aside from cutters, the num­
bers of American born, or of those who are under 20 years of age,
are almost negligible. With the exception of cutters, the industry
at the present time seems to depend almost entirely for its supply
of workers upon a stream of adult foreigners.



180

B U L L E T IN

OF TH E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The results of the inquiry as to the amount and character of school
training suggest that existing agencies are not contributing materi­
ally to the needs of these groups. Without doubt the explanation
of this fact is found not in the inadequacy or unsuitability of the
school facilities offered, but rather in human nature itself. Most of
the workers concerned have passed well beyond the period when
physical and intellectual plasticity afford conditions favorable to
growth. Habits have become fixed, the responsibilities of family
life have been assumed, aspiration and ambition are not what they
once were— in short, the path to further progress and development
is effectually blocked. It is scarcely necessary to point to the ex­
perience of evening schools everywhere which have been striving
for decades to provide all kinds of classes to meet all kinds of needs,
namely, that the great bulk of those who can and will avail them­
selves of educational opportunities are under 21 years of age.
Nevertheless, the industry is greatly in need of new types of
workers. One of the needs, as has been pointed out already, is
creative ability. Under the present system a large proportion of
the garments produced, and new styles developed, represent the
appropriation by the manufacturer of such ideas and suggestions,
originated by others, as his agents are able to utilize. A fine gar­
ment is purchased abroad, brought to New York, and copied, with
as many modifications and variations as the ingenuity of the designer
will permit. It is practically a kind of conventionalized piracy that
has attained to a certain status of respectability for the reason that
“ everybody is doing it.” What the industry needs is a new class
of workers— designers, cutters, tailors, etc.— who are able not only
to adjust themselves to rapidly changing styles and turn readily
and skillfully from the construction of one kind of garment to another,
but also to originate and execute new ideas.
A second and equally important need is for workers possessing a
higher degree of artistic temperament and appreciation, since the
possession of the artistic quality of style means the difference between
success and failure. The decision as to the lines of a garment is too
often left to men who have no conception of the rules of design or
the principles of art; the responsibility for choosing and adapting
color schemes is frequently intrusted to those who lack even a rudi­
mentary understanding of color harmony; and the details of orna­
mentation are often worked out with no more intelligence and
esthetic appreciation than is required to manipulate a patchwork
puzzle. Too much reliance is placed on rules of thumb and formulas
whose meaning and derivation are quite beyond the comprehension
of those who resort to them.
The obvious remedy, and the only remedy, for these conditions
is more and better training for the workers. The requisite skill in




PL A N FOE EDUCATION OF W ORKERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

181

■workmanship, artistic appreciation, and creative ability can be
secured in no other way. It is equally obvious that very little can
be accomplished in these directions by attempting to transform adult
workers. Something can be done that is worth while, perhaps, but
the hope of the industry is in the training of younger workers than
those who constitute the vast majority in this industry. An effort
must be made to find all those who are still young enough to be
susceptible to the influence of training and to concentrate attention
upon them.
The industry has undergone a significant evolution during the
past 10 or 15 years, because of the tremendous increase in the de­
mand for ready-made garments. The perfection of manufacturing
processes, the development of factory organization, and the econo­
mies of large scale production have now made available for the great
mass of the people garments of quality and serviceability that 25
years ago were within the reach of only the wealthy. It is very
difficult to realize the enormous expansion in the volume of business
that has taken place in recent years. The ready-made garment made
its first appeal to the wearer of cheap clothing, and the product was
inferior to that of the custom tailor both in materials and workman­
ship. With the development of the industry, however, the manu­
facturer has not only improved his product but he has steadily
striven for higher and higher classes of customers. Some of the best
designers and mechanics in the business are now in the employ of the
better-grade cloak and suit manufacturers. The product of some
of these factories contains materials of as high quality as the market
affords, and the operatives who make the garments represent skill
of as high grade as any at the command of the custom tailor. Since
the differences in quality of material and workmanship have been so
largely done away with, practically the only things that the custom
tailor can supply his patron that can not be had from the manufac­
turer of ready-made garments are a certain exclusiveness and a kind
of personal service. Even the advantage of exclusiveness is of short
duration, in many cases, for the enterprising designer readily and
promptly copies new ideas that give promise of becoming popular.
This invasion of the field of the medium and high priced garment,
however, has created a real demand for workers with higher degrees
of skill, and more of them. The industry faces the possibility of
reaching the upper limits of development at an early date unless a
supply of better-trained workers can be assured. Hence, the impor­
tance of the proposed scheme for apprenticeship and industrial train­
ing can be readily appreciated.
That development along the lines suggested is in the interests of the
workers, as well as of the manufacturers, requires no demonstration.
Increase in the qualifications referred to means direct and positive




182

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

increase in efficiency, and corresponding increase in earning capacity.
If the industry is to rise to higher levels of artistic service and com­
mercial success it can only be through suitable recognition of the
importance of the worker’s contribution toward that consummation.
COMMISSION ON INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.

With due appreciation of the growing need for action, the unions
and the manufacturers’ association, in January, 1914, authorized the
creation of a commission on industrial education, which should con­
sider the problem and propose some solution. It was agreed that
this commission should consist of nine members, three appointed by
each of the two parties to the protocol, and three appointed by the
board of arbitration. As a first step the board of arbitration was
authorized to direct the bureau of statistics, which is responsible for
this present study, to prepare in definite form proposals looking
toward the development of a plan for the industrial and supple­
mentary training of workers and apprentices. The following outline
of the details of a plan for a part-time and factory school is presented
in compliance with these instructions. The accompanying chart
shows the proposed plan of organization and control.
PROPOSED PART-TIME AND FACTORY SCHOOL.
U n i t s o f F i v e W e e k s .— Inspection of the figures collected in the
study of wage statistics indicating the seasonal fluctuations in the
industry shows that there are two periods each year, each several
weeks in length, during which large numbers of employees are thrown
out of work. In accordance with the provision of the apprenticeship
agreement, the basis of the factory school is made two 10-week
periods, so arranged as to coincide with the periods of highest unem­
ployment. It is proposed, therefore, to operate a factory school for
10 weeks, from November 15 to February 1, and 10 weeks, from May 1
to July 15, in four units of 5 weeks each.
It is proposed, further, to operate a part-time school for 25 weeks,
in 5 periods of 5 weeks each. Since the two parts of the plan together
contemplate 45 weeks of school, there remain 7 weeks of vacation to
complete the year. From the standpoint of both employers and
employees the most favorable time to interrupt the school work is at
the height of the busy season, when teachers and apprentices alike
are most needed in the productive work of the factories. The seven,
weeks of vacation are divided, therefore, and three weeks are placed
at the height of the spring season, and four weeks at the height of the
fall season. The accompanying chart shows the program for the
year by weeks and units, and the relation to seasonal fluctuations on







PLAN

OF

ORGANIZATION

By

and

CONTROL

for

INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

JOINT AGREEMENT

J o in t B o a r d of A f f i l i a t e d L o c a l U n i o n s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a d i e s ’ G a r m e n t W o r k e r s * U n i o n
and

C l o a k , S u it , a n d S k i r t M a n u f a c t u r e r s 9 P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n

GREATER NEW YORK

JOINT COMMISSION

o n

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION

3 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s E a c h o f : U n i o n s ; A s s o c i a t i o n ; P u b l ic

Teachers
of:
Industrial
Subjects
Related
Subjects
General
Subjects

Coarse
of Study
Units erf 5 Wks
Oull Seasons
Nov IS-Feb 1
May l-Jul (5

Special
Teachers
and
Lecturers

Units Based on
7 Grades of
Apprenticeship

Foreman
of
factory
Qept

Units Offered at
Any Given Time
Based on
Demand and
facilities
Each Unit
M ust Include:
Industrial,
, Related,
and General
Subjects

49169°— Bull. 147— 15.

(To face page 182.)

Industrial
Subjects
Processes

Specified in
Apprenticeship
Plan
Also Drafting
G ra d in g , Etc

Related
Subjects

General

English
Freehand and
Mech Drawing Mathematics
Color Study ' Bookkeeping
Textiles
Indus, history
Indus. Geog.
Sources of
Indus.Hygiene
Materials

Based on
Use of Modern
Actual Factory
Appliances
Productive
Production and
Work
Distribution
Costs
Emphasis on
Modern factory
Educational
Methods
Value of all
Processes

R e gu la tio n

Trade
Agreements
Collective
Bargaining
Citizenship

Adjusted
to Seasons
Units Based on
7 Grades of
Apprenticeship
Units Offered at
Any GivenTime
Based on
Demand and
facilities
Each Unit.
Must Include:
Related
and General
Subjects

M aterials

Product

Mutual
Agreement
on Rul&is

Subjects

Raw Materials
Purchased
in Market

Sold at
Market
Value

Governing

See A n alysis
under
Factory School

or Furnished
Operation! of
by Members
Factory and
of A ss n on
Disposition
Conditions
of Produict
Specified

or Absorbed
By Members
of Assn on
Conditions
Specified

Recommendation
of Graduates
for
Certification

Receipts

Examination
Classification

Certification
Expenditures

Follow-Up Plan
To Remove
C a u se s of
Complaint

Individual
Advancement
in the
Industry
Prom otion
of Interests

of Workers




P L A N FOR EDUCATION OF W O RKERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

183

the basis of pay-roll data secured from 60 shops for the year August,
1912, to July, 1913.
S c h o o l D a y . — The program of the factory school provides for 8
hours’ work daily from Mondays to Fridays, with morning sessions
from 9 to 12, and afternoon sessions from 1 to 4, and morning sessions
on Saturdays from 9 to 12. The plan of the part-time school proposes
that each apprentice shall go to school for one session of 3 hours each
week for a period of 25 weeks.
A

t t e n d a n c e .—

T he

a p p r e n tic e s

who

a tt e n d

th e

fa c t o r y

sch ool

m a y o r m a y n o t b e th e s a m e o n e s w h o a tt e n d t h e p a r t -t i m e s c h o o l.
T h is is a m a t t e r to b e d e te r m in e d , w ith o th e r s , w h e n th e fin a l d e ta ils
are s e t t le d .

T h e w o r k o f th e fa c t o r y s c h o o l c o u ld b e d e sig n e d fo r

a p p r e n tic e s m o s t in n e e d o f tr a in in g , w h ile th o s e w h o are m o r e p r o ­
fic ie n t c o u ld b e p r o v id e d fo r b y th e p a r t -t i m e u n its .
a tt e n d a n c e u p o n

c la sses,

a n d s a t is fa c t o r y

c o m p le t io n

In a n y ev en t,
o f th e w o r k

a s s ig n e d , s h o u ld c o u n t as fu lfillm e n t o f a d e fin ite ly r e c o g n iz e d p o r tio n
o f a p p r e n tic e s h ip se r v ic e .
P a y m e n t w h i l e i n S c h o o l . — The question of the payment of
apprentices for a part or all of the time spent in school attendance
should be taken up for settlement by the parties to the agreement.
FACTORY SCHOOL.

C o u r s e o f S t u d y . — It is proposed that the apprentice shall devote
one-half of his school time to productive shopwork and the necessary
instruction in industrial processes connected therewith, one-fourth to
related subjects, and one-fourtli to general subjects. The work is to
be arranged in units of 5 weeks, based on the 7 grades of apprentice­
ship provided for. The units to be offered at any given time will
naturally depend upon the grades of apprenticeship represented by
those applying for instruction, and upon the facilities afforded by the
school organization. Each unit of the course of study must include
work in: (1) Industrial subjects; (2) Related subjects; (3) Gen­
eral subjects. The general content of the fields included under these
heads is indicated in the following paragraphs:
P r o g r a m , — The program is arranged so that two sections of
apprentices work in the factory one-lialf of each day throughout the
week, while two other sections devote the other half days throughout
the week to related subjects and general subjects. This arrangement
may continue through the 5 weeks, or it may be reversed on alternate
weeks. (See “ Teachers’ schedules,” p. 189.)
I n d u s t r i a l S u b j e c t s .— T h e se in c lu d e in s tr u c tio n t h a t d e a ls w it h
a n d is d ir e c tly b a s e d u p o n th e p ro ce sse s sp e c ifie d in th e a p p r e n tic e ­
sh ip p la n .

I t s h o u ld in c lu d e

a lso in s tr u c tio n in th e d r a ft in g

and

g r a d in g o f p a t te r n s , as w e ll as o th e r p r o ce sse s n o t s p e c ific a lly m e n ­
tio n e d ,

b u t e s se n tia l to




th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e sk ille d w o r k m a n .

184

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

For the conduct of this part of the instruction the school is to be
organized as a factory for actual productive work. Arrangements
will be made by which members of the association will send in work
to be done which will furnish the apprentices with practical problems
such as arise in the regular course of business. While the school
shopwork is to be organized on a factory basis, and every effort made
to secure the highest possible standards of workmanship and effi­
ciency, nevertheless the emphasis must be always on the educational
value of the process and the advancement of the apprentice.
The productive work of the school factory is to be under the direc­
tion of a shop foreman, while a teacher of industrial subjects will be
in charge of the instruction, and both will be responsible to the
director. It will be necessary to select the shop foreman and the
teacher of industrial subjects with a view to their ability to work
together in sympathetic and hearty cooperation, on the basis of
clearly defined principles worked out in conference with the director.
R e l a t e d S u b j e c t s . — By these are meant subjects of study di­
rectly related to the industrial processes carried on in the factory.
The work in pattern drafting and grading should have a thorough
grounding in the elements of freehand and mechanical drawing, and
through appropriate study of color and textiles provision should be
made for improvements in taste and esthetic appreciation, the ne­
cessity for which has already been pointed out. The sources of the
important materials used in the industry should be made the subject
of careful study. Attention should be given to the possibility of
raising the standards of efficiency by the use of modern factory
appliances and inventions, by a scientific study of production and
distribution costs, and by the improvement of factory methods.
G e n e r a l S u b j e c t s . — The plan here outlined does not contem­
plate a training confined to wage-earning capacity exclusively. The
course of study has been projected under the influence of the convic­
tion that the worker is first of all a man and a citizen, and as such
has certain duties, obligations, and privileges of which he must be
made aware. The importance of industrial efficiency is not neg­
lected nor minimized, but it is considered in its relation to the whole
life of the individual.
For this reason it is insisted that due regard must be paid to general
subjects in an educational plan for any industry, in order to insure
that minimum of intelligent understanding of civic and social, as well
as industrial conditions and tendencies that an enlightened public
opinion deems essential to the proper development of our American
civilization. In order to provide for this supplementary training
it is proposed that one-fourth of the school time shall be devoted to
the thoughtful and carefully directed consideration of pertinent topics
selected from the fields of industrial history, industrial geography,




ANALYSIS Or TRADE AGREEMENT
CLOAK, SUIT, AND SK IR T IN D U S T R Y
GREATER N E W YO RK

49169°— Bull. 147— 15.




(To face page 193.)




P L A N FOE ED UCATION OF W O RKERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

185

and industrial and personal hygiene. For many of the workers this
kind of study must be preceded, or at least accompanied, by a certain
amount of drill in the English language, and a grounding in the ele­
ments of mathematics and bookkeeping. The exercises in language
work and the problems in mathematics and bookkeeping should be
such as naturally arise in the industry, at least until sufficient interest
has been aroused to carry the study further.
The importance of the labor organization in this industry, and the
fact that the stability of the industry rests in large measure upon the
successful direction of the growing tendency to pool interests on
both sides, emphasize the necessity for an understanding of the
principles of trade agreements and collective bargaining. These
topics should have an important place in the curriculum of the indus­
trial school.
Finally, those topics that deal with social and political relation­
ships, and that have to do with appreciation of the spirit and the
ideals of American democracy, for convenience comprehended under
the inclusive term “ citizenship,” represent a phase of education that
is of special significance in an industry whose workers are to such a
large extent foreign born. Not only the future of this industry but
the future of the commonwealth is threatened if suitable provision
be not made for assisting these thousands of newcomers to adjust
themselves to American conditions.
PART-TIME SCHOOL.

C o u r s e o f S t u d y . — Since the plan provides that the apprentice
shall spend three hours weekly in school while employed the remain­
der of the week in a factory, it is not necessary to provide for pro­
ductive shopwork in the part-time school. One-half of the time is
to be devoted to subjects directly related to the factory work, and
one-half to general subjects, the general character of these groups
of subjects being the same as already described under the factory
school. The plan proposes 25 weeks of part-time schooling per year
for each apprentice enrolled, but it can be modified quite readily so
as to provide a shorter school year or term.
P r o g r a m . — The time is to be divided between related subjects and
general subjects by dividing each three-hour period into two parts,
or by assigning the groups of subjects to alternate weeks.
R e g u l a t i o n o f F a c t o r y D e p a r t m e n t . — It will be necessary for
the commission, or for the parties to the agreement in some other
way, to reach mutual agreement on rules and regulations governing
the operation of the factory department of the school and the dispo­
sition of the product. It should be arranged that raw materials
needed shall be purchased in the market, or furnished by members
of the association on conditions specified. In the same manner,




186

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the product should be sold at market value, or absorbed by members
of the association on conditions specified.
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f G r a d u a t e s .— It should be the duty of the
director of the school to send to the joint commission on industrial
education from time to time the names of apprentices who have
successfully completed the various portions of the course of study as
outlined, with the recommendation that they be duly examined for
certification to the next higher grade.
CERTIFICATION OF APPRENTICES.

Certificates of apprenticeship should be issued by the joint com­
mission on industrial education, through its secretary, rather than
by the school in order to invest them with somewhat more of dig­
nity and importance. These documents should be recognized as
important and valuable credentials, intrinsically worth striving for.
The board, therefore, should have direct charge of the examining
of apprentices, classifying them into grades, and issuing apprentice­
ship certificates.
The secretary of the board should also be charged with devising a
follow-up plan, for keeping track of apprentices in the factories, and
discovering and removing causes of complaints. It should be his
duty to assist the individual apprentice in every way possible in his
efforts toward advancement in the industry, and to promote the inter­
ests of the worker by advice and suggestion, not only to the worker
but to the employer and to the director of the school.
FINANCIAL ORGANIZATION.
R e c e i p t s . — The financial organization of the school is shown in
outline in the accompanying diagram. The sources of income may be
classified as follows:
1. It is proposed to request the board of education of the city of
New York to detail certain teachers to assist in the school. The sal­
aries of such teachers will represent a contribution from this source.
2. Assessments paid by apprentices and employers.
3. It is anticipated that occasions will arise when quantities of
material in the form of remnants or otherwise may be available for
the use of the school at a considerable reduction from their original
value. The difference between the actual value of the goods and the
amount paid will constitute a contribution from this source.
4. Whatever is realized from the disposition of the product of the
factory department will be credited on the books of the school.
5. Miscellaneous receipts and contributions.
6. Contributions from the unions and the manufacturers’ associa­
tion. Each of the two parties to the agreement is to bear one-half
of the net operating expense.




ADJUSTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL TO SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS
CLOAK, SUIT, AND SKIRT INDUSTRY
GREATER NEW YORK

FEB

M onth

MCH

I I

I I

Pa r t -T i m e

Pa r t - T im e
U n it

5 Weeks

3 Weeks




MAY

I I I I

JUNE

AUG

I I

1 Weeks
0

i m

A Weeks

i i i i i m
25

30

DEC

NOV

5 Weeks

I I I I II
35

JAN

11111111111111
Part -T im e

Pa r t -T im e S c h o o l

5 Weeks

20

OCT

SEPT

I I

Ta c t o r y S c h o o l

1
5

(To face page 184.)

JULY

I I I I

i i i i i i i i

W eek

49169°— Bull. 147— 15.

A P R IL

I II
40

Fa c t o r y S c h o o l

5 W e ek s

II

I I
45

P L A N FOR EDUCATION OF W ORKERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

187

E x p e n d i t u r e s . — The expenditures will be limited to those neces­
sary for the rental of space, equipment, and operation of the school,
and the equipment and maintenance of the office of the board. Tho
receipts will pass to the secretary and will be transmitted by him
to the treasurer. Expenditures will be made by the treasurer on
vouchers drawn by the secretary and countersigned by the chairman
of the board.
B u d g e t .— The following budget represents an estimate of the
necessary minimum of expenditures for the first year. After the first
year the item of $1,250 for equipment will be eliminated. It is im­
possible to offer anything better than a guess as to the amount that
might be realized from the disposition of the product or from miscel­
laneous contributions.

BUDGET FOR INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
Salaries:
Director......................................................................................................
Shop foreman, 20 weeks, at $40............................................................
Teacher of industrial subjects, 20 weeks............................................
Teacher of related subjects, 45 weeks.................................................
Teacher of general subjects, 45 weeks............................................
Secretary to the director, 52 weeks, at $25.......................................
Stenographer and clerk, 52 weeks, at $20..........................................

$4, 500
800
800
1, 800
1, 800
1, 300
1, 040
$12, 040

Rental:
Space for factory school, fully equipped, 20 weeks, at $25.
Space for part-time school. 25 weeks, at $25.........................

500
625
1,125

Equipment:
For part-time school—
Teachers’ desks and chairs................
Tables for writing and study, for 30.
Chairs, for 30..........................................
Tables for drafting, for 15...................
Drafting boards, instruments, etc...
Textbooks, lesson sheets....................
Blackboards...........................................
Supplies............................ ....................
For office—
Desks, chairs..........................................
Typewriter.............................................
Mimeograph, for duplicating..............
Filing cabinets......................................

750

500
1,250

Printing:
Office forms......................
Record card filing forms.
Lesson sheets....................
Examination questions..
Certificates........................
Incidentals................................




300

285
585
15, 000

188

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

CAPACITY OF SCHOOL.
F a c t o r y S c h o o l . — The classes should be limited in size to 15
apprentices to each teacher. With the instructional staff as pro­
posed, the progjam will permit 60 apprentices to be accommodated
at one time. The teacher of related subjects and the teacher of
general subjects will each have a section of 15 apprentices, while the
shop foreman and the teacher of industrial subjects will together
have charge of a double section of 30. Ity an exchange of sections
between morning and afternoon sessions each section will be given
the three lines of work required.
If each section of apprentices is limited to 5 weeks of instruction,
the 20 weeks of factory school will provide accommodations for four
sections of 60 each, or 240 apprentices during the year. Of these, it is
suggested that 120 be apprentice cutters and 120 apprentice pressers.
If the four units of instruction suggested are planned in such a way
as to cover the ground of the first six grades of the apprenticeship
plan outlined on page 174, and one of these units offered to the appren­
tice in each of the first four years of his apprenticeship, it would mean
that the factory school, when once in full operation, would have a
capacity of 30 graduate apprentice cutters and 30 graduate apprentice
pressers each }7
ear.
P a r t - t i m e S c h o o l . — The instructional staff for the part-time school
includes only the teacher of related subjects and the teacher of general
subjects, in addition to the director. Since each apprentice is to receive
only one-half day (three hours) of instruction, each teacher can
accommodate two sections of 15 each daily, or, together, 60 per day.
In a week of 5| days, therefore, provision is made for 330 apprentices.
Of these, it is suggested that 150 be apprentice cutters, 150 apprentice
pressers, and that special sections be provided for 30 girls employed
as finishers, cleaners, basters, etc.
If the term of 25 weeks be considered as a unit,, and one such unit
be offered for each of the 5 years of the apprenticeship, the part-time
school, when in full operation, will have a capacity of 30 graduate
apprentice cutters and 30 graduate apprentice pressers each year.
The following summary shows the number of hours of instruction
provided in the proposed units.
SUMMARY

of h o ur s

o f in s t r u c t io n

.

Hours of instruction in—
Subjects.

5 weeks’
course in fac­
tory school.

Industrial subjects.........................................

82J

Related subjects.............................................
General subjects.............................................

41i
4ii-




25 weeks7
course in
part-time
school.
(Work in
factory.)
37i
37i

189

PL A N FOE EDUCATION OF W ORKERS IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y .

Whether the amount of time allowed is enough to accomplish all
that may be desired, or whether the two parts of the plan (the factory
school and the part-time school) can be made of substantially equal
value to apprentices, are questions that can be answered satisfactorily
only after a careful trial has been made and the results studied. It
may be found desirable, for example, to employ the teacher of
industrial subjects during the 25 weeks of the part-time school, and
to arrange for him a schedule of visits to the factories where appren­
tices are employedy in order to s}^stematize the instruction in the
industrial processes.
A p p r e n t i c e s h i p P l a n f o r P r e s s e r s . — In explanation, it should
be said at this point that the plan contemplates the formulation of an
apprenticeship system for pressers correlative to that outlined on
pages 174 to 176 for cutters.
The following schedule indicate the arrangement of hours of
instruction and the classes assigned to each teacher for the factory
school and the part-time school, respectively. Each section, A, B,
C, D, etc., is understood to consist of not more than 15 apprentices.
TEACH ERS’ SCHEDULES.

FACTORY SCHOOL.

9to 12___
1 to 4

Monday. Tuesday. Wednes­
day.

Staff.

Hours.

(Shop foreman...............................
ITeacher of industrial subjects..
i Teacher of related subjects.......
(Teacher of general subjects.......
(Shop foreman...............................
ITeacher of industrial subjects..
1Teacher of related subjects.......
[Teacher of general subjects.......

A
B

c

D

c

D
A
B

Thurs­
day.

Friday.

A
B
D

A
B

A
B
D

A
B

D
B
A

D
A
B

D
B
A

D
A
B

1
J
K
L

M
N
0
P

Satur­
day.

Q
R
S
T

c

c
c

c
c

D

c

A

B

c

D

c

D

c

PART-TIM E SCHOOL.
/Teacher of related subjects.......
\Teacher of general subjects.......
/Teacher of related subjects.......
\Teacher of general subjects.......

A
B

c

D

E
F
G
H

The following table shows the numbers of apprentices, by grades,
for which accommodations will be provided when the industrial
school is in full operation.
NUM BERS OF APPRENTICES PROVIDED FOR AND GRADES R EPR E SEN TE D .
Factory school.

Part-time school.

Grades.
Cutters.
1, 2, 3......................................................................................
4 ..............................................................................................
5 ..............................................................................................
6 ..............................................................................................
7 ..............................................................................................
Special class for finishers, etc. (girls)..............................
Total.......................................................................




Pressers,,

Cutters.

Pressers.

45
30
15
15
15

45
30
15
15
15

60
45
15
15
15

60
45
15
15
15

120

120

150

150

Special.

30
30

190

B U L L E T IN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

PER CAPITA COSTS.

Without taking into account the probable reduction in the cost of
running the industrial school through the various sources of income
already enumerated, a budget of $15,000 for 45 weeks gives a weekly
estimated expense of $333.33. Since the factory school accommo­
dates 60 apprentices, the weekly cost per apprentice is $5.55; and for
the unit of 5 weeks the cost for instruction is $27.75 for each appren­
tice enrolled.
The part-time school accommodates 330 apprentices, consequently
the weekly cost per apprentice is $1.01; and since each apprentice is
to receive 25 weeks of instruction, the cost is $25.25 for each appren­
tice enrolled.
A s s e s s m e n t s .— The apprenticeship agreement proposes that each
employer shall pay into the treasury of the commission on industrial
education a weekly assessment for each apprentice during the period of
instruction in the industrial school and that each apprentice shall pay
a weekly assessment while employed in any factory. Both the em­
ployer and the apprentice will be directly benefited by the work of the
industrial school and therefore should contribute something toward
its maintenance. Each is more likely to assume an attitude of interest
and helpful cooperation toward an enterprise to the support of which
he is making some financial contribution, however small.
RELATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL TO THE PROTOCOL.

The accompanying diagram shows in outline the relation of the pro­
posed industrial school and the joint commission on industrial educa­
tion to the protocol, which was signed September 2, 1910. The par­
ties to the agreement are: The joint board of affiliated local unions
of the International Ladies* Garment Workers7Union, and the Cloak,
Suit, and Skirt Manufacturers’ Protective Association.
Under the terms of the protocol there have been set up two agencies
dealing with specific classes of industrial problems:
1. The joint board of sanitary control, consisting of ‘ £two nomi­
nees of the manufacturers, two nominees of the unions, and three who
are to represent the public.7 The organization of the board includes
7
a director, an assistant medical examiner, a staff of inspectors, and
clerks.
2. The board of arbitration, consisting of ‘ 1one nominee of the manu­
facturers, one nominee of the unions, and one representative of the
public.” The organization provides for a secretary, a board of griev­
ances, clerks of the board of grievances, and deputy clerks.




PL A N FOE EDUCATION OF W ORKEES IN CLOAK IN D U ST R Y ,

191

It is now proposed to adopt an amendment to the protocol which
shall provide for the establishment of a third agency correlative with
the ones just mentioned:
3.
The joint commission on industrial education, consisting of three
nominees of the manufacturers, three nominees of the unions, and
three representatives of the public, at least one of whom shall be a
member of the board of education of Greater New York and one an
expert in industrial education. The organization of the commission
provides for a secretary, to have charge of finance and the certification
of apprentices, and a director, who is to be responsible for the manage­
ment of the industrial school and the factory department.










FIN A N CIA L ORGANIZATION
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

IN t h e

CLOAK, SUIT,

and

GREATER NEW YORK

49169°— Bull. 147— 15.

(To face page 186.)

SKIRT INOUSTRY




INDEX.
Page.
Age at entering the industry and number of years in the industry of cutters and pressers............... 150-154
Age, country of birth, and conjugal condition of cutters and pressers..................................................... 145-149
All productive labor, seasonal fluctuations of employment for, as shown by weekly pay rolls:
Boston.............................................................................................................................................................
73-76
New York City.............................................................................................................................................
17,18
Amount of weekly pay roll. (See Pay rolls.)
Apprentices, certification of, proposed............................................................................................................
186
Apprentices, per capita cost of instructing, in proposed factory school..................................................
190
Apprenticeship for cutters.......................................................................................................................... 120,172-179
Apprenticeship for pressers................................................................................................................................ 128,129
Arbitration, board of, action of, in regard to proposed changes in protocol...........................................
8,9
Association and nonassociation shops, New York City:
Earnings, average weekly, of cutters and pressers in...........................................................................
68
Seasonal fluctuations in employment in.................................................................................................
56-67
Association shops:
Earnings, actual, of 312 week workers in Boston shops....................................................................... 103-105
Earnings, annual, of week workers in Boston shops............................................................................ 105-107
Earnings, comparative, of workers in Boston and New York shops................................................ 107,108
Earnings, weekly, in Boston shops, by occupations............................................................................
76-83
Earnings, weekly, in New York shops, by occupations......................................................................
21-30
Earnings, weekly, of week workers in 21 occupations in 90 New York shops................................
18,19
Employing capacity of shops and variation in employment in 90 New York shops....................
39-41
Number of employees per week in Boston shops, by occupations....................................................
76-83
Number of employees per week in New York shops, by occupations..............................................
21-30
Opportunity for permanent employment in 90 New York shops, by occupations... 11,12,34-38,41-49
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings in Boston shops, by occupations. 94-103
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings in 90 New York shops, by occu­
pations.........................................................................................................................................................
32-38
93,94
Seasonal fluctuations in Boston and New York pay rolls compared................................................
Seasonal fluctuations in employment and earnings in, by occupations, Boston............................
76-93
Seasonal fluctuations in employment and earnings in, by occupations, New York C ity...........
19-38
Seasonal fluctuations in weekly payrolls for all productive labor and for week workers only,
in Boston shops..................................................................................................................................... .
73-76
71-73
Wages and hours of labor before and after signing the protocol,in Boston shops........................
Week work, proportion of, in larger shops, Boston..............................................................................
73
Assorters, work and wages of............................................................................................................................
118
Basters:
Earnings of, average yearly, based on greatest number employed at any season and on number
actually employed during year, New York City................................... 1.........................................
49
Earnings possible for, as shown by pay rolls, New York City...........................................................
36,37
Effect of protocol upon wages of, Boston................................................................................................
72
Number actually employed, compared with equivalent number of full-time workers, New
York City..............................................................................................................................................
39,40,46
Number and pay rolls of, by weeks, in association shops, New York City.....................................
25,27
Number employed each classified number of weeks.....................................1..................................... 39,102
Number of shops in which employed during year................................................................................
133
Opportunity of, for earnings, New York City........................................................................................
36,37
Opportunity of, for employment, New York City..........................................................................
46,47,49
Rates of wages of.............................................................................................................................. 9,36,37,72,127
Seasonal demand for, New York City....................................................................................................
36,37
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by number employed per week and by
weekly pay rolls. New York City................................................................. *
............................... 25,27,30-32
Work and wages of....................................................................................................................................... 126,127
Birth, country of: age, and conjugal condition of cutters and pressers................................................... 145-149
Board of arbitration:
Action of, in regard to proposed changes in protocol, New York City............................................
8,9
Results of preliminary investigation submitted to...............................................................................
9,10
Boston and New York shops:
Earnings of workers in, compared........................................................................................................
107,108
Seasonal fluctuations in pay rolls of, compared............................................................................. .......
93,94
Boston, week workers in the industry in....................................................................................................... 69-108
Bushelers, work of...............................................................................................................................................
125
Busiest week, pay roll for, compared with that for dullest, all productive labor, New York City.......
11
Busy and dull seasons, as shown by report...................................................................................... 10,11,17,18,75
Buttonhole makers, work o f .............................................................................................................................
125
Canvas cutters. (See Cutters.)
Certification of apprentices, proposed.............................................................................................................
186
Cleaners:
Earnings possible for, as shown by pay rolls..........................................................................................
99
Effect of protocol upon wages of, Boston................................................................................................
72
Maximum number required during busiest week and number and per cent employed 40 to 52
w eeks.........................................................................................................................................................
101
Number and pay rolls of, by weeks.........................................................................................................
83
Number employed each classified number of weeks.............................................................................
102
Rates of wages of........................................................................................................................................ 9,72,125
Seasonal demand for,, and possible earnings of......................................................................................
99
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by number employed per week and by
weekly pay rolls........................................................................................................................................
83
Work and wages of.......................................................................................................................................
125

49169°— Bull. 147— 15------ 13




193

194

IND EX.

Commission on industrial education..............................................................................................................
182
Conference, joint, proposition submitted to, by unions..............................................................................
7; 8
Conjugal condition, age, and country of birth of cutters and pressers..................................................... 145-149
Cutters:
Ability of, in use of English and other languages................................................................... 164-169,171,172
Age at entering and number of years in industry................................................................................. 150-154
Age, country of birth, and conjugal condition of.................................................................................. 145-149
Apprenticeship of.................................................................................................................................. 120,172-179
Comparative study of pressers and......................................................................................................... 130-172
Conjugal condition and number of children........................................................................... 148,149,169,170
Earnings of, average weekly, in association and nonassociation shops............................................
68
Earnings of, average yearly, based on greatest number employed at any season and on number
actually employed ‘during year. New York City...................v
.................................................._____
12,49
Earnings of, in Boston and New York shops, compared....................................................................
108
Earnings possible for, as shown by pay rolls........................................................................ 34,35,43,49,54,95
Effect of protocol upon wages of, Boston................................................................................................
72
Foreign born, years in the United States of, by age groups...............................................................
155
Individual records of.................................................................................................................................... 142-145
Length of time in the industry.......................................................................................................... 151,153,154
Length of time in the United States before entering the industry.................................................... 156-158
Length of time of foreign born, in the United States...........................................................................
155
Mobility of...................................................................................................................................................... 131-134
Number actually employed, compared with equivalent number of full-time workers................. 39,40,46
Number and pay rolls of, by weeks....................................................................................... 21,22,50,51,76,77
Number employed each classified number of weeks................................................... .. 39,44,45,67,100,102
Number, estimated, in cloak, suit, and skirt industry, New York City.........................................
130
Number of shops in which employed during year...................................! ............................................ 132,134
Number required for a full year and additional number required for specified shorter periods..
45,54
Number required, maximum, during busiest week and number and per cent employed 40 to
52 weeks.......................................................................................................................................................
101
Opportunity of, for earnings.................................................................................................... 34,35,43,49,54,95
Opportunity of, for employment....................................................................................................... 41-49,54,67
Permanent employment among, extent of..............................................................................................
11,12
Previous occupation of................................................................................................................................ 158-160
Rates of wages of.................................................................................. 9,29,34,35,43,54, 72,95,108,120,142-145
School attendance of.................................................................................................................................... 161-164
Seasonal demand for....................................................................................................................... 32-35,43,54,95
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by number employed per week..................... 21,22,
29,31,33,42,50,51
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by weekly pay rolls......................................... 21,22,
29,32,50,51,59,60, 76,77,85,86
Unemployment of....................................................................................................................................... . 134,135
Wage scales of, in Boston and New York, compared.............................................................. ............
108
Work, tools, wages, etc., of......................................................................................................................... 114-120
Cutters and pressers, comparative study of................................................................................ .................. 130-172
Cutters, skirt. (See Cutters.)
Cutters, suit. (See Cutters.)
Day’s work, standard, for cutters....................................................................................................................
120
Designers, work, qualifications, and wages of............................................................................................... 111-114
Draper girls, work and wages of.......................................................................................................................
125
Dull and busy seasons, as shown by report...................................................................................... 10,11,17,18, 75
Dullest week, pay roll for, compared with that for busiest, all productive labor.................................
11
Duplications, elimination of....................................................................................................................... 11,12,41-49
Earnings:
Actual, of 312 week workers in Boston shops........................................................................................ 103-105
Annual, of week workers in Boston shops.............................................................................................. 105-107
Average weekly, of cutters and pressers compared..................................................... ........................
68
Average yearly, based on greatest number employed at any season and on number actually
employed during year, New York City...............................................................................................
12,49
Comparative, of workers in Boston and New York shops.................................................................. 107,108
Effect of fluctuations in employment on.................................................................................................
12
Opportunities for, and seasonal demand for employees, by occupations.................... 32-38,54-56,94-103
weekly, for all productive labor in 75 association shops, New York City.......................................
17,18
Weekly, in Boston association shops, by occupations.........................................................................
76-83
Weekly, in New York association shops, by occupations...................................................................
21-30
Weekly, in New York nonassociation shops, by occupations............................................................
50-53
Weekly, of week workers in 21 occupations in 90 association shops..................................................
18,19
Earnings. {See also Employment and earnings; Wages.)
Earnings and employment. (See Employment and earnings.)
Education, industrial:
Commission on...............................................................................................................................................
182
Plan for............................................................................................................................................................ 179-191
Employees, seasonal demand for............................................................................................................. 32-38,94-103
Employing capacity of shops and variations in employment compared................................................
39-41
Employment and earnings, character of data relating to, New York City............................................
16
Employment and earnings, seasonal fluctuations in:
Boston, all productive labor and week workers, compared................................................................
73-76
Boston, association shops, by occupations.............................................................................................
76-93
New York, association and nonassociation shops, by occupations....................................................
56-68
New York, association shops, by occupations.......................................................................................
19-38
New York, nonassociation shops, by occupations.................................................................................
49-56
New York, 21 occupations in 90 association shops.............................................................., ................
18,19
Employment, opportunity for.................................................................................................. 11,34-38,41-49,54-56
Employment, seasonal fluctuations in:
Boston and New York compared, all productive labor.......................................................................
93,94
Compared with capacity of shops, in New York association shops, by occupations.....................
39-41
New York, all productive labor in association and nonassociation shops.......................................
57,58
New York, all productive labor in association shops...........................................................................
17,18




INDEX.

195

Page.
Equipment furnished for cutters and pressers.............................................................................................. 127,129
Examination for pressers....................................................................................................................................
129
Factory and part-time school, proposed......................................................................................................... 182-191
Factory ticket, description of............................................................................................................................ 125,126
Financial organization of proposed factory school........................................................................................ 186,187
Finishers:
Earnings of, average yearly, based on greatest number employed at any season and on number
actually employed during year, New York City...............................................................................
49
Earnings of, in Boston and New York shops, compared.....................................................................
108
Earnings possible for, as shown by pay rolls........................................................................ 37,38,49,56,97,98
Effect of protocol upon wages of, Boston................................................................................................
72
Number actually employed. compared with equivalent number of full-time workers.................. 39,40,46
Number and pay rolls of, by weeks............................................................................................. 25-28,53,80-83
Number employed each classified number of weeks....................................................................... 39,100,102
Number of shops in which employed during year................................................................................ 132,133
Number required, maximum, during busiest "week and number and per cent employed 40 to 52
weeks............................................................................................................................................................
101
Number required for a full year and additional number required for specified shorter periods___
56
Opportunity of, for earnings..................................................................................................... 37,38,49,56,97,98
Opportunity of, for employment....................................................................................................... 46,47,49,56
Rates of wages of...................................................................................................... 9,37,38,56,72,97,98,108,127
Seasonal demand for........................................................................................................................ 37,38,56,97,98
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by number employed per week................... 25-28,31
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by weekly pay rolls.......................................... 25-28,
32,53,59,66,80-83,85,90,91
Work and wages of................................................................................................................................ 124,126,127
Finishers, jacket. (See Finishers.)
Finishers, skirt. (See Finishers.)
Fluctuations in employment and earnings. (See Employment; Employment and earnings; Sea­
sonal fluctuations in amount of weekly pay roll; Seasonal fluctuations in number of employees.)
Foreign-bora cutters and pressers, years in the United States of, by age groups.................................
155
Hours of labor and wages oefore and after signing of protocol, Boston...................................................
71-73
Independent shops. (See Nonassociation shops.)
Industrial education:
Commission on..............................................................................................................................................
182
Plan for........................................................................................................................................................... 179-191
Industrial school, proposed................................................................................................................................ 182-191
Investigation, preliminary, submitted to board of arbitration, scope and results of............................
9,10
Investigation, scope of, and methods employed.................................................................................... 12-14,69-73
Jacket under pressers. (See Pressers.)
Jacket upper pressers. (See Pressers.)
Joint Board of Cloak Makers' Union of Greater New York, propositions submitted by, to joint con­
ference .................................................................................................................................................................
7-9
Language, command of, by cutters and pressers........................................................................... 164-169,171,172
Liners, work of...................................................................................................................................................... 123,124
Method used in study of cutters and pressers............................................................................................... 135-138
Methods and scope of the investigation................................................................................................... 12-14,69-73
Mobility of workers............................................................................................................................................. 131-135
New York and Boston shops:
Earnings of workers in, compared............................................................................................................ 107,108
Seasonal fluctuations in pay rolls of, compared.....................................................................................
93,94
New York City, week workers in the industry in........................................................................................
7-68
Nonassociation and association shops, seasonal fluctuations in employment i n ..................................
56-67
Nonassociation shops:
&
Definition of...................................................................................................................................................
49
Earnings, weekly, and number of employees, in New York shops, by occupations....................
50-53
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings in, by occupations, New York
City..............................................................................................................................................................
54-56
Seasonal fluctuations in employment and earnings in, by occupations, New York City...........
49-56
Object of the investigation................. •
..............................................................................................................
12,69
Occupations:
Covered by report.........................................................................................................................................
14
Descriptive analysis of................................................................................................................................ 111-129
Previous, of cutters and pressers.............................................................................................................. 158-160
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings, b y .............................. 32-38,54-56,94-103
Seasonal fluctuations in employment and earnings, b y .................................................... 19-38,49-53,76-93
Operators, work and wages of............: ............................................................................................................. 124,127
Opportunity for earnings and seasonal demand for employees, by occupations............... 32-38,54-56,94-103
Opportunity for employment, by occupations.......................................................................... 34-38,41-49,54-56
Part pressers. (See Pressers.)
Part-time and factory school, proposed........................................................................................................... 182-191
Pay rolls, weekly:
Definition of...................................................................................................................................................
20
For all productive labor in 75 association shops, New York City......................................................
17,18
For busiest week, compared with that for dullest, all productive labor..........................................
11
Of week workers compared with total pay roll......................................................................................
15
Of week workers in 21 occupations in 90 association shops. New York City..................................
18,19
Seasonal fluctuations in, Boston and New York compared................................................................
93,94
Seasonal fluctuations in, by occupations............................................................................... 19-38,49-53,76-93
Seasonal fluctuations in, for all productive labor and for week workers only, Boston.................
73-76
Period covered by the investigation................................................................................................................
16
Permanent employment, definition of, as used in this report...................................................................
41,67
Permanent employment, opportunity for, in 90 association shops, New York City, by occupations. 11,12,
34-38,41-49
Pieceworkers, exclusion of, from investigation, reasons fo r .......................................................................
13
Preliminary investigation into annual earnings of week workers, scope and results of....................
9,10




196

IN D E X .

Pressers:
Page.
Ability of, in use of English and other languages................................................................... 164-169,171,172
Age at entering and number of years in industry................................................................................. 150-154
Age, country of birth, and conjugal condition of................................................................................... 145-149
Apprenticeship for........................................................................................................................................ 128,129
Classification and wage scale of..................................................................................................................
128
Comparative study of cutters and............................................................................................................. 130-172
Conjugal condition and number of children............................................................................. 148,149,169,170
Earnings of, average weekly in association and nonassociation shops............................................
68
Earnings of. average yearly, based on greatest number employed at any season and on number
actually employed during year. New York City...............................................................................
49
Earnings of, in Boston and New York shops, compared.....................................................................
108
Earnings possible for, as shown by pay rolls.................................................................. 35,36,49,55,56,96,97
Effect of protocol upon wages of, Boston................................................................................................
72
Foreign born, years in the United States of, by age groups................................................................
155
Increases granted to, as result of preliminary investigation................................................................
9
Individual records of.................................................................................................................................... 138-141
Length of time in the industry........................................................................................................... 151,153,154
Length of time in the United States before entering the industry.................................................... 156-158
Length of time of foreign born, in the United States............................................................................
155
Mobility of....................................................................................................................................................... 132,134
Number actually employed, compared with equivalent number of full-time workers............... 39,40,46
Number and pay rolls of, by weeks........................................................................................ 22-24,51- 53,78-80
Number employed each classified number of weeks.................................................................. 39,67,100,102
Number, estimated, in cloak, suit, and skirt industry, New York City.........................................
130
Number of shops in which employed during year................................................................................. 132,134
Number required, maximum, during busiest week, and number and per cent employed 40 to 52
weeks............................................................................................................................................................
101
Number required for a full year and additional number required for specified shorter period. . .
55,56
Opportunity of, for earnings............................................................................................... 35,36,49,55,56,96,97
Opportunity of, for employment....................................................................................... 41,46,47,49,55,56,67
Previous occupation of................................................................................................................................. 158-160
Rates of wages of............................................................................. 9,30,35,36, 55,56, 72,96,97,108,128,139-141
School attendance of..................................................................................................................................... 161-164
Seasonal demand for.................................................................................................................. 35,36,55,56,96,97
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by number employed per week.. 22-24,30,3l' 51-53
Seasonal fluctuations in employment of, as shown by weekly pay rolls........................................... 22-24,
30,32,51-53,59,61-65,7^80,85, 87-89
Unemployment of......................................................................................................................................... 134,135
Wage scales of, in Boston and New York, compared...........................................................................
108
Work, wages, etc., of.................................................................................................................................... 127-129
Pressers and cutters, comparative study of................................................................................................... 130-172
Price committee, functions of............................................................................................................................
122
Protocol, effect of, upon wages and hours of labor, Boston........................................................................
71-73
Protocol, relation of, to proposed factory school........................................................................................... 190,191
Purpose of the investigation..............................................................................................................................
12,69
Rates of wages:
Basters................................................................................................................................................ 9,36,37,72,127
Cleaners.......................................................................................................................................................... 9,72,125 •
Cutters.................................................................................................... 9,29,34,35,43,54,72,95,108,120,142-145
Designers........................................................................................................................................................
114
Draper girls.....................................................................................................................................................
125
Finishers..................................................................................................................... 9,37,38,56,72,97,98,108,127
Operators........................................................................................................................................................
127
Pressers............................................................................................. 9,30,35,36,55,56,72,96,97,108,128,139-141
Sample makers..................................................................................................................................... 9,72,108,127
Tailors............................................................................................................................................... 121,122,124,127
Regularity of employment. (See Employment; Employment and earnings; Seasonal demand;
Seasonal fluctuations.)
Report, preliminary, on annual earnings of week workers.........................................................................
9,10
Residence of cutters and pressers in the United States, years of, before entering the industry........156-158
Sample finishers. (See Finishers.)
Sample liners, work of.........................................................................................................................................
127
Sample makers:
Effect of protocol upon wages of, Boston................................................................................................
72
Rates of wages of.................................................................................................................................. 9,72,108,127
Wage scales of, in Boston and New York, compared...........................................................................
108
Work and wages of.......................................................................................................................................
127
School attendance of cutters and pressers....................................................................................................... 161-164
School, part-time and factory, proposed......................................................................................................... 182-191
Scope and method of present inquiry...................................................................................................... 12-14,09-73
Seasonal demand for employees and opportunity for earnings, by occupations:
Boston, association shops............................................................................................................................ 94-103
New York, association shops.....................................................................................................................
32-38
New York, nonassociation shops..............................................................................................................
54-56
Seasonal fluctuations in amount of weekly pay rolls in:
Boston and New York shops, compared, all productive labor...........................................................
93,94
74-76
Boston association shops, all productive labor in 10 shops and week workers in 7 shops...........
Boston association shops, by occupations...............................................................................................
76-93
New York City, association and nonassociation shops, compared, by occupations......................
56-66
New York City, association shops, all productive labor.................................................................... .
17,18
New York City, association shops, by occupations.............................................................................
19-38
New York City, nonassociation shops, by occupations.......................................................................
49-56
Seasonal fluctuations in number of employees in:
Boston, association shops, by occupations.............................................................................................
76-84
New York City, association shops, by occupations............................................................................ 19-31,42
New York City, nonassociation shops, by occupations.......................................................................
49-56




IN DEX.

197

Page.
Seasons, dull and busy, as shown by report..................................................................................... 10,11,17, IS, 75
Shop chairman, functions of.............................................................................................................................. 121,122
Skirt cutters. (See Cutters.)
Skirt finishers. (See Finishers.)
Skirt under pressers. (See Pressers.)
Skirt upper pressers. (See Pressers.)
Special order cutters, work of........................... ’ ...............................................................................................
118
Surplusage of workers employed during year over number required for busiest season....................
12
Tailoring, systems of............................................................................................................................................ 122,123
Tailors:
Number of shops in which employed during year.................................................................................
132
Work and wages of................................................................................................................................ 121-124,127
Tools, kind and ownership of..................................................................................................................... 118,119
Trimmer, work of.................................................................................................................................................
117
Trimming cutters:
Number and pay rolls of, by weeks, Boston association shops.........................................................
77
Seasonal demand for and possible earnings, Boston association shops................................... .........
95
Under pressers. (See Pressers.)
Unemployment of cutters and prsssers........................................................................................................... 134,135
Unemployment. (See also Employment; Seasonal demand for employees; Seasonal fluctuations
in amount of weekly pay roll; Seasonal fluctuations in number of employees.)
Union membership, qualifications of pressers required for........................... ............................................
129
Upper pressers. (See Pressers.)
Wage rates. (See Rates of wages.)
Wage scales. (See Rates of wages.)
Wages:
Before and after signing of protocol, Boston, by occupations.............................................................
71-73
Increase of, demanded by unions, New York........................................................................................
8,9
Of week workers compared with total pay roll......................................................................................
15,73
Wages. (See also Earnings; Pay rolls; Rates of wages.)
Week, definition of, as used in the report.......................................................................................................
16,20
Week work, proportion of, in the larger shops of the industry, Boston....................................................
73
Week workers:
Actual earnings of 312, in Boston shops................................................................................................... 103-105
Annual earnings of, in Boston................................................................................................................... 105-107
Limiting investigation to, reasons for.......................................................................................................
13
Seasonal fluctuations of employment for, and for all productive labor, as shown by weekly pay
rolls, Boston................................................................................................................................................
73-76
Wages of, compared with total pay roll...................................................................................................
15,73
Weekly earnings of, in 21 occupations in 90 association shops, New York.....................................
IS, 19
Weekly pay rolls. (See Pay rolls, weekly.)
T
Year covered by the investigation...................................................................................................................
16
Yearly earnings, effect of fluctuations in employment on..........................................................................
12





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102