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UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Isador Lubin, Commissioner

+

W ages, H ours, and W o rk in g Conditions
in the Bread-Baking Industry, 1934
Prepared by

Division of Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions
JACOB PERLMAN, Chief

Bulletin ?S[o. 623
October 1936

+
UNITED STATES
GOVERNM ENT PRINTING OFFICE
W ASHINGTON : 1937

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




Price 20 cents




PREFACE
This is the third of a series of surveys made by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics in the bread-baking industry. The first one was conducted
in the summer of 1923, but it was based on a very small coverage. A
more comprehensive survey was undertaken in the fall of 1931. The
present survey includes data for M arch and September 1933 and
December 1934.
This survey was made at the request of and in cooperation with the
National Recovery Administration. Its purpose was to furnish
impartial and detailed information to show the effect of the President's
Reemployment Agreement and the code upon wages, hours, and work­
ing conditions of labor in the bread-baking industry.
T he Bureau wishes to express its appreciation to the various firms in
the industry that have furnished the information upon which this
bulletin is based. Acknowledgment is also made to the National
Bakers' Council and the Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Inter­
national Union of America for their cooperation in carrying out this
survey.
T he present bulletin includes a discussion of certain background
material pertaining to this industry, a description of the scope and
method of the survey, an analysis of the data relating to average
hourly earnings, weekly hours, and weekly earnings, and a discussion
of personnel policies and working conditions in the various plants
visited. Appendix I gives a description of the technological processes
in baking, together with a glossary of the occupations found, while
appendix I I presents the detailed figures upon which are based the
text, tables, and charts.
The bulletin was prepared under the supervision of Jacob Perlman,
Chief of the Division of W ages, Hou^s, and W orking Conditions.
Members of the W ages and Hours Division who contributed to the
writing of the text and material in the bulletin are Paul H . Moncure,
Florence M . Clark, Henry A . Bates, Frances M . Jones, and Philip L.
Jones. Others who assisted in the compilation of the data are
Donald L . H elm , Dorothy S. Smith, and J. T . O'Brien. The field
work was done by J. P. Corkery, C . H . D oughty, F . G . Gregory,
T . P. Henson, C . F . Jackson, W . F. K irk, J. F . Laciskey, A . L . M aserick, W . B . Pettit, W . C. Quant, C. F . Rauth, W . C . Sims, F . I. Snyder,
and G . E . Yotava.




I sador L u b in ,

Commissioner of Labor Statistics.
hi




CONTENTS
P age

Preface________________________________________________________________
Summary and conclusions______________________________________________
C hapter I.-—The bread-baking industry________________________________
Definition of industry______________________________________________
Historical development of baking industry__________________________
Characteristics of bread-baking industry____________________________
Changes in conditions of work______________________________________
C hapter II.— Scope and method_______________________________________
Extent of coverage_________________________________________________
Factors considered in selection of sample___________________________
Information collected_________________________________________
Comparisons with 1931____________________________________________
C hapter III.'— Average hourly earnings________________________________
Changes in bread industry in country as a whole___________________
Increases confirmed by employment and pay-roll data for entire baking
industry_________________________________________________________
Changes in averages by region and sex in bread-baking industry_____
Effect of President’s Reemployment Agreement on percentage distri­
bution by region and sex_________________________________________
Effect of code on percentage distribution by region and sex_________
Differentials in averages by broad occupational groupings___________
Effectiveness of President’s Reemployment Agreement and code minima
as shown by data on broad occupational groupings_______________
Changes in averages by occupational classes________________________
Regional differentials in averages by occupations___________________
Sex differentials in averages by occupations_________________________
Average hourly earnings and size of city____________________________
Average hourly earnings in union and nonunion shops______________
Influence of mechanization on average hourly earnings______________
Type of distribution and average hourly earnings___________________
Kind of product and average hourly earnings_______________________
Comparisons with 1931_____________________________________________
C hapter IV.— Weekly hours___________________________________________
Changes in bread industry in country as a whole___________________
Changes in averages by region and sex in bread industry____________
Monthly trend of working time for entire baking industry based on
employment and pay-roll data___________________________________
Changes in percentage distribution by region and sex in bread industry
due to President’s Reemployment Agreement_____________________
Changes in percentage distribution by region and sex due to code___
Differentials in averages by broad occupational groupings___________
Weekly hours of driver-salesmen___________________________________
Changes in averages by occupational classes________________________
Regional and sex differentials in averages by occupations___________
Average weekly hours and size of city______________________________
Average weekly hours in union and nonunion shops_________________
Average weekly hours and degree of mechanization_________________
Type of distribution and average weekly hours_________________ - ___
Kind of product and average weekly hours_________________________
Comparisons with 1931_____________________________________________
C hapter V.— Weekly earnings_________________________________________
Changes in country as a whole_____________________________________
Changes in percentage distribution of all workers in bread industry. _
Changes in percentage distribution by region and sex_______________
Changes in averages by broad occupational groupings_______________
Changes in averages by occupational classes________________________




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VI

CONTENTS

C hapter V.— Weekly earnings— Continued.
Regional and sex differentials in averages by occupations___________
Average weekly earnings and size of city___________________________
Average weekly earnings in union and nonunion shops______________
Average weekly earnings and degree of mechanization_______________
Type of distribution and average weekly earnings___________________
Kind of product and average weekly earnings__________________ ____
Comparisons with 1931_________________________________________
C hapter VI/— Personnel policies and working conditions____________
The bakery worker_____________________________________________
Hiring procedure_______________________________________________
Training policies_______________________________________________
Lay-off
and firing procedure_________________________________
Methods of wage payment_________________________________________
Overtime rates_____________________________________________________
Special bonuses and penalties___________________
Payments in kind____________________________________________
Employee expenses__________________________________________
Working time and shifts____________________________________________
Night work________________________________________________________
Rest periods, holidays, vacations, etc_______________________________
Welfare work________________________________________________
A ppendix I.— Technological processes and glossary of occupations.--------Part 1.
Technological processes_______________________________
Bread making______________________________________________
Cake making_______________________________________________
Pie making________________________________________________
Part 2.
Glossary of occupations_______________________________
Appendix II.— Detailed statistical tables________________________________
Table A. Distribution of employees according to average hourly
earnings by occupational classes, as to region and sex, for
three selected periods___________________________________
Table B. Distribution of employees according to weekly hours by
occupational classes, as to region and sex, for three
selected periods________________________________________
Table C. Distribution of employees according to weekly earnings by
occupational classes, as to region and sex, for three
selected periods________________________________________

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L is t o f S u m m a r y T a b le s
T able
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1.-— Growth of bread-baking industry in United States, 1914—
1933.
2 — Number of establishments, classified by number of wage
.<
earners, in baking industry as a whole, 1929______________
3.— Index numbers of employment and pay rolls in the baking
industry as a whole, 1919-35_____________________________
4.-— Coverage of survey for each of three pay-roll periods________
5.— Coverage of survey by region and size of city, December 1934.
6.— Distribution of establishments in sample according to number
of employees, December 1934____________________________
7.— Coverage of survey by degree of mechanization, type of
distribution, and kind of product, as to region, December
1934_____________________________________________________
8.— Coverage of survey by occupational classes, as to sex and region
December 1934__________________________________________
9.— Percentage distribution of employees according to average
hourly earnings in bread industry in country as a whole_
_
10.— Index numbers of average hourly earnings in entire baking
industry in the United States, by months, 1932-35________
11.-— Average hourly earnings in bread industry by region and sex__
12.-—Total absolute increases in average hourly earnings from
March 1933 to December 1934___________________________
13.-—Percentage distribution of employees according to average
hourly earnings by region and sex________________________
14.— Average hourly earnings by broad occupational groupings as
to region and sex______________




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CONTENTS
T a b l e 15.-— Percentages o f w orkers in grou pin gs receiv in g less than 40
an d 30 cents, resp ectively , in M a rch a n d S ep tem ber 1933__
T a b l e 16.— A verage h ou rly earnings b y o ccu p a tio n a l classes as to region
an d sex_________________________________________________________
T a b l e 17.-— A vera ge h ou rly earnings b y size o f c ity as to region a n d sex__
T a b l e 18.— A vera ge h ou rly earnings o f m ale em p loyees in N o rth engaged
in d irect la b or, b y u nion a n d n on u n ion shops a n d sk ill_____
T a b l e 19.— A vera ge h ou rly earnings in bakeries classified b y degree o f
m ech a n iza tion as t o region a n d se x __________________________
T a b l e 20.-— A vera ge h ou rly earnings in bakeries classified b y ty p e o f dis­
trib u tion as t o region a n d sex________________________________
T a b l e 21.-— A vera ge h ou rly earnings in bakeries classified b y kin d of
p r o d u c t as t o region an d sex ___________________________________
T a b l e 22.-— P ercentage d istrib u tion o f em p loyees a cco rd in g to average
h ou rly earnings in b rea d in d u stry in U n ited States, 1931
a n d 1934_______________________________________________________ •
T a b l e 23.— P ercentage d istrib u tion o f em p loyees a ccord in g to w eekly
hours in b rea d in du stry in cou n try as a w h ole______________
T a b l e 24.— A vera ge w eek ly h ours in b rea d in d u stry b y region a n d sex___
T a b l e 25.-— In d e x num bers o f average w eek ly h ours in entire baking
in d u stry in th e U n ited States, b y m on th s, 1 9 3 2 -3 5 _________
T a b l e 26.'— P ercentage d istrib u tion o f em p loyees a cco rd in g t o w eekly
hours b y region an d sex in b rea d in d u stry __________________
T a b l e 27.-— A vera ge w eek ly h ours b y b ro a d o ccu p a tion a l grou pin gs as to
region a n d sex_________________________________________________
T a b l e 28.'— P ercentage o f em p loyees in b roa d o ccu p a tio n a l grou pin gs
w ork in g co d e hours or less per w eek as t o region a n d sex
in D ecem b er 1934_____________________________________________
T a b l e 29.-— P ercentage distrib u tion o f driver-salesm en a ccord in g to
w eekly h ours as to reg ion _____________________________________
T a b l e 30.-— A vera ge w eek ly hours b y occu p a tion a l classes as to region
a n d sex_________________________________________________________
T a b l e 31.— A vera ge w eek ly hours b y size o f city as to region an d sex____
T a b l e 32.-— A vera ge w eek ly hours o f m ale em p loyees in N o rth en gaged in
d irect la b o r b y union a n d n on u n ion shop s an d sk ill________
T a b l e 3 3 .— A vera ge w eek ly hours in bakeries classified b y degree o f
m ech a n iza tion as to region a n d s e x __________________________
T a b l e 34.'— A vera ge w eek ly hours in bakeries classified b y ty p e o f dis­
trib u tion as t o region a n d s e x ________________________________
T a b l e 35.-— A vera ge w eek ly hours in bakeries classified b y k in d o f p r o d u c t
as t o region a n d sex___________________________________________
T a b l e 36.— A vera ge w eek ly earnings in b rea d in d u stry b y region a n d sex_
T a b l e 37.'— In d ex n um bers o f average w eek ly earnings in entire baking
in d u stry in th e U n ited States, b y m on th s, 1 9 2 5 -3 5 _________
T a b l e 38.— P ercentage distrib u tion o f em p loyees a ccord in g t o w eekly
earnings in b read in du stry in cou n try as a w h o le ___________
T a b l e 39.-— P ercentage distrib u tion o f em p loyees a ccord in g t o w eekly
earnings b y region a n d sex____________________________________
T a b l e 40.-— A vera ge w eek ly earnings b y b roa d occu p a tion a l grou pin gs as
to region a n d s e x ______________________________________________
T a b l e 41.— A vera ge w eek ly earnings b y occu p a tion a l classes as to region
and sex_________________________________________________________
T a b l e 42.■— A vera ge w eek ly earnings b y size o f c ity as t o region a n d sex__
T a b l e 43.— A vera ge w eek ly earnings o f m ale em p loyees in N o rth engaged
in d irect la b o r b y u nion a n d n on u n ion shop s a n d s k ill_____
T a b l e 44.— A vera ge w eek ly earnings in bakeries classified b y degree o f
m ech an ization as to region a n d s e x __________________________
T a b l e 45.-— A vera ge w eek ly earnings in bakeries classified b y ty p e o f
d istribution as t o region a n d sex_____________________________
T a b l e 46.— A vera ge w eek ly earnings in bakeries classified b y k in d o f
p r o d u c t as to region a n d s e x _________________________________
T a b l e 47.-— E m p loy in g a g en cy in 252 bakeries, b y size o f pla n t, 1934____
T a b l e 48.— D istrib u tion o f em p loyees b y class m e th o d o f w age p a ym en t,
ty p e o f d istrib u tion o f p r od u cts, a n d region, 1934__________




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CONTENTS

VIII

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T a b l e 49.-— D is t r i b u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s a c c o r d i n g t o m e t h o d o f c o m p e n ­
s a tio n f o r o v e r t im e , 1 9 3 4 -----------------------------------------------------------T a b l e 50.-— N u m b e r o f p la n t s r e q u ir in g u n ifo r m s a n d d is t r ib u t io n o f c o s t
a n d m a in t e n a n c e __________________________________________________
T a b l e 51.-— E s t im a t e d a n n u a l p e r - c a p it a c o s t o f u n ifo r m s a n d t h e ir m a in ­
te n a n c e f o r e a c h c la s s o f w o r k e r , 1 9 3 4 ________________________
T a b l e 5 2 .— D is t r i b u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s a c c o r d i n g t o w e e k ly p e r -c a p it a
c o s t o f u n ifo r m m a in te n a n c e , 1 9 3 4 _____________________________
T a b l e 53.-— S t a r tin g t i m e b y k in d o f w o r k in th r e e b a k e s h o p s ____________
T a b l e 54.-— I n s u r a n c e f o r e m p lo y e e s , 1 9 3 4 _____________________________________

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List o f Charts
C hart

C hart
C hart

C hart
C hart

C hart
C hart
C hart

C hart
C hart

1.— A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s, a v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s, a n d a v e r a g e
w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f e m p lo y e e s in b r e a d in d u s t r y in c o u n t r y
a s a w h o le , M a r c h 1 9 33 , S e p t e m b e r 19 3 3 , a n d D e c e m b e r
1 9 3 4 __________________________________________________ . _____________
2.— E m p lo y m e n t a n d p a y r o lls in a ll m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s tr ie s a n d
in b a k in g in d u s t r y a s a w h o l e ___________________________________
3 .— P e r c e n t a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s a c c o r d in g t o a v e r a g e
h o u r ly e a r n in g s in b r e a d in d u s t r y in c o u n t r y a s a w h o le ,
M a r c h 19 33 , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 33 , a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4 __________
4.— A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s in b r e a d in d u s t r y b y r e g io n a n d sex ,
M a r c h 1 9 3 3 , S e p t e m b e r 1933, a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4 __________
5.— P e r c e n ta g e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s a c c o r d in g t o w e e k ly
h o u r s in b r e a d in d u s t r y in c o u n t r y a s a w h o le , M a r c h 1933,
S e p t e m b e r 1 9 33 , a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4 __________________________
6 .— A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s in b r e a d in d u s t r y b y r e g io n a n d sex ,
M a r c h 19 33 , S e p t e m b e r 19 33 , a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4 __________
7.'— A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s in b r e a d in d u s t r y b y r e g io n a n d sex ,
M a r c h 19 33 , S e p t e m b e r 1933, a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4 __________
8 .— P e r c e n t a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s a c c o r d in g t o w e e k ly
e a r n in g s in b r e a d in d u s t r y in c o u n t r y a s a w h o le , M a r c h
19 33 , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 3 , a n d D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4 ___________________
9 .— P r o p o r t io n o f d a y a n d n ig h t o p e r a t io n in 9 3 b a k e r ie s , f o r 7 ,5 6 9
b a k e -s h o p e m p lo y e e s , in 2 8 S t a t e s , 1 9 3 4 ______________________
10.— F lo w o f flo u r a n d o t h e r in g r e d ie n ts th r o u g h a b a k e r y _________

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List o f Illustrations
P l a t e 1.— F lo u r sc a le a n d flo u r c o n t r o l, c o n n e c t in g w ith s t o r a g e b in a b o v e , a n d
d o u g h m ix e r w it h o p e r a t o r s .
P l a t e 2.'— G r o u p o f o p e r a t io n s , s h o w in g b e n c h w o r k , d iv id in g , s c a lin g , r o u n d in g ,
a n d m o ld in g .
P l a t e 3.— B r e a d d u m p in g f r o m t r a v e lin g o v e n .
P l a t e 4 .— S lic in g , w r a p p in g , a n d p a c k in g o f b r e a d .
P l a t e 5.— C a k e -b a t t e r m ix in g .
P l a t e 6.— P ie -m a k in g m a c h in e , s h o w in g b o t t o m m a k in g , b o t t o m la y in g , fillin g ,
a n d t o p m a k in g .




Bulletin 7S[o. 623 o f the
United States Bureau o f Labor Statistics

W ages, H ours, and W o rk in g Conditions in the
Bread-Baking Industry, 1934

Summary and Conclusions
1. This survey was limited to the bread division of the baking
industry. According to the census, this division reported in 1933 a
total of 14,483 establishments, employing 14,149 salaried workers
and 155,229 wage earners, who received about $174,000,000 in salaries
and wages and manufactured a product valued at $770,000,000.
2. The purpose of the survey was to determine the influence of
both the President's Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code upon
wages and hours of labor in the bread-baking industry. Accordingly,
three pay-roll periods were covered: One in M arch 1933 before the
advent of the President's Reem ploym ent Agreement; one in Septem­
ber 1933 when the President's Reemployment Agreement was in
effect; and, finally, one in December 1934 when the code had been
in operation for about 6 months.
3. In selecting the plants in the sample, such factors as geographical
distribution, size of city, size of establishment, unionization, degree of
mechanization, type of distribution, and kind of product were taken
into consideration. The 259 establishments covered in December
1934 employed 20,962 workers and were located in 66 cities in 37
States and the District of Columbia. Thus, although not very
large, the coverage was adequate and representative of the bread­
baking industry as a whole.
4. Average hourly earnings m the bread-baking industry rose from
45.5 cents in M arch 1933 to 50.7 cents in September 1933 and to
54.9 cents in December 1934. Thus, under the President's Reem ­
ployment Agreement, the average earnings per hour advanced 5.2
cents or 11.4 percent, and under the code they further increased by
4.2 cents or 8.3 percent.
5. The increase was not limited to any one class, as shown by the
distribution of employees according to average hourly earnings.
Between M arch and September 1933, there was a decline in the per­
centages of employees in practically all classes under 52.5 cents and
an increase in the percentages in nearly all classes beginning with
52.5 cents. The shifting of workers toward higher-wage classes
continued between September 1933 and December 1934.
6. The absolute and relative increases in average hourly earnings
were shared by both males and females in both the northern and
southern regions. For the period as a whole, the absolute gains were
greater for males than for females and greater in the South than in
the North.




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WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

7. A s a result of the provisions of the Presidents Reemployment
Agreement, there was a drop in the relative number earning less than
the established minimum rates between M arch and September 1933.
Thus, in the N orth the percentage receiving less than 40 cents de­
creased from 32.6 to 22.4 for males and from 79.1 to 75.4 for females.
In the South, the proportion earning less than the 30-cent minimum
decreased from 37.8 to 14.7 for males and from 82.6 to 52.2 for females.
8. In December 1934, 11.5 percent of the males and 64.3 percent of
the females in the North earned less than 40 cents per hour (the code
minimum for m ost northern workers) and 21.5 percent of the males
and 71.8 percent of the females in the South received less than 35
cents (the code minimum for m ost southern workers). A large
number of these workers belong to exempted occupations, which
could be paid as low as 80 percent of the minimum, the remaining
persons being either substandard workers or those paid in violation
of the code/
9. Am ong males engaged in direct labor, a slight differential existed
during each of the three periods between the average hourly earnings
of semiskilled and unskilled workers, but there was a large differential
between the average earnings per hour of skilled and unskilled workers.
In the N orth, the spread between the last two groups was 18.5 cents
in M arch 1933, 17.9 cents in September 1933, and 20.4 cents in
December 1934; and, in the South, it was 13.6 cents in M arch 1933,
13.7 cents in September 1933, and 14.2 cents in December 1934.
The average hourly earnings of driver-salesmen approximated more
closely those of skilled rather than semiskilled males engaged in direct
labor.
10. Each occupational class showed absolute and relative increases
in average hourly earnings between M arch and September 1933 and
between the latter period and December 1934. These increases,
however, varied considerably.
11. On an occupational basis, the northern employees enjoyed a
differential as compared with the workers in the South. Thus, as
regards the broad occupational groupings covering male employees
engaged in direct labor, the differentials for the three periods were
respectively 16.5, 13.4, and 16.2 cents for skilled, 13.2, 10.0, and 11.3
cents for semiskilled, and 1 1 .6 ,9 .2 , and 10.0 cents for unskilled workers.
Similar differentials favoring the N orth as compared with the South
were found in the case of individual male occupations, these differ­
entials having decreased between M arch and September 1933 and
widened between September 1933 and December 1934. The regional
differentials for identical female occupations followed much the same
general course as that for male employees.
12. Females doing approximately the same work as males received
less per hour than males. Thus, northern male cake wrappers and
packers earned a substantially higher average per hour than females,
this differential amounting to 12.1 cents in M arch 1933, 11.1 cents in
September 1933, and to 10.1 cents in December 1934.
13. On the whole, the average earnings per hour of bakery workers
varied directly with the size of city. In the North, there was a clearcut break between the cities of 250,000 and over and those of less than
250,000, whereas in the South the break occurred between cities of
50,000 and over and those of less than 50,000.




SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

3

14. Taking male employees engaged in direct labor in the N orth, the
differential in favor of union as compared with nonunion shops was
limited to skilled and semiskilled workers, as unskilled workers are
seldom organized. A s regards skilled workers, the differential was
26.0 cents in M arch 1933, 19.2 cents in September 1933, and 23.9 cents
in December 1934. The differential in favor of semiskilled workers
was 6.4 cents in M arch 1933, 3.3 cents in September 1933, and 6.0
cents in December 1934. Furthermore, in nonunion shops there was
practically no difference between the average hourly earnings of un­
skilled and semiskilled workers, whereas in union shops semiskilled
employees enjoyed a differential of 6.1 cents in M arch 1933, 4.1 cents
in September 1933, and 7.5 cents in December 1934.
15. In general, the greater the degree of mechanization in bakeries,
the higher the average hourly earnings. Thus, in the North male
workers in mechanical bakeries earned more per hour (3.5 cents in
M arch, 8.3 cents in September 1933, and 10.4 cents in December
1934) than male workers in handicraft shops. The same was true,
although to a lesser extent, of southern male workers in mechanical
shops, whose earnings per hour exceeded those of male workers in
handicraft shops by 0.6 cent in M arch 1933, 6.0 cents in September
1933, and 4.7 cents in December 1934.
16.

On the whole, average earnings per hour were highest in multiState, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries. Likewise, the
earnings in local wholesale bakeries tended to exceed those in retail
and house-to-house establishments.
17. In the North, males employed in bread specialty shops earned
much more per hour than males in either bread or cake shops. Except
in the instance of northern male workers in March and September

1933, workers in bread shops earned somewhat more than those in
cake shops.
18. Between the fall of 1931 and December 1934, the average hourly
earnings advanced 1.4 cents or 2.6 percent. During this period, the
percentage of employees earning less than 30 cents declined from 10.4
to 2 .9, the percentage earning 30 and under 50 cents rose from 33.7
to 4 5 .5, the percentage receiving 50 and under 65 cents declined from
31.2 to 25.2, and the percentage earning 65 cents and over increased
from 24.7 to 26.4.
19. T h e average weekly hours of all workers in the bread-baking
industry declined from 50.2 in M arch 1933 to 45.9 in September 1933
and to 43.5 in December 1934. The total reduction over the entire
period amounted to 6.7 hours or 13.3 percent.
20. A better idea of the influence of both the President’s Reem ­
ploym ent Agreement and the code upon weekly hours m ay be had if
the exempted occupation of driver-salesman is excluded. Thus, the
average for all workers exclusive of driver-salesman dropped from
47.4 in M arch 1933 to 42.2 in September 1933 and to 39.3 in D ecem ­
ber 1934. A t the same time, the spread in hours worked which existed
between the various sex-region groups was reduced. T he range
between the weekly hours of males in the South and females in the
North, the groups which had respectively the highest and lowest
averages in all three periods, was reduced from 7.7 hours in M arch
1933 to 3.6 hours in September 1933 and to 2.5 hours in December
1934.




4

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

21. A s regards the distribution of employees, exclusive of driversalesmen, according to weekly hours, there was a sharp increase in the
percentage of the total number working 40 and under 48 hours in
each sex-region group between M arch and September 1933. The con­
centration was especially marked in the 4 4 - and under 48-hour interval.
Furthermore, the above concentrations were more pronounced in the
case of male employees as compared with female workers and in the
South as against the North.
22. Whereas the trend between M arch and September 1933 was
toward a workweek of 44 and under 48 hours, the trend between
September 1933 and December 1934 as a result of the code was toward
a workweek of 40 and under 44 hours. The increase in the percent­
ages of employees having a workweek of that length was from 12.9
to 51.7 for males and from 26.9 to 44.8 for females in the N orth and
from 13.2 to 60.7 for males and from 26.4 to 51.2 for females in the
South.
23. B oth the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code
tended to reduce the differential in hours which had existed between
skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled male workers engaged in direct
labor in both regions. A s a result of certain code exemptions, however,
the differential in favor of indirect male workers as compared with
skilled direct male workers increased between M arch 1933 and D ecem ­
ber 1934 in both regions.
24. Am ong the broad occupational groupings engaged in direct
labor, not over 2.1 percent of the males and not over 0.4 percent of
the females worked more than 48 hours, the upper limit for handicraft
shops. In fact, the great m ajority of these employees had a workweek
of 40 hours or less, the upper lim it for mechanical bakeries. W ork of
more than 48 hours a week was found to an appreciable extent only
in the occupations classified as other indirect male labor, which group­
ing included occupations exempted from the provisions of the code.
25. The exempted occupation of driver-salesman shows the smallest
decline in average weekly hours between M arch 1933 and December
1934, a decrease of only 2.0 percent. In each period, over 90 percent
of these workers averaged over 48 hours per week.
26. The tendency between M arch 1933 and December 1934 was
toward a leveling of the workweek of the various occupations.
27.

Although in several cases the occupational averages for male
workers in the South were higher than those for males in the North,
this was not true of all occupations. In the case of females, there was
little difference in the regional averages. In occupations requiring
approximately the same skill, males worked on the average longer
hours than females.

28. The leveling effect of both the President’s Reemployment
Agreement and the code largely eliminated the longer hours which in
M arch 1933 existed in cities of less than 250,000.
29. In the North, male workers engaged in direct labor in union
shops had a shorter week than those in nonunion shops. This advan­
tage was m ost pronounced in M arch 1933 before either the President’s
Reemployment Agreement or the code were in effect.
30. During each of the three periods, the northern male employees
worked the longest hours in handicraft, the next longest in seimhandicraft, and the shortest in mechanical shops, but under both the Presi­
dent’s Reemploym ent Agreement and the code the spread in the aver-




SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

5

age weekly hours between these types of shops was increased consider­
ably. In case of males in the South, mechanical bakeries worked
longer hours than handicraft bakeries in March 1933, but the Presi­
dent’s Reemployment Agreement reversed this and established a
differential in favor of handicraft as compared with mechanical shops.
The code further increased this differential. Semihandicraft estab­
lishments in the South had the longest hours in March and September
1933 and the same hours as mechanical bakeries in December 1934.
31. From the standpoint of type of distribution, employees in the
smaller establishments, such as retail and house-to-house or local
wholesale shops, worked on the whole longer hours per week than
employees in the larger multi-State, multiple-unit retail, and chainstore bakeries.
32. In each of the three periods and for each sex-region group, the
average weekly hours differed but little between bread shops and cake,
sweet goods, and pie shops. The large differential in favor of bread
shops as compared with bread specialty shops was reduced from 11.7
hours in March 1933 to 5.6 hours in September 1933 and to 6.1 hours
in December 1934.
33. Average weekly hours dropped from 53.2 in the fall of 1931 to
43.5 in December 1934, a decline of 9.7 hours or 18.2 percent. The
decrease was greater for males than for females.
34.
$22.84
1933
$23.24
1933
$23.86
1934.

Average earnings per week in the bread-baking industry ad­
vanced from
in March
to
in September
and to
in December
These gains were the result of increases in
average hourly earnings sufficiently great to more than offset the
decreases in average weekly hours. Taking the entire period, the
weekly earnings increased more in the South ($1.59 or 8.8 percent)
than in the North ($1.01 or 4.3 percent), and in each region the gains
were relatively greater for females than for males.

35. Although not very large, the changes in the distribution of
employees according to weekly earnings in the entire industry between
M arch and September 1933 w ere significant. Thus, a decrease in the
T
percentage earning less than $12 (from l2 .7 to 7.7) was accompanied
by an increase in the percentage earning $12 and under $20 (from
24.8 to 33.6). Likewise, a decline in the relative number receiving
$20 and under $32 (from 45.6 to 38.9) was followed by an increase in
the relative number earning $32 and over (from 16.9 to 19.8). W ith
the exception of a slight increase in the percentage earning $36 and
over, the changes between September 1933 and December 1934 were
negl i gi bl e. .
.
.
.
36. Taking the distribution of employees according to weekly
earnings by sex-region groups, there was a shift of workers from the
immediately adjoining classes on both sides to the $12 and under $20
class for males in the N orth and to the $12 and under $16 class for
females in the North and for both males and females in the South.
This was due to the fact that, on the one hand, all employees outside
of driver-salesmen were more or less uniformly affected by the reduc­
tion of weekly hours, and, on the other hand, the increases in average
earnings per hour were greater on the whole for the lower-paid rather
than for the higher-paid workers, thus tending to increase the weekly
earnings of the lower-paid employees and to decrease the weekly
earnings of the higher-paid employees. There was also an increase in
the relative number of males in the upper wage-brackets in both the




6

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

N orth and the South, which m ay be accounted for by the inclusion of
driver-salesmen. The increase in the average hourly earnings of driversalesmen was not accompanied by an appreciable decrease in average
weekly hours, so that these employees were shifted to still higher wage
classes. There is a striking similarity in the percentage of workers m
each of the wage classes for each sex-region group between September
1933 and Decem ber 1934.
37. In both the N orth and South, although the average weekly
earnings of semiskilled and unskilled male workers engaged in direct
labor differed but little during each of the three periods, there existed
a substantial differential between each of these two groups and skilled
workers. There was also a differential in the average weekly earnings
in favor of driver-salesmen as compared with skilled male workers
engaged in direct labor. This differential became greater in both
September 1933 and December 1934, which was due to the fact that
the former group was exempted from the hour regulations under the
code, whereas the latter group was subject to these regulations.
38. For males in the N orth, the changes in the average weekly earn­
ings between M arch 1933 and December 1934 ranged from a decrease
of 86 cents for dividers or scalers to an increase of $1.16 for pan greasers
among the 14 individual occupations in the direct-labor group, and in
the indirect-labor group they ranged from a decrease of 70 cents for
office clerks to an increase of $5.49 for driver-salesmen. For the six
individual occupations shown for females in the N orth, the gains
ranged from 47 cents for stenographers, typists, telephone operators,
etc., to $2.03 for cake finishers. In the South, five of the six indi­
vidual occupations presented for males engaged in direct labor showed
increases between M arch 1933 and December 1934.
39. In all three periods, the occupational average weekly earnings
were higher in the N orth than in the South. T he largest regional
differential among the broad occupational groupings was for “ other”
male workers in the indirect-labor group ($6.33 in M arch 1933, $5.39
in September 1933, and $5.58 in December 1934). The smallest
North-South differential was found among unskilled female employees
classified as direct labor ($2.86 in M arch 1933, 67 cents in September
1933, and $1.49 in December 1934).
40. A comparison of the weekly earnings of unskilled workers
classified as direct labor reveals that for comparable work male em­
ployees averaged more than female employees.
41.

On the whole, the average weekly earnings were higher in the
larger cities in both the North and the South.
42. In all three periods, the average weekly earnings of skilled and
semiskilled male workers engaged in direct labor were greater in union
shops than in nonunion shops. The opposite was true of unskilled
workers. The differential between unskilled and skilled workers was
virtually twice as large in union as in nonunion shops.
43. In both regions, the average weekly earnings were generally
greatest in the most highly mechanized shops.
44. For males in both regions, the weekly earnings were highest
in multi-St ate, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries, but for
females in the North they were highest in retail and house-to-house
bakeries, and for females in the South they were highest in local
wholesale shops.




SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

7

45. Am ong the males in the North, bread specialty shops not only
had the highest average earnings per hour, but they also had the
highest average weekly earnings. In all four sex-region groups, the
averages for bread shops exceeded those for cake shops.
46. Average weekly earnings decreased from $28.54 in the fall of
1931 to $23.86 in December 1934, a drop of $4.29 or 14.5 percent.
During this .interval, the weekly earnings of females advanced from
$12.70 to $14.23, while those of males declined from $29.53 to $25.24.
47. Only a few of the larger bakeries had special employment
agencies. In small shops the owner did the hiring, and in the larger
establishments the superintendent or the general manager did the
hiring or delegated this authority to some subordinate.
48. Previous experience, especially previous satisfactory service in
the plant of the employer, outweighs all other considerations in hiring
an applicant.
49. Due to the strenuous nature of the work in bread bakeries,
there is a tendency to establish definite age limits in hiring.
Gen­
erally speaking, the hiring age for bake-shop employees ranged from
18 to 45 and that for driver-salesmen from 21 to 35 years.
50. Both bakers and driver-salesmen must be trained. In only
7.0 percent of the bakeries was the training of bakers formal, other
bakeries starting new men as helpers and advancing them to machine
or bench hands in accordance with ability or seniority or both and
not as a rule after a definite period of training. The training of driversalesmen often consists only in acquainting them with the route,
although the larger plants usually require more extensive training in
sales methods and other phases of the business.
51. During seasonal or other slack periods, it is customary for
workers in a bakery to share available work. Considerable effort is
made to keep the existing force intact, thereby minimizing the extent
and cost of labor turn-over. W hen lay-offs are necessary, the major
factors considered in retaining workers are ability, merit, and seniority.
52. Bakery workers are generally paid on a time basis. Driversalesmen were the chief exception to this rule, as they are usually paid
wholly or in part b y commissions.
53. Code regulation of maximum hours of work coupled with puni­
tive overtime rates tended both to shorten and to regularize the work
hours of bakery employees.
54. A common practice in this industry is to supply, free of charge
or at a discount, bakery products for use by families of employees.
55. Am ong the more common expenses incurred by driver-salesmen
are the cost of operators’ licenses and uniforms. In some establish­
ments, the driver-salesmen also m ay have to furnish bond or assume
responsibility for any credit they extend to customers.
56. The starting and quitting hours of individual bake-shop
employees are very irregular, due to the fact that these hours are
determined by the order of manufacture and that very often processes
overlap. D aily hours vary with week ends, holidays, and midweek
lulls. The industry has, however, made an attempt to level out
weekly peaks and lows.
57. N ight work is still common in the industry, although a struggle
against it has been waged for the past 100 years. A typical sample of
93 plants showed that, of the total operating hours in these plants,




8

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

857 hours were worked during the night (6 p. m. to 6 a. m .) and 812
hours represented daytime operation.
58. Approximately three-fourths of the bakeries provided for rest
during lunch for at least a part of their employees although only twothirds of the shops extended this privilege to bake-shop workers. Onehalf hour was the m ost common lunch period.
59. The six holidays generally observed in the industry are Christ­
mas, Thanksgiving, Independence D a y , New Y ea r’s D a y , Labor D a y ,
and Decoration D a y . M o st salaried employees and about one-half
of the regular bake-shop employees were paid for holidays.
60. Vacations with pay were provided for all employees in 12 per­
cent of the plants reporting and for part of the employees in an addi­
tional 36 percent of the plants.
61. Although welfare activities are not very common, they are found
among the larger bakeries. Such activities include safety programs,
company insurance, social and recreational activities, and mutual
benefit associations.




Chapter I.—The Bread-Baking Industry
Definition of Industry
The baking industry makes bread, rolls, biscuit, crackers, cookies,
cakes, pies, doughnuts, pastries, pretzels, and a variety of other
products, of which a single bakery m ay produce one or several items.
The industry, however, is classified b y the Census of Manufactures
into two branches, namely, ‘ ‘Biscuit and crackers” and “ Bakery
products other than biscuit and crackers.”
The biscuit and crackers division of the industry is composed
chiefly of large-scale establishments which manufacture biscuit,
crackers, machine-made cookies, pretzels, etc. These products are
neither bulky nor perishable, so that they m ay be distributed geo­
graphically over a wide area. In 1933, the Census of Manufactures
reported 347 establishments and nearly 30,000 employees in this
branch of the industry. The problems here differ essentially from
those of bread baking, and, in the codes under the National Recovery
Administration, biscuit and crackers were separated from the bread
division. This survey, therefore, excluded biscuit and cracker plants
from its scope.
The present survey covers the largest division of the industry, which
includes the baking of bread, cakes, pies, etc. In 1933, the Census of
Manufactures reported for this branch 14,483 establishments em­
ploying 14,149 1 salaried workers and 155,229 wage earners, who
received about $174,000,000 in salaries and wages and manufactured
a product valued at $770,000,000. This industry is one of the princi­
pal ones in the country, having more establishments than any other
manufacturing industry.2
The bread division also differs from that of biscuit and crackers in
other respects. I t not only embraces large mechanical plants run on
a factory basis, but it also includes the semihandicraft group of par­
tially mechanized bakeries, as well as the numerous small handicraft
shops that employ only a few people.3 A s the products of this division
are designed for consumption within a few days, they must be dis­
tributed within a relatively local area. Sales of bakery goods are
made either wholesale or retail or by both methods. The retail
baker m ay sell his products from his own store, located usually in
front of his bake shop, or through stores situated at various points in
his city, or through chain grocery organizations that m ay control his
output, or by the use of the house-to-house sales-route method, etc.4
1 Exclusive of employees in central administrative offices.
2 The above figures do not include establishments doing a business of less than $5,000 per annum.
In his letter of transmittal to the President, in connection with the Code of Fair Competition for the
Baking Industry, Administrator Hugh S. Johnson said: “ In 1929, a conservative estimate of establishments
shows a total of 30,000 bakeries, which had dropped to 25,000 in 1933.”
The applications for code Blue Eagles would seem to be the most reliable index of the number of bakeries,
but the figures are available at the present writing only as a rough estimate, there being several important
variables present that may later be corrected. The final compilation will probably be well over 30,000.
3 See p. 22.
* See pp. 23 and 24.
102 7 4 5°— 37-




-2

9

10

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Historical Development of Baking Industry
M a n baked his' bread before the dawn of history. Fragments of
unfermented cakes or biscuits discovered in the Neolithic lake dwell­
ings of Switzerland are among evidences left that our ancestors o f the
Stone Age gathered grain, fashioned cakes, and engaged in what has
come to be known as home baking. Before the time of Christ,
Egyptian hieroglyphs designated the occupation of baker. Home
had 300 bake shops in the days of Emperor Augustus. W hen Pompeii
was excavated, remains of shops were unearthed with loaves of bread
still in the ovens. During the M iddle Ages, the possession of an oven
was an exclusive right of the feudal lord. H e compelled all people
in his jurisdiction to use his ovens and exacted a fee in return. In
medieval cities the baking trade was among the first crafts to develop
and bakers played a prominent part in the city life.5

The art of baking has held its place among the essential industries
of mankind. By the late eighteenth century, there had developed in
Europe a well-established market for commercial bakery products,
with a large portion of the people accustomed to purchase their bakery
goods. In some countries, notably France, handicraft shops were the
rule and they have persisted almost exclusively to the present day.
In other countries, large-scale bakeries, some mechanized, have
become important. One mechanized plant in Moscow is equipped
to supply one-third of the city’s population,6 but the greater part of
bakery goods in Europe is still produced by craftsmen catering to
particular demands.
The development of baking in the United States has differed some­
what from that in Europe.
The pioneer household did its own
baking, and this practice persisted in industrialized America until
the turn of the twentieth century. A n investigation among wageearners’ families by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1901 indicated
that about two-thirds of the bread was still baked at home.7 C om ­
mercial bake shops were, of course, established much earlier, but
they served a very limited number of consumers. The proprietor of
the bake shop was the baker, and the employees were usually drawn
from the members of his immediate family. H e baked his products
at night and sold them in a small store in front of the shop. A s early
as 1850, however, baking had entered the wholesale field.

The Census of Manufactures offers material for studying the
development of the bakery industry in this country. The earliest
information available is for 1849, when there were approximately
2,000 establishments employing 6,700 wage earners.
The records
indicate that the industry grew rapidly. By 1889 there were more
than 10,000 shops with nearly 39,000 wage earners. At the outbreak
of the World War, almost 26,000 bakeries were reported and 124,000
workers were employed by the industry. These figures cover the
industry as a whole, and show the rapid growth in the number of
establishments, as well as in the number of employees.
Since 1914 separate figures are available for the bread division.
These figures are given in table 1. The number of employees in8For a history of bread baking, see Braun, Emil: The Baker’s Book. New York, 1901, pp. 5-31.
6 Stone, Ursula B., Baking Industry, Europe, in Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 6, p. 305.
7 The investigation covered the consumption of various articles of food among 2,557 families. See Eight'
eenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1903, p. 82. This ratio of “ two-thirds” is based on a
comparison between the average number of loaves of bread and of pounds of flour and meal purchased per
family. See also Alsberg, Carl L.: Combination in the American Bread-Baking Industry. Stanford
University, California, 1926, pp. 27-28.




11

BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

creased steadily until the depression of the thirties. The data also
clearly indicate the advent of the large-scale bakery. The largest
number of bakeries was reported in 1914, for there was a decline in
the number of bakeries with a product valued at $500 or more from
1914 to 1919. From 1919 to 1925, there was a decrease in the number
with products valued at $5,000 or more.8 This is undoubtedly due to
the development of larger establishments at the expense of the smaller
ones. ^ During the depression years following 1929, the number of
establishments in the bread-baking industry has declined nearly 30
percent, and the number of wage earners decreased about 7 percent.
T

able

1.—

G r o w th o f b r e a d -b a k in g i n d u s t r y i n

U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 1 4 - 3 3

[Data taken from Census of Manufactures]

Year

Bakeries with a product valued at $500 or more:
1914__________________________________________
1919_____________________________________ _____
Bakeries with a product valued at $5,000 or more:
1921___________________________________________
1923_____________________________ _____________
1925__________________________ _____ __________
1927___________________________________________
1929___________________________________________
1931_______________________________________ .
1933__________________________________________

Number of
establish­
ments

Number of
wage
earners
(average
for year)

25,797
24,919

99,016
107,251

$66,072,000
132.171.000

$402,409,000
947.876.000

20,024
18,572
17,490
17,909
20, 410
17, 364
14,483

117,026
127,496
128,034
139, 013
166, 970
154, 764
155,229

169.829.000
183.221.000
187, 660, 000
202.197.000
240, 354,000
212,353. 000
174, 423, 000

902.463.000
911.118.000
1,023, 668, 000
1,145, 710, 000
1,251, 621, 000
979,904, 000
770, 332, 000

Wages

Value of
products

Tw o important forces have been operating and m ay be expected to
continue to affect the development of the baking industry.
Of
primary importance in the past has been the increasing proportion of
bakers' bread used as compared with bread baked in the home. In
1901, about two-thirds of the bread used by w age-earned families
was made at home, but it is estimated that in 191 8 -1 9 only one-third
was baked at home and two-thirds was purchased.9 The same pro­
portions probably apply to all inhabitants of large cities,1 although
0
in the smaller towns the percentage of bread baked at home is much
larger. On the other hand, home baking has persisted in the rural
sections of the country. In 1 9 2 2 -2 3 , it was estimated that at least
94 percent of the farm families of the United States baked their own
bread.1
1
I t was the decreasing use of home-made bread in the cities, together
with the increase in urban population, which gave the commercial
8
It is difficult to trace in detail the movements in recent years because of the absence of data on bakeries
with a product valued at less than $5,000. In the first place, changes in the price of flour play an important
role in determining whether or not a baker is eligible to report in one year and ineligible in another year,
thus making it difficult to interpret the change in the number of bakeries from 1927 to 1933. In the second
place, the discrepancy between 14,483 establishments reported by the Census of Manufactures in 1933 and
the estimated 30,000 Blue Eagles issued to bakeries indicates the importance of these small establishments.
It is probable that the number of bakeries has decreased more than is indicated by the table through the
elimination of small units but that the growth in the number of wage earners has been less than is shown.
The growth of employment in large scale units is accounted for, but the possible decrease of employment in
small units is not shown.
» Based on a study of the cost of living made by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, which covered 11,900
families. The average quantities of bread and flour consumed per family are given on p. 118 of Bui. No. 357:
Cost of Living in the United States. The ratio of “ one-third” was arrived at the same way as in 1901. See
also Alsberg, Combination in the American Bread-Baking Industry, p. 28. It must be remembered, how­
ever, when comparing the two periods that the size of the family declined somewhat.
1 This was indicated by a study in 36 large cities, which was made by the U. S. Food Administration in
0
1918. See Alsberg, Combination in the American Bread-Baking Industry, p. 28.
1 Based on a survey made by the Farm Journal of Philadelr'*iia. See Alsberg, Combination in the Ameri­
1
can Bread-Baking Industry, p. 29.




12

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

bakeries a considerable opportunity for expansion during the first
part of the twentieth century. W hether the city market is susceptible
to further marked expansion is questionable.
I t must be noted,
moreover, that the rural market has proved difficult to develop.
In recent years, however, several factors have tended to restrict
the consumption of bread and other starchy foods. The decline of
immigration after the adoption of quota restrictions was an important
influence, since people just arrived from Europe consume comparatively
larger amounts of bread than do those born in this country. O f more
importance perhaps is the change in our own food habits, with greater
emphasis on the food value of fruits and vegetables. Food require­
ments have also changed, tending toward lighter diet, as a result of
shortened hours of labor, the shift of population from farms to cities,
and the development of labor-saving devices.
Characteristics of Bread-Baking Industry
Bread making is not a localized industry, and the employees in it
always work in a broad labor market that offers several types of em­
ployment. So-called “ company towns” , with no alternative oppor­
tunities for employment, offer no problem to this industry. Bread is
manufactured in every city and town and many of the small villages
in the country. Because bread becomes stale quickly, “ fresh” bread
m ust be sold the same day it is baked.^ N o t only are bakeries located
throughout the country, but their distribution corresponds closely
to that of population, with the greatest concentration in the larger
cities.*
Along with the dispersion of the industry, bread baking also has a
smaller average number of employees per establishment than any
other manufacturing industry. According to the Census of M a n u ­
factures, the average was 10.7 wage earners in 1933, which contrasts
with 43 reported for all manufacturing industries. The average num­
ber of wage earners per plant, however, has risen steadily from 3.8
in 1914. This has been due mainly to the development of the larger
units in the industry.
T he distribution of establishments by size is available in 1929 only
for the industry as a whole, i. e., including also biscuit and crackers.
I t will be seen from table 2 that 19,183 out of a total of 20,785 estab­
lishments reporting to the Census of Manufactures had 20 or less wage
earners. In addition, the number of code Blue Eagles issued to in­
dustry registrants suggests that there m ay be another 10,000 or more
units operated either by a proprietor alone or with perhaps a single
wage earner.
T

able

2 .— N u m b e r

of

e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c la s s ifie d b y n u m b e r
b a k in g i n d u s t r y a s a w h o l e , 1 9 2 9 1

Number of wage earners

None___________ _ ___________
1-5______________________________
0-20______________________________
2 1 -5 0

51-100_____________ ____ ______
101-250__________________

Number of
establishments
662
14,206
4,315
933
364
246

of

Number of wage earners

2 5 1 -5 0 0

501-1.000
Over 1,000

w age

ea r n e r s, in

Number of
establishments
44
12
3

Total

20, 785

! Abstract of the Fifteenth Census of the United States, p. 794.
with a product valued at $5,000 or more.

Figures are limited to establishments




BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

13

Another distinguishing characteristic is that the bread-baking
industry has been affected during recent years by rapid progress in
the displacement of hand processes by machine operations, which is
undermining the demand for the high degree of skill for which the
old bakery worker was known. According to the Census of Manu­
factures, the percentage of bakeries 12 reporting the use of power was
5.3 in 1889, 9.8 in 1899, 25.9 in 1909, and 68.3 in 1919, thus indicat­
ing considerable acceleration in mechanization.13 The latter was
hastened by the introduction of electricity,14 which made it possible
to develop the small-scale use of power-driven machinery. The
spread of mechanization, or partial mechanization, may also be
judged by the following census averages of horsepower per plant15
(total reported horsepower divided by total reporting bakeries),
which show the uninterrupted progress since 1899:
1899— 1.5 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $500 or more.
1904— 2.0 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $500 or more.
1909— 2.7 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $500 or more.
1914— 4.1 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $500 or more.
1919— 6.6 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $500 or more.
1921— No figures available.
1923 lft— 10.3 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $5,000 or
more.
1925— 12.9 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $5,000 or more.
1927— 15.7 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $5,000 or more.
1929— 17.1 horsepower per bakery with products valued at $5,000 or more.

With the development of large plants there also arose the movement
toward combination in the industry.17 Even before 1900, certain
companies began to operate groups of bakeries, sometimes located in
several cities. These companies soon became the nuclei around
which the large mergers and consolidations were built. The move­
ment began about 1907, when seven baking plants in St. Louis united
to form the American Bakery Co. Similar mergers were organized
in quick succession in other important cities, and soon afterward they
began to extend to widely separated communities. These consolida­
tions were achieved either among the plant owners themselves or
through the instrumentality of interested banks.
The early combinations arose out of price wars, which threatened
the existence of many producers. Although the curbing of competi­
tion was one of the prime factors, there were other considerations
impelling the plants to consolidate. It was assumed that substan­
tial economies of operation might be effected, not only by reducing
production and distribution costs but also by the employment of
technical staffs, which small-scale bakeries could not afford. Like­
wise, the large organization had a definite bargaining advantage in
the purchase of raw materials and the negotiation of credit.
1 Including biscuit and crackers.
3
1 The 1929 percentage, 94.9, is not comparable with that for earlier years, since in 1929 establishments
3
with a product valued at $500 to $5,000 were not covered.
1 Kyrk, Hazel, and Davis, Joseph S.: The American Baking Industry, 1849-1923, as Shown in the Census
4
Reports. Stanford University, California, 1925, pp. 38-39.
1 Census of Manufactures, 1929, vol. II, p. 52.
5
1 The data after 1919 are not strictly comparable with the data for earlier years, due to a change in census
6
method. Beginning with the census of 1921, only plants doing a business of $5,000 or over were covered
instead of $500 and over, as had previously been included.
17 For a full discussion of this subject, see the following: Alsberg, Combination in the American BreadBaking Industry, pp. 8-22 and 125-148; Federal Trade Commission, Competition and Profits in Bread
and Flour (1928).




14

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

The next phase in the m ovem ent toward combination in the indus­
try was that of the holding company. This phase began in 1922
with the formation of the United Bakeries Corporation. B y 1925,
a large number of the wholesale bakeries had been united in one or
another of three very large holding corporations, namely, the Conti­
nental,1 the Purity, and the General, not to mention several smaller
8
combinations. Following this, the W ard Food Products Corporation
was organized to control the W ard Baking Corporation, the General
Baking Corporation, and the Continental Baking Corporation, but
this corporation was held by the courts to be in violation of the
Federal antitrust laws and was dissolved.
Another factor to be considered is the competitive situation in the
industry. The development of consolidations tended to stabilize
prices, but the entrance of chain grocery stores into the bread-baking
industry has been an important influence in recent years. These
stores have frequently used bread as a “ leader” ; that is, selling it
below the standard price prevailing in the community. Unable to
use their position as quantity purchasers, in order to secure price
reductions from some of the wholesale bakers with whom they had
been dealing, which concessions would have put them at an advantage
in competition with other retailers, m any of these larger chains estab­
lished their own bakeries.
Although the labor cost is only a relatively small part of the total
price of a loaf of bread, amounting only to a fraction of a cent per
pound, a reduction in the price of bread is often used as an argument
for reducing wages. The average cost of producing a pound of bread
in wholesale bakeries in 1 9 23-25 was 6.769 cents, of which only 0.786
cent was for labor. The components comprising the total cost were:
Flour, 2.312 cents; other ingredients, 0.903 cent; manufacturing (in­
cluding labor), 1.709 cents; selling and delivery, 1.617 cents; and
general and administrative, 0.22 cent.1
9
Finally, in view of the stability in the demand for bread, the industry
has been able to furnish relatively steady employment to its workers.
This is illustrated by chart 2, which contrasts the fluctuations in em­
ployment and pay rolls in the baking industry as a whole (including
biscuit and crackers) with those in all manufacturing industries. The
m onthly index numbers of employment and pay rolls for the baking
industry as a whole are given in table 3.
1 The United was absorbed by the Continental.
8
1 Federal Trade Commission, Competition and Profits in Bread and Flour, pp. 291 and 320.
9




15

BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY
C hart I.

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS, AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS,
AND AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES
IN BREAD INDUSTRY IN COUNTRY AS A WHOLE
Mar c h 1933, S e p te m b e r 1933,

HOURS
5040-

so
20-

to

20 15-

10
5‘

D e c em b er 1934

im
rm

■40
30
20

1
0

SEPTEM BER
1933

DECEMBER
1934

AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS_________

DOLLARS
25

-20

-IS
-10

-5

MARCH
1933

U. S. B ureau of L abor S tatistics




HOURS
■50

AVERA6E WEEKLY HOURS

MARCH
1933

DOLLARS
25-

and

SEPTEM BER
1933

DECEMBER
1934

-0

*Does n o t Include D river - S alesmen

16

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T a b l e 3 . — In d e x n u m bers o f em p lo ym en t and p a y rolls in the ba king in d u s try as
a whole , 1 9 1 9 - 8 5 1

[1923-25=100]
A. EM PLO Y M E N T

Month

1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 ; 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935
92.3
92.4
94.8
94.1
94.4
96.4

100.9 105.2 115.3 123.1 113.1 104.3
103.1
103.5
102.7

106.4 106.7
108.4 111.3
110.3 110.9

99.1 103.7 106.8 113.0 125.6 123.1 115.2 10 1.0
97.4 101.9 106.2 112 .6 125.0 120.5 113.8 99.9
98.8 103.7 109.0 116.9 128.2 12 1.6 113.2 99.5
103.3 105.8 11 0 .1 118.3 129.8 120.4 111.9 100.1
10 1.2 10 1.6 100.5 103.6 108.4 117.7 127.7 118.4 109.1 98.3
100.4 100.0 98.9 10 2 .1 106.9 117.3 126.1 116.7 107.4 97.7

99.5 116.3 111.5
102.7 115.8 111.7
108.9 115.7 114.6
1 10 .1 116.1 114.6
109.1 115.4 113.6
107.7 115.4 112.4

88.7 89.4 91.0 98.1
87.4 89.7 95.3 102.0
89.2 92.2 98.3 10 2 .1
88.8 88.4 96.8 99.9
89.6 88.9 97.4 10 0 .1
93.6 91.7 101.4 102.6

Jan_____
Feb_____
Mar_____
Apr_____
May-----June........

84.4
84.3
85.7
85.7
85.1
87.3

July_____
Aug_____
Sept....... .
Oct_____
Nov------Dec_____

89.0 100.0 97.0 97.8
88.7 100.9 97.0 94.5
87.6 97.2 95.2 92.8
88.2 96.4 96.3 93.8
90.4 95.9 95.1 95.2
91.4 93.4 91.4 92.7

97.7
99.0
97.7
96.4
96.7
99.5

95.8
95.4
94.6
95.7
102.6 96.8
103.7 108.4 113.1 125.0 124.2 114.3 102.0 98.1
96.8
96.9
99.5
98.8

102.6 106.1 118.2 123.1 113.1
103.8 107.7 12 0 .1 122.0 113.0
104.1 108.0 119.9 122.2 112.4
10 0 .1 103.7 110.8 122.2 123.0 114.2

105.6 102.0
104.2 100.5
103.6 101.5
105.6 102.2

1 1 1 . 2 11 1 .8

113.2 112.7
114.6 114.2

Aver... 87.3 95.7 92.4 92.3 100.1 10 1.1 98.8 101.4 105.9 112 .2 123.6 121.5 112 .6 10 1.2 10 1.2 113.2 112 .2
B. P A Y BO LLS

Month

1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935

Jan_____
Feb_____
Mar_____
Apr_____
May____
June____

65.2
68.9
69.4
68.9
70.6
73.4

85.4
83.2
94.1
84.1
96.7
101.5

91.0
92.3
93.4
84.6
92.3
94.2

July_____
Aug.........
Sept____
Oct___ _
Nov_____
Dec.........

73.0
74.4
76.5
72.5
80.7

104.4
104.9
103.5
101.7
102.4
86.1 96.8

96.2
93.8
95.9
96.6
89.8
85.5

81.2
83.9
86.3
81.7
84.2

86.5
91.6
94.4
92.2
97.4
88 .1 101.5

105.9 115.4 125.8 112.3
107.9 119.2 126.1 112 .2
109.5 120.9 124.7 111.3
107.5 120.3 125.7 109.5
112.5 125.3 126.2 112.3
114.7 127.4 127.6 112.3

97.1
95.4
94.6
91.2
90.5
89.2

92.3 104.4 103.3 100.5 106.3 108.8 114.4 127.6 125.3 1 1 1 .0
113.7 126.9 121.7 108.4
117.9 130.6 124.6 108.3
119.0 132.1 121.7 106.3
118.5 129.8 119.3 103.3
117.9 127.9 115.9 100.4

84.5
85.8
85.6
82.7
80.7

98.7 98.0 100.0 102.9
102.0 97.7 100.9 105.8
102.0 98.7 102.8 106.6
100.8 97.0 100.5 106.1
101.4 100.1 104.5 107.3
103.4 102.0 107.1 110.3

88.1 100.0 99.9 98.7 103.5 107.6
90.4 103.8 105.5 100.6 106.0 110.4
91.0 101.9 101.4 105.5 107.6 1 1 1 . 2
93.1 10 2 .1 101.9 102.3 105.5 109.6
87.8 100.6 100.0 10 2 .1 104.9 107.3

79.2
77.6
75.3
76.8
78.1
79.6

88.5
91.4
91.8
91.3
95.3
96.5

89.6
93.7
93.7
95.5
97.3
99.6

86.0 81.8 98.2 96.5

83.1
90.2
90.6
90.4
89.6

97.8
99.6
98.3
98.6
98.7

95.7

101.6
100.8

99.7
99.4

Aver. _. 73.3 96.6 92.1 87.3 98.0 101.7 100.3 104.1 107.8 113.3 125.3 123.7 109.0 88.6 82.7 95.5 96.9
1 Compiled by the Division of Employment and Pay Rolls, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Chart 2 shows clearly that the baker’s job is relatively steady even
in periods of acute depression. Thus, during the depression of 1 9 2 0 22, while employm ent and pay rolls in manufacturing as a whole
dropped sharply, em ploym ent and pay rolls in the baking industry
showed only a moderate decline. Likewise, during the relatively mild
depressions of 1924 and 1 9 2 7 -2 8 , the curves for the baking industry
were remarkably well maintained in comparison with those for all
manufacturing. The m ost striking contrast, however, between the
tw oseries is illustrated by the recent depression. In all manufactur­
ing industries, the drop from the high point to the low point was 46.1
percent in employm ent and 67.1 percent in pay rolls,20 while the reduc­
tion in the baking industry amounted respectively to 27.1 and 43.0
percent. In December 1935, compared to 1 9 2 3 -2 5 as a base, the index
number for all manufacturing industries stood at 84.6 in employment
and 76.6 in pay rolls, as against 112.4 in employment and 99.4 m pay
rolls for the baking industry.
2° The high and low points for all manufacturing industries were respectively in September 3929 and
March 1933. The high and low points in the baking industry were respectively in October 1929 and March




BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY




18

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Likewise, there is relatively little seasonal variation in employment
in the baking industry. Usually, the greatest slack comes after New
Y ea r’s D a y with increased activity during the summer months and
late in the year. One important element in the summer is a decrease
in home baking during hot weather. Baking in resort areas also in­
creases sharply during the summer months.
Changes in Conditions of Work
The conditions under which bakery employees worked in the early
days of the industry were notoriously bad. W ith respect to these
conditions, a union organizer reports as follows:
M a n y w o r k e d 7 d a y s in t h e w e e k
*
*
* a n d th e h o u r s o f c o n t in u o u s t o il
a m o u n t e d d a ily t o f r o m 14 t o 18 h o u r s. I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h is w a s
n ig h t w o r k , p e r fo r m e d u n d e r g r o u n d w it h in t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f o n e o r m o r e o v e n s
a t fu ll h e a t, in t e r m ix e d w it h b a d o d o r s p r o d u c e d b y t h e p r o c e s s o f fe r m e n t a t io n
o r c o m in g f r o m d e f e c t i v e se w e r a g e , o r b o t h . M a n y w e r e c o m p e lle d t o b o a r d w it h
th e ir e m p lo y e r s , w h o c o m p e ll e d t h e m t o s le e p in t h e v e r y c e lla r h o le w h e r e in t h e y
h a d b e e n d r u d g in g t h e la s t 2 0 h o u r s . B u t in m a n y c a s e s t h e r e w a s n o t e v e n a
b e d t o lie u p o n , a n d a n u m b e r o f flo u r s a c k s p la c e d o n t h e t o p o f t h e t r o u g h
s e r v e d a s a b u n k w h e r e t h e m e n t h r e w th e ir t ir e d b o d ie s , u n d r e s s e d a n d fu ll o f
p e r s p ir a tio n , t o r e s t f o r fr o m 3 t o 5 h o u r s . T h e p r in c ip a l f o o d s e r v e d t o th e se
m e n b y t h e ir m a s t e r s c o n s is t e d in m a n y c a s e s o f c h e e s e , c h e a p sa u sa g e , a n d
b r e a d ; t h e b e e r t h e y h a d t o s u p p l y th e m s e lv e s . T h e w a g e s r a n g e d , a c c o r d in g t o
th e g ra d e o f w o r k m e n w e r e a b le t o p e r fo r m , f r o m $ 2 t o $ 1 2 p e r w e e k .2
1

A survey made in New Y ork C ity in 1881 by the same person,
covering 505 bakers, showed that these men worked “ 100% hours each
on an average per week; or, if we distribute their work equally among
the 6 working days in the week, they worked each on an average of
16% hours a day. B u t the length of their working days were actually
very differently distributed. In m ost bakeries the Sunday labor was
no more than 5 hours on an average. On week days it was almost
universally 16 hours a day, Saturdays excepted, when the number of
hours was greater, reaching even 23 hours of continuous w ork.” 2
2
These men gave their wages as “ being on an average $8.20 for each
one, or 8% cents for each of the 100 working hours.” 2
2
In view of the close relation of bread to public health, the improve­
ment in the sanitary conditions of bakeries early became a question
of public control. Various laws have been enacted in numerous States
regulating the conditions of employment of bakery workers. These
deal not only with sanitation but also with hours of labor. Regulation
of hours in the baking industry has even been extended to men. A
law in N ew Y ork, limiting the hours of bakery employees to 10 a day
and 60 a week, was declared unconstitutional b y the United States
Supreme Court in 1905, on the ground that no relationship was seen
to exist between such a regulation and clean and wholesome bread.2
3
This ruling, however, was reversed b y the United States Supreme
Court in 1917 in connection with a 10-hour law in Oregon.24
A considerable part of the improvement in labor conditions in the
industry was brought about through the voluntary efforts of employers,
especially those operating larger plants.
M uch credit in this respect is also due to the organization of bakery
workers. Between 1880 and 1885, sporadic attempts were made to
2 George G. Block, Concise History of the Journeymen Bakers’ National Union of the United States, p. 1.
1

22 Ibid., p. 2 .

2 Lochner v. New York, 19S U. S. 45, 25 Sup. Ct. 539 (1905).
3
2 Bunting v. Oregon, 243 U. S. 246, 37 Sup. Ct. 435 (1917).
<




BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

19

form unions of bakers in a number of cities* The m ost famous of
these was the one in New Y ork C ity in 1880. This movement, which
covered about 5,000 German bakers in New Y ork and Brooklyn, was
followed b y an unsuccessful strike in 1881 that virtually put an end
to the local union. In 1885, a few remnants of the union joined in
establishing a German weekly under the name of the German-American
Bakers’ Journal, which was followed in 1886 b y the formation of a
national union, called the Journeymen Bakers’ National Union of the
United States of Am erica.2 The jurisdiction of this organization was
6
extended in 1903 to the candy and ice-cream workers, and the name
was changed to the Bakery and Confectionery W orkers’ International
Union of America.
Although the Bakery and Confectionery W orkers’ International
Union is organized on an industrial basis, with membership open to
all workers of both sexes engaged in bread, cake, pie, cracker, pretzel,
pastry, candy, and ice-cream manufacture, the membership consists
largely of skilled and semiskilled workers among the processing em ­
ployees.2 The driver-salesmen usually belong to the International
6
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers of
America.
The Bakery and Confectionery W orkers’ International Union has
experienced a fairly steady but slow growth in membership. In M a y
1935, the union reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics 30,600
members. Numerically, the union’s strongholds are in New Y ork,
Chicago, Cleveland, and St. Louis. There is also relatively greater
union organization in cities of lower New England than in other
geographic sections of the country. The union has m et with more
success in organizing small-scale shops than large establishments.
Agreements are negotiated by the local unions acting independently.
A degree of uniformity, however, is imposed through the requirement
in the constitution of the International that its general executive board
approve the proposed terms of the local agreements prior to conferences
with employers. Frequently, numerous employers within the same
city will sign union agreements which carry identical provisions. Sup­
plementary to the negotiating of agreements has been the use of unionlabel campaigns and strikes to reinforce the workers’ bargaining power.
2 Block, Concise History of the Journeymen Bakers’ National Union of the United States, pp. 3-5.
5
26 In 1921, a group of bakers in New York City left the union and helped to form the Amalgamated Food
Workers of America, which aimed to organize the workers in all branches and processes of food production
and distribution. Early in 1935, however, the bakery locals of the Amalgamated voted to reunite with the
Internationa], and by the close of the year most of them had been reabsorbed.




Chapter II.— Scope and Method
Extent of Coverage
Since the purpose of the survey was primarily to ascertain the effect
of the code upon labor, the code definition of the “ baking industry” 2
8
was taken as the guide in determining the extent and limits of this
survey. The plants covered were, therefore, those making bread,
rolls, cakes, pies, cookies, doughnuts, and other sweet yeast-raised
goods, including the distribution of these goods by them through
driver-salesmen, trucks, and retail or wholesale stores or similar
outlets. Omitted from the survey were hotels, restaurants, and other
similar businesses, baking for their own sale or consumption only, and
bakers of biscuit, crackers, pretzels, m atzoths, and ice-cream cones.
The omitted producers were generally subject to codes other than that
of the baking industry. In other words, the survey was limited to the
bread division only, thus excluding biscuit and crackers.
The survey covered three pay-roll periods, each representing a
different phase in the recent history of the industry. These periods
are as follows:
Second half of March 1933— lowest level of business depression.29
Second half of September 1933— period of President's Reemployment
Agreement, with allegedly substantial wage increases and reduction in
hours.
(The President's Reem ploym ent Agreement became effective
during the latter part of July 1933, and substitute wages and hours
provisions for the baking industry were agreed upon about the middle
of August.)
First half of December 1934— approximately 6 months after the per­
manent code had been in operation.
(The effective date of the code
was June 18, 1934.)
The sample taken as representative of the industry includes an
estimated 10 to 11 percent of all bakery workers in the bread division.
A larger coverage could not be attempted economically because of the
prevalence of small establishments. The total numbers of plants and
employees included during each pay-roll period appear in table 4.
T able

4. —

C o v e r a g e o f s u r v e y f o r ea c h o f th ree p a y - r o l l p e r i o d s

Pay-roll period

March 1933____ ___________________________________
September 1933,
- ____________ ________________
December 1934_____ ______________________________

Number of
establish­
ments

250
256
259

Number of employees
Total
16,480
18, 782
20, 962

Male
14,585
16,609
18,348

Female
1,895
2,173
2,614

a Baking-Industry Code, art. II, sec. 1:
s
“ The term 'Baking Industry’ * * * shall mean the manufacture, distribution including trucking,
and/or sale, in any manner whatsoever, of bakery products. Said term shall not include (a) hotels, clubs,
restaurants, and similar places where bakery products are manufactured exclusively for consumption at
the place of manufacture; (6) wholesale or retail groceries, provided the owner or operator thereof does not
manufacture, directly or indirectly, through an agent, affiliate unit, or otherwise, any part of the bakery
products offered for sale therein. If wholesale or retail groceries do so manufacture any part of the bakery
products offered for sale therein, as to them said term shall include only the manufacture, distribution
including trucking, and/or sale of the bakery products manufactured by them.”
Sec. 2 of the same article states further:
“ The term 'bakery products’ as used herein includes bread, rolls, cakes, pies, cookies, doughnuts and
similar goods, and other sweet yeast-raised goods, but does not include biscuits, crackers, pretzels, matzoths,
or ice-cream cones.”
29 For a discussion of the effect of the depression on the baking industry, see p. 16.

20




21

SCOPE AND METHOD

Factors Considered in Selection of Sample
Although the coverage was not large, the selection of the bakeries
surveyed was made with great care, in order that the sample secured
might be a fair representation of the trade as a whole. Among the
factors taken into consideration in making the selection of establish­
ments were geographical distribution, size of city, size of establish­
ment, unionization, degree of mechanization, type of distribution, and
product.
Owing to the spread of the baking industry, the sample was made to
embrace a fairly wide geographical distribution. The establishments
covered were located in 66 cities in 37 States and the District of
Columbia. The selection of these cities and States, which was made
in consultation with representatives of the Code Authority of the
N . R . A . and the bakery union, was sufficiently adequate to indicate
regional differences between the North and the South, as provided in
the code. The South was defined in the code as embracing Alabama,
Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and
Virginia.3 W ith the exception of Mississippi, all of these were
0
included in the sample. The number of cities covered in the South
totaled 22. The remaining 25 States 3 and the District of Columbia,
1
with their 44 cities, have been classified here as belonging to the North.
A list of the cities covered by the survey follows.
List of Cities included in
N o rth

Albany, N. Y.
Auburn, Maine
Baltimore, Md.
Bay City, Mich.
Boston, Mass.
Bridgeport, Conn.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Charleston, W. Va.
Chicago,111.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Denver, Colo.
Des Moines, Iowa.
Detroit, Mich.
Elmira, N. Y.
Evansville, Ind.

Fargo, N. Dak.
Fitchburg, Mass.
Galesburg, 111.
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Huntington, W. Va.
Indianapolis, Ind.
Joplin, Mo.
Lima, Ohio
Lincoln, Nebr.
Los Angeles, Calif.
Madison, Wis.
Manchester, N. H.
Middletown, Conn.
Minneapolis, Minn.
New York, N. Y.

Atlanta, Ga.
Columbia, S. C.
Dallas, Tex.
Enid, Okla.
Houston, Tex.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Johnson City, Tenn.
Knoxville, Tenn.

Lakeland, Fla.
Little Rock, Ark.
Louisville, Ky.
Macon, Ga.
Memphis, Tenn.
Miami, Fla.
Mobile, Ala.

Omaha, Nebr.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Providence, R. I.
San Francisco, Calif.
Scranton, Pa.
Sioux Falls, S. Dak.
St. Louis, Mo.
Syracuse, N. Y.
Topeka, Kans.
Trenton, N. J.
Wilmington, Del.
Washington, D. C.
Zanesville, Ohio

S ou th

New Orleans, La.
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Paducah, Ky.
Raleigh, N. C.
Richmond, Va.
Shawnee, Okla.
Waco, Tex.

30 The same States, with the exception of Kentucky, were included in the South in connection with the
substitute provision in the President’s Reemployment Agreement pertaining to minimum wages.
3 These were California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine,
1
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, West Virginia, and
Wisconsin.




22

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

The fact that there are differences in wages according to size of
city was recognized b y both the Presidents Reemployment Agree­
ment and the code, which set the minimum rates of pay for office and
sales employees on the basis of the population of cities. For this
reason, population was also considered in the selection of the cities
included in this survey. Am ong the cities covered, 22 had a popula­
tion of 250,000 and over, 27 a population of 50,000 and under 250,000,
and 17 a population under 50,000. Nearly all of the cities in the
“ under 50,000” group were county-seat towns serving rural areas,
which were taken in order to bring out the particular effects upon the
labor of such areas.3
2
A n analysis of the sample, showing the number of establishments
by region and size of city and the number of employees by region,
size of city, and sex in December 1934, appears in table 5.
T able

5.—

C overa g e o f s u r v e y b y r e g io n a n d s iz e o f c i t y , D ec e m b e r 1 9 3 4

Region and size of city

Number of
establish­
ments

Number of employees
Total

Male

Female

United States:
250,000 and over________ ___________ ______ ____
50,000 and under 250,000. ________ ________________
Under 50,000 _______ __________________________

156
71
32

15,926
4,135
901

13,988
3, 570
790

1,938
565

Total____________________________ _______ ____

259

20,962

18,348

2,614

North:
250,000 and over. _____________________________ _
50,000 and under 250,000_________ _______________
Under 50,000 ...................... .................................„

128
46

14, 360
2,596
660

12,615
2,312
574

1,745
284

22

.. ___________________________________

196

17, 616

15,501

2,115

South:
250,000 and over_____________ ____ __ _____ ______
50,000 and under 250,000................. ...... .....................
Under 50,000 ....... ................ ..................................

28
25
10

1,566
1, 539
241

1,373
1,258
216

193
281
25

63

3, 346

2,847

499

Total

Total______

_____ ______ ____________________

111

86

As previously mentioned, the baking industry is one in which the
small unit still predominates, the average number of employees per
establishment in 1933 being approximately 11. This survey did not
include any plants with less than four employees, m any of which
were run as family businesses with no outside help. Furthermore,
considerable difficulty was encountered in obtaining data from small
bakeries with four or more workers, due chiefly to the lack of adequate
pay-roll records. As a result, although some plants with 10 or less
employees were included, the average number of employees per plant
covered was 81 in December 1934. The distribution of plants covered
according to size appears in table 6.
32
A few additional cities of this class were covered by the field representatives of the Bureau, but the
bakeries visited in each place were either entirely too small or they had no records available.




SCOPE AND METHOD
T

a b l e

6.-—

23

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s i n s a m p l e a c c o r d in g to n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ,
D ecem ber 1 9 3 4 1

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s in e s t a b lis h m e n t

N um ber of
e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts

10 a n d u n d e r _____
11 a n d u n d e r 5 0 . .
50 a n d u n d e r 100.
100 a n d u n d e r 200
200 a n d u n d e r 500
500 a n d o v e r ...........

27
104

T o t a l _______

259

49
15
4

1 T h is m a y b e c o m p a r e d w it h t h e c e n s u s d is t r ib u t io n , as s h o w n in t a b le 2, p . 12.

An effort was also made to have the sample properly representative
of both union and nonunion establishments. A s the survey was
concerned chiefly with processing or “ direct” workers, however, a
plant was classified as “ union” or “ nonunion” on the basis of whether
or not it had a contract with the Bakery and Confectionery W orker’s
International Union of America. I t has already been pointed out
that this union frequently does not include certain classes of “ indirect”
labor, so that comparisons of “ union” and “ nonunion” employees are
drawn only with respect to the “ direct” labor or workers largely found
in this organization. There are few union establishments in the
South. Of the 63 southern plants covered by the survey, only 7
had union contracts. In the N orth, on the other hand, 59 of the 196
bakeries included in the sample had union contracts.
One of the major issues in the industry arising out of the baking
code was the provision relating to weekly hours, which set a maximum
of 48 for “ handicraft shops” , as compared with 40 for “ other than
handicraft shops.”
Handicraft bakeries were defined by the code as
those that “ use no power-driven machines other than mixers and
dough brakes in the processing of their products and which do not
employ more than 10 bake-shop employees.” M em bers of the
industry proposed that “ other than handicraft shops” should be
subdivided to create another class, namely “ semihandicraft shops” ,
which should have a maximum of 44 hours per week. I t was pro­
posed that “ semihandicraft shops” be defined as those “ in which at
least 80 percent of the total working hours of all production employees,
as such, is spent in hand operation; i. e., not in operation of any
power-driven processing machines.” Bakeries “ other than handicraft
shops and semihandicraft shops” would thus be mechanical shops,
which, it was proposed, should continue to have a maximum of 40
hours per week. The 259 bakeries included in the sample represent
each of these classes of establishment, although it m ay be noted that
the number of mechanical bakeries surveyed, is considerably larger
than that in the other two classes, due in part to the difficulty of
finding adequate records among the smaller shops such as comprise
largely the handicraft and semihandicraft classes.
The code also defined bakeries according to type of distribution,
such as retail, local wholesale, m ulti-State, house-to-house, multiple




24

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

unit retail, and chain store.3 Each of these types is well represented
3
in the sample. The code classification has, however, been changed
for the purpose of the survey into the following:
1. Retail and house-to-house bakeries.
2. Local wholesale bakeries.
3. Multi-State, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries.
The last group contains primarily the largest bakery chains in the
country.
Finally, in classifying establishments the code distinguished be­
tween various products.3 The classification by products used in this
4
survey is as follows: Bread; cake, sweet goods, and pies, including
cake specialties; and bread specialties. The last item is unimportant,
the number of bakeries making bread specialties being small in the
N orth and virtually nonexistent in the South.
A n analysis of the sample in December 1934, showing the number
of bakeries and employees classified by region and b y degree of
mechanization, type of distribution, and product, will be found in
table 7.
T able

7. —

C o v e r a g e o f s u r v e y b y d e g ree o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n , t y p e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d
k in d o f p r o d u c t , a s to r e g i o n , D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4

United States
Kind of bakery

Degree of mechanization:
Handicraft______ ______
Semihandicraft_________
Mechanical________ ___
Total.........................
Type of distribution:
Retail and house-tohouse.- _____________
Local wholesale______Multi-State, multiple-unit
retail, and chain store..
Total______________
Product:
Bread________________
Cake, sweet goods, and
pies, including cake
specialties____________
Bread specialties_______
Total_________ ____

North

South

Num­
Number of
ber
employees
of estabFe­
lish- Total Male male
ments

Num­
Number of
ber
employees
ofestabFe­
lish- Total Male male
ments

Num­
Number of
ber
employees
of estabFe­
lish- Total Male male
ments

473
367
106
39
226
43 1,357 1,131
177 19,132 16,850 2,282
259 20,962 18, 348 2,614

258
323
26
65
991
202
37 1,193
133 16,100 14, 252 1, 848
196 17,616 15, 501 2,115

150
109
13
164
140
6
44 3,032 2, 598
63 3,346 2, 847

41
24
434
499

447
535

326
13
407
31 1,653 1,433

81
220

76 10,286 8,955 1, 331
259 20,962 18, 348 2,614

57 9,000 7,867 1,133
196 17,616 15,501 2,115

19 1,286 1,088
63 3,346 2,847

198
499

227 16,832 15, 556 1,276

169 13,934 12,949

58 2,898 2,607

291

24 3, 775 2,455 1,320
8
355
337
18
259 20,962 18,348 2,614

19 3,327 2, 215 1,112
8
355
337
18
196 17,616 15, 501 2,115

60 3, 696 3,168
123 6,980 6,225

528
755

47 3,289 2,842
92 5, 327 4,792

985

5

448

240

208

63 3, 346 2,847

499

3 The definitions of each of these are as follows:
3
R eta il bakers— 1 persons who manufacture and sell bakery products to the consumer through their own
“
retail stores, who own or control not more than three stores, and who sell at least 70 percent of this
product at retail over the counter.”
L o c a l w h olesa le bakers— “persons who manufacture and sell bakery products at wholesale and who manu­
facture entirely within one State.”
M u lti-S ta te bakers— “persons who manufacture bakery products in more than one State.”
H ou se-to -h o u se bakers— “persons who manufacture bakery products and distribute them by their own
vehicles directly to the consumer at the point of consumption.”
M u ltip le -u n it reta il bakers —“ persons who manufacture bakery products and distribute them to the con­
sumer through their own retail stores and who own or control four or more such outlets” , but not “ chainstore bakers.”
C h ain -store bakers —“persons who manufacture bakery products and distribute them through their own
or through a parent company’s or subsidiary company’s retail grocery stores.”
3 The definitions given in the code are as follows:
4
C a ke bakers —“persons who manufacture and sell, at wholesale, bakery products of which at least 75
percent is cake.”
S p ecia lty bakers— “persons who manufacture and sell bakery products of a type and kind to fit a par­
ticular racial or national taste and/or market demand for special variety products not considered as standard
in the industry (as compared with units of products generally sold in large volume) and the production
of which requires special skill.”
P i e bakers— “persons who manufacture and sell, at wholesale, bakery products of which at least 75 per­
cent is pies.”




25

SCOPE AND METHOD
Information Collected

The information obtained in this survey was limited to three prin­
cipal topics— namely, wages and hours, personnel policies, and
occupational descriptions.
The wages and hours data are based on transcripts of actual pay
rolls for the three periods covered. Information was obtained for
each employee on occupation, sex, total earnings, and total hours
actually worked in 1 week. Average hourly earnings were calculated
for individual employees. The data were then used to compute
averages and frequency distributions of employees b y average hourly
earnings, weekly hours, and weekly earnings as to sex, region, and
occupation.
D ata are also presented by broad occupational groupings. M ale
workers employed as “ direct” labor were grouped as “ skilled” , “ semi­
skilled” , and “ unskilled” ; these classes, together with “ indirect”
labor, which is composed of driver-salesmen and “ other” workers,
embraced all male employees in the industry. Am ong females en­
gaged in occupations constituting “ direct” labor, there were not
enough “ skilled” and “ semiskilled” workers to warrant separate tab­
ulations, and as a result these workers were included in the group
tabulated as “ other miscellaneous indirect” labor, the latter together
with the “ unskilled” in “ direct” labor constituting the only two broad
occupational groupings used. A n analysis of the number of employees
covered in December 1934 b y occupational classes, as to sex and region,
will be found in table 8.3
5
Averages were also computed by size of city, by union and nonunion
shops, and by establishments classified according to degree of mech­
anization, type of distribution, and product.
T

a b l e

8 .—

C o v e r a g e o f s u r v e y b y o c c u p a t io n a l c la s s , a s to s e x a n d r e g i o n , D e c e m b e r
1934

Number of employees
Sex and occupational class
North

South

Males
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers_____ ____ _____ _______ _________________
Cake makers_______________________ _____ _____________ __________
Dividers or scalers and rounders________ ____ _______________________
Mixers____ ___ ____________________________ _____ __________________
Molders_______________________________________ __________________
Ovenmen_____________ ____________ _____ _____ ______ ______ _ _
Miscellaneous, skilled______________________________________________

807
494
304
429
341
628
158

Total________ _ _ _____________ ______ ______ ___ ______________

3,161

632

246
608
437
617
198

2 52
116
2 68
147
11

2,106

394

Semiskilled:
Bench hands’ or hand bakers’ helpers____ _________ ___________ _
General helpers____________________ _____ __________________________
Mixers’ helpers_______ _________ _____ ______________ ____ _________
Ovenmen’s helpers____________ ______ _. ___________________________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled________ __________________ _____ _______
Total_________ _____ ________________ ______ ______________ _______

170

1 65

72
i 95
1 63
146
21
i

1 I n c lu d e d u n d e r d ir e c t la b o r , m is c e lla n e o u s , s k ille d , fo r p u r p o s e s o f a v e ra g e s a n d f r e q u e n c y d is t r ib u t io n s .
2 I n c lu d e d u n d e r d ir e c t la b o r , m is c e lla n e o u s , s e m is k ille d , fo r p u r p o s e s o f a v e ra g e s a n d f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u ­
t io n s .
35 “ D i r e c t ” la b o r , s o m e t im e s c a lle d p r o d u c t i v e la b o r , in c lu d e s h e re p r o c e s s in g w o rk e rs ,

1 0 2745°— 37-------3




26

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T a b l e 8 . — C o v e r a g e o f s u r v e y b y o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s , a s to s e x a n d r e g i o n , D e c e m b e r
1 9 8 4 — Continued

Number of employees
Sex and occupational class
North

South

Males— C ontinued
Direct labor—Continued.
Unskilled:
Bread packers.............................................. .
Bread wrappers, automatic____ __________
Cake wrappers and packers_______________
Pan greasers_______ __________ ___________
Miscellaneous, unskilled__________________

459
569
145
154
158

3 56
155
3 11

Total___________________________________

1,485

316

Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen-------------- ------- ------------------------

4,609

800

Other:
Auditors, bookkeepers, etc...........................
Chauffeurs and drivers................. _........ .
Laborers.............................. .......... ............ —
Maintenance and repair, skilled__________
Maintenance and repair, semiskilled-------Office clerks...................... .......... .......... ..........
Service, unskilled____________ ___________
Supervisory, skilled____ _________________
Miscellaneous, skilled.................................
Miscellaneous, semiskilled________________
Miscellaneous, unskilled____ _____________

141
228
206
479
437
397
578
814
165
413
282

438
4 39
440
4 61
4 58
466
4 147
491
454
<59
4 52

Total-----------------------------------------------------

4,140

705

111
262
501

410
4 51
4 135

874

196

277
167
360
437

3 55
4 26
102
120

1,241

303

341

53

F em a les

Direct Labor:
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, hand____
Cake finishers____________
Cake wrappers and packers
Total.
Indirect Labor:
Other:
Office clerks....... ........... ...... ................................
Stenographers, typists, telephone operators, etc.
Store clerks_________ _______________________
Miscellaneous6___________________ __________
Total.

3 Included under direct labor, miscellaneous, unskilled, for purposes of averages and frequency distribu­
tions.
4No separate averages and frequency distributions shown.
4 Included under indirect labor, miscellaneous, for purposes of averages and frequency distributions.
8 Includes a small number of skilled and semiskilled workers engaged in direct labor.

The information relating to personnel policies was obtained by
means of interviews with executives or other persons in charge of this
work in the various firms. I t covered employment policies, methods
of wage payment, working conditions, and welfare work.
Detailed occupational descriptions in the baking industry were first
published b y the Bureau in 1931. This information was supplemented
during the present survey by obtaining for all establishments descrip­
tions of new occupations and of occupations not covered at that time
(pie departments or establishments), as well as b y noting any changes
in the other occupations. A s a result o f this additional information,
the occupational classification and glossary for the industry has been
revised.




SCOPE AND METHOD

27

Comparisons with 1931
A s indicated before, the last survey in the baking industry made by
the Bureau was in the fall of 1931, the data collected being based on
pay-roll records mainly for the months of September, October, or
November. The coverage of the survey was similar to that of the
present one, except that pie departments and establishments were
excluded, but the latter are only of minor importance in terms of the
number of wage earners. Accordingly, it is possible to make com­
parisons between the 1931 and the 193 3 -3 4 figures.
The data in 1931 were tabulated separately by bread and cake
departments, so that in making comparisons with figures in the present
survey it was necessary to combine the former data to obtain figures
for the industry as a whole. This has been done, and comparisons
have been made for average hourly earnings, weekly hours, and
weekly earnings.




Chapter III.— Average Hourly Earnings
Changes in Bread Industry in Country as a Whole
Due to the operation of the President's Reemployment Agreement
and the code, the average hourly earnings in the bread industry in the
country as a whole increased markedly between M arch 1933 and
December 1934. From M arch to September 1933, at the end of which
period the President's Reemployment Agreement had been in effect
for over a month, the average hourly earnings rose from 45.5 to 50.7
cents, a gain of 5.2 cents or 11.4 percent. Likewise, from September
1933 to December 1934, after the permanent code had been in effect
approximately 5 months, the average hourly earnings advanced further
to 54.9 cents, a rise of 4.2 cents or 8.3 percent. The total gain between
March 1933 and December 1934 amounted to 9.4 cents an hour, or
20.7 percent.
The increase in average hourly earnings was not limited to any
particular wage class. This is indicated by table 9, which presents the
simple and cumulative percentage distribution of employees according
to average hourly earnings in the country as a whole. The simple
percentages are also plotted in chart 3, showing in general a reduction
in the percentages of lower-paid workers and an increase in the per­
centages of higher-paid workers.
Between M arch and September 1933, there was a shrinkage in the
percentages of employees in nearly all classes under 52.5 cents per
hour and an increase in nearly all classes above that figure. During this
period, the percentage earning less than 27.5 cents per hour declined
from 10.1 to 2.9. Those earning 27.5 cents to 52.5 cents per hour
constituted 58.9 percent of the total number of employees in M arch
and 54.3 percent in September. On the other hand, the increase in
the proportion earning 52.5 cents and under 72.5 cents was from 19.7
percent in M arch to 28.2 percent in September, and the gain in the
classes of 72.5 cents and over was from 11.3 percent in M arch to
14.6 percent in September.
T

a b l e

9. —

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to a v era g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s
i n b r ea d i n d u s t r y i n c o u n t r y a s a w h o le

March 1933
Average hourly earnings

Under 12.5 cents____________
12.5 and under 17.5 cents------17.5 and under 22.5 cents_____
22.5 and under 27.5 cents_____
27.5 and under 32.5 cents_____
32.5 and under 37.5 cents_____
37.5 and under 42.5 cents_____
42.5 and under 47.5 cents_____
47.5 and under 52.5 cents____
52.5 and under 57.5 cents_____
57.5 and under 62.5 cents____
62.5 and under 67.5 cents_____
67.5 and under 72.5 cents_____
72.5 and under 77.5 cents_____
77.5 and under 85.0 cents_____
85.0 and under 100.0 cents____
100.0 and under 120.0 cents___
120.0 cents and over_________
i Less than Ho of 1 percent.

28




September 1933

December 1934

Simple Cumulative
Simple Cumulative Simple Cumulative
percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage
0.3
1.4
3.2
5.2
8.4
12.6
14.0
12.5
11.4
7.2
5.1
4.4
3.0
2.6
2.8
3.9
1.3
.7

0.3
1.7
4.9
10.1
18.5
31.1
45.1
57.6
69.0
76.2
81.3
85.7
88.7
91.3
94.1
98.0
99.3
100.0

0)

0.1
.4
2.4
9.1
10.1
13.9
10.3
10.9
10.0
7.0
5.9
5.3
4.3
3.2
4.8
1.7
.6

0)

0.1
.5
2.9
12.0
22.1
36.0
46.3
57.2
67.2
74.2
80.1
85.4
89.7
92.9
97.7
99.4
100.0

0)
(0

0.1
.8
2.8
8.3
14.2
12.7
10.1
9.2
7.6
7.7
6.4
5.7
4.8
6.3
2.5
.8

0)
0)

0.1
.9
3.7
12.0
26.2
38.9
49.0
58.2
65.8
73.5
79.9
85.6
90.4
96.7
99.2
100.0

29

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

Between September 1933 and December 1934, those earning under
37.5 cents per hour dropped from 22.1 percent to 12.0 percent, and
the percentage earning less than 57.5 cents fell from 67.2 to 58.2. B y
contrast, the increase in the classes of 57.5 cents and under 77.5 cents
was from 22.5 percent in September 1933 to 27.4 in December 1934,
and those earning 77.5 cents and over increased from 10.3 percent of
the total number of workers in September 1933 to 14.4 percent in
December 1934.
CHART 3

P ercen tag e D is tr ib u tio n o f E m p lo yees A ccording
E ar n in g s in B r ea d In d u s tr y in C o u n tr y

to

A v er a g e H o u r ly
W h o le

as a

1

%

__ .cfc___

/-t-

AVERAGE

i
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

&

!

\\

1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1

k >
K iV X i

■Dec.b

\l

,

|

Hourly Earnings in c en ts

U.S. Bureau of L abor S tatistics

Increases Confirmed by Employment and Pay-Roll Data for Entire
Baking Industry
T he above increases are confirmed by the index numbers of average
hourly earnings covering workers in the entire industry, including
biscuit and crackers, which are compiled monthly by the Division of
Em ploym ent and Pay Rolls of this Bureau.3 These index numbers
6
are given in table 10.
3 The average hourly earnings computed by the Division of Employment and Pay Rolls are very similar
6
to those obtained in this survey, their figures being 44.1 cents in March 1933, 50.3 cents in September 1933,
and 54.0 in December 1934.
The average of 54.0 cents per hour in December 1934 for baking may be compared with similar data in
other food industries, such as 75.5 cents for beverages, 57.3 cents for slaughtering and meat packing, 54.8
cents for ice cream, 54.3 cents for flour, 52.0 cents for cane-sugar refining, 45.7 cents for beet-sugar refining,
42.9 cents for confectioneries, and 38.9 cents for canning and preserving.




30
T able

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY
10.—

I n d e x n u m b e r s o f a v era g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s i n e n t i r e b a k in g i n d u s t r y
i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b y m o n t h s , 1 9 8 2 —8 5

1

2

[January 1932=1001
Months
January___________________________________________
February___________________________________ ____
March____ ___ ______________________________ ____ _
April.__________________ ____ ______ _ _______ ____
_
May________________ _____________ ________________
June. ____________ ________________ ______________ July
___________________________________________
August____________________ _____ _________________
September ______________________ _____ ____ _______
October___ ____________________ ____ _______________
November________________________________ _________
December__________ ________________ _____ ________

1932
100.0
100.8
99.3
97.8
97.8
96.7
96.3
95.8
95.7
94.8
94.6
94.1

1933
92.8
91.1
91.6
90.6
89.8
90.2
90. 7
96.9
102.3
102.9
102.9
103.3

1934
103.5
104.9
103.4
102.0
105.2
105.0
108. 2
110.9
110.9
111.4
111.4
111.4

1935
108.3
107.3
107.5
108.7
109.5
109.7
109.0
109.4
109.0
108.2
108.9
109.1

1 Includes biscuit and crackers.
2 Compiled by the Division of Employment and Pay Rolls, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The index numbers indicate a considerable rise between July and
September 1933, in response to the President's Reemployment Agree­
ment. There had been an almost uninterrupted decline from January
1932, when figures on average hourly earnings were first compiled by
the Bureau, until about the middle of 1933. Thereafter the trend was
reversed, the index rising from 90.7 in July to 96.9 in August. I t will
be remembered that it was during the latter part of July that the
President's Reemployment Agreement went into effect, and this was
followed on August 17 by the approval of the substitute provisions
for the baking industry. B y September, more establishments had
apparently complied with the provisions of the agreement, as the index
rose to 102.3. Due probably to further readjustments in wages, the
index continued to advance moderately until February 1934, at which
time it stood at 104.9.
T he index numbers likewise show that the gain from September
1933 to December 1934 can be attributed primarily to the code, which
went into effect June 18, 1934. After a small decline first and later a
recovery in average hourly earnings during the spring of 1934, there
occurred another sharp increase from 105.0 in June to 108.2 in July.
Further readjustments in wages continued this rise until the end of
1934, when the index number reached a high level of 111.4.
Changes in Averages By Region and Sex in Bread-baking Industry
The increases in average earnings per hour in the bread-baking
industry were shared by all parts of the country and by both male and
female workers, as indicated by table 11 and chart 4. In each case,
the relative gain between M arch and September 1933 exceeded that
between September 1933 and December 1934. A n examination of
the data shows that the same was true of the absolute increases, with
the exception of males in the north, who received about the same
increase in both periods.




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

31

Ch a r t 4

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS IN BREAD INDUSTRY BY REGION
AND SEX, MARCH 1933, SEPTEMBER 1933, AND DECEMBER 1934




MALES-NORTH
CEN TS

FEMALES-NORTH

MALES-SOUTH

32

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY
T able

11 . —

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s i n brea d in d u s tr y b y re g io n a n d sex

Average hourly earnings
Region and sex

March
1933

Percentage of change

September December
1934
1933

March to September
1933 to
September December
1933
1934

March
1933 to
December
1934

United States:
Males._ _____________
Females ______________

$0.471
.307

$0,524
.354

$0.570
.379

+11.3
+15.3

+8.8
+7.1

+21.0
+23.5

Total..............................

.455

.507

.549

+11.4

+8.3

+20.7

North:
Males
_______________
Females______________

.491
.321

.540
.364

.590
.392

+10.0
+13.4

+9.3
+7.7

+20.2
+22.1

Total..............................

.475

.523

.569

+10.1

+8.8

+19.8

South:
Males__________________
Females____ ______ ____ _

.360
.240

.436
.311

.462
.325

+21.1
+29.6

+6.0
+4.5

+28.3
+35.4

Total_________________

.346

.421

.445

+21.7

+5.7

+28.6

For the period as a whole, the relative gains were greater in the
South than in the North and greater for females than for males. In
absolute increases, the South also exceeded the N orth, but the gains
reported for males were larger than those for females. The total
absolute increases in average hourly earnings from M arch 1933 to
December 1934 were as shown in table 12.
T able

1 2 .— T o ta l a b s o lu te i n c r e a s e s i n a v era g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f r o m M a r c h 1 9 3 3
to D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4

Sex

United
States

North

South

Males _ ___ ___ _____________________________________________
Females______________________________________________________

Cents
9.9
7.2

Cents
9.9
7.1

Cents
10.2
8.5

Total _ ________________________________________________

9.4

9.4

9.9

Although the rise in average earnings per hour reflects the general
effects of the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code, a
better picture of the influence of each of these factors can be obtained
b y a study of the percentage distribution of employees according to
average hourly earnings for each region and sex. This is shown in
table 13.




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS
T able

13.—

P er cen ta g e

33

d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g
ea r n in g s b y r e g io n a n d se x

March 1933
Region, sex, and average hourly earnings

North
Males:
Under 22.5 cents....... ...........................
22.5 and under 27.5 cents____________
27.5 and under 32.5 cents____________
32.5 and under 37.5 cents____________
37.5 and under 42.5 cents____________
42.5 and under 47.5 cents____________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents____________
52.5 and under 57.5 cents____________
57.5 and under 62.5 cents____________
82.5 and under 67.5 cents____________
67.5 and under 72.5 cents____________
72.5 and under 77.5 cents............ .........
77.5 and under 85.0 cents................. .
85.0 and under 100.0 cents___________
100.0 cents and over________________
Females:
Under 17.5 cents___________________
17.5 and under 22.5 cents____________
22.5 and under 27.5 cents-----------------27.5 and under 32.5 cents----------------32.5 and under 37.5 cents-----------------37.5 and under 42.5 cents. -------------42.5 and under 47.5 cents____________
47.5 and under 52.5 cents____________
52.5 and under 75.0 cents.._ _______
75.0 cents and over....................... ........
South
Males:
Under 17.5 cents___________________
17.5 and under 22.5 cents____________
22.5 and under 27.5 cents-----------------27.5 and under 32.5 cents____________
32.5 and under 37.5 cents-----------------37.5 and under 42.5 cents____________
42.5 and under 47.5 cents-----------------47.5 and under 52.5 cents.. _________
52.5 and under 57.5 cents____________
57.5 and under 62.5 cents... _________
62.5 and under 67.5 cents_______
67.5 and under 72.5 cents___________
72.5 and under 77.5 cents____________
77.5 and under 85.0 cents____________
85.0 and under 100.0 cents. _ ________
100.0 cents and over__________ ______
Females:
Under 12.5 cents___________________
12.5 and under 17.5 cents------- ----------17.5 and under 22.5 cents-----------------22.5 and under 27.5 cents________ . . .
27.5 and under 32.5 cents-----------------32.5 and under 37.5 cents______ _____
37.5 and under 42.5 cents________ . . .
42.5 and under 47.5 cents---- ------ -47.5 and under 52.5 cents____________
52.5 and under 75.0 cents-----------------75.0 cents and over--------------------------

September 1933

Simple Cumula­ Simple
tive
percent­ percent­ percent­
age
age
age

3.0
4.0
7.2
12.2
14.2
13.0
12.4
7.7
5.4
4.8
3.4
2.9
3.1
4.4
2.3

3.0
7.0
14.2
26.4
40.6
53.6
66.0
73.7
79.1
83.9
87.3
90.2
93.3
97.7
100.0

4.4
15.5
22.3
13.7
16.3
11.6
6.3
5.6
3.9
.4

4.4
19.9
42.2
55.9
72.283.8
90.1
95.7
99.6
100.0

7.4
9.6
12.1
15.7
14.9
12.6
10.0
5.4
3.9
3.0
2.4
.9
.9
.8
.4
0)

7.4
17.0
29.1
44.8
59.7
72.3
82.3
87.7
91.6
94.6
97.0
97.9
98.8
99.6
100.0
100.0

4.3
15.8
34.7
18.2
14.0
5.2
3.6
2.4
.6
1.2

4.3
20.1
54.8
73.0
87.0
92.2
95.8
98.2
98.8
100.0

to

0.4
1.5
7.2
9.0
13.8
10.3
11.4
10.5
7.6
6.2
5.9
4.8
3.4
5.5
2.5
0)

1.3
5.4
41.6
19.2
11.7
8.1
5.9
6.1
.7

.6
1.3
7.0
19.6
16.4
14.3
10.1
8.0
6.9
4.0
4.2
2.1
1.6
1.9
1.3
.7
0)

.2
1.2
28.2
46.4
12.7
5.2
2.0
2.0
1.9
.2

a v era g e

h o u r ly

December 1934

Cumula­ Simple
tive
percent­ percent­
age
age

Cumula­
tive
percent­
age

0.4
1.9
9.1
18.1
31.9
42.2
53.6
64.1
71.7
77.9
83.8
88.6
92.0
97.5
100.0

0)
0.2
1.9
5.1
14.0
12.8
10.3
9.7
8.3
8.3
6.9
6.4
5.3
7.0
3.8

0)

0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

1.3
6.7
48.3
67.5
79.2
87.3
93.2
99.3
100.0

.6
1.9
8.9
28.5
44.9
59.2
69.3
77.3
84.2
88.2
92.4
94.5
96.1
98.0
99.3
100.0
0)

.2
1.4
29.6
76.0
88.7
93.9
95.9
97.9
99.8
100.0

1.9
21.3
29.9
24.5
8.7
5.9
6.6
1.2

.1
.3
4.0
7.6
25.7
15.6
12.0
9.1
6.9
3.4
4.7
3.8
2.2
1.7
2.0
.9
0)
0)

.4
24.9
37.1
23.0
5.6
4.2
2.6
2.0
.2

0.2
2.1
7.2
21.2
34.0
44.3
54.0
62.3
70.6
77.5
83.9
89.2
96.2
100.0

1.9
23.2
53.1
77.6
86.3
92.2
98.8
100.0

.1
.4
4.4
12.0
37.7
53.3
65.3
74.4
81.3
84.7
89.4
93.2
95.4
97.1
99.1
100.0
0)
0)

.4
25.3
62.4
85.4
91.0
95.2
97.8
99.8
100.0

1 Less than Ho of 1 percent.

Effect of President’s Reemployment Agreement on Percentage Distribu­
tion by Region and Sex
Before discussing the changes in the percentage distribution between
M arch and September 1933, it is important to examine the wage pro­
visions of the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and the substi­
tute provisions applicable to the baking industry. First, there were




34

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

established certain minimum weekly rates for office, service, and sales
employees, which varied according to the population of the city.
N ext, northern employers agreed not to pay bakery employees, who
constitute the m ajority of the workers in the industry, “ less than
40 cents per hour unless the hourly rate for the same class of work on
July 15, 1929, was less than 40 cents per hour” , and in that case not
to pay “ less than the hourly rate on July 15, 1929, and in no event
less than 30 cents per hour.”
In the South, employers agreed not to
pay bakery employees “ less than 30 cents per hour.”
Finally, the
agreement provided that there was to be no reduction in the “ com­
pensation for employm ent now in excess of the minimum wages
hereby agreed to (notwithstanding that the hours worked in such
employment m ay be hereby reduced) and to increase the pay for such
employment by an equitable readjustment of all pay schedules.” In
view of the reduction of hours in the industry, this had the effect of
increasing the hourly rate of those receiving more than the minimum
wage.
For males in the North, the provisions of the President’s Reem ploy­
ment Agreement caused a decrease between^ M arch and September
1933 in the percentage of employees falling in virtually e v e ^ wage
class up to 52.5 cents per hour and an increase in every class
above that figure. The number of workers receiving less than
52.5 cents declined from 66.0 percent in M arch to 53.6 percent in
September. The percentages of males in the South decreased in the
classes under 27.5 cents but increased in every class thereafter, the
reduction of those earning less than 27.5 cents being from 29.1 per­
cent in M arch to 8.9 percent in September.
T he m ost striking changes in the distribution of earnings occurred
among female employees. In the North, 42.2 percent of the female
workers received less than 27.5 cents per hour in M arch, but only 6.7
percent earned less than that amount in September. M a n y of these
employees had evidently been shifted to the group earning 27.5 and
less than 32.5 cents, as the percentage in this class rose from 13.7 in
M arch to 41.6 in September. In the South the number of female
workers receiving less than 22.5 cents dropped from 54.8 percent in
M arch to only 1.4 percent in September. In September 29.6 percent
of the females were still earning less than 27.5 cents an hour, but the
greatest number of workers (46.4 percent) were found in the class of
27.5 to 32.5 cents.
The President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement, as has been stated,
provided more than one basic minimum. In the North 40 cents an
hour was set as the general rule for all bakery employees, except those
receiving less than this amount in 1929. This general 40-cent provi­
sion appears to have had some influence on the earnings of males but
little effect on the earnings of females. For males in the North, the
decline in the number earning less than 40 cents an hour was from 32.6
percent in M arch to 22.4 percent in September, but for females in the
N orth the decrease was only from 79.1 percent in M arch to 75.4
percent in September. In the South, the minimum for all bakery
employees was set at 30 cents per hour. A s a result, the percentage
of males in this area earning less than 30 cents an hour declined from
37.8 percent in M arch to 14.7 percent in September. A t the same
time, the percentage of females in the South earning less than 30 cents
an hour decreased from 82.6 percent in M arch to 52.2 percent in




Courtesy of Charles Schneider Baking C o.

P l a t e 1.— F l o u r S c a l e a n d F l o u r C o n t r o l . C o n n e c t i n g w i t h S t o r a g e B i n
A b o v e , a n d D o u g h M ix e r w it h O p e r a t o r s .







P l a t e 2 .— G r o u p

of

O p e r a t i o n s , s h o w in g

bench

Work,

d iv id in g , s c a l in g

,

r o u n d in g , a n d

M o l d in g .

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

35

September. The President's Reem ploym ent Agreement was not
mandatory, so that these percentages reflect a combination of several
factors. Compliance with the terms of the agreement was certainly
not general,3 some firms failed to adhere to the agreement, and in the
7
North the full 40-cent rate was found to be inapplicable.
Effect of Code on Percentage Distribution by Region and Sex
The wage provisions of the code followed the general principles of
the President's Reemployment Agreement. M inim um weekly rates,
varying with the size of the city, were established by the code for
office and store employees and salesmen. A s for “ other em ployees",
who comprise the m ajority of the workers, the code stipulated that
none of these “ shall be paid less than at the rate of 40 cents per hour,
except icers, wrappers, and cleaners, who shall be paid not less than
80 percent of said ra te " (i. e., 32 cents per hour). Moreover, there
was established a differential in the South of $1 less per week for the
salaried group and of 5 cents less per hour for “ other em ployees."
Lower wage rates were also allowed for persons with limited earning
capacity on account of “ age, physical or mental handicap, or other
in firm ity", who could be employed on light jobs.
W age rates above the minimum were raised by the following pro­
vision:
No employee whose normal full-time weekly hours averaged over the four (4)
weeks ending June 10, 1933, are as a result of the adoption of this code reduced
by sixteen and two-thirds percent (16%%) or less shall have his or her full-time
weekly earnings reduced; and any employee whose said normal full-time weekly
hours are to be reduced by more than sixteen and two-thirds percent (16%%) shall
have his or her hourly rate of pay increased by at least twenty percent (20% ).
The above shall not apply to any employee whose earnings averaged over the
aforementioned period were more than thirty-five dollars ($35.00) per week.
Employees whose earnings averaged over the aforementioned period were more
than thirty-five dollars ($35.00) per week and whose hours are reduced as a result
of the adoption of this code shall have their wage rates equitably readjusted in
order to maintain fair differentials * * *. In no case shall hourly rates of
pay be reduced.
In consequence of these provisions, there were further wage increases
between September 1933 and December 1934. The percentages of
employees falling in the lower wage classes shrank again, and the
percentages of those in the upper wage classes were further increased.
Am ong the males in the North, the percentages decreased in every
class up to 57.5 cents per hour, with the exception of the classes be­
tween 37.5 and 47.5 cents, where a slight concentration was brought
about by the provision of a 40-cent minimum. A s a result, the num ­
ber of male workers earning less than 57.5 cents dropped from 64.1
percent in September 1933 to 54.0 percent in December 1934. In
every class above 57.5 cents per hour, there was a larger percentage of
the workers in December 1934 than in September 1933. A s for males
in the South, the percentages decreased in each class up to 32.5 cents
and increased in m ost of the classes thereafter. The number receiving
3 This survey has developed clearly the technical difficulty of enforcing a provision such as that in the
7
President’s Reemployment Agreement “to pay not less than the hourly rate on July 15, 1929” if that rate
had been more than 30 cents but less than 40 cents an hour. The difficulty is greatly increased when this
procedure is applied to the standard of individual establishments. It has already been pointed out that
many small bakers had no records in January and February 1935 from which hourly earnings in December
1934 could be computed. It was even more difficult to secure a sample for such comparatively recent periods
as March and September 1933. Hence in a very large number of cases it would be quite impossible to secure
1929 earnings.




36

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

less than 32.5 cents dropped from 28.5 percent in September 1933 to
12.0 percent in December 1934. M a n y of these employees were
apparently lifted to the group earning 32.5 but less than 37.5 cents
an hour, as the percentage of Southern workers in this class rose from
16.4 in September 1933 to 25.7 in Decem ber#
1934.
T he percentages of female workers both in the N orth and South
also declined in every class up to 32.5 cents per hour, rising in nearly
every class above that figure. Between September 1933 and D ecem ­
ber 1934, the number of female employees earning less than. 32.5
cents dropped in the North from 48.3 percent to 23.2 percent and in
the South from 76.0 percent to 62.4 percent. I t should also be men­
tioned that in both the N orth and South there^ was a considerable in­
crease in the percentage of employees falling in the class embracing
the minimum set by the code. Thus, in the North, where the mini­
mum was 4 0 cents per hour, the number of female workers earning
37.5 and under 42.5 cents rose from 11.7 percent in September 1933
to 24.5 percent in December 1934, and, in the South, where the mini­
mum was 35 cents per hour, the number of female employees receiving
32.5 and under 37.5 cents increased from 12.7 percent in September
1933 to 23.0 percent in December 1934. ^
In spite of the 40 cents per hour minimum for m ost employees in
the North, there were still 11.5 percent of the males and 64.3 percent
of the females receiving less than that amount in December 1934.
I t must be noted that 6.0 percent of the total number of male em ­
ployees and 40 .0 percent of the total number of females received less
than 40 cents because they were in the three trades having a minimum
hourly rate of 32 cents. On the other hand, the remaining persons
were either handicapped employees or those who worked in establish­
ments not complying with the code.
In December 1934, with a minimum rate for m ost workers of 35
cents per hour, 21.5 percent of the Southern males and 71.8 percent
of the Southern females earned less than that amount. Eight percent
of these males and 40 .0 percent of these females belonged to the three
occupational classes with a minimum hourly rate of 28 cents.
Differentials in Averages by Broad Occupational Groupings
Neither the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement nor the code
contained any provision establishing or maintaining specific differ­
entials among the various occupations in the industry. A s previously
indicated, however, provision was made for the readjustment of the
hourly rates above the minimum, in order to compensate for the
reduction of hours b y increases in the average hourly earnings, thus
tending to maintain the weekly earnings of the higher-paid workers.
A concise picture of the effect of the increases in average hourly
earnings on the maintenance of differentials m ay be obtained from
the figures covering the broad occupational groupings, which are
shown in table 14. I t will be seen that increases occurred in each
of these groupings between M arch and September 1933, as well as
between the latter m onth and December 1934. In general, among
males engaged in direct labor, there existed during each of the periods
covered only a slight differential in the average hourly earnings
between workers in occupations customarily considered unskilled and
semiskilled. In both the N orth and the South, there was in all




37

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

periods a substantial differential between the unskilled and skilled
employees. The absolute amount of this differential in cents per
hour, which was somewhat greater in the N orth than in the South,
increased from M arch 1933 to December 1934, although under the
President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement it had at first decreased slightly
in the N orth. In the North, the differential between the unskilled
and semiskilled varied only from about 1 to 2 cents, whereas the
spread between the unskilled and skilled was 18.5 cents in M arch 1933,
17.9 cents in September 1933, and 20.4 cents in December 1934. In
the South, the differential between the unskilled and semiskilled was
less than 1 cent during each period, and that between the unskilled
and skilled amounted to 13.6 cents in M arch 1933, 13.7 cents in
September 1933, and 14.2 cents in December 1934.
T

a b l e

14 . —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s b y b r o a d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p i n g s a s to r e g i o n
an d sex
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a rn in g s

R e g io n , sex , a n d b r o a d o c c u p a t io n a l
g r o u p in g

N orth
M a le s :
D ir e c t la b o r :
S k ille d ___________________
S e m is k ille d . _____________
____ __
U n s k ille d . _________ _____ __ ________
I n d ir e c t la b o r :
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n ________________ . . .
O th e r _______ ^___________________

P e r c e n ta g e o f c h a n g e

M a r c h to
S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e­
cem ber
1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

$0. 559
.3 9 4
.374

$0.609
.4 3 9
.430

$0.677
.4 8 9
.473

+ 8 .9
+ 1 1 .4
+ 1 5 .0

+ 1 1 .2
+ 1 1 .4
+ 1 0 .0

+ 2 1 .1
+ 2 4 .1
+ 2 6 .5

.4 9 2
.5 1 2

.545
.5 6 2

.601
.5 9 6

+ 1 0 .8
+ 9 .8

+ 1 0 .3
+ 6 .0

+ 2 2 .2
+ 1 6 .4

M arch
1933

T o t a l ___________ ________ ___________

.4 9 1

.5 4 0

.5 9 0

+ 1 0 .0

+ 9 .3

+ 2 0 .2

F e m a le s :
_ ...
D ir e c t la b o r : U n s k ille d ______ __
I n d ir e c t la b o r : O t h e r ___________________

.2 6 6
.3 4 8

.3 1 9
.3 8 7

.3 5 9
.4 1 3

+ 1 9 .9
+ 1 1 .2

+ 1 2 .5
+ 6 .7

+ 3 5 .0
+ 1 8 .7

T o t a l ___________ _______________________

.321

.3 6 4

.3 9 2

+ 1 3 .4

+ 7 .7

+ 2 2 .1

.394
.2 6 2
.2 5 8

.4 7 5
.339
.3 3 8

.5 1 5
.3 7 6
.373

+ 2 0 .6
+ 2 9 .4
+ 3 1 .0

+ 8 .4
+ 1 0 .9
+ 1 0 .4

+ 3 0 .7
+ 4 3 .5
+ 4 4 .6

.3 7 8
.369

.475
.441

.4 7 7
.4 7 3

+25. 7
+ 1 9 .5

+ 0 .4
+ 7 .3

+ 2 6 .2
+ 2 8 .2

.3 6 0

.4 3 6

.4 6 2

+21. 1

+ 6 .0

+ 2 8 .3

.1 9 8
.2 5 5

.2 9 5
.3 1 8

.3 0 4
.3 3 7

+ 4 9 .0
+ 2 4 .7

+ 3 .1
+ 6 .0

+ 5 3 .5
+ 3 2 .2

.2 4 0

.311

.3 2 5

+ 2 9 .6

+ 4 .5

+ 3 5 .4

South
M a le s :
D ir e c t la b o r :
S k ille d ________________________________
S e m is k ille d ______ _________________
U n s k ille d ________________________ . . .
I n d ir e c t la b o r :
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n _________ ___________
O t h e r . ......... .. _ _ . . . _____________
T o t a l __________ ________________ _
F e m a le s :
D ir e c t la b o r : U n s k ille d _________________
I n d ir e c t la b o r : O t h e r ___________ . . .
T o t a l ____________

____________________

The average hourly earnings of driver-salesmen more closely approx­
imated those of skilled males engaged in direct labor than those of
semiskilled males. In the N orth, the differential in favor of skilled
males in direct labor over driver-salesmen amounted to 6.7 cents in
M arch 1933, 6.4 cents in September 1933, and 7.6 cents in December
1934. In the South, however, where the average hourly earnings of
skilled males engaged in direct labor were much lower than in the
North, the differential between the hourly earnings of this group




38

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

and those of driver-salesmen was smaller. Driver-salesmen earned
1.6 cents less than skilled males engaged in direct labor in M arch 1933
and 3.8 cents less in December 1934. In September 1933, however,
they earned exactly the same amount per hour as skilled males engaged
in direct labor. Nearly all of the increase in the average hourly
earnings of driver-salesmen in the South during the entire period
occurred between M arch and September 1933.
Owing to the wide diversity of the occupations included in the
“ other” grouping under indirect labor for the males both in the N orth
and South, no attem pt was made here to account for the differentials
between it and the other groupings. Likewise, no differentials have
been computed between the two groupings listed under females both
in the N orth and South.
Effectiveness of President’s Reemployment Agreement and Code Minima
as Shown by Data on Broad Occupational Groupings
The minimum rates of 40 and 30 cents per hour, which were set up
in the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement, applied for the most
part to employees engaged in direct labor. The percentages of workers
in these groupings receiving less than 40 and 30 cents, respectively, in
M arch and September 1933 are shown in table 15.
T able

15. —

P e r c e n t a g e s o f w o r k e r s i n g r o u p i n g s r e c e iv in g le s s
c e n ts , r e s p e c t iv e l y , i n M a r c h a n d S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 3

M a r c h 1933

th a n

J+0 a n d

80

S e p t e m b e r 1933

R e g io n , sex , a n d b r o a d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p in g
L e s s th a n
40 c e n ts

L ess th an
30 c e n ts

L ess th an
40 c e n ts

N o rth
M a le s :
S k ille d
- - - ______ ________________ _______
S e m is k ille d ______________________ - - __________ ________
U n s k ille d
_____ _________________________________________
F e m a le s : U n s k ille d
__ ________________________ _________

15. 5
54. 4
63. 7
9 5 .0

3 .7
1 9 .8
27. 3
7 1 .0

8. 5
3 7 .6
4 6 .7
93. 2

0. 5
5 .2
3 .9
3 0 .9

Sou th
M a le s :
S k ille d _____________________________________________________
S e m is k ille d ___________________ _________ ___________
-U n s k i ll e d __________ _ _ ________ ___________________________
F e m a le s : U n s k i l l e d ______ __________ _________ ________ _______

5 4 .5
9 0 .6
9 2 .5
9 8 .9

2 6 .8
6 8 .1
7 3 .0
9 8 .9

3 6 .5
7 8 .2
8 2 .2
100 .0

7 .7
2 5 .6
2 5 .6
5 2 .7

L e s s th a n
30 ce n ts

Although on the whole the percentages of employees receiving less
than the above rates were considerably smaller in September than in
M arch, there was still a large proportion in those wage classes. In
other words, the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement did not provide
an effective minimum wage in the baking industry.
T he minimum hourly rates mentioned in the code also applied largely
to workers engaged in direct labor. In the North, it wrll be remem­
bered, the rate was 40 cents for m ost of the occupations, wdth 32 cents
for icers, wrappers, and cleaners. The percentages of male employees
in the N orth receiving less than 40 cents decreased between September
1933 and December 1934 from 8.5 to 2.2 for skilled, from 37.6 to 14.1
for semiskilled, and from 46.7 to 25.9 for unskilled workers. A bout
two-thirds of the unskilled group receiving less than 40 cents consisted
of icers, wrappers, and cleaners. These three occupations accounted




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

39

for all of the unskilled females, which explains the fact that 81.9 percent
of all the females received less than 40 cents an hour in December 1934,
the percentage earning less than that in September 1933 being 93.2.
In the South, the code provided a rate of 35 cents for m ost of the
occupations and of 28 cents for icers, wrappers, and cleaners. The
decrease in the percentages of workers in this region earning less than
35 cents between September 1933 and December 1934 was from 22.7
to 6.6 for skilled, from 62.0 to 27.2 for semiskilled, and from 70.1 to
37.7 for unskilled employees. A bout two-thirds of the unskilled males
were icers, wrappers, and cleaners. For unskilled females, all of whom
belonged to the three occupations, there was an increase in the per­
centage receiving less than 35 cents from 19.1 in September 1933 to
21.9 in December 1934.
Changes in Averages by Occupational Classes
Table 16 presents for individual occupations or small occupational
groupings the average hourly earnings for M arch and September 1933
and December 1934, as well as the percentages of change between these
months. I t will be noted that increases, both absolute and relative,
are shown for each occupational class, although the increases varied
considerably.
Am ong the males engaged in direct labor in the North, there were 8
individual occupations out of the 14 for which data are given, that
showed an increase of more than 10 cents in average earnings per hour
over the entire period. Five of the eight occupations were skilled, one
was semiskilled, and two were unskilled. The two m ost highly paid
occupations showed the largest absolute gains, namely, ovenmen, 13.9
cents, and mixers, 13.8 cents. The next greatest increase (12.8 cents)
was reported for pan greasers, which is one of the low-paid occupations.
A s for the six occupations with increases of less than 10 cents per hour,
one was skilled, three were semiskilled, and two were unskilled. T he
smallest gain during the period (7.6 cents) is shown for cake wrappers
and packers, another one of the low-paid occupations.
A s for males employed in direct labor in the South, out of the five
individual occupations for which data are available, all but one
reported a gain of over 10 cents per hour during the entire period.
The earnings of ovenmen showed the largest increase (14.1 cents).
The occupation showing the smallest rise (9.3 cents) was that of general
helpers.
Aside from the “ miscellaneous” groupings, only two of the nine
individual occupations or small occupational groupings shown for
males employed in indirect labor in the N orth received increases of over
10 cents in average hourly earnings over the interval from M arch 1933
to December 1934. These two occupations, driver-salesmen and
skilled supervisors, were also among the higher paid of the indirect
labor occupations. In the South, separate figures are given for only
one indirect labor occupation, that of driver-salesmen, and these
workers received an increase over the entire period of 9.9 cents an hour.
Am ong females in the North, statistics are available for six indi­
vidual occupations. The increases in these occupations between
M arch 1933 and December 1934 ranged from 3.2 cents for store clerks
to 9.6 cents for cake wrappers and packers. For indirect female labor
in the South, separate figures are given only for store clerks, the gain
for workers in this class amounting to 6.6 cents.




40
T

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

a b l e

16 . —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n in g s

R e g io n , sex, a n d o c c u p a t io n a l cla ss
M arch
1933

M a l e s — N o rth
D ir e c t l a b o r :
S k ille d :
B e n c h h a n d s o r h a n d b a k e r s _____________
C a k e m a k e r s .............................. ............... .............
D iv i d e r s o r s ca le rs a n d r o u n d e r s . ..............
M ix e r s ..
____
. . . ______ _____ _________
M o l d e r s ________________________ _____________
O v e n m e n ......... ....................................................
M is c e lla n e o u s , s k i l l e d ...................................
T o t a l ______________________________________
S e m is k ille d :
B e n c h h a n d s ’ o r h a n d b a k e r s ’ h e l p e r s .. .
G e n e r a l h e lp e r s _______ _____________________
M ix e r s ’ h e lp e r s ______ ______________________
0 v e n m e n ’ s h e lp e r s ...... ..................... .................
M is c e lla n e o u s , s e m is k ille d ________________

S ep tem ­ D e c e m ­
b e r 1933 b e r 1934

P ercen ta g e o f c h a n g e

M arch
to S ep­
tem ber
1933

S ep tem ­
M arch
b e r 1933
1933 t o
to D e ­
D ecem ­
cem b er
b e r 1934
1934

$0.563
.551
.5 4 3
.5 8 7
.487
.5 9 9
.501

$0.601
.5 9 8
.5 7 7
.6 5 6
.534
.6 6 2
.5 3 3

$0.677
.6 4 7
.6 5 4
.7 2 5
.6 0 5
.7 3 8
.6 0 1

4 -6 .7
4 -8 .5
4 -6 .3
4 -1 1 .8
4 -9 .7
4 -1 0 .5
4 -6 .4

4 -1 2 .6
4 -8 .2
4 1 3 .3
4 -1 0 .5
4 -1 3 .3
4 -1 1 .5
4 -1 2 .8

+ 2 0 .2
+ 1 7 .4
+ 2 0 .4
+ 2 3 .5
+ 2 4 .2
+ 2 3 .2
+ 2 0 .0

.5 5 9

.6 0 9

.6 7 7

4 -8 .9

4 -1 1 .2

+ 2 1 .1

.413
.3 6 4
.3 8 8
.4 0 3
.4 3 4

.4 5 3
.4 1 9
.4 3 4
.4 4 9
.4 5 8

.501
.4 5 8
.4 8 4
.511
.5 1 2

4 -9 .7
4 -1 5 .1
4 -1 1 .9
4 -1 1 .4
4 -5 .5

4 -1 0 .6
4 -9 .3
4 -1 1 .5
4 -1 3 .8
4 -1 1 .8

+ 2 1 .3
+ 2 5 .8
+ 2 4 .7
+ 2 6 .8
+ 1 8 .0

.3 9 4

.4 3 9

.4 8 9

4 -1 1 .4

+ 1 1 .4

+ 2 4 .1

U n s k ille d :
B r e a d p a c k e r s .......... .............................................
B r e a d w r a p p e r s , a u t o m a t i c ______ _____ _
C a k e w r a p p e r s a n d p a c k e r s ____________
P a n g re a se rs________________________________
M is c e lla n e o u s , u n s k ille d __________________

.4 0 4
.3 5 0
.3 8 4
.3 3 3
.4 1 2

.4 5 5
.4 1 2
.4 2 5
.4 0 3
452

.4 9 5
.4 5 7
.4 6 0
.461
.4 9 2

4 -1 2 .6
4 -1 7 .7
4 -1 0 .7
4 -2 1 .0
4 -9 .7

+ 8 .8
+ 1 0 .9
+ 8 .2
+ 1 4 .4
+ 8 .8

+ 2 2 .5
+ 3 0 .6
+ 1 9 .8
+ 3 8 .4
+ 1 9 .4

T o t a l . . ...................................................................

.3 7 4

.4 3 0

.4 7 3

4 -1 5 .0

+ 1 0 .0

+ 2 6 .5

I n d ir e c t la b o r :
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n ________________________________

.4 9 2

.5 4 5

.6 0 1

4 -1 0 .8

+ 1 0 .3

+ 2 2 .2

.7 0 1
.483
.3 6 6
.5 4 8
.3 9 4
.4 6 3
.353
.7 0 6
.5 8 9
.421
.3 6 4

.7 6 2
.5 2 5
.4 2 8
.6 1 8
.4 5 9
.5 0 2
.4 0 7
.7 5 9
.6 4 0
.4 6 5
.4 0 7

.7 9 5
.5 5 9
.4 5 4
.6 3 9
.4 7 6
.5 4 7
.4 3 6
.811
.6 8 4
.5 1 4
.437

4 -8 .7
4 -8 .7
4 -1 6 .9
4 -1 2 .8
4 -1 6 .5
4*8. 4
4 -1 5 .3
4 -7 .5
4 -8 .7
4 -1 0 .5
4 -1 1 .8

+ 4 .3
+ 6 .5
+ 6 .1
+ 3 .4
+ 3 .7
+ 9 .0
+ 7 .1
+ 6 .9
+ 6 .9
+ 1 0 .5
+ 7 .4

+ 1 3 .4
+ 1 5 .7
+ 2 4 .0
+ 1 6 .6
+ 2 0 .8
+ 1 8 .1
+ 2 3 .5
+ 1 4 .9
+ 1 6 .1
+ 2 2 .1
+ 2 0 .1

.5 1 2

.5 6 2

.5 9 6

4 -9 .8

+ 6 .0

+ 1 6 .4

D ir e c t l a b o r :
U n s k ille d :
B r e a d w r a p p e r s , h a n d _____________ _______
C a k e fin ish e rs _____________________________
C a k e w r a p p e r s a n d p a c k e r s ......... ...............

.2 7 2
.2 7 0
.2 6 3

.341
.3 2 5
.3 1 4

.3 5 0
.3 6 2
.3 5 9

4 -2 5 .4
4 -2 0 .4
4 -1 9 .4

+ 2 .6
+ 1 1 .4
+ 1 4 .3

+ 2 8 .7
+ 3 4 .1
+ 3 6 .5

T o t a l __________ _____ ______________________

.2 6 6

.3 1 9

.3 5 9

4 -1 9 .9

+ 1 2 .5

+ 3 5 .0

.3 8 8

.431

.4 5 8

4 -1 1 .1

+ 6 .3

+ 1 8 .0

.4 1 8
.317
.3 1 5

.4 6 2
.3 4 0
.3 6 3

.4 8 6
.3 4 9
.4 1 2

4 -1 0 .5
4 -7 .3
4 -1 5 .2

+5. 2
+ 2 .6
+ 1 3 .5

+ 1 6 .3
+ 1 0 .1
+ 3 0 .8

.3 4 8

.3 8 7

.4 1 3

4 -1 1 .2

+ 6 .7

+ 1 8 .7

T o t a l ______ _______________________________

O th e r :
A u d it o r s , b o o k k e e p e r s , e t c _____________ .
C h a u ffe u r s a n d d r i v e r s ____________________
L a b o r e r s ________________________________ . . .
M a in t e n a n c e a n d r e p a ir , s k i ll e d _________
M a in t e n a n c e a n d r e p a ir , s e m is k ille d ____
O ffic e c le r k s _________________________________
S e r v ic e , u n s k il le d — _____________ _________
S u p e r v is o r y , s k i l l e d ________ _______________
M is c e lla n e o u s , s k i l l e d _____________________
M is c e lla n e o u s , s e m is k ille d ________________
M is c e lla n e o u s , u n s k il le d - ................ ...............
T o t a l ______________ _______________________
F e m a le s — N o rth

I n d ir e c t la b o r :
O th e r:
O ffic e c le r k s _________________________________
S te n o g r a p h e r s, t y p is t s , t e le p h o n e o p e r ­
___ ________ ______________________
a to rs, e t c
S to re c l e r k s ________________________________
M is c e lla n e o u s ___ ___________________________
T o t a l ________________________ ______________




41

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS
T

a b l e

16.—

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s a s to r e g i o n a n d
s e x — Continued
A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n in g s

R e g io n , sex, a n d o c c u p a t io n a l cla ss
M a rch
1933

S ep tem ­ D e ce m ­
b e r 1933 b e r 1934

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n g e

M arch
to S e p ­
te m b e r
1933

S ep tem ­
M arch
b e r 1933
1933 t o
to D e ­
D ecem ­
cem ber
b e r 1934
1934

M a l e s — S ou th
D ir e c t la b o r :
S k ille d :
B e n c h h a n d s o r h a n d b a k e r s _____________
O v e n m e n ___________ _______________________
M is c e lla n e o u s , s k ille d _______ ____________

$0.344
.4 0 9
.4 1 2

$0.392
.4 9 5
.4 8 4

$ 0 .460
.550
.527

4 1 4 .0
4 -2 1 .0
4 -1 7 .5

+ 1 7 .3
+ 1 1 .1
+ 8 .9

+ 3 3 .7
+ 3 4 .5
+ 2 7 .9

T o t a l ______________________________________

.3 9 4

.4 6 3

.5 1 5

+ 1 7 .5

+ 1 1 .2

+30. 7

.2 5 5
.2 7 8
.251

.3 2 9
.3 4 2
.3 4 5

.3 4 8
.3 8 6
.3 8 7

+ 2 9 .0
+ 2 3 .0
+ 3 7 .5

+ 5 .8
+ 1 2 .9
+ 1 2 .2

+ 3 6 .5
+ 3 8 .8
+ 5 4 .2

.2 6 2

.3 3 9

.3 7 6

+ 2 9 .4

+ 1 0 .9

+ 4 3 .5

.2 6 2
.253

.3 3 7
.3 3 9

.3 7 6
.3 7 0

+ 2 8 .6
+ 3 4 .0

+ 1 1 .6
+ 9 .1

+ 4 3 .5
+ 4 6 .2

.2 5 8

.3 3 8

.3 7 3

+ 3 1 .0

+ 1 0 .4

+ 4 4 .6

____________

.378

.4 7 5

.4 7 7

+ 2 5 .7

+ .4

+ 2 6 .2

.............._ _ _ _ _ _

.3 6 9

.441

.4 7 3

+ 1 9 .5

+ 7 .3

+ 2 8 .2

D ir e c t la b o r : U n s k i ll e d _________ ___________________

.1 9 8

.2 9 5

.3 0 4

+ 4 9 .0

+ 3 .1

+ 5 3 .5

I n d ir e c t la b o r :
O th e r:
S to re c le r k s _________________________ ________
M is c e lla n e o u s . _ _______ _______ _______

.2 2 0
.273

.2 7 4
.3 4 2

.2 8 6
.3 6 5

+ 2 4 .5
+ 2 5 .3

+ 4 .4
+ 6 .7

+ 3 0 .0
+ 3 3 .7

.255

.3 1 8

.3 3 7

+ 2 4 .7

+ 6 .0

+ 3 2 .2

S e m is k ille d :
G e n e r a l h e lp e r s _____________________________
O v e n m e n ’ s h e lp e r s _________________________
M is c e lla n e o u s , s e m is k ille d . . . . ________
T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------U n s k ille d :
B r e a d w r a p p e r s , a u t o m a t i c _______________
M is c e lla n e o u s , u n s k ille d ________ _________
T o t a l _____________

_______________________

I n d ir e c t la b o r :
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n _________________
O t h e r . . ____

____ __

_

F e m a le s — Sou th

T o t a l _____ _________ ____

.

_

___

Regional Differentials in Averages by Occupations
The existing differentials between northern and southern wages were
recognized by the President’s Reemployment Agreement to the extent
of a spread equal to 10 cents per hour at the minimum rate. The
code cut this to 5 cents. I t follows, therefore, that a considerable
difference in wages for similar occupations in the N orth and the South
would be found in the survey. The average of all male occupations
showed that northern wages were 13.1 cents an hour higher than
southern wages in M arch 1933, 10.4 cents higher in September 1933,
and 12.8 cents higher in December 1934.3 Despite the narrower
8
minimum-wage differential allowed by the code, the spread in average
hourly earnings for all workers increased between September 1933 and
December 1934. In fact, the regional wage differential in December
1934 was nearly as great as before the President’s Reemployment
Agreement.
The differentials between N orth and South by broad occupational
groupings show some variations from the above averages, although
each occupational grouping in the North shows higher earnings than
38 S ee t a b le 11.

102745°— 37-




■
4

42

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

in the South.3 The greatest differential was between skilled male
9
employees engaged in direct labor, where the difference in favor of the
northern workers amounted to 16.5 cents in M arch 1933, 13.4 cents
in September 1933, and 16.2 cents in December 1934. T he differ­
ential between semiskilled male employees engaged in direct labor
was somewhat smaller, the figures being 13.2 cents in M arch 1933,
10.0 cents in September 1933, and 11.3 cents in December 1934. A
still smaller difference in earnings is shown for unskilled male workers
engaged in direct labor. The margin in favor of northern workers in
this class amounted to 11.6 cents in M arch 1933, 9.2 cents in Sep­
tember 1933, and 10.0 cents in December 1934.
In each of these
groupings there was a narrowing of the differential in the second
period and an increase during the last period, although the differential
in the last period was still below that shown in the first period.
I t is interesting to note the extent of the differential between the
N orth and South for the several individual occupations of males for
which comparable data are available.4 For ovenmen, the highest0
paid occupation, the differential was 19.0 cents in M arch 1933, 16.7
cents in September 1933, and 18.8 cents in December 1934. Am ong
bench hands or hand bakers, another skilled occupation, the differ­
ences amounted to 21.9 cents in M arch 1933, 20.9 in September 1933,
and 21.7 in December 1934. Smaller differentials were reported for
two semiskilled occupations, namely, ovenmen’s helpers, and general
helpers. T h e differentials in these occupations were, respectively,
12.5 and 10.9 cents in M arch 1933, 10.7 and 9.0 cents in September
1933, and 12.5 and 11.0 cents in December 1934. T he differential
was still smaller in one unskilled occupation, automatic bread wrappers,
the figures being 8.8 cents in M arch 1933, 7.5 cents in September 19339
and 8.1 cents in December 1934. Each of these occupations shows
a narrowing of the differential between M arch and September 1933
and a widening of the spread between September 1933 and December
1934.
The North-South differential for driver-salesmen was 11.4 cents in
M arch 1933. Owing to an increase in average hourly earnings be­
tween M arch and September 1933 of 9.7 cents in the South, as com­
pared with 5.3 cents in the North, however, the differential was re­
duced to 7.0 cents in September. Between September 1933 and
December 1934, the gain in average hourly earnings was 5.6 cents in
the N orth and only 0.2 cent in the South, with the result that the
differential in December 1934 was 12.4 cents, or 1 cent higher than
in M arch 1933. For “ other” employees engaged in indirect labor,
the differential amounted to 14.3 cents in M arch 1933, 12.1 cents in
September 1933, and 12.3 cents in December 1934.
The regional differences in average hourly earnings of female work­
ers followed much the same general course, although the spread in
favor of northern workers was less than among the male employees,
amounting to 8.1 cents in M arch 1933, 5.3 cents in September 1933,
and 6.7 cents in December 1934. For female unskilled employees
engaged in direct labor, the difference was 6.8 cents in M arch 1933,
2.4 cents in September 1933, and 5.5 cents in December 1934. The
narrowing of the differential to 2.4 cents in September was due to an
advance of 9.7 cents per hour in the southern wages, as compared
3» S ee t a b le 14.
40 See t a b le 16.




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

43

with a gain of only 5.3 cents in the northern wages. Between Sep­
tember 1933 and December 1934, however, the increase in average
earnings per hour was only 0.9 cent in the South and 4.0 cents in the
North, thus bringing the differential in December 1934 back to a
figure not much below that in M arch 1933. Am ong the “ other” em­
ployees engaged in indirect labor, the differential amounted to 9.3
cents in M arch 1933, 6.9 cents in September 1933, and 7.6 cents in
December 1934. For one of these occupations, namely, store clerks,
there is comparable data available, indicating differentials of 9.7 cents
in M arch 1933, 6.6 cents in September 1933, and 6.3 cents in December
1934.
Sex Differentials in Averages by Occupations
Neither the President's Reem ploym ent Agreement nor the code
provided for any differential between males and females when engaged
in similar work. In fact, the principle of “ equal pay for equal work”
was specifically recognized in the code, when it declared that “ male
and female employees customarily performing substantially the same
duties or doing the same work shall receive the same rates of p a y .”
The only exception to this was “ that when male employees perform
work customarily done b y female employees only during hours when
female labor is prohibited b y applicable law, it shall not be required
that female employees doing such work at other times be paid at the
same rate as such male employees.”
The objectives of these provisions, however, were not fully achieved,
since comparisons of male and female wages for occupations involving
approximately the same degrees of skill indicate that the average
hourly earnings of males considerably exceed those of females.4 For
1
unskilled workers engaged in direct labor, the difference in northern
bakeries amounted to 10.8 cents in M arch 1933, 11.1 in September
1933, and 11.4 in December 1934, and in the South it was 6.0 in M arch
1933, 4.3 in September 1933, and 6.9 in December 1934. A greater
spread was reported for some occupations. The hourly earnings of
male cake wrappers and packers (unskilled direct labor) in the N orth­
ern States, for example, exceeded those of female workers by 12.1
cents in M arch 1933, 11.1 in September 1933, and 10.1 in Decem ­
ber 1934. For office clerks (“ other” indirect labor), the earnings of
male workers in the North exceeded those of females by 7.5 cents in
M arch 1933, 7.1 in September 1933, and 8.9 in December 1934.
Average Hourly Earnings and Size of City
On the whole, the average hourly earnings of employees in bakeries
varied directly with the size of the city. This is illustrated by table
17, which shows the average earnings per hour and percentages of
change for the three pay-roll periods according to size of city.
In M arch 1933, male employees in the northern cities with a popu­
lation of from 50,000 to 250,000 averaged 2.2 cents per hour more than
those in the smaller cities and 8.2 less than those in the larger
cities. In September 1933, this relationship was changed, and the
smaller cities (under 50,000 population), due to a larger gain in aver­
age hourly earnings, were paying 0.7 cents more than the middlesized group. In the larger cities (250,000 and over), the earnings were
9.1 cents higher than the level prevailing in cities of from 50,000 to
« See t a b le s 14 a n d 16.




44

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

250,000. B y December 1934 the situation was again altered, and due
to a smaller increase in average earnings per hour, the smaller cities
paid 1.5 cents less than the middle group. In the meantime, the
larger cities increased their lead over the middle group to 9.3 cents.
T able

17. —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s b y s i z e o f c i t y a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n in g s

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

M arch
to Sep­
tem b er
1933

R e g io n , sex, a n d s ize o f c i t y
M arch
1933

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n g e

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e ­
cem ber
1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

N o rth
M a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r _________________________________
50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000-----------------------------------U n d e r 50,000_____________________________________

$0.507
.4 2 5
.4 0 3

$0.557
.4 6 6
.4 7 3

$0,608
.5 1 5
.5 0 0

+ 9 .9
+ 9 .6
+ 1 7 .4

+ 9 .2
+ 1 0 .5
+ 5 .7

+ 1 9 .9
+ 2 1 .2
+ 2 4 .1

T o t a l ___________________________________________

.491

.5 4 0

.5 9 0

+ 1 0 .0

+ 9 .3

+ 2 0 .2

.3 3 3
.2 7 8
0)

.3 7 4
.3 1 7
0)

.3 9 9
.3 6 4
0)

+ 1 2 .3
+ 1 4 .0
0)

+ 6 .7
+ 1 4 .8
0)

__________________

.3 2 1

.3 6 4

.3 9 2

+ 1 3 .4

+ 7 .7

+ 2 2 .1

M a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r ----------- . ........................................
50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000_________ . --------------U n d e r 50,000_____________ _______
---------------

.3 5 8
.3 6 5
.3 2 5

.4 3 3
.4 4 5
.3 9 5

.4 6 0
.4 7 2
.4 1 7

+ 2 0 .9
+ 2 1 .9
+ 2 1 .5

+ 6 .2
+ 6 .1
+ 5 .6

+ 2 8 .5
+ 2 9 .3
+ 2 8 .3

T o t a l __________________ _____ ___________________

.3 6 0

.4 3 6

.4 6 2

+ 2 1 .1

+ 6 .0

+ 2 8 .3

F e m a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r _____________________ __________
50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000_________ ____________
U n d e r 50,000_____________________________________

.259
.223
0)

.3 1 7
.3 0 4
0)

.3 3 8
.3 1 4
0)

+ 2 2 .4
+ 3 6 .3
0)

+ 6 .6
+ 3 .3
0)

+ 3 0 .5
+ 4 0 .8
0)

.2 4 0

.311

.3 2 5

+ 2 9 .6

+ 4 .5

+ 3 5 .4

F e m a le s :
250.000 a n d o v e r ______ ____________ ___________
50.000 a n d u n d e r 250,000...... .......................... ...........
U n d e r 50,000_____________________________________
T o t a l ______________________

+19.
+30.
0)

S ou th

T o t a l . . ______ _______

.

___________________

i N o t e n o u g h w o r k e r s t o j u s t i f y t h e c o m p u t a t io n o f a n a v e ra g e .

For female employees in the North, the average hourly earnings in
cities of 250,000 and over were 5.5 cents higher than in cities of 50,000
and under 250,000 in M arch 1933, 5.7 higher in September 1933, and
3.5 higher in December 1934.
N o figures were computed for cities
under 50,000, as comparatively few women workers were employed
there.
It is interesting to note that in the South the earnings of male work­
ers in cities of 50,000 to 250,000 were higher than in cities with a
population of 250,000 and over or in cities of less than 50,000. C om ­
pared with the larger cities, the hourly earnings in the medium-sized
cities were 0.7 cent higher in M arch 1933 and 1.2 cents higher in both
September 1933 and December 1934. In the cities with a population
of less than 50,000, the hourly earnings of male employees were 4.0
cents less than in the medium-sized cities in M arch 1933, 5.0 less in
September 1933, and 5.5 less in December 1934.
B y contrast, the earnings of females in the South were highest in
cities wuth a population of 250,000 and over. In comparison with
cities of 50,000 to 250,000, the hourly earnings of female workers in
the large cities averaged 3.6 cents higher in M arch 1933, 1.3 higher




45

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

in September 1933, and 2.4 higher in December 1934. As in the
North, averages were not computed for females in cities under 50,000.
The m ost striking fact revealed by this analysis is that in the North
there is a clear-cut break between the largest cities and the cities of
less than 250,000. In the South, the break comes between cities of
more than 50,000 and the smaller cities.
Average Hourly Earnings in Union and Nonunion Shops
t In the North, wages in crafts covered by the Bakery and Confec­
tionery Workers’ International Union were higher in union than in
nonunion shops. This is clearly indicated by table 18, in which the
average hourly earnings of male workers engaged in direct labor are
classified by union and nonunion shops and according to skill.42 It
should be remembered that union membership is here virtually limited
to the skilled and semiskilled workers.
T

a b l e

18. —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f m a le e m p l o y e e s i n N o r t h e n g a g e d i n d irec t
la b o r, b y u n io n a n d n o n u n io n sh o p s a n d sk ill

A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea r n in g s

T y p e o f s h o p a n d s k ill
M arch
1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n ge

M a rch to
S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e ­
cem ber
1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

U n io n s h o p s :
S k ille d _____________________________________
S e m is k ille d ________________________ _______
U n s k ille d - ______________________________

$ 0 .746
.4 4 3
.3 8 2

$ 0 .746
.4 6 5
.4 2 4

$0. 847
.5 3 7
.4 6 2

0)
+ 5 .0
4 -1 1 .0

+ 1 3 .5
+ 1 5 .5
+ 9 .0

+13. 5
+ 2 1 .2
+ 2 0 .9

T o t a l ____________________________________

.5 9 9

.6 1 2

.6 8 7

4 -2 .2

+ 1 2 .3

+ 1 4 .7

N o n u n io n sh ops:
S k ille d _____________________________________
S e m i s k i ll e d .. - _ _ _
_________ __
____
U n s k ille d ___________
___________________

.4 8 6
.3 7 9
.3 7 3

.5 5 4
.4 3 2
.4 3 2

.6 0 8
.4 7 7
.4 7 7

4 -1 4 .0
+ 1 4 .0
+ 1 5 .8

+ 9 .7
+ 1 0 .4
+ 1 0 .4

+25. 1
+ 2 5 .9
+ 2 7 .9

T o t a l ____________________________________

.4 3 2

.4 8 9

.5 3 7

+13. 2

+ 9 .8

+ 2 4 .3

1 N o ch a n g e .

From this table it will be seen that the earnings of the unskilled
(unorganized) workers in union shops in M arch 1933 were only slightly
higher than in nonunion shops, and that in both September 1933 and
December 1934 they were actually less than in nonunion establish­
ments. In striking contrast, the differential between union and non­
union shops for the skilled workers (organized) amounted to 26.0 cents
in M arch 1933, 19.2 cents in September 1933, and 23.9 cents in
December 1934. The table also brings out the fact that the nonunion
shops pay substantially the same rates for both the semiskilled and
unskilled occupations. In union shops, on the other hand, semiskilled
workers, who are covered b y union membership, do receive more than
the unskilled. Because of this difference, the hourly earnings of semi­
skilled workers in union shops were 6.4 cents higher than in nonunion
shops in M arch 1933, 3.3 cents higher in September 1933, and 6.0
cents higher in December 1934.
42
S ee p p . 23 a n d 25. V e r y fe w fe m a le e m p lo y e e s are m e m b e r s o f t h e u n io n , a n d as a re s u lt t h e y h a v e b e e n
o m it t e d fr o m t h is a n a ly s is . L ik e w is e , o w in g t o t h e s m a ll n u m b e r o f b a k e rie s w it h u n io n c o n t r a c ts in t h e
S o u t h , n o su c h t a b u la t io n w a s m a d e fo r t h a t re g io n .




46

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

The trend of earnings from M arch 1933 to December 1934 in union
shops differed conspicuously from the trend in unorganized establish­
ments. In the nonunion shops, as already stated, there was virtually
no difference in the average hourly earnings of workers in occupations
classed as unskilled and semiskilled in any period studied. The hourly
earnings of the skilled workers averaged only 11.3 cents more than
those of the unskilled workers in M arch 1933. From M arch 1933 to
September 1933, the earnings of each of the three groups in nonunion
shops advanced from 14 to 16 percent. Again from September 1933
to December 1934, there was about a 10 percent advance for all
groups.
In union shops, on the other hand, the average hourly earnings for
semiskilled workers in March 1933 were 6.1 cents per hour more than
for unskilled, and for skilled they were 36.4 cents an hour more than
for unskilled. Under the President’s Reemployment Agreement,
unskilled wages in union shops advanced 11 percent, semiskilled
wages advanced 5 percent, and the earnings of skilled did not increase
at all. From September 1933 to December 1934, the hourly earnings
of semiskilled workers advanced 15.5 percent, as against an increase
of 13.5 percent for skilled workers and a gain of 9.9 percent for
unskilled workers.
Influence of Mechanization on Average Hourly Earnings
In general, the greater the degree of mechanization in bakeries, the
higher were their average hourly earnings.4 This fact is illustrated
3
by table 19.
Hourly earnings of male employees in highly mechanized bakeries
in the N orth averaged 3.5 cents more than in handicraft shops in
M arch 1933, 8.3 cents more in September 1933, and 10.4 cents more
in December 1934. In the South, the differential in favor of male
workers of the mechanical establishments over those employed by
handicraft bakeries amounted to 0.6 cents in M arch 1933, 6.0 cents
in September 1933, and 4.7 cents in December 1934. It will be seen
that in both regions there was a marked increase in the differential
between March and September 1933. This m ay be explained b y the
fact that, due to the establishment of the shorter workweek in m e­
chanical as compared with handicraft shops under the President’s
Reem ploym ent A greem ent44 and the code, the gain in average hourly
earnings during this period in mechanical bakeries was much greater
than in handicraft bakeries. For females in either North or South,
no figures on differentials are available, as the number of females was
too small to compute any average hourly earnings for handicraft shops.
In semihandicraft shops in the N orth, the average hourly earnings
of male workers were below those of mechanical but above those of
handicraft bakeries in each of the three periods. This was also true
in the South in September 1933, but in the other 2 months the average
hourly earnings of male workers in handicraft shops exceeded those
in semihandicraft establishments b y a narrow margin, and, as in the
North, the earnings in both the semihandicraft and handicraft shops
were less than in mechanized shops. The average hourly earnings for
43 I n c o m p a r in g a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s in b a k e rie s a c c o r d in g t o t h e ir d e g re e o f m e c h a n iz a t io n , it s h o u ld
b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t tb© o p c u p a t io n a l s e t -u p I n e a c h t y p e is d iffe r e n t .

4 See p. 25.
4




47

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

females in the N orth were less in semihandicraft than in mechanical
bakeries in all 3 months.
T

able

19 . —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s i n b a k e r ie s c la s s ifie d b y d e g ree o f m e c h a n i z a ­
t i o n a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e h o u r l y ea rn in g s
R e g io n , sex , a n d d e g r e e o f
m e c h a n iz a t io n

M arch
1933

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n g e

S ep tem b er
1933

D ecem ber
1934

M a rch to
S ep tem b er
1933

S ep tem ber
1933 t o
D ecem b er
1934

M a r c h 1933
to D ecem ­
b e r 1934

N orth
M a le s :
H a n d ic r a ft _ _____ _______
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ____________
M e c h a n i c a l . . _____ _________

$0. 457
.4 8 5
.4 9 2

$0.460
.5 1 2
.5 4 3

$0.499
.5 6 2
.6 0 3

+ 0 .7
+ 5 .6
+ 1 0 .4

+ 8 .5
+ 9 .8
+ 1 1 .1

+ 9 .2
+15. 9
+ 2 2 .6

T o t a l _____ ________________

.491

.5 4 0

.5 9 0

+ 1 0 .0

+ 9 .3

+ 2 0 .2

F e m a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft _________________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ______
_.
_
M e c h a n ic a l _________ __
T o t a l ______________________

(9

.3 1 0
.3 2 4

(9

.3 3 9
.3 7 0

(9

(9

(9

(9

.3 7 2
.3 9 7

+ 9 .4
+ 1 4 .2

+ 9 .7
+ 7 .3

+ 2 0 .0
+ 2 2 .5

.3 2 1

.3 6 4

.3 9 2

+ 1 3 .4

+ 7 .7

+ 2 2 .1

.3 5 4
.3 4 2
.3 6 0

.3 8 0
.3 9 2
.4 4 0

.4 2 0
.4 1 4
.4 6 7

+ 7 .3
+ 1 4 .6
+ 2 2 .2

+ 1 0 .5
+ 5 .6
+ 6 .1

+ 1 8 .6
+ 2 1 .1
+ 2 9 .7

.3 6 0

.4 3 6

.4 6 2

+ 2 1 .1

+ 6 .0

+ 2 8 .3

South
M a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft __ ____________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft __________
M e c h a n i c a l __________ _____
T ota l

___________

F e m a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft _________________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ____________
M e c h a n i c a l ________________
T o ta l.

_________________

(9
(9

.2 4 4
.2 4 0

(9
(9

(9
(9

(9
(9

(9
(9

.3 1 9

.3 3 2

+ 3 0 .7

+ 4 ,1

.311

.325

+ 2 9 .6

+ 4 .5

(9
(9
+ 3 6 .1
+ 3 5 .4

i Not enough workers to justify the computation of an average.

For the period as a whole, the largest relative gains in average
hourly earnings were found in the mechanized establishments, the next
highest in semihandicraft, and the smallest in handicraft shops.
Type of Distribution and Average Hourly Earnings
An analysis of the data in bakeries classified by type of distribution
shows that on the whole the average hourly earnings were highest in
multistate, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries. There is
also a tendency for the average hourly earnings to be greater in local
wholesale than in retail and house-to-house establishments. This will
be seen by table 20. A s a rule, the largest establishments are the
multistate, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries, and the
smallest are the retail and house-to-house establishments.
It will also be seen that, as far as absolute increases in average
hourly earnings over the entire period are concerned, the largest gains
were reported for local wholesale bakeries, and the smallest gains
occurred in the retail and house-to-house establishments. Between
M arch 1933 and December 1934, the increases in local wholesale
establishments amounted to 13.8 cents for males and 8.4 cents for
females in the North and to 11.6 cents for males and 8.9 cents for fe­
males in the South. During the same period, the gains in the multi­
state, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries were 10.2 cents for




48

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

males and 6.8 cents for females in the N orth and 9.0 cents for males
and 8.2 cents for females in the South. T he increases in the retail
and house-to-house establishments were 7.6 cents for males and 5.2
cents for females in the N orth and 8.5 cents for males and 7.4 cents
for females in the South. T he local wholesale plants also showed the
largest relative gains for the entire period.
T

a b l e

20 . —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s i n b a k e r ie s c la s s ifie d b y t y p e o f d i s t r ib u t io n
a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e h o u r l y ea r n in g s

R e g io n , sex , a n d t y p e o f d is t r ib u t io n
M arch
1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

$0.491
.5 3 8

$0,541
.6 2 2

N o rth
M a le s :
R e t a il a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ______________
L o c a l w h o le s a le __________________________
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e ta il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e ___________________ __________

$0,465
.4 8 4
.5 0 5

.5 6 0

T o t a l . ______________ __________ _____

.491

.5 4 0

.3 3 7
.291

.3 7 6
.3 5 0

F e m a le s :
R e t a il a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ______________
L o c a l w h o le s a l e ..
_____ ________ ________
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e t a il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e ______________________________

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n g e

S ep tem ­
M a r c h to
b e r 1933
S ep tem ­
to D ecem ­
b e r 1933
b e r 1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

+ 5 .6
+ 1 1 .2

+ 1 0 .2
+ 1 5 .6

.6 0 7

+ 1 0 .9

+ 8 .4

+ 2 0 .2

.5 9 0

+ 1 0 .0

+ 9 .3

+ 2 0 .2

.3 8 9
.3 7 5

+ 1 1 .6
+ 2 0 .3

+ 3 .5
+ 7 .1

+ 1 5 .4
+ 2 8 .9

+ 1 6 .3
+ 2 8 .5

.3 3 2

.3 6 8

.4 0 0

+ 1 0 .8

+ 8 .7

+ 2 0 .5

_________________________

.321

.3 6 4

.3 9 2

+ 1 3 .4

+ 7 .7

+ 2 2 .1

S ou th
M a le s :
R e t a il a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ______________
L o c a l w h o le s a le .
_ __ _ _________ ____
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e t a il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e . __ _ ______________________

.3 5 6
.3 4 2

.4 0 0
.4 2 9

.4 4 1
.4 5 8

+ 1 2 .4
+ 2 5 .4

+ 1 0 .3
+ 6 .8

+ 2 3 .9
+ 3 3 .9

.3 8 5

.4 5 7

.4 7 5

+ 1 8 .7

+ 3 .9

+ 2 3 .4

.3 6 0

.4 3 6

.4 6 2

+ 2 1 .1

+ 6 .0

+ 2 8 .3

.2 2 8
.2 2 8

.2 8 5
.3 0 4

.3 0 2
.3 1 7

+ 2 5 .0
+ 3 3 .3

+ 6 .0
+ 4 .3

+ 3 2 .5
+ 3 9 .0

.2 6 2

.333

.3 4 4

+ 2 7 .1

+ 3 .3

+ 3 1 .3

.2 4 0

.311

.3 2 5

+ 2 9 .6

+ 4 .5

+ 3 5 .4

T o t a l _____

T o t a l _____ __

_ . ___________________

F e m a le s :
R e t a il a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ______________
L o c a l w h o le s a le ___________________________
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e t a il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e . __ ________________________
T o t a l _____ ____ __

____ ______________

Kind of Product and Average Hourly Earnings
In the North, average hourly earnings of male workers were highest
in the bread specialty departments of bakeries in each of the periods
surveyed. Earnings of male workers in the bread and cake depart­
ments of bakeries in the Northern States were approximately the same,
the cake-department employees having a slight advantage in M arch
and September 1933 and the employees of the bread departments of
bakeries averaging slightly more in December 1934.
(See table 21.)
The higher average earnings in specialty shops are accounted for in
large part b y the greater skill required in making the bread special­
ties. In addition, the workers in specialty bakeries are, on the whole,
well unionized; m ost of them are of foreign birth and employed in
small shops. I t will be seen that for males in the North the average
hourly earnings in these bakeries rose only slightly between M arch and
September 1933 and not much more between the latter month and
Decem ber 1934. In fact, the hourly earnings of skilled workers




49

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

engaged in direct labor in these shops whose wage rates were the
highest in the industry, declined somewhat throughout the period.
The average hourly earnings of these employees were $1.03 in M arch
1933, $1.02 in September 1933, and 99 cents in December 1934.
T

a b l e

21. —

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s i n b a k e r ie s c l a s s ifie d b y k i n d o f p r o d u c t a s to
re g io n a n d se x

A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a rn in g s

R e g io n , sex , a n d k i n d o f p r o d u c t

T o t a l _________________________ __________
F e m a le s :
B r e a d ........................................... ..........................
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s .........................................
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s .............................................
T o t a l ________________________________ _

M a r c h to
S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e ­
cem b er
1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

$0.484

$ 0 ,535

$ 0 ,588

+ 1 0 .5

+ 9 .9

+ 2 1 .5

.5 0 6
.741

.5 4 4
.7 4 6

.5 7 9
.7 6 8

+ 7 .5
+ .7

+ 6 .4
+ 2 .9

+ 1 4 .4
+ 3 .6

.4 9 1

.5 4 0

.5 9 0

+ 1 0 .0

+ 9 .3

+ 2 0 .2

.3 4 7

.3 9 0

.4 0 8

+ 1 2 .4

+ 4 .6

+ 1 7 .6

.2 8 8
0)

.3 3 6
0)

.3 7 5
0)

+ 1 6 .7
0)

+ 1 1 .6
(0

+ 3 0 .2
0)

.3 2 1

.3 6 4

.3 9 2

+ 1 3 .4

+ 7 .7

+22. 1

M arch
1933

N o rth
M a le s :
B r e a d ........................................... ..........................
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ............... ..............................
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s ........... ..................................

P e r c e n ta g e o f c h a n g e

S outh
M a le s :
B r e a d __________________________ ___________
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ________________________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s _____________ ___________

.3 6 2

.4 3 8

.4 6 5

+ 2 1 .0

+ 6 .2

+ 2 8 .5

.3 2 7
( 2)

.4 1 1
( 2)

.4 3 4
( 2)

+ 2 5 .7
( 2)

+ 5 .6
( 2)

+ 3 2 .7
( 2)

T o t a l ____________________________________

.3 6 0

.4 3 6

.4 6 2

+ 2 1 .1

+ 6 .0

+ 2 8 .3

F e m a le s :
B r e a d ----------------------- ------------ --------------------C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , i n c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ________________________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s --------- ---------- -------------- ---

.2 6 3

.3 2 2

.3 3 8

+ 2 2 .4

+ 5 .0

+28. 5

.1 9 6
( 2)

.2 9 3
(2)

.3 0 5
( 2)

+ 4 9 .5
( 2)

+ 4 .1
( 2)

+ 5 5 .6
( 2)

T o t a l ____________________________________

.2 4 0

.3 1 1

.3 2 5

+ 2 9 .6

+ 4 .5

+ 3 5 .4

1 N o t e n o u g h w o r k e r s t o j u s t i f y t h e c o m p u t a t io n o f a n a v e ra g e .
3 N o n e rep orted .

Earnings of female workers in the N orth and of both^ male and
female employees in the South were higher in bread bakeries than in
cake shops.
Comparisons W ith 1931
For the industry as a whole, the average hourly earnings of bakery
workers in December 1934 were 2.6 percent higher than in the fall of
1931,4 the averages being respectively 54.9 cents and 53.5 cents.
5
This increase was due largely to an advance of 34.4 percent in the
hourly earnings of female workers, which rose from an average of
28.2 cents in 1931 to 37.9 cents in December 1934. Earnings of male
workers also increased during the 3-year interval, averaging 54.9
cents an hour in 1931 as against 57.0 cents in December 1934.
Although the average hourly earnings for males were only slightly
less in 1931 than in 1934, a comparison of the distributions of earnings
45

T h e s u r v e y fo r 1931 e x c lu d e d p ie d e p a r t m e n t s o r e s ta b lis h m e n t s .




50

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

presented in table 22 shows sharp differences. In 1931, for example,
13.0 percent of the male workers were receiving less than 35 cents an
chour, but in 1934 only 7.2 percent of the workers were in this group.
On the other hand, 27.9 percent earned 35 and under 50 cents an hour
in 1931, as against 35.4 percent in 1934. It is interesting to note,
however, that the percentage paid 50 and under 65 cents an hour
declined from 33.2 in 1931 to 27.6 in 1934. The percentage of workers
earning 65 cents and over increased from 25.9 in 1931 to 29.8 in 1934.
Still more striking contrasts are shown in the hourly earnings of
female employees. In 1931, nearly two-thirds (64.4 percent) of the
female workers earned less than 30 cents an hour, but in 1934 the
earnings of all but 11.7 percent of the female employees exceeded 30
cents an hour. A t the same time, the percentage paid 30 and under
45 cents an hour rose from 32.5 in 1931 to 71.9 in 1934. Female workers
earning 45 cents an hour and over increased from 3.1 percent in 1931
to 16.4 percent in 1934.
For all workers, the proportion earning less than 30 cents per hour
declined from 10.4 percent in 1931 to 2.9 percent in 1934, whereas
those earning 30 and under 50 cents increased from 33.7 percent in
1931 to 45.5 in 1934. The percentage of the total earning 50 and
under 65 cents an hour declined from 31.2 in 1931 to 25.2 in 1934, but
the percentage earning 65 cents and over increased from 24.7 in 1931
to 26.4 in 1934.
T a b l e 2 2 .—

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f
e a r n i n g s i n b r ea d i n d u s t r y i n

e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to a v era g e
U n ite d S ta te s, 1 9 3 1 a n d 1 9 3 4

Fall of 1931

h o u r ly

December 1934

Average hourly earnings
Total
Under 25 cents. . ______ _____ . . . . . . _
25 and under 30 cents. _________________
30 and under 35 cents_______________ ..
35 and under 40 cents________________ .
40 and under 45 cents___ _____ _________
45 and under 50 cents.. ____________ ._
50 and under 55 cents.. ________________
55 and under 60 cents.. . .
. _____ . . .
60 and under 65 cents.__________________
65 and under 70 cents.. ___ _________
70 and under 75 cents _ __ .. _______
75 and under 80 cents__________________
80 and under 90 cents__ ________________
90 and under 100 cents. _ ______ ______
100 and under 120 cents _______________
120 cents and over. _ ______ _________
Total. .. _ ---------------- --------------




Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

4.4
6.0
6.8
7.7
10.3
8.9
12.4
9.9
8.9
5.2
4. 7
3.5
5.0
2.6
2.2
1.5

3.1
3.9
6.0
7.6
10.9
9.4
13.3
10.5
9.4
5.5
5.0
3.7
5.3
2.7
2.2
1. 5

25.1
39.3
19.7
9.1
3.7
1.0
1.5
.4
.2

0.4
2.5
8.7
11.7
14.8
10.3
9.6
7.7
7.9
5.9
5. 5
4.0
5.1
2.9
2.3
.7

0.3
1.4
5.5
9.7
14.8
10.9
10.3
8.5
8.8
6. 7
6. 2
4. 5
5.8
3. 3
2. 5
.8

1.4
10.3
31.4
25.8
14.7
5.9
4.9
2.1
1.6
.6
.2
.3
.5
.2
.l

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Chapter IV.—Weekly Hours
Changes in Bread Industry in Country as a Whole
The increase in average hourly earnings between M arch 1933 and
December 4 1934 was accompanied by a pronounced reduction in
6
weekly hours. For all workers in the bread industry in the country as
a whole, the hours worked per week averaged 50.2 in M arch 1933,
45.9 in September 1933, and 43.5 in December 1934. The aggregate
reduction of weekly working time for the period was 6.7 hours or 13.3
percent.
The shift of employees from longer to shorter hours was especially
conspicuous between M arch and September 1933.
(See table 23 and
chart 5.) In both periods, the percentage of those working under 40
hours per week, which includes m any part-time employees, was
virtually the same. The number working 40 and under 48 hours,
however, increased from 8.8 percent in M arch to 45.7 percent in Sep­
tember. A particularly large gain is shown in the number of employ­
ees working 44 and under 48 hours; in fact, by September this was the
established working time for more than a third of the employees. A s
a result of these changes, the proportion of employees working 48
hours and over fell from 80.5 percent in M arch to 42.9 percent in
September.
Whereas in September 1933 the trend was toward a workweek of
44 and under 48 hours, in December 1934 the industry was inclined
toward a week of 40 and under 44 hours, as evidenced by the fact that
the working time of nearly 40 percent of the employees fell within these
limits. A t the same time, the proportion of employees working less
than 40 hours per week increased from 11.4 percent in September
1933 to 18.5 percent in December 1934. This gain was largely due
to an increase in the number of employees working 32 and under 40
hours per week. The percentage of employees working 48 hours and
over declined from 42.9 in September 1933 to 35.4 in December 1934.
T able

23 .—

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g
b r ea d i n d u s t r y i n c o u n t r y a s a w h o le

March 1933
Weekly hours

to

w ee k ly

hours

in

December 1934

September 1933

Simple Cumulative Simple Cumulative Simplo Cumulative
percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage

Under 8 hours_______ _____
8 and under 16 hours------------16 and under 24 hours______
24 and under 32 hours..... ........
32 and under 36 hours-----------

0.5
2.8
1.8
2.4
1.4

0.5
3.3
5.1
7.5
8.9

0.7
2.5
1.5
2.3
1.7

0.7
3.2
4.7
7.0
8.7

1.2
2.1
1.7
2.9
3.3

1.2
3.3
5.0
7.9
11.2

36 and under. 40 hours______
40 and under 44 hours----------44 and under 48 hours_______
48 and under 52 hours______
52 and under 56 hours..........

1.8
3.3
5.5
30.2
23.9

10.7
14.0
19.5
49.7
73.6

2.7
11.3
34.4
19.6
9.2

11.4
22.7
57.1
76.7
85.9

7.3
38.8
7.3
15.3
7.0

18.5
57.3
64.6
79.9
86.9

56 and under 60 hours----------60 and under 64 hours_______
64 and under 72 hours______
72 hours and over___________

5.6
14.6
4.4
1.8

79.2
93.8
98.2
100.0

1.9
8.8
2.3
1.1

87.8
96.6
98.9
100.0

2.4
8.0
1.8
.9

89.3
97.3
99.1
100.0

« The figures in this section include driver-salesmen. See note 47, p. 52.




51

52

WAGES AND HOURS— BRE AD-B AKING INDUSTRY

Long hours of work have always been a characteristic feature of the
bread industry. In M arch 1933, 20.8 percent of the employees
worked 60 or more hours per week. This number was reduced to
12.2 percent in September 1933 and 10.7 percent in December 1934.
M o st of the employees who worked 60 hours and over in September
1933 and December 1934, however, were driver-salesmen, whose
hours of labor were not regulated during the period of the National
Recovery Administration.
CHART

5

P ercen tage D is tr ib u tio n o f E m p lo yee s A ccording t o W e e k l y H o u r s
In B read In d u s tr y in C o u n t r y a s a W h o le
„ n/afe March 1933, S e p te m b e r 1933, an d D ecem ber 1934 /&***&&
,
_
fow

50

— ----------—

— ----------— -----— -----— — -----— ---------- —

4 8 /£ 76 £0 £4 £8 S£ 86 |\ & f§
WEEKLY HOURS | |

U. S. Bureau of Labor S tatistics

— 50

8£ 56 60 64 68 7£ 76

^
Including Driver-S alesmen

Changes in Averages by Region and Sex in Bread Industry
A s the working time of driver-salesmen was not subject to regulation
under the National Recovery Administration,4 a better idea of the
7
effects of the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code
upon weekly hours in the bread industry can be obtained if the workers
in this occupation are excluded. This has been done in table 24 and
chart 6, which shows the average weekly hours in the bread industry
by region and sex.
4 Driver-salesmen were specifically excluded from the maximum hours substitute provisions of the Presi­
7
dent’s Reemployment Agreement, and those whose earnings were computed partly or wholly on a commis­
sion basis were exempted from similar provisions in the code. Accordingly, all driver-salesmen (there are
very few employed on a time basis) were excluded from the remaining tables in this chapter, although
separate figures are shown for them in a later section of this chapter. However, the driver-salesmen have
been included in the summary figures in the appendix table on weekly hours.




53

WEEKLY HOURS
T able

24. —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s i n b r ea d i n d u s t r y b y r e g i o n a n d s e x

Average weekly hours
Region and sex

March
1933

Percentage of change

March
March to September
September December September
1933 to
1933 to
1933
1934
December December
1933
1934
1934

United States:
Males, _ __ __________
Females________________

48.3
42.8

42.7
39.7

39.0
37.6

—11.6
-7 .2

—7.3
-5 .3

—18.0
-12.1

Total_________________

47.4

42.2

39.3

-11.0

-6 .9

-17.1

North:
Males
_________
Females..______

48.0
42.8

42.6
39.6

39.6
37.4

-11.2
-7 .5

-7 .0
-5 .6

-17. 5
-12.6

47.1

42.1

39.3

-10.6

-6 .7

-16.6

50.5
43.0

43.2
40.0

39.9
38.2

-14.5
-7 .0

-7 .6
-4 .5

-21.0
-11.2

49.0

42.7

39.5

-12.9

-7 .5

-19.4

Total.

____ _ _____

South:
Males __ _
Females.. _ _
Total____

__

____
___

_ _ ____

In general, the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code
reduced the spread in hours worked which existed between regions and
between sexes. In all three periods, males in the South had the highest
average, and females in the N orth the lowest average. The range
between the averages of these two groups was reduced from 7.7 hours
in M arch 1933 to 3.6 hours in September 1933 and to 2.5 hours in
December 1934. In M arch 1933, all workers in the South averaged
1.9 hours more per week than in the North, in September 1933 they
averaged 0.6 hour more, and in December 1934 only 0.2 hour more.
Just as the code operated to equalize working time in the two
regions, it tended to reduce the difference in the working time of
males and females. In M arch 1933, males averaged 5.5 hours more
per week than females, whereas in December 1934 they averaged
only 2.0 hours more.
Monthly Trend of Working Time for Entire Baking Industry Based on
Employment and Pay-Roll Data
These findings regarding working time are substantiated by the
index numbers of average weekly hours for the entire industry, in­
cluding biscuit and crackers, as shown b y the monthly data compiled
in the Division of Em ploym ent and Pay Rolls.4 These index numbers
8
are given in table 25.
According to the index numbers, there was a gradual downward
movement in average weekly hours, interrupted by several minor
fluctuations, from January 1932 until about the middle of 1933.
This is undoubtedly the result of factors that operated during the
depression, such as the elimination of overtime and introduction of
part-time work. The sharp drop in the index from 96.2 in July to
88.4 in August and the further decrease to 85.3 in September 1933,
however, was probably due to the President’s Reemployment Agree­
ment. Although the index number rose again very slowly to 86.2
4 The absolute figures of average weekly hours worked were 45.6 in March 1933, 41.5 in September 1933,
8
and 39.7 in December 1934. These averages exclude for the most part driver-salesmen.




54

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

C hart

3

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS IN BREAD INDUSTRY BY REGION
AND SEX, MARCH 1933, SEPTEMBER 1933, AND DECEMBER 1934




(e

x c l u s iv e

o f

d r iv e r

-

s a l e s m e n

)

MALES NORTH
0

10

HOURS
20

30

FEMALES NORTH

MALES SOUTH

40

SO

60

55

WEEKLY HOURS

in June 1934, there was a further decline to 84.4 in July 1934 and to
82.1 in August, which reflect the working-time provisions of the code.
B y December 1934, the index number had risen slightly to 83.1
T

a b l e

25.— I n d e x

n u m b e r s o f a v era g e w e e k l y h o u r s i n e n t i r e b a k i n g i n d u s t r y 1 i n
th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b y m o n t h s , 1 9 3 2 - 3 5 2
[J a n u a r y 193 2=1 00]

Month
January._ _
_ _ _ _ _ _
February. _ _____
_
_
March__
_ _ _ _ _
April... _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
M ay.. _ _
_ _
_
___
June____
_
_
__
July______________________________________________
August.. _ _ _ _ _ _
_
_ _
.
___
September..
__
_ _
October__________ __ _ _ _ _ ____ _ _
_ ______
November_____ _______
_ _
_______ _
December______________________
____

1932
100.0
98. 5
98. 5
97.4
97.0
96.2
93.9
94.3
96.6
97.0
94.6
93.3

1933
94. 7
95.1
92. 6
94.9
95.4
95. 8
96.2
88.4
85.3
84.9
85.7
85.6

1934
86.0
86.0
86. 6
86.4
85.8
86. 2
84.4
82.1
83.7
82.0
82.7
83.1

1935
83.9
85.0
84.8
84.8
85.2
85.8
85.8
84.3
87.5
87.4
87.2
87.8

1 I n c lu d e s b is c u it a n d cra c k e r s .
2 C o m p i l e d b y t h e D iv i s io n o f E m p l o y m e n t a n d P a y R o l l s o f t h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tistics.

Changes in Percentage Distribution by Region and Sex in Bread Industry
Due to President’s Reemployment Agreement
The percentage distribution, of employees by weekly hours in the
bread industry, covering male and female employees in the North
and South, are given in table 26. These distributions serve to em­
phasize the shift in employees from longer to shorter hours, which
resulted from the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code.
The substitute provisions of the President’s Reemployment Agree­
m ent, regarding maximum hours in bakeries, were as follows:
Employees (other than bakery shop employees and outside salesmen) shall not
be employed for more than a 40-hour week provided, however, that clerical and
sales employees in retail bakery shops shall not be employed for more than a
48-hour week.
Bakery shop employees shall not be employed for more than a 44-hour week
in machine bakeries nor more than a 50-hour week in handicraft shops nor more
than 8 hours per day except before and after holidays and week ends and other
special occasions when 10 hours per day is permitted.
It will be seen from the table that the President’s Reemployment
Agreement caused no appreciable change in the proportion of the
workers on short time. Neither in the N orth nor South and neither
for males nor females was there a marked change in the proportion
of employees working less than 36 hours a week. Indeed, as far as
male employees are concerned, there was little change in the propor­
tion working less than 40 hours a week. For females, there were
significant changes in the proportion working 36 and under 40 hours
a week. The movem ent, however, varied somewhat in the two regions.
In M arch 1933, 5.6 percent of the females in the North worked 36
but less than 40 hours a week. In September 1933, this proportion
rose to 9.3 percent. In the South, on the other hand, the proportion
of women working 36 and under 40 hours fell from 4.9 percent in
M arch 1933 to 2.7 percent in September 1933.




56

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T able

26.—

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to w e e k l y h o u r s b y r e g io n
a n d s e x i n brea d in d u s tr y

March 1933
Region, sex, and weekly
hours

September 1933

December 1934

Simple Cumulative Simple Cumulative Simple Cumulative
percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage

North
Males:1
Under 8 hours---------------8 and under 16 hours_____
16 and under 24 hours—
24 and under 32 hours-----32 and under 36 hours------

0.7
3.6
2.3
3.1
2.0

0.7
4.3
6.6
9.7
11.7

1.0
3.2
1.8
2.6
2.3

1.0
4.2
6.0
8.6
10.9

1.6
2.8
2.0
3.1
3.8

1.6
4.4
6.4
9.5
13.3

36(
and under 40 hours____
40 and under 44 hours____
44 and under 48 hours____
48 and under 52 hours____

1.8
3.7
6.4
34.4

13.5
17.2
23.6
58.0

2.8
12.9
49.6
17.2

13.7
26.6
76.2
93.4

9i 8
51.7
9.5
12.1

23.1
74.8
84.3
96.4

52 and under 56 hours____
56 and under 60 hours___
60 and under 64 hours.......
64 hours and over.......... .
Females:
Under 8 hours___________
8 and under 16 hours_____
16 and under 24 hours____
24 and under 32 hours-----32 and under 36 hours-----36 and under 40 hours____

24.9
5.9
7.8
3.4

82.9
88.8
96.6
100.0

4.2
.4
1.6
.4

97.6
98.0
99.6
100.0

1.8
.4
1.3
.1

98.2
98.6
99.9
100.0

1.2
3.8
4.0
5.0
2.5
5.6

1.2
5.0
9.0
14.0
16.5
22.1

1.2
4.4
2.4
6.6
3.3
9.3

1.2
5.6
8.0
14.6
17.9
27.2

1.7
3.2
2.9
7.4
8.4
16.2

1.7
4.9
7.8
15.2
23.6
39.8

40 and under 44 hours-----44 and under 48 hours-----48 and under 52 hours-----52 and under 56 hours-----56 hours and over________

10.1
16.1
39.2
8.4
4.1

32.2
48.3
87.5
95.9
100.0

26.9
24.9
19.9
1.1

54.1
79.0
98.9
100.0

44.8
3.3
12.0
(2
)
.1

84.6
87.9
99.9
99.9
100.0

South
Males:1
Under 8 hours___________
8 and under 16 hours------16 and under 24 hours____
24 and under 32 hours---32 and under 36 hours-----36 and under 40 hours-----40 and under 44 hours____

.2
4.5
2.7
1.5
.7
1.4
2.2

.2
4.7
7.4
8.9
9.6
11.0
13.2

.9
2.5
1.7
2.0
1.7
1.6
13.2

.9
3.4
5.1
7.1
8.8
10.4
23.6

1.3
2.2
2.1
3.0
2.9
4.4
60.7

1.3
3.5
5.6
8.6
11.5
15.9
76.6

44 and under 48 hours____
48 and under 52 hours-----52 and under 56 hours-----56 and under 60 hours-----60 and under 64 hours____
64 hours and over________
Females:
Under 8 hours------ --------8 and under 16 hours------16 and under 24 hours.......
24 and under 32 hours____
32 and under 36 hours____
36 and under 40 hours____

2.7
27.1
30.0
2.3
16.7
8.0

15.9
43.0
73.0
75.3
92.0
100.0

52.5
17.1
1.9
.9
1.8
2.2

76.1
93.2
95.1
96.0
97.8
100.0

8.6
10.7
1.8
.8
1.4
.1

85.2
95.9
97.7
98.5
99.9
100.0

.9
7.0
1.8
8.8
1.8
4.9

.9
7.9
9.7
18.5
20.3
25.2

.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
3.2
2.7

.5
5.0
9.5
14.0
17.2
19.9

1.8
3.8
3.6
7.0
5.6
4.0

1.8
5.6
9.2
16.2
21.8
25.8

40 and under 44 hours-----44 and under 48 hours-----48 and under 52 hours-----52 and under 56 hours
56 hours and over________

5.2
7.0
35.9
24.9
1.8

30.4
37.4
73.3
98.2
100.0

26.4
30.3
23.4

46.3
76.6
100.0

51.2
5.0
17.8
.2

77.0
82.0
99.8
100.0

1 Excludes driver-salesmen.

3 Less than Ho of 1 percent.

In both regions and for both sexes, there was a sharp increase in the
proportion of employees working 40 but less than 48 hours per week.
T he concentration in the interval 44 and under 48 hours was especially
marked, and it was sharper for males than for females.
This increase in the proportion working 40 but less than 48 hours was
due almost entirely to a marked decrease in the proportion working




WEEKLY HOURS

57

48 hours and over. This was especially true of the male employees,
exclusive of driver-salesmen. Thus, among males in the North, the
proportion working 48 hours and over per week decreased from 76.4
percent in M arch to 23.8 percent in September 1933. This com­
pares with a decrease from 84.1 to 23.9 percent in the South. The
proportion of female employees working 48 hours and over per week
dropped from 51.7 to 21.0 percent in the N orth and from 62.6 to 23.4
percent in the South.
As the President’s Reemployment Agreement provided a maximum
of 50 hours per week for handicraft bakeries, there was still a con­
siderable proportion of employees in each group working 48 and under
52 hours during September 1933. Moreover, had it been possible
to cover the smaller establishments in the same proportion as they
occur in the industry, the percentage of employees working 48 and
under 52 hours a week would have been even greater.
It is particularly significant, however, that (exclusive of the driversalesmen) the 56- and 60-hour week was virtually abolished by the
President’s Reemployment Agreement. In the North, the percentage
of male employees working 56 hours and over in September 1933 was
only 2.4, as against 17.1 percent in M arch. In the South, the per­
centage of male employees working 56 hours and over a week declined
from 27.0 in M arch to 4.9 in September. O f the female employees,
none in the southern establishments covered and only 1.1 percent in
the N orth were working in excess of 52 hours per week in September
1933. B y contrast, in M arch 1933, 26.7 percent of the female employ­
ees in the South and 12.5 percent of those in the North were working
52 hours and over a week.
Changes in Percentage Distribution by Region and Sex Due to Code
The maximum hours of labor established by the code were more
detailed than those of the President’s Reemployment Agreement.
In general, the code provided that no employee in “ other than handi­
craft” shops shall be permitted to work more than 40 hours per week.4
9
Employees in “ handicraft” shops were limited to 48 hours a week.
The hours of sales employees in retail stores were limited to 10 hours
a day and 48 hours a week. Likewise, chauffeurs, supply truckmen,
and delivery men were not to work more than 48 hours per week.
Finally, 44 hours per week were established as the maximum for
engineers, firemen, and oilers.
Some exceptions were made to the hour provisions of the code and
account in part for the longer hours shown in table 26 for some workers.
Executives, solicitors, and professional employees earning $35 or more
per week in cities over 100,000 and $30 in those cities with less than
100,000 population were totally exempted from the hour provisions
of the code, as were also salesmen working on a commission basis.
For watchmen the maximum hours were 56 per week.
The principal change in weekly hours that occurred between Sep­
tember 1933 and December 1934 was the marked shift from a week of
44 and under 48 hours to a week of 40 and under 44 hours. Am ong
the four groups considered, the percentage of employees working 40
« The provisions of the code with reference to hours worked per day and their effect are not discussed
in this survey.
102745°— 37------ 5




58

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

and under 44 hours a week in December 1934 was 51.7 for males and
44.8 for females in the N orth and 60.7 for males and 51.2 for females
in the South. I t will be seen that this change affected male workers
more than females.
There is no evidence that the code had much influence on the propor­
tion of employees working less than 32 hours a week. There was,
however, a marked increase for both sexes in the N orth and South
in the number working 32 and less than 40 hours, with the largest gain
generally taking place in the class interval of 36 and under 4 0 hours.
This increase was due for the m ost part to the code provision limiting
individual workers to a maximum of 40 hours per week in the mechan­
ical bakeries, so that voluntary absence or a short workweek would
throw an employee into a period of less than 40 hours.
B oth the President's Reem ploym ent Agreement and the code
tended to eliminate extremely short-time work among females in the
South. In M arch 1933, 7.9 percent of the female employees in the
southern establishments worked less than 16 hours, but in December
1934 this proportion had dropped to 5.6 percent, and the proportion
working 16 and under 24 hours a week had increased. Similarly,
there was a decrease in the percentage working 24 and under 32 hours,
and a considerable gain in the percentage working 32 and under
36 hours.
The decrease in the number of employees working 48 and less than
52 hours has significance with reference to the relative degrees of
acceptance of the President's Reem ploym ent Agreement and enforce­
ment of the code. The handicraft shop had a maximum limitation
of 50 hours under the President's Reem ployment Agreement and of
48 hours under the code. For both September 1933 and December
1934, employees in establishments operating on this basis would
appear in the class interval of 48 and under 52 hours. The decrease
in the percentages found in this class seems to indicate that some
mechanical bakeries were operating the longer workweek under the
President's Reem ploym ent Agreement and that certain handicraft
shops adopted a standard workweek of less than 48 hours.
W ith reference to the reduction of the long workweek, the major
change was accomplished under the President's Reemployment Agree­
ment. In the period from September 1933 to December 1934, how­
ever, there was further progress in the direction of a shorter week.
Differentials in Averages by Broad Occupational Groupings
The occupation quite often determines the length of the workday,
as well as the number of hours worked during the week. This was
recognized to a considerable extent by the President's Reemployment
Agreement and the code, which, as noted already, set up varying
maximum hours in accordance with individual occupations or occu­
pational groupings.
Table 27 presents the average hours per week by broad occupational
groupings for each of the three pay-roll periods covered, as well as the
percentages of change, thus developing the extent of the occupational
differentials in M arch 1933 and their subsequent changes. Prior to
the President's Reemployment Agreement— i. e., in M arch 1933—
there was little difference in average weekly hours between skilled,
semiskilled, and unskilled male workers engaged in direct labor in the




50

WEEKLY HOURS

North. In the South, however, skilled males worked 6.9 more hours
per week than the semiskilled and 5.4 more than the unskilled.
W eekly hours for all of these groups decreased under the President’s
Reemployment Agreement and the code, the differentials becoming
negligible in the N orth and narrowing in the South.
M ore than 40 hours a week were permissible under the code for
many of the occupations classified as “ other” indirect male labor. In
the North, the working time of “ other” indirect labor averaged 3.2
hours a week more than for skilled direct labor in M arch 1933. This
differential increased to 4.3 hours in December 1934. In the South,
there was hardly any differential in M arch 1933, but in December
1934 the working time of indirect laborers was slightly above the
average for skilled direct workers.
T able

2 7 .— A vera g e

w ee k ly

hours

b y b r oa d
and sex

o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p i n g s

Average weekly hours
Region, sex, and broad occupational
grouping

March
1933

as

to r e g i o n

Percentage of change

Septem­
ber 1933

Decem­
ber 1934

March
to Sep­
tember
1933

Septem­
ber 1933
to De­
cember
1934

March
1933 to
Decem­
ber 1934

N o rth

Males:
Direct labor:
Skilled.................. ........... ..............
Semiskilled................. ..................
Unskilled________ ____ _________
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen________________
Other______________ _______ __

46.8
45.4
47.9

41.6
40.7
41.8

38.2
37.1
38.2

—11.1
-10.4
-12.7

-8 .2
-8 .8
-8 .6

—18.4
—18.3
—20.3

55.9
50.0

55.2
44.5

54.8
42.5

-1 .3
-11.0

—.7
-4 .5

—2.0
-15.0

Total____ ____________________

48.0

42.6

39.6

-11.2

-7 .0

-17.5

Direct labor: Unskilled........................
Indirect labor: Other____ ___________

41.2
43.5

37.4
40.9

34.9
39.2

—9.2
-6 .0

—6.7
-4 .2

-15.3
-9 .9

Total_________ __________________

42.8

39.6

37.4

-7 .5

-5 .6

-12.6

Males:
Direct labor:
Skilled___ _____________________
Semiskilled____ _ _ ____ _____ _
Unskilled_____________________
Indirect labor:
D river-salesmen__ _____________
Other__________ __________ ___

52.4
45. 5
47.0

45.0
40.1
40.8

40.1
37.9
37.9

—14.1
—11.9
—13. 2

—10.9
—5. 5
—7.1

—23. 5
—16. 7
—19.4

60. 2
52.2

58.8
44.5

59.0
41.7

—2.3
-14.8

-K 3
-6 .3

-2 .0
-20.1

Females:

S ou th

Total________________________

50.5

43.2

39.9

-14.5

-7 .6

-21.0

Females:
Direct labor: Unskilled_______ _____
Indirect labor: Other____ ____ ____

41.0
43.8

38.3
40.8

36.3
39.3

—6.6
-6 .8

—5.2
-3 .7

-11.5
-10.3

Total... -_ . ___________________

43.0

40.0

38.2

-7 .0

-4 .5

-1 1 .2

An analysis of the distribution of employees by weekly hours in the
above broad occupational groupings (table 27) indicates that in the
establishments included in the survey, the hour provisions of the code
were being generally observed. Am ong the occupational groupings
engaged in direct labor, not over 2.1 percent of the males and not
over 0.4 percent of the females worked more than 48 hours, the upper
limit for handicraft shops. The great m ajority worked 40 hours or
less, the upper limit for mechanical bakeries. W ork of more than 48




60

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

hours a week was found to an appreciable extent only in the occupa­
tions classified as other indirect male labor, which grouping included
executives and others who were exempted from the hour provisions of
the code. In this grouping, a very large proportion (over 40 percent)
worked more than 40 hours, but the code provided a longer workweek
than this for m any classes of indirect labor even in mechanical bakeries.
Weekly Hours of Driver-Salesmen
The most striking differentials in average weekly hours, however,
were between direct labor and driver-salesmen, whose working time
was not restricted by the code. In M arch 1933, driver-salesmen
averaged 55.9 hours in the North and 60.2 hours in the South.5
0
These averages decreased only 2.0 percent between M arch 1933 and
December 1934. Because of this fact, the spread between the working
time of these employees and those of skilled direct labor increased
from 9.1 to 16.6 hours a week in the N orth and from 7.8 to 18.9 hours
a week in the South.
T able

2 8 . — P e r c e n t a g e o f e m p l o y e e s i n b r o a d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p i n g s w o r k i n g co d e
h o u r s or le ss p e r w eek a s to re g io n a n d se x i n D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 4

Percentage of employees who worked per week
in December 1934—
Region, sex, and broad occupational grouping
Exactly
40 hours

40 hours
or less

Exactly
48 hours

48 hours
or less

North
Males:
Direct labor:
Skilled______________________ ________ _____ _______
Semiskilled. _ __ _______________ ________ _____
Unskilled_______________________ ______ _____ _____
Indirect labor: Other____ __________________________
Females:
Direct labor: Unskilled___________ ________________
Indirect labor: Other___ __________________________

45.4
47.1
59.7
39.8

76.2
83.4
83.0
50.0

5.8
4.8
2.6
20.3

98.5
99.2
98.1
88.9

30.0
47.1

89.8
72.8

.9
19.3

99.6
99.6

65.0
56.6
63.3
48.2

77.7
83.4
84.3
58.8

8.7
6.3
3.8
15.3

97.9
98.4
98.5
88.9

39.8
48.2

79.6
65.2

2.6
26.7

100.0
98.7

South
Males:
Direct labor:
Skilled_____________________ ______ _______ _______ _
S em isk illed....... ........................................................
Unskilled___________________ ______ _______________
Indirect labor: Other_______________ ________________
Females:
Direct labor: Unskilled........... .................___........... .......
Indirect labor: Other_________________________ _______

Because of these wide differences, it is necessary to consider the
working time of driver-salesmen separately. The detailed analysis of
the weekly hours for employees of this class in the three pay-roll
periods covered is given in table 29.
This table shows that the
weekly hours of these workers were not materially altered from one
period to the next, although there was some decrease in the propor­
tion of driver-salesmen working the longest hours.
Y e t, even in
December 1934, 21.5 percent of the driver-salesmen in the South and
8.0 percent in the N orth worked 64 hours and over per week.
so These hours represent the time between leaving and returning to the plant. It should also be remem­
bered that driver-salesmen are largely on a commission basis, which tends to encourage them to lengthen
their working hours.




61

WEEKLY HOURS
Changes in Averages by Occupational Classes

Table 30 shows the average weekly hours by individual occupations
or small occupational groupings for each of the three pay-roll periods,
as well as the percentages of change between periods.
In case of males engaged in direct labor in the North, the average
weekly hours in M arch 1933 for the 14 individual occupations ranged
from 42.1 for bench hands or hand bakers to 50.0 for automatic
bread wrappers. The decreases in the average weekly hours for these
occupations between M arch 1933 and December 1934 ranged from
5.1 for cake wrappers and packers to 11.8 for automatic bread wrap­
pers. The tendency throughout the period was toward a leveling of
the weekly working time. Consequently, the largest decreases were
reported for occupations that had the longest hours of labor in M arch
1933. A s a result of this leveling process, the range in December
1934 was from 35.1 hours for bench hands or hand bakers to 40.5
hours for cake makers.
T able

29,—

P er cen ta g e

d i s t r ib u t io n o f d r i v e r -s a l e s m e n
a s to r e g io n

a c c o r d in g

September 1933

March 1933

to

w ee k ly

hours

December 1934

Region and weekly hours
Cumulative
Simple
Simple
Cumulative
Simple
Cumulative
percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage

North
Under 8 hours____ ____________
8 and under 16 hours___ ______
16 and under 24 hours_________
24 and under 32 hours_________
32 and under 36 hours...... .........

(9

0.5
.2
.3
.2

(9

0.5
.7
1.0
1.2

(9

0.3
.3
.3

<9

(9

0.3
.6
.9
.9

(9

0.2
.3
.4
.1

(9

0.2
.5
.9
1.0

under 40 hours_________
under 44 hours_________
under 48 hours_________
under 52 hours_________

.6
.7
1.5
23.5

1.8
2.5
4.0
27.5

.7
1.0
2.7
27.6

1.6
2.6
5.3
32.9

.4
1.0
4.5
27.5

1.4
2.4
6.9
34.4

52 and under 56 h o u rs ________
56 and under 60 hours_________
60 and under 64 h o u r s ________
64 hours and over_. . . _ _ _.

26.0
6.6
29.7
10.2

53.5
60.1
89.8
100.0

24.0
5.1
28.2
9.8

56.9
62.0
90.2
100.0

22.6
6.9
28.1
8 .0

57.0
63.9
92.0
100.0

.1

.1
.1

.1
.1

.1
.3

.2
.5
.5

.3
.4

.1
.2
.5
.9
1.2

36 and
40 and
44 and
48 and

South
________
Under 8 hours__ 8 and under 16 hours
_ ___
16 and under 24 hours_________
24 and under 32 hours_______
32 and under 36 hours___ _____
36 and
40 and
44 and
48 and

under 40 hours_________
under 44 hours............ ..
under 48 hours________
under 52 hours_________

52 and under 56 hours_________
56 and under 60 hours_________
60 and under 64 hours_________
64 hours and over_____________
i Less than Mo of 1 percent.




.6
.9
5.4
21.8
12.5

32.2
26.1

.3
.1

.3
.1

.3

.4
.4

.5
1.1
2.0
7.4

.8
6.8

1.3
1.9
2.7
9.5

.1
2.1
1.5
7.0

.5
2.6
4.1
11.1

29.2
41.7
73.9
100.0

28.6
11.5
30.4
20.0

38.1
49.6
80.0
100.0

24.1
15.9
27.4
21.5

35.2
51.1
78.5
100.0

.6

62

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T able

30 . —

A verage

w e e k ly

hours

by

o c c u p a t io n a l

c la s s e s

Average weekly hours

as

to

re g io n

and

sex

Percentage of change

Septem­
ber 1933
to D e­
cember
1934

March
1933

Septem­
ber 1933

Decem­
ber 1934

March
to Sep­
tember
1933

Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers...........
Cake makers............................... .........
Dividers or scalers and rounders..
Mixers_____________________________
Molders__________ ________________
Ovenmen____________ _________ ____
Miscellaneous, skilled—....................

42.1
47.5
48.6
49.9
48.6
47.8
46.4

38.4
42.9
43.0
43.9
41.6
42.2
42.9

35.1
40.5
39.1
39.8
37.9
38.5
39.5

- 8 .8
- 9 .7
- 1 1 .5
- 1 2 .0
- 1 4 .4
- 1 1 .7
- 7 .5

- 8 .6
- 5 .6
- 9 .1
-9 .3
-8 .9
- 8 .8
-7 .9

- 1 6 .6
-1 4 .7
- 1 9 .5
-2 0 .2
- 2 2 .0
- 1 9 .5
- 1 4 .9

Region, sex, and occupational class

March
1933 to
Decem­
ber 1934

Males—North

T otal....................................................

46.8

41.6

38.2

- 1 1 .1

- 8 .2

- 1 8 .4

Semiskilled:
Bench hands’ or hand bakers’
helpers................................................
General helpers....................................
Mixers’ helpers_____________ _____ _
Ovenmen’s helpers_______________ _
Miscellaneous, sem iskilled.............

43.1
45.2
45.8
44.8
50.3

38.5
40.3
42.1
40.3
43.2

36.4
35.8
38.7
36.9
39.5

- 1 0 .7
-1 0 .8
- 8 .1
- 1 0 .0
- 1 4 .1

- 5 .5
- 1 1 .2
- 8 .1
-8 .4
- 8 .6

- 1 5 .5
- 2 0 .8
- 1 5 .5
- 1 7 .6
- 2 1 .5

T otal............................................ .......

45.4

40.7

37.1

-1 0 .4

- 8 .8

- 1 8 .3

Unskilled:
Bread packers....... ...............................
Bread wrappers, automatic----------Cake wrappers and packers---------Pan greasers___________ _____ ______
Miscellaneous, unskilled................

47.7
50.0
42.4
49.1
45.3

41.5
42.0
38.3
42.7
41.3

38.1
38.2
37.3
38.0
39.5

-1 3 .0
-1 6 .0
- 9 .7
-1 3 .0
-8 .8

- 8 .2
-9 .0
-2 .6
-1 1 .0
- 4 .4

- 2 0 .1
- 2 3 .6
- 1 2 .0
- 2 2 .6
- 1 2 .8

T otal....................................................

47.9

41.8

38.2

- 1 2 .7

- 8 .6

- 2 0 .3

Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen....... ....................................
Other:
Auditors, bookkeepers, etc...............
Chauffeurs and drivers......................
Laborers.......... .......................................
Maintenance and repair, S k ille d Maintenance and repair, semi­
skilled_________ _______ _____ _____
Office clerks__________________ _____
Service, unskilled- ..........................
Supervisory, skilled----------------------Miscellaneous, skilled-------------------Miscellaneous, semiskilled-----------Miscellaneous, unskilled.................

55.9

55.2

54.8

- 1 .3

-.7

- 2 .0

48.2
48.6
45.3
50.4

44.4
46.6
41.7
44.2

42.6
44.1
38.7
44.2

- 7 .9
- 4 .1
- 7 .9
- 1 2 .3

- 4 .1
- 5 .4
-7 .2

- 1 1 .6
-9 .3
- 1 4 .6
- 1 2 .3

52.0
47.5
49.0
53.5
51. 5
47.8
46.4

42.6
42.8
41.8
50.0
46.3
42.8
41.7

42.4
39.0
38.5
48.3
43.4
40.7
39.2

- 1 8 .1
-9 .9
- 1 4 .7
-6 .5
- 1 0 .1
- 1 0 .5
- 1 0 .1

-.5
- 8 .9
-7 .9
- 3 .4
- 6 .3
-4 .9
- 6 .0

- 1 8 .5
- 1 7 .9
- 2 1 .4
-9 .7
- 1 5 .7
- 1 4 .9
- 1 5 .5

T o t a l..................................................

50.0

44.5

42.5

-1 1 .0

- 4 .5

- 1 5 .0

Direct labor:
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, h a n d ....................
Cake finishers......... ..............................
Cake wrappers and packers-----------

43.0
39.9
41.6

38.7
36.8
37.5

34.8
35.3
34.7

- 1 0 .0
- 7 .8
- 9 .9

- 1 0 .1
- 4 .1
- 7 .5

-1 9 .1
- 1 1 .5
- 1 6 .6

T otal______________ ______________

41.2

37.4

34.9

- 9 .2

- 6 .7

-1 5 .3

Females—North

Indirect labor:
Other:
Office c le r k s... _________ _______ _
Stenographers, typists, telephone
operators, e t c . . . ...............................
Store clerks............................................
Miscellaneous______________________

44.3

41.0

38.6

- 7 .4

- 5 .9

- 1 2 .9

45.2
43.4
42.5

40.7
42.7
39.5

39.8
42.2
36.8

- 1 0 .0
-1 .6
- 7 .1

-2 .2
-1 .2
- 6 .8

- 1 1 .9
-2 .8
- 1 3 .4

T otal_______ _____ ________________

43.5

40.9

39.2

- 6 .0

- 4 .2

-9 .9




63

WEEKLY HOURS
T able

30.—

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c la s s e s a s to r e g i o n a n d
s e x — Continued

Average weekly hours

Percentage of change

Septem­
ber 1933

Decem­
ber 1934

March
to Sep­
tember
1933

Septem­
ber 1933
to D e­
cember
1934

50.5
53.1
52.9

44.6
45.4
45.0

37.4
40.8
41.2

—11.7
- 1 4 .5
- 1 4 .9

—16.1
- 1 0 .1
- 8 .4

—25.9
- 2 3 .2
- 2 2 .1

- 1 0 .9

- 2 3 .5

-.3
- 8 .8
- 7 .3

- 7 .6
- 2 3 .3
- 1 8 .9

Region, sex, and occupational class
March
1933

March
1933 to
Decem­
ber 1934

Males—South
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers. __
Ovenmen____________ _____ ________
Miscellaneous, skilled-. . __ ______
_____

52.4

45.0

40.1

- 1 4 .1

Semiskilled:
General helpers_______ ___________
Ovenmen’s helpers......... ...................
Miscellaneous, semiskilled. ______

T otal.

_________________

38.4
49.8
48.8

35. 6
41.9
42.7

35.5
38.2
39.6

-7 .3
- 1 5 .9
- 1 2 .5

*

T o ta l.. __ . ____________________

45.5

40.1

37.9

- 1 1 .9

- 5 .5

- 1 6 .7

Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, automatic_______
Miscellaneous, u n sk illed _________

49.0
44.9

41.2
40.5

37.5
38.2

- 1 5 .9
-9 .8

- 9 .0
-5 .7

- 2 3 .5
- 1 4 .9

T otal. _ _ ______________________

47.0

40.8

37.9

-1 3 .2

- 7 .1

- 1 9 .4

Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen___
_____
Other.. ________ __________ _____ ______

60.2
52.2

58.8
44.5

59.0
41.7

-2 .3
- 1 4 .8

+. 3
-6 .3

-2 .0
- 2 0 .1

41.0

38.3

36.3

- 6 .6

- 5 .2

— 11. 5

43.0
44.3

42.3
40.1

41.9
38.0

- 1 .6
- 9 .5

- .9
- 5 .2

-2 .6
-1 4 .2

43.8

40.8

39.3

- 6 .8

-3 .7

-1 0 .3

Females— South
Direct labor: Unskilled.
_ . . . ________
Indirect labor:
Other:
Store clerks_______
__________
Miscellaneous___ _
___ _ ___
T otal.

________

_______

.

For male employees engaged in indirect labor in the North (except
driver-salesmen), the highest average weekly hours during each period
were reported for skilled supervisory employees. Although m ost of
these were probably classed as executives and exempted from the
maximum-hours provisions of the President’s Reemployment Agree­
ment and the code, the average hours per week of this group declined
from 53.5 hours a week in M arch 1933 to 48.3 hours in December 1934.
As far as the remaining occupational classes are concerned, the range
in average weekly hours in M arch 1933 was from 45.3 for laborers to
52.0 for semiskilled workers in maintenance and repair work, and in
December 1934 from 38.5 for unskilled service employees to 44.2 for
skilled workers in maintenance and repair work.
Am ong males employed in direct labor in the South, there was also
a narrowing of the spread between the hours worked in the various
occupations. The range in average weekly hours in M arch 1933 for
the five individual occupations shown in the table was from 38.4 for
general helpers to 53.1 for ovenmen. B y December 1934 the working
time for these occupations ranged from 35.5 hours a week for general
helpers to 40.8 hours for ovenmen.
Am ong females employed in occupations classed as unskilled direct
labor in the North, the range in average weekly hours for the three
individual occupations shown in M arch 1933 was from 39.9 to 43.0,




64

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Northern store clerks in the indirect labor group, for whom the code
provided a maximum of 48 hours, showed little change in average
weekly hours, the averages being 43.4 hours in M arch 1933 and 42.2
hours in December 1934. In the South also, the average weekly hours
of store clerks declined very little, averaging 43.0 in M arch 1933 as
against 41.9 in December 1934. T he reduction for office clerks in the
N orth was from 44.3 hours in M arch 1933 to 38.6 hours in December
1934, and for other office help the weekly hours were reduced from
45.2 in M arch 1933 to 39.8 in December 1934.
Regional and Sex Differentials in Averages by Occupations
Regional differentials are to be noted for all five individual occupa­
tions among males engaged in direct labor, for which comparable data
are available.6 The average weekly hours of bench hands or hand
1
bakers in the South exceeded those in the N orth by 8.4 hours in
M arch 1933, 6.2 hours in September 1933, and 2.3 hours in December
1934. The southern average for ovenmen, another skilled occupation,
exceeded the northern b y 5.3 hours in M arch 1933, 3.2 in September
1933, and 2.3 in December 1934. Ovenm en’s helpers, a semiskilled
occupation, showed a differential of 5.0 hours in M arch 1933, 1.6 in
September 1933, and 1.3 in December 1934.
Despite the fact that the general averages for all male workers and
for three directly comparable specific occupations show longer hours in
the South than in the North, this is not true for all occupations. Thus,
for general helpers, a semiskilled occupation, the average weekly hours
were longer in the North, namely b y 6.8 hours in M arch 1933, 4.7
hours in September 1933, and 0.3 hour in December 1934. For auto­
matic bread wrappers, an unskilled occupation, the average hours per
week were also slightly higher in the N orth than in the South in each
of the three pay-roll periods.
There was very little difference in the average weekly hours of
female workers between the N orth and South, whether applied to all
female employees, those in each of the broad occupational groupings,
or store clerks (the only individual occupation for which there are
comparable data).
Comparisons between male and female employees in occupations
involving approximately the same skill show that the average weekly
hours were greater for males than for females. The weekly working­
time differential for unskilled direct labor was 6.7 hours in M arch
1933, 4.4 in September 1933, and 3.3 in December 1934 in the N orth,
and 6.0 hours in M arch 1933, 2.5 in September 1933, and 1.6 in
December 1934 in the South. M ale cake wrappers and packers
in the N orth averaged 0.8 hour more per week than females in M arch
and September 1933 and 2.6 hours more in December 1934. For office
clerks in the North, the differential amounted to 3.2 hours in M arch
1933, 1.8 in September 1933, and 0.4 in December 1934.
Average Weekly Hours and Size of City
T he data covering average weekly hours according to size of city,
including the percentages of change for the three periods covered, will
be found in table 31. This table shows that in M arch 1933 there was
5 See table 30.
1




65

WEEKLY HOURS

a tendency for the average weekly hours to be slightly greater in the
cities of less than 250,000. This was largely eliminated by September
1933 and December 1934, due to the leveling process caused by the
President’s Reemployment Agreement and the code.
T able

31 . —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s b y s i z e o f c i t y a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x
Average weekly hours

Percentage of change

Septem­
ber 1933

Decem­
ber 1934

March
to
Septem­
ber 1933

Septem­
ber 1933
to
Decem­
ber 1934

Region, sex, and size of city
March
1933

March
1933 to
Decem­
ber 1934

N o rth

M ales:1
250,000 and over.................................... ..
50,000 and under 250,000_______________
Under 50,000___________________________

47.5
50.1
50.1

42.3
43.9
42.5

39.6
39.4
39.8

- 1 0 .9
- 1 2 .4
-1 5 .2

-6 .4
- 1 0 .3
- 6 .4

—16.6
—21.4
-2 0 .6

T o ta l.-- _____________ _____ _______ _

48.0

42.6

39.6

-1 1 .2

- 7 .0

-1 7 .5

42.4
44.7

39.4
41.2

37.3
38.2

-7 .1
- 7 .8

-5 . 3
- 7 .3

— 12.0
-1 4 .5

Females:
250,000 and o v e r _______________________
50,000 and under 250,000...... .....................
Under 50,000________________ _____ _____
Total____________ ___________________

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)

(2
)

( 2)

42.8

39.6

( 2)

37.4

- 7 .5

-5 .6

- 1 2 .6

49.0
52.1
50.3

43.1
43.6
42.3

39.6
40.0
40.6

-1 2 .0
—16.3
- 1 5 .9

- 8 .1
- 8 .3
- 4 .0

—19.2
-2 3 . 2
- 1 9 .3

50.5

43.2

39.9

-1 4 .5

- 7 .6

- 2 1 .0

South

M a les:1
250,000 and over______ _______ _________
50,000 and under 250,000_______________
Under 50,000___________________________
Total_ __
_

_ _____________________ -

Females:
250,000 and over________ ____ __________
50,000 and under 250,000_______________
Under 50,000_______________ __________ Total_________________________________

40.0
44.6
( 2)

43.0

39.1
40.2
( 2)

40.0

37.4
38.2
(2)

38.2

-9 .9

- 4 .3
-5 .0

—6. 5
— 14.3

( 2)

( 2)

(2)

- 7 .0

-4 . 5

-1 1 .2

-2 . 2

1 Excludes driver-salesmen.

2 N ot enough workers to ju stify the computation of an average.
Average Weekly Hours in Union and Nonunion shops
Table 32, covering only male workers engaged in direct labor in the
North, shows the average weekly hours of employees classified accord­
ing to skill in union and nonunion shops.6 The average weekly hours
2
in union establishments were appreciably lower than in nonunion
establishments. T he advantage was m ost marked in M arch 1933, or
prior to the President’s Reem ploym ent Agreement and code. U n ­
skilled employees in both types of shops are largely unorganized, and
little difference appears in their average weekly hours. T he average
weekly working time of skilled workers in nonunion shops, however,
was materially greater than that of workers in the same occupations
in union shops, the difference being 6.7 hours in M arch 1933, 2.5
hours in September 1933, and 4.1 hours in December 1934. Average
weekly hours of semiskilled employees in union shops was 3.5 hours
less than in nonunion shops in M arch 1933, but in September 1933 and
December 1934 the working time of semiskilled workers in nonunion
shops was only slightly more than in union shops.
In union shops, the average weekly hours of semiskilled and skilled
workers were about the same, but those of unskilled workers were
See p. 23.




66

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

longer. The average weekly working time of unskilled workers
exceeded that of slulled workers by 4 .2 hours in M arch 1933, 1.2
hours in September 1933, and 3.0 hours in December 1934.
In the nonunion shops, the weekly hours of all three classes showed
only minor differences, although the semiskilled workers averaged
somewhat shorter hours than either of the other two groups.
T able

32.—

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s o f m a le e m p l o y e e s i n N o r t h e n g a g e d i n d ir e c t la b o r
b y u n io n a n d n o n u n io n s h o p s a n d s k ill

Average weekly hours
Type of shop and skill

March
1933

Percentage of change

Mareh
March to September
September December September
1933 to
1933 to
1934
1933
December December
1933
1934
1934

Union shops:
Skilled_________ _____
Semiskilled__ ___________
Unskilled_______________

42.3
42.8
46.5

39.9
40.6
41.1

35.4
36.6
38.4

-5 . 7
-5 .1
-11.6

-11.3
-9 .9
-6 .6

-16.3
-14.5
-17.4

Total. _______________

43.2

40.3

36.3

-6 .7

-9 .9

-16.0

Nonunion shops:
Skilled_________________
Semiskilled_____________
Unskilled_______________

49.0
46.3
48.4

42.4
40.7
41.7

39.5
37.3
38.1

-13. 5
-12.1
-13.8

-6 .8
-8 .4
-8 .6

—19. 4
—19.4
-21.3

Total_________________

48.0

41.7

38.5

-13.1

-7 .7

-19.8

Average Weekly Hours and Degree of Mechanization
One of the controversial issues in connection with the framing of the
code for the baking industry centered about the problem of fixing
maximum weekly hours for bakeries with varying stages of mechani­
zation. T he substitute provision of the President’s Reemployment
Agreement relating to maximum hours provided for a 44-hour week
in mechanical shops and a 50-hour week in handicraft shops. The
code set up a maximum of 48 hours for “ handicraft” bakeries and of
40 hours for “ other than handicraft” bakeries, although it was con­
tended that another class— “ semihandicraft” shops— should be estab­
lished and allowed a maximum of 44 hours a week. In other words,
the maxim um hours would be 40 for handicraft, 44 for semihandicraft,
and 48 for mechanical shops.6 In view of this suggestion, it is im ­
3
portant to see what changes occurred in the average weekly hours for
the three types of shops during the periods under consideration.
These data, covering only employees engaged in direct labor and classi­
fied b y region and sex, appear in table 33.
This table shows that in M arch 1933, prior to the President’s R e­
employment Agreement and the code, male employees in handicraft
shops in the N orth worked on the average 3.5 hours more per week
than those in semihandicraft bakeries and 4.2 hours more per week
than those in mechanical bakeries. T he difference between the weekly
hours in semihandicraft and mechanical establishments was not
material. In September, with the industry operating under the
President’s Reemployment Agreement, this spread was increased.
T he working time in handicraft bakeries was 5.1 hours a week longer
«3 See p. 23.




67

WEEKLY HOURS

than in the semihandicraft shops and 7.4 hours a week longer than in
the mechanized establishments. A t the same time, the average was
2.3 hours more in semihandicraft shops than in mechanical bakeries.
The relationship was much the same m December 1934.
T able

33,—

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s i n b a k e r ie s c l a s s ifie d b y d e g ree o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n
a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x 1
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s

R e g io n , sex , a n d d e g r e e o f
m e c h a n iz a t io n

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n g e

S e p tem b er
1933 t o
D ecem b er
1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ber
1934

S ep tem b er
1933

D ecem b er
1934

M a rch to
S ep tem b er
1933

5 0 .7
4 7 .2
4 6 .5

4 8 .4
43 .3
4 1 .0

4 4 .9
4 0 .3
3 7 .4

-4 . 5
-8 .3
-1 1 .8

- 7 .2
- 5 .8
- 8 .8

— 1 1 .4
— 1 3 .6
- 1 9 .6

4 8 .0

4 2 .6

3 9 .6

-1 1 .2

- 7 .0

-1 7 .5

M arch
1933

North
M a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft __________________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ____________
M e c h a n i c a l _______ _________
T o t a l __________ __

___

F e m a le s :
H a n d i c r a f t - ____ ___________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ................. .. M e c h a n ic a l____ r ___________

41. 5
4 1 .8

3 8 .7
3 8 .0

36. 6
3 5 .1

(2
)
-6 . 7
-9 .1

( 2)
-5 . 4
-7 .6

4 2 .8

3 9 .6

3 7 .4

-7 .5

- 5 .6

-1 2 . 6

M a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft - __________ _______
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ........................
M e c h a n i c a l . . _____________

44. 6
5 2 .3
4 9 .8

4 4 .4
4 5 .3
4 2 .4

4 4 .1
3 8 .7
3 8 .7

-.4
- 1 3 .4
-1 4 .9

-. 7
-1 4 . 6
-8 .7

-1 .1
-2 6 .0
-2 2 .3

T o t a l ______________________

5 0 .5

4 3 .2

3 9 .9

- 1 4 .5

-7 .6

- 2 1 .0

T o ta l.

(2)

(2)

_____ ___________

( 2)

(2)
- 1 1 .8
-1 6 .0

South

F e m a le s :
H a n d i c r a f t . .. _____________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft ____ ________
M e c h a n i c a l ___________ _____
T o t a l _____ ________ - - .

(2)
( 2)

(2)
( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

3 9 .2

3 8 .1

3 5 .7

( 2)
( 2)
- 2 .8

( 2)
( 2)
-6 .3

4 3 .0

4 0 .0

3 8 .2

- 7 .0

-4 .5

(2)
( 2)
8 .9
- 1 1 .2

1 Includes only employees engaged in direct labor.
2 Not enough workers to justify the computation of an average.

In the South, a somewhat different situation was found. T he male
employees in handicraft bakeries in this region in M arch 1933 worked
on the average 5.2 hours per week less than those in mechanical
bakeries, but by September under the President’s Reemployment
Agreement the situation was reversed, and the workers in handicraft
shops worked 2 hours more than those in mechanical establishments.
B y December 1934 the differential had risen to 5.4 hours. The
southern semihandicraft bakeries averaged more hours per week than
mechanical shops both in M arch and September 1933 when no
specific definition of a mechanical bakery existed. This differential,
however, disappeared by December 1934, when the code classed
mechanical and semihandicraft shops together.
Type of Distribution and Average Weekly Hours
In both the N orth and South, the employees in the smaller estab­
lishments, such as retail and house-to-house or local wholesale,
worked, on the whole, longer hours per week than those in the larger
m ulti-State, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store bakeries. In M arch
1933 the average weekly hours of workers in retail and house-to-house




68

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

shops were less than those of employees in local wholesale bakeries,
whereas in September 1933 and December 1934 the weekly working
time of employees in retail and house-to-house establishments ex­
ceeded that ol workers in local wholesale shops. These facts are
brought out by table 34, which shows the average weekly hours
according to type of distribution by region and sex for the three pay­
roll periods.
T

a b l e

34. —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s i n b a k e r ie s c la s s ifie d b y t y p e o f d i s t r ib u t io n a s
to r e g i o n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s

R e g io n , sex , a n d t y p e o f d is t r ib u t io n

P ercen ta g e o f ch an ge

Sep­
M a rch tem b er
D ecem ­
t o S e p ­ 1933 t o
ber
tem b er D e ce m ­
1934
1933
ber
1934

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
ber
1934

M arch
1933

N orth
M a le s :1
R e t a i l a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e -------------------------------------------L o c a l w h o le s a le _______ __
-------------------------- -------M u l t i - S t a t e , m u lt ip le -u n it r e ta il, a n d c h a in s t o r e .

Sep­
tem b er
1933

4 8 .2
49.1
4 7 .2

4 3 .0
4 3 .4
4 2 .0

4 0 .3
3 9 .6
3 9 .4

-1 0 .8
-1 1 .6
— 1L 0

-6 .3
-8 .8
-6 .2

- 1 6 .4
-1 9 .3
-1 6 .5

4 8 .0

4 2 .6

3 9 .6

-1 1 .2

-7 .0

-1 7 .5

F e m a le s :
R e t a i l a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ------- ------------ ----------------------L o c a l w h o le s a le _________________________________________
M u l t i - S t a t e , m u lt ip le -u n it r e ta il, a n d c h a in s t o r e .-

4 2 .4
4 6 .4
4 1 .1

4 0 .3
4 0 .3
3 9 .0

39 .1
3 8 .2
3 6 .4

- 5 .0
-1 3 .1
-5 .1

-3 .0
-5 .2
- 6 .7

-7 .8
-1 7 .7
-1 1 .4

T o t a l ------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------

4 2 .8

3 9 .6

3 7 .4

- 7 .5

-5 .6

-1 2 .6

M a le s : i
R e t a il a n d h o u s e - t o -h o u s e ........... .......................................
L o c a l w h o le s a le ................ ..........................................................
M u l t i - S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e ta il, a n d c h a in s t o r e ..

4 8 .8
5 1 .4
4 9 .7

4 7 .4
4 3 .1
4 2 .3

4 1 .6
4 0 .1
3 9 .1

-2 .9
-1 6 .1
-1 4 .9

- 1 2 .2
- 7 .0
- 7 .6

-1 4 .8
- 2 2 .0
-2 1 .3

T o t a l __________________________________________ ________

5 0 .5

4 3 .2

3 9 .9

-1 4 .5

- 7 .6

-2 1 .0

F e m a le s :
R e t a i l a n d h o u s e - t o - h o u s e .. . --------------------- ---------------L o c a l w h o le s a le ----------- ---------- ------------------------------------—
M u l t i - S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e ta il, a n d c h a in s t o r e ..

4 4 .1
4 6 .9
3 8 .2

4 1 .8
4 1 .8
3 7 .4

4 0 .0
39 .3
36 .1

- 5 .2
-1 0 .9
-2 .1

-4 .3
- 6 .0
-3 .5

-9 .3
-1 6 .2
-5 .5

4 3 .0

4 0 .0

3 8 .2

- 7 .0

-4 .5

- 1 1 .2

T o t a l ______________________________ .............................. —

S ou th

T o t a l __________________________________________________

i E x c lu d e s d riv e r -s a le s m e n .

Kind of Product and Average Weekly Hours
M ale employees in bread shops in the N orth worked much longer
hours than those in specialty bakeries, the actual differential amount­
ing to 11.7 hours in M arch 1933, 5.6 hours in September 1933, and 6.1
hours in December 1934. There was little variation in the working
time of males in bread shops and those in cake shops. ^ Likewise, the
differences between the average weekly hours of males in the South in
bread and cake bakeries were not large. Am ong females in both the
N orth and South, the average weekly hours were greater in bread
shops than in cake shops. T he figures in table 35 give the average
weekly hours in bakeries according to type of product b y region and
sex for the three pay-roll periods for which information was obtained.




69

WEEKLY HOURS
Comparisons W ith 1931

In the fall of 1931, the average weekly hours of workers in bakeries5
4
averaged 53.2. B y December 1934 this average had dropped to 43.5,
a decline of 9.7 hours or 18.2 percent.5 T he decrease in average week­
5
ly hours was greater for males (from 53.8 to 44.3) than for females
(from 44.9 to 3 7 .5). Thus the average for males decreased 9.5 hours
or 17.7 percent, whereas the average for females declined 7.4 hours or
16.5 percent.
T able

35 . —

A verage

w e e k ly

h o u r s i n b a k e r ie s c l a s s ifie d
re g io n a n d sex

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s

P ercen ta g e o f ch an ge

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

M arch
to Sep­
tem ber
1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e ­
cem ber
1934

R e g io n , se x , a n d k i n d o f p r o d u c t
M arch
1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

b y k i n d o f p r o d u c t a s to

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
ber
1934

North
M a le s : i
B r e a d . ................................ . . _______________
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
_________
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ____ __ _
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s _________
___________
T o t a l ______

_________ _

___

.

F e m a le s :
B r e a d ___
___ _____ _______
_______
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ____ ____________________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s _______ ________ ______
T o t a l _______________________ _________ __

4 8 .5

4 2 .8

3 9 .7

-1 1 .8

-7 . 2

— 18.1

4 7 .0
3 6 .8

4 2 .5
3 7 .2

4 0 .0
3 3 .6

—9 .6
+ 1 .1

—5. 9
- 9 .7

— 14 9
-8 .7

4 8 .0

4 2 .6

3 9 .6

-1 1 .2

- 7 .0

-1 7 .5

4 3 .5

4 0 .8

3 9 .2

—6. 2

—3. 9

—9. 9

4 1 .8
(2)

3 8 .4
(2)

3 5 .8
(2)

-8 .1
(2)

—6 .8
(2)

-1 4 . 4
(2)

4 2 .8

3 9 .6

3 7 .4

- 7 .5

- 5 .6

-1 2 .6

South
M a le s : i
B r e a d ______________ _______. _
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ____ ______________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s _______________________ _
T o t a l ______________________________

5 0 .7

4 3 .2

3 9 .7

— 14.8

—8 .1

—21. 7

4 8 .4

4 3 .9
(3)

4 1 .2
(3)

—9 .3
(3)

—6. 2
(3)

— 14.9
(3)

5 0 .5

4 3 .2

3 9 .9

-1 4 .5

- 7 .6

-2 1 .0

( 3)

F e m a le s :
B r e a d ____ _______________________ _________
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s _____ ____
___________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s . __________
____

43.1

4 0 .7

3 9 .0

—5. 6

—4. 2

—9. 5

4 2 .8
(3)

3 9 .0
(3)

37. 0
(3)

—8. 9
(3)

—5 .1
(3)

-1 3 .6
(3)

T o t a l . _____ ____________________________

4 3 .0

4 0 .0

3 8 .2

- 7 .0

- 4 .5

-1 1 .2

1 Excludes driver-salesmen.
2 Not enough workers to justify the computation of an average.
3 Not available.
8 Excludes pie departments or establishments.
4
8 Figures for December 1934 also include driver-salesmen.
8




Chapter V.— Weekly Earnings
Changes in Country as a W hole
T he curtailed working time was more than offset b y the increases in
hourly wage rates, and as a result the weekly earnings of employees in
bread bakeries advanced between M arch 1933 and Decem ber 1934.
T he increase, however, was relatively moderate, as, against an average
of $22.84 in M arch 1933, the weekly earnings rose to $23.24 in Sep­
tember 1933 and $23.86 in December 1934.
(See table 36 and chart
7.) For the period as a whole, the increase in weekly earnings was
greater both absolutely and relatively in the South than in the North,
and female employees profited relatively more than males. Am ong
female employees in the South, the average weekly earnings advanced
20 percent between M arch 1933 and December 1934. This compares
with an advance of 4 .6 percent for male workers in the North.
These changes in weekly earnings indicated b y the survey are
corroborated b y the index numbers of average weekly earnings m the
entire industry, including biscuit and crackers, which are compiled
m onthly by the Division of Em ploym ent and Pay Rolls of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. According to these index numbers
(see table 3 7 ), weekly earnings were at the lowest point (81.1) in
M arch 1933. Since that time, with the exception of a few minor
fluctuations, the trend was gradually upward, and in December 1934
the index stood at 87.7, a cumulative gain of 8.1 percent since M arch
1933. This m ay be compared with an advance of 8.8 percent, as
indicated in the weekly earnings of the workers covered in this survey.
T

a b l e

36. —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s i n b rea d i n d u s t r y b y r e g i o n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n g e

R e g io n a n d sex
M a r c h 1933

S ep tem ber
1933

D ecem b er
1934

M a r c h to
S ep tem b er
1933

S ep tem b er
1933 t o
D ecem b er
1934

M a r c h 1933
to D e ce m ­
b e r 1934

U n it e d S ta te s:
M a l e s _______________________
F e m a le s _____________________

$ 2 4 .1 0
13.15

$24. 45
14.04

$25. 24
14.23

+1. 5
+ 6 .8

+ 3 .2
+ 1 .4

+ 4 .7
+ 8 .2

T o t a l ---------------------------------

22. 84

23. 24

23 .8 6

+ 1 .8

+ 2 .7

+ 4 .5

N orth :
M a l e s . . . __________________
F e m a le s _____________________

24. 88
13. 75

2 5 .1 2
14.40

2 6 .0 3
14. 66

+ 1 .0
+ 4 .7

+ 3 .6
+ 1 .8

+ 4 .6
+ 6 .6

T o t a l - - __________________

23. 65

23.92

24. 66

+ 1 .1

+ 3 .1

+ 4 .3

S ou th :
M a l e s ___ ________
--_ - .
F e m a l e s _____________________

19.29
10. 32

2 0 .7 4
12. 44

20. 92
12. 38

+ 7 .5
+ 2 0 .5

+ .9
-.5

+ 8 .4
+ 2 0 .0

18. 05

19. 61

19. 64

+ 8 .6

+ .2

+ 8 .8

T o t a l _________________

70




WEEKLY EARNINGS

71

C hart 7

AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS IN BREAD INDUSTRY BY REGION
AND SEX, MARCH 1933, SEPTEMBER 1933, AND DECEMBER 1934




FEMALES-NORTH

MALES-SOUTH

72

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T able

37. —

I n d e x n u m b e r s o f a v era g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s i n e n t i r e b a k in g i n d u s t r y
i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b y m o n t h s , 1 9 2 5 - 8 5 2

1

[J a n u a ry 1925=100]

M on th

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

1933

1934

J a n u a r y _____ __ _ __ _
F e b r u a r y ------------------ --M arch —
_____ _____
A p r i l ____________ _______
M a y ____ _______________
J u n e ____________________

1 00 .0
98. 3
100. 8
100. 2
1 0 3 .0
10 1 .9

102 .6
103. 7
102. 7
10 1 .5
104. 3
1 03 .4

1 02 .8
104. 2
104. 1
1 0 3 .6
105. 0
103 .5

103 .1
104. 2
1 0 4 .2
1 0 1 .9
1 0 4 .0
1 03 .9

1 0 2 .5
103 .4
103. 1
102. 7
105. 3
104 .7

105.1
105. 5
105. 0
1 0 5 .6
105. 6
105 .7

101 .9
101. 7
9 9 .9
1 0 0 .6
100 .3

9 4 .9
9 4 .5
93. 5
9 0 .6
8 9 .8
8 9 .2

8 4 .2
8 2 .7
81. 1
8 1 .8
82. 2
8 2 .7

8 4 .9
86. 0
8 4 .9
83. 8
8 5 .9
8 6 .0

85 .9
8 6 .0
86 .4
87 .2
88.0
89 .0

J u l y ____________________
A u g u s t _________________
S e p t e m b e r -------------------O c t o b e r . . . ______ . . .
N o v e m b e r . . . ______ .
D e c e m b e r ___________ .

100 .9
1 0 0 .7
101. 2
1 0 1 .4
1 0 0 .9
1 02 .5

1 0 2 .6
1 0 2 .0
102. 6
1 02 .4
102. 4
103 .6

103. 6
1 03 .3
103. 2
103. 1
1 03 .4
102 .7

103. 6
103. 4
1 0 3 .3
1 0 3 .0
103.3
103 .0

1 04 .3
104. 2
104. 7
1 0 4 .6
1 0 4 .6
104 .5

1 04 .6
103. 7
105.1
103. 8
103 .3
101 .9

9 8 .6
9 7 .3
9 7 .6
9 6 .9
9 6 .5
9 5 .3

8 6 .9
8 6 .2
8 7 .9
8 7 .0
8 5 .6
84. 2

8 3 .8
82. 5
8 4 .6
8 3 .9
8 4 .4
8 4 .9

8 6 .2
86. 2
8 7 .9
8 6 .5
8 7 .3
8 7 .7

88 .4
8 7 .5
9 0 .6
8 9 .8
89 .7
9 0 .3

101. 1

1935

1 I n c lu d e s b i s c u it a n d c ra ck e rs.

2 C o m p i l e d b y t h e D iv i s io n o f E m p l o y m e n t a n d P a y R o lls .

Changes in Percentage Distribution of All Workers in Bread Industry
Although the increases in average weekly earnings between M arch
1933 and December 1934 were not large, significant changes are shown
in the distribution of individual employees according to weekly
earnings. The percentage distribution of all workers in the bread
industry is given in table 38 and chart 8.
T

a b l e

38.—

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to w e e k l y e a r n i n g s i n
b rea d i n d u s t r y i n c o u n t r y a s a w h o le

M a r c h 1933
W e e k l y e a rn in g s
S im p le p e r ­
c e n ta g e

S e p t e m b e r 1933

C u m u la ­
t iv e p er­
c e n ta g e

S im p le p e r ­
cen ta g e

C u m u la ­
t iv e p e r ­
ce n t a g e

D e c e m b e r 1934

S im p le p e r ­
c e n ta g e

C u m u la ­
t iv e p e r ­
c e n ta g e

U n d e r $4_________________________
$4 a n d u n d e r $ 8 _____ ________
$8 a n d u n d e r $ 12 . -------------------$12 a n d u n d e r $16 _____________
$16 a n d u n d e r $20______________

2 .3
3 .7
6 .7
1 1 .6
1 3 .2

2 .3
6 .0
1 2 .7
2 4 .3
3 7 .5

1 .7
2 .5
3 .5
1 7 .7
15.9

1 ,7
4 .2
7 .7
2 5 .4
4 1 .3

1 .6
2 .4
3 .9
14 .4
1 7 .6

l.<
4. (
7. 1
22. {
39. {

$20
$24
$28
$32
$36

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$24_______________
$ 2 8 ._ . ................
$ 3 2 _____________
$36_______________
$40_______________

1 7 .6
1 6 .6
1 1 .4
7 .3
3 .0

5 5 .1
7 1 .7
8 3 .1
9 0 .4
9 3 .4

1 5 .0
1 4 .3
9 .6
8 .2
4 .2

5 6 .3
7 0 .6
8 0 .2
8 8 .4
9 2 .6

15.1
1 2 .6
1 0 .2
8 .2
5 .9

55. (
67. <
77 A
86. (
91.1

$40
$44
$48
$56

and
and
and
and

u n d e r $44______________
u n d e r $ 4 8 .......................
u n d e r $56_______________
o v e r ____ ________________

4 .2
1 .3
.9
.2

9 7 .6
9 8 .9
9 9 .8
100 .0

4 .1
1 .8
1 .2
.3

9 6 .7
9 8 .5
9 9 .7
100 .0

4 .3
1 .9
1 .4
.5

96.1
98. ]
99 A

.(

100

Between M arch and September 1933, the percentage of workers
earning under $12 a week declined from 12.7 to 7.7 percent. The
number receiving $20 and under $32 likewise declined from 45.6
percent in M arch to 38.9 in September. These changes were accom­
panied by an increase in the proportion of workers earning $12




WEEKLY EARNINGS

73

and less than $20 a week. A s against 24.8 percent in this group in
M arch, there were 33.6 percent earning between $12 and $20 a week
in September. A t the same time, 19.8 percent of the workers were
earning $32 and over in September, as compared with 16.9 percent in
M arch.
In contrast to the shifts that occurred between M arch and Septem­
ber 1933, the percentage of workers in the different wage groups in
December 1934 was much the same as in September 1933. In
December 1934, however, there was a slight increase in the percentage
of workers earning $36 or more a week.

Changes in Percentage Distribution by Region and Sex
In both the northern and southern States, the percentage of bakery
employees earning less than $12 a week declined between M arch and
September 1933. Moreover, female as well as male workers profited
by the change. In the North, the percentage of male workers earn­
ing less than $12 a week declined from 7.3 in M arch to 5.2 in Sep­
tember, and the percentage of female workers in this wage group
declined from 38.9 to 22.6. T he shift was even more striking in the
South, as, against 17.2 percent of the male employees earning less
than $12 a week in M arch, only 7.8 percent were in this group in
September, and for female workers the decline was from 66.5 to 25.9
percent. These changes are shown in table 39.
102745°—37----- 6




74
T able

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY
39 . —

P e r c e n t a g e d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to w e e k l y e a r n i n g s b y
re g io n a n d sex

March 1933
Region, sex, and weekly
earnings

September 1933

December 1934

Cumula­
Cumula­
Cumula­
Simple
Simple
Simple
tive
tive
tive
percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage percentage

N o rth

Males:
Under $4_______ ________
$4 and under $ 8 ________
$8 and under $12________
$12 and under $16_______
$16 and under $20______

1.6
2.3
3.4
8.6
12.1

1.6
3.9
7.3
15.9
28.0

1.2
2.2
1.8
10.9
16.0

1.2
3.4
5.2
16.1
32.1

1.2
2.0
1.8
7.4
17.1

12.4
29.5

$20 and under $24_______
$24 and under $28_______
$28 and under $32_______
$32 and under $36_______
$36 and under $40_______

18.2
19.0
13.8
9.0
3.6

46.2
65.2
79.0
88.0
91.6

16.0
16.6
11.3
10.0
4.9

48.1
64.7
76.0
86.0
90.9

16.1
14.4
12.4
10.1
7.3

45.6
60.0
72.4
82.5
89.8

1.2
3.2
5 .0

$40 and under $44 ______
$44 and under $48_______
$48 and under $56. ..........
$56 and over____ ________
Females:
Under $4_______________
$4 and under $8_________
$8 and under $12________
$12 and under $16_______
$16 and under $20_______

5.3
1.7
1.1
.3

96.9
98.6
99.7
100.0

5.1
2.2
1.5
.3

96.0
98.2
99.7
100.0

5.5
2.4
1.7
.6

95.3
97.7
99.4
100.0

5.4
9.0
24.5
26.2
18.5

5.4
14.4
38.9
65.1
83.6

4.1
4.5
14.0
46.7
16.3

4.1
8.6
22.6
69.3
85.6

3.7
3.8
13.2
43.3
22.4

3.7
7.5
20.7
64.0
86.4

$20 and under $24_______
$24 and under $28_______
$28 and under $32. _______

11.6
3.1
1.0

95.2
98.3
99.3

10.1
2.7
.6

95.7
98.4
99.0

9.3
2.8
.5

95.7
98.5
99.0

$32 and under $36_______
$36 and under $40_______
$40 and under $44_______
$44 and under $48_______

.3
.3
.1

99.6
99.9
100.0

.6
.2
.1
.1

99.6
99.8
99.9
100.0

.5
.3
.1
.1

99.5
99.8
99.9
100.0

Males:
Under $4_________ ____
$4 and under $8_________
$8 and under $12________
$12 and under $16_- ____
$16 and under $20_______

3.3
5.2
8.7
17.6
16.7

3.3
8.5
17.2
34.8
51.5

2.2
2.2
3.4
28.6
16.6

2.2
4.4
7.8
36.4
53.0

1.7
2.5
5.1
24.2
19.1

1.7
4.2
9.3
33.5
52.6

$20 and under $24_______
$24 and under $28_______
$28 and under $32_______
$32 and under $36_______
$36 and under $40_______

20.5
13.5
6.7
4.0
2.0

72.0
85.5
92.2
96.2
98.2

15.0
11.9
7.7
4.9
3.5

68.0
79.9
87.6
92.5
96.0

16.0
11.7
7.0
5.4
3.4

68.6
80.3
87.3
92.7
96.1

1.4
.4

99.6
100.0

2.0
.8
.8
.4

98.0
98.8
99.6
100.0

1.7
.8
.9
.5

97.8
98.6
99. 5
100. 0

9.1
22.8
34.6
20.1
7.0

9.1
31.9
66.5
86.6
93.6

3.5
9.0
13.4
62.7
6.2

3.5
12.5
25.9
88.6
94.8

4.4
7.2
21.0
54.6
7.6

4.4
11.6
32.6
87.2
94.8

4.3
1.8
.3

97.9
99.7
100.0

4.0
1.0

98.8
99.8

3.6
1.4

98.4
99.8

.2

100.0

.2

100.6

South

$40 and under $44..............
$44 and under $48_______
$48 and under $56. _______
$56 and over__ ____ _____
Females:
Under $4__________ _____
$4 and under $8_______
. $8 and under $12________
$12 and under $16_______
$16 and under $20..... ........
$20 and under $24_______
$24 and under $28_______
$28 and under $32_______
$32 and under $36_______

0)

1 Less than M of 1 percent.
o

A further examination of the distribution for males in the North
shows that the percentage of employees earning $12 and under $20 a
week increased from 20.7 to 26.9 percent between M arch and Septem­
ber 1933. During the same period, the percentage of male employees
in northern bakeries earning $20 and less than $32 a week declined
from 51.0 to 43.9, but those receiving $32 a week and over increased




WEEKLY EARNINGS




76

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

from 21.0 to 24.0 percent. Likewise, the percentage of male workers
in the South increased from 17.6 to 28.6 in the class of $12 and less
than $16, decreased from 50.7 to 43.5 in the classes of $16 and under
$28, and increased from 14.5 to 20.1 in the classes of $28 and over.
Similarly, the percentage of female workers in the N orth earning
$12 and under $16 per week increased from 26.2 in M arch to 46.7 in
September 1933. This was accompanied by a decrease in the percent­
age of northern females earning $16 and over from 34.9 in M arch to
30.7 in September. The same shift took place among the female em­
ployees in the South, where the number of workers earning $12 and
under $16 per week increased from 20.1 percent in M arch to 62.7 per­
cent in September, the decrease in the percentage of those earning $16
and over being from 13.4 in M arch to 11.4 in September.
The gain in the percentages in the upper brackets of males in both
the North and South is clearly due to the inclusion of driver-salesmen.
The average hourly earnings of these employees increased under the
President's Reemployment Agreement, but their weekly hours did not
change materially. This resulted in higher weekly earnings for them,
thus increasing the percentage of male employees in the upper brackets.
A s for the other employees, both male and female, all were affected
more or less uniformly by the reduction of weekly hours, but the in­
creases in average hourly earnings were greater on the whole for the
lower paid than for the higher paid workers. This accounts for the
shift of employees to the classes of $12 and under $20 for males in the
North and to the class of $12 and less than $16 for females in the North
and for both males and females in the South from the classes immedi­
ately adjoining on both sides.
There is a striking similarity in the percentage of workers in each of
the groups between September 1933 and December 1934. A s the
increases in average hourly earnings and the reductions in weekly hours
due to the code were not great, the result was smaller changes in the
weekly earnings and a relatively insignificant shifting in the percentage
distributions between the two periods. The chief exceptions to this
were the driver-salesmen, whose average hourly earnings again in­
creased without noticeable changes in weekly hours, thus causing
another increase in their weekly earnings. A s a result, there was a
further small increase in the percentages of workers in the higher
brackets. This was especially noticeable among the males in the
North, the percentage earning $28 and over a week having increased
from 35.3 in September 1933 to 40.0 in December 1934.
Changes in Averages by Broad Occupational Groupings
The increases in average weekly earnings by broad occupational
groupings are shown in table 40.
The small gain in the average weekly earnings of male workers in
the N orth was largely due to increased earnings in a single occupation,
namely, driver-salesmen. Although each of the other broad occupa­
tional groupings showed either no change or a small reduction between
M arch and September 1933, the average weekly earnings of driversalesmen increased 9.5 percent. From September 1933 to December
1934, the average weekly earnings of driver-salesmen advanced an
additional 9.5 percent, and the earnings of the other occupational
groupings show increases of less than 2 percent.







Courtesy of Washington Star Newspaper Co.

plate

3 .— B r e a d D u m p i n g F r o m T r a v e l i n g O v e n .




Courtesy of Charles Schneider Baking Co.

P L A T E 4 . — S L IC IN G , W R A P P IN G , A N D P A C K IN G O F B R E A D .

77

WEEKLY EARNINGS
T able

40 . —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s b y b r oa d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p i n g s a s to r e g io n
a n d sex

Average weekly earnings
Region, sex, and broad occu­
pational grouping

Males:
North
Direct labor:
Skilled_____________
Semiskilled
___
Unskilled___________
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen_____
Other... _ _________
Total_____________
Females:
Direct labor: Unskilled-..
Indirect labor: Other____
Total_________________
Males:
Smdh
Direct labor:
Skilled_____________
Semiskilled_________
Unskilled___________
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen_____
Other.. ___________
Total____ ____ ____
Females:
Direct labor: Unskilled.._
Indirect labor: Other____
Total_________________

March
1933

Percentage of change

March to September March 1933
September December September
1933 to
to
1934
1933
December December
1933
1934
1934

$26.19
17.87
17.34

$25.35
17.87
17.88

$25.84
18.18
18.09

-3 .2
-.3

+1.9
+1.7
+1.2

-1 .3
+1.7
+ .8

27.47
25.60
24.88

30.09
25.02
25.12

32.96
25.30
26.03

+9.5
-2 .3
+1.0

+9.5
+1.1
+3.6

+20.0
-1 .2
+4.6

10.96
15.13
13.75

11.95
15.81
14.40

12.53
16.16
14.66

+9.0
+4.5
+4.7

+4.9
+2.2
+1.8

+14.3
+6.8
+6.6

20.64
11.92
12.12

21.26
13.60
13.81

20.65
14.25
14.15

+3.0
+14.1
+13.9

-2 .9
+4.8
+2.5

C)
+19.5
+16.7

22.80
19.27
19.29

27.93
19.63
20.74

28.13
19. 72
20.92

+22.5
+1.9
+7.5

+ .7
+ .5
+ .9

+23.4
+2.3
+8.4

8.10
11.18
10. 32

11.28
13.00
12.44

11.04
13.25
12.38

+39.3
+16.3
+20.5

-2 .1
+1.9
-.5

+36.3
+18.5
+20.0

1 Less than Ho of 1 percent.

In the South, the result was slightly different. I t is true that the
largest percentage gain in average weekly earnings over the whole
period was shown for driver-salesmen, whose hourly wage rates
advanced but whose hours were unchanged. A t the same time, the
percentage gains in the earnings of semiskilled and unskilled workers
were almost as large. T h e two last-mentioned groups are composed
of the lower-paid workers.
In both the North and South, the average weekly earnings of semi­
skilled males were virtually the same as those of unskilled males in
each of the pay-roll periods covered, but the margin between these
and the earnings of skilled males was substantial. In M arch 1933,
the differential amounted to between $8 and $9. A s the average
weekly earnings of skilled males remained practically stable from
M arch 1933 to December 1934 and the earnings of semiskilled and
unskilled workers advanced slightly, the differential was narrowed
somewhat by December 1934.
In M arch 1933, a relatively small differential existed between
driver-salesman and skilled males engaged in direct labor, the weekly
earnings of the driver-salesmen averaging $1.28 more a week than
those of skilled workers in the N orth and $2.16 more in the South.
In September, the difference was $4.74 in the N orth and $6.67 in the
South, and, by December 1934, the earnings of driver-salesmen were
$7.12 a week higher in the N orth and $7.48 a week higher in the South.
The large increase in the differential was due to the fact that the
hours of driver-salesmen were not regulated by either the President's
Reemployment Agreement or the code, and that those of skilled
workers were so regulated.



78

WAGES AND HOURS— BKEAD-BAKING INDUSTRY
Changes in Averages by Occupational Classes

Table 41 gives the average weekly earnings by individual occupa­
tions and small occupational groupings for each of the three pay-roll
periods covered and the percentages of change between periods.
In the N orth, the changes from M arch 1933 to December 1934 in
the average earnings per week of the 14 individual occupations of
males in the direct labor group for which data are available ranged
from a decrease of 86 cents for dividers or scalers to an increase of $ 1.16
for pan greasers. O f the six occupations showing decreased earnings,
four were skilled, one semiskilled, and one unskilled. The average
weekly earnings of two skilled occupations increased, and gains are
also shown for three semiskilled and three unskilled occupations.
Am ong the males in the South, the weekly earnings of five individual
occupations in direct labor are available. All of these, with the
exception of bench hands, show increases in weekly earnings between
M arch 1933 and December 1934.
T he changes in the weekly earnings in eight of the individual
occupations in indirect labor in the North, outside of driver-salesmen,
were also small, ranging from a decrease of 70 cents a week for office
clerks to an increase of $1.41 a week for the supervisory group. The
average weekly earnings of driver-salesmen increased $5.49 during
the period.
Average weekly earnings of females in the N orth are available for
six individual occupations. Increased weekly earnings were reported
for each of these occupations. The gains ranged from 47 cents for
stenographers, typists, telephone operators, etc., to $2.03 for cake
finishers. T he only female occupation in the South for which separate
figures are given is that of store clerks, and the earnings of these work­
ers averaged $2.55 more a week in December 1934 than in M arch 1933.
T able

41 . —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x

Average weekly earnings
Region, sex, and occupational class

Males—North
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers_____
Cake makers___________________
Dividers or scalers and rounders..
Mixers___________________ _____
Molders......... . ____________ _
Ovenmen_______________ _____
Miscellaneous, skilled..................
Total________________________
Semiskilled:
Bench hands’ or hand bakers’
helpers_______________________
General helpers__________ _____ _
Mixers’ helpers_____ ___________
Ovenmen’s helpers_____________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled______
T o ta l.___ _____ ____________
Unskilled:
Bread packers.— ........ ............ .
.
Bread wrappers, automatic_____
Cake wrappers and packers_____
Pan greasers...................................
Miscellaneous, unskilled____ ____
Total................. .........................




Percentage of change

Septem­
ber 1933

Decem­
ber 1934

March
to
Septem­
ber 1933

Septem­
ber 1933
to
Decem­
ber 1934

$23.69
26.19
26.39
29.28
23.59
28.59
23. 25
26.19

$23. 07
25.64
24.78
28.80
22. 25
27.93
22.89
25.35

$23. 77
26.23
25.53
28.83
22.91
28.41
23. 75
25.84

-2 .6
-2 .1
-6 .1
-1 .6
-5 .7
-2 .3
-1 .5
-3 .2

+3.0
+2.3
+3.0
+• 1
+3.0
+1. 7
+3.8
+1.9

+0.3
+ .2
-3 .3
-1 .5
-2 .9
-.6
+2.2
-1 .3

17.78
16.46
17. 75
18.05
21.85
17. 87

17. 46
16.88
18.29
18.09
19.80
17.87

18.24
16.40
18. 72
18.86
20. 22
18.18

-1 .8
+2.6
+3.0
+ .2
-9 .4

+4.5
-2 .8
+2.4
+4.3
+2.1
+1.7

+2.6
-.4
+5.5
+4.5
-7 .5
+1.7

19.26
17.47
16.30
16.34
18.69
17.34

18.92
17.33
16. 26
17.19
18. 67
17.88

18.87
17.48
17.18
17.50
19.46
18.09

-1 .8
-.8
-.2
+5.2
-.1
-.3

-.3
+ .9
+5.7
+1.8
+4.2
+1.2

-2 .0
+ .1
+5.4
+7.1
+4.1
+ .8

March
1933

March
1933 to
Decem­
ber 1934

79

WEEKLY EARNINGS
T able

41.—

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c la s s e s a s to r e g i o n a n d
s e x — Continued

Average weekly earnings

Percentage of change

Septem­
ber 1933

Decem­
ber 1934

March
to
Septem­
ber 1933

Septem­
ber 1933
to
Decem­
ber 1934

$30.09

$32.96

+9.5

+9.5

+20.0

33.86
24.47
17.84

33.83
24. 62
17. 56

+. 3
+4.2
+7.5

-.1
+ .6
-1 .6

+ .2
+4.9
+5.8

19.59
27.33
21.47
17.04
37.91
29.64
19.91
16.98

20.20
28. 22
21.32
16. 80
39.15
29. 67
20. 95
17.10

-4 .3
-1 .2
-2 .5
-1 .4
+ .5
-2 .2
-1 .1
+ .5

+3.1
+3.3
-.7
-1 .4
+3.3
+• 1
+5.2
+ .7

-1 .4
+2.1
-3 .2
-2 .8
+3.7
-2 .1
+4.0
+1.2

25.60

25.02

25. 30

-2 .3

+1.1

-1 .2

Direct labor:
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, hand__________
Cake finishers________ .. ____
Cake wrappers and packers.____

11. 72
10. 76
10.92

13.20
11.94
11. 79

12.21
12. 79
12.47

+12.6
+11.0
+8.0

-7 .5
+7.1
+5.8

+4.2
+18.9
+14.2

Total________________________

10.96

11.95

12.53

+9.0

+4.9

+14.3

17.18

17.69

17.68

+3.0

-.1

+2.9

18.90
13. 75
13. 39

18.80
14. 49
14. 34

19.37
14. 71
15.17

-.5
+5.4
+7.1

+3.0
+1.5
+5.8

+2.5
+7.0
+13.3

15.13

15. 81

16.16

+4.5

+2.2

+6.8

17. 39
21.74
21.80

17. 51
22.49
21.82

17.19
22.46
21.68

+ .7
+3.4
+. 1

-1 .8
-. 1
-.6

-1 .2
+3.3
+ .6

Region, sex, and occupational class

March
1933

Males—North—Continued
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen____ _______________
$27.47
Other:
Auditors, bookkeepers, etc___ __
33. 77
Chauffeurs and drivers______ . . .
23. 48
Laborers.. .....................................
16.59
Maintenance and repair, semiskilled____________ ___ _______
20.48
27.65
Maintenance and repair, skilled...
22. 02
Office clerks________________ ___
17.28
Service, unskilled_______________
Supervisory, skilled........ .............. • 37.74
Miscellaneous, skilled______ ____
30. 32
20.14
Miscellaneous, semiskilled_______
Miscellaneous, unskilled________
16.89
Total___________________ ____

March
1933 to
Decem­
ber 1934

Females—North

Indirect labor:
Other:
Office clerks____________________
Stenographers, typists, telephone
operators, etc__________ ____ _
Store clerks___________________
Miscellaneous_________________
Total. _ __________ ________
Males—South
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers_____
Ovenmen____________________
Miscellaneous, skilled___________

20.64

21.26

20. 65

+3.0

-2 .9

0)

Semiskilled:
General helpers.. _____________
Ovenmen’s helpers______________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled_______

9.80
13. 85
12. 26

11.71
14. 34
14. 73

12. 37
14. 75
15.35

+19.5
+3.5
+20.1

+5.6
+2.9
+4.2

+26.2
+6.5
+25.2

Total___ ______ ______________

11.92

13.60

14. 25

+14.1

+4.8

+19.5

Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, automatic........
Miscellaneous, unskilled.
_____

12.87
11.37

13.88
13. 72

14.13
14.17

+7.8
+20.7

+1.8
+3.3

+9.8
+24.6

+2.5

+16.7

Total.__ _ __________________

Total________________________
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen........ ................. ......

12.12

13.81

14.15

+13.9

22. 80

27.93

28.13

+22.5

+ .7

+23.4

Other____________ ____________ ____

19. 27

19.63

19. 72

+1.9

+ .5

+2.3

Females—South

Direct labor:
Unskilled...................... ........................
Indirect labor:
Other:
Store clerks __________________
Miscellaneous___ ________ ______

8.10

11.28

11.04

+39.3

-2 .1

+36.3

9.45
12.11

11. 56
13. 72

12.00
13.88

+22.3
+13.3

+3.8
+1.2

+27.0
+14.6

Total________________________

11.18

13.00

13. 25

+16.3

+1.9

+18.5

1 Less than of Mo percent.




80

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY
Regional and Sex Differentials in Averages by Occupations

Average weekly earnings were substantially higher in the N orth
than in the South in each of the three pay-roll periods. For males,
the differential was $5.59 a week in M arch 1933, $4.38 in September
1933, and $5.11 in December 1934, and for female workers it was
$3.43 in M arch 1933, $1.96 in September 1933, and $2.28 in December
1934.
(See table 36.)
Am ong the broad occupational groupings, the largest regional differ­
ential was for the “ other” male workers in the indirect labor group.
This amounted to $6.33 in M arch 1933, $5.39 in September 1933, and
$5.58 in December 1934. T he smallest N orth -S ou th differential was
found among unskilled female employees classified as direct labor, the
margin in favor of the northern workers being $2.86 in M arch 1933,
67 cents in September 1933, and $1.49 in December 1934.
(See
table 40.)
The average weekly earnings of bench hands or hand bakers, ovenmen, ovenmen’s helpers, general helpers, and automatic bread wrap­
pers, were also substantially higher in the N orth than in the South in
each of the three pay-roll periods covered. T he differential for the
one female occupation, “ store clerks” , for which a regional comparison
m ay be made, was appreciable, although the margin of difference
decreased with each succeeding period.
(See table 4 1 .)
W eekly earnings of male employees were higher than those of
females. This is brought out by a comparison of the data relating to
unskilled workers classified as direct labor. This group covers occu­
pations involving approximately the same skill for both males and
females, and in both the N orth and the South the differential in favor
of male workers was considerable. This also applies in the North
to the two individual occupations, cake wrappers and office clerks, in
which both sexes are represented.
Average Weekly Earnings and Size of City
A s with hourly earnings, the weekly earnings of bakery employees
are influenced by the size of the city in which they are employed.
Table 42, with a single exception, shows higher average weekly earn­
ings in the larger cities in both the North and the South. T he one
exception was in the South, where males in cities with a population of
50,000 and less than 250,000 received slightly higher earnings than
those in cities of 250,000 and over. T o a lesser extent the relative
increases in average weekly earnings for the entire period also varied
directly with the size of the city.




81

WEEKLY EAKNINGS
T

a b l e

42 *—

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s b y s i z e o f c i t y a s to r e g io n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s

P ercen ta g e of ch an ge

S ep tem b er
1933

D ecem b er
1934

M a r c h to
S ep tem b er
M arch
S e p t e m b e r 1933 t o D e ­ 1933 t o D e ­
1933
c e m b e r 1934 c e m b e r 1934

R e g io n , sex, a n d size o f c i t y
M arch
1933

N o rth
M a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r ____________
50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000—
U n d e r 50,000.............................

$25.59
22.05
20.45

$25.86
22.09
21. 51

$26 .83
22.72
21.80

+ 1 -1
+. 2
+ 5 .2

+ 3 .8
+ 2 .9
+ 1 .3

+ 4 .8
+ 3 .0
+ 6 .6

T o t a l ______________________

24.88

2 5 .12

26.03

+ 1 .0

+ 3 .6

+ 4 .6

F e m a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r ---------------50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000—
U n d e r 50,000. .................. ........

14.15
12.42

(9

14.74
13.06

(9

14.88
13.90

(9

+ 4 .2
+ 5 .2

(9

+ .9
+ 6 .4

(9

+ 5 .2
+ 11.9

(9

13.75

14.40

14.66

+ 4 .7

+ 1 .8

+ 6 .6

M a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r ____________
50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000—
U n d e r 50,000.............................

19.07
19.80
17.28

20.84
21.03
18.17

21.04
21.21
18.38

+ 9 .3
+ 6 .2
+ 5 .2

+ 1 .0
+ .9
+ 1 .2

+ 1 0 .3
+ 7 .1
+ 6 .4

T o t a l . -------------------- ---------

19.29

20 .7 4

2 0 .92

+ 7 .5

+ .9

+ 8 .4

F e m a le s :
250,000 a n d o v e r . . ......... ........
50,000 a n d u n d e r 250,000—
U n d e r 50,000________________

10. 38
9 .9 4

12.40
12.22

12.63
11.99

T o t a l ______________________
Sou th

T o t a l _____ _____________ . .

(9
10.32

(9
12.44

(9
12.38

+ 1 9 .5
+ 2 2 .9

(9
+ 2 0 .5

+ 1 .9
- 1 .9

(9

+ 2 1 .7
+ 2 0 .6

(9
-.5

+20 0

1 N o t e n o u g h w o r k e r s t o j u s t i f y t h e c o m p u t a t io n o f a n a v e r a g e .

Average Weekly Earnings in Union and Nonunion Shops
The average weekly earnings of male employees engaged in direct
labor in the North by union and nonunion shops and degree of sk ill6
6
for the three pay-roll periods covered are shown in table 43.
Skilled and semiskilled workers in union shops received higher
weekly earnings than those in nonunion bakeries, but the earnings of
unskilled employees in nonunion shops were higher than in organized
shops.
The differentials were not large, however, except for the
skilled workers. The weekly earnings of skilled workers in union
establishments exceeded those in nonunion shops by $7.78 in M arch
1933, $6.26 in September 1933, and $5.96 in December 1934. The
narrowing of the differential was due to a decrease of 5.8 percent in
the average weekly earnings in union bakeries between M arch and
September 1933, as against a decrease of only 1.3 percent in non­
union establishments. The reduction between September 1933 and
December 1934 was caused by a larger gain in average earnings in
nonunion shops.
It will also be seen that, while in each kind of bakery, the figures
indicate very little difference in the average weekly earnings between
semiskilled and unskilled workers, there is a considerable differential
between the unskilled and the skilled employees. This differential,
however, was virtually twice as large in union as in nonunion shops.
m

S ee p 25.




82

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T able

43 , —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s o f m a le e m p l o y e e s i n N o r t h e n g a g e d i n d irec t
la b o r b y u n i o n a n d n o n u n i o n s h o p s a n d s k i l l

Percentage of change

Average weekly earnings
Type of shop and degree
of skill

March to September March 1933
March 1933 September December September 1933 to De­ to Decem­
1933
1934
cember 1934 ber 1934
1933

Union shops:
Skilled_________________
Semiskilled-------------------Unskilled----------------------

$31.59
18.97
17.79

$29. 77
18.89
17.44

$29.98
19.65
17. 75

-5 .8

-.4
-2 .0

+0.7
+4.0
+1.8

-5 .1
+3.6
-.2

Total_________ ______

25.89

24.69

24.96

-4 .6

+1.1

-3 .6

Nonunion shops:
Skilled_______ __________
Semiskilled_____________
Unskilled______ ____ ___

23. 81
17.51
18.04

23.51
17.60
18.01

24.02
17.78
18.19

-1 .3
+ .5
-.2

+2.2
+1.0
+1.0

+ .9
+1.5
+ .8

Total-------------------------

20. 73

20.42

20.64

-1 .5

+1.1

-.4

Average Weekly Earnings and Degree of Mechanization
In both N orth and South, the largest average weekly earnings were
found generally in those shops which were m ost highly mechanized,
with the existing differentials between mechanical and handicraft and
between mechanical and semihandicraft shops increasing for the m ost
part from M arch to September 1933 and from the latter month to
December 1934. The data relating to average weekly earnings by
degree of mechanization, which is limited to employees engaged only
in direct labor, will be found in table 44.
T able

44 . —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s i n b a k e r ie s c la s s ifie d b y d e g ree o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n
a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x 1
A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s

R e g io n , sex , a n d d e g r e e o f
m e c h a n iz a t io n
M a r c h 1933

N o rth
M a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft --------- -----------------S e m ih a n d ic r a ft _ __

$23,35
2 3 .1 0
25.03

S ep tem b er
1933

P ercen ta g e o f ch a n ge

D ecem b er
1934

M arch to
S e p t e m b e r M a r c h 1933
S e p t e m b e r 1933 t o D e ­
to D ecem ­
1933
c e m b e r 1934
b e r 1934

$23 .26
$22. 75
-2 .6
23.63
2 3 .10
2 M e c h a n i c a l26. 67
5 .30
................................ . 1
+1

+ 2 .2
+ 2 .3
+ 5 .4

-0 .4
+ 2 .3
+ 6 .6

2 4 .88

2 5 .12

26.03

+ 1 -0

+ 3 .6

+ 4 .6

( 2)
13.35
13.84

( 2)
14.04
14.53

(2)
14,68
14. 67

( 2)
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .0

( 2)
+ 4 .6
+ 1 .0

( 2)
+ 1 0 .0
+ 6 .0

13. 75

14.40

14.66

+ 4 .7

+ 1 .8

+ 6 .6

M a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft __________________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft _____________
M e c h a n i c a l __________ _______

15.98
17.80
19.52

17.07
18.49
20 .9 9

18.67
18.04
21.17

+ 6 .8
+ 3 .9
+ 7 .5

+ 9 .4
- 2 .4
+ .9

+ 1 6 .8
+ 1 .3
+ 8 .5

T o t a l ___________ _______
F e m a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft __________________
S e m ih a n d ic r a ft _____________
M e c h a n i c a l ................ ...............
T o t a l ________________ _____
S ou th

T o t a l ______________________

19.29

20 .7 4

2 0 .9 2

+ 7 .5

+ .9

+ 8 .4

F e m a le s :
H a n d i c r a ft __________________
S e m ih a n d ic r a f t ____________
M e c h a n i c a l --------------------------

(2)
( 2)
10.45

f 2)
( 2)
12.69

( 2)
( 2)
12.49

(2)
( 2)
+ 2 1 .4

( 2)
( 2)
-1 .6

(2)
( 2)
+ 1 9 .5

T o t a l ______________________

10.32

12.44

12.38

+ 2 0 .5

- .5

+ 2 0 .0

1Includes only employees engaged in direct labor.
2Not enough workers to justify the computation of an average.




83

WEEKLY EARNINGS
Type of Distribution and Average Weekly Earnings

T hat the type of distribution affects average weekly earnings to
some extent is apparent from table 45. The male workers in both
North and South in m ulti-State, multiple-unit retail, and chain-store
bakeries received, on the whole, higher average weekly earnings than
those in either retail and house-to-house or local wholesale establish­
ments. In the North, male employees were better off in local whole­
sale than in retail and house-to-house shops, but in the South the
reverse was true. For female workers, however, the retail and houseto-house bakeries paid the highest average weekly earnings in the
North, and in the South earnings were highest in local wholesale shops.
T

a b l e

45 . —

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s i n b a k e r ie s c la s s ifie d b y t y p e o f d i s t r ib u t io n a s
to r e g io n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

M arch
to Sep­
tem b er
1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e ­
cem b er
1934

+ 4 .3
+ 8 .5

R e g io n , sex , a n d t y p e o f d is t r ib u t io n
M arch
1933

P e r c e n ta g e o f c h a n g e

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

N o rth
M a le s :
R e t a i l a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e _______ _____ _
L o c a l w h o le s a le ________________ _______
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le -u n it re ta il, a n d
c h a in sto r e
_____ ___________ _____

$24.11
24.65

$ 2 3 .82
2 5 .0 6

$24 .84
2 7 .1 8

-1 .2
+ 1 .7

2 5 .3 2

25.64

26. 52

+ 1 .3

+ 3 .4

+ 4 .7

T o t a l . , _____________ ________ ________

2 4 .8 8

2 5 .12

26.03

+ 1 .0

+ 3 .6

+ 4 .6

14.29
13. 52

15.15
14.11

15.24
14.33

+ 6 .0
+ 4 .4

+ .6
+ 1 .6

+ 6 .6
+ 6 .0

13.63

14.33

14.57

+ 5 .1

+ 1 .7

+ 6 .9

13. 75

14.40

14.66

+ 4 .7

+ 1 .8

+ 6 .6

+ 9 .2
+ 9 .3

+ 2 .0
+ 1 .8

+ 1 1 .4
+ 1 1 .2

F e m a le s :
R e t a il a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ______________
L o c a l w h o le s a le .................................................
M u l t i - S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e t a il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e ____________ _________________
T o t a l ________________________ ________ _

+ 3 .0
+ 1 0 .3

Sou th
M a le s :
R e t a i l a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e ______________
L o c a l w h o le s a le .............. .............................. _.
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it re ta il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e ____________________ _____ __

18.96
18.63

20.71
2 0 .3 6

21.13
2 0 .72

2 0 .28

2 1 .24

2 1 .12

+ 4 .7

-.6

+ 4 .1

T o t a l __________________________________

19.29

20.74

2 0 .92

+ 7 .5

+ .9

+ 8 .4

10.07
10.69

11.89
12.72

12.07
12. 47

+ 1 8 .1
+ 1 9 .0

+ 1 .5
—2 .0

+ 1 9 .9
+ 1 6 .7

10.01

12.46

12.40

+ 2 4 .5

-.5

+ 2 3 .9

10. 32

12.44

12. 38

+ 2 0 .5

- .5

+ 2 0 .0

F e m a le s :
R e t a i l a n d h o u s e -t o -h o u s e _____________
L o c a l w h o le s a l e ............ ..............................
M u lt i- S t a t e , m u lt ip le - u n it r e t a il, a n d
c h a in s t o r e ______________ _______________
T o ta l. _

_________________________

Kind of Product and Average Weekly Earnings
It is interesting to note the differences in average weekly earnings
when classified according to principal product.
(See table 46.) The
highest average earnings per week of males in the North were found
in bread specialty shops. These high weekly earnings were brought
about by the unusually high average earnings per hour, which more
than offset the low average weekly hours worked in plants of this type.
In bread shops, the average weekly wages paid in M arch 1933 were
only 72 cents more a week than in cake shops. The increase in
weekly earnings was greater in bread shops, and employees in these




84

WAGES AND HOUftS— BBEAD-BARING INDUSTRY

shops earned $1.46 a week more than those in cake shops in September
1933 and $2.45 more in December 1934.
In the South, male employees in bread shops earned $3.74 a week
more than employees in cake shops in M arch 1933, $2.82 more in
September 1933, and $3.17 more in December 1934. The decrease of
the differential was the result of a greater relative increase in earnings
in cake shops between M arch 1933 and December 1934 than in bread
shops. T he same general trend characterized the earnings of female
workers both in the North and South.
Comparisons W ith 1931
In the fall of 1931, the average weekly earnings of workers in bread
bakeries67 was $29.53 for males and $12.70 for females, with an average
of $28.54 a week for all workers. B y contrast, in December 1934 the
weekly earnings of male employees averaged $2 5 .2 4 ; those of female
workers, $ 1 4 .2 3 ; and the average for all employees was $23.86 a week.
Thus, only the weekly earnings of female employees were higher in
December 1934 than in 1931. The weekly earnings of male workers
averaged $4.29 less than in 1931, a decrease of more than 14.5 percent.
T able

46.—

A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s i n b a k e r ie s c la s s ifie d b y k i n d o f 'p rod u ct a s
to r e g i o n a n d s e x

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s

P erce n ta g e o f ch an ge

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933

D ecem ­
b e r 1934

M arch
to Sep­
tem ber
1933

S ep tem ­
b e r 1933
to D e ­
cem ber
1934

$24.89

$25.21

$26.33

+ 1 .3

+ 4 .4

+ 5 .8

24.17
2 9 .56

23. 75
3 0 .4 2

2 3 .88
2 8 .77

-1 .7
+ 2 .9

+ .5
-5 .4

-1 .2
- 2 .7

26.03

+ 1 .0

+ 3 .6

+ 4 .6

R e g io n , se x , a n d k i n d o f p r o d u c t
M arch
1933

M arch
1933 t o
D ecem ­
b e r 1934

North
M a le s :
B r e a d _____
___________ _____________
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ________________________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s ....... ...................................
T o t a l ____________________________

_____

24.88

2 5 .1 2

F e m a le s :
B r e a d _______________ ___________ _________
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , i n c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ________________________
B r e a d s p e c i a l t i e s ______ _________________

15.10

15 .9 2

16.02

+ 5 .4

+ .6

+ 6 .1

12.03
0)

12.91
0)

13.44
0)

+ 7 .3
0)

+ 4 .1
0)

+ 1 1 .7
0)

T o t a l _____________ ______________________

13. 75

14 .4 0

14 .6 6

+ 4 .7

+ 1 .8

+ 6 .6

South
M a le s :
B r e a d ______________________________________
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s _________________________
B r e a d s p e c i a lt i e s .. . . _________________

19. 57

2 0 .97

2 1 .1 9

+ 7 .2

+ 1 .0

+ 8 .3

15.83
( 2)

18.15
(2)

18.02
( 2)

+ 1 4 .7
( 2)

-.7
( 2)

+ 1 3 .8
( 2)

T o t a l ____________________________________

19.29

20. 74

2 0 .9 2

+ 7 .5

+ .9

+ 8 .4

F e m a le s :
B r e a d ________________ _______________ _____
C a k e , s w e e t g o o d s , a n d p ie , in c lu d in g
c a k e s p e c ia lt ie s ________ ________________
B r e a d s p e c ia lt ie s — ______ ________________

11.34

13.10

13.19

+ 1 5 .5

+ .7

+ 1 6 .3

8 .3 8
( 2)

11.44
( 2)

11.25
( 2)

+ 3 6 .5
( 2)

-1 .7
( 2)

+ 3 4 .2
( 2)

T o t a l . _____ . . . _________________ _____

10.32

12.44

12.38

+ 2 0 .5

- .5

+ 2 0 .0

1 Not enough workers to justify the computation of an average.
2Not available.
5; Excludes pie departments or establishments.




Chapter YI.—Personnel Policies and Working Conditions58
The Bakery Worker
W ith the rapid advances in technology in the bread-baking industry
have come far-reaching changes in the conditions under which the
bakery employees live and work. The bakery worker is no longer
required to labor 16 hours or more a day in semidark and damp
cellars, as was common in the nineteenth century. A s far as lighting,
ventilation, and general sanitation are concerned, the typical bakery
of today compares favorably with other industrial establishments.
Likewise, hours of labor have been reduced and now closely correspond
with the working time prevailing in other industries. Formerly
conditions of employment discouraged family life among bakers, but
today a large proportion are the heads of families and often home
owners.
There are still m any foreign-born bakers in some parts of the
country. This is particularly true of the small local and specialty
shops, catering to the racial or national tastes of the trade they
serve. Considering the industry as a whole, however, bakery work­
ers are predominantly white native-born Americans,5 largely of Ger­
9
man extraction. Fewer than 4 percent of all employees covered in
December 1934 were Negroes, and these were generally employed on
maintenance work, although a few were employed as direct workers in
some plants.
T he employees in the industry are predominantly male, the number
of female workers in Decem ber 1934 amounting to only 12.4 percent.
M o st of the females reported, moreover, were retail-store clerks and
office employees. Com paratively few female employees were en­
gaged in bread baking, mainly because the m ajority of bakeries still
operate at night and in m any States legal restrictions prohibit night
work for women. Another factor that has tended to limit the em ­
ployment of women in the industry is that until recently the heavy
work of bakeries demanded male labor. A considerable number of
women are employed, however, in cake or pie departments and in
establishments that do not operate primarily at night.
Hiring Procedure
T he hiring of employees is usually in the hands of the owner in the
small shops and the superintendent or general manager in the larger
establishments. In the larger plants, however, the function is fre6 When considering personnel policies in the bread industry, the bake-shop workers, maintenance em­
8
ployees, driver-salesmen, retail-store clerks, and office personnel must sometimes be treated as distinct
groups. T he retail clerk and office groups are numerically unimportant in this survey. Except where
specifically noted, therefore* the policies and conditions described apply generally to the bake-shop workers,
maintenance employees, and driver-salesmen.
The references contained here to provisions of union agreements are based on an analysis of 52 such agree­
ments, dated 1934 and 1935, in 30 cities of 18 States, between bread bakeries and the Bakery and Confec­
tionery Workers* International Union of America or the Amalgamated F ood Workers.
5 T lis was indicated b y about 91 percent of 152 bakeries reporting on the subject.
0




85

86

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

quently delegated to subordinates. Thus, the hiring was done by the
foreman or department head in 59 of the bakeries surveyed, and most
of these plants had more than 50 workers; they accounted for 36
percent of the employees covered. There were only eight establish­
ments, all of which belonged to the m ulti-State and chain-store groups,
that had special employment departments. A classification of plants
according to the agency used in hiring will be found in table 47.
Companies recruited employees through direct personal application,
trade-unions, private and governmental employment agencies, and
occasionally through recommendation b y yeast companies or their
representatives. T he relative importance of these methods was in the
order named. The few plants that used private and governmental
employment agencies to any extent depended on them principally for
mechanics, unskilled help, office employees, and store clerks. The
majority of shops that had working agreements with trade-unions
relied upon the unions alm ost exclusively for the type of employees
covered by the agreement, although 26 percent of the union shops
reported that they hired chiefly from individual applicants. In 90
percent of the nonunion plants, hiring was upon direct application
only.
In small bake shops, such as comprise the m ajority of the trade, the
employer is likely to consider the applicant according to his more
obvious qualifications for the job. W ith increasing size of establish­
ments, however, more elaborate qualification policies are found,
embracing such considerations as type and extent of previous service
in the trade, age, marital status and dependents, physical condition as
determined b y medical examination, citizenship, and education.
T

able

47 . —

E m p l o y i n g a g e n c y i n 2 5 2 b a k e r ie s , b y s i z e o f p la n t , 1 9 3 4 .

Bakeries with classified number of employees
Em ploying agency

Total

A ll agencies________________________________

252

Foreman nr department head
Superintendent, owner, or other executive
Em ploym ent or personnel department

59
185
8

20
100
250
10
50
Under and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under
10
20
50
100
250
500
22

42

67

55

55

9

22

2
40

7
59
1

17
36
2

29
23
3

500
and
over

4
5

2

2

Previous experience, and particularly satisfactory service in the
plant of the employer, outweighs all other considerations when hiring
an applicant. I t is, of course, based on the demand for experience in
the work and the employee's record for dependability and merit.
Hence it applies particularly to reliable employees who have been laid
off because of slack demand. Alm ost three-fourths of the plants
covered made it their policy to rehire, in preference to other applicants,
former employees who had been laid off. Conversely, employees who
left their jobs voluntarily are less favorably considered, since the mi­
gratory baker is expensive from the operating standpoint. I t is not
uncommon for employers often to refuse to take back men who have
previously left their employ voluntarily. Rewarding part-time or
extra workers or “ jobbers” with full-time work when conditions




PERSONNEL POLICIES AND WORKING CONDITIONS

87

permit is customary and is a requirement in some trade-union agree­
ments.
T hat the baker's work is strenuous is indicated in part by the age
composition of the workers employed in the industry. The union
contends that “ the present methods of production impose such a
strain upon the workers that * * * it is almost impossible for a
man of 50 to secure any j o b ." 6 M ore than 43 percent of the male
0
bakery employees, according to the Bureau of the Census, are under 30
years of age, and the age of 32.6 percent is from 30 to 44 years. In
1930, the age of nearly a third of all gainfully employed workers in the
United States was 45 years or over, but only slightly more than a
fourth of the bakers were over 45 years of age.
There is a pronounced tendency to confine employment of the bakeshop workers (mostly males) to definite age limits. A higher mini­
m um hiring age than the 16 years imposed by the code was the
rule in almost half of the shops. O f these, nearly 80 percent fixed the
minimum at 18 years, and a number hired no one under 21. The
highest minimum age reported was 25 years. Driver-salesmen were
generally required to be 20 years old or over. The maximum age for
new employees is less frequently fixed, as less than a fourth of the
reporting plants imposed this requirement. These establishments, 61
in number, fixed the maximum ages as follows: 8 plants, 30 years;
14 plants, 35 years; 13 plants, 40 years; 15 plants, 45 years; 10 plants,
50 years; and 1 plant, 60 years. Several shops had a lower maximum
hiring age for driver-salesmen than for bakers. Generally speaking,
the hiring age for bake-shop employees ranged from 18 to 45 years and
for driver-salesmen from 21 to 35 years. The prevalence of night work,
the strenuous labor in hand bakeries, and the health hazards in shops
not m odem ly equipped and ventilated are factors contributing to the
limited years in which a person can work in this industry.
M a m e d men and unmarried women are preferred in the m ajority of
plants reporting marital status as a hiring consideration. The sta­
bility and responsibility of married men, particularly if they have
dependents, was given as the reason. A few shops applied the same
principle in hiring women employees, but the majority preferred single
women and several barred married women entirely.
American citizenship was a factor in the hiring policies of about 30
percent of the plants covered. The m ajority of these required full
citizenship, even stipulating that employees be native-born, whereas a
few required only a declaration of intention to become a citizen.
Physical examinations are not usually required by the employer,
although some companies provided medical examination and a few
others insisted on an examination at the applicant's expense. Certifi­
cates of health are also required of their members by some union locals.
The burden of this protection of the public, however, rests with the
States and cities, some of whose statutes and ordinances require
certificates of health for food handlers.
Educational requirements for employment in the industry are not
very stringent, only one-third of the plants investigated making
literacy and a speaking knowledge of English prerequisites for
employment. Some required a grade-school, high-school, or businessschool education, but this was chiefly for the sales and office force.
so O ffic ia l R e p o r t a n d P r o c e e d in g s o f t h e T w e n t i e t h C o n v e n t io n t o t h e B a k e r y
W o r k e r s ’ I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n o f A m e r ic a , h e ld a t S^. L o u is , M o . , S e p t e m b e r 1929.




and

C o n fe c t io n e r y

88

W AGES

AND

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

IN D U S T R Y

Training Policies
Training is necessary for both bakers and driver-salesmen. Bakers
learn their trade either through apprenticeship or by work as helpers.
Generally, an apprenticeship system is used in unionized handicraft
bakeries, and in machine and nonunion shops new employees receive
their training as helpers. In some cities, however, the apprenticeship
system prevails in all types of bakeries.
O f the 259 plants investigated, only 7 percent trained apprentices.
All of these were union shops and represented 25 percent of all the
unionized bakeries covered. Actually, only 74 apprentices were
found on the pay rolls of these shops. This low proportion is doubt­
less due both to the large number of unemployed journeyman bakers
at the time of the survey and to the increasing mechanization of the
industry which has curtailed the demand for skilled workers.
Bakery workers beginning as helpers in plants where apprentice
training is not required are advanced to work as machine or bench
hands in accordance with ability or seniority, or both, usually with­
out a definite requirement as to length or extent of training. Union
agreements frequently specify that advancement m ust have union
approval. T he union locals that require apprentice training for
journeyman bakers frequently do not permit helpers to do the work
of apprentices or bakers.
Advancem ent from apprentice to journeyman baker is generally
attended by a more formal regulation than is the promotion from
helper, but the practices vary widely between different cities and
union locals. The requirements in 20 union agreements that pro­
vide for apprentice training are as follows:
P e rio d o f a p p r en tic es h ip : 2 t o 4 y e a r s .
In str u c tio n : I n e a c h m a n u fa c t u r in g d e p a r t m e n t u n d e r g u id a n c e o f a jo u r n e y ­

m a n ba k er.
M i n i m u m a g e: 16, 17, o r 18 y e a r s ( n o t a lw a y s r e q u ir e d ).
M a x i m u m a g e: 2 0 t o 2 5 y e a r s ( n o t a lw a y s r e q u ir e d ) .
N u m b er a llo w ed : F r o m 1 p e r s h o p t o 1 p e r 10 t o 15 jo u r n e y m e n .
W a g e s : E n t r a n c e , $ 1 2 t o $ 2 0 .5 0 p e r w e e k , w it h a d v a n c e m e n t g e n e r a lly e v e r y

6 m o n t h s , a n d la s t w a g e p e r io d $ 1 8 t o $ 3 5 p e r w e e k .
( A fe w a g r e e m e n ts p e r m it
t h e e n tir e a p p r e n t ic e s h ip t o b e s e r v e d a t t h e e n t r a n c e w a g e .)
E x a m in a tio n : S o m e tim e s r e q u ir e d b e fo r e t h e a p p r e n t ic e is g iv e n h is jo u r n e y ­
m a n 's c a r d .
H e lp e r s : H e lp e r s a re n o t p e r m it t e d t o p e r fo r m th e w o r k o f a p p r e n tic e s o r
b a k e rs .
( N o t a lw a y s sp e c ifie d .)

Training for driver-salesmen, as given in some plants, consists
only in the novice accompanying the route supervisor until he learns
the route, becomes acquainted with the customers, and is capable
of working ^ independently. T he larger organizations, however,
usually require more extensive training of a student salesman, such
as a course of a week or two in sales methods, under the direction of
the sales manager or person in charge of sales promotion, and instruc­
tion in manufacturing processes and company organization and
policies, as well as learning the particular route to which he is assigned.
Student salesmen usually receive a straight salary during the train­
ing period. T h e length of training varies from 1 to 6 weeks, with
2 weeks the usual period. T h e more progressive shops hold periodical
sales meetings, which serve to keep their salesmen instructed in new
methods and progress.




89

P E R S O N N E L P O L IC IE S A N D W O R K IN G C O N D IT IO N S

Lay-off and Firing Procedure
As previously indicated, seasonal influences play a relatively
minor part in the baking industry. Exigencies of the season, how­
ever, do cause moderate fluctuations in production, accelerated
activity occurring generally during August and September with
January as the m onth of lowest production. There are also the
shorter rush periods during week-ends and before holidays.
The slack periods generally result in part-time hours rather than
lay-offs. B y this means, the employer is able to maintain his working
force nearly intact. The methods of cutting the hours include the
use of the stagger system , vacations without pay, reduction of hours
and earnings proportionately, and the reduction of hours with main­
tenance of full-time weekly salaries. Some union agreements provide
that 6 days or less shall constitute a week's work for employees on a
salary basis, or that regular employees m ust have a full week's pay if
the plant is in operation. Other agreements specify that, in order to
share work (among members of the local), each regularly employed
person m ust give 1 or 2 days' work a week to a substitute.
b For the week-end and preholiday rushes, the general practice is
either to lengthen the hours of regular employees or to hire extras or
“ jobbers.” Union agreements sanction both methods.
W hen lay-offs are necessary, the factor governing selection, after
ability and merit, is usually seniority. Alm ost half of the employers
reported that a worker's family responsibility was an important
consideration.
The practice of giving advance notifications of lay-off or paying a
dismissal wage was reported by two-thirds of the bakeries surveyed.
Of the 167 plants so reporting, 114 gave notice only, 22 granted
both notice and a dismissal wage, 16 gave a dismissal wage only, and 15
gave either notice or a dismissal wage as circumstances warranted.
The typical length of notice, reported by three-fourths of the shops, was
1 week. One week's pay was the dismissal wage reported b y virtually
all plants using this method. O f 52 union agreements examined, about
half required notice varying from 12 hours to 1 week and none men­
tioned a dismissal wage except as pay in lieu of notice.
The rate of discharge for cause among bakeries closely parallels the
average for “ all industries” , as reported m onthly to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics. The following causes for discharge with prejudice
were cited by the employers in 149 bakeries, inefficiency (reported
by 88 plants), dishonesty (86 plants), and drunkenness (79 plants)
being the outstanding causes.
N u m b e r o f bakeries
reporting ca u se

I n e ffic ie n c y ____________________________________________________________
D is h o n e s t y a n d t h e f t ________________________________________________
D r u n k e n n e s s __________________________________________________________
C a re le ssn e ss a n d in d iffe r e n c e _______________________________________
A c c i d e n t s ______________________________________________________________
I n s u b o r d in a t io n _______________________________________________________
P e r s o n a l c o n d u c t _________________
U n c le a n lin e s s __________________________________________________________
I n f r a c t io n o f r u le s ____________________________________________________
F o m e n t i n g d i s c o r d ____________________________________________________
D e s t r u c t iv e n e g lig e n c e _______________________________________________
W a s t e fu ln e s s __________________________________________________________
P h y s ic a l u n fit n e s s ________________

102745°—37------7




88
86
79
37
17
16
11
7
7
5
4
3
2

90

W AGES

AND

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

IN D U S T R Y

In a majority of the plants the discharging official was the same
person who hired employees. (See table 47.) Appeal from discharge
to a higher official or a mediation board was provided in fewer than
half of the 140 plants that reported on this point. O f the 62 plants
that provided an avenue of appeal, 4 had an established mediation
board, 10 reported recourse through the trade-union, and the remain­
ing 48 allowed a review of the case by the superintendent or a higher
official. M a n y union agreements specify that a union representative
must determine if the reasons for discharge are sufficient, some agree­
ments making provision for mediation boards.
Methods of Wage Payment
W ages in the baking industry are paid chiefly on a time basis,
except in the case of driver-salesmen, who are usually paid wholly or
in part by commissions. This m ay be seen by an examination of
table 48.
The weekly salary basis predominated among retail-store and office
employees, and it was also the usual method for over half of all bakeshop workers covered by the survey. The remaining bake-shop
employees were chiefly on an hourly basis. The weekly wage was
used almost exclusively for the regularly employed bake-shop workers
in approximately three-fourths of the establishments, and in virtually
all of the smaller shops, but in the larger shops the hourly rate pre­
dominated. The widespread use of the week’s work as the basis of
wage payments, even though weekly rates m ay be apportioned to the
actual hours worked, connotes a measurement of production in terms
of a daily task rather than of hourly output. I t also reflects the sta­
bility of employm ent in the industry.6
1
T a b l e 4 8 .— Distribution of employees by class, method of wage payment, type of

distribution of products, and region, 1934
Number of employees who were paid—

Class of workers, type of
distribution, and region

Straight-time rates

Total
Total

All workers______________ 20,623
Class of workers:
Bake-shop employees3 13,592
.
Union____________ 2,876
Nonunion________ 10,716
T>rivflr-salftsmfin _
5,484
Sales supervisory, etc.3
_
295
Retail-store clerks_____
400
Office________________
852
Type of distribution of
product:
Independent local4
___ 11, 381
Multi-State................... 8,432
Chain store__________
810
Region:
North.......... ................. 17,276
South............................. 3,347

On production basis

Salary
(week Hourly
or
rate
month)

Daily
rate

Total

5,514

15,109

9,109

5,640

360

13,264
2,876
10,388
412
196
391
846

7,346
1,768
5,578
409
193
339
822

5,579
859
4,720

339
249
90
3

8,567
5,732
810

6,359
2,464
286

2,021
3,137
482

12,541
2,568

7,185
1,924

5,017
623

3
38
20

Salary
Bonus1
Com­
plus
or
com­ mission piece
mission
rates
2,754

2,426

328

334
328

328
5,072
99
9
6

2,708
43
3

2,364
56
6

187
131
42

2,814
2,700

1,244
1,510

1,565
861

5
329

339
21

4,735
779

2,408
346

1,993
433

334

4

4

328

6

1 Includes 328 employees working under a production bonus system and 6 employees on piece work.
3 Includes both direct and indirect labor in processing, maintenance, and shipping departments.
3 Includes sales managers, route supervisors, solicitors, sales-class instructors, route riders (learners), and
other miscellaneous sales-department employees.
* Includes local retail and house-to-house, local wholesale, and multiple-unit retail establishments.
See also p. 99 relative to paying employees for holidays and vacations.




P E R S O N N E L P O L I C IE S A N D W O R K I N G C O N D I T IO N S

91

In two large bakeries, the Bedeaux6 system of wage payment was
2
in operation for employees in the manufacturing departments. A
few other plants reported piece-rate paym ent to miscellaneous em­
ployees.
M ore than 90 percent of the driver-salesmen were paid on a com­
mission basis. O f these, about half were on a straight commission
basis and the other half received a salary in addition to commissions.
Only a small percentage (7.5 percent) were on a straight-time basis,
and m ost of these were employed by 20 small plants.
Various methods are used in computing the commissions of driversalesmen. The m ost common methods are as follows: Percentage
on all sales, with or without straight salary; and salary plus commis­
sions on all sales over a specified amount. In several plants, the rate
of commission percentage was raised as the sales increased, although
a few worked on the opposite principle and decreased the commission
percentage as sales increased.
A minimum-wage guaranty was m andatory under the code.
Nevertheless, a few shops that were not complying with code provi­
sions gave no minimum-wage guaranty to employees paid on a com­
mission basis. The survey revealed that numerous other shops did
not guarantee a minimum wage to salesmen until the code became
effective.
Periodic sales contests with financial rewards, found chiefly among
the larger bakeries, were common incentives to sales promotion.
These contests were generally held at widely separated and irregular
intervals, although a few bakeries used them as continuing incentives,
giving prizes based on weekly performance and grand prizes over a
longer period.
Overtime Rates
The term “ overtime” , as used here, embraces any time worked
before an employee's regular starting time or after his regular quitting
time on any day. This includes work on Sundays and holidays when
the regular working schedule of the employee does not provide for
work on those days.
Daily and weekly hours of work were limited by the code during the
period covered by this survey. Consequently, the subject of overtime
during the period was of less importance than ordinarily, as a great
many of the plants during the code period simply adopted as their
regular hours the maximum allowable. Thus, the opportunity for
overtime work, except by code violation, was limited to the extent of
the tolerance allowed certain employees.6
3
The payment of punitive overtime rates (time and a third, time
and a half, etc.) to all or part of the employees was the expressed
policy of 145 bakeries, or 56 percent of the plants surveyed. Extra
rates for overtime were allowed the bake-shop workers in 130 shops,
maintenance and garage employees in 84, chauffeurs and deliverymen
in 26, retail-store clerks in 26, driver-salesmen in 4, and office eme A premium or gain-sharing plan, the main purpose of which is to equalize the basis of pay throughout
2
the plant. Work is rated in “ points" or “ B’s” , each point being a man-minute of work. Usually produc­
tion employees are paid 75 percent of the value of production above standard, the remaining 25 percent going
to indirect labor and supervision.
6 The code allowed a tolerance in daily hours for bake-shop employees, within the regular weekly hour
3
limitation, on days immediately preceding and following Sundays and holidays and on other occasions of
unusual demand due to local conditions; it permitted an annual tolerance in hours of work of office em­
ployees to cover peak times; and it allowed work beyond the regular maximum hours for emergency repair
or maintenance, provided the employees so working were paid for the excess hours by at least 1H their
regular rates.




92

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

ployees in 3 bakeries. A m ajority of the remaining shops paid only
straight time for overtime. In m any establishments salaried em­
ployees were allowed only compensatory time off, and often no
compensation whatever.
Table 49 shows the apportionment of employees among the plants
compensating for overtime by the various methods used. T he figures
given in the table include a substantial number of workers reported
as never being required to work overtime, and consequently not
affected b y policies fixing overtime pay. Driver-salesmen and other
outside employees were omitted, as employees in these occupations
customarily control their own hours of work, which means that over­
time for them could not be accurately measured. Three bakeries in
California, however, had agreements with a drivers' union requiring
punitive overtime rates for driver-salesmen, and a fourth plant there
paid an extra overtime rate to sales supervisory employees. In one
of these shops the salesmen were on a salary basis, and in the others
they were paid partly by commissions.
T a b l e 4 9 .— Distribution of employees 1 according to method of compensation

for overtime, 1934

Class of workers

Number Number of employees who were compensated
of em­
by—
Total ployees
number working
under
of em­
Puni­
Pro­
No
ployees “ no over­
All
Time off compen­
tive
rata
time” methods rates
pay
sation
policy

All employees................ ....................... 13,713
Bake-shop employees..... ..................... 11,292
2,375
Union_________________________
8,917
Nonunion_____________________
1,145
Maintenance and garage workers____
320
Chauffeurs and delivery men___.........
356
Retail-store clerks____ ______ _______
600
Office employees— .............................

1,084
790
157
633
48
20
98
128

12,629
10,502
2,218
8,284
1,097
300
258
472

7,961
7,024
1,429
5,595
753
118
54
12

2,426
2,098
675
1,423
165
56
79
28

1,458
934
32
902
95
70
78
281

784
446
82
364
84
56
47
151

1 Driver-salesmen and sales supervisory employees excluded.

Tim e and a third was the usual overtime rate, being paid b y 101 of
the 145 plants that reported punitive rates. Tim e and a half was
the rate in 32 shops, and in 7 plants bake-shop employees were paid
time and a half and other employees time and a third. One of the
remaining five bakeries paid double time, and the other four a flat
overtime rate. Double time was paid by a few plants for work on
holidays and on regular days off, whether Saturday or Sunday.
The normal week was the unit beyond which overtime was com­
puted for payment of extra rates in about two-thirds of the plants,
and the normal day was the unit in the remaining. A few based
overtime for bake-shop employees on the normal day, and for main­
tenance employees on the week.
Bakery union agreements usually exact penalty rates for overtime,
fixing the “ day” as the unit and providing for time and a half.
The practice of paying penalty rates for overtime work shows a
substantial increase compared with conditions found in the fall of
1931, when only 24 percent of the 503 bakeries surveyed paid extra
overtime rates. This shows another phase of the progress towards
shorter hours of work, which was given impetus by the codes. There




P E R S O N N E L P O L I C IE S A N D W O B B L IN G C O N D I T IO N S

93

has been, however, a lowering of the level of penalty rates, as pre­
viously the customary rate was time and a half (occasionally double
time for Sunday and holidays). B y contrast, in December 1934 the
time and a third rate named by the code had been adopted by twothirds of the industry surveyed.
Special Bonuses and Penalties
Bonus and penalty systems covering safe driving, reduction o f
returned merchandise, economy of materials, and length of service,
were found in several establishments.
Seven bakeries rewarded drivers for low accident rates, and 27
plants imposed penalties for accidents. Four of the bakeries that
penalized drivers also gave bonuses. The safety bonuses varied from
$4 to $25 per year, payable at intervals of 1, 3, 6, or 12 months, as
long as the driver’s record remained clear. Penalties for chargeable
accidents took the form of fines in 3 plants, deductions for all or
part of the damage in 16, and suspension without pay in 2. The
penalties in the remaining 6 establishments were not reported. In
a few establishments, the fines collected were put into the bonus or
athletic funds of the plant. The practice of allowing the drivers
representation on the boards charged with fixing responsibility for
accidents was frequent.
Returned-merchandise bonuses or penalties were found in 12
bakeries, some of which gave bonuses for the reduction of loss through
returned merchandise, and others levied penalties for exceeding a
minimum allowance. A t four plants bonuses of from 50 cents to
$5# per week were paid if the return of stale bread or cake b y the
driver fell below 2 to 6 percent of his net sales. The bonus advanced
in two of these establishments as the percentage of returned mer­
chandise decreased. T he bonus in a fifth plant was 1 percent of
net weekly sales for returned “ stales” of less than quota; in the sixth
it was 5 percent of net weekly sales for no stale returns; and, in the
seventh it was one-half the wholesale value of the saving over the
quota of stale goods. Penalties, deducted from commissions only,
were similarly computed, the driver-salesmen being charged a per­
centage either of net sales or of the total cost of stale goods returned.
In all bakeries where penalties were levied, the salesmen were re­
sponsible for making up their own orders and were not assigned
quotas. In fact, in only six plants was it the reported practice for the
bakery to assign a specified amount of bread to the salesmen, and
four of these paid their salesmen on a salary basis and the other two
paid them salaries plus commissions on net sales.
Econom y of materials was the basis for bonus paym ent to foremen
in the production department of one large bakery. Service bonuses
were paid in three plants, all employees benefiting in two and only
department heads in the third.
Payments in Kind
Supplying employees with bakery products for family use, free or
at a discount, is a common practice in the industry. In fact, some




94

WAGES

AND

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

IN D U S T R Y

union agreements specify the amount of free product that each unionmember employee shall be allowed. The practice varies widely.
Some plants covered in this survey gave 2 pounds per day to each
employee, others gave as much as the employee's fam ily could use,
and still others gave employees discounts of from 5 to 25 percent.
T he practice of supplying free lunches for employees, and at some
shops two meals a day also was# reported. The extent of these
practices, however, was not determined.
Employee Expenses
Licenses for bakery driver-salesmen or chauffeurs, or both, are
required in the m ajority of States, as well as special licenses b y some
cities. The cost varies from a few cents to $6 per year and is usually
paid b y the driver, as only 35 companies out of the 183 reported the
item as a firm expense.
Bonds, furnished at their own expense b y driver-salesmen and
sometimes also b y chauffeurs and deliverymen, were required b y 38
percent of 226 plants reporting. M o st of these were multi-State and
house-to-house bakeries. The bond was^ usually a cash deposit,
ranging from $25 to $250. Am ong establishments requiring bonds,
more than half required $100 and a third required $50. Insurance
bonds were rare, costing the applicant from $1 to $4 per year. In ­
terest was paid b y a third of the companies requiring cash bonds.
The m ost common interest rates ranged from 3 to 7 percent, but 5 and
6 percent were the rates usually reported.
The responsibility for the collection of authorized or approved
accounts is usually assumed b y the firm, but the driver-salesman is
generally responsible for any credit that he extends on his own account.
M a n y of the firms reported that their sales were on a cash basis, and
any credit extended b y a driver-salesman was at his own risk. Others
extended company credit only on a few large accounts, such as those
of hotels and restaurants. A few did not permit the salesman to
extend credit that was not approved, and the company assumed all
responsibility. A t some establishments, the firm’s responsibility was
only for the first few weeks of new accounts. A t others, only a
limited amount of credit was extended. Some reports^ indicate that
the driver’s cash bond is held, in the event of termination of his
employment, as security for outstanding accounts.
The item of uniforms is one to be considered b y the bakery em­
ployee, since in the m ajority of shops he must stand the entire or
part expense of buying and laundering them. T he requirement of
special uniform clothing is general throughout the industry, except
in the very small bakeries. O f the plants that employed each type of
worker, 73 percent required uniforms for bake-shop employees, 55
percent for driver-salesmen (and some chauffeurs), and 18 percent for
retail-store clerks. The requirement for bake-shop employees is 10
percent higher in nonunion than in union shops. I t is also higher in
m ulti-State than in independent bakeries, the ratios being, respectively,
94 and 66 percent for bakers and 72 and 50 percent for salesmen.
Cost of purchase and maintenance is borne chiefly by the employee,
as shown in table 50.




Courtesy of Connecticut Pie C o.




P la t e 5.—C a k e -B a t t e r M ix i n g .




Courtesy of Connecticut Pie Co.

P la te 6.—P ie -M a k in g M a c h i n e , S h o w in g B o t t o m M a k i n g , b o t t o m La y i n g , F il l in g , a n d T o p M a k i n g .

P ER SO N N EL

T able

50 . —

N u m ber

of

P O L IC IE S

p la n ts

AN D

W O R K IN G

re q u irin g u n ifo r m s
m a in ten a n ce

Class of workers

Bake-shop employees_____________________
Driver-salesmen and chauffeurs____________
Retail-store clerks_______________________

Num­
ber of
plants

189
111
25

and

d i s t r ib u t io n

Cost of uniform borne
by—
Em­
ployee

16
12
8

28
53
6

of

cost

and

Cost of maintenance
borne by—

Com­ Jointly Em­
pany
ployee

145
46
11

95

C O N D IT IO N S

Com­
pany

Jointly

22
18
5

26
11
5

141
82
15

In several of the plants shown as sharing the cost, the firm and
employee each supplied certain articles. In a few, the firm paid the
entire cost for female employees, but only a part or none of the cost for
male employees.
The cost of providing and servicing uniforms varies widely with the
type of clothing worn, ranging from a few dollars to more than $100
a year. Tw o types of service are used, one being service from rental
agencies which includes maintenance of the clothing, and the other
outright purchase of the uniforms by the employee or firm, with
separate maintenance. A t most plants, particularly for the male
workers, the uniforms are purchased. This is apparently the more
costly method if uniforms are laundered outside the home. ^ A com­
parison of average annual cost per employee of providing uniforms by
the two types of services is shown in table 51.
T

a ble

51 . —

E s t i m a t e d a n n u a l p e r -c a p it a c o st o f u n i f o r m s a n d th eir m a i n t e n a n c e
f o r ea ch c la ss o f w o r k e r , 1 9 3 ^

Average estimated annual per-capita cost of—
Class of workers

Uniforms
All uni­ rented and
forms plus maintained Purchase of
mainte­
uniforms
through
nance 1
laundry
service

Bake-shop employees, male_________________________
$33. 69
_______________________ female
24.80
Bake-shop employees,
45. 97
Driver-salesmen and chauffeurs_____________________
25. 69
Retail-store clerks___________________ ______________

$29.48
33.34
43.12
24.52

$8.35
4.03
24.04
7.18

Mainte­
nance of
uniforms

$25.26
11.40
21.83
20.28

* This includes both the cost of uniforms rented and maintained through laundry service and those
purchased and maintained separately. Each estimated annual figure was weighted by the number of
employees represented.

The initial expense of white cotton clothes of the type used in bake
Bhops is small, but the cost of keeping them clean is of some impor­
tance. T he cost of laundering such uniforms was estimated at 50
cents or more per week for approximately half of the bake-shop
employees, and at 25 cents or more for very nearly all classes of work­
ers. Table 52 shows the distribution of employees according to
weekly per-capita maintenance cost of uniforms.




96

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

T able

52 .—

D istr ib u tio n

o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to w e e k l y
u n ifo r m m a in ten a n c e, 1 9 8 4

p e r -c a p i t a

co s t o f

Number of employees whose weekly per-capita cost of
uniform maintenance was—
Total

Class of workers

4, 553
2,295
2,228
30

All workers..........
Bakers..... .............
Driver-salesmen..
Retail-store clerks.

75 cents $1.00
Under 25 and 50 and
and
and
under under
25 cents 50 cents 75 cents under under
$1.00
$1.25

$1.25
and
under
$1.50

140
136

108
108

530
133
394
3

2,134
1,205
906
23

1,159
649
510

457
39
418

$1.50
and
over

25
25

"T

Working Time and Shifts
Unlike the even distribution of man-hours found in m any indus­
tries, the baker’s time m ust follow the order of manufacture of the
product. H is hours vary widely in different plants, and even in the
same shop on busy or slack days of the week. The number of bakings
per day, duration of fermentation (which is faster or slower with
different methods used), type of plant equipment, and peculiarities
of the firm’s particular market all go to place a demand on the indus­
try for constant variability and adaptation. Because of the extreme
irregularity of the starting and quitting hours of individual bake-shop
employees and the overlapping of processes in terms of operating
time, it is difficult to arrive at a weighted or composite average of
daily peak load or slack for the industry, or even for individual plants.
There is, of course, in each shop a work schedule of hours, which is
adhered to more or less regularly. T he schedules of three small bake
shops, given in table 53, illustrate the wide variations among shops.
T

a b l e

53 . —

S t a r t i n g t i m e b y k in d o f w o r k i n 3 b a k e s h o p s

Item

Hour of beginning
work

Shop no. 1, mechanical bakery, with
1 shift.

1:30 p. m................. ....
2:00 p. m....... ..............
7:30 p. m____________
8:00 p. m .....................
8:30 p. m___....... .........
10:00 p. m_...................
9 a. m. and 9 p. m.......
2 p. m. and 2 a. m.......
4 p. m. and 4 a. m.......
6 p. m. and 6 a. m____
8 p. m. and 8 a. m.......
1 p. m. and 8 p. m___
2 p. m. and 9 p. m___
3 p. m. and midnight..

Shop no. 2, mechanical bakery, with
2 shifts.

Shop no. 3, handicraft bakery, with
2 shifts.

Class of workers
Ingredient scalers.
Mixers.
Dividers.
Molders and bench hands.
Ovenmen.
Wrappers.
Mixers.
Machine hands.
Ovenmen.
Wrappers.
Packers.
Second hands (mixer).
First hands (foreman and ovenman).
Third hands (bench men).

In large bakeries where there is more division of work and several
doughs are baked each day in continuous operation, the typical sched­
ule is an extreme use of the stagger system , with employees coming to
work and leaving for home in a continuous procession with each hour
of the day and night.
A number of the larger bakeries have worked out a fairly uniform
shift system. T he use of shifts of workmen, who report for work in
reasonably uniform relays, was reported by 36.5 percent of the bak­
eries. In these shops, the two-shift basis was the rule, but a few




PE R SO N N E L

P O L IC IE S

AN D

W O R K IN G

C O N D IT IO N S

97

operated three and four shifts. These do not include plants in which
workmen in the same occupations start work at irregular hours
throughout the day, nor those in which a cake department m ay work
one set of hours, a pie department another, and a bread department still
another, even though the plant is operating 24 hours per day. Such
shops are considered as working one shift of staggered hours. R ota­
tion of hours for workmen on shift and staggered-hour systems is
apparently not practiced extensively.
A s already mentioned, daily hours in bake shops vary with week­
ends, holidays, and the midweek slack periods. A n effort has been
made by the industry, however, to iron out these weekly peaks and
lows. A sample of 44 different weekly schedules, taken from bakeries
of m any kinds, large and small, union and nonunion, showed that
half of them were able to maintain uniform daily work schedules
throughout the week. Some of the 44 shops worked regular em­
ployees 5 days a week, arranging a schedule of regular relief men, or
“ jobbers” , to cover the sixth employee-day as well as the extra hours
of rush periods.
The survey offered abundant evidence of broken shifts and chang­
ing hours from day to day, but the extent of these practices was not
determined. T he code provisions governing maximum daily and
weekly hours and a 6-day week doubtless had some effect, and numer­
ous union agreements were also of influence in standardizing working
time. The union agreements have been helpful in stabilizing the
workman’s day by defining his hours of starting and finishing, to be
altered only on specified days, by providing for 1 day off per week
which is not subject to change, by regulating the amount of permissible
overtime, and by prohibiting excess overtime when “ jobbers” are
available. T hey have been influential in abolishing “ split shifts” by
requiring that the baker’s hours of labor be consecutive and fixing a
minimum length of time between shifts.
Driver-salesmen’s workdays are long, often beginning at dawn or
earlier in bakeries requiring them to put up their orders and load their
trucks. Off-duty periods during the day, however, afford some com­
pensation for the long hours. I t will be remembered that, with the
exception of providing a 6-day week, the code did not restrict the
hours of driver-salesmen (if paid on a commission basis). B u t in
m any bakeries their hours are defined and the schedule closely ad­
hered to.
Night Work
N ight work is still common in the baking industry, although a
struggle has been waged against it for a century. Some progress has
been made, however, and in a number of countries night work in
bakeries is now prohibited.
The prevalence of night work in American bakeries is evident from
the accompanying graph 9 which shows the hours of bake-shop oper­
ation 64 in 93 plants located in 28 States. These establishments em­
ployed 7 ,5 6 9 65 bake-shop employees. Their night hours of.operation
comprised 51.2 percent of total operation, and 45.9 percent of these
night hours were between midnight and morning. M ore than 25

6 T h e hours during w hich an y production w ork w as performed in the shop.
4

6 Although this sample covers less than 5 percent of all bake-shop employees as shown by the 1930 Census
5
the plants are well distributed with respect to location, size, kind of product, type of distribution, and
unionization.




98

W A G E S

A N D

H O U RS—

B R E A D -B A K IN G

IN D U S T R Y

percent of them were on 24-hour operation and an additional 30
percent operated 18 hours or more, while fewer than 11 percent of
them operated less than 12 hours. Approximately 82 percent of the
plants operated 6 or more hours between 6 p. m . and 6 a. m . In
only about one-third of the plants did the work end between 6 o'clock
in the morning and 6 o'clock at night. A large proportion of those not
on a 24-hour operating schedule stop work between midnight and
morning. Considering the fact that the majority of workmen do
not start their work until several hours after operations for the day
begin, it is evident that a very large proportion of bakers work while
the average person sleeps.
Only 31 of 248 shops reported premium rates for night work. These
included about half of the union shops. The extra rate paid to the
employees varied, ranging from 3 percent to 30 percent over the
day rate. In m any shops, the differential was paid only to certain
processing occupations m the bake shop. None of the nonunion
shops were paying punitive wages for night work. The definition
of “ night work” for purposes of paying the differential varies between
cities and between shops in the same city. M o s t plants considered
from 6 p. m . to 6 a. m . as night work, others from 8 p. m . to 4 a. m .,
9 p. m . to 5 a. m ., and 10 p. m . to 6 a. m .
Rest Periods, Holidays, Vacations, etc.
Approximately three-fourths of the bakeries made provision for
rest during a lunch period of definite length for at least a part of
their workmen, although only two-thirds of the shops extended this
privilege to bake-shop employees. Bakers in the other shops re­
mained on duty for the entire unbroken^ period of their workday,
and ate lunch “ on the jo b .” This practice was found in all types
of plants, but it was m ost prevalent in the smaller independent
nonunion shops, of which only 67 percent allowed the time free
from duty, as compared with 83 percent of the union shops and
77 percent of all bakeries. M a n y union agreements provide for a
lunch period and usually specify whether or not the time shall be
counted as a part of the employee's regular hours of work. This
survey did not yield information with regard to plant practice in
paying for lunch periods.
T he usual length of the lunch period for the shop, maintenance,
and service workmen was one-half hour, this length allowed by twothirds of the plants, and m ost of the others allowed 1 hour. Office
employees have regular lunch periods of 1 hour in the m ajority of
plants. Driver-salesmen are usually free to fix the time and length
of their noon-day rest as their work permits, although a few shops
fixed the amount of time they should take.
Short formal rest periods, aggregating from 20 to 30 minutes a day,
in addition to the lunch time were allowed production and shipping
employees in one plant, woman workers in two, and office employees
in one. A ll of these rest periods were on company time.




P E R SO N N E L

P O L IC IE S

AN D

W O R K IN G

C O N D IT IO N S

99

H oliday observance is general throughout the baking industry.
The extent to which the principal holidays were observed is indicated
by the following tabulation:
N u m b er
o f b a k eries
ob servin g

C h r is t m a s D a y _____________________________________________________
230
T h a n k s g iv in g D a y _____________________________________________________ 2 0 4
I n d e p e n d e n c e D a y _____________________________________________________ 2 0 2
N e w Y e a r ’ s D a y ____ 1 _________________________________________________ 192
L a b o r D a y ______________________________________________________________ 160
D e c o r a t io n D a y ________________________________________________________ 132

The reports indicate some 13 additional holidays observed to a
lesser degree. N o holidays were observed in 19 shops, only Christmas
D a y in 16, and only Labor D a y in 1. The remaining plants allowed
their employees from 2 to 11 holidays annually.
T he baker’s holiday is usually celebrated the day, or night, before
the holiday, and, if it falls on a Saturday or M on d ay, he m ay lose
the day off entirely or have another day substituted. Sometimes
the bakery operates a short day, usually a half day, or runs with a
reduced force of employees alternating holidays or being given other
days off instead. A s every holiday is normally a rush period among
bakeries, it is not strange that m any plants are unable to grant the
day off to all employees. In union agreements holiday observance
is usually provided for specifically.
Practices with regard to paying employees for time off on holidays
vary considerably. In 93 percent of the shops included in the
survey, payment to part or all of the force was found. Salaried
employees generally suffered no deduction, and regular bake-shop
workers received their full-time wage in 60 percent of the shops.
The composite average for all bakeries shows that approximately
half of all employees were paid in full for holidays and half took
the time off at their own expense.
Vacations with pay for wage earners are more common in the
baking industry than in m any other industries. This is no doubt
largely due to the permanence of employment and the closeness of
personal contact between workmen and management. Vacations for
all employees were provided by 12 percent of the plants reporting,
and an additional 36 percent gave vacations to certain groups.
These were for the most part vacations with full pay. Processing
employees were granted vacations by 16 percent of the bakeries,
driver-salesmen by 21 percent, retail-store clerks by 16 percent, and
supervisory and office employees by 44 percent.
The practice of giving vacations was relatively more prevalent in
chain-store bakeries than in either the m ulti-State or independent
local shops. Two-thirds of the chain-store plants gave vacations to
all of their employees, whereas this was true of only 9 percent of
the bakeries in the m ulti-State and local independent groups. H ow ­
ever, 70 percent of the m ulti-State and 29 percent of the local inde­
pendent shops gave some vacations. Northern plants in general were
more liberal in this respect than southern establishments, 14 percent
giving vacatious to all and 41 percent to part of their employees.
A m on g the southern shops canvassed, only 5 percent gave vacations
to all and 21 percent to a part of their workers.
The length of vacation was 1 week in approximately 60 percent of
the plants, and the majority of the others gave 2 weeks. Graded




100

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

plans, with the length of vacation based on length of service, were
used in 11 plants.
^
A minimum service of 1 year was the usual eligibility requirement
for vacations in 83 firms reporting.
Other service requirements
ranged from 1 to 5 years, but 12 percent of the plants made no service
requirement.
Continuation of wages during short periods of illness was the
practice in 37 percent of the bakeries surveyed. A ll employees bene­
fited in one-eighth of the shops, and only certain groups, usually
the office and supervisory employees, in one-fourth of them. A s
with vacations, this practice was followed by a larger proportion of
the multi-State and chain-store establishments than local independent
bakeries. Similarly, the northern plants were more liberal than
those in the South.
Policies regarding maximum length of sick leave and minimum
service for eligibility were not so well defined as were those for vaca­
tions. T he m ajority of plants decided each case on its merits. In
shops having a definite policy, however, the maximum^ sick leave
usually allowed was 1 week. T he reports regarding service require­
ments were too few to warrant conclusions, but the range of service
reported was from 1 m onth to 1 year.
Welfare Work
Elaborate welfare programs are not common among plants in
the bread-baking industry, except in larger establishments and
branches of large organizations like the m ulti-State and chain-store
groups. T h e welfare activities include safety programs, employee
insurance, and social or recreational work.
Safety programs, additional to the usual provision of first-aid kits,
safety posters, and machine guards, were found in 77 percent of the
multi-State plants, 42 percent of the chain-store bakeries, and in
19 percent of the local independent establishments. The programs
were directed by executives or foremen (in four plants by safety
engineers), were subject to regular committee meetings of super­
visors and employees, and called for periodic inspections, investiga­
tion of accidents, and recommendation for elimination of hazards.
Several programs provided for special instruction of employees in
safety and in some instances rewards for the avoidance of accidents.
A bout 60 percent of the employees surveyed were protected by
insurance under company plans. For virtually all of these workers,
the protection was provided by means of group life insurance. M a n y
of the policies provided nonoccupational accident, disability, and
health benefits. Insurance plans were found in 36 percent of all
plants surveyed, m ost frequently in m ulti-State and chain-store
organizations. T he costs were borne jointly b y company and
employees at m ost establishments, only 4 plants in 94 requiring the
employees to bear the entire expense. The firm paid the whole
cost in 13 plants. In some establishments, the company paid for
the life insurance and the employee for the other benefits, such as
health and accident. A n insurance-pension plan was reported by
one multi-State bakery, supported jointly b y the company and
employees. Another plant, a local independent, had an endowment
savings plan, likewise contributed to b y the firm and employees.




101

PERSONNEL POLICIES AND WORKING CONDITIONS

Table 54 shows the occurrence of insurance plans by type of bakery
and form of insurance.
T able

54 . —

In su r a n c e fo r ba k ery e m p lo yee s, 1 9 3 4

Total number of—

Kind of bakery

Number with
insurance

Number of plants having each
specified kind of insurance

.Em­
Em­
Com­
ploy­ Com­
ploy­
pa­ Plants ees
pa­ Plants ees Life
nies
cov­ nies
cov­
ered
ered

En­
Dis­
Pen­ dow­
abil­ Acci­ Health sions ment
dent
ity
sav­
ings

All bakeries_________

222

258 20,814

64

94 12,420

93

36

40

41

1

Independent local *_
_
Multi-State.................
Chain store.................

189
24
9

193 11,385
53 8,619
12
810

44
15
5

46 4,632
40 7,100
8 f 688

45
40
8

10
21
5

9
27
4

7
30
4

i

1
1

* Includes local retail and house-to-house, local wholesale, and multiple-unit retail establishments.

Mutual-benefit associations were found in 17 plants. Some of
these were partially supported by the company. Their services
embraced such features as hospitalization and other health benefits,
emergency financial aid, and social and recreational activities. Some
also engaged in group insurance.
Social and recreational activities, usually in the form of entertain­
ments, outings, banquets, dances, and subsidized baseball and other
athletic teams, were included in the welfare programs of 45 of the
plants surveyed.




Appendix I.—Technological Processes and Glossary of
Occupations
P art 1
Technological Processes
The description of technological processes given here is intended to
make for a better understanding of the various occupations involved
in the making of bread, cake, and pies. Due to the fact that bakeries
vary all the way from the handicraft shop, with a minimum amount of
machinery, to the highly mechanized plant, where virtually all opera­
tions are done by machines, it is difficult to present a description that
will fit every establishment. Accordingly, an attem pt is made here
only to trace in a general way the manufacture of bread, cake, and
pies from the initial to the final stages, pointing out in each of the
processes the methods used in hand and machine baking.
(See
chart 10.)
B re a d M a k in g

The processes involved in the making of bread are flour blending,
mixing, fermentation, dividing or scaling and rounding, proofing,
molding or shaping, baking, cooling and wrapping, and delivery. The
description of each of these processes is as follows:
Flour blending.— Blending consists of mixing two or more kinds of
flour, usually those made from hard and soft wheats but often also
those of varying qualities of the same wheat. The old-tim e baker
used only one kind of flour, not knowing the value of blending several
varieties, but at present this process is almost universal. Small
bakeries ordinarily buy blended flour, but the larger ones do their
own blending. The blending is done on the basis of a desired formula,
which has been evolved from previous tests of various kinds of flour,
showing the chemical and physical reactions of the several grades
when combined with other ingredients. In the larger bakeries, the
sacks of selected kinds of flour are brought from storage by hand
truckers, opened, and then dumped into the various hoppers of the
blending machine, under the direction of the blender. This machine
thoroughly mixes the various kinds of flour, after which the blended
flour is conveyed to the sifting machine. The purposes of sifting are
to remove any foreign particles such as cord or string, lint, and splinters,
to break up any lumps, and to lighten and aerate the flour. Upon
completion of the sifting, the flour is conveyed to the storage bins,
which are usually located directly above the mixing room.
Mixing.— In the old days the flour was weighed by hand scales and
then mixed with other ingredients (lard, eggs, yeast, sugar, water, etc.)
in troughs by hand or with hand paddles. A t the present time, a
mixing machine is used. The blended flour is drawn off from the
102




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00

104

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

storage bins b y the mixer, who sets the automatic scales for the desired
quantity, thus permitting the correct amount of flour to drop into the
dough-mixing and kneading machine. The other ingredients are then
added b y the mixer, or the helper under his direction, in accordance
with the prescribed formula. T he necessary period of operation of the
mixing machine is controlled by the mixer, the length of time being
based either on his experience and judgm ent or on a definite number of
revolutions, as determined b y laboratory tests for specific kinds of
bread. Certain machines m ay be set, so that they will automatically
stop after a given number of revolutions. Some mixing machines are
also equipped with water jackets, which are heated to a specific tem ­
perature suitable to start yeast fermentation during the mixing opera­
tion, thus reducing by several hours the usual period of fermentation.
In some bakeries, instead of adding each of the other ingredients
separately, they are combined into an emulsion or sponge b y a special
worker known as the sponger. The sponging is done in a v at other
than the mixing machine, after which the proper amount is dumped
into the latter.
D ue to the more thorough kneading the dough receives in the m e­
chanical mixer, the absorption is increased and more loaves of bread
per barrel of flour are produced than when mixed by hand. The
mechanical mixer also increases m any times the quantity of output per
man-day. Lastly, it eliminates the unsanitary conditions prevailing
under hand kneading.
Fermentation.— A study of yeast and its effect on dough under
various temperatures and humidity has changed the process of fer­
mentation from the former “ trust to luck” plan, under which flour
sacks or a blanket were thrown over the dough, to a system whereby
the dough is placed in a specially constructed fermentation room with
control of temperature and humidity.
The fermentation room is usually constructed with double walls and
windows. The temperature is controlled b y means of a thermostat,
and humidifiers are used to maintain the desired moisture content of
the air. In certain plants there has been installed equipment for
washing the air, which transfers the air from the outside into the dough
room at the precise degree of temperature and humidity necessary to
assure perfect fermentation and rising.
The dough in the mixing machine is mechanically dumped by the
mixer into a long trough set on rollers which m ay be hand-pushed or
conveyed b y an overhead-trolley system into the fermentation room.
In some bakeries, however, the fermentation room is located ju st below
the mixing room, and the dough is dumped through an opening in the
floor directly into a trough located underneath. In the fermentation
room, the dough is allowed to rise for a definite period of time.
Dividing, scaling, and rounding.— In handicraft days, when the
work of kneading a batch of dough and the fermentation or rest
period was completed, the bench hands or hand bakers, as they
were called, used cutters to divide the dough into pieces of correct
size (determined b y scales) for a loaf of bread. Other bench hands
rounded these pieces into shape and placed them in pans. T hey
were assisted b y helpers, whose job consisted of putting the pans on
racks, pushing them into a proofing room for the dough to rise again,
and bringing other em pty pans to the bench hands. Some bench




APPENDIX I

105

hands are still employed, particularly in bakeries making specialty
goods.
The duties of the above workers, however, have been virtually
eliminated by a combination of two machines, known as the divider
or scaler and rounder, which are connected by belt conveyors. The
dough from the fermentation room is directed through a metal chute
into the automatic dividing machine, which cuts it into pieces of
uniform weight and size for each loaf of bread. Each dough piece
is then carried along by a belt conveyor to the rounding machine,
which gives it a kneading and turning action similar to that given
by a hand worker. The pieces are automatically dusted with flour
while in the machines. The operator of these machines is known
as the divider or scaler and rounder.
Proofing .—As the dough pieces come out irom the rounding ma­
chine, they are next subjected to another rest period for rising or
proofing, in order that the cells ma^ develop. One method involves
the use of a proofing room which is maintained at a specific tem­
perature and humidity. The dough pieces are first placed in pans,
which task is performed by the proofer. The latter is assisted by a
helper, whose job consists of supplying the racks with empty pans
and pushing the racks of filled pans in and out of the proofing room.
Another method consists of the use of a cabinet, pivoted to a base
so that it may be revolved, and with drawer compartments on all
sides arranged one above the other. The proofer picks up the pieces
of dough, as they fall from the rounding machine, and places them
in the drawers of the proofing cabinet. The work of the helper con­
sists here of opening and closing the drawers. When the proofing
is completed, the dough is removed by the proofer to pans on movable
racks, which are pushed by the helper to the molding machine. A
third method involves the use of an automatic proofer. The pieces
of dough from the rounding machine are delivered automatically in
buckets by a conveyor to a traveling proofing cabinet, where they are
carried back and forth through an enclosure maintained at a specific
temperature and humidity. The speed controls of this system may
be varied to any desired time of proofing. At the end of the process,
the dough pieces are automatically delivered to the molding machine.
M old in g or shaping .—Molding consists of giving the final shape to
the dough in forming the loaf. This shaping was done by the hand
bakers under the handicraft system, but it is now carried out almost
universally by a special molding machine. The shaping in the
machine is accomplished by means of feed rolls, spaced at specified
distances apart, which flatten the dough and remove some of the gas
from it. The dough next passes along to other rolls that further
flatten and shape it to correct loaf form. The pieces of dough are
now ready to go to the steam-proofing room, where they remain for
a short rest period before being removed to the oven. The machine
is operated by a molder and helpers.
B a kin g .—The baking may be done in one of several types of ovens,
which are described as follows:
P e e l o v e n s o f a s t a t i o n a r y t y p e are so constructed that the heat in the back of
the oven is less intense than in the front, because the dough placed in the rear is
the first to be put in and the last to be taken out. The heat in these ovens is
sometimes regulated by control dampers. An implement with a long handle
102745°—37---- 8




106

WAGES AND HOURS— DREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

and broad, thin, shovel-like end, known as a peel, is used by the baker to place
the dough into the oven and to remove the baked bread.
P e e l o v e n s o f a r o t a r y t y p e consist of a circular baking platform, which is rotated
in a circular wall of masonry, with an opening through which the dough pieces,
pies, cakes, etc., are placed inside by use of a peel and when baked removed by
the same means. Some types of rotary ovens are provided with a mechanical
device to assist in unloading. Any bakery products in the oven may be rotated
to the oven door for inspection or removal at any time.
R e e l o v e n s usually contain from 4 to 12 swinging shelves, rotating in the oven
in a manner similar to a Ferris wheel. They are generally used for such products
as cakes, cookies, pies, etc., which are usually placed into the oven as well as
removed from it by means of a short-handled peel or asbestos gloves.
D r a w p la te o v e n s are equipped with sliding plates or trays mounted on wheels,
which rest on the floor of the room outside of the oven. The trays are drawn
out with the end resting on the edge of the oven, loaded with pans of dough,
and returned into the oven for baking.
T r a v e l in g o v e n s are used for large production.
The dough is fed in at one end
on an endless conveyor, which pafcses slowly through a heated compartment and
discharges the baked bread from the rear. These ovens may be fed by hand or
an automatic conveyor, depending on the equipment of the plant.
In the hand-fed type of oven, racks of dough-filled pans are pushed to the
oven, after which the pans are placed on the apron of the conveyor in front of
the oven, which automatically carries them through the oven. As the pans are
discharged from the oven at the back, the bread is dumped by hand on conveyor
belts for the cooling process.
Under the automatic conveyor each dough piece is carried from the molder
machine by a belt conveyor and dropped into a waiting pan. The pan is mechan­
ically pushed along, and another empty pan takes its place in position to receive
the next piece of dough. This process is continued until a specified number of
these pans have been pushed to a place directly in front of the opening of the
steamproofing compartment, where the dough gets another short rest period for
rising purposes, after which the mechanical device pushes each group of doughfilled pans into the oven.
The oven conveyor carries the dough-filled pans through a space of 100 or
more feet heated by gas or other means. Steam injectors are used in some ovens
near the place where the dough enters to prevent too rapid drying. The temper­
ature of the oven and speed of the conveyor are under thermostatic control, so
arranged that the dough will be thoroughly baked when it reaches the rear of
the oven, where it is automatically pushed out.
Each type of oven is usually attended by an ovenman and helpers.

Cooling and wrapping.— In a handicraft or partially mechanized
plant, the freshly baked bread is removed by peel from the oven,
dumped from the pans on a table, and placed by hand on racks to
cool before being taken to the wrapping room. In a thoroughly
mechanized plant the freshly baked bread is discharged in a con­
tinuous stream from the rear of the traveling oven and dumped from
the pans by hand on the apron of the cooling conveyor, which auto­
matically carries it back and forth a specified number of times
through the cooling air of the plant or through a specially con­
structed air-cooled compartment. This conveyor then discharges
the load of cooled bread in the wrapping room. The em pty pans
are placed on another conveyor, which carries them to a machine by
which the pans are automatically cleaned and greased, after which
they are carried by a conveyor belt back to the molding machine to
start another journey.
A large amount of the bread is now sliced and wrapped. There is
very little slicing and wrapping done by hand, most of it being per­
formed by automatic machines, although some of the machines are
hand-fed. In the highly mechanized bakery, however, the bread
from the cooling conveyor system is carried by a conveyor belt




APPENDIX I

107

directly into a machine, which automatically slices, wraps, and seals
each loaf at a speed of 3,000 or more per hour, or only wraps and
seals it, depending on the requirements of the customer.
Delivery.— In the early days bread was carried by delivery boys on
foot from door to door in hand baskets. Later the delivery of bread
was made by horse and wagon, but this method has now been largely
displaced by the automobile. W ith the building of improved roads,
bakery products of all kinds are at present delivered daily by driversalesmen to surrounding towns and cities and many miles into country
districts.
In a highly mechanized bakery, flour enters the blending hoppers,
and, with water and other ingredients, goes through the mixer,
divider or scaler and rounder, conveyor proofer, molder, and oven, all
connected and operated by synchronized motors with chain belts so
speeded that the pieces of dough from each machine will automatically
pass into the next, and finally come out of the traveling oven in the
form of bread, which is sliced, wrapped, and eventually delivered to
the consumer, practically free from the touch of human hands.
In such a bakery, producing 600 or 700 loaves of bread per hour and
employing only one person at the feed end of the traveling oven and
one or two at the delivery end, with an occasional person at other
automatic machines to see that they are operating correctly, with a
few helpers scattered here and there, it can readily be seen that,
although some skilled workers are employed, m any others have been
eliminated.
Cake Making
In the early days of cake making, as in the case of bread, the flour,
sugar, butter, etc., were each weighed out on hand scales, placed in
mixing bowls, and stirred with wooden paddles or b y hand. Under
present methods, the various ingredients are weighed or measured
according to formula and poured in their proper order into a powerdriven mixing machine. This material, when thoroughly mixed, is
known as batter. The next process is that of batter scaling. The
newly mixed batter is poured into the hopper of a machine, which is
operated by two persons, one placing the em pty pans under the batterdepositing device, and the other regulating the machine to deposit a
specified quantity of batter in each pan. The correct working of the
machine is checked by occasionally weighing a filled pan. The
filled pans are removed and placed on movable racks, which are pushed
to the ovens. The methods of baking are the same as that for
bread.
The icing for a cake is prepared in a similar machine as that used in
mixing cake batter. The work of spreading this icing smoothly upon
layers of cake, or over the tops and around the sides, is known as
finishing. This is done by hand, with the aid of a frosting spatula,
although machines are used for spreading the icing over the tops of
some grades of cake or bread.
Pie Making
One of the m ost skilled, as well as m ost difficult, operations in the
making of pies, is that of rolling by hand, with the aid of a rolling pin,
the bottom and top crusts to the correct thickness. The difference




108

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

between hand and machine work is strikingly illustrated by a state­
ment inserted in the catalog of a pie-crust-rolling-machine manu­
facturer, which reads as follows: “ A n experienced, high-priced baker
can roll only about 125 crusts per hour. W ith the rolling machine
any boy or girl at low wages can do this work at the rate of at least
1,200 per hour.” Another of the problems of pie making is the
depositing of the “ filling” , for some types, such as custard and pump­
kin pies. This is done after the pie shells are placed in the oven. B y
the old method, the baker used a long handled dipper, frequently
spilling part of the contents on the oven floor. Under the newer
method, pie “ filling” is supplied to the pie shells in the oven through
a long pipe, connected by hose from a supply tank, the contents of
which are kept in circulation b y a motor-driven pump. The supply
pipe is equipped with a valve controlled b y a trigger, which when
pressed discharges the correct amount of “ filling” for each pie. Other
special machines are used to trim and mark the edge of the pies much
more rapidly than can be done b y hand.
In some pie plants an automatic machine is used for rolling the
crust, crimping, trimming, etc. This machine is operated by five
attendants, each being stationed at a given point about the machine
and performing specific duties as it rotates. T he bottom crust is
rolled on the first crust roller, the pan containing the bottom crust is
placed in the carrier of the machine, and the edge of the bottom
crust is automatically moistened. “ Filling” is then put in, and,
as the pie passes the second or top roller, the top crust is rolled,
stamped, and put in place. The edges of the pie are next automatically
trimmed and crimped, and the completed pie, which requires one full
rotation of the machine, is discharged onto a conveyor or turntable,
ready for the oven. The speed of these machines is such that they
have a capacity of as m any as 15 to 30 pies per minute, or an average
of approximately 1,500 to 3,000 pies per attendant in an 8-hour day,
as compared with an estimated output of 350 to 450 pies for the same
period by a skilled hand worker.
P art 2
Glossary of Occupations
N ew occupational terminology emerges with each division of labor.
This is especially true during periods of rapid mechanization. A l­
though occupational terms have a tendency toward uniformity,
quite often they will differ not only from one locality to another but
also from one plant to the next. This accounts for the multiplicity
of terms in the baking industry.
T he occupational terms listed below have been found in the various
plants visited by the field representatives of the Bureau. For glossary
purposes, nearly all of these have been described here, irrespective of
the number of employees found under each term. In those instances
where the same work was performed under two or more occupational
names, the description is given under the m ost common term, with
the proper cross-references made under the other terms.
The last column in the glossary gives the occupational class in which
the occupation was included in the compilation of the wages and hours
data. W hen an individual occupation was used, the name of the




APPENDIX I

109

occupation is given; otherwise, there is presented the grouping in which
the occupation was included. This is done by means of a key, which
is as follows:
Direct labor, male:
Miscellaneous:
Skilled, D L -I.
Semiskilled, D L -II.
Unskilled, D L -III.
Indirect labor, male:
Maintenance and repair:
Skilled, M R -I.
Semiskilled, M R -II.
Service, unskilled, SE-III.
Supervisory, skilled, SU.
Miscellaneous:
Skilled, IL -I.
Semiskilled, IL -II.
Unskilled, IL -III.
Skill not specified.
Direct and indirect labor, female: Miscellaneous, skill not specified, MS.




Occupational Terms, Definitions, and Classification in the Baking
Industry
Plant occupational term

Accountant.

Apprentice.

Assistant foreman, work­
ing.
Assistant mixer................
Auditor__________ ______

Automobile mechanic____
Automobile
mechanic’s
helper.
Batter depositor_________

Batter mixer.
Batter scaler.

Batter scaler’s helper.
Belt man, conveyor..

Belt man, repairer----------Belt man’s helper, con­
veyor.
Bench baker’s helper_____

Description of work performed

Classified by Bureau
under—

Coordinates accounting records, prepares profit
and loss statements and balance sheets, and com­
piles reports required by executives of firm. May
also be in charge of accounting force.
A learner of direct labor, usually under contract for
specified number of years, performing work of
various bakery occupations under supervision of
journeyman baker.
A supervisor who also performs actual work, usually
direct labor.
(See Mixer’s helper).......... .........__________________
Makes investigations, revisions, and installations in
connection with new accounting systems; super­
vises work on cost accounting problems, inven­
tories-, and equipment records; and prepares fiscal
statements and reports.
Makes major and minor repairs to delivery trucks
of firm.
Semiskilled workman who assists automobile me­
chanic.
Assists in operation of batter depositing machine,
which automatically measures correct amount of
batter poured into each cake pan. This machine
is tended by two persons, one placing empty pans
beneath depositing device, and other regulating
quantity of batter going into pans, removing filled
pans, and placing them on racks. Occasionally,
the latter also weighs unit of batter deposit to
determine whether or not machine is scaling
correctly. These men may alternate on jobs.
(See Batter scaler.)
(See Cake maker.)

Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1 Fe­
male: (MS).

Supervises operation of batter depositing machine,
which automatically measures correct amount of
batter poured into each cake pan; regulates
quantity of batter going into pans; and occasion­
ally weighs or scales filled pans as batter is
dropped into them from depositing machine, to
determine whether latter is scaling correctly.
Assisted by batter scaler’s helper. These persons
take the place of two batter depositors found in
certain shops. (See Batter depositor.)
Supplies batter scaler with empty pans, places
filled pans on a rack and pushes rack to oven.
Works at end of belt or conveyor, which carries
bread from oven to wrapping room, removing each
loaf of bread from conveyor and placing it on
bread rack to cool before wrapping.
Installs and repairs power transmission belts
throughout plant.
Pushes racks, on which bread has been placed for
cooling, to wrapping table.
(See Bench hand’s or hand baker’s helper.)_______

Bench hand or hand baker. Kneads or pounds dough used in making rye or
Vienna bread or rolls; divides dough into pieces of
required weight for loaves of bread or rolls; rounds,
rolls, and molds these pieces into shape; and places
them in bread pans for baking.
Bench hand, pastry_____ (See Cake maker.).......................... .............................

Male: (DL-II).

Male: (SU).
Male: Mixer’s helpers.2
Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1 Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: (MR-1).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: Cake makers.

Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Male: Cake makers.3

Male: General helpers.
Male: (IL-III).

Male: (MR-II).
Male: General helpers.
Male: Bench hands’ or
hand bakers’ help­
ers.2 Female: (MS).
Male: Bench hands or
hand bakers.
Fe­
male: (MS).

Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Supplies bench hands or hand bakers with empty Male: Bench hands’
or hand bakers’ help­
bread pans, racks the dough-filled pans, and
ers.2 Female: (MS).
shoves them into the steam proofing room.
Billing clerk_____________ Makes out bills and statements to customers, Male and female: Office
clerks.4
keeps daily record of shipments, and may also
post accounts,
See footnotes at end of table.
Bench hand’s (or hand
baker’s) helper.

110




111

APPENDIX I

Plant occupational term

Blacksmith.
Blender___

B le n d e r ’ s h e l p e r . . ..............

B o o k k e e p e r , c le r ic a l_______

B o o k k e e p e r , e x p e r t _______

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p ­
era tor.
B o x m a k e r o r r e p a ir e r ______
B o x r e p a ir e r _________________
B r e a d d u m p e r ______________

B rea d d u m p e r an d r a c k e r ..
B r e a d d u m p e r ’ s h e lp e r _____
B r e a d ic e r ___________________
B r e a d p a c k e r ________________

B r e a d p a c k e r ’ s h e lp e r ...........
B r e a d r a c k e r ________________

B r e a d slic e r , a u t o m a t ic ____

B r e a d slice r, h a n d __________

B re a d w ra p p er, a u to m a tic.

B r e a d w r a p p e r , h a n d ______

B r ic k m a s o n _________________
B u n p a n n e r ___________ _____

B u y e r ________________________
C a b in e t m a n ________________
C a b in e t m a n ’ s h e lp e r ______

C a b in e t p r o o fe r _____________
C a k e d e c o r a t o r _____________

Description of work performed

Welds metal parts of machinery by hand, does horse­
shoeing on animals used for delivery, and some­
times repairs wagons.
Tends power-driven blending machine, which mixes
or blends different kinds of flour to secure required
mixture. Opens bags and dumps flour into ma­
chine, or operates slide which releases flour from
storage bins on floor above and allows it to pass
through chute into machine. May be assisted by
helpers.
Assists blender by placing bags of flour conveniently
near and helps dump them into hopper of ma­
chine.
Enters transactions in cash and ledger books, prepares
monthly statements to charge customers, makes
daily settlements with driver-salesmen, etc.
Coordinates records, makes general ledger entries,
prepares profit and loss statements and balance
sheets, and writes checks in payment of bills owed
by company.
Keeps record of charge accounts on bookkeeping ma­
chine, prepares monthly statements to be sent to
customers, etc.
Makes and repairs crates and boxes in which bread is
packed and shipped.
(See Box maker or repairer)____ ______ ___________
Dumps bread from pans as they come out of oven,
places empty pans on belt conveyor for return to
cleaning room, and frequently places bread on racks
for cooling before being wrapped.
(See Bread dumper)....... .................... ........................
Places loaves of bread on cooling rack and pushes lat­
ter into wrapping room after bread has cooled.
(See Icing-machine tender)..................................... .
Makes up orders of bakery products for driver-sales­
men or for shipment from bakery and places them
on racks, in baskets, or in shipping boxes.
(See Packer’s helper)____________________________
Places baked bread, after it has been dumped out of
pans, on rack or slow-moving conveyor for cooling
and shoves racks to wrapping room after bread is
cooled.
Feeds loaves of bread into machine, which automati­
cally slices, wraps and seals them, watches opera­
tion, and straightens loaves that are not going
through properly.
Feeds loaf of bread into slicing machine, which he
operates by hand. Another employee wraps and
seals each sliced loaf by hand, as it comes from ma­
chine.
Feeds loaves of bread into wrapping machine, which
may automatically slice as well as wrap and seal
them; watches operation; and straightens loaves not
going through properly.
Places each loaf of bread on sheet of paper of specific
size, and wraps and seals it by hand.
Uses stone, brick, or cement to form or repair floors,
foundations, walls, walks, etc.
Places rounded and molded pieces of bun dough, as
they come from molding machine, in pans for
baking.
Makes purchases of materials and supplies used in
operation of bakery.
Places pieces of dough, as they come from rounder,
in drawers of cabinet for proofing.
Assists cabinet man by opening and closing drawers
of proofer, loading dough on movable racks, and
pushing racks over to m older.
(See Cabinet man)______________________________
(See Decorator, cake)____ _______________________

Cake dumper___ ________

(See Dumper, cake)____ ____ ___________________

Cake finisher, hand______

Spreads filling and icing on cake by means of a flat
broad-bladed knife, known as spatula.

Cake finisher, machine___ (See Icing-machine tender).................... ............... .
See footnotes at end of table.




Classified by Bureau
under—
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (DL-II).

Male: General helpers.
Male and female: Office
clerks.4
Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1Female:
(MS).
Male and female: Office
clerks.4
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: Ovenmen’s help­
ers.
Male: Ovenmen’s help­
ers.
Male: Ovenmen’s helpMale: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: Bread packers.6
Female: (MS).
Male: (IL-III).
Male: Ovenmen’s help­
ers.
Male: Bread wrappers,
automatic. Female:
(MS).
Male: (DL-III). Fe­
male: Bread wrap­
pers, hand.
Male: Bread wrappers,
automatic. Female:
(MS).
Male: (DL-III). Fe­
male: Bread wrap­
pers, hand.6
Male: (MR-I).
Male: Molders.3 Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1
Male: (DL-II).
Male: General helpers.
Male: (DL-II).
Male: (DL-II).
Fe­
male: Cake finish­
ers.5
Male: Ovenmen’s help­
ers.
Male: (DL-II).
Fe­
male: Cake finish­
ers.5
Male: (DL-II).

112

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Plant occupational term

Cake froster_____________

Description of work performed

(See Cake finisher, hand)

Cake icer, hand................ . (See Cake finisher, hand)
Cake icer, machine_______ (See Icing-machine tender)------------------------- --------Cakeicer’s helper------------ (See Finisher’s helper, cake)______________________
Cake ingredient mixer.......

(See Cake maker)_______________________________

Cake ingredient mixer’s (See Cake maker’s helper)_______ ________________
helper.
Cake ingredient scaler....... (See Ingredient scaler)................... .............. ..............
Cake maker....... ................ Measures or weighs according to formula materials
used in preparation of cake, such as flour, sugar,
eggs, milk, etc., when this work is not done by in­
gredient scaler, and feeds them in proper order and
quantities into power-driven mixing machine.
Cake maker’s helper_____ Supplies cake maker with cake ingredients and
empty cakepans, places pans filled with batter
on racks, and shoves them over to oven.
Cake mixer______________ (See Cake maker)..................................... ...................
Cake ovenman__________
Cake ovenman’s helper—

(See Peel, reel, or draw-plate ovenman)----------------(See Peel ovenman’s helper)________________ _____

Cake packer_____________

Classified by Bureau
under—
Male: (DL-II).
Fe­
male: Cake finish­
ers.®
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: Cake finish­
ers.®
Male: (DL-II).
Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).
Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Male: Mixer’s helpers.*
Female: (MS).
Male: (DL-I).
Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).

Male: Mixers’ helpers.*
Female: (MS).
Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Male: Ovenmen.
Male: Ovenmen’s help-

(See Cake wrapper and packer)

Male and female: Cake
wrappers and pack­
ers.4
Cakepan cleaner-------------- (See Pan cleaner, hand)__________________________ Male: (IL-III).
Fe­
male: (MS).
Cakepan greaser_________ (See Pan greaser)________________________________ Male: Pan greasers.®
Female: (MS).
Cakepan liner___________ (See Pan liner)__________________________________ Male: (DL-II).
Fe­
male: (MS).
Cakepan washer_________ (See Pan washer)____ ___________________________ Male: (IL-III).
Cakepeeler______________ (See Peeler, cake)_______________________________ Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).
Cake wrapper and packer. Wraps cake in waxed paper, places label on package, Male and female: Cake
puts several packages in a box, stamps name of
wrappers and pack­
cake on latter and sends it to stock room.
ers.4
Car greaser______________ Oils and greases automobiles and changes motor oil__ Male: (MR-II).
Car washer______________ Washes and polishes bakery trucks and passenger Male: (MR-II).
Repairs and makes changes in structure of bakery
and constructs and repairs shipping boxes.
Assists carpenter in repair and upkeep of buildings
and does other related work under supervision.
Carton assembler------------- Opens and assembles cartons that are folded flat
when purchased.
Cashier_________________ Receives cash from driver-salesmen and credits
same to salesmen’s accounts; receives also order
sheets from driver-salesmen and assists in figuring
quotas.
Cement finisher__________ Lays or repairs cement or concrete walks, floors, etc.;
may also make repairs or aid in erection of bases for
machinery.
Chauffeur, driver________ Makes deliveries on rush orders, when no regular
special delivery driver is immediately available,
and drives officials on trips in passenger cars.
Checker_________________ Checks record showing kind and quantity of bakery
products that are taken out by driver-salesmen for
delivery to customers.
Cleaner, floors___________ Cleans and sweeps floors of plant_________________

Carpenter_______________

Male: (MR-I).

Carpenter’s helper_______

Male: (MR-II).

Cleaner, pan, hand_______ (See Pan cleaner, hand)__________________________
Cleaner, pan, machine____ (See Pan cleaner, machine)_________________ ___
Clerk, factory____________ Checks kinds and amount of materials and products
entering and leaving the various departments and
keeps individual time and production records.
Clerk, office_____________ (See Office clerk)___________ ____________________

Male: (MR-II).
Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1 Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: (MR-I).
Male: Chauffeurs and
drivers.1
Male and female: Of­
fice clerks.4
Male: (SE-III). Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: (IL-III).
Male: (IL-II).
Male and female: Of­
fice clerks.4

Coal wheeler____________

Male and female: Of­
fice clerks.4
Male: (IL-II).
Fe­
male: Store clerks.
Male: (IL-III).

Collector, route__________

Male: (IL-I).

Clerk, store____ _________

(See Store clerk)________________________________

Wheels coal from dump to boiler or may shovel it
onto conveyor.
Collects for sales of bakery products delivered by
driver-salesmen and not paid for at time of de­
livery.
Comptometer operator___ Operates comptometer to make or check computa­
tions in connection with time cards, bonus sheets,
and pay rolls, accounts receivable, etc.
See footnotes at end of table.




Female: Stenographers,
typists, telephone
operators, etc.®

APPENDIX I

Plant occupational term

Description of work performed

Conveyor man, belt_____
Conveyor man’s helper,
belt.
Cookie maker___________

(See Belt man, conveyor)_______
(See Belt man’s helper, conveyor).

Cookie maker’s helper___

(See Cake maker’s helper)

(See Cake maker)______________

113
Classified by Bureau
under—
Male: (IL-III).
Male: General helpers.

Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Male: Mixers’ helper.2
Female: (MS).
Cooling-machine operator. Places loaves of bread in automatic cooling machine.. Male: (IL-III).
Cost accountant_________ Figures and tabulates cost of production in various Male: Auditors, book­
departments and determines production bonuses.
keepers, etc.1
Cost clerk................. .......... Prepares, under supervision of cost accountant, Male and female: Of­
daily, monthly, or other detailed cost statements
fice clerks.4
from data supplied by various departments and
keeps cumulative records for checking costs against
current expenditures.
(See Box maker or repairer).............................. .......... Male: (MR-II).
Crate maker.
Crate repairer.
(See Box maker or repairer)_____________ _________ Male: (MR-II).
Cruller maker.
(See Doughnut-machine operator)....................... ...... Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
(See Doughnut-machine operator’s helper)
Cruller-maker’s helper.
Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).
Custard or soft-fillin g (See Pie-filling mixer)...................... .......................... Male: (DL-I).
mixer.
Cut-off dough man............ (See Dough cut-off man)............................................ Male: Mixers’ helpers.3
Decorator, cake.................. Uses cone-shaped bag fitted with nozzle or syringe, Male: (DL-II). Fe­
from which is squeezed icing to form decorative
male: Cake finish­
designs on cake.
ers.5
Deliveryman, not sales___ (See Special-delivery driver)...................................... Male: (IL-II).
Deliveryman, sales______ (See Driver-salesman).......... ......................... ............ Male:
Driver-sales­
men.
Demonstrator, advertising. Posted temporarily in store of retailer to give small Male: (IL-II).
Fe­
samples to customers, explain ingredients of prod­
male: (MS).
ucts, and distribute sales literature.
Depositor, batter________ (See Batter depositor)_____ _____ ________________ Male: Cake makers.3
Divider or scaler and Sets dividing or scaling machine for desired weight Male: Dividers or scal­
rounder.
of loaf of bread, turns on and off power that oper­
ers and rounders.3
ates machine, and occasionally weighs scaled pieces
of dough to ascertain whether machine is working
correctly; also tends conveyor and rounding ma­
chine, as each piece of dough is automatically
dropped by dividing machine onto conveyor,
which carries it to rounding machine to be rolled
and rounded.
Divider’s and molder’s (See Divider’s or scaler’s or rounder’s helper)______ Male: General helpers.
helper.
Divider’s or scaler’s and Assists divider or scaler and rounder in any capacity Male: General helpers.
rounder’s helper.
required, such as cleaning and keeping machines
in operating condition.
Dough cut-off man....... .
Cuts dough in troughs into convenient-sized pieces Male: Mixers’ help­
and dumps latter into the chute leading to divid­
ers.2
ing machine or make-up room.
(See Dough puncher)___________ ___________ ____ Male: Mixers’ help­
Dough kneader.
ers.2
Puts molded dough into oven pans and places latter Male: Molders.3 Fe­
Dough panner..
on racks.
male: (MS).
Punches down and kneads dough in troughs before Male: Mixers’ help­
Dough puncher.
it is dumped down chute leading to dividing ma­
ers.2
chine or make-up room.
Picks up pieces of dough from conveyor leading to Male: Molders.3 Fe­
Dough twister..
molding machine, twists them by hand to desired
male: (MS).
shape, and places them in oven pans for baking.
Dough-brake-machine op­ Feeds dough through various automatic rolls of Male: Molders.3
erator.
dough-brake machine, putting it each time into
machine at a different angle to even and strengthen
grain of mixture.
(See Doughnut-machine operator)............................ Male: Cake makers.3
Doughnut fryer.
Female: (MS).
Doughnut-machine opera­ Feeds sweetened dough into hopper of automatic Male: Cake makers.3
tor.
machine, which stamps out doughnuts; drops
Female: (MS).
latter into molten fat to fry; dumps them into
basket to cool and drain before wrapping and
packing.
Doughnut-machine opera­ Removes doughnuts from draining baskets, where Male: General helpers.
they have been dumped by machine, and delivers
Female: (MS).
tor’s helper.
them to wrappers and packers.
Doughnut man................. (See Doughnut-machine operator).............................. Male: Cake makers.3
Draw-plate ovenman____ Places pans of dough in drawers of oven, closes Male: Ovenman.
drawers, and, after baking is completed, pulls out
drawers and removes pans.
See footnotes at end of table.




114

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Plant occupational term

Description of work performed

Classified by Bureau
under—

Pushes racks of panned dough from proofing room Male: Ov enman’ s
to oven, takes pans of baked bread from ovenman
helpers.
to dump bread onto conveyor or place it on racks
for cooling, and sets empty pans on racks or con­
veyor for return to cleaner.
Driver-chauffeur, not sales. (See Chauffeur, driver)_______ ____________________ Male: Chauffeurs and
drivers.1
Driver-salesman_________ Travels over specified route or territory delivering Male: Driver-salesmen.
orders, collecting for sales, and soliciting new busi­
ness.
Driver-salesman’s helper. - Assists driver-salesman in loading truck and deliver- Male: (IL-III).
ing goods to customers.
Driver, truck________ . . . Loads truck with supplies or products and drives it Male: Chauffeurs and
from or to shipping terminal.
drivers.1
Dumper, bread__________ (See Bread dumper; also traveling-oven dumper) . . . Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
helpers.
Dumper, cake_____ ____ Dumps cake from pans, after cooling, onto conveyor Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
or table around which wrappers and packers or
helpers.
finishers work.
Dumper, rolls____ _______ (See Roll dumper)________________ _____ _________ Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
helpers.
Dumper, traveling oven... Stands back of traveling oven, dumping bread from Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
pans onto conveyor belt, which carries it to cooling
helpers.
racks, and places empty pans on another conveyor,
which takes them to cleaners.
Dumper’s helper_________ (See Bread dumper’s helper)_____________________ Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
helpers.
Egg breaker_____________ Breaks eggs by hand, separating yolks from whites, Male: (DL-1I).
and places each into machine, which beats them
for cake batter or icing.
Electrician______________ Installs and repairs electric apparatus and main- Male: (MR-I).
tains wiring system for lights and power.
Elevator man______ ____ _ Operates elevator used to convey up or down em- Male: (SE-III).
ployees and materials.
Engineer_____ ____ ____ _ Supervises operation and maintenance of electric- or Male: (IL-I).
steam-power equipment and stands regular watch;
may also do repair work.
Engineer, machinery re­ Repairs and maintains plant equipment other than Male: (MR-I).
pair.
electric motor-power machinery.
Errand boy._____ _______ Carries repair parts, supplies, orders, or instructions Male: (SE-III).
to and from various departments as directed.
Factory clerk____ _____ _ (See Clerk, factory)________ ______ _______ _ _
Male and female: Office
clerks.4
Feeder, traveling oven..
(See Oven feeder)
Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
helpers.
File clerk_______________ Indexes and files correspondence, reports, requisi­ Male and female: Office
tions, etc.; may also do typing and assist in minor
clerks.4
clerical duties.
Finisher, cake, hand___ . (See Cake finisher, hand)__________ . ______ . . .
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: Cake finishers.®
Finisher, cake, machine__ (See Icing machine tender).. ____________________ Male: (DL-II).
Finisher, pie_____ _______ Mixes meringue by hand or machine and spreads it Male: (DL-I).
on pies; may also spread strips of dough across face
of open pies.
Finisher’s helper, cake___ Supplies icing from mixing machine to finishers and Male: General helpers.
places finished cakes on racks or conveyors for de­
Female: (MS).
livery to wrapper and packer.
Fireman, oven___ _______ (See Oven fireman).............. ................. ...
Male: (DL-II).
Fireman, power-house. . . . Maintains steam pressure in boiler by hand firing, Male: (IL-II).
automatic stoking, or oil-burner operation; may
also maintain water level in boiler, which is ordi­
narily done by water tender.
Flour blender___ _ _____ (See Blender)................... .......................................
Male: (DL-II).
Flour blender’s helper.. . . (See Blender’s helper)_____
__________________ Male: General helpers.
Flour sifter______________ Operates power-driven sifting machine to remove Male: (DL-II).
any foreign substances from flour and to aerate it,
usually in connection with blending.
Foreman, assistant, work­ (See Assistant foreman, working)............................... Male: (SU).
ing.
Foreman, working_______ A supervisor who also performs actual work at any Male: (SU).
one of various machines; is frequently assisted by
a helper.
Fried-cake maker.............. (See Doughnut-machine operator)............ ...........
Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Fried-cake maker’s helper. (See Doughnut-machine operator’s helper)_________ Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).
Froster, cake... ________ (See Cake finisher, hand)
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: Cake finishers.®
Fruit cooker_____________ (See Pie-filling mixer)____________
________
Male: (DL-I).
Fruit mixer______________ (See Pie-filling mixer)________ .
_ _
Male: (DL-I).
Gang pusher................... . Sets pace for work and supervises gang in repairing, Male: (SU).
maintaining, or constructing equipment.
Draw-plate
helper.

ovenman’s

S ee f o o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .




115

APPENDIX I

Plant occupational term

Description of work performed

Gasman, filling station___

Services delivery trucks with oil and gasoline before
each trip of driver-salesman.
General all around helper.. Has no specific duties but assists at any machine or
in any job where help is needed.

(See General all around helper),__________________
Has no specific duties, but performs such work as
washing, cleaning, and racking pans and placing
racks conveniently for cake makers.
General helper___________ (See General all around helper)___________________
General machine helper___ (See General all around helper)___________________
Greaser_________________ (See Pan greaser or machine pan cleaner and greaser).
General bakery helper-----General cake-maker’s
helper.

Grinder , sugar___________
Hand baker----------- -------Hand baker’s helper.
Handyman, semiskilled.. .
Handyman, unskilled-----Helper, belt man’s, con­
veyor.
Helper, dough mixer_____
Horseshoer______________
leer, bread...... ...................

Classified by Bureau
under—
Male: (SE-III).
Male: General helpers.
Male: General helpers.
Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).

Male: General helpers.
Male: General helpers.
Male: Pan greasers.®
Female: (MS).
(See Sugar grinder)______________________________ Male: (DL-II).
(See Bench hand or hand baker)__________________ Male: Bench hands or
hand bakers. Fe­
male: (MS).
(See Bench hand’s or hand baker’s helper)
Male: Bench hands’ or
hand bakers’ helpers.
Female: (MS).
(See Utility man, semiskilled)____________________ Male: (MR-II).
Assists labor gangs where needed; and may sweep Male: (MR-II).
floors, wash windows, etc.
(See Belt man’s helper, conveyor)________________ Male: General helpers
(See Mixer’s helper)______
(See Blacksmith)_________
(See Icing-machine tender)

Male: Mixers’ helpers.2
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
leer, cake, hand-------------- (See Cake finisher, hand)..
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: Cake finish­
ers.®
(See Icing-machine tender)_______________________ Male: (DL-II).
leer, cake, machine...
(See Finisher’s helper, cake)______________________ Male: General helpers.
leer’s helper, cake---Female: (MS).
(See Icing maker)________________ ____ ____ ______ Male: (DL-I).
Icing beater________
Tends icing machine, which deposits layer of icing Male: (DL-II).
Icing-machine tender.
on bread, rolls or cakes; or may spread filling on
layer cakes as they pass on conveyor under aper­
tures of machine.
Feeds sugar, eggs, and other ingredients in proper Male: (DL-I) .
Icing maker.
order and quantity into a power-driven mixing
machine.
Places ingredients used in preparation of icings con­ Male: General helpers
Icing maker’s helper.
veniently near icing maker and takes prepared
icings to icer.
(See Icing maker)..................................... ...............
Male: (DL-I).
Icing mixer_______
(See Icing maker’s helper)— .................................... Male: General helpers
Icing mixer’s helper.
Weighs or measures, according to formula, ingredi­ Male: (DL-I).
Ingredient scaler—
ents, such as eggs, flour, sugar, milk, etc., used in
making batches of cake batter or icing.
Ingredient scaler’s helper.. Places ingredients, which are to be weighed or Male: Mixer’s help­
measured, conveniently near the ingredient scaler.
ers.2
Inventory clerk--------------- Keeps stock records, investigates discrepancies in Male: Office clerks.4
receipt of materials, and orders transfer of materials
from one plant to another; may have charge of
salvage sales.
Does general cleaning around plant, such as sweeping Male: (SE-III).
Janitor________
and scrubbing.
(See Dough puncher)------------- ----------------------------- Male: Mixers’ help­
Kneader, dough.
ers.2
Places union and trade-mark labels on loaves of Male: (IL-III). Fe­
Labeler________
bread in union shops, and, in other shops, attaches
male: (MS).
trade-mark seals on loaves of wrapped bread at a
point where the edges of the paper are brought
together.
Supervises work of unskilled laborers; may also do Male: (SU).
Laborer, boss.
actual work.
Laborer_____
Performs general unskilled work about plant, such as Male: Laborers.1
unloading supplies, stacking them in warehouse,
hand trucking, etc.
Liner, pan______________ (See Pan liner).____________________________ ____ Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
Loader, truck------------------ (See Truck loader)_________________________ _____ Male: (IL-III).
Machine cleaner-------------- Uses cotton waste to clean machine equipment; may Male: (MR-II).
also oil and grease machinery.
Machine mixer................. (See Mixer)...................................... ................... ........ Male: Mixers.3
Machine molder................ (See Molder)........................ ............... ....................... Male: Molders.3
Machine molder’s helper. _ (See Molder’s helper)__________________ __________ Male: General helpers.
Machine pan cleaner and Tends machine that scrapes from bread pans dried Male: (IL-II).
crusts, which form in them during process of bak­
greaser.
ing, and greases pans in one operation.
See footnotes at end of table.




116

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Plant occupational term

Description of work performed

Machine pan cleaner and
washer.

Tends machine equipped with revolving brushes
shaped to fit bread pans, which cleans out crust and
washes pans in one operation.
Sets up, adjusts, and repairs machinery and other
operating equipment.
Assists machinist in installation and adjustment of
machinery.
(See Brickmason)......... ........................ .......................
(See Machinist)_________________________________
(See Machinist’s helper)____ _____________________
(See Finisher, pie)----------------------------------------------(See Errand boy)_______ ________________________

Machinist______________
Machinist’s helper_______
Mason__________________
Mechanic_______________
Mechanic’s helper_______
Meringuer, pie__________
Messenger______________

Classified by Bureau
under—
Male: (IL-II).
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (DL-I).
Male: (SE-III).
male: (MS).
Male: (DL-II).
Male: Mixers.3

Fe­

(See Blender)------------- ------ -------------------------------Weighs or measures, according to formula, all in­
gredients that go into batch of dough, dumps them
into mixing machine, closes machine, turns on
power, and, after batch is mixed, turns off power.
In small bakeries, where no mixer’s helpers or
apprentices are employed, also punches down and
kneads dough and dumps it into chutes leading to
dividing machine or make-up room.
(See Cake maker.).................................... .......... ........ Male: Cake makers.3
Mixer, batter___
Female: (MS).
(See Icing maker)......... . . ......... ...... ..................... ...... Male: (DL-I).
Mixer, icing____
(See Mixer’s helper)_______ ____ ___ _______ ______ Male: Mixers’ helpers.2
Mixer’s assistant.
Assists mixer in dumping dough from mixing ma­ Male: Mixers’ helpers.2
Mixer’s helper...
chine into troughs, in punching and kneading
dough in troughs, and in dumping it into chute
leading to dividing machine or make-up room.
Mixing-machine operator. _ (See Mixer)............................................ ........... .......... Male: Mixers.*
Mixing-machine operator’s (See Mixer’s helper).................................................... Male: Mixers’ helpers.3
helper.
Molder or panner________ Tends molding machine and watches pieces of dough Male: Molders.*
falling from proofer into moulding machine and
from latter into baking pans, placing properly
those pieces which do not fall correctly. In bak­
eries not equipped with automatic machinery,
feeds pieces of dough by hand into molding ma­
chine, and, after molding, picks them up and
places them in baking pans.
Molder’s helper_________ Places empty bread pans conveniently near molder, Male: General helpers.
sets dough-filled pans on racks, and shoves loaded
racks into steam proofing room.
Multigraph operator_____ Operates multigraph machine to produce form letters Female: Stenogra­
and reports in large numbers; may also keep neces­
phers, typists, tele­
sary stocks of stationery, ink, etc.
phone operators, etc.«
Office boy______________
(See Errand boy)------ --------------------- ------------------- Male: (SE-III).
Office clerk_____________
Does general office work, such as filing, typing, oper­ Male and female: Of­
ating adding or calculating machine, etc.
fice clerks.*
Office manager__________ Supervises clerical routine of office; may also have Male: Auditors, book­
charge of office personnel, make incidental pur­
keepers, etc.1
chases, etc.
Oiler, machinery________ Oils motors, conveyors, and other plant machinery.. Male: (MR-II).
Operator, multigraph____ (See Multigraph operator)_____ ________________ _ Female: Stenogra­
phers, typists, tele­
phone operators, etc.*
Order clerk______________ Takes telephone orders, assembles, wraps, and packs Male: (IL-II).
them for delivery.
Oven dumper___________ (See Dumper, traveling oven)____________________ Male: Ovenmen’s help­
ers.
Oven feeder_____________ Under supervision of traveling ovenman, places pans Male: Ovenmen’s helpof dough on conveyor of traveling oven, which
carries them through the oven as they are being
baked.
Oven feeder, traveling (See Oven feeder)............................................ ............ Male: Ovenmen’s help­
oven.
ers.
Oven feeder’s helper_____ Pushes racks of dough-filled pans to oven and places Male: Ovenmen’s helpthem conveniently near oven feeder.
Oven fireman___ _______ Starts and maintains fires under oven; keeps burners Maie: (DL-II).
clean, if oil or gas is used; shovels coal into furnace,
if coal is used.
Ovenman.... ...................... (See Draw-plate ovenman, peel ovenman, reel oven­ Male: Ovenmen.
man, and traveling ovenman.)
Ovenman’s helper............. (See Bread dumper, bread racker, oven feeder, oven Male: Ovenmen’s help­
ers.
dumper, and peel ovenman’s helper.)
Packer, bread........... ........ (See Bread packer)..................................................... Male: Bread packers.®
Female: (MS).
Packer, cake____________ (See Cake wrapper and packer)................................. Male and female: Cake
wrappers and pack­
ers.4
See footnotes at end of table.
Mill operator____________
Mixer__________________




117

APPENDIX I

Plant occupational term

Classified by Bureau
under-

Description of work performed

Packer’s boy__ __________ Performs light work about packing department,
such as running errands, placing cartons, baskets,
etc., conveniently for packing, etc.
Packer’s helper.______
Supplies packer with baskets or shipping boxes and,
after they are filled, trucks them to delivery truck
loader or shipping room.
Packing-box maker______ (See Box maker or repairer)________
Packing-box repairer- __ (See Box maker or repairer)__________ _
Painter"__________ _ . _ Paints woodwork and equipment in plant; may also
paint and letter delivery trucks.
Painter’s helper_____ _. _ Removes old paint, cleans surfaces, passes materials
and equipment, etc.; may also do some painting.
Pan catcher_____________ Removes empty bread pans from conveyor as they
are returned from bread dumpers, and racks them
for delivery to pan cleaners and greasers.
Pan cleaner, hand_______ Uses scraper to remove dried crusts formed in oven
pans during baking.
Pan cleaner, machine. __
(See Machine pan cleaner and washer) _ _ ________
Pan greaser..______ ______ Greases pans to prevent dough from sticking while
baking and places pans on racks, either shoving
racks to molder or placing them on conveyor for de­
livery to molder.
Pan liner________ _____ Places in bottom and around rim of each pan a layer
of waxed paper to prepare pan for cake batter.
Pan paperer____________ (See Pan liner). ______ __________ ______ _______
Pan racker__________ _ _
Pan setter__________ __ _
Pan washer... _______ _
Panner, bun... _________

(See Molder’s helper)
_ _
__
(See Pan catcher)
__ _ _
_ _ .
.................... ...
Washes bread pans by hand...
(See Bun panner) .................... .................

Panner or molder. _ . _. ..

(See Molder)_________________ _______ _

Paper peeler, cake_______

(See Peeler, cake)_________________ _____

Pastry maker__________ _ (See Cake maker)
Pastry maker’s helper.__

_____

__ __
______
____

(See Cake maker’s helper)________________________

Pastry mixer____________

(See Cake maker)____________ ______ _____ ___ ___

Pastry mixer’s helper____

(See Cake maker’s helper)_ _ __ ______ _
_

Paymaster.

_ ..........

Male: (IL-III).
Male: (IL-III).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (IL-III).
Male: (IL-III).
Male: (IL-II).
Male: Pan greasers.®
Female: (MS).
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: General helpers.
Male: (IL-III).
Male: (IL-III).
Male: Molders.3 Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: Molders.3 Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).
Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Male: Mixers’ helpers.2
Female: (MS).
Male: Cake makers.3
Female: (MS).
Male: Mixers’ helpers.2
Female: (MS).
Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1

Checks pay roll from each department, draws money,
and distributes it to employees; may also do cler­
ical cost work.
P. B. X. operator________ (See Telephone operator)________ _____________ _ Female: Stenographers,
typists, telephone op­
erators, etc.5
Peel ovenman, rotary or Places pans of dough or batter in oven by means of Male: Ovenmen.
stationary.
“ peer', and likewise removes baked products from
oven, rotating when necessary oven platform by
hand control.
Peel ovenman’s helper___ Shoves racks of pans filled with dough or batter to Male: Ovenmen’s help­
oven, removes pans from racks and places them on
ers.
“peer’, and, after baking, dumps products from
pans to table in preparation for cooling.
Peeler, cakes____________ Removes by hand paper pan lining which adhered Male: General helpers.
to cakes when dumped from oven pans.
Female: (MS).
Pie-filling mixer_________ Crushes or cooks fruit, prepares custard or milk pie Male: (DL-I).
filling, etc., and assists generally in pie making.
Pie maker, hand_________ Engaged in various skilled operations, usually in Male: (DL-I).
small handicraft bakery, pertaining to pie making,
such as blending, mixing and dividing of pie dough,
rolling pie crust, laying pie bottom, putting in
filling, setting pie top, and crimping and trimming
edges.
Pie maker, machine
Works as one of group of five persons, operating ma­ Male: (DL-I).
Fe­
chine which by line conveyor or rotating table
male: (MS).
carries pie through five consecutive stages from
rolling of bottom crust to completion of pie, except
baking. First worker in line feeds piece of dough
between two-way rollers, which squeeze it to cor­
rect thickness for bottom crust; second worker
places this piece of thin dough in pie pan on moving
carrier and may moisten the edge of this dough;
third worker places the filling on dough in pan as it
passes; fourth worker rolls a piece of dough to form
the top crust, similar to that used for the bottom;
and fifth worker places top on pie. Completed pie
is then automatically crimped and trimmed around
the edge and discharged from machine to conveyor.
See footnotes at end of table.




118

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Plant occupational term

Description of work performed

Pie maker's helper, hand_. Keeps pie maker supplied with ingredients, assists in
preparing and putting in filling, trims surplus
dough around edges, and cleans and greases pans.
Pie maker’s helper, ma­ May do any of jobs in pie making, under supervision.
Usually washes, trims, racks, etc.
chine.
Pie washer______________ After top crust of pie has been sprayed automatically
by machine with egg solution, uses hand brush to
spread solution uniformly, punches several holes in
top to provide for expansion, and places pies in rack
for convenience of ovenman.
(See Steam fitter)------ ----- ------ ---------------------------Pipe fitter____
Plumber_____
Repairs and makes replacements in plumbing equip­
ment of plant.
Porter, cleaner.
(See Cleaner, floors)-------------------------------------------Porter, material handler. __ (See Laborer)___________________________________
Private secretary________ Takes dictation, transcribes notes on typewriter,
handles routine duties for executives, etc.
Proofer, cabinet____
Proofer, steam-room.
Proofer’s helper-----Puncher, dough-----Racker, bread--------

(See Cabinet man)_____________
(See Steam-room proofer)_______
(See Steam-room proofer’s helper).
(See Dough puncher)____ _____ _
(See Bread racker)...................... .

Paeker, pans..
Raisin cleaner.

(See Molder’s helper)____________________________
Washes and sorts by hand raisins used in bread,
cakes, or pies, eliminating imperfect ones, stems,
and other foreign material.
Receives incoming bakery stock, checks invoices,
issues stock, and keeps inventory of stock on hand.
In bakeries where no common labor is employed, he
dumps flour into hopper or chute leading to blend­
ing machine, cleans empty sacks, and sweeps and
cleans storeroom.
Places pans of dough in trays of revolving oven (re­
sembling ferris wheel), and, after baking, removes
pans from trays as they rotate to oven door.
Operates any of various machines in bakery in ab­
sence of regular operator.
(See Mixer's helper, divider’s or scaler’s and round­
er’s helper, and molder’s helper.)
(See Relief machine hand)_______________________
(See Belt man, repairer)_________________________
(See Box maker or repairer)______________________
(See Box maker or repairer)______________________
(See Carpenter, machinist, steam fitter, etc.)______
Dumps baked rolls from pans either as they are re­
moved by ovenman or as they are automatically
delivered from back of traveling oven.
(See icing-machine tender)_______________________

Receiving clerk.

Reel ovenman.
Relief machine hand_____
Relief machine hand’s
helper.
Relief man______________
Repairer, belt man______
Repairer, boxes__________
Repairer, crates_________
Repairer, general________
Roll dumper-----------------Roll icer.
Roll maker.

Rounder.
Rounder’s helper.
Route boss_____
Route rider_____
Route salesman..
Route supervisor.
Rye bread baker.

Feeds sheets of roll dough to machine, which auto­
matically cuts them into pieces of proper size and
rounds them; then places pieces in pans and racks
pans, ready for proofing. In bakeries not equipped
with machines, he cuts and rounds dough by hand.
(See Divider or scaler and rounder)_______________
(See Divider’s or scaler’s and rounder’s helper)____
Lays out routes for driver-salesmen, checks service
over various routes, and changes routes as necessity
arises.
(See Route boss)________________________________
(See Driver-salesman)___________________________
(See Route boss)________________________________
(See Bench hand or hand baker)__________________

Rye bread baker’s helper. _ (See Bench hand’s or hand baker’s helper)
Sales girl________
Salesman_______
Salesman’s helper
Scaler, batter____
Scaler, dough____

(See Clerk, store)________________
(See Driver-salesman)____________
(See Driver-salesman’s helper)____
(See Batter scaler)_______________
(See Divider or scaler and rounder)

Scaler, ingredient, cake___ (See Ingredient scaler, cake)._____ __________
Scaler’s helper___________ (See Divider’s or scaler’s and rounder’s helper)
Scaler’s helper, batter____ (See Batter scaler’s helper)................. ............
See footnotes at end of table.




Classified by Bureau
under—
Male: Mixers’ helpers.^
Female: (MS).
Male: General helpers.
Female: (MS).
Male: General helpers.

Male: (MR-I).
Male: (MR-I).
Male: (SE-III). Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: Laborers.
Female: Stenographers,
typi st s, telephone
operators, etc.6
Male: (DL-II).
Male: (DL-I).
Male: General helpers.
Male: Mixers’ helpers.2
Male: Ovenmen’s helpMale: General helpers.
Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: (IL-I).

Male: Ovenmen.
Male: (DL-I).
Male: General helpers.
Male: (DL-I).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-II).
Male: (MR-I).
Male:
Ovenmen’s
helpers.
Male: (DL-II).
male: (MS).
Male: (DL-I).

Fe­

Male: Dividers or scal­
ers and rounders.3
Male: General helpers.
Male: (SU).
Male: (SU).
Male: Driver-salesmen.
Male: (SU).
Male: Bench hands or
hand bakers.
Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: Bench hands’
or hand bakers’ help­
ers. Female: (MS).
Female: Store clerks.
Male: Driver-salesmen.
Male: (IL-III).
Male: Cake makers.3
Male: Dividers or scal­
ers and rounders.3
Male: (DL-I).
Male: General helpers.
Male: General helpers.

APPENDIX I

Plant occupational term

Scaler's helper, ingredient,
cake.
Scraper, pans___________
Scrubber, floors_________

Description of work performed

Male: Mixers’ helpers.2

(See Pan cleaner, hand)______
(See Cleaner, floors)_________

Male: (IL-III).
Male: (SE-III).
Fe­
male: (MS).
Male: (SU).
Male: Office clerks.4

(See Foreman, working)_________________________
Makes up orders, packs products in cases, bills ship­
ments to out-of-town customers, supervises tagging
and loading of shipment, and keeps records of ship­
ments.
Shipper, supervisory_____ Supervises packing and shipping of product and
keeping of necessary records.
Shipper’s helper_________ (See Shipper, clerk)_____________ ______ _________
Sifter, flour______________ (See Flour sifter)_______ _______ _________________
Sign or display card painter Paints signs or display cards for use in or about plant
or on delivery equipment to advertise products.
Slicer, bread, automatic__ (See Bread slicer, automatic).............................. .......

Solicitor.
Special-delivery driver___
Sponger.
Stableman_____
Stale-bread man.
Stale-bread man’s helper. _
Steam fitter_____________
Steam-room proofer______
Steam-room proofer’ s
helper.
Stenographer____________
Stock clerk, material han­
dling.
Stock clerk, office________
Stock handler, warehouse..
Store clerk---------------------Store salesman__________
Straw boss______________
Stripper, pie_____________
Sugar grinder____________
Sweeper_________________
Taker off, conveyor.
Telephone operator.
Timekeeper.

Tinsmith_______
Tinsmith’s helper.
Toaster_________
Traveling-oven dumper.. .
Traveling-oven feeder
Traveling-oven man.

Male: Auditors, book­
keepers, etc.1
Male: Office clerks.4
Male: (DL-II).
Male: (IL-I).

Male: Bread wrappers,
automatic. Female:
(MS).
(See Bread slicer, hand)
Male: (DL-III). Fe­
male: Bread wrap­
pers, hand.«
Canvasses possible customers for driver-salesmen. __ Male: (IL-I). Female:
(MS).
Delivers special orders after driver-salesmen have Male: (IL-II).
started on routes; also delivers bakery goods to
driver-salesmen while they are on routes.
Mixes flour, yeast, and water for an emulsion known Male: Mixers.3
as sponge, which is used in mixing dough. In
most bakeries this is part of mixer’s job.
Feeds and takes care of horses and has charge of Male: (MR-III).
stables.
Receives unsold bread from driver-salesmen, checks Male: (IL-II).
against stock taken out, and credits driver-sales­
man with amount of returned bread.
Puts stale bread in place for future disposition_____ Male: General helpers.
Cuts, fits, and joins steam pipes in connection with Male: (MR-I).
plant equipment and building maintenance.
Male: (DL-I).
and determines when raised cfough is ready to be
delivered to baking ovens.
Assists steam-room proofer in placing dough racks in Male: General helpers.
steam room and shoves loaded racks in or out.
Takes dictation, transcribes notes on typewriter, and Female: Stenographers,
typists, telephone op­
may assist in office work.
*
erators, etc.5
Trucks stock into storage room or warehouse, issues Male: (IL-III).
materials on order, etc.
Keeps inventory records of stocks and supplies and Male and female: Of­
fice clerks.4
does other general office work, such as filing, typ­
ing, etc.
(See Laborer)___________________________________ Male: Laborers.1
Fe­
Sells products in stores directly connected with bak­ Male: (IL-II).
male: Store clerks.
eries.
(See Store clerk)________________________________ Male: (IL-II).
(See Assistant foreman, working)_________________ Male: (SU).
(See Finisher, pie)______________________________ Male: (DL-I).
Feeds and tends sugar-grinding machine__________ Male: (DL-II).
(See Cleaner, floors)_____________________ ________ Male: (SE-III). Fe­
male: (MS).
Removes loaves of bread from conveyors in wrapping Male: General helpers.
room.
Operates switchboard; may also take orders for bak­ Female: Stenographers,
typists, telephone op­
ery products and do some clerical work.
erators, etc.5
Makes up daily time records, compiles job charge Male and female: Of­
fice clerks.4
slips for production clerks, prepares pay-roll sheets
for cashier’s department, and may deliver pay-roll
checks to employees.
Repairs bread and cake oven pans________________ Male: (MR-I).
Under supervision of tinsmith, repairs bread and Male: (MR-II).
cake oven pans.
Feeds slices of bread to toasting machine and, after Male: (DL-II).
toasting, removes slices and wraps them in waxed
paper.
(See Dumper, traveling oven)-------- --------------------- Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
helpers.
Male: O v e n m e n ’ s
(See Oven feeder)
helpers.
laces pans of dough on feed apron of traveling oveD, Male: Ovenmen.
regulates heat of oven, and controls speed of con­
veyors which carry dough through oven.

See footnotes at end of table.




Classified by Bureau
under—

(See Ingredient scaler’s helper)

Shift foreman, working___
Shipper, clerk___________

Slicer, bread, hand.

119

120

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Plant occupational term

Trayman_______________
Trimmer, pies___________
Truck driver.. . .................

Description of work performed

Classified by Bureau
under—

Assists ovenmen by placing filled pans of dough on
trays ready for baking.
Trims pie edges by hand, scalloping and perforating
pie at same time.
(See Driver, truck)______________ _______________

Male:
Ovenmen’s
helpers.
Male: General helpers.

Male: Chauffeurs and
drivers.*
Assists driver-salesmen in loading their trucks with Male: (IL-III).
bakery products.
Trucker, hand............. ...... Conveys supplies, materials, or products from one Male: Laborers.*
room or department to another or from one sec­
tion of a room or department to another.
Typist................................ Operates typewriter and may do some clerical work. Female: Stenograph­
ers, typists, tele­
phone operators, etc.8
Unloader, supplies_______ (See Laborer)---------- ------ ----------------------------------- Male: Laborers.*
Utility man, semiskilled—. Performs miscellaneous duties throughout bakery; Male: (MR-II).
may substitute for general workers.
Utility man, unskilled----- (See Handyman, unskilled)______________________ Male: (MR-II).
Vienna bread baker______ (See Bench hand or hand baker)_________________ Male: Bench hands or
hand bakers. Fe­
male: (MS).
Vienna bread baker’ s (See Bench hand’s or hand baker’s helper)
Male: Bench hands’ or
helper.
hand bakers’ helpers.
Female: (MS).
Watchman______________ Makes periodical rounds of plant and yard to pro­ Male: (SE-III).
tect plant from damage by fire, thieves, etc.;
may also check employees and trucks in and out
at gate.
Washer, pans____________ (See Pan washer)______________________________
Male: (IL-III).
Water tender____________ Maintains proper water level in boiler____________ Male: (IL-II).
Wax-paper liner_________ (See Pan liner).._____________ ______ ____________ Male: (DL-II). Fe­
male: (MS).
Window trimmer________ Arranges bakery products in attractive display for Male: (IL-I).
advertising purposes.
Working foreman________ (See Foreman, working)-------------------------- ---------- Male: (SU).
Working foreman, assist- (See Assistant foreman, working)_________________ Male: (SU).
ant.
Wrapper, bread, auto­ (See Bread wrapper, automatic)
Male: Bread wrappers,
matic.
automatic. Female:
(MS).
Wrapper, bread, hand.
(See Bread wrapper, hand)
Male: (DL-III). Fe­
male: Bread wrap­
pers, hand.8
Wrapper, foreman, work­ Supervises work of wrappers and performs some Male: (SU). Female:
ing.
actual work.
(MS).
Wrapper and packer, cake. (See Cake wrapper and packer)---------------------------- Male and female: Cake
wrapper and pack­
ers.4
Removes loaves of bread from back of wrapping Male: General helpers.
Wrapper’s helper.
machine and places them on truck to be sent to
Female: (MS).
packing room.
Yard foreman.
Supervises work done by yard hands or outside crew Male: (SU).
and regularly works with them.
Truck loader....................

* This applies to the North; in the South, it was classified as indirect labor, miscellaneous, skill not speci­
fied.
2 This applies to the North; in the South, it was classified as DL-II.
3 This applies to the North; in the South, it was classified as DL-I.
4 This applies to the North; in the South, if male it was classified as indirect labor, miscellaneous, skill
not specified, and if female it was classified as MS.
8 This applies to the North; in the South, it was classified as MS.
8 This applies to the North; in the South, it was classified as DL-III.




A ppendix II

Detailed Statistical Tables

121

1 0 2745°- -37-




-9

A .-— -D i s t r i b u t i o n

o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to a vera g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s , a s to r e g io n a n d s e x , f o r th ree se le c te d p e r i o d s

122

T able

Number of employees whose average hourly earnings were—

Total—United States:
Males:
March 1933_____________________
September 1933_________________
December 1934__________________
Females:
March 1933.. _
September 1933_________________
December 1934______ ______ ____
Males and females:
March 1933_____________________
September 1933_________________
December 1934--------------------------Total—North:
Males:
March 1933--------------------- ---------September 1933________________ _
December 1934-------------------- -----Females:
March 1933_____
______
September 1933__
___
December 1934................................
Males and females:
March 1933______ _____________
September 1933. _____ _________
December 1934—
_ __________
Total—South:
Males:
March 1933___
____
___
September 1933____ ____ _________
December 1934_____ _ __________
Females:
*
March 1933............................ .........
September 1933..
.
_ _ „
December 1934_. .
_ ____ __
Males and females:
March 1933.,
September 1933_________________
December 1934_____ ____________




12.5 17.5 22.5 27.5
and and and and
under under under under
17.5 22.5 27.5 32.5
cents cents cents cents

32.5 37.5 42.5 47.5
and and and and
under under under under
37.5 42.5 47.5 52.5
cents cents cents cents

52.5
and
under
57.5
cents

57.5
and
under
62.5
cents

62.5
and
under
67.5
cents

67.5 72.5 77.5 85.0
and and and cents
under under under and
72.5 77.5 85.0 under
cents cents cents $1.00

14,685
16,609
18,348

$0.471
.524
.570

46
2
1

208
22
6

476
73
14

444
745
647
376
754 1,221 1,836 2,038 1,825 1,662 1,052
985
877
711
391 1, 508 1,686 2,305 1, 710 1,806 1,656 1,170
2,615 2,325 1,853 1,698 1,387 1,418 1,169 1,052
148
509 1,517

1,895
2,173
2,614

.307
.354
.379

17

117
1
1

357
28
3

409
208
165

16,480
18, 782
20,962

.455
.507
.549

63
2
1

325
23
7

12, 534
14, 054
15, 501

.491
.540
.590

16
1

86
9
2

1, 566
1, 771
2,115

.321
.364
.392

3

65

14,100
15,825
17,616

.475
.523
.569

19

2,051
2,555
2,847

.360
.436
.462

329
402
499
2,380
2,957
3, 346

260
924
635

273
391
746

194
228
545

106
151
205

89
113
138

20
54
69

23
30
34

14
19
32

5
6
10

7
7
9

564
402
531
798
876 1,148
4
5
6

$1.00 $1.20
and and
under over
$1.20

186
284
465

103
94
147

7
13

1
3

833 1,163 1,481 2,109 2,232 1,931 1, 751 1, 072
449
768
661
383
883
718
101
599 2,432 2,077 2,533 1,861 1,919 1, 710 1,200 1,004
313 1,144 2,263 3,160 2, 530 1,991 1,767 1,421 1, 450 1,179 1,061
17

564
406
805
536
882 1,161

186
285
468

103
94
147

280
39
6

971
425
683
506 901 1,531 1,780 1,620 1, 551
597
823
213 1,007 1, 266 1,938 1,453 1,602 1,480 1,067
878
293
784 2,171 1,983 1, 594 1,501 1, 291 1, 284 1, 062
35

385
556
482
766
827 1,092

185
272
450

103
90
135

1

243
23
1

349
95
41

5
6
10

7
7
9

151
9
3

523
62
7

989
704
855 1,115 1,787 1, 962 1, 718 1, 638
611
430
829
308 1,745 1,606 2,145 1, 596 1, 707 1,529 1,095
896
743 1, 415 2,688 2,167 1, 719 1, 566 1, 324 1,311 1,072
76

365
676
999

30
2

122
13
4

196
34
8

248
178
113

320
501
216

305
420
733

258
367
444

205
257
342

111
204
259

81
176
197

62
103
96

50
107
134

.240
.311
.325

14

52
1

114
5
2

60
113
124

46
186
185

17
51
115

12
21
28

8
8
21

2
8
13

2
5
4

2
2
1

1
5

.346
.421
.445

44
2

174
14
4

310
39
10

308
291
237

366
687
401

322
471
848

270
388
472

213
265
363

113
212
272

83
181
201

64
105
97

50
108
139

1

214
738
450

256
340
631

182
207
517

98
143
184

87
105
125

18
49
65

21
28
33

14
18
27

19
54
107

358
669
990

18
42
62

4
5
6

6
12

1
3

389
556
487
772
833 1,104

185
273
453

103
90
135

1
12
15

4
12

1
12
15

4
12

17
49
49

8
32
56
1
1

19
54
107

18
42
62

17
49
49

8
33
57

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Region, sex, occupational class, and
period

Num­ Aver­
age
ber of hourly Un­
em­
earn­
der
ployees ings
12.5
cents




1

8

12
22
1

38
20
1

48
63
47

70
43
36

103
76
61

77
108
99

51
101
66

39
73
99

26
79
143

11
34
55

18
27
59

25
29
48

22
24
77

32
17
15

4

7
1

7
9

27
21
7

24
17
27

53
34
24

80
51
51

49
77
59

29
52
67

24
40
70

20
28
47

13
42
49

14
25
35

23
24
31

6
7
27

3
1

1

6

10
4

18
11

23
43
20

31
30
20

41
34
41

24
39
29

13
38
27

18
26
40

7
24
39

7
18
31

11
2
17

8
9
20

12
9
13

6
6
7

3

8

15
5

30
14
11

52
28
8

53
46
26

40
45
40

46
63
37

26
37
57

21
39
61

20
39
38

15
28
47

25
27
61

12
12
33

8
13
10

4

9

15
14
1

40
23

35
53
45

32
36
47

39
30
47

13
50
27

9
27
39

19
14
39

4
14
20

7
10
26

10
10
18

5
5
12

13
13
18

2
2
2

5

8

12
12

22
13
1

38
35
21

63
26
22

85
66
35

46
51
57

47
63
62

31
74
49

40
62
70

25
53
74

18
48
65

38
36
85

26
36
52

23
21
35

3

2

2
5

8
12
1

19
11
13

19
12
19

31
14
23

6
23
25

12
10
16

9
7
16

9
13

7
12

3
1
7

5
2
6

1
2
7

4

18

43
1

66
66
2

168
105
10

217
236
184

320
209
176

432
317
284

255
393
336

207
354
314

166
271
370

118
255
393

83
203
285

89
141
248

129
132
263

92
103
227

2

6

4
1

15
23
7

35
29
5

35
30
62

27
50
48

18
43
39

10
20
20

2
10
22

4
6
22

1
1
3

2
3
5

10

5
4
1

1
2

581
716
807

.563
.601
.677

384
429
494

.551
.598
.647

236
293
304

.543
.577
.654

374
396
429

.587
.656
.725

258
301
341

.487
.534
.605

2

528
596
628

.599
.662
.738

1

120
115
158

.501
.533
.601

2,481
2,846
3,161

.559
.609
.677

168
221
246

.413
.453
.501

1

379
497
608

.364
.419
.458

4

299
351
437

.388
.434
.484

1

10

38
4
1

32
6

54
108
24

61
81
43

75
109
200

28
52
144

43
48
67

10
54
45

9
13
24

7
5
26

7
17

1
7

1
4

5
1

7
1

33
5
4

47
52
9

65
55
18

50
81
1J5

28
49
113

19
36
54

15
29
52

12
14
28

12
11
12

8
6

3
7
14

3
2
8

3
5

4
3
6

A P P E N D IX II

Males—North
rect labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers:
March 1933 ________ _____
September 1933 ____________
December 1934 ______ ____ _
Cake makers:
March 1933 __________ _____
September 1933 ____________
December 1934 .
________
Dividers or scalers and rounders:
March 1933
.
_ _____
September 1933
_ _
December 1934
Mixers:
March 1933
September 1933
December 1934
Molders:
March 1933 _______________
September 1933
December 1934 __ _________
Ovenmen:
March 1933 _______________
September 1933 _ _ ___ _____
December 1934 ____________
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933 _____________ ___
September 1933 ____________
December 1934 __________
Total:
March 1933 _____
__ __
September 1933
_____ _
December 1934 _____________
Semiskilled:
Bench hands’ or hand bakers’
helpers:
March 1933_____________ ____
September 1933_____________
December 1934.._ _ _ _______
General helpers:
March i< 9 3
1 3 _________________
September 1933 _ _ ________
December 1934._ _______ ___
Mixers’ helpers:
March 1933_____________ ____
September 1933_____ _________
December 1934_____ _______

74
60
69

1

1

4

b
O

00

T able

A. —

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to a vera g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c la s s e s , a s to r e g io n a n d s e x , f o r th ree selecte d p e r i o d s -

to

C o n tin u e d

Number of employees whose average hourly earnings were—

Un­
der
12.5
cents

12.5 17.5 22.5 27.5
and and and and
under under under under
17.5 22.5 27.5 32.5
cents cents cents cents

32.5
and
under
37.5
cents

37.5 42.5
and and
under under
42.5 47.5
cents cents

47.5
and
under
52.5
cents

52.5
and
under
57.5
cents

57.5
and
under
62.5
cents

62.5
and
under
67.5
cents

67.5
and
under
72.5
cents

72.5
and
under
77.5
cents

77.5
and
under
85.0
cents

85.0
cents
and
under
$1.00

$1.00 $1.20
and and
under over
$1.20

AND

Males—North—Continued

127
170
198
1,417
1,775
2,106

.394
.439
.489

314
415
459

14

.434
.458
.512

7

27
7
1

59
63
9

82
78
13

73
120
151

59
68
124

56
73
91

27
65
47

13
21
76

12
9
49

2
10
21

6
11
12

2
3
9

4
7
11

1
1
3

8
7

$0.403
.449
.511

7
14
3

28
26
7

28
33
50

14
18
34

19
20
31

6
28
20

4
10
20

8
3
12

2
3
6

2
5
6

1
1
1

1
6

1
2
5
6
13

24
1

65
5
1

104
26
5

182
260
52

271
269
86

261
373
578

156
237
463

155
220
282

68
196
184

40
68
170

43
34
121

5
29
53

13
27
44

6
7
32

12
17
22

.404
.455
.495

2

18

19
3
1

53
45
11

44
66
50

53
95
101

43
50
81

42
61
50

13
43
57

8
18
32

15
6
34

18
16

3
6
13

1
3
12

1
1

368
506
569

.350
.412
.457

10

23
2

37
2

108
80
22

66
117
80

48
137
134

44
55
156

10
58
62

7
17
55

4
19
18

4
5
18

1
4
9

6
10
3

11

1

92
105
145

.384
.425
.460

1

7
1

5

6
21
6

17
21
24

26
16
28

14
8
29

9
12
23

4
12
14

1
7
15

2
6
2

1

1
2

1

107
129
154

.333
.403
.461

1

6

7
1
1

16
5

19
19
6

17
24
15

21
27
29

6
20
47

10
19
19

4
12
18

2
9

5

5

110
125
158

.412
.452
.492

2

2

11
4

12

14
41
18

20
15
32

8
13
28

5
10
18

13
5
11

6
14
6

4
8
9

4
1
12

3
11

1
5
3

5
5
2

5

1

2
3

2

IN D U S T R Y




444
536
617

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

Direct labor—Continued.
Semiskilled—Continued.
Ovenmen’s helpers:
March 1933______________
September 1933__________
December 1934__________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933_____________
September 1933. _.......... ..
December 1934____ _____
Total:
March 1933______________
September 1933__________
December 1934..................
Unskilled:
Bread packers:
March 1933-------------------September 1933.................
December 1934__________
Bread wrappers, automatic:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934--------------Cake wrappers and packers:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________
Pan greasers:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934--------------Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1 9 3 3 .....................
September 1933_________
December 1934..................

W AGES

Kegion, sex, occupational class, and
period

Num­ Aver­
age
ber of hourly
em­
earn­
ployees ings

1
1
3

1




991
1,280
485

.374
.430
.473

3

4,341
4,410
4,609

.492
.545
.601

1

127
130
141

.701
.762
.795

173
183
228

.483
.525
.559

138
185
206

.366
.428
.454

422
458
479

.548
.618
.639

349
417
437

.394
.459
.476

331
376
397

.463
.502
.547

413
501
578

.353
.407
.436

704
748
814

.706
.759
.811

164
164
165

.589
.640
.684

305
367
413

.421
.465
.514

21

66
8
1

200
206
63

164
243
201

156
288
320

112
143
331

84
155
165

34
98
150

17
54
83

25
18
71

1
25
*42

11
16
19

2
9
28

5
6
5

1
1
3

1

58
16

159
116
8

214
257
31

460
348
327

732
442
446

720
528
411

516
510
452

359
425
469

213
336
472

123
297
406

213
315
361

107
191
353

153
124
269

285
444
523

13
47
67

6
12
14

1
1

9
2

89
10
2

1
1

6
3
3

7
2
4

14
8
4

13
12
7

11
7
7

16
18
22

5
11
12

12
13
13

9
14
15

18
21
29

10
14
18

4
6
7

4
10
18

3
5
14

2
4
5

3
2
15

1

3
5
8

4
2

4
3
1

9
10
9

29
20
8

19
17
41

23
6
28

20
11
16

14
34
38

•28
41
8

11
18
26

2
1
1

7
2

10
7
4

74
29
15

20
65
67

12
22
62

8
35
18

2
16
22

6
7

1
4

5

1

5
1

3
1
1

11
5
1

36
15
17

50
26
27

89
71
59

76
63
67

43
53
64

47
71
62

19
62
39

22
46
67

8
28
39

9
11
28

4

7

14
3
1

57
23
11

57
41
11

92
118
134

49
71
99

39
72
75

13
46
48

6
23
28

4
5
14

5
5

5
7
5

1
1
5

1
2
1

1

6
1
1

7

32
18
6

67
46
11

54
72
65

39
60
71

27
48
67

19
34
39

17
29
24

26
14
27

7
13
31

22
25
19

4
9
26

2
6
9

1
1
1

10
2
2

25
3
1

28
19
11

65
57
51

123
65
56

89
195
130

30
67
183

25
54
77

8
20
35

3
7
19

5
7
8

4

1
4

1

1

6
5

19
9
3

33
18
5

58
26
22

67
54
37

71
55
41

99
87
73

44
65
69

64
104
122

95
121
.132

79
104
165

53
87
103

14
12
42

4
7

7
7

11
4
8

8
6
4

13
6
16

28
12
8

16
20
13

13
12
18

16
20
19

5
11
12

9
13
16

13
19
16

12
19
26

7
7
7

2
1
2

20
5

30
43
13

58
53
25

50
68
95

37
43
64

40
40
53

20
51
41

7
12
22

12
16
44

3
14
19

7
15
25

3
4
6

5

1
1

3
1

2

2
'

1

3

13
2

1

A P P E N D IX II

Total:
March 1933____________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934________________
Indirect labor:
Driver salesmen:
March 1933________________________
September 1933____________________
December 1934-----------------------------Other:
Auditors, bookkeepers, etc.:
March 1933____________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934________________
Chauffeurs and drivers:
March 1933____________________
September 1933----------------------December 1934-----------------------Laborers:
March 1933----------------------------September 1933----------------------December 1934-----------------------Maintenance and repair, skilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934-----------------------Maintenance and repair, semi­
skilled:
March 1933____________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934-----------------------Office clerks:
March 1933----------------------------September 1933----------------------December 1934________________
Service, unskilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933----------------------December 1934-----------------------Supervisory, skilled:
March 1933. _______ ___________
September 1933----------------------December 1934-----------------------Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933...................... .............
September 1933..................... ..
December 1934-----------------------Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933....................................
September 1933. ..........................
December 1934.............................

1

to

Oi

T able

A .'—

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to avera ge h o u r ly ea r n in g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s , a s to r e g io n a n d s e x , f o r th ree s electe d p e r io d s •
—

Continued

fc
O

05

Number of employees whose average hourly earnings were—

Un­
der
12.5
cents

12.5 17.5
and and
under under
17.5 22.5
cents cents

22.5
and
under
27.5
cents

27.5
and
under
32.5
cents

32.5
and
under
37.5
cents

37.5
and
under
42.5
cents

42.5
and
under
47.5
cents

47.5
and
under
52.5
cents

52.5
and
under
57.5
cents

57.5
and
under
62.5
cents

62.5
and
under
67.5
cents

67.5
and
under
72.5
cents

72.5
and
under
77.5
cents

77.5 85.0
$nd cents
under and
85.0 under
cents $1.00

$1.00 $1.20
and and
under over
$1.20

AND

Males—North—Continued




$0. 364
.407
.437

4

7
3

15
1
1

20
20
7

25
50
50

31
32
25

22
31
84

19
15
43

15
23
12

7
18
15

7
10
14

4
1
17

1
4
3

3
4

1
4

1
2
1

3, 304
3, 743
4,140

.512
.562
.596

7

1

28
6
2

73
10
4

111
60
20

239
218
145

468
301
160

415
599
643

312
336
602

363
400
411

255
368
362

206
255
252

240
258
316

88
199
213

144
232
289

135
201
250

125
167
279

74
115
140

61
51
111

. 272
. 341
.350

5

17

12

11
28
37

8
16
58

1
7

1
3

7
5
2

4

170
195
262

.270
.325
. 362

8

288
401
501

.263
.314
.359

15

519
647
874

.266
.319
.359

28

253
269

.388
.431

5

1
1

3

1

1

1

36
2

54
18
2

27
115
78

29
30
96

6
6
52

9
17
18

1
2
12

2
3

•1
1

74
8

109
11

36
281
145

38
88
204

12
7
126

1
18

1
2
4

3
1
1

2
1

1

1

127
10

175
29
2

74
424
260

75
134
358

18
14
185

9
19
39

9
9
18

3
3
8

3
2

1
2
1

1

12
2

18
6

34
21

46
53

49
64

36
38

29
37

6
21

9
15

4
5

2

2
2

2
1

21
18
51

IN D U S T R Y

Females—North
Direct labor:
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, hand:
March 1933______________
September 1933__________
December 1934__________
Cake finishers:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934____ _____
Cake wrappers and packers:
March 1933.........................
September 1933..................
December 1934............ ......
Total:
March 1933______________
September 1933__________
December 1934.............. ..
Indirect labor:
Other:
Office clerks:
March 1933______________
September 1933..................

178
214
282

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

Indirect labor—Continued.
Other—Continued.
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________
Total:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________

W AGES

Region, sex, occupational class, and
period

Num­ Aver­
age
ber of hourly
em­
earn­
ployees ings

December 1934__________ ____
Stenographers, typists, telephone
operators, etc.:
March 1933_________________
September 1933________ _____
December 1934__________ ____
Store clerks:
March 1933__.______________
September 1933 ___________
December 1934____ ____ _
Miscellaneous:
March 1933_________________
September 1933.
________
December 1934______ ______
Total:
March 1933___ ______________
September 1933_______ . . . .
December 1934___ ______ _




136
158
167

.418
.462
.486

310
300
360

.317
.340
. 349

348
397
437

2

.458

32

103

41

40

24

14

9

4

1

2

3

17
18
11
59
45
103
59
90
127
181
206
273

27
38
36
59
63
53
29
28
140
164
193
332

35
28
35
11
34
36
7
24
33
89
124
145

23
37
38
11
4
11
15
18
18
78
96
107

3
17
21
1
4
2
5
4
10
15
46
57

4
5
9
1

3
4
8

1
1
2

1
1

2
2
2

1
2

1

7
5
8
21
25
31

6
7
9
13
16
26

2
3
4
5
6
10

5
5
6
7
7
8

1
2
2
4
5
6

2
7

1
2

6
12

1
3

16
33
34
21
11
8
39
35
51
76
79
93

15
42
41
19
25
19
30
32
49
64
99
109

16
11
35
12
19
23
25
37
34
53
67
92

4
10
21
11
16
15
22
35
35
37
61
71

5
8
13
8
21
19
13
32
32
26
61
64

2
2
5
14
10
13
18
17
16
34
29
34

6
9
9

1
7
3
5
13
6
13
27
9
19
47

1
3
2
5
3
5
9
19
7
15
25

1
5
1
2
6
2
2
11

1

12
25
66
12
29
53
6
20
54

4
13
9
5
24
34
1
20
30

1
9
14
3
7
23
6
3
11

1

1

3
7
6

3
7

2

6
11

4
8

I

2

3

6

2

12
1

32
11
1

64
43
33

.315
.363
.412

1

18

69

86
17
4

1,047
1,124
1,241

.348
.387
.413

3

37

116
13
1

174
66
39

127
155
170

.344
.392
.460

4

11
1

19
14

122
139
146

.409
.495
.550

4

4

8
4

241
298
316

.412
.484
.527

5
1

21

18
11
3

490
592
632

.394
.463
.515

13
1

36
1

45
29
3

75
115
116

.255
.329
.348

6
1

14
2
2

12
15
8

70
143
147

.278
.342
.386

10

1

10

1

14
18

68
100
131

.251
.345
.387

7
1

20

13
13

1

5

2

1
1

6

3

14
24
12
27
26
18
50
59

1
1

1

A P P E N D IX II

Males—South
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers:
March 1933_________________
September 1933______________
December 1934______________
Ovenmen:
March 1933_________________
September 1933.______ _______
December 1934.______________
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933_______ ____ _
.
September 1933______________
December 1934............. .............
Total:
March 1933____ _____________
September 1933_________ ____
December 1934_____ ______ _
Semiskilled:
General helpers:
March 1933_________________
September 1933______________
December 1934______________
Ovenmen’s helpers:
March 1933_________________
September 1933___________ _
December 1934______________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933_________________
September 1933 _______ __ .
December 1934..........................

277

1
2
4
3
9
14
3
11
19

1

1

1
1

T able

A. —

D is t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o r d in g to a verage h o u r ly e a r n in g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s , a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x , f o r th re e s e le c te d p e r i o d s -

to

C o n tin u e d

00

Number of employees whose average hourly earnings were—

Un­
der
12.5
cents

12.5 17.5
and and
under under
17.5 22.5
cents cents

22.5 27.5
and and
under under
27.5 32. 5
cents cents

32.5
and
under
37.5
cents

37.5
and
under
42.5
cents

42.5
and
under
47.5
cents

47.5 52.5 57.5 62.5
and and and and
under under under under
52.5 57.5 62.5 67.5
cents cents cents cents

67.5
and
under
72.5
cents

72.5 77.5 85.0
and and cents
under under and
77.5 85.0 under
cents cents $1.00

$1.00 $1.20
and and
under over
$1.20

AND

Males—South—Continued

$0. 262
.339
.376

7

100
143
155

.262
.337
.376

1

99
138
161

.253
.339
.370

7

199
281
316

.258
.338
.373

8

671
711
800

.378
.475
.477

2
1

478
613
705

.369
.441
.473

13
1

92
131
196

.198
.295
.304

8

23
3

44
4
3

39
46
17

47
130
44

30
74
173

10
57
73

10
19
48

3
14
17

8
15

13
2

17
3
1

22
5
6

24
66
14

13
39
68

6
15
32

4
3
22

9
6

6

17

18
5

23
21
19

14
59
23

5
19
66

9
17
18

4
6
17

5
8

4
6

30
2

35
8
1

45
26
25

38
125
37

18
58
134

15
32
50

8
9
39

14
14

4
12

13
2

20
8
1

55
24
17

115
47
61

132
108
137

131
118
131

89
110
122

49
75
97

33
63
69

43
5
4

61
13
3

64
53
51

53
132
70

49
101
196

38
61
81

45
52
41

22
40
60

22
40
37

21

36

20
25
43

6
104
111

2
40

I

1

3




1

2

1
2

1
2

1
1

1

2
2

1
1

1

13
59
37

12
26
34

2
20
31

1
12
16

15
20

3
10
11

1
9
6

10

13
15
22

20
29
38

8
12
28

10
15
20

14
23
10

3
19
34

2
9

1

2

Females—South
Direct labor:
Unskilled:
March 1933___________________ .
September 1933_______
_______
December 1934__________ ____ ___

1

1

4

IN D U S T R Y

213
358
394

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

Direct labor—Continued.
Semiskilled—Continued.
Total:
__
March 1933____________
September-1933.. ___________
December 1934 _________ ____
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, automatic:
March 1933_________________
September 1933______ _____
December 1934_
............... .
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933_ _________ ___ .
September 1933_____________
December 1934___ __ ___ _
Total:
March 1933_________________
September 1933_______ __ _
December 1934..... ............ ........
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen:
March 1933_____________ _____
September 1933------- --------- -----December 1934________
Other:
March 1933___ ____ ____________
September 1933_________________
December 1934.. _______________

W AGES

Kegion, sex, occupational class, and
period

Num­ Aver­
age
ber of hourly
em­
earn­
ployees ings

Indirect labor:
Other:
Store clerks:
March 1933___
September 1933.
December 1934.
Miscellaneous:
March 1933___
September 1933.
December 1934.
Total:
March 1933___
September 1933.
December 1934.

T

able

83
90
102

. 220
.274
. 286

1

154
181
201

.273
.342
.365

5

16
1

237
271
303

.255
.318
.337

6

31
1

19
56
60

9
24
31

3
3
6

1
2
2

2

43
1
2

21
32
21

31
58
43

14
46
69

11
19
25

8
8
18

2
8
13

2
4
3

1
2
1

1
5

1
1

78
5
2

40
88
81

40
82
74

17
49
75

12
21
27

8
8
20

2
8
13

2
5
4

1
2
1

1
5

1
1

35
4

15

1
1

B .— Distribution of employees according to weekly hours by occupational classes, as to region and sexy for three selected periods

Region, sex, occupational class, and
period

Total—United States:
Males:
March 1933____________________
September 1933________________
December 1934_________________
Females:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934___ ______ ______
Males and females:
March 1933____________________
September 1933._____________
December 1934_________________
Total—North:
Males:
March 1933____________________
September 1933________________
December 1934_________________
Females:
March 1933____________________
September 1933. .......................... .
December 1934_________________




16 and 24 and 32 and 36 and 40 and 44 and 48 and 52 and
under under under under under under under under
32
44
52
24
36
56
48
40
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

56 and 60 and 64 and
under under under
72
60
64
hours hours hours

A P P E N D IX II

Number of employees whose weekly hours were—
Num­ Aver­
ber of
age
em­
8 and
ploy­ weekly Under under
hours 8 hours
ees
16
hours

72
hours
and
over

14,585
16,609
18,348

51.1
46.7
44.3

63
114
198

380
365
357

233
222
285

286
305
416

180
255
479

194
333
1,175

372
1, 534
6,936

636
5,875
1,433

4,246
3,238
2,855

3, 726
1, 703
1,464

883
364
503

2,378
1,647
1,682

714
440
369

294
214
196

1,895
2,173
2,614

42.8
39.7
37.5

22
23
45

82
96
86

68
61
80

108
135
192

45
72
206

104
176
361

175
581
1, 202

276
562
95

732
447
343

214
20
2

33

23

12

1

16,480
18, 782
20,962

50.2
45.9
43.5

85
137
243

462
461
443

301
283
365

394
440
608

225
327
685

298
509
1, 536

547
2,115
8,138

912
6,437
1, 528

4,978
3,685
3,198

3,940
1,723
1,466

916
364
505

2,401
1,647
1, 682

726
440
369

295
214
196

12,534
14,054
15,501

50.7
46.5
44.1

59
96
172

318
318
311

195
189
238

263
266
355

171
222
419

175
303
1,083

338
1,286
5, 678

593
4,900
1, 245

3,835
2,874
2, 581

3,166
1, 465
1,235

767
265
360

1,931
1,397
1,435

535
352
289

188
121
100

1, 566
1, 771
2,115

42.8
39.6
37.4

19
21
36

59
78
67

62
43
62

79
117
157

39
59
178

88
165
341

158
475
947

253
440
70

614
353
254

132
20
1

31

19

12

1

2

2

130

T a b l e B . — D i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a cc o rd in g to w e e k ly h o u rs b y o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s e s , a s to re g io n a n d s e x , f o r th ree selecte d p e r i o d s — Con.

Number of employees whose weekly hours were—

Total—North—Continued.
Males and females:
March 1933_______________________
September 1933___________________
December 1934________ __________
Total—South:
Males:
March 1933_______________________
September 1933___________________
December 1934___________________
Females:
March 1933_______________________
September 1933______________ ____
December 1934___________________
Males and females:
March 1933_______________________
September 1933___________________
December 1934__________ ________

Aver-

14,100
15,825
17,616

49.8
45.8
43.3

78
117
208

377
396
378

257
232
300

342
383
512

210
281
597

263
468
1,424

496
1, 761
6, 625

846
5,340
1,315

4, 449
3, 227
2, 835

3, 298
1, 485
1,236

798
265
362

1,950
1,397
1, 435

547
352
289

189
121
100

2,051
2,555
2,847

53.7
47.6
45.2

4
18
26

62
47
46

38
33
46

23
39
62

9
33
60

19
30
92

34
248
1,258

43
975
188

411
364
274

560
238
229

116
99
143

447
250
247

179
88
80

106
93
96

329
402
499

43.0
40.0
38. 2

3
2
9

23
18
19

6
18
18

29
18
35

6
13
28

16
11
20

17
106
255

23
122
25

118
94
89

82

2

4

2,380
2,957
3,346

52.2
46.5
44.2

7
20
35

85
65
65

44
51
64

52
57
97

15
46
88

35
41
112

51
354
1, 513

66
1,097
213

529
458
363

642
238
230

118
99
143

451
250
247

179
88
80

106
93
96

581
716
807

42.1
38. 4
35.1

6
15
44

57
59
55

40
32
32

29
34
37

26
32
57

16
30
102

28
126
382

49
254
46

152
105
52

108
27

28
1

28
1

14

384
429
494

47. 5
42.9
40.5

13
18
14

10
9
6

16
4
12

7
5
16

9
10
56

22
74
237

20
189
72

139
82
66

93
33
11

18

3
1

27
2

10

236
293
304

48. 6
43.0
39.1

5
2
10

9
12
7

7
14
11

3
8
45

15
65
204

15
141
16

98
44
8

54
7
1

12

9

6

3

2

374
396
429

49.9
43. 9
39.8

2
2
6

4
3
7

10
8
25

12
8
53

16
59
278

23
208
21

145
83
35

99
14
1

18
3

27
1

7

6

8 and
Under under
8 hours
16
hours

16 and 24 and 32 and 36 and 40 and 44 and 48 and 52 and
under under under under under under under under
32
36
44
24
40
48
52
56
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

56 and 60 and 64 and
under under under
60
64
72
hours hours hours

72
hours
and
over

1

Males—North

Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers:
March 1933___________________
September 1933---------------------December 1934------- --------------Cake makers:
March 1933___________________
September 1933..........................
December 1934_______________
Dividers or scalers and rounders:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934.........................
Mixers:
March 1933.......... ........................
September 1933........................
December 1 934-,,,,...............




1
5
3

4
2

3

WAGES AND HOURS---- BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Region, sex, occupational class, and
period

Number of
employees




13
18
21
22
25
37
6
2
5
91
104
172

258
301
341

48.6
41.6
37.9

2
4

528
596
628

47.8
42.2
38.5

3
2
8

120
115
158

46.4
42.9
39.5

2,481
2,846
3,161

46.8
41.6
38.2

10
27
60

168
221
246

43.1
38.5
36.4

5
12
10

379
497
608

45.2
40.3
35.8

7
8
22

299
351
437

45.8
42.1
38.7

2
2
5

444
536
617

44.8
40.3
36.9

2
4
9

127
170
198

50.3
43.2
39.5

1

5
19
10
13
36
7
7
29
13
24
41
1
3
9

1,417
1, 775
2,106

45.4
40.7
37.1

16
26
47

36
52
134

314
415
459

47.7
41.5
38.1

9

4
7

2
11
6

368
506
569

50.0
42.0
38.2

1
4
3

7
24

5

6
7
80
7
25
95
3
6
32
56
94
463

8
64
189
19
102
354
7
16
91
115
506
1, 735

22
148
15
37
247
33
12
66
18
178
1, 253
221

104
30
4

47
10

16
1

16

9

2

189
117
40
57
12
3
884
473
208

120
25
5
19
5
1
540
121
19

25
2
1
6

39
2

13

4

123
7
4

146
6

61

3
5
19
14
31
109
10
12
66
15
15
144

14
107
11
22
262
12
24
175
16
43
272
20
8
102
27
111
918
86

54
25
24
109
50
26
96
53
44
140
50
10
61
28
6
460
206
110

26
6

11

8

3

65
8
3
■ 60
17
1
62
9
1
27
5
1
240
45
6

46
1

16

7

8

17
2

21
1

7

1

30
1
3
11

29

10

5

3
5
42
66
343

13
31
133
17
68
311
14
51
243
22
101
311
4
21
137
70
272
1,135

8
1
82
1
1

1

2

28

16

4
13
35
7
8
59

2
31
335
10
59
400

21
287
20
28
344
14

120
33
18
109
35
11

100
3
1
125
10
5

115
4
3

2
15

13
1

18

3

1

25
2

30
i

2
1
1

8

APPENDIX II

Molders:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934__________
Ovenmen:
March 1933------------------------September 1933------------------December 1934_____________
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933 _
_ _____ _
September 1933 _ _____
December 1934
__ __
Total, skilled:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
Semiskilled:
Bench hands’ or hand bakers’
helpers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
General helpers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
Mixers’ helpers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934 __________
Ovenmen’s helpers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934 _________ •_
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933________________
September 1933______ ______
December 1934_____________
Total, semiskilled:
March 1933______________
September 1933_______ _____
December 1934. ___________
Unskilled:
Bread packers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____ _____ _
Bread wrappers, automatic:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934-.......... ...........

T able

B.—

'D is trib u tio n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o rd in g to w e e k ly h o u r s b y o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s e s , a s to r e g io n a n d s e x , f o r th re e selecte d p e r i o d s — Con.

00

to

Number of employees whose weekly hours were—
ber of Aver­
age
em­
8 and
ploy­ weekly Under under
hours 8 hours
ees
16
hours

16 and 24 and 32 and 36 and 40 and 44 and 48 and 52 and 56 and 60 and 64 and
under under under under under under under under under under under
32
52
24
44
64 •
36
40
48
60
72
56
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

72
hours
and
over

W AGES AND

Region, sex, occupational class, and
period

Males—North—Continued

42.4
38.3
37.3

1
4
6

11
5
7

2
4
3

5
4
5

10
5

9
11

4
9
79

12
52
24

40
6
5

9
1

7

1
1

107
129
154

49.1
42.7
38.0

1
1
3

5
2
2

2
6

1
6
6

2
1
8

3
1
24

4
18
86

7
72
11

34
21
8

27
5

6

12

2

3

110
125
158

45.3
41. 3
39.5

3
1
4

2
5
2

8
4
1

7
10
5

2

3
3
16

7
11
77

2
68
28

31
15
12

33
7
4

2
1

8

1

1

9

991
1,280
1,485

47.9
41.8
38.2

10
17
25

47
41
41

20
24
30

23
42
52

6
29
52

17
34
145

27
128
977

70
823
97

334
110
54

294
26
10

53
4

69
1
1

8
1
1

13

4,341
4,410
4,609

55.9
55.2
54.8

1
2
2

21
13
10

7
12
16

11
15
17

7
2
5

25
33
20

32
43
46

66
119
208

1,020
1,215
1, 265

1,131
1, 060
1,042

286
225
317

1,292
1,240
1,294

344
320
272

98
111
95

127
130
141

48.2
44.4
42.6

1

1
1

2
2

8
42
100

28
45
7

55
29
20

23
8
8

7
1

4
2
3

173
183
228

48.6
46.6
44.1

3

138
185
206

45.3
41.7
38.7

2

1

5

5
1
4

3

2

7
1
4

2
9
2

3
16
4

6
2
60

8
36
20

67
87
113

52
22
13

5
3
1

8
3

7
3

9
7
4

3
6
7

6
3
3

1
1
7

2
12
7

2
32
152

9
103
14

42
11
10

49
8

1

7
2

1

1
1
1

IN D U S T R Y




92
105
145

H O U R S — B R E A D -B A K I N G

Direct labor—Continued.
Unskilled—Continued.
Cake wrappers and packers:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________
Pan greasers:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________
Total, unskilled:
March 1933______________
September 1933_________
December 1934__________
Indirect labor:
Driver salesmen:
March 1933__________________
September 1933........................
December 1934--------------------Other:
Auditors, bookkeepers, etc.:
March 1933--------------------September 1933__________
December 1934__________
Chauffeurs and drivers:
March 1933______________
September 1933__________
December 1934__________
Laborers:
March 1933--------------------September 1933__________
December 1934__________

6

1

41
3
4

42
1

5

8

6
1

4
2

9

108
14
11

26
4
10

46
3
2

8
3

13
1

250
240
258

226
107
94

39
6
9

137
109
118

15
16

12
9
4

12
70
45

56
35
30

40
4
7

15
4

27
21
9

1

20
37
167

10
160
65

74
91

84
15
7

33
4
1

23
2

10
5
2

1

101

3
5
34

8
32
154

18
99
18

74
42
27

28
7
3

10
1
3

14
3
2

1

1

31
35
56

35
76
112

94
337
1, 785

168
1, 787
633

137
870
944

961
213
158

190
25
36

342
149
139

94
31
16

46
10
5

3
3
23

3
12
19

3
5
41

3
18
3

27

11

1

13

11
20
17

6
10
24

11
11
44

14
42
125

14
61
11

21

422
458
479

50.4
44.2
44.2

8
7
4

2
2
7

7
5
2

5
3
3

4
1

6
18
116

17
285
160

161
123
159

158
9
14

22
1
11

29

1
1

349
417
437

52.0
42.6
42.4

4
2
3

9
11
9

4
10
9

3
9
15

4
6
7

4
7
10

6
26
84

8
251
150

93
85
145

102
5

24
1
1

331
376
397

47.5
42.8
39.0

5
5
4

10
7
12

4
6
9

6
5
6

2
1
3

7
9
8

21
78
301

24
177
29

134
72
24

91
14
1

413
501
578

49.0
41.8
38.5

3
7
13

22
25
36

7
10
12

11
12
9

3
4
7

5
3
10

8
29
357

22
331
54

131
55
57

704
748
814

53.5
50.0
48.3

1

2
1
1

4
3
1

2
3
1

1

1

9

4
23
233

12
230
71

164
164
165

51.5
46.3
43.4

1
1

1
2

3
4
5

2
1
1

2
4
4

5
18
61

305
367
413

47.8
42.8
40.7

2
6
5

11
9
10

11
8
14

9
11
12

9
5
6

8
14
23

178
214
282

46.4
41.7
39.2

3
3
6

8
11
4

3
4
4

6
5
9

1
2
18

3,304
3,743
4,140

50.0
44.5
42.5

22
24
38

83
80
84

39
47
68

62
59
66

61
51
111

43.0
38.7
34.8

3

3
4
2

6
1
4

170
195
262

39.9
36.8
35.3

6
8
11

17
18
14

3
2
7

1

14

2

F em a les— N orth

Direct labor:
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, hand:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Cake finishers:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934......... ...................




8

2
68

8

1

1
18
2
1

1

1

APPENDIX II

Maintenance and repair, skilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Maintenance and repair, semi­
skilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Office clerks:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Service, unskilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Supervisory, skilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934............................
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Total, other:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________

B.—

D i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a c c o rd in g to w e e k ly h o u r s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c la s s e s , a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x , f o r th ree s elec te d p e r i o d s —

Con.

134

T able

Number of employees whose weekly hours were—
Avera?.6,

288
401
501

41.6
37.5
34.7

4
8
11

9
13
19

17
16
20

32
53
61

16
28
63

17
48
168

22
91
154

52
118
5

73
21

30
5

6

5

5

519
647
874

41.2
37.4
34.9

10
16
25

29
35
35

26
19
31

46
76
101

22
38
100

31
71
231

39
138
320

69
197
19

168
50
10

59
7
1

7

6

6

253
269
277

44.3
41.0
38.6

1

5
4
3

2
2
4

2
3
7

29
40
39

33
133
210

65
50
3

97
34
6

4

1

1

14
3

4

136
158
167

45.2
40.7
39.8

1

1
2

1
1
1

1

1
20
9

18
88
156

50
39
1

55
7

7

1

1

310
300
360

43.4
42.7
42.2

2
X
3

17
18
20

5
6
10

13
11
10

7
6
16

6
5
7

27
31
44

22
32
23

181
187
226

23
3

3

4

348
397
437

42.5
39. 5
36.8

5
4
4

7
19
9

28
15
16

18
26
39

10
15
61

21
29
55

41
85
217

47
122
24

113
75
12

29
7

16

7

6

1, 047
1,124
1, 241

43.5
40.9
39.2

9
5
11

30
43
32

36
24
31

33
41
56

17
21
78

57
94
110

119
337
627

184
243
51

446
303
244

73
13

24

13

6

8 and
Under under
8 hours
16
hours

16 and 24 and 32 and 36 and 40 and 44 and 48 and 52 and 56 and 60 and 64 and
under under under under under under under under under under under
24
32
44
36
48
40
52
56
60
64
72
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

72
hours
and
over

Females—North—Continued
Direct labor—Continued.
Unskilled—Continued.
Cake wrappers and packers:
March 1933_____ _____________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Total, unskilled:
March 1933___________________
September 1933............................
December 1934_______________
Indirect labor:
Other:
Office clerks:
March 1933_____ _____________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Stenographers, typists, telephone
operators, etc.:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Store clerks:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Miscellaneous, other:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934_______________
Total, other:
March 1933___________________
September 1933_______________
December 1934________________




1

1

I

1

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Region, sex, occupational class, and
period

Number of
employees




127
155
170
122
139
146
241
298
316
490
592
632

50.5
44.6
37.4
53.1
45.4
40.8
52.9
45.0
41.2
52.4
45.0
40.1

75
115
116
70
143
147
68
100
131
213
358
394

38.4
35.6
35.5
49.8
41.9
38.2
48.8
42.7
39.6
45.5
40.1
37.9

100
143
155
99
138
161
199
281
316
671
711

1

5
3
8
1

4
6

3
14
2
7
30

2
18
103
3
13
99
5
49
231
10
80
433

4
65
14
3
80
11
7
164
25
14
309
50

33
44
12
38
32
14
75
49
30
146
125
56

3
24
66
4
32
108
1
25
64
8
81
238

2
42
5
3
80
4
1
45
10
6
167
19

13
9

1
4
6

2
2
12

1
8

2
4

5
6
1
10
19

10
3
8

1
2
5
3
3
5
8
11

6
8

18
12
7
2
7
1
7
3
3
27
22
1,1

2
5
6
2
4
10
3
1
5
7
10
21

9
21

1
6
12
2
1
11
1
3
13
4
10
36

49.0
41,. 2
37.5
44.9
40.5
38.2
47.0
40.8
37.9

3
4
2
3
1
2
6
5

9
5
4
6
5
9
15
10
13

2
4
6
2
5
10
4
9
16

1
3
3
2
4
7
3
7
10

2
3
5
3
3
12
5
6
17

1
15
119
7
8
101
8
23
220

88
8
2
72
5
2
160
13

60.2
58.8

1
1

I

2
3

2

1

4
4

6
6

4
1
2
6
5
2
1

6
5
3
8
8

40
3

5
1

20

9
6

1
3

41
5
6
75
6
1
156
14
7

5
1

19
2

9
1

1
1

7
3
1
17
5
1

37
7
4
76
9
4

20
7

5
1

38
14

7
5

10

18

1

14
1

4
1

11
1

6
1

2

35
2

11
2

2

12
2

8
1

12

8
1

2
1

24
2

16
2

2
1

216
216

87
62

88
80

5

13
13
2
20
18
21
46
40
28

23

1

13
1
54
1

2
1
2
2
2
2
2

25
21
14
51
34
14

36
2
1
17
2
1
53
4
2

3
1
2
3
1

36
48

146
203

84
82

26
13

APPENDIX II

Males—South
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers:
March 1933____________
September 1933_________
December 1934.................
Ovenmen:
March 1933____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933________ ____
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Total, skilled:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Semiskilled:
General helpers:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Ovenmen’s helpers:
March 1933,_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Total, semiskilled:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, automatic:
March 1933_______ _____
September 1933---....... .
December 1934_________
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933..... .................
September 1933.......... ......
December 1934___ ______
Total, unskilled:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________

T able

B .—

D i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s a cc o rd in g to w e e k ly h o u r s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s , a s to r e g io n a n d s e x , f o r th ree selected p e r io d s — Con.

CO

O)

Number of employees whose weekly hours were—
16 and 24 and 32 and 36 and 40 and 44 and 48 and 52 and 56 and 60 and 64 and
under under under under under under under under under under under
44
48
52
56
60
64
72
32
36
24
40
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

72
hours
and
over

W A G E S

Kegion, sex, occupational class, and
period

Num- Aver­
ber of
age
em8 and
ploy- weekly Under under
hours 8 hours
ees
16
hours

Males—South—Continued

59.0

2

1

1

17

12

56

193

127

219

79

478
613
705

52.2
44.5
41.7

1
5
11

10
11
14

6
7
20

5
9
12

6
5
10

8
6
8

4
60
350

15
333
94

132
117
120

151
17
26

11
7
12

96
21
24

27
8
1

92
131
196

41. 0
38.3
36.3

1
1
4

7
7
7

4
9
7

13
5
20

3
6
25

3
8
15

6
29
97

10
59
16

18
7
5

26

1

83
90
102

43.0
42.3
41.9

2
1
3

7
5
6

4
4
2

3
1

2

4
4
16

3
5
3

48
64
67

12

4
3

1

154
181
201

44.3
40.1
38.0

9
6
6

2
5
8

12
9
13

3
4
2

11
3
5

7
73
142

10
58
6

52
23
17

44

2

2

2

237
271
303

43.8
40.8
39.3

2
1
5

16
11
12

2
9
11

16
13
15

3
7
3

13
3
5

11
77
158

13
63
9

100
87
84

56

2

3

93
fj
7
3

I

1
1

IN D U S T R Y




800

H O U R S ------ B R E A D - B A K I N G

Females—South
Direct labor:
Unskilled:
March 1933-_____ _____________
September 1933....... ......................
December 1934______ _____ _____
Indirect labor:
Other:
Store clerks:
March 1933.. ______________
September 1933_____________
December 1934......... ........... .
Miscellaneous:
March 1933________________
September, 1933____________
December 1934____ _________
Total, other:
March 1933—______ _________
September 1933_____________
December 1934............ . __

A N D

Indirect labor—Continued.
Driver-salesmen—Continued.
December 1934_________________
Other:
March 1933____ ______________
September 1933________________
December 1934_________________

T

able

C. —

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s a cc o rd in g to w e e k ly e a r n i n g s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s e s , a s to r e g i o n a n d s e x , f o r th re e s elec te d p e r i o d s

102745

Aver­
Num­
age
Region, sex, occupational class, and period ber of weekly
em­
earn­ Under
ployees
ings
$4

$8 and $12 and $16 and $20 and $24 and $28 and $32 and $36 and $40 and $44 and $48 and $56 and
under under under under under under under under under under under
over
$24
$28
$32
$36
$40
$44
$48
$56
$12
$16
$20

14,585
16,609
18,348

$24.10
24.45
25.24

264
227
235

392
359
382

6G
6
346
430

1,437
2,261
1,828

1,856
2,675
3,202

2,700
2,631
2,943

2,676
2,634
2,569

1,869
1,791
2,121

1,205
1,535
1,717

493
776
1,236

692
764
896

217
333
390

1,895
2,173
2,614

13.15
14.04
14.23

114
87
101

216
115
116

497
303
384

477
1,080
1,186

312
314
512

196
195
215

55
52
67

17
10
11

5
11
12

5
4
6

1
1
3

1
1

16,480
18,782
20,962

22.84
23.24
23.86

378
314
336

608
474
498

1,103
649
814

1,914
3,341
3,014

2,168
2,989
3,714

2,896
2,826
3,158

2,731
2,686
2,636

1,886
1,801
2,132

1,210
1,546
1,729

498
780
1,242

693
765
899

12,534
14,054
15,501

24.88
25.12
26.03

197
170
186

286
304
312

427
259
284

1,074
1,528
1,141

1,513
2,251
2,658

2,279
2,248
2,488

2,400
2,329
2,235

1,732
1,595
1,923

1,123
1,410
1,563

453
687
1,138

1,566
1,771
2,115

13.75
14.40
14.66

84
73
79

141
79
80

383
249
279

411
828
914

289
289
474

182
179
197

49
48
60

16
10
11

5
10
11

14,100
15,825
17,616

23.65
23.92
24.66

281
243
265

427
383
392

810
508
563

1,485
2,356
2,055

1,802
2,540
3,132

2,461
2,427
2,685

2,449
2, 377
2,295

1,748
1,605
1,934

2,051
2,555
2,847

19.29
20.74
20.92

67
57
49

106
55
70

179
87
146

363
733
687

343
424
544

421
383
455

276
305
334

137
196
198

329
402
499

10.32
12.44
12.38

30
14
22

75
36
36

114
54
105

66
252
272

23
25
38

14
16
18

6
4
7

1

2,380
2,957
. 3,346

18.05
19.61
19.64

97
71
71

181
91
106

293
141
251

429
985
959

366
449
582

435
399
473

282
309
341

138
196
198

144
224
289

34
53
110

217
334
391

144
224
289

34
53
110

664
714
848

209
313
366

143
204
264

34
42
95

6
4
6

1
1
3

1
1

1,128
1,420
1,574

458
691
1,144

665
715
851

209
314
367

143
204
264

34
42
95

82
125
154

40
89
98

28
50
48

8
20
24

1
20
25

11
15

40
89
98

28
50
48

8
20
24

1
20
25

II




$4 and
under
$8

A P P E N D IX

Total—United States:
Males:
March 1933______________________
September 1933-----------------------December 1934-----------------------Females:
March 1933,-- ________________
September 1933_________________
December 1934______________ ___
Males and females:
March 1933--------------------------------September 1933---------------------------December 1934-------------------- ------Total—North:
Males:
March 1933______________________
September 1933---------------------------December 1934---------------------------Females:
March 1933____________________ September 1933_____ _________
December 1934 _________________
Males and females:
March 1933------ --------------------------September 1933. ......... ........... ........
December 1934__________________
Total—South:
Males:
March 1933__________________
September 1933 --------------- ---------December 1934---------------------------Females:
March 1933______________________
September 1933______________ . . .
December 1934______ ___________
Males and females:
March 1933.. _____ _____________
September 1933.................. ..............
December 1934........ .........................

Number of employees whose weekly earnings were—

1
1
82
126
155

II

15

00

able

C . — D istrib u tio n o f em p lo yees according to w eekly earnings by occup ation al cla sses , as to region and sex , f o r three selected p eriod s — C o n .

Males—North
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____ _______
December 1934_____________
Cake makers:
March 1933
September 1933_________ .. .
December 1934___ _____ ..
Dividers or scalers and rounders:
March 1933___________
...
September 1933.______ ____ _
December 1934_________ . . .
Mixers:
March 1933____
. _____
September 1933..
...
December 1934____________
Molders:
March 1933________________
September 1933____________
December 1934________ . . .
Ovenmen:
March 1933_________ „ . .
September 1933..
. _____
December 1934__________ .
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933________________
September 1933 ________ .
December 1934_____________
Total:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
Semiskilled:
Bench hands’ or hand-bakers’
helpers:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________




$23.69
23.07
23. 77

11

384
429
494

26.19
25.64
26.23

3
3

236
293
304

26. 39
24. 78
25.53

374
396
429

29.28
28.80
28.83

258
301
341

23.59
22. 25
22.91

1
2
2

528
596
628

28.59
27.93
28. 41

3
4

120

115
158

23. 25
22.89
23. 75

2,481
2,846
3,161

26.19
25. 35
25.84

168

17.78
17.46
18.24

221

246

6

3

16
25
28

32
46
25

44
63
93

129
130

137
170
191

113
118
163

48
53
54

16

3

68

25

20
10

15

3

13
15

17

19
19
16

34
42
48

58
74
81

95
109
135

51
68

44
46
45

23
18
29

15
16
16

7

8
10

10

6
1

4

581
716
807

10

2

50
59

10

101

90

11
11

8

7

4
2

41
54
59

61
71
74

41
45
65

26
23

3

3

30
59
50

9

2

18
9

9

1
1

22

10
12

8
2

5

2

4
3

3
4

11

22

1

2

6

53
55
59

78
109
123

79
71
78

50
52
70

23
34
36

32
17
14

10
8
8

6
6

3

7
3

18
38
26

45
52
67

34
30
46

19
17
17

4
7

3
5

2

3

90

69
70
67

6

68

18
27
14

33
45
51

63
79
78

116
113
129

95
135
135

91
76
89

34
37
59

10
11

16
25
34

34
26
44

24
26
32

13
17
23

6

2
2

12

3

426
484
600

284
272
309

108
116
171

7
13

2
2

2

8
8

2

34
25
48

5

13

12

13

8
6

5

4

1
1

1
2

16

10
12

80
108
93

64
51
53

118
159
101

227
336
391

419
487
518

556
650
751

9
16

12
12

12
8
2

18
41
30

35
56
86

59
54
51

19
38

12

2

4

15

5

12

12

5

2

2

3
5

22

21

31
33

3
3

7
1
2

13

19
15

1
1
1

4

1

98
98
78

50
50
56

1

10
6

1

35
20

24

6

3

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Number of employees whose weekly earnings were—
Num- Average
Region, sex, occupational class, and period ber of weekly
$4 and $8 and $12 and $16 and $20 and $24 and $28 and $32 and $36 and $40 and $44 and $48 and
em­
ployees earn­ Under under under under under under under under under under under under under $06 sod
ings
$4
over
$16
$24
$12
$20
$28
$32
$8
$48
$36
$40
$44
$56

138

T




379
497
608

16.46
16.88
16.40

22
15
20

28
27
31

39
24
42

81
153
127

77
128
249

79
86
90

32
44
33

19
16
12

1
4
4

1

299
351
437

17.75
18.29
18.72

12
7
8

13
15
10

26
10
11

75
91
77

54
100
164

59
65
97

36
38
40

14
17
19

7
7
10

3
1
1

444
536
617

18.05
18.09
18.86

5
14
10

38
25
24

48
24
21

80
126
86

85
140
244

93
119
108

54
52
86

26
27
26

10
7
10

5
2
1

1

127
170
198

21.85
19.80
20.22

1
2

1
3
4

3
9
3

11
23
19

34
55
75

33
40
46

21
26
29

12
7
11

9
6
6

2
1
2

1

1,417
1,775
2,106

17.87
17.87
18.18

49
52
52

92
82
84

128
75
79

265
434
339

285
479
818

323
364
392

155
179
226

78
80
80

29
26
30

13
4
4

2

314
415
459

19.26
18.92
18.87

20
14
17

6
8
11

15
15
15

48
93
82

66
110
133

63
82
101

62
57
63

22
24
25

vio
9
11

2
2
1

368
506
569

17.47
17.33
17.48

10
12
8

11
16
19

30
13
33

94
169
115

95
158
235

77
87
106

31
32
30

9
9
12

10
10
10

1

4
3
5

13
28
32

28
36
46

20
20
33

8
6
10

1

2
1
3

6
10
6

33
41
32

33
33
61

15
31
32

11
11
14

1

14
4
8

20
42
46

17
26
31

12
14
23

14
12
18

7
6
12

7
2
5

1
4
3

2
2
3

239
363
506

187
234
295

126
118
135

39
39
53

29
22
29

4
6
5

299
354
79

804
551
605

1,069
857
570

755
628
824

494
755
782

170
387
747

92
105
145
107
129
154

110

125
158

16.30
16.26
17.18
16.34
17.19
17.50
18.69
18.67
19.46

' 7
4
3
5
2
3
6
6
5

99
7
10
4
1
5
8
5
3

991
1,280
1,485

17.34
17.88
18.09

48
38
36

38
37
48

69
45
67

208
373
307

4,341
4,410
4,609

27.47
30.09
32.96

11
3
6

10
15
12

52
18
10

217
149
27

3

APPENDIX II

General helpers:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934...............
Mixers’ helpers:
March 1933....................
September 1933-----------December 1934___..........
Ovenmen’s helpers:
March 1933___________
September 1933-----------December 1934________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933-............
September 1933-----------December 1934___..........
Total:
March 1933___________
September 1933-----------December 1934 -----------Unskilled:
Bread packers:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934------------Bread wrappers, automatic:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Cake wrappers and packers:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Pan greasers:
March 1933— ------------September 1933-----------December 1934------------Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Total:
March 1933____________
September 1933________
December 1934...............
Indirect labor:
Driver salesmen:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934____ ____ —

1

1

1

2
1

2
3
3

1

2
1

394
440
570

45
156
200

17
77
126

1

1
4
20
51

O

CO

Males—North—Continued
Indirect labor—Continued.
Other:
Auditors, bookkeepers, etc.:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934____________
Chauffeurs and drivers:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934____________
Laborers:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934------------------Maintenance and repair, skilled:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934____________
Maintenance and repair, semi­
skilled:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934____________
Office clerks:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934____________
Service, unskilled:
March 1933________ ____ _
September 1933..... ...........
December 1934____________
Supervisory, skilled:
March 1933_______________
September 1933____________
December 1934......... .......... .




127
130
141

$33. 77
33.86
33.83

1

173
183
228

23.48
24.47
24.62

5

1

6

138
185
206

16.59
17.84
17.56

422
458
479

27.65
27. 33
28.22

2

349
417
437

20.48
19. 59

10
11

331
376
397

1
1

1
2
1

3
4
5

10
10
12

19
19
23

26
25
21

12
13
25

17
21
16

13
12
18

13
11
8

2

5
1
6

19
20
12

20
32
46

35
36
27

33
24
46

33
41
34

14
16
24

3
8
19

5
4
5

1

13
4
4

5
5
7

10
6
6

10
27
28

60
89
103

26
38
43

13
14
10

1
2
5

1

7
5

5
1
6

9
8
3

15
22
28

58
80
70

102
121
118

125
120
115

64
*67
78

25
23
30

7
5
18

2
2
5

3
3
4

3
5

1

1

93
86
87

65
83
96

1 .........

2

7

10

11
10
10

32
51
32

69
126
135

123
130
140

70
63
73

26
12
23

2
4
4

2
3
2

1

21.47
21.32

9
6
8

10
9
13

7
5
9

35
51
20

63
92
114

69
84
99

57
61
69

38
30
26

36
30
30

3
5
5

413
501
578

17.28
17.04
16.80

18
18
34

20

26
20
12

75
101
115

128
213
224

89
92
132

45
29
30

8
5
6

3
4
3

1

704
748
814

37. 74
37.91
39.15

3
1

6
6
1

23
27
17

58
71
48

103
69
83

115
156
184

89
96
122

2
2
3

4
3
4

20.20

22.02

19

22

1

1

9
10
9

128
136
137

22
17
38

WAGES AND HOURS— BREAD-BAKING INDUSTRY

Number of employees whose weekly earnings were—
Num­ Aver­
age
Region, sex, occupational class, and period ber of weekly
$4 and $8 and $12 and $16 and $20 and $24 and $28 and $32 and $36 and $40 and $44 and $48 and
em­
ployees earn­ Under under under under under under under under under under under under under $56 and
over
ings
$4
$24
$28
$32
$12
$16
$36
$40
$56
$20
$44
$8
$48

140

T a b l e C . — D istrib u tion o f em p lo yees according to w eekly earnings by o ccu p ation al cla sses, as to region a nd sex, f o r three selected period s — C o n .

Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________
Total:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________

164
164
165

30.32
29.64
29.67

14
15
12

21
20
27

25
34
31

39
26
21

17
23
30

14
14
14

11
12
7

305
367
413

20.14
19.91
20.95

45
73
117

61
70
78

56
63
77

23
26
23

20
18
31

4
4
3

1

178
214
282

16.89
16.98
17.10

40
47
79

31
25
33

16
26
28

12
8
9

4
4
4

3,304
3,743
4,140

25.60
25.02
25.30

463
719
864

546
612
678

494
525
553

434
364
366

287
335
413

158
174
211

61
51
111

11.72
13.20
12.21

12
1
11

5
5
1

170
195
262

10. 76
11.94
12.79

23
10
40

5
9
5

2

288
401
501

10.92
11.79
12.47

27
16
58

3
3
2

2
2
1

519
647
874

10.96
11.95
12. 53

62
27
109

13
17
8

2
4
1

1

253
269
277

17.18
17.69
17.68

70
79
113

58
59
60

17
19
19

4
3
3

2

3
3
3

136
158
167

18.90
18.80
19. 37

42
58
72

50
48
57

10
10
13

4
2
2

3
3

310
300
360

13. 75
14.49
14. 71

76
72
92

32
35
43

7
5
8

1

7
6
9

11
8
5

"I

1
1

_

89
106
114

24
19
43

4
1
1
170
173
195

114
106
110

F e m a le s — N o rth




APPENDIX II

Direct labor:
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, hand:
March 1933________________
September 1933____________
December 1934_____________
Cake finishers:
March 1933________________
September 1933____________
December 1934_____________
Cake wrappers and packers:
March 1933________________
September 1933____________
December 1934____ ________
Total:
March 1933________________
September 1933____________
December 1934_____________
Indirect labor:
Other:
Office clerks:
March 1933__________ ______
September 1933_____ _____
December 1934_____________
Stenographers, typists, telephone
operators, etc.:
March 1933________________
September 1933____________
December 1934_____________
Store clerks:
March 1933________________
September 1933_____________
December 1934_____________

1
1

1

1
1
1

T able C

.— Distribution of employees according to weekly earnings by occupational classes, as to region and sex, for three selected periods— C o n .

35
27
16

99
39
53

98
219
204

39
53
88

29
20
29

13
10
19

6
5
5

5
7
6

2
1
3

2

1
1

1,047
1,124
1,241

15.13
15.81
16.16

44
34
35

66
43
34

176
83
97

292
470
431

227
262
365

169
162
189

47
44
59

15
10
10

5
10
11

5
4
6

1
1
3

1
1

127
155
170

17.39
17. 51
17.19

3
3
5

7
2
9

9
6
6

35
45
44

31
56
57

18
22
22

15
13
20

5
6
6

3
2
1

1

127
139
146

17.39
22.49
22.46

3

7

9

1

1

35
16
14

31
37
36

18
29
37

15
29
31

5
16
10

3
5
9

1
7
7

241
298
316

21.80
21.82
21.68

1

6
2
1

11
4
4

35
62
64

48
67
76

43
47
60

43
58
51

25
27
27

18
16
22

6
9
5

4
5
5

1
1

490
592
632

20. 64
21.26
20.65

5
3
5

14
4
11

26
10
11

80
123
122

111
160
169

85
98
119

85
100
102

44
49
43

26
23
32

8
16
12

5
5
5

1
1

75
115
116

9.80
11.71
12.37

17
15
9

14
11
7

16
13
19

15
59
63

10
14
17

1
1
1

2
1

1

70
143
147

13.85
14.34
14. 75

3
4
2

5
3
2

17
12
26

19
80
63

15
33
41

9
8
11

2
2
2

1

12.26

a

7

15

22

10

7

1

1

1

IN D U S T R Y

22
15
11

B R E A D -B A K IN G




$13.39
14.34
15.17

H O U R S—

Males—South
Direct labor:
Skilled:
Bench hands or hand bakers:
March 1933_____________
September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Ovenmen:
March 1933____________
September 1933------------December 1934_________
Miscellaneous, skilled:
March 1933------------------September 1933_________
December 1934_________
Total:
March 1933____________
September 1933-------------December 1934_________
Semiskilled:
General helpers:
March 1933-------- ---------September 1933-------------December 1934........... .....
Ovenmen’s helpers:
March 1933________ ____
September 1933.............
December 1934......... .......
Miscellaneous, semiskilled:
March 1933..................

348
397
437

AN D

Females—North—Continued
Indirect labor—Continued.
Other—Continued.
Miscellaneous:
March 1933_____ _______
September 1933.------------December 1934........... ......
Total:
March 1933____________
September 1933_________
December 1934........... ......

fc
O

W A G E S

Number of employees whose weekly earnings were—
Num­
age
ber of weekly
Region, sex, occupational class, and period
Under $4 and $8 and $12 and $16 and $20 and $24 and $28 and $32 and $36 and $40 and $44 and $48 and $56 and
em­
under under under under under under under under under under under under
ployees earn­
over
$4
ings
$12
$24
$32
$40
$44
$48
$56
$8
$16
$20
$28
$36

September 1033_______
December 1934..............
Total:
March 1933___________
September 1933----------December 1934________
Unskilled:
Bread wrappers, automatic:
March 1933___________
September 1933----------December 1934________
Miscellaneous, unskilled:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Total:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Indirect labor:
Driver-salesmen:
March 1933_______________
September 1933___________
December 1934____________
Other:
March 1933_______________
September 1933___________
December 1934____________

100

131

14.73
15.35

2
3

3
3

3
10

60
59

22
38

9
14

1
3

1

213
358
394

11.92
13.60
14.25

26
21
14

26
17
12

48
28
55

56
199
185

35
69
96

17
18
26

5
4
5

2
1

143
155

12.87
13.88
14.13

7
7
5

13
6
9

10
9
10

45
83
77

15
26
45

10
10
9

2

99
138
161

11.37
13.72
14.17

13
9
6

20
11
6

22
9
24

22
76
79

10
18
30

8
10
12

2
2
1

2
1
2

1

1
1

199
281
316

12.12
13.81
14.15

20
16
11

33
17
15

32
18
34

67
159
156

25
44
75

18
20
21

2
4
1

2
1
2

1

1
1

671
711
800

22.80
27.93
28.13

1
2

3
4
2

18
6
1

58
29
7

106
62
92

234
162
196

132
120
169

62
140
128

32
74
76

17
46
57

5
26
26

2
12
13

1
17
21

11
12

478
613
705

19.27
19.63
19. 72

15
15
19

30
13
30

55
25
45

102
223
217

66
89
112

67
85
93

52
59
57

29
24
24

24
27
46

15
26
28

18
19
17

5
7
11

3
3

3

92
131
196

8.10
11.28
11.04

12
7
8

31
13
18

40
19
60

8
92
107

3

83
90

9.45
11.56
12.00

9
3
8

18
9
5

29
14
10

25
62
73

1
1
2

1
1
4

201

154
181

12.11
13. 72
13.88

9
4
6

26
14
13

45
21
35

33
98
92

22
24
33

13
15
14

6
4
7

1
1

237
271
303

11.18
13.00
13. 25

18
7
14

44
23
18

74
35
45

58
160
165

23
25
35

14
16
18

6
4
7

1
1

100

Females—South

Direct labor:
Unskilled:
March 1933_______________
September 1933___________
December 1934____________
Indirect labor:
Other:
Store clerks:
March 1933____________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Miscellaneous:
March 1933___________
September 1933________
December 1934________
Total:
March 1933____________
September 1933________
December 1934________




102

>
5
SJ
Z

e
M

X

1

1

O

CO