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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS)
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

' '

(WHOLE 1C1
( NUMBER l j l

SERIES:

No.

11

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN THE
UNITED STA TES, 1 9 0 7 TO 1912




MAY 15, 1914

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1914




CONTENTS

W a g e s and hours o f labor in the iron and steel in d u stry: *

Page.

Introduction and sum m ary........................................................................

7 -1 5

Com m on laborers............................................................................................................. 1 4 ,1 5
E xplan ation of scope and m eth od...................................................................................

1 6 -2 2

Functions of th e several departm ents............................................................................ 2 2 -2 5
Iron sm e ltin g .. ................................................................................................................. 2 2 ,2 3
B la stfu rn a ces............................................................................................................. 2 2 ,2 3
Steel m ak in g..................................................................................................................... 2 3 ,2 4
Bessem er converters..............................................................................................

23

O pen-hearth furnaces........................................................................................... 2 3 ,2 4
S teel working— rolling m ills......................................................................................

2 4 ,2 5

B loom ing m ills........................................................................................................

24

P late m ills.................................................................................................................

24

Standard rail m ills.................................................................................................

24

Bar m ills..................................................................................................................... 2 4 ,2 5
Sheet m ills................................................................................................................

25

T in p late m ills .........................................................................................................

25

Previous reports........................................................................................................................

25

Im portance of th e in d u stry.................................................................................................

26

B la stfu rn a ces............................................................................................................................. 2 7 -9 9
Sum m ary............................................................................................................................. 2 7 -3 6
D escription of occupations.......................................................................................... 3 7 -4 1
T able I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in th e U n ited States, b y years, 1907 to 1912. 4 2 -4 7
T able I I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1907 to 1912.............. 4 8 -6 1
T able I I I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each d istrict, b y years, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 .. 6 2 -7 1
T a ble I V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
the U n ited States, b y years, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 ...................................................... 7 2 -7 6
T able Y .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work, per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1907 to 1912..................................................................

77 -8 9

T able V I .— Average and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each d istrict, b y years, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 .................................................................. 9 0 -9 9
Bessem er converters...........................................................................................................

100-169

Sum m ary........................................................................................................................

10 0-11 0

D escription of occupations.....................................................................................

111-116

T able I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the U n ited States, b y years, 1907 to 1912. 117-122
T able I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1907 to 1912—

123-136

T able I I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each d istrict, b y years, 1907 to 1912. 137-143
T able I Y .— Average and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
the U n ited States, b y years, 1907 to 1912.......................................................144-149




3

CONTENTS.

4

W a g e s and hours o f labor in the iron and steel industry— C ontinued.

page.

Bessem er converters— C oncluded.
T a ble V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 .............................................................

150-162

T able V I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each d istrict, b y years, 1907 to

1912............................................................ 163-169

O pen-hearth furnaces......................................................................................................... 170-210
Sum m ary......................................................................................................................... 1 7 0-17 6
D escription of occupations...................................................................................... 1 7 7-18 0
T able I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per horn* in the U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1912. 18 1-18 3
T a b le I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each year, b y d istricts, 1910 to 1912. 184-19 1
T able I I I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each d istrict, b y years, 1910 to 1912. 19 2-19 6
T a ble I V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
th e U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .................................................. 1 9 7,19 8
T able V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1910 to

1 9 1 2 ............................................................ 199-205

T able Y I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each district, b y years, 1910 to

1 9 1 2 ............................................................ 20 6-21 0

B loom ing m ills......................................................................................................................

2 1 1-24 4

Sum m ary......................................................................................................................... 21 1-21 6
D escription of occupations...................................................................................... 21 7-22 1
T able I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earning^ and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1912. 2 2 2 ,2 2 3
T able I I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1910 to 1912. 22 4-22 9
T able I I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of w ages per hour in each district, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .. 23 0-23 3
T able I V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
the U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1912.................................................... 2 3 4 ,2 3 5
T able Y .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 ............................................................ 23 6 -2 4 0
T able V I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each district, b y years, 1910 to 1912 .............................................................. 24 1-24 4
P late m ills................................................................................................................................ 24 5-28 3
Sum m ary......................................................................................................................... 24 5-25 1
D escription of o ccu p atio n s..................................................................................... 2 5 2 -2 5 6
T able I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in th e U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1912. 25 7-25 9
T able I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of w ages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1910 to 1912. 260-266
T able I I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each district, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .. 26 7-27 0
T able I V .— Average and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
the U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .................................................. 2 7 1,27 2
T able V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .............................................................. 273-279
T able Y I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each district, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .............................................................. 280-283




CONTENDS.

5

W a g e s and hours o f labor in the iron and steel industry— C oncluded.

Page.

Standard rail m ills............................................................................................................... 284-328
Su m m ary........................................................................................................................ 284-291
D escription of occupations...................................................................................... 292-295
Table I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of w agesper hour in th e U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1912. 296-299
T able I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of w ages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1910 to 1912. 300-307
T able I I I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of w ages per hour in each d istrict, b y years, 1910 to 1912. 308-312
T able I Y .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
the U n ited States, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .................................................. 313-316
T able V .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1910 to 1912..............................................................

317-323

T able V I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each district, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 2 .............................................................. 324-328
Bar m ills..................................................................................................................................

329-518

Su m m ary........................................................................................................................

329-340

D escription of occu p ation s-.................................................................................... 341-345
T able I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the U n ited States, b y years, 1907 to 1912. 346-366
T able I I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1907 to 1912. 367-411
T able I I I .— Average fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each district, b y years, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 .. 412-436
T able I Y .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e, hours of work per w eek in
the U n ited States, b y years, 1907 to 1912 .................................................. 4 3 7 -4 5 4
T able Y .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each year, b y districts, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 .............................................................. 4 5 5-49 4
T able V I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek in
each d istrict, b y years, 1907 to 1 9 1 2 .............................................................

49 5-51 8

Sh eet m ills..............................................................................................................................

519-531

Sum m ary..................................... ................................................................................... 519-524
D escription of occupations..................................................................................... 52 4-52 7
T able I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour, b y years, 1910 to 1912....................................... 528, 529
T able I I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek,
b y years, 1910 to 1912........................................................................................... 53 0,53 1
T in plate m ills........................................................................................................................

532-550

Sum m ary........................................................................................................................

532-538

D escription of occupations.....................................................................................

5 3 9-54 2

T able I .— A verage fu ll-tim e w eek ly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour, b y years, 1910 to 1912...........................................

543-546

T able I I .— A verage and classified fu ll-tim e hours of work per w eek,
b y years, 1910 to 1912........................................................................................... 54 7-55 0







BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 151.

WASHINGTON.

MAY 15,1914

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE IRON AND
STEEL INDUSTRY, 1907 TO 1912.
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
In this report are presented the full-time weekly earnings, the rates
of wages or earnings per hour, and the customary full-time hours of
labor per week in the principal productive occupations in nine
departments or subdivisions of the iron and steel industry in the
United States.
The several departments of the industry covered and the years for
which information is shown are as follows:
Iron smelting:
Blast furnaces, 1907-1912.
Steel making:
Bessemer converters, 1907-1912.
Open-hearth furnaces, 1910-1912.
Steel working:
Rolling mills—
Blooming mills, 1910-1912.
Plate mills, 1910-1912.
Standard rail mills, 1910-1912.
Bar mills, 1907-1912.
Sheet mills, 1910-1912.
Tinplate mills, 1910-1912.
The information here presented is for one pay-roll period in each
year obtained from certain representative plants in the industry.
Because of the magnitude of the work, it was not practicable for the
Bureau to collect data from all establishments operating in the
United States, nor for a full year in the establishments covered. The
pay period taken in most cases was the second half of May each year.
When conditions in May were not normal, data were taken for a
normal period as near May as available. The occupations for which
data are shown, however, constitute nearly all of the principal pro­
ductive occupations in the nine departments covered.




7

8

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

In three departments data were obtained back to 1907. But owing
to the difficulty of finding establishments haying satisfactory records
for past years and also owing to the amount of work involved, data
for 1907 to 1909 were obtained from a smaller number of establish­
ments than have furnished data for the later years. In six depart­
ments no data were obtained for years earlier than 1910.
The number of plants covered each year and the number of
employees for whom data are presented each year are stated in the
table on p. 16.
In the chapters relating to the several departments the full-time
weekly earnings, the full-time hours of labor per week, the rates
of wages or earnings per hour are shown for each occupation, and these
figures are summarized in the form of percentages which show
the trend of wages and hours from year to year in each department.
Such summary figures for the several departments are assembled for
the convenience of the reader in this general introduction.
Compared with 1907, the years 1908 and 1909 were years of reduced
earnings for the employees of the iron and steel industry. In the blast­
furnace department the average full-time weekly earnings in 1908
were 5.8 per cent lower than in 1907; and in 1909, 0.9 per cent lower
than in 1908. In the Bessemer department the lowest point in the
six-year period was in 1908, when the full-time weekly earnings of
the employees were 8.4 per cent lower than in 1907. The lowest point
in the bar-mill department was likewise in 1908, when the full-time
weekly earnings were 10.2 per cent lower than in 1907. The full­
time weekly earnings were at their highest in the six-year period in
1911 in the blast-furnace department, in 1912 in the Bessemer depart­
ment, and in 1910 in the bar-mill department.
In 1912 full-time weekly earnings in blast furnaces were 1.1 per
cent higher than in 1907, 7.3 per cent higher than in 1908,8.2 per
cent higher than in 1909, 0.3 per cent higher than in 1910, and 0.6
per cent lower than in 1911.
Full-time weekly earnings in the Bessemer converting department
in 1912 were 4.5 per cent higher than in 1907,14 per cent higher than
in 1908,7.2 per cent higher than in 1909,2.6 per cent higher than in
1910, and 7.5 per cent higher than in 1911.
In bar mills the full-time weekly earnings in 1912 were 2.4 per cent
lower than in 1907, 8.7 per cent higher than in 1908, 6.3 per cent
higher than in 1909, 3.8 per cent lower than in 1910, and 1.0 per cent
higher than in 1911.
For the other six departments figures were obtained only for the
three years 1910,1911, and 1912. In five departments— open hearth,
blooming, plate, sheet, and tinplate— full-time weekly earnings were
higher in 1912 than in either of the two years preceding. In stand­
ard rail mills the full-time weekly earnings were the highest in 1910.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

9

In the blast-furnace, Bessemer, and bar-mill departments there
was a reduction of hours of labor between 1907 and 1912, and, except
in plate mills, all departments show a reduction of hours between
1910 and 1912.
The facts above quoted are drawn from the following table, which
treats of three correlated subjects: Full-time hours of labor per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings. The heavy­
faced figures of this table are relative numbers. These relative
numbers are simply percentages computed from the actual weekly
earnings, the actual hours of labor, and the actual rates of wages per
hour appearing in the tables relating to the occupations in the several
departments. In computing such relative numbers, the actual
figures for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent; thus the facts
for each preceding year are brought into direct comparison with the
facts for the latest year available, namely, 1912. The relative for each
year preceding 1912 is the per cent that the average in that year is of
the average for 1912. For example, the table following shows that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of employees in blast furnaces in
1907 were 98.9 per cent of such weekly earnings in 1912. In 1908 the
weekly earnings decreased to 93.2 per cent of the earnings in 1912.
In 1909 they were only 92.4 per cent of the weekly earnings in 1912.
There was an increase in weekly earnings in 1910 and in 1911. In
1911 the weekly earnings were higher than they were in 1912, the
relative for 1911 being 100.6 as against 100 in 1912. The relative
numbers for full-time hours per week in blast furnaces decreased from
104.1 in 1907 to 100 in 1912. In other words, the average full-time
hours of work per week in 1907 were 104.1 per cent of the average full­
time hours in 1912. The other relative numbers of the table are
read in like manner. The method of computing these relative num­
bers from the averages of the hours and wages shown in the several
tables of this report is explained on page 21.
In addition to the relative numbers in this table, percentages have
been computed showing the per cent of increase or decrease in 1912,
as compared with each year preceding 1912; while in another column
is given the per cent of increase or decrease in each year compared
with the year immediately preceding.
Referring to the weekly earnings of blast-furnace employees in the
table, it is seen that the weekly earnings in 1912 were 1.1 per cent
higher than in 1907, 7.3 per cent higher than in 1908, etc.
The next column shows that the weekly earnings of blast-furnace
employees in 1908 were 5.8 per cent lower than in 1907,0.9 per cent
lower in 1909 than in 1908, 7.9 per cent higher in 1910 than in 1909,
and so on.




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS,

The percentages for hours per week and wages per hour for this
and the other departments presented in the table are read in like
manner.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D W E E K L Y E A R N ­
IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E , IN
S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y D E P A R T M E N T S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Department and year.

Blast furnaces:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Bessemer converters:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Open-hearth furnaces:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Bloom ing mills:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Plate mills:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912....*..............................
Standard rail mills:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Bar mills:
1907......................................
1908............................. .
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Sheet mills:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Tinplate mills:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Each
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
pared
year
with as com ­
pared
each
with
speci­
fied
year
year. preced­
ing.

104.1
102.6
103.5
103.6
102.6
100.0

- 3 .9
- 2 .5
- 3 .4
-3 .5
-2 .5

102.2
97.9
101.9
102.6
100.3
100.0

-2 .2
+ 2 .1
- 1 .9
-2 .5
- .3

100.8
98.3
100.0

- .8
+ 1 .7

100.6
100.0
100.0

— .6
0)

99.7
99.1
100.0

+ .3
+ .9

104.4
99.9
100.0

-4 .2
+ .1

101.3
100 8
101.8
101.4
100.2
100.0

-1 .3
- .8
- 1 .8
- 1 .4
- .2

101.3
100.2
100.0

-1 .3
- .2

100.4
100.2
100.0

-

.4
.2

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Rela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

94.4
90.0
88.9
96.1
97.8
100.0

+ 5.9
+11.1
+12.5
+ 4.1
+ 2.2

-4 .2
+ 4 .1
+ .7
-2 .2
— .3

93.5
86.9
90.5
94.5
90.5
100.0

+ 7.0
+15.1
+10.5
+ 5.8
+ 10.5

-2 .5
+ 1 .7

96.0
96.0
100.0

+ 4.2
+ 4.2

93.7
94.7
100.0

+ 6.7
+ 5.6

0)
- .6
+ .9

96.9
93.5
100.0

+ 3.2
+ 7.0

-4 .3
+ .1

99.2
99.6
100.0

+
+

.8
.4

- .5
+ 1 .0
- .4
-1 .2
— .2

101.8
91.4
93.2
103.2
98.9
100.0

—
+
+
+

1.8
9.4
7.3
3.1
1.1

-1 .1
- .2

88.8
97.0
100.0

+ 12 .6
+ 3.1

-

88.1
98.6
100.0

+13.5
+ 1.4

.6

.2
.2

1 N o change.

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
full­
1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
tim e
com ­
fied
com ­
fied
weekly
pared
year
pared
year
earn­
with as com ­
with as com ­
ings.
each
pared
each
pared
with
speci­
speci­
with
fied
year
fied
year
year. preced­
year. preced­
ing.
ing.

- 1 .4
+ .9
+ .1
- 1 .0
-2 .5

-

W eekly earnings.

4.7
1.2
8.1
1.8
2.2

98.9
93.2
92.4
99.7
100.6
100.0

+ 1.1
+ 7.3
+ 8.2
+ .3
.6

- 7.1
+ 4.1
+ 4.4
- 4.2
+ 10.5

95.7
87.7
93.3
97.5
93.0
100.0

+ 4.5
+ 14 .0
+ 7.2
+ 2.6
+ 7.5

0)
+ 4.2

97.1
94.3
100.0

+ 3.0
+ 6.0

+ 1.1
+ 5.6

94.5
95.5
100.0

+ 5.8
+ 4.7

- 3.5
+ 7.0

96.2
92.7
100.0

+ 4.0
+ 7.9

+
+

.4
.4

102.2
99.2
100.0

— 2.2
+ .8

-io .2
+ 2.0
+ 10 .7
- 4.2
+ 1.1

102.4
92.0
94.1
104.0
99.0
100.0

—
+
+
+

+ 9.2
+ 3.1

89.4
97.1
100.0

+ 11 .9
+ 3.0

+ 11 .9
+ 1.4

88.3
98.6
100.0

+ 13.3
+ 1.4

+
+
+

2.3
8.7
6.3
3.8
1.0

- 5.8
.9
+ 7.9
+ .9
.6
+
+
+

8.4
6.4
4.5
4.6
7.5

- 2.9
+ 6.0
+ 1.1
+ 4.7
- 3.6
+ 7.9
- 2.9
+ .8
- 1 0 .2
+ 2.3
+10.5
- 4.8
+ 1.0
+ 8.6
+ 3.0
+11.7
+ 1.4

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

11

A blast furnace from the nature of its process must be in con­
tinuous operation day and night, seven days per week. In 1907, in
the 20 plants reported for that year, for 97.2 per cent of all employees
the customary working time was seven days per week, and for
the remaining 2.8 per cent it was six days per week. Between 1907
and 1912 there was a material reduction in seven-day work. Many
plants had made provision to lay off each employee in rotation one
day in seven, thus making a six-day week for the employees while
the plant was continuously in operation seven days. In 1912, 35
plants reported 82.0 per cent of all employees working seven days
per week and 17.9 per cent working six days per week.
The steel-making departments— Bessemer converters and openhearth furnaces— normally are in operation day and night six days
per week. A shutdown usually is made over Sunday for a period
varying from 12 to 36 hours. When the work is heavy, however, the
plants are operated seven days per week. In 1907, a year of large
production, 24.1 per cent of the employees in the 9 Bessemer plants
covered worked seven days per week. In the next two years the
percentage was smaller. In 1910, another prosperous year, 32.1
per cent of the employees in the 10 plants covered that year worked
seven days per week. In 1912, 14.9 per cent of the employees of the
same 10 plants worked seven days per week. Throughout the period
the majority of the employees in the Bessemer converters worked
six days per week, while quite a proportion worked six and seven
days in alternate weeks. The employees in open-hearth furnaces like­
wise worked seven days per week to a greater extent when trade was
brisk. In 1912, 25 per cent of the employees were working seven
days per week, 37 per cent were working six and seven days in
alternate weeks, and 36.2 per cent were working six days per week.
In blooming mills in 1912, 16.3 per cent of the employees were
working seven days per week and 15 per cent six and seven days in
alternate weeks. In the other rolling mills the per cent of employees
in 1912 working seven days per week was very small.
The figures for all years covered in the nine departments appear in
the table following.
In three departments, though the plants reporting for 1910, 1911,
and 1912 were identical, it was impossible to secure data for all the
occupations for 1910, hence in each of the three departments two
reports for 1911 are presented, one comparable with 1910 and the
other, for all occupations, comparable with 1912.




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

PER

C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D E P A R T M E N T W O R K IN G E A C H S P E C IF IE D
N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907-1912 O R 1910-1912.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of em ployees whose custom ary working tim e per week
was—

Departm ent and num ber
of plants.

5
5
5
6
days, days,
5
days, days,
5
6
days days
days
6
6
5
Year.
and days, days,
and ' and days, days,
5
6
and and
6
and and
7
7
days. days
6
6
days. days days
7
7
alter­ days days
alter­ alter­ days days
nate­ in
in
in
nate­ nate­
in
ly. rota­ rota­
ly .
ly . rota­ rota­
tion. tion.
tion. tion.

6
days,
7
days,
and
7
7
days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

Blast furnaces:

1907
2.8
5.2
1908
3.1
1909
4.6
1910
/1910
4.9
34 plants.......................... \l911
11.1
11.1
/1911
35 plants.......................... \l912
17.9
Bessemer converters:
(1907
61.1
69.1
11908
9 plants............................ 11909
62.2
56! 0
[1910 .......... ..........
57.8
(1910
76.9
11911
10 p lan ts 2........................
77.0
|1911
69.0
[1912
Open-hearth furnaces:
11910
6.2
33.6
0.5
45.4
3.8
1.0
1911
17 plants 34
*
........................
3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.6
1911
1.0
[l912
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.2 . . . . . .
B loom ing mills:
Q910
6.6
65.6
19 plants............. ............ J1911
5.5
63.5
0.1
.1
[1912
4.7
64.0
Plate mills:
11910
13.1
82.0
2.5 35.0
11 plants.......................... J1911
57.2
ll912
1.7 33.7
57.0
Standard rail mills:
11910
67.7
6 plants............................ \1911
89.8
11911
90.5
7 plants............................ \1912
90.0
Bar mills:
11907
1.8 51.5
1.8
.6
2.7 39.0
3.2 48.7
.5
J1908
1.9
2.2 41.9
15 plants.......................... 11909
1.3 47.6
1.8
.4
2.1 43.2
1.1 45.5
.4
[1910
1.8
1.9 47.9
4.3 30.0
11910
1.2 60.1
.2
1.1
25 plants..........................
1.0 41.3
\1911
1.1
1.2 454.0
.3
11911
1.0 43.1
1.1
1.1 452.5
.3
26 plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \1912
1.4 45.9
1.0
1.1 549.2
.2
Sheet mills:
.1
11910
2.0 81.3
16.2
.1
1.4 83.9
14.1
1911
9 plants 6..........................
.1
|1911
1.4 83.6
14.4
.1
[1912
1.7 84.0
13*6
Tinplate mills:
H« 1
.1
11910
.6 79.2
20.1
0 plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \1911
.1
.5 79.6
19.8
.4 78.8
.1
20.7
6 plants............................ 11911
\1912
1.5 79.0
19.5

97.2
94.8
96.9
95! 4
95.1
88.9
88.9
82.0

20 plants............. ............

___ ......

......
......
......

...... ......

...... ......

......
......

(l)
(i)
C)
1

1.0

0.7

1.5
1.3
l!l

1.0
.9
!7

6.0

1.0
1.6

.7
.9

5.9
13.8

1.4

13.1
9.6
13.8
3! 8
3.8

4.7
4.5

1.6

27.7
32.1 . . . . . .

......

32.0
37.0 . . . . . .

.9

.8

24.1
18.7

21 8
33! 7
32.1
14.7
14.6
14.9

......

32.1
17.6

.1 . . . . . .
.1 . . . . . .

17.5
25.0

.1

10.3
15.2
15.0

17.5
15.7
16.3

.5
.2
.7

4.5
5.2

0.5
5.0
4.6

6.0

6.8
1.8
2.2
2.0
1.9

30.0
3.1
3.0

2.1

1.6
1.0

1.1
.7

1.8
.9
.5
.9
.7
.8

1.7
.6
2.6
.2
.3
.4
.5
.5
.5

.1
(i)
0)

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
2 For one plant it was impossible to secure data for 3 occupations for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.
3 For one plant it was impossible to secure data for 2 occupations for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.
4 Including 0.3 per cent w ho worked 7 days every fifth week.
* Including 0.2 per cent w ho worked 7 days every fifth week.
« F or one plant it was impossible to secure data for 1 occupation for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.




WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

13

In the next table the employees in the several departments are
classified to show the per cent working specified hours per week.
Referring to the figures for blast furnaces, it is seen that in 1907 ir
20 plants reporting, 2.8 per cent of the employees covered worked 60
hours per week when they worked full time, 12.9 per cent worked
over 60 and under 72 hours per week, less than one-tenth of 1 per
cent worked 72 hours per week, 4.6 per cent worked over 72 and under
84 hours per week, and 79.7 per cent worked 84 hours per week.
By 1910 the employees working 84 hours per week had decreased
to 76.3 per cent in the same 20 plants, or as shown by 34 plants, to
74.6 per cent. A very material reduction was made in working
hours by 1911 and a still greater reduction by 1912. In 1911 the
employees working 84 hours per week on full time in blast furnaces
had been reduced to 71.7 per cent of all employees as shown by the
returns from 34 plants, or to 71.9 per cent as shown by 35 plants.
In 1912 the per cent of employees working 84 hours per week had
been reduced to 61.4 per cent.
The per cent of employees working specified hours in the Bessemer
converting department and some other departments differed ma­
terially in the several years, owing to fluctuations in the volume of
business and changes from 12 to 8 hour shifts and vice versa.
P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D E P A R T M E N T W O R K IN G E A C H S P E C IF IE D
N U M B E R O F H O U R S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907-1912 O R 1910-1912.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees reported whose full-tim e hours per week
were—
Department and number of

Year.
48 and
under.

Blast furnaces:
20 p la n ts ...

1907
1908
1909
1910

34 plants.

1910
1911

35 plants...............

Over
48 and
under
56

Over
60 and
under
72

56 and
under

2.8
4.8
2.6
3.7

12.1

G)

0.1
.3

4.1
4.2

12.5
11.7

0)

.3
4.5

4.3
4.5

1.0

0)

/1911
\1912

Bessemer converters:

12.9
16.9
15.1

72

Over
72 and
under
84

84

4.6
7.3
8.4
7.0

79.7
71.0
73.5
76.3

6.3

7.9
5.7

74.6
71.7

11.6
10.7

6.3
12.9

5.6
5.9

71.9
61.4

.5
2.4
.5
3.0

7.5
7.7
6.1
.8

20.5
27.1
24.9
30.0

23.7
14.8
26.1
12.9

223.1
16.0
17.5
3 28.6

0)
0.4

.8

[1907
11908
11909
U910

23.1
28.5
22.0
17.5

0.7
1.4
1.8
7.2

[1910
1911

16.6
19.4

6.8
1.1

3.1
2.5

.9
6.8

32.8
40.5

12.4
19.7

427.4

1911
.1912

9 plants

19.3
23.2

1.1
1.0

2.4

6.7
6.6

40.9
29.9

19.6
21.5

8.7
14.6

2.0

1.2

8.8

10 p la n ts6

1.6

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
2Including 0.1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
3 Including 3.3 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.
4 Including 3.1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.
e For 1 plant it was impossible to secure data for 3 occupations for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.




14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D E P A R T M E N T W O R K IN G E A C H S P E C IF IE D
N U M B E R O F H O U R S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907-1912, O R 1910-1912—Concluded.
Per cent o f employees reported whose full-time hours per week
were—
Department and number of
plants.

Year.
48 and
under.

Over
48 and
under
56

0.1

0.9
1.3

56 and
under
60

60

Over
60 and
under
72

72

Over
72 and
under
84

84

Open-hearth furnaces:
f 1910
1911
17 p lan ts1..............................

11911
[l912

1.3
1.7

0.2

12.5
24.6

24.9
22.9

32.8
34.4

26.6
14.6

2.2
1.6

24.8
10.9

22.8
25.9

34.3
39.8

14.6
19.9

1.0
1.6
1.3

.2

1.9
2.2

10.3
11.3
11.4

56.5
55.8
54.7

6.6
10.0
10.6

17.4
12.0
12.2

7.4
8.7
8.5

57.4
46.6
43.9

32.0
42.4
43.0

.8
1.2
2.7

2.5
.7
2 1.7

Bloom ing mills:
5.9
7.7
7.6

11910
19 plants................................ •jl911
11912
Plate mills: 2
(1910
11 plants................................ <1911
[l912
Standard rail mills:
/1910
6 plants.................................. \1911

2.3
1.6
2.1

4.3
4.5

1.8
2.2

7.7
4.4

3.6
8.5

51.9
71.1

.7
6.2

30.0
3.1

/1911
7 plants.................................. \1912
Bar mills:
(1907
11908
15 plants................................ 11909
11910

4.1
3.8

2.0
1.9

4.3
4.7

8.0
7.5

71.9
71.8

6.9
8.2

2.9
2.1

4.5
4.1
3.9
3.6

4.6
7.1
6.7
6.2

7.8
7.4
7.0
6.3

9.0
12.4
10.2
11.8

51.6
47.2
58.8
57.4

19.4
20.1
9.3
12.9

2.6
1.4
3.4
1.2

.5
.4
.5
.6

/1910
25 plants................................. \1911

11.1
12.1

8.1
10.4

3.8
7.7

11.7
6.9

45.5
48.1

16.5
13.7

2.5
1.1

3.8

/1911
26 plants................................ \1912
Sheet mills:
T1910
11911
9 plants 4................................ 11911
11912
Tinplate mills:
/1910
5 plants.................................. \1911

11.4
10.8

10.6
11.8

8.5
9.9

8.0
7.3

46.7
45.1

13.5
13.7

1.0
1.3

.2
.2

81.3
83.9
83.6
84.0

.1
.1
.1
.1

.5
.5
.4
.4

9.7
7.1
7.0
7.3

3.7
4.5
4.9
5.1

4.3
3.5
3.5
2.8

.1

.4
.4
.4
.2

80.5
80.8

2.1
2.2

10.8
9.2

4.0
&2

2.8
2.5

.1

/1911
6 plants.................................. \1912

80.1
80.3

2.1
3.0

9.2
8.6

5.5
5.2

3.1
2.7

.1
(5)

.3
.3

.1

.2

(•)

1 For 1 plant it was impossible to secure data for 2 occupations for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.
2 Including 1.2 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
s Including 0.1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 84£, and less than one-tenth of 1 per cent
whose full-time hours per week were 91.
4 For 1 plant it was impossible to secure data for 1 occupation for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.
* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

COMMON LABORERS.

Nearly all common laborers in the iron and steel industry are paid
by the hour and their earnings per day or week depend upon the
number of hours worked. The rate is practically the same in all of
the several departments of an establishment. The rate of wages paid
common labor is a basic rate from which are determined the rates for
other occupations requiring little skill, hence the rate for common labor.
is of importance beyond the limits of the occupation proper. Nearly
one-fifth of all the employees included in this report for 1912 are com­
mon laborers, and of the employees included in the data for 1907 about
one-fourth are common laborers.




WAGES ANT) HOURS OF LABOR— INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

15

A table is here included showing the average rate per hour for
ommon labor in the several departments, by years. For detailed
.formation concerning the rates of wages per hour, weekly earnings,
ad hours of labor in the occupation, the reader is referred to the
jveral chapters of this report.
.V E R A G E

RATE

O F W A G E S P E R H O U R OF COMMON L A B O R E R S IN S P E C IF IE D
D E P A R T M E N T S , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912.

In this table each department of an establishment is counted as a separate plant. The number of plants
stated is the number in all departments; the num ber of plants in each of tne several departments is not
shown here. The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

Average rate of wages per hour for com m on labor in—
District, year, and
number of plants.

A ll
Blast
depart­ fur­
ments. naces.

Besse­ Openhearth
mer
con­
fur­
verters. naces.

B loom ­ Plate
ing
mills.
mills.

Stand­
ard
rail
mills.

Bar
mills.

Sheet
mills.

Tin­
plate
mills.

Eastern:
(1907.. $0,134
1908-.
.120
4 p lan ts.. 1909..
.123
1910..
.138

$0,135
.115
.119
.138

18 plants. (1910..
(1911..

.142
.141

.142
.140

$0,145
.146

$0,143
.139

$0,131
.131

.147
.148

(1911..
19 plants. (1912..
Pittsburgh!
I1907..
(
17 plants J |l908..
1909..
I 1910..
1

.141
.143

.140
.144

.146
.152

.139
.141

.131
.131

.145
.142

.154
.156
.152
.164

.152
.154
.152
.165

$0,156
.156
.153
.164

57 plants .-j(1910..
(1911..

.164
.166

.166
.165

.164
.167

.162
.164

.168
.170

.167
.168

$0,161
.169

.161
.163

$0,164
.166

$0,165
.163

,
(1911..
59 plants .-j(1912..
Great Lakes and
Middle W est:
1907..
1908..
12 plants.- 1909..
1910..

.166
.167

.165
.164

.167
.167

.164
.165

.170
.169

.168
.173

.169
.167

.163
.163

.166
.169

.164
.169

.158
.153
.151
.162

.162
.152
.153
.161

.154
.152
.146
.159

(1910..
37 plants .j [1911..

.163
.166

.162
.166

.161
.164

.162
.166

.163
.166

.164
.164

.163
.169

.167
.166

(1911..
39 plants.<j[1912..
Southern:
I
(1907..
_ . ,
j
6 plants. .<11908..
(11909..
|1910..
[

.166
.167

.166
.167

.164
.166

.166
.167

.166
.167

.164
.165

.169
.169

.166
.167

.130
.111
.112
.127

.130
.111
.112
.127

(1910..
14 plants .«
|
[1911..

.129
.131

.128
.131

.130
.130

.131
.132

.131
.131

.131
.130

.130
.134

.132
.131

1907..
1908..
39 plants.- 1909..
1910..

.151
.147
.145
.157

.146
.140
.138
.152

.155
.155
.151
.163

lJo pisntsj (1910..
[1911..

.158
.161

.150
.151

.163
.166

.157
.161

.162
.163

.159
.158

.163
.169

.160
.160

.164
.166

.165
.163

(1911..
l o l pi£WI/S\l
1912. .

.161
.162

.151
.152

.166
.167

.161
.163

.163
.164

.158
.160

.169
.168

.159
.159

.166
.169

.164
.169

14 plants

n on

$0,132
.131
.131
.138

.154
.157
.151
.163

.159
.158
.157
.169

Total:




.153
.153
.150
.161

16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

EXPLANATION OF SCOPE AND METHOD.

The scope of the present investigation is. stated in part on page
The number of plants and the number of employees for which d
were obtained each year are set forth in the following table:
N U M B E R O F P L A N T S A N D N U M B E R O F E M P L O Y E E S IN C L U D E D IN T H IS R E P O .
B Y D E P A R T M E N T S , 1907 TO 1912.
Bessemer con­
verters.

Blast furnaces.

Open-hearth
furnaces.

Bar mills.

B loom inr »
mills. 1

Year.
Plants.

1907.............................. |
1908.............................. [
1909..............................
1910.............................. J
1910..............................
1911________________

20

Em ­ Plants. E m ­
Em ­
Em ­
E rPlants.
ployees.
ployees.
ployees. Plants. ployees. Plants. ploy
4,278
3,028
4,104
4,381
/ 7,050

}

f 1,730
1,342 }

3 \ 5,268
4

1911..
1912.............................. }

1,757
1,179 1
1,352.
1,649 J

9

/ 5,336
35 \ 5,973

15

r

f 2,378
2,216
' 2,315
2,560

/ 4,092
25 \ 3,707

10

17
1 1,350
1 1,460 }

Standard rail
mills.

Plate mills.

vear.
x

26

/ 3,924
\ 4,050

f 3,341 1
I 3,065
l
| 3,073 1
1 3,182

f
19

lr -

J

*

1
l

9‘
W

Tinplate
mills.

Sheet mills.

Em­
Plants. ployees. Plants. E m ­ Plants. Em ­ Plants. E m ­
ployees.
ployees.
ployees.
1910..............................
1911________________

1,330

6

11
1911..
1912..............................

1,203
. 1,203

}

/ 1,535 1
\ 1,252

/

7l

1,355
1,457

r
I

2,346
2,772

9

2,781
2,716

}
}

/

2,149
\ 2,310
*

/

6\

2,487
2,694

Reports from 20 identical blast-furnace plants were obtained for
the period 1907 to 1910. These same 20 plants furnished data for
the years 1911 and 1912, and 14 additional plants reported data for
the years 1910, 1911, and 1912, thereby making comparable data
available from 34 plants for the years 1910 and 1911. Still another
plant was included for 1911 and 1912, making figures available
for these two years from 35 identical blast-furnace plants.
Data for 1907 were obtained for 4,278 blast-furnace employees.
In the 20 identical plants, like information was obtained for 4,381
employees in 1910. Comparable data from 34 identical plants are
available for 7,050 blast-furnace employees in 1910 and 5,268 in 1911,
and comparable figures are presented for 5,336 blast-furnace employees
in 1911 and 5,973 in 1912.
Data were obtained from 9 identical Bessemer converting plants
for the years 1907 to 1910, inclusive, and from 10 identical plants for
the years 1910 to 1912, inclusive. While 10 identical plants furnished
data for 1910,1911, and 1912, information for 1910 was not available




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SCOPE AND METHOD.

17

one occupation in one plant, so that two reports are shown for
1. The first, 1,342, represents the number with data available
comparison with 1910; and the second, 1,350, the number with
a available for comparison with 1912. Nineteen identical bloommill plants furnished comparable data for 1,064 employees in
l for 948 in 1911, and for 988 in 1912. The figures for the other
0,
partments are explained in like manner.
f,The figures for 1910 published in this report are a part of the
;a included in the report on “ Conditions of Employment in the
n and Steel Industry,” made by this Bureau and published as
late Document No. 110, Sixty-second Congress, first session. These
ires for 1910 were collected in the fall of that year. The collection
data for the other years covered by this report was begun in the
l of 1912 and concluded in 1913.
~Information was secured from plants located in 11 States. To make
’ e groups of data of sufficient volume to be of representative value,
*e several plants covered have been divided into four districts,
hese districts were not established strictly on geographical lines, but
gather according to the logical distribution of the industry. The
“ Eastern district” includes eastern and central Pennsylvania, Mary­
land, and New Jersey. The “ Pittsburgh district” includes not only
the plants in Pittsburgh proper but also those in western Pennsylvania,
those along the border line in Ohio from Youngstown south to Bellaire, and the plants which are located in the “ panhandle ” of West Vir­
ginia. The “ Great Lakes and Middle West district” includes plants
scattered along the Great Lakes from western New York to Illinois
and Wisconsin, and also some plants in inland districts, including
Colorado. Although this is a very large territory geographically,
it is essentially a unit industrially (so far as the iron and steel indus­
try is concerned), the wage rates of the entire district being based
largely on those paid in the two producing centers, Buffalo and Chi­
cago. The “ Southern district” includes the establishments in Vir­
ginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky, and in the southern
part of Ohio. The southern Ohio plants are included with the South-'
ern district because the conditions both as to wages paid and the
general class of labor employed resemble much more closely the con­
ditions of the Alabama and Kentucky plants than they do those of the
other plants of Ohio.
The plants included in the report are representative of the industry,
and a fair apportionment is given to the several districts. The table
following shows the number of plants and employees in the several
departments for which data are published for the year 1912, by
districts.
ci
in
ai
se

4 4 9 2 9 °— B u ll. 151— 14------ 2




18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

N U M B E R O F P L A N T S A N D N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S IN C L U D E D IN T H IS R E P O R T ,
B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1912.

Pittsburgh
district.

Eastern
district.

Great Lakes
district.

Southern
district.

Total.

Em­
Plants. ploy­
ees.

Em­
Plants. ploy­
ees.

Department.
Plants.

Blast furnaces...............
Bessemer con verters..
Open-hearth furnaces..
Bloom ing m ills.............
Plate m ills.....................
Standard rail m ills___
Bar m ills.......................
Sheet mills.....................
Tinplate m ills .............

Em­
p loy­
ees.

6

684

4
3
2

480
95
330

8

887

Plants.

Em­
ploy­
ees.

9
6
5
8
5
3
10
9
6

2,396
1,019
1,428
493
631
431
2,157
2,716
2,689

Plants.

Em­
p loy­
ees.

10
4
6
6
4
4
8

1,648
441
1,020
328
242
1,026
1,006

10

1,245

2
2

254
72

35
10
17
19
11
7
26
9
6

5,973
1,460
3,182
988
1,203
1,457
4,050
2,716
2,694

The greater part of the data presented was obtained by personal
visits of agents of this Bureau to the several plants. A part of the
information was obtained from the plants by correspondence, on
schedules and under instructions prepared by the Bureau. In certain
instances agents visited plants that had furnished data by corre­
spondence, to harmonize data not clearly expressed on the schedule.
According to the plan of the several tables in this report direct
comparisons, which are indicated by the grouping of the years within
brackets, can be made properly only between two or more successive
years where the data are for identical establishments. Data for
establishments were not included in this report, unless information
for at least two years was available.
In general, the number of employees shown in the several tables,
with the exception of laborers and those employed in certain other
unskilled occupations, represent the number of employees required
to properly man the positions in the mill under normal operating
conditions, and is not the number of employees who might have
appeared on the pay rolls during the pay period covered.
For example, a certain operation required 4 men; but during the
pay-roll period there were times when one of these 4 did not report
for duty and the position was filled by a different employee, and dur­
ing the pay period a total of 6 men covered the 4 positions and
appeared on the pay roll. In such instance the number of employees
was reported as 4 and not 6.
The data presented are for one pay-roll period, in each year— the
pay roll for the second half of May, except in the very few plants
where abnormal conditions in May made it desirable to take some
other period.
The full-time hours of labor per week shown in the tables of the
report are the regular hours of work of the several employees under
normal conditions in the establishment. The working time is the
time on duty including intervals of waiting for work; in other words,




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SCOPE AND METHOD.

19

the time between the hour of reporting for duty and the hour of going
off duty.
The working time of employees is not always the working time of
their occupation as a whole. Some plants operating 7 days per week
make provision for laying off each employee one day a week. In
such a plant the full-time hours per week of an employee working 12
hours a day, is 72 hours. In a plant making no such provision, the
full-time hours per week of an employee working 12 hours a day is
84 hours. The full-time hours per week and the relative or index
numbers based thereon, do not in any way indicate the extent of
unemployment. Employees may work overtime, broken time, or
be laid off, or a temporary reduction may be made in working hours,
without such change affecting the full-time hours per week.

The rates of wages per hour appearing in the tables include both
the wages of time workers and the earnings of tonnage or pieceworkers.
All time rates by the day or week have been reduced to rates per hour.
The earnings of tonnage workers, the earnings of employees working
at both time and tonnage rates, and the earnings of employees who
in addition to a regular time rate, receive a bonus based on produc­
tion, also have been reduced to earnings per hour by dividing the
earnings by the hours worked. The time workers and tonnage
workers of each occupation are combined as one group.
In this connection it should be noted that while in other industries
the earnings of employees paid on a piecework basis usually are
proportionate to the exertion and skill of the individual employee,
in the iron and steel industry the earnings of tonnage workers depend
upon the production of an entire department or group of employees.
A change in the earnings per hour of tonnage workers does not of
necessity indicate a change in tonnage or piece rates. A change
in methods or machinery, a speeding up, or more steady work result­
ing from a greater volume of business, may increase the hourly earn­
ings or, on the other hand, changes in methods, a slowing down in
speed, or a lull in business may reduce hourly earnings. Varying
intervals while on duty waiting for work may also affect hourly
earnings.

The reports from the plants in most instances showed wages of
each individual employee, but, in some cases, particularly in the
sheet and tin mills, reports gave the aggregate wages of two or more
persons in an occupation instead of wages of each individual. In
such plants the classification of wages per hour is made of averages
of aggregate wages of the employees, instead of wages of each indi­
vidual, and hence the classification in the tables of this report for
the department as a whole is to some extent a combination of such
averages and of individual earnings.




20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The full-time weekly earnings are the earnings per week of employ­
ees working full time, or the earnings on broken time reduced to
equivalent earnings for a full week. In considering changes in full­
time earnings per week notice should also be taken of changes in
full-time hours of labor per week. A reduction in the hours of a
pieceworker may reduce his earnings in a week and leave his earnings
per hour unchanged, while a reduction of hours for a time worker
will, if his weekly rate remains the same, increase his rate per hour.
The averages of full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings are computed by adding the data for
each individual employee and dividing the total by the number of
employees.
It will be observed that the average full-time weekly earnings gen­
erally is not exactly the same as the result that would be obtained by
multiplying the average rate per hour by the average hours per week,
owing to the fact that the hourly rates for individual employees are
based on varying hours per week, which has the effect of changing
the relative weighting of the wages of the several employees. A
hypothetical illustration shows the difference.
M E T H O D O F COM PU TIN G A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S OF
W AGES P E R W E E K A ND PE R HOUR.
Full-time
hours per
week.

Employees.

1
1
1
1
T o ta l....................4
Average..............................

Rates of
wages per
week.

Rates of
wages per
hour.

48
54
54
60

$15.00
14.00
16.00
12.00

$0.3125
.2593
.2963
.2000

216
54

57.00
14.25

1.0681
.2670

The product of $0.2670 multiplied by 54 is $14.42, while the average
earnings per week is $14.25.

Relative full-time hours of labor, relative wages per hour, and
relative full-time weekly earnings are briefly described on page 9.
It will be observed that in the tables of relative numbers the data
for the latest year available, 1912 in this report, are taken as the base
or 100 per cent. Relative or index numbers are most frequently used
to compare the latest year with preceding years, as 1911 with 1912,
1910 with 1912, etc., and a comparison with 100 conveys a clearer
idea than a comparison of any two numbers, neither 100. For
example, the ratio 99.4:100 is more readily grasped than the equal
ratio 154.4:155.4.
Another and more important reason for taking the last year, 1912,
as the base or 100 per cent is that the data for 1912 are greater in
amount and better in quality than for any preceding year. Thus,




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- SCOPE AND METHOD.

21

for blast furnaces data were obtained from 20 plants for 1907 and 35
plants for 1912. While the aver ago for 20 plants possibly might have
been a fairly acceptable base, the average of nearly twice as many
plants recently canvassed becomes more nearly representative of the
industry, and thus a more satisfactory base. Starting with 1912 and
computing the index back year by year to 1907 the weakness, if any,
in the data of earlier years can not manifest itself in the relative
numbers except in the earlier years. But if the average for 1907 were
taken as a base, any weakness beginning in the index of the earlier
years would be continued down through the later years, though the
basic data for such later years were entirely satisfactory.
The method of computing the relative numbers is best explained
by an illustration. The full-time weekly earnings in 1910, 1911, and
1912 of bottom fillers in the blast-furnace department is taken as an
example.
M E T H O D OF C O M PU TIN G R E L A T IV E N U M B E R S.

N um ber
of
identical
plants.
Full-tim e w eekly earnings.................................................................... /
\
Relative full-time w eekly earnings com puted therefrom ..............
Full-time weekly earnings in identical establishments covering
the full three years.............................................................................
Relative full-time w eekly earnings com puted therefrom ..............

Year.
1910

1911

14
15

$12.77
102.20

$12.46
12.50
99.80

$12.53
100.00

14

12.77
102.60

12.46
100.10

12.45
100.00

1912

Data are available for this occupation from 1907 to 1912, but the
figures for 1910 to 1912 only are used, being sufficient to illustrate
the method of computing the relative numbers.
The average for 1912 is taken as the base (100), then $12.50 divided
by $12.53 equals 99.8 (99.76), the relative for 1911. The ratio of
1910 to 1911 is $12.77 divided by $12.46. The relative for 1911 just
determined, 99.8 (99.76), multiplied by 12.77, divided by 12.46,
equals 102.2 (102.24), the relative for 1910. In this report the
relative number is published to. one decimal place.
This method of computing relative numbers is used because of the
change that was made in the number of establishments to get a
wider representation in the later years. In computing a series of
relative numbers account must be taken of changes in plants from
year to year, as some discontinue operation or cease to be representa­
tive, and new plants come into operation.
Fourteen plants furnished data for the entire 3-year period shown
above. In addition, another plant furnished data for 1911 and 1912.
The earnings in this plant were higher than in the others, making the
average in 1911 $12.50 in the 15 plants, as against $12.46 in 14 plants.
With a varying number of plants such differences must be expected.




22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The average earnings in 1912 for the 15 plants was $12.53. In
these 14 plants, running through the full 3-year period, the average
earnings in 1912 were $12.45. Thus the averages for 15 plants show
an increase in earnings from $12.50 in 1911 to $12.53 in 1912, while
the averages for 14 plants show a slight decrease between 1911 and
1912. Relatives have been computed on the data of the 14 plants
and are presented in the table simply to illustrate the difference shown
by relatives based on different amounts of data. The relatives based
on the greatest amount of available data, being more nearly repre­
sentative, are presented in the several tables of relative numbers in
the report.
A word of caution is given as to the use of relative numbers. The
per cent of increase or decrease from one year to another is not the
difference between the relative numbers for the two years. Thus, in
the table above, the relative full-time weekly earnings of bottom
fillers decreased from 102.2 in 1910 to 99.8 in 1911, a difference of
2.6 in the relatives. This difference, 2.6 is 2.5 per cent of the rela­
tive 102.3. Thus the decrease in earnings per full week from 1910
to 1911 was 2.5 per cent.
The above illustration shows the method of computing the relative
numbers for an occupation. Precisely the same method was used
in computing the relative numbers for each department as a whole.
For example, for each year the full-time weekly earnings of each
employee of all occupations were added and the sum divided by the
total employees covered, giving the average full-time weekly earnings
of all employees in the department. From these averages (unpub­
lished) the relative full-time weekly earnings for the industry were
computed by the method illustrated above. This explanation applies
equally to relative full-time hours of labor and to relative rates of
wages per hour.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SEVERAL DEPARTMENTS.
In the following pages is given a brief description of the functions
and operations of the several departments of the iron and steel
industry covered by this report, and of their relation to each other.
IRON SMELTING.
BLAST FURNACES.

The blast furnace is the fundamental department of the iron and
steel industry, as it begins the process of manufacture and is the only
means used for producing pig iron from iron ore. It is continuous
in operation, iron ore, limestone, and coke being charged at the top
at intervals, a blast supplied which acts on the fuel within the furnace
to create a temperature in which the iron ore is reduced, the slag
which accumulates on top of the molten metal tapped out from time



WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR---- FUNCTIONS OF DEPARTMENTS.

23

to time, and the molten iron tapped out at the bottom at regular
intervals.
The molten iron is run into ladles, or into sand molds on the pig­
casting floor.
There are two methods of distributing the molten metal run into
ladles. The ladle cars are hauled by locomotives to one of the
steel-making departments (either Bessemer or open hearth) and the
metal poured into mixers to be taken from them as required, or the
ladles are hauled to the pig-casting machine and the metal cast into
“ pigs.”
Establishments which operate blast furnaces usually cast the
metal into pigs, although they sometimes dispose of the hot metal to
adjacent steel works.
STEEL MAKING.

Pig iron, produced by the blast furnace, is converted into steel by
either the Bessemer or open-hearth method. The process by either
method is to remove, by combustion, the impurities in the iron.
BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

In the Bessemer process the molten iron from the blast furnace or
from cupolas (small furnaces for remelting pig iron and scrap steel)
is poured into the converter, and the blast is turned on to burn out
the carbon and other impurities. The changes taking place are
indicated to the blower by the character of the flame. When the
“ heat” is fully “ blown,” the steel is discharged into ladles, from
which it is poured into ingot molds. Under favorable conditions
each converter in one hour makes about three heats of from 10 to 15
tons each.
When the steel has hardened sufficiently the molds are removed
by the ingot strippers and the ingots taken to the soaking pits of the
blooming or slabbing mills for reheating and rolling.
OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

Open-hearth steel is produced in open-hearth furnaces, which are
of two types— stationary and tilting. The mateiials are charged into
the front of the furnaces and are for the most part scrap 3teel, solid
or molten pig iron, and limestone. Instead of a blast being forced
upwards through the steel, as in the Bessemer process, the materials
are charged on the bottom of the furnaces and are melted down and
the impurities eliminated by gas combustion. This is a slow process,
the furnaces usually making but two heats of from 50 to 75 tons per
day. Instead of depending upon the judgment of the blower for
the quality of the steel, as in the Bessemer process, a small quantity
of steel is taken from the furnaces at intervals and made into little
test ingots, and from these the melter determines the condition and




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

quality of the steel and, if necessary, directs the materials to be
added in order to produce the quality of steel desired. When finished
the steel is tapped into large ladles and poured into ingot molds, as
in the Bessemer process. These ingots are stripped in the same way
as those from the Bessemer converters and follow the same course
of reheating in soaking pits before being rolled.
STEEL WORKING—ROLLING MILLS.

The ingots cast in the Bessemer and open-hearth departments are
the raw material for the rolling mills.
BLOOMING M UXS.

The blooming mill is the first of a series of rolls used in reducing the
ingot to a finished product. Its purpose is to reduce the ingots
to workable sizes for rerolling in other mills. The ingots after being
reheated to a uniform temperature in the soaking pits are removed
by pit cranes and placed on the roll table of the blooming mill and
are rolled out and sheared to lengths. The sheared products are
called blooms or billets, according to their size and shape. Bloom­
ing mills occasionally also roll slabs for plate mills and blanks for
structural and shape mills.
PLATE MILLS.

The work of the plate mills is to roll slabs, or slab-shaped ingots
into plates.
The slabs or ingots are reheated in horizontal furnaces and are
rolled out into plates which vary in length, breadth, and thickness
according to the purposes for which they are to be used.
Plate mills are of two classes: Sheared-plate mills, in which only
horizontal rolls are used, it being necessary to shear the sides; and
universal mills, which have additional vertical rolls, and produce plate
with smooth edges. After the rolling is completed, the plate is cut
into lengths and shapes according to mill orders.
STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

The rail mill is a type of rolling mill consisting of a series of rolls,
which receive either the blooms as they come from the blooming mill
or reheating furnace, or, in some mills, the ingots as they come from
the soaking pit, and roll them into rails. In this report the opera­
tions of reducing the ingots to blooms have been omitted from the
tabulation of rail mills and are included in blooming mills.
BAR MILLS.

Bar mills consist of rolls whose purpose is to reduce billets to smaller
sizes and dimensions to meet commercial demands. Bar mills are of
two types: Hand mills, in which no means other than tongs and hooks
operated by men are used in handling the steel; and mechanical



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- FUNCTIONS OF DEPARTMENTS.

'2 5

mills, in which the steel is handled almost entirely by mechanical
devices.
The bar mills considered in this report are with few exceptions handoperated mills— the exceptions being certain mills using a combination
of continuous rolls and rolls in which the material is handled by men.
The product consists of flats, rounds, channels, angles, tie-plates and
miscellaneous bar-iron products. Rod mills are not included.
SHEET MILLS.

A sheet mill is a rolling mill which rolls pieces of reheated steel,
called sheet bars, into thin sheets of various gauges. The sheet mills
for which the data in this report were secured are such as roll ordinary
commercial black sheets, gauges 12 to 30, and do not include mills
which roll extra heavy sheets or thin plates. Some sheet mills
occasionally roll black plates for tinning and when so utilized are
classified in this report, as tinplate mills.
TINPLATE MILLS.

Tin-plate mills are rolling mills much like sheet mills except that
they roll thinner and lighter material from pieces of steel known as
tin bar. The product is black plates for tinning.
PREVIOUS REPORTS.
Wages in the iron and steel industry have entered into several
reports published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among such
reports being the Sixth Annual, the Nineteenth Annual, and Bulletins
Nos. 59, 65, 71, and 77.
Two Senate documents contain reports of investigations made by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics treating in part of wages in the iron
and steel industry, namely:
Report on Strike at Bethlehem Steel .Works. Senate Document
No. 521, Sixty-first Congress, second session.
Report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry
in the United States. (4 vols.) Senate Document No. 110, Sixtysecond Congress, first session.
The last named document is a very comprehensive study of the
wages, hours of labor, working conditions, etc., in the industry in
the year 1910. It covered all occupations in the industry and practi­
cally all plants in operation in the United States. The wage data of
this report were based mostly on a half-month pay roll, in most
instances in the month of May.
The resources of the Bureau of Labor Statistics would not warrant
such a large and expensive study to be made each year. This present
report contains representative data only, as before stated, but such
data cover not only 1910, but all the years from 1907 to 1912, inclu­
sive, in three departments and from 1910 to 1912 in six departments.



26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY.
The United States Census Report for 1910 divides the iron and
steel plants into two general classes, namely, blast furnaces and steel
works and rolling mills.

The following figures taken from the report indicate the importance
of the industry in the several States.
E S T A B L IS H M E N T S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R OF W A G E E A R N E R S , A N D V A L U E OF P R O D ­
UCTS IN T W O CLASSES OF T H E IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y , B Y S T A T E S
[From Thirteenth Census, V ol. V III, p. 727.]

Class and State.

N um ­
ber o f Average
estab­ number
o f wage
lish­
ments. earners.

Value o f
products.

Value added
b y manufac­
ture (value o f
product less
cost o f
material).

Blast furnaces:
Alabam a.................................................................................
Illinois.....................................................................................
K en tu cky...............................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
N ew Y ork ..............................................................................
O h io........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Tennessee...............................................................................
Virginia...................................................................................
W isconsin...............................................................................
Other States1........................................................................

19
6
4
11
9
40
66
13
14
5
21

3,783
2,493
331
1,016
2,298
7,295
14,521
1,143
1,320
758
3,471

$21,235,984
38,299,897
1,478,595
5,824,396
26,620,948
83,699,238
168,578,413
4,653,125
5,389,287
4,793,756
30,855,644

$5,758,623
7,391,435
362,765
1,600,885
5,703;788
15,274,516
26,504,385
1,272,459
971,086
875,296
5,076,156

Total United States........................................................

208

38,429

391,429,283

70,791,394

Steel works and rolling mills:
5
California................................................................................
Connecticut............................................................................
5
Delaware................................................................................
5
24
Illinois.....................................................................................
Indiana...................................................................................
17
7
K en tu cky...............................................................................
9
Massachusetts.......................................................................
Michigan.................................................................................
Missouri..................................................................................
4
16
N ew Jersey............................................................................
N ew Y o r k ..............................................................................
25
75
O h io........................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
189
W est Virginia........................................................................
16
14
W isconsin...............................................................................
Other States2 .......................................................................
27

1,038
2,352
710
17,584
12,255
2.372
£115
1,183
8
2,227
4,671
10,091
38,586
126,911
5,060
2,124
9,797

3,519,824
4,070,572
1,715,341
86,608,137
38,651,848
7,779,320
13,567,628
2,669,872
5,012,827
12,013,719
39,532,414
197,780,043
500,343,995
22,435,411
10,732,989
39,288,594

1,172,046
2,041,702
656,346
30,363,674
12,553,089
2,218,755
3,535,355
1,071,742
2,153,842
5,378,679
13,643,244
58,536,888
171,330,574
6,539,111
2,826,589
14,200,042

240,076

985,722,534

328,221,678

Total U nited States.........................................................

446

1 Other States embrace: Colorado, 1 establishment; Connecticut, 2; Georgia, 2; Indiana, 2; Maryland, 2;
M assachusetts,!; M innesota,!; Missouri, 2; N ew Jersey, 4; Texas, 1; W est Virginia, 3.
2 Other States embrace: Alabama, 6 establishments; Colorado, 1; District o f Columbia, 1; Georgia, 1;
Maine, 1; Maryland, 5; Minnesota, 1; Oregon, 2; R hode Island, 2; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 1; Virginia, 3;
W ashm gton, 1; W yom ing, 1.

The above figures do not include the figures for certain tin and temeplate and other iron and steel products, as foundry and machine shop
products, bolts, doors, forgings, nails, pipe, etc., not made in steel
works or rolling mills. To avoid identification, certain States with
only one or two plants are combined by the Census Office in the above
table.




BLAST FURNACES.
SUMMARY.

Summary figures relating to this department of the iron and steel
industry are given with figures for other departments in the intro­
ductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explanation of the scope of
the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages 16
to 22.
Briefly summarized, the average full-time weekly earnings of blast­
furnace employees in 1912 were 1.1 per cent higher than in 1907, 7.3
per cent higher than in 1908, 8.2 per cent higher than in 1909, 0.3 per
cent higher than in 1910, and 0.6 per cent lower than in 1911. The
average full-time hours of labor per week were lower in 1912 than
in any preceding year, being 3.9 per cent lower than in 1907, and
2.5 per cent lower than in 1908, 3.4 per cent lower than in 1909, 3.5
per cent lower than in 1910, and 2.5 per cent lower than in 1911.
The average rate of wages or earnings per hour in 1912 was 5.9 per
cent higher than in 1907, 11.1 per cent higher than in 1908, 12.5 per
cent higher than in 1909, 4.1 per cent higher than in 1910, and 2.2 per
cent higher than in 1911.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of the
blast-furnace industry are summarized in the table following. Data
are presented for each year from 1907 to 1912, inclusive, two groups
being given for 1910 and two for 1911, owing to the changes in
number of plants in those years. Figures for identical plants are
bracketed together. Referring to the first occupation presented,
laborers, direct comparison can be made of data for 20 identical
plants from 1907 to 1910, for 34 identical plants for 1910 and 1911,
and for 35 identical plants for 1911 and 1912. The first line shows
that in 1907 the 20 blast-furnace plants that furnished information
employed 957 laborers and that the average hours of work of these
laborers when working full time was 75.8 hours per week. For 11.1
per cent of the 957 laborers the full-time hours of work per week were
60 or under; for 36.6 per cent, over 60 and under 72; for 0.1 per
cent, 72; for 5.4 percent, over 72 and under 84; and for 46.8 per cent,
or nearly one-half, 84. The average rate of wages (or earnings) per
hour of laborers in the year considered (1907) was $0,146. Of the
total number 3.7 per cent earned under 12 cents per hour, 28.6 per




27

28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

cent received 12 or under 14 cents per hour, 39.8 per cent received 14
or under 16 cents per hour, and 27.9 per cent received 16 or under 18
cents per hour. The average earnings for a full week’s work was
$11.13. The other lines of the table are read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 20
identical plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers was
$1143 in 1907. In the next two years there was a drop to $10.24 and
$10.17, respectively, and in 1910 an advance to $11.18. While the
average full-time weekly earnings in 1910 in 20 plants was $11.18, the
average in 34 plants in the same year was $11.23. In the 34 plants
there was a decrease from $11.23 per week in 1910 to $11.13 in 1911.
The difference between $11.23 and $11.13 measures the change from
1910 to 1911. It would not be a proper comparison, however, to
state that earnings decreased only from $11.18 in 1910 to $11.13 in
1911, because of the change in plants and the difference known to
exist in the average for 1910 in the two groups of plants. In 35 plants
there was an increase from $11.14 in 1911 to $11.15 in 1912. The
other items of the table should be studied with like care.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1912 of the
several occupations, it is seen that the lowest earnings are found in
the occupation of laborers, the average being $11.15. Several other
occupations received but little more. The highest earnings in any
occupation of this department are found in the occupation of blowers,
the average full-time weekly earnings in this occupation being $24.84
in 1912.
A V E R A G E A N D C LA SSIFIE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S OF W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H OF T H E P R IN ­
C IP A L OCCUPATION S, 1907 TO 1912—B L A S T FU R N A C E S .
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group o f years are for identical plants.]

Occupation and num ­
ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Per cent o f employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
age
age
full­
rate
of
time
Over
Over
hours
wages
72
60
60
per
per
week. and and 72 and 84 hour.
un­ un­
un­
der. der
der
72
84

Per cent o f em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate o f A ver­
wages per hour.
age
fulltime
12
14
16 week­
Un­ and and and
ly
der un­ un­ un­ earn­
12 der der der ings.
14
cts.
16
18
cts. cts. cts.

Laborers:
75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

11.1
19.8
13.5
17.6

36.6 0.1 5.4 46.8 $0.146 3.7 28.6 39.8
37.9
15.2 27.2 .140 24.7 10.3 41.1
49.9 * 2. 0 7.0 27.6 .138 23.6 25.9 24.4
36.8 2.5 5.0 38.0 .152 4.2 21.8 21.1

[1907
1908
1909
,1910

957
718
757
902

/1910
34 plants................... \1911

1,423
935

74.7 18.9 28.4
73.3 21.1 30.8

1.8 20.9 29.9
3.0 14.3 30.8

.150
.151

fl911
35 plants................... \1912

937
961

73.3 21.0 30.7
73.1 20.0 31.4

3.0 14.3 30.9
8.4 9.6 30.6

.151
.152

20 plants...................

3.1 23.3 32.7 40.8 11.23

4.1 25.7 24.0 46.3 11.13
4.1 25.6 24.1 46.2 11.14
3.2 24.7 23.6 148.5 11.15

i Including 0.1 per cent earning 18 and under 20 cents per hour.




27.9 $11.13
24.0 10.24
26.0 10.17
52.9 11.18

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

29

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E P R IN ­
C IP A L OC C U PA TIO N S, 1907 TO 1912—B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.

Occupation and num ­
ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em ­
ploy­
ees.

B ottom fillers:

Per cent o f em ploy­
Per cent o f employees
ees earning each
whose full-time hours
classified rate o f
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
wages per hour.
age
age
full­
rate
of
time
14
16
Over
Over
wages U n­ and and 18
hours 60
72
60
per der un­ un­ cents
per and and
and 84 hour.
week. un­ un­ 72 un­
14 der der and
der
cts.
16
18 over.
der. der
cts. cts.
72
84

.... ..... .... .....

A ver­
age
fufitim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

35.5 10.9 30.4 23.2 $13.40
40.2 17.5 21.6 20.6 12.59
68.8
17.0 14.2 11.61
32.6 18.7 30.0 18.7 13.41

1907
1908
7 plants..................... ' 1909
11910

293
194
282
267

100.0 $0,160
84.0
84.0 ____ ........ ........ ........ 100.0 .150
100.0 .138
84.0
84.0 ............ ............ ........ ........ 100.0 .160

/1910
14 plants................... \1911

672
391

84.0
100.0
84.0 ........ ........ ........ ........ 100.0

.152 26.2 47.6 14.3 11.9 12.77
.148 35.0 39.9 8.7 16.4 12.46

/1911
15 plants................... \1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

100.0
85.3

.149 32.9 41.7 10.1 15.3 12.50
.152 27.6 44.7 11.5 16.2 12.53

(1907
1908
20 plants................... ‘ 1909
11910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

1.5
10.3 88.2
8.2
9.8 82.0
12.6 77.9
8.7
6.7 ........ 5.6 87.4

.173 5.4 24.4 45.0 25.2 14.46
.156 22.4 33.5 34.3 9.8 12.88
.150 34.4 19.7 40.3 5.5 12.34
.166 11.8 11.5 62.7 14.0 13.78

/1910
32 plants................... \1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

7.1
9.7 ‘ io.*3

4.1 88.6
1.8 78.2

.163 11.6 19.9 58.1 10.4 13.56
.158 22.8 21.2 45.7 10.3 12.84

/1911
32 plants................... \1912
Keepers’ helpers:
(1907
1908
20 plants.........
' 1909
(1910

333
397

9.9 10.5
81.3
75.2 23. i 11.1 9.1

1.8 77.8
.3 56.4

.158 23.1 22.2 44.1 10.5 12.82
.164 10.8 28.5 37.3 23.4 12.20

616
409
596
608

100.0
84.0
84.0
100.0
84.0
. . . . . ........ 100.0
84.0 ........ ........ ........ ........ 100.0

.165
.160
.155
.169

/1910
34 plants. . . . . . . . . . . \1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

/1911
35 plants................... \1912

742
846

83.1
81.0 * 4. 3

Cinder men:

Larry m en’s helpers:

(1907
11908
10 plants................... 11909
11910
(1910
19 plants................... <1911
[1912
Pig-machine men:
(1907
11908
9 pi B l l t S ............................... 11909
[1910
/1910
16 plants................... \1911
/1911
17 plants ............................. \1912
Stockers:
(1907
1 o plants .............................
I Q n lo n fo

J1908
11909
[1910

OO plants .............................
04 T\1 Q llfo

/1910
\1911

QO r v lo tifo
04 p la n ts • • • • • • • • • • •

/1911
\1912

Top fillers:

(1907
11908
Q n la n o
o p l o n fts .......................
11909
[1910
IQ pv lo n ts ............................ /1910
i o r la tifo
\1911

14

p la n ts ............................




/1911
\1912

i.4.7

.8
0.3
.2

....
....

.... .... .... ....
....
.... ....
............ ............

............

115
79
135
134
278
294
343
193
157
152
182
291
259
267
275
824
473
737
904

35.1
39.4
35.4
30.9

34.4
28.3
23.5
39.8

13.89
13.41
13.04
14.22

’ *7*6

............

100.0
92.4

.168 16.3 17.0 30.7 36.0 14.13
.167 20.7 13.1 26.7 39.5 13.83

7.5
14.9

............

92.5
80.9

.167 20.5 12.9 26.7 39.8 13.84
.170 16.3 16.3 22.7 44.7 13.74

84.0
100.0
84.0
100.0
84.0
100.0
84.0 ............ ............ ............ ............ 100.0
84.0
100.0
*ii.*6
82.6
88.4
7C.6 *io.*5
12.5
77.0
84.0
100.0
83.9 ............
**i.'9 98.1
83.9
2.-0 98.0
83.8 '* *5 *” .*5
............ 98.9
83.9
.3
99.3
.3
82.4
.4 ............ *i2.7 ........... 86.9
82.4
.4 ............ 12.4
87.3
.4 ............ 17.1
81.9
82.5
81.4 1.7 9.0
12.7 76.6
79.1
.8 26.0
14.8 58.4
9.6
80.9
30.4 60.0
81.0
.1 7.7 1.8 24.6 65.8
1,445 79.9
.9 18.2 2.1 15.4 63.5
898 79.8 3.6 11.9 6.6 15.8 62.0
904 79.7 4.1 11.8 6.5 15.7 61.8
1,045 78.7 3.7 10.7 13.0 23.3 49.3
66 84.0
100.0
44 84.0
100.0
50 84.0
100.0
48 84.0 ............ ............
100.0
142 82.8 4.2
95.8
84 82.0 7.1 ............
92.9
92 82.2 6.5
93.5
961 80.0 6.3 ............ 18.8
75.0

....

....

....

....

....
.... ....

23.1 7.5
28.3 3.9
32.0 9.1
15.7 13.7

.159
.152
.149
.163
.165
.168
.173
.167
.163
.162
.170
.169
.169
.169
.171
.170
.157
.158
.166
.164
.167
.168
.173
.177
.168
.161
.181
.169
.170

8.7
12.7
35.5
6.0
5.0
4.8
4.1
13.0
11.5
15.1
7.1
5.8
11.2
10.9
6.5
13.5
19.2
27.6
22.0

29.6
45.6
30.4
29.1
23.7
15.6
5.2
15.5
8.3
7.2
14.8
15.1
13.1
12.7
8.4
15.4
25.8
18.1
9.0

18.9
15.6
14.5
9.8

20.3
17.7

24.3
40.9
44.0
8.3
2.8
19.1
.171 17.4
.176 12.5

17.6
14.8
12.1
20.0
33.3
26.1
23.8
21.7
31.3

61.7
41.8
34.1
50.0
64.0
72.8
74.3
57.0
68.8
64.5
50.5
57.0
53.3
51.7
63.3
53.3
40.4
38.8
43.9
38.1
42.3
43.7
46.6

14.9
7.2
6.8
16.3
14.5
11.4
13.1
27.5
22.0
22.4

13.35
12.80
12.53
13.69
13.88
13.89
13.67
14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27
14.14
13.90

24.7 13.98
21.8 13.97
17.8 13.83
14.6 12.43
15.6 12.75
25.2 13.43
22.6 13.17
24.4 13.36
24.2 13.40
28.8 13.61

9.1 54.6 14.86
13.6 45.5 14.15
36.0 13.56
8.3 50.0 15.18
54.2 16.9 13.85
33.3 23.8 13.67
30.4 30.4 13.84
14.6 41.81 13.90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

30

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S, 1907 TO 1912—B L A S T F U R N A C E S —Continued.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

ber o f plants.

Per cent o f em ploy­
Per cent o f employees
ees earning each
whose full-time hours
classified rate o f
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
wages per hour.
age
age
full­
rate
time
of
Over
Over
14
20
25
hours
wages U n­
72
60
60
and and and
per
per
week. and and 72 and 84 hour. der un­ un­ un­
un­ un­
un­
14 der der der
der. der
der
cts. 20
25
30
72
84
cts. cts. cts.

A ver­
age
fuUtime
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Blowing engineers’ as­
sistants:
11 plants.

f 1907
J1908
11909
11910

67
51
74
66

18

(1910
U911
11912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

9 plants........

(1907
j 1908
11909
11910

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0 ........

18

plants.

(1910
\1911

305
300

19

plants.

/1911
\1912

20

plants.

plants.

84.0
100.0 $0.203 6.0 29.9 49.3
........
........ 100.0 .199 11.7 27.4 45.1
84.0
84.0
100.0 .191 10.8 45.9 29.7
84.0 ........ ........ ........ ........ 100.0 .208 3.0 27.3 54.5

....
....
..... .... .... ....

Iron handlers and load­
ers:

100.0
93.4
**6.6
8.3 ........ 10.2 ........ 81.5

....

....

2.1 27.7 59.6 10.6 17.38
2.2 29.7 63.7 4.4 17.06
3.7 22.2 66.7 7.4 16.85

....
....

34.0
31.9
35.5
30.5

74.2
72.7

58.7
i.3 63.0 ........

5.9 35.4
6.0 29.7

.194
.195

7.9 60.0 17.7 14.4 14.36
7.0 53.7 25.0 14.3 14.11

308
359

73.0
72.2

1.3 61.4
7.8 49.9 'io.'o

5.8 31.5
5.0 27.3

.195
.195

6.8 54.8 24.4 13.9 14.17
3.1 65.1 18.9 12.8 14.04

(1907
J1908
11909
11910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100.0
'100.0
100.0
1
100.0

19.2
.218
.210 * 6. 3 14.6
.205 7.1 15.5
.219
20.4

/1910
\1911

201
182

84.0
82.7 ........ ........ T l o

100.0
89.0

.215
29.9 67.2
.217 ........ 27.5 70.3

/1911
\1912

184
216

82.7
10.9
89.1
79.6 " *8.3 ........ 17.6 ........ 74.1

27.2 70.7 2.2 17.95
.217
.223 ........ 25.5 63.4 11.1 17.61

11 plants.

(1907
J1908
11909
U910

132
86
135
149

.195 15.2 27.2 42.4 15.2
.184 25.6 23.3 51.2
.186 7.4 69.7 23.0
.202 2.6 38.3 45.0 14.1

21

(1910
<1911
1.1912

231
203
237

84.0
100.0
84.0
100.0
84.0
100.0
84.0 ........ ........ ........ ........ 100.0
I
100.0
84.0
*9*4
82.9
1 90.6
78.1 15.2 ........ 13.9 ........ j 70.9

34 plants.
35 plants.
Larrymen:

plants.

....
....

5.9
60.1
8.6
59.5
7.4
57.0
59.3 ........ 10.2

.207
.205
.211

14.9 $17.02
15.7 16.72
13.5 16.08
15.2 17.48

.... ..... ..... .....
.... ..... .... .....
....

___ ....

.193 4.9 64.1 25.1 5.9 14.20
.190 15.9 47.9 24.5 11.7 13.95
.177 11.6 60.3 20.7 7.4 13.05
.195 9.6 55.9 18.6 15.8 14.24

.196
.194
.200

64.4 16.4 18.34
75.0 4.2 17.68
74.5 2.8 17.26
75.4 4.2 18.43

2.6 53.2 35.1
2.0 52.3 37.4
1.7 39.6 49.8

3.0 18.09
2.2 17.95

16.41
15.48
15.64
16.97

9.1 16.47
8.4 15.99
8.9 15.48
25
cts.
and
over.

Skip operators:
11 p la n ts ...

(1907
J1908
11909
11910

86
64
94
97

19 p la n ts..

(1910
<1911
11912

20 p lan ts...

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.....
.....
.....

100.0
100.0
•• ••
•
100.0
•• ».
•
........ ........ 100.0

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2 *i3.*2

100.0
1.6
9814
8.8 ........ 77.9

(1907
11908
11909
U910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0 ........

..... .... 100.0
..... ..... 100.0
..... ........ 100.0

34 plants.

/1910
\1911

200
178

84.0
82.7 ........

'i i .’ 2

35 plants.

/1911
\1912

180
212

82.7
79.5 **8.5

li.i
17.9

Stove tenders:




.....
.....

.193
.184 **9.4
.183
.196 ........

.....

44.2
43.8
80.9
48.4

63.5
43.8
17.0
49.5

2.3
3.1
2.1
2.1

16.19
15.49
15.40
16.46

47.2 48.0 4.8 16.56
.197
.198
35.5 56.5 8.1 16.60
.206 ........ 38.2 39.7 22.1 16.14

100.0

.192 2.9 69.9 18.6
.185 10.4 50.0 39.6
.181 10.0 59.2 30.7
.197 2.7 39.7 57.5

8.6 16.10
15.52
15.22
16.55

....

100.0
88.8

.193
.190

3.0 45.0 52.0
3.4 47.3 49.4

16.21
15.69

.....

88.9
73.6

.190
.195

3.3 47.7 48.9
2.8 38.8 58.5

.....

15.68
15.42

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

31

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E P R IN ­
C IP A L OC C U PA TIO N S, 1907 TO 1912—B L A S T F U R N A C E S —Concluded.

Occupation and num ­
ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Blowing engineers:

100

Per cent o f employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
age
age
funrate
of
time
Over
Over
wages
hours
60
72
60
per
per
and
week. and and 72 un­ 84 hour.
un­ un­
der. der
der
72
84

. . . . . . . . . . 100.0 $0,242
100.0 .235
100.0 .230
........ ........ ioo!o .245

85
103

11910

112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84! 0 ........

/1910
34 plan ts...................
11911

153
135

84.0
83.0 ........

/1911
35 plants................... \1912
Blowers:
(1907
J1908
18 plants...................
11909
11910

137
142

82.9
80.6 " 4. 2

78

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0 ........

100.0
100.0
........ ........ 100.0

Q rvlotifo
O

/1910
\1911

131

121

83.5 2.3
82.9 . . . . .

*‘ 9.*i

Q rklontc
Q

/1911
\1912

123
132

82.9
80.2 ” 6*8

8.9
15.9

(1907
J1908

20 plants................... 11909

68
86
90

100.0
8.1 ........ 91.9
9.5
18.3

....

90.5
77.5

....
..... 100.0

Per cent o f em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate o f A ver­
wages per hour.
age
full­
time
14
20
30
40 week­
and and and and
ly
un­ un­ un­ un­ earn­
der der der der ings.
20 30
40
50
cts. cts. cts. cts.

20.0 77.0
16.5 83.5
21.4 78.7
14.3 78.6

3.0

.243 20.3 74.5
.244 19.3 74.8

5.2
5.9

7.1

.244 19.0 75.2 5.8
.249 22.5 66.2 11.3

....

.300
.283
.286
.307 ........

41.0
61.7
61.7
48.9

$20.30
19.77
19.35
20.59
20.39

20.20

....

20.15
19.93

52.6
38.2
38.4
48.9

6.4 25.17
23.74
24.04
2.2 25.80
2.3 24.74
9.9 25.24

97.7
90.9

.....

.296
.306

.8 55.0 42.0
1.7 47.1 41.3

91.1
77.3

.305
.313

1.6 48.0 40.7 .9.8 25.21
1.5 44.7 40.2 13.6 24.84

Owing to the change in the number of plants from year to year, and
the consequent difference in the averages in the two groups of plants
in one and the same year, it is difficult to make a comparison of the
actual data over a period of several years, which will give an accurate
measure of the changes throughout the period.
To aid in making such comparisons, relative or index numbers have
been computed from the averages of the preceding table for full-time
hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings,
for each occupation from 1907 to 1912, inclusive. Such figures appear
in the table following. These relative or index numbers are simply per­
centages in which the data for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per
cent. The relative for each year is the per cent that the average for
that year is of the average for 1912. For example, the relative full­
time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 was 99.9 as compared with
100 in the year 1912; that is, the full-time weekly earning of stockers
in 1907 were 99.9 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this
occupation in 1912. The method of computing relative numbers is
explained on page 21.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1912 as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in
1912 were 0.1 per cent higher than in 1907, 11.4 per cent higher than



32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

in 1908, 8.6 per cent higher than in 1909, 3.0 per cent higher than in
1910, and 1.5 per cent higher than in 1911.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the
full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1908 were 10.1 per cent lower
than in 1907, 2.6 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 5.4 per cent
higher in 1910 than in 1909, 1.4 per cent higher in 1911 than in 1910,
and 1.5 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911. The other items and
occupations of the table can be studied in like manner. The per cent
of increase or decrease is computed from the relative numbers.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E , IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S— B L A S T F U R ­
N AC E S.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —)i n —

Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1907......................................
1908................... *................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
B ottom fillers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
T op fillers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Larry men:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Larry m en's helpers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Skip operators:
1 9 0 7 ..:................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1 9 1 1 ../................................
1912......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

P ercent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
R ela­
Each
Each
tive
Each
tive
1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
rate of com ­
com ­
fied
fied
tim e
com ­
fied
wages pared
year
pared
year weekly pared
year
per
w ith as com­
w ith as com ­ earn­
w ith as com­
hour.
each
pared
each
pared
pared
ings.
each
with
speci­
speci­
w ith
speci­
w ith
fied
year
fied
year
fied
year
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

101.9
99.0
101.3
101.4
101.3
100.0

—
+
-

1.9
1.0
1.3
1.4
1.3

102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
100.0

—
-

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2

103.8
103.8
103.8
103.8
102.8
100.0

—
-

3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
2.7

107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
106.1
100.0

-

7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
5.7

105.5
105.5
105.5
105.5
103.8
100.0

- 5.2
- 5.2
- 5.2
-5.2
- 3.7

106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
105.8

—
-

1 0.0
0

W eekly earnings.

5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.5

- 2.8
+ 2.3
+ .1
.1
— 1.3

97.7
90.2
90.8
95.4
97.1
100.0

+ 2.4
+ 10 .9
+ 10 .1
+ 4.8
+ 3.0

(i)
(i)
v1)
(i)
— 2.2

100.7
94.4
86.8
100.7
98.0
100.0

— .7
+ 5.9
+ 15.2
.7
+ 2.0

m
hi
?i)
- 1.0
— 2.7

94.5
89.7
85.9
96.6
97.2
100.0

+ 5.8
+ 11.5
+ 16 .4
+ 3.5
+ 2.9

94.6
89.3
90.2
98.0
97.0
100.0

+ 5.7
+ 12 .0
+ 10 .9
+ 2.0
+ 3.1

93.1
88.9
87.2
95.4
97.1
100.0

+ 7.4
+12.5
+ 14.7
+ 4.8
+ 3.0

94.2
89.8
89.3
95.6
96.1

+ 6.2
+11.4
+ 12 .0
+ 4.6
+ 4.1

(U
(J
-1.4
— 5.7
C
1)
-1.6
— 3.7

-

(i)
m
C
1)

.3
5.5

10
0 .0

1 N o change.

7.7
.7
5.1
1.8
3.0

99.9
89.8
92.1
97.1
98.5
100.0

+ 01
+ ll! 4
+ 8.6
+ 3.0
+ 1.5

- 6.3
- 8.1
+16.0
- 2.7
+ 2.0

102 2
96! 0
88.5
102.2
99.8
100.0

— 2 2
+ 4! 2
+ 13 .0
- 2.2
+ .2

- 5.1
- 4.2
+ 12.5
+ .6
+ 2.9

98 8
94.0
90.1
100.9
99.6
100.0

+ 1.2
+ 6! 4
+ 11 .0
.9
+ .4

+
+
+

5.6
1.0
8.6
1.0
3.1

102 9
97! 0
98.1
106.4
103.3
100.0

—
+
+
-

+
+
+

4.5
1.9
9.4
1.8
3.0

99 0
94.9
92.9
101.5
101.6
100.0

+
+
+
-

100 9
96.6
96.0

—
+
+
-

+
+
+
+

- 4.7
.6
+ 7.1
+ .5
+ 4.1

10
2.6
102.9
100.0

2 8
3 !l
1.9
6.0
3.2

- 1 0 .1
+ 2.6
+ 5.4
+ 1.4
+ 1.5
- 6.1
- 7.8
+15.5
- 2.3
+ .2
- 4.9
- 4.1
+ 12 .0
- 1.3
+ .4
+
+
-

5.7
1.1
8.5
2.9
3.2

+
+
-

4.1
2.1
9.3
1.1
.6

+
+
-

6.2
6.9
.3

1.0

5! 4
7.6
1.5
1.6
9

3! 5
4.2
2.5
2.8

4.0

2.Q

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

33

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T OF IN C R E A S E
OR D E C R E A S E , IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S—B L A S T
F U R N A C E S —Continued.
Hours per week.

W ages per hour.

Per cen t of inereagfe ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Occupation and year.

Blowers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Blowing engineers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Blow ing engineers’ assist­
ants:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Stove tenders:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Keepers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Keepers’ helpers:
1907......................................
1908........ ; ...........................
......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Iron handlers and loaders:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1 9 1 2 ....................................
Pig-machine men:
1907.....................................
1908.....................................
1909.....................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................

10
99

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cen t o f in­
crease ( + ) o r d e­
crease ( —) in—

-

3.9
3.9
3.9
3.9
3.3

104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
102.9
100.0

-

3.9
3.9
3.9
3.9
2.8

104.5
104.5
104.5
104.5
103.5
100.0

-

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
3.4

105.7
105.7
105.7
105.7
104.0
100.0

-

5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
3.8

105.5
105.5
105.5
105.5
103.9
100.0

-

5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
3.8

103.7
103.7
103.7
103.7
102.6
100.0

-

3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
2.5

103.5
103.2
104.0
103.2
101.1
100.0

-

3.4
3.1
3.8
3.1
1.1

102.7
102.6
102.6
102.4
100.6
100.0

-

2.6
2.5
2.5
2.3
.6

92.1
86.9
87.8
94.3
97.4
100.0

+ 8.6
+15.1
+ 13.9
+ 6.0
+ 2.7

96.4
93.6
91.6
97.6
98.0
100.0

+
+
+
+
+

95.7
93.9
90.1
98.1
97.2
100.0

+ 4.5
+ 6.5
+11.0
+ 1.9
+ 2.9

96.5
92.9
90.9
99.0
97.4
100.0

+ 3.6
+ 7.6
+10.0
+ 1.0
+ 2.7

G)
G)
G)

96.0
92.4
90.2
96.4
97.3
100.0

+ 4.2
+ 8.2
+ 10 .9
+ 3.7
+ 2.8

G)
G)
G)

1.1
2.5

96.5
93.6
90.6
98.8
98.2
100.0

+ 3.6
+ 6.8
+ 10.4
+ 1.2
+ 1.8

.3
+ .8
.8
- 2.0
- 1.1

98.5
96.9
90.3
99.5
100.0
100.0

+ 1.5
+ 3.2
+ 10.7
+ .5

97.1
94.8
94.2
98.8
98.8
100.0

+
+
+
+
+

w
(i)
-

-

.7
3.3

G)
G)
G)

1.2
2.8

G)
-

G)

1.0
3.4

G)
G)
— 1.6
- 3.8

-

-

-

1.5
3.8

.1

G)

.2
1.8
.6

A change.
No




Per cen t of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

R ela­
Rela­
E ach
E ach
tive
Each
tive
full­
1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
rate of
com ­
com ­
time
fied
com ­
fied
fied
wages pared
vear
pared
year weekly pared
year
per
with as com ­
with as com ­ earn­
with as com ­
hour.
each
pared
each
pared
ings.
each
pared
speci­
with
speci­
with
speci­
with
fied
fied
year
year
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
103.4
100.0

44920°— B u ll. 1 5 1 - 1 4 -

W eek ly earnings.

3.7
6.8
9.2
2.5
2.0

G)

+
+
+
+

5.6
1.0
7.4
3.3
2.7

97.1
91.5
92.7
99.5
101.5
100.0

+
+
+
+
-

3.0
9.3
7.9
.5
1.5

+
+
+

2.9
2.1
6.6
.4
2.0

100.6
98.0
95.9
102.1
101.1
100.0

+
+
—

.6
2.0
4.3
2.1
1.1

+
+

1.9
4.0
8.9
.9
2.9

100.4
98.7
94.9
103.1
101.2
100.0

+
+
-

.4
1.3
5.4
3.0
1.2

+
+

3.7
2.2
8.9
1.6
2.7

102.2
98.5
96.6
105.1
101.7
100.0

+
+
-

2.2
1.5
3.5
4.9
1.7

+
+
+

3.8
2.4
6.9
.9
2.8

102.2
98.5
96.2
102.7
101.9
100.0

+
+
-

2.2
1.5
4.0
2.6
1.9

+
+

3.0
3.2
9.1
.6
1.8

100.5
97.1
94.4
102.9
100.7
100.0

.5
+ 3.0
+ 5.9
- 2.8
.7

102.4
100.6
94.1
102.7
100.9
100.0

- 2.3
.6
+ 6.3
- 2.6
.9

100.1
97.7
96.8
101.8
100.1
100.0

+
+
-

- 1.6
- 6.8
+ 10.2
+ .5

G)
3.0
5.5
6.2
1.2
1.2

- 2.4
.6
+ 4.9

G)

+ 1.2

0.1
2.4
3.3
1.8
.1

+
+
+
—

5.8
1.3
7.3
2.0
1.5

+
—

2.6
2.1
6.5
1.0
1.1

+
—

1.7
3.9
8.6
1.8
1.2

+
-

3.6
1.9
8.8
3.2
1.7

+
-

3.6
2.3
6.8
.8
1.9

+
—

3.4
2.8
9.0
2.1

+
—

1.8
6.5
9.1
1.8
.9

.7

- 2.4
.9
+ 5.2
- 1.7
.1

34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L *
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R £ E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E , IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S — B L A S T F U R ­
N A C E S —Concluded.
Hours per week.

W ages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—
Occupation and year.

Cinder men:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Laborers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

E ach
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
year
pared
with as com ­
pared
each
with
speci­
year
fied
year. preced­
ing.

111.2
109.8
109.3
110.2
108.1
100.0

-1 0 .1
- 8.9
- 8.5
- 9.3
- 7.5

105.2
101.1
101.4
102.2
100.3
100.0

-

4.9
1.1
1.4
2.2
.3
'

•
R ela­
tive
rate of
wages
per
hour.

W e ek ly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

R ela­
Each
E ach
tive
1912 as speci­
1912 as spe?ifull­
com ­
fied
com ­
fied
time
pared
year
pared
year
with as com ­ weekly with as com ­
earn­
pared
each
each
pared
ings.
with
speci­
speci­
with
fied
year
fied
year
year. preced­
year. preced­
ing.
ing.

- 1.3
.5
+ .8
- 1.9
- 7.5

103.6
93.4
89.8
99.4
96.3
100.0

— 3.5
+ 7.1
+11.4
+ .6
+ 3.8

- 3.9
+ .3
+ .8
- 1.9'
.3

94.8
90.9
89.6
98.7
. 99.3
100.0

+ 5.5
+ 10.0
+ 11.6
+ 1.3
+ .7

- 9.8
- 3.9
+ 10.7
- 3.1
+ 3.8

no*. 4
103.7
99.4
111.0
105.1
100.0

—14.1
- 3.6
+ .6
- 9.9
- 4.9

- 4.1
- 1.4
+10.2
+ .6
+ .7

100.4
92.3
91.7
100.8
99.9
100.0

— .4
+ 8.3
+ 9.1
.8
+ .1

- 1 0 .9
- 4.1
+ 11.7
- 5.3
- 4.9
- 8.1
.7
+ 9.9
.9
+ .1

i N o change.

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the blast-furnace department as a whole, as determined by a
combination of the data for the several principal productive occupa­
tions covered by this report. The method of computing the figures
of this table is explained on page 22.
From the table following under “ Weekly earnings,7 it is seen that
7
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole in
1907 were 98.9 as compared with 100 in 1912. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1907 were 98.9 per cent of such earnings
in 1912. The relative dropped to 93.2 in 1908 and to 92.4 in 1909,
advanced to 99.7 in 1910, to 100.6 in 1911, and dropped to 100 in
1912, the base year.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1912
were 1.1 per cent higher than in 1907, 7.3 per cent higher than in
1908, 8.2 per cent higher than in 1909, 0.3 per cent higher than in
1910, and 0.6 per cent lower than in 1911.
The third column under “ Weekly earnings7 shows the per cent
7
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full-time
weekly earnings in 1908 were 5.8 per cent lower than in 1907; in 1909,
0.9 per cent lower than in 1908; in 1910, 7.9 per cent higher than in
1909; in 1911, 0.9 per cent higher than in 1910; and in 1912, 0.6 per
cent lower than in 1911. The relative numbers and percentages
for full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour can be read
in like manner.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

35

R E L A T IV E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C CU PATION S—B L A S T F U R N A C E S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Year.

1907 ..................................................

1908..............................................
1909..............................................
1910.............................................
1911.............................................
1912..............................................

Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

1 0 4 .1
1 0 2 .6
1 0 3 .5
1 0 3 .6
1 0 2 .6
1 0 0 .0

Per cen± of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Each
tive
1912 as speci­ rate of
com ­
fied
wages
pared
year
per
with as com ­ hour.
each
pared
with
speci­
fied
year
year. preced­
ing.

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
full­
1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
tim e
com ­
fied
com ­
fied
weekly
pared
year
pared
year
with as com ­ earn­
with as com ­
ings.
each
pared
pared
each
speci­
with
with
speci­
fied
year
year
fied
year. preced­
year. preced­
ing.
ing.

—3.9
-2 .5
-3 .4
- 3 .5
- 2 .5

-1 .4
+ .9
+ .1
-1 .0
—2.5

9 4 .4
9 0 .0
8 8 .9
9 6 .1
9 7 .8
1 0 0 .0

+ 5.9
+11.1
+ 12 .5
+ 4.1
+ 2 .2

-4 .7
- 1 .2
+ 8 .1
+ 1 .8
+ 2 .2

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

9 8 .9
9 3 .2
9 2 .4
9 9 .7
1 0 0 .6
1 0 0 .0

+ 1 .1
+ 7 .3
+ 8 .2
+ .3
- .6

-5 .8
- .9
+ 7 .9
+ .9
- .6

In considering weekly earnings, attention should be given to the
hours per week, and wages per hour, and their effect on weekly
earnings. A reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings
and an increase in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase weekly
earnings. Between 1907 and 1912 it will be observed hours were
reduced 3.9 per cent and wages per hour were increased 5.9 per cent,
each tending to offset the other in weekly earnings. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings must be considered. In the
table of the occupations on pages 32 to 34 it is seen that the relative
full-time weekly earnings in 1912, with only four exceptions, were
lower than in 1907. Yet in the table above it is shown that the full­
time weekly earnings for the industry were 1.1 per cent higher in
1912 than in 1907. This anomalous figure is due to the fact that,
though the earnings in the several occupations were less in 1912
than in 1907, there was a change in the relative number of em­
ployees in the several occupations between the two years, a larger
per cent of all employees being found in the higher paid occupations
in 1912 than in 1907.

The number ahd per cent of employees in blast-furnace plants
whose customary working time per week was six days or turns, or
seven, are shown in the following table. The figures are presented
for each district and for the four districts combined. Comparable
figures for identical plants are grouped by brackets. In two instances
in the table while the plants were identical for three years, com­
parable data were not available through the period and a sub­
grouping is necessary to bring exactly like figures into comparison.
A marked difference is seen in working days per week in the few
years between 1907 and 1912. Seven days per week was the regular




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

36

working time of 97.2 per cent of the employees in 1907, while in 1912
the number working seven days per week had been reduced to
82.0 per cent. A blast furnace is continuous in operation, but,
during the last three years, several plants have made provision to
lay off employees one day in seven, thus making the working time for
each individual six days, while the plant continues operation seven days.
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T OF E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H S P E C I­
F IE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912—B L A S T F U R N A C E S .
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years.are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose
customary working time
per weejt was—
District and number
of plants.

Year.

Number
of em­
ployees.
6 days.

6 days
and 7
days al­
ternately.

7 days.

Per cent of employees whose
customary working time
per week was—

6 days.

6 days
and 7
days al­
ternately.

7 days.

Eastern:
f 1907
1908
i 1909
l 1910

320
235
328
346

33
43
11

[ 1910
\1911
l 1912

1,436
779
684

79
118
135

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,731
1,161
1,683
1,613

1910
1911

287
192
317
346

10.3
18.3
3.4

1,357
659
547

5.5
15.1
19.7

74
87
66
103

1,657
1,074
1,617
1,510

4.3
7.5
3.9
6.4

95.7
92.5
96.1
93.6

2,302
2,135

111
127

2,191
2,008

4.8
5.9

95.2
94.1

1911
1912

2,127
2,396

127
101

2,000
2,295

6.0
4.2

94.0
95.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,310
947
1,163
1,622

14
27
44
95

1,296
920
1,119
1,527

1.1
2.9
3.8
5.9

98.9
97.1
96.2
94.1

/ 1910
\ 1911

2,103
1,302

116
337

1,987
965

5.5
25.9

94.5
74.1

/ 1911
1912

1,387
1,648

343
568

1,044
1,080

24.7
34.5

75.3
65.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

917
685
930
800

8
3

.9
.4

f 1910
1 1911

1,209
1,052

37
2

917
685
922
797
1,172
1,050

3.1
.2

100.0
100.0
99.1
99.6
96.9
99.8

] 1911
l 1912

1,043
1,245

2
267

1,041
978

.2
21.4

99.8
78.6

20 plan ts..

f
J
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

4,278
3,028
4,104
4,381

121
157
129
201

4,157
2,871
3,975
4,180

2.8
5.2
3.1
4.6

97.2
94.8
96.9
95.4

34 p la n ts ..

/ 1910
\ 1911

7,050
5,268

343
584

2

6,707
4,682

4.9
11.1

(2)

95.1
88.9

35 plan ts..

/ 1911
\ 1912

5,336
5,973

590
1,071

2
2

4,744
4,900

11.1
17.9

(2)
(2)

88.9
82.0

2 plants.

6 plants.
Pittsburgh:
6 plants.

9 plants1.................
Great Lakes and Mid­
dle W est:
6 plants...................

9 plants.

\

10 plants
Southern:
6 plants.

10

p lan ts

1

2
2

Total:

89.7
81.7
96.6
100.0
0.3
.3

94.5
84.6
80.0

1 F or one plant it was impossible to secure data for one occupation for 1912, hence the tw o reports for 1911,
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

37

In addition to the text tables in the summary, six general tables
are presented for the blast furnace department as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907
to 1912.
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year by districts, 1907 to
1912.

Table III.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district by years, 1907 to
1912.

Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1912.
Table V.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each year, by districts, 1907 to 1912.
Table V I.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in each district, by years, 1907 to 1912.
In Tables I and IV, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 28 to 31.

Tables III and VI repeat the data for the several districts given in
Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the blast furnace is presented
on page 22.
DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS.

The following description of occupations refers only to those occu­
pations which appear in the tables of this report— these being nearly
all of the principal productive occupations in the blast-furnace depart­
ment.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
STOCKERS.

D u t i e s .—Unload cars containing ore, coke, limestone, or other
materials; handle materials in stock piles and bins; the designation
also includes helpers to car dumper, ore bridge, and transfer-car
operators. Duties include shoveling ore from stock cars, dumping
hopper cars, breaking ore and other materials, and tending bins.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—Very diversified, but generally performed by
unskilled laborers.
BOTTOM FILLERS.

D u t i e s .—Transfer materials from stock piles or bins to furnace
hoist where larry cars are not used, with wheelbarrows, which they
put on elevators in plants using hand-charged furnaces or dump into




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

38

the “ skip” in plants using mechanically charged furnaces. In tables,
the designation includes bottom fillers7helpers, who shovel materials
into barrows and in some plants spell bottom fillers.
.— Heavy, fairly continuous work, with short rest
periods, and performed by unskilled laborers.

N tu of w
a re ork

TOP FILLERS.

D ties.
u

— Operate on hand-charged furnaces the vertical hoist by
which the barrows of materials are drawn to the top of the furnace;
dump the materials from these barrows into the furnace hopper, and
operate the mechanism by which the bell at the bottom of the hopper
is lowered, allowing the materials to fall into the furnace.
— Hard physical labor, done at an elevation and in
most plants exposed to the weather.

N tu ofwrk
a re o .

LARRY MEN.

D ties.
u

— Operate electric larry or scale car, to deliver melting
materials from stock bins to skip car. Must get proper amount of
material from bin and record weight as indicated. In some plants also
perform the duties of skip operator.
— The work is quickly learned, and is analogous to
that of low-grade motor men.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

LARRY MEN’ S HELPERS.

D ties.
u

— Keep larry tracks clean, loosen stock in bins where it
sticks, operate switches on larry tracks, load skip buckets when coke
chutes deliver direct to skip.
— Work performed by common, unskilled laborers.
Little heavy manual labor, except during winter when stock is frozen.

Ntu ofw .
a re ork

SKIP OPERATORS.

D ties.
u

— Operate engine or motor by which skip is hauled up the
inclined runway to the top of the furnace. Also operate mechanism
which lowers the bell by which materials are dumped into the furnace.
— Are either stationary engineers of comparatively
low grade or motor tenders.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

BLOWERS.

D ties.
u

— Are in charge of the working of furnaces and are responsible
for the quantity and quality of the output. Determine the propor­
tion of the materials charged, the pressure and temperature of the
hot blast, and the time and manner of tapping. The entire blowing
and casting force is under the direction of a blower.
— The work is largely supervisory. It requires
considerable practical metallurgical knowledge and occasionally
demands a great deal of manual work.

Ntu of w .
a re
ork




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

39

BLOWING ENGINEERS.

D ties.
u
Ntu ofw
a re ork

— Are in charge of steam or gas blowing engines and, under
the direction of the blower, regulate the pressure of the blast.
.— The work is that of a stationary engineer of the
highest grade.
BLOWING ENGINEERS’ ASSISTANTS.

D
uties—
Assist blowing engineers.
Ntu of wrk— The work is that
a re
o.

of a low-grade stationary
engineer, and the position may be considered as a training for the
higher position of blowing engineer.
STOVE TENDERS.

D ties
u

.— Are in charge of the regenerative stoves in which the blast
is heated by the waste furnace gases. They change the stoves period­
ically (usually every half hour) by admitting air into those in which
the brickwork is hot and gas into those that are to be heated.
— Steady but comparatively easy work, consisting
chiefly in manipulating the valves by which the flow of gas and of
air is controlled.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .

KEEPERS.

D ties.
u

— Superintend and take part in tapping the iron and cinder
from the furnace, the greater part of the actual work— drilling the
hardened clay out of the tap hole— being done by the keepers’
helpers and cinder snappers. The keepers in many plants hold the
bar by which the clay is removed or operate the compressed-air drills
for accomplishing the same purpose. While the metal is being run
the keepers direct the flow of metal into the ladles or into the sand
bed, and often do much of the work. After the cast they direct the
work of closing the tap hole with clay, and in modem plants operate
the “ mud gun” by which this is accomplished.
—The position of keeper is one of responsibility,
requiring considerable experience, and at the same time carrying with
it hard work and exposure to heat during the tapping of the metal
and cinder. The position may be regarded as one of training for
the higher and more responsible position of blower. The keeper acts
as blower in case the latter is absent, and in some places regularly
performs the duties of blower on the night turn. The work of the
casting crew (keepers, keepers’ helpers, and cinder snappers) is
intermittent under ordinary conditions, since the work is done only
in preparation for and during the casts (except for the tapping of
cinder). These casts occur only every four to six hours under normal
conditions, and the actual time that the crew is busy during a turn

Ntu of wrk
a re o .




BULLETIN OE THE BUBEAU OE LABOR STATISTICS.

40

therefore varies from about 60 to 80 per cent. The tapping of the
cinder varies in frequency according to the size of furnace and to
the nature of materials charged.
KEEPERS’ HELPERS.

D ties
u

.— Work under the direction of the keeper in tapping and
closing the furnaces, running the metal, and cleaning up and prepar­
ing the casting floor.
In many establishments no differentiation of duties or rates is made,
and for that reason keepers’ helpers of all grades appear in one group
in this report. Moreover, in the establishments which do separate
the various grades, the work is divided up in different ways in different
plants, and the difference in rates paid is largely due to experience
and marks the advance to the responsible position of keeper.
It may be said that the most general distribution of duties is as
follows: First helpers swing the “ splasher” into place over the tap
hole and are in charge of the “ skimmer” and first runner gate diming
the cast. Second helpers help swing the heavy drill where the work
is done by hand; during the cast are in charge of the runner gates
leading to the ladles, and after the cast clean up the hot scrap and
cinder, and prepare the bed and the runners for the next cast. Third
helpers perform much the same work as the second helpers. Espe­
cial duty is connected with the tapping of the “ cinder notch,” which
is opened periodically with a bar, and closed after the slag has been
drained by ramming a ball of damp clay into the hole. The work
of looking after the cinder notch is frequently specialized and the
men who do the work are called cinder snappers, but the two duties
are so frequently combined that they are included with keepers*
helpers in this report. At the time of the cast the special duty of
third helpers is to direct the flow of cinder from the main to the side
runner, using a long bar for this purpose.
.— The work is heavy and very hot during the time
of the cast, especially where the iron is cast in sand beds. Only a
little experience is required, however, and the positions are com­
monly filled by strong, unskilled laborers. The amount and diffi­
culty of the work of all keepers* helpers are largely determined by
whether the metal is run into sand beds, or whether it is rim into
ladles. In the case of the sand beds, the mold and the runners must
be carefully cut and molded in the sand with wooden patterns, which
takes a great deal of time. When iron molds and runners are used
it is necessary to give them a clay wash only. In either case, how­
ever, the amount of work done per man is largely equalized by
employing a larger crew on the sand beds. For amount of actual
time at work see “ keepers.”

N tu of w
a re ork




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

41

IRON HANDLERS AND LOADERS.

D ties.
u
Ntu of wrk
a re
o.

— Cool and break iron cast in sand molds, carry it from
the casting floor and pile it in the yard or load it on cars.
— Heavy manual labor, requiring little more
than strength and endurance. The work is usually intermittent in
character.
PIG-M ACHINE MEN.

D ties.
u

— Include several distinct occupations not ordinarily given
distinct names or paid widely different rates. The ordinary pig
machine consists of a series of molds mounted on an endless chain
into which molten iron is poured from a ladle. Therefore, iron
pourers operate mechanism which pours metal from ladles. Runner
men see that the trough from ladle to molds is kept clear. Lime men
spray lime or clay wash on molds to prevent iron from sticking.
Knockers-out remove with a sledge or bar any pigs that stick in the
molds. If many pigs stick, it is very hard work.
— The work varies largely in character according
to the type of the machine and the particular occupation. Further­
more, some of the pig machines are operated Saturday night and
Sunday only, the men being employed at other work for the remainder
of the week.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .

CINDER MEN.

D ties.
u

— Handle the cinder at and on its way to the cinder dump;
also clean up the cinder pits and clean away cinder around the furnaces
not cared for by the cinder snappers.
— Varies greatly in severity, some of that on the
cinder dump being very hard, while much of the cleaning up is com­
paratively light and easy.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .

LABORERS.

D ties
u

.— Include the large number of minor and unspecialized
occupations which require little skill or experience. In making up
this class the attempt has been made to have it include only those
positions which may be filled by what is known as common labor,”
where there are no special requirements of physique or experience.
— The work is all unskilled, but varies from com­
paratively hard continuous labor to light intermittent labor.

“

Ntu of wrk
a re o .




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

42
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912.

able

BLAST FU RNACES.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.
ages see p . 20.]

F or explanation o f aver­

NUMBER.

A ver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. horn:.

Year.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

1907
1908
18 p la n ts ... ' 1909
1910

824
473
737
904

/ 1910
32 p la n ts ... \ 1911

1,445
898

79.9
79.8

/ 1911
32 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Bottom fillers:
1907
1908
7 p la n t s .... ' 1909
1910

904
1,045

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Aver­
age .
full­
8
time
week­ and
un­
ly
earn­ der
9
ings.
cts.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

1 1 14
0 2
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
1 1 14 16
0 2
cts. cts. cts. cts.

16
18
2 25 30 40
0
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
18
2 25 30 40 50
0
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Stockers:

1
0

113
40
67
62

551
380

21
2
152

105
27

40

85 159
53 155

395
487

152
217

27
37

2
0

13.40
12.59
11.61
13.41

36 6 32
8
18 . 60 34
60 134
87 50

89
42
48
80

40
40
50

84.0
84.0

.152 12.77
.148 12.46

176 320
137 156

96
34

80
64

84.0
82.2

.149 12.50
.152 12.53

137 174
129 209

42
54

64
76

44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.177
.168
.161
.181

/ 1910
13 p la n ts ... \ 1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

.169 13.85
.170 13.67

/ 1911
14 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Larry m en:
f 1907
1 1908
1 p la n ts ... 1 1909
1
l 1910

92
96

82.2
80.0

13.84
.176 13.90

132

135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.195 16.41
.184 15.48
.186 15.64
.2 16.97
02

l 1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

.196 16.47
.194 15.99
.200 15.48

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.159
.152
.149
.163

f 1910

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

.165 13.88
.168 13.89
.173 13.67
.193
.184
.183
.196

.197 16.56
.198 16.60
.206 16.14

27 84 127
*7 2
31 3 1 2
62 1 2 133
2
35 164 81

439
191
286
397

.164 13.17
.167 13.36

44 230 294
55 85 159

79.7
78.7

.168 13.40
.173 13.61

46
49

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.160
.150
.138
.160

14 p la n ts ... /\ 1910
1911

672
391

/
15 p la n ts ... \ 1911
1912
T op fillers:
1907
8p la n ts .... 1908
1909
1910

417
468

[ 1910
2 p la n ts ... \ 1911
1

6
6

8
6

81.4 $0.170 $13.83
79.1 .157 12.43
80.9 .158 12.75
81.0 .166 13.43

19 p la n ts ...

\1911

l 1912

Skip operators:

8
6

f 1907
1 1908
1 p la n ts ... 11909
1
l 1910

64
94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910
1911
1 1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

19 p la n ts ...

{




2
0
16

4

14.86
14.15
13.56
15.18

.in

L a r r y m en’ s
helpers:

1 plan ts. . .
0

3
3

13.35
12.80
12.53
13.69

16.19
15.49
15.40
16.46

6
6
...... ....

1 8
2

14
16 ” io
4 16
4
14

37

2
2
0
2 14 2
0
2 1 30
0
2 4
0
6 16
6 4 26
2 2 4
2 •4 4
2 2 6
4
6
8 2 34
1
0
36
1 38 41
0
8
39
1 2 6
2
6
2 1 46
2
14

18

1
0
6 6
8
8
1
0
8
8

29
48
165

24

40

27

6
8

6 1 26
0
6 8 1
2
6 1
2
4

77
28

24

6
6
6
6

18

2
2 1
1 1
0 2

28
14

16

18

16

16

24

29

56
44
31
67

70
70
46

49
30
42

81
76
118

2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0

36

8 1
2
6
8

71
33
46
67
178
214
255
24
16
28
31
35
34
38

4

6
8

40

14

2
6

46
28
16
48
60
70
54

2
0
2
1
2
1
17
2
1

2
2
2
2
6
1
0

30

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,
T

43

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

rear.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Blowers:
78

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Em ployees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
18 . 20
8
time
25 30 40
9
10 12 14 16
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
20
25
30 40 50
9
ings.
10 12 14 16 18
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

84.0 $0,300 $25.17
84.0 .283 23.74
84.0 .286 24.04
84.0 .307 25.80

18 p la n ts..

1907
1908
1909
1910

32 p la n ts ...

1910
1911

11
2

83.5
82.9

.296 24.74
.306 25.24

1911
1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

.305 25.21
.313 24.84

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
0

2 p la n ts..
0

85
103

12
1

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.242
.235
.230
.245

34 p la n ts ...

1910
1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

.243 20.39
.244 20.20

1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

.244 20.15
.249 19.93

1907
1908
1909
1910

67
51
74

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.203
.199
.191
.208

1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

.2 1
1

2 p lan ts..
0

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.192
.185
.181
.197

34 p la n ts..

1910
1911

20
0

84.0
82.7

.193 16.21
.190 15.69

1911
1912

180

22
1

82.7
79.5

.190 15.68
.195 15.42
.218 18.34
.210 17.68
.205 17.26
.219 18.43

8 4
14
1 18
2
2 32
2
2 2
2 2
2 24
2
2 30
2
18
8
8 6
14
4
1
1 2

33 p lan ts..
Blow ing engi­
neers:

35 p la n ts ...
Blowing engi­
neers’ assist­
ants:

1 p la n ts..
1
18 p lan ts..

6
8
8
6

90

131

6
6

Stove tenders:

35 p la n ts..
Keepers:

178

3

2
2
2
2

20.30
19.77
19.35
20.59

4
4

12

12
18

6 1
2
4
6
6 1
2
6 8

2
2 14 15
2 1 14
0
2 1 14
0
2 1 2
0 0
2

16

4

26

3

17
19
16

56
58
72

73
36
52
28

26
38
43
84

36
40

104

17.02
16.72
16.08
17.48

2
2
4
4

1
2
2
2 1

.207 17.38
.205 17.06
16.85

6
6

2

4

16

16.10
15.52
15.22
16.55

4

9

17

40
30

2

94
72
105
107

37
28

135
128

28
29

130
137

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

34 p la n ts ...

1910
1911

21
0
182

84.0
82.7

.215 18.09
.217 17.95

19
18

1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

.217 17.95
.223 17.61

18 • 4
14
1
2

2 plan ts..,
0

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.165
.160
.155
.169

188

192

34 p lan ts...

1910
1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

.168 14.13
.167 13.83

149
96

269
196

244
234

35 p lan ts...

1911
1912

742
846

83.1
81.0l

.167 13.84
.170 13.74

96
138

198
192

240
279

35 p lan ts...
Keepers’ help­
ers:




13.89
13.41
13.04
14.22

94

46
16
54
83

216

124

4
16

2 p la n ts..
0

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
4

88

116

8
8
161
21 10
1 2

44

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES— Continued.
NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

A ver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees
Aver­
age
full­
time
8
9
10 12
week­ and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der
ings.
9
10 12 14
cts. cts. cts. cts.

per hour.
14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
18
20
25
and a n d and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
18
20
25
30
cts. cts. cts. cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Iron handlers
and loaders:
1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.2 $0.193 $14.20
73.0 .190 13.95
73.6 .177 13.05
73.0 .195 14.24

/ 1910
18 p la n ts ... \ 1911

305
300

74.2
72.7

.194 14.36
.195 14.11

/ 1911
19 p la n ts ... 1912
P i g - machine
m en:
1907
1908
9 plants___ ' 1909
1910

308
359

73.0
72.2

.195 14.17
.195 14.04

115

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

.167
.163
.162
.170

14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27

108
98
92

/ 1910
16 p la n ts ... \ 1911

291
259

83.9
82.4

.169 14.14
.169 13.90

166
138

/ 1911

267
275

82.4
81.9

.169 13.98
.171 13.97

138
174

1907
1908
1909
1910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

.173
.156
.150
.166

14.46
12.88
12.34
13.78

2
2
2

32 plants. . . / 1910
\ 1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

.163 13.56
.158 12.84

2
2

/ 1911
32 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Laborers:
1907
20 p la n ts ... ‘ 1908
1909
1910

333
397

81.3
75.2

.158 12.82
.164 12.20

2
2

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

.146
.140
.138
.152

34 p la n ts ... / 1910
1911

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

35 p la n ts ... / 1911
1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

f
1
9 plants___ 1
l

\

17 p la n ts ...
Cinder m en:

\1912

f
1
20 p la n ts ... 1
l

\

\




3

45

129

22

110

2
17
24
9

118
84
153
224

11
6

280
155

6
6

147
148

35
173
175
38

267
172
197
477

.150 11.23
.151 11.13

44
38

581
433

.151 11.14
.152 11.15

38
31

433
465

11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

14

2
_____
—

—

4
4

42

12

45

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
PER CENT.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
9
10 12 14 16
18
8
20
time
25 30
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­
un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
9
ings.
10 12 14 16 18
20
25
30 40
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

f 1907
1Opl&lltS - .. ] 1908
18 'i 1
1 1909
1 1910

824
473
737
904

32 p lan ts.. . / 1910
\ 1911

1,445
'898

79.9
79.8

.164 13.17
.167 13.36 .............

3.0 15.9 20.3 38.1 15.3
6.1 9.5 17.7 42.3 16.9

7.3
3.0

4.5 —

32 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912
B ottom fillers:
1907
1908
7 plants___
1909
1910

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

.168 13.40
.173 13.61

5.1 9.4 17.6 43.7 16.8
4.7 5.1 14.8 46.6 20.8

3.0
3.5

4.4
1.9 *2.*6

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.160
.150
.138
.160

14 p la n ts ... / 1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

.152 12.77
.148 12.46

26.2 47.6 14.3 11.9
35.0 39.9 8.7 16.4

15 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912
T op fillers:
1907
1908
8 plants___
1909
1910

417
468

84.0
82.2

.149 12.50
.152 12.53

32.9 41.7 10.1 15.3
27.6 44.7 11.5 16.2

66
44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.177
.168
.161
.181

13 p la n ts ... / 1910
\ 1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

.169 13.85
.170 13.67 ............

2.8 26.1 54.2
12.7
2.4 16.7 23.8 33.3 * 2 .4 14.3 ............

4.2
7.1 .............

14 plants. . . / 1911
\ 1912
Larry men:
f 1907
11 p la n ts ... J 1908
1 1909
l 1910

92
96

82.2
80.0

.171 13.84
.176 13.90

2.2 15.2 21.7 30.4 10.9 13.0
2.1 10.4 31.3 14.6 16.7 18.8

6.5
6.3

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.195
.184
.186
.202

f 1910
21 p la n ts ...
1911
l 1912
L a rry m en ’ s
helpers:
f 1907
1U p i a l l to • • - I 1908
1 1909
( 1910

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

.196 16.47
.194 15.99
.200 15.48

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.159
.152
.149
.163

f 1910

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

.165 13.88
.168 13.89 ........
.173 13.67

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Stockers:

\

\

19 p la n ts ...
Skip operators:

\1911

l 1912

f
11 p la n ts ... I
1
l
19 p la n ts .. .
Blowers:

1907
1908
1909
1910

f 1910

\1911
[ 1912

f 1907
18 p la n ts ... I 1908
i 1909
1910




..... __

81.4 $0,170 $13.83
79.1 .157 12.43
80.9 .158 12.75
81.0 .166 13.43

86
64
94
97

>
84. C
>
84. C
84. C
>
84. C
1

10.2 15.4
7.8 25.8
16.6 18.1
18.1 9.0

53.3 1.2 13.7
40.4 6.1 8.5
38.8 6.5 9.1
43.9 18.3 6.9

2.9

........

6.1 18.2 12.1 9.1 15.2 39.4
9.1 31.8
13.6 18.2 27.3
12.0 32.0 20*6
12.0 24.0
8.3 33.3 8.3
50.0

14.86
14.15
13.56
15.18

15.2 3.0 12.1
16.41
15.48
* 7 .6 18.6
9.3
4.4 3.0 i9.*3
15.64
16.97 ............ . . . .
1.3 1.3 2.7 *i6.‘ i

.....

13.35
12.80
12.53
13.69

___

12.1
14.0
50.4
19.5

42.4 15.2
51.2
23.0
45.0 14.1 —

.9 1.7 1.7 30.3 21.2 35.1
1.0 1.0 3.0 34.5 14.8 37.4
1.7 2.5 19.4 17.7 49.8

9.1
8.4
8.9

............

.....

7.0 1.7 29.6 61.7
12.7
45.6 41.8
7.4 28. i 30.4 34.1
6.0
29.1 50.0 14.9

.197 16.56
.198 16.601
.206 16.14
.3061
.282!
.286i
.307'

3.3
6.6
8.4
3.9

12.3 23.2 10.9 30.4 23.2
9.3 30.9 17.5 21.6 20.6
21.3 47.5
17.0 14.2
32.6 18.7 30.0 18.7

.....

.....

)

l

___

13.40
12.59
11.61
13.411

84.0i .193 16.19
84.0l .184 15.49
84.0I .183 15.40 ........
84.0I .196 16.46

125 84.6
124[ 83.8(
136► 79.2!
7?
66*
86>
961

0.6 4.2
.4 2.2

4.3 .7 23.7 64.0
.7 4.1 15.6 72.8
4.1 5.2 74.3
11.6
9.4 9.4
8.5
8.2

7.2
6.8
5.8 10.5

27.9 4.7 53.5
25.0 9.4 43.8
29.8 42.6 17.0
32.0 8.2 49.5

8.0 28.0 11.2 48.0 4.8
6.5 27.4 1.6 56.5 8.1
5.9 27.9 4.4 39.7 22.1

25.17
23.74 ........
24.04 ........
25.861........ . . . . ........ . . . . ___ ........ ........

l
1

2.3
3.1
2.1
2.1

12.8
17.6i
23.3:
12.2!

28.2 52.6
44.1 38.2
38.4 38.4
36.7 48.9

6.4
2.2

46
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
PER CENT—Continued.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
9
8
time
10 12 14 16
18
20
25 30 40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
9
10 12 14 16 18
ings.
20
25
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Year.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Blowers—Con.
f
puuiib ••• \ 1910
1911

131
121

83.5 $0,296 $24.74
82.9 .306 25.24

/ 1911
33 p lan ts. . . \ 1912
Blow ing engineers:
‘ 1907
1908
20 p la n ts ... ‘ 1909
1910

123
132

82.9
80.2

.305 25.21
.313 24.84

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.242
.235
.230
.245

f 1910

153
135

84.0
83.0

.243 20.39
.244 20.20

/ 1911
35 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Blow ing engi­
neers’ assist­
ants:
f 1907
1 1908
11 p la n ts ... i 1909
l 1910

137
142

82.9
80.6

.244 20.15
.249 19.93

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.203
.199
.191
.208

f 1910

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

.207 17.38
.205 17.06
.211 16.85

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.192
.185
.181
.197

/ 1910
34 plan ts. . . \ 1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

.193 16.21
.190 15.69

3.0 11.0 16.0 18.0 52.0
3.4 12.4 12.4 22.5 49.4

/ 1911
35 p lan ts. . . \ 1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

.190 15.68
.195 15.42

3.3 12.2 13.3 22.2 48.9
2.8 10.4 14.2 14.2 58.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.218
.210
.205
.219

18.34
17.68
17.26
18.43

12.3
*6.3 8.3
7.1 9.9
7.7

/ 1910
34 p la n ts ... \ 1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

.215 18.09
.217 17.95

9.5
9.9

2.0 18.4 67.2
2.2 15.4 70.3

/ 1911
35 plan ts. . . \ 1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

.217 17.95
.223 17.61

9.8
6.5

2.2 15.2 70.7 2.2
5.6 13.4 63.4 11.1

f 1907
J 1908
1 1909
1.1910

616
409
596
608

84.0
84 0
84 0
84.0

.165
.160
.155
.169

/ 1910
34 p la n ts ... \ 1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

.168 14.13
.167 13.83

4.3 12.0 17.0 30.7 27.8
8.212.5 13.1 26.7 31.9

/ 1911
35 p la n ts ... 1 1912

742
846

83.1
81.0

.167 13.84
.170 13.74

8.1 12.4 12.9

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

34 p la n ts ... \ 1911

18 p lan ts. . .

\1911

[ 1912

20.30
19.77
19.35
20.59

.....

.....

....

.....
..... __

0.8
20.6 34.4 42.0
. . . . **i.*7 ........ 19.8 27.3 41.3

....

....

....

1.6
1.5

.....

19.5 28.5 40.7 9.8
15.9 28.8 40.2 13.6

2.0
4.7
3.9
1.8
1.3
1.5

.....

17.02
16.72
16.08 ! ! ! ! !
17.48

9.2 9.8 29.4 45.1 5.2
7.4 10.4 29.6 45.2 5.9 ........

1.5
1.4

.....

6.0 12.0 12.0 65.0 3.0
4.7 7.1 35.3 48.2
5.8 11.7 40.8 37.9
5.4 7.1 37.5 41.1 7.1

7.3 10.2 30.7 44.5 5.8
7.0 14.1 21.8 44.4 11.3

6.0 3.0 3.0
” 3*9 7.8 3.9
8.1 2.7 5.4 **5.4
3.0 6.1 3.0
2.1 6.4
2.2 6.6
3.7 3.7

23.9
23.5
35.1
18.2

49.3
45.1
29.7
54.5

14.9
15.7
13.5
15.2

3.2 18.1 59.6 10.6
2.2 20.9 63.7 4.4
3.7 14.8 66.7 7.4

Stove tenders:
(
1
20 plan ts. . . 1
l

16.10
15.52
15.22
16.55

2.9 11.4 6.4 52.1
**2.’ i 8.3 8.3 4.2 37.5
1.4 8.6 12.1 10.0 37.1
2.7 8.2 12.3 19.2

18.6
39.6
30.7
57.5

8.6

Keepers:
20 plan ts. . .

5.5 1.4
6.3
2.8 2.8
1.4 11.3

64.4 16.4
75.0 4.2
74.5 2.8
75.4 4.2

Keepers’ help­
ers:
20 p lan ts. . .




13.89
13 41
13.04
14.22

2.3
9.9

7.8
11.7
15.1
6.3

15.3 7.5
16 6 3.9
16.9 9.1
9.4 13.7

35.1
39.4
35.4
30.9

18.8 15.6
21.5 6.8
20.1 3.4
31.6 8.2
8.2
7.6

26.7 32.3 7.5
7.3 9.0 16.3 22.7 33.0 11.7

3.0
2.2

.....

47

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.
T

I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued
P E R C E N T —Concluded.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Year.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Iron handlers
and loaders:

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees
Aver­
age
full­
10
8
9
time
week­ and and and
un­ un­ u n ­
ly
earn­ der der der
9
ings.
10 12
cts. cts. cts.

earning each classified rate o f wages
per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

4.9 12.8
"*i.*8 14. l 'l 6 .6
11.619.4
9.6 10.7

18
16
20
25 30 40
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
18
20
25
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.2 $0.193 $14.20
73.0 .190 13.95
73.6 .177 13.05
73.0 .195 14.24

18 p la n ts ... / 1910
\ 1911

305
300

74.2
72.7

.194 14.36
.195 14.11 ........

7.9 10.5 42.3 7.2 17.7 11.8 2.6
7.0 11.0 32.7 10.0 25.0 7.3 7.0 ........

19 p lan ts. . . / 1911
\ 1912
P ig - m a c h in e
m en:
1907
1908
9 plan ts___
1909
1910

308
359

73.0
72.2

.195 14.17
.195 14.04 ........

6.8 10.7 31.8 12.3 24.4
3.1 16.4 32.0 16.7 18.9

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

.167
.163
.162
.170

16 p la n ts ... / 1910
\ 1911

291
259

83.9
82.4

.169 14.14
.169 13.90

5.8 15.1 57.0 19.9
11.2 13.1 53.3 17.8

2.1
4.6

10.9 12.7 51.7 19.5
6.5 8.4 63.3 18.2

5.2
3.6

9 p lan ts___

{ 1907
1908

14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27

13.0 15.5
11.5 8.3
15.1 7.2
7.1 14.8

42.4
27.6
35.5
38.4

8.9
3.7
5.4
6.8

57.0 3.1 10.4
68.8 7.6 3.8
64.5 9.2 3.9
50.5 24.2 3.3

17 p la n ts ... 1911
\ 1912
Cinder m en:
1907
1908
20 p lan ts. . .
1909
1910

J

267
275

82.4
81.9

.169 13.98
.171 13.97

{

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

.173
.156
.150
.166

32 p lan ts. . . / 1910

482
339

82.9
81.3

.163 13.56
.158 12.84

.4
.6

2.3 8.9 19.9 58.1
1.8 20.4 21.2 45.7

32 plan ts. . . / 1911
\ 1912
Laborers:
1907
1908
20 p lan ts. . .
1909
1910

333
397

81.3
75.2

.158 12.82
.164 12.20

.6
.5

1.8 20.7 22.2 44.1 9.9
1.5 8.8 28.5 37.3 15.6

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

.146
.140
.138
.152

34 p la n ts ... / 1910
1911

1 423
935

74.7
73.3

.150 11.23
.151 11.13

3.1 23.3 32.7 40.8
4.1 25.7 24.0 46.3

35 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

.151 11.14
.152 11.15 ........

4.1 25.6 24.1 46.2
3.2 24.7 23.6 48.4

\ 1911

\




14.46
12.88 ’ *6*8 *6.8
12.34
.5
13.78
.6

11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

.8
6.9
6.3
2.5

3.7
.6 24.1
.5 23.1
4.2

4.6 24.4
13.9 33.5
27.6 19.7
8.7 11.5

28.6 39.8
10.3 41.1
25.9 24.4
21.8 21.1

25.1
24.5 3.1 8.6
20.7 7.4
18.6 15.8

7.1 6.8
5.0 7.8 ........

1.0

45.0 9.2 16.0
9.8
34.3
40.3
5.5
62.7 *ii.*8 ........ * 2. 2

....

........

1.7
.3

....

........

.3
.3
7.8 ........

....

8.7
9.7 **\*3

27.9
24.0
26.0
52.9

.1

5.9

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

48
T

I I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
[The abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for
W est. ” For explanation of averages see p . 20.]

“ Great Lakes and Middle

STOCKERS.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
of
ber
Year and dis­
of
em­
trict.
plants. p loy­
ees.

Number of em ployees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
A ver­ A ver­ age
age full­
age
full­ rate tim e
10 12 14 16
8
20
25 30 40
9
18
tim e
o f week­ and and
and and and and and and and and and
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
per
per earn­ der
der der der der der der der der der der
week. hour.
ings.
9
10 12 14 16 18
30 40
20
25
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.
498
246
72

70.0 $0,211 $14.77
81.4 . 173 14.07
82.2 A H 14.28
79.9 .133 10.50

27

21

824

81.4

.170 13.83

27

84 127

8
247
146
72

70.0
78.1
80.7
80.5

.203 14.21
.165 12.94
.158 12.80
.122 9.72

20

31

473

79.1

.157 12.43

20

31

11

111

70.0
80.0
83.5
81.5

.235 16.45
.165 13.23
.161 13.46
.115 9.38

16

62

18

737

80.9

.158 12.75

16

62

165
10

416
176

77.9
81.2
79.3
78.6

.168
.170
.166
.133

32 1,445

79.9

.164 13.17

503
210
105

73.1
80.8
79.5
80.1

.158
.177
.168
.131

11.60
14.33
13.39
10.42

46

28

904

79.7

.168 13.40

46

85 159j

78
606
248
113

68.7
80.5
77.9
77.5

.173
.181
.169
.136

32 1,045

78.7

.173 13.61

8

Eastern........
Pittsburgh____
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern......... .
T otal___

18

24

63
10
10

113

29

40

48

24

67

1908.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh____
G. L. ana M.W,
Southern..........
T o t a l.. . ,

18

37

158

20
13
37 122

191

1909.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh___
G .L .a n d M .W
Southern..........
T o t a l.. .

454
161

266

20
133

1910.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh____
G. L .a n d M .W
Southern..........
T o t a l..

13.10
13.86
13.23
10.40

1

344
195

11

44 101
230 294

10
148
63
105

551

1911.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh____
G. L. and M .W
Southern..........
Total.

10
32

19
251
125

16
125

395

152

36
8
29! 312
53 167
3 7 ..

18
181
18

20

20

217

20

27

40

11
27

40

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh____
G. L. ana M .W .
Southern...........
Total.

10




11.84
14.59
13.17
10.53

155

487

49

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

I I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
BOTTOM FILLERS.

Aver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber full­
Year and dis­
ber
of
time
em­
trict.
of
hours
plants. ploy­ per
ees.
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time
9
10
12 14 16
20
25
40
8
30
18
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
25
9
10 12 14 16 18
20
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
2
2

100
28
93
72

84.0 $0.141 $11.84
84.0 .182 15.26
84.0 .186 15.66
84.0 .142 11.93

36

T otal____

7

293

84.0

.160 13.40

36

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
2
2

60
28
58
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.127
.173
.167
.143

10.70
14.54
14.05
12.04

18

T otal____

7

194

84.0

.150 12.59

18

2
100 84.0
1
30 84.0
G .L .a n d M .W .
2
58 84.0
94 84.0
2

*128 10.72
.172 14.47
.177 14.89
.114 9.62

60

7

282

84.0

.138 11.61

60 134 . . . .

4
2
3
5

398
46
130
98

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.143
.186
.182
.133

12.00
15.62
15.28
11.18

112 286

14

672

84.0

.152 12.77

176 320

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n a M .W .
Southern...........

4
2
4
5

212
42
90
73

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.136
.186
.175
.133

11.43
15.59
14.68
11.17

90 122

T o t a l . ...

15

417

84.0

.149 12.50

137 174

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
2
4
5

166
44
129
129

84.0
84.0
84.0
77.6

.142
.186
.173
.131

T o t a l . ...

15

468

82.2

. . . j ........ 129 209
.152 12.53 1
1
........
1

68

32
i2
41
36
32

89

68

12

68

16
52

16
24

1908.
60
34
30
34

I

42

40

14
34

60

16
24

48

40

ii
82

32
48

96

80

1909.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
Southern...........
T o t a l . ...

100
34

1910.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern...........
T o t a l.. .

64

34

1911.

•

47

26
26

14
28

28
36

42

64

14
40

30
46

54

76

1913.
11.94
15.61
14.51
10.25

44 122
85

.....

43
44

TOP FILLERS.
1907.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. ana M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
2
3

10
8
18
30

84.0 $0.155 $12.99
84.0 .217 18.23
84.0 .212 17.84
84.0 .152 12.79

4

12

4

Total____

8

66

84.0

.177 14.86

4

12

8

44929°— Bull. 151— 14------4



4

6
8
18
10
6

10

26

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able I I .— AVERAG E

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
T O P F I L L E R S —Concluded.

N um N um ­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
trict.
of
em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time
8
18 ’ 20
25 30
9
10 12 14 16
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
9
18
25
10 12 14 16
20
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1908.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
2
3

8
6
12
18

84.0 $0.136 $11.40
84.0 .206 17.30
84.0 .193 16.17
84.0 .154 12.96

8
4

6 '___

T otal____

8

44

84.0

.168 14.15

4

14|....

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
2
3

10
6
12
22

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.136
.206
.203
.138

11.42
17.30
17.05
11.61

6

6

10

Total____

8

50

84.0

.161 13.56

6

16

10

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern...........

4
1
2
6

85
6
18
33

84.0
84.0
74.7
84.0

.158
.217
.240
.150

13.29
18.23
17.36
12.58

4

23

6

T otal____

13

142

82.8

.169 13.85

4

37

77

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
1
3
6

36
6
20
30

84.0
84.0
75.6
84.0

.153
.217
.227
.147

12.87
18.23
16.56
12.31

6

6

24

2

8

14

4

8
2

T otal____

14

92

82.2

.171 13.84

2

14

20

28

10

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. ana M .W .
Southern...........

4
1
3
6

22
6
30
38

84.0
84.0
78.4
78.3

.152
.217
.218
.149

12.77
18.23
16.62
11.73

14

8

2

10

16

6

12
4

Total____

14

96

80.0

.176 13.90

2

1
0

30

14

84.0 $0.190 $15.95
84.0 .229 19.25
84.0 .129 10.79

16
20

4

.195 16.41

20

4

........
61
6 ____

6
8
8

12

6

6
6

6

6

12

1909.
10

1910.
14

71
6
12

6

18

6

6
6

6

12

6

6
12

6

16

18

6

16

20
36

20
20

1911.

1912.

L A R R T M EN.
1907.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern...........

4
4
3

52
56
24

T otal____

11

132

84.0

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
4
3

26
38
22

84.0
84.0
84.0

T o t a l . ...

11

86

84.0

16

16

56

8

10
2

8
36

8

12

44

1908.




.m

15.77
.216 18.15
.125 10.52

6

16

.184 15.48

6

16

....

51

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.
T able H .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
LARR Y M E N — Concluded.

A ver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber
full­
ber
of
Year and dis­
time
trict.
of
em­ hours
plants. ploy­
per
ees.
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time
10 12 14 16
8
9
18
25 30
20
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
20
9
18
25
10 12 14 16
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1909.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M. W .
Southern...........

4
4
3

64
63
18

T otal____

11

135

84.0 $6.172 $14.44
84.0 .217 18.20
84.0 .147 12.34

4

2

40
22
6

31

6

.186 15.64

6

4

26

68

31

32
49

21

81

21

38
38

17

76

17

74
44

21

118

21

84.0

24

1910.

Southern...........

2
8
6
5

T otal____

21

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

15.20
16.13
18.24
13.97

2

4

4

4

2
26
2
19

.196 16.47

2

4

4

70

49

2
64

2
20

4 84.0 .181
122 84.0 .192
G. 72 and M. W .
L. 84.0 .217
33 84.0 .166
231

84.0

2
64

1911.

Southern...........

2
8
6
5

T otal____

21

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

4 78.0 .181
122 84.0 .187
G. 55 and M. W .
L. 80.3 .223
22 84.0 .160
203

14.11
15.70
17.78
13.43

2

2

6

4

8

82.9

.194 15.99

2

2

6

70

30

76.0
76.9
78.6
84.0

.185
.197
.221
.162

14.06
15.02
17.29
13.64

2
40

4
28

4

6

4

10

78.1

.200 15.48

4

6

46

42

16
18

32
39

34

71

8
28

16
17

36

33

1912.
Eastern.............
........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........
T o t a l....

2
6
142
Pittsburgh
8
65
6
5
24
21

237

LARRY MEN’S HELPERS.
1907.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

4
4
2
|

48
57
10

T o t a l.. . .

10]

115

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
24
4
G. L . and M. W .
45
4
Southern...........
2
10

84.0 $0,165 $13.87
84.0 .163 13.66
84.0 .108 9.09

8

2

84.0

.159 13.35

8

2

84.6
84.0
84.0

.164 13.77
.156 13.13
.107 8.95

10

84.0

.152 12.80

10

1908.

T o t a l.. . .

10

79

—

1909.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
T o t a l . ...

i

4
4
2

60
63
12

84.0
84.0
84.0

.150 12.58
.156 13.11
.110 9.21

24
12
2

20
21

16
30

10

10
i

135

84.0

.149 12.53

10

38

41

........
46 ........1
=
i =




. . . J ........
|

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B L A S T F U R N A C E S — C on tin u ed .
LA RR Y MEN’ S HELPERS—Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
trict.
of
em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time
9
8
10 12 14 16
20
25
18
30 40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
9
10 12 14 16 18
25
20
30 40
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M. W .
Southern...........

1
8
5
5

2
167
76
33

84.0 $0.158 $13.27
84.0 .172 14.43
84.0 .164 13.81
84.0 .135 11.31

12

T otal____

19

278

84.0

.165 13.88

12

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

1
8
5
5

2
216
54
22

72.0
84.0
76.9
84.0

.158
.172
.167
.133

T otal____

19

294

82.6

.168 13.89

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

1
8
5
5

4
248
67
24

72.0
79.9
77.0
84.0

.158
.178
.168
.135

T otal____

19

343

79.6

123
55

20

2

2
24
21
19

2

66

178

20

172
42

20

12

2
24
12
8

|
2i 12

46

214

20

11.38
14.13
12.91
11.32

192
63

20

36

14

4
10

.173 13.67

14

18

255

20

36

4

32
14

2

4

46

2

6

22
6

2
2

1911.
11.38
14.47
12.79
11.14

2

1912.
4

SKIP OPERATORS.
1907.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

5
3
3

54
20
12

84.0 $0,192 $16.14
84.0 .219 18.35
84.0 .152 12.78

T otal____

11

86

84.0

.193 16.19

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

5
3
3

38
14
12

84.0
84.0
84.0

.191 16.08
.204 17.10
.140 11.72

6

6

T o t a l....

11

64

84.0

.184 15.49

6

6

16

6

28

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

5
3
3

62
18
14

84.0
84.0
84.0

.184 15.50
.202 16.94
.155 13.02

22 ; 24
16
6

16

8

T otal____

11

94

84.0

.183 15.40

8

28

40

16

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W .
S outhern..........

2
8
5
4

4
70
30
21

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.167
.207
.204
.161

2

2
20

6
8

40
20

4
2

8

13

T o t a l....

19

125

84.0

.197 16.56

10

35

14

60

6

22
10 . .
10

2
24

i
I

1908.
16

1909.

___ i.........

2

1910.




13.90
17.36
17.15
13.55

r

—

=====

53

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES,
T able I I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
S K I P O P E R A T O R S —Concluded.

Aver- A ver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber
ber
of time rate
Year and dis­
of
em­ hours
trict.
of
wages
plants. ployper
per
week. hour.

Aver-

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

time
8
9
10
week­ and and and
un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der
10 12
ings.
9
cts. cts. cts.

12

and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
18
25 30 40
20
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
18
25
30 40 50
20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1911.
78.0 $0,173 $13.53
84.0 .205 17.20
84.0 .208 17.50
84.0 .160 13.47

10

83.8

.198 16.60

34

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

76.0
77.4
81.2
84.0

.171
.217
.214
.161

13.03
16.53
17.36
13.52

12

T o t a l . ...

79.2

.206 16.14

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
T o t a l . ...

19

124

.24
70

10

54

30

___ 4
2

11
11

11
26
4

2
3

4

22

41

5

12
3
15

8
18

5
12

30

26

1912.

19

136

8

38

BLOW ERS.
1907.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern............

2
5
5
6

4
26
29
19

84.0 $0,219 $18.35
84.0 .313 26.26
.322 27.08
84.0
84.0 .264 22.19

T o t a l.. . .

18

78

84.0

.300 25.17

10

"Eastern. ____
Pittsburgh _ __
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
5
5
6

4
23
21
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.208
.298
.316
.245

17.47
25.07
26.53
20.55

4
3

T otal____

18

68

84.0

.283 23.74

Eastern..........__
P itts b u rg h ___
G . L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
5
5
6

4
31
25
26

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.217
.291
.337
.243

18.19
24.41
28.33
20.38

17
3
13

22

12

T otal____

18

86

84.0

.286 24.04

20

33

33

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
8
8
10

17
45
40
29

79.8
84.0
84.0
84.0

.225
.321
.320
.266

18.09
26.94
26.87
22.30

1

T o t a l.. . .

32

131

83.5

.296 24.74

1

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G . L . and M. W .
Southern...........

6
8
9
10

16
43
36
28

81.8
84.0
81.3
84.0

.243
.316
.353
.263

19.62
26.58
28.47
22.09

2

T otal____

33

123

82.9

.305 25.21

2

1908.

i

1909.
4
4

10
1

1910.
14
1

2

i2

23
10
10

19
29
7

2
1

27

45

55

3

13

1
18
23
8

1
2
9

11

1
23
4
7

24

35

50

12

1911.




...

54
T

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS,

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

ab le

B L A S T P U B N A C E S — Continued.
BLOWERS—Concluded.

Aver- Aver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber
rate
ber
of
Year and dis­
of
tim e
em­ hours wages
trict.
of
plants. ploy­ per
per
ees. week. hour.

/!£

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
18
9
10 12 14 16
tim e
20
25 30 40
8
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ urn un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
12 14 16
10
18
20
30 40 50
ings.
25
9
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1912.
E astern_
__
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

6
8
9
10

16
48
38
30

T otal____

33

132

81.8 $0,252 $20.41
78.8 .329 25.54
80.2 .353 28.13
81.6 .268 21.89

1
8
9

10

2

1
17
25
10

21

2

80.2

3
23
4
8
38

53

18

11

.313 24.84

BLOWING ENGINEERS.
1907.
2

6

Snnthftm-- ___

6
6
6

32
42
20

T otal____

20

100

G. L. and M. W .

2
6
6
6

T otal____

4

2
3

2

10

2
4
6

30
35

2
2

6

12

12

65

3

2
20
8

28
13

6
6

30

41

2

12
26
4

24
15

12

6

12

42

39

12

2

84.0 $0.179 $15.06
84.0 .258 21.64
84.0 .264 22.15
84.0 .189 15.83
84.0

.242 20.30

4
30
33
18

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.167
.257
.251
.185

14.03
21.61
21.10
15.54

4

20

85

84.0

.235 19.77

4

4

6
36
41
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.161
.249
.247
.183

13.55
20.92
20.78
15.36

2

4

South am..........

2
6
6
6

2

T otal____

20

103

84.0

.230 19.35

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
9
10

19
46
64
24

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.197
.269
.257
.192

16.59
22.58
21.55
16.15

2

2

13

2
36
7

T otal____

34

153

84.0

.243 20.39

2

14

15

45

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
10
10

14
44
55
24

82.3
84.0
81.6
84.0

.187
.268
.259
.196

15.42
22.54
21.05
16.48

10

2

2

T otal____

35

137

82.9

.244 20.15

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
10
10

16
46
54
26

82.5
80.3
80.0
81.2

.192
.278
.267
.195

T otal____

35

142

80.6

.249 19.93

G. L .a n d M .W .

1908.
EastA m
Pittsburgh........
Smith a m _____

4

19 09.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

1910.
5
44
20

8

69

8

2
42
17

8

1911.

12

2
30
10

10

14

42

61

8

8

6

2
38
22
1

6
10

63

16

1912.




15.85
22.13
21.25
15.83

2
,

2

14

2
22
7

2

10

20

31

55

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
B L O W IN G E N GIN EERS’ A S S IS T A N T S .

A ver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber full­
ber
of
Year and dis­
tim e
em­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver-

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.

X
10
9
tim e
8
week­ and and and
un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der
ings.
10 12
9
cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14

16

and and

un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

25
30 40
18
20
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
30 40 50
20
25
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.

84.0 $0,171 $14.36
84.0 .205 17.22
84.0 .227 19.09
84.0 .131 10.98

4

2

84.0

.203 17.02

4

2

2
29
14
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.154
.208
.221
.121

12.94
17.44
18.58
10.16

2

4

11

51

84.0

.199 16.72

2

4

1
5
3
2

2
46
16
10

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.138
.197
.225
.125

11.59
16.53
18.88
10.47

6

11

74

84.0

.191 16.08

6

3
8
3
4

8
54
20
12

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.180
.214
.223
.164

15 12
18.01
18.73
13.76

2

4

18

94

84.0

.207 17.38

2

G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
8
3
4

6
58
12
15

80.0
84.0
80.0
84.0

.174
.215
.218
.172

13.96
18.03
17.25
14.41

2

4

T ota l____

18

91

83.2

.205 17.06

2

6

2
43
16

Sm ith A m ............

1
5
3
2

T otal____

11

67

G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern.........

1
5
3
2

T otal____

G .L .a n d M .W .

6

2
12
4

31
2

10

16

33

10

6
6

23

12

23

20
6

22

26

22

10

4
50
2

10

1

8
5

6

3

1 7 56

10

2

2

2
54
2

4

58

4

2

1908.
"East,Am
P ittsburgh

2

2

8
8

1909.
E a s te r n ..............

Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
S o u t h e r n ..

..

T otal____

2
4

10

4
2

4

4

1910.
E a s te r n .

Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
S outhern . .

T ota l____

2

2
4

1911.

Eastern.............
P itts b u r g h .

4
6
9
2

19

=

1912.

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
8
3
4

6
69
15
18

80.0
80.3
80.0
81.3

.177
.222
.221
.169

14.17
17.73
17.50
13.85

4

4

T o t a l....

18

108

80.4

.211 16.85

4

4

4

4

2
1

2
66
4

3
5

16

72

8

6
10

STOVE TEN DERS.
1907.

Eastern.............
2
Pittsburgh
6
G .L .a n d M .W .
6
Southern...........
6
T o t a l . ...

20




6
60
50
24
140

84.0 $0,160 $13.41
84.0 .190 15.99
84.0 .216 18.17
84.0 .152 12.76

12

12

6

47
24
2

12
14

4

.192 16.10

4

16

9

73

26

12

84.0

56
T

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

ab le

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
ST O V E T E N D E R S —Concluded.

Year and dis­
trict.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
18
20
tim e
9
10 12 14 16
25 30 40
8
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
12 14 16
ings.
10
20
25
30 40 50
9
18
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1908.
E a s te rn .______
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
6
6
6

4
40
34
18

84.0 $0,157 $13.15
84.0 .191 16.04
84.0 .204 17.16
84.0 .141 11.83 ........

T otal____

20

96

84.0

.185 15.52

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
SnntliAm,..

2
6
6
6

6
64
45
25

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.147
.185
.206
.137

12.38
15.50
17.27
11.49

2

12

11

T otal____

20

140

84.0

.181 15.22

2

12

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
9
10

24
76
64
36

T otal____

34

200

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
10
10

T otal------

2

2
2

32
2
2

8
30

4

36

38

12
2

50
2

2
41

17

14

52

43

10

14
28
8

48
56

36

104

32
8

50
38

40

88

20
10

72
52

30

124

2

8

6

2

8

8

1909.
6

1910.
84.0 .163
84.0 ...2 0 3
84.0 .210
84.0 ...1 6 1

13.72
17.09
17.61
13.53

6

12

18

84.0

.193 16.21

6

22

32

20
82
48
30

81.6
84.0
80.0
84.0

.161
.200
.207
.155

13.15
16.77
16.54
13.00

8

12

6

14

2
10

35

180

82.7

.190 15.68

6

22

24

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
10
10

20
92
64
36

81.6
78.5
78.8
82.0

.166
.207
.209
.157

13.56
16.15
16.41
12.86

6

14

6

16

2
14

T otal____

35

212

79.5

. 195| 15.42

6

22

30

1911.

1912.

KEEPERS.

1907.
84.0 $0,173 $14.50
84.0 .231 19.40
84.0 .235 19.74
84.0 .170 14.30

18

4

84.0

.218 18.34

18

8

4
38
34
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.161
.230
.224
.161

13.48
19.29
18.85
13.48

2

2

6

6

96

84.0

.210 17.68

6

8

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
6
6
6

6
60
52
28

T o t a l....

20

146

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
6
6
6

T o t a l....

20

4

2
60
28
6

24

94

24

38
30
4

4

4
6

72

4

2

1908.




WAGES AND HOXJBS OP LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,
T

57

I I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

ab le

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
K E E F E R S —Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­
of
trict.
plants. p loy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
10 12 14 16
tim e
9
18
20
8
25 30 40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
12 14 16
ings.
18
20
30 40 50
25
9
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1
0

1909.

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
6
6
6

6
64
45
26

T o t a l . ...

20

141

84.0 $0,150 $12.60
84.0 .219 18.41
84.0 .225 18.94
84.0 .150 12.59

10

8

4

4

84.0

10

14

4

4

6
64
41
105

4

76
59

6

135

6

82
48

.205 17.26

4

4

1910.

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

29 84.0 .177
76 84.0 .236
65 84.0 .229
G .L .a n d M .W .
31 84.0 .171

8

14.87
19.85
19.24
14.34

21

11

4

16

19

4

37

Southern...........

6
9
9
10

T o t a l . ...

34

201

84.0

.215 18.09

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
9
10
10

20
82
52
30

81.6
84.0
80.3
84.0

.174
.236
.231
.169

14.17
19.87
18.56
14.16

12

4

14

T o t a l....

35

184

82.7

.217 17.95

18

4

28

130

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern.. ; _ ..

6
9
10
10

20
92
68
36

81.6
78.5
79.1
82.0

.179
.248
.231
.170

14.54
19.25
18.24
13.94

8

11

14

4

18

1
74
62

18
6

T otal____

35

216

79.6

.223 17.61

14

12

29

137

24

34

16
12

44
72

12
84

1911.

14

6

1913.

K E E P E R S’ H ELPER S.
1907.

East Am.............
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
6
6
6

52
202
222
140

84.0 $0,141 $11.85
84.0 .173 14.54
84.0 .187 15.73
84.0 .129 10.81

48

60

18

2
134
66
14

T o t a l....

20

616

84.0

.165 13.89

48

94

46

216

116

96

Eastern__ ........
Pittsburgh.
G .L .a n d M .W .
SouthAmT .
T

2
6
6
6

32
135
146
96

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.131
.173
.178
.122

10.97
14.51
14.98
10.27

30

2
8
6

8
20

38

89
62
10

30
58

48

T o t a l . ...

20

409

84.0

.160 13.41

48

68

16

161

88

28

Eastarn
Pittsburgh
G. L .
M. W ..
S rm th am ..........

2
6
6
6

54
218
181
143

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.128 10.75
.167 14.03
.180 15.09
.116 9.78

52

36
84

20

90

2
36 146
12
65
4

T o t a l . ...

20

596

84.0

.155 13.04

90 101

120

20

1908.

1909.

&




49

54

211

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

58
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
K E E PER S’ H E L P E R S —Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
20
10 12 14
16
18
30
tim e
9
25
8
week­ and and and :and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der
10
12 14 16 18
20
25
30 40
9
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

of

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1910.
6
9
9
10

162
264
299
152

84.0 $0.146 $12.24
84.0 .182 15.31
84.0 .185 15.53
84.0 .135 11.35

34

877

84.0

.168 14.13

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Smith Am______

6
9
10
10

120
268
212
142

82.8
84.0
81.5
84.0

.141
.183
.186
.128

11.64
15.40
15.19
10.75

T otal.......

35

742

83.1

.167 13.84

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern______

6
9
10
10

120
286
270
170 .

82.8
80.5
80.3
81.9

.148
.189
.186
.130

12.21
15.12
14.91
10.64

T o t a l . ...

35

846

81.0

.170 13.74

G. L . & M. W ..

64

22
156
91

88
156

20
52

38 105 149

269

244

72

52

52

16
154
28

90
150

24
32

60

40

2
42

60

92

96

198

240

56

24

80

16
144
32

82
197

60
39

62

52

2
56

62

76 138

192

279

99

38

76

41

73

1911.

19 12.

IR O N HAN DLERS AND L O A D E R S.
19 07.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
1
5

27
12
18
146

84.0 $0.194 $16.27
77.0 .418 32.19
79.3 .192 15.20
70.1 .174 12.22

10

26

T o t a l....

9

203

73.2

.193 14.20

10

26

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
1
5

27
14
16
106

80.9
77.0
81.4
69.3

.188
.357
.174
.171

15.12
27.49
14.18
11.83

3

T otal........

9

163

73.0

.190 13.95

3

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
1
1
5

37
18
17
170

80.6
77.0
81.5
70.9

.189
.250
.195
.165

15.07
19.25
15.91
11.68

28

T otal.......

9

242

73.6

.177 13.05

28

4
2
3
9

64:
28!
681
145i

79.6» .225. 17.86
79.5i .221 17.43
72.5i .197 14.23
71.6i .173; 12.29•.

18

305i

74.2!

16

11
12

70

12
6

6
34

86

18

51

12

19 08.
16

6

5
14

23

6
5

3
42

6

7
27

23

27

45

6

40

31

6
80

3
10

8
21

47

86

13

50

18

11
18

27

24

32

26
10
44
49

16
6

25

9

24

32

129

22

54

36

5

14

19 09.
16

21
18

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
T otal.......




.194 14.36
*
l........

8
8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.
T

59

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
I R O N H A N D L E R S A N D L O A D E R S —Concluded.

Aver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber
full­
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­ tim e
trict.
of
plants. ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
9
10 12 14 16
tim e
8
20
25 30 40
18
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
10 12 14 16
18
20
25
30 40 50
9
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1911.
4
2
4
9

57
22
70
159

19

308

79.6 $0,213 $16.50
73.9 .263 19.53
72.8 .199 14.45
70.5 .178 12.47i........
i
73.0 .195 14.17

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
2
4
9

62
32
69
196

79.3
77.1
74.5
68.4

.213
.231
.214
.176

T otal.......

19

359

72.2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
T ota l___

28

12

12
9 *33

11
59

8
18

4
31
40

21

33

98

38

75

16.58
17.69
15.84
12.00

11

12
47

26
10
11
68

28
20

12
6
50

.195 14.04

11

59

115

60

4
18

13
8

22

21

18

6
10
12

68

18

28

1912.
12

P I G -M A C H I N E M E N .
1907.

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G . L . and M . W .
Southern______

4

124
52
17

84.0 $0.165 $13.88
84.0 .179 15.07
84.0 .142 11.94

20

6

6
14

2

5

6
12
12

92
18

1

T otal.......

9

193

84.0

.167 14.03

25

30

110

6

20

2

P ittsb u rgh ___
G. L . and M . W .
S o u t h e r n .____

4
4
1

98
45
14

83.8
84.0
84.0

.165 13.84
.170 14.31
.126 10.60

4

2
11

90
18

12

'2
4

14

Total.......

9

157

83.9

.163 13.69

13

108'

4

1908.

Eastern.............

1
8

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G. L . and M . W .
S ou th ern ______

Total

12

6I

i

1909.

!

4
4
1

i03
44
5

84.0
83.5
84.0

.160 13.42
.170 14.26
.128 10.77

15
3
5

4
7

80

18

14

4
2

9

152

83.9

.162 13.57

23

11

98

14

6i____

1
7
6
2

16
136
105
34

84.0
84.0
83.6
84.0

.145
.175
.172
.142

12.20
14.72
14.41
11.91

6
17

105
61

24
34

2
4

17

16

291

83.9

.169 14.14

17

44

68

6

94
44

24
28

6
8

34| 138

52

14

!

|

1910.
P astern
P ittsb u rgh
G . L . and M . W .
Southern,.

Total

16

5

166
1

1911.
E astern
P ittsbu rgh
G . L . and M . W .
S ou th ern ,

Total

10.45
14.39
14.42
11.87

1
7
7
2

15
150
81
21

72.0
84.0
81.0
84.0

.145
.171
.178
.141

17

267

82.4

.169 13.98




20

15
6

9

12

29

1

' . . . . I .........
.. 1
...
.

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— C ontinued.
BLAST

F U R N A C E S — Continued.

P IG -M A C H IN E M E N —Concluded.

A ver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber
full­
Year and dis­
ber
of
time
em­ hours
trict.
of
plants. ploy­ per
ees.
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time
16
18
25 30
9
20
10 12 14
8
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
12 14 16
ings.
18
25
20
30 40 50
10
9
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
S ou th ern ... . . . .

1
7
7
2

17
153
85
20

72.0 $0.157 $11.27
84.0 .173 14.52
79.5 .176 14.00
84.0 .142 11.89

10

9
2

8

12

T otal........

17

275

81.9

18

2

.171 13.97

8
113
53

26
24

2
8

23

174

50

10

38
67
13

2
22

42

24

42

CINDER M EN.

1907*
G .L . and M .W .
Southern__ - ___

2
6
6
6

6
110
110
36

84.0 $0,147 $12.35
84.0 .189 15.85
83.5 .166 13.87
82.4 .150 12.34

2

10

4
28
21
11

Total........

20

262

83.6

.173 14.46

2

12

64

118

2
6
6
6

5
99
102
39

82.6
82.9
82.9
81.5

.126
.166
.156
.130

10.48
13.81
12.95
10.63

1

4
24

2

16

6

14
65
3

37
37
10

24

2

20

245

82.6

.156 12.88

2

2

17

34

82

84

24

5
200
G .L .
127
48

24
39
12

is
3

24

5
81
9
10

77
76

S outhern..___
_

2
6
6
6

T ota l___

20

380

82.2

.150 12.34

24 105

75

153

21

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .
Southern__. ___

5
8
9
10

40
169
226
47

83.3
81.6
83.8
82.8

.147
.168
.169
.130

3
21

37

T otal.......

32

482

82.9

.163 13.56

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

5
7
10
10

32
112
142
47

82.1
82.2
80.1
82.2

.153
.158
.168
.132

12.55
12.97
13.42
10.85

2

....

T otal.......

32

333

81.3

.158 12.82

2

....

5
7
10
10

26
172
137
62

81.6
68.8
79.5
80.5

.147
.176
.166
.132

11.98
12.06
13.13
10.63

2

32

397

75.2

.164 12.20

2

Eastern..............

Pittsburgh.......

1908*
Eastern.............

Pittsburgh.......

G. L. and M .W .
Southern___ _
_
Total

1909.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

84.0 .131 11.04
82.0 .149 12.28
82.4 .164 13.50
and M .W .
82.3 .121 9.61

2

....

2

1910.
12.26
13.79
14.19
10.77

11
11

43

96

1
46

....
2 ....
2

'*45
19 14

20

106
173

42
8

i ........
1
........
28o| 42

1

8

1911.
1

10
53
83
1

13
20

6

*38
22 16

6

69

74

147

33

1

1

64
84

50
12

30
1

6

34

25
28
40
20

6

35 113

148

62

31

1

1912.
Eastern.............

Pittsburgh___

G .L .a n d M .W .

Southern T

T o t a l . ...




....

1

61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.

T able

BLAST

F U R N A C E S — Continued.
LABO RERS.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Num ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­
full­ rate tim e
25
9
8
18
10 12 14 16
20
30 40
of
tim e
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
per
per
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
week. hour.
9
25
30 40 50
ings.
10 12 14 16 18
20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

19 07.
4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
S outhern..___
_

2
6
G
6

93
374
229
261

66.9 $0,135 $9.03
78.1 .152 11.84
77.4 .162 12.51
74.3 .130 9.65

39 50
91 145
100
31 144 86

138
129

T o t a l.....

20

957

75.8

.146 11.13

35 274 381

267

Eastern
...
........
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern. . . . . . .

2
6
6
6

77
286
189
166

64.6
73.8
75.8
71.7

.115 7.48
.154 11.43
.152 11.55
.111 7.99

40
4

Total.......

20

718

72.8

.140 10.24

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
S outhern... . . . .

2
6
6
6

87
227
257
186

69.1
75.5
73.3
71.3

.119 8.23
.152 11.55
.153 11.21
.112 7.96

4

147

T otal.......

20

757

73.0

.138 10.17

4

175 196 185

197

6
9
9
10

399
309
410
305

76.3
75.6
73.5
73.3

.142 10.83
.166 12.62
.162 11.93
.128 9.41

90 308
5 13
121
44 237 24

1
291
289

34 1,423

74.7

.150 11.23

44 332 466

581

1908.
125
47

133

37
12 149
142
4
25

173

74 295

172

28

59
74
30 *183
2
33

........
153 1
44

i

I
|
i

1909.
~

....| ........

...j.....

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
S o u t h e r n .......
T otal........

.....L.J.....
!
'

!

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
S outhern..___
_

6
9
10
10

135
301
224
277

69.1
75.6
72.3
73.7

.140 9.66
.165 12.55
.166 11.99
.131 9.63

1
261
171

32 178

93
13
53
67

T otal.......

35

937

73.3

.151 11.14

38 240 226

433

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern._____

6
9
10
10

99
284
275
303

68.0
77.7
71.0
72.3

.144 9.79
.164 12.80
.167 11.86
.130 9.41

26
4

6
226
233

1

31 •207

66
54
42
65

T otal.......

35

961

73.1

.152 11.15

31 237 227

465

1

6

35
27

i

i

i

L

i
'

I
i ....... i'

1912.




**
'*

i
i

1"

!

!

*

i

'!

'

'
*

'
1
1
........ r*'i .........

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D IS T R I C T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912.

T able

BLAST FURNACES— Continued.
STOCKERS.

W.”

[The abbreviation “ G. L . and M.
in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and Mid­
dle W est.” The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants. For expla­
nation o f averages see p . 20.]

District and
number of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Eastern:

70.0 $0,211 $14.77
70.0 .203 14.21
70.0 .235 16.45
70.0 .198 13.86

1907
1908
1909
1910

8
8
11
10

f 1910
1911
5 plants-l 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1907
J 1908
5 plants----- ) 1909
l 1910

165
86
78

77.9
73.1
68.7

.168 13.10
.158 11.60
.173 11.84

498
247
454
514

81.4
78.1
80.0
81.1

.173
.165
.165
.168

14.07
12.94
13.23
13.69

63
37
83
119

40
20
53
29

326
158
266
230

92

45
16
44
44

688
503
606

81.2
80.8
80.5

.170 13.86
.177 14.33
.181 14.59

119
50
30

29
29
29

344
251
312

148
125
181

48
8
14

( 1907

J 1908
6 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

246
146
161
275

82.2
80.7
83.5
81.6

.174
.158
.161
.170

14.28
12.80
13.46
13.92

79
102
18 80
44

97
20
20
156

10
13
31
63

60
11
12
12

/ 1910
9 plants___ \ 1911

416
195

79.3
79.7

.166 13.23
.169 13.44

146
63

195
110

63
11

12
11

10 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912

210
248

79.5
77.9

.168 13.39
.169 13.17

63
53

125
167

11
18

11
10

1907
1908
1909
1910

72
72
111
105

79.9
80.5
81.5
79.9

.133 10.50
.122 9.72
.115 9.38
.136 10.83

/ 1910
\ 1911

176
114

78.6
80.4

.133 10.40
.129 10.29

9 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912

105
113

80.1
77.5

.131 10.42
. 13o 10.53

1

f
J
plant..... 1
l

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time
8
18
9
10 12 14 16
25 30 40
20
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
9
10 12 14 16 18
20
25
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

\

f 1910

8 plants___

\1911

l 1912

G .L .a n d M .W .:

8
8
11
10
10 105
7 44
9 36

Southern:
6

plants_

10 p la n ts ...

........
1

20
16

21

8
8

11

14
23

11

46
49

28
14

23
37

10
16
18
16
s

16
13

21
45

44 101
55 28

3
3

27
31
62
35

1
19
8

39
7
24

40
20

32

5
9
6
6
8
8
13

B O T T O M F IL L E R S .
Eastern:
2 plants___

1907
1908
1909
1910

100
60
100
100:

84.0 SO. 141 $11.84
84.0 .127 10.70
84.0 .128 10.72
84.0 .141 11.85

68
60
100
68

4 plants—

1910
1911
1912

398
212.
166
1
28
28'
30
30
1
46
42
44

84.0
84.0
84.0

.143 12.00
.136 11.43
.142 11.94

112 286
90 122
44 122

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.182
.173
.172
.184

15.26 i........
14.54
14.47i____
15.45

12
12
14
14

84.0
84.0
84.0

.186 15.62^____
.186 15.59
.186 15.6l|........

14
14
14

Pittsburgh:
1 plan t____

1907
1908
1909
1910

2 plants___

1910
1911
1912




32
1
I
........1
.........
16,........
161 . . : .
:
1 6 ........
1 6 ........
32|
........
2 8 ____
3 0 ........1
.........

20

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

63

T able I I I . — A V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D CLASSIFIED R ATE S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN EACH D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BLAST FURNACES— Continued.
BOTTOM FILLERS—Concluded.

District and
number of
plants.

Aver­
N um ­ age
ber full­
tim e
Year.
of
em ­ hours
p loy­ per
ees. week.

Num ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
Aver­ age
age
full­
rate tim e
25 30
40
20
9
10 12 14 16
18
8
of
and
and and and
and and and and
wages week­ and un­ and un­ un­ un­ and un­ un­ un­ un­
un­
un­
un­
ly
per earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
hour.
25
ings.
10
12 14 16 18
20
30 40 50
9
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

G .L .a n d M .W .:
1907
1908
1909
1910

93
68
58
100

/ 1910
3 plants___ \ 1911

130
64

84.0
84.0

90
129

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.142 11.93
.143 12.04
.114 9.62
.133 11.14

f 1910
5 plants___
1911
l 1912

98
73
129

84.0
84.0
77.6

.133 11.18
.133 11.17
.131 10.25

\

82
20

48
36

26
43

.175 14.68
.173 14.51

72
48
94
37

52
24
24
34

8

.182 15.28
.182 15.31

/ 1911
4 plants___ \ 1912
Southern:
f 1907
2
plants_ J 1908
1 1909
1 1910

34
66

28
40

36
46

41

84.0 $0,186 $15.66
84.0 .167 14.05
84.0 .177 14.89
84.0 .181 15.20

2 plants-----

34

36
18
60

36
30
34
19

18

64
47
85

34
26
44

T O P F IL L E R S .
Eastern:
2 plants___

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
8
10
10

4 plants___

1910
1911
1912

85
36
22

84.0
84.0
84.0

.158 13.29
.153 12.87
.152 12.77

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

8
6
6
6
6
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.217
.206
.206
.217
.217
.217

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
12
12
18

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.212
.193
.203
.208

17.84
16.17
17.05
17.47

2 plants___

1910
1911

18
12

74.7
70.0

.240 17.36
.255 17.22

1911
1912

20
30

75.6
78.4

.227 16.56
.218 16.62

1907
1908
1909
1910

30
18
22
14

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.152
. 154
.138
.151

1910
1911
1912

33
30
38

84.0 .150 12.58
84.0* .147 12.31
1
3
2
78.3 .149 11.73

6

18.23
17.30
17.30
18.23
18.23
18.23

2 plants___

4

84.0 $0,155 $12.99
84.0 .136 11.40
84.0 .136 11.42 ........
84.0 .152 12.77

8
10
10
6

14
6
14

71
24
8

i

Pittsburgh:

1 plant........

8
6 '____
6
6
6
6

|
“

' * 1 ........

. . . J ..........
1

G .L .a n d M .W .:

3 plants----Southern:
3 plants___

6 plants_
_




6
6
«
>

12
6
8
12

4
4
6

12.79
12.96
11.61
12.66

1

i

2
2

18
6
6
18

12
6
6
4

10
6

4

4
8
10

23
14
16

6
4
6

4

10
8

2
4

6
6

6
12

6
6

64

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able III.— V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
A
A N D CLASSIFIE D R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R IN EAC H D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.
BLAST FU RNACES— Continued.
L A R R Y M EN .

District and
number o f
plants.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
Aver­ A ver­
age
age
N um ­ age
full­
ber full­ rate time
9
8
10 12 14
16
25 30
18
20
40
Y ear.
tim e
of
of
and and
and
em ­ hours wages week­ un­ un­ and un­ and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­
ly
per
p loy­ per
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ees. week. hour.
12 14 16 18
9
10
ings.
25
20
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910

2 plants___

\1911

l 1912

4
4
6

84.0 $0,181 $15.20
78.0 .181 14.11
76.0 .185 14.06

2
2
2

2
2
4

16
8
24

16
10
40
10

24

64
64
40

26
20
28

32
38
74
36
36
31
43

20

2
22

49
38
44

21
17
21

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910

52
26
64
58

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.190
.188
.172
.201

f 1910
8
plants_ 1911
l 1912
G. L .a n d M .W .:
f 1907
4 plants___ 1 1908
i 1909
l 1910

122
122
142

84.0
84.0
76.9

.192 16.13
.187 15.70
.197 15.02

56
38
53
64

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.229
.216
.217
.217

f 1910
6
plants_ 1911
1912
Southern:
f 1907
I 1908
3 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

72
55
65

84.0
80.3
78.6

.217 18.24
.223 17.78
.221 17.29

24
22
18
27

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.129
.125
.147
.169

33
22
24

84.0
84.0
84.0

.166 13.97
.160 13.43
.162 13.64

4

f
J
plants_ 1
l

\

\
[

| 1910

5 plants___

\1911

L 1912

15.95
15.77
14.44
16.85

24

19.25
18.15
18.20
18.26

10.79
10.52
12.34
14.17

2

6
6
2

20
16
4
2
4
2
4

4
6
6

21

4
2
4

6
19
4
4
4

19
8
10

32
16
16
12

20

123
172
192

2
2

20
8

20
20
20

L A R R Y M EN ’ S H E L P E R S .
Eastern:
1 plant........
Pittsburgh:

[ 1910
\1911
[ 1912

f
I
4 plants___ i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

[ 1910

8 plants___ ^ 1911
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1907
4 plants___ 1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

2
2
4

84.0 $0,158 $13.27
72.0 .158 11.38
72.0 .158 11.38

48
24
60
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.165
.164
.150
.167

167
216
248

84.0
84.0
79.9

..... .... ..... ....

13.87
13.77
12.58
14.06

.172 14.43
.172 14.47
.178 14.13

24

57
45
63
70

84.0 *. 163
84.0 .156
84.0 .156
84.0 .165

1910
1911
1912

76
54
67

84.0
76.9
77.0

.164 13.81
.167 12.79
.168 12.91

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
12
8

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.108
.107
.110
.114

9.09
8.95
9.21
9.58

8
10
10
8

f 1910

5 plants___

33
22
24

84.0
84.0
84.0

.135 11.31
.133 11.14
.135 11.32

12
2

2
12
14

i

36

2

f
5 plants___ 4
l
Southern:
f
J
2 plants___
1
l

\1911

l 1912




13.66
13.13
13.11
13.85

12

39
17
30
55
55
42
63

i

1
i

2

_

........i " " i .........

65

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES,

T able I I I . — A V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S AN D A V E R A G E
AN D CLASSIFIED R A TE S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN EACH D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.
B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
S K IP O P E R A T O R S .

District and
number of
plants.

rea r.

N um ­
ber
of
em­
p loy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Num ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
16
tim e
8
9
10 12
18
20
25 30
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
12 14 16
9
ings.
20
25
10
18
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
1910
1911
1912

4
4
6

5

1907
1908
p la n ts .... 1909
1910

54
38
62
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.192
.191
.184
.205

16.14
16.08
15.50
17.23

22
16
22
20

24

32
22
16
36

8

plants_

1910
1911
1912

70
76
76

84.0
84.0
77.4

.207 17.36
.205 17.20
.217 16.53

20
20
20

6
2
6

40
46
24

4
8
26

3 plants___

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
14
18
22

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.219
.204
.202
.203

18.35
17.10
16.94
17.07

4
6
16
8

14
6
12

2
2
2
2

30
26
34

84.0
84.0
81.2

.204 17.15
.208 17.50
.214 17.36

8

5

1910
1911
1912

20
24
30

2
2
4

3 plants___

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
14
19

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.152
.140
.155
.161

4 plants___

1910
1911
1912

21
18
20

84.0
84.0
84.0

.161 13.55
.160 13.47
.161 13.52

2 plants___

84.0 10.167 $13.90
78.0 .173 13.53
76.0 .171 13.03

2

Pittsburgh:

2
4
6

G .L .a n d M .W .:

plants_

Southern:
12.78
11.72
13.02
13.50

6

2

10
6
8
8

6
11

8
8
8

13
10
12

B L O W E R S.
Eastern:
f 1907
1
2 plants___ 1 1908
1909
[ 1910

4
4
4
4

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

17
16
16

79.8
81.8
81.8

.225 18.09
.243 19.62
.252 20.41

f 1907
5 plants___ 1 1908
1 1909
| 1910

26
23
31
33

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.313
.298
.291
.326

( 1910
8 plants___
1911
l 1912
G. L . and M .W .:
f 1907
5 plants___ 1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

45
43
48

4
4
4
2

84.0 $0.219 $18.35
84.0 .208 17.47
84.0 .217 18.19
84.0 .232 19.45

14
13
11

1
1

1
1

26.26
25.07
2441
27.40

2
3
4
1

11
8
10
15

2

84.0
84.0
78.8

.321 26.94
.316 26.58
.329 25.54

1

19
18
17

2
2
8

29
21
25
32

84.0
84.0
84.0
840

.322
.316
.337
.318

27.08
26.53
28.33
26.69

26
18
22
22

3

/
8 plants___ \ 1910
1911

40
34

840
81.2

.320 26.87
.358 28.79

29
23

1
9

9 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912

36
38

81.3
80.2

.353 28.47
.353 28.13

23
25

9
9

6 plants___
Pittsburgh:

i

4 4 9 2 9 °— B u ll. 1 5 1 - 1 4 -




1

2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

66

T a b l e I H . — AVERAGE

FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
B L O W E R S —Concluded •

District and
number o f
plants.

Aver­
N um ­ age
ber fifilYear.
tim e
of
em ­ hours
p loy­ per
ees. week.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
AverAver­
age
&
rate
16
20
9
10 12 14
18
25 30 40
tim e
8
of
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
per earn­ der der der der der der der der der
der der
hour.
25
30 40 50
10 12 14 16
18
20
ings.
9
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Southern:
f 1907
1 1908
6 p la n t s .... 1 1909
l 1910

19
20
26
21

f 1910

29
28
30

84.0
84.0
81.6

4
5
12
8

10 p la n ts ...

\1911

l 1912

.266 22.30
.263 22.09
.268 21.89

2
2

11
15
13
6

4

12
11
10

84.0 30.264 $22.19
84.0 .245 20.55
84.0 .243 20.38
84.0 .275 23.14

10
7
8

7
8
10

1
7

B L O W I N G E N G IN E E R S .
Eastern:
84.0 $0.179 $15.06
84.0 .167 14.03
84.0 .161 13.55 i........
84.0 .176 14.81

2 plants___

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
4
6
6

6

1910
1911
1912

19
14
16

82.3
82.3
82.5

Pittsburgh:

4
4
4
6

2

12
10
8

.197 16.59
.187 15.42
.192 15.85

plants_

2

2
2
6

5
2
2

6

plants_

1907
1908
1909
1910

32
30
36
34

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.258
.257
.249
.267

21.64
21.61
20.92
22.43

2
2
12
2

30
28
24
32

9

plants_

1910
1911
1912

46
44
46

84.0
84.0
80.3

.269 22.58
.268 22.54
.278 22.13

2
2
2

44
42
38

plants_

1907
1908
1909
1910

42
33
41
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.264
.251
.247
.254

22.15
21.10
20.78
21.34

4
20
26
34

35
13
15
14

8

9 plants___

1910
1911

64
53

84.0
82.0

.257 21.55
.260 21.21

36
28

20
17

8
8

1911
1912

55
54

81.6
80.0

.259 21.05
.267 21.25

30
22

17
22

8
10

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
18
20
16

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.189
.185
.183
.193

1910
p la n ts ... 1911
1912

24
24
26

84.0
84.0
81.2

.192 16.15
.196 16.48
.195 15.83

6

G. L . and M .W .:
6

10 p la n ts ...
Southern:
6 plants___

10

2
4
2
2

15.83
15.54
15.36
16.20
i
i
1

2

2
2
2

2

B L O W I N G E N G IN E E R S ’ A S S I S T A N T S .
Eastern:
1 plant.

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
2
2
2

84.0 $0.171 $14.36
84.0 .154 12.94
84.0 .138 11.59
84.0 .162 13.61

3 plants___

1910
1911
1912

8
6
6

84.0
80.0
80.0




.180 15.12
.174 13.96
.177 14.17

2

2

10
6
12
8

6
8
4
6

13
12
14

7
10
7

1

3

67

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

T able

B L O W IN G E N G IN E E RS’ A S S IS T A N T S —Concluded.

District and
number of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
12 14
tim e
9
10
16
20
25 30 40
8
18
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
12 14 16
25
9
18
20
30 40 50
10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910

43
29
46
38

84.0 $0,205 $17.22
84.0 .208 17.44
84.0 .197 16.53
84.0 .214 17.98

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

54
58
69

84.0
84.0
80.3

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

16
14
16
20
12
15

f 1907
1 1908
2 p la n ts .... 41 1909
l 1910
f 1910

5

f
1
plants_ 1
l

8

plants_

12
6
20
4

31
23
22
34

.214 18.01
.215 18.03
.222 17.73

4
4

50
54
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
80.0
80.0

.227
.221
.225
.223
.218
.221

19.99
18.58
18.88
18.73
17.25
17.50

4
6
6
8
6
6

2

6
6
10
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.131
.121
.125
.136

10.98
10.16
10.47
11.45

12
15
18

84.0
84.0
81.3

.164 13.76
.172 14.41
.169 13.85

4

3

G .L .a n d M .W .

3 plants___

Southern:

4 p la n ts ...

\1911

l 1912

2
6

4
4

2

* *2

4
4

2
2
4

4
4
4

2
2
4

10
8
10
10
4
5

1

5
9
10

STOVE TENDERS.
Eastern:
1907
1908
1909
1910

6
4
6
6

1910
1911
p la n ts ...
1912
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
6 p la n ts ...
1909
1910

24
20
20

2 p la n ts ...

6

1910
1911
p la n ts ...
1912
G .L .a n d M .W .
1907
1908
6 plants___
1909
1910
9

84.0 $0,160 $13.41
84.0 .157 13.15
84.0 .147 12.38
84.0 .160 13.44

1

84.0
81.6
81.6

.163 13.72
.161 13.15
.166 13.56

1
14'.
12 .
14'.

60
40
64
. 58
76
82
92

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.190
.191
.185
.204

12

84.0
84.0
78.5

50
34
45
54

47
32
50
24

12
8
2
34

.203 17.09
.200 16.77
.207 16.15

28
32
20

48
50
72

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.216
.204
.206
.211

18.17
17.16
17.27
17.76

24
2
2
4

14
30
41
50

15.99
16.04
15.50
17.12

9 p lan ts___

1910
1911

64
46

84.0
79.8

.210 17.61
.209 16.62

8
8

56
38

10 p la n ts..

1911
1912

48
64

80.0
78.8

.207 16.54
.209 16.41

8
10

38
52

6 p la n ts ...

1907
1908
1909
1910

24
18
25
28

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.152
.141
.137
.163

10 plants..

1910
1911
1912

36
30
36

84.0
84.0
82.0

.161 13.53
.155 13.00
.157 12.86

Southern:




12

12.76
11.83
11.49
13.72

12
6

14
16

2
2

12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

68

T able I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
KEEPERS.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

District and
number o f
plants.

Eastern:

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
10 12 14 16
8
9
18
20
25 30 40
tim e
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
ly un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
9
10
12 14 16
25
18
20
ings.
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

f 1907
2 plants___ | 1908
1 1909
l 1910

6
4
6
6

f 1910
6 plan ts___
1911
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
| 1907
6 plan ts___ 1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

29
20
20

84.0
81.6
81.6

.177 14.87
.174 14.17
.179 14.54

60
38
64
58

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.231
.230
.219
.235

19.40
19.29
18.41
19.71

60
38
64
58

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

76
82
92

84.0 . .236 19.85
84.0 .236 19.87
78.5 .248 19.25

76
82
74

18

f 1907
6 plan ts___ 1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

52
34
45
55

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.235
.224
.225
.229

19.74
18.85
18.94
19.22

28
30
41
49

24
4
4
6

9 plan ts___ / 1910
\ 1911

65
50

84.0
80.2

.229 19.24
.232 18.58

59
46

6
4

/
10 p la n ts... \ 1911
1912
Southern:
f 1907
6 plan ts___ 1 1908
i 1909
l 1910

52

68

80.3
79.1

.231 18.56
.231 18.24

48
62

4
6

28
20
26
23

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.170
.161
.150
.173

\

© plants___
G .L .a n d M .W .:

f 1910

10 p la n ts..

{ 1911

l 1912

84.0 $0,173 $14.50
84.0 .161 13.48
84.0 .150 12.60
84.0 .166 13.92

31 84.0
30 84.0
36: 82.0

14.30
13.48
12.59
14.50

2
6
4

4
2

2
2

8
6
8

21
14
11

.171 14.34
.169 14.16
.170 13.94

18
6
8
7

4
4
4
2

4
14

11
12
14

6
10

4
4
4

16
14
18

16
2

1

6
4

2

KEEPERS* HELPERS.
Eastern:
2 plants. .

1907
1908
1909
1910

52
32
54
56

6 p la n ts ...

1910
1911
1912

6 p la n ts ...

9 p la n ts ...

84.0 $0,141 $11.85
84.0 .131 10.97
84.0 .128 10.75
84.0 .142 11.89

34
30
52
36

18

2

162
120
120

84.0
82.8
82.8

.146 12.24
.141 11.64
.148 12.21

64
52
24

76
62
80

23
16
16

1907
1908
1909
1910

202
135
218
194

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.173
.173
.167
.182

12
8

134
89
146
116

44
30
36
66

12
8

1910
1911
1912

264
268
286

84.0
84.0
80.5

.182 15.31
.183 15.40
.189 15.12

156
154
144

88
90
82

20
24
60

2

Pittsburgh:

■II




14.54
14.51
14.03
15.29

36

12

69

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
K E E PER S’ H E LPER S—Concluded.

District and
number of
plants.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­ age full­
rate
of
16
10 12
time
25 30 40
8
9
18
20
Year.
time
of
em­ hours wages week­ and and and and
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­ un­ un­ un­
ploy­ per
ly
per
ees.
der der der der
der der der der der der
week. hour. earn­
ings.
18
9
10 12 14
20
25
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

G .L .and M .W .:
f 1907
1 1908
6 p la n ts ... i 1909
l 1910

222
146
181
234

84.0 $0,187 $15.73
84.0 .178 14.98
84.0 .180 15.09
84.0 .183 15.41

66
62
65
70

72
58
84
126

84
20
20
38

9 plants. . . / 1910
\ 1911

299
204

84.0
81.4

.185 15.53
.187 15.19

91
26

156
144

52
32

f 1911
\ 1912

212
270

81.5
80.3

.186 15.19
.186 14.91

28
32

150 . 32
197
39

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
143
124

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.129 10.81
.122 10.27
.116 9.78
.135 11.37

14
10

f 1910

152
142
170

84.0
84.0
81.9

.135 11.35
.128 10.75
.130 10.64

10 p la n ts..
Southern:

f
1
6 p la n ts ... 1
l
10 p la n ts ...

\1911

| 1912

IR O N H A N D L E R S A N D L O A D E R S .
Eastern:
1907
1908
1909
1910

27
27
37
35

84.0 $0,194 $16.27
80.9 .188 15.12
80.6 .189 15.07
80.4 .233 18.51

1910
1911
1912

64
57
62

79.6
79.6
79.3

.225 17.86
.213 16.50
.213 16.58

1 plant____

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
14
18
18

77.0
77.0
77.0
77.0

.418
.357
.250
.246

2 p la n ts ...

1910
1911
1912

28
22
32

79.5
73.9
77.1

.221 17.43
.263 19.53
.231 17.69

1 plant____

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
16
17
18

79.3
81.4
81.5
79.3

.192
.174
.195
.180

3 p la n ts ...

1910
1911

68
62

72.5
71.4

.197 14.23
.199 14.19

4 plants. . .

1911
1912

70
69

72.8
74.5

.199 14.45
.214 15.84

5 p la n ts ....

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
106
170
106

70.1
69.3
70.9
68.8

.174
.171
.165
.176

9 plants___

1910
1911
1912

145
159
196

71.6
70.5
68.4

.173 12.29
.178 12.47
.176 12.00

2 p la n ts ...

4 p la n ts ...

11
6
21

16
16
16
16
26
28
26

11
12
12

Pittsburgh:

G .L .a n d M .W .

5
19

32.19
27.49
19.25
18.94

27
4
18

13
6
12
14

18
18
10

18
. 4
12

10
12

15.20
14.18
15.91
14.23

6

3
6
12

3
6

18
10

6
7
8

44
11

16

*i2

11
11

8
28

31
6

10
23
28
17

26
5
31
19

70
42
80
40

6
6
10
6

34
27
21
15

24
9
11

32
33
47

49
59
68

6
18
20

25
40
50

12
12

8
8

31

8
1 2 ____

Southern:




12.22
11.83
11.68
12.04

3

9
9
)

1
|
i

70
T

BU LLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OE LABOR STATISTICS,

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D IS T R I C T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
P I G -M A C H I N E

D is tr ic t a n d
n u m ber o f
o f p la n ts.

A ver­ A ver­
N um ­
age
age
b er
fu ll­ ra te
of
Y e a r.
of
tim e
em ­ hou rs
w ages
p lo y ­ p er
per
ees.
w eek . h o u r.

M EN.

N u m b er o f em p loy ees ea rn in g ea ch cla ssifie d ra te o f
w ages p er h o u r.
A ver­
age
fu ll­
12 14
tim e
9
30
10
16
20
8
18
25
40
w eek­ a n d a n d a n d an d a n d a n d a n d a n d a n d a n d a n d
u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ un­ u n ­
ly
earn­ d er d er d er d er d er d er d er d er d er d er d e r
in g s.
14 16
50
12
18
25
40
9
20
30
10
cts . cts. cts. cts. cts. cts . cts. cts. cts . cts. cts.

E a stern :

1 p la n t.........

( 1910
1911
| 1912

\

84.0 $0,145 $12.20
72.0 .145 10.45
72.0 .157 11.27

16
15
17

16
15
9

8

6
2
4
5

92
90
80
54

5
6
2

105
94
113

12
11
7
5

18
18
18
38

6
12
14
24

14
4
2
4

P itts b u rg h :
f
1
4 p la n ts ___ i
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

124
98
103
81

84.0
83.8
84.0
84.0

.165
.165
.160
.177

f 1910
7 p la n ts ___ \ 1911
l 1912
G X .a n d M .W .:
f 1907
1 1908
4 p la n ts ___
1 1909
l 1910

136
150
153

84.0
84.0
84.0

.175 14.72
.171 14.39
.173 14.52

52
45
44
71

84.0
84.0
83.5
83.5

.179
.170
.170
.173

/ 1910
\ 1911

105
73

83.6
80.7

.172 1 4 4 1
.175 1 4 1 7

6
1

61
44

34
22

4
6

/ 1911
7 p la n ts ___ \ 1912

81
85

81.0
79.5

.178 14.42
.176 14.00

1

44
53

28
24

8
8

[ 1907
1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

17
14
5
30

840
840
840
840

.142
.126
.128
.144

11.94
10.60
10.77
12.09

5
14
5
13

12

f 1910
2 p la n ts ___ • 1911
(
| 1912

34
21
20

840
840
84.0

.142 11.91
.141 11.87
.142 11.89

17
9
8

17
12
12

2
4
5
1

4

.147 12.26
.153 12.55
.147

3
1
1

37
20
25

.189
.166 13.81
.149
.167

24
81
21

.168
.158

21
46

6 p la n ts ___

13.88
13.84
13.42
1 4 88

20
4
15

20
10

15.07
14.31
14.26
1 4 49

3

20

6
2
4
2

24
24'
26 1

2
6
2

S ou th ern :
1 p la n t.........

17

C IN D E R M E N .

E astern :
2 p la n ts ___

1907
1908
1909
1910

5 p la n ts ___

1910
1911
1912

84.0 $0.147 $12.35
82.6
.126 10.48
84.0 .131 11.04
84.0 .151 12.68

6
5
5
40
32

7

83.3
82.1
20| 81.6

P ittsb u rg h :
1907
1908
1909
1910

6 p la n ts —

8 p la n ts —

{

7 p la n t s .... | 2912




, 82.9

110 84.0
99

200
134

82.0
81.7

169* 81.

120
112

172,

82.3
82.2

68.8

.158
.176

1

.........

6
10

1

46
"2 8

38
37
77
71

42

106
61

28
14
24

42
13

53
64

13
50

2

42
24
18

30

2

71

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

T able I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Concluded.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
CINDER MEN—Concluded.

District and
num ber of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
9
20
25 30 40
8
10 12 14
16
time
18
week­ and and and and ana and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
9
12 14 16 18
25
ings.
10
20
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

G .L .a n d M .W .:
67
37
76
152

.169 14.19
.168 13.43

45
36

173
83

20

80.1
79.5

.168 13.42
.166 13.13

38
40

83
84

20
12

36
39
48
31

82.4
81.5
82.3
82.2

.150 12.34
.130 10.63
.121 9.61
.131 10.72

2
2
2

47
47
62

82.8
82.2
80.5

.130 10.77
.132 10.85
.132 10.63

2
2
2

110
102
127
185

83.5 $0,166 $13.87
82.9 .156 12.95
82.4 .164 13.50
83.8 .171 14.35

/ 1910
9 plants___ t 1911

226
140

83.8
80.0

/ 1911
10 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Southern:
1907
1 1908
6 plants_ 1909
1 1910

142
137

f 1910
p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912

(
)

\

10

9

2
16
24
9

10
6
10
9

11
3
12
10

13
10

11
6
6

19
22
34

14
16
20

1
1

4
40
28

39
37
59
49

6

2

90
35
26

1

LABORERS.
Eastern:
f 1907
1 1908
plants_ 1 1909
l 1910

93
77
87
104

66.9 $0.135 $9.03
64.6 .115 7.48
69.1 .119 8.23
68.0 .138 9.33

f 1910
1911
plan ts..
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1907
1 1908
6 plants_ i 1909
l 1910

399
135
99

76.3
69.1
68.0

.142 10.83
.140 9.66
.144 9.79

374
286
227
245

78.1
73.8
75.5
74.4

.152
.154
.152
.165

11.84
11.43
11.55
12.28

91
12
74
5

138
125
153
227

309
301
284

75.6
75.6
77.7

.166 12.62
.165 12.55
.164 12.80

5
27
4

291
261
226

1907
1908
1909
1910

229
189
257
348

77.4
75.8
73.3
73.7

.162
.152
.153
.161 i

30

129
47
44
250

9 plants___ / 1910
\ 1911

410
222

73.5
72.2

.162 11.93
.166 11.98

289
171

/ 1911
10 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Southern:6
1907
1 1908
6 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

224
275

72.3
71.0

.166 11.99
.167 11.86

171
233

(

261
166
186
205

74.3
71.7
71.3
75.5

.130
.111
.112
.127

9.65
7.99
7.96
9.60

f 1910

305
277
303

73.3
73.7
72.3

.128
.131
.130

9.41
9.63
9.41

2

l

6

f 1910

9

plants_

\1911

l 1912

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
6 plants___ 1
i
(

10 p la n ts ...

\1911

l 1912




22

21
65
39
25

1907
1908
1909
1910

f
1
6 plants___ i
(

12.51
11.55
11.21
11.88

4
4

31 144
133 25
147 33
38 143
44 237
32 178
31 207

3
8
8
1
1
i

72

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912.

Table

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

NUMBER.

Occupation, and num ber
of plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
A ver­
N um ­ age full­
Over
Over
Over
ber of
tim e
56
Year.
60
72
em­
48
hours
and
and
per
and under
60
72
and
ployees.
84
under
under
week. under
60
72
56
84

Stockers:
f 1907
1 1908
18 plants.......................... 1 1909
l 1910

824
473
737
904

14
4

74
123
71
70

12
oi
Z1

263

1Z
1O

81.4
79.1
80 9
8L0

12
11

25
26

1
1

105
70
224
222

631
276
442
595

222

1U /
I A7

30
RQ
oy

1 AO
1%Z

917
oo7

107
112

59
136

142
244

559
515

16

/ 1910
32 plants.......................... V i o n

1,445

/ 1911
32 plants.......................... \ 1912
B ottom fillers:
1907
1908
7 plants............................ ' 1909
1910

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84 0
84.0

293
194
282
267

/ 1910
14 plants.......................... \ 1911

672
391

84.0
84 0

672
391

/ 1911
\ 1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

1907
8 plants............................ * 1908
1909
1910

66
44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

6
6

/ 1911
\ 1912

92
96

82.2
80.0

6
6

f 1907
1 1908
11 plants.......................... 1 1909
l 1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

\1911

f 1910
i 1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

f 1907
1 1908
1909
l 1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

[

1910

1

1912

278
294
343

84.0
8?. 6
79.6

f 1907
1908
1909
l 1910

86
64
94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

f 1907
1908*
1909
l 1910

78
68
86
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

f 1911
\ 1912

123
132

82.9 ............
80.2 1
...........

79.9
/». o

1

69

417
399

T op fillers:

13 p lan ts. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 plants..........................
Larry men:

21 plants..........................
Larry m en’ s helpers:
10 plants ............... .

19 plants..........................

1

\1911

Skip operators:
l i pi&nts..........................

19 plants..........................

1
1

\
1

66
44
50
48

OO T\1fVn*fQ ....................................... /
OZ p i d U t o
\
OQ p d n t o
OO Wilo U+ e ........................................




18

86
72
132
83
135
149

*

Blowers:
* Q p i d lnt S ................. .. ................... 1
1
J.o •n ld i fo
1

136
78

19
33

36

231
184
168
115
79
135
134

34
43

36

278
260
264
86
64
94’
97

2
12

18

125
122
106
78
68
86
90

3
11
9

128
110

11
21

112
102

73

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—
Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
N U M BE R —Continued.

O ccupation, and num ber
of plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
A ver­
N um ­ age full­
Over
Over
Over
ber of
tim e
Year.
56
em ­
48
72
hours
60
and
72
per
and under
60
and
ployees.
and
84
under
week. under - 60
under
72
56
84

Blow ing engineers:
f 1907
1 1908
20 plants.......................... 1 1909
l 1910

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

/ 1910
34 plants.......................... \ 1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

{ 1910
1
plants.................... • 1911
l 1912
Stove tenders:
r 1907
J 1908
20 plants........................ i 1909
l 1910

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

/ 1911
\ 1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

20 plants........................

f 1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants........................

/ 1910
\ 1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

/ 1911
\ 1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

20 plants........................

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants........................

/ 1910
\ 1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

/ 1911
\ 1912

742
846

83.1
81.0

9 plants..........................

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0

18 plants........................

/ 1910
\ 1911

305
300

74.2
72.7

19 plants........................

/ 1911
\ 1912

308
359

73.0
72.2

f
35 plants.......................... \
Blowing engineers’ assist­
ants:
f
J
11
plants..................... 1
l
18

34 plants........................
35 plants........................
Keepers:

35 plants........................
Keepers’ helpers:

35 plants........................
Iron handlers and loaders:




100
85
103
112
11
13
26

6

153
124
124
110
67
51
74
66
94
85
88

6
11

9

140
96
140
146
20
20
38

18

200
158
160
156
146
96
141
142

20
20
38

18

201
162
164
160
616
409
596
608

56
56
126

36

877
678
6S6
684

122
97
138
105

12
14
18
18

69
52
86
54

4

179
189

18
18

108
89

4
28

189
179

18
18

97
98

36

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I V . -—
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO* 1912—
Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

T able

N U M BE R —Concluded.

Occupation, and num ber
of plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
N um ­ age full­
Over
Over
ber of
Over
tim e
56
Year.
em ­
48
hours
60
72
and
per
and under
60
72
ployees.
and
and
84
week. under
under
under
60
72
56
84

Pig-machine men:
9 plants...........

f
J
1
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

1

1
1

/ 1910
\ 1911

291
259

83.9
82.4

1
1

/ 1911
\ 1912

267
275

82.4
81.9

1
1

plants.....

1907
1908
' 1909
1910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

3
1

32 plants.........

/ 1910
\ 1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

/ 1911
\ 1912

333
397

81.3
75.2

20 plants.........

1907
1908
‘ 1909
1910

957
718
757
902

34 plants.........

/ 1910
\ 1911

35 plants.........

/ 1911
1912

16 plants.........
17 plants.........
Cinder m en:
20

32 plants.........
Laborers:

X

1

3
3

193
154
149
180

33

289
225

33
47

233
227

4
20
33
24

27
24
48
20

231
201
296
312

34
33

35

20
6

427
265

24

33
44

35
36

6
1

259
224

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

106
142
102
159

350
272
378
332

1
15
23

52
109
53
45

448
195
209
343

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

269
197

404
288

26
28

298
134

426
288

937
961

73.3
73.1

197
192

288
302

28
81

134
92

290
294

1.7
.8

9.0
26.0
9.6
7.7

1.8

12.7
14.8
30.4
24.6

76.6
58.4
60.0
65.8

1.3

.8
2.3

18.2
11.9

2.1
6.6

15.4
15.8

63.5
62.0

1.3
1.1

2.8
2.5

11.8
10.7

6.5
13.0

15.7
23.3

61.8
49.3

68

PE R CENT.
Stockers:
18

p lan ts..

32 p lan ts..
32 plan ts..
B ottom fillers:

1907
1908
1909
1910

824
473
737
904

81.4
79.1
80.9
81.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

1,445
898

79.9
79.8

/ 1911
\ 1912

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

f
1
1
l

0.1
.1

.1

7 p la n ts ...

f
I
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

14 p lan ts..

/ 1910
1911

\

672
391

84.0
84.0

100.0
100.0

/ 1911
\ 1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

8 p la n ts ...

1907
1908
‘ 1909
1910

66
44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

13 p lan ts..

/ 1910
\ 1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

4.2
7.1

14 p lan ts..

/ 1911
\ 1912

92
96

82.2
80.0

6.5
6.3

15 p lan ts..
T op fillers:




14.7

100.0
85.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
95.8
92.9
i8 .8

93.5
75.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

75

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—
Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES— Continued.
P E R CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and num ber
of plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
A ver­
N um ­ age full­
Over
Over
ber o f
Over
tim e
56
Year.
48
em ­
72
60
hours
and
and
72
ployees. per
60
and
and
84
under
under
under
week. under
60
56
72
84

Larry men:
11 plants.

f 1907
| 1908
1 1909
[ 1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

21 plants...............

f 1910
1911
l 1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

10 plants...............

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
[ 1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

19 p la n ts ....

[ 1910
1911
[ 1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

11 p la n ts ....

f 1907
1 1908
I 1909
[ 1910

86
64
94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

19 plants v .

[ 1910
1911
[ 1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

18 plants.

[ 1907
1 1908
| 1909
l 1910

78
68
86
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

32 plants.

1910
L 1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

1911
L 1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

20 plants.

: 1907
1908
1909
1910

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants.

1910
k 1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

1911
35 plants.......................... . 1912
Blow ing engineers’ assist­
ants:
’ 1907
1908
11 plan ts..........................
1909
1910

137
142

82.9
80.6

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911
. 1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

20 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants.

1910
1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

35 plants-

1911
1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

9.4
13.9

i5.2

100.0
90.6
70.9

Larry men’s helpers:

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
11.6
12.5

10.5

Skip operators:

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1.6
8.8

i3.2

Blowers:

33 plants...........
Blow ing engineers:

18 p lan ts..

100.0
98.4
77.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
9.1

97.7
90.9

8.9
15.9

91.1
77.3

2.3

6.8

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
8.1
4.2

100.0
91.9

9.5
18.3

90.5
77.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
8.3

6.6
10.2

Stove tenders:




100.0
88.4
77.0

93.4
81.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
11.2
8.5

100.0
88.8

11.1
17.9

88.9
73.6

76

BU LLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I Y . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—
Concluded.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
P E R CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number
of plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
N um ­ Ayerage full­
ber of
Over
Over
Over
tim e
56
Year.
em ­
48
60
72
and
ployees. hours
and under
60
per
. and
72
and
84
under
week. under
under
60
56
72
84

Keepers:
1907
1908
' 1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

11.0

/ 1911
t 1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

10.9
17.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

7.6

/ 1911
35 plants.........................
1912
Iron handlers and loaders:
f 1907
1 1908
9 plants.......................... 1 1909
l 1910

742
846

83.1
81.0

7.5
14.9

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0

\1911

/ 1910

305
300

74.2
72.7

/ 1911
\ 1912

308
359

73.0
72.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

.5

.5

16 plants..

/ 1910
\ 1911

291
259

83.9
82.4

.3
.4

.3

17 plants..

/ 1911
\ 1912

267
275

82.4
81.9

.4
.4

20 p lan ts..

1907
1908
1909
1910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

32 p lan ts..

/ 1910
\ 1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

32 plants..

./ 1911
\ 1912

333
397

81.3
75.2

20 p lan ts..

1907
1908
' 1909
1910

957
718
757
902

34 plants.

/ 1910
\ 1911

35 plants.

/ 1911
\ 1912

34 plants........
35 plants........
Keepers’ helpers:
20 plants........

34 plants........................

\

18 plants...........
19 plants...........
Pig-machine m en:
9 plants.............

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.3

100.0
89.0
89.1
74.1

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

4.3

100.0
92.4
92.5
80.9

60.1
59.5
57.0
59.3

5.9
8.6
7.4
10.2

34.0
31.9
35.5
30.5

1.3

58.7
63.0

5.9
6.0

35.4
29.7

1.3
7.8

61.4
49.9

5.8
5.0

31.5
27.3

1.9
2.0

100.0
98.1
98.0
98.9

10.0

99.3
12.7
12.4
17.1

87.3
82.5

Cinder m en:
.8
.3

1.5
8.2
8.7
6.7

82.0
77.9
87.4

7.1
9.7

10.3

4.1
1.8

78.2

6.0

9.9
11.1

10.5
9.1

1.8
.3

77.8
56.4

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

11.1
19.8
13.5
17.6

36.6
37.9
49.9
36.8

.1
2.0
2.5

5.4
15.2
7.0
5.0

46.8
27.2
27.6
38.0

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

18.9
21.1

28.4
30.8

1.8
3.0

20.9
14.3

29.9
30.8

937
961

73.3
73.1

21.0
20.0

30.7
31.4

3.0
8.4

14.3
9.6

30.9
30.6

.2

17.1

Laborers:




88.2

10.3
9.8
12.6
5.6

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOB— BLAST FURNACES.
T

77

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
STOCKERS.

Year and district.

1907.

Num­
Num ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—

•
frill
lull-

tim e Over
hours 48 and 56 and
per
under
week. under
60
56

SmithAm......................................

1
5
6
6

498
246
72

T ota l......................................

18

824

8

1908.
................................

8

72

Over
72 and
under
84

84

8

70.0
81.4
82.2
79.9

Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...

Over
60 and
under
72

60.

14

14
31
21

105

365
215
51

81.4

14

74

105

631

70.0
78.1
80.7
80.5

69
28
18

70

4
4

123

70

276

8

Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...

1
5
6

6

247
146
72

T otal......................................

18

473

79.1

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

1
5
6

70.0
80.0
83.5
81.5

11
34
6
20

224

6

11
454
161
111

196
155
91

T otal......................................

18

737

80.9

71

224

442

165

"RflstAro.

1909.

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................
T ota l......................................

8

688

9
10

416
176

77.9
81.2
79.3
78.6

32 1,445

79.9

86

5

1911.

43
33
138
49

10
20

12

263

30

222

12

1

1

ios
114
54

171
12
39

100
463
266

88

917

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

503
210
105

73.1
80.8
79.5
80.1

12

14
3

8

35
12
32
28

9
25
25

140

10
9

2

28
311
145
75

T otal......................................

32

904

79.7

12

25

107

59

142

559

5

78
606
248
113

68.7
80.5
77.9
77.5

11

14

23
14
33
42

19
26
79
12

244

4

11
313
132
59

32 1,045

78.7

26

112

136

244

515

5

8

1912.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
S o u t h e r n .......................................
T otal......................................

8
10
9

1

1

11

8

#

BOTTOM FILLERS.
1907.
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

2
1
2
2

100
28
93
72

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
28
93
72

T ota l......................................

7

293

84.0

293

Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................

2
1
2
2

60
28
58
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

60
28
58
48

T otal.....................................

7

194

84.0

194

Eastern............................................

Pittsburgh

__

1908.
Eastern............................................

Pittsburgh

................




78

B U LLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T able V .— AVERAG E

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
B O T T O M F I L L E R S — C o n clu d e d .

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber o f employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
full
lulltime Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
60
72
per under under
84
under
under
week.
60
72
56
84

1909.
Eastern............................................
P itts b u rg h .....................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t Southern ..........................................

2
1
2
2

100
30
58
94

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
30
58
94

T ota l......................................

7

282

84.0

282

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

4
2
3
5

398
46
130
98

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

398
46
130
98

T otal......................................

14

672

84.0

672

1911.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern........ .................................

4
2
4
5

212
42
90
73

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

212
42
90
73

T ota l......................................

15

417

84.0

417

1912.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................

4
2
4
5

166
44
129
129

84.0
84.0
84.0
77.6

69

166
44
129
60

T otal.....................................

15

468

82.2

69

399

T O P F IL L E R S .

1907.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

2
1
2
3

10
8
18
30

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

10
8
18
30

T otal......................................

8

66

84.0

6

1908.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

2
1
2
3

8
6
12
18

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

8
6
12
18

T otal......................................

8

44

84.0

44

1909.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t Southern..........................................

2
1
2
3

10
6
12
22

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

10
6
12
22

T otal.....................................

8

50

84.0

50

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t Southern..........................................

4
1
2
6

85
6
18
33

84.0
84.0
74.7
84.0

T otal......................................

13

142

82.8




6
6

85
6
12
33
136

WAGES A STD HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.
T

79

V .—A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
T O P F I L L E B S — C o n c lu d e d .

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
fiill
lulltime Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
84
60
per under under
under
under
week.
60
72
84
56

1911.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh. ...................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

4
1
3
6

36
6
20
30

84.0
84.0
75.6
84.0

6

T ota l......................................

14

92

82.2

6

1913.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................

4
1
3
6

22
6
30
38

84.0
84.0
78.4
78.3

T otal......................................

14

96

80.0

36
6
14
30
86

18

22
6
24
20

18

72

6
6

LARRY MEN.

1907.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh ....
.....................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern..........................................

4
4
3

52
56
24

84.0
84.0
84.0

52
56
24

T ota l......................................

11

132

84.0

132

1908.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................

4
4
3

26
38
22

84.0
84.0
84.0

26
38
22

T otal......................................

11

86

84.0

86

1909.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................

4
4
3

64
53
18

84.0
84.0
84.0

64
53
18

T ota l......................................

11

135

84.0

135

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern..........................................

2
8
6
5

4
122
72
33

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
122
72
33

T ota l.....................................

231

21

231

84.0

1911.
E astern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern..........................................

2
8
6
5

4
122
55
22

78.0
84.0
80.3
84.0

T ota l.....................................

21

203

82.9

1913.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern.........................................

2
8
6
5

6
142
65
24

76.0
76.9
78.6
84.0

36

T otal......................................

21

237

78.4

36




2
17

2
122
38
22

19

184

4

2
106
36
24

29
33

168

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

80
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

a b le

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
LARRY

Year and district.

M EN’S HELPERS.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
A ver­
per week were—
age
full­
time Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
60
84
per under under
under
under
week.
60
84
72
56

1907.
Eastern.............................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

4
4
2

48
57
10

84.0
84.0
84.0

Total......................................

10

115

84.0

1908.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh
. . .............
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
S ou th ern .........................................

4
4
2

24
45
10

84.0
84.0
84.0

24
45
10

T otal......................................

10

79

84.0

79

1909.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh
.
_______
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern.........................................

4
4
2

60
63
12

84.0
84.0
84.0

!
1

60
63
12

Total.....................................

10

135

84.0

1

135

1
8
5

2
167
76
33

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

i
i ■
i

2
167
76
33

T otal......................................

19

278

84.0

i

278

1911.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern.........................................

1
8
5
5

2
216
54
22

72.0
84.0
76.9
84.0

Total......................................

19

294

82.6

1912.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................

1
8
5
5

4
248
67
24

72.0
79.9
77.0
84.0

36

T otal......................................

19

343

79.6

36

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ... 1
Southern.......................................... 1
i

5

1
i
............i............

i
1
............I............
!
!

48
57
10
115

2
32

216
22
22

34

260

1

4
39

212
28
24

43

264

S K IP O P E R A T O R S .

1907.
Eastern............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern.........................................

5
3
3

54
20
12

84.0
84.0
84.0

54
20
12

Total......................................

11

86

84.0

86

1908.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

5
3
3

38
14
12

84.0
84.0
8 4 .0 '

38
14
12

T otal......................................

11

64

84.0




i

....... 1
........
j

64

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,
T

81

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
S K I P O P E R A T O R S — C o n clu d e d .

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
Aver­ 1
per week were—
age
•frill j
lulltime Over
Over
Over
56 and
hours
60 and
72 and
per 48 and under
72
84
60
under
under
under
week.
60
72
84
i

56

i

1909.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

5
3
3

62
18
14

84.0 ______
84.0
84.0

62
18
14

T ota l......................................

11

94

84.0

94

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
8
5
4

4
70
30
21

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
70
30
21

Total......................................

19

125

84.0

125

1911.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
8
5
4

4
76
26
18

78.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

2

2
76
26
18

Total......................................

19

124

83.8

2

122

1912.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
8
5
4

76.0
77.4
81.2
84.0

4

76
34
20

18

2
58
26
20

Total......................................

19

136

79.2

18

6

8
12

106

BLOW ERS.

1907.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t Southern..........................................

2
5
5
6

4
26
29
19

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
26
29
19

Total......................................

18

78

84.0

78

1908.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

2
5
5
6

4
23
21
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
23
21
20

T otal......................................

18

68

84.0

68

1909.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
5
5
6

4
31
25
26

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
31
25
26

T otal......................................

18

86

84.0

86

191 0 *
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t Southern..........................................

6
8
8
10

17
45
40
29

79.8
84.0
84.0
84.0

3

14
45
40
29

Total......................................

32

131

83.5

3

128

44929°— Bull. 151— 14------6




82
T

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
B L O W E R S — C o n c lu d e d .

Year and district.

N um ­
Num ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
fnll
lulltim e Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
per
under
72
60
84
under
under
week. under
60
72
56
84

1911.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

6
8
9
10

16
43
36
28

81.8
84.0
81.3
84.0

T otal......................................

33

123

82.9

1912.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

6
8
9
10

16
48
38
30

81.8
78.8
80.2
81.6

9

Total......................................

33

132

80.2

9

3
8

13
43
28
28

11

112

3
12
6

13
39
26
24

21

102

B L O W IN G E N G IN E E R S .

1907.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
6
6
6

6
32
42
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6
32
42
20

T otal......................................

20

100

84.0

100

1908.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
6
6
6

4
30
33
18

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
30
33
18

T otal......................................

20

85

84.0

85"

1909.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
6
6
6

6
36
41
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6
36
41
20

T otal......................................

20

103

84.0

103

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

6
9
9
10

19
46
64
24

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

19
46
64
24

Total......................................

34

153

84.0

153

1911.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

6
9
10
10

14
44
55
24

82.3
84.0
81.6
84.0

11

12
44
44
24

T otal......................................

35

137

82.9

13

124

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t Southern..........................................

6
9
10
10

16
46
54
26

82.5
80.3
80.0
81.2

2
6
18
6

14
40
36
20

Total......................................

35

142

80.6

6

26

110




2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB— BLAST FUKNACES,

83

T a b l e V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.

BLOWING ENGINEERS’ ASSISTANTS.

Year and district.

Num­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
per week were—

fvill
lull-

time Over
horns
56 and
per 48 and under
week. under
60
56

60

Over
60 and
under
72

Over
72 and
under
84

72

84

1907.
r

2
43
16

6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

2
43
16
6

11

67

84.0

67

1

Great Lakes and Middle W e st...

5
3
2

Total. .................................
1908.
Pittsburgh ___ ________________
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..
. ________________

5
3
2

2
29
14
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

2
29
14
6

T otal......................................

11

51

84.0

51

1

2
46
16

2
46
16

1909.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern.........................................

5
3
2

10

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

T otal......................................

11

74

84.0

74

Eastern...................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

3

8
54

20
12

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

54
20

T otal......................................

18

94

84.0

94

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

3
8
3
4

6
58

2
4

8

15

80.0
84.0
80.0
84.0

T otal......................................

18

91

83.2

6

85

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................

3
8
3

80.0
80.3
80.0
81.3

2
9

4
60

4

6
69
15
18

T otal......................................

18

108

80.4

9

10

1910.
8
3
4

8
12

1911.
12

4
58

15

1912.




10

5
4

14

11

88

84
T

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.

STOVE TENDERS—Concluded.

Y ear and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
84
per under under
60
under
under
week.
60
72
84
56

1908.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

2
6
6
6

4
40
34
18

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
40
34
18

T ota l......................................

20

96

84.0

96

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................

2
6
6
6

6
64
45
25

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6
64
45
25

T otal......................................

20

140

84.0

140

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

6
9
9
10

24
76
64
36

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

24
76
64
36

T otal......................................

34

200

84.0

200

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern...........................................

6
9
10
10

20
82
48
30

81.6
84.0
80.0
84.0

T otal......................................

35

180

82.7

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est...
Southern.......................... ...............

6
9
10
10

20
92
64
36

81.6
78.5
78.8
82.0

T otal......................................

35

212

79.5

1909.

1910.

1911.
4
16 ...........

16
82
32
30

20

160

4
28
6

16
74
36
30

38

156

1913.
18

18

KEEPERS.
1907.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern...........................................

2
6 ‘
6
6

6
60
52
28

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6
60
52
28

20

146

84.0

146

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

2
6
6
6

4
38
34
20

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

4
38
34
20

T otal......................................

20

96

84.0

96

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

2
6
6
6

6
64
45
26

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6
........64
45
26

T otal......................................

20

141

84.0

141

T otal......................................

1908.

1909.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

85

T a b l e V . — AVERAG E AND

C LASSIFIE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EAC H Y E A R , B Y D ISTR IC TS, 1907 TO 1912— Continued.
B L A S T . FURNACES— Continued.
KEEPERS—Concluded.

Y ear and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours
A ver­
per w eek were—
age
full­
tim e Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
72 and
60 and
72
84
60
p er under under
under
under
60
week.
84
72
56

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern...........................................

6
9

9
10

29
76
65
31

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

29
76
65
31

T otal......................................

34

201

84.0

201

20

81.6
84.0
80.3
84.0

16

16
82
36
30

82.7

20

164

4

6

16
74
40
30

38

160

1911.
6

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern...........................................

9
10

10

82
52
30

T otal......................................

35

184

4

1912.
6

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern..........................................

9
10
10

T otal......................................

35

20

18

36

78.5
79.1
82.0

216

79.6

18

92

68

28

KEEPERS’ HELPERS.
1907.
52

52

202
222

202

140

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

616

84.0

616

32
135
146
96

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

32
135
146
96

409

84.0

409

54
218
181
143

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

54
218
181
143

20

596

84.0

596

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

10

162
264
299
152

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

162
264
299
152

T otal......................................

34

877

84.0

877

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................

Great Lakes and Middle W est...

Southern..........................................
T otal......................................

20

222
140

1908.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern...........................................
T otal......................................

20

1909.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern..........................................
T otal......................................

1910.




BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

86
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.

KEEPERS’ HELPERS—Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Y ear and district.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours
A ver­
per week were—
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
84
per under under
60
under
under
week.
60
72
56
84

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

6
9
10
10

120
268
212
142

82.8
84.0
81.5
84.0

44

T otal......................................

35

742

83.1

56

686

1913.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern...........................................

6
9
10
10

120
286
270
170

82.8
80.5
80.3
81.9

12
84
30

108
250
186
140

T otal......................................

35

846

81.0

126

684

12

108
268
168
142

36

36

IRON HANDLERS AND LOADERS.
1907.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................

2
1
1
5

27
12
18
146

84.0
77.0
79.3
70.1

6
116

T ota l......................................

9

203

73.2

122

1908.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern...........................................

2
1
1
5

27
14
16
106

80.9
77.0
81.4
69.3

3
88

27
12
12
30
12

21

6
14

T ota l......................................

9

163

73.0

2
1
1
5

37
18
17
170

80.6
77.0
81.5
70.9

9
3
126

T ota l......................................

9

242

73.6

138

1910.
Eastern_...........................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

4
2
3
9

64
28
68
145

79.6
79.5
72.5
71.6

20
56
103

T otal......................................

18

305

74.2

179

E astern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

4
2
4
9

57
22
70
159

79.6
73.9
72.8
70.5

T ota l......................................

19

308

73.0,

1913.
Eastern ........
........................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t Southern...........................................

4
2
4
9

62
32
69
196

79.3
77.1
74.5
68.4

T ota l......................................

19

359

72.2

1
3
18

97

1909.
Eastern.............................................
.....................
Pittsburgh....
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t...
Southern...........................................

69

14

52
28

18
14
44
18

86

18

44
10
12
42

18

108

1911.




44

13
4

18
14
39

56
120
4

18

97

18

189

48
10
22
20

18

98

16
4
24

47
116

36

28

179

36

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,
T

87

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
PIG-M ACHINE M EN.

Y ear and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours
A ver­
per week were—
age
full­
tim e Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
60.
84
per under under
under
under
week.
60
72
84
56

1907.
4
4

1

124
52
17

84.0
84.0
81.0

124
52
17

9

193

84.0

193

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...

4
4

83.8
84.0
84.0

3

1

98
45
14

95
45
14

T ota l......................................

9

157

83.9

3

154

4
4

1

103
44
5

84.0
83.5
84.0

3

103
41
5

9

152

83.9

3

149

1
6
2

Great Lakes and Middle W e st...

1908.

Southern__..................._...............

1909.
Eastern............................................

Pittsburgh...................- ...............
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................
T ota l......................................

1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

7

16
136
105
34

84.0
84.0
83.6
84.0

1

1

16
136
103
34

T ota l......................................

16

291

83.9

1

1

289

1911.

1

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................

7
7

15
150
81

2
1

72.0
84.0
81.0
84.0

1

18

150
62

T ota l......................................

17

267

82.4

1

33

233

1912.
Eastern.........................................

2

1

15

2
1

Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern...........................................

7
7

17
153
85

72.0
84.0
79.5
84.0

1

30

153
54

T otal......................................

17

275

81.9

1

47

227




2

2
0

17

2
0

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

88
T

, V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

a b le

B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.
C I N D E R M E N —Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours
A ver­
per w eek were—
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber full­
ber of of em­ tim e Over
Over
Over
plants. ploy­ hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
84
per
under
60
ees.
under
under
week. under
60
72
56
84

1909.

Smith e m ...............................................

6
6

5
200
127
48

84.0
82.0
82.4
82.3

Total ......................................

20

380

82.2

Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern. r____ _____- ....................

5
8
9
10

40
169
226
47

83.3
81.6
83.8
82.8

T otal......................................

32

482

82.9

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
Southern..........................................

5
7
10
10

32
112
142
47

82.1
82.2
80.1
82.2

1
10
16
6

T ota l......................................

32

333

81.3

33

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
Southern..........................................

5
7
10
10

26
172
137
62

81.6
68.8
79.5
80.5

68

T otal......................................

32

397

75.2

68

E a s te r n .................................................

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t...

2
6

5

3

18
9
6

7
41

172
77
42

3

33

48

296

1

2
27
1
4

1910.
E a s te r n .................................................

1

20

34

38
141
205
43

20

427

4
2
29

6

27
94
97
41

35

6

259

1911.

1912.
1

4

1

10
28
5

19
12

1

21
70
88
45

24

44

36

1

224

32
60
14

56
40
73
181

1
27
25

4
247
117
80

1

52

448

23

1

LABO RERS.

1907.

2
93 66.9
6
374 78.1
229 77.4
Great 6
Lakes and M iddle W e s t...
6
261 74.3
Southern..........................................

E a s te r n .................................................

Pittsburgh.......................................

20

957

75.8

106

350

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

2
6
6
6

77
286
189
166

64.6
73.8
75.8
71.7

43
76
23

32
33
61
146

84
25

2
93
80
20

T ota l......................................

20

718

72.8

142

272

109

195

11
39
44
8

72
43
111
152

15

28
25

4
102
77
26

102

378

15

53

209

T ota l......................................
1908.

1909.

2
87 69.1
6
227 75.5
257 73.3
Great 6
Lakes and M iddle W e s t...
Southern..........................................
6
186 71.3

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................

T ota l......................................




20

757

73.0

89

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLAST PURNACES.
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

BLAST

P U R N A C E S — Continued.

LABORERS — Concluded.

Y ear and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
A ver­
week were—
age
full­
time Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
60
72
84
per under under
under
under
week.
60
56
72
84

1910.

EastArn............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...
.....................................
Smith am

399
309
410
305

76.3
75.6
73.5
73.3

52
65
115
37

101
34
100
169

2
24

233
47
18

11
139
177
99

34 1,423

74.7

269

404

26

298

426

Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st...
South Am............................... ..........

6
9
10
10

135
301
224
277

69.1
75.6
72.3
73.7

41
73
81
2

67
32
19
170

2
7
19

3
38
31
62

22
151
74
43

T ota l......................................

35

937

73.3

197

288

28

134

290

"F S T l
'-fV t.A T
................................... .
..........................
Pittsburgh ..
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern..........................................

6
9
10
10

99
284
275
303

68.0
77.7
71.0
72.3

38
11
113
30

37
71
21
173

4
27
42
8

10
23
13
46

10
152
86
46

T ota l......................................

35

961

73.1

192

302

81

92

294

T ota l......................................

6
9
9
10

1911.

1912.




BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

90

V I . -AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912.

T able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
[T he figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
STOCKERS.

District and number of plants.

Eastern:

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
Aver­
week were—
age
full­
tim e Over
Over
Over
hours
56 and
per 48 and under
60 60 and
72 72 and
84
under
under
week. under
60
56
72
84

plant...............................

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

8
8
11
10

70.0
70.0
70.0
70.0

f 1910

5 plants..................................

\1911

165
86
78

77.9
73.1
68.7

1

Pittsburgh:

l 1912

8
8
11
10
12
14
14

43
35
23

14

11

14
69
34
4
33
12
14

10
9
19

100
28
11

[

5 plants................................. .

1907
J 1908
] 1909
1 1910

498
247
454
514

81.4
78.1
80.0
81.1

8 plants.................................

f 1910
1911
l 1912

688
503
606

81.2
80.8
80.5

6 plants.................................

f
J
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

246
146
161
275

82.2
80.7
83.5
81.6

9 plants................................. .

/ 1910
\ 1911

416
195

79.3
79.7

/ 1911
\ 1912

210
248

79.5
77.9

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

72
72
111
105

79.9
80.5
81.5
79.9

21
18 '
20
11

39

51
54
91
55

39
2

88
84

2

75
59

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:

10 plants................................
Southern:
6 plants..................................

\

i
1
12
1

3
8
4

i.6

105
70
224
171

365
108
196
322

20
25
26

171
140
244

463
311
313

i2

215
114
155
218

31
28
6
45

4

138
32

25

8
4

32
33

25
79

plants...........................

( 1910

\ 1911

176
114

78.6
80.4

49
28

9 plants..................................

/ 1911
l 1912

105
113

80.1
77.5

28
42

10

BOTTOM

12

12

266
134
145
132

F I L L E R S .*
4

Eastern:
| 1907
J 1908
1 1909
l 1910

100
60
100
100

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100

2 plants

f 1910

\1911

398
212
166

84.0
84.0
84.0

398

4 plants,

1907
1908
1909
1910

28
28
30
30

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

28
28
30
30

f 1910

46
42
44

84.0
84.0
84.0

46
42
44

l 1912

60

100
100
212
166

Pittsburgh:
1 plant.

f
I
1
l

2 plants

\1911




l 1912

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

91

V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
B O T T O M F IL L E R S —Concluded.

District and number o f plants.

Num ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
A ver­
week were—
N um ­ age
f iiT t
ber of IU 11Year. em­ tim e Over
Over
Over
ploy­ hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
84
72
per under under
60
ees.
under
under
week.
60
72
84
56

Great Lakes and Middle West:
1907
1908
1909
1910

93
58
58
100

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

93
58
58
100

1910
\ 1911

130
64

84.0
84.0

130
64

\

1911
1912

90
129

84.0
84.0

90
129

2 plants................................

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

72
48
94
37

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

72
48
94
37

5 plants................................

\

f 1910
1911
l 1912

98
73
129

84.0
84.0
77.6

2 plants................................

3 plants................................
4 plants................................

f
1
i
l
/

/

Southern:

69

98
73
60

T O P F IL L E R S
Eastern:
2 plants..

f
J
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
8
10
10

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

10

4 plants.

l

f 1910
1911
l 1912

85
36
22

84.0
84.0
84.0

85
36
22

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

8
6
6
6
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

8
6
6
6
6
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
12
12
18

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

18
12
12
18

/ 1910
\ 1911

18
12

74.7
70.0

6
6

12
6

/ 1911
\ 1912

20
30

75.6
78.4

6
6

14
24

1907
1908
1909
1910

30
18
22
14

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910

33
30
38

84.0
84.0
78.3

8

10
10

Pittsburgh:

1 plant.

6

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
2 plants...................................

2 plants.
3 plants.
Southern:
3

plants.

f
I
1
l

6

plants.

\ 1911




l 1912

30
18
22
14

18

33
30
20

92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.

Table

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
LARRY

District and num ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

MEN.

N um ber o f employees whose full-tim e hours per
Aver­
week were—
age
fulltim e Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
per under under
60
72
84
under
under
week.
60
56
72
84

Eas em :
| 1910

2 plants.............................. ..

{ 1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:

[ 1907

4
4
6

84.0
78.0
76.0

i

2
4

|
* 1
...........
’* 1
...........

4
2
2

plants..............................

1 1908
| 1909
l 1910

52
26
64
58

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

8 plants...................................

[ 1910
l 1911
{ 1912

122
122
142

84.0
84.0
76.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

56
38
53
64

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

72
55
65

84.0
80.3
78.6

3 plants...................................

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

24
22
18
27

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

24
22
18
27

5 plants...................................

f 1910
^ 1911
1 1912

33
22
24

84.0
84.0
84.0

33
22
24

4

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
4 plants...................................

6 plants...................................

f
J
1
l

*

52
26
64
58
122
122
106

36

56
38
53
64

i
17
29

Southern: *

LARRY

72
38
36

M EN’S HELPERS.

Eastern:
f 1910

2
2
4

84.0
72.0
72.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

48
24
60
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910

167
216
248

84.0
84.0
79.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

57
45
63
70

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910

1 p lan t...................................

\ 1911

l 1912

2
4

2

Pittsburgh:
4 plants.................................

f
1
i
l

8 plants.................................

\ 1911

l 1912

48
24
60
56
167
216

212

36

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants.................................

f
I
1
l

5 plants.................................

\ 1911

l 1912

76
54
67

84.0
76.9
77.0

2 plan ts.................................

f
I
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
12
8

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

10
10
12
8

r 1910

5 plan ts.................................

\1911

33
22
24

84.0
84.0
84.0

22

Southern:




l 1912

57
45
63
70
32
39

76
22
28

33
24

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

93

V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
SKIP OPERATORS.

District and number o f plants.

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
Aver­
week were—
age
fulltim e Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
60
72
84
per under under
under
und.er
week.
60
56
72
84

Eastern:
f 1910

4
4
6

84.0
78.0
76.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

54
38
62
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

\ 1911

| 1910
l 1912

70
76
76

84.0
84.0
77.4

3 plan ts...................................

f
J
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
14
18
22

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

5 plants...................................

f 1910
J 1911
l 1912

30
26
34

84.0
84.0
81.2

3 plants..................................

f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
14
19

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

12
12
14
19

4

f 1910
J 1911
l 1912

21
18
20

84.0
84.0
84.0

21
18
20

2 plan ts...................................

\ 1911

l 1912
Pittsburgh:
5

plants..............................

8 plan ts...................................

f
1
1
l

2
4

4
2
2
54
38
62
56
70
76
58

18

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
20
14
18
22

8

30
26
26

Southern:

plants,




BLOWERS.

94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D I S T R I C T , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BLAST FURNACES— Continued.
BLOWERS—Concluded.

District and number of plants.

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Num ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
A ver­
week were—
age
full­
time Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
60
72
per under under
84
under
under
60
week.
72
56
84

Southern:
1907
1908
1909
1910

19
20
26
21

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910

29
.28
30

84.0
84.0
81.6

f
1
6 plan ts..................................... 1
I
10 plants...................................

\ 1911

l 1912

19
20
26
21

6

29
28
24

BLOWING ENGINEERS.
Eastern:
2 plants.................................

f
1
1
l

6 plants.................................

6
4
6
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
4
6
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

\ 1911

f 1910
l 1912

19
14
16

84.0
82.3
82.5

6 plants.................................

f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

32
30
36
34

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

9 plants.................................

{

f 1910
1911
l 1912

46
44
46

84.0
84.0
80.3

6 plan ts.................................

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

42
33
41
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

9 plan ts.................................

/ 1910
\ 1911

64
53

84.0
82.0

9

/ 1911
\ 1912

55
54

81.6
80.0

18

f
1
|
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
18
20
16

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

20

f 1910

24
24
26

84.0
84.0
81.2

24
24

19
2
2

12
14

Pittsburgh:
32
30
36
34
46
44
40

6

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

10 plants...............................
Southern:
6 plants.................................

10 plan ts...............................




< 1911

1 1912

42
33
41
56

11

64
44
44
36
18

20
16

20

WAGES AND HOUHS OP LABOE— BLAST FURNACES.

95

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
B L O W IN G EN GIN EERS’ A S S IS T A N T S —Concluded.

District and num ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Num ber o f employees whose full-tim e hours per
A ver­
week were—
age
full­
tim e Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
60
84
per under under
under
under
60
week.
56
72
84

Pittsburgh:
5 plants.

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

43
29
46
38

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

f 1910

8 plants....................................

\1911

[ 1912

54
58
69

84.0
84.0
80.3

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

16
14
16
20
12
15

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0
80.0
80.0

i

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
6
10
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1
1
i...........

f 1910

12
15
18

84.0
84.0
81.3

43
29
46
38
54
58
60

9

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

3 plants.

Southern:
2 plants.

f
1
1
l

4 plants.

\1911




1 1912

STOVE TENDERS.

i

4
5

16
14
16
20

8

10

6
10

12
4

15
14

96

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
K E E PE R S.

District and num ber of plants.

Eastern:

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
Aver­
week were—
N um ­ age
ber of full­
Fear. em­ tim e
Over
Over
Over
ploy­ hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
72
per under under
ees.
84
60
under
under
60
week.
72
56
84

2 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
4
6
6

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6 plants.

1910
1911
1912

29
20
20

84.0
81.6
81.6

6 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

60
38
64
58

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

9 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

76
82
92

84.0
84.0
78.5

6 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

52
34
45
55

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

9 plants.

1910
1911

65
50

84.0
80.2

16

65
34

1911
1912

52
. 68

80.3
79.1

16
28

36
40

1907
1908
1909
1910

28
20
26
23

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911
1912

31
30
36

84.0
84.0
82.0

Pittsburgh:

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

10 plants.
Southern:

10 plants.

4
4

29
16
16
60
38
64

68
76
82
74

18

52
34
45
55

28

20
26
23

l

6

' * " ! * * *

31
30
30

K E E PE R S’ H E L P E R S.
Eastern:
2 plants..................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

52
32
54
56

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

6 plants.................................

1910
1911
1912

162
120
120

84.0
82.8
82.8

6 plants.................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

202
135
218
194

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

9 plants.................................

1910
1911
1912

264
268
286

84.0
84.0
80.5

6 plants..................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

222
146
181
234

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

I
____ i..........

146
181
234

9 plants.................................

1910
1911

299
204

84.0
81.4

44

299
160

10 plants.

1911
1912

212
270

81.5
80.3

44
84

168
186

52
32
54
56
12
12

162
108
108

Pittsburgh:

202

135
218
194
264
268
250

36

Great Lakes and Middle West;




222

97

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
K E E PER S’ H E L P E R S—Concluded.

District and number of plants.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
Averweek were—
N um ­
ber of IU11Year. em­ time Over
Over
Over
ploy­ hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
per
60
72
84
ees.
under under
under
under
week.
60
72
56
84

Southern:
6 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
143
124

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

10 plants.

1910
1911
1912

152
142
170

84.0
84.0
81.9

140
96
143
124
152
142
140

30

IRON HANDLERS AND LOADERS.
Eastern:
2 plants.................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

27
27
37
35

84.0
80.9
80.6
80.4

6
9
9

28
26

4 plants.................................

1910
1911
1912

64
57
62

79.6
79.6
79.3

20
13
16

44
44
46

1 plant...................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
14
18
18

77.0
77.0
77.0
77.0

2 plants.................................

1910
1911
1912

28
22
32

79.5
73.9
77.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
16
17

79.3
81.4
81.5
79.3

6
3
3
6

12

1910
1911

68
62

72.5
71.4

56
56

12

1911
1912

70
69

72.8
74.5

56
47

14
22

5 plants................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
106
170
106

70.1
69.3
70.9
68.8

116
88
126
90

30
18
44
16

9 plants................................

1910
1911
1912

145
159
196

71.6
70.5
68.4

27

21

Pittsburgh:
12
14
18
18
18
18
18

4
4

Great Lakes and Middle West:
1 plant...................................

3 plants.................................
4 plants................................
Southern:

1
8

24

103
120
116

10
10
13
14

12

42
39
36

20

PIG-MACHINE MEN.
Eastern:
1 plant.

1910
1911
1912

44929°— Bull. 151—14-----7




16
15
17

84.0
72.0
72.0

15
17

16

98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
BLAST FURNACES—Continued.
PIG-MACHINE MEN—Concluded.

District and num ber of plants.

N um ­
ber of
Sear. em­
ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
Aver­
week were—
age
full­
time Over
Over
Over
hours 48 and 56 and
60 and
72 and
60
72
per under under
84
under
under
60
week.
56
72
84

Pittsburgh:
4 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

124
98
103
81

84.0
83.8
84.0
84.0

7 plants...................................

1910
1911
1912

136
150
153

84.0
84.0
84.0

4 plants...................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

52
45
44
71

84.0
84.0
83.5
83.5

1

1

6 plants.

1910
1911

105
73

83.6
80.7

1
*1

1

7 plants.

1911
1912

81
85

81.0
79.5

1
1

1 p la n t..

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
14
5
30

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

2plants.

1910
1911
1912

34
21
20

84.0
84.0
84.0

3

124
95
103
81
136
150
153

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

Southern:

3

52
45
41
69

18

103
54

18
30

62
54
17
14
5
30
34
21
20

. . . . . . . . . . . .i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

|

1

CINDER MEN.
Eastern:
2 plants..................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
5
5
7

84.0
82.6
84.0
84.0

5 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

40
32
26

83.3
82.1
81.6

6 plants.................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

110
99'
200
134

84.0
82.9
82.0
81.7

8 plants.................................

1910
1911

169
120

81.6
82.3

7 plants........................ ........

1911
1912

112
172

82.2
68.8

6 plants.................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

110
102
127
185

83.5
82.9
82.4
83.8

5
9

9 plants.................................

1910
1911

226
140

83.8
80.0

1
16

29

10 plants.

1911
1912

142
137

80.1
79.5

16
28

29
19

1

2
1
1

4
4

27

21

Pittsburgh:

110
3
1
1

68

23

8
18
20

7

27
10

2

6

102

10
10

2
1

6

94
70

27
23
41
20

83
74
77
165

20

205
95

i

88

141

Great Lakes and Middle W est




i

91
172
113

97

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

99

T able V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C LASSIFIE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EAC H D IST R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Concluded.
BLAST FU RNACES— Concluded.

CINDER MEN—Concluded.

D is trict an d n u m b e r o f plan ts.

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s w h ose fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r
A v e r­
w e e k w ere—
N u m ­ age
b e r o f fu ll­
Y e a r. em ­ tim e
O ver
O ver
O ver
p lo y ­ hours 48 and 56 and
72 and
60 and
72
under
60
per
84
ees.
u n d er
u n d er
u n der
60
w eek.
72
84
56

S ou th ern :
6 p la n ts .

10 p la n ts .

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

[ 1910
\1911
1 1912

36
39
48
31
47
47
62

32
32
42
27

82.4
81.5
82.3
82.2
82.8
82.2
80.5

43
41
45

12

LABO RERS.

E astern :
1907
1908
1909
1910

93
77
87
104

1910
1911
1912

135
99

6 p la n ts .....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

9 p la n ts .....................................

2 p la n ts .....................................

56
32
72
99

66.9
64.6
69.1

68.0

4

2
4
5

52
41
38

101

68.0

374
286
227
245

78.1
73.8
75.5
74.4

60
76
39
62

40
33
43
29

27
84
28
27

247
93

1910
1911
1912

309
301
284

75.6
75.6
77.7

65
73

47
38

11

34
32
71

139
151
152

6 p la n ts .....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

229
189
257
348

77.4
75.8
73.3
73.7

14
23
44
94

111
86

9 p la n ts .....................................

1910
1911

410

222

73.5
72.2

115
81

10 p la n ts ...................................

1911
1912

224
275

72.3
71.0

81
113

6 p la n ts .....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

261
166
186
205

10 p la n ts ...................................

1910
1911
1912

305
277
303

6 p la n ts .....................................

76.3
69.1

233
3

67
37

10

11

22

10

P itts b u rg h :

102
104

Great L akes an d M id d le W est:
73
61

117
80
77
150

100
19
19

19

177
72
74

21

86

74.3
71.7
71.3
75.5

181
146
152
118

26
84

73.3
73.7
72.3

169
170
173

99
43
46

S ou th ern :




80

20

BESSEMER CONVERTERS,
SUMMARY.

Summary figures relating to the Bessemer converting department
are given with figures for other departments of the iron and steel
industry in the introductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explana­
tion of the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed
is given on pages 16 to 22.
Briefly summarized, the average full-time weekly earnings of
employees in the Bessemer converting department in 1912 were 4.5
per cent higher than in 1907, 14 per cent higher than in 1908, 7.2 per
cent higher than in 1909, 2.6 per cent higher than in 1910, and 7.5
per cent higher than in 1911. The average full-time hours of labor
per week were lower in 1912 than in any of the five years preceding
except 1908, being 2.2 per cent lower than in 1907, 1.9 per cent lower
than in 1909, 2.5 per cent lower than in 1910, and 0.3 percent lower
than in 1911, while they were 2.1 per cent higher than in 1908. The
average rate of wages or earnings per hour in 1912 was higher than in
any of the five preceding years, being 7 per cent higher than in 1907,
15.1 per cent higher than in 1908, 10.5 percent higher than in 1909,
5.8 per cent higher than in 1910, and 10.5 per cent higher than in
1911.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of
the Bessemer converting department are summarized in the table
following. Data are presented for the years 1907 to 1912, inclusive, the
figures set opposite each bracketed group of years being for identical
plants. Referring to the first occupation presented, laborers, direct
comparison can be made of data for 9 identical plants from 1907 to 1910,
and for 10 from 1910 to 1912. The first line of the table is analyzed as
follows: In 1907 the 9 Bessemer converters from which reports were
obtained employed 801 laborers, whose average full-time hours of
work were 78 per week. For 3.2 per cent of the 801 laborers the
full-time hours per week were over 48 and under 72; for 21.5 per cent,
72; for 33.2 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 42.1 per cent, 84
hours. The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in
the year considered (1907) was $0,155. Of the total number 71.3 per
cent received 14 and under 16 cents per hour, and 28.7 per cent, 16
and under 18 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly earnings
100




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

101

were $12.12. The other lines of the table may be read in the same
manner.
Referring to the last column of the table it is seen that in 9 identical
plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers was $12.12
in 1907. In the next two years there were drops to $11.80 and $11.62,
respectively, and in 1910 an advance to $12.69. In the 10 identical
plants reporting for 1910, 1911, and 1912 the average for 1910 was
also $12.69. There was a decrease to $12.39 in 1911 and an increase
to $12.64 in 1912. Despite the fact that the two reports for 1910
are the same, it would not be an accurate comparison, however, to
state that earnings increased from $12.12 in 1907 to $12.64 in 1912,
because one more plant is concerned in the 1912 average than in that
for 1907. The other items in the table should be studied with like care.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1912 of the
several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of
laborers, which was $12.64. The averages of 13 of the 19 occupa­
tions reported for this department, however, were from 50 per cent
to over 200 per cent higher, the highest being that of vessel men,
which was $38.32 in 1912.
A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S I N E A C H O F T H E
P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A T I O N S , 1907 T O 1912— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .
[T h e figures set op p osite each b ra ck e te d group o f years are fo r id en tical p la n ts .]

P er ce n t o f e m p loy ees
w h ose fu ll-tim e hours
p e r w e e k w ere—

O ccu p a tion , a n d n u m ­
b er o f p lan ts.

A v e r­
N um ­
age
ber
fu ll­
of
Y ear.
tim e
O ver
em ­
48
p lo y ­ hours 48
p er
an d an d
ees.
w eek.
un­ un­
der. der
72

L aborers:

....
....

[1907
11908
11909
11910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1 .........

[1910
10 p la n ts ..................... •{1911
(.1912

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

3.2
13.6
6.1
4 .6

72

O ver
72
an d
un­
der
84

21.5
30.8
25.0
32.4

33.2
21.9
39.2
20.3

84

P er ce n t o f e m p lo y ­
ees earning ea ch
classified rate o f
w ages p e r hou r.

A ver­
age
rate
of
12
wages a n d
p er
un­
hour.
der
14
cts.

....

42.1 $0.155
33.6 .155
29.6
.151 *i6 .3
142.6 .163

.....

4 .6 35.0 19.6 240.9
8 .8 42.7 36.3 12.3
7.5 38.7 27.8 26.0

14
an d
un­
der
16
cts.

A v e r­
age
fu ll­
tim e
16
w eek­
and
18
ly
u n ­ cents earn­
der an d ings.
18 over.
cts.

71.3
76.9
54.8
27.3

28.7
$12.12
23.1
11.80
11.62
28.9
72.7 ......... 12.69

.163
26.0 74.0
.166
17.7 82.3
7 .8 92.2 .........
.167 .........
16
U n ­ an d
d er u n ­
16 der
cts.
20
cts.

B o tto m m ak ers’ h elp ­
ers:
Q p id n is ...................
y tvlonfo

[1907
11908
11909
11910

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

..... 26.7
.... 25.9
27.6
..... .....

.....
....

46.7 26.7
66.7 7.4
51.7 20.7
86.7 6 .7 * 6 . 7

.257
26.7
.204 14*8 37.0
.234 6 .9 , 34.5
.239
I 36.7

.....

1 In c lu d in g 7.2 p e r ce n t w h ose fu ll-tim e hou rs p e r w eek w ere 85.
2 In clu d in g 6.9 p e r ce n t w h ose fu ll-tim e hou rs p e r w eek w ere 85.




....
....

12.69
12.39
12.64

20
an d
30
u n ­ cts.
d er an d
30 over.
cts .

46.7
33.3
37.9
50.0

26.6
14.8
20.7
13.3

18.82
14.75
17.08
17.38

102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S I N E A C H O F T H E
P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A T I O N S , 1907 T O 1912— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — C o n tin u e d .

P er cen t o f e m p lo y ­
P e r ce n t o f e m p loy ees
ees earning each
w h o se fu ll-tim e hours
classified rate o f
p er w e e k w ere—
A v e r­
A v e r­
w ages p e r h ou r.
N um ­
age
age
b er
fu llrate
of
Y ea r.
tim e
of
O ver
O ver
em ­
16
20
hours
wages
72
U n ­ an d a n d
p lo y ­
48
48
30
per
per
an d and
and
der u n ­ u n ­ c t s .
ees.
84 hour.
72
w eek.
un­ u n ­
der der a n d
un­
16
der. der
der
cts.
20
30 o v e r .
84
72
cts. cts.

O ccu p a tion , an d n u m ­
b er o f plants.

A ve r­
age
fu ll­
tim e
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

B o tt o m m ak ers’ h elp ers— C on clu d ed .
(1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
(.1912
C in d er p itm e n :
(1907
J1908
n i l
11909
11910
[1910
<1911
9 p la n ts ....................... |l912
L a d le lin ers ’ helpers:
[1907
J1908
|ly09
U910

34
31
31

7 2 . 8 _____
88.2 5 .9
72.2
32.3 64.5
72.2
32.3 61.3 * *6.5

5 .9 $0,235
38.3 50.0 11.8 $17.10
3 .2
.234 ” 3.2 38.8 38.7 19.4 16.88
.238 6.5 35.5 45.2 13.0 17.18

118
71
92
79

67.9 20.3 37.3 32.2 3.4 6 .8
65.9 29.6 16.9 39.4 14.1
68.4 22.8 25.0 32.6 10.9 **8.*7
67.3 7.6 19.0 50.6 12.7 10.1

.206
.173
.178
.213

85
62
87

67.6 7.1 17.6 54.1 11.8 9.4
69.8 9 .7 25.8 54.8 9 .7
41.4 34.5 .........
67.2 24.1

.211 9.4 61.2 22.3
.199 3 .2 87.1
.204 ......... 75.8 17*2

39
31
39
37

68.2 15.4 28.2 51.3 5.1
67.5 19.4 35.5 38.7
68.5 15.4 28.2 46.2 10.3
68.5 16.2 2 .7 64.9 10.8

.255
.209
.230
.239

.....
6 .5
5 .4

[1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912
S tockers:
[1907
11908
Q piCUltS...........
* t IQrita
7Y
11909
11910

39
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6

15.4 2 .6 66.7 10.3
8 .8 44.1 47.1
8 .8 44.1 41.2 5 .9

3H
260
266
350

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

46.1 12.4 7.3 22.4 11.9
57 7 10.7 10.4 9 .6 11.5
42.9 7.5 12.4 22.6 14 7
32.6 16.0 19.4 5 .7 26.3

[1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912

352
241
268

64.9 32.4 16.5 19.3 5 .7 26.1
61.7 46.1
7 .0 23.7 10.8 12.4
62.0 45.9 14.9 7.8 17.9 13.4

5.1

30.5
57.7
37.0
10.1

10.3
22.6
10.3
.........

[1907
1908
8 p la n ts ....................... <1909

30.8
32.3
38.4
37.8

7.1 13.69
9 .7 13.55
6 .9 13.27

38.5 20.5 16.65
35.5 9 .7 13.79
38.4 12.8 15.26
48.6 13.5 15.83

41.1 46.2 12.8 15.73
.236
.233 * 5 . 9 41.2 38.3 14.7 15.75
.228 5 .9 41.2 38.3 14.7 15.43
.246 17.0 27.7 27.0 28.3
.2^5 14.3 21.2 26.2 38.5
.264 26.7 19.5 11.6 42.1
.266 2 .9 37.5 25.4 34.3

14.27
14.93
15.31
16.04

.266 2 .8 37.2 25.9 34.1 16.03
.233 5 .0 39.8 40.3 15.0 13.60
.312 ......... 37.7 13.5 48.8 17.66

U n­
der
20
cts.
C upola tap p ers:

45.8 13.6 10.2 13.32
33.8 8.5
11.27
5 .4
51.1
6 .5 11.88
58.2 24.1
7.6 13.77

.2 9
T

20
and
un­
d er
30
cts.

30
and
un­
d er
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
60
cts.

12.0
23.3
46.5
34.0
34.2

34.0
62.8
7.0
32.1
63.4

52.0
11.6
44.2
32.2
.........

[1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

/1911
\i912

45
48

60.4 53.3
60.6 56.3 * 4 . 2

33.3 4.4
10.4 20.8

[1907
9 p la n ts ....................... 11908
11909
[1910

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

20.7
21.4
21.4
27.6

[1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912
M old cappers:
[1907
8 p la n ts ....................... J1908
11909
11910

31
27
28

68.1
9 .7 19.4 32/3 19.4 19.4
70.4
33.3 44.4 22.2
68.8 10.7 25.0 28.6 35.7

.303
71.0
.282 *14.*8 66.6
.320
7l! 5

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

8.3
5 .1 .........
9.3
4.3
8.*7

.347 8.4 16.6 56.3 18.8 18.02
.196 74.4 20.5 5 .1
10.57
.271 14.1 60.5 11.6 ‘ i4.‘ o 14.26
.326 17.4 10.8 58.7 13.0 17.07

(1910
9 p la n ts....................... <1911
[1912

52
37
44

57.0 23.1 46.2 19.2 3 .8
7.7
64.2 32.4 . . . . . 62.2 5 .4
59.5 54.5 ......... 31.8 1 13.6 .........

.314 15.4 21.2 51.9 11.5 16.96
.282 24.3 43.2 16.2 16.2 17.36
.324 18.2 27.2 36.4 18.1 18.05

j910

9 plants
In g o t strippers:




54.0 8 .0 18.0 12.0 8 .0
55.8 4.7 30.2 4 .7 4 .7
55.8 ......... 11.6 18.6 14.0
64.3 ......... 12.5 1 14.3 8 .9
58.5 ......... 26.8 4.9 9 .8

31.0
21.4
21.4
10.3

13.8
21.4
14.3
20.7

75.0
16.7
76.9
17.9
76.7 . . . . . 14.0
26.1 52.2 8 .7

....

8.9
8.3

20.7 13.8
35.7
21.4 21.4
20.7 20.7

.....

.335
.3*0
.362
.318

2 .0
2 .3
2 .3
1.8
2 .4

.314
.369

2 .2 40.0 57.8
18.36
2 .1 41.7 2 .1 *54.2 20.94

22.16
19.67
19.74
20.30
18.19

62.1 17.2 20.7 19.60
.310
16.34
.238 *i4*3 78.6 7.1
.264
18.17
78.6 21.4
31.6 19.85
.307 ......... 69.0 .........

.....

.....

29.0 19.69
18.5 19.26
7.1 21.4 20! 90

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

103

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S I N E A C H O F T H E
P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A T I O N S , 1907 T O 1912— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S - C o n t i n u e d .

O ccu p a tion , an d n u m ­
b er o f plants.

P er cen t o f e m p lo y ­
P er cen t o f em p lo y e e s
ees earning each
w h ose fu ll-tim e hours
classified rate o f A ver­
p er w eek w ere—
A ver­
A ver­
wages p e r h ou r.
N um ­
age
age
age
ber
fu ll­
fu ll­
rate
tim e
of
Y ear.
tim e
of
O ver
O ver
20
30
40 w e e k ­
em ­
hours
w ages U n ­ an d
72
a n d an d
p lo y ­
48
48
ly
per
p er
der u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ earn­
an d
an d and
ees.
84 h ou r.
72
w eek.
der der d e r ings.
un­
un­ un­
20
der. der
der
cts.
30
60
40
72
84
cts. cts. cts .

S topper m ak ers:

....

.....

(1907
J1908
11909
11910

£
11

72.8
30.0 $23.01
20.0 40.0 30.0 10.0 $0,316 10.0 60.0
22.2 44.4 11.1 22.2
16.10
72.9
.223 33.3 55.5 11.1
44.4 22.2 11.1 22.2
71.6
.270 22.2 44.4 22.2 i i . 'i 19.22
73.1 .........
9.1 72.7 ......... 18.2 .263 9.1 63.7 27.3
19.33

(1910
in p la n ts ..................... <1911
11912

12
1C
10

8.3 75.0
16.7
73.0
72.0
20.0 60.0
20.0
70.8 ......... 30.0 50.0 ......... 20.0

9 p la n ts .......................

1C

f
i

....
__

19.14
.260 8.3 66.7 25.0
.273 20.0 40.0 40.0
19.53
.272 20.0 50.0 20.0 10.0 18.91

25
40
U n ­ a n d a n d .50
der u n ­ u n ­ c ts .
der der a n d
25
cts .
40
50 over.
cts . cts .
B o tt o m m ak ers:

....
....

.....

23.5 11.8 28.10
20.45
23.5
12.5 *25.6 25.57
23.5 ......... 25.92

(1907
11908
9 p la n ts ....................... 1l909
(l910

17
17
16
17

73.4
11.8
72.4
23.5
73.1 . . . . . 12.5
73.5 ......... .........

(1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
(1912
C u pola m elters:
(1907
1908
7 p la n ts ....................... <1909
1910
(1911

19
19
20

73.4
71.8
72.5

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

/1911
8 p la n ts ....................... \1912

17
18

65.2 35.3 11.8 29.4 11.8 11.8
61.6 50.0 11.1 16.7 11.1 11.1

.386
.409

(1907
ft p la n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . J1908
y i
11909
11910

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

.454 9.5 38.1 19.0 33.3 28.95
.306 33.3 42.9 14.3 9.5 19.78
.392 23.8 23.8 38.1 14.3 25.22
.383 17.4 39.1 21.7 21.7 25.20

(1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
(1912
R egulators4 first:
,
(1907
11908
ft i
y p la n + .......................
ts
11909
(l910

25
24
24

66.8 24.0 4 .0 56.0
68.3 12.5 20.9 66.7
68.9 12.5 20.9 58.3

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

(1910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
(1912
R egulators, secon d:
(1907
. . .
J1908
o p la n ts .....................
11909
11910
(1910
8 p la n ts ....................... <1911
11912

64.7
64.7
68.8
76.5

23.5
11.8
18.8
11.8 * i i *8

78.9 10.5 10.5
*2i.*i 78.9
20.0 70.0 10.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
37.5
40.0

13.3
13.3
13.3
18.8
13.3

20.0
20.0
20.0
18.8
20.0

13.3
13.3
13.3
12.5
13.3

U 3.4
13.3
13.3
12.5
13.3

.386
.283 *47* i
.351 6.3
.355 11.8

64.7
29.4
56.3
64.7

25.28
.346 10.5 68.4 21.1
.337 10.5 68.4 10.5 *i0.*5 24.18
.345 10.0 70.0 10.0 10.0 24.96

....

.509 6 .7 26.7
.350 13.3 53.3 20.0
.419 20.0 13.3 33.3
.447 6.3 43.8
.390 6 .7 40.0 *40*6

66.6
13.3
33.3
50.1
13.3

31.67
22.20
26.09
25.85
24.45

5 .9 47.1 35.3 11.8 24.62
5 .6 44.4 22.2 27.8 23.82

L a d le liners:
28.6 14.3 47.6 9.5
28.6 23.8 38.1
’ *9*5
28.6 14.3 47.6 * *9.5
26.1 4.3 52.2 8.7 ’ *8*7
8 .0

.378 16.0 44.0 20.0 20.0 25.05
.342 25.0 33.4 25.0 16.7 22.85
.369 16.7 50.0 20.8 12.5 24.95

46.2 7.7 30.8 7.7 7.7
36.0 16.0 32.0 8 .0 8 .0
36.0 8.0 40.0 8 .0 8 .0
20.7 31.0 34.5 ......... 13.8

.437 7.7 42.3 34.6 15.4 27.28
17.78
.266 56.0 28.0 16.0
.344 32.0 36.0 8 .0 24.0 22.97
25.60
.414 6.9 37.9 34.5 20.7

31
24
25

62.1 19.4 29.0 38.7
12.9
8.3
66.8 25.0 16.7 50.0
64.7 36.0 16.0 32.0 * 8.*6 8 .0

.408 6.5 41.9 32.3 19.4 25.45
8.3 24.79
.377 16.6 37.5 37.5
.411 8 .0 36.0 40.0 16.0 26.24

18
14
14
18

65.3 33.3 11.1 33.3 22.2
73.5
28.6 42.9 28.6
73.8
14.3 57.1 28.6
66.7 *33*3 ........ 44.4 ......... 22.2

.....
....

11.1 77.8 11.1 27.81
.427
19.64
.269 57.1 35.7 7.1
26.80
.365
7.1 50.0 42.9
.403 ......... 38.9 50.0 11.1 26.96

22
21
23

18.2
67.5 27.3 9.1 45.5
65.0 2 8.61 19.0 52.4
63.5 39.11 17.4 26.1 1.7.4

.378 9.1 40.9 40.9 9.1 25.52
21.41
.333 19.1 47.7 33.3
82.6
i.7.4 23.36
.367

8 .0
8.3

....

....

1 In clu d in g 6.7 p e r c e n t w h o se full-tim e hou rs p e r w e e k w ere 91.




....
....

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

104

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A T I O N S , 1907 T O 1 9 1 2 -B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — C o n clu d e d .

P er cen t o f e m p lo y ­
P e r cen t o f em p loyees
ees earning each
w h ose fu ll-tim e hours
classified rate o f
p e r w e e k were—
A ve r­
A v e r­
w ages p e r hou r.
N um ­
age
age
ber
fu ll­
rate
of
Y ea r.
tim e
of
O ver
O ver
em ­
25
40
hours
wages
72
p lo y ­ per
U n ­ and and
48
48
50
p er
der u n ­ u n ­ cts.
and
an d and
ees.
84
w eek.
72
hour.
der der an d
un­
un­ un­
25
der
der. der
cts.
40
50 over.
84
72
cts. cts.

O ccupation* and n u m ­
ber o f plants.

A ver­
age
railtim e
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

V essel m en ’ s h elpers:
51.1
40.0
40.0
49.0

19.1 8.5 17.0 4.3 $0,566 . . . . . 14.9 25.5 59.6
20.0 17.8 17.8 4 .4
.376 26.6 28.9 26.7 17.7
.484 4 .4 22.2 37.8 35.6
20.0 17.8 17.8 4 .4
.524 ......... 16.3 51.0 32.6
30.6 8.2 ......... 12.2

9 p la n ts .......................

11907
1908
11909
11910

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

11910

10 p la n ts .....................

•
(ion

53
51
53

56.5 45.3 28.3 15.1
11.3
57.6 47.1 17.6 23.5 *7.8 3 .9
55.9 56.6 17.0 7.5 15.1 3 .8

11912

.506 3 .8 18.9 47.2 30.2 28.22
.421 11.7 27.4 27.5 33.4 23.48
.470 ......... 37.8 20.8 41.4 25.47
40
U n­ and
der u n ­
der
40
cts .
50
cts .

B low ers:
30.0
15.8
15.8
15.0
.........

10.0 50.0 10.0 .........
10.5 63.2 10.5 .........
10.5 63.2 10.5 . . . .
60.0 15.0 10.0
l i . 'i 88.9 ......... .........

$31.84
21.65
28.24
28.86

.619
.466
.486
.536
.498

50
and
70
u n ­ cts .
der a n d
70 o ve r.
cts .

20.0
36.8
21.1
10.0
11.1

15.0
10.5
21.1
35.0
22.2

11907
1908
9 p la n ts ....................... •(1909
1910
11911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

11911
10 p la n ts ..................... \1912

20
21

72.0
10.0 90.0
69.1 ’ LL'3 9.5 66.7 * *9.5

11907
11908
11909
11910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

11910
10 p la n ts ..................... {1911
11912
S top p er setters:
11907
Q p la n ts
y ■nloTvf'o ....................... 11908
11909
[l910

32
30
32

12.5
55.6 65.6 9 .4 12.5
.........
55.1 70.0 ......... 30.0
54.7 75.0 ......... 12.5 *i2.*5

.617 6.3 28.1 28.2 37.5 32.74
.535 23.4 10.0 56.7 10.0 27.91
.578 6.3 34.4 34.4 25.0 30.57

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

.630
.343
.552
.589

Steel p ourers:

„ ,

.

y p la n ts ................... ..

72.4
64.3
64.3
70.0

.....
’io
.’o

13.8
21.4
21.4
6.7

....

13.8 . . . . .
14.3
14.3
......... *i3.*3

....

....

86.7
75.0
70.6
73.0 ' i O

8 .9 4 .4
20.0 5 .0
23.5 5 .9
5 .4 ......... * *5.4

11910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
11912
Vessel m en:
11907
11908
y piantb............ .
11909
11910

39
39
42

52.6 69.2 15.4 10.3
55.3 69.2
30.8
9.5
51.7 85.7

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

11910
10 p la n ts ..................... <1911
11912

26
25
26

15.4
57.8 46.2 23.1 15.4
59.1 48.0 12.0 24.0 8 .6 8 .0
57.3 57.7 11.5 7.7 15.4
7.7

....

52.2
40.9
40.9
50.0

5.1

.....

*4.8 .........

13.0 8.7 17.4 8 .7
13.6 18.2 18.2 9.1
13.6 18.2 18.2 9.1
25.0 8.3 ......... 16.7

20.0
42.1
47.4
45.0
55.6

45.0
10.5
10.5
10.0
11.1

39.55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.84

.493 10.0 60.0 20.0 10.0 35.48
.529 ......... 57.1 33.3
9.5 36.36
.693 6 .9 17.2
.439 46.5 3 .6
.576 39.2
.630 6 .7 *23*3

24.1 51.7 36.39
24.25
50.0
17.9 *42*9 31.61
30.0 40.0 32.94

26.6 15.6 26.6 31.1
67.5 17.5 5 .0 10.0
35.4 5 .9 23.5 35.3
29.7 16.2 21.6 32.4

31.79
18.50
29.36
30.08

.577 33.3 15.4 20.5 30.8 29.81
.498 43.6 17.9 7.7 30.8 26.08
.496 33.3 35.7 16.6 14.3 25.36
.793
30.4
8.7
.528 40.9 **9.‘ i 31.8
.630 18.2 22.7 22.7
.708 8.3
8.3 50.0

44.58
31.27
37.19
38.88
m
.<585 7.7 15.4 46.2 3.08 38.18
.580 24.0 8 .0 40.0 2.80 32.45
7 .7 19.2 26.9 4.62 38.32
.703
60.9
18.2
36.4
33.3

Owing to the change in the number of plants from year to year
and the consequent difference in the averages for the overlapping
year in the two groups, it is difficult to make a comparison of the
actual data over a period of several years which will give an accurate




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

105

measure of the changes throughout the period. To aid in making
such a comparison, relative or index numbers have been computed
from the averages of the preceding table, for full-time hours per
week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for
each occupation from 1907 to 1912, inclusive. Such figures appear in
the table following. These relative or index numbers are simply per­
centages in which the data for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per
cent. The relative for each year is the per cent that the average for
that year is of the average for 1912. For example, the relative full­
time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 was 80.8, as compared with
100 in 1912, that is, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907
were 100.8 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation
in 1912. The method of computing relative numbers is explained on
page 21.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings in 1912 as compared with each speci­
fied year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of stockers
in 1912 were 23.8 per cent higher than in 1907, 18.3 per cent higher
than in 1908, 15.5 per cent higher than in 1909, 10.1 per cent higher
than in 1910, and 29.9 per cent higher than in 1911.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full­
time weekly earnings of stockers in 1908 were 4.6 per cent higher than
in 1907,2.5 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 4.8 per cent higher in
1910 than in 1909, 15.2 per cent lower in 1911 than in 1910, and 29.9
per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911.
T h e
l i k e m

o t h e r
a n n e r .

o c c u p a t i o n s

a n d

i t e m

s

o f

t h e

The percentages of increase and decrease are computed from the
relative numbers.




t a b l e

106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1907 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F I N C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S — B E S S E M E R
CONVERTERS.

H o u r s p e r w eek.

O c c u p a tio n a n d yea r.

R e la ­
t iv e
fu ll­
t im e
h o u rs
per
w eek.

S tock ers:
100.8
1907..........................................
94.0
1908..........................................
102.6
1909..........................................
104.7
1910..........................................
99.5
1911..........................................
100.0
1912..........................................
C upola m elters:
107.3
1907..........................................
106.5
1908..........................................
106.5
1909..........................................
99.7
1910..........................................
105.8
1911..........................................
100.0
1912..........................................
C u pola tappers:
101.7
1907..........................................
99.7
1908..........................................
103.4
1909..........................................
1910.......................................... ‘ 99.0
99.7
1911..........................................
100.0
1912..........................................
B low ers:
94.8
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
99.7
1909..........................................
99.7
101.1
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
104.2
1912..........................................
100.0
R egu la tors, first:
97.4
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
101.1
1909..........................................
101.3
96.0
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
103.2
1912..........................................
100.0
R egu la tors, s econ d :
1907..........................................
104.1
1908..........................................
117.1
1909..........................................
117.6
1910..........................................
106.3
1911..........................................
102.4
1912..........................................
100.0
V essel m en :
1907..........................................
104.3
1908..........................................
108.9
1909..........................................
109.1
1910..........................................
100.9
1911..........................................
103.1
1912..........................................
100.0
V essel m e n ’s helpers:
1907..........................................
104.2
1908..........................................
108.7
1909..........................................
108.9
1910..........................................
101.1
1911..........................................
103.0
1912..........................................
100.0




W ag es p e r h o u r.

P er cen t of
increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in —

E ach
1912 as
com ­
year
com ­
pa red
p ared
w ith
ea ch
w it h
year
sp e ci­
fie d
preced­
year.
in g .

—
+
+

0 .8
6 .4
2.5
4.5
.5

—
+
-

6 .8
6.1
6.1
.3
5.5

— 1.7
+
.3
-• 3 .3
+ 1.0
+
.3
4 -5 .5
4- .3
4- .3
- 1.1
- 4.0
+ 2 .7
- 1.1
- 1.3
+ 4 .2
- 3.1
— 3 .9
-1 4 .6
-1 5 .0
- 5 .9
- 2.3
—
-

4.1
8 .2
8 .3
.9
3 .0

—
-

4 .0
8 .0
8 .2
1.1
2 .9

Per cen t of
increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( —)
in —
R e la ­
t iv e
rate o f
w ages
p er
h o u r.

1912 as
E ach
com ­
year
com ­
p ared
w it h
p a re d
each
w it h
speci­
year
fie d
p reced­
year.
ing.

6 .7
9.1
2 .0
5 .0
.5

78.8
88.1
84.6
85.3
74.7
100.0

+ 2 6 .9
+ 1 3 .5
+ 1 8 .2
+ 1 7 .2
+ 3 3 .9

.7
C
1)
- 6 .4
+ 6.1
— 5.5

123.2
84.7
101.4
108.2
94.4
100.0

—18.8
+ 1 8 .1
- 1.4
- 7 .6
+ 5 .9

- 2 .0
+ 3 .7
- 4.3
+
.7
+
.3

101.5
89.7
91.1
97.0
85.1
100.0

— 1.5
+ 1 1 .5
+ 9 .8
+ 3.1
+ 1 7 .5

+ 5 .2
(»)
+ 1.4
+ 3.1
— 4.0

115.8
87.2
90.9
100.3
93.2
100.0

—13.6
+ 1 4 .7
+ 1 0 .0
.3
+ 7.3

+
+
+
—

3 .8
.2
5 .2
7.5
3.1

104,8
63.8
82.5
99.3
91.7
100.0

— 4.6
+ 5 6 .7
+ 2 1 .2
+
•7
+ 9.1

+1.2.5
+
.4
- 9 .6
- 3 .7
— 2.3

109.2
68.7
93.3
103.0
90.7
100.0

— 8 .4
+ 4 5 .6
+ 7 .2
- 2 .9
+ 1 0 .3

+
+
+
—

4.4
.2
7.5
2 .2
3 .0

109.1
72.7
86.7
97.4
82.5
100.0

— 8 .3
+ 3 7 .6
+ 1 5 .3
+ 2.7
+ 2 1 .2

+ 4.3
+
.2
- 7 .2
+ 1.9
- 2 .9

116.3
77.3
99.4
107.7
89.6
100.0

—14.0
+ 2 9 .4
+
.6
- 7.1
+ 1 1 .6

+
+
+
-

1 No change.

W e e k ly earnings.

R e la ­
t iv e
fu ll­
t im e
w e e k ly
earn­
in gs.

Per cen t of
increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( —)
in -

1912 as
E ach
com ­
year
com ­
p a red
pa red
w it h
each
w it h
year
speci­
fied
p re ce d ­
year.
ing.

+ 1 1 .8
- 4.0
+
•8
-1 2 .4
+ 3 3 .9

80.8
84.5
86.6
90.8
77.0
100.0

+ 2 3 .8
+18! 3
+ 1 5 .5
+ 1 0 .1
+ 2 9 .9

-3 1 .3
+ 1 9 .7
+ 6 .7
-1 2 .8
+ 5 .9

133.9
93.8
110.3
109.3
103.4
100.0

—25.3
+ 6 .6
- 9.3
- 8.5
- 3.3

-1 1 .6
+ 1.6
+ 6.5
-1 2 .3
+ 1 7 .5

106.8
94.8
95.2
97.9
87.7
100.0

— 6.4
+ 5 .5
+ 5 .0
+ 2.1
+ 1 4 .0

-2 4 .7
+ 4 .2
+ 1 0 .3
- 7.1
+ 7.3

107.7
88.2
90.6
100.7
97.6
100.0

— 7.1
+ 1 3 .4
+ 1 0 .4
.7
+ 2.5

-3 9 . i
+ 2 9 .3
+ 2 0 .4
- 7.7
+ 9.1

103.4
67.4
87.0
97.0
94.5
100.0

— 3.3
+ 4 8 .4
+ 1 4 .9
+ 3.1
+ 5 .8

-3 7 .1
+ 3 5 .8
+ 1 0 .4
-1 1 .9
+ 1 0 .3

112.7
79.6
108.6
109.2
91.7
100.0

—11.3
+ 2 5 .6
- 7 .9
- 8 .4
+ 9 .1

-3 3 .4
+ 1 9 .3
+ 1 2 .3
-1 5 .3
+ 2 1 .2

114.2
80.1
953
99.6
84.7
100.0

—12.4
+ 2 4 .8
+ 4 .9
+
.4
+ 1 8 .1

-3 3 .5
+ 2 8 .6
+ 8.4
-1 6 .8
+ 1 1 .6

122.2
83.1
108.4
110.8
92.2
100.0

—18.2
+ 2 0 .3
- 7 .7
- 9 .7
+ 8.5

+ 4.6
+ 2 .5
+ 4 .8
-1 5 .2
+ 2 9 .9
-2 9 .9
+ 1 7 .6
.9
- 5 .4
- 3 .3
-1 1 .2
+
.4
+ 2 .8
-1 0 .4
+ 1 4 .0
-1 8 .1
+ 2.7
+ 1 1 .1
- 3.1
+ 2.5
-3 4 .8
+ 2 9 .1
+ 1 1 .5
- 2 .6
+ 5 .8
-2 9 .4
+ 3 6 .4
+
.6
-1 6 .0
+ 9.1
-2 9 .9
+ 1 9 .0
+ 4.5
-1 5 .0
+ 1 8 .1
-3 2 .0
+ 3 0 .4
+ 2 .2
-1 6 .8
+ 8.5

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

107

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1907 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F I N C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S — B E S S E M E R
C O N V E R T E R S — C o n tin u e d .

H ou rs p e r w e e k .

O c cu p a tio n a n d yea r.

C inder p itm en :
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
B o tto m m akers:
1907..........................................
1908.........................................
1909..........................................
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................
B o tt o m m ak ers’ helpers:
1907..........................................
1908.........................................
1909.........................................
1910.........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
L a d le liners:
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
1909.........................................
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912..........................................
L a d le liners’ helpers:
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
S to p p e r m ak ers:
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
S top p er setters:
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
Steel pourers:
1907..........................................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................




R e la tiv e
full­
tim e
h o u rs
per
w eek.

W a g e s p e r hou r.

P er cen t o f
increase ( + ) o r
d ecrea se ( —)
in —

1912 as E a c h
com ­
year
pa red
com ­
w ith
p a red
each
w ith
s p e ci­
yea r
fie d
p re ce d ­
y e a r.
in g .

101.5
98.5
102.2
100.6
103.9
100.0

- 1.5
+ 1.5
- 2 .2
.6
- 3 .8

101.1
99.7
100.7
101.2
99.0
100.0

- 1.1
+
.3
.7
- 1.2
+ 1 .0

101.7
99.9
101.1
100.8
100.0
100.0

- 1.7
+
.1
- 1.1
.8
0)

95.2
95.9
95.2
97.0
99.1
100.0

+
+
+
+
+

98.3
97.3
98.7
98.7
99.3
100.0

+ 1.7
+ 2 .8
+ 1.3
+ 1.3
+
.7

102.7
102.8
101.0
103.1
101.7
100.0

-

2 .6
2.7
1.0
3 .0
1.7

101.7
107.3
109.4
101.7
107.0
100.0

-

1.7
6 .8
8 .6
1.7
6.5

103.3
107.1
107.2
101.6
100.7
100.0

-

3 .2
6 .6
6 .7
1.6
.7

5 .0
4.3
5 .0
3.1
.9

P ercen t of
increase ( + ) o r
d ecrea se ( —)
in—
R e la ­
tiv e
rate o f
w ages
per
h o u r.

100.0
84.0
86.4
103.4
97.5
100.0

(i)
+ 1 9 .0
+ 1 5 .7
- 3 .3
+ 2 .6

- 1.4
+ 1.0
+
.5
- 2 .2
+ 1.0

109.0
79.9
99.2
100.3
97.7
100.0

— 8.3
+ 2 5 .2
+
.8
.3
+ 2 .4

1.8
1.2
.3
.8
C
1)

106.2
84.3
96.7
98.7
98.3
100.0

- 5 .8
+ 1 8 .6
+ 3 .4
+ 1.3
+ 1 .7

+
.7
.7
+ 1.9
+ 2 .2
+
.9

121.4
81.8
104.8
102.4
92.7
100.0

-1 7 .6
+ 2 2 .2
- 4 .6
- 2 .3
+ 7.9

- 1.0
+ 1.4
0)
+
.6
+
.7

110.4
90.5
99.6
103.5
102.2
100.0

- 9 .4
+ 1 0 .5
+
.4
- 3 .4
- 2 .2

+
+
—

.1
1 .8
2.1
1.4
1.7

114.9
81.1
98.1
95.6
100.4
100.0

—13.0
+ 2 3 .3
+ 1.9
+ 4 .6
.4

+
+
+
-

5 .5
2 .0
7 .0
5 .2
6.5

124.4
67.7
109.0
116.3
100.4
100.0

-1 9 .6
+ 4 7 .7
- 8 .3
-1 4 .0
.4

+ 3 .7
+
.1
- 5 .2
.9
.7

117.4
74.4
97.6
106.7
92.6
100.0

-1 4 .8
+ 3 4 .4
+ 2.5
- 6 .3
+ 8 .0

+
-

1No change.

P er cen t o f
increase ( + ) or
d ecrea se ( — )
in —

R e la t iv e
fu ll­
1912 as
E ach
1912 as E a c h
tim e
com ­
yea r
com ­
year
w e e k ly
com ­
pa red
p a red
com ­
earn­
p ared
w ith
w ith
p ared
in gs.
w ith
each
each
w ith
spe ci­
yea r
spe ci­
yea r
p re ce d ­
fied
fied
p re ce d ­
y e a r.
in g.
y e a r.
in g .

3 .0
3 .8
1.6
3 .3
3 .8

+
+
-

W e e k ly earnings.

-1 6 .0
+ 2 .9
+ 1 9 .7
- 5 .7
+ 2 .6

99.8
84.4
89.0
103.2
102.1
100.0

+ 0 .2
+ 1 8 .5
+ 1 2 .4
- 3 .1
- 2.1

-2 6 .7
+ 2 4 .2
+ 1.1
- 2 .6
+ 2.4

109.8
79.9
99.9
101.3
96.9
100.0

- 8.9
+ 2 5 .2
+
.1
- 1.3
+ 3 .2

-2 0 .6
+ 1 4 .7
+ 2.1
.4
+ 1.7

107.8
84.5
97.8
99.5
98.3
100.0

- 7 .2
+ 1 8 .3
+ 2 .2
+
.5
+ 1.7

-3 2 .6
+ 2 8 .1
- 2.3
- 9.5
+ 7.9

115.3
78.8
100.5
100.4
91.6
100.0

-1 3 .3
+ 2 6 .9
.5
.4
+ 9 .2

-1 8 .0
+ 1 0 .1
+ 3 .9
- 1.3
- 2 .2

107.2
88.8
98.3
101.9
102.1
100.0

- 6 .7
+ 1 2 .6
+ 1 .7
- 1.9
- 2.1

-2 9 .4
+ 2 1 .0
- 2.5
+ 5 .0
— .4

120.5
84.3
100.6
101.2
103.3
100.0

-1 7 .0
+ 1 8 .6
.6
- 1 .2
- 3 .2

-4 5 .6
+ 6 1 .0
+ 6 .7
-1 3 .7
.4

124.2
72.3
114.7
117.5
102.8
100.0

-1 9 .5
+ 3 8 .3
-1 2 .8
-1 4 .9
- 2 .7

-3 6 .6
+ 3 1 .2
+ 9 .3
-1 3 .2
+ 8 .0

118.3
78.8
102.8
107.1
91.3
100.0

-1 5 .5
+ 2 6 .9
- 2 .7
- 6 .6
+ 9 .5

-1 5 .4
+ 5 .5
+ 1 6 .0
- 1.1
— 2.1
,-2 7 .2
+ 2 5 .0
+ 1.4
- 4.3
+ 3 .2
-2 1 .6
+ 1 5 .7
+ 1.7
- 1.2
+ 1.7
-3 1 .7
+ 2 7 .5
.1
- 8 .8
+ 9 .2
-1 7 .2
+ 1 0 .7
+ 3 .7
+
.2
— 2.1
-3 0 .0
+ 1 9 .3
+
.6
+ 2.1
— 3 .2
-4 1 .8
+ 5 8 .6
+ 2.4
-1 2 .5
- 2 .7
-3 3 .4
+ 3 0 .5
+ 4 .2
-1 4 .8
+ 9 .5

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1907 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F I N C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S — B E S S E M E R
C O N V E R T E R S — C o n c lu d e d .

H o u rs p e r w e e k .

W a g e s p e r h o u r.

P er cen t of
increase ( + ) o r
d ecrea se ( —)

O c cu p a tio n a n d year.

M o ld cappers:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
I n g o t strippers:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
L aborers:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

........................
........................

R e la ­
tiv e
full­
tim e
hours
per
w eek .

+
+
+
+
-

5 .4
7 .0
6.3
4.4
7.3

Per cen t o f
increase ( + ) o r
d ecrea se ( —)
R e la ­
t iv e
ra te o f
w ages
per
h o u r.

1912 as
E ach
com ­
year
p a re d
com ­
w ith
p a red
w ith
e a ch
s p eci­
year
fied
p re ce d ­
yea r.
in g.

- 1.5
+
.6
+ 1 .8
+ 1 2 .6
- 7.3

103.2
58.3
80.6
96.9
87.0
100.0

- 3.1
+ 7 1 .5
+ 2 4 .1
+ 3 .2
+ 1 4 .9

................................................+ 1.7
98.3
........................
99.7
+
.3
........................
102.3 - 2 .2
........................
99.0 + 1 .0
................................................- 2 .2
102.3
........................
100.0

+
+
+
-

1.4
2 .6
3 .2
3 .3
2 .2

95.6
73.4
81.4
94.7
88.1
100.0

+ 4.6
+ 3 6 .2
+ 2 2 .9
+ 5 .6
+ 1 3 .5

........................
102.6 - 2.5
................................................100.3
.3
................................................- 1 .2
101.2
........................
102.8 - 2 .7
................................................+ 1.5
98.5
................................................
100.0

+
+
+

2 .2
.9
1 .6
4 .2
1.5

92.8
92.8
90.4
97.6
99.4
100.0

+ 7.8
+ 7 .8
+ 1 0 .6
+ 2.5
+
.6

.
........................
........................
........................

94.9
93.5
94.1
95.8
107.9
100.0

1912 as
E ach
com ­
year
p a re d
co m ­
w ith
p ared
ea ch
w ith
speci­
year
fie d
p reced ­
year.
ing.

1

W e e k ly earnings.

P er cen t of
increase ( + ) o r
d ecrea se ( — )
R e la ­
t iv e
fu ll­
tim e
w e e k ly
earn­
in g s.

1912 as E a c h
com ­
yea r
p a re d
com ­
w ith
p a red
w ith
ea ch
sp e ci­
yea r
fie d
p reced ­
in g .
y e a r.

99.3
-4 3 .5
+ 3 8 .3
+ 2 0 .2
-1 0 .2
+ 1 4 .9
-2 3 .2
+ 1 0 .9
+ 1 6 .3
- 7 .0
+ 1 3 .5

0)
- 2 .6
+ 8 .0
+ 1 .8
+
.6

58.2
78.6
94.1
96.3

+ 7 1 .8
+ 2 7 .2
+ 6 .3
+ 3 .8

-4 1 .4
+ 3 5 .1
+ 1 9 .7
+ 2.3

+ 7.5
+ 2 8 .9
+ 1 6 .0

+ 11.1

100.0
93.0
77.6

86.2
94.2
92.2

+ 6.2
+ 8.5

100.0
95.9
93.4
91.9
100.4
98.0

100.0

-1 6 .6

+ 9.3
-

2.1

+ 8.5
+
+

4.3
7.1

-

.4

+ 8.8
+ 2.0

-

2.6
1.6

+ 9 .2
- 2 .4
+ 2.0

N o ch an ge .

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown for
the Bessemer converting department as a whole, as determined by a
combination of the data for the several principal productive occupa­
tions of the department which are covered by this report. The
method of computing the figures of this table is explained on page 22.
From the table following, under “ Weekly earnings, ” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the industry as a whole in 1907
were 95.7 as compared with 100 in 1912. In other words the full­
time weekly earnings in 1907 were 95.7 per cent of those in 1912.
The relative dropped to 87.7 in 1908, advanced to 93.3 in 1909, and to
97.5 in 1910, dropping in 1911 to 93. In 1912, the base year, the
relative was 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1912 were
4.5 per cent higher than in 1907, 14 per cent higher than in 1908, 7.2
per cent higher than in 1909,2.6 per cent higher than in 1910, and 7.5
per cent higher than in 1911.
The third column, under “ Weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­




W AGES AN D

H O U R S OE L A B O R — B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

109

pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full-time
weekly earnings in 1908 were 8.4 per cent lower than in 1907; in 1909,
6.4 per cent higher than in 1908; in 1910, 4.5 per cent higher than in
1909; in 1911, 4.6 per cent lower than in 1910; and in 1912, 7.5 per
cent higher than in 1911.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and rates of wages per hour can be studied in like manner.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1907 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F I N C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E , IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C C U P A T IO N S — B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

H o u rs p e r w e e k .

W a g e s p e r h ou r.

W e e k ly earnings.

P e r ce n t o f
increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( —)
in —
Y ea r.

1907..................................................
1908..................................................
1909..................................................
1910..................................................
1911..................................................
1912..................................................

R e la ­
t iv e
full­
tim e
hou rs
p er
w eek .

102.2
97.9
101.9
102.6
100.3
100.0

P e r cen t o f
increase ( + ) or
decrease ( — )
in —

R e la ­
E ach
t iv e
1912 as speci­ rate o f
co m ­
fied
w ages
pared
year
per
as co m ­ h o u r.
w ith
each
p ared
speci­
w ith
fied
year
year. p reced ­
ing.

t iv e
E ach
fu ll1912 as speci­
. tim e
co m ­
fied
w e e k ly
pared
year
earn­
as co m ­
w ith
ings.
pared
each
w ith
speci­
fied
year
year. p reced­
ing.

—2 .2
+ 2 .1
-1 .9
-2 .5
- .3

-4 .2
+ 4 .1
+ .7
-2 .2
— .3

93.5
86.9
90.5
94.5
90.5
100.0

P e r cen t o f
increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
R e la ­

+ 7.0
+ 1 5 .1
+ 1 0 .5
+ 5 .8
+ 1 0 .5

- 7.1
+ 4.1
+ 4 .4
- 4 .2
+ 1 0 .5

95.7
87.7
93.3
97.5
93.0
100.0

E ach
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
p ared
year
as c o m ­
w ith
pared
each
w ith
speci­
year
fied
year. preced­
ing.

+ 4 .5
+ 1 4 .0
+ 7 .2
+ 2 .6
+ 7 .5

-8 .4
+ 6 .4
+ 4 .5
-4 .6
+ 7 .5

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Between 1907
and 1912 it will be observed that hours were reduced 2.2 per cent and
wages per hour increased 7 per cent, each tending to offset the other
in weekly earnings.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered, that is the change in the relative number of
employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is
obvious that an increase in the relative number of employees in the
lower-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those
in the higher-paid ones would lower the average for all occupations,
just as an increase in the relative number of employees in the higherpaid occupations or a decrease in the relative number in the lowerpaid ones would increase the average.
The number and per cent of employees in Bessemer converting
plants whose customary working time per week was 6 days or turns,
or 7 days, or variations thereof, are shown in the following table.
The figures are presented for each of the two districts for which these
plants are reported and for the two combined. The employees given



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

110

“5

“6

under the headings
days, 6 days, and 7 days in rotation,”
days,
6 days, and 7 days in rotation,” and “ 6 days, 7 days, and 7 days in
rotation” are engaged in occupations for which the plant employs
3 shifts instead of the customary 2 to complete the 24 hours a day.
The heading “ 6 days, 6 days, and 7 days in rotation,” for example,
indicates that each week one-third of the employees reported work
7 turns instead of the customary 6, the plant being shut down during
the time of 2 shifts on 1 day each week.
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H S PE C ­
I F I E D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913—B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T ­
ERS.

W.”

[T h e a b b re v ia tio n “ G . L . a n d M .
in t h e first or re a d in g c o lu m n sta n d s fo r “ G r e a t L a k e s a n d M id d le
W e s t.
T h e figures se t o p p o site e a c h b r a ck e te d g ro u p o f y e a rs a re fo r id e n tic a l p la n ts .]

”

N u m b e r o f em p lo y e e s w h o se cus­
to m a r y w o rk in g tim e p e r w e e k w as—

D is tr ic t a n d
nu m ber of
p la n ts .

N um ­
ber
6
days
of
Y ea r.
em ­
and
6
7
p lo y ­
ees. d a y s . d a y s
alter­
n a te ­
ly .

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s w h o s e cu s­
to m a r y w o r k in g tu n e p e r w e e k w as—

6
6
5
days, d ays, d a ys,
7
days, days, da ys,
6
and
and and
7
7
7
7
d a ys. d a ys.
d a y s d a ys d a ys
in
in
in
rota ­ rota ­ rota ­
tio n . tion . tio n .

6
days
and
7
d a ys
alter­
n a te ­
ly*

273
127
170
325

75.4
81.1
78.4
66.2

4 .0
4 .7
4 .4
1 .4

325
146
148

66.3
80.5
80.9

1 .4
3 .8
4.3

5
6
days, d ays,
6
days, da ys,
and and
7
7
days days
in
in
rota ­ ro ta ­
tio n . tio n .

6
d a ys,
7
d ays,
and
7
7
days.
days
in
ro ta ­
tio n .

P itts b u rg h :

p lan ts

999
727
778
825

53
42
44
18

1910 1,248
1911
950
1912 1,019

6

fl907 1,325
896
1908
992
1909
1910 1,246

821
7
765
824

18
36
44

78
78
3
3

20.6
14.2
17.1
26.1

6.3
6.3

26.0
15.4
14.5

0.3
.3

G .L .a n d M .W .:
11908
11909
[1910

1

432
283
360
403

74
88
63
98

177
71
142
44

18
18
18
18

12
12
12
12

151
94
125
231

17.1
31.1
17.5
24.3

41.0
25.1
39.4
10.9

4 .2
6 .4
5 .0
4 .5

2 .8
4 .2
3 .3
3 .0

35.0
33.2
34.7
57.3

(1910
1911

482
392

173
267

48
44

18
18

12
12

231
51

35.9
68.1

10.0
11.2

3.7
4 .6

2 .5
3.1

47.9
13.0

[l911
[l912

400
441

275
183

44
158

18
18

12
12

51
70

68.8
41.5

11.0
35.8

4.5
4.1

3 .0
2.7

12.8
15.9

1,757 1,073
815
1,179
1,352
841
1,649
923

230
113
186
62

18
18
18
18

12
12
12
12

424
221
295
556

61.1
69.1
62.2
56.0

13.1
9 .6
13.8
3 .8

.7

1.0

4.7

1.5
1.3
1.1

.9
.7

24.1
18.7
21.8
33.7

(1910 1,730 1,000
1911 1,342 1,032

66
80

18
21

12
12

556
197

57.8
76.9

3 .8
6 .0

4.5

1.0
1.6

.7
.9

32.1
14.7

1911 1,350 1,040
.1912 1,460 1,007

80
202

21
21

12
12

197
218

77.0
69.0

5 .9
13.8

1.6
1 .4

.9
.8

14.6
14.9

[1907
1
3 p l a n t s .. .

4 p la n t s 2. .
T o ta l:
9 p l a n t s .. .

(1907
1908
1909
1910

78
78

1.0

10 p l a n t s 2.

1

1 F o r 1 p la n t it w a s im p o s sib le t o secu re d a ta for 1 o c c u p a tio n for th e yea rs 1907, 1908, a n d 1909, h en ce
th e 2 rep orts for 1910.
2 F o r 1 p la n t it w a s im p o s sib le t o se cu re d a ta for 3 occ u p a tio n s for 1910, h e n c e t h e 2 r e p o rts for 1911.

In addition to the text tables in the summary, six general tables
are presented for the Bessemer converting department, as follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907 to
1912.



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

Ill

Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1907 to
1912.
. Table III.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district, by years, 1907 to
1912.

Table IV.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1912.
Table Y.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each year, by districts, 1907 to 1912.
Table VI.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each district, by years, 1907 to 1912.
In Tables I and IY, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are sum­
marized in the text table on pages 101 to 104.
Tables III and VI repeat the data for the several districts given in
Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the Bessemer converter is
presented on page 23.
D E S C R IP T IO N O F O C C U P A T IO N S .

The following description of occupations refers only to those occu­
pations which appear in the tables of this report— these being
nearly all of the principal productive occupations in the Bessemer
converting department.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
STOCKERS.

D ties
u
Ntu ofwr .
a re olc

.— Unload and handle materials (pig iron, spiegel, and scrap)
until it is delivered *at the cupolas.
— Generally requires strong, unskilled workmen.
CUPOLA MELTERS.

D ties.
u

— Regulate the blast, direct the tapping of cupolas, and
have general charge of the cupola division.

Ntu of wrk— Considerable
a re
o.

practical knowledge of metal­
lurgy is required, and the position is one of much responsibility.
CUPOLA TAPPERS.

D ties.
u

— Tap iron and cinder from cupolas at direction of melter;
also clean up the metal and the cinder runners. The work is some­
times divided into iron tapping and cinder tapping.
— The work is somewhat analogous to blast­
furnace practice, but requires greater skill, though it is much lighter.

Ntu of w .
a re
ork




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
BLOWERS.

D ties
u

.— In charge of the converters and directly responsible for
the conversion of the molten metal. The specific duties consist in
regulating the blast, the valves being controlled by levers in the
“ pulpit” (an elevated platform opposite the converters), and in
regulating the temperature by admitting steam with the blast or
by signaling the vessel scrapper to add cold scrap. The blower
decides when the heat is fully “ blown” and orders the first regulator
to tilt the converter and signals what quantity of recarburizer shall
be added as the metal runs into the ladle.
.— This is one of the most responsible positions
in the entire industry and highly skilled operators are required.
All decisions as to the temperature and chemical state of the metal
are made almost entirely on the basis of the color and general appear­
ance of the flame. The work requires constant attention, the process
being repeated every 30 minutes or less during the turn.

Ntu of w
a re
ork

REGULATORS. FIRST.

D ties
u

.— Under the direction of the blower operate the hydraulic
levers by means of which the vessel is tilted to receive metal and
during the course of the blow to receive scrap, etc., also to pour the
metal into ladles.
.— This is a responsible position and requires expe­
rience and good judgment. The first regulator is on the platform
with the blower, and the position may be regarded as one of training
for that of blower.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

REGULATORS. SECOND.

D ties
u

.— Operate the levers which control the movements of the
hydraulic jib-crane on which the casting ladle is mounted.
N ote.— In some of the large plants operating three or four con­
verters the work is somewhat differently divided, the first regulator
controlling the converter only until the heat is blown, when a second
regulator handles it for dumping, inspecting, and repairing bottom,
etc., while the third regulator controls the ladle cranes. In addition,
the second or third regulator frequently operates the “ car pusher.”
VESSEL MEN AND VESSEL MEN'S HELPERS.

D ties
u

.— Are responsible for maintaining the converter in good
working order. Their duties consist in (1) inspection, (2) in changing
and repairing bottoms, (3) in skulling, patching, and relining. After
each “ blow ” the vessel is turned down so that the condition of its
lining and particularly the bottom, where the blast is introduced
through tuyeres and which is subject to the greatest wear, may be
inspected. If the inspection shows the bottom to be in bad condi­
tion with the tuyeres nearly burned out, which occurs after from



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

113

20 to 30 heats, the entire bottom, which is constructed so that it may­
be easily removed, is taken off and a new bottom, which has been
prepared by the bottom makers as described below, is put on. The
new bottom is placed on a hydraulic jack, stationary or mounted on
a movable truck, directly under the converter, the outer edges of the
bottom are covered with a ring of moist fire clay to give an air-tight
connection with the vessel, and the whole is then pressed tightly
against the bottom of the vessel by the hydraulic jack and held in
place until the connections have been made. This operation is per­
formed with remarkable rapidity. If only one or two tuyeres are
shown to be badly burned, it is necessary only to “ blank” them by
closing the air holes with refractory material. When slag or other
accretions collect on the nose of the converter, the vessel men or the
helpers pull or pry it off with a long rod or bar. If the inspection
shows a bad spot in the vessel lining, it is repaired by throwing wet
“ ball stuff” on it and roughly tamping it down. When the lining is
worn out, which occurs in the ordinary acid converter only after
several thousand heats, the vessel men completely reline it. The
duties also include, where no separate occupation is carried for the
purpose, the cleaning of “ skulls” and “ spittings” from the shield
or stack into which the converter blows.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The vessel men and helpers regularly work as a
crew and there is little exact differentiation of duties, except that
the vessel men supervise all the work and perform those parts which
require experience and skill. The helpers are of all grades; some do
the most difficult work while others do little more than wheel mate­
rials. The position of vessel man is one which requires long expe­
rience and good judgment, and as emergencies must frequently be
met, the men must have the ability to think and act quickly. The
work is intermittent in character, with short periods of the greatest
activity followed by long periods of comparative inaction, save for
inspection, to which one man can attend.
CINDER PITMEN.
D u t i e s .— Clean up and remove the cinder and metal from the pit or
floor of the Bessemer building.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .— The work is as a whole unskilled. It is, however,
for the most part, hard manual labor done under conditions of great
heat when working around and under the vessels and ladles.
BOTTOM MAKERS AND HELPERS.
D u t i e s — Repair and rebuild converter bottoms.
The bottom con­
sists essentially of (1) a cylindrical steel casing sloping out at the
top to the diameter of the vessel, the lower part forming the
4 4 9 2 9 °— B u ll. 151— 14-------8




114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

“ blast box” into which the blast is admitted by a large pipe. This
casing is provided with keys or with other appliances by which it
can be quickly and securely fastened to the body of the converter.
(2) Above the “ blast box” is the refractory bottom, which is pierced
by a large number of small holes for admitting and distributing the
blast in the vessel. In acid vessels these tuyeres, or holes, are
formed in fire-clay bricks of special design (in practice the entire
brick is known as a tuyere), around which ganister is rammed.
When the bottom is removed by the vessel men, the bottom makers
and helpers cool it with water and then chip out all the ganister and
knock out the tuyere bricks. New tuyere bricks are then placed
in position, and moist ganister is tightly rammed around them until
it is level with their top. The entire bottom is then placed in an
oven where it is kept at a steady heat until thoroughly dried. In
addition to this work the bottom makers’ helpers in many plants also
grind the refractory materials used for this purpose and also for
repairing vessels and ladles.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .— The work is done by the bottom makers and
helpers working as a crew and there is usually little distinction of
duties. Bottom makers not only supervise the work, but also do a
large part of it. They must have considerable experience and must
exercise extreme care, so that the position is one of some importance.
The helpers vary considerably in grade.
LADLE LINERS.
D u t i e s .— Patch and reline the ladles in which iron (direct metal)
is brought to the converter or in which steel is handled. The ladles
may be patched while still hot by throwing damp clay on the defective
spots and tamping it into place. For refining or any considerable
repairs the ladle must be removed.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .— In either case the ladle is first cleaned by the
ladle liner’s helpers, as described below, and either the entire f i n i n g
or such part of it as the ladle finer judges on inspection to be defective
is removed. If the ladle is to be entirely refined it is done by the
ladle liners, with the assistance of the helpers, by building a wall of
fire brick, usually in two courses, around the entire inside of the steel
casing. The bottom fining is then made by throwing in moist “ ball
stuff” (the most refractory of clay), which is tamped down until a
homogeneous compact fining is formed. The whole of the brick wall
around the sides is then covered with fire clay, which is rammed to
fill all cavities between the bricks and to present a smooth surface.
A fire (gas, wood, or coke) is then lighted inside the ladle and kept
burning until the ladle is entirely dried out. The position is usually
filled by skilled bricklayers.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

115

LADLE LINERS’ HELPERS.

D ties
u

.— Remove “ skulls” of slag and metal from the ladles;
remove the entire ladle lining or such part as directed by the ladle
liner; bring the materials required by the ladle liner; help to tamp
down the clay lining; and, in general, assist him in his work.
.— Cleaning and removing ladle linings is particu­
larly hard work, and, as the ladles are cleaned as soon as possible
after the metal is cast, the work is frequently done under conditions
of excessive heat. The ladle is first turned upside down to dump
any liquid slag or metal. It is then turned right side up and when
cool enough the men remove the “ skulls” with bars and sledges. In
the case of iron ladles this work is made easier by constructing the
ladle with a large hole in the bottom, which is covered by an iron
plate, over which the refractory clay for the bottom is laid. When a
ladle is ready for patching or relining, this bottom plate, together
with the clay bottom and any “ skulls,” is pushed up through the
ladle by a hydraulic jack.

N tu of wrk
a re o

STOPPER MAKERS.

D ties
u

.— Make stoppers for steel ladles. The stopper consists of a
steel rod the height of the ladle inclosed in special hollow fire-brick
cylinders, and on the lower end is a solid head usually made of a com­
position of graphite and fire clay and shaped to fit the nozzle. At
the top the bar is bent to form a connection with the steel pourer’s
lever at the side of the ladle, by which it is raised and lowered, regu­
lating the flow of steel. The stopper maker also removes the sleeves
and heads from used stoppers, bends the rods to pattern, and puts on
new fire-brick sleeves and head.
.— The work is neither difficult nor heavy, but
requires some skill and experience.

N tu of wrk
a re
o

STOPPER SETTERS.

D ties
u

.— Remove discarded stoppers from the ladles and inspect
and place in position the new ones. The stopper setters in a few
plants also remove the old nozzle and set a new one in place.
.— The position is one which requires a large amount
of experience and more than ordinary care and precaution, because
a mistake in selecting or setting the stopper means almost certain
injury to an employee.

N tu ofwrk
a re o

STEEL POURERS.

D ties
u

.— In charge of and do the actual work of pouring (teem­
ing) the steel from the ladle into the molds. The flow is controlled
by a lever at the side of the vessel, attached to the stopper within the
ladle. The pourer determines to what height in the mold the steel




116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

should be poured to give an ingot of the desired weight. He is in
general charge of the entire casting crew of a mill and is responsible
for the metal after it is tapped from the furnace until the ingots are
ready for delivery to the blooming mill. Either he or one of his
helpers makes a test casting from each ladle, which casting is given
chemical analysis.
.— The position is one requiring some practical
knowledge of metallurgy, but chiefly long experience in the handling
of molten steel.

N tu of wrk
a re
o

MOLD CAPPERS.

D ties
u

.—Place an iron plate or “ cap ” on top of the mold and secure
it by means of a bar inserted under two lugs. After the steel has
partially cooled, the bar is knocked out and the cap removed. In
addition the mold cappers usually have other minor duties and act as
steel pourers’ helpers.
— In any case skill is required, and the severity of
the work through exposure to extreme heat varies greatly.

N tu of wrk
a re o .

INGOT STRIPPERS.

D ties.
u

—Operate the crane for stripping ingots. In the modern
plants the ingots are cast in molds mounted on small cars, which are
brought one at a time in front of the steel-pourer’s platform. • After
the ingot has sufficiently solidified these cars are removed by locomo­
tives to the ingot stripper, which is frequently located some distance
away, and in plants using both processes often does duty for both the
Bessemer and open-hearth departments.
—The “ ingot stripper” is an overhead hydraulic
or electric crane of large capacity, equipped with special jaws for
gripping the lugs on the side of the ingot mold, and special apparatus
for lifting the mold clear of the ingot. Between the jaws is located
a large plunger, which can be made to enter through the hole in the
top of the mold and exert a pressure on top of the ingot when the
mold is lifted. All operations are controlled by levers or controllers
in the crane cab. The work requires considerable experience and
judgment.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

LABORERS.

D ties.
u

—Perform the large number of duties, requiring no skill,
not covered by specific occupations, or which are not differentiated
in various plants.
— Only unskilled workmen required. For the most
part is not particularly heavy manual labor.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .




117

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912.

able

BESSEM ER CO NVERTERS.
[T h e figures set op p o site ea ch b ra ck e te d grou p o f years are for id e n tic a l p la n ts .
averages see p . 20.]

F o r e x p la n a tio n o f

NUMBER.

O ccu p a tion ,
and num ber of
plants.

E m p lo y e e s earning
A v e r­
A v e r­ A v e r ­
age
N um ­
age
age
fu ll­
ber
12
14
16
fu ll­ rate
18
tim e
of
of
Y ea r.
tim e
a n d an d a n d a n d
w eek ­
em ­
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un­
p lo y ­ per
ly
per
der der d er der
earn­
ees.
14
16
18
w eek. hou r.
20
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

each classified rate o f w ages p e r hou r.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

60
50
a n d a n d 70
u n ­ u n ­ c ts .
der d er a n d
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

S tockers:
46
20
19
32

54
48
12
57

81
60
54
69

24
16
49
51

16 34
15 58
21 - 23

57
39
13

69
24
55

51
12
40

31.67
22.20
26.09
25.85
24.45

1
2
3
1
1

1
3
2
2

3
5
2
5
4

65.2
61.6

.386 24.62
.409 23.82

1
1

2
2

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

*"*i
1

2
7
2
2

45
48

60.4
60.6

.314 18.36
.369 20.94

1
1

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

.619
.466
.486
.536
.498

f 1911
10 p l a n t s .. . \ 1912

20
21

1907
J 1908
i 1909
l 1910

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
260
266
350

62.5 $0,246 $14.27
58.3 .275 14.93
63.6 .264 15.31
64.9
.266 16.04

f 1910
10 p l a n t s .. . J 1911
l 1912
C upola m elters:
1907
1908
1909
7 p la n ts ___
1910
1911

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

.266 16.03
.233 13.60
.312 17.66

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

.509
.350
.419
.447
.390

/ 1911
\ 1912

17
18

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

/ 1911
9 p la n t s ^ ... \ 1912

f
J
9 p la n ts ___ 1
l

116
22

63
21
49
10

97
6
55
37 **i5
115 16

10
12

115
81
80

24
9

36

6

5
2
5
5
2

6
6

6
4

2
5

6
8
13
17
12

17
27
3
18
26

26
5
19
15

3

16
18

26
1

26

39.55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.84

4
7
4
2
2

4
8
9
9
10

2
4
4
4

72.0
69.1

.493 35.48
.529 36.36

2

12
12

4
5 *2

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

.437
.266
.344
.414

11
2
4
11

9
4
2
10

6
4

f 1910
10 p l a n t s .. . { 1911
l 1912
R e g u la to r s ,
secon d :
f 1907
J 1908
6 p la n ts ___
1 1909
l 1910

31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

.408 25.45
.377 24.79
.411 26.24

13
9
9

10
9
10

4
2
4

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

.427
.269
.365
.403

2

f 1910
8 p la n ts ___
1911
( 1912
Vessel m en : .
f 1907
1 1908
9 p la n ts ___
1 1909
l 1910

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

.378 25.52
.333 21.41
.367 23.36

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

.793
.528
.630
.708

f 1910

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

.685 38.18
.580 32.45
.703 38.32

8 p la n ts ___

3
5

2

3

3

C upola tappers:
8 p la n ts ___

1
1
1

22.16
19.67
19.74
20.30
18.19

B low ers:
9 p la n ts ___

R e g u 1 a t ors,
first:
9 p la n ts ___

[

\

10 p l a n t s .. .

\1911

1 1912




2
2
2

27.28
17.78
22.97
25.60

9

5

3

5
5

2
2
2

2

27.81
19.64
26.80
26.96

3
6
2

3
1

2
1

2
3
6
7

14
1
6
9

2
1

2
1
6

7
9
13

9
7

44.58
31.27
37.19
38.88

1 Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

*3

9
2
2
2
2
2
2

4
2
2

2
2
4

2
9
4
2
2

3

2
5
2

2

2
4
2

4
2
5

2

4
4

5
7
3
12

14
4
8
8

12
6
3

8
7
12

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS,

T able I .— AYE RAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
N U M B E R — C o n tin u e d .

1 I n c lu d in g 2 e m p lo y e e s e a rn in g 9 a n d u n d e r 10 c e n ts p e r h o u r.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

119

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
N U M B E R — C o n clu d e d .

E m p lo y e e s earning each classified rate o f w ages p e r h ou r.

O ccu p a tion ,
a n d n u m b er o f
plants.

S top p er
ers:

A v e r­ A v e r­
N um ­
age
age
ber
fm l- rate
of
Y e a r.
tim e
of
em ­ hou rs w ages
p lo y ­ p er
per
ees.
w eek. hou r.

A v e r­
age
fu ll­
tim e
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

12
14
and and
un­ un­
der der
14
16
cts. cts.

2
0

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

18
16
and and
un­ un­
d er der
18
20
cts. cts.

and
un­
d er
25
cts.

1
1

1
1
1
1

3
4
3
5

3
1
1
2

1
2
3

1

1
1
2

6
3
4

2
1
1

3
4
2

1

2
4

1
4
4

11
5
4
11

7
7
2
6

5

3

13
9
14

6
7
15

2
5
2
2

4
9

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
d er
50
cts.

50
60
a n d a n d 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts.
der der a n d
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

m ak 1907
1908
1909
1910

10
9
9
11

72.8 $0,316 $23.01
72.9 ' .223 16.10
71.6 .270 19.22
73.1 .263 19.33

f 1910

12
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8

.260 19.14
.273 19.53
.272 18.91

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

.630
.3*3
.552
.589

39
39
42

52.6
55.3
51.7

.577 29.81
.498 26.08
.496 25.36

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

.693
.439
.576
.630

f 1910
1911
10 p l a n t s ...
l 1912
M old cap p ers:
1907
J 1908
8 p la n ts ___ 1 1909
l 1910

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

.617 32.74
.535 27.91
.578 30.57

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

.347
.196
.271
.326

l 1912

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

.314 16.96
.282 17.36
.324 18.03

(
J
1
(

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

.310
.238
.264
.307

f 1910
10 p l a n t s .. .
1911
1 1912
L ab orers:
f 1907
J 1908
9 p la n ts ___
1 1909
( 1910

31
27
28

68.1
70.4
68.8

.303 19.69
.282 19.26
.320 20.90

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

.155
.155
.151
.163

12.12
11.80
11.62
12.69

571
327
92 309
204

230
98
163
544

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

.163 12.69
.166 12.39
.167 12.64

204
105
49

582
488
577

f
J
9 p la n t s .... 1
l
10 p l a n t s .. .
S top p er setters:

<1911
[ 1912
( 1907

J 1908
9 p la n ts ____ i 1909
l 1910
f 1910

10 p l a n t s .. .

\1911

l 1912

1

31.79
18.50
29.36
30.08

6

10

3
1

6

6
2
3
5

14
4
12
12

3
5
3
3 *4

12
12
6

12
12
12
3
8

5
3

Steel pourers:
f
J
9 p la n ts ___ i
l

\
(

9 p la n ts ___

[ 1910
\1911

36.39
24.25
31.61
32.94

18.02
10.57
14.26
17.07

4

2
2
2

3
2
1
2

2
20 * 8
2
2
4
4
4
1

4
8
8

7
2

4
5
26
2

4
3
3

27
2
5
27

8
6
6

3
10
6

27
6
16

12
12
12
8

6
10
10
12

5
2
6

10
8
8

12
10
12

5
1

6

4
5
5
3

9
3
11

6
8
10

3
9
1

3

6

3
9

6
6
6
6
2

6

4

2

In g o t strippers:
9 p la n ts ___

<

f 1910

10 p l a n t s .. .

l 1911
[ 1912




19.60
16.34
18.17
19.85

4

4

9
9
5
2

6

1

15

120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —A V E R A G E F U LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
AN D C LASSIFIED RATE S OF W AGES P ER H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
STATES, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
PER CENT.

O c cu p a tio n ,
and nu m ber o f
p lan ts.

A v e r­ A v e r­
N um ­
age
age
ber
full­ rate
of
Y e a r.
tim e
of
em ­
hours w ages
p lo y ­
per
p er
ees.
w eek . h ou r.

E m p lo y e e s earning ea ch
A ve rage
full­
14
18 20
12
16
tim e
a n d a n d a n d an d
w eek­ an d
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
der der d er der der
earn­
14
16
18
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Stockers:

classified rate o f w ages p er h ou r.

25
and
un­
d er
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

_

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
260
266
350

17.0 26.1 1.6 12.4 14.6 21.8 6 .5
62.5 $0,246 $14.27
58.3 .275 14.93 *16.2 8.1 21.2
7 .7 18.5 23.1 6.2
63.6 .264 15.31 8.3 18.4 13.9 *5.6 7.1 4 .5 20.3 18.4
64.9
.266 16.04
2 .9 32.9 4 .6 9.1 16.3 19.7 14.6

f 1910
1911
10 p l a n t s .. .
l 1912
C upola m elters:
’ 1907
1908
7 p la n ts ___ ■ 1909
1910
1911

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

.266 16.03
.233 13.60
.312 17.66

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

.509
.350
.419
.447
.390

/ 1911
8 p la n ts ___ \ 1912

17
18

65.2
61.6

.386 24.62
.409 23.82

f 1907
1908
8 p la n ts ___ -1 1909
1910
l 1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

/ 1911
9 p la n ts ___ \ 1912

45
48

60.4
60.6

.314 18.36
.369 20.94

\1909

1910
l 1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

.619
.466
.486
.536
.498

/ 1911
10 p l a n t s .. . \ 1912

20
21

72.0
69.1

.493 35.48
.529 36.36

1907
1908
1909
1910

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

.437
.266
.344
.414

f 1910

f
|
9 p la n ts ___ 1
l

\

50
60
a n d a n d 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts.
d er der a n d
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

.
9.2
3 .4

. . . . .......
.......
—

.......

2 .8 32.7 4.5 9 .7 16.2 19.6 14.5
5 .0 33.6 6.2 24.1 16.2 10.0 5 .0
29.9 7.8 8.6 4 .9 20.5 14.9 13.4

31.67
22.20
26.09
25.85
24.45

6 .7 6 .7 20.0
13.3 20.0 33.3 *20*6
20.0
13.3 33.3
6 .3 i2.*5 31.3
6 .7 13.3 26.7 40.0

33.3 13.3 20.0
13.3
33.3
31.3 18.8
13.3

5 .9 11.8 35.3 35.3 11.8
5 .6 11.1 33.3 22.2 27.8

C upola tappers:
22.16
19.67
19.74
20.30
18.19

2 .0
2 .3
2 .3

4 .7
16.3
*i.*8 3 .6
2 .4 4 .9

12.0
18.6
30.2
30.4
29.3

34.0
62.8
7 .0
32.1
63.4

52.0
11.6
44.2
26.8

5 .4

2 .2 4 .4 35.6 57.8
2.1 4.2 37.5 2.1 54.2

B low ers:
f 1907
1908

9 p la n ts ___

39.55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.84

Regulators,
first:

20.0
36.8
21.1
10.0
11.1

.... __

f
J
1
l

10 p l a n t s .. .

<1911

l 1912

31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

.408 25.45
.377 24.79
.411 26.24

6 p la n ts ___

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

.427
.269
.365
.403

( 1910

8 p la n ts ___

1 1911

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

.378 25.52
.333 21.41
.367 23.36

1907
I 1908
1 1909
l 1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

.793
.528
.630
.708

f 1910
10 p l a n t s .. . J 1911
1 1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

15.0
10.5
21.1
20.0 i5 .0
22.2

45.0
10.5
10.5
10.0
11.1

10.0 60.0 20.0
10.0
57.1 23.8 *9.5 9 .5

27.28
17.78
22.97
25.60 ....... . . . .

9 p la n ts ___

20.0
42.1
47.4
45.0
55.6

42.3 34.6 . . . . . 15.4 . . . . .
7.7 . . . .
8.0 36.0 i2.*0 20.6 8.0 16.0
24.0 20.0 16.0 8.0 24.0
8.0
37.9 34.5 13.8 6.9
. . . . 6 .9

.685 38.18
.580 32.45
.703 38.32

8.3

41.9 32.3 12.9 6.5
37.5 37.5 8.3
36.0 40.0 16.0

6.5
8.3
8.0

R egulators,
secon d :

l 1912
V essel m e n :
9 p la n ts ___

{




11.1 77.8 11.1
35.7 21.4 14.3 21.4 7.1
7.1
7.1 42.9 42.9
38.9 50.0 11.1

27.81
19.64
26.80
26.96
14.3

9.1
4 .8

9.1 31.8 40.9 9.1
4 .8 42.9 33.3
17.4
26.1 56.5

44.58
31.27
37.19
38.88

i Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

8.7
40.9 9.1
18.2 22.7
8.3
8.3

8 .7 21.7
31.8
9.1 13.6
50.0

60.9
18.2
36.4
33.3

46.2 30.8
7.7 15.4
8.0 16.0 8.0 16.0 24.0 28.0
7.7 19.2 15.4 11.5 46.2

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

121

T able I . — A V E R A G E

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
BESSEM ER

C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.

P E R CEN T—Continued.

AverNum­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation,
time
of
and number of Year. em­ time
of week­
plants.
ploy­ hours wages ly
per
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

V e s s e l men’ s
helpers:

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
45
49

57 0 $0,566 $31.84
59.5 ’ . Z ^ 21.65 .......
59.6 .484 28.24 . . . . .
55.3 .524 28.86

f 1910
10 plants... l 1911
l 1912
Cinder pitmen:
f 1907
1
8 plants___ 1 1908
1909
l 1910

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

.506 28.22
.421 23.48 . . . . .
.470 25.47

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

.206
.173
.178
.213

13.32
11.27
11.88
13.77

30.5 8.5 37.3 3.4 10.2
7.0 50.7 11.3 22.5
8.5
8.7 28.3 20.7 30.4 5.4
10.1 7.6 50.6 5.1 19.0

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

.211 13.69
.199 13.55
.204 13.27

9.4 14.1 47.1 4.7 17.6
3.2 22.6 64.5
14.9 60.9 i7.2

7.1
9.7
6.9

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

.386
.283
.351
.355

f 1910
10 plants... \ 1911
1 1912
Bottom mak­
ers’ helpers:
f 1907
. .
1
y plants. . . . 1 1908
1909
l 1910

19
19
20

73.4
71.8
72.5

.346 25.28
.337 24.18
.345 24.96

30
27
29
. 30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

.257
.204
.234
.239

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

.235 17.10
.234 16.88
.238 17.18

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

.454
.306
.392
.383

[ 1910
10 plants. . . \ 1911
l 1912
L a d l e liners’
helpers:
[ 1907
1 1908
9 plants. . . . 1 1909
l 1910

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

.378 25.05
.342 22.85
.369 24.95

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

.255
.209
.230
.239

f 1910
10 plants... \ 1911
l 1912
Stopper makers:
f 1907
i
9 plants.. . . i1 1908
1909
l 1910

39
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6

.236 15.73
30.8 10.3 38.5 7.7
12.8
.233 15.75
*5.9 29.4 11.8 32.4 5.9 ‘ *2*9 11.8
.228 15.43 ....... 5.9 29.4 11.8 26.5 11.8 5.9 8.8

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

.316
.223
.270
.263

f 1910
10 plants... \ 1911
l 1912

12
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8

.260 19.14
8.3 50.0 16.7 25.0
.273 19.53 ....... ___ 10.0 10.0 30.0 10.0 40.0
.272 18.91 ....... ___ ....... 20.0 40.0 10.0 20.0 io.o

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

6.5
7.6

f 1910
9 plants___ \ 1911
1 1912
Bottom makers:
f 1907
1 1908
9 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

f
1
i
l

f 1910
10 plants. . . \ 1911
l 1912
Ladle liners:
f 1907
1908
y plants. . . . i1 1909
l 1910

4.3 10.6
....... 2.2 24.4 13.3 15.6
____
4.4 8.9 13.3
4.1 12.2
3.8
....... *3*9 7.8

28.10
20.45
25.57
25.92

11.8

3.8 15.1 47.2 3.8 15.1 11.3
9.8 17.6 27.5 27.5 2.0 3.9
5.7 32.3 20.8 24.5 9.4 7.5
5.1

29.4 35.3
35.3 29.4
6.3 56.3
11.8 17.6 47.1

5.1

23.5
11.8
23.5
12.5 25.0
23.5

10.5 26.3 42.1 21.1
10.5 31.6 36.8 10.5 10.5
10.0 15.0 55.0 10.0 10.0

18.82
26.7 40.0 6.7
14.75 U4.*8
‘ *7*4 29.6 33.3
17.08
6.9
34.5 37.9
17.38
36.7 36.7 13.3
3.2
6.5

13.3 13.3
14.8
13.8 **6.9
13.3

5.9 32.4 38.2 11.8 11.8
6.5 32.3 29.0 9.7 19.4
6.5 29.0 19.4 25.8 6.5

6.5

28.95 ....... . . . . .......
9.5 14.3 23.8 19.0 9.5 9.5 14.3
.......
19.78 . . . . . . . . . 9.5 4.8 19.0 28.6 14.3 14.3 9.5
25.22
23.8 9.5 14.3 38.1
9.5 *4.8
25.20
17.4 8.7 30.4 21.7 21.7
16.0 8.0 36.0 20.0 20.0
8.3 16.7 16.7 16.7 25.0 16.7
16.7
50.0 20.8 12.5

16.65
10.3 20.5 10.3 28.2 10.3 7.7
5.1 7.7
13.79 ....... 22.6 19.4 12.9 32.2 3.2 6.5 **3.2
15.26 ....... 10.3 20.5 17.9 33.3 5.1 ....... 7.7 **5.‘ i
15.83 ....... . . . . 32.4 5.4 40.5 8.1 ....... 13.5
.....

23.01
10.0 30.0
16.10
11.1 11.1 11.1 44.4
19.22 .......
11.1 11.1 33.3
9.1 45.5
19.33

.......

30.0
30.0
11.1 *ii.‘ i
11.1 22.2 *ii.*i
18.2 27.3

1Including 7.4 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents per hour.




25.5 12.8 36.2 10.6
26.7 13.3 4.4
37.8 17.8 11.1 *6.7
51.0 4.1 16.3 12.2

!!!!!
.......

122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
P E R CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Stopper setters:

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate time
time
of
hours wages week­
ly
per
per earn­
week. hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

45
40
34
37

51.5 $0,630 $31.79
2.2 24.4 15.6 13.3 13.3 31.1
15.0 25.0 5.0 10.0 12.5 17.5
54.3 ' .343 18.50
5.0 10.0
55.4 .552 29.36 ....... ___ . . . . .
11.8 11.8 11.8 5.9 *ii*7 8.8 35.3
51.5 .589 30.08
29.7 16.2 8.1 13.5 32.4

1910
1911
1912

39
39
42

52.6
55.3
51.7

.577 29.81
.498 26.08
.496 25.36

1907
1^08
1909
1910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

.693
.439
.576
.630

1910
1911
1912

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

.617 32.74
.535 27.91 ....... ___ ’ io.’ o
.578 30.57 ....... . . . . .......

1907
1908
1909
1910

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

.347
.196
.271
.326

f 1910
9 plants___ \ 1911
l 1912
Ingot strippers:
f 1907
1 1908
9 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

.314 16.96
.282 17.36
.324 18.03

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

.310
.238
.264
.307

f
10 plants. . . \
l
Laborers:
f
I
9 plants___ 1
[

1910
1911
1912

31
27
28

68.1
70.4
68.8

.303 19.69
.282 19.26
.320 20.90

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

.155
.155
.151
.163

r 1910
10 plants... l 1911
1 1912

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

.163 12.69
.166 12.39
.167 12.64

f 1907
]
9 plants___ 1 1908
1909
l 1910

f
10 plants. . . 1
l
Steel pourers:
f
J
9 plants___ 1
l
f
10 plants. . . \
l
Mold cappers:
f
I
8 plants___ 1
l




12.8

33.3 15.4
7.7 23.1 17.9
33.3 35.7

7.7 12.8 30.8
7.7
30.8
7.1 9.5 14.3

....... ___
36.39 .......
6.9 ....... 17.2 10.3 13.8 51.7
24.25
i4.3 17.9 14.3 3.6 32.1 17.9
31.61
7.1 32.1
17.9 *42.9
32.94 ....... . . . . ....... . . . .
6.7
23.3 20.0 10.0 40.0
....
___

6.3
28.1 18.8 9.4 37.5
6.7 ‘ *6*7 10.0 26.7 30.0 10.0
6.3 ....... 34.4 31.3 3.1 25.0

18.02 . . . . . 4.2 4.2 ___ 8.3 8.3 56.3 6.3 12.5 ___ .......
2.6 51.3 20.5 12.8 7.7 5.1
10.57
14.26 4.7
4.7 4.7 60.5
11.6
14.0
17.07 ....... . . . . 8.7 8.7 4.3 **6.5 58.7 ....... 13.0
7.7 7.7 15.4 5.8 51.9
11.5
2.7 21.6 16.2 27.0 16.2 ie.*2
18.2 13.6 13.6 36.4 4.5 13.6

19.60
16.34
18.17
19.85

41.4
14.3 42.9
42.9
27.6

20.7 17.2 13.8
35.7 7.1
35.7 21.4
41.4
31.0

32.3 38.7
14.8 29.6 37.0
28.6 42.9

12.12
71.3
11.80
76.9
11.62 16.3 54.8
12.69
27.3

7.1

29.0
18.5

6.9

21.4

28.7
23.1
28.9
72.7

26.0 74.0
17.7 82.3
7.8 92.2

1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

123

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” in the first or reading column stands for "Great Lakes and Middle
West.” For explanation of averages see p. 20.]
STOCKERS.

Year and dis­
trict.

1907.

NumNum­ ber
of
ber
em­
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
fml- rate full­
time
time
of week­
hours wages
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of.employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

•

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

6
3

275
96

57.7 $0,275 $14.97
76.3 .161 12.25

68
29

6

63

42
4

54

81

24

Total.......

9

371

62.5

.246 14.27

63

97

6

46

54

81

24

Pittsburgh.
G .L .an dM .W .

6
3

224
36

55.8
74.2

.293 15.42 U 6
.159 11.85
**2i

44
11

16
4

48

60

16

24

Total.......

9

260

58.3

.275 14.93 116

21

55

20

48

60

16

24

Pittsburgh.. ..
G .L .an dM .W .

6
3

213
53

60.2
77.5

.291 16.13
.155 12.01

22

37
12

28
9

9
6

15
4

12

54

49

9

Total.......

9

266

63.6

.264 15.31

22

49

37

15

19

12

54

49

9

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

6
4

296
56

61.9
80.6

.283 16.33
.180 14.48

10

86
29

14
2

19
15

57

69

51

Total.......

10

352

64.9

.266 16.03

10

115

16

34

57

69

51

Pittsburgh.....
G .L .an dM .W .

6
4

182
59

58.2
72.4

.252 13.96
.172 12.49

3
9

45
36

5
10

54
4

39

24

12

Total.......

10

241

61.7

.233 13.60

12

81

15

58

39

24

12

Pittsburgh.......
G .L.anaM . W .

6
4

211
57

58.6
74.6

.347 18.77
.182 13.51

42
38

18
3

9
14

13

53
2

40

36

Total.......

10

268

62.0

.312 17.66

80

21

23

13

55

40

36

1

1
2

5

2

3

5

2

3

1908.

1909.

1910.

1911.

1912.

CU POLA M E L T E R S .
19 07.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
2

12
3

62.5 $0,560 $33.71
76.0 .307 23.50

1

Total.......

7

15

65.2

.509 31.67

1

1

3

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
2

12
3

61.9
76.0

.365 22.15
.293 22.40

1
1

3

3
2

3

2

Total.......

7

15

64.7

.350 22.20

2

3

5

3

2

*1908.




i Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

124

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS,

T a b l e H . — A V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D C LA SSIFIE D R ATE S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D ISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.

CUPOLA MELTERS—Concluded.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
Num­ ber full­ rate full­
ber
Year and dis­
of time
of time
em­ hours wages week­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­ per
ly
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
{and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1909.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
2

12
3

61.9 $0,450 $27.01
76.0 .293 22.40

2
1

2

Total.......

7

15

64.7

.419 26.09

3

2

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
2

13
3

57.5
74.0

.484 26.90
.287 21.30

1

Total.......

7

16

60.6

.447 25.85

1

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
3

12
5

61.9
73.2

.413 25.08
.321 23.53

1

Total.......

8

17

65.2

.386 24.62

1

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
3

13
5

57.2
73.2

.442 23.88
.323 23.64

1

Total.......

8

18

61.6

.409 23.82

1

5

5

5

5

1910.
2

3
2

5

3

2

5

5

3

2

2
4

6

2

2

6

6

2

2

2
4

4

5

2

6

4

5

1911.

1912.

CUPOLA TAPPERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
3

43
7

57.8 $0,396 $22.31
77.1 .274 21.21

2
4

15
2

26

1

Total.......

8

50

60.5 ’ .379 22.16

1

6

17

26

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
3

38
5

57.3
74.4

.346 19.86
.245 18.23

1
1

5
3

27

5

1

Total.......

8

43

59.3

.335 19.67

1

2

8

27

5

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
3

34
9

57.2
77.7

.364 19.86
.248 19.31

6
1

6
7

3

19

1

Total.......

8

43

61.5

.340 19.74

1

7

13

3

19

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
3

48
8

55.4
80.3

.382 20.40
.244 19.73

2

12
5

18

1

15

3

Total.......

8

56

58.9

.362 20.30

1

2

17

18

15

3

1908.

1909.

1910.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

125

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.

CUPOLA TAPPERS—Concluded.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Num­ age
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate full­
ber
of
time
Year and dis­
of week­
of
em­ time
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages ly
per
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1911.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

5
4

34
11

56.5 $0,332 $18.22
72.5 .259 18.78

1

2

8
8

26

Total.......

9

45

60.4

.314 18.36

1

2

16

26

5
4

33
15

53.7
75.6

.423 21 83
.251 18.98

2

6
12

1

26

1

9

48

60.6

.369 20.94

1

2

18

1

26

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .
Total

BLOWERS.
1907.
3

G .L .an dM .W .

6
3

14
6

61.6 $0,658 $39.88
74.0 .528 38.79

4

Total.......

9

20

65.4

.619 39.55

4

4

6
3

13
6

66.4
74.0

.438 29.46
.528 38.79

3
4

8

9

19

68.8

.466 32.41

7

8

2 ...1

6
3

13
6

66.4
74.2

.467 30.75
.527 38.80

9

4

G .L .an dM .W .

4

Total.......

9

19

68.8

.486 33.29

4

9

4

6
3

14
6

67.1
76.0

.510 33.40
.597 45.38

9

2
2

3

2

9

20

69.8

.536 37.00

2

9

4

3

6
4

12
8

71.9
72.0

.479 34.44
.514 37.03

2

8
4

4

G .L .an dM .W .
Total......

10

20

72.0

.493 35.48

2

12

4

6
4

13
8

66.4
73.5

.530 34.96
.527 38.63

6
6

5

2

10

21

69.1

.529 36.36

12

5

2

7

2

Pittsburgh.

4

2
3

9

1908.
Pittsburgh -

G .L .an dM .W .
Total.......

2
2

1909.
Pittsburgh _

2
2

1910.
Pittsburgh.

G .L .an dM .W .
Total

2
2

1911.
Pittsburgh.

..

2
2

1912.
Pittsburgh_

G .L .an dM .W .
Total




2
2

126

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
REGULATORS, FIR ST.

Aver- AverNum- age
age
Num­ ber full­ rate
ber
Year and dis­
of
time
of
em­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1907.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .

6
3

20
6

57.6 $0,437 $25.55
78.0 .437 33.06

2

Total___

9

26

62.3

.437 27.28

2

11

2
2

11

1908.

7
2
9l

4

9

1
2

1
5
1

9

3

51

2

6

5

2
2
2 ....... I1

4
2 ___

6

5

4

2,,

6

2

11
2

8|
2

4

2

13

10

4

9

5
4

2

2

9

9

2

.435 25.85
.359 27.07

2

6
3

7
3

.411 26.24

2

9

10

4
r
1* '
1
4'
i
1

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M .W .

6
3

19
6

60.5
78.0

.262 16.66
.281 21.33

2

T o t a l....

9

25

64.7

.266 17.78

2

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
3

19
6

60.6
78.2

.337 21.45
.366 27.79

2

T o t a l....

9

25

64.8

.344 22.97

2

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
4

23
8

56.6
78.0

.410 23.52
.404 31.02

Total___

10

31

62.1

.408 25.45

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
4

16
8

62.8
75.0

.409 25.62
.312 23.12

2

2

Total___

10

24

66.8

.377 24.79

2

Pittsburgh
G. L .an d M .W .

6
4

17
8

59.1
76.5

Total___

10

25

64.7

1

1
2

2'
2
41
____

1909.

1910.
21
.......
21

1911.

1912.




REGULATORS, SECOND.

1
1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

127

T able I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D CLASSIFIE D R A TE S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN EACH Y E A R , B Y
D ISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
R E G U L A T O R S , SECOND—Concluded.

Aver­
Num- Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
Num­ ber full­ rate full­
Year and dis­
time
ber
of
of week­
em­ time
trict.
of
plants. ploy­ hours wages ly
per
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1909.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .an dM .W .

5
1

10
4

71.9 $0,385 $27.66
78.5 .314 24.65

1

1

2
4

6

Total___

6

14

73.8 . .365 26.80

1

1

6

6

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

6
2

16
6

62.9
80.0

.383 24.05
.364 29.44

2

7

5
4

2

T o ta l....

8

22

67.5

.378 25.52

2

2

7

9

2

Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM .W .

6
2

16

5

62.8
72.0

.363 22.75
.238 17.11

1

1

7
2

7

3

Total___

8

21

65.0

.333 21.41

3

1

1

9

7

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

6
2

17
6

59.1
76.0

.385 23.11
.318 24.06

2
4

11
2

4

T o ta l....

8

23

63.5

.367 23.36

6

13

4

1910.
2

1911.

1912.




1

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

128

T able I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.

VESSEL MEN—Concluded.

1907.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
3

32
15

54.1 $0,520 $28.06
63.2 .662 39.90

2

T o t a l....

9

47

57.0

.566 31.84

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
3

30
15

57.7
63.2

.357 20.12
.413 24.69

1

Total___

9

45

59.5

.376 21.65

1

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
3

30
15

57.7
63.3

Total___

9

45

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
4

Total___

5

12

4
2

11
6

5

2

5

12

6

17

5

11

2
4

4
3

7
5

5
1

2

11

6

7

12

6

2

.447 25.54
.559 33.64

2

2
2

6

15
2

1
7

4
1

3

59.6

.484 28.24

2

4

6

17

8

5

3

34
19

51.1
66.3

.477 24.37
.557 35.10

2

2

6
2

25

10

53

56.5

.506 28.22

2

2

8

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
4

32
19

53.9
63.8

.432 22.97
.404 24.34

2

2
2

3
2

T o t a l....

10

51

57.6

.421 23.48

2

4

Pittsburgh.......
G. L .an dM .W .

6
4

34
19

50.8
65.1

Total___

10

53

55.9

19 08.

1909.

#

1910.
2

8

3
3

25

2

8

6

7
2

8
6

12
2

1

2

5

9

14

14

1

2

.477 23.71
.457 28.64

3

13
4

4
7

11
2

3
2

3
1

.470 25.47

3

17

11

13

5

4

1911.

1912.




W AGES AN D

HOURS

129

OF L A B O R -----B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Continued.
C IN DER P ITM E N .

NumNum­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
em­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
age
full­ rate time
time
of
hours wages week­
ly
per per earn­
week. hour. ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
de:
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

44

4

12

6

6

44

4

12

6

6

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
•
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1907.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .

5
3

104
14

66.3 $0,212 $13.34
80.6 .163 13.17

T o ta l....

8

118

67.9

.206 13. 32I____

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .

5
3

59
12

63.4
78.5

.175 10.98
.162 12.71

5

T o ta l....

8

71

65.9

.173 11.27

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM . W .

5
3

72
20

64.8
81.0

T o ta l....

8

92

Pittsburgh.......
G.L. and M. W .

5
4

Total___

32
• 4

10

36

10

32
4

8

5

36

.186 11.77
.152 12.29

8

68.4

.178 11.88

8

63
22

64.4
76.8

9

85

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .

5
4

Total___

1908.

16

6

8

16

61

24
2

9
10

28

5

6

26

19

28

5

6

.226 14.04
.166 12.71

12

38
2

4

15

8

6

67.6

.211 13.69

8

12

40

4

15

6

48
14

68.8
73.3

.204 13.64
.181 13.26

2

10
4

32
8

6

9

62

69.8

.199 13.55

2

14

40

6

5
4

66
21

64.6
75.4

.213 13.31
.175 13.13

13

45
8

j
....... 1...
1

1909.

1910.

........ L J .........

1911.

1

1

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L. and M .W .
Total___

9

87

67.2

.204 13.27

13

53

15

6

15

1
61
1

1
1

BOTTO M M AKERS.
1907.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .

6
3

12
5

71.9 $0,437 $31.38
76.8 .263 20.22

5

Total.......

9

17

73.4

.386 28.10

5

Pittsburgh.......
G .L . and M .W .

6
3

12
5

71.6
74.4

.294 21.06
.256 19.00

2

4
2

2
3

4

Total.......

9

17

72.4

.283 20.45

2

6

5

4

6

4

2

6

4

2

1908.

44929°—Bull. 151—14
-----9




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

130

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R . B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
B O T T O M M A K E R S —Concluded.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

19 09.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

6
3

12
4

71.9 $0,382 $27.46
76.6 .260 19.90

1

6
3

2

4

Total.......

9

16

73.1

.351 25.57

1

9

2

4

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

6
4

12
7

72.2
75.4

.388 28.04
.274 20.55

2
3

6
2

4

2

Total.......

10

19

73.4

.346 25.28

2

5

8 '

4

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

e

4

12
7

71.7
72.0

.363 26.03
.292 21.01

2

4
2

4
3

2

2

Total......

10

19

71.8

.337 24.18

2

6

7

2

2

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .

0

4

12
8

71.8
73.5

.385 27.61
.287 21.00

2

8
3

2

3

2

Total......

10

20

72.5

.345 24.96

2

3

11

2

2

1910.

1911.

1912.




‘ Including 2 earning 9 and under 10 cents per hour.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

131

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
B O T T O M M A K E R S ’ H E L P E R S—Concluded.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
Year and dis­
of
of
em­
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

2

6
4

5
4

3

4
2

2

10

9

3

6

6
3

2
4

6
2

2

2

2
2

9

6

8

2

2

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1911.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .

6
4

19
12

72.3 $0,246 $17.70
72.0 .216 15.57

1

Total......

10

31

72.2

.234 16.88

1

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .

6
4

20
11

71.7
73.1

.252 18.10
.213 15.51

2

Total.......

10

31

72.2

.238 17.18

2

1912.




LADLE LIN ER S.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I I . — A V E R A G E FU L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
AN D C LASSIFIE D R ATE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R IN EAC H Y E A R , B Y
D ISTR IC TS, 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
LADLE LINERS’ HELPERS.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
trict.
em­
of
plants. p loy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
full­
time
Week­
ly
per earn­
hour.
ings.

A ver­
age
rate
of

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14.
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
25
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
50
60 70 over.
30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .

69.3 $0,236 $16.18
64.8 .310 18.01

Total..

68.2

.255 16.65

68.2
66.0

.191 13.18
.247 15.08

67.5

.209 13.79

69.1
67.2

.215 14.93
.262 16.03

68.5

.230 15.26

69.5
67.0

.227 15.65

68.7

.236 15.73

71.5
63.6

.223 15.94
.257 15.29

1908.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Total..

31

10

1909.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Total..

39

13

1910.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Total..

39

.258 15.93
12

15

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Total..

10

34

10

.233 15.75

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .a n d M .W .
Total..

71.
64.8
10

34

.214 15.29
.262 15.77

69.6

.228 15.43

10

STOPPER M AKERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Total..

6
3
9

6
4

3

71.3 $0,319 $22.77
75.0 .313 23.38
.316 23.01

1

1
2

2
1

3

3

3

1

10 •
72.8

1908.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Total..

6
3

6
3

73.3
72.0

.201 14.49
.268 19.32

1

9

9

72.9

.223 16.10

1




4

1
*"i
1

l

1
4

1

1

1

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

133

T a b l e H . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
STOPPER M AKERS—Concluded.

N um ­
Num ­ ber
ber
Year and dis­
of
em­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

A ver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
50 60
40
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
60 70 over.
40
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1909.

Pittsburgh.......

6
3

6
3

72.3 10.252 $18.08
70.0 .307 21.51

1

G .L .a n d M .W .
T otal.......

9

9

71.6

.270 19.22

1

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

7
5

72.0
74.4

Total.......

10

12

6
4

6
4

2

3
"i

1

1

........

l

3

1

2

1

.253 18.47
.270 20.06

l

5
1

1
1

1
2

73.0

.260 19.14

i

6

2

3

72.0
72.0

.261 18.61
.291 20.92

1

2
2

1

1

4

i

1

2

1

2

1910.

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Total.......

i°

10

72.0

.273 19.53

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

6
4

70.0
72.0

Total.......

10

10

70.8

1

3
"” i

1

i

3

.263 17.84
.285 20.52

i
i

4

.272 18.91

2

4

1913.




1
i
1

134
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
STOPPER SETTERS—Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
Year and dis­
of
em­
of
trict.
plants. p loy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time 12 14 16 18 20 25
40
30
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings.
14 16
60 70 over.
18 20 25 30
40
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .

6
4

27
12

53.3 $0.481 $24.37
60.0 .538 29.94

3
2

3

7
2

5
2

3

T o t a l . ...

10

39

55.3

.498 26.08

5

3

9

7

3 ....

30 ! 47.9
! 61.0
12
42 51.7

.459 21.99
.588 33.79

11
3

12
3

.496 25.36

14

6
6
12

1912.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

T o t a l . ...

10

3

4

3

4

6

6

15i
STEEL PO U R ER S.

1907.
6
3

17
12

50.8 $0,756 $37.69
62.0 .604: 34.55

1
4

3

4

2

9
6

9

29

55.4

.693 36.39

2

5

3

4

15

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

16
12

54.0
62.0

.472 25.67
.396 22.36

T o t a l . ...

9

28

57.4

.439 24.25

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

16
12

54.0
62.2

T o t a l . ...

9

28

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

T otal___

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
T otal___
1908.

3
2

4

1

3
6

5

4
4

5

4

1

9

5

.618 32.96
.520 29.80

2

5
4

3
2

8
4

57.5

.576 31.61

2

9

5

12

18
14

48.1
65.1

.664 31.94
.555 33.77

3
6

6

3

2

6
6

10

32

55.6

.617 32.74

2

9

6

3

12

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

17
13

50.7
60.9

.620 30.64
.424 24.34

9

3

T o t a l . ...

10

30

55.1

.535 27.91

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

18
14

47.9
63.4

.649 31.09
.487 29.90

T otal___

10

32

54.7

.578 30.57

----1

1909.

1910.

1911.
2
'

3
3

2

3

2

8
2

3

8

9

3

5
6

4
6

1

8

2
2

11

10

1

8

1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

135

I I . — A V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
AN D C LA SSIFIE D RATE S OF W A G ES PER H O U R IN EACH Y E A R , B Y
D ISTR IC TS, 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
M O L D C APPE R S.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
Aver- Aver­ age
age fulla n rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60
time
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
per
week. hour.
40
50
60 70 over.
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.
5
3

42
6

51.4 $0,372 $18.69
76.0 .175 13.32

27

3

6

2

2

2
2

4

G .L .a n d M .W .
T o t a l . ...

8

48

54.5

.347 18.02

2

2 ]....

4

4

27

3

6

5
3

34
5

50.8
73.2

.198 10.21
.178 13.07

18
2

3
2

3

2

1

8

G .L .a n d M .W .
T o t a l . ...

8

39

53.7

.196 10.57

1

20

8

5

3

2

5
3

37
6

50.6
75.2

.288 14.53
.169 12.64

2

6

2

2

24
2

5

G .L .a n d M .W .
T otal___

8

43

54.0

.271 14.26

2

2

2

26

5

6

Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .

5
4

38
14

50.1
75.6

.355 17.57
.204 15.29

2
2 *8

3

27

6

4

T otal___

9

52

57.0

.314 16.96

___ 4

4!

8

3

27

6

Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .

5
4

26
11

60.8
72.3

.297 17.16
.247 17.83

1

6!
2

4
2

4
6

6

6

T ota l___

9

37

64.2

.282 17.36

1

8]

6

10

6

6

Pittsburgh.
G .L .a n d M .W .

5
4

30
14

52.7
73.9

.369 18.63
.228 16.76!____

4
4

2
4

16

2

6

6

T otal___

9

44

59.5

.324 18.03j........

8

6

6

16

2

6

1908.

1909.

1910.

1911.

1

1912.

l

IN G O T STR IPPE R S.
1907.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

19
10

60.5 $0,357 $20.54
80.4 .221 17.81

2
10

6

5

4

2

T ota l___

9

29

67.4

.310 19.60

12

6

5

4

2

Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

18
10

63.8
76.8

.256 16.66
.205 15.76

6
6

10

2

4

T o t a l . ...

9

28

68.4

.238 16.34

4

12

10

2

6
3

18
10

65.2
79.2

.284 18.23
.228 18.08

2
10

10

6

9

28]

70.2

.264 18.17

12

10

6

1908.

1909.
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
T ota l___




i

136

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S AN D A V E R A G E
AN D CLASSIFIED R A T E S OF W AG ES P E R H O U R IN EACH Y E A R , B Y
D ISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1912— Concluded.
B ESSEM E R CO NVERTERS— Continued.
I N G O T S T R I P P E R S —Concluded.

N um N um ­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
of
em ­
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Average
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

A ver­
age
M ltime
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12 14
16 18 20
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
14 16
18 20 25
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

30
25
50 60
40
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
50
60 70 over.
30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

19
12

61.3 $0,338 $19.75
79.0 .247 19.60

T o t a l . ...

10

31

68.1

.303 19.69

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

15
12

67.5
74.0

.333 21.80
.217 16.09

4

8

T o t a l . ...

10

27

70.4

.282 19.26

4

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

16
12

63.4
76.0

T o t a l....

10

28

68.8

2
8

8
4

9

10

12

9

10

5

8

10

5

.374 22.42
.248 18.86

8
4

2

6

8

.320 20.90

8

12

2

6

1911.

1912.

LABO RERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

602
199

76.9 $0.156 $11.97
81.5 .154 12.57

3^2
199

230

T o t a l . ...

9

801

78.0

.155 12.12

571

230

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

309
116

74.5
80.6

.156 11.61
.152 12.28

211
116

98

T o t a l . ...

9

425

76.2

.155 11.80

327

98

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
3

401
163

75.4
80.6

.153 11.55
.146 11.78

21 217
71 92

163

T o t a l . ...

9

564

76.9

.151 11.62

92 309

163

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

541
245

77.2
79.1

.164 12.68
.161 12.71

92
112

449
133

T ota l___

10

786

77.8

.163 12.69

204

582

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

422
171

74.3
75.2

.167 12.41
.164 12.33

50
55

372
116

T o t a l . ...

10

593

74.6

.166 12.39

105

488

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

6
4

428
198

75.0
77.0

.167 12.58
.166 12.75

33
16

395
182

T o t a l . ...

10

626

75.7

.167 12.64

49

577

1908.

1909.

1910.

1911.

1912.




W AGES AN D

HOURS

OE L A B O R — B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

137

I I I . —A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARN IN GS AND AV ERA G E
AND CLASSIFIED RA TES OF W AGES P E R HO U R IN EACH D ISTR ICT,
B Y Y E A R S, 1907 TO 1912.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
[T he abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle
W est.” The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
STOCKERS.

District and
number o f
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

Num ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
tim e
of
and and
hours wages week­ un­ un­ and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

275
224
213
296
182
211

1907
1908
1909
1910

96
36
53
54

76.3
74.2
77.5
81.3

.161
.159
.155
.178

f 1910
4 plan ts___ i 1911
l 1912

56
59
57

80.6
72.4
74.6

.180 14.48
.172 12.49
.182 13.51

6 p lan ts___

57.7 $0,275 $14.97
55.8 .293 15.42
60.2 .291 16.13
61.9 .283 16.33
58.2 .252 13.96
58.6 .347 18.77

68
6
44
28 * 9
86 14
45
5
42 18

42
16
15
19
54
9

63
21
12
10

29
11
9 *6
2
29

4
4
4
13

10
9

29
36
38

2
10
3

15
4
14

116
*37
3

54
48
12
57
39
13

81
60
54
69
24
53

24
16
49
51
12
40

36

26
5
19
15

3

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
1
3 p lan ts___ i
l

12.25
11.85
12.01
14.47

CUPOLA

22

24
9

2

M ELTERS.

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

12
12
12
13
12
13

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

3
3
3
3
3

76.0
76.0
76.0
74.0
74. Q

.307
.293
.293
.287
.296

1911
3 p lan ts___ < 1912

5
5

73.2
73.2

.321 23.53
.323 23.64

5 plan ts.

62.5 $0,560 $33.71
61.9 .365 22.15
61.9 .450 27.01
57.5 .484 26.90
61.9 .413 25.08
57.2 .442 23.88

G .L .a n d M .W .:
2 plan ts___

23.50
22.40
22.40
21.30
21.95

CUPOLA

TAPPERS.

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

43
38
34
48
34
‘ 33

3 plan ts___

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

7
5
9
8
7

4 plan ts___

1911
1912

11
15

5 p lan ts___

57.8 $0,396 $22.31
57.3 .346 19.86
57.2 .364 19.86
55.4 .382 20.40
56.5 .332 18.22
53.7 .423 21.83

2
5
6
12
8
6

15
27
3
18
26
1

77.1
74.4
77.7
80.3
72.9

.274
.245
.248
.244
.248

4
3
7
5

2

72.5
75.6

.259 18.78
.251 18.98

G .L .a n d M .W .:




21.21
18.23
19.31
19.73
18.03

1 Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

26

138
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S I F I E D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H D I S T R I C T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
BLOWERS.

District and
number of
plants.

Number
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Pittsburgh:

Average
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Average
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Num ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14 16 18 20
25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
18 20 25 30
ings. 14 16
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

61.6 $0.658 $39.88
66.4 .438 29.46
66.4 .467 30.75
67.1 .510 33.40
71.9 .479 34.44
66.4 .530 34.96

4
8
9
9
8
6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

14
13
13
14
12
13

f 1907
1908
3 plan ts___ < 1909
1910
l 1911

6
6
6
6
6

74.0
74.0
74.2
76.0
72.0

.528
.528
.527
.597
.537

38.79
38.79
38.80
45.38
38.64

4
4
4
2
2

2

/ 1911
4 p lan ts___ \ 1912

g
8

72.0
73.5

.514 37.03
.527 38.63

2

4

6 p lan ts___

G .L . and M .W .:




REGULATORS, FIRST.

REGULATORS, SECOND.

3

3
2
4
2
4
5

2

«!

7

3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

139

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E FU L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E

AN D C LA SSIFIE D R ATE S OF W A G ES PER H O U R IN EACH D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
VESSEL M EN.

District and
number of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em ­
ploy­
ees.

Pittsburgh:

3 plants___

4 plants___

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time 12 14
16 18 20
25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ u n -. un­ un­ un­ un­ cis.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16
18 20 25
30
40
50
60 70 o v e r .
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

54.1 $0,781 $41.54
57.7 .527 30.19
57.7 .597 33.93
51.0 .678 34.03
54.1 .608 31.72
50.9 .757 37.77

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

16
15
15
17
16
17

1907
1 1908
i 1909
l 1910

7
7
7
7

68.6
68.6
68.7
70.3

.821
.531
.701
.781

\1910
\1911

9
9
9

70.7
68.0
69.3

.700 46.01
.532 33.76
.599 39.35

6 p la n ts ....

G .L .a n d M .W .:

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

[

l 1912

2
5
2
2

2
5
2
2
5

2
4
2
2

51.54
33.58
44.19
50.64
2

66.3 $0,212 $13.34
63.4 .175 10.98
64.8 .186 11.77
64.4 .226 14.04
68.8 .204 13.64
64.6 .213 13.31

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

104
59
72
63
48
66

1907
1908
1909
1910

14
12
20
16

80.6
78.5
81.0
78.6

.163
.162
.152
.163

f 1910
4 plan ts___
1911
l 1912

22
14
21

76.8
73.3
75.4

.166 12.71
.181 13.26
.175 13.13

5 plants___

5

\




13.17
12.71
12.29
12.74

9
10

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
3 plants___ 1
i
1

32
32
24

8

4
44
16
28 ' “ 5
4
38
32
45 15

4
4
2
8

10
8
10
6

2

8
2

12
4
13

2
8
8

12
6

6

15

5
3
3

2

6

5
3
3
5

2
4

2
2
2

6
6
6
6

9
1
5
3
4
9

2

VESSEL MEN’ S HELPERS.

Pittsburgh:

2

5
7
3
12
6
3

140

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . —A V E R A G E F U LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
AN D CLASSIFIE D R ATE S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R IN E A C H D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS -Continued.
BOTTOM M AKERS.

District and
number of
plants.

Num ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­ AverN um ­
age
age
ber
full­ rate
of
time 12
25
30
40
50 60
Year. em­ tim e
of week­ and 14 16 18 20
and and and and and and and and and 70
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ploy­ per
ly
per
ees. week.
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
hour.
ings. 14 16
18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

IS .
S

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

12
12
12
12
12
12

1907
1908
1909
1910

5
5
4
5

76.8
74.4
76.6
76.8

.263
.256
.260
.274

\1910
\1911
[ 1912

7
7
8

75.4
72.0
73.5

.274 20.55
.292 21.01
.287 21.00

6 plan ts___

71.9 $0,437 $31.38
71.6 .294 21.06
71.9 .382 27.46
72.2 .388 28.04
71.7 .363 26.03
71.8 .385 27.61

6
2

4

2
6
2
4

6
4
8

4
4
2
4
2
2

2
4
2
2

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
1
3 plants___ i
l
4 plan ts___

20.22
19.00
19.90
20.82

2
1
2
2
2

5
3
3
1

2

3
2
3

2
3
3

3
4
2
2
4

4
3
2
7
4
8

BOTTOM M AKERS’ HELPERS.

Pittsburgh:
66.4 $0.4lJ$27.83
66.2 .273 18.64
66.4 .352 24.02
67.3 .342 23.24
71.7 .330 23.63
71.8 .343 24.59

2
3
2
2
2

8
8
8
8

63.0
64.5
63.1
64.5

.517
.360
.457
.460

30.76
21.64
27.16
28.87

2
2
2
2

10
10
10

66.0
63.6
64.8

.433 27.76
.360 21.75
.407 25.45

2
2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

13
13
13
15
14
14

1907
1 1908
3 plants----- i 1909
l 1910
| 1910

6 plants-----

G .L .a n d M .W .:

4 plants-----

(

\1911

l 1912




2
1
6
4
2
4

1
2

i Including 2 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents.

1
2
4

2
2
1
1
4
1

2
2
2

3
2

5
5
2
3

1

141

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D C LA SSIFIE D R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H D IST R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
LADLE LINERS’ HELPERS.

District and
number of
plants.

.Pittsburgh:

Num ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

( 1907

1908
1909
6 plants___
1910
1911
, 1912
G. L .a n d M .W .:
f 1907
1908
3 plants___ i1 1909
j 1910
f 1910

4 plants-----

\1911

l 1912

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

4
7
4

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

4
2
3

8
9
12
14
10
8

4
2
4
8
8
8

29
21
27
27
24
24

69.3 $0,236 $16.18
68.2 .191 13.18
69.1 .215 14.93
69.5 .227 15.-65
71.5 .223 15.94
71.6 .214 15.29

10
10
12
10

64.8
66.0
67.2
66.0

.310
.247
.262
.271

18.01
15.08
16.03
16.31

4
4
4
4

12
10
10

67.0
63.6
64.8

.258 15.93
.257 15.29
.262 15.77

4
2
2

2
2

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ [cts.
der der der der der and
50
30
40
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

4
1
2
3
2
4

3

1

1

1

2

2
2
2
2

*2
4
2

3
1
1
1

2

4
4
4

1
1
1

1

i

3
4
3
5
3
4

1
1
3

2

3
2
3

STOPPER M AKERS.
Pittsburgh:
$0.319 $22.77j........
.
14.49
C plants----18.61
17.84

G. L.andM.W.:

1

1
1
1

1
1

1

23.38
19.32
21.51
20.83

4 plants___

i
i
i
i

20.06
20.92
20.52

3 plants___

2
2
1
2

i
i
i

1

10

2
4

1
4
4

3

3

1

2
1
1
1

2

1
1
1

2
2
2

1
1

STOPPER SETTERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

35
30
24
27
27
30

49.4 $0,568 $27.70
52.8 .269 14.45
54.0 .481 25.17
48.4 .516 24.89
53.3 .481 24.37
47.9 .459 21.99

3 p la n t s ....

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

58.8
58.8
58.9
60.0

.844
.564
.720
.788

4 p la n t s ....

1910
1911
1912

12
12
12

62.0
60.0
61.0

.714 40.90
.538 29.94
.588 33.79

6 p la n t s ....

6

7
7
2
6
5
12

6

4

3
3
3
3

3
3

G. L .a n d M .W .:




...

4
2
2

46.14
30.66
39.42
44.11

2
*2
2
2

2
3

6
6
6
6
4
6
6
6
6
6

142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I I I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C LA SSIFIE D R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS— Continued.
STEEL POURERS.

District and
number of
plants.

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber
full­
of
Year. em­ tim e
hours
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Num ber of employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14 1 16 18 20
25
30
40 '! 50 60
week­ and and, and and and and and and and and 70
un­ u n -; un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16
30
40
50
18 20 25
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

6 p la n t s ....

17
16
16
18
17
18

50.8 $0.756 $37.69
54.0 .472 25.67
54.0 .618 32.96
48.1 .664 31.94
50.7 .620 30.64
47.9 .649 31.09

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

62.0
62.0
62.2
64.0

3

4
5
2

1
3
1
3
i
!
3
a
3 ____
5
4

4
5
3
3
9
1

9
8
6
3
8

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
1
3 p la n t s .... 1
(

f 1910
4 p la n ts .... i 1911
[ 1912

14
13
14

65.1
60.9
63.4

.604
.396
.520
.579

34.55
22.36
29.80
34.43

*

.555 33.77
.424 24.34
.487 29.9J

4

2
2
2
2

4
2

4 ___
I
a'
........j1
6
I

2
2
2

3

6
6

4

6
8
6

MOLD CAPPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

42
34
37
38
26
30

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
5
6
8

76.0
73.2
75.2
78.4

.175
.178
.169
.188

( 1910
4 p la n ts .... 4 1911
l 1912

14
11
14

75.6
72.3
73.9

.204 15.29
.247 37.83
.228 16.76

5 plants.

51.4 $0.372$18.69
50.8 .198 10.21
50.6 .288 14.53
50.1 .355 17.57
60.8 .297 17.16
52.7 .369 18.63

G .L .a n d M . W .:
3 plants

f
I
1
l

13.32
13.07
12.64
14.66

4
3

18

3
4
2
1
2

2
2
2
4
4
1

6
6

INGOT STRIPPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

19
18
18
19
15
16

60.5 $0.357 $20.54
63.8 .256 16.66
65.2 .284 18.23
61.3 .338 19.75
67.5 .333 21.80
63.4 .374 22.42

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

80.4
76.8
79.2
80.4

.2 1 17.81
2
.205 15.76
.228 18.08
.249 20.06

f 1910
4 p la n ts .... ^ 1911
1 1912

12
12
12

79.0
74.0
76.0

.247 19.60
.217 16.09
.248 18.86

6 p la n t s ....

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
I
3 p la n t s .... 1
l




1 0 ..
io i::
6!

4

27
2
5
27
6
16

3

6
6
6

6
2

4
6

6

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

143

T able I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S I F I E D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D IS T R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
LABORERS.

D is tr ic t a n d
n u m b er o f
plan ts.

A ver­
N u m ­ age
b er
fu ll­
- of
tim e
Y ea r.
em ­ hou rs
p lo y ­ per
ees. w eek.

A ver­
age
ra te
of
w ages
per
h ou r.

N u m b e r o f em p lo y e e s earning ea ch classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.
A v e r­
age
fu ll­
12
14
30
tim e
16
18 1 20
25
50
40
60
w e e k ­ a n d and a n d a n d an d a n d a n d an d a n d and 70
u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n - ;un- u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ cts .
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der a n d
ings.
16
40
14
18
20 25
30
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

P itts b u rg h :
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

602
309
401
541
422
428

76.9 $0,156 $11.97
74.5
.156 11.61
75.4 .153 11.55
77.2 .164 12.68
74.3
.167 12.41
75.0
.167 12.58

372
211
21 217
92
50
33

1907
1908
1909
1910

199
116
163
207

81.5
80.6
80.6
80.3

.154
.152
.146
.159

12.57
12.28
11.78
12.72

199
116
71 92
112

95

( 1910
1911
4 p la n t s ....
1 1912

245
171
198

79.1
75.2
77.0

.161 12.71
.164 12.33
.166 12.75

112
55
16

133
116
182

6 p la n t s ....

230
98
163
449
372
395

G . L .a n d M .W .:
f
1
3 p la n t s .... i
1

\




i

1

144

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S ,

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
[T h e figures set o p p o site ea ch b ra ck e te d grou p o f years are for id e n tic a l p la n ts .]

NUM BER.
E m p lo y e e s w h o se fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r w e e k w ere—
A ver­
N um ­
age
b er
fuUof
O ver
O v er
O ver
Y e a r.
48
56
tim e
em ­
48
60
72
hou rs a n d
and
and
72
an d
p lo y ­ p e r
84
and
60
un­
u n der
under
ees.
u n d er
u n der
w eek. der.
60
72
56
84

O ccu p a tion , an d n u m b e r
plan ts.

Stockers:

[

9 p lan ts.

1907
1 1908
1 1909
[ 1910

371
260
266
350

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

171
150
114
114

10 p l a n t s .. .

f 1910
1911
[ 1912

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

114
111
123

f 1907
1908

1910
l 1911

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

6
6
6
6
6

/ 1911
\ 1912

17
18

65.2
61.6

6
9

f 1907
1908
1910
l 1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

27
24
24
36
24

/ 1911
\ 1912

45
48

60.4
60.6

24
27

1907
1908

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

6
3
3
3

20
21

72.0
69.1

3

1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

12
9
9
6

I 1910
. 1911
l 1912

31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

6
6
9

f
1
‘ i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

6
6

f 1910
1911
l 1912

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

6
6
9

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

12
9
9
12

3
3
3
6

2
4
4
2

f 1910

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

12
12
15

6
3
3

4
6
2

\

28

18
24
16

27
27
33
68

83
25
60
20

44
30
39
92

68
57
21

20
26
48

92
30
36

2

3
3
3
3
3

2
2
2
2
2

12
2
2
2
2

2
2

5
3

2
2

2
2

4
2

9
13
5
7
11

6
2
8
8
2

4
2
6
5
4

15
5

2
10

4
4

10
12
12
12
16

2
2
2
3

2

2
2
2

4

18
14

2
4
2

8
8
10
10

4

31

25

31

27
2
2

15
20

18

C u pola m elters:
7

8

\ 1909

plants.

p la n ts _

2
2
2
3

C u pola tappers:
8

9

\ 1909

p la n ts _

p la n ts .....

1
i

I
2

B low ers :

,\ 1909

9 p la n ts ..........

1910
1911

J1911

10 p la n ts ____

\ 1912

R egu la tors, first:

[ 1907

9 p la n ts .........

10

\

p la n ts ........

2
2
2

9

1

9
4
4

12
12
8

2
2
2
2

2

2
2
2
4
4
2
2

R egu la tors, secon d :
6 p lan ts.

8

\

plan ts,

2
4
2

6
6
8
8

2
4
4

10
11
6

4
4
4
4
4
4

V essel m en :
9

f
1
■1
l

plan ts

.

10 plan ts.

\1911
\ 1912
[

1 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were Dl.




4
4
4

2
4

2
2
2
4
4
2
2

WAGES AND HOUBS OP LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

145

I V . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Con.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
N U M B E R — C o n tin u e d .

O c cu p a tio n , a n d n u m b e r o f
plan ts.

E m p lo y e e s w h o se fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r w e e k w ere—
A ver­
N um ­
age
ber
fu ll­
O v er
of
O ver
O ver
56
Y ea r.
48
e m ­ t im e
48
60
72
and
h ou rs a n d
and
72
and
60
p lo y ­
and
84
under
per
u n ­ under
under
under
ees.
60
w e e k . d e r.
72
56
84

V essel m en ’ s helpers:
1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

24
18
18
24

9
9
9
15

4
8
8
4

f 1910

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

24
24
30

15
9
9

8
12
4

4
8

1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

24
21
21
6

38
28
30
40

4
10
10
10

\ 1911

f 1910
l 1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

6
6
21

46
34
36

10
6
30

9 p la n ts ..........................

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

11
11
11
13

4
2
3
2

2

19
19
20

73.4
71.8
72.5

15
15
14

2

2

10 p la n ts ........................

f 1910
1911
l 1912

2

f
1
i
l

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

14
18
15
26

8
2
6
2

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

30
20
19

2

l 1912
f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

6
6
6
6

1
1
1
1

i 1910
\ 1911
{ 1912

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

6
3
3

1
1
1

9 p la n ts ..........................

f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

39
31
29
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

6
6
6
6

1
1
1
1

10 p la n ts ........................

f 1910
1911
l 1912

39
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6

6
3
3

1
1
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

2
2
2
1

f 1910

12
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8

1
2
3

9 p la n ts ..........................

f
1
i
l

10 p la n ts ........................

\ 1911

l 1912

8
8
8

2
2
2
6
6
2
2

C inder p itm e n :
8 p la n ts ..........................

9 p la n ts ..........................

f
1
i
[

44
12
23
15
15
16

8
8
8
8

B o tt o m m akers:

\

2
4
2

j
1

4
4

B o tto m m akers’ helpers:
9 p la n ts ..........................

10 p la n ts ............: .........

1907
1908
1909
1910

i 1910
\1911

8
7
8

10
10

2
2
1

2

L a d le liners:
9 p la n ts ..........................

10 p la n ts ........................
L a d le liners’ helpers:

\

2
4
2

4
4
10
10
10

14
14

2

10
8
10
12

2
2

2

14
16
14

2

2

2

2

20
12
18
24

2
4
4

2

26
16
14

4

2

2

2

S top p er m akers:
9 p la n ts ..........................

f
1
1
l

10 p la n ts ........................

l 1911

l 1912

44929°—Bull. 151-14-




-10

2

4
4
2
8
9
6
5

3
1
1

1
2
2
2
2
2
2

146
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Con.

able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
N U M B E R — C o n clu d e d .

O ccu p a tion , an d n u m b e r o f
plan ts.

A v e rN um ­
ber
of
Y ea r.
tim e
em ­
h ou rs
p lo y ­
per
ees.
w eek.

ISr

full-tin le h o ru rs p e r iv e e k v rere—
E m p l oyees ivh ose J

O ver
56
48
48
and
an d
and
un­
u n d er
u n d er
60
der.
56

60

O ver
60
and
u n der
72

72

O ver
72
and
u n der
84

84

S top p er setters:
f
1
9 p la n ts .......................................... i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

39
30
24
27

f 1910
* 1911
{
l 1912

39
39
42

52.6
55.3
51.7

27
27
36

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

21
18
18
21

f 1910
10 p la n ts ........................................
1911
1912
M old cappers:
f 1907
J 1908
8 p la n ts ..........................................
1 1909
l 1910

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

21
21
24

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

36
30
33
12

f 1910
1911
9 p la n ts ..........................................
l 1912
In g o t strippers:
1907
I 1908
9 p la n ts ..........................................
1 1909
l 1910

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

12
12
24

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

9
6
6
3

f 1910
• 1911
j
1912

31
27
28

68.1
70.4
68.8

3

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

f 1910

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

1ft plants _ ...............................

4
8
8
2

6

4
12
4

6

2
2
2
2
2
2

Steel pou rers:
1
1
9 p la n ts ..........................................
i
l

\
[

\
*

10 p la n ts ....................................
L a b orers:

[

9 p la n ts ..........................................

f
J
I
l

10 p la n ts ........................................

\1911

l 1912

3

4
6
6
2

3

4
4
4
4

4

4
9
4

4

8
7
6
4

4
2
4
2

10
23
14

2
2
6

4

6
6
6
8

6
10
6
6

4

10
12
8

6
6
10

6

6
4
4
24
3
22

22
34
20
13

172
131
141
242

266
93
221
152

337
143
167
1 319

23
27
17

13
25
29

275
253
242

154
215
174

1 321
73
163

7.5

7.3
10.4
12.4
19.4

22.4
9 .6

1.5
...........

5.7

11.9
11.5
14.7
26.3

6.7

19.3
23.7
7 .8

5 .7
10.8
17.9

26.1
12.4
13.4

3

24
24

4
6
4
6
6
3
3

12

1

4

6
6

PER CENT.

S tockers:
f
J
1
l

Qplants

1907
1908
1909
1910

\1910
10 p la n ts ........................................ \1911
l 1912

371
260
266
350

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

46.1
57.7
42.9
32.6

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

32.4
46.1
45.9

" i.Y
...........
8.9

4.9
9.2

6.0

8 .8

6.2
...........

7 .5

..
7.1
7.7
.8
.7

1 In clu d in g 54 e m p loy ees w h ose fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r w e e k w ere 85.




22.6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

147

T able T V .— A V E R A G E A N D C LASSIFIE D FU L L -T IM E H OU RS OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN T H E U N IT E D STA TES, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Con.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS— Continued.
FEB CENT-Continued.

O ccu p a tion , an d n u m b e r
plan ts.

N um ­
b er
of
Y e a r.
em ­
p lo y ­
ees.

E m p lo y e e s w h ose fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r w eek w ere—
A ver­
age
fu ll­
O ver
O ver
O ver
56
tim e
48
60
72
48
an d
h ou rs and
an d
72
an d
60
and
84
under
un­
per
u n d er
under
u n der
w eek. der.
60
56
84
72

C upola m elters:
65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

40.0
40.0
40.0
37.5
40.0

/ 1911
\ 1912

17
18

65.2
61.6

1910
l 1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

45
48

60.4
60.6

f 1907
1908
J 1909
1910
l 1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

/ 1911
\ 1912

20
21

72.0
69.1

f
1
]
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

46.2
36.0
36.0
20.7

f 1910
1911
l 1912

31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

19.4
25.0
36.0

f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

33.3

f 1910
1911
l 1912

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

27.3
28.6
39.1

11.8
11.1

11.8
11.1

18.0
30.2
11.6
12.5
26.8

12.0
4 .7
18.6
14.3
4 .9

8 .0
4 .7
14.0
8 .9
9 .8

33.3
10.4

4 .4
20.8

8.9
8.3

50.0
63.2
63.2
60.0
88.9

10.0
10.5
10.5
15.0

10.0

90.0
66.7

7.7
16.0
8 .0

14.3

29.4
16.7

10.0
9 .5

30.0
15.8
15.8
15.0

1 13.3
13.3
13.3
12.5
13.3

8 .0
4.7

53.3
56.3

13.3
13.3
13.3
12.5
13.3

11.8
11.1

54.0
55.8
55.8
64.3
58.5

/ 1911
\ 1912

13.3

35.3
50.0

f 1907
1908

8 p la n ts . . .r.

15
15
15
16
15

20.0
20.0
20.0
18.8
20.0

11.1

r 1907
1908
J 1909
1910
l 1911

7 p la n ts ____

30.8
32.0
40.0
34.5

13.3
13.3
13.3
18.8

C upola tappers:
8

) 1909

p la n ts _

9

p lan ts

4.2

B low ers:

10

p la n ts _

10.0
10.5
10.5

9 .5

R egu la tors, first:
9

p la n ts .....

\

10 p la n ts .............

31.0

........... ...........

29.0
i6.*7
16.0

38.7
50.0
32.0

7.7
8 .0
8 .0

8 .0

7.7
8 .0
8 .0
13.8
12.9
8 .3
8 .0

R egu la tors, s econ d :
6

p la n ts ..........

l

8 plan ts,

11.1
28.6
14.3

33.3
42.9
57.1
44.4

9.1
19.0
17.4

45.5
52.4
26.1

17.4

..........
...........

8 .7
18.2
18.2
8.3

17.4
18.2
18.2
...........

8 .7
9.1
9.1
16.7

15.4
........... 24.0
7 .7

*8.6*
15.4

15.4
8 .0
7 .7

33.3

22.2
28.6
28.6
22.2
18.2

V essel m e n :
9 p lan ts.

f
1
■1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

52.2
40.9
40.9
50.0

13.0
13.6
13.6
25.0

...........

10 p la n ts ..................

f 1910
. 1911
l 1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

46.2
48.0
57.7

23.1
12.0
11.5

...........

1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

51.1
40.0
40.0
49.0

19.1
•20.0 ..........
20.0 ...........
30.6 ..........

8 .5
17.0
.......... 17.8 17.8
........... 17.8 17.8
8.2 ...........

4.3
4.4
4.4
12.2

f 1910
1911
H 1912

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

45.3
47.1
56.6

28.3
17.6
17.0

..........

15.1
23.5
7.5

11.3
3 .9
3 .8

\

V essel m e n ’ s helpers:
9

10

p la n ts............. .

p lan ts.,

f
1
I
l

...........

1Including 6.7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91




**7.*8*
15.1

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

148
T

I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Con.

ab le

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— Continued.
P E R C E N T — C o n tin u e d .

O c cu p a tio n ,

an d n u m b e r
p lan ts.

of

E m p lo y e e s w h ose fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r w e e k w e re —
A ver­
N um ­
age
ber
fu ll­
O ver
of
O ver
O ver
Y ea r.
t im e
48
56
em ­
48
60
72
h ou rs a n d
an d
and
p lo y ­
an d
60
72
an d
84
un­
per
un der
ees.
un der
un der
u n d er
w eek. der.
60
56
72
84

C in der p itm e n :
1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

20.3
2 9.6
22.8
7 .6

f 1910
l 1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

7.1
9 .7
24.1

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

f 1910
1911
10 p la n ts ........................................
l 1912
B o tto m m a k e r ’ s helpers:
f 1907
1 1908
9 p la n ts ....................... ..
1 1909
l 1910

19
19
20

73.4
71.8
72.5

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

28.6
28.6
28.6
26.1

f 1910
1911
10 p la n ts ........................................
l 1912
L a d le liners’ help ers:
f 1907
Q • n lolrifc . ......................... ............................. 1 1908
v p la lb b
1 1909
l 1910

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

24.0
12.5
12.5

4 .0
4.2
4.2

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

15.4
19.4
15.4
16.2

2 .6
3 .2
2 .6
2 .7

f 1910
1911
10 p la n ts ........................................
l 1912
S to p p e r m ak ers:
f 1907
1 1908
v p ia llto .
| 1909
l 1910

39
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6

15.4
8 .8
8 .8

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

f
10 p la n ts........................................ i
l
S to p p e r setters:
f
Q T ilcin lo . ................................... .................. 1
< piC U lv b
7
i
l

1910
1911
1912

12
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

86.7
75.0
70.6
73.0

39
39
42

52.6
55.3
51.7

69.2
69.2
85.7

8

plclllLb*........................ ..

9 p la n ts ..........................................

f
1
1
l

\1911

37.3
16.9
25.0
19.6
17.6
25.8

32.2
39.4
32.6
50.6

3 .4
14.1
10.9
12.7

54.1
54.8
41.4

11.8
9 .7
34.5

64.7
64.7
68.8
76.5

23.5
11.8
18.8
11.8

11.8

78.9
78.9
70.0

10.5

10.5

10.0

46.7
66.7
51.7
86.7

26.7
7.4
20.7
6 .7

88.2
64.5
61.3

5 .9

6.8
8.7
10.1
9 .4

B o t t o m m ak ers:
A

\

f 1910
10 p la n ts........................................
1911
l 1912
L a d le liners:
f 1907
1 1908
9 p la n t s ..........................................
i 1909
l 1910

\

{

\

[ 1910
10 p la n ts ......................................... \ 1911




l 1912

[ 11.8
23.5
12.5

21.1
20.0
26.7
25.9
27.6

32.3
32.3

............... ...............

........... ...........

4 .8
4 .8
4.8
4.3

2 .6
2 .9
2 .9

...... ......
...... ...... ......
. . . . . .

20.0
22.2
22.2
9.1

9 .5
19.0
9 .5

i6 .7
16.7
25.6
32.3
25.6

4L2
41.2

......
22.2

15.4

5 .9
3 .2

6.5

47.6
38.1
47.6
52.2

9 .5
9 .5
8.7

8 .7

56.0
66.7
58.3

8 .0

8 .0

51.3
38.7
46.2
64.9

5.1

9 .5

8.3
6 .5
10.3
10.8

5 .4

66.7
47.1
41.2

10.3

5.1

40.0
44.4
22.2
72.7

30.0
11.1
11.1

8.3
20.0
30.0

16.2

6 .7

75.0
60.0
50.0

............... ............... ...............

8 .9
20.0
23.5
5.4

5 .9

10.3
30.8
9 .5

10.0
22.2
22^2
18.2
16.7
20.0
20.0

4.4
5 .0
5 .9
5 .4
5.1
4.8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

149

I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Con.

ab le

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— Continued.
P E R C E N T — C o n clu d e d .

O ccu p a tion ,

an d n u m b e r
plan ts.

of

A ver­
N um ­
a ge
ber
fu ll­
of
tim e
Y ea r.
em ­
h ou rs
p lo y ­
per
ees.
w eek.

E m p lo y e e s w h o s e fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r w e e k w e r e —

48
and
un­
der.

O ver
56
48
an d
an d
u n der u n d er
60
56

60

O ver
60
and
u n der
72

72

O ver
72
and
u n der
84

84

S teel pourers:
1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

72.4
64.3
64.3
70.0

f 1910
10 p la n ts ........................................ -{ 1911
l 1912
M old cappers:
f 1907
1 1908
8 p la n ts ..........................................
1 1909
l 1910

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

65.6
70.0
75.0

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

75.0
76.9
76.7
26.1

1911
1912

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

23.1
32.4
54.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

31.0
21.4
21.4
10.3

f 1910
1911
10 p la n ts ........................................
l 1912
L aborers:
f 1907
J 1908
9 p la n ts ..........................................
i 1909
l 1910

31
27
28

68.1
70.4
68.8

9 .7

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

9 p la n ts ..........................................

f
1
i
l

[ 1910

9 p la n ts .......................................... «!
l
I n g o t strippers:
f
1
9 p la n ts ..........................................
1
l

{

10 p la n ts........................................

[ 1910
\1911
l 1912

10.0

........... ........... ..........

i2 .5
8.3
5.1
9.3
4.3

19.2
62.2
31.8

3 .8
5.4
13.6

20.7
21.4*
21.4
27.6

20.7
35.7
21.4
20.7

32.3
44.4
28.6

19.4
22.2
35.7

19.4

22.2
14.3
.5
5 .6
.5
2 .9

2 .7
8 .0
3 .5
1.7

21.5
30.8
25.0
32.4

33.2
21.9
39.2
20.3

42.1
33.6
29.6
1 42.6

2 .9
4 .6
2 .7

1.7
4.2
4.6

35.0
42. 7
38.7

19.6
36.3
27.8

2 40.8
12.3
26.0

46.2

13.8
21.4
14.3
20.7
19.4
11.1
10.7

2 .1

........... ...........

...........

0 .2

1 In c lu d in g 7.2 p e r c e n t w h o se fu ll-tim e h o u rs p e r w e e k w ere 85.
2 In c lu d in g 6.9 p e r c e n t w h o se fu ll-tim e h o u rs p e r w e e k w ere 85.




13.3

16.7
17.9
14.0
8.7

52.2

...........

13.8
14.3
14.3

12.5
30.0
12.5

9.4

10.7

13.8
21.4
21.4
6.7

12.5

8 .7
7.7

13.8
21.4
20.7

150
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

able

V , — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912.

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Continued.
STOCKERS.

Y e a r a n d d istrict.

N um N um ­ b erof
ber o f em ­
plan ts. p lo y ­
ees.

N u m b e r o f em p lo y e e s w h ose fu ll-tim e hou rs p e r
w e e k w ere—
A ver­
age
full*
O ver
O ver
O ver
t im e
56
48
72
60
48
hou rs a n d
and
and
and
72
per
60
and
84
u n ­ u n d er u n d e r
under
w eek.
under
d er.
60
56
72
84

1907.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

275
96

57.7
76.3

171

T o t a l...........................................

9

371

62.5

171

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

224
36

55.8
74.2

150

4

T o t a l...........................................

9

260

58.3

150

4

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

213
53

60.2
77.5

114

16

T o t a l...........................................

9

266

63.6

114

16

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
4

296
56

61.9
80.6

114

T o t a l...........................................

10

352

64.9

114

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
4

182
59

58.2
72.4

111

T o t a l...........................................

10

241

61.7

111

15

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
4

211
57

58.6
74.6

123

20

T o t a l...........................................

10

268

62.0

123

28

18

14
69

44

27
27

83

44

24

4
23

12
13

30

24

27

25

30

4

26
7

14
46

39

4

33

60

39

25
2

66
2

20

60
32

27

68

20

92

1641

10
16

30

2
2

57

26

30

18

4
17

10
38

36

18

21

48

36

28

18

1908.

1909.

1910.
31
31

1911.
15

1913.
2
20

2

1Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




151

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
C U P O L A M E L T E R S — C o n clu d e d .

Y e a r a n d d istrict.

N um ­
N u m ­ ber o f
ber o f em ­
plan ts. p lo y ­
ees.

A ver­
age
fu ll­
t im e
hou rs
per
w eek.

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s w h o se fu ll-tim e h ou rs p e r
w e e k w ere—

O ver
48
56
48
and
and
and
un­
under
under
der.
60
56

60

O v er
60
and
under
72

72

O v er
72
and
u n der
84

84

1910.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L akes an d M id d le W e s t . . .

5
2

13
3

67.5
74.0

6

2
1

T o t a l . .........................................

7

16

60.6

6

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

5
3

12
5

61.9
73.2

6

T o t a l...........................................

8

17

65.2

6

2

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .

5
3

13
5

57.2
73.2

9

2

T o t a l ...........................................

8

18

61.6

9

2

2
3

2

5

2

3

3

2

3

3

2

2

3

2

2

1911.
2

2
2

1912.

CUPOLA TAPPERS.

1907.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L akes an d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................
1908.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L akes a n d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................
1909.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................
1910.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................
1911.
P it ts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................
1912.
P it ts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................




2

2
2

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

152
T

V ____A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

ab le

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
BLOW ERS.

Y e a r a n d d istrict.

N u m b e r o f em p lo y e e s w h ose fu ll-tim e h o u rs p e r
w e e k w ere—
A v e r­
N u m ­ age
N u m ­ b e r o f fu ll­
O v er
b e r o f e m ­ tim e
O ver
O v er
48
56
plan ts. p lo y ­ hou rs
60
72
48
and
and
per
ees.
and under
60
and
72
an d
84
un­
w eek .
under
under
under
der.
60
56
72
84

1907.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

14
6

61.6
74.0

6

2

6
4

2

T o t a l...........................................

9

20

65.4

6

2

10

2

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

13
6

66.4
74.0

3

2

8
4

2

T o t a l...........................................

9

19

68.8

3

2

12

2

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

13
6

66.4
74.2

3

2

8
4

2

T o t a l...........................................

9

19

68.8

3

2

12

2

P it ts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

14
6

67.1
76.0

3

T o t a l...........................................

9

20

69.8

3

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
4

12
8

71.9
72.0

2

10
8

T o t a l...........................................

10

20

72.0

2

18

2

8
6

2

2

14

2

2

6
2

2

2

2

8

2

2

4

6
2

1908.

1909.

1910.
8
4'
...........1

12

3
2
3

2

1911.

1912.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
6
13 66.4
3
G reat 4 ak es 8 d73.5 d le W e s t . . .
L
an M id
T o t a l...........................................

10

21

69.1

3

R E G U L A T O R S , F IR S T .

1907.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
12
20 57.6
6
G reat 3 a k es 6 n d78.0 d le W e s t . . .
L
a
M id
T o t a l...........................................

9

26

62.3

12

'

1908.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
19 60.5
6
9
G reat L a k es 6 n d78.0 d le W e s t . . .
3
a
M id

2

2

9

25

64.7

9

4

8

2

2

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
3

19
6

60.6
78.2

9

2

8
2

2

2

T o t a l...........................................

9

25

64.8

9

2

10

2

2

T o t a l...........................................
1909.




153

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
R E G U L A T O R S , F IR S T — C o n clu d e d .

Y e a r a n d district.

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s w h o se fu ll-tim e h o u rs p e r
w e e k w ere—
A ver­
N u m ­ age
N u m ­ b e r o f fu ll­
O ver
b e r o f e m ­ tim e
O ver
O ver
48
56
72
plan ts. p l o y ­ h ou rs a n d
60
48
and
per
and
72
ees.
60
and
84
and
un­
under
under
u n d er
u n der
w eek.
der.
60
72
56
84

1910.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
4

23
8

56.6
78.0

6

9

8
4

4

1
0

31

62.1

6

9

12

4

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L akes a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
4

16
8

62.8
75.0

6

4

6
6

2

T o t a l...........................................

10

24

66.8

6

4

12

2

6
4

17
8

59.1
76.5

9

4

4
4

2

2

64.7

9

4

8

2

2

T o t a l...........................................
1911.

1912.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t . . .
T o t a l...........................................

10

25

-

R E G U L A T O R S , SECON D.
1907.
P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

5
1

14
4

61.6
78.0

6

2

6

T o t a l...........................................

6

18

65.3

6

2

6

P itts b u r g h ...........................................
G reat L ak es an d M id d le W e s t .. .

5
1

10
4

71.7
78.0

4

6

T o t a l...........................................

6

14

73.5

4

6

P itts b u r g h ...........................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t .. .

5
1

10
4

71.9
78.5

2

8

T o t a l...........................................

6

14

73.8

2

8

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
2

16
6

62.9
80.0

6

2

8
2

4

T o t a l...........................................

8

22

67.5

6

2

10

4

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
2

16
5

62.8
72.0

6

4

6
5

T o t a l...........................................

8

21

65.0

6

4

11

P itts b u r g h ............................................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t . . .

6
2

17
6

59.1
76.0

9

4

4
2

4

T o t a l...........................................

8

23

63.5

9

4

6

4

4
4

1908.
4
4

1909.
4
4

1910.

1911.

1912.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

154

V.—A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
VESSEL M EN.

Year and district.

N um N um ­ b erof
ber of em ­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
fu ll­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
48
56
hours and
48
60
72
and
per
and under 60
and . 72
84
and
un­
week. der. under
under
under
60
56
72
84

1907.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
3

16
7

54.1
68.6

12

T otal.......................................

9

23

58.5

12

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

6
3

15
7

57.7
68.6

9

Total.......................................

9

22

61.1

9

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
3

15
7

57.7
68.7

9

T otal.......................................

9

22

61.2

9

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

6
4

17
9

51.0
70.7

T otal.......................................

10

26

P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

Total.......................................

2

2
2

2

2

4

2

4

2
2

2

4

4

2

4

2
2

2

3

4

4

2

12

3
3

2
2

4

57.8

12

6

4

4

16
9

54.1
68.0

12

2
4

2

3

10

25

59.1

12

3

6

2

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

17
9

50.9
69.3

15
3

2

2
2

2

T otal.......................................

10

26

57.3

15

3

2

4

2

4

4
4

2

9

4

8

2

6
30 57.7
18
9
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
15 63.2
3

8

4
4

2

8

8

2

8

4
4

2

8 |

8

2

3
3

1908.
3
3

1909.
3

1910.

1911.

1912.

2
2

VESSEL MEN’S HELPERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Total.......................................

6
32 54.1
24
9
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
3
15 63.2
9

47

57.0

24

1908.
Pittsburgh........................................

9

45

59.5

18

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
3

30
15

57.7
63.3

18

Total.......................................

9

45

59.6

18

Total.......................................

9

1909,




9
9

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

155

V.—A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
VESSEL MEN’ S HELPERS—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
Num ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
60
48
hours and
and
72
84
and
and
and
per
un­ under under 60
under
under
week. der.
60
84
72
56

1910.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

34
19

51.1
66.3

24

6
9

4
4

6

T otal.......................................

10

53

56.5

24

15

8

6

P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

32
19

53.9
63.8

24

4
8

4

9

T otal.......................................

10

51

57.6

24

9

12

4

34 50.8
6
30
Great4Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
9
19 65.1

4

4
4

2

4

8

2

1911.
2
2

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
T otal.......................................

10

53

55.9

30

9

CINDER PITMEN.
1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

5
3

104
14

66.3
80.6

1
i
24 ..........
1

44

36
2

4

8

Total.......................................

8

118

67.9

24 1
..........

44

38

4

8

Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

5
3

59
12

63.4
78.5

21

12

26
2

10

Total.......................................

8

71

65.9

21

12

28

10

1908.

1909.

1

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

5
3

72
20

64.8
81.0

21

23

28
2

10

8

T otal.......................................

8

92

68.4

21

23

30

10

8

P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

5
4

63
22

64.4
76.8

6

15

38
8

4
6

8

T otal.......................................

9

85

67.6

6

15

46

10

8

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

5
4

48
14

68.8
73.3

6

16

26
8

6

Total.......................................

9

62

69.8

6

16

34

6

P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

5
4

66
21

64.6
75.4

21

30
6

15
15

T otal.......................................

9

87

67.2

21

36

30

1910.

1911.

1912,




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

156
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
BOTTOM M AKERS.

Year and district.

N um Num ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
hours and
48
72
60
per
and and
and
60
and
72
84
week. un­ under under
under
under
der.
60
56
72
84

1907.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
3

12
5

71.9
76.8

2

10
1

4

T otal.......................................

9

17

73.4

2

11

4

1908.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
3

12
5

71.6
74.4

4

8
3

o

Total.......................................

9

17

72.4

4

11

2

10
1

3

2

11

3

;
..........I..........
:

2 i..........
1

1909.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
3

12
4

|
1
1
l
71.9
76.6 ..........I.......... j..........

T otal.......................................

9

16

73.1

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

12
7

72.2
75.4

10
5

2

Total.......................................

10

19

73.4

15

2

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

12
7

71.7
72.0

4

8
7

Total.......................................

10

19

71.8

4

15

1912.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

6
4

12
8

71.8
73.5

4

8
6

2

Total.......................................

10

20

72.5

4

14

2

1
..........1
..........

2

BOTTOM MAKERS* HELPERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

6
3

20
10

71.8
76.8

8

12
2

8

T otal.......................................

9

30

73.5

8

14

8

1908.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

6
3

17
10

71.6
73.2

7

10
8

2

T otal.......................................

9

27

72.2

7

18

2

1909.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

6
3

20
9

71.8
76.1

8

12
3

6

T otal.......................................

9

29

73.1

8

15

6




2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

157

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
BOTTOM M AKERS’ HELPERS—Concluded.

Y ear and district.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
A ver­
N um ­ age
Num ­ ber full­
ber of of em­ time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
60
72
plants. ploy­ hours and
and
and and
60
and
per
72
84
ees.
un­
under
week.
under
under
under
der.
60
72
56
84

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

6
4

20
14

72.1
73.7

18
12

2

T otal.......................................

10

34

72.8

30

2

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

6
4

19
12

72.3
72.0

10

8
12

1

T otal.......................................

10

31

72.2

10

20

1

10

10
9

2

10

19

2

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
6
20 71.7
Great Lakes4and Middle W e s t ...
11 73.1
T otal.......................................

10

31

72.2

2
2

LADLE LINERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

13
8

66.4
63.0

. . 2
1 .........

T otal.......................................

21

65.1

1

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

13
8

66.2
64.5

4
1 ..........

6 .....................
2 .........
2

T otal.......................................

21

65.6

1

4

8 ..........

1909.
P ittsb u rg h ...,.................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

13
8

66.4
63.1

2
1 .........

8 .........
2
2

T otal.......................................

21

65.1

1

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

15
10

67.3
66.0

..............
1 .........

10
2 ..........
4 ..........
2

25

6.8

1 .........

14

14
10

71.7.
63.6

4
1 .........

10
6

24

68.3

1

16

14
10

71.8
64.8

4
1 ..........

10 .........
4
2

1

14

2

8 .........
2
2
10

2

1908.

T otal.......................................

10

2

10

2

2

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .
T otal.......................................

10

4

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .
T otal.......................................




10

24

4

2

2

2

158

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able V . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
LADLE LINERS’ HELPERS.

AverYear and district.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­ time
Over
56
48
plants. ploy- hours and
48
and
and
per
un­
week. der. under under
60
56

Over
60
and
under
72

72

1907.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

69.3
64.8

10

10

67.5

10

69.1
67.2

10

68.5

39

68.2

68.2
66.0

Total..

10

10

20

1908.
P ittsb u rg h ..................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
T otal.

31

12

1909.
Pittsburgh..................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .
T otal.

18

1910.
Pittsburgh......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ..

69.5
67.0
10

T otal.

39

18.7

26

1911.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .
T otal.

71.5
63.6
10

34

16

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .
T ota l.................................

71.6
64.8
10

34

14

•9.6

14

STOPPER MAKERS.

1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .
T otal.......................................

1908.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .
T otal.......................................

1909.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .
T otal.......................................

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .
T otal.......................................




14

Over
72
and
under
84

84

159

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

V . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
STOPPER MAKERS—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
56
hours 48
48
and
and
60 and 72 72 and
per
84
and
un­ under under 60 under
under
week.
72
der.
60
84
56

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Ireat Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

6
4

6
4

72.0
72.0

2

2
4

2

T otal.......................................

10

10

72.0

2

6

2

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

6
4

6
4

70.0
72.0

3

1
4

2

T otal.......................................

10

10

..........
70.8 ......... 1
1

3

5

2

STOPPER SETTERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

6
3

35
10

49.4
58.8

33
6

2
2

2

T otal.......................................

9

45

51.5

39

4

2

1908.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

6
3

30
10

52.8
58.8

24
6

6
2

2

T otal.......................................

9

40

54.3

30

8

2

1909.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

6
3

24
10

54.0
58.9

18
6

6
2

2

T otal.......................................

9

34

55.4

24

8

2

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

6
4

27
12

48.4
62.0

21
6

6

T ota l.......................................

10

39

52.6

27

6

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

6
4

27
12

53.3
60.0

21
6

6
6

T otal......................................

10

39

55.3

27

12

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

6
4

30
12

47.9
61.0

30
6

4

2

T otal.......................................

10

42

51.7

36

4

2

•

4

2

4

2

STEEL POURERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh.......... .............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
3

17
12

50.8
62.0

15
6

2
2

4

T otal.......................................

9

29

55.4

21

4

4




160

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE STATISTICS,

T a b l e V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.

STEEL POLRERS-Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
N u m ­ ber
ber of of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
56
hours 48
48
72
60
and
and
per
and under 60
72
84
and
and
week. un­ under
under
under
der.
60
56
72
84

1908.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___

6
3

16
12

54.0
62.0.

12
6

4
2

4

T otal.......................................

9

28

57.4

18

6

4

Pittsburgh........................................
12
6
16 54.0
12 62.2
Great Lakes3and Middle W est 6
___

4
2

4

6 |

4

1909.

9

28

57.5

18

6
4

18
14

48.1
65.1

15
6

3

1
0

32

55.6

21

3

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
4

17
13

50.7
60.9

15
6

2
7

T otal.......................................

10

30

55.1

21

9

Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
4

18
14

47.9
63.4

18
6

4

4

T otal.......................................

10

32

54.7

24

4

4

6
2

4 ..........
4

T otal.......................................

1910.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___
T otal.......................................

4

4

4

4

1911.

1913.
Pittsburgh.... ................................

MOLD CAPPERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

5
3

51.4.
76.0

36

Total.......................................

8

54.5

36

8

5
34 50.8
30
P ittsburgh.......................................
5 73.2
Great Lakes3
___
and Middle W est

4
3

2
2

42
6
48

1908.

8

39

53.7

30

7

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

5 |
3 |

37
6

50.6
75.2

33

4
2

4

Total.......................................

8 I

43

54.0

33

6

4

24

2
8

2

4

24

10

2

4

T otal.......................................

1909.

1910.
12
Pittsburgh........................................
5
38 50.1
14 75.6
Great Lakes4and Middle W est
___
Total......................................




9

52

57.0

12

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

161

T able V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
MOLD CAPPERS—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ber of employees whose full-time horns per
week were—
Aver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber fullOver
Over
ber of of em­ tirae
Over
56
plants. ploy­ hours 48
60
72
48
and and and
72
84
and
ees.
per
60
and
under
un­
under
under
week. der. under
60
84
56
72

1911.
I 'itts burgh........................................
( treat Lakes and Middle W est___

5
4

26
11

60.8
72.3

12

14
9

2

T otal.......................................

9

37

64.2

12

23

2

P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

5
4

30
14

52.7
73.9

24

6
8

6

Total.......................................

9

44

59.5

24

14

6

1912.

INGOT STRIPPERS.
1907.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
3

19
10

60.5
80.4

9

4

6

T otal...........................................

9

29

67.4

9

4

6

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
3

18
10

63.8
76.8

6

6

6

Total.......................................

9

28

68.4

6

6

6

P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
3

18
10

65.2
79.2

6

4

6

Total.......................................

9

28

70.2

6

. .tsburgh........................................
. ; cac Lakes and Middle W est___

6
4

19
12

61.3
79.0

3

T otal.......................................

10

31

68.1

3

P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
4

15
12

67.5
74.0

3

6

6
6

6

Total.......................................

10

27

70.4

3

6

12

6

Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
4

16
12

63.4
76.0

3

3

4

6
2

10

T otal.......................................

10

28

68.8

3

3

4

8

10

6

4

6

4

1908.
10
10

1909.
6

2
4

6

6

6

6

8
2

2
4

6

6

10

6

6

4

1910.

1911.

1912.

LABORERS.
1907.
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est___

6
3

602
199

76.9
81.5

4

22

154
18

218
48

204
133

Total.......................................

9

801

78.0

4

22

172

266

337

44929°— Bull. 151—14------ 11




162

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

Y . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.

T able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
L A B O R E R S —C oncluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber of of emplants. ploy-

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Average
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
56
hours 48
48
60
72
and and and
per
72
and
and
84
60
un­ under under
week.
under
under
der.
72
56
84

1908.
309
116

74.5
80.6

24

34

107
24

425

76.2

24

34

131

93

143

P ittsburgh..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.

401
163

75.4
80.6

118
23

174
47

76
91

T otal.................................

564

76.9

20

141

221

167

541
245

77.2
79.1

13

184
91

144
10

U 78
143

786

77.8

13

275

154

1321

422
171

74.3
75.2

25

140
113

205
10

28
45

25

253

215

73

29

161
81

125
49

64

29

242

174

163

Pittsburgh
Great
Total.................................

71
72

1909.
12

1910.
Pittsburgh..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.
T otal.................................

10

23

1911.
Pittsburgh.................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.
T otal.................................

74.6

10

27

1912.
Pittsburgh
Great

428
198

Total.

10
i




75.0
77.0

626

75.7

17

Including 54 employees whose full-time hours per week were 85.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T able

163

V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912.
BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group o f years are for identical plants.]

STOCKERS.

District and number of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

N um ber o f employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
time
48
56
72
48
60
hours and
84
72
and
and and
and
per
un­ under under 60 under
under
week.
der.
60
84
72
56

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

6 plants...................................

275
224
213
296
182
211

57.7
55.8
60.2
61.9
58.2
58.6

171
150
114
114
111
123

28

18
24
16

4

14
12
14

is

10
10
69
13
46
20

2
41
17

25
15
20

4
26
66
16
, 4
27
23
7
2

31

4

20
16
38

44
30
39
60
30
36

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3 plants...................................

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

96
36
53
54

76.3
74.2
77.5
81.3

4 plants...................................

f 1910
1911
l 1912

56
59
57

80.6
72.4
74.6

\

2
2
2

32
32

CUPOLA MELTERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

12
12
12
13
12
13

62.5
61.9
61.9
57.5
61.9
57.2

2 plants...................................

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

3
3
3
3
3

76.0
76.0
76.0
74.0
74.0

3 plants.

1911
1912

5
5

|

73.2
73.2

5 plants...................................

6
6
6
6
6
9

2
2
2

1
3

2
2

2
2
2
2
2

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

12
2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
3
3

i
..........1
..........
|
*

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

i

CUPOLA TAPPERS.
Pittsburgh:
8
10
4
6
6

4
2
6

43
38
34
48
34
33

57.8
57.3
57.2
55.4
56.5
53.7

f 1907
1908

5 plants......................................

27
24
24
36
24
27

4
2

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

7
5
9
8
7

77.1
74.4
77.7
80.3
72.9

1
3
1
1
5

6
2
8
2
2

11
15

72.5
75.6

9
5

2
10

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3 plants......................................

\ 1909
1910
( 1911

/ 1911
4 plants...................................... \ 1912
i

1 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




6
4
4

2

5

164

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

VI.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S—Continued.
B L O W E R S.

District and num ber of plants.

Pittsburgh:

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
56
48
72
60
48
hours and
and
84
72
and
per
and
and
u n ­ under under 60 under
under
week.
60
der.
84
56
72

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

14
13
13
14
12
13

61.6
66.4
66.4
67.1
71.9
66.4

f 1907
1908
3 plants..................................... { 1909
1910
l 1911

6
6
6
6
6

74.0
74.0
74.2
76.0
72.0

/ 1911
\ 1912

8
8

2
2
2

72.0
73.5

6 plants..

6
3
3
3

2
2

3

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

4 plants..

REGULATORS, FIRST.
Pittsburgh:
12
9
9
6
6
9

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
. 1912

20
19
19
23
16
17

57.6
60.5
60.6
56.6
62.8
59.1

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
[ 1910

6
6
6
6

78.0
78.0
78.2
80.0

2
2
2
2

f 1910
4 plants....................................... 1911
l 1912

8
8

78.0
75.0
76.5

4

A Tklon+e

2
4
2
9

4
4

6
6
8
8
6

4

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
O TklQTl+C?
O p i a l l l S . ........................................................

\

8

2
2
2

4
4

6

4

2
2
2

2

2

2

i

REGULATORS, SECOND.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910

14
10
10
14

61.6
71.7
71.9
61.7

6

5 plants.

6 plants...................................

1910
1911
1912

16
16
17

62.9
62.8
59.1

6
6
9

1 p lan t....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

4
* 4
4
4

2 plants.

1910
1911
1912

6
5
6

Great Lakes and Middle W est:




2
4
2

6
6
8
8

2
4
4

8
6
4

6

78.0
78.0
78.5
84.0.
80.0
72.0
76.0

4
4
4
4
2
5
2

4
4

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

165

T able V I .— AVERAG E

A N D C LA SSIFIE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EAC H D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — Continued.
VESSEL MEN.

District and num ber of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
time
O ver 56
Over
Over
48
48
72
60
hours and
and
72
84
per
and under 60
and
and
un­
week.
under
under
under
der.
60
84
72
56

Pittsburgh:
12
9
9
12
12
15

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

16
15
15
17
16
17

54.1
57.7
57.7
51.0
54.1
50.9

3 plants..................................

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

7
7
7
7

68.6
68.6
68.7
70.3

f 1910

4 plants..................................

\1911

9
9
9

70.7
68.0
69.3

2
4
4
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

6 plants..................................

3

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

l 1912

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
4
2

2

2
2
2
4
4
2
2

VESSEL MEN’S HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

32
30
30
34
32
34

54.1
57.7
57.7
51.1
53.9
50.8

3 plants...................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

15
15
15
15

63.2
63.2
63.3
64.8

4 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

19
19
19

66.3
63.8
65.1

4
8
8
4
4

9
9
9
9
9
9
9

6 plants...................................

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

24
18
18
24
24
30

6

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
8
4

4

36
26
28
38
26
30

2
2
2
6

15

6
2
2

CINDER PITMEN.
Pittsburgh:
44
12
23

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

104
59
72
63
48
66

66.3
63.4
64.8
64.4
68.8
64.6

3 plants..................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

14
12
20
16

80.6
78.5
81.0
78.6

2
2
2
2

4
10
10
6

4 plants

1910
1911
1912

22
14
21

76.8
73.3
75.4

8
8
6

6
6
15

5 plants..................................

Great Lakes and Middle W est:




I

24
21
21
6
6
21

15
16

4

8
8
8
8

166

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C LA SSIFIE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EAC H D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
BOTTOM MAKERS.
1

District and num ber of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

Num ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
56
48
48
72
hours and
60
and
72
84
per
60
and
and
and
un ­ under under
week.
under
under
60
der.
56
72
84

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

6 plants..................................

12
12
12
12
12
12

71.9
71.6
71.9
72.2
71.7
71.8

2
4
2
4
4

10
8
10
10
8
8

2

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3 plants..................................

f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

5
5
4
5

76.8
74.4
76.6
76.8

1
3
1
3

4 plants..................................

f 1910
1911
l 1912

7
7
8

75.4
72.0
73.5

5
7
6

2

12
10
12
18
8

.........
.........
.........
2
.........

\

4
2
3
2
2

BOTTOM MAKERS’ HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

20
17
20
20
19
20

71.8
71.6
71.8
72.1
72.3
71.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
9
10

76.8
73.2
76.1
74.4

2
8 ........
8
2 ..........
3
6 ..........
8 ..........
2

f 1910

14
12
11

73.7
72.0
73.1

12
2
12 .....................
9
2 ..........

6 plants..................................

8
7
8
10
10

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3 plants...................................

f
1
i
l

4 plants..................................

\1911

l 1912

LINERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

13
13
13
15
14
14

66.4
66.2
66.4
67.3
71.7
71.8

3
3
3
3

3 plants..................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

8
8
8
8

63.0
64.5
63.1
64.5

3
3
3
3

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

4 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

10
10
10

66.0
63.6
64.8

3
3
3

1
1
1

4
6
4

6 plants..................................

2
4
2
4
4

8
6
8
10
10
10

2

Great Lakes $nd Middle W est:




2
2
2
2
2
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

167

T a b l e V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C LA SSIFIE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K

P E R W E E K IN EAC H D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— Continued.
LADLE LINERS’ HELPERS.

D istrict and num ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-tim e hours per
w eek were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
48
60
hours and
and
84
per
72
and
and under 60
and
week. u n ­ under
under
under
der.
60
72
84
56

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

29
21
27
27
24
24

69.3
68.2
69.1
69.5
71.5
71.6

3
3
3
3

plants.

1907
J 1908
1 1909
l 1910

10
10
12
10

64.8
66.0
67.2
66.0

3
3
3
3

plants.

f 1910
1911
l 1912

12
10
10

67.0
63.6
64.8

3
3
3

- 6 plants.

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3

4

[

\

16
8
14
20
10
10

4

1
1
1
1

4
4
4
4

4

1
1
1

6
6
4

10
10
10
14
14

2
2
2
2
2

STOPPER MAKERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

6
6

71.3
73.3
72.3
72.0
72.0
70.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

4
3
3
4

75.0
72.0
70.0
75.0

f 1910
4 plants......................................
1911
l 1912

5
4
4

74.4
72.0
72.0

6 plants......................................

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f
1
3 plants...................................... i
l

\

6
6
6

7

2
2
2

1

2

1

1

2
3

i

5
2
1
2
3
2
3
4
4
4

1

1

1
1

2
2

1

2
2
2

1
1
!
..........1
..........

STOPPER SETTERS.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
. 1912

35
30
24
27
27
30

49.4
52.8
54.0
48.4
53.3
47.9

33
24
18
21
21
30

1907
1 1908
3 plants...................................... 1 1909
l 1910

(

10
10
10
10

58.8
58.8
58.9
60.0

6
6
6
6

2
2 ..........
2
2 ..........
2
2 ..........
2 ..........
2

( 1910

12
12
12

62.0
60.0
61.0

6
6
6

4
2
6 ......................
4
2 ..........

6 plants......................................

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

4 plants......................................




\1911

1 1912

2
6
6
6

168

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S SIF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EAC H D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912— Continued.

T able

BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
STEE L P O U R E R S .

D istrict and num ber of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. employ-

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A verage
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
60
72
hours and
84
and and
72
per
60
and
and
un­
under
week.
under
under
der. under 60
72
84
56

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

50.8
54.0
54.0
48.1
50.7
47.9

3 plants....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

62.0
62.0
62.2
64.0

4 plants..

1910
1911
1912

65.1
60.9
63.4

6 plants..

1
l
3

Great Lakes and Middle West:

M O L D C A PP E R S.
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

42
34
37
38
26
30

51.4
50.8
50.6
50.1
60.8
52.7

3 plants...................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

6
5
6
8

76.0
73.2
75.2
78.4

2
3
2
2

4
2
4
2

4 plants.

1910
1911
1912

14
11
14

75.6
72.3
73.9

8
9
8

2
2
6

5 plan ts...................................

36
30
33
12
12
24

6
4
4
2
14
6

24

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

4
4

IN G O T S T R IP P E R S .
Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

19
18
18
19
15
16

60.5
63.8
65.2
61.3
67.5
63.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

80.4
76.8
79.2
80.4

f 1910
4 plants...................................... «! 1911
l 1912

12
12
12

79.0
74.0
76.0

6 plants......................................

9
6
6
3
3

4
6
4
6
3
3

6
4

6
6
6
8
6
6

2
2

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f
3 plants...................................... 1
i
[




6
10
6
4
2
6
2

4
6
10

4
4
6
6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T

169

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D IS T R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— Concluded.
LABO RERS.

D istrict and num ber of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

A ver-

N um ber o f em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—

f fl f.
time
Over 56
48
48
hours
and and and
per
week. un­ under under
der.
60
56

60

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

154
107
118
184
140
161

218
73
174
144
205
125

18
24
23
58

48
20
47
8

133
72
91
141

91
113
81

10
10
49

143
45
64

84

Pittsburgh:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

6 plants.

602
309
401
541
422
428

76.9
74.5
75.4
77.2
74.3
75.0

12
1

4
24
3
22
24
13

22
34
18
13
25
29

i

204
71
76
178
28
99

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3

plants.

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

199
116
163
207

81.5
80.6
80.6
80.3

4

plants.

f 1910
{ 1911
l 1912

245
171
198

79.1
75.2
77.0

2
1
3
4

1 Including 54 employees whose full-time hours per week were 85.




OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
SUMMARY.

Summary figures relating to the open-hearth furnace department
of the iron and steel industry are given with figures for other depart­
ments in the introductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explana­
tion of the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed
is given on pages 16 to 22.
Briefly summarized the average full-time weekly earnings of em­
ployees in the open-hearth department in 1912 were 3 per cent higher
than in 1910 and 6 per cent higher than in 1911. The average full­
time hours of labor per week in 1912 were 0.8 per cent lower than in
1910 and 1.7 per cent higher than in 1911. The average rate of wages
or earnings per hour in 1912 was 4.2 per cent higher than in both
1910 and 1911.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of the
open-hearth department are summarized in the table following. Data
are presented for the years 1910, 1911, and 1912, and, in all but two
occupations, for identical plants in those three years. In the two occu­
pations referred to, for one plant, figures for 1910 were not available,
hence two reports are made for 1911, one comparable with 1910 and
the other with 1912.

Referring to the first occupation presented, door operators, direct
comparison can be made of data for 15 identical plants from 1910 to
1912, inclusive. The first line of the table is analyzed as follows:
In 1910 the 15 open-hearth furnaces for which reports were obtained
employed 165 door operators, whose average full-time hours of work
were 75.9 per week. For 12.1 per cent of the 165 door operators the
full-time hours per week were over 60 and under 72; for 38.2 per
cent, 72; for 21.8 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 27.9 per
cent, 84. The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of door
operators in the year considered (1910) was $0,101. Of the total
number 51.5 per cent received under 10 cents per hour; 31.5 per cent,
10 and under 12 cents; 8.5 per cent, 12 and under 14 cents; and 8.5
per cent, 14 and under 16 cents per hour. The other lines of the
table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 15 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of door operators were $7.72 in
both 1910 and 1912, decreasing to $7.53 in 1911. Comparing the
average full-time weekly earnings for 1912 of the several occupations,
170



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 1 7 1

it is seen that with the exception of door operators, who are usually
boys, the lowest average was that of laborers, which was $12.10, and
the highest that of melters’ helpers, first, which was $31.89.
A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S , 1910 TO 1912—O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S .
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of em ploy­
Per cent of employees
ees earning each
whose full-time hours
classified rate of
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
wages per hour.
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Occupation, and num­ Year.
of
Over
Over
12
14
em­ tim e
ber of plants.
wages Un­ 10
hours 60
72
60
and and and
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. and and 72 and 84 hour. der un­ un­ un­
un­
un­ un­
10 der der der
der. der.
der
cts. 12
14
16
72
84
cts. cts. cts.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Door operators:
[1910
15 plan ts.................. <|1911
[1912

165
160
157

75.9 . . . . .
75.5 . . . . .
76.0

12.1 38.2 21.8 27.9 $0.101 51.5 31.5 8.5 8.5 $7.72
21.3 23.8 31.3 23.8 .100 46.3 38.8 15.0 ••••• 7.53
20.4 28.0 21.0 30.6 .102 38.9 44.6 16.6
7.72
12
16
18
20
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
16
18
20
30
cts. cts. cts. cts.

Laborers:
74.5 9.7 20.4 13.2 35.2 21.6
73.2 11.1 23.8 14.5 37.0 13.5
74.4 12.1 12.8 14.6 43.7 16.8

.157 44.7 55.4
.161 34.1 63.5
.163 22.1 75.4

393
394
414

76.5 . . . . .
73.9 . . . . .
75.4 . . . . .

7.6 35.9 29.5 27.0
19.8 36.5 36.0 7.6
6.8 30.4 46.4 16.4

.196 3.6 38.4 16.8 41.2 14.97
.185 21.1 21.6 23.9 33.5 13.67
.199 17.6 13.5 15.2 53.6 15.01

448
419
403

13.4 23.9 34.4 28.3
76.8 ,
74.4 3*1 26.0 24.3 27.7 18.9
6.5 30.3 38.5 24.8
76.6 . . . . .

.177 32.8 18.5 17.0 31.7 13.69
.172 37.7 24.6 33.9 3.8 12.73
.176 31.3 39.5 6.9 22.4 13.49

109
113

6.4 22.0 44.0 27.5
77.3 . . . . .
74.5 ........ 36.3 19.5 35.4 8.8

.185 11.0 32.1 31.2 25.7 14.29
.187 5.3 25.7 46.0 23.0 13.90

117
112

74.4
74.6

.186
.198

11910
17 plants................... <1911
[1912
M e lte d helpers, third:
[1910
17 plants................... <1911
[l912
Stockers:
[1910
17 plants................... <1911
11912
Switchmen:
/1910
14 plants...................
\1911

1,038
806
897

15 plants................... /1911
\1912

38.5 18.8 34.2
16.1 28.6 46.4

8.5
8.9

11.69
2.4
11.78
2.6 ........ 12.10

6.8 24.8 44.4 23.9 13.85
5.4 17.9 41.1 35.7 14.75
20
25
U n­ and and 30
der un­ un­ Cts.
20 der der and
25
cts.
30 over.
cts. cts.

Charging-machine op­
erators:
[1910
17 plants................... <1911
[1912
Engineers, locom otive:
11910
14 plants...................
\1911

73
72
72
107
no

77.3 . . . . .
5.6 23.4 44.9 26.2
74.4 ........ 35.5 20.0 36.4 8.2

.244
.248

9.4 48.6 36.4
5.4 40.9 51.8

15 plants................... 11911
\1912

114
111

74.3
37.7 19.3 35.1
75.2 ........ 14.4 19.8 57.7

.247
.261

7.0 39.5 51.8 1.8 18.32
7.2 23.4 51.4 18.0 19.61

Ingot strippers:
[1910
15 plants................... <1911
1[1912




46
51
49

76.8 . . . . .
74.7 . . . . .
75.5 . . . . .

8.2 34.2 27.4 30.1
25.0 25.0 33.3 16.7
13.9 38.9 25.0 22.2

7.9
8.1

73.7 6.5 21.7 30.4 17.4 23.9
71.9 5.9 7.8 62.7 19.6 3.9
72.41 6.1 ........ 69.4 20.4 4.1

.294 5.5 2.7 47.9 43.8 22.52
.287 11.2 13.9 36.1 38.9 21.37
.312 5.6 2.8 22.2 69.4 23.56
5.6 18.92
1.8 18.40

.275 8.6 41.3 21.7 28.2 19.88
.256 39.2 13.7 21.6 25.5 18.06
.2811 8.21 40.8 12.2 38.8 20.00

172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R IN C IP A L OC C U PA TIO N S, 1910 TO 1912—O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Concluded.
Per cent of em ploy­
Per cent of em ployees
ees earning each
whose full-time hours
classified rate of
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
wages per hour.
Num­
age
age
ber
rate
full­
Occupation, and num ­ Year.
of
of
25
Over
em­ time
Over
ber of plants.
20
wages
hours 60
Un­ and and 30
72
ploy­
60
per
per and and
der un­ un­ cts.
and
ees.
week. un­ un­ 72 un­ 84 hour. 20 der der and
30 over.
der. der
cts.
der
25
72
84
cts. cts.
Ladle cranemen:
11910
16 plants................... <(1911
11912
Melters’ helpers, second:
(1910
17 plants................... <1911
[1912
Mold cappers:
(1910
8 plants..................... <1911
[1912
Stock cranemen:
U910
13 plants................... <[1911
[1912

90
86
90
339
335
347

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

77.2 ........ 8.9 27.8 31.1 32.2 $0,294
74.6 ........ 24.4 33.7 23.3 18.6 .287
76.2 ........ 10.0 32.2 31.1 26.7 .317

6.7 22.2 21.1 50.0 $22.76
8.1 16.3 39.5 36.0 21.32
6.7 7.8
85.6 24.22

.272
.263
.274

5.3 24.8 40.4 29.5 20.87
7.5 31.9 38.8 21.8 19.62
6.3 20.7 44.4 28.5 20.77

76.6 . . . . .
74.5 . . . . .
75.8 . . . . .

8.3 38.1 22.4 31.3
35.2 21.2 20.9 22.7
19.6 37.2 14.4 28.8

40
38
42

76.5 . . . . . ........ 55.0 15.0 30.0
74.0 . . . . . 21.1 26.3 42.1 10.5
75.9 ........ 19.0 28.6 33.3 19.0

.217 35.0 35.0 15.0 15.0 16.49
.215 36.9 36.8 10.5 15.8 15.78
.223 19.1 42.9 28.6 9.5 16.86

75
70
66

78.8
75.6
77.7

1.3 2.7 16.0 40.0 40.0
1.4 22.9 10.0 42.9 22.9
18.2 51.5 30.3

.223 14.7 66.7 18.7
17.60
.207 24.2 75.7
15.61
.235 12.2 48.5 39.4 ........ 18.29
20
30
40
50
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
30
40
50
60
cts. cts. cts. cts.

Melters7helpers, first:
11910
17 plants................... <1911
[1912
Steel pourers:
J1910
14 plants................... <[1911
[1912
Stopper setters:
J1910
10 plants................... <1911
[1912

77.7
7.0 22.0 39.9 31.1
75.3 ........ 17.2 21.3 48.5 13.0
76.5 . . . . .
2.3 23.6 55.0 19.0

.416 3.5 36.4 49.6 10.6 32.27
.400 10.1 39.9 42.3 7.7 30.12
.417 6.1 30.3 50.4 13.3 31.89

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

.308 51.0 40.4
.304 45.4 50.0
.313 39.1 52.2

30
29
29

76.2 . . . . . ........ 36.7 56.7
73.5 . . . . . 27.6 20.7 51.7
75.8 ........ ........ 20.7 72.4

341
338
347

10.6 48.9 17.0 23.4
22.7 27.3 40.9 9.1
21.7 30.4 30.4 17.4
6.7
6.9

8.5
4.5
8.7

23.05
22.32
23.52

.313 46.7 33.3 13.3 6.7 23.63
.313 44.8 37.9 10.3 6.9 23.11
.329 44.8 27.6 27.6 ........ 24.92

To aid in making a comparison of the data over a period of several
years which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout
the period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of the preceding table for the full-time hours per week, rates
of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings of each occupation
from 1910 to 1912, inclusive. . Such figures appear in the table below.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent which the average for that year is of the
average for 1912. For example, the relative full-time weekly earn­
ings of stockers in 1910 was 101.5 as compared with 100 in 1912;
that is, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1910 were 101.5 per
cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1912.
The method of computing relative numbers is explained on page 21.




WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR---- OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 1 7 3

The table below also shows for each occupation the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1912 as compared with each
specified year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings of
stockers in 1912 were 1.5 per cent lower than in 1910 and 5.9 per cent
higher than in 1911.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus,
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1911 were 7 per cent lower
than in 1910, and in 1912 5.9 per cent higher than in 1911. The
other occupations and items of the table can be studied in like man­
ner. The percentages of increase and decrease are computed from the
relative numbers.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T OF
IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E I N S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) inOccupation and year.

Stockers:
1910
......................
1911
......................
1912
........-.............
Stock cranemen:
1910
......................
1911
......................
1912
......................
Charging-machine operators
1910
......................
1911
.......................
1912
.......................
D oor operators:
1910
.......................
1911
.......................
1912
.......................
Melters’ helpers, first:
1910
.......................
1911
......................
1912
......................
Melters’ helpers, second:
......................
1910
1911
.......................
1912
.......................
Melters’ helpers, third:
1910
......................
1911
......................
1912
......................
Stopper setters:
1910
......................
1911
......................
1912
......................
Steel pourers:
1910
......................
1911
......................
1912
......................




R ela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

100.3
97.1

1912 as
com ­
pared
w ith
each
speci­
fied
year.

Each
year
com ­
pared
w ith
year

101.4
97.3

- 0 .3
+ 3 .0

100.0

99.9
99.3

100.6

98.4

98.3

- 2 .8
+ 1 .1

-1 .6
+ 1 .6
- 1 .1
+ 1 .7

100.0

94.2
92.0
99.0
98.0
99.8
95.9
99.3
96.0

- 2 .8
+ 1 .7

- 2 .1
+ 2 .1

97.9

100.0

1

+ 1.0
+ 2.0
+ .2
+ 4.3
+ »7
+ 4.2

100.0

100.0
100.0

+ 6.2
+ 8.7

100.0

-3 .5
+ 3 .1

- .5
+ 3 .1

100.0

+ 5.4
+13.5

100.0

-3 .4
+ 2 .0

-1 .5
+ 2 .0

100.0

100.5
97.0

100.0

- 3 .1
+ 1 .6

+ .1
+ .7

- 0.6
+ 2.4

100.0

- .6
+ .7

-1 .7
+ 1 .1

100.0

101.5
98.0

88.1
100.0

94.9

100.0
101.1

97.5

98.5
93.0
95.1
95.1
98.4
97.1

N o change.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
tive
1912 as E ach
1912 as E ach
full­
com ­
com ­
year
tim e
year
pared
com ­ weekly pared
com ­
w ith
w ith
pared
pared
earn­
each
w ith
each
with
ings.
speci­
year
speci­
year
fied
preced­
preced­
fied
year.
ing.
year.
ing.

100.0

- 4 .0
+ 2 .8

-1 .4
+ 2 .8

100.0
101.6

per
hour.

-3 .2
+ 3 .0

100.0

101.7
98.9

R ela­
tive
rate of

ing.

100.0

W eekly earnings.

+ 1.5
+ 7.5
+ 5.2
+ 5.2
+ 1.6
+ 3.0

101.5

- 1.5
+ 5.9

96.2
85.3

+ 4.0
+ 17 .2

- 2.9
+ 2.4

94.4
100.0

- 7.2
+13.5

100.0

- 2.3
+ 8.7

100.0

95.6
90.7
100.0

97.5

- 1.0
+ 2.0

100.0

- 3.3
+ 4.2

100.0

- 5.6
+ 7.5

100.0

0)
+ 5.2

100.0

- 1.3
+ 3.0

100.0

0)
+ 2.6

100.0

- 3.9
+ 4.3

+ 4.6
+10.3

101.2

94.4

100.5
94.5
99.7
91.1
94.8
92.7
98.0
94.9

- 1.2
+ 5.9
.5
+ 5.8
+ .3
+ 9.8
+ 5.5
+ 7.9
+ 2.0
+ 5.4

- 7.0
+ 5.9
-J l. 3
+17.2
- 5.1
+10.3
- 2.5
+ 2.6
- 6.7
+ 5.9
- 6.0
+ 5.8
- 8.6
+ 9.8
- 2.2
+ 7.9
- 3.2
+ 5.4

174

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS,

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T O F
IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A T IO N S —
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S —Concluded. .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) i n Occupation and year.

M old cappers:
...............
1910
1911
...............
1912
...............
L adle cranemen:
1910
...............
1911
...............
1912
...............
Ingot strippers:
1910
...............
1911
...............
1912
...............
Engineers, locom otive:
1910
...............
1911
...............
1912
...............
Switchm en:
1910
...............
1911
...............
1912
...............
Laborers:
1910
...............
1911
...............
1912
...............

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

100.8

97.5

Per cent o f in­
crease (4 -) or de­
crease ( - ) in-

Rela­
tive
1912 as Each rate of
year
com ­
wages
per
pared
com ­
hour.
with
pared
with
each
year
speci­
fied preced­
ing.
year.

Rela­
tive
fuH1912 as Each
1912 as Each
year
com ­
com ­
year
tim e
pared
com ­ weekly pared
com ­
w ith
w ith
pared
earn­
pared
each
with
w ith
each
ings.
year
speci­
year
fied
preced­
fied
preced­
year.
ing.
year.
ing.

- 0 .8
+ 2 .6

100.0

101.3
97.9

+ 2 .1

101.8

99.3

+ .7
-2 .6
+ 1 .2

100.0

103.5
99.7

- 3 .4
+ .3

100.0
100.1

98.4

100.0

100.0

-2 .5
+ .7

100.0

-3 .8
+ 1 .2

100.0

-1 .8

100.0

102.7
98.8

-3 .4
+ 2 .1

- .1
+ 1 .6

+ 2.8
+ 3.7

100.0

-1 .3

100.0

97.3
96.4

-3 .3
+ 2 .6

- 3 .7
+ .3

-1 .7
+ 1 .6

92.7
90.5
97.9
91.1
93.1
94.6
92.9
93.9

+ 7.9
+ 10 .5
+ 2.1
+ 9.8

+ 7.4
+ 5.7
+ 7.6
+ 6.5

100.0

96.3
98.8

10
0 .0

+ 3.8
+ 1.2

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( - ) in —

97.8
93.6

- 0.9
+ .3.7
- 2.4
+ 10 .5

88.0
100.0

- 6.9
+ 9.8

100.0

+ 1.6
+ 5.7

100.0

+ 2.2
+ 6.8

m o

94.0

99.4
90.3
96.1
93.4
96.5
93.9

+ 1.1
+ 6.5

100.0

+ .6
+ 10 .7

+ 4.1
+ 7.1
+ 3.6
+ 6.5

100.0

+ 2.6
+ 1.2

+ 6.4
+ 13 .6

96.6
97.4

+ 3.5
+ 2.7

- 4.3
+ 6.8
- 6.4
+ 13 .6
- 9.2
+ 10 .7
-

2.8

+ 7.1

- 2.7
+ 6.5
+ .8
+ 2.7

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the open-hearth furnace department as a whole, as determined
by a combination of the data for the several principal productive
occupations of the department, which are covered by this report.
The method of computing the .figures of this table is explained on
page 22.
From the table below under "w eekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the open-hearth department
as a whole in 1910 were 97.1 as compared with 100 in 1912. In other
words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 97.1 per cent of
such earnings in 1912. The relative dropped to 94.3 in 1911, and in
1912, the base year, the relative is 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1912
were 3 per cent higher than in 1910, and 6 per cent higher than in
1911.
The third column under "w eekly earnings” shows the per cent
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings in each year as
compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full-time




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

175

weekly earnings in 1911 were 2.9 per cent lower than in 1910, and in
1912, 6 per cent higher than in 1911. The relative numbers and
percentages for full-time hours per week and rates of wages per
hour can be read in like manner.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F
IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C C U P A T IO N S — O P E N H E A R T H FURNACES.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( - ) m —
Year.

1910..............................................
1911..............................................
1912..............................................

Relative
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

100.8
98.3
100.0

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

R elaR ela­
tive
tive
1912 as E ach rate o f 1912 as E ach
1912 as E ach
full­
com ­
com ­
com ­
year
year
tim e
year
wages pared
com ­
com ­
com ­ weekly pared
pared
per
pared
w ith
w ith
earn­
w ith
pared
pared
hour.
each
each
w ith
each
w ith
w ith
ings.
year
year
speci­
speci­
speci­
year
preced­
fied
preced­
fied
fied
preced­
ing.
year.
year.
ing.
year.
ing.
-0 .8
+ 1 .7

- 2 .5
+ 1 .7

96.0
96.0
100.0

+ 4 .2
+ 4 .2

0)
+ 4 .2

97.1
94.3
100.0

+ 3 .0
+ 6 .0

- 2 .9
+ 6 .0

1 N o change.

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered— that is the change in the relative number of
employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is obvious
that an increase in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid
occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those in the
higher-paid ones would tend to lower the average for all occupations,
just as an increase in the relative number of employees in the higherpaid occupations or a decrease in the relative number in the lowerpaid ones would tend to increase the average.
The number and per cent of employees in open-hearth plants whose
customary working time per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7
days, or variations thereof, are shown in the following table. The
heading “ 5 days and 6 days a l t e r n a t e l y f o r example, indicates that
the plants were running 6 days and 5 nights each week, being shut down
for one day and a hah each week, and that the employees reported
under this heading work 6 turns one week and 5 turns the next.
The figures are presented for each district and for the four districts
combined.




176

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

N U M B E R A N D P E R C EN T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H SPECI­
F IE D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912—0 P E N -H E A R T H F U R ­
N AC E S.
{T he abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and
M iddle W est.” The figures set opposite each bracketed group o f years are for identical plants.]
N um ber of em ployees whose custom ­
ary w orking time per week was—

D istrict and
num ber of
plants.

Num­
ber
5
days
of
Year em ­ and
6
6
p loy­
ees. days days.
alter­
nate­
ly .

5
days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly .

6
days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly .

6

Per cent o f em ployees whose custom­
ary w orking tim e per w eek was—

5
days
and

6

5
days
and
days,
6
6
7
7
and 7 days. days days. days
days
alter­
alter­
in
nate­
nate­
rota­
ly .
ly .
tion.

days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly .

86
86
88

35.5
17.7
17.4
11.5

43.2
58.4
59.1
64.8

311
171
319

2.2

23.0
39.0
15.8

6

4.1
5.5
5.5
5.4

days,

6

days,

6
days,
7
and 7 days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

Eastern:
f 1910
1911
4 p la n ts1..-! 1911
( 1912
Pittsburgh:
r 1910
5 p lan ts...-! 1911
1 1912
G. L . and M. W.:
( 1910
6 plan ts...-! 1911
1912
Southern:
{ 1910
2 plan ts...-! 1911
1912
Total:
r 1910
1* p la n ts 1--< 1911
J
1 /7
1911
l 1912

583
469
477
480

207
83
83
55

252
274
282
311

1,491
1,432
1,428

32

343
558
225

975
941

32

340
461
517

1,020

24
26
26
26
837
636
881

84

3
3

63
263
204

100
207
115
115
55

1,123
1,393
1,401
1,151

16
32
32

924
983
983
1,179

2.2

56.1
44.4
61.7

14.4
18.3
18.0
18.3

6.2
.2

34.9
49.0
50.7

20.0

58.7
23.1
29.3

64.4
44.8
38.6

26.0
26.8

35.6
29.1
34.6

88
3
3
3

1,071
539
539
794

6.2
3.8
3.7
1.7

33.6
45.4
45.6
36.2

6.5
27.9

20.9
11.9
22.3

104
65

58
6S

98

2.7

572
217
299

188

292
223
254
3,341
3,065
3,073
3,182

16

.5

1.0
1.0

27.7
32.1
32.0
37.1

.1
.1
.1

32.1
17.6
17.5
25.0

1 For one plant it was impossible to secure data for tw o occupations for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.

In addition to the text tables presented in the summary, six
general tables are presented for the open-hearth department, as
follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and averages and
classified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years,
1910 to 1912.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1910 to
1912.
Table III.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district, by years, 1910 to
1912.
Table IV .— Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1912.
Table V.— Average and classified full-time hour's of work per week
in each year, by districts, 1910 to 1912.
Table V I.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in each district, by years, 1910 to 1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

177

In Tables I and IV, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 171 and 172.
Tables III and V I repeat the data for the several districts given
in Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the open-hearth furnace is
presented on page 23.
DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS.

The following description of occupations refers only to those occu­
pations which appear in the tables of this report— these being nearly
all of the principal productive occupations in the open-hearth
department.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
STOCKERS.

D ties
u

.—Unload materials from cars and sort and assemble different
grades of scrap in piles; but principal duty is to load the materials
for open-hearth melting (limestone, scrap, pig iron, etc.) into charg­
ing boxes.
.—Unskilled work, varying in difficulty and severity
with the individual plant. For the greater part, however, the
employees may be regarded as selected common labor.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

STOCK CRANEMEN.

D ties
u

.— Operate the small cranes, of 5 tons capacity or over;
handling melting stock for furnaces, with crane, magnet, grab
bucket, and chains.
.— A great deal of the work is performed by lads of
16 to 20 years of age, since a bright mind and a supple body are great
factors in learning and successfully performing the operation of the
cranes.

N tu ofwrk
a re o

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

D ties
u

.— Operate the machine for charging materials into the fur­
nace and for placing and removing the runner for pouring hot metal.
The usual type of machine consists of an electrically propelled truck,
moving on a track parallel with the furnace fronts, on which truck
is mounted an electric carriage, moving to and from the furnaces. A
large bar or ram projects on the furnace side. This is provided with
a specially shaped head, which engages in a groove at the end of the
charging box. This bar can be moved back and forth, up and down,
or made to revolve, so that with it the box is picked up, pushed
through the open door of the furnace, and dumped. The machine is
also used to shift the cars bearing the boxes to the point at which they
will be used.
4 4 9 2 9 °— B u ll. 151— 14-------12




178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

.—-Work requires considerable experience, good judg­
ment, and great dexterity of hand, because there are as many as five
levers or handles, each of which controls some separate movement of
the machine. Furthermore, since a number of men necessarily work
on and around the track upon which the charging machine operates,
constant watchfulness is demanded.
DOOR OPERATORS.

D ties
u

.— Operate levers which through electric or hydraulic con­
nections open and close the doors of furnaces for charging or inspect­
ing, or for making bottoms.
.— The work is light and is frequently performed
by boys.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

MELTERS* HELPERS, FIRST.

D ties
u

.— In direct charge, under the melter’s orders, of the opera­
tion of a single furnace. The duties fall into groups: (1) Directing
the charging of materials as described above; (2) regulating the
temperature of the furnace; the latter is done by reversing the gas
and air in the regenerators at proper intervals (usually from 15 to
30 minutes, by regulating the flow of gas and air, and by charging
cold or molten material, as the case may b e ); (3) inspecting and test­
ing “ heat,” particularly by fracture tests, and upon the melter’s deci­
sion as to the indication of these tests, making the necessary additions
of ore, flux, or recarburizer, as well as seeing that the melter’s orders
as to tapping are carried out; (4) “ making bottom s” and repairing
the walls and lining of the furnace; (5) on Sundays, if the department
operates only six days per week, “ tending gas” and making minor
repairs.
.— The position requires considerable practical
metallurgical knowledge (to be acquired only through experience)
combined with supervisory capacity and sufficient strength to stand
hard work. The work of making bottoms and repairs on linings is
particularly hard, not only because it is heavy work, in which the
first helper does his full share, but because it is done directly in front
of the furnace door in a very high temperature. Fortunately the
work can be finished in from 15 to 30 minutes. In all the work
assistance is furnished by the second helpers and the third helpers
(cinder pitmen), and if necessary by men from other furnaces, this
work being everywhere reciprocal. As the position leads to that of
melter, it is eagerly sought after.

Ntu of wrk
a re
o

MELTERS* HELPERS. SECOND.

D ties
u

.— Although in general assistants to the first helpers in most
of their functions, the second helpers have specific charge of the
back (casting side) of single furnaces, and assisted by the third helpers




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

179

(or by second helpers from other furnaces) perform the actual work
of tapping. They drill out the magnesite clay with which the tap­
ping holes are closed in stationary furnaces or signal the first helpers
to tilt the furnaces if of the tilting type; with a bar keep the metal
running freely and put in the recarburizer as the metal runs into
the ladle; are everywhere employed in making bottoms and other
necessary furnace repairs.
.—The position requires experience and skill, but
no great amount of- technical knowledge. The work is hard and
heavy, and though the conditions under which it is done vary greatly,
being much improved under the best modern conditions, these em­
ployees are still exposed to very high temperatures, though usually
for short periods. The hazard of severe burns during the process of
tapping always exists.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

MELTERS’ HELPERS, THIRD (CINDER PITMEN).

D ties
u

.— The organization and duties of this group differ rather
widely in the various plants. For the majority, however, the duties
may be said to consist in cleaning out the cinder pits and in cleaning
up the slag, in helping to tap, and in shoveling the recarburizing
materials which have been assembled at the back of the furnace into
the ladles when the metal is run out. Also assist in “ making bot­
toms.”
.— This is unskilled work and for the most part
is not very heavy, although frequently considerable strength and
endurance are called for.

Ntu of wrk
a re
o

STEEL POURERS, STOPPER SETTERS, MOLD CAPPERS.

See same names in Bessemer converters for description. The
work is similar and the conditions are practically the same except
that much larger quantities of metal are handled at one time in the
open hearth.
LADLE CRANEMEN.

D ties
u

.— Operate the large cranes, varying in size from 75 to 200
tons capacity, used at back of furnace to handle the ladles of molten
metal. The cranemen place the ladles in position to receive the
hot metal when the furnace is tapped, then at direction of steel
pourer shift them from mold to mold.
.— A great deal of the work is done under condi­
tions of extreme heat and requires greater skill than that of any
other cranemen. It requires also a class of men quick to judge
and act in emergencies.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

INGOT STRIPPERS.

See under Bessemer converters.




180

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.

D ties
u

.— Operate locomotives used to distribute incoming stock,
to transfer melting materials to furnace level, to shift ladle cars from
blast furnace to mixer and mold cars from mold yard to pouring
platform and thence to stripping cranes, and to haul the red-hot
ingots to the blooming mill.
.— Requires very careful and watchful men, owing
to the numerous tracks, crossovers, and short curves, and the many
workmen moving about the yards.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

SWITCHMEN.

D ties.— Couple and uncouple cars and throw switches.
u
N tu ofw .—V ery much the same as for locomotive engineers.
a re ork
LABORERS.

D ties
u
Ntu of wrk
a re o

.— Includes all the large number of employees engaged in the
unskilled and unspecialized work of the department.
.— The work varies widely in difficulty and experi­
ence required, although in most plants it is paid at a single hourly rate.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

181

I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

T able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

NUMBER.

Occupation,
and num ber
of plants.

AverN um ­ age
ber of full­
Year. em­ tim e
ploy­ hours
ees.
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each c
per hoi
Aver­
age
full­
time
9
10 12 14 16 18
20
25
30 40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
25
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Stockers:
f 1910
!
17 p la n ts ... > 1911
l 1912
Stock
crane­
men:
f 1910
1911
13 p la n ts ...
l 1912
C hargin g-m a­
chine oper­
ators:
f 1910
17 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
Door operators:
f 1910
!
15 p la n ts ... < 1911
[ 1912
Melters’ help­
ers, first:
f 1910
17 p la n ts ... 1911
t 1912
Metiers’ help­
ers, second:
[ 1910
1911
17 p la n ts ...
l 1912
Melters’ help­
ers, third:
f 1910
1911
17 p la n ts ...
l 1912
Stopper setters:
[ 1910
10 p la n ts ... i 1911
l 1912
Steel pourers:
f 1910
14 p la n ts ...
1911
l 1912
Mold cappers:
f 1910
1911
8 plants___
l 1912
Ladle
crane­
men:
f 1910
16 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
Ingot strippers:
1 1910
15 p la n ts ... i 1911
l 1912
Engineers, lo­
com otive:
/ 1910
14 p la n ts ... \ 1911

448
419
403

76.8 $0.177 $13.69
74.4 .172 12.73
76.6 .176 13.49

26 121 83
3 155 103
6 120 159

76
142
28

6
12

142
16
72

66

78.8
75.6
77.7

.223 17.60
.207 15.61
.235 18.29

5
5
4

73
72
72

76.8
74.7
75.5

.294 22.52
.287 21.37
.312 23.56

4

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

.101
.100
.102

\

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

.416 32.27
.400 30.12
.417 31.89

\

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

.272 20.87
.263 19.62
.274 20.77

{

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

.196 14.97
.185 13.67
.199 15.01

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

.313 23.63
.313 23.11
.329 24.92

14
9
5

\

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

.308 23.05
.304 22.32
.313 23.52

5
6

\

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

.217 16.49
.215 15.78
.223 16.86

90
.90

77.2
74.6
76.2

.294 22.76
.287 21.32
.317 24.22

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

.275 19.88
.256 18.06
.281 20.00

107

77.3
74.4

.244 18.92
.248 18.40

74.3
75.2

.247 18.32
.261 19.61

\

\

\

/ 1911
15 p la n ts ... 1 1912

75
70

86

110
114

111

7.72
7.53
7.72

i 85

2 74
8 61

52
62
70

14
24
26

4

4
4
4

14

124
135
105
18

4
7

24

20

14 151
59 85
53 56

8
12
6

15

66
94
63

137
130
154

10
0
73

162
131
186

2
2
6

2
6

2
4
4

16

8
4
........i___

84
107
72

6

5

2

21

36
26
46

2
2

4
4

4
4

1Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 46 earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.
2Including 10 em ployees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 54 earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.
8 Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 43 earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.




182

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
O P E N -H E A R T H

F U R N A C E S — Continued.

N U M B E R —Concluded.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Aver­ Aver­
N um ­ age
ber of full­ age
Year. em­ time rate of
wages
ploy­ hours per
ees.
per hour.
week.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time
9
10 12 14 16
18
25
20
30 40
50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings. 10 12
14 16 18 20
25
30
40 50
60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Switchmen:
/ 1910
14 p la n ts ... \ 1911

109
113

f 1911
15 p la n ts ... \ 1912

117
112

74.4
74.6
74.5
73.2
74.4

f 1910
1911
17 p la n ts ...
l 1912

\

34
52

28
26

29
20

52
46

28
32

8

204 259 575
140 135 512
118 80 676

.157 11.69
.161 11.78
.163 12.10

Laborers:

35
29

8
6

.186 13.85
.198 14.75

1,038
806
897

12
6

77.3 $0,185 $14.29
74.5 .187 13.90

19
23

5.8 27.0 18.5 17.0 31.7
.7 37.0 24.6 33.9 3.8
1.5 29.8 39.5 6.9 17.9

4.5

PE R CENT.
Stockers:
17 p la n ts.. Stock
men:

crane­

13 p la n ts ...
Charging ma­
chine opera­
tors:
17 p la n ts ...
Door operators:
15 p la n ts ...
Melters7 help­
ers, first:
17 p la n ts ...
Melters’ help­
ers, second:
17 p la n ts ...
Melters’ help­
ers, third:
17 plants. . .
Stopper setters:
10 p la n ts ...
Steel pourers:
14 p la n ts ...

{
{
I
I
I
I
I
{

76.8 $0,177 $13.69 ......
74.4 .172 12.73
76.6 .176 13.49 ........

....

1910
1911
1912

448
419

1910
1911
1912

75
70

78.8
75.6
77.7

.223 17.60
.207 15.61
.235 18.29

6.7 8.0 66.7 18.7
7.1 17.1 75.7
6.1 6.1 48.5 39.4

1910
1911
1912

73
72
72

76.8
74.7
75.5

.294
.287 21.37
.312 23.56

5.6

1910
1911
1912

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

.101
.100
.102

1910
1911
1912

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

.416
.400
.417 31.89

1910
1911
1912

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

.272
.263
.274

1910
1911
1912

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

.196 14.97
.185 13.67
.199 15.01

1910
1911
1912

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

.313 23.63
.313 23.11
.329 24.92

33.3 13.3
46.7
31.0 *i§.*8 37.9 10.3
17.2 27.6 27.6 27.6

1910
1911
1912

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

.308 23.05
.304 22.32
.313 23.52

10.6 40.4 40.4 8.5
13.6 31.8 50.0 4.5
13.0 26.1 52.2 8.7

5.5 2.7 47.9 35.6 8.2
5.6 13.9 36.1 30.6 8.3
5.6 2.8 22.2 69.4

151.5 31.5 8.5 8.5
7.53 246.3 38.8 15.0
338.9 44.6 16.6

1.8
1.2

1.2
2.0

3.5 36.4 49.6 10.6
8.3 39.9 42.3 7.7
4.9 30.3 50.4 13.3

5.3 24.8 40.4 29.5
6.3 31.9 38.8 21.8
4.3 20.7 44.4 28.5

3.6 38.4 16.8 41.2
6 .i 15.0 21.6 23.9 33.2
4.8 12.8 13.5 15.2 44.9

.3
8.7
6.7
6.9

1 Including 6.1 per cent earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 27.9 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents
per hour.
2 Including 6.3 per cen t earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 33.8 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents
per hour.
3 Including 6.4 per cent earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 27.4 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents
per hour.




WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

183

Table I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.
O P E N -H E A R T H

F U R N A C E S — C ontinued.

P U B C E N T —Concluded.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Aver­
Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber of full­
rate of
Year. em­ tim e wages
ploy­ hours per
per
ees.
week. hour.

M old cappers:

Employees earning each classified rate o f
per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
30
10 12 14 16 18
20
25
9
tim e
week­ and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der
40
25
30
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

20.0 15.0

wages

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

{ 1911

l 1912

40
38
42

76.5 $0,217 $16.49
74.0 .215 15.78
75.9 .223 16.86

f 1910

90

l 1912

90

77.2
74.6
76.2

.294 22.76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.287 21.32
.317 24.22

6.7 ........ 22.2 21.1 43.3 6.7 ........
5.8 2.3 16.3 39.5 27.9 8.1
6.7 7.8
85.6

\1911

f 1910

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

.275 19.88 ........ __ _ 4.3 ___
.256 18.06 ........ ___ ........
.281 20.00 ........ ___ ........ ___

4.3
41.3 21.7 21.7 6.5
7.8 3L 4 13.7 21.6 19.6 3.9 **2*6
8.2 ........ 40.8 12.2 32.7 . . . . 6.1

Engineers, loco­
m otive:
/ 1910
14 p la n ts ... \ 1911

107

77.3
74.4

.244 18.92
.248 18.40

7.5
3.6

1.9 48.6 36.4
1.8 40.9 51.8

111

74.3
75.2

.247 18.32
.261 19.61

3.5
3.6

3.5 39.5 51.8 1.8
3.6 23.4 51.4 18.0

109
113

77.3
74.5

.185 14.29
.187 13.90

1.0 32.1 31.2 25.7
5.3 25.7 46.0 23.0

117

74.4 *.186 13.85
74.6 .198 14.75

6.8 24.8 44.4 23.9
5.4 17.9 41.1 28.6

i 1910

8 plants___

31.6
14.3

Ladle
crane­
men:
16 p la n ts ...

\1911

Ingot strippers:
15 p la n ts ...

l 1912

/ 1911
15 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Switchmen:
/ 1910
14 p la n ts ... \ 1911
/ 1911
15 p la n ts ... \ 1912

86

110
114

112

35.0 15.0 15.0
*5.3 36.8 10.5 15.8
4.8 42.9 28.6 9.5

Laborers:
f 1910
17 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912

\




1,038
806
897

74.5
73.2
74.4

.157 11.69
.161 11.78
.163 12.10

19.7 25.0 55.4
17.4 16.7 63.5
13.2 8.9 75.4

2.4

2.6

7.1

5.6

1.8

184

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912.
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Continued.
[Theabbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle
W est.” ]
STOCKERS.

Aver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber fifilof
Year and dis­
ber
trict.
em­ time
of
hours
plants. ploy­ per
ees.
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time
9
25
10 12 14 16 18
20
30
40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
25
40 50 60
30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
2

T otal.......

17

4
5

70.8 $0,142 $10.06
77.9 .197 15.41
79.5 .175 14.04
78.0 .144 11.15

24

74
4
25
18

53
30

24
52

132

448

76.8

.177 13.69

26 121

83

76

142

10.62
13.56
13.24
10.80

85
32

57
46

90
52

14

3 155 103

142

16

18
77
64

16

12

30
42

10
8

6 120 159

28

72

18

24
18

6
8

98
213
117

20

2

10

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
5

85
193

6
2

120
21

72.2
74.2
76.0
76.0

.147
.183
.175
.143

T otal.......

17

419

74.4

.172 12.73

86

20
3

2

18

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern ___

6
2

167
126
24

73.6
78.2
76.4
77.0

.150
.185
.191
.140

Total.......

17

403

76.6

.176 13.49

4
5

11.01
14.36
14.56
10.74

68
34

6

18

STO C K CRANEM EN.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2

8

Total.......

13

3
4
4

74.6 $0,175 $13.00
77.3 .220 16.99
82.2 .242 19.89
78.0 .217 16.79

5

75

78.8

.223 17.60

5

72.6
72.9
80.0
75.4

.177 12.81
.215 15.68
.207 16.50
.211 15.86

5

2

9
30
24
7

13

70

75.6

.207 15.61

3
4
4

8
26
24

2

8

78.0
76.4
80.0
75.0

.179
.225
.262
.244

13

66

77.7

3
4
4

7
34
26

2
4

8
6

50

14

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh__ __
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
Total

4

8

30
16
7

5

12

53

13.89
17.18
20.98
18.17

4

4

.235 18.29

4

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.
G .L .a n d M .W .

Southern..

Total




20
8

6

4
4

16
4

32

26

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

185

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Continued.
CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

A ver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber full­
Year and dis­
ber
of
time
of
em­
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of em ployees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
10 12 14 16 18
20
25
30
time
9
40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
25
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
2

22

Total.......

17

73

76.8

.294 22.52

4
5

14
28
24

.206
.302
.323
.260

15.12
22.51
24.21
19.32

4

6

73.8
74.5
75.5
74.0

4

4
5

14
28
9

73.6 $0,228 $16.60
78.0 .293 22.77
78.0 .346 26.95
74.7 .269 20.16

2

8
14

....... .... ......

10
2

6

7

•

14

6

26

6

10
10
2

6

22

6

4

2

35

4

2

4
18
4

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
2

Total.......

17

72

74.7

.287 21.37

4
5

14
28
24

6

73.8
77.1
75.0
74.0

.226
.319
.354
.306

72

75.5

4
4
4

10

26

16.52
24.64
26.63
22.63

4

2

8
6
2

.312 23.56

4

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh^___
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern__ _

6
2

Total.......

17

2

16

22
22
6
50

DOOR OPERATORS.
1910.

Eastern______
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .

3
4

30
60
64

72.6 $0,089 $6.41
74.4 .097 7.23
79.1 .112 8.92
74.2 .094 6.92

228
2 16
3 11

32

20

14

14

52

14

14

130

South am_____

6
2

Total.......

15

165

75.9

.101

7.72

<85

Pittsburgh____

3
4

G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
2

28
60
62

10

74.0
74.1
76.3
82.8

.093
.099
.106
.087

6.80
7.31
8.14
7.21

120
228
2 16
2 10

Total.......

15

160

75.5

.100

7.53

3
4

26
57
64

10

74.6
75.6
75.9
82.8

.093
.099
.107
.108

157

76.0

.102

11

1911.
_______

8
32

22

24

574

62

24

6.84
7.45
8.13
8.96

118
2 25
2 16

32
26

22

22
8

7.72

«61

70

26

*

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

6
2

Total.......

15

8

1 Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour.
2 Earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.
3 Including 2 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.
4 Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 46 earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.
6 Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 54 earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour,
e Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour, and 43 earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.




186

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Continued.

MELTERS’ HELPERS, FIRST.

N um ­ A ver­
age
N um ­ ber full­
ber
Year and dis­
of
em­ time
trict.
of
plants. p loy­ hours
per
ees. week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
25
time
20
30
40 50
9
10 12 14 16 18
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
30
40 50 60
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
25
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

54
148
106
33

74.5 $0,320 $23.76
78.5 .412 32.37
79.0 .446 35.05
74.9 .490 36.81

12

Total.......

17

341

77.7

.416 32.27

12

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

56
150
112
20

74.4
74.1
76.1
82.8

.309
.411
.426
.432

Total.......

17

338

75.3

.400 30.12

6

28

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

52
153
120
22

74.8
76.5
76.0
82.9

.324
.429
.436
.449

24.15
32.78
33.15
37.15

2

15
2

Total.......

17

347

76.5

.417 31.89

4

17

40
44

8
100
12
17

48
52

42
48 100
34 44
25

28
8

124 169

36

1911.
4

22.87
30.45
32.30
35.73

24
2

2
2

28
63
42
2

77
52
14

8
16
2

135 143

26

1913.

2

35
40
24
6

99
62
14

12
32
2

105 175

46

MELTERS’ HELPERS, SECOND.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

58
148
108
25

71.8 $0,213 $15.29
76.9 .288 22.20
78.9 .285 22.39
75.8 .259 19.40

10

Total.......

17

339

76.6

.272 20.87

18

84

137

100

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
S outhem ...........

4
5
6
2

56
150
109
20

72.6
73.2
76.0
82.2

.201
.285
.270
.236

21

33
20
42
12

83
41
6

47
24
2

Total.......

17

335

74.5

.263 19.62

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

52
154
119
22

72.9
75.7
76.0
82.4

.213
.294
.278
.247

Total.......

17

347

75.8

.274 20.77

8

1911.
14.56
20.93
20.44
19.48

2
2
4

21

107

130

73

5

15

26
8
26
12

6
87
51
10

59
40

72

154

99

1912.




15.52
22.26
21.21
20.42

2
7

15

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

187

T able I I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
M E L T E R S ’ H E L P E R S , T H IR D .

Aver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber full­
ber
Year and dis­
of
time
em­
of
trict.
hours
plants. ploy­ per
ees. week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
10 12 14 16 18
time
20
9
25
30
40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
25
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

62
165
130
36

71.6 $0,162 *11.58
77.8 .202 15.66
77.7 .199 15.48
74.7 .214 15.87

14

38
49
56
8

10
48
8

Total.......

17

393

76.5

.196 14.97

14 151

66

162

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

4
5
6
2

57
174
133
30

72.6
73.4
75.2
73.2

.156
.192
.197
.141

11.36
14.10
14.87
10.33

25
34

78
53

1

....

37
57

24

32
24
23
6

Total.......

17

394

73.9

.185 13.67

24

59

85

94

131

1

15
32

20
15
28

93
77
16

12
24

63

186

36

68
66
28

1911.

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
S outhern... . . . .

4
5
6
2

Total.......

17

53 72.9
176 75.6
G. L .a n d M .
137 75.5
48 76.8
414

75.4

.166
.205
.214
W.
.169

12.06
15.47
16.21
13.15

20

6

18
24
8
6

.199 15.01

20

53

56

STOPPER SETTERS.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh____
G. L . and M. W .
Southern - ____

4
4
2

18
8
4

76.7 $0,300 $22.91
74.1 .352 26.06
78.0 .289 22.01

Total.......

10

30

76.2

Eastern_______
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
POUt^lArn - - T__

4
4
2

18
7
4

Total.......

10

E astern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .
Snnthe.m___ ..
Total.......

8
4
2

2

.313 23.63

14

72.8
74.4
75.0

.297 21.84
.372 27.58
.284 21.01

4
3
2

4

29

73.5

.313 23.11

9

4

4
4
2

18
7
4

76.5
74.4
75.0

.321 24.63
.345 25.70
.338 24.90

10

29

75.8

.329 24.92

8

2
2

2

10

4

2

9

1
2

2

11

3

2

8

8

2
4
2

8

8

8

1911.

2

1913.




*

3
2
5

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

188

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Continued.

. STEEL TOURERS.

NumN um ­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
em ­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time
9
10 12 14 16 18
20
25
30 40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ nuly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
25
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

3
4
5
2

7
18
14
8

71.8 $0,298 $21.02
74.0 .303 22.33
78.0 .351 27.35
76.6 .250 18.90

2
3

5

Total.......

14

47

75.3

.308 23.05

5

19

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

3
4
5
2

6
18
14
6

73.8
71.5
76.3
74.0

.302
.304
.330
.245

21.88
21.78
25.04
18.02

2
2
2

8
2
4

Total.......

14

44

73.7

.304 22.32

6

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

3
4
5
2

6
18
16
6

73.8
75.2
76.5
74.0

.295
.327
.311
.297

21.38
24.64
23.73
21.76

2
2

Total.......

14

46

75.3

.313 23.52

5
14

4

14
19

4

4
6
12

2

14

22

2

4
8

4
8
8
4

4

6

12

24

4

14

2
4

2
4

14

6

6

2

10
4

4

2
4

2

14

4

6

2

4
6
8

8
4

4

2

18

12

4

1911.

1912.

MOLD

2

CAPPERS.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

4
2
2

18
8
14

74.0 $0,236 $17.38
78.0 .293 22.67
78.9 .151 11.81

8

6

Total.......

8

40

76.5

.217 16.49

8

6

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

4
2
2

18
8
12

71.5
78.0
75.0

.238 17.03
.260 19.93
.149 11.15

12

Total.......

8

38

74.0

.215 15.78

12

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern...........

4
2
2

18
10
14

75.2
79.2
74.6

.258 19.35
.223 17.49
.178 13.20

6

Total.......

8

42

75.9

.223 16.86

6

1911.

....

1912.




....

189

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
T

I I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
LADLE CRANEMEN.

Aver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber full­
time
Year and dis­
ber
of
em­ hours
of
trict.
plants. ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time
10 12 14 16 18
9
20
25
30
40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
25
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
Total.......

4

5
5
2
16

18
36
29
7

72.6 10.224 $16.18
78.1 .298 23.25
79.4 .331 26.21
75.4 .302 22.86

6

90

77.2

.294 22.76

6

8
12

20

2
4
8
5

2
20
15
2

19

39

6
6

1911.

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

15
36
27
8

73.1
73.4
77.3
73.5

.223
.303
.301
.283

16.29
22.28
22.96
20.86

5

5
5

Total.......

16

86

74.6

.287 21.32

5

15
36
31
8

73.5
76.1
78.2
73.5

.219
.327
.347
.342

90

76.2

2

8
2

6

22
6
6

2
14
6
2

2

14

34

24

16.12
24.92
27.10
25.12

6

7

2
36
31
8

.317 24.22

6

7

77

7
7

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
S ou th ern _____

Total.......

4
5
5
2
16

INGOT STRIPPERS.
1910.
2

10

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
5
6
2

12
17
13
4

70.7 $0,235 $16.50
71.3 .341 23.67
78.5 .235 18.20
78.0 .250 19.35

2

Total.......

15

46

73.7

.275 19.88

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern.........

2
5
6
2

18
17
12
4

72.8
68.1
75.0
75.0

.191
.328
.253
.247

13.91
21.73
18.95
18.42

2

Total.......

15

51

71.9

.256 18.06

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
5
6
2

16
17
12
4

72.9
69.5
75.0
75.0

.221
.360
.249
.285

16.04
24.41
18.63
21.20

2

14

2

4
2

Total.......

15

49

72.4

.281 20.00

4

20

8
2

19

2

6
2
2

3

7
2

10

10

3

1
4
2

5
4
2

8
2

2

1

7

11

10

2

1

4
2

10
4
2

6

10

1911.
2

16

16

1912.




i

3

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

190
T

I I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­
of
trict.
plants. p loy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
10 12 14 16 18
time
25
9
20
30
40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
20
ings. 10 12 14 16 18
30
40 50 60
25
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
4
5
2

Total.......

14

14
51
22
20

72.9 $0,184 $13.49
78.6 .264 20.80
80.7 .245 19.80
73.2 .232 16.96

8

.244 18.92

8

107 . 77.3

2

4
17
12
19

28
10
1

6

2

52

39

6

4

9
4
12
20

2
46
10
1

2

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
4
5
2

19
52
22
21

73.2
73.6
77.4
73.7

.209
.271
.244
.226

15.25
19.90
18.87
16.64

4

Total.......

15

114

74.3

.247 18.32

4

4

45

59

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
4
5
2

18
50
22
21

73.3
74.6
76.4
77.1

.207
.279
.260
.265

15.08
20.82
19.80
20.38

4

4

8
2
12
4

2
40
2
13

8
8
4

Total.......

15

111

75.2

.261 19.61

4

4

26

57

20

4
8

9
16
6
4

2
8
8
16

20
8

12

35

34

28

6

9
14

2
18
8
28

1912.

SWITCHMEN.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
Southern...........

3
15 72.4 $0,159 $11.48
4
52 78.5 .187 14.66
G .L .a n22M .W .
5
d 80.7 .194 15.64 ........ . . . . ........
2
20 74.4 .188 13.97
14

109

77.3

.185 14.29 ........ . . . . ........

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
4
5
2

19
54
22
22

73.2
73.6
77.4
74.2

.166
.191
.194
.184

‘ *'6

2
22
12
16

Total.......

15

117

74.4

.186 13.85

8

29

52

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

4
4
5
2

18
52
22
20

73.3
74.5
76.4
74.4

.165
.195
.207
.225

11.99
14.54
15.83
16.62

6

8
4
2
6

4
34
8

Total.......

. 15

112

74.6

.198 14.75

6

20

46

Total.......
1911.

12.11
14.08
15.01
13.64

2

1913.




14
8
10

4
4

32

8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
T

191

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
LABORERS.

Aver­
N um ­ N um ­ age
ber full­
ber
Year and dis­
time
of
of
trict.
plants. em­ hours
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time
10 12 14 16 18
20
30
9
25
40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
25
30
40 50 60
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.___
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
Total.......

4
5
6
2

194
485
286
73

17 1,038

64.9 $0,145 $9.41
75.5 .162 12.24
78.4 .162 12.72
78.4 .130 10.15
74.5

.157 11.69

37 136 21
95! 34 356
88 198
72
1
1
204j 259 575

1911.
Eastftrn.............
Pittsburgh____
G .L .a n d M .W .
, T____
Total

4
5
6
2

95
434
245
32

62.7
73.2
76.6
79.1

.146 9.08
.164 11.99
.166 12.67
.130 10.22

17

806

73.2

.161 11.78

4
5
6
2

116
458
286
37

62.3
75.6
77.4
75.6

.152 9.40
.165 12.45
.167 12.91
.134 9.97

39
54

17

897

74.4

.163 12.10

45
68

32 15
28 338
70 159
5

16

140 135 512

19

27

3

1913.
E a stern ............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
ftnrfthorn,
Total




16

25

16 54
42 362
10 260
12

7

118

80 676

23

192
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D I S T R I C T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
[The abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle W est.”
posite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

T he figures set op­

STOCKERS.

D istrict, and
num ber o f
plants.

Aver­ Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber of full­ rate of
Year. em­ tim e wages
ploy­ hours per
per
ees.
week. hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
9
10
12 14 16
tim e
18
25
20
30 40 50
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
14 16 18 20
ings. 10 12
25
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910

70.8 $0,142 $10.06
72.2 .147 10.62
73.6 .150 11.01

\1911

98
85
86

f 1910
1911
5 plants___
l 1912
G .L. and M .W .:
f 1910
1911
6 plants----1 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants-- 1911
l 1912

\

213
193
167

77.9
74.2
78.2

\

117
120
126

\

20
21
24

4 plants___

l 1912

24

74
85
68

18

.197 15.41
.183 13.56
.185 14.36

4
32
34

53
57
77

24
90
16

132
14
30

10

79.5
76.0
76.4

.175 14.04
.175 13.24
.191 1456

25
20

30
46
64

52
52
12

10
2
42

8

78.0
76.0
77.0

.144 11.15
.143 10.80
.140 10.74

5
5
4

2
4
4

Pittsburgh:

2
3
6

18
18
18

STOCK CRANEMEN. .
Eastern:
3 plants-----

74.6 $0,175 $13.00
72.6 .177 12.81
78.0 .179 13.89

1910
1911
1912

7
9
8

1910
1911
1912

34
30
26

77.3
72.9
76.4

.220 16.99
.215 15.68
.225 17.18

1910
1911
1912

26
24
24

82.2
80.0
80.0

.242 19.89
.207 16.50
.262 20.98

1910
1911
1912

8
7
8

78.0
75.4
75.0

.217 16.79
.211 15.86
.244 18.17

Pittsburgh:
4 plants___

24
30
20

6

18
16
8

8
16

8
7
4

4

4

2
2
2

8
4
8

6

4 plants-----

00

G .L. and M .W .:

Southern:
2

plants_

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
Eastern:
f 1910

4 plants___

\1911

t 1912

14
14
14

73.6 $0,228 $16.60
73.8 .206 15.12
73.8 .226 16.52

28
28
28

78.0
745
77.1

.293 22.77
.302 22.51
.319 24.64

22
24
24

78.0
75.5
75.0

.346 26.95
.323 24.21
.354 26.63

4

9
6
6

74.7
74.0
74.0

.269 20.16
.260 19.32
.306 22.63

4

4

4
4
4

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

5 plants___

\1911

l 1912

14
18
6

14
10
22

6
4
2

10
10
22

7

2
2
6

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910

6 p la n ts ....

\1911

l 1912

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants___

\1911
[ 1912




6
6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 1 9 3
T

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D I S T R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
DOOR OPERATORS.

District, and
number of
plants.

Year.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
Average
full­ age
rate of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e
20
30 40 50
9
10 12 14 16 18
25
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
14 16 18 20
25
30
40 50 60
ings. 10 12
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
r 1910

3 plants___

\1911

l 1912

30
28
26

72.6 $0,089 $6.41
74.0 .093 6.80
74.6 .093 6.84

130
120
1 18

8
8

60
60
57

74.4
74.1
75.6

.097
.099
.099

7.23
7.31
7.45

228
228
225

32
32
32

64
62
64

79.1
76.3
75.9

.112
.106
.107

8.92
8.14
8.13

2 16
2 16
2 16

20
22
22

11
10
10

74.2
82.8
82.8

.094
.087
.108

6.92
7.21
8.96

3 11
2 10
22

8

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

4 plants___

\1911

l 1912

G .L . and M .W .:
f 1910
6 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants___ -! 1911
l 1912

14
24
26

14

MELTERS’ HELPERS, FIRST.
Eastern:
f 1910
4 plants___ J 19H
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
1910
5 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
6 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants___ J 1911
l 1912

[

54
56
52

74.5 $0,320 $23.76
74.4 .309 22.87
74.8 .324 24.15

148
150
153

78.5
74.1
76.5

.412 32.37
.411 30.45
.429 32.78

106
112
120

79.0
76.1
76.0

.446 35.05
.426 32.30
.436 33.15

33
20
22

74.9
82.8
82.9

4
2

.490 36.81
.432 35.73
.449 37.15

12
24
15

42
28
35

2
2
2

48 100
63 77
40 99

8
12

34
42
24

2
2

44
52
62

28
16
32

2
6

25
14
14

8
2
2

MELTERS’ HELPERS, SECOND.
Eastern:
f 1910
4 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1910
(
5 plants___ • 1911
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
6 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants___ J 1911
1 1912

58
56
52

71.8 $0.213 $15.29
72.6 .201 14.56
72.9 .213 15.52

148
150
154

76.9
73.2
75.7
78.9
76.0
76.0

.285 22.39
.270 20.44
.278 21.21

25
20
22

75.8
82.2
82.4

.259 19.40
.236 19.48
.247 20.42

10
21
15

40
8
3 3 ........
26
6
100
83
87

.288 22.20
.285 20.93
.294 22.26

108
109
119

2
5

52
24
40

2
2
8
12
12

1 Including 10 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents per hour.
2 Earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.
3 Including 2 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents per hour.

44929°—Bull. 151—14-----13




48
47
59

1 7 ........
6
2
1 0 ........

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

194

T able I I I , — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.
OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
MELTERS’ HELPERS, THIRD.

District, and
number o f
plants.

N um ­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ee*.

Aver­
age Aver­
full­ age
tim e rate of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour:

N um ber of em plo
wages per
A ver­
age
full­
time
10 12 14 16 18
9
week­ and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der
ings. 10 12 14 16 18 20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

hour.
50
20
30 40
25
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
30
40 50 60
25
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910
4 plants___ J 1911
1 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1910
1911
5 plants___
[ 1912
G .L. and M .W .:
f 1910
6 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
1911
2 plants___
l 1912

\

\

71.6 $0,162 $11.58
72.6 .156 11.36
72.9 .166 12.06

14
25
15

165
174
176

77.8
73.4
75.6

.202 15.66
.192 14.10
.205 15.47

34
32

130
133
137

77.7
75.2
75.5

.199 15.48
.197 14.87
.214 16.21

36
30
48

74.7
73.2
76.8

.214 15.87
.141 10.33
.169 13.15

62
57
53

24
28
24
20 * 6

16

STOPPER SETTERS.
Pittsburgh:
4

plants_

1910
1911
1912

18
18
18

76.7 $0,300 $22.91
72.8 .297 21.84
76.5 .321 24.63

1910
1911
1912

8
7
7

74.1
74.4
74.4

1910
1911
1912

4
4
4

78.0
75.0
75.0

.289 22.01
.284 21.01
.338 24.90

8
9
8

.352 26.06
.372 27.58
.345 25.70

4
8

G .L. and M .W .:
4 plants___
Southern:
2

plants_

STEEL POURERS.5
4
3
*
Eastern:
3 plants___

71.8 $0,298 $21.02
73.8 .302 21.88
73.8 .295 21.38

1910
1911
1912

7
6
6

1910
1911
1912

18
18
18

74.0
71.5
75.2

.303 22.33
.304 21.78
.327 24.64

1910
1911
1912

14
14
16

78.0
76.3
76.5

.351 27.35
.330 25.04
.311 23.73

1910
1911
1912

8
6
6

76.5
74.0
74.0

.250 18.90
.245 18.02
.297 21.76

Pittsburgh:
4 plants___
G .L. and M .W .:
5 plants___
Southern:
2 plants___




2
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

195

T able I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.
OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
MOLD CAPPERS.

District, and
number of
plants.

Year.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
Aver­
age
full­ age
tim e rate of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e
20
30 40 50
10 12 14 16 18
25
9
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
30
25
40 50 60
ings.
10 12 14 16 18 20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

4 plants___

l 1911

l 1912

G. L. and M .W .:
2 plants-----

[ 1910
\1911
l 1912

18
18
18

74.0 $0,236 $17.38
71.5 .238 17.03
75.2 .258 19.35

8
8
10

78.0
78.0
79.2

.293 22.67
.260 19.93
.223 17.49

14
12
14

78.9
75.0
74.6

.151 11.81
.149 11.15
.178 13.20

14
10
4

2
4
8

2
2
4

4
4
6

2
2

4
4

4

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants-----

\1911
1 1912

8
12
6

6
8

LADLE CRANEMEN.
Eastern:
f 1910

18
15
15

\1911

36
36
36

78.1
73.4
76.1

29
27
31

79.4
77.3
78.2

.331 26.21
.301 22.96
.347 27.10

7
8
8

75.4
73.5
73.5

2

2.
2.
2.

4
22

20.
1 4.

8
6

15
6
31.

5
6

.298 23.25
.303 22.28
.327 24.92

8
8
7
12

72.6 $0,224 $16.18
73.1 .223 16.29
73.5 .219 16.12

f 1910

4 plants—

2.
2.
8.

.302 22.86
.283 20.86
.342 25.12

{ 1911

l 1912

6
5
6

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

5 plan ts—

1 1912

G .L .a n d M .W .:
5 plants___
Southern:
2 plants___

\1911
[ 1912
( 1910

\1911
l 1912

2

6

INGOT STRIPPERS.
Eastern:

\1911
[ 1912

f 1910

12
18
16

70.7 $0,235 $16.50
72.8 .191 13.91
72.9 .221 16.04

f 1910
1911
5 plants___
l 1912
G. L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
1911
6 plants----1 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants —
1911
l 1912

\

17
17
17

71.3
68.1
69.5

.341 23.67
.328 21.73
.360 24.41

\

13
12
12

78.5
75.0
75.0

.235 18.20
.253 18.95
.249 18.63

l

4
4
4

78.0
75.0
75.0

.250 19.35
.247 18.42
.285 21.20

2 plants----Pittsburgh:




2
2
2

10
16
14
1

2
2
2

6
5
4

8
8
10

7
4
4

2
4
2

2
2
4

2
2
2

2
2
2

3
2

1
3

196

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Concluded.
OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.

Aver­
age Aver­
full­ age
tim e rate of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
12 14 16 18
50
10
time
20
30 40
9
25
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
40 50 60
10 12 14 16 18 20
30
ings.
25
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Year.

N um ­
ber of
emptoy-

/ 1910
3 p lants___ \ 1911

14
15

72.9 $0,184 $13.49
73.7 .204 15.00

8
4

2
2

4
9

/ 1911
\ 1912

19
18

73.2
73.3

.209 15.25
.207 15.08

4
4

4
4

9
8

2
2

51
52
50

78.6
73.6
74.6

.264 20.80
.271 19.90
.279 20.82

17
4
2

28
46
40

6
2
8

\1911

1 1912

22
22
22

80.7
77.4
64.7

.245 19.80
.244 18.87
.260 19.80

12
12
12

10
10
2

8

f 1910
1911
2 plants___
l 1912

20
21
21

73.2
73.7
77.1

.232 16.96
.226 16.64
.265 20.38

19
20
4

1
1
13

4

District, and
number of
plants.

Eastern:

4 plants—
Pittsburgh:
4 plants___

( 1910
l 1911

l 1912

G .L .a n d M .W .
| 1910

5 plan ts___
Southern:

\

SWITCHMEN.
Eastern:
3 plants___
4 plants___
Pittsburgh:
4 plants—

1910
1911

72.4 $0,159 $11.48
73.7 .164 12.04

4
4

1911
1912

73.2
73.3

21
.166 1 .1
.165 11.99

6
6

1910
1911
1912

78.5
73.6
74.5

.187 14.66
.191 14.08
.195 14.54

8

1910
1911
1912

80.7
77.4
76.4

.194 15.64
.194 15.01
.207- 15.83

1910
1911
1912

74.4
74.2
74.4

.188 13.97
.184 13.64
.225 16.62

G .L .a n d M .W .:
5 plants___

2

Southern:
2 plants___

LABORERS.
Eastern:
4 plants___

1910
1911
1912

194
95
116

64.9 $0,145 $9.41
62.7 .146 9.08
62.3 .152 9.40

1910
1911
1912

485
434
458

75.5
73.2
75.6

.162 12.24
.164 11.99
.165 12.45

1910
1911
1912

286
245
286

78.4
76.6
77.4

.162 12.72
.166 12.67
.167 12.91

1910
1911
1912

73
32
37

78.4
79.1
75.6

.130 10.15
.130 10.22
.134 9.97

Pittsburgh:
5 plants___
G .L . and M .W .:
6 plants___
Southern:
2 plants___




10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR-----OPEN-H EARTH FURNACES.

197

Table I V .— AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
NUM BER,

Occupation, and number
plants.

of

Stockers:

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

448
419
403

76.8
74.4
76.6

75
70
66

78.8
75.6
77.7

73
72
72

60
109
26

107
102
122

154
116
155

127
79
100

2
16

12
7
12

30
30
34

30
16
- 20

76.8
74.7
75.5

6
18
10

25
18
28

20
24
18

22
12
16

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

20
34
32

63
38
44

36
50
33

46
38
48

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

24
58
8

75
72
82

136
164
191

106
44
66

\

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

28
118
68

129
71
129

76
70
50

106
76
100

\

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

30
78
28

141
144
126

116
142
192

106
30
68

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

11
6
6

17
15
21

2

8

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

5
10
10

23
12
14

8
18
14

11
4
$

1

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

8
8

22
10
12

6
16
14

12
4
8

(

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

8
21
9

25
29
29

28
20
28

29
16
24

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

10
4

14
32
34

8
10
10

11
2
2

Engineers, locom otive:
/ 1910
14 plants.................................... \ 1911

107
110

77.3
74.4

6
39

25
22

48
40

28
9

/ 1911
15 plants.................................... \ 1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

43
16

22
22

40
64

9
9

Switchmen:
/ 1910
14 plants................ .................... \ 1911

109
113

77.3
74.5

7
41

24
22

48
40

30
10

1911
117
15 plants.................................... \ 1912
112
Laborers:
f 1910 1,038
17 plants....................................
1911
806
1912
897

74.4
74.6

45
18

22
32

40
52

10
10

212
192
115

137
117
131

365
298
392

224
109
151

17 plants....................................

f 1910

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Average
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
72
84
60
and
per
un­
under
under
under
week. der. under 60
84
56
72

\1911

l 1912

13

Stock cranemen:
r 1910
13 plants, - t.............................. J 1911
l 1912
Charging-machine operators:
f 1910
17 plants.... ............................... J 1911
[ 1912
Door operators:
[ 1910
15 p la n ts ................................... J 1911
l 1912
Melters’ helpers, first:
f 1910
17 plants.................................... J 1911
l 1912
Melters’ helpers, second:
f 1910
17 plants....................................
1911
1 1912
Melters’ helpers, third:
f 1910
1911
17 plants....................................
l 1912
Stopper setters:
f 1910
10 plants.................................... i 1911
l 1912
Steel pourers:
[ 1910
14 plants.................................... J 1911
1 1912
Mold cappers:
f 1910
1911
8 plants......................................
l 1912
Ladle cranemen:
1910
16 plants................................ . J 1911
[ 1912
Ingot strippers:
f 1910
15 plants.................................... J 1911
l 1912




(

\
[

74.5
73.2
74.4

1
1

3
3
3

29
35
51

8
5

63
55
52

2

198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T a b l e I V .—A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Con.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
PER CENT.

Occupation, and number
plants.

of

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
time
48
56
72
48
60
hours and
and and
60
and
84
and
per
un­ under under
72 under
under
week. der.
60
56
84
72

Stockers:
f 1910

448
419
403

76.8
74.4
76.6

75
70
66

78.8
75.6
77.7

73
72
72

13.4
26.0
6.5

23.9
24.3
30.3

34.4
27.7
38.5

28.3
18.9
24.8

2.7
22.9

16.0
10.0
18.2

40.0
42.9
51.5

40.0
22.9
30.3

76.8
74.7
75.5

8.2
25.0
13.9

34.2
25.0
38.9

27.4
33.3
25.0

30.1
16.7
22.2

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

12.1
21.3
20.4

38.2
23.8
28.0

21.8
31.3
21.0

27.9
23.8
30.6

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

7.0
17.2
2.3

22.0
21.3
23.6

39.9
48.5
55.0

31.1
13.0
19.0

f 1910
17 plants.................................... i 1911
l 1912
Melters’ helpers, third:
f 1910
17 plants......................... .......... 1911
l 1912
Stopper setters:
f 1910
10 plants.................................... | 1911
l 1912
Steel pourers:
f 1910
14 plants.................................... J 1911
l 1912
Mold cappers:
f 1910
8 plants...................................... • 1911
1
l 1912
Ladle cranemen:
f 1910
16 plants....................................
1911
1 1912
Ingot strippers:
1U RlcMlbo* •••■•••••••••••••.. f 1910
1911
l 1912
Engineers, locom otive:
14 plants.................................... / 1910
\ 1911

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

8.3
35.2
19.6

38.1
21.2
37.2

22.4
20.9
14.4

31.3
22.7
28.8

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

7.6
19.8
6.8

35.9
36.5
30.4

29.5
36.0
46.4

27.0
7.6
16.4

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

36.7
20.7
20.7

56.7
51.7
72.4

6.7

27.6

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

10.6
22.7
21.7

48.9
27.3
30.4

17.0
40.9
30.4

23.4
9.1
17.4

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

21.1
19.0

55.0
26.3
28.6

15.0
1
33.3

4
2

30.0
10 5
19! 0

\

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

8.9
24.4
10.0

27.8
33.7
32.2

31.1
23.3
31.1

32.2
18.6
26.7

\

46
51
49

73.7
6.5
71.9 ..........
72.4 ..........

2/
04

17.4
19.6

23.9
3.9
4.1

107
110

77.3
74.4

5.6
35.5

23.4
20.0

44.9
36.4

26.2
8! 2

15 plants.................................... /
\
Switchm en:
14 plants.................................... /
\

1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

37.7
14.4

19 3
19.* 8

35 1
57! 7

7 9
8 !l

1910
1911

109
113

77.3
74.5

6.4
36.3

22.0
19! 5

44.0
35.4

27.5
8.8

15 plants.................................... / 1911
\ 1912

117
112

74.4
74.6

38.5
16! 1

18 8
28! 6

34.2
46! 4

8 5
8! 9

20.4
23 8
12.8

13.2
14 5
14! 6

35.2
37.0
43! 7

21.6
13 5
16! 8

17 plants....................................

{ 1911

l 1912

3.1

Stock cranemen:
f 1910

13 plants....................................

\1911

l 1912

1.3
1.4

Charging-machine operators:
f 1910

17 plants....................................

\ 1911

l 1912

D oor operators:
f 1910

15 plants....................................

\ 1911

l 1912

Melters’ helpers, first:
f 1910

17 plants....................................

\1911

l 1912

Melters’ helpers, second:

\

Laborers:

f 1910 1,038
17 plants.................................... f 1911
806
l 1912
897




74.5 ..........
73.2
74.4

.21.7 30.4
5.9 .......... .......... 7.8 62.7
6.1
......... .......... 69.4

2.8
4.3
5.7

0.8
.6

6.1
6 8

5.8

6.9

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 1 9 9
T

able

V .— AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
STOCKERS.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber o f em ­
plants. p loy­
ees.

Year and district.

N um ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A v e r­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
60
hours and
48
84
72
and
and and
and
per
un­ under under 60 under
under
week. der.
60
84
72
56

1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh......................................1
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

98
213
117
20

70.8
77.9
79.5
78.0

60

T otal.......................................

17

448

76.8

60

107

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

85
193
120
21

72.2
74.2
76.0
76.0

45
64

24

T otal.......................................

17

419

74.4

1912.
E a s t e r n .........................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern..........................................

4
5
6
2

86
167
126
24

Total.......................................

17

403

154

16
28
73
10

154

127

68
10

84
24
8

16
32
28
3

109

102

116

79

73.6
78.2
76.4
77.0

26

44
68
10

123
24
8

16
44
34
6

76.6

26

122

155

100

4
4
4

30

12

30

30

4
3

18
8
4

12

7

30

16

22
31
44
10

1911.
13

13

STOCK CRANEMEN.
1910.
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

3
4
4
2

7
34
26
8

74.6
77.3
82.2
78.0

1

T otal.......................................

13

75

78.8

1

2

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

3
4
4
2

9
30
24
7

72.6
72.9
80.0
75.4

1

4
12

T otal.......................................

13

70

75.6

1

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
Southern...........................................

3
4
4
2

8
26
24
8

78.0
76.4
80.0
75.0

4
4

22
8
4

T otal.......................................

13

66

77.7

12

34

20

4
4
10
7

18
2

4
6
10
2

25

20

22

2

16

4
22
4

4

4

4
4
12

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
1910.
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

14
28
22
9

73.6
78.0
78.0
74.7

6

T otal.......................................

17

73

76.8

6




200

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able V .— AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um Num­ b erof
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

Num ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver
age
fu ll­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
56
72
hours 48
60
48
and and and
72
per
and
and
84
un­
under 60 under
week.
under
under
der.
60
72
56
84

1911.

4

E astern............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes
M iddle W est___
Southern...........................................

5
6
2

14
28
24
6

73.8
74.5
75.5
74.0

10
8

T otal.......................................

17

72

74.7

18

1912.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

14
28
24
6

73.8
77.1
75.0
74.0

10

Total.......................................

17

72

75.5

10

4
4
4

14
4

16
6
2

18

24

8
16
4

12
4
2

28

18

32
22
9

28
8

63

36

46

30

28
20
2

10
8
12
8

50

38

36

• 17
14
' 2

10
16
14
8

44

33

48

20
104
12

10
32
56

12

4
8
4
16

DOOR OPERATORS.
1910.
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
£kni thorn..................................... .....

3
4
6
2

30
60
64
11

72.6
74.4
79.1
74.2

20

T otal.......................................

15

165

75.9

20

E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
Southern..........................................

3
4
6
2

28
60
62
10

74.0
74.1
76.3
82.8

10
24

T otal.......................................

15

160

75.5

34

38

Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
Southern...........................................

3
4
6
2

26
57
64
10

74.6
75.6
75.9
82.8

8
24

8

Total.......................................

15

157

76.0

32

10
34
2

1911.
8

1912.

M ELTERS’ HELPERS, F IR ST .
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est___
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

54
148
106
33

74.5
78.5
79.0
74.9

24

T otal...................... ...............

17

341

77.7

24

75

136

106

4

16

20
102
36
6

20
14

164

44

12
38
25

8

1911.
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

5
6
2

56
150
112
20

74.4
74.1
76.1
82.8

10
48

T otal.......................................

17

338

75.3

58




56
72

10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 2 0 1
T a b l e V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
MELTERS’ HELPERS, FIRST—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
tim e
Over
Over
48
56
60
72
hours and
48
and
per
and under 60
and
72
and
84
un­
under
week. der. under 60
under
56
72
84

1913.
E astern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

52
153
120
22

74.8
76.5
76.0
82.9

8

T o t a l .....................................

17

347

76.5

14
68

20
141
24
6

10
12
28
16

8

82

191

66

20
52
40
17

64
12

10
32
56
8

129

76

106

55

28
36
6

10
34
18
14

70

76

20
24
6

10
46
28
16

MELTERS’ HELPERS, SECOND.
1910.
4
5
6
2

58
148
108
25

71.8
76.9
78.9
75.8

28

........... .......................

17

339

76.6

28

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh ...................... ............
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern , ................................. .

4
5
6
2

56
150
109
20

72.6
73.2
76.0
82.2

30
88

Total.......................................

17

335

74.5

118

71

1913.
........................ ...........
Eastern
P ittsburgh...... ............................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

52
154
119
22

72.9
75.7
76.0
82.4

28
40

14
48
67

T otal.... ... ..............................

17

347

75.8

68

129

50

100

22
29
62
28

104
12

10
32
56
8

Eastern .............................. .........
Pittsburgh r__
. ____ _____
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern TT.......................................
Total

16

MELTERS’ HELPERS, THIRD.
1910.
Eastern ...........................................
Pittsburgh......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern_ _.......................................

4
5
6
2

62
165
130
36

71.6
77.8
77.7
74.7

30

........................

17

393

76.5

30

141

116

106

1911.
E astern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern..........................................

4
5
6
2

57
174
133
30

72.6
73.4
75.2
73.2

30
48

17
24
79
24

**

10
2
18

........................

17

394

73.9

78

144

142

30

1913.
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est—
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

53
176
137
48

72.9
75.6
75.5
76.8

28

85
26

162
24
6

10
14
28
16

T otal.......................................

17

414

75.4

28

126

192

68

Total

Total




6

15

202

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
STOPPER SETTERS.

Year and district.

1910.
Eastern......................................
Pittsburgh.............. .........................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................
T otal......................................
1911.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great L^kes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................
T otal............... .......................
1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................
T otal.......................................

NumNum­ b erof
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
tim e
Over
Over
48
56
hours and
60
48
72
and
and under 60
per
and
72
and
84
un­
week. der. under
under
under
60
72
56
84

4

18
g
4

76.7
74.1
78.0

4
5
2

14
3

10

30

76.2

11

17

18
7
4

72.8
74.4
75.0

8

4
2

10
3
2

10

29

73.5

8

6

15

4
4
2
1
0

18
7
4

76.5
74.4
75.0

16
3
2

2

4
2

29

75.8

6

21

2

12
6
5

6
2

23

8

11

6
4

10
6
2

2

18

4

4
2

4
4
2

*

2
2

POU RERS.
1910.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

.3
4
5
2

7
18
14
8

71.8
74.0
78.0
76.5

5

Total.......................................

14

47

75.3

5

1911.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .
Southern...........................................

3
4
5
2

6
18
14
6

73.8
71.5
76.3
74.0

2
8

T otal.......................................

14

44

73.7

10

12

1912.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

3
4
5
2

6
18
16
6

73.8
75.2
76.5
74.0

2
8

2

T otal.......................................

14

46

75.3

10




—

2

2

6
3

2

8
4

8
4
2

14

14

2
2
4
8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 2 0 3
T able V .— AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
MOLD CAPPERS—Concluded.

Year and district.

1911.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................
Total.......................................

NumNum ­ b erof
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

4

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
fullOver
Over
time- 48
Over
56
hours and
48
60
72
and
and under 60
72
per
and
and
84
un­
week. der. under
under
under
60
72
56
84

2

18
8
12

71.5
78.0
75.0

8

2

8

38

74.0

8

4
2
2

18
10
14

75.2
70.2
74.6

8

8

42

75.9

8

12

14

8

6
4
10
5

26
2

4
6
17
2
29

10
4
6
10

16

4

6
.

4

1912.
Eastern.................... .......................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................
T otal.......................................

4
8

8

2
6

6

LADLE CRANEMEN.
1910.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

4
5
5
2

18
36
29
7

72.6
78.1
79.4
75.4

8

T otal.......................................

16

90

77.2

8

25

28

1911.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh.......... ............... ............
Great Lakes and Middle W est. -.
Southern...........................................

4
5
5
2

15
36
27
8

73.1
73.4
77.3
73.5

9
12

2
10
11
6

10
8
2

T otal.......................................

16

86

74.6

21

29

20

1912.
Eastern......................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

4
5
5
2

15
36
31
8

73.5
76.1
78.2
73.5

9

2
10
11
6

18
8
2

Total.......................................

16

90

76.2

9

29

28

4
4
8
16
4
8
12
24

INGOT STRIPPERS.
1910.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

2
5
6
2

12
17
13
4

70.7
71.3
78.5
78.0

T otal............... .......................

15

46

73.7

1911.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
S ou th ern ..........................................

2
5
6
2

18
17
12
4

72.8
68.1
75.0
75.0

T otal.......................................

15

51

71.9




10
3

6
6
2

3

2
6

2
7
2

10

3

3

14

8

11

4

16
6
8
2

2
4
2
2

2

32

10

2

4

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

204

V .—A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

Table

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
INGOT STRIPPERS—Concluded.

Year and district.

Num ­
Num­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
48
56
hours and
48
60
72
and
72
and under 60
and
per
and
84
un­
under
week. der. under
under
60
72
56
84

1912.
E a stern ............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t...
Southern...........................................

2
5
6
2

. 16
17
12
4

72.9
69.5
75.0
75.0

3

T otal.......................................

15

49

72.4

3

14
10
8
2

2
4
2
2

34

10

2
2

ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.
1910.

Eastern. . t.......... ........................
.....................
Pittsburgh.........
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t . ..

14
51
22
20

72.9
78.6
80.7
73.2

6

Southern...........................................

3
4
5
2

Total.......................................

14

107

77.3

6

1911.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t . ..
Southern .......................................

4
4
5
2

19
52
22
21

73.2
73.6
77.4
73.7

15
28

Total.......................................

15

114

74.3

43

1912.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh ....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t . ..
Southern...........................................

4
4
5
2

18
50
22
21

73.3
74.6
76.4
77.1

14
2

Total.......................................

15

111

75.2

16

4
40
4

3
4
18

4

8
14
2

25

48

6
16

24
12
4

4
1

22

40

9

28

4

-

4

8
10
4

40
8
16

1

22

64

9

4
40
4

4
8
14
4

24

48

30

6
16

24
12
4

4
2

22

40

10

8
10
14

40
8
4

4
2

32

52

10

4

SWITCHMEN.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

3
4
5
2

15
52
22
20

72.4
78.5
80.7
74.4

7

T otal.......................................

14

109

77.3'

7

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .
Southern...........................................

4
4
5
2

19
54
22
22

73.2
73.6
77.4
74.2

15
30

T otal.......................................

15

117

74.4

45

1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

4
4
5
2

18
52
22
20

73.3
74.5
76.4
74.4

14
4

T otal.......................................

15

112

74.6

18




4
4
16

4

4

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 2 0 5
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
LABORERS.

Year and district.

Num ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
Num­ age
ber of full­
N um ­
ber of em­ tim e
Over
Over
Over
48
56
plants. ploy­ hours and
60
72
48
and
ees.
72
per
and
60
and
84
and
un­
week. der. under under
under
under
60
72
56
84

1910.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................
T otal.......................................

194
485
286
73

64.9
75.5
78.4
78.4

29

8

20
16
27

111
97
4

18
33
52
34

2
325
38

6
14
165
39

17 1,038

74.5

29

8

63

212

137

365

.224

4
5
6
2

1911.
E astern .- .........................................
Pittsburgh................................. : . .
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

4
5
6
2

95
434
245
32

62.7
73.2
76.6
79.1

33
2

31
15
4
5

17
162
13

2
20
93
2

6
231
59
2

6
4
76
23

T otal.......................................

17

806

73.2

35

55

192

117

298

109

1912.
Eastern..................................... .......
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern..............- _______________

4
5
6
2

116
458
286
37

62.3
75.6
77.4
75.6

51
5

25
12
3
12

24
78
13

2
25
102
2

8
326
58

6
12
110
23

T otal.......................................

17

897

74.4

51

5

52

115

131

392

151




BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

206

T a b l e V I . — AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912.

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group o f years are for identical plants.]

STOCKERS.

District, and num ber o f plants.

Eastern:
4 plants......................................
Pittsburgh:

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
N um ­ age
ber
fullof
Year.
tim e
Over
Over
Over
48
em­
48
56
60
72
ploy­ hours and and
per
and
60
and
72
84
and
ees. week. u n ­ under under
under
under
der.
72
60
56
84

[ 1910
\1911
[ 1912

79.5
76.0
76.4

73
28
34

20
21
24

l 1912

77.9
74.2
78.2

117
120
126

{ 1911

70.8
72.2
73.6

213
193
167

f 1910

5 plants......................................

60
45
26

98
85
86

78.0
76.0
77.0

10
3

13

64

16
16
16
154
84
123

28
32
44

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

6 plants......................................

{ 1911

l 1912

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

STOCK CRANEMEN.
Eastern:
7
9
8

74.6
72.6
78.0

34
30
26

{ 1911

l 1912

26
24
24
8
7
8

2
4

82.2
80.0
80.0

f 1910
2 plants......................................
1911
l 1912

1
1

77.3
72.9
76.4

78.0
75.4
75.0

f 1910

3 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
( 1910

4 plants......................................

{ 1911

l 1912

12

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

4 plants......................................

22
12
12

Southern:

\

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

\1911

l 1912

14
14
14

73.6
73.8
73.8

6
1
0
1
0

f 1910
1911
1 1912

28
28
28

78.0
74.5
77.1

0
0

Eastern:

f 1910
6 plants......................................
1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants......................................
1911
l 1912

\

22
24
24

78.0
75.5
75.0

\

9
6
6

74.7
74.0
74.0

f 1910

4 plants......................................
Pittsburgh:
5 plants......................................

{

4
8

Great Lakes and Middle W est:




10

4
4

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 2 0 7
V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

O PEN -H E ARTH FURNACES— Continued.
DOOR OPERATORS.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

District, and number of plants.

Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Oyer
Over
time
Over
48
56
48
72
60
hours and
and
84
72
per
and
and
un­ and under 60
week.
under 60
under
under
der.
56
72
84

Eastern:
f 1910

\1911

3 plants......................................

l 1912

30
28
26

72.6
74.0
74.6

20
10
8

60
60
57

74.4
74.1
75.6

24
24

64
62
64

79.1
76.3
75.9

22
30
36

34
12
14

11
10
10

74.2
82.8
82.8

9

2
8
8

10
10
10

8
8

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

{ 1911

4 plants......................................

l 1912

32
8
16

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

\1911

6 p la n t s .....................................

1 1912

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants.......................................

{ 1911

l 1912

MELTERS’ HELPERS, FIRST.
Eastern:
20
20
20

10
10
10

12

104
102
141

32

79.0
76.1
76.0

38
56
68

12
36
24

56
20

74.9
82.8
82.9

25

8
14
16

20
16
14

10
10
10

52

1910
1911
1912

54
56
52

74.5
74.4
74.8

24
10
8

1910
1911
1912

148
150
153

78.5
74.1
76.5

48

1910
1911
1912

106
112
120

1910
1911
1912

4 plants.................................

33
20
22

16
14

Pittsburgh:
5 plants.................................

12

Great Lakes and Middle West;
6 plants.................................
Southern:
2 plants.................................

MELTERS’ HELPERS, SECOND.
Eastern:
f 1910

4 plants......................................

58
56
52

71.8
72.6
72.9

28
30
28

148
150
154

76.9
73.2
75.7

88
40

*48'

32
34
46

\

108
109
119

78.9
76.0
76.0

40
55
67

56
18
28

\

25
20
22

75.8
82.2
82.4

17

8
14
16

\1911

1 1912

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

5 plants......................................

\1911

1 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
1911
6 plants......................................
( 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants....................................... 1911
( 1912




BULLETIN OP THE BUEEAU OP LABOB STATISTICS,

208

V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S — Continued.

31ELTERS* HELPERS. THIRD*

District, and number of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

Eastern:

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

&

Over
tim e
48
56
48
hours and
and
per
un­ and under
week. der. under 60
56

60

Over
60
and
under
72

62
57
53

77.8
73.4
75.6

48

77.7
75.2
75.5

36
30
48

l 1912

72

Over
72
and
under
84

30
30
28

130
133
137

\1911

71.6
72.6
72.9

165
174
176

f 1910

4 plants......................................

A ver-

74.7
73.2
76.8

84

10
10
10

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

5 plants......................................

\ 1911

1 1912

104
100
162

32
2
14

12
36
24

56
18
28

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

6 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

16

STOPPER SETTERS.
Pittsburgh:
1910
1911
1912

76.7
72.8
76.5

4

14
10
16

1910
1911
1912

74.1
74.4
74.4

5
4
4

3
3
3

1910
1911
1912

78.0
75.0
75.0

2
2
2

2
2

00

4 plants................................

2

Great Lakes and Middle West:
4 plants................................
Southern:
2

plants...........................

STEEL POURERS.
Eastern:
3 plants................................

1910
1911
1912

71.8
73.8
73.8

5
2
2

1910
1911
1912

74.0
71.5
75.2

8
8

1910
1911
1912

78.0
76.3
76.5

1910
1911
1912

76.5
74.0
74.0

Pittsburgh:
4 plants................................

12

Great Lakes and Middle West:
5 plants................................
Southern:
2 plants.................................

MOLD CAPPERS.
Pittsburgh:
4 plants.................................

1910
1911
1912

74.0
71.5
75.2

1910
1911
1912

78.0
78.0
79.2

1910
1911
1912

78.9
75.0
74.6

Great Lakes and Middle West:
2 plants................................
Southern:
2 plants................................




12
8
8

2

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. 2 0 9
V I ___ AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

O PEN -H EARTH FURNACES— Continued.
LADLE CRANEMEN.

D is tr ic t, a n d n u m b e r o f p lan ts.

N um ­
ber
of
Y e a r.
em ­
p lo y ­
ees.

N u m b e r o f e m p loy ees w h o se fu ll-tim e hou rs p e r
w e e k w ere—
A ver­
age
fu ll­
O ver
O ver
O ver
tim e
48
56
48
60
72
hours
and
and
60
and
and
72
per
and
84
un­
u n der
u n der
w eek.
un der
under
der.
60
56
72
84

E astern :
f 1910

\1911

18
15
15

72.6
73.1
73.5

8
9
9

f 1910

36
36
36

78.1
73.4
76.1

12

\1911

29
27
31

79.4
77.3
78.2

f 1910

4 p la n ts ..........................................

7
8
8

75.4
73.5
73.5

l 1912

P itts b u rg h :
6 p la n ts ..........................................

\ 1911

l 1912

4

8

G reat L akes an d M id d le W e s t:
f 1910

6 p la n ts ..........................................

l 1912

17

8
1
2

S outh ern :
2 p la n ts ..........................................

\ 1911

l 1912

INGOT STRIPPERS.
E astern :
f 1910

16
14

2
2
2

6
6
10

6
4
4

78.5
75.0
75.0

6
8
8

2
2

78.0
75.0
75.0

2
2
2

2
2

\1911

12
18
16

70.7
72.8
72.9

f 1910

\ 1911

17
17
17

71.3
68.1
69.5

f 1910

\1911

13
12
12

f 1910

2 p la n ts ..........................................

4
4
4

l 1912

10

P itts b u rg h :
5 p la n ts ..........................................

l 1912

3
3
3

4

2

G reat L ak es a n d M id d le W e s t:
6 p la n ts ..........................................

l 1912

7
2
2

S ou th ern :
2 p la n ts ..........................................

\1911
{ 1912

2

ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.
E astern:
3 p lan ts......................................

f 1910
\ 1911

14
15

72.9
73.7

6
11

4 p lan ts......................................

\1912

/ 1911

19
18

73.2
73.3

15
14

f 1910

51
52
50

78.6
73.6
74.6

28
2

f 1910

-2 2
22
22

80.7
77.4
76.4

6
1
0

1
2
8

| 1910

20
21
21

73.2
73.7
77.1

18
16
4

4
16

4

4
4

P itts b u rg h :
4 p lan ts......................................

) 1911

l 1912

4
4

3
...
8

40
24
40

8

G reat L a k es an d M id d le W e s t:
5 p la n ts ......................................

\1911
[ 1912

4

4

S ou th ern :
2 p la n ts ......................................

\1911

l 1912

44929°—Bull. 151— 14----- 14




14
4
4

2
1
1

210

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D I S T R I C T , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

O PEN -HEARTH FURNACES— Concluded.
SWITCHMEN.

D is tr ic t, a n d n u m b e r o f plan ts.

N um ­
ber
of
Y e a r.
em ­
p lo y ­
ees.

N u m b e r o f e m p loy ees w h o se fu ll-t im e h ou rs p er
w e e k w ere—
A ver­
age
f u ll­
O ver
tim e
O v er
O ver
48
56
48
60
hours
72
and
and
72
and
60
per
and
84
and
un­
un der
w eek.
un der
u n der
un der
60
d er.
56
72
84
*

E astern:
3 p la n ts ......................................

\1911

/ 1910

15
15

72.4
73.7

7
11

4 p lan ts......................................

/ 1911
\ 1912

19
18

73.2
73.3

15
14

f 1910
l 1912

52
54
52

78.5
73.6
74.5

30
4

f 1910
i 1911
1912

[

22
22
22

f 1910
i 1911
1 1912

20
22
20

4

4
4
4
4

P itts b u rg h :
4 p la n ts......................................

\1911

4

40
24
40

8

8

80.7
77.4
76.4

4
6
10

4
12
8

14
4
4

74.4
74.2
74.4

16
16
14

4
4

4
2
2

2
6
8

6
6
6

G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e st:
5 p la n ts ......................................
S outh ern :
2 p lan ts......................................

LABORERS.
E astern:

J1911
\1912

f 1910

194
95
116

64.9
62.7
62.3

29
33
51

J1911
[ 1912

f 1910

485
434
458

75.5
73.2
75.6

2

\1911
[ 1912

f 1910

286
245
286

r 1910
2 p lan ts.......................................... i 1911
l 1912

73
32
37

4 p lan ts..........................................
P itts b u rg h :
5 p lan ts..........................................

20
31
25

111
17
24

18
2
2

16
15
12

97
162
78

33
20
25

325
231
326'

14
4
12

78.4
76.6
77.4

27
4
3

4
13
13

52
93
102

38
59
58

165
76
110

78.4
79.1
75.6

5
12

34
2
2

2

39
23
23

8

5

G reat L a k es a n d M id d le W e s t:
6 p lan ts..........................................
Southern*




BLOOMING MILLS.
SU M M ARY.

Summary figures relating to the blooming-mill department of 'the
iron and steel industry are given with figures for other departments
in the introductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explanation of
the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given
on pages 16 to 22.
Briefly summarized, the average full-time weekly earnings of em­
ployees in the blooming-mill department in 1912 were 5.8 per cent
higher than in 1910 and 4.7 per cent higher than in 1911. The
average full-time hours of labor per week in 1912 were the same as in
1911 and 0.6 per cent lower than in 1910. The average rate of wages
or earnings per hour in 1912 was 6.7 per cent higher than in 1910 and
5.6 per cent higher than in 1911.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of the
blooming-mill department are summarized in the table below.
Data are presented from identical plants for the years 1910,1911, and
1912. Referring to the first occupation presented, laborers, direct
comparison can be made of data for 19 identical plants from 1910 to
1912, inclusive. The first line of the table is read as follows: In 1910,
the 19 blooming mills from which reports were obtained employed 449
laborers whose average full-time hours of work were 74.1 per week.
For 16.2 per cent of the 449 laborers the full-time hours per week were
over 48 or under 72; for 53.9 per cent, 72 per week; for 5.6 per cent,
over 72 or under 84; and for 24.3 per cent, 84 hours per week. The
average rate of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the year con­
sidered (1910) was $0,162. Of the total number, 10 per cent received
12 or under 14 cents per hour; 13.4 per cent, 14 or under 16 cents;
and 76.6 per cent, 16 or under 18 cents per hour. The average full­
time weekly earnings were $11.97.
The other lines of the table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 19 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers were $11.97 in 1910.
In 1911 there was an advance to $12.02, and in 1912 a further advance
to $12.13. Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for
1912 of the several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average
was that of laborers, which Was $12.13, and the highest that of rollers,
which was $41.41.




211

212

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U B S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S I N E A C H O F T H E P R I N ­
C I P A L O C C U P A T I O N S , 1910 T O 1912—B L O O M I N G M I L L S .
[T h e figures set op p osite each b ra ck eted grou p o f years are fo r id e n tical p la n ts .]

O ccu p a tion , a n d n u m ­
b er o f plan ts.

Per ce n t o f em p lo y e e s
w h ose fu ll-tim e hours
p er w eek w ere—
A v e r­
A ve r­
N um ­
age
age
ber
rate
of
Y ear.
tim e
of
O ver
em ­
O ver
hours
wages
p lo y ­
72
48
48
per
p er
ees.
and an d
72 and
w eek.
84 hour.
un­ un­
un­
der. der
der
84
72

P er ce n t o f e m p lo y ­
ees earning each
classified rate o f A ver­
w ages p e r hou r.
age
fu ll­
tim e
12
14
16
18 w eek­
an d a n d a n d a n d
ly
u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ earn­
der der der d e r ings.
14
16
18
20
cts. cts. cts. cts.

L aborers:
[1910
19 p la n ts ..................... <1911
11912

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

16.2 53.9 5.6 24.3 $0.162 10.0 13.4 76.6
14.4 59.0 •8.8 17.9 .163 12.4 8.3 79.3
14.1 56.6 11.1 18.2 .164 10.4
.8 88.9

12
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
an d
un­
der
20
cts .

20
an d
un­
der
30
cts.

$11.97
12.02
12.13

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

B o tt o m m ak ers’ h elpers:
[1910
12 p la n ts ..................... -11911
[1912
Shearm en’ s helpers:
(1910
18 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

100
96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

.....
.....

12.8 78.7
19.5 65.2 10.9
19.5 60.9 15.2

8.5
4.3
4.3

3 .0 17.0 56.0 10.0 14.0
3.1 24.0 58.3 12.5 2.1
24.8 62.4 10.8 2 .2

.251
.243
.257

8.5 17.0 48.9 25.5 17.23
8 .7 15.2 54.4 21.7 16.83
4.3 13.0 56.6 26.1 17.84

.218 14.0 35.0 42.0 9 .0 15.15
.217 13.5 26.0 57.3 3.1 14.90
.237
1.1 31.2 49.4 18.3 16.44

16
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
an d
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
40
un­ cts.
der and
40 over.
cts.

B o tt o m m ak ers:
[1910
16 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912
H eaters’ helpers:
[1910
11 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912
Shearm en:
[1910
19 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912
T a b le m en :
[1910
13 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912

5
5
5
8

70.5
70.8
70.9

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

36
35
35

69.3 8.3 19.4 55.6 5 .6 11.1
68.7
34.2 48.6 11.4 5.7
68.7 ......... 34.2 48.6 11.4 5.7

60

13.3 80.0
16.4 67.3
15.5 69.0

.....
.....

6.7
7.3
6 .9

.335
.331
.347

3.3 40.0 26.7 30.0 23.26
3 .6 23.6 47 3 25.5 23.24
3 .4 25.8 36.2 3A 5 24! 44

20.6 35.3 26.5 17.6
20.6 35.3 17.6 26.5
20.6 35.3 17.6 26.5

.344
.363
.354

5.9 44.2 23.5 26.4 24.62
5.9 29.4 32.4 32.4 26.71
5 .9 23.5 26.5 4 A 1 25! 58

9.1
8.6

6.3 14.6 58.3 12.5
6.5 19.5 60.9 8 .7
6.5 19.5 60.9 8.7

8 .3
4.3
4.3

.303
50.0 43.8 6.3 20.85
.306 * 8 . 7 30.4 50.0 10.9 20.96
32.6 45.7 21.7 22.39
.328

.....

.271 16.7 55.6 19.4
.254 22.8 51.4 25.7
.285 14.3 45.8 31.4

20
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts .

8.3 18.03
17 05
8 .6 19.* 00

40
and
50
u n ­ cts.
der and
50 over.
cts.

M anipulators:
[1910
19 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912
P it cran em en :
[1910
18 p la n ts ..................... -[1911
[1912
R o ll engineers:
(1910
18 p la n ts ..................... <1911
[1912 1




52
48
7

68.4 11.5 19.3 55.8 5 .8
67.9 6.3 29.2 50.0 10.4
66.6 12.8 25.6 46.8 10.6

99
95
97

69.6
68.8
68.7

42
40
41

70.9 7.1 16.6 45.2 16.7 14.3
70.9 7.5 20.0 37.5 20.0 15.0
69.2 14.6 19.5 31.7 19.5 14.6

29.3 50.5
33.6 49.5
37.2 46.4

7.7
4.2
4.3

4.0 16.2
6.3 10.5
6 .2 10.3

.365 38.5 28.8 23.1 9 .6 24.21
.350 39.6 27.1 27.1
6.3 23.26
.390 27.7 29.8 23.4 19.1 24.94
.315 43.4 34.3 22.2
.309 41.1 54.7 4 .2
.328 35.0 50.5 14.4

21.41
21.. 01
22’ 33

.392 11.9 40.5 35.7 11.9 27.12
.385 10.0 57.5 17.5 15.0 26.66
.428
58.5 4.9 36.6 28.65

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

213

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R I N C I P A L O C C U P A T I O N S , 1910 T O 1912— B L O O M I N G M I L L S — C o n clu d e d .

O ccu p a tion , an d n u m ­
b e r o f plants.

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e e s
w h ose fu ll-tim e hou rs
p e r w e e k w ere—
A ver­
A ver­
N um ­
age
age
ber
full
lu llrate
of
Y ear.
tim e
of
em ­
O ver
O ver
hours
w ages
72
p lo y ­
48
48
per
per
ees.
and and
and
w eek.
72
84 h ou r.
u n ­ un­
un­
d er. d e r
der
72
84

P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y ­
e es earning e a ch
classified rate o f A v e r ­
w ages p e r h o u r.
age
. fu ll­
tim e
w eek ­
30
40
50
and and and
60
ly
u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ cts. earn­
d e r d e r d e r and ings.
40
50
18 over.
c ts . c ts . cts .

H eaters:
(1910
19 p la n ts ..................... ^ 1911
1.1912
R oller.;:
(1910
18 p la n ts ..................... 11911
(.1912

51
49
53

73.4 .........
73.3
73.0

46
41
42

67.6 13.0 17.4 63.0 . . .
6.5
66.6 7.3 29.2 58.5
4.9 .........
65.0 14.3 28.6 52.4
4.8 .........

9 .8 60.8 7.8 21.6 $0,521
16.3 51.0 12.2 20.4 .512
15.1 58.5 7.5 18.9 .556

7.8 29.4 45.1 17.6 $37.88
8 .2 34.7 44.9 12.3 37.50
26.4 43.4 30.2 40.42

.605 .........
.585 .........
.652 .........

34.8 23.9 41.3 40.00
26.8 31.7 41.5 38.49’
16.7 31.0 52.4 41.41

To aid in making a comparison of the data over a period of several
years which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout
the period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of the preceding table for the full-time hours per week, rates
of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings of each occupation
from 1910 to 1912, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table follow­
ing. These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent which the average for that year is of the
average for 1912. For example, the relative full-time weekly earn­
ings of pit cranemen in 1910 were 95.9, as compared with 100 in 1912;
that is, the full-time weekly earnings of pit cranemen in 1910 were
95.9 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in
1912. The method of computing relative numbers is explained on
page 21.
The table following also shows for each occupation the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1912, as compared with each
specified year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of pit
cranemen in 1912 were 4.3 per cent higher than in 1910 and 6.3 per
cent higher than in 1911.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of pit cranemen in 1911 were 1.9 per
cent lower than in 1910, and 6.3 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911.
The other occupations and items of the table can be studied in like
manner. The percentages of increase and decrease are computed
from the relative numbers.




214

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F I N C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y O C C U P A T IO N S — B L O O M IN G M IL L S .

W ag es p er h ou r.

H ou rs p e r w eek.

P e r ce n t o f in ­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in —

P e r ce n t o f in ­
crease ( + ) or d e ­
crease ( —) in —
O c c u p a tio n a n d yea r.

P it cran em en :
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
’ 1912..........................................
H eaters:
1910..........................................
1911.........................................
1912..........................................
H eaters' helpers:
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912.........................................
B o tt o m m akers:
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912.........................................
B o tt o m m ak ers' helpers:
1910.........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
R o ll engineers:
1910.........................................
1911..........................................

1912......................................

R ollers:
1910.........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
M anipulators:
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................
T a b le m en :
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................
Shearm en:
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................
S hearm en's helpers:
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................
L aborers:
1910.........................................
1911..........................................
1912..........................................

R e la ­
tiv e
fu ll­
tim e
h ou rs
per
w eek.

1912 as E a c h
com ­
year
com ­
pa red
w ith
p ared
each
w it h
speci­
year
fied
p re ­
year. cedin g.

101.3
100.1
100.0

- 1 .3
- .1

100.5
100.4
100.0

-

99.9
100.0
100.0

+ .1
C
1)

99.4
99.9
100.0

+ .6
+ .1

99.9
99.9
100.0

+ .1
+ .1

102.5
102.5
100.0

-2 .4
-2 .4

104.0
102.5
100.0

—3 .8
-2 .4

102.7
102.0
100.0

-2 .6
-2 .0

100.9
100.0
100.0

— .‘ 9
0)

100.7
99.9
100.0

- .7
+ .1

101.1
99.1
100.0

-1 .1
+ .9

100.4
99.9
100.0

— .4
+ .1

.5
.4

R e la ­
t iv e
rate o f
w ages
per
h ou r.

P e r ce n t o f in ­
crease ( + ) or d e ­
crease ( —) in —

R e la ­
t iv e
1912 as E a c h
fu ll­
com ­
year
tim e
c o m ­ w e e k ly
p a red
w it h
pa red
earn­
each
w it h
ings.
year
sp e ci­
p re ­
fied
year. cedin g.

1912 as E a c h
com ­
year
com ­
p a red
w it h
p a re d
e a ch
w it h
speci­
year
fie d
p re ­
year. ce d in g .

-1 .2
— .1

96.0
94.2
100.0

+ 4.2
+ 6 .2

- .1
— .4

93.7
92.1
100.0

+ 6.7
+ 8 .6

+ .i
0)

97.2
102.5
100.0

+ 2.9
- 2.4

+ .5
+ .1

96.5
95.4
100.0

+ 3 .6
+ 4 .8

(V)
+ .1

97.7
94.6
100.0

+ 2.4
+ 5 .7

C
1)
—2.4

91.6
90.0
100.0

+ 9 .2
+ 1 1 .1

-1 .4
- 2 .4

92.8
89.7
100.0

+ 7 .8
+ 1 1 .5

- .7
—2.0

93.6
89.7
100.0

+ 6 .8
+ 1 1 .5

.9
(*)

95.0
89.1
100.0

+ 5.3
+ 1 2 .2

- .8
+ .1

92.4
93.3
100.0

+ 8 .2
+ 7 .2

- 2 .0
+ .9

91.6
92.0
100.0

+ 9.2
+ 8 .7

- .5
+ .1

98.8
99.4
100.0

+
+

-

W e e k ly earnings.

1.2
.6

- 1.9
+ 6 .2

95.9
94.1
100.0

+ 4.3
+ 6 .3

- 1.7
+ 8 .6

93.7
92.8
100.0

+ 6 .7
+ 7 .8

+ 5.5
— 2 .4

96.2
104.4
100.0

+ 4 .0
- 4 .2

- i.i
+ 4.8

95.2
95.1
100.0

+ 5 .0
+ 5 .2

- 3 .2
+ 5 .7

96.6
94.3
100.0

+ 3.5
+ 6 .0

- 1.7
+ 1 1 .1

94.7
93.1
100.0

+ 5 .6
+ 7 .4

- 3 .3
+ 1 1 .5

96.6
92.9
100.0

+ 3.5
+ 7 .6

- 4.2
+ 1 1 .5

97.1
93.3
100.0

+ 3 .0
+ 7 .2

- 6 .2
+ 1 2 .2

94.9
89.7
100.0

+ 5.4
+ 1 1 .5

+ l. o
+ 7 .2

93.1
93.6
100.0

+ 7 .4
+ 6 .8

.4
+ 8 .7

92.2
90.6
100.0

+ 8 .5
+ 1 0 .4

+
+

98.7
99.1
100.0

+ 1 .3
+
.9

.6
.6

- 1.9
+ 6 .3
- 1.0
+ 7 .8
+ 8.5
— 4 .2
.1
+ 5 .2
- 2 .4
+ 6 .0
- 1.7
+ 7.4
- 3 .8
+ 7.6
- 3 .9
+ 7 .2
- 5.5
+ 1 1 .5
+
.5
+ 6 .8
- 1.7
+ 1 0 .4
+
+

.4
.9

1 N o change.

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown for
the blooming-mill department as a whole, as determined b y a combi­
nation of the data for the several principal productive occupations of
the department which are covered b y this report. The method of
computing the figures of this table is explained on page 22.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

215

From the table below, under “ weekly: earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole in
1910 were 94.5 as compared with 100 in 1912. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 94.5 per cent of such earnings
in 1912. The relative increases to 95.5 in 1911, and in 1912, the base
year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1912 were
5.8 per cent higher than in 1910 and 4.7 per cent higher than in 1911.
The third column, under “ weekly earnings,” shows the per cent
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full-time
weekly earnings in 1911 were 1.1 per cent higher than in 1910, and in
1912, 4.7 per cent higher than in 1911. The relative numbers and
percentages for full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour
can be read in like manner.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F I N C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C C U P A T IO N S — B L O O M IN G M IL L S .

H ou rs p e r w eek .

W ag es p e r h o u r.

P e r ce n t o f in ­
crease ( + ) or d e ­
crease ( —) i n —

P e r ce n t o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in —
Y ea r.

1910..................................................
1911..................................................

R elar
t iv e
fu ll­
tim e
h ou rs
per
w eek .

100.6
100.0
100.0

1912 as E a c h
com ­
year
com ­
p a red
p ared
w ith
w it h
e a ch
year
sp e ci­
fied
p re­
year. ce d in g .

-0 .6
0)

W e e k ly e arn in gs.

R e la t iv e
ra te o f
w ages
per
h o u r.

P e r ce n t o f in ­
crease ( + ) or d e - '
crease ( —) i n —

R e la ­
t iv e
1912 as E a c h
fu ll­
com ­
year
t im e
c o m ­ w e e k ly
p a red
w it h
earn­
pa red
ea ch
w ith
in gs.
speci­
year
pre­
fied
year. ce d in g .

1912 as
E ach
com ­
year
com ­
p a red
w it h
p ared
e a ch
w it h
speci­
year
fied
p re ­
year. ce d in g .

93.7 + 6 . 7
94.7
-0 .6
+ 5 .6
100.0
1912..........................................
0)

+ 1 .1
+ 5 .6

94.5
95.5
100.0

+ 5 .8
+ 4 .7

+ 1 .1
+ 4 .7

i N o change.

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings for the department must be
considered, that is, the change in the relative number of employees
in the several occupations from year to year. It is obvious that an
increase in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid occu­
pations or a decrease in the relative number of those in the higherpaid ones would tend to lower the average for all occupations, just
as an increase in the relative number of employees in the higherpaid occupations or a decrease in the relative number in the lowerpaid ones would tend to increase the average.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

216

The number and per cent of employees in blooming-mill plants
whose customary working time per week was 5 days or turns, or 6
days, or 7 days, or variations thereof, are shown in the following table.
The heading
days and 6 days alternately” indicates that the
plants were running 6 days and 5 nights each week, being shut down
for one day and a half each week, and that the employees reported
under this heading worked 6 days one week and 5 nights the next.
The heading “ 6 days and 7 days alternately” indicates that the plants
were not in operation half a day in each week, the employees reported
working 6 turns one week and 7 turns the next week.
The figures are presented for each district and for the four districts
combined.

“5

N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H S P E C I­
F I E D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— B L O O M I N G M I L L S .
[T h e figures set op p o site each brack eted gr o u p o f years are fo r id e n tical p lan ts.]
N u m b e r o f e m p loy ees w h ose
cu sto m a r y w o r k in g tim e per
w eek w as—

D is trict

and num ber
plan ts.

of

Y ea r.

E astern:
[1910

3 plants.......................... . <1911

N um ­
ber o f
em ­
p lo y ­
ees.

5
d ays
and 6
5
d ays
d ays.
da ys.
alter­
n ate­
ly -

6

10
1

70
52
46

6
1
0

P e r cen t o f e m p loy ees w h o se
cu sto m a ry w o r k in g tim e p e r
w eek w as—

6

*
d a ys
and 7
7
5
days
days. d a ys.
alter­
nate­
ly .

25

2
2
2
2

9
13
13

83

92

205
188
209
61
49
55

6

iy-

iy-

22.7

13
39
47

81.6
74.0
71.8

15.9
17.9
18.7

2
24
2
2

139
84
97

59.2
63.5
63.7

1
2
1
2

25
13
4

97
95

[1910
<1911
[1912

522
480
493

426
355
354

8
6

11910
•{1911
(1912

346
296
328

63.6
53.6
48.4

6

da ys
and 7
7
d a ys
days.
alternate-

5 .5
10.3
14.7

1.1912

14

5
d a ys
and 6
da ys
days.
alternate-

8.2

13.4
13.7

P itts b u rg h :

8p la n ts ..............................
G reat L a k es a n d M id d le
W e st:

6p la n ts ..............................
S ou th ern :

2p la n ts ..............................

[1910
<1911
[1912

8
6
75
72

1
1

[1910 1,064
<1911
948
ll912
988

1
1

T o ta l:
19 p la n ts ...........................

70
52
46

698
602
632

n
o
144
148

186
149
161

8.1
9 .5

40.2
28.4
29.6

70.9
65.3
76.4

1.3
1.4

.1
.1

2 .5

6.6
5 .5
4 .7

..........
16.0
16.7

29.1
17.3
5.6

65.6
63.5
64.0

10.3
15.2
15.0

17.5
15.7
16.3

In addition to the text tables presented in the summary, six general
tables are presented for the blooming-mill department as follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wHges per hour in the United States, by years, 1910
to 1912.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1910 to
1912.
Table III.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district, by years, 1910 to
1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

217

Table IV.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1912.
Table V.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each year, by districts, 1910 to 1912.
Table Y I.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each district, by years, 1910 to 1912.
In Tables I and IV, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 212 and 213.

Tables III and YI repeat the data for the several districts given in
Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the blooming mill is presented
on page 24.
D E S C R IP T IO N O F O C C U P A T IO N S .

The following description of occupations refers only to those occu­
pations which appear in the tables of this report—these being nearly
all of the principal productive occupations in the blooming-mill
department.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
P IT C R A N E M E N .

D u t i e s .—Operate the cranes used for charging the ingots into the
soaking pits and for drawing them from the pits as directed by the
heater and placing them either in the ingot car or on the roll table.
N a t u r e oj w o r k .—The position is one of excessive heat as well
as of discomfort from the gas fumes, particularly during the summer,
because of the necessary position which the craneman must occupy
directly over the soaking pits. For this reason it is customary to
provide spell hands for the position during the hot weather, and in
some cases to shorten the working hours considerably. The position
is particularly bad if the crane cab is fixed directly over the tongs so
that the craneman is exposed not only to the general heat from the
pits but to the very much higher temperature that arises from the
heated ingot and open pit. Much care has been taken in a number of
plants to render the position more tolerable by an extensive use of
asbestos and other nonconducting substances in the construction of
the crane cab. In addition to its severity the occupation demands
considerable skill to charge and draw ingots with the rapidity and
accuracy required in the modern blooming mill.
H E ATE R S.

D u t i e s .—Are responsible for and direct the charging and drawing
of the ingots by the pit cranemen and the maintenance of a proper
temperature in the special type of furnace used for heating ingots,
known as “ soaking pits.” Either the heaters, or under their direc­




218

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tion, the helpers, attend to the reversing of the gas in the regenerative
chambers. Frequent inspections (or, to an increasing extent,
pyrometric tests) are made of the temperature of the ingots in the
separate pits, and on the basis of these tests or inspections the heaters
must so regulate the temperature of the pits that there will always
be ingots at the proper temperature for rolling. In many plants
heaters keep a record for each ingot of the time of charging and
drawing and of the chamber in which it was placed, although in
some plants clerks are supplied to do this work. Also supervise
and, to some extent, at times, assist in cleaning and repairing the
pits and in the preparation of new bottoms.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—A highly skilled and very responsible position.
As most of the decisions as to the temperature of the pits and ingots
are made only on the heater’s ability to judge by inspection, a
knowledge which can be gained only by long practical experience, the
difficulty of securing good men for the position will be appreciated.
H E A T E R S’ H E LPERS.

D u t i e s .—Reverse the gas in the regenerative chambers of the pits
and, under the direction of the heater, regulate the temperature;
change the steel bits in the tongs of the pit crane, and in a few plants
operate the nonautomatic pit crane tongs, although in some plants
this is done by men in a separate occupation (pit tongs men), assist in
repairs, and in general assist the heater in all his duties. In many
plants they perform additional functions which are ordinarily given
to separate occupations, such as make and repair bottoms, tap and
clean out cinder, open and close the pit covers.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—Where the work consists only in reversing the
gas and otherwise generally assisting the heater, the work is not
heavy or severe. Where, however, the duties of the specialized occu­
pations are also embraced, all the conditions of work peculiar to those
occupations must be encountered.
BOTTO M M AKERS.

Duties. —Make, level, and repair the coke-dust bottoms of the
“ soaking pits.” This work is done by throwing in coke dust from
the top of the pits while there are no ingots in them and working the
coke into an approximately level condition with long iron bars. This
is usually done while the pits are heated. When the bottom becomes
too deep or contains much molten metal and scale, the bottom makers
dig the bottom out, using a long iron bar with a sharp flat head and a
scraper for removing the cinder.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The greater part of this work requires exposure
to excessive heat, from which the men protect themselves by tying
wet cloths, etc., over exposed parts and by wearing heavy shoes




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

219

with soles of wood. It is periodic in character, and they thus obtain
relief from time to time. The making of bottoms under these nec­
essary conditions is very severe and by no means unskillful work.
The wage is, however, proportioned much more to the difficulty and
severity of the work than to the knowledge and skill required.
B O T T O M M A K E R S ’ H ELPER S.

D u t i e s .—Wheel coke dust needed in making bottoms, bring neces­
sary tools, and assist in doing the harder and more exposed work of
bottom making. In some plants they also perform the functions of
cinder men.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The work resembles that done by the bottom
makers, the chief difference being that the bottom makers are more
highly skilled and supervise the work.
R O L L ENGINEERS.

D u t i e s .— Really fall into two distinct classes: <1) Engineers on
reversing engines for two-high mills. In this case they must not
only keep the engine in good running order and see to repairs (in
which they are usually aided by assistants), but occupy a position
in the roller’s platform or “ pulpit” alongside the rolls and with levers
connected with the engine throttle reverse the direction of the engine
after every passage of the ingot through the rolls. (2) Engineers
on nonreversing engines for three-high mills. In this case they
simply act as ordinary stationary engineers, maintaining the engine
at proper speed and keeping it in good running order. They must be
on hand at all times to stop and start the engine at the roller’s signal.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The engineer on reversing engines must be not
only an engineer of high grade and capable of quick decision and
action in emergencies, but also occupies a position which requires
constant attention and which in summer is exposed to considerable
heat. The engineer on nonreversing engines is usually a considerable
distance from the heat of the rolls and has a great deal of time in
which he is waiting for the roller’s signals, but is otherwise unoccu­
pied. The engineer on reversing engines frequently assists in roll
changes, while the engineer on nonreversing engines does not.
R O L LE R S .

D u t i e s .— Operate rolls and are in charge of rolling crew during
actual rolling and while changing rolls and making repairs. The
nature and the difficulties of the rollers’ duties vary widely with
the different types of mills. In reversing blooming mills they oper­
ate the levers by which the distance between the upper and lower
rolls is regulated, and also usually operate the levers controlling the
direction and speed of rotation of the live rollers of the table. On
three-high mills, where the distance between the rolls is fixed, the




220

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

rollers operate the apparatus tilting or lifting the table for raising
the ingot from the lower to the upper pass, and also the levers con­
trolling the live rollers of the table.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The roller’s position is one requiring consid­
erable skill and long experience, but the work is not of such high
grade in these mills, which turn out an unfinished product (“ blooms,”
“ billets,” and “ slabs” ), as in the plate, standard rail, structural,
light rail, and other shape mills, which turn out a finished article.
The roller, however, is not valued so much for his services in tending
the rolls while everything is going right as for his knowledge of what
to do when there is trouble. In a mill where an ingot is being
handled every minute or two and there are at times two ingots on
the table at once, unremitting attention is required. In the case of a
mill delay, as when there is no hot steel, he may rest, or he may have
to work hard at repairing some broken part.
MANIPULATORS.
D u t i e s .— Operate levers controlling a device by which ingots can
be turned over or reversed or by which the ingot or bloom can be
shifted laterally from one pass of the rolls to another.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The work is much more'skilled and requires
longer experience than any description would indicate. The men
become wonderfully expert in using the manipulators, and it is upon
the quickness with which the operation of turning and shifting the
ingot can be performed that the production of the mill largely depends.
The manipulator assists in all roll changes and repairs not performed
by millwrights.
TABLE MEN.
D u t i e s .— Work alongside, or in a few cases, on the tables of the
blooming mill and with long iron hooks guide the ingot or bloom into
the right pass, or with a heavy iron tool with a square fork at the end
which fits over a bloom, turns the bloom over when it is too small to
be handled by the manipulator. In a few cases, using a similar tool
with a fork large enough to fit an ingot, they perform the functions
described above for the manipulator. In some cases they operate an
approach table or some form of conveyor or transfer in addition to
the duties described above.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—This is very heavy manual labor.
In the mills
equipped with the best types of 'manipulators, the table man’s services
are required only from time to time, when the piece becomes unman­
ageable, and in this case the position is relieved of its worst conditions.
Where it is necessary for table men to do all or the greater part of the
work of handling the ingot or bloom, the position, even when fre­
quently relieved by spell hands, is one of the most severe in the
industry, because of the arduousness of the work and the exposure




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING M ILLS.

221

to heat. There is also danger of serious injury to the eyes as well as
minor burns from flying metal, which is driven back with considerable
force when the ingot enters the rolls.
SHEARMEN.
D u t i e s .—Operate large shears by which the end of the partially
rolled ingot containing the “ pipe” (a cavity formed in the molten
metal by the gases contained in the metal) is removed; shear the
ingot when rolled down to size into shorter pieces called “ blooms”
or “ billets,” according to their size and length, for use in the smaller
rolling mills; supervise the entire shearing crew; and are responsible
for keeping the shears and shear tables in proper working order. In
many plants assist in roll changes.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The work ordinarily falls into two parts: First,
operating the roller table by which the piece is carried under the
shears; and, second, setting the gauge which fixes the length of the
piece and operating the lever controlling the mechanism (hydrauJic,
electric, or steam) by which the shear is made to cut the bloom or
ingot. The operation does not require a great amount of skill, but
the position is one of some responsibility, particularly in shearing crop
ends so as to secure the maximum of good steel from each ingot
rolled.
SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.

D u t i e s .—Comprise two different classes: (1). Those who operate
levers by which the gauge or stop against which the end of the bloom
strikes to regulate the length, or levers for operating the “ kick-off,”
a contrivance for knocking the sheared ends (“ crop ends” or “ bloom
butts” ) off the shear table, or levers controlling the tables which carry
the bloom away from the shears. (2) Unskilled men who drag the
hot bloom butts or crop ends away from the shears with tongs and
do any of the other required unskilled work around the shears.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The various lever men are not highly skilled,
but their work requires very constant attention, and they may be
regarded generally as in training for positions as shearmen. The
unskilled work is not very heavy, as the crop ends are comparatively
small, but it is rather hot work, particularly in summer, when the iron
plates over which they drag the red-hot bloom ends become exces­
sively hot. As a protection, heavy shoes with wooden soles are
usually worn.
LABORERS.
D u t i e s .—Include all the unskilled workmen not carried under one
of the specific occupations.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—Diversified both as to the difficulty of the work
and the conditions under which it is done. It is generally more or
less intermittent in character.




222

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

T able

BLOOMING MILLS.
The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

N UAIBISRi.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

P it cranemen:
18 p la n ts ...

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

f 1910

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

.344 24.62
.363 26.71
.354 25.58

2
2
2

4
4
5

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

.335 23.26
.331 23.24
.347 24.44

2
2
2

47
46
46

70.3 .251 17.23
70.3 ‘ .243 16.83
70.4 .257 17.84

\

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

.392 27.12
.385 26.66
.428 28.65

\
[

46
41
42

67.6
66.6
65.0

.605 40.00
.585 38.49
.652 41.41

\
[

52
48
47

68.4
67.9
66.6

.365 24.21
.350 23.26
.390 24.94

\

36
35
35

69.3 .271 18.03
68.7 .254 17.05
68 7 ‘ .285 19.00

\

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

.303 20.85
.306 20.96
.328 22.39

100
96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

.218 15.15
.217 14.90
.237 16.44

1

14
12
1

18
17
20

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

.162 11.97
.163 12.02
.164 12.13

45
45
41

60
30
3

344
288
352

25
30
40
50
60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

.521 37.88
.512 37.50
.556 40.42

\1911

l 1912

Bottom makers:
1 1910
p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
B ottom mak­
ers’ helpers:
1910
1911
12 p la n ts ...
l 1912
R o ll engineers:
f 1910
18 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
Rollers:
f 1910
1911
18 p la n ts ...
1912
Manipulators:
f 1910
19 p la n ts ... 1911
1912
Table men:
j 1910
1911
13 p la n ts..
l 1912
Shearmen:
f 1910
19 p la n ts..
1911
l 1912
S h e a r m e n ’s
helpers:
f 1910
18 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
Laborers:
1910
1911
19 p la n ts ...
l 1912
16

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

\1911

1 1912

l 1912

11 p la n ts ...

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

69.6 $0,315 $21.41
68.8 .309 21.01
68.7 .328 22.33

f 1910

Heaters’ help­
ers:

Aver­
age
fifiltime
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

99
95
97

f 1910

\1911

Heaters:
19 p la n ts ...

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

\

[
\

\

{
\




21
9
7

22
30
27

34
52
49

22

4
14

7

4
4

11
6
3

8
11
9

6
7
15

3

10
6
10

14
7
5

16
26
21

16
14
20

2

15
9
9

8
16
17

12
10
12
17
23
24

15
7
2

2
6
13

3

16
11
7

8
7
6

23
22
23

5

4
4
2

15
17
14

11
13
13

11
12
7

12
13
11

2

3

3
4

5

4

4
5
3

15
13
14

2
1

10
9
8

10
9
8

7
9
11

11
7
7

13
7
8

21
23
21

8

26
29
27

16
26
19

a

17
8
9

9

17

2
4
8

4

3

4

6
6“
4

16
14
10

2
8

3

3
5
2

2
8
5
15

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

223

T able I . — A V E R A G E

F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
PER CENT.
Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­
N um ­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Occupation,
of
of
and number of Year. em­ time
hours wages
plants.
ploy­ per
per
ees.
week. hour.

A ver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50
and and and a n d
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
40
30
50
60
cts. cts. cts. cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

Pit cranemen:
21.2 22.2 34.3 22.2
9.5 31.6 54.7 4.2
7.2 27.8 50.5 14.4

1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

69.6 10.315 $21.41
68.8 .309 21.01
68.7 .328 22.33

\1911

1910

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

.521 37.88
.512 37.50
.556 40.42

1910

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

.344 24.62
.363 26.71 ; ; ; ; ;
.354 25.58

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

.335 23.26
.331 23.24
.347 24.44

\1911
[ 1912

f 1910

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

.251 17.23
.243 16.83
.257 17.84

f 1910
1911
p la n ts ...
l 1912

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

.392 27.12
.385 26.66
.428 28.65

f 1910

46
41
42

67.6
66.6
65.0

.605 40.00
.585 38.49
.652 41.41

f
18 p lan ts.*. J
l
Heaters:
f
19 p lan ts...
l
Heaters' help­
ers:
f
11 p la n ts ...
l
B ottom mak­
ers:

1912

\1911

16 p la n ts ...

1912

[ 1910
\1911
l 1912

B ottom mak­
ers'helpers:
12 p la n ts ...
R o ll engineers:
18

\

Rollers:
18 p la n ts ...

\1911

l 1912

Manipulators:

7.8 29.4 45.1 13.7 3.9
8.2 34.7 44.9 4.1 8.2
26.4 43.4 15.1 15.1

8.5 17.0
8.7 15.2
4.3 13.0

48
47

5
2

08.4
67.9
66.6

.365 24.21
.350 23.26
.390 24.94

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

.271 18.03
.254 17.05
.285 19.00

\

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

.303 20.85
.306 20.96
.328 22.39

\

100
96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

.218 15.15
.217 14.90
.237 16.44

<

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

.162 11.97 10.0 13.4 76.6
.163 12.02 12.4 8.3 79.3
.164 12.13 10.4 .8 88.9

l 1912

3.3

11.8

31.9 17.0 25.5
19.6 34.8 21.7
19.6 37.0 26.1

34.8 23.9 23.9 17.4
26.8 31.7 29.3 12.2
16.7 31.0 16.7 35.7

\1911

f 1910

8.8

11.9 40.5 35.7 4.8 7.1
10.0 57.5 17.5 15.0
58.5 4.9 31.7 4.9

f 1910

19 p la n ts ...

5.9 11.8 32.4 23.5 17.6
5.9 11.8 17.6 32.4 20.6
5.9 14.7 8.8 26.5 44.1
3.3 16.7 23.3 26.7 26.7
3.6 10.9 12.7 47.3 25.5
3.4 17.2 8.6 36.2 34.5

!!!!!

7.7 30.8 28.8 23.1
10.4 29.2 27.1 27.1
6.4 21.3 29.8 23.4

3.8 5.8
6.3
8.5 10.6

Table men:
13 p la n ts ...

\1911

l 1912

Shearmen:
f 1910
p lan ts.. . 1911
| 1912
S h e a r m e n 's
helpers:
f 1910
18 p la n ts ... 1911
| 1912
Laborers:
f 1910
19 p la n ts ... 1911
| 1912
19




16.7
27.8 27.8 19.4
17.1 5.7 25.7 25.7 25.7
11.4 2.9 22.9 22.9 31.4

8.3
8.6

22.9 27.1 43.8
8.7 15.2 15.2 50.0 io.9
15.2 17.4 45.7 17.4
14.0 18.0 17.0 26.0 16.0 9.0
17.7 8.3 30.2 27.1 3.1
1.1 21.5 9.7 29.0 20.4 18.3

i.o 12.5

6.3
4.3

224

BU LLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OE LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S 1910 T O 1912.

BLOOMING MILLS—C ontinued.
PIT CRANEMEN.
[The abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and M iddle W est.” ]

Aver­
A ver­ A ver­
age
N um ­ age
age
N um ­ ber
full­
full­ rate tim e
ber
Year and dis­
of
tim e
of
trict.
of
em­
week­
plants. p loy ­ hours wages ly
per
per
ees.
earn­
week. hour.
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
50 60
40
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
60 70 over.
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
7
6
2

15
48
30
6

69.2 £0.266 $18.31
64.0| .360 22.62
77.6 . 266 20.60
76. o: .311 23.57

11
4
6

4
18

4
18
6
6

T otal____

18

99

69.6

.315 21.41

21

22

34

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
7
6
2

14
48
27
6

68.7
64.0
76.4
74.0

.311
.332
.266
.310

9

4
14
12

10
30
6
6

T o t a l....

18

95

68.8

.309 21.01

9

30

52

4

Eastern.............
P ittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
7
6
2

14
48
29
6

68.7
63.5
76.1
74.0

.283
.350
.304
.380

19.25
22.14
22.98
27.96

6
1

4
9
14

2
31
14
2

2
8

T o t a l....

18

97

68.7

.328 22.33

7

27

49

14

2
2
10
1

4
8
5
6

7

2

4
4

15

23

7

2

22

22

1911.
21.25
21.15
20.19
22.92

4

1913.
-

4

HEATERS.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
8
6
2

6
19
19
7

76.3 £0.605 £38.18
70.0 .594 41.44
75.2 .444 33.17
75.4 .545 40.78

T otal------

19

51

73.4

.521 37.88

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
8
6
2

6
19
20
4

75.4
69.8
75.0
78.0

.572
.561
.451
.499

T o t a l....

19

49

73.3

.512 37.50

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
8
6
2

6
19
24
4

75.4
69.2
74.5
78.0

.541
.629
.497
.584

T o t a l....

19

53

73.0

1911.
43.73
39.28
33.55
39.52

4
4

2
5
9
1

2
10 " 2
7
3

17

22

2

40.15
43.75
36.82
46.61

2
2
9
1

2
7
13
1

2
5
1

.556 40.42

14

23

8

2
2

4

1913.




5
1
2
8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,
T

225

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

a b l e

BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
HEATERS’ HELPERS.

N um N um ­ ber
of
ber
Y ear and dis­
em­
of
trict.
plants. p loy:
ees.

Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate time
tim e
of week­
hours wages
ly
per
per earn­
week. hour.
ings.

N um ber of em ployees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un ­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50
60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .
Southern...........

3
5
2
1

13
13
5
3

75.8 $0,337 $25.54
68.2 .384 25.12
81.6 .240 19.44
72.0 .376 27.07

2

4

T otal____

11

34

73.4

.344 24.62

2

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
5
2
1

14
13
5
2

75.9
67.1
84.0
72.0

.415
.353
.240
.370

T otal------

11

34

73.5

.363 26.71

3

14
13
5
2

75.9
67.1
84.0
72.0

.372
.357
.240
.490

34

73.5

.354 25.58

7
4

4
1
3

11

8

2

8

2
4

3

6

3

1911.
32.29
23.23
20.16
26.64

2
4

4

4

7

1
2

2

4

6

2

1
4

3

2

5

3

9

15

11

7

8

4

6
7

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
T otal____

5
2
1
1
1

28.21
23.34
20.16
35.28

1

2

BOTTOM MAKERS.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

1
8
5
2

2
34
17
7

65.5 $0,248 $16.24
68.2 .403 27.31
73.4 .248 18.09
75.4 .243 18.17

14
2

2

6
2

2
7
5

16

2

T otal------

16

60

70.5

.335 23.26

2

10

14

16

16

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

1
8
5
2

2
34
15
4

65.5
69.4
73.6
75.0

.332
.373
.261
.231

21.75
25.86
19.10
17.23

4
2

2
3
2

2
18
6

14

2

T o t a l . ...

16

55

70.8

.331 23.24

2

6

7

26

14

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern._____

1
8
5
2

2
34
17
5

65.5
69.4
73.4
74.4

.227
.399
.273
.288

14.87
27.74
19.90
21.19

2

6
2

2
3

13
5
3

19
1

T o t a l.. . .

16

58

70.9

.347 24.44

2

10

5

21

20

2

1911.

1912.

44929°— Bull. 151— 14----- 15




2

B U LLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

226
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
BOTTOM MAKERS’ HELPERS.

N um ­
N u m ­ b er
ber
of
Year and dis­
em ­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
40
30
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un ­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
50
60 70 over.
30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M. VY.
Southern...........

6
4
2

30
11
6

67.7 $0,290 $i9.35
74.2 .188 13.85
76.0 .169 12.79

2 ....
2
4

8
7

8

12

2
2

12

47

70.3

.251 17.23

4

8 . ...

15

8

12

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern...........

6
4
2

30
11
5

68.2
74.2
74.4

.274 18.56
.192 14.16
.166 12.33

2 ....
2
3

2
7

16

10

2
2

T o ta l«^

12

46

70.3

.243 16.83

4

7 .. . .

9

16

10

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern...........

6
4
2

30
11
5

68.3
74.2
74.4

.283 19.16
.212 15.64
.200 14.75

2 ....
4

3
3
3

13
4

12

2

Total.......

12

46

70.4

.257 17.84

2

6 . ...

9

17

12

Total
1911.

1918.




ROLL ENGINEERS.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,
T

227

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BLOOMING MILLS— Continued.
ROLLERS.

A ver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber full­
of
ber
Year and dis­
tim e
em ­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
40
30
50 60
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
50
60 70 over.
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern...........

2
8
6
2

5i
21
16
4

65.7 10.488 $32.04
62.1 .705 42.89
74.3 .528 39.07
72.0 .535 38.48

18

46

67.6

2
8
6
2

4
21
13
3

64.4
62.3
73.0
72.0

.531
.649
.505
.551

18

41

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
S outhern..____

2
8

Total____

Total

3
2
9
2

2
4
3
2

7
4

8

.605 40.00

16

11

11

8

34.30
40.14
36.85
39.67

2
2
6
1

4
7
2

2
10

5

66.6

.585 38.49

11

13

12

5

64.4
59.5
73.0
72.0

.564
.725
.548
.683

4
2
7

6
1

2

4
22
13
3

12
1
2

18

42

65.0

.652 41.41

7

13

7

15

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Smith A m . . .
Total ___

1913.

6

36.31
42.11
39.99
49.18

2
4
1

MANIPULATORS.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
S o u th ern ...___

3
8
6
2

9
21
19
3

68.6 $0,368 $25.03
62.1 .445 26.86
74.6 .281 20.95
72.0 .331 23.83

2
4
9
1

5
2
6
2

2
10

2

3

4

Total.......

19

52

68.4

.365 24.21

4

16

15

12

2

3

.364
.412
.265
.337

6
7
1

4
3
4
2

4
9

3

5
5

14

13

13

3

2
2
5
1

2
5
7

2
6
1
2

4

5

10

14

11

4

5

1911.
Eastern.............
........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3
8
6
2

8 68.3
21 62.3
Pittsburgh
16 74.4
3 72.0

24.68
25.31
19.69
24.26

Total.......

19

48

67.9

.350 23.26

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern._____

3
8
6
2

6
22
16
3

69.3
59.5
74.4
72.0

.343
.468
.299
.408

Total.......

19

47

66.6

.390 24.94

1912.




23.48
26.70
22.23
29.35

3
3

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

228
T

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

able

B L O O M IN G M IL L S — Continued.

TABLE MEN.

Aver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber full­
tim e
of
ber
Year and dis­
em­ hours
trict.
of
plants. p lo y ­ per
ees. week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
40
50
60
30
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
60 70 over.
50
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts- cts- cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern
__ T

2
5
4
2

6
16
9
5

70.3 $0,275 $19.12
63.5 .341 20.82
77.3 .189 14.77
72.0 .190 13.68

4
2

Total

13

36

69.3

.271 18.03

6

2
5
4
2

6
16
9
4

68.5
63.8
76.1
72.0

.260
.305
.189
.185

17.88
19.12
14.47
13.32

4
2

2

4
3
2

13

35

68.7

.254 17.05

6

2

9

Eastern.............
P ittsb u rg h ... . .
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
5

68.5
63.8
76.1
72.0

.312
.338
.203
.221

21.21
20.91
15.50
15.88

2
2

1

2
6

2

6
16
9
4

Total.......

13

35

68.7

.285 19.00

4

1

P lfts tA m

2

4
6

7

3

10

7

3

6
3

9

9

9

2
4

4
7

3

11

3

5
3

....

10

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh__ T
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
Total____
1913.

4




2
8

8

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,
T

229

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

B L O O M IN G M IL L S — Continued.
SH EA R M EN ’S H E LPER S.

Num ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em ­
of
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full
2 14 16 18 2 25 30 40 50 60
0
tim e 1
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
18 2 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
ings. 14 16
0
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern...........
Pittsburgh .
G .L . andM . W .
Southern __
Total.......

2
8
6
2
18

1 68.6$0,218 $15.06
0
67.1
76.9
72.0

.247 16.22
.180 13.74
.2 0 14.40
0

1
2
2

70.9

.218 15.15

14

50
30

66.4
66.7
74.9
72.0

.194 13.13
.240 15.86
.188 13.98
.2 0 14.39
0

96

69.5

.217 14.90

1
0

66.4

6

50
34

6
10
0

2
6 2
8'**7 14 1
2
0
6 1 6
2
2
18

17

26

16

9

9

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
Total.......

2
8
6
2
18

1
0
6

1 1
1
0
1
2
1 1

4
2 2
8 * 2 17 2
0
2 6 1
0 2
3
2
8 29 26
17

3

3

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

2
8
6
2

49
28

68,0
74.7
72.0

.235
.248
.217
.250

Total.......

18

93

70.1

1 1 4
8 2 15
1 6 6
0
1 1
2
1 2 9 27
0

.237 16.44

15.74
16.58
16.12
17.99

LABO RERS.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern^........
Total

3

8
6
2
19

1 2
0 2
2

32
228
156
33

68.3 $0,143 $9.70
72.0 .168 12.13
77.6 .163 12.58
78.2 .131 1 .2
00

33

449

74.1

.162 11.97

45

2
1

1
2
1

38

226
118

60

344

5
*25

4
185
99
288

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........

3

8
6
2

186
124
32

65.7
72.5
76.1
76.9

.139 9.04
.170 12.32
.166 12.58
.132 1 .1
02

32

Total.......

19

363

73.7

.163

1 .0
22

45

30

64.7
73.1
76.1
73.7

.141 9.01
.169 12.37
.167 12.70
.131 9.65

1
2
1

3

197
150
28

28

396

73.8

.164 12.13

41

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern...........
Total.......

3

8
6
2
19




2
1

6

196
150
3

352

4
15

9

19

17

6
2

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

230
T

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D I S T R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

able

B L O O M IN G M IL L S — Continued.

“G
.

[T he abbreviation
L. and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle
W est.
T he figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

”

P IT

Number
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

District, and
number o f
plants.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

CRANEM EN.

Num ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate tim e 1
2 14 16 18 2 25 30 40 50 60
0
of week­
and and and and and and and and and and 70
wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per earn­
der der der der der der der der der der and
hour.
ings. 14 16
40
18 2 25 30
0
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910

3 plants___

\1911

[ 1912

15
14
14
48
48
48

64.0
64.0
63.5

.360 22.62
.332 21.15
.350 22.14

30
27
29

77.6
76.4
76.1

.266 20.60
.266 20.19
.304 22.98

76.0
74.0
74.0

1
1
6

69.2 $0,266 $18.31
68.7 .311 21.25
68.7 .283 19.25

.311 23.57
.310 22.92
.380 27.96

Pittsburgh:

( 1910
7 p la n ts .... \1911

l 1912

4

G .L .a n d M .W .:
| 1910
6p la n ts .... -[ 1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2p la n ts .... 1911
l 1912

\

6
6
6

4

4
4

1
0
2

4
14
9

18
30
31

6 18
1
2
1 14

9

2
2
2
4
8

6
6

14

6
6
2

4

H EATERS.

Eastern:
f 1910

3 p la n t s ....

\1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

8p la n t s .... \ 1911

l 1912

G .L .a n d M .W .:

[ 1910

6
6
6

76.3 $0,505 $38.18
75.4 .572 43.73
75.4 .541 40.15

19
19
19

70.0
69.8
69.2

.594 41.44
.561 39.28
.629 43.75

19

1911
l 1912

24

2
0

75.2
75.0
74.5

.444 33.17
.451 33.55
.497 36.82

f 1910
2p la n ts .... < 1911
l 1912

7
4
4

75.4
78.0
78.0

.545 40.78
.499 39.52
.584 46.61

6p la n t s ,... f

4
4

Southern:

2 4
2 2
2 2 *2
2 8 7
5
1 2
0
2 7 5
1
0 5
9
7
1
9
13
1 6
1 3
1 1

H EATERS’ H ELPERS.

Eastern:
13
14
14

75.8 $0,337 $25.54
75.9 .415 32.29
75.9 .372 28.21

\ 1911

13
13
13

68.2

l 1912

67.1
67.1

.384 25.12
.353 23.23
.357 23.34

f 1910
1911
l 1912

5
5
5

81.6
84.0
84.0

.240 19.44
.240 20.16
.240 20.16

f 1910

3

72.0
72.0
72.0

.376 27.07
.370 26.64
.490 35.28

f 1910

3 p la n t s ....

\ 1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

5 p la n t s ....
G .L .a n d M .W .:

2p la n t s .... «[

7

2

2
2
2

**i
4
4
4

4

8
8

2
6
4
7
7

4
4
3

1
1
1

Southern:

1plant........ \ 1911

l 1912




2
2

3

2

4
3

2
2
2

5

1
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,

231

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D CLASSIFIED R A TE S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN EACH D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912— Continued.
%

T able

BLOOMING MILLS— Continued.
BOTTOM MAKERS.

District, and
number of
plants.

Aver­ Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­ rate
tim e
Year.
of
of
em­ hours wages
per
ploy­ per
ees. week. hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14 16 18 20
25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910

1 plant........

\1911

l 1912

2
2
2

65.5 $0,248 $16.24
65.5 .332 21.75
65.5 .227 14.87

2
2
2

Pittsburgh:
34
34
34

68.2
69.4
69.4

[ 1910
\ 1911

1 1912

17
15
17

73.4
73.6
73.4

7
4
5

75.4
75.0
74.4

.243 18.17
.231 17.23
.288 21.19

14
18
13

16
14
19

6
4
6

7
3
3

2
6
5

1

2
2
2

.248 18.09
.261 19.10
.273 19.90

( 1910
1911
2 plants___
l 1912

2
2
2

5
2

8
2
3

8
16
13

7
7
3

4

.403 27.31
.373 25.86
.399 27.74

( 1910

8 p la n ts ....

\1911

l 1912

G .L .a n d M .W .:
5 p la n t s ....

2
2
2

2

Southern:

\

3

BOTTOM MAKERS’ HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
6 plants___
G .L .and M .W .:
4 plants—
Southern:
2 plants___

(
(
I

1910
1911
1912

30
30
30

67.7 $0,290 $19.35
68.2 .274 18.56
68.3 .283 19.16

2
2
2

1910
1911
1912

11
11
11

74.2
74.2
74.2

.188 13.85
.192 14.16
.212 15.64

2
2
4

1910
1911
1912

6
5
5

76.0
74.4
74.4

.169 12.79
.166 12.33
.200 14.75

4
3

ROLL ENGINEERS.
Eastern:
f 1910

70.2 $0,358 $24.98
69.3 .400 27.50
69.3 .385 26.43

\1911

6
6
6

l 1912

[ 1910
\1911

18
18
19

65.8
66.2
62.7

.447 28.55
.427 27.47
.476 28.63

f 1910
1911
l 1912

15
13
13

77.2
78.0
78.0

.343 26.27
.327 25.36
.371 28.75

| 1910

3 plants-----

3
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

.376 27.07
.358 25.78
.455 32.78

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
7 plants—
G .L .and M .W .:
6 plants—

\

Southern:
2 plants___

....

\1911

l 1912




12
10
12

|
3
1

232

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E F U LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D C LASSIFIE D R ATE S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R IN EAC H D ISTR IC T,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912— Continued.
B LO O M IN G M ILLS— Continued.
ROLLERS.

District, and
num ber o !
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
A ver­ A ver­ age
age
age full­
full­ rate tim e 12
14
16 18 20
25
30
40
50 60
tim e
o f week­
and and and and and and and and and and 70
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
per
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
week. hour.
ings. 14 16
18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:

\1911

5
4
4

f 1910

21
21
22

f 1910

2 plants___

l 1912

65.7 $0.488 $32.04
64.4 .531 34.30
64.4 .564 36.31

3
2

2

62.1
62.3
59.5

.705 42.89
.649 40.14
.725 42.11

2
2
2

4
4
2

7
10
6

16
13
13

74.3
73.0
73.0

.528 39.07
.505 36.85
.548 39.99

9
6
4

3
*7
7

4

4
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

.535 38.48
.551 39.67
.683 49.18

2
1
1

2
2

Pittsburgh:

\ 1911
[ 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
i 1910
6
plants_ \ 1911
8 plants___

l 1912

4

2

1

s
5
12

1

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants—

\1911

l 1912

2

MANIPULATORS.
Eastern:
f 1910
1911
l 1912

9
8
6

f 1910
8 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
1911
6 plants----l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
1911
2 plants___
1 1912

21
21
22

{

\

3 p la n ts ....

68.6 $0,368 $25.03
68.3 .364 24.68
69.3 .343 23.48

5
4
2

2
4
2

62.1
62.3
59.5

.445 26.86
.412 25.31
.468 26.70

2
3
5

10
9
6

19
16
16

74.6
74.4
74.4

.281 20.95
.265 19.69
.299 22.23

6
4
7

1

3
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

.331 23.83
.337 24.26
.408 29.35

Pittsburgh:

4
5
3

2
3
4

2
2
2

TABLE MEN.
Eastern:
f 1910

2 plants___

\1911
l 1912

6
6
6

2

70.3 $0,275 $19.12
68.5 .260 17.88
68.5 .312 21.21

4
6
2

4

6
3
4

7
9
7

Pittsburgh:

\

16
16
16

63.5
63.8
63.8

.341 20.82
.305 19.12
.338 20.91

\

9
9
9

77.3
76.1
76.1

.189 14.77
.189 14.47
.203 15.50

4
4
2

5
4
4

72.0
72.0
72.0

.190 13.68
.185 13.22
.221 15.88

2
2
2

f 1910
1911
5 plants___
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
4 plants___
1911
l 1912
Southern:
f 1910
2 plants___ • 1911
!
1 1912




4
2
*2
1

6
3
6
3
2
2

3
3

3
5

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,

233

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D CLASSIFIED RATE S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R IN EACH D IST R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912— Concluded.

BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
SHEARMEN.

District, and
number of
plants.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910

3 plants___

{ 1911

[ 1912

Pittsburgh:

6
6
6

[ 1910
\1911
1 1912

24
24
24

66.5
66.3
66.3

15
13
13

75.2
74.8
74.8

3
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

2

4

4
2
2

13
15
12

3
4

7
5
3

6
4
4

2
4
4

2

1
1
1

.257 19.33
.268 19.98
.303 22.65

f 1910
2 plants___
1911
l 1912

4
2
5

2
2

2

.329 21.36
.318 20.68
.339 21.78

f 1910
-1 1911
l 1912

1

2

70.2 $0,318 $22.37
69.3 .350 24.39
69.3 .325 22.72

.295 21.26
.286 20.59
.354 25.49

8 plants___
G .L .a n d M .W .:

4
4

Southern:

\

SHEARMEN’ S HELPERS.
Eastern:
f 1910

2 plants___

10
10
10

68.6 $0,218 $15.06........
66.4 .194 13.13
1
66.4 .235 15.74 ...

1910
1911
1912

50
50
49

67.1
66.7
68.0

.247 1 6.2 2 ........
.240 15.86........
.248 16.58........

1910

34
30
28

76.9
74.9
74.7

.180 13.74 ...
.188 13.98 ...
.217 1 6.1 2 ........

6
6
6

72.0
72.0
72.0

.200 14.4 0 ........
.200 14.39........
.250 17.99 ...

\1911

l 1912

1

2
4
1 “ *i

6
2
4

2
2
4

Pittsburgh:
f
8 plants___ {
l
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
6 plants___
l
Southern:

{ 1911

2 plants___

1912

[ 1910
{ 1911
l 1912

8
8
8

7
2
2

14
17
15

12
20
15

12
10

6
2
10

10
6
6

6
10
6

2

2
1
1

2
3
1

....

2

LABORERS.
Eastern:
| 1910
1911
l 1912

32
21
21

f 1910

3 plants___

68.3 $0.143 $9.70
65.7 .139 9.04
64.7 .141 9.01

228
186
197

72.0
72.5
73.1

.168 12.13
.170 12.32
.169 12.37

156
124
150

77.6
76.1
76.1

.163 12.58
.166 12.58
.167 12.70

33
32
28

78.2
76.9
73.7

.131 10.20
.132 10.12
.131 9.65

10
12
12

22
5
3

4
6

Pittsburgh:
8 plants___

\1911

l 1912

2
1
1

226
185
196

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
6 plants___ { 1911
1 1912
Southern:
f 1910'
2 plants___
1911
l 1912

\




38
25
33
32
28

118
99
150

2
2

3

2

2

234
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,
I V .— AVERAGE AND

able

PER

WEEK

IN

THE

C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

NUMBER.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Occupation, and number
plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
48
60
72
hours and and and
72
and
and
84
un­
per
under 60
under
under
under
week. der.
60
56
72
84

P it cranemen:

11
14
18

50
47
45

4
6
6

16
10
10

2
4
4

31
25
31

4
6
4

11
10
10

3
3
3

4
4
4

12
12
12

9
6
6

6
9
9

6
6
6

2
3
3

48
37
40

5
5

4
4
4

6
6
6

3
3

37
30
28

5
7

4
2
2

3
3
6

3
3
3

4
5
5

19
15
13

7
8
8

6
6
6

67.6
66.6
65.0

6
3
6

3
6
6

5
6
6

29
24
22

2
2

52
48
47

68.4
67.9
66.6

6
3
6

3
6
6

7
8
6

29
24
22

3
5
5

4
2
2

( 1910
f 1911
l 1912

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

3

3
6
6

4
6
6

20
17
17

2
4
4

4
2
2

f 1910
i 1911
l 1912

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

3
3
3

3
3
3

4
6
6

28
28
28

6
4
4

4
2
2

\1911

f 1910

100
96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

3
3

9
9
9

8
14
14

56
56
58

10
12
10

14
2
2

f 1910

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

59
34
38

242
214
224

25
32
44

109
65
72

\1911
{ 1912

f 1910

99
95
97

69.6
68.8
68.7

18
18
18

f 1910

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

3
3
3

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

< 1911

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

\ 1911

f 1910
1 1912

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

f 1910
1911
l 1912

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

f 1910

46
41
42

\ 1911

l 1912

18 plants......................
Heaters:
19 plants......................

.< 1911

l 1912

1
1

Heaters’ helpers:
f 1910

\ 1911

11 plants......................

l 1912

B ottom makers:
f 1910

16 plants......................

l 1912

*

B ottom makers’ helpers:
12 plants......................
R oll engineers:
18

l

plants.................

Rollers:

\1911

18 plants......................

l 1912

3

Manipulators:
f 1910

19 plants......................
Table men:
13 plants......................
Shearmen:
19

plants.................

Shearmen’s helpers:
18

plants.................

.

1 1912

Laborers:
19

plants.




\1911

l 1912

3
4
6

11
14
12

235 :

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,
T

I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— ,
Concluded.

able

BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
PER CENT.

Occupation, and num ber
plants.

of

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Em ployees whose full-tim e hours per w eek were—
Average
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
72
and
84
60
un­
per
under
under under
under
week. der.
60
84
56
72

Pit cranemen:
11.1
14.7
18.6

50.5
49.5
46.4

4.0
6.3
6.2

16.2
10.5
10.3

3.9
8.2
7.5

60.8
51.0
58.5

7.8
12.2
7.5

21.6
20.4
18.9

8.8
8.8
8.8

11.8
11.8
11.8

35.3
35.3
35.3

26.5
17.6
17.6

17.6
26.5
26.5

60
55
58

70.5 .......... 10.0 .......... ..........
70.8
10.9
70.9
10.3

3.3
5.5
5.2

80.0
67.3
69.0

9.1
8.6

6.7
7.3
6.9

\ 1911

1912

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

12.8
13.0
13.0

6.5
6.5

78.7
65.2
60.9

10.9
15.2

8.5
4.3
4.3

1910
1911
1912

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

7.1
7.5
14.6

7.1
7.5
7.3

9.5
12.5
12.2

45.2
37.5
31.7

16.7
20.0
19.5

14.3
15.0
14.6

\ 1911

1910

46
41
42

67.6
66.6
65.0

13.0
7.3
14.3

6.5
14.6
14.3

10.9
14.6
14.3

63.0
58.5
52.4

4.9
4.8

1910

52
48
47

68.4
67.9
66.6

11.5
6.3
12.8

5.8
12.5
12.8

13.5
16.7
12.8

55.8
50.0
46.8

5.8
10.4
10.6

7.7
4.2
4.3

\1911

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

8.3

8.3
17.1
17.1

11.1
17.1
17.1

55.6
48.6
48.6

5.6
11.4
11.4

11.1
5.7
5.7

\ 1911

1910

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

6.3
6.5
6.5

6.3
6.5
6.5

8.3
13.0
13.0

58.3
60.9
60.9

12.5
8.7
8.7

8.3
4.3
4.3

\1911

1910

100
96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

3.0
3.1

9.0
9.4
9.7

8.0
14.6
15.1

56.0
58.3
62.4

10.0
12.5
10.8

14.0
2.1
2.2

1910

449
363
396

74.1 ..........
73.7
73.8 ..........

13.1
9.4
9.6

53.9
59.0
56.6

5.6
8.8
11.1

24.3
17.9
18.2

f
18 plants..................................... -I
l
Heaters:
f
19 plants.....................................
l
Heaters’ helpers:
f
11 plants.....................................
l
B ottom makers:
f
16 plants.....................................
1
B ottom makers’ helpers:
f
12 plants...................................
l
R oll engineers:
f
18 plants................................... •
I
l
Rollers:
f
18 plants.....................................
l
Manipulators:
f
19 plants.....................................
l
Table men:
f
13 plants.....................................
l
Shearmen:
f
19 plants.....................................
l
Shearmen’s helpers:
f
18 plants.....................................
l
Laborers:
f
19 plants.....................................
l




1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

69.6
68.8
68.7

\ 1911

1910

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

5.9 .......... ..........
6.1
2.0
5.7
1.9

1 1911

1910

1912

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

1910
1911
1912
1910

{

1912

1912

\1911

1912

1910

1912

1912

1912

\1911

1912

18.2
18.9
18.6

.7 ..........
1.1
1.5 ..........

2.4
3.9
3.0

6.5

236
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

able

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D
P E R W E E K IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y

F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912.

B L O O M IN G M IL L S — Continued.

PIT CRANEMEN.

Year and district.

N um N um ­ b e ro f
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A v­
erage
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
hours and
60
48
and
per
and
and
and under 60
84
72
un­
under
under
week. der. under
60
72
56
84

1910.
Eastern..............................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
7
6
2

15
48
30
6

69.2
64.0
77.6
76.0

18

T otal.......................................

18

99

69.6

18

11

1911.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
7
6
2

14
48
27
6

68.7
64.0
76.4
74.0

18

10
4

T otal.......................................

18

95

68.8

1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
7
6
2

14
48
29
6

68.7
63.5
76.1
74.0

T otal.......................................

18

97

68.7

4

11
30
16
4

18

14

18

10
8

18

18

50

14
2
4

16

4
26
17
4

2

47

6

10
10

4
22
19
4

2

45

6

10

2
2

2
2

4

11

2
4

2

10

HEATERS.
1910.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
8
6
2

6
19
19
7

2

76.3
70.0
75.2
75.4

3

12
14
5

T otal.......................................

19

51

73.4

3

2

1911.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
8
6
2

6
19
20
4

75.4
69.8
75.0
78.0

3

2
2

T otal.......................................

19

49

73.3

3

1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
8
6
2

6
19
24
4

75.4
69.2
74.5
78.0

3

T otal.......................................

19

53

73.0

3




1
1

4
2
2

1
1

4

31
10
15
25

12
19
31

5
2

5
3
6

10

2
2

2
5
3

4

10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,

237

T a b l e V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1 9 1 2 -C o n tin u e d .
B L O O M IN G M IL L S — Continued..

HEATERS’ HELPERS—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
time
56
60
72
48
hours 48
and
and
72
and and under 60
and
84
per
under
under
week. un­ under 60
72 ,
84
der.
56

1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

3
5
2
1

14
13
5
2

75.9
67.1
84.0
72.0

T otal.......................................

11

34

73.5

4

6

4

* 10

3

5
2
3

4

12

6

9

BOTTOM MAKERS.
1910.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

1
8
5
2

2
34
17
7

65.5
68.2
73.4
75.4

Total.......................................

16

60

70.5

1911.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est__
Southern...........................................

1
8
5
2

2
34
15
4

65.5
69.4
73.6
75.0

T otal.......................................

16

55

70.8

6

3

1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

1
8
5
2

2
34
17
5

65.5
69.4
73.4
74.4

6

2
1

Total.......................................

16

58

70.9

6

2
28
15
5

6

6

2

6

2
1

3

2
2

48

4

22
13
2

3

2
2

37

5

4

22
15
3

3

2
2

2

40

5

2

4

BOTTOM MAKERS’ HELPERS.
1910.
Eastern .............................................................
Pittsburgh ................. ...........................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t . . .
Southern
...................................

6
4
2

30
11
6

67.7
74.2
76.0

12

47

70.3

6

30
11
5

68.2
74.2
74.4

6

T otal ........ ................................

12

46

70.3

6

1912.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh
.................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t . . .
Southern
............. .....

6
4
2

30
11
5

68.3
74.2
74.4

6

12

46

70.4

6

T otal.....................................
1911.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh , , _ . . .
___ *_ _
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t . . .
Southern , , , r ................................

Total

...................




4

2
2

37

6

2

24
9
4

6

4

18
9
3

2

3

30

5

3

16
9
3

2

28

7

3

3

3
2
2

5
2
2

238

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able V . —AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
B L O O M IN G M IL L S — Continued.

ROLL ENGINEERS.

Year and district.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
N um - age
N um ­ b e ro f full­
Over
ber of em ­ tim e
Over
Over
56
plants. ploy­ hours 48
60
48
72
and and and
per
ees.
and
60
72
and
84
week. un­ under under
under
under
der.
60
56
72
84

1910.
Eastern..............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

6
18
15
3

70.2
65.8
77.2
72.0

3

T otal.......................................

18

42

70.9

3

3

4

1911.
Eastern....... .....................................
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Southern...........................................

3
7
6
2

6
18
13
3

69.3
66.2
78.0
72.0

3

3

4
1

T otal.......................................

18

40

70.9

3

3

5

1913.
E a s te rn ............._.............................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .
Southern...........................................

3
7
6
2

6
19
13
3

69.3
62.7
78.0
72.0

6

3

4
1

T otal.......................................

'

3
7
6
2

18

41

69.2

6

4
3

3

8
8
3

5

19

6
6
3
15

4
6
3
13

2
4
1

6

7

6

2
5
1

6

8

6

2
5
1

6

8

6

ROLLERS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

2
8
6
2

5
21
16
4

65.7
62.1
74.3
72.0

6

3

Total.......................................

18

46

67.6

6

3

5

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

2
8
6
2

4
21
13
3

64.4
62.3
73.0
72.0

3

6

4
2

T otal.......................................

18

41

66.6

3

6

6

1913.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

2
8
6
2

4
22
13
3

64.4
59.5
73.0
72.0

6

6

4
2

T otal.......................................

18

42

65.0

6




5

6

12
13
4

6

3

29

3

10
11
3

2

24

2

8
11
3

2

22

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,

239

T a b l e V . —A V E R A G E

A N D C LASSIFIED FU LL-TIM E H OU RS OF W O R K
P ER W E E K IN EAC H Y E A R , B Y D ISTR IC TS, 1910 TO 1912-Continued.

BLOOMING MILLS— Continued.
MANIPULATORS—Concluded.

Year and district.

Num N um ­ b e ro f
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
fu ll­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
48
56
60
hours and
48
72
and
and
and
per
60
72
and
84
un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
under
72
56
84

1911.

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

3
8
6
2

8
21
16
3

68.3
62.3
74.4
72.0

3

Total.......................................

19

48

67.9

3

6

8

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

3
8
6
2

6
22
16
3

69.3
59.5
74.4
72.0

6

6

4
2

T otal.......................................

19

47

66.6

6

6
2

2
10
11
3

3

2

24

5

2

8
11
3

3

2

6

22

5

2

4

6

2
10 ........
5
........4
5
20

1912.

6

2

TABLE MEN.

1910.
Eastern . ‘
............. ...........
Pittsburgh _
...................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern
.....................

2
5
4
2

6
16
9
5

70.3
63.5
77.3
72.0

3

3

13

36

69.3

3

3

4

Eq.st.ftrn.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

2
5
4
2

6
16
9
4

68.5
63.8
76.1
72.0

6

4
2

Total.......................................

13

35

68.7

6

6

Eastern........ ..... ..............................
Pittsburgh.
....................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern_ _.......................................

2
5
4
2

6
16
9
4

68.5
63.8
76.1
72.0

6

4
2

T otal.......................................

13

35

68.7

6

Total

...................................

0

2

4

1911.
2
8
5
4

2

2

17

4

2

1912.

6

2
8
5
4

2

2

17

4

2

SHEARMEN.
1910.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh.................................. .
Great Lakes and M iddle West,
Southern......................................

3
8
6
2

6
24
15
3

70.2
66.5
75.2
72.0

Total................................. .

19

48

70.0

Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh.................................. .
Great Lakes and M iddle W est
Southern......................................

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
66.3
74.8
72.0

Total................................. .

19

46

69.4

4
3

14
11
3

3

3

3

4

3

3

4
2

28

2
4
4
6

4

1911.




3

3

6

2
16
9
3

2

2

28

4

2

240

BULLETIN* OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T able V .—AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— C onclud ed .
B L O O M I N G M I L L S — C ontinued.
SH E A R M EN —Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ber of em ployees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber of full­
ber of em­ tim e
Over
Over
Over
56
plants. ploy­ hours 48
60
48
72
and
ees.
per
and and
60
and
72
and
84
un­
week. der. under under
under
under
60
56
84
72

1913.
E a stern ............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern...........................................

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
66.3
74.8
72.0

Total.......................................

19

46

69.5

3

3

4
2

3

3

6

2
16
9
3

2

2

28

4

2

SH E A R M EN ’ S H E LPER S
1910.
Eastern.................................. ..........
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

2
8
6
2

10
50
34
6

Total.......................................

18

100

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh................... T..................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................
Total.......................................

68.6 .
67.1
76.9 .
72.0 .
70.9

56

10

14

56

12

14

58

10

14

66.4
66.7
74.9
72.0
69.5

18

1913.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Southern..........................................

66.4

68.0
74.7
72.0
70.1

T otal.......................................

LABO RERS.
1910.
3
8
6
2

32
228
156
33

68.3
72.0
77.6
78.2

3

Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .
Southern...........................................
Total.......................................

19

449

74.1

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st.. .
Southern..........................................

3
8
6
2

21
186
124
32

Total................. .................

19

Eastern_________ ______- ..............
P i t t s b u r g h ................. _..........

7
4

22
35
2

3

11

59

65.7
72.5
76.1
76.9

4

5
4
5

8
22
4

363

73.7

4

14

34

3
8
6
2

21
197
150
28

64.7
73.1
76.1
73.7

6

5
3
4

6
31
1

19

396

73.8

6

12

38

2
21
2

5
11
76
17

242

25

109

135
63
16

2
18
6
6

2
7
46
10

214

32

65

i23
80
21

2
19
17
6

2
21
48
1

224

44

72

154
72
16

1911.

1913.
Eastern.............................................

Pittsburgh _

...............

Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
South am
...............
Total




...............

241

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,

T a b l e V I ___ A V E R A G E A N D CLASSIFIE D F U LL-TIM E H O U R S OF W O R K

PER W E E K IN EACH DISTRICT* B Y YEARS* 1910 TO 1912.
BLO O M IN G MILLS— Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

P IT CRAN EM EN .

District, and number o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
time
48
56
72
48
60
hours and
and
72
per
and under 60
and
84
and
un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
72
84
56

Eastern:

11
10
10

1910
1911
1912

15
14
14

69.2
68.7
68.7

1910
1911
1912

48
48
48

64.0
64.0
63.5

1910
1911
1912

30
27
29

77.6
76.4
76.1

16
17
19

1910
1911
1912

3 plants..................................

4
4
4

6
6
6

76.0
74.0
74.0

4
4
4

Pittsburgh:
7 plants..................................

18
18
18

4
8

30
26
22

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
6 plants..................................

14
10
10

Southern:
2 plants...................................

2
2
2

H E A T E R S.
Eastern:
3 plants..................................
Pittsburgh:
8 plants..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
6 plants..................................
Southern:
2 plants...................................

1910
1911
1912

6
6
6

1910
1911
1912

19
19
19

70.0
69.8
69.2

1910
1911
1912

19
20
24

75.2
75.0
74.5

7
4
4

2
2
2

2
2
2

76.3
75.4
75.4

1910
1911
1912

{
I
!

75.4
78.0
78.0

3
3
3

2
2

12
10
12

2
2
2

2
4
2

2

14
15
19

5
5
5

5

2
3
3

1
1

H E A T E R S ’ H E LPER S.
Eastern:

4
4
4

7
6
6

13
14
14

75.8
75.9
75.9

13
13
13

68.2
67.1
67.1

\

5
5
5

81.6
84.0
84.0

1

\

3
2
2

72.0
72.0
72.0

3
2
2

f 1910

3 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

5 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
2 plants......................................
1911
t 1912
Southern:
[ 1910
1911
1 plant........................................
1 1912

44929°— Bull. 151— 14----- -16




3
3
3

8
10
10

2
4
4

2

4
5
5

242

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUKEAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S ,

T able V I . — A V E R A G E AN D CLASSIFIE D F U LL-TIM E H O U R S OF W O R K
PER W E E K IN EACH D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912— Continued.
B L O O M IN G M I L L S — Continued.
BOTTOM M AK ER S.

District, and number of plants.

Eastern:

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Num ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
60
hours
72
and and and
60
per
and
72
and
84
un­
under under
week.
under
under
der.
60
56
72
84

[ 1910
\1911

2
2
2

65.5
65.5
65.5

[ 1910
\1911

34
34
34

68.2
69.4
69.4

f 1910

1 p lan t....................................

17
15
17

73.4
73.6
73.4

15
13
15

7
4
5

75.4
75.0
74.4

5
2
3

2
2

24
18
16

3
5

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
8 plants...................................

l 1912

2
2
2
6
6
6

1
1

28
22
22

3
3

2
2

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
5

plants..............................

{ 1911

l 1912

Southern:
2 plants...................................

i 1910
\1911

l 1912

2
2
2
2

BOTTOM M AKERS’ HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
f 1910

30
30
30

67.7
68.2
68.3

\1911

l 1912

11
11
11

74.2
74.2
74.2

9
9
9

f 1910
2 plants...................................... < 1911
1
1 1912

6
5
5

76.0
74.4
74.4

4
3
3

6 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

4 plants......................................

6
6
6

3
3

2
2
2

Southern:
2
2
2

ROLL ENGINEERS.
Eastern:
6
6
6

70.2
69.3
69.3

18
18
19

65.8
66.2
62.7

[ 1910
\1911

15
13
13

f 1910

3
3
3

f 1910

3 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

4
4
4

2
2
2

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

7 plants......................................

\1911

1 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
6 plants......................................

l 1912

Southern:
2 plants......................................




\1911

l 1912

3
3
6

3
3
3

8
6
4

4
5
5

77.2
78.0
78.0

8
6
6

1
1
1

72.0
72.0
72.0

3
3
3

1
1

6
6
6

WAGES AND HOTJES OP LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS,

243

T able V I . —A V E R A G E A N D CLASSIFIE D F U LL-TIM E H O U R S OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EACH D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912— Continued.
B L O O M IN G M I L L S — Continued.
ROLLERS •

District, and number of plants.

Eastern:

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
48
56
48
72
60
hours and
84
and and
72
and
60
and
per
un­
week.
under under
under
under
der.
60
84
56
72

5
4
4

65.7
64.4
64.4

f 1910

\ 1911

21
21
22

62.1
62.3
59.5

f 1910
• 1911
j
l 1912

16
13
13

74.3
73.0
73.0

13
11
11

f 1910

plants..............................

f 1910
i 1911
l 1912

l 1912

2

4
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

4
3
3

5
4
4

Pittsburgh:
8

plants..............................

6
3
6

3
6
6

2
2

12
10
8

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
6

plants..............................

3
2
2

Southern:
2

plants..............................

< 1911

l 1912

MANIPULATORS.
Eastern:
f 1910

7
6
4

2
2
2

\ 1911

l 1912

9
8
6

68.6
68.3
69.3

f 1910
1911
l 1912

21
21
22

62.1
62.3
59.5

f 1910

3 plants..................................

\ 1911

l 1912

19
16
16

74.6
74.4
74.4

14
11
11

f 1910
1911
l 1912

3
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

3
3
3

Pittsburgh:
8 plants..................................

{

6
3
6

3
6
6

2
2

12
10
8

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
6 plants..................................

1
3
3

4
2
2

Southern:
2 plants..................................

{

TABLE MEN.
Eastern:
2

plants..............................

4
4
4

1910
1911
1912

6
6
6

70.3
68.5
68.5

1910
1911
1912

16
16
16

63.5
63.8
63.8

1910
1911
1912

9
9
9

77.3
76.1
76.1

5
5
5

1910
1911
1912

5
4
4

72.0
72.0
72.0

5
4
4

2
2
2

Pittsburgh:
5

plants..............................

3

3
6
6

2
2

10
8
8

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4

plants..............................

Southern:
2

plants..............................




2
2

4
2
2

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

244

T able Y I _ A V E R A G E AN D CLASSIFIE D F U LL-TIM E H O U R S OF W O R K
_
P ER W E E K IN EACH D ISTR IC T, B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912— Concluded.
B L O O M IN G M I L L S — Concluded.
SHEARMEN.

District, and number of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Num ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
72
hours
48
60
and and and
60
84
and
72
per
and
week. un­ under under
under
under
60
der.
72
84
56

Eastern:
f 1910

6
6
6

70.2
69.3
69.3

f 1910

\ 1911

24
24
24

66.5
66.3
66.3

f 1910
1911
l 1912

15
13
13

75.2
74.8
74.8

11
9
9

f 1910

plants..............................

\ 1911

1 1912

3

3
3
3

72.0
72.0
72.0

3
3
3

l 1912

4
4
4

2
2
2

Pittsburgh:
8 plants...................................

3
3
3

3
3
3

2
2

14
16
16

4

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
6

plants..............................

l

2
2

4
2
2

Southern:
2 plants..................................

\ 1911

l 1912

SHEARMEN’ S HELPERS.

2 plants......................................

[ 1910
\1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
8 plants......................................

[ 1910
\ 1911

l 1912

10
10
10

68.6
66.4
66.4

50
50
49

67.1
66.7
68.0

34
30
28

76.9
74.9
74.7

20
18
18

6
6
6

72.0
72.0
72.0

6
6
6

8
8
8
coco

Eastern:

9
9
9

6
6

30
32
34

8

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

6 plants......................................

\ 1911

l 1912

10
8

14
2
2

2
2
2

5
2
2

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\ 1911

l 1912

LABORERS.
Eastern:

[ 1910
\ 1911

32
21
21

68.3
65.7
64.7

f 1910

3 plants......................................

228
186
197

l 1912

3
4
6

5
5

22
8
6

72.0
72.5
73.1

7
4
3

35
22
31

154
135
123

21
18
19

11
7
21

156
124
150

77.6
76.1
76.1

4
5
4

2
4
1

72
63
80

2
6
17

76
46
48

33
32
28

78.2
76.9
73.7

16
16
21

6
6

17
10
1

Pittsburgh:
8 plants......................................

\ 1911

l 1912

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
f 1910

6 plants.................................i . .

\ 1911

l 1912

Southern:
f 1910

2 plants......................................




\1911

l 1912

PLATE MILLS,
SUMMARY.

Summary* figures relating to the plate-mill department of the iron
and steel industry are given with figures for other departments in the
introductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explanation of the scope of
the investigation and the methods employed is given on pages 16 to 22.
Briefly summarized, the average full-time weekly earnings of em­
ployees in the plate-mill department in 1912 were 4 per cent higher
than in 1910 and 7.9 per cent higher than in 1911. The average
full-time hours of labor per week in 1912 were 0.3 per cent higher
than in 1910 and 0.9 per cent higher than in 1911. The average rate
of wages or earnings per hour in 1912 were 3.2 per cent higher than
in 1910 and 7.0 per cent higher than in 1911.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of
the plate-mill department are summarized in the table below.
Data are presented for identical plants for the years 1910, 1911,
and 1912. Referring to the first occupation, laborers, direct com­
parison can be made of data for 11 identical plants from 1910 to 1912,
inclusive. The first line of the table is read as follows: In 1910 the
11 plate mills for which reports were obtained employed 355 laborers
whose average full-time hours of work were 66.8 per week. For 25.1
per cent of the 355 laborers the full-time hours per week were 60 or
under; for 58 per cent, over 60 or under 72; for 9.9 per cent, 72; for
0.6 per cent, over 72 or under 84; and for 6.5 per cent the working
hours were 84 per week.
The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the
year considered (1910) was $0,159. Of the total number, 17.7 per
cent received 12 or under 14 cents per hour; 10.1 per cent, 14 or under
16 cents; 71.3 per cent, 16 or under 18 cents; and 0.8 per cent, 18 or
under 20 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly earnings
were $10.68. The other lines of the table may be read in the same
manner.
Referring to the last) column of the table, it is seen that in 11 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers were $10.68 in 1910.
In 1911 there was a drop to $10.51, and in 1912 an increase to $11.04.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1912 in the
several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of
laborers, which was $11.04, while with but one exception the average
full-time weekly earnings for the remaining 15 occupations were from
50 to over 350 per cent higher, the highest being the average for
rollers, sheared-plate mills, which was $50.03.




25
4

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

246

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF W ORK AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W EE K LY EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1912— PLATE MILLS.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
Num­
age
age
ber
rate
fifilOccupation, and num­
of
Year. em­ time
of
ber of plants.
Over
Over
wages
72
ploy­ hours 60
60
per
per and and
ees.
and
week. un­ un­ 72 un­ 84 hour.
der
der. der
84
72

Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of A ver­
wages per hour.
age
fulltime
12
18 week­
14
16
and and and and
ly
un­ un­ un­ un­ earn­
der der der der ings.
16
14
18
20
cts. cts. cts. cts.

Laborers:
11 plants.

[1910
<1911
11912

355
274
287

66.8 25.1 58.0 9.9
66.2 25.5 51.8 18.2
68.3 25.4 44.9 16.7

0.6 6.5 $0,159 17.7 10.1 71.3
3.3 1.1 .158 23.7 9.5 66.8
7.0 15.9 .160 26.1 7.3 65.2

0.8 810.68
10.51
1.4 11.04

16
20
Un­ and and 30
der un­ un­ cts.
16 der der and
20
cts.
30 over.
cts. cts.
H e a te d helpers:
[1910
1911
[1912

111
108
101

[1910
1911
[1912

14
14
14

68.0
68.9
68.9

[1910
11 plants................... <1911
[1912
Table men, shearedplate mills:
[1910
9 plants..................... 1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

10 plants................. .
R oll hands, o t h e r ,
sheared-plate mills:
6 plants....................

5.4
66.7 27.9
69.5
67.3 **3.7 65.7 29.6 ........
.9
64.4 29.7 3.0 ........
67.5 3.0

.243 9.0 29.7 45.0 16.2 16.98
.227 10.2 30.5 48.2 11.1 15.31
.247 ........ 29.7 56.4 13.8 16.71

71.4 28.6
42.9 57.1
42.9 57.1

.263
42.9 14.3 42.9 17.71
.242 i4 .3 14.3 57.1 14.3 16.64
.279 14.3 14.3 35.7 35.7 19.16

Shearmen’s helpers:

73
72
69

1.5 56.7 41.7
3.7 40.6 55.7 __ __ ........
2.5 39.4 58.1

68.5 31.5
68.3
68.1
58.3 41.7
68.3 ........ 56.5 43.5 ........ ........

.215 9.7 47.4 28.5 14.3 14.71
.206 13.8 52.7 27.3 6.3 14.20
.223 4.1 56.3 20.2 19.5 15.42
.262
.246
.279

8.2 24.7 37.0 30.1 17.88
4.2 41.7 29.2 25.0 16.81
30.4 34.7 34.8 19.07
20
30
Un­ and and 40
der un­ un­ cts.
20 der der and
cts.
30
40 over.
cts. cts.

Charging-crane a n d
charging-m a c h i n e
operators:
[1910
1911
1912

41
39
38

34.1 56.1
71.6
9.8
69.4 ‘ *7.*7 33.3 56.4 ........ 2.6
69.1 7.9 34.2 57.9 ........ ........

.303
65.8 19.5 14.6 21.85
.283 ’ i2.*8 43.5 38.5 5.2 19.70
.315 10.5 36.8 36.8 15.7 21.85

[1910
1911
[1912

26
28
28

68.4
69.2 30.8
68.1
57.1 42.9
68.1 ........ 57.1 42.9 ........ ........

.318
53.9 15.4 30.8 21.64
.300 io 7 46.4 25 0 17.9 20.44
.341 14.3 42.9
35! 7 23.24

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

71.5
27.8 61.1 11.1
70.8 * 5 . 7 34.3 37.1 17.1 ‘ *5*7
71.5 5.7 34.3 34.3 17.1 8.6

.300 11.2 44.5 33.3 11.2 21.45
.290 8.6 54.3 28.6 8.6 20.55
.289 8.6 54.3 28.6 8.6 20.78

[1910
1911
1912

6
4
4

70.0
33.3 66.7
72.0
100.0
72.0 ........ ........ 100.0 ........ ........

.299
.299
.288

[1910
4 plants..................... <1911
[l912

10
9
9

69.2
60.0 40.0
66.3 *22.2 44.4 33.3 ........ ........
66.3 22.2 44.4 33.3

.314
40.0 40.0 20.0 21.77
44.4 44.4 11.1 19.80
.296
.271 *44.4 ........ 55.6 ........ 18.12

9 plants....................
Manipulators, shearedplate mills:
9 plants....................
R oll engineers:
11 plants..................
R oll hands, other, uni­
versal mills, 48-inch:
2 plants....................
Screw men, side rolls,
universal mills, 48inch:




7
.1

1 Including 5.2 per cent working 91 hours per week.

33.3 66.7
50.0 50.0
50.0 50.0

20.93
21.55
20.74

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
---PLATE MILLS,

247

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S O F W O R K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H OF T H E
P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S, 1910 T O 1912—P L A T E M ILLS—Concluded.

Occupation, and num­
ber of plants.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
A ver­
N um ­
age
age
ber
full­
rate
Year. of
of
tim e
Over
Over
em ­
wages
72
60
ploy­ hours 60
per
per and and
ees.
and 84 hour.
week. un­ un­ 72 un­
der der
der
72
84

Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of A v e r­
wages per hour.
age
full­
time
week­
20 30
Un­ and and 40
ly
der un­ un­ cts. earn­
20 der der and ings.
cts.
40 over.
30
cts. cts.

Shearmen:
11

plants.

fl910
1911
(1912

70
66
68

67.5
68.0
68.2

2.9 64.3 32.9
10.378 1.4 32.9 32.9 32.8 $25.69
6.1 42.4 51.5 . . . . . . . . . .
.356 1.5 37.8 31.8 28.7 24.45
5.9 39.7 54.4 ........ ........ .386 ........ 36.8 27.9 35.3 26.61
40
30
Un­ and and 50
der un­ un­ cts
30 der der and
cts.
50 over.
40
cts. cts.

Heaters:
(1910
plants................ ■{1911
11912
Rollers, sheared-p l a t e
mills:
(1910
9 plants.................. U911
[l912
Rollers, universal mills,
48-inch:
(1910
4 plants..............1. ■{1911
Il912
Screw men, main rolls,
universal mills, 48inch:
(1910
4 plants..................... •{1911
(1912
Screw men, shearedplate mills:
(1910
9 plants..................... \1911
(.1912
11

56
55
53

39.3 53.6
71.0
7.1
69.1 “ 5*4 38.2 54.5 ____
1.8
69.4 5.7 35.8 52.8 5.7 ........

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

71.4 28.6
3.6 53.6 42.9
4.0 48.0 48.0 ........ ........

.508
.468
.513

7.1 14.3 21.4 57.1 36.35
5.5 27.3 20.0 47.3 32.46
5.7 17.0 11.3 66.1 35.78

.712 21.4
.607 21.4
.729 4.0

7.1 14.3 57.1 48.18
7.1 14.3 57.1 41.46
8.0 24.0 64.0 50.03

8
7
6

69.5
50.0 50.0
68.4 14.3 28.6 57.1
67.8 16.7 33.3 50.0

.636
25.0
.584
28.6
.581 33.3

8
7
7

50.0 50.0
69.5
66.6 28.6 28.6 42.9
66.6 28.6 28.6 42.9 ........ ........

.470
25.0 25.0 50.0 32.75
.421 *ii.*3 14.3 57.1 14.3 28.23
.407 28.6
57.1 14.3 27.38

28
28
27

68.6
64.3 35.7
68.6 * 3 . 6 46.4 50.0
68.8 3.7 44.4 51.9 ........ ........

.421 14.3 35.7 21.4 28.6 28.75
.393 25.0 35.7 14.3 25.0 26.95
.446 18.5 33.3 11.1 37.0 73.06

75.0 44.22
71.5 40.31
66.7 39.78

To aid in making a comparison of the data over a period of several
years which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout
the period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of the preceding table for the full-time hours per week, rates of
wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings of each occupation from
1910 to 1912, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table following.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent which the average for that year is of the
average for 1912. For example, the relative full-time weekly earn­
ings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators in 1911 were
90.2 as compared with 100 in 1912; that is, the full-time weekly earn­
ings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators in 1911 were




248

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

90.2 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in
1912.
The method of computing relative numbers is explained on page 21.
This table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase or
decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1912, as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings of chargingcrane and charging-machine operators in 1912 were 10.9 per cent
higher than in 1911, and the same as in 1910.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the
full-time weekly earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine
operators in 1912 were 10.9 per cent higher than in 1911, and in 1911
were 9.8 per cent lower than in 1910. The other occupations and
items of the table can be studied in like manner. The percentages of
increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S—P L A T E M IL L S.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) ord ecrease (—) i n Occupation and year.

Relative
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

1912 as
com ­
pared
w ith
each
speciyear.

Charging-crane and chargingmachine operators:
1910......................................
1911
........................
1912
........................
Heaters:
1910
........................
1911
........................
1912
........................
Heaters' helpers:
1910
........................
1911
........................
1912
........................
R oll engineers:
1910
........................
1911
........................
1912
........................
Sheared plate mills:
Rollers—
1910
.................
1911
................
1912
.................
Screw men—
1910
.................
1911
.................
1912
.................




103.6
100.4
100.0

- 3 .5
- .4

102.3
99.6
100.0

-2 .2
+ .4

103.0
99.7
100.0

-2 .9
+ .3

100.0
99.0
100.0

C
1)
+ 1 .0

99.9
99.4
100.0

+ .1
+ .6

99.7
99.7
100.0

+ .3
+ .3

Each
year
com ­
pared
w ith
year
pre­
ceding.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) i n -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) i n -

R ela ­
R ela ­
tive
tive
1912 as E ach
full­
1912 as Each
rate of com ­
com ­
year
tim e
year
wages pared
com ­ weekly pared
com ­
per
with
pared
earn­
w ith
pared
hour.
each
w ith
each
ings.
with
speci­
year
year
fied
pre­
pre­
year. ceding.
year. ceding.

-3 .1
- .4

96.2
89.8
100.0

+ 4.0
+ 11 .4

- 2 .6
+ .4

99.0
91.2
100.0

+ 1.0
+ 9.6

- 3 .2
+ .3

98.4
91.9
100.0

+ 1.6
+ 8.8

-1 .0
+ 1 .0

103.8
100.3
100.0

-

- .5
+ .6

97.7
83.3
100.0

+ 2.4
+ 2 0 .0

0)
+ .3

94.4
88.1
100.0

+ 5.9
+ 13 .5

1 N o change.

3.7
.3

- 6.7
+ 11 .4

100.0
90.2
100.0

0)
+ 10 .9

- 7.9
+ 9.6

101.6
90.7
100.0

- 1.6
+ 1 0 .3

101.6
91.6

- 1.6
+ 9.2

3.4
.3

103.2
98.9
100.0

- 3.1
+ 1.1

- 1 4 .7
+ 2 0 .0

96.3
82.9
100.0

+ 3.8
+ 2 0 .6

- 6.7
+13.5

93.7
87.9
100.0

- 6.6
+ 8.8
-

- 9.8
+ 10 .9
- 1 0 .7
+ 10 .3
- 9.8
+ 9.2
- 4.3
+ 1.1

- 1 3 .9
+ 20 .6
- 6.2
+ 13 .8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR—PLATE MILLS,

249

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S — P L A T E M IL L S—
Concluded.

Hours per week,

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—
occupation and year.

Sheared plate mills—Cond.
Manipulators—
.................
1910
1911
.................
1912
.................
Table men—
1910
.................
1911
.................
1912
.................
R oll hands, o t h e r 1910
................
1911
.................
1912
.................
Universal mills, 48-inch:
Rollers—
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Screw men, main rolls—
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Screw men, side rolls—
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
R oll hands, o t h e r 1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Shearmen:
1910
........................
1911
........................
1912
........................
Shearmen’s helpers:
1910
........................
1911
........................
1912
........................
Laborers:
.......................
1910
1911
...................... .
1912
........................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

1912 as
com ­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

100.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0

0)
+ .3

98.7
100.0
100.0

+ 1 .3
0)

102.5
100.9
100.0

- 2 .4
- .9

104.4
100.0
100.0

-4 .2
0)

104.4
100.0
100.0

-4 .2
0)

97.2
100.0
100.0

+ 2 .9
(l )

99.0
99.7
100.0

+ 1 .0
+ .3

99.7
99.7
100.0

+ .3
+ .3

97.8
96.9
100.0

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
tive
Each rate o f
year
wages
com ­
per
hour.
pared
with
year
pre­
ceding.

-0 .4
0)

+ 2 .2
+ 3 .2

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in­

Rela­
tive
1912 as Each
full­
1912 as Each
com ­
com ­
year
year
time
pared
com ­ weekly pared
com ­
with
earn­
pared
with
pared
each
with
with
each
ings.
year
speci­
year
speci­
fied
pre­
pre­
fied
year. ceding.
year. ceding.

93.3
88.0
100.0

+ 7.2
+ 13 .6

- .3
+ .3

93.9
88.2
100.0

+ 6.5
+13.4

+ 1 .3
0)

$4.3
86.7
100.0

+ 6.0
+ 15.3

-1 .6
- .9

109.5
100.5
100.0

-

-C 2
0)

115.5
103.4
100.0

- 1 3 .4
- 3.3

-4 .2
C
1)

115.9
109.2
100.0

-1 3 .7
- 8.4

+ 2 .9
0)

103.8
103.8
100.0

-

+ .7
+ .3

97.9
92.2
100.0

+ 2.1
+ 8.5

0)
+ .3

96.4
92.4
100.0

+ 3.7
+ 8.2

- .9
+ 3 .2

99.4
98.8
100.0

+ .6
+ 1.2

8.7
.5

- 5.7
+ 13 .6

93.1
88.0
100.0

- 6.1
+ 13.4

93.8 + 6 . 6
88.1 + 13.5
100.0 .............

-6.1
+ 13.5

- 8.1
+ 15.3

92.4 + 8 . 2
86.8 +15.2
100.0 .............

-6.1
+ 15.2

-

8.2
.5

111.2
101.3
100.0

-1 0 .1
- 1.3

-

- 1 0 .5
- 3.3

119.6
103.1
100.0

-1 6 .4
- 3.0

-

5.8
8.4

120.1
109.3
100.0

- 1 6 .7
- 8.5

0)
3.7

100.9
103.9
100.0

-

-

- 0 .4
C
1)

i

W eekly earnings.

- 5.8
+ 8.5

96.5
91.9
100.0

+ 3.6
+ 8.8

- 4.1
+ 8.2

95.4
92.1
100.0

+ 4.8
+ 8.6

.6
+ 1.2

96.7
95.2
100.0

+ 3.4
+ 5.0

3.7
3.7

+ 7.4 .............
+ 13 .6
- 5.5
.............
+ 13 .6

.9
3.8

8.9
1.3

- 1 3 .8
- 3.0

+ 3,6
- 3.8
- 4.8
+ 8.8
- 3.5
+ 8.6
- 1.6
+ 5.0

N o change.

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown for
the plate-mills department as a whole, as determined by* a combina­
tion of the data for the several principal productive occupations of
the department which are covered by this report. The method of
computing the figures of this table is explained on page 22.
From the table, under weekly earnings,” it is seen that the rela­
tive full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole in 1910
were 96.2 as compared with 100 in 1912. In other words, the full­
time weekly earnings in 1910 were 96.2 per cent of such earnings in



“

250

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1912. The relative decrease to 92.7 in 1911; and in 1912, the base
year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that the full-time weekly earnings in 1912
were 4 per cent higher than in 1910 and 7.9 per cent higher than in 1911.
The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full-time
weekly earnings in 1911 were 3.6 per cent lower than in 1910 and 7.9
per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and rates of wages per hour can be read in like manner.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L .
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C C U PA TIO N S — P L A T E M IL L S .

Hours per week.

Year.

1910.............................................
1911.............................................
1912.............................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

99.7
99.1
100.0

W ages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Relalive
1912 as Each rate of
com ­
year
wages
pared
com ­
per
with
pared
hour.
with
each
speci­
year
fied
preced­
year.
ing.
+ 0 .3
+ .9

- 0 .6
+ .9

W eekly earnings.

96.9
93.5
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease
or
decrease ( —)
in—

(+)

R elative
full­
1912 as Each
1912 as Each
time
com ­
year weekly com ­
year
com ­
pared
pared
com ­
earn­
with
with
pared
pared
ings.
with
each
each
with
speci­
year
speci­
year
fied
fied
preced­
preced­
year.
ing.
year.
ing.
+ 3 .2
+ 7 .0

-3 .5
+ 7 .0

96.2
92.7
100.0

+ 4 .0
+ 7 .9

- 3 .6
+ 7 .9

In considering weekly earnings, it should be remembered that a re­
duction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings for the department must be con­
sidered; that is the change in the relative number of employees in the
several occupations from year to year. It is obvious that an increase
in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid occupations or a
decrease in the relative number of those in the higher-paid ones would
tend to lower the average for all occupations, just as an increase in the
relative number of employees in the higher-paid occupations or a
decrease in the relative number in the lower-paid ones would tend to
increase the average.
The number and per cent of employees in plate-mill plants whose
customary working time per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or
7 days, or variations thereof, are shown in the following table.
The heading “ 5 and 6 days, alternately” indicates that the plants
were running 6 days and 5 nights each week, being shut down for one




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR—PLATE MILLS.

251

day and a half each week, and that the employees reported under this
heading work 6 days one week and 5 nights the next. The heading
“ 6 and 7 days alternately ” indicates that the plants were not in
operation half a day in each week, the employees reported working 6
turns one week and 7 the next week. The figures are presented for
each district and for the four districts combined.
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H S PEC I­
F IE D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1 9 1 2 -P L A T E M IL L S.
fThe figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose
customary working tim e per
week was—
District, and number of
plants.

Per cent of employees whose
custom ary working time per
week was—

N um ­
ber
5
5
6
6
Year. of
days
days
em­
days
days
and 7
and 6
ploy­
and 6
and 7
7
5
5
6
6
7
days
ees. days. days days. days
days. days. alter- days. days days.
alteralternatenatenatenately.
ly.
iy.
iy.

Eastern:
11910
343
2 plants............................ <1911
343
(1912
330
Pittsburgh:
(1910
709
621
5 plants............................ <1911
1.1912
631
Great Lakes and Middle
W est:
1910
278
4 plants..
1911
239
[1912
242
Total:
(1910 1,330
11 plants
<1911 1.203
(1912 1.203

84
268
245
................
8
62
...
74

665
492
477

90
91
87

i

172
121
125

22
21
30
21

174 1,090
421
688
406
686

24.5
78.1
74.2

38
57
80

.................... 93.8
1.3 10.0 79.2
------ 11.7 75.6

16
5
1

75
84

.......
9.2
8.7

32.4
38.1
36.0

61.9 .........
50.6 .........
51.7
3.3

5.8
2.1
.4

60 .........
62
2.5
82
1.7

13.1
35.0
33.7

82.0
57.2
57.0

4.5
5.2
6.8

6

6
2

6
2
8

73.8
21.9
25.5

1.7
.3
0.8
.3

.5
.2
.7

5.4
9.2
12.7

In addition to the text tables presented in the summary, six general
tables are presented for the plate-mill department, as follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910
to 1912.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1910 to
1912.
Table III.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district, by years, 1910 to
1912.
Table IV.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1912.
Table Y .— Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each year, by districts, 1910 to 1912.
Table V I.— Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in each district, by years, 1910 to 1912.




252

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OE LABOR STATISTICS.

In Tables I and IV, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given The data from these two tables are sum­
marized in the text table on pages 246 and 247.
Tables III and VI repeat the data for the several districts given in
Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the plate mills is presented on
page 24.
D E S C R IP T IO N O F O C C U P A T IO N S .

The following description of occupations refers only to those occupa­
tions which appear in the tables of this report—these being nearly all
of the principal productive occupations in the plate-mill department.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
C H A R G I N G -C R A N E A N D C H A R G I N G -M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R S .

D u t i e s .— Operate levers controlling the various types of charging
cranes and machines used for placing slabs in the furnace and remov­
ing them when properly heated. The most common type consists of
an overhead crane with a suspended revolving carriage on which is
mounted a long arm with a special grip for holding the slab. The
bar is hooked at the end so that it will fit over one end of a slab, the
other end being held by a block controlled by the machine operator,
which pushes the slab tightly into the hook. The whole arrange­
ment is very much like hooking a bent forefinger over a slab and
then holding it in place with the thumb. In charging, the arm is
swung over the trucks on which the slabs are brought from the slab
mill, the arm is lowered and the hook at the end caught over the end
of a slab, the bar carrying the holding block is then shoved up against
the other end of the slab, which is then lifted and swung around in
front of the proper furnace door. The furnace door is opened and
the whole suspended carriage moves forward until the arm is well
inside the furnace, the holding block is released, and the slab left
on the floor of the furnace. Other types of charging machines are
much like those described for the open hearth.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—The character of the work and the amount of
skill and experience required vary widely according to the type of
charging machine as well as the kind of furnace used. In the
majority of cases the work requires a good deal of skill as there are
many levers to be controlled and the work must be done rapidly,
H EATERS.

D u t i e s .—In

charge of the furnaces for reheating slabs. Their
duties are to maintain the proper temperature within the furnaces
and to direct the charging and drawing of the slabs. As a rule the
furnaces are not “ continuous,” the slabs being charged and drawn at
the same end of the furnace.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

253

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

.— A highly skilled occupation, requiring long experi­
ence and considerable practical knowledge of the heat treatment of
metals.
HEATERS* HELPER3.

D ties
u

.— Assist the heater in all his duties. The number employed
and functions performed by them depend largely on the type of
furnace and whether they perform any duties, such as charging slabs,
usually performed by men in separate occupations. They repair bot­
toms in case cinder or sand bottomed furnaces are used, and also
assist in making other repairs. Heaters’ helpers frequently operate
the conveyor which carries the slabs to the rolls.
.— The work is very diversified, requiring in part
highly skilled men and in part relatively unskilled men. Where a
heater has a large number of furnaces under his direction, his first
helpers are highly skilled men, capable of looking after all the details
for the separate furnaces.

Ntu ofw
a re ork

ROLL ENGINEERS.

D ties
u

.— See same occupation named on page 219 (blooming mills).
Very few of the plate mills in this country are reversing, the majority
being “ three high.”
.— Same general conditions as in blooming mills.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

S H E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S — R O L L IN G

CR EW

.

ROLLERS.

D ties
u

.— Supervise and direct the entire process of rolling and
the changing of rolls. Are responsible for the condition of the plate
as it leaves the rolls. In order to give the plate the proper width,
the roller takes advantage of the fact that plate when rolled lengthens
considerably in the direction of rolling, but does not widen to any
appreciable extent at each pass. The slab is accordingly delivered
on the roll table with the long side of the rectangle leading, and
is given enough passes in this direction to extend the plate to almost
the width desired. The roller gauges it after each pass with a long
bar, which has mounted on it a slidable marker. When it reaches
the proper dimension in the direction of rolling, the roller orders
the “ hookers” to give the slab a quarter turn, which brings the
short side first, and the piece is then rolled back and forth until it
is rolled down to the exact width and thickness required. During
this period the roller gauges the thickness of the plate frequently
with calipers. The roller, during the course of rolling, indicates
to the screw man how much nearer the rolls should be brought
together.
.— This is a very responsible and highly skilled
occupation, which requires a special knowledge of the working of

Ntu ofwrk
a re o




254

BULLETIN

OF

THE BUREAU

OF

LABOR STATISTICS.

iron and steel that can be gained only by long experience. It is
impossible to convey in a description the kind and degree of knowl­
edge required to produce uniform plates of the proper width and
thickness on which the loss shall be as little as possible. The roller
must be able to direct the heater when the slabs are not heated
properly.
SCREW M EN.

D ties
u

.— Operate levers D wheel controlling hydraulic or electric
r
mechanism actuating the screw by which the distance between the
rolls is regulated. This mechanism is connected with a dial on which
the distance between the rolls is indicated automatically.
.— This is responsible work, requiring consider­
able experience. The screw man is signaled by the roller from time
to time at what distance to keep the rolls, but the screw man is
responsible for making the proper changes. His position is in a
“ pulpit” not far from the rolls.

N tu of wrk
a re
o

MANIPULATORS.

See manipulators, page 220.
TABLE MEN.

D ties
u

.— Their duties resemble very closely those of the table men
in blooming mills (p. 220). They turn the slabs around when ordered
by the roller and generally assist the manipulator. In many cases
they perform the duties of the “ scalers” shown below under “ roll
hands.” They also frequently regulate the flow of water on the
rolls.
.— Their conditions of work are analogous to that of
the table men in blooming mills.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

ROLL HANDS. OTHER.

D ties
u

.— Include miscellaneous men required by the local condi­
tions as well as the rather definite occupation of “ scalers,” whose
duty is to remove the scale formed on the slab by heating so as to give
a polished, smooth surface to the finished plate. This is done by two
methods, which may be performed by the same man or two separate
occupations may be carried—
salter, who throws salt on the slab,
and (6) sweeper-off, who uses a heavy wire brush and rubs the
scale off.
.— The nature of the work and the skill required
vary considerably, according to the exact duties performed.

(a
)

N tu of wrk
a re o

U N IV E R S A L M I L L S , 4 8 -IN C H — R O L L IN G

CR EW

.

ROLLERS.

D ties
u

.— Duties and responsibilities are the same as for shearedplate mills, the only difference being that the plate instead of being




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

255

turned in order to give the proper width is rolled straight through
with the same end first, the width being determined by the side rolls.
— Same as for rollers in sheared-plate mills.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

SCREW MEN, MAIN ROLL.

D ties.— Same as for screw men, sheared-plate mills.
u
Ntu ofwrk— Same as for screw men, sheared-plate mills.
a re o .
SCREW MEN, SIDE ROLL.

D ties.
u

— Operate the mechanism by which the distance between
the two vertical rollers is regulated. The duties are otherwise the
same as for the screw men, main roll.
— Same as for screw men, main roll, except that
the work is easier.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

ROLL HANDS, OTHER.

Same general class as roll hands, sheared-plate mills.

SHEARMEN.

D ties.
u

— In the mills for sheared plates there are usually two sets
of shears, one for “ end shearing,” in which the long piece of plate,
as it comes from the rolls, is cut across at the proper point; the other,
for “ side shearing, ” takes the pieces as they come from the end shears
and cuts them along the lines marked by the layer out. In either
case the plate is rim out from the roller conveyor on to large “ casters, ”
which may be turned in any direction, set on top of bars of equal
length, fixed in the floor. The plate is moved along these casters,
the shearman at one of the forward corners and the leader at the
other, the plate being pushed by the shearman’s helpers, who hold it
with “ dogs” (short iron bars with a slot in the end which fits over
the edge of the plate). The shearman brings the line marked for
shearing directly under the knife and the leader brings his corner to
the proper point. Then at a signal from the shearman the shear
lever man brings down the shear knife. The shearman is responsible
for the condition of his shears and supervises the work of the entire
shearing crew. Rotary shearmen operate rotary shears by which
curved lines and other patterns for special shapes may be followed.
— The position requires considerable experience
and a very accurate judgment. The responsibility is considerable,
as the shearman by the slightest error may spoil a valuable plate.
He has the supervision of a large crew of men, and it is his duty to
oversee the work of the layers out in order that the greatest possible
amount of salable plate may be got out of the material. The work of
a shearman is comparatively heavy, and is usually done by men of
good physique.

N tu ofwrk
a re o .




256

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF * LABOB STATISTICS.
SHEARMEN’ S HELPERS.

D ties
u

.— Include three grades of helpers: (a) “ Leaders,” who guide
the plate on the casters and “ line it u p ” at the mark where it is to
be cut; (6) “ shear lever m en,” who, at the direction of the shear­
man, pull the lever which operates the knife;
“ shear laborers,”
who, as described above, pull the plate along on the casters and
assist in handling the sheared plates; there are also “ scrap men,”
who clean up the pieces of scrap made in shearing.
.— The leaders are highly skilled men, who may
be considered as being in training for shearmen. Except for the
responsibility and .supervisory duties, their work is of the same
character as that of the shearmen. The work of the other helpers
is not heavy and requires very little skill or experience.

(c)

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

LABORERS.

See page 221 (blooming mills).




257

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.
T able I . — A V E R A G E

F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.
P L A T E M IL L S .
[T h e figures set o p p o site each b ra ck eted grou p o f years are fo r id e n tic a l p lan ts.)

NUMBER.*
6

O ccu p a tion ,
and num ber of
plants.

A v e r­ A v e r­
N u m ­ age
age
b er
fu ll­ rate
of
Y ea r.
tim e
of
em ­
hours w ages
p lo y ­ per
p er
ees.
w eek. h ou r.

E m p lo y e e s earning each
A v e r­
age
fu ll­
12
14
18 20
16
tim e
a n d a n d a n d a n d and
w eek ­
un­ un­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­
ly
der der der d er der
earn­
14
16
18
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

classified rate o f w ages p e r hou r.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
an d
un­
der
50
cts.

50
60
a n d a n d 70
un­ un­ cts.
der der an d
60
70 over
cts. cts.

C harging-crane
an d chargingm ach in e o p ­
erators:
41
39
38
56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

.508 36.35
.468 32.46
.513 35.78

111
108
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

.243 16.98
.227 15.31
.247 16.71

\1911

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

.300 21.45
.290 20.55
.289 20.78

f 1910

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

.712 48.18
.607 41.46
.729 50.03

\1911

l 1912

28
28
27

68.6
68.6
68.8

.421 28.75
.393 26.95
.446 30.67

[ 1910
\1911
[ 1912

26
28
28

68.4
68.1
68.1

.318 21.64
.300 20.44
.341 23.24

{ 1911

73
72
69

68.3
68.1
68.3

.262 17.88
.246 16.81
.279 19.07

f 1910

14
14
14

68.0
68.9
68.9

.263 17.71
.242 16.64
.279 19.16

8
7
6

69.5
68.4
67.8

.636 44.22
.584 40.31
.581 39.78

8
7
7

69.5
66.6
66.6

.470 32.75
.421 28.23
.407 27.38

\1911

l 1912

H eaters:
11 p la n t s .. .

11
10
7

{ 1910
\1911
l 1912

5
4

16
7
7

8
15
14

6
1
4

1
1

1

4
3
3

71.6 $0,303 $21.85
69.4
.283 19.70
.315 21.85
69.1

f 1910

9 p la n ts ___

8
15
9

12
11
6

20
21
24

8
4
9

4
1
2

H eaters7 h elp ­
ers:
f 1910

10 p l a n t s .. .

\1911

l 1912

19
17
14

14
16
16

22
33
38

28
19
19

6
5
7

12
7
7

2
3
3

2

2
3
3

14
16
16

12
10
10

2
3
3

2

6
1

2
2
2

4
4
6

2
3
2

2
6
2

12
7
12

1
1

10
11

4
6
4

10
10
9

6
4
3

4
5
4

4
2
5

1

4

2
3
1

4
2
3

R o ll engineers:
f 1910

11 p l a n t s .. .

l 1912

R oilers,shearedp late m ills:
9 p la n ts ___

\1911

l 1912

6

S crew
m en,
sheared-plate
m ills:
f 1910

9 p la n ts ___
M a nip u la tors,
sheared-plate
m ills:
9 p la n ts ____
T a b le
m en,
sheared-plate
m ills:

f 1910

9 p la n ts ___

l 1912

1
1

2

4
3

2
3

8
9
4

6
4
8

2

8
5
8

2

12
g

18
18
13

19
12
21

8
9
3

20
12
12

2
6
10

2

* 5
2

2
3
3

3

R o ll h a n d s ,
other,shearedp late m ills:
6 p la n ts ___

\1911

l 1912

2
2

4
2

2
2

6
2
2

R ollers, u n iv er­
sal milLs, 48in ch :
f 1910

4 p la n ts ___

\1911

l 1912

2
2
2

S crew
m en,
m a in
rolls,
u n iv e r s a l
m ills, 48-inch:
f 1910

4 p la n ts ___

\1911

l 1912

44929°— B u ll. 1 5 1 -1 4 -




-1 7

1
2

2
1

2
4
4

2
1
1

2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

258
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

PLATE MILLS — Continued.
N U M B E R — C on clu d ed .

O ccu p a tion ,
a n d n u m b er o f
plan ts.

N um ­
b er
of
Y ea r.
em ­
p lo y ­
ees.

A v e r­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
w eek .

A v e r­
age
rate
of
w ages
p er
hou r.

E m p lo y e e s earning each
A v e r­
age
fu ll­
14
12
18 20
16
t im e
an d a n d a n d a n d and
w eek­
u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
d er der der der der
earn­
14
16
18
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

classified rate o f w ages p e r h ou r.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
50
an d a n d 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts.
der der a n d
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

S crew m en,side
rolls, u n iv er­
sal m ills, 48in ch :
f 1910

69.2 $0,314 $21.77
66.3
.296 19.80
66.3 .271 18.12

4
4

\1911

10
9
9

f 1910

4 p la n ts ___

6
4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

.299 20.93
.299 21.55
.288 20.74

1912

70
66
68

67.5
68.0
68.2

.378 25.69
.356 24.45
.386 26.61

1910
1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

.215 14.71
.206 14.20
.223 15.42

14
14
14

1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

.159 10.68
.158 10.51
.160 11.04

63
65
75

l 1912

4
4
5

4

2
1

R o ll h a n d s ,
oth er.
u n i­
versal m ills,
48-inch:
2

p la n ts __

1 1911

1 1912

2
2
2

4
2
2

S hearm en:
f
p l a n t s .. .
l
S h earm en ’ s
helpers:
f
11 p l a n t s ..-j
.
[
L aborers:
f
11 p l a n t s ..*
.!
l

1910

\1911

11

1
1

9
9
8

14
16
17

23
21
19

7
7
8

31
45
4

145 73
48 178
98 145

76
55
69

55
62
18

64
26
78

2
1
6

36
26
21

253
183
187

8
9
9

4
3
7

4

3
4

PER CENT.

Charging-crane
a n d chargingm ach in e o p ­
erators:
9 p la n ts ___

41
39
38

71.6 $0,303 $21.85
69.4
.283 19.70
.315 21.85 ......... —
69.1

1910
1911
1912

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

.508 36.35
.468 32.46
.513 35.78

1910
1911
1912

111
108
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

.243 16.98
9 .0 17.1 12.6 19.8 25.2
.227 15.31 . . . . . 10.2 15.7 14.8 30.6 17.6
.247 16.71
13.9 15.8 37.6 18.8

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

.300 21.45
.290 20.55
.289 20.78

1910
1911
1912

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

.712 48.18
.607 41.46
.729 50.03

1910
1911
1912

28
28
27

68.6
68.6
68.8

.421 28.75
.393 26.95
.446 30.67 ......... . . . . ......... ___

H eaters:
11

p l a n t s .. .

26.8 39.0 19.5 14.6
12.8 25.6 17.9 38.5 2 .6
......... 10.5 18.4 18.4 36.8 10.5

1910
1911
1912

2.6
2.6 2.6 .........

7.1 14.3 21.4 35.7 14.3
5.5 27.3 20.0 38.2 7.3
5 .7 17.0 11.3 45.3 17.0

7.1
1 .8
3 .8

H eaters’ h elp­
ers:
10 p l a n t s .. .

5 .4 10.8
4.6 6.5 ......... . . . . .........
6 .9 6.9

R o ll engineers:
11 p l a n t s .. .

5 .6 5 .6 5 .6 38.9 33.3
8 .6 45.7 28.6
8 .6
8.6
8 .6 45.7 28.6

5 .6
8 .6
8 .6

5 .6

R ollers, sheared-plate m ills:
9 p la n ts ___

21.4
*2L4
4.0

7.1 14.3 7.1 7.1 42.9
7.1 14.3 10.7 21.4 25.0
8 .0 24.0 8 .0 8 .0 48.0

S crew m e n ,
sheared-plate
m ills:
9 p la n ts ___




14.3 35.7 21.4 14.3 14.3
3 .6 21.4 35.7 14.3 17.9 7.1
3 .7 14.8 33.3 11.1 14.8 18.5 “ 3*7

259

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS,
T

I . —A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

PLATE MILLS — Continued.
P E R C E N T — C o n clu d e d .

O c cu p a tio n ,
a n d n u m b er o f
plan ts.

A v e r­ A v e r­
N um ­
age
age
ber
full­ rate
of
tim e
Y e a r.
of
em ­
hours w ages
p lo y ­ p er
p er
ees.
w eek. h ou r.

E m p lo y e e s earning each
A v e r­
age
fu ll­
18 20
14
12
16
tim e
and and an d and an d
w eek ­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
d er der der der der
earn ­
18
14
16
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

classified rate o f w ages p e r h ou r.

25
an d
un­
der
30
cts.

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
60
an d and 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts.
der der an d
60
70 o v e r .
cts. cts.

M a n ip u la t o r s ,
sheared-plate
m ills:
1910
1911
1912

26
28
28

68.4 $0.318 $21.64
68.1
.300 20.44
.341 23.24
68.1

30.8 23.1 15.4 30.8
3 .6 7.1 32.1 14.3 25.0 17.9
3 .6 10.7 14.3 28.6 7.1 28.6

1910
1911
1 1912

73
72
69

68.3
68.1
68.3

.262 17.88
.246 16.81
.279 19.07

24.7 26.0 11.0 27.4 2.7
2.7 5.5
4.2 16.'7 25.0 16.7 12.5 16.7 8.3
11.6 18.8 30.4 4.3 17.4 14.5
-

f

1910
1911
1912

14
14
14

68.0
68.9
68.9

.263 17.71
.242 16.64
.279 19.16

1910
1911
1912

8
7
6

69.5
68.4
67.8

.636 44.22
.584 40.31
.581 39.78

1910
1911
1912

8
7
7

69.5
66.6
66.6

.470 32.75
.421 28.23
.407 27.38

1910
1911
1912

10
9
9

69.2
66.3
66.3

.314 21.77
.296 19.80
.271 18.12

\
[

f

1910
1911
1912

6
4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

.299 20.93
.299 21.55
.288 20.74

\

r

1910
1911
1912

70
66
68

67.5
68.0
68.2

.378 25.69
....
.356 24.45 ......... . . . .
.386 26.61

f

1910
1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

.215 14.71
.206 14.20
.223 15.42

1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

.8
.159 10.68 17.7 10.1 71.3
.158 10.51 23.7 9.5 66.8
.160 11.04 26.1 7.3 65.2 1.4

f

9 p la n ts ___

\
l

T a b le
m en,
sheared-plate
m ills:
f

9 p la n ts ___

\

R o ll h a n d s ,oth er, shearedp late m ills:
6 p la n ts ___

\
l

7.1

.....

. . . . .........

2.9

28.6 14.3
14.3 42.9
35*7 21.4
H .3 14.3
i4 .3 ___ •
14.3
ii* 3 14.3 21.4 2 L 4 14.3

R ollers,
un i­
versal m ills,
48-inch:
f
4 p la n ts ___ i
l
S crew
m en,
m a in
rolls.
u n iv e r s a l
m ills,48-inch:
4 p la n ts ___

[
\
l

25.0
28.6

25.0 -50.0
42.9 28.6
16.7 50.0

33.3

28.6

25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
14.3 14.3 57.1 14.3
57.1 14 3

Screw
m en.
side rolls,u n i­
versal m ills,
48-inch:
(
4 p la n ts ___ ^

[

40.0
44.4
44.*4

40.0 20.0
44.4 11.1
55.6

R o ll h a n d s ,oth ­
er. u n iv ersal
m ills,48-inch:
2 p la n ts ___

33.3 66.7
50.0 50.0
50.0 50.0

S hearm en:
11 p l a n t s .. .

l

.....
.....

1.4 12.9 20.0 32.9 10.0 11.4 5 .7
1.5 13.6 24.2 31.8 10.6 13.6 4.5
11.8 25.0 27.9 11.8 13.2 10.3

5 .7

_

S h earm en ’ s
helpers:
11 p l a n t s .. .
L aborers:

\
(
(

11 p l a n t s .. . J
l




3.0 6.7 31.5 15.9 16.5 12.0 13.9
3.3 10.5 11.2 41.5 12.8 14.5 6.1
3.2
.9 22.7 33.6 16.0 4.2 18.1

.4
.2
1.4

..... __ .....
____
.....

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

260
T

I I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912.

able

PLATE MILLS—Continued.
[T h e a b b r e v ia tio n “ G . L . a n d M . W .” in th e first or rea d in g c o lu m n stands for “ G reat L a k es a n d M id d le
W e s t ." ]

C H A R G IN G -C R A N E AN D C H A R G IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R S.

A ver­
N um ­
age
N u m ­ ber
fu ll­
ber
Y e a r a n d d is­
of
tim e
em ­
of
tr ic t.
h ou rs
p lan ts. p lo y ­
per
ees.
w eek.

A ver­
age
rate
of
w ages
per
h o u r.

N um ber
A ver­
age
fu ll­
12
tim e
14
w e e k ­ an d a n d
un­ un­
ly
earn­ d er der
14
ings.
16
cts. cts.

o f e m p lo y e e s ea rn in g each classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

16
18 1 20
and and and
u n ­ un­ u n ­
d er der der
18
20 25
cts. cts. cts.

25
and
un­
d er
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
a n d 70
un­ cts.
der a n d
70 over.
cts.

1910.
E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G . L .a n d M . W .

2
3
4

$
20
13

67.9 $0,242 $16.41
71.4
.302 21.58
74.3
.343 25.61

T o t a l. . . .

9

41

71.6

.303 21.85

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G. L .a n d M . W .

2
3
4

&
20
11

66.2
70.8
69.3

.221 14.61
.273 19.42
.346 23.90

1
4

T o ta l........

9

39

69.4

.283 19.70

5

E a s te rn ..............
P itts b u r g h ........
G. L .a n d M . W .

2
3
4

8
20
10

66.2
70.8
67.9

.240 15.85
.314 22.39
.378 25.55

4

T o t a l........

9

38

69.1

.315 21.85

4

6
4
1

2
8
6

8

11

16

8

6

5
4
1

2

1

8
7

1

1

10

7

15

1

1

6

2
4
1

8
6

4
1

1

7

14

4

1

1

8

6
2
4

2
16
2

4

2
2

20

8

4

12
9

3
1

1

21

4

1

15
9

9

24

9

6

1911.

4

1912.

7

H E A T E R S.
1910.

Eastern

2
5
4

20
24
12

68.2 $0,368 $25.20
71.5 .586 41.90
74.5 .587 43.85

4

P ittsb u rg h
G. L .a n d M . W .
T o ta l........

11

56

71.0

.508 36.35

4

8

12

E a s te r n ..............
P itts b u r g h ........
G .L .a n d M . W .

2
5
4

20
24
11

66.8
71.0
69.3

.351 23.54
.518 36.76
569 39.31

3

15

2
9

T o ta l........

11

55

69.1

.468 32.46

3

15

11

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u rg h ........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
4

18
24
11

67.0
71.0
69.9

.365 24.47
.585 41.62
.599 41.54

3

9

6

T o ta l........

11

53

69.4

.513 35.78

3

9

4

1911.

1913.

6

H E A TE R S’ H E LPE R S.
1910.
67.7 $0,198 $13.44
.264 19.09
72.4
70.5
.383 26.86

10

69.5

.243 16.98

60
34
14

65.5
71.3
65.1

108

67.3

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G. L . a n d M . W .

2
5
3

62
34
15

T o ta l........

10

111

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G . L .a n d M . W .

2
5
3

T o ta l........

10

17
2

10
4

16
4
2

9
18
1

6

10

19

14

22

28

6

12

.191 12.50
.242 17.27
.347 22.58

11

15
2

12
4

15
16
2

7
10
2

2
3

7

.227 15.31

11

17

16

33

19

5

7

12

1911.




2
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.
T

261

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

P L A T E M IL L S — Continued.
H E A TE R S’ H E LPE R S—Concluded.

Y e a r an d dis­
trict.

N um ber
A ver­
A ver­ A ver­
N um ­
age
age
age
fu ll­
N um ­ ber
full­ rate
14
12
tim e
ber
of
tim e
of
w eek­ a n d an d
em ­
of
hours wages
un­ un­
plants. p lo y ­
ly
per
per
earn­ der d e r
ees.
w eek. hou r.
14
16
ings.
cts. cts.

o f em p lo y e e s e arn in g ea ch classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

18
16
and and
un­ un­
d er d e r
18
20
cts. cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
an d
un­
der
30
cts.

40
30
a n d 1a n d
un­ *un­
d er der
40
50
cts. cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
u n ­ cts.
d e r and
70 over.
cts.

1912.
2
5
3

54
34
13

T o ta l........

10

•101

65.5 $0,208 $13.59
71.3 .259 18.50
65.9 .382 24.98

12
2

12
4

24
12
2

6
9
4

7

67.5

Eastern .............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

14

16

38

19

7

7

2

2

2
6
6

2
8
2

2

2

1
4

12

2

3

4
6
6

8
2

2
1

.247 16.71

7

R O L L EN G IN E E RS.
1910.
2
5
4

10
16
10

68.0 $0,236 $16.00
.327 23.93
73.3
72.0 .319 22.93

2

11

36

71.5

.300 21.45

2

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u rg h __ __
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
4

10
16
9

65.6
74.9
69.3

.234 15.37
.318 23.65
.301 20.79

3 ....

T o ta l........

11

35

70.8

.290 20.55

3 ....

3

16

10

3

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h __ __
G. L . a n d M . W .

2
5
4

10
16
9

65.6
75.7
70.7

.230 15.11
.316 23.81
.306 21.71

3 ....

3

4
6
6

8
2

2
1

T o ta l........

11

35

71.5

.289 20.78

3

16

10

3

2

2
2

E a s tern ...............
P ittsburgh
G. L . an d M. W .
T o ta l........

2

2
___ |
.........
2

1911.

1912.

3

R O L LE R S, SH E A R E D -PLA TE M IL L S .
1910.
2
5
2

12
12
4

67.7 $0,347 $23.46
69.5 .800 55.56
67.6 1.540 100.20

6

9

28

68.4

6

2
5
2

12
12
4

65.4
.346 22.66
71.0
.687 48.82
67.6 1.149 75.79

6,

9

28

68.1

6

2

4

E astern _____
P ittsburgh
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

9
12
4

65.4
.421 27.55
71.0 .794 56.52
67.6 1.224 81.12

1

2

6

T o ta l........

9

25

68.5

E astern
P ittsb u rg h
G. L . a n d M . W .
Total

2
2

2

4

2

2

2

12

3

.712 48.18

10
2

6

3
4

3

6

7

4

1911.
E astern
P itts b u r g h __ _
G . L .a n d M .W .
T ota l

.607 41.46

1913.




.729 50.03

2

8
4

2
1

2

6

2

2

12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

262

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

PLATE MILLS — Continued.
SC R E W M EN , SH E A R E D -PLA TE M IL L S .

Y e a r an d dis­
tr ic t.

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s earning each classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.
A v e r­
A ver­ A ver­
age
N um ­
age
age
full­
N um ­ ber
full­ rate tim e
12
14
16
18 20
25
40
30
50
60
b er
of
tim e
of
w eek­ an d and an d an d an d an d an d a n d an d and 70
em ­
of
hou rs wages
u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ cts. •
plan ts. p l o y ­
ly
p er
per
earn­ d er der der der der d er der der d e r der and
ees.
w eek. hou r.
14
16
18
40
20 25
30
70 o ve r.
60
ings.
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.

Eastern______
P itts b u rg h ........
G . L .a n d M . W .

2
5
2

10
14
4

67.2 $0,313 $21.00
.468 32.47
69.9
.524 35.11
67.6

2
2

8
2

T o t a l____

9

28

68.6

.421 28.75

4

E a s te rn ..............
P itts b u rg h .........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

10
14
4

65.6
71.1
67.6

.317 20.77
.395 28.08
.574 38.45

1

T o t a l____

9

28

68.6

.393 26.95

E a s t e r n .._. ____
P itts b u r g h .........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

9
14
4

65.6
71.1
67.6

T o t a l____

9

27

68.8

4
2

2
2

4

10

6

4

4

3
3

6
4

4

3
2

2

1

6

10

4

5

2

.349 22.88
.447 31.86
.656 44.00

1

2
2

6
3

1
2

2
2

4
1

1

.446 30.67

1

4

9

3

4

5

1

2
2

6
2

4

8

5
2

1
4

7

5

2

6
2

2

2

8

2

1911.

1912.

M A N IP U L A TO R S, SH E A R E D -PLA TE M IL L S .
1910.
2
5
2

8
14
4

67.0 $0,245 $16.44
69.4
.330 23.44
.386 25.75
67.6

4
4

4
2

G .L .a n d M .W .
T o t a l ____

9

26

68.4

.318 21.64

8

6

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

8
14
6

65.6
70.3
66.2

.229 15.01
.289 20.49
.420 27.58

1
2

5
4

2
2

T o t a l____

9

28

68.1

.300 20.44

1

2

9

4

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G . L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

8
14
6

65.6
70.3
66.2

.256 16.77
.330 23.39
.480 31.52

1

2
1

4

6
2

T o t a l....

9

28

68.1

.341 23.24

1

E a s te rn ...........

Pittsburgh

__

1911.

1912.

3

4

8

TA B L E M EN , SH E A R E D -PLA TE M IL L S .
1910.
E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

30
30
13

66.9 $0,194 $13.02
69.8
.301 20.92
68.0
.330 22.08

2

T o t a l____

9

73

68.3

.262 17.88

2




4

4

14
4

10
4 8
5

18

19

14
6
8

2

20

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS,

263

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
P L A T E M I L L S — Continued.

TABLE MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

Y e a r an d dis­
trict.

A ver­
N um ­
age
N u m ­ ber
full­
ber
of
tim e
em ­
of
hou rs
plants. p lo y ­
per
ees.
w eek.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
p er
h ou r.

N um ber
A ver­
age
full­
12
14
tim e
w eek ­ a n d a n d
un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der
14
16
ings.
cts. cts.

o f em p lo y e e s earning each classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

16
18
a n d an d
u n ­ un­
der der
20
18
cts. cts.

20
an d
un­
der
25
cts.

40
an d
un­
der
50
cts.

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

25
an d
un­
der
30
cts.

50
60
a n d and 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts.
d er der a n d
70 over.
60
cts. cts.

1911.

Eastern...........
Pittsburgh__

8
10

4
8

3
6

12

18

12

9

.209 13.70
.281 20.01
.430 28.79

3
5

8
5

13
8

3

.279 19.07

8

13

21

3

G .L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

30
30
12

65.7 $0.188 $12.36
70.8
.250 17.75
67.6
.382 25.55

T o t a l....

9

72 , 68.1

.246 16.81

G .L .a n d M .W .

2
5
2

27
30
12

65.7
70.8
67.6

T o t a l____

9

69

68.3

3

3

12

6
6

6

12

6

6
6

6
4

2

12

10

2

1912.

Eastern........
Pittsburgh

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS. .
1910.
E a s te rn ..............
P itts b u rg h ........
G .L .a n d M .W .

1
4
1

2
10
2

68.0 $0,176 $11.97
69.0
.254 17.42
63.3
.394 24.92

2
2

2

....

2

4
2

T o t a l....

6

14

68.0

.263 17.71

4

2

—

2

6

E a s te r n ..............
P itts b u r g h ........
G .L .a n d M .W .

1
4
1

2
10
2

65.3
70.8
63.3

.162 10.57
.223 15.87
.420 26.57

2

T o t a l ____

6

14

68.9

.242 16.64

2

E a s te r n ..............
P itts b u r g h .........
G .L .a n d M .W .

1
4
1

2
10
2

65.3
70.8
63.3

.181 11.81
.258 18.42
.477 30.17

2

T o t a l____

6

14

68.9

.279 19.16

2

1911.
2
5

3

5

3

2

3

3

2

3

3

2
2

—

2

1912.
2
2
2

2

ROLLERS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1910.
E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........

1
1
2

2
2
4

68.0 $0,327 $22.24
66.0
.819 54.05
72.0
.699 50.29L . a n d M . W .
G.

2

T o t a l ____

4

8

69.5

.636 44.22

2

E a s te r n ..............
P itts b u r g h ........
G .L .a n d M .W .

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3
72.0
68.0

.314 20.49
.739 53.17
.662 44.94

2

T o t a l....

4

7

68.4

.584 40.31

2

E a s te r n ..............
P itts b u r g h ........
G . L . a n d M .W .

1
1
2

2
2
2

65.3
72.0
66.0

.290 18.92
.744 53.53
.708 46.90

2

T o t a l____

4

6

67.8

.581 39.78

2

2
2
2

4

1911.
2
3
3

2

1

2
1

1

3

1912.




2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

264

T able I I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
PLATE

AVERAGE
YEAR, BY

M I L L S — Continued.

S C R E W M E N , M A I N R O L L S , U N IV E R S A L M I L L S , 4 8 -I N C H .

N um N um ­ ber
ber
Year and dis­
of
em­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Ayerage
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Average
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
16 18 2C 25
30
40
50
60
time 12 14
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
18 20 25 30
ings. 14 16
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.

1

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .

1
1
2

2
2
4

68.0 $0.321 $21.79
66.0 .532 35.11
72.0 .515 37.04

2

Total.......

4

8

69.5

.470 '32.75

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3
72.0
64.0

.306 19.93
.501 36.04
.444 28.57

1

Total.......

4

7

66.6

.421 28.23

1

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh__ __
G. L .a n d M . W .

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3
72.0
64.0

.242 15.79
.488 35.14
.463 29.94

2

Total.......

4

7

66.6

.407 27.38

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1
3

1

4

1

1911.
1

1

i

1912.

i
2
2

1

4

1

S C R E W M E N , S ID E R O L L S , U N IV E R S A L M I L L S , 4 8 -I N C H .
1

1910.
1
1
2

4
2
4

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W .
Total.......

68.0 $0,244 $16.59
66.0 .375 24.75
72.0 .354 25.45

i
1

10

69.2

.314 21.77

|
1

1
1
2

4
2
3

65.3
72.0
64.0

.236 15.39
.355 25.56
.337 21.82

4

4

9

66.3

.298 19.80

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

1
1
2

4
2
3

65.3
72.0
64.0

.194 12.66
.345 24.84
.324 20.91

Total.......

4

9

66.3

.271 18.12

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh__ _
G. L .a n d M . W .
Total.......

4
2
2

2

4

4

2

1911.
2
2

1

4

1

1913.
4
i
1
1
i

2
3
4

5

R O L L H A N D S , O T H E R , U N IV E R S A L M I L L S , 4 8 -I N C H .
1910.
Pittsburgh
G. L .andM . W .
Total

1
1

2
4

66.0 $0,288 $19.01
72.0 .304 21.-89

2

2

6

70.0

2




.299 20.93

4
4

"

"

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOB— PLATE MILLS.
T

265

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D I S T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

PLATE

M I L L S — Continued.

BOLL HANDS, OTHER, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH—Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
ber
of
rea r and dis­
em­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

A ver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
40
30
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
30
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1911.
1
1

2
2

72.0 $0,275 $19.76
72.0 .324 23.33

2

2

4

72.0

.299 21.55

2

Pittsburgh__ _
G. L. and M. W .

1
1

2
2

72.0
72.0

.264 19.01
.312 22.46

2

Total.......

2

4

72.0

.288 20.74

2

2

5
3
6

6
10
7

5
2

6
2

4

4

* 2
9

14

23

7

8

4

4

7
2

8
2
6

2
12
7

6
1

8
1

3

9

16

21

7

9

3

Pittsburgh__
G. L .a n d M .W .
Total.......

2
2

1913.
2

SHEARMEN.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
4

18
33
19

66.4 $0,265 $17.64
68.2 .471 32.12
67.5 .324 22.17

1

Total.......

11

70

67.5

.378 25.69

1

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
4

17
32
17

65.8
70.1
66.2

.254 16.66
.429 30.06
.323 21.67

1

Total.......

11

66

68.0

.356 24.45

1

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M. W .

2
5
4

16
34
18

65.9
70.2
66.6

.273 17.94
.465 32.69
.337 22. S3

4
2
2

10
1
6

2
9
8

6
2

9

7

Total.......

11

68

68.2

.386 26.61

8

17

19

8

9

7

7

1911.

1913.

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
4

87
238
135

66.9 $0.175 $11.69
69.4 .243 16.76
67.5 .192 13.04

10
4

30
1

21
49
75

2
29
42

24
48
4

45
10

60
4

2

Total.......

11

460

68.4

.215 14.71

14

31

145

73

76

55

64

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M . W .

2
5
4

87
229
113

65.4
70.9
65.8

.166 10.83
.223 15.82
.204 13.52

10
4

45

4
38
6

25
61
92

3
48
4

58
4

19
7

1

Total.......

11

429

68.4

.206 14.20

14

45

48 178

55

62

26

1

1911.




266

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table I I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.
P L A T E M I L L S — Continued.
S H E A R M E N ’ S H E L P E R S —Concluded.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
of
ber
Year and dis­
em ­
trict.
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

40
25
30
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
50
30
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

20
80
45

28
37
4

i7
1

66
12

6

98 145

69

18

78j

6

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

2
5
4

81
231
120

65.4 $0,182 $11.94
70.8 .248 17.58
66.5 .203 13.60

10
4

4

Total.......

11

432

68.6

14

4

.223 15.42

19
21
58

LABO RERS.
1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. andM. W .

2
5
4

68
256
31

62.6 $0,131 $8.19
67.5 .167 11.24
70.5 .164 11.52

63

Total.......

11

355

66.8

.159 10.68

E a s te rn ...........
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
5
4

71
178
25

61.4
67.7
69.1

Total.......

11

274

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
•5
4

Total.......

11

5
23
8

230
23

3

63

36

253

3

.131 8.08
.168 11.37
.164 11.32

65

6
14
6

164
19

66.2

.158 10.51

65

26

183

80
184
23

61.3
71.0
71.0

.131 8.06
.173 12.25
.165 11.73

75

5
14
2

166
21

4

287

68.3

.160 11.04

75

21

187

4

1911.

1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

267

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

P E R H O U R IN E A C H D IS T R IC T ,

P L A T E M IL L S — Continued.

“

[The abbreviation G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle
W est. ” The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

CHARGING-CRANE AND CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

District, and
number of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em ­
p loy­
ees.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age full­
full­ rate
tim e 12 14
16 18 20
25
40
30
50 60
tim e
of
hours wages week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings.
14 16
18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
i

Eastern:
f 1910
2 p la n t s .... ] 1911
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
1910
1911
3 p la n t s ....
l 1912
G. L.and M .W .:
f 1910
4 p la n t s .... 1911
l 1912

[
\

\

8
8
8

67.9 $0,242 $16.41
66.2 .221 14.61
66.2 .240 15.85

20
20
20

71.4
70.8
70.8
74.3
69.3
67.9

I
i
" * ' l ........

4
4

8
4
4
6
1
1

7
6

4
3
3

.343 25.61
.346 23.90
.378 25.55

4
4

2
2
2

1
1
1

.302 21.58
.273 19.42
.314 22.39

13
11
10

1

6
5
6

8
15
9

8
8
8

" " ! ........
___ i........
i

4
6
1

1
1

1
( ...

.
1

HEATERS.
Eastern:
6
2
6

2

.586 41.90
.518 36.76
.585 41.62

2
9

16
12
15

4
3
9

2

.587 43.85
.569 39.31
.599 41.54

4

2
9
9

....

4
1

2
1
2

1910
1911
1912

20
20
18

68.2 $0,368 $25.20
66.8 .351 23.54
67.0 .365 24.47

1910
1911
p la n ts ....
1912
G. L.and M .W .:
1910
1911
4 p la n ts ...
1912

24
24
24

71.5
71.0
71.0

12
11
11

74.5
69.3
69.9

2 p la n ts ....
Pittsburgh:
5

HEATERS’ HELPERS.
Eastern:
2 p la n t s ....

1910
1911
1912

67.7 $0,198 $13.44
65.5 .191 12.50
65.5 .208 13.59

1910
1911
1912

72.4
71.3
71.3

.264 19.09
.242 17.27
.259 18.50

1910
1911
1912

70.5
65.1
65.9

.383 26.86
.347 22.58
.382 24.98

10
11

Pittsburgh:
5 p la n t s ....

18
10
9

G. L.and M .W .:
3 p la n t s ....

1.
2

ROLL ENGINEERS.
Eastern:
1910
1911
p la n ts ...
1912
Pittsburgh:
1910
1911
5 p la n t s ....
1912
G. L .and M .W .:
1910
1911
4 p la n t s ....
1912
2




2
4
4

2

.327 23.93
.318 23.65
.316 23.81

6
6
6

8
8
8

2
2

.319 22.93
.301 20.79
.306 21.71

6
6
6

2
2
2

2
1
1

10
10
10

68.0 $0,236 $16.00
65.6 .234 15.37
65.6 .230 15.11

16
16
16

73.3
74.9
75.7

10
9
9

72.0
69.3
70.7

2
3
3

2

2
3
3

268
T

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D I S T R I C T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

PLATE

M I L L S — Continued.

R O L L E R S , SH E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S .

District, and
number o f
plants.

Eastern:

N um ber
of
Year.
em ­
p loy­
ees.

A verage
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Average
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
50 60
14 16 18 20 25
tim e 12
30
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
50
40
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

[ 1910

12
12
9

67.7 $0,347 $23.46
65.4 .346 22.66
65.4 .421 27.55

\1911

1910

12
12
12

69.5
71.0
71.0

1910

4
4
4

2 plants___ {
l
Pittsburgh:
f
5 p la n ts ....
l
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f
4 p la n t s ....

1911
1912

1912

\1911
[ 1912

6
6
1

2
2
2

.800 55.56
.687 48.82
.794 56.52

2
4
6

2

2
3
2

67.6 1.540 100.20
67.6 1.149 75.79
67.6 1.224 81.12

2

SC R E W M EN , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S .
Eastern:

10
10
9

67.2 $0.313 $21.00
65.6 .317 20.77
65.6 .349 22.88

1910
1911
1912

14
14
14

69.9
71.1
71.1

.468 32.47
.395 28.08
.447 31.86

1910

4
4
4

67.6
67.6
67.6

.524 35.11
.574 38.45
.656 44.00

f 1910

2 plants___

\1911

l 1912

1

2
3
2

8
6
6

2
3
2

2
4
3

Pittsburgh:
(
5 plants___ {
l
G, L. & M. W .:
f
2 plants___
l

\1911

1912

1

M A N IP U L A T O R S , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S .
Eastern:

8
8
8

f 1910
1
2 plants___ • 1911
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1910
1911
5 plants___
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
1911
2 plants___
l 1912

.4
4

67.0 $0.245 $16
65.6 .229 15.01
65.6 .256 16.77

\

14
14
14

69.4
70.3
70.3

4
6
6

67.6
66.2
66.2

4
5

1

4
2
6

4
4
4

2
2
2

2

.339 23.44
.289 20.49
.330 23.39

\

.386 25.75
.420 27.58
.480 31.52

2
1

2
5

6
1
6

2
2
2

1

2
4
2

14
6
6

6

6
6
6

2
6
4

2

T A B L E M EN, S H E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S .

2 plants___
Pittsburgh:
5 plants___
G .L .a n d M .W .:
2 plants___

1910
1911
1912

30
30
27

66.9 $0.194 $13.02
65.7 .188 12.36
65.7 .209 13.70

1910
1911
1912

{

30
30
30

69.8
70.8
70.8

.301 20.92
.250 17.75
.281 20.01

1910
1911
1912

13
12
12

68.0
67.6
67.6

.330 22.08
.382 25.55
.430 28.79

I
I




2

4
3

■ co
e*
•
r-<

Eastern:

6
2

14
8
8

10.
4
13

4
10
5

4
8

5

2

10
3
8
2
4
4

269

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE M ILLS.

T a b l e H I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H D IS T R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
P L A T E M I L L S — Continued.
B O L L H AN DS, O TH E R , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S .

District, and
number of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em ­
p loy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
30
40
60
50
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
50
60
70 over.
40
16 18 20 25 30
ings. 14
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Eastern:
f 1910

1 plant........

\1911

1 1912

2
2
2

68.0 $0.176 $11.97
65.3 .162 10.57
65.3 .181 11.81

2
2
2

2

Pittsburgh:
f 1910
4 plants___ i 1911
1912
G .L. a n d M .W .:
f 1910
1 plant........ i 1911
l 1912

[

10
10
10

69.0
70.8
70.8

.254 17.42
.223 15.87
.258 18.42

2
2
2

63.3
63.3
63.3

.394 24.92
.420 26.57
.477 30.17

2
2

2
"* 5
2

2
3
3

4
3
2
2
2

. . . | ............

i

.

R O L L E R S , U N IV E RSA L M IL L S , 48-IN C H .
*

1

Eastern:

\

2
2
2

68.0 $0.327122.24
65.3 .314 20.49
65.3 .290 18.92

\

2
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

.819 54.05
.739 53.17
.744 53.53

\

4
3
2

72.0
68.0
66.0

.699 50.29
.662 44.94
.708 46.90

f 1910
1 plant........ 1911
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1910
1 plant........
1911
l 1912
G.L. and M .W .:
f 1910
2 plants___
1911
l 1912

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
1

SC R E W M EN, M A IN R O L L S , U N IV E RSA L M IL L S , 48-IN C H .

2
2
2

1
68.0 $0.321 $21.79
65.3 .306' 19.93
65.3 .242 15.79

\1911

2
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

.532 35.11
.501 36.04
.488 35.14

f 1910

4
3
3

72.0
64.0
64.0

.515 37.04
.444 28.57
.463 29.94

Eastern:
f 1910

1 plan t........

\1911

l 1912

2

1

2
1

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

1 plant

l 1912

1
2

2
1

G .L .a n d M .W .:
2 plants___

\1911
[ 1912

|

2
3
2

........i........

S C R E W M EN, SIDE R O L L S , U N IVERSAL M IL L S , 48-IN C H .
Eastern:
4
4
4

68.0 $0,244 $16.59
65.3 .236 15.39
65.3 .194 12.66

\1911

l 1912

2
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

.375 24.75
.355 25.56
.345 24.84

f 1910
1911
2 plants___
1912

4
3
3

72.0
64.0
64.0

.354 25.45
.337 21.82
.324 20.91

f 1910

1 plant........

\1911

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

1 plan t........
G .L .and M . T 7.:
V

\
[




2
1

2
1

270

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D IS T R IC T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.
P L A T E M I L L S — Continued.
R O L L H A N D S , O T H E R , U N IV E R S A L M I L L S , 4 8 -I N C H .

District, and
num ber of
plants.

N um ­
b er
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

50 60
30
40
25
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ u n ­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
50
30
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

1 plan t........

\1911

l 1912

2
2
2

66.0 $0,288 $19.01
72.0 .275 19.76
72.0 .264 19.01

4
2
2

72.0
72.0
72.0

2
2
2

G .L .and M .W .:
( 1910

1 plant........

\1911

l 1912

.304 21.89
.324 23.33
.312 22.46

4
2
2

SHEARM EN.
Eastern:

\1911

18
17
16

66.4 $0,265 $17.64
65.8 .254 16.66
65.9 .273 17.94

f 1910
5 plants___ J 1911
1 1912
G. L .andM .W .:
f 1910
1911
4 plan ts___
1 1912

33
32
34

68.2
70.1
70.2

.471 32.12
.429 30.06
.465 32.69

19
17
18

67.5
66.2
66.6

.324 22.17
.323 21.67
.337 22.83

f 1910

2 plants___

| 1912

7
7
4

5
8
10

6
2
2

*2

3
2
1

10
12
9

5
6
6

6
8
9

2
2
2

6
6
6

7
7
8

2
1
2

2
1

2
1
6

Pittsburgh:

\

1
1

4
3
7

4

SHEARM EN’S HELPERS.
Eastern:
f 1910

66.9 $0.175 $11.69
65.4 .166 10.83
65.4 .182 11.94

\1911

87
87
81

f 1910

\1911

238
229
231

69.4
70.9
70.8

.243 16.76
.223 15.82
.248 17.58

f 1910

2 plants___

135
113
120

67.5
65.8
66.5

10
10
10

3
45
4

21
4
19

2
25
20

24
3
28

4
4
4

1

49
38
21

29
61
80

48
48
37

45
58
17

60
19
66

75
6
58

42
92
45

4
4
4

10
4
1

4
7
12

3

.192 13.04
.204 13.52
.203 13.60

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
5 plants___

l 1912

G .L .and M. W .:
4 plants___

\1911
l 1912

LABO RERS.
Eastern:
f 1910

2 plants___

\1911

l 1912

68
71
80

62.6 $0,131 $8.19
61.4 .131 8.08
61.3 .131 8.06

63
65
75

5
6
5

1

Pittsburgh:
f 1910
1911
5 plants___
l 1912
G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910
1911
4 plants___
1912

\

256
178
184

67.5
67.7
71.0

.167 11.24
.168 11.37
.173 12.25

23
14
14

230
164
166

\
[

31
25
23

70.5
69.1
71.0

.164 11.52
.164 11.32
.165 11.73

8
6
2

23
19
21




4

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

271

I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

T able

P L A T E M IL L S — Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Occupation, and number
plants.

of

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Employees whose full-tim e hours per week were—
Over
56
48
48
and and and
un­
under
der. under 60
56

60

Charging-crane and charging-ma­
chine operators:

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

84

1
1

2
2*

14
13
13

23
22
22

1
1

2
2

22
21
19

30
30
28

3

69.5
67.3
67.5

4
3

74
71
65

31
32
30

3

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

2
2

10
12
12

22
13
12

4
6
6

2
3

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

1
1

20
15
12

8
12
12

1910
1911
1912

28
28
27

68.6
68.6
68.8

1
1

18
13
12

10
14
14

\1911

1910
1912

26
28
28

68.4
68.1
68.1

18
16
16

8
12
12

1910
1911
1912

73
72
69

68.3
68.1
68.3

50
42
39

23
30
30

} 1911
[ 1912

1910

14
14
14

68.0
68.9
68.9

10
6
6

4
8
8

f 1910
1
plants.................................. • 1911
l 1912
Screw men, m ain rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
f 1910
j
4 plants.................................. • 1911
l 1912
Screw men. side rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
| 1910
1911
4 plants..................................
l 1912
R oll hands, other, universal
mills, 48-inch:
f 1910
1911
2 plants......................................
l 1912
Shearmen:
f 1910
1911
11 plants....................................
l 1912
Shearmen's helpers:
f 1910
1911
11 plants....................................
l 1912
Laborers:
f 1910
1911
11 plants....................................
l 1912

8
7
6

69.5
68.4
67.8

i
1

4
2
2

4
4
3

8
7
7

69.5
66.6
66.6

2
2

4
2
2

4
3
3

\

10
9
9

69.2
66.3
66.3

2
2

6
4
4

4.
3
3

\

6
4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

2

4
4
4

<

70
66
68

67.5
68.0
68.2

2
4
4

45
28
27

23
34
37

\

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

7
16
11

261
174
170

192
239
251

}

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

89
70
73

206
142
129

35
50
48

2
9
20

23
3
U7

f 1910

\1911

41
39
38

71.6
69.4
69.1

f 1910

\1911

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

| 1910

9 plants......................................

111
108
101

l 1912

4
1

Heaters:
11

plants................................

l 1912

♦

Heaters' helpers:
10 plants....................................
R oll engineers:

\1911
[ 1912
f 1910

11 plants....................................

l 1911

l 1912

Rollers, sheared-plate mills:
f 1910

9

plants..................................

\1911
l i912

4
1
6
1

Screw men, sheared-plate mills:
f
I
plants.................................. •
l
Manipulators, sheared-plate mills:
f
9 plants......................................
l
Table men, sheared-plate mills:
f
9 plants......................................
l
R oll hands, other, sheared-plate
mills:
f
6 plants..................................
9

)

Rollers, universal mills, 48-inch:
4

1

i
!
i

Including 15 em ployees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




272

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR-STATISTICS.

T a b l e I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D

PER W EEK
Concluded.

IN

THE

U N IT E D

F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912—

P L A T E M I L L S — Continued.
PE R CENT.

Occupation, and num ber
plants.

of

Charging-crane and charging-ma­
chine operators:

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-tim e hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
tim e and
60
72
and
and
hours un­ and under 60
72
and
84
under
per
under
under
der.
60
week.
56
72
84

i 1910
\1911

41
39
38

71.6
69.4
69.1

2.6
2.6

5.1
5.3

34.1
33.3
34.2

56.1
56.4
57.9

f 1910

\1911

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

1.8
1.9

3.6
3.8

39.3
38.2
35.8

53.6
54.5
52.8

5.7

f 1910

111
108
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

3.7
3.0

66.7
65.7
64.4

27.9
29.6
29.7

3.0

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

5.7
5.7

27.8
34.3
34.3

61.1
37.1
34.3

11.1
17.1
17.1

[ 1910
\1911

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

3.6
4.0

71.4
53.6
48.0

28.6
42.9
48.0

f 1910

\1911

28
28
27

68.6
68.6
68.8

3.6
3.7

64.3
46.4
44.4

35.7
50.0
51.9

f 1910

\1911
[ 1912

26
28
28

68.4
68.1
68.1

69.2
57.1
57.1

30.8
42.9
42.9

f 1910

9 plants......................................

\1911

73
72
69

68.3
68.1
68.3

68.5
58.3
56.5

31.5
41.7
43.5

\1910
{ 1911

14 68.0
14 -68.9
14 68.9

71.4
42.9
42.9

28.6
57.1
57.1

l 1912

Heaters:
11 plants....................................

l 1912

9.8
2.6
7.1
1.8

Heaters' helpers:
10 plants....................................

\1911

l 1912

5.4
.9

R oll engineers:
f 1910

11 plants....................................

l 1911

l 1912

Rollers, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants......................................

l 1912

5.7
8.6

Screw men, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants......................................

l 1912

Manipulators, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants......................................
Table men, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants......................................

l 1912

R oll hands, other, sheared-plate
mills:
6 plants......................................

l 1912

Rollers, universal mills, 48-inch:

\1911

8
7
6

69.5
68.4
67.8

14.3
16.7

50.0
28.6
33.3

50.0
57.1
50.0

f 1910

8
7
7

69.5
66.6
66.6

28.6
28.6

50.0
28.6
28.6

50.0
42.9
42.9

10
9
9

69.2
66.3
66.3

22.2
22.2

60.0
44.4
44.4

40.0
33.3
33.3

6
4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

33.3

66.7
100.0
100.0

\1910
\1911

1 1912

70
66
68

67.5
68.0
68.2

2.9
6.1
5.9

64.3
42.4
39.7

32.9
51.5
54.4

1910
1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4

68.6

1.5
3.7
2.5

56.7
40.6
39.4

41.7
55.7
58.1

1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

25.1
25.5
25.4

58.0
51.8
44.9

9.9
18.2
16.7

f 1910

4 plants......................................

l 1912

Screw men, main rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Screw men. side rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
( 1910

4 plants.*....................................

\1911

l 1912

R oll hands, other,
mills, 48-inch:

universal
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

Shearmen:
11 plants....................................
Shearmen's helpers:
11 plants...........
Laborers:
11 plants..........

1Includes 5.2 per cent whose full-time hours p er w eek were 91,




.6
3.3
7.0

6.5
1.1
15.9

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

273

T ab le V .— AVERAG E

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912.

PLATE M ILLS — Continued.
CHARGING-CRANE AND CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
60
hours and
48
and
and under 60
84
per
and
72
and
un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
56
72
84

1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
3
4

8
20
13

67.9
71.4
74.3

8
4
2

16
7

4

Total.......................................

9

41

71.6

14

23

4

E a s t e r n . ... ....................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
3
4

8
20
11

66.2
70.8
69.3

1

2

8
4
1

16
6

1

Total.......................................

9

39

69.4

1

2

13

22

1

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
3
4

8
20
10

66.2
70.8
67.9

i

2

8
4
1

16
6

Total.......................................

9

38

69.1

l

2

13

22

1911.

1912.

HEATERS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st. . .

2
5
4

20
24
12

68.2
71.5
74.5

16
4
2

4
20
6

4

Total.......................................

11

56

71.0

22

30

4

1911. •
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

2
5
4

20
24
11

66.8
71.0
69.3

1

2

16
4
1

4
20
6

1

T otal.......................................

11

55

69.1

1

2

21

30

1

1912.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

2
5
4

18
24
11

67.0
71.0
69.9

1

2

14
4
1

4
20
4

3

T otal.......................................

11

53

69.4

1

2

19

28

3

HEATERS’ HELPERS.
1910.
E astern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

2
5
3

62
34
15

67.7
72.4
70.5

62
4
8

28
3

2
4

T otal.......................................

10

111

69.5

74

31

6

4

60
4
7

30
2

1

4

71

32

1

1911.
E astern.............................................
60 65.5
2
P ittsburgh.......................................
34 71.3
5
Great Lakes3and M iddle W e s t ...
14 65.1
Total.......................................

10

108

44929°—Bull. 151—14-----18



67.3

B U L L E T IN

274
T

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S ,

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

PLATE

M I L L S — Continued.

HEATERS’ HELPERS—Concluded.

N um ­
Num­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

Year and district.

Num ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
fu ll­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
48
56
60
hours and
72
48
and
per
and
72
and
and
84
un­ under under 60
week.
under
under
der.
60
56
72
84

1913.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
5
3

54
34
13

65.5
71.3
65.9

54
4
7

30

3

T otal.......................................

10

101

67.5

3

65

30

3

3

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

2
5
4

10
16
10

68.0
73.3
72.0

8
2

2
10
10

4

Total.......................................

11

36

71.5

10

22

4

Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
5
4

10
16
9

65.6
74.9
69.3

6
7

6

2

2

Total.......................................

11

35

70.8

2

13

6

2

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W est. . .

2
5
4

10
16
9

65.6
75.7
70.7

2

6
6

6

2
1

Total.......................................

11

35

71.5

2

12

12

6

3

1911.
10
2
12

1913.
10
2

ROLLERS, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
5
2

12
12
4

67.7
69.5
67.6

12
6
2

6
2

Total.......................................

9

28

68.4

20

8

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
5
2

12
12
4

65.4
71.0
67.6

1

12
2
1

10
2

Total.......................................

9

28

68.1

1

15

12

1913.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
2

9
12
4

65.4
71.0
67.6

1

9
2
1

10
2

9

25

68.5

1

12

12

Total

........................




i

275

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.
T able V .— AVER AG E

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
PLATE

M I L L S — Continued.

SCREW MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.

Num­
ber of
plants.

Year and district.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
60
hours and
48
and and
and
per
and
84
un­ under under 60 under 72
week. der.
under
60
72
56
84

1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

2
5
2

10
14
4

67.2
69.9
67.6

10
6
2

8
2

T otal.......................................

9

28

68.6

18

10

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

2
5
2

10
14
4

65.6
71.1
67.6

1

10
2
1

12
2

T otal.......................................

9

28

68.6

1

13

14

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

2
5
2

9
14
4

65.6
71.1
67.6

1

9
2
1

12
2

T otal.......................................

9

27

68.8

1

12

14

1911.

1912.

MANIPULATORS, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

2
5
2

8
14
4

67.0
69.4
67.6

8
8
2

6
2

T otal.......................................

9

26

68.4

18

8

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

2
5
2

8
14
6

65.6
70.3
66.2

8
4
4

10
2

T otal.......................................

9

28

68.1

16

12

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

2
5
2

8
14
6

65.6
70.3
66.2

8
4
4

10
2

T otal.......................................

9

28

68.1

16

12

1911.

1912.

TABLE MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

2
5
2

30
30
13

66.9
69.8
68.0

30
14
6

16
7

T otal.......................................

9

73

68.3

50

23

2
5
2

30
30
12

65.7
70.8
67.6

30
6
6

24
6

9

72

68.1

42

30

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .
Total,




276

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T ab le V .— AVER AG E

A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
PLATE

M I L L S — Continued.

TABLE MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS-Concluded.
Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
Num­ age
Num­ ber of fu ll­
ber of em­ tim e
Over
Over
Over
56
plants. ploy­ hours 48
48
60
72
and
and
ees.
per
72
and under 60
and
and
84
un­
week.
under
under
der. under 60
72
56
84

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
2

27
30
12

65.7
70.8
67.6

27
6
6

24
6

T otal.......................................

9

69

68.3

39

30

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, S HEARED—
PLATE MILLS*
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

1
4
1

2
10
2

68.0
69.0
63.3

2
6
2

4

T otal.......................................

6

14

68.0

10

4

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

1
4
1

2
10
2

65.3
70.8
63.3

2
2
2

8

T otal.......................................

6

14

68.9

6

8

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

1
4
1

2
10
2

65.3
70.8
63.3

2
2
2

8

T otal.......................................

6

14

68.9

6

8

ROLLERS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1910.
Eastern............................................
Pittsburgh.............. 1......................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ..

1
1
2

2
2
4

68.0
66.0
72.0

2
2

T otal.....................................

4

8

69.5

4

1911.
Eastern...........................................
Pittsburgh......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ..

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3
72.0
68.0

i

T otal.....................................

4

7

68.4

1

Eastern...........................................
P ittsburgh......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

1
1
2

2
2
2

65.3
72.0
66.0

i

T otal............................

4

6

67.8

1

4
4

2
2
2
2

4

1912.




2
2
1
2

3

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----PLATE MILLS,
T

277

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

P L A T E M I L L S — Continued.

SCREW MEN, MAIN ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.

Year and district.

Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
Num ­ age
Num­ ber of full­
ber of em­ tim e
Over
Over
Over
56
plants. ploy- hours 48
72
60
48
and
and
per
and under
72
and
and
84
un­
week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

68.0
66.0
72.0

T otal........................................

69.5

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

65.3
72.0
64.0

T otal.......................................

66.6

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

65.3
72.0
64.0

Total.......................................

66.6

SCREW MEN, SIDE ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
1
2

T otal.......................................

4

1911.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

68.0
66.0
72.0

4
2

10

9.2

6

1
1
2

4
2
3

65.3
72.0
64.0

2

T otal.......................................

4

9

66.3

2

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
1
2

4
2
3

65.3
72.0
64.0

2

T otal.......................................

4

9

66.3

2

4
4

4
2
1
4

3

4
2
1
4

3

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
1

2
4

66.0
72.0

2

2

6

70.0

2

1911.
Eastern.........r. TttfTtT....................
Pittsburgh___ .
..................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

1
1

2
2

72.0
72.0

2
2

Total.......................................

2

4

72.0

4 ......... i......

Total




4
4

1

278

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T ab le V .— AVERAG E

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
P L A T E H I L L S — Continued.

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH—Concluded.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
48
56
hours and
48
60
73
and
per
and under 60
and
72
84
and
un­
week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1913.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
1

2
2

72.6
72.0

2
2

T otal.......................................

2

4

72.0

4

SHEARMEN.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

18
33
19

66.4
68.2
67.5

2

18
19
8

12
11

T otal.......................................

11

70

67.5

2

45

23

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

17
32
17

65.8
70.1
66.2

3
1

16
4
8

1
25
8

Total .....................................

11

66

68.0

4

28

34

1913.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh.................................... .
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

16
34
18

65.9
70.2
66.6

3
1

15
4
8

1
27
9

T otal.......................................

11

68

68.2

4

27

37

1911.

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1910.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

87
238
135

66.9
69.4
67.5

4
2
1

83
122
56

ii4
78

T otal.......................................

11

460

68.4

7

261

192

Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

87
229
113

65.4
70.9
65.8

4
9
3

82
30
62

1
190
48

Total.......................................

11

429

68.4

16

174

239

1913.
Eastern.............................................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
5
4

81
231
120

65.4
70.8
66.5

4
4
3

76
36
58

1
191
59

T otal.......................................

11

•
132

68.6

11

170

251

1911.




WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

279

A V E R A G E AND CLA SSIFIED FU LL-TIM E H OURS OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EACH Y E A R , B Y D ISTR ICTS, 1910 TO 1912— Concluded.

T able V .—

P L A T E M I L L S — Continued
LABORERS.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
48
56
72
hours and
48
60
and and
and
84
60
72
and
per
un­
under
under
under
week. der. under
60
72
84
56

1910.
Eastern.........
........................
Pittsburgh.......
.................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

68
256
31

62.6
67.5
70.5

59
22
8

1
205

2
14
19

2

6
13
4

T otal.......................................

11

355

66.8

89

206

35

2

23

1911.
Eastern.........
........................
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
5
4

71
178
25

61.4
67.7
69.1

60
3
7

6
134
2

5
31
14

9

1
2

T otal.......................................

11

274

66.2

70

142

50

9

3

70
1
2

5
122
2

4
27
17

18
2

73

129

48

20

1912.
Eastern.............................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Total.......................................

2
80 61.3
184 71.0
5 Pittsburgh........................................
23 71.0
4
11

287

68.3

Including 15 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91,




1
116
i 17

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

280
T

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D IS T R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

able

P L A T E M IL L S — Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
C H A R G IN G -C R A N E

District, and number o f plants.

AND

C H A R G IN G -M A C H IN E

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

OPERATORS.

N um ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
56
hours 48
48
60
72
and
per
and and
60
72
and
and
84
un­
under
week.
under
under
der. under 60
72
84
56

Eastern:
f 1910

l 1911

8
8
8

67.9
66.2
66.2

8
8
8

r 1910

\ 1911

20
20
20

71.4
70.8
70.8

4
4
4

16
16
16

f 1910

2 plants......................................

13
11
10

74.3
69.3
67.9

2
1
1

7
6
6

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
9 plants......................................

l 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

1
1

2
2

H EATERS.

Eastern:

\1911

f 1910

20
20
18

68.2
66.8
67.0

16
16
14

4
4
4

f 1910
5 plants...... ............................ • 1911
1
1 1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
4 p la n t s .................................... { 1911
l 1912

24
24
24

71.5
71.0
71.0

4
4
4

20
20
20

12
11
11

74.5
69.3
69.9

2
1
1

6
6
4

2 plants......................................

l 1912

Pittsburgh:

H EATERS’ HELPERS.

Eastern:
2 plants.................................

1910
1911
1912

62
60
54

67.7
65.5
65.5

1910
1911
1912

34
34
34

72.4
71.3
71.3

1910
1911
1912

15
14
13

70.5
65.1
65.9

Pittsburgh:
5

plants............................

Great Lakes and Middle West:
3 plants.................................

R O L L E N G IN E E R S .

Eastern:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

| 1912

10
10
10

68.0
65.6
65.6

16
16
16

73.3
74.9
75.7

10
9
9

72.0
69.3
70.7

Pittsburgh:
f 1910
1911
5 plants......................................
l 1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
1911
4 plants......................................
l 1912




\

1
1

2
2

4
1

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— PLATE MILLS,
T

281

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D IS T R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

P L A T E M IL L S — Continued.

ROLLERS, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

District, and number o f plants.

Eastern:

2 plants r......

...................

f 1910

12
12
9

67.7
65.4
65.4

12
12
9

12
12
12

69.5
71.0
71.0

6

6

1911
l 1912

2
2

10
10

f 1910
1911
l 1912

4
4
4

67.6
67.6
67.6

2
1
1

2
2
2

1911
l 1912

\

Pittsburgh:

5 plants......................................

N um ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
48
60
hours and
and
and
72
and under 60
and
84
per
un­
under
under
week. der. under
60
72
84
56

f 1910
l

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

2 plants, ....................................

\

i
1

SCREW MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
Eastern:

r 1910

10 67.2
10 65.6
9

65.6

10
10
9

l 1912

14
14
14

69.9
71.1
71.1

6
2
2

8
12
12

f 1910
2 plants...................................... \ 1911
1 1912

4
4
4

67.6
67.6
67.6

2
1
1

2
2
2

2 plants......................................

l

{

1911
1912

Pittsburgh:

i 1910
5plants...................................... \1911

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

1
1

MANIPULATORS, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
Eastern:
2 plan ts..................................

1910
1911
1912

8
8
8

67.0
65.6
65.6

8
8
8

1910
1911
1912

14
14
14

69.4
70.3
70.3

8
4
4

6
10
10

1910
1911
1912

4
6
6

67.6
66.2
66.2

2
4
4

2
2
2

Pittsburgh:
5

plants........................

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
2 plants..................................

TABLE MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
Eastern:
f 1910
• 1911
j
l 1912

30
30
27

66.9
65.7
65.7

30
30
27

f 1910
l 1912

2 plants..................................

\1911

30
30
30

69.8
70.8
70.8

14
6
6

16
24
24

f 1910
{ 1911
l 1912

13
12
12

68.0
67.6
67.6

6
6
6

7
6
6

Pittsburgh:
5

plants..............................

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
2 plants..................................




282
T

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

able V I .— AVERAGE

A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D IS T R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
P L A T E M IL L S — Continued.

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.

District, and number o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

N um ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
hours
48
72
60
and
and
per
and under 60
and
72
84
and
un­
week.
under
under
under
der.
60
84
56
72

Eastern:
f 1910

\ 1911

2
2
2

68.0
65.3
65.3

2
2
2

f 1910
l 1912

1 p lan t........................................

\1911

10
10
10

69.0
70.8
70.8

6
2
2

f 1910
1911
l 1912

2
2
2

63.3
63.3
63.3

2
2
2

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
4 plants......................................

4
8
8

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
1 p lan t........................................

{

ROLLERS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
Eastern:
f 1910

{ 1911

2
2
2

68.0
65.3
65.3

2
2
2

f 1910

\1911

2
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

2

f 1910

1 p lan t........................................

4
3
2

72.0
68.0
66.0

l 1912

Pittsburgh:
1 p lan t........................................

l 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
2 plants......................................

\1911

1 1912

2
2
4
2
1

1
1

SCREW MEN, MAIN ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
Eastern:

\1911
[ 1912

f 1910

2
2
2

68.0
65.3
65.3

2
2
2

f 1910
1911
1 1912

2
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

2

f 1910
2 plants......................................
1911
l 1912

4
3
3

72.0
64.0
64.0

1 plant........................................
Pittsburgh:
1 plant........................................

\

2
2

Great Lakes and Middle W est:

\

2
2

SCREW MEN, SIDE ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
Eastern:
f 1910

1 plant....................................

\1911

l 1912

4
4
4

68.0 .
65.3 .
65.3 .

2
2
2

66.0 .
72.0
72.0 ,

2
2

4
3
3

72.0
64.0
64.0

4
1
1

Pittsburgh:
f 1910

1 plant....................................

\1911

l 1912

Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
f 1910

2 plants..................................




\1911

l 1912

1

|
4
1 ..........i..........
1 ..........i...........
..........1
...........

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— PLATE MILLS,
T

283

V I . — A V E R A G E AND CLASSIFIED FU LL-TIM E HOURS OF W O R K
P E R W E E K IN EACH D ISTR ICT, B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1912— Concluded.

able

P L A T E M IL L S — Concluded.

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.

District, and number o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
p loy­
ees

Number o f employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
time
Over
Over
48
56
72
60
hours and
48
and
84
and
and
per
72
un­ and under 60
under
under
week. der. under
60
84
72
56

Pittsburgh:
1910
1911
1912

2
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

1910

f
1 Diant........................................ 1
l
Great Lakes and M iddle W est:
f
1 p lan t........................................
l

4
2
2

72.0
72.0
72.0

\1911

1912

2
2
2
4
2
2

SHEARMEN.
Eastern:
18
17
16

66.4
65.8
65.9

\

33
32
34

68.2
70.1
70.2

\
[

19
17
18

67.5
66.2
66.6

| 1910
2 plants...................................... { 1911
1 1912
Pittsburgh:
f 1910
1911
5 plants......................................
l 1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
4 plants......................................
1911
1912

18
16
15

1
1

2
3
3

19
4
4

12
25
27

1
1

8
8
8

11
8
9

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
Eastern:

[

1910
2 plants...................................... < 1911
l 1912
Pittsburgh:
1910
5 plants......................................
1911
l 1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
4 plants......................................
1911
| 1912

l
\

\

87
87
81

66.9
65.4
65.4

4
4
4

83
82
76

1
1

238
229
231

69.4
70.9
70.8

2
9
4

122
30
36

114
190
191

135
113
120

67.5
65.8
66.5

1
3
3

56
62
58

78
48
59

LABORERS.
Eastern:
2 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

68
71
80

62.6
61.4
61.3

59
60
70

1
6
5

2
5
4

1910
1911
1912

256
178
184

67.5
67.7
71.0

22
3
1

205
134
122

14
31
27

2
9
18

1910
1911
1912

31
25
23

70.5
69.1
71.0

8
7
2

2
2

19
14
17

2

6
1

Pittsburgh:
5 plants..................................

13
1
116

Great Lakes and Middle West:
4 plants..................................

i Including 15 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




4
2

STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
SU M M AR Y.

Summary figures relating to the standard-rail-mill department of
the iron and steel industry are given, with figures for other depart­
ments, in the introductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explana­
tion of the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed
is given on pages 16 to 22.
Briefly summarized the average full-time weekly earnings of em­
ployees in the standard-rail-mill department in 1912 were 2.2 per
cent lower than in 1910, and 0.8 per cent higher than in 1911. The
full-time hours of labor per week in 1912 were 4.2 per cent lower than
in 1910, and 0.1 per cent higher than in 1911. The average rate of
wages or earnings per hour in 1912 was 0.8 per cent higher than in
1910 and 0.4 per cent higher than in 1911.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of
the standard-rail-mill department are summarized in the table
below. The data presented are for 6 identical plants for the years

1910 and 1911 and for 7 identical plants for the years 1911 and
1912. Referring to the first occupation, cold-saw men’s helpers,
direct comparison can be made for 3 identical plants in 1910 and
1911 and for 4 identical plants in 1911 and 1912. The first line of
the table is read as follows: In 1910 the 3 standard rail mills from
which reports were obtained for this occupation employed 30 coldsaw men’s helpers, whose average full-time hours of work were 76
per week. For 66.7 per cent of these 30 cold-saw men’s helpers the
full-time hours per week were 72, and for the remaining one-third
the working hours were 84 per week. The average rate of wages or
earnings per hour of cold-saw men’s helpers in the year considered
(1910) was $0,171. All of these 30 employees received 16 or under
18 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly earnings were
$12.98. The other lines of the table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 3 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of cold-saw men’s helpers were
$12.98 in 1910 and in 1911 in the same 3 plants the average dropped
to $12.40. In 4 plants in 1911, the average full-time weekly earn­
ings were $12.38, while in 1912 there was an increase to $12.45.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1912 in the
several occupations it is seen that the lowest average was that of
laborers, which was $12.07. Several other occupations received but
little more. The highest earnings in any occupation of this depart­
ment are found in the occupation of rollers, the average full-time
weekly earnings in this occupation in 1912 being $46.80.
284




285

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S , 1910 TO 1912—S T A N D A R D R A I L M IL L S.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
rate of
wages
16
18
per Un­ and and 20
84 hour. der un­ un­ cts.
16 der der and
cts.
18
20 over.
cts. cts.

Per cent of employees
whose full-tim e hours
per week were—
AverN um ­
Occupation, and num ­ Year. ber of time
em­
ber of plants.
60
ploy* hours
per U n­ and
week. der un­
60 der
72

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

Aver­
age
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Cold-saw men’s helpers:
J1910
3 plants...................
\191l

76.0
72.0

66.7
100.0

33.3 $0,171
.172

100.0
100.0

$12.98
12.40

11911
\1912

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

.172
.173

100.0
100.0

12.38
12.45

/1910
\1911

74.1
72.1

82.4
17.6
70.4 29.6

11.8 41.2 47.0 15.64
.209
.197 ........ 22.2 33.3 44.4 14.21

1911
.1912

72.1
72.1

74. 25.8
77.1 22.9

.195 ........ 25.8 35.5 38.7 14.06
25.7 34.3 40.0 14.51
.201

6 plants...................

/1910
\1911

73.6
72.0

i.4
100.0

7 plants...................

1911
1912

72.0
72.2

100.0
95.8

1910
,1911

72.4
72.1

96.9
13.6

.165 28.1 62.5 9.4
15.3 74.6 10.2

11.92
12.14

19.7 71.2 9.1
4.1 82.2 13.7

12.10
12.20

23.4 76.6
10.0 90.0

12.31
12.12

9.7 90.3
5.0 95.0

12.12
12.07

4 plants...................
H otbed lever m en:
6 plants...................
7 plants...................
H otbed m en:

Hot-saw men’s helpers
6 plants...................

13.6 36.4 18.2 31.8 12.95
23.3 41.9 4.7 30.2 12.60

13.6

21.3 42.6
16.7 52.1

4.2
3.1

7 plants................... /1911
\1912
Laborers:
6 plants................... 11910
\1911

73

72.1
72.1

87.9 12.1
89.0 11.0

501
370

76.0
71.9

13.4 41.7
44.9
20.5 58.9 11.9 8.6

1911
[1912

382
417

71.9
71.9

19.9 60.2 11.5
20.1 57.1 16.3

7 plants...................

8.4
6.5

.169

8.5 27.7 12.65
6.3 25.0 12.98

14
20
25
30
and and and
un­ un­ un­ Cts.
der der der and
25
20
30 over.
cts. cts. cts.
Charging-machine op­
erators:
3 plants.
Chippers:
5 plants.
6 plants.

10
0 .0

36.4 16.87
1 36.4 27.3
! 36.4 27.3 36.4
16.72
l 36.4
45.5 18.2 17.58

1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

11910
\1911

114
82

72.1
70.0

24.5 53.5
21.9 78.0

11911
\1912

91

70.2
70.3

19.8 80.2
18.2 81.8

1 46.2 11.0 29.7 13.2 16.44
1 39.4 48.5
12.1 15.60

74.7
69.1

33.3 11.1
55.6
44.4 33.3 22.2

i 88.9
l 94.5

14.21
5.6 ........ 13.43

42.1 36.8 21.1
42.1 36.8 21.1

l 94.8
) 94.7

5.3

13.43"
*5.3 13.60

) 18.4 47.4 34.2
L 48.8 26.8 24.4

16.78
15.59

J 52.6 24.8 22.6
5 61.4 37.2

15.35
1.4 14.51

21.9

Cold-saw m en:
5 plants___

11910
[1911

6 plants...................

11911
\1912

Drillers and punchers:
5 plants.
6 plants.




13.2 34.2
17.1 82.9

11910
\1911

152
123

76.7
70.5

11911
\1912

133
145

7 0 .6 ........ 15.8 84.2
70.51
........ 16.6 83.4

52.6

16.78
L 28.9 21.1 50.0
40.2 12.2 32.9 " ii.6 16.88

)

11.1

286

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S OF W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S , 1910 TO 1912—S T A N D A R D R A I L M IL L S —Continued.

N um ­
Occupation, and num ­ Year. ber of
em­
ber of plants.
p loy­
ees.

Per cent of em ploy­
Per cent of employees
ees earning each
whose full-time hours
classified rate o f
per week were—
Aver­
wages per hour.
Average
full­
rX of
time
25
Over
wages 14
20
60
hours
72
per and and and 30
per U n­ and
and 84 hour. un­ un­ un­ cts.
week. der un­ 72 un­
der der der and
60 der
der
20
25
30 over.
72
84
cts. cts. cts.

A ver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Rcheaters’ helpers:
(1910
3 plants..................... U 9 U
1.1912
Hot-saw men:
/1910
o plants.....................
(1911

24
24
24

50.0 50.0
71.3
$0,280
.264
72.0
100.0
72.0 . •••• . . . . . 100.0 ........ ........ .304

19
14

72.0 . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 ........ . . . . .
72.0 ........ ........ 100.0
........

.289 . . . . . 36.8 10.5 52.6 20.79
.258 ........ 50.0 35.7 14.3 18.56

7 plants..................... /1911
(1912
Inspectors:
/1910
r -In +n
plants. . . . . . . . . . . .
(1911

16
18

72.0
100.0
72.0 ........ . . . . . 100.0 ........ ........

.251
56.3 31.3 12.5 18.10
.257 16.7 27.8 44.4 11.1 18.52

68
48

75.5 . . . . .
70.4

13.2 44.1 . . . . . 42.6
18,8 81.3

.225 44.1 44.1
.233 29.1 56.3

7 plants..................... /1911
(1912
R oll engineers:
/1910
6 plants..................... (1911

68
76

70.9
71.0

13.2 86.8
11.8 88.2

.230 20.6 60.3 11.8
.228 27.6 56.6 9.2

42
37

77.4
76.2

47.6 14.3 38.1
48.6 32.4 18.9

.310
.282

43
48

75.8
74.1 ........ . . . . .

41.9 41.9 16.3
58.3 37.5 4.2

.277
46.5 27.9 25.6 21.14
.304 ........ 27.1 39.6 33.3 22.44

o

7 plants. . . . . . . . . . . . /1911
(1912
Straighteners’ helpers:
Rp letI L L S ..................................... /1910
nlanfc
\1911

4.2 45.8
50.0 $19.95
4.2 25.0 70.8
18.98
4.2 4.2 45.8 45.8 21.87

2.9 8.9 16.77
4.2 10.4 16.29
7.4 16.25
6.5 16.12

38.1 23.8 38.1 24.30
43.2 27.0 29.7 21.67

139
116

72.1 ........ 16.5 66.2 ........ 17.3
69.8
18.1 81.9

.205 52.5 30.2
.205 69.8 12.1

.7 16.5 14.55
18.1 14.04

6 plants..................... /19U
(1912
Table men:
. . ,
/1910
4 plants.....................
(1911

120
134

69.9
70.0

.205 67.5 15.0
.212 67.2 13.4

17.5 14.05
3.0 16.4 14.51

26
26

72.0
100.0
72.0 ........ ........ 100.0 ........ ........

.279 23.1
.264 23.1

R plants..................... /1911
oTkloTlfc
11912

27
25

72.4
72.5

.262 22.2 11.1 44.4 22.2 18.97
.287 16.0 12.0 20.0 52.0 20.77

D

17.5 82.5
16.4 83.6

96.3 3.7
........ 96.0 ........ " i ' o

38.5 38.5 20.06
7.7 46.2 23.1 19.00

50
30
Un­ and and 70
der un­ un­ cts.
30 der der and
70 over.
cts. 50
cts. cts.
Guide setters:
KrVlanfc
plants•••••••........ /1910
(1911

20
17

66.8 15.0 15.0 70.0 ........
65.8 17.6 17.6 64.7 ........

.440 10.0 45.0 45.0 ........ 29.26
.373 17.7 76.5 5.9 ........ 24.31

/1911
(1912

27
30

66.8 11.1 25.9 40.7 22.2
67.3 10.0 23.3 46.7 20.0

.336 37.0 59.2
.346 40.0 56.7

3.7
3.3

22.20
23.14

(1910
4 plants..................... <1911
(1912
Rollers:
/1910
5 plants.....................
(1911

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

.429 4.3 95.7
.421 4.3 95.7
.410 47.8 8.6 43.5

31.00
30.28
29.50

12
12

72.3
72.3

83.3 16.7
83.3 16.7

.624
.614

100.0
8.3 83.3

A nlantc
u plants..................... /1911
(1912
Rollers’ helpers:
i p ian t. ..................... /1910
(1911

14
14

72.2
72.2

85.7 14.3
85.7 14.3

.591
.646

1.4 71.4 7.1 42.67
7.1 71.4 21.4 46.65

3
1

72.0
72.0

Orvloivfo
&
plants..................... /1911
(1912

3
6

72.7
72.6

o

* Tilonfc
7
< plants........... .
Reheaters:




91.3
100.0
100.0

8.7

100.0
100.0
33.3 66.7
33.3 66.7

.561
.458

100.0

45.09
8.3 44.40

100.0

40.39
32.98

.284 66.7 33.3
.304 66.7 33.3

20.56
21.98

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

287

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F W A G E S
P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F T H E
P R IN C IP A L OC C U PA TIO N S, 1910 TO 1912—S T A N D A R D R A I L M IL L S —Concluded.

Occupation, and num­
ber o f plants.

Per cent o f employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
N um ­ age
age
ber of funrate of
Year. em­ time
Over
wages
60
p loy­ hours
72
per
per U n­ and
ees.
and
week. der un­ 72 un­ 84 hour.
60 der
der
72
84

Per cent o f em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate o f A ver­
wages per hour.
age
fuUtime
week­
30
50
U n­ and and 70
ly
der un­ un­ cts. earn­
30 der der and ings.
cts. 50
70 over.
cts. cts.

S t r a i g h t e n e r s , gag
press:
/1910
o plants •................... \1911

106
90

59.0 62.3
56.3 62.2

5.7 11.3 . . . . . 20.8 $0,564 . . . . . 49.1 45.3 5.7 $32.41
6.7 31.1 ........ ........ .534 ........ 45.6 54.4 ........ 30.12

/1911
o plants..................... \1912
Table lever m en:
(1910
6 plants..................... <1911
1.1912

94
98

56.9 59.6
57.6 57.1

6.4 34.0
6.1 36.7 . . . . . •••••

74
69
74

65.5 32.4 . . . . . 59.5 . . . . .
8.1
64.0 34.8
65.2
64.5 32.4 ........ 67.6 ........ ........

.526
.530 . . . . .

47.8 52.1
29.91
42.9 51.0 '*6.*i 30.79

.454 5.4 70.2 16.2
.422 21.7 49.2 29.0
.427 25.7 33.8 40.5

8.1 28.25
26.08
26.82

Owing to the change in the number of plants from 1910 to 1912
and the consequent difference in the averages in the two groups of
plants for 1911, it is difficult to make a comparison of the actual data
for the three years which will give an accurate measure of the changes
throughout the period. To aid in making such a comparison relative
or index numbers have been computed from the averages of the
preceding table for full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings for each occupation from 1910 to 1912,
inclusive. Such figures appear in the table below. These relative
or index numbers are simply percentages for which the data for 1912
are taken as the base, or 100 per cent.
The relative for each year is the per cent which the average for
that year is of the average for 1912. For example, the relative full­
time weekly earnings of charging-machine operators in 1910 were 96
as compared with 100 in 1912; that is, the full-time weekly earnings
of charging-machine operators in 1910 were 96.0 per cent of the full­
time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1912. The method of
computing relative numbers is explained on page 21.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1912 as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of chargingmachine operators in 1912 were 4.2 per cent higher than in 1910 and
5.2 per cent higher than in 1911.




288

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

In other columns of this table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the
full-time weekly earnings of charging-machine operators in 1911 were
0.9 per cent lower than in 1910, and 5.2 per cent higher in 1912 than
in 1911. The other occupations and items of the table may be studied
in like manner. The percentages of increase and decrease are com­
puted from the relative numbers.
R E L A T IV E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T O F IN CR E ASE
O R D E C R E A SE IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L OCCUPATIONS—S T A N D A R D
R A I L M ILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Occupation and year.

Charging-machine operators:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Reheaters:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Reheaters’ helpers:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
R o ll engineers:
1910......................... : ...........
1911......................................
1912......................................
R ollers:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912..................................
Rollers* helpers:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Table lever m en:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Table m en:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Guide setters:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Hot-saw men:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Hot-saw m en’ s helpers:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1 9 1 2 ...,..............................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
Each
tive
1912 as speci­ rate of
com­
fied
wages
pared year as
per
with
com­
hour.
each
pared
speci­
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
tim e
com ­
fied
pared year as weekly pared year as
with
com ­
earn­
with
com ­
each
pared
ings.
each
pared
speci­
w ith
speci­
with
fied
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

100.0
100.0
100.0

0)
(i)

100.3
100.0
100.0

—0.3
0)

99.0
100.0
100.0

+ 1 .0
0)

103.9
102.3
100.0

—3.8
-2 .2

100.0
100.0
100.0

95.9
95.1
100.0

+ 4.3
+ 6.2

- 0 .3
C
1)

104.6
102.7
100.0

— 4.4
- 2.6

+ 1 .0
C
1)

92.1
86.8
100.0

+ 8.6
+ 15 .2

- 1 .6
—2.2

100.2
91.1
100.0

— .2
+ 9.8

P)
(i)

0)
«

93.0
91.5
100.0

+ 7.5
+ 9.3

0)
- .1

114.4
93.4
100.0

—12.6
+ 7.1

-2 .4
+ .8

106.3
98.8
100.0

— 5.9
+ 1.2

P)
+ .1

96.5
91.3
100.0

+ 3.6
+ 9.5

- 1 .5
+ .7

114.6
97.1
100.0

-1 2 .7
+ 3.0

0)
(i)

109.4
97.7
100.0

- 8.6
+ 2.4

97.6
99.4
- .4
100.0
0)
1 N o change.

+ 2.5
+ .6

(*)

100.1
100.1
100.0

-

101.6
99.2
100.0

—1.6
+ .8

99.9
99.9
100.0

+ .1
+ .1

100.8
99.3
100.0

- .8
+ .7

100.0
100.0
100.0

0)
M

100.4
100.0
100.0

— .4
0)

.1
.1

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

- 0.8
+ 5.2

96.0
95.1
100.0

+ 4.2
+ 5.2

- 1.8
— 2.6

105.1
102.6
100.0

— 4.9
- 2.5

- 5.8
+ 15 .2

91.2
86.8
100.0

+ 9.6
+ 15 .2

- 9.1
+ 9.8

105.6
94.2
100.0

— 5.3
+ 6.2

- 1.6
+ 9.3

92.9
91.5
100.0

+ 7.6
+ 9.3

- 1 8 .4
+ 7.1

114.6
93.5
100.0

- 1 2 .7
+ 7.0

- 7.1
+ 1.2

105.3
97.2
100.0

- 5 .0
+ 2.9

- 5.4
+ 9.5

96.4
91.3
100.0

+ 3.7.
+ 9.5

- 1 5 .3
+ 3.0

115.5
95.9
100.0

- 1 3 .4
+ 4.3

- 1 0 .7
+ 2.4

109.5
97.7
100.0

- 8.7
+ 2.4

+ 1.8
+ .6

97.4
99.2
100.0

+ 2.7
+ .8

- 0.9
+ 5.2
-

2.4
2.5

- 4.8
+ 15 .2
- 1 0 .8
+ 6.2
- 1.5
+ 9.3
- 1 8 .4
+ 7.0
- 7.7
+ 2.9
- 5.3
+ 9.5
- 1 7 .0
+ 4.3
- 1 0 .8
+ 2.4
+ 1.8
+ .8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

289

R E L A T IV E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O CCUPATION S— S T A N D A R D
R A I L M IL L S —Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) i n -

Occupation and year.

H otbed lever m en:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
H otbed m en:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Straighteners, gag press:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Straishteners’ helpers:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Chippers:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Drillers and punchers:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Cold-saw m en:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Cold-saw m en’s helpers:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Inspectors:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................
Laborers:
1910
................
1911
................
1912
................

R ela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

R ela­
Each
tive
1912 as speci­ rate o f
com ­
fied
wages
pared year as
per
com ­
with
hour.
each
pared
speci­
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

R ela­
E ach
tive
E ach
1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
tim e
com ­
fied
pared year as weekly pared year as
com ­
w ith
earn­
with
com ­
each
pared
ings.
each
pared
with
speci­
speci­
w ith
fied
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
psrceding.
ceding.

102.8
100.0
100.0

-2 .7
C
1)

101.9
99.7

- 1 .9
+ .3

100.0

103.5
98.8

-3 .4
+ 1 .2

100.0

103.2
99.9
100.0

102.9
99.9
100.0

108.9

10
0 .1
10
0 .0
108.1

100.0
100.0

105.6
100.0
100.0

107.1
99.9
100.0

105.7

100.0
100.0

- 3 .1
+ .1
- 2 .8
+ .1
- 8 .2
- .1
-7 .5
C
1)
- 5 .3
(D
- 6 .6
+ .1
-5 .4
0)

-2 .7
0)
- 2 .2
+ .3
-4 .5
+ 1 .2
- 3 .2
+ -1
- 2 .9
+ .1
- 8 .1
- .1

102.9
97.0

-5 .7
+ 3.1

106.7
96.9
100.0

- 6.3
+ 3.2

.5
+ 2.2

100.2
97.5
100.0

.2
+ 2.6

- 5.3
+ .8

104.5
97.1
100.0

- 4.3
+ 3.0

0)
+ 3.4

100.3
96.8
100.0

.3
+ 3.3

+ 3.8
-5 .1

104.8
105.4
100.0

-

+ .4
-5 .5

113.9
105.8
100.0

-1 2 .2
- 5.5

+ 1.6
+ 1.0

104.5
98.8
100.0

- 4.3
+ 1.2

.6

104.1
99.4
100.0

- 3.9
+ .6

3.6

103.8
100.8
100.0

-

3.7
.8

+ 3.1 .............
.6 + 3.7

102.0
100.4
100.0

-

2.0
.4

- 2.8
+ 3.1

100.0

98.3
97.8

+ 1.7
+ 2.2

100.0

104.8
99.2

- 4.6
+ .8

100.0

96.7
96.7

+ 3.4
+ 3.4

100.0

101.5
105.4

- 1.5
-5 .1

100.0

105.4
105.8

-5 .1
- 5.5

100.0

97.4

-7 .5
0)

99.0
100.0

-5 .3
0)

+ 2.7
+ 1.0

100.0

- 6 .7
+ .1

98.8
99.4
97.4
100.9

+ 1.2
+ .6
+ 2.7
.9

+

100.0

97.0
-5 .4
0)

100.6
100.0

P er cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

4.6
5.1

- 9.2
+ 3.2
-.2 .7
+ 2.6
- 7.1
+ 3.0
- 3.5
+ 3.3
+ .6
- 5.1
-

7.1
5.5

- 5.5
+ 1.2
- 4.5
+ .6
-

2.9
.8

-

i.6
.4

1 N o change.

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown for
the standard-rail-mill department as a whole, as determined by a
combination of the data for the several principal productive occupa­
tions of the department which are covered by this report. The
method of computing the figures is explained on page 22.
From the table, under the heading “ weekly earnings,” it is seen
that the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as
a whole were 102.2 as compared with 100 in 1912. In other words,
4 4 9 2 9 °— B u ll. 151— 14------ 19




290

B U LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 102.2 per cent of such
earnings in 1912. The relative decreases to 99.2 in 1911, and in 1912
the base year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that the full-time weekly earnings in 1910
were 2.2 per cent lower than in 1912 and 0.8 per cent higher than in
1911. The third column under weekly earnings” shows the per cent
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full-time
weekly earnings in 1911 were 2.9 per cent lower in 1910 and 0.8 per
cent higher in 1912 than in 1911.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and rates of wages per hour can be read in like manner.

u

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 T O 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T OF IN ­
C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C C U P A T IO N S—S T A N D A R D R A I L
M IL L S .

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Year.

1910.............................................
1911.............................................
1912.............................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

104.4
99.9
100.0

W eekly earnings.

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
tive
Each
tive
full­
1912 as speci­ rate o f 1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
com ­
tim e
fied
com ­
fied
pared year as wages pared year as weekly pared year as
per
with
with
earn­
com ­
com ­
with
com ­
hour.
each
each
ings.
pared
pared
each
pared
speci­
with
speci­
w ith
speci­
with
fied
fied
year
year
fied
year
year. preced­
year. preced­
year. preced­
ing.
ing.
ing.
-4 .2
+ .1

-4 .3
+ .1

99.2
99.6
100.0

+ 0 .8
+ .4

+ 0 .4
+ .4

102.2
99.2
100.0

-2 .2
+ .8

-2 .9
+ .8

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a re­
duction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Between 1910
and 1912 it will be observed that hours per week were reduced 4.2
per cent and wages per hour were increased 0.8 per cent, each tending
to offset the other in weekly earnings.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered— that is the change in the relative number
of employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is ob­
vious that an increase in the relative number of employees in the
lower-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those
in the higher-paid ones would tend to lower the average for all occu­
pations, just as an increase in the relative number of employees in
the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number in
the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the average.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

291

The number and per cent of employees in standard-rail-mill plants
whose customary working time per week was 6 days or turns, or 7
days, or variations thereof, are shown in the following table. The
heading “ 6 days and 7 days alternately” indicates that the plants
were not in operation half a day in each week; the employees reported
working 6 turns one week and 7 turns the next week. The figures
are presented for each district and for the four districts combined.
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E AC H SPEC I
F IE D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1912—S T A N D A R D R A I L
M ILLS.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

Number of employees whose
customary working tim e
per week was—
District and number of
plants.

Pittsburgh:
2 plants

Year.

N um ­
ber of
em­
ployees.

[

f 1911
7 plants........................... . \ 1912

6 days,
6 days
and
7
7 days days.
in rota­
tion.

6
days.

6 days
and 7
days
alter­
nately.

6 days,
6 days
and 7 7 days.
days
in rota­
tion.

374
348

/ 1910
\ 1911

/ 1911
3 plants.............................. \ 1912
Great Lakes and Middle
W est:
f 1910
1911
4 p la n ts1............................
1911
1912
Total:
o plants.............................. / 1910
\ 1911

6 days
and 7
6 days. days
alter­
nately.

Per cent o f employees whose
custom ary working tim e
per week was—

*

312
332

10

62
6

83.4
95.4

2.9

16.6
1.7

447
431

430
412

10
12

7
7

96.2
95.6

2.2
2.8

1.6
1.6

1,161
904

727
792

8
52

27
27

399
33

62.6
87.6

.7
5.8

2.3
3.0

34.4
3.7

908
1,026

796
900

52
76

27
27

33
23

87.7
87.7

5.7
7.4

3.0
2.6

3.6
2.2

1,535
1,252

1,039
1,124

8
62

27
27

461
39

67.7
89.8

.5
5.0

1.8
2.2

30.0
3.1

1,355
1,457

1,226
1,312

62
88

27
27

40
30

90.5
90.0

4.6
6.0

2.0
1.9

3.0
2.1

1 For one plant it was impossible to secure data for one occupation for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.

In addition to the text tables presented in the summary, six
general tables are presented for the standard-rail-mill department, as
follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years,
1910 to 1912.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1910 to
1912.
Table III.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district, by years, 1910 to
1912.
Table IV .— Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1912.




292

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table Y.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in each year, by districts, 1910 to 1912.
Table VI.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per
week in each district, by years, 1910 to 1912.
In Tables I and IV, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 285 to 287.

Tables III and VI repeat the data for the several districts given
in Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the standard rail mills is
presented on page 24.
D E S C R IP T IO N O F O C C U P A T IO N S .

The following description of occupations refers only to those occu­
pations which appear in the tables of this report— these being nearly
all of the principal productive occupations in the standard-rail-mill
department.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

D u t i e s .—Charge blooms into reheating furnace, using various
types of charging machines. One of the commoner machines used
grips the bloom at one end, swings it around from the conveyor, and
pushes it into the furnace. The same machine draws the heated
bloom and places it on the conveyor leading to the rolls.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .— See charging-machine operators, plate mills,
page 252.
REHEATERS.

D u t i e s .—In charge of reheating furnaces, necessary when the
blooms are not rolled directly from the blooming mill. Their
duties are to adjust air and gas so as to maintain the proper tempera­
ture, within the furnaces, to keep furnace bottoms in good condition,
and to direct the charging and drawing of the blooms.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—Requires considerable knowledge of the heat
treatment of metals, but not so much Skill and experience as for
soaking pit heaters. See blooming mills, page 217.
REHEATERS* HELPERS.

D u t i e s .—Assist the reheater in all his duties.
The number em­
ployed and functions performed by them depend largely on the
type of furnace.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—Where a reheater has a large number of furnaces
under his direction, his first helpers are capable of looking after all
the details for the separate furnaces.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

293

R O L L E N G IN E E R S .

Include both engineers on “ reversing” and “ nonreversing” engines,
but very few of the former, as most mills are “ three high.” See roll
engineers, blooming mills, page 219.
ROLLERS.

D ties
u

.— The roller’s duties are almost entirely supervisory; that
is, he does not control the operation of a set of rolls as in blooming
mills. He is in general charge of the rolling and of all roll changes
and makes frequent inspections to see that everything is going right;
has the product gauged frequently to see that the section is rolled
true to size, and if it is off he sees that the necessary changes are
made to line the mill up properly.
.— The roller is valued chiefly for his practical
knowledge of the mechanical working of steel and for his ability to
set up and maintain his mill in proper running order. The position
demands a very high degree of skill and knowledge.

Ntu of w
a re
ork

ROLLERS’ HELPERS.

D ties.— The rollers'’ duties are so varied, and the area covered by
u
the modern rail mill is so large, that they are, in the majority of plants,
given one or more assistants, who watch various parts of the par­
ticular processes and assist the rollers generally in all the work. The
rollers’ helpers often spell others of the rolling crew.
.— The nature of the helpers’ work depends entirely
on the duties assigned by the roller and on what occupation they
are set to spell.

Ntu ofw
a re ork

TABLE LEVER M E N .

D ties
u

.— Operate the tables, raising and lowering the ingots and
blooms for the rolls, and the various forms of manipulators used in
turning the pieces so that they will enter the passes properly. See
manipulators, blooming mills, page 220.
.— The rails must enter the roljs much more exactly
than in the case of blooming mills, and this position, therefore, requires
more highly skilled men. See manipulators, page 220.

Ntu ofw
a re ork

TABLE M E N .

See table men, blooming mills, page 220.
G U ID E S E T T E R S .

D ties
u

.— Set in place on the various stands of rolls the iron guides,
by which the partly finished rail is made to enter the “ pass” between
the rolls at the proper angle, and inspect them to see that they are kept
in proper position. Assist the rollers in roll changes.
.— The work requires a high degree of mechanical
skill and a great deal of practical experience. The guide frequently
needs adjusting while the rolls are still very hot.

Ntu of w
a re ork




294

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

H O T-SA W M E N .

D ties.— Operate
u

levers controlling the circular saw by which
the rails are sawed after they leave the finishing pass. The saw men
see that the gauges are properly set, and if a “ gang saw” (i. e., one
in which two or more saws set apart the length of a rail are made to
cut simultaneously) is used, the saw men must see that they are
properly set.
— The work does not require a very great deal of
experience.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .

H O T -S A W M E N 'S H E LPERS.

D ties
u

.— Include chiefly “ butt pullers,” who drag away the short
ends sawed off the rail, but also includes the “ gauger,” who operates
levers dropping the stop which puts the rail in the proper position for
sawing.
.— Unskilled work for the most part, and does not
require much heavy manual labor.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

H O TB E D LEVER M E N .

D ties
u
Ntu of wrk
a re
o

.— Operate levers controlling various forms of transfers by
which rails are carried along on hotbeds.
.— Unskilled work, requiring comparatively little
experience.
H O TB E D M E N .

D ties.— Grease
u

the tops of the rails which make up the hotbed,
and turn the rails over from time to time so that they will cool evenly
and thus be as straight as possible when cool. In turning the rails
they use a tool called a “ dog,” which is very much like a large wrench.
— Unskilled, but very heavy manual labor.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

STRA IG H TE N E R S, G A G PR ESS.

D ties.
u

— The “ gag press” is a machine having a bed into which
rollers are set so that the rail can be easily pushed along over it.
Above this bed is the press proper, which is so arranged that it can be
brought down by the operator (called gagger) to any required distance
by the pressure of his foot on a pedal, or otherwise. In straightening
rails the straightener, assisted by one of his helpers, swings the rail
onto the bed. The straightener then sights along the head of the
rail from one end toward a light (very much like an engine headlight)
at the other end of the rail. Any bend in the rail is readily detected,
and the straightener moves the rail along over the bed until the
center of the curve is directly under the press. He then signals the
gagger, who puts a gag under the upper block and brings down the
press. If the rail is not entirely straight the gag, which is slightly
tapered, is slipped further under, and this is repeated until all curves
are straightened.
— This work, in addition to being very heavy
manual labor, requires a great deal of skill and experience.

Ntu of wrk
a re
o.




WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

295

STRAIGHTENERS* HELPERS.

D ties.— There
u

are two classes of helpers: First, the gaggers (see
above); and second those who assist straighteners in handling the
rails.
— A gagger requires experience, but chiefly an alert
mind that will carry out the straightened s directions and signals
quickly and easily. It is not heavy work, but demands constant
attention. The rail handler's work is relatively unskilled, but very
heavy.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o .

CHIPPERS.

D ties.
u

— With a cold chisel and hammer remove the burr left on
the end of the rail when it is sawed. In some cases a pneumatic
chipping tool is used. Also remove any small flaws left in rolling
that do not go below the surface.
— The position requires some skill and experience.

N tu of wrk
a re o .

DRILLERS AND PUNCHERS.

D ties.
u

— The larger number included under this head are drillers
and operate an automatic multiple drill press which drills the bolt
holes in the web of the rail.
— The work is comparatively simple as the drills
are ordinarily set by a foreman or a drill gauger. The driller brings
the lever down or turns the wheel that sets his drill in motion. Much
of the handling of the rails is heavy work.

N tu of wrk
a re o .

COLD-SAW MEN.

D ties.
u
Ntu of wrk
a re o .

— Operate levers controlling saws which cut defective
rails to shorter and salable lengths.
— This work is not done nearly so rapidly as hot
sawing, nor does it require as careful a man. The work consists
largely in supervising the helpers who handle the rails and in operating
the saw levers.
COLD-SAW MENS HELPERS.

D ties.— Handle the rails for the cold saw and clean up scrap.
u
Ntu of wrk— Comparatively unskilled, but heavy manual
a re
o.
labor.

INSPECTORS.

D ties.— Inspect
u

the finished rail in accordance with the specifi­
cations for the particular order and the customs of the individual
mill. A preliminary inspection is given before straightening, but
the chief inspection follows when the finished rails are ready for
shipping.
— Varies entirely with the class of product of the
particular mill and the care with which the mill inspects its own
product.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .

LABORERS.

See laborers, blooming mills, page 221.




BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2 96
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
NUM BER.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Vear. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Charging - ma­
chine opera­
tors:

1 1910

Aver­
age
fulltime
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Average
full­
14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50
60
time 12
and
and and and and and and 70
week­ and un­ and and
un­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der der der and
earn­ 14
16 18 20 25 30
40
50
60
70 over.
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

\1911

l 1912

22
22
22

72.0 $0.234 $16.87
72.0 .232 16.72
72.0 .244 17.58

f 1910
1911
l 1912

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

.429 31.00
.421 30.28
.410 29.50

( 1910
1911
plants—
l 1912
R o ll engineers:
/ 1910
\ 1911

24
24
24

71.3
72.0
72.0

.280 19.95
.264 18.98
.304 21.87

42
37

77.4
76.2

f 1911
\ 1912

43
48

/ 1910
\ 1911
/ 1911
\ 1912

3 plants___
Reheaters:

8
8
8

6
6

8
10

8
4

1
1
11

10
1

11
6
1

17
11

11

.310 24.30
.282 21.67

16
16

10
10

6
9

10
2

75.8
74.1

.277 21.14
.304 22.44

20
13

12
19

9
12

2
4

12
12

72.3
72.3

.624 45.09
.614 44.40

1

4
3

8
7

1

14
14

72.2
72.2

.591 42.67
.646 46.65

3
1

3
1

7
9

1
3

3
1

72.0
72.0

.561 40.39
.458 32.98

1

1911
1912

3
6

72.7
72.6

.284 20.56
.304 21.98

\1911

1910

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

.454 28.25
.422 26.08
.427| 26.82

12
4
2

6

1912

1910
1911

26
26

72.0
72.0

.279 20.06
.264 19.00

/ 1911
5 p la n ts ... ■\ 1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

/ 1910
5 p la n ts ... •\ 1911

20
17

/ 1911
7 p la n ts ... ’ \ 1912

4 plants—

\

R eh ea ted
helpers:
3

Rollers:
5 plants.

\

6 plants.
Rollers’ helpers:
7 1910
1 plant------ \ 1911
/
2 plants___ \
Table
lever
men:
f
6 plants—
l
Table men:
/
4 p lan ts.. . ' \

1
1
1

2

22
12
1

12

2
10
13

32
21
13

6
6

2

.262 18.97
.287 20.77

6
4

66.8
65.8

.440 29.26
.373 24.31

20
13
12

16
28

10
12

10
ft

3
3

12
5

1
1

27
30

66.8
67.3

.336 22.20
.346 23.14

1
1

1

5
5

4
6

6 ____
13
i
4
5:
7
6
i
in
a
i
8

9
1

1
1

/ 1910
• \ 1911

19
14

72.0
72.0

.289 20.79
.258 18.56

7
7

/ 1911
7 p la n ts.. . * \ 1912
Hot-saw men’ s
helpers:
J 1910
6 p la n ts ... \ 1911
•

16
18i

72.0
72.0

.251 18.10
.257 18.52

64
59i

72.4
72.1

.165 11.92
.168 12.14

Guide setters:

2
5

J ........
2

9
5

5
8

Hot-saw men:

/ 1911
7 p la n ts ... * \ 1912




66i
73!

72.1
72.1

.168 12.10
.169> 12.20

3

1
2

4
2
5
6

6 p la n ts ...

10

2
18
g

40
44

6
6

13
3

1

47
60

6
10 . . . J ........

1
1

2j
2

!
1

1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
T

297

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
N U M B E R —Concluded.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year.
em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

H otbed
men:

AverAver­ Aver­ age
age
age full­
rate time
rail­
time
of week­
hours wages
ly
per
per earn­
week. hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
tra­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50
60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

lever
/ 1910
19li

34
27

74.1 $0,209 $15.64
72.1 .197 14.21

4
6

14
9

10
12

/ 1911
7 plants—
1912
H otbed men:
/ 1910
6 plants___
1911

\

31
35

72.1
72.1

.195 14.06
.201 14.51

8
9

11
12

12
12

\

44
43

73.6
72.0

.176 12.95
.175 12.60

16
16 * 4

16
18

8
2

14
13

1911
7 plants___ / 1912
Straighteners,
gag press:
/ 1910
5 plants___
\ 1911

47
48

72.0
72.2

.176 12.65
.180 12.98

16
16

4
2

20
25

4
3

13
g

106
90

59.0
56.3

.564 32t 41
.534 30.12

14

52
27

1911
1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

.526 29.91
.530 30.79

18
24

27
18

1910
1911

139
116

72.1
69.8

.205 14.55
.205 14.04

6 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912
Chippers:
/ 1910
5 plants___
1911

120
134

69.9
70.0

.205 14.05
.212 14.51

.63
90

18

114
82

72.1
70.0

.231 16.78
.240 10.88

21
1

/ 1911
1 1912

91
99

70.2
70.3

.233 16.44
.221 15.60

Drillers a n d
punchers:
/ 1910
5 plants___ \ 1911

152
123

76.7
70.5

/ 1911
\ 1912

133
145

6 plants___

\

\

/
6 plants___ \
Straightened
helpers:
/
5 plants___
\

\

6p la n ts ___

6 plants___
Cold-saw men:
5 plants___

1

72
63 “ is

42
14

6

2

4

1

23
21
21
16

18
18

4

12
32

24
10

57
27

12

10
3

32
36

10
48

27

12
12

.220 16.78
.221 15.59

28
4

56

72
33

52
30

70.6
70.5

.218 15.35
.206 14.51

14
2

56
87

33
54

30

1

15
16

2

6

2

/ 1910
\ 1911

18
18

74.7
69.1

.191 14.21
.194 13.43

/ 1911
6 plants___ \ 1912
Cold-saw m en’ s
helpers:
/ 1910
3 plants___
\ 1911

19
19

69.3
69.3

.194 13.43
.196 13.60

30
31

76.0
72.0

.171 12.98
.172 12.40

30
31

/ 1911
4 plants___ \ 1912

36
29

72.0
72.0

.172 12.38
.173 12.45

36
29

/ 1910
\ 1911

68
48

75.5
70.4

.225 16.77
.233 16.29

4
4

26
10

30
27

2
2

5
4

1
1

/
7 plants___ \ 1911
1912

68
76

70.9
71.0

.230 16.25
.228 16.12

4
2

10
19

41
43

8
7

4
2

1
3

6 plants___ / 1910
\ 1911

501
370

76.0
71.9

.163 12.31
.169 12.12

17
37

384
333

1911
7 plants___ / 1912
\

382
417

71.9
71.9

.169 12.12
.168 12.07

37
21

345
396

1
1

1

*
1

17
18

1

Inspectors:
5 plants___

Laborers:




1 Earning 10 and under 12 cents.

12

36
49
49
50

6

6

298
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.

PER CENT.
Em ployees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver- Aver- A verN um ­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation,
of
tim e
and num ber of Year.
tim e
of
em­ hours wages week­
plants.
ploy­ per
per
ly
ees.
week. hour. earn­
ings.

12

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

50 60
25
40
30
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
70 over.
60
50
30
40
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

16 . 18
and and
un­ un­
der der
18 20
cts. cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

36.4
36.4
36.4

and
un­
der
14
cts.

36.4
27.3
27.3 *36.’ 4
45.5 18.2

C h a rgin g-m a ­
chine operat­
ors:

22
22
22

72.0 $0,234 $16.87
72.0 .232 16.72
72.0 .244 17.58

\1911

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

.429 31.00
.421 30.28
.410 29.50

f 1910
1 1912

24
24
24

71.3
72.0
72.0

.280 19.95
.264 18.98
.304 21.87

R o ll engineers:
/
6 plants___ \ 1910
1911

42
37

77.4
76.2

.310 24.30
.282 21.67

38.1 23.8 14.3 23.8
43.2 27.0 24.3 5.4

7 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912

43
48

75.8
74.1

.277 21.14
.304 22.44

46.5 27.9 20.9
27.1 39.6 25.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

12
12

72.3
72.3

.624 45.09
.614 44.40

6 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912
Rollers’ help­
ers:
/
1 plant — \ 1910
1911

14

72.3 .591 42.67
72.3 ' .646 46.65

f 1910

3 plants___

\1911

l 1912

Reheaters:
f 1910

4 plants___

1 1912

Reheaters’ help­
ers:
3 plants___

Rollers:
5 plants—

\1911

14

1

72.0
72.0

4.3
95.7
4.3 43.5 52.2
47.8 4.3 4.3 43.5
4.2 45.8
50.0
4.2 25.0 70.8
4.2 4.2 45.8 45.8

33.3 66.7
8.3 25.0 58.3

8.3

21.4 21.4 50.0 7.1
7.1 7.1 64.3 21.4

.561 40.39
.458 32.98

3

4.7
8.3

100.0
100.0

2 plants— / 1911
1912
Table levermen:
f 1910
6 plants___
1911
l 1912
Table men:
4 plants___ / 1910
\ 1911

\

3
6

72.7
72.6

.284 20.56
.304 21.98

\

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

.454 28.25
.422 26.08
.427 26.82

26
26

72.0
72.0

.279 20.06
.264 19.00

38.5 38.5
23.1
23.1 *7.*7 46.2 23.1

/ 1911
5 plants___ \ 1912

27
25

73.4
72.5

.262 18.97
.287 20.77

22.2 11.1 44.4 22.2
16.0 12.0 20.0 52.0

5 plants___ / 1910
\ 1911

20
17

66.8
65.8

.440 29.26
.373 24.31

5.0 5.0
25.0 20.0 45.0
5.9 5.9 ‘ *5.‘ 9 41.2 35.3 5.9

/ 1911
\ 1912

27
30

66.8
67.3

.336 22.20
.346 23.14

3.7 18.5 14.8 37.0 22.2
3.3 16.7 20.0 30.0 26.7

6 plants___ / 1910
\ 1911

19
14

72.0
72.0

.289 20.79
.258 18.56

36.8 10.5 52.6
50.0 35.7 14.3

1911
1912

16
18

72.0
72.0

.251 18.10
.257 18.52

56.3 31.3 12.5
11.1 5.6 27.8 44.4 11.1

1910
1911

64
59

72.4
72.1

.165 11.92
.168 12.14

7 plants___ / 1911
1 1912

66
73

72.1
72.1

.168 12.10
.169 12.20

66.7
66.7

7 plants___

/
7 plants___ \
Hot-saw m en’s
helpers:
6 plants___ f
\




8.1

16.2
2.7 2.7 43.2 27.0
7.2 14.5 30.4 18.8 23.2 5.8
8.1 17.6 17.6 16.2 37.8 2.7

Guide setters:

Hot-saw men:

33.3
33.3

28.1 62.5 9.4
15.3 74.6 10.2
4 .i

19.7 71.2 9.1
82.2 13.7

3.7
3.3

1

. . i f .
.

i

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD BAIL MILLS.
T

299

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
P E R C E N T —Concluded.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year.
em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

H otbed lever
men:
6 plants— / 1910
\ 1911

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age full­
full­ rate time
time
of week­
hours wages ly
per
per earn­
week. hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50
60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

34
27

74.1 $0,209 $15.64
72.1 .197 14.21

11.8 41.2 29.4 17.6
22.2 33.3 44.4

/ 1911
7 plants----- \ 1912
H otbed men:
/
6 p la n ts .... \ 1910
1911

31
35

72.1
72.1

.195 14.06
.201 14.51

25.8 35.5 38.7
25.7 34.3 34.3

44
43

73.6
72.0

36.4 18.2 31.8
.176 12.95 113.6
.175 12.60 114.0 9.3 41.9 4.7 30.2

/ 1911
7 p la n ts .... \ 1912
Btraighteners,
gag press:
/
5 plants_ \ 1910
1911

47
48

72.0
72.2

.176 12.65 1 12.8 8.5 42.6 8.5 27.7
.180 12.98 112.5 4.2 52.1 6.3 16.7

106
90

59.0
56.3

.564 32.41
.534 30.12

49.1 11.3 34.0
54.4
15.6 30.0

1911
1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

.526 29.91
.530 30.79

19.1 28.7
24.5 18.4

1910
1911

139
116

72.1
69.8

.205 14.55
.205 14.04

30.2
.7 51.8
54.3 15 * 5 12.1

.7 16.5
18.1

/ 1911
6 plants----- \ 1912
Chippers:
/ 1910
5 p la n ts .... \ 1911

120
134

69.9
70.0

.205 14.05
.212 14.51

52.5 15.0 15.0
67.2
13.4

17.5
3.0 11.9

114
82

72.1
70.0

.231 16.78
.240 16.88

18.4 10.5 21.1 50.0
1.2 39.0 12.2 32.9 14.6

/ 1911

91

70.2

.233 16.44

11.0 35.2 11.0 29.7 13.2

99

70.3

.221 15.60

152
123

76.7
70.5

.221 15.59

.220 16.78

18.4
47.4 34.2
3.3 45.5 26.8 24.4

/ 1911
6
p la n \ 1912
ts ....
Cold-saw men:
5 p la n ts .,.. / 1910
\ 1911

133
145

70.6
70.5

.218 15.35
.206 14.51

10.5 42.1 24.8 22.6
1.4 60.0 37.2

18
18

74.7
69.1

.191 14.21
.194 13.43

/ 1911
6 plants----- \ 1912

19
19

69.3
69.3

.194 13.43
.196 13.60

30
31

76.0
72.0

.171 12.98
.172 12.40

100.0
100.0

36
29

72.0
72.0

.172 12.38
.173 12.45

100.0
100.0

68
48

75.5
70.4

.225 16.77 .......
.233 16.29

68
76

70.9
71.0

.230 16.25
.......
.228 16.12

f

501
370

76.0
71.9

.163 12.31
.169 12! 12

23.4 76.6
10I 0 90.0

f

382
417

71.9
7L9

.169 12.12
1168 12! 07

9.7 90.3
5.0 95.0

/
6 p la n ts ....
\
S tr a ig h t e n e d
helpers:
5 plants----- /
\

6 p la n ts.. . . \ 1912
D r i l l e r s and
punchers:
/ 1910
5 p la n ts .... 1911
\

Cold-saw m en’s
helpers:
3 p la n ts ....

/ 1910
V 1911

/ 1911
4 p la n ts .... \ 1912
Inspectors:
/ 1910
5 p la n ts .... \ 1911
f 1911
7 p la n ts .... \ 1912
Laborers:
1910
6 p la n ts .... l 1911

1911
7 p la n ts .... \ 1912




5.7

8.3

12.1

3.0 36.4 48.5

5.6

5.6 83.3 11.1
88.9

4.5

1.4

5.6

89.5
94.7

5.3

5.9 38.2 44.1
8.3 20.8 56.3

2.9
4.2

7.4
8.3

1.5
2.1

5.9 14.7 60.3 11.8
25.0 56.6 9.2

5.9
2.6

1.5
3.9

5.3

2.6

i Earning 10 and under 12 cents. *

5.3

1
i

5.7

52.1
51.0 **6."i

300

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912.
S T A N D A R D R A H . M H L S — Continued.
[The abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for “ Great Lakes and M iddle
W est.” ]

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

N um N um ­ ber
Year and dis­
of
ber of em­
trict.
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver- Aver- Aver­
age
age full­
rate time
12 14
16 18 20 25
30
50 60
40
time
of
hours wages week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
60 70 over.
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

2
1

16
6

72.0 $0,238 $17.10
72.0 .226 16.27

8

T o t a l . ...

3

22

72.0

.234 16.87

8

2
1

16
6

72.0
72.0

.233 16.76
.231 16.63

8

3

22

72.0

.232 16.72

8

Pittsburgh........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
1

16
6

72.0
72.0

.233 16.74
.276 19.84

... 8

4
6

4

T o t a l . ...

3

22

72.0

.244 17.58

8

10

4

8
6
6

8

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .
T otal___

8
6
6

8

1912.

REHEATERS.
1910.
Pittsburgh........
T o t a l . ...

2
2
4

12 72.4 $0,417 $30.22
G. 11. and M .W .
L 72.0 .442 31.84

1

12
10

.429 31.00

1

22

12 72.0 .372 26.81
G. 11 and M .W .
L. 72.0 .473 34.07

1

23

72.2

1911.
Pittsburgh........
T otal___

2
2

10

2
10
12

4

23

72.0

.421 30.28

1

10

2
2

12
11

72.0
72.0

.277 19.91
.555 39 96

10
1

1

4

23

72.0

.410 29.50

11

1

1912.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .
Total___




•

1
........|
1
1

10
10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
T

301

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
R E H E A T E R S ’ H E L P E R S —Concluded.

N um ­
ber
Year and dis- N um ­
of
ber of em­
. trict.
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time 12
14 16 18 20 25
40
50 60
30
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16
18 20 25 30
50
40
60 70 over
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

1
2

12
12

72.0 $0,283 $20.34
72.0 .245 17.61

1

6

12
5

T o t a l.. . .

3

24

72.0

.264 18.98

1

6

17

Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

1
2

12
12

72.0
72.0

.328 23.62
.280 20.13

1

1

6
5

6
5

T o t a l.. . .

3

24

72.0

.304 21.87

1

1

11

11

2
14

6
4

6

10

* 16

10

6

10

1912.

R O L L E N G IN E E R S .
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

2
4

8
34

T otal____

6

42

75.0 $0,263 $19.78'
78.0 .321 25.37j ........
........
77.4 .310 24.30J

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

3
4

14
29

76.7
75.3

.255 19.64
.288 21.87

6
14

8
4

9

2

T otal___

7

43

75.8

.277 21.14

20

12

9

2

1912.
Pittsburgh
G. L . and M .W .

3
4

14
34

76.7
73.1

.255 19.64
.323 23.60

6
7

8
11

12

4

7 ‘

48

74.1

.304 22.44

13

19

12

4

T otal___

ROLLERS.
1910.
Pittsburgh
G. L . and M .W .

2
3

6
6

T otal____

5

12

72.3

.624 45.09

1911.
Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
3

g
6

72.0
72.5

.529 38.08
.673 48.81

6

14

72.2

1912.
Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
3

8
6

T ota l___

6

14

Total.




4* 2
6

72.0 $0,580 $41.78
72.5 .668 48.40

4

8

3

3

2
5

.591 42.67

3

3

7

72.0
72.5

.609 43.86
.695 50.37

1

1

5
4

1
2

72.2

.646 46.65

1

1

9

3

1
1
- — ■
'

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

302
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
R O LLE RS’ H ELPERS.

N um ­
N um ­ ber
of
Year and dis­ ber of
em­
trict.
plants. p loy­
ees.

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber of em ployees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
time 12
14 16 18 20 25
30
50 60
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ u n ­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16
40
50
60 70 over.
18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
1

3

72.0 $0,561 $40.39

Pittsburgh........
G. L . andM . W .

1
1

2
1

73.0
72.0

.197 14.34
.458 32.98

2

Total.......

2

3

72.7

.284 20.56

2

Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

1
1

4
2

72.9
72.0

.224 16.34
.462 33.26

4

T o t a l.....

2

6

72.6

.304 21.98

4

G. L . and M. W .

3

1911.
1
1

1912.
2
2

TABLE LEVER M EN.
1910,
2

10
22

2
18

12

6

2

2

32

20

12

6

.307 22.12
.452 27.09

2
3

7
3

4
17

1
12

16

4

64.0

.422 26.08

5

10

21

13

16

4

14
60

72.0
62.8

.285 20.51
.460 28.30

2
4

7
6

5
8

12

28

2

74

64.5

.427 26.82

6

13

13

12

28

2

Pi't^hiirgh
G. L. and M. W .

2
4

14
60

72.0 $0,351 $25.29
64.0 .478 28.94

2

Total.......

6

74

65.5

.454 28.25

2
4

14
55

72.0
62.0

6

69

Pittsburgh........
G. L. ana M .W .

2
4

Total.......

6

1911.
Pittsburgh__
G. L. and M .W .
Total —
1912.




TABLE MEN.

WAQES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
T

303

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
G U ID E S E T T E R S .

Num- A ver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
N um ­
of
Year and dis­ ber of
time
of
em­
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

N um ber of em ployees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
30
time 12 14 16 18 20 . 25
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
50
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L. andM . W .

2
3

9
11

68.0 SO. 346 $23.94
65.7 .517 33.61

1

1

3
2

4

Total.......

5

20

66.8

.440 29.26

1

1

5

4

3
4

15
12

70.0
62.8

.295 20.78
.386 23.98

1

3
2

7
3

1
5

1

5

4

10

6

1

9
9

1911.
Pittsburgh.
G. L. and M. W .

3
1

7

27

66.8

.336 22.20

1

Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

3
4

15
15

70.0
64.6

.290 20.41
.402 25.87

1

3
2

5
1

6
3

8

1

Total.......

7

30

67.3

.346 23.14

1

5

6

9

8

1

Total.......

1912.

H O T -S A W M E N .
1910,
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M.

W
.

2
4

4
15

72.0 $0,262 $18 83
72.0 .296 21.31

2
5

2

Total.......

6

19

72.0

.289 20.79

7

2

W
.

3
4

6
10

72.0
72.0

.223 16.04
.269 19.34

5
4

1
4

2

T o t a l . ...

7

16

72.0

.251 18.10

9

5

2

3
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. 4

6
12

72.0
72.0

.211 15.16
.281 20.20

2

1

3
2

8

2

18

72.0

.257 18.52

2

1

5

8

2

10
10

1911.
Pittsburgh........
and M. G.

L
.

1912.

W
.

Total.......

7

H O T -S A W M E N ’ S H E L P E R S .
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M. W.

2

4

8
56

72.0 $0.177 $12.76
72.4 .163 11.80

18

8
32

6

T otal____

6

64

72.4

.165 11.92

18

40

6

Pittsburgh........
G. L . ana M. W.

3
4

21
45

72.2
72.0

.164 11.85
.170 12.22

10
3

11
36

6

T otal____

7

66

72.1

.168 12.10

13

47

6

1911.




304
T

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
H O T -S A W M EN’ S H E LPER S—Concluded.

Aver­
N um ­
age
N um ­ ber full­
Year and dis­ ber of
of ,
time
trict.
em­
hours
plants.
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1913.
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .

3
4

21
52

72.2 $0,169 $12.23
72.0 .169 12.18

3

14
46

4
6

T o t a l . ...

7

73

72.1

3

60

10

.169 12.20

H O TBED L E V E R M E N .
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . andM . W .

2
4

12
22

72.0 $0,201 $14.45
75.3 .214 16.29

4

T o t a l . ...

6

34

74.1

.209 15.64

16
15

72.3
72.0

31

“ ii

8
2

4

14

10

.193 13.93
.197 14.20

6
2

2
9

8
4

72.1

.195 14.06 ........

8

11

12

16
19

72.3
72.0

.191 13.82
.210 15.09 ........

7
2

3
9

6
6

2

35

72.1

.201 14.51 ........

9

12

12

2

6
« !........

1911.
Pittsburgh........
3
G. L .a n d M . W .
4
T otal___

7

1913.
Pittsburgh.
3
"G. L .a n d M . W .
4
T otal___

7

H O TBED M EN .
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n a M .W .

2
4

16
28

72.0 $0.193 $13.89
74.6 .166 12.42

16

4
12

6
2

6
8

T o t a l . ...

6

44

73.6

.176 12.95

16

16

8

14

Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n a M . W .

3
4

18
29

72.0
72.0

.178 12.83
.174 12.54

4
16

8
12

2
2

4
9

T o t a l . ...

7

47

72.0

.176 12.65

16

' 4

20

4

13

Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .

3
4

18
30

72.6
72.0

.182 13.19
.178 12.85 ‘ **1*6

2

11
14

1
2

4
4

4

T o t a l . ...

7

48

72.2

:180 12.98

2

25

3

8

4

1911.

1913.




16

i Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL M ILLS.

305

T able I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.
S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.

STRAIGHTENERS, GAG PRESS.

NumN um ­ ber
of
Year and dis­ ber of
em­
trict.
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ A ver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14
16 18 20 25
30
50 60
40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
14 16 18 20 25 30
ings.
40
60 70 over.
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910,
Pittsburgh.
G. L . and M. W .

1
4

30
76

T o t a l . ...

5

106

Pittsburgh.
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
4

T o t a l . ...

48.0 $0,471 $22.61
63.4 .600 36.28

30
22

12

36

6

69.0

.564 32.41

52

12

36

6

31
63

51.1
69.8

.415 21.00
.581 34.30

4
14

27

6

94

56.9

.526 29.91

18

27

49

Pittsburgh.
G. L .a n a M . W .

2
4

28
70

51.4
60.0

.390 20.81
.586 34.79

24
18

4
46

6

T o t a l . ...

6

98

57.6

.530 30.79

24

18

50

6

1911,
49

1912.

STRAIGHTENERS’ HELPERS.
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

1
4

20
119

72.0 $0,211 $15.19
72.1 .204 14.44

1

72

20
22

1

23

T o t a l . ...

5

139

72.1

.205 14.55

1

72

42

1

23

2
4

23
97

72.0
69.4

.192 13.81
.208 14.10 ........

1
62

18

4
14

21

6

120

69.9

.205 14.05

63

18

18

21

Pittsburgh.
G. L .a n a M . W .

2
4

29
105

72.0
69.5

.190 13.69
.218 14.73

25
65

18

T otal___

6

134

70.0

.212 14.51

90

18

4

1911.
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .
T o t a l . ...
1912,
4
16

6

16

6

CHIPPERS.
1910.
72.0 $0,252 $18.14
72.1 .226 16.45

21

12

24

22
35

... 1
........

114

72.1

.231 16.78

21

12

24

57

. . . . ! ........

2
4

27
64

72.0
69.4

.223 16.05
.238 16.61

9
1 "3 2

9
1

9
18

12

6

91

70.2

.233 16.44

32

10

27

12

1

4
5

Pit.tsVnirgh
G. L. and M. W .
T o t a l . ...

G. L . and M. W .
T otal___

22
92

1911.

44929°— Bull. 151— 14-------20




10

1
:::::::::
____ _____

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

306
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.

CHIPPERS—Concluded.

Num­ Aver­
age
N um ­ ber full­
of
Year and dis­ ber of
em­ time
trict.
plants.
hours
p loy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees earning each classified
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
funtim e 12 14
16 18 20 25
30
40
50
week­ and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un ­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der
ings. 14 16
18 20 25 30
40
50
60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1912.
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

2
4

27
72

72.0 $0.194 $13.98
69.7 .231 16.20

1
2

18
18

8
40

12

Total____

6

99

70.3

.221 15.60

3

36

48

12

DRILLERS AND PUNCHERS.
1910.
1
4

24
128

72.0 $0,250 $18.00
77.6 .215 16.55

28

....

72

24
28

5

152

76.7

.220 16.78

28

—

72

52

Pittsburgh........
G. L. andM . W .

2
4

30
103

72.0
70.2

.224 16.11
.216 15.13

10
4 ‘ *56

10
23

10
20

Total____

6

133

70.6

.218 15.35

14

56

33

30

2
4

30
115

72.0
70.1

.195 14.06
.209 14.63

2

20
67

10
44

2

6

145

70.5

.206 14.51

2

87

54

2

Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Total —
1911.

1913.
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W_
T otal____

COLD-SAW MEN.
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

1
4

5 . 84.0 $0.187 $15.71
13 71.1 .192 13.63

1

5
10

2

T otal___

5

18

74.7

.191 14.21

1

15

2

2
4

5
14

76.0
66.9

.190 14.41
.195 13.08

1

5
12

....

1

6

19

69.3

.194 13.43

1

17

....

1

Pittsburgh..
G. L . and M. W .

2
4

5
14

76.0
66.9

.190 14.41
.198 13.30

5
13

i

T otal------

6

19

69.3

.196 13.60

18

l

1911.
P ittsburgh...
G .L . and M. W .
T o t a l.. .
1912.

COLD-SAW MEN’S HELPERS.
1910.
Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M . W .

1
2

18
12

76.0 $0.175 $13.30
76.0 .165 12.50

18
12

T otal------

3

30

76.0

.171 12.98

30




rate of

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL M ILLS.

307

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E

A N D CLASSIFIE D R A TE S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN EAC H Y E A R , B Y
D ISTR IC TS, 1910 TO 1912— Concluded.

STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.
C O L D -S A W M E N ’ S H E L P E R S —Concluded.

AverN um ­
Num ­ ber
of
Year and dis­ ber of
time
trict.
emhours
plants.
pi°y- per
week.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
rate time 12
14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50
60
of week­
and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
60 70 over.
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Aver-

1911.
Pittsburgh........
Pittsburgh.
G. L. and M. W .

72.0 $0,174 $12.53
.1
72.0 .168 12 0

T o t a l . ...

72.0

.172 12.38

72.0
72.0

36

.175 12.57
.169 12.13

72.0

.173 12.45

36

1912.
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M. W .
T otal___

29

29

IN SP E C T O R S.
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n a M . W .

1
4

4
64

72.0 $0,176 $12.67
75.8 .228 17.03

4

Total____

5

68

75.5

.225 16.77

4

Pittsburgh.
G. L. andM . W .

3
4

24
44

72.0
70.2

.215 15.51
.239 16.65

4

Total___

7

68

70.9

.230 16.25

4

Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

3
4

22
54

72.0
70.6

.214 15.39
.234 16.42

Total____

7

76

71.0

.228 16.12

26

30

2

5

1

26

30

2

5

1

*'io

14
27

6
2

4

1

10

41

8

4

1

2

2
17

13
30

5
2

2

3

2

19

43

7

2

3

1911.

1912.

LABO RERS.
1910.
Pittsburgh........
G. L. ana M. W .

2
4

122
379

76.4 $0.161 $12.18
75.9 .163 12.35

50
67

72
312

T o t a l.. . .

6

501

76.0

.163 12.31

117

384

Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

3
4

116
266

71.9
71.9

.169 12.17
.169 12.10

17
20

99
246 1
-------

T otal------

7

382

71.9

.169 12.12

37

345

Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M. W .

3
4

100
317

71.2
72.1

.167 11.88
.169 12.13

21

79
317

T o t a l . ...

7

417

71.9

.1

6 12.07
8

21

396

1911.

1918.




308
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H D I S T R I C T ,
B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912.

able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— C ontinued.

u

[The abbreviation “ G. L . and M. W .” in the first or reading colum n stands for Great Lakes and Middle
W est. ” T he figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
C H A R G I N G -M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R S .

District, and
number of
plants.

Pittsburgh:

N um - Average
her full­
of
tim e
Year.
em­ hours
p loy­ per
ees. week.

{ 1910
\1911

l 1912

16
16
16

I 1910
1 plant........ 1911
l 1912

6
6
6

2 plants___

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

N um ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

72.0 $0,238 $17.10
72.0 .233 16.76
72.0 .233 16.74

8
8
8

8
8
4

4

G.L.and M .W .:

<

72.0
72.0
72.0

.226 16.27
.231 16.63
.276 19.84

6
6
6

REHEATERS.
Pittsburgh:

\1911

1 1912

12
12
12

72.4 $0,417 $30.22
72.0 .372 26.81
72.0 .277 19.91

10

f 1910
2 plants___ 1 1911
l 1912

11
11
11

72.0
72.0
72.0

.442 31.84
.473 34.07
.555 39.96

1
1
1

1 1910

2 plants___

10
1

12
2
1

G .L . and M .W .:
10
10
io
l
REH EATERS* H E LPER S.
Pittsburgh:

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

12
12
12

70.5 $0,325 $22.91
72.0 .283 20.34
72.0 .328 23.62

r 1910
1911
2 plants___
l 1912

12
12
12

72.0
72.0
72.0

1 plant........
G.L.and M .W .:

\




.236 16.98
.245 17.61
.280 20.13

12
i2
6
1
1
1

11
6
1

6

5
5

5

-

WAGES AND HOTJKS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

309

I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
ROLLERS.

District, and
num ber o f
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
p loy­
ees.

Num ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
ver­
A ver­ Aver­ Aage
age
age full­
full­ rate
tim e 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
tim e
o f week­
and and and and and and and and and and 70
hours wages
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
6
6

72.0 $0,580 $41.78
72.0 .556 40.00

1

4
3

2
2

1911
1912

8
8

72.0
72.0

.529 38.08
.609 43.86

3
1

3
1

2
5

1

1910
1911
1912

6
6
6

72.5
72.5
72.5

.668 48.40
.673 48.81
.695 50.37

6
5
4

1
2

/ 1910
2 plants___ \ 1911
/
3 plants___ \
G .L.and M .W .:
f
3 plants___
l

\

ROLLERS’ HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
/ 1911
1 plant........ \ 1912

2
4
3
1
2

72.0
72.0
72.0

2

73.0 $0,197 $14.34
72.9 .224 16.34

4

G .L .a n d M .W .:
1 plant

f 1910
1911
l 1912

\

.561 40.39
.458 32.98
.462 33.26

3
1
2

TABLE LEVER M EN.
Pittsburgh:

f 1910

\1911

14
14
14
60
55
60

64.0
62.0
62.8

l 1912

G. L .a n d M .W .:
4 plants___

2
2

72.0 $0,351 $25.29
72.0 .307 22.12
72.0 .285 20.51

f 1910

2 plants___

\1911
{ 1912




.478 28.94
.452 27.09
.460 28.30

.. ..1 ........
. . i........
i

TABLE MEN.

2
7
7

10
4
5

2
1

2
3
4

3
6

22
17
8

18
12
12

i6
28

12
4
2

6

310

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.
GUIDE SETTERS.

District, and
number of

Year.

N um ­
ber
of
em­
p loy ­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

N um ber of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
16
18 20 25
tim e 12 14
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16
18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:
/ 1910
2 p lan ts___ \ 1911

9
9

68.0 $0,346 $23.94
68.0 .310 21.38

1
1

1
1

1

3
5

4
1

1
1

3
3

3
5

7
6

1

1911
1912

15
15

70.0
70.0

.295 20.78
.290 20.41

1910
1911

11
8

65.7
63.4

.517 33.61
.443 27.62

/ 1911
4 plan ts___ \ 1912

12
15

62.8
64.6

.386 23.98
.402 25.87

f
3 plants___ \
G .L .a n d M .W .
/
3 p lan ts___ \

2
2
2
2

1
1

2
3

2
1

5
3

1

HOT-SAW MEN.
Pittsburgh:
2 plants—
3 plants—
G .L .a n d M .W .
4 plants —

1910
1911

4
4

72.0 $0,262 $18.83
72.0 .231 16.60

1911
1912

6
6

72.0
72.0

.223 16.04
.211 15.16

1910
1911
1912

15
10
12

72.0
72.0
72.0

.296 21.31
.269 19.34
.281 20.20

2

1

5
4
2

Pittsburgh:
2 plants----3 plants___
G .L .a n d M .W .:
4 plants___

1910
1911

8
14

72.0 $0,177 $12.76
72.3 .165 11.90

1911
1912

21
21

72.2
72.2

.164 11.85
.169 12.23

1910
1911
1912

56
45
52

72.4
72.0
72.0

.163 11.80
.170 12.22
.169 12.18

6

00 00

HOT-SAW MEN’ S HELPERS.

10

3

....

11
14

18
3

32
36
46

HOTBED LEVER MEN.
Pittsburgh:
2 plants-----

1910
1911

/ 1911
3 plants___ \ 1912
G.L.and M .W .:
1910
1911
4 plants___
1912




72.0 $0,201 $14.45
72.3 .197 14.24
72.3
72.3

.193 13.93
.191 13.82

75.3
72.0
72.0

.214 16.29
.197 14.20
.210 15.09

14

4
8

5

9
1

3
3

5
8

1
1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

311

I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.

T able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
HOTBED MEN.

District, and
number of
plants.

Pittsburgh:
2 plants___
3 plants___
G .L .andM .W .:
4 plants___

Num ber o f employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
Num ­ Aver- Aver- age
ber
full­
rate tim e 12
25
of
30
40
50 60
14 16 18 20
Year. em- tim e
of week­
and and and and and and and and and and 70
hours
ployun­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
per earn­
der der der der der der der der der der and
week. hour.
40
50
60 70 over.
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910
1911

72.0 $0.193 $13.89
72.0 .177 12.73

1911
1912

72.0
72.6

.178 12.83
.182 13.19

1910
1911
1912

74.6
72.0
72.0

.166 12.42
.174 12.54
.178 12.85

4

STRAIGHTENERS, GAG PRESS.
Pittsburgh:
1 plant.,
2 plants___

1910
. 1911

30
27

48.0 $0,471 $22.61
48.0 .424 20.35

1911
1912

31
28

51.1
51.4

.415 21.00
.390 20.81

4
24

1910
1911
1912

76
63
70

63.4
59.8
60.0

.600 36.28
.581 34.30
.586 34.79

14

27

G .L .a n d M .W .:
4 plants___

12

STRAIGHTENERS’ HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1 p la n t..
2 p la n ts ...
G.L.and M .W .
4 p la n ts ...

20

/ 1910
\ 1911

20
19

72.0 $0,211
72.0 .190

1911
. 1912

23
29

72.0
72.0

.192 13.81
.190 13.69

1910
1911
1912

119
97
105

72.1
69.4
69.5

.204 14.44
.208 14.10
.218 14.73

1
1
25
1

18
18

72
62
65

4
4
22
14
18

CHIPPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1 p la n t..
2 p la n t s ....
G .L .a n d M .W .:
4 p la n ts ....

1910
1911

22
18

72.0 $0,252 $18.14
72.0 .248 17.82

1911
1912

27

72.0
72.0

.223 16.05
.194 13.98

72.1
69.4
69.7

.226 16.45
.238 16.61
.231 16.20

1910
1911
1912




i Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

1

23
21
16

6

312

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH DISTRICT,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Concluded.

T able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
DRILLERS AND PUNCHERS.

District, and
number of
plants.

Num ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Num ber o f employees earning each classified rate o f
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
tim e 12 14 16 18 20
25
30
40
50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Pittsburgh:

\1911

24
20

72.0 $0,250 $18.00
72.0 .249 17.93

2 p la n t s .... / 1911
\ 1912

30
30

72.0
72.0

.224 16.11
.195 14.06

10

128
103
115

77.6
70.2
70.1

.215 16.55
.216 15.13
.209 14.63

28
4
2

1 p la n t..

/ 1910

10

24
10

10
10

10

*20
56
67

72
23
44

28
20

G .L .a n d M .W .:
f 1910

4 p la n t s ....

\1911

l 1912

2

COLD-SAW MEN.
Pittsburgh:
1910
1911

4 p la n ts ....

76.0
76.0

.190 14.41
.190 14.41

1910
1911
1912

2 p la n ts ....
G.L. and M .W .

84.0 $0,187 $15.71
77.0 .190 14.63

1911
1912

1 plant.

71.1
66.9

.192 13.63
.195 13.08
.198 13.30

2
1

COLD-SAW MEN’S HELPERS.
Pittsburgh:
1 p la n t..

18
19

76.0 $0,175 $13.30
72.0 .175 12.60

1911
1912

24
21

72.0
72.0

.174 12.53
.175 12.57

1910

12
12
8

76.0
72.0
72.

.165 12.50
.168 12.10
12.13

/ 1910
\ 1911

/
2 p la n ts .... \
G .L. and M .W .
f
2 p la n ts ....
l

{ 1911

1912

INSPECTORS.
Pittsburgh:
1 p la n t..
3 p la n ts ...

1911
1912

72.0 $0,176 $12.67
72.0 .171 12.31

1910
1911

G .L .a n d M .W .
4 p la n ts ...

1910
1911
1912

24
22
I
64
44
54

72.0
72.0

.215 15.51
.214 15.39

75.8
70.2
70.6

4
4

.228 17.03
.239 16.65
.234 16.42

4

LABORERS.
P ittsburgh:
1910
1911

122
104

76.4 $0,161 $12.18
71.9 .169 12.16

50
17

3 p la n t s .... I 1911
1912

116
100

71.9
71.2

.169 12.17
.167 11.88

17
21

379

75.9
71.9
72.1

.163 12.35
.169 12.10
.169 12.13

67
20

2 p la n t s .... |

G .L .a n d M .W .:
1910
4 p la n t s .... { 1911
1912




317

*2

14
13

6
5

26
10
17

2

30
27
30

2
2
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

313

T a b l e I V . — AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912.
STANDARD RAH. M ILLS— Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

N U M BE R .

Occupation, and number
plants.

Num ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

E mployees whose full-tim e horns per w eek were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
48
60
72
hours and and and
72
60
and
and
84
un­
under
per
under
under
under
week. der.
60
56
72
84

Charging-machine operators:
f 1910
{ 1911
l 1912

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

22
22
22

\1911

f 1910

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

21
23
23

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

24
24
24

71.3
72.0
72.0

6 plants...............................

/ 1910
\ 1911

42
37

77.4
76.2

20
18

6
12

16
7
7
2

3 plants...............................
Reheaters:
4 plants...............................

l 1912

2

Reheaters’ helpers:
3 plants...............................

12

12
24
24

R oll engineers:

7 plants...............................

/ 1911
\ 1912

43
48

75.8
74.1

18
28

18
18

Rollers:
5 plants...............................

1910
\ 1911

j

12
12

72.3
72.3

10
10

2
2

6 plants...............................

/ 1911
\ 1912

14
14

72.2
72.2

12
12

2
2

Rollers’ helpers:
1 plant................................

/ 1910
\ 1911

3
1

72.0
72.0

3
1

/ 1911
1 1912

3
6

72.7
72.6

1
2

f 1910

2 plants...............................
T able lever men:

24
24
24

2
4

6plants...............................

} 1911

[ 1912

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

T able men:
4 plants...............................

/ 1910
\ 1911

26
26

72.0
72.0

26
26

/ 1911
\ 1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

26
24

/ 1910
\ 1911

20
17

66.8
65.8

3
3

3
3

/ 1911
\ 1912

27
30

66.8
67.3

3
3

6
6

/ 1910
\ 1911

19
14

72.0
72.0

19
14

/ 1911
\ 1912

16
18

72.0
72.0

16
18

6 plants.................... .

/ 1910
\ 1911

64
59

72.4
72.1

62
51

8

7 plants.............. .

/ 1911
1912

\

66
73

72.1
72.1

58
65

8
8

6 plants.................... .

/ 1910
\ 1911

34
27

74.1
72.1

28
19

8

7 plants.....................

/ 1911
i 1912

31
35

72.1
72.1

23
27

8
8

5 plants...............................
Guide setters:
5
plants..........................

7 plants...............................
H ot-saw men:

7

plants............... .

H ot-saw m en’s helpers:

H otbed lever men:




44
45
50

6

1
1

14
11
1
1

11
14

6
6

2

6

314

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Con.

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
N U M B E R —Concluded.

Occupation, and num ber
plants.

of

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
60
72
and
84
per
un­
under
under
under
week. der. under 60
56
72
84

H otbed men:
6 plants.......................

/ 1910
\ 1911

44
43

73.6
72.0

38
43

7 plants.......................

/ 1911
\ 1912

47
48

72.0
72.2

47
46

Straighteners, gag press:
5 plants.......................

/ 1910
\ 1911

106
90

59.0
56.3

66
56

6

12
28

/ 1911
\ 1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

56
56

6
6

32
36

/ 1910
\ 1911

139
116

72.1
69.8

23
21

92
95

/ 1911
\ 1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

21
22

99
112

/ 1910
\ 1911

114
82

72.1
70.0

12
2

16
16

61
64

/ 1911
\ 1912

91
99

70.2
70.3

2
2

16
16

73
81

/ 1910
1911

\

152
123

76.7
70.5

20

21

52
102

/ 1911
\ 1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

21
24

112
121

/ 1910
\ 1911

18
18

74.7
69.1

8

2
6

4

/ 1911
\ 1912

19
19

69.3
69.3

8
8

7
7

4
4

/ 1910
\ 1911

30
31

76.0
72.0

20
31

/ 1911
\ 1912

36
29

72.0
72.0

.36
29

5 plants........................

/ 1910
\ 1911

68
48

75.5
70.4

9
3

6

30
39

7 plants.......................

/ 1911
\ 1912

68
76

70.9
71.0

3
3

6
6

59
67

6 plants.......................

/ 1910
\ 1911

501
370

76.0
71.9

45
20

22
56

209
218

44

225
32

7 plants.......................

/ 1911
\ 1912

382
417

71.9
71.9

20
30

56
54

230
238

44
68

32
27

6 plants........................
Straighteners' helpers:
5 plants.......................
6 plants.......................
Chippers:
5 plants.......................
6 plants.......................

6

6

2
22

24

25

Drillers and punchers:
5 plants.......................
6 plants.......................
Cold-saw men:
5 plants........................
6 plants........................
Cold-saw men’ s helpers:
3 plants.......................
4 plants........................

6

80

10

10

Inspectors:
29

Laborers:

PER CENT.
Charging-machine operators:

\1910
\1911

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

f 1910

3 plants..............................

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

l 1912

Reheaters:
4 plants...............................




{ 1911

l 1912

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

315

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK
PER WEEK IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Con.

T able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
P E R C E N T —Continued.

Occupation, and num ber
plants.

of

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
48
tim e
56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
and
un­
under 60 under 72 under 84
per
under
week. der.
60
56
72
84

Reheaters’ helpers:

\1911

l 1912

24
24
24

71.3
72.0
72.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

42
37

77.4
47.6
76.2 .......... .......... ......... ......... .......... 48.6

14.3
32.4

38.1
18.9
16.3
4.2

f 1910

3 plants.....................
R oll engineers:
6 plants.....................

50.0

50.0
100.0
100.0

7 plants......................

/ 1911
\ 1912

43
48

75.8
74.1

41.9
58.3

41.9
37.5

Rollers:
5 plants.....................

/ 1910
\ 1911

12
12

72.3
72.3

83.3
83.3

16.7
16.7

6 plants.....................

/ 1911
1912

14
14

72.2
72.2

85.7
85.7

14.3
14.3

/ 1910
\ 1911

3
1

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

/ 1911
\ 1912

3
a

72.7
72.6

33.3
33.3

f 1910

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

\ 1911

26
26

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

/ 1911
\ 1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

96.3
96.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

20
17

66.8
65.8

/ 1911
\ 1912

27
30

22.2
66.8
11.1
67.3 .......... 10.0 .......... 20.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

19
14

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

/ 1911
\ 1912

16
18

72.0
72.0

100.0
1C0.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

64
59

72.4
72.1

96.9
86.4

13.6

/ 1911
\ 1912

66
73

72.1
72.1

87.9
89.0

12.1
11.0

/ 1910
\ 1911

34
27

74.1
72.1

82.4
70.4

29.6

/ 1911
\ 1912

31
35

72.1
72.1

74.2
77.1

25.8
22.9

6 plants......................

/ 1910
\ 1911

44
43

73.6
72.0

86.4
100.0

7 plants......................

/ 1911
\ 1912

47
48

72.0
72.2

100.0
95.8

5 plants......................

/ 1910
\ 1911

106
90

59.0
56.3

62.3
62.2

6.7

11.3
31.1

6 plants......................

/ 1911
\ 1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

59.6
57.1 .......... ..........

6.4
6.1

34.0
36.7

R o l l e d helpers:
1 plant.......................
2 plants.....................
Table lever men:
6 plants.....................

\

< 1911
1 1912

66.7
66.7
8.1

59.5
65.2
67.6

32.4
34.8
32.4

Table men:
4 plants.....................
5 plants.....................
Guide setters:
5 plants.....................
7 plants.....................
H ot-saw men:
6 plants.....................
7 plants.....................
H ot-saw m en’s helpers:
6 plants.................... .
7 plants.....................
H otbed lever m en:
6 plants.....................

H otbed m en:

/ 1910

15.0
17.6

15.0
17.6

3.7
4.0

70.0
64.7
3.7
3.3

40.7
46.7

22.2
20.0

3.1

17.6

13.6

4.2

Straighteners, gag press:




5.7

20.8

..........

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OP LABOR STATISTICS,

316

T a b l e I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K IN T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Con.
S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
P E R C E N T —Concluded.

Occupation, and num ber
plants.

of

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

S traightened helpers:
o plftQlS*..................................... /1 9 1 0
\ 1911

Employees whose full-tim e hours per week were—
Average
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
56
48
48
60
72
hours and and and
60
and
72
and
84
per
under
un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
56
72
84

139
116

72.1
69.8

16.5
18.1

66.2
81.9

1911
1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

17.5
16.4

82.5
83.6

1910
1911

114
82

72.1
70.0

10.5
2.4

14.0
19.5

53.5
78.0

/ 1911
\ 1912
Drillers and punchers:
/ 1910
piailto....... ...............................
\ 1911

91
99

70.2
70.3

2.2
2.0

17.6
16.2

80.2
81.8

152
123

76.7
70.5

13.2
17.1

34.2
82.9

/ 1911
\ 1912
Cold-saw m en:
/ 1910
o plants......................................
\ 1911

133
145

70.6
70.5

15.8
16.6

84.2
83.4

18
18

74.7
69.1

44.4

11.1
33.3

22.2

A ulonfc
o p iam s....... ............................. / 1911
\ 1912

19
19

69.3
69.3

42.1
42.1

36.8
36.8

21.1
21.1

/ 1910
\ 1911

30
31

76.0
72.0

66.7
100.0

4 p lan ts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / 1911
\ 1912

36
29

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

/ 1910
1911

68
48

75.5
70.4

I rvloirfo
picul LS-....... ........................... / 1911
\ 1912
Laborers:
/ 1910
A piaUto*................................. .
v TlloTlto
\ 1911

68
76

70.9
71.0

4.4
3.9

8.8
7.9

86.8
88.2

501
370

76.0
71.9

9.0
5.4

4.4
15.1

41.7
58.9

11.9

44.9
8.6

Iq u +c
piddllo...................................... / 1911
\ 1912

382
417

71.9
71.9

5.2
7.2

14.7
12.9

60.2
57.1

11.5
16.3

8.4
6.5

6 p lan ts.................................. . /
\
Chippers:
R rvlonte
0 piaiitS*.................................. /
\

0

Cold-saw m en’s helpers:
Q rvloTvfo

Inspectors:
K pxaUvo*•••.......................... .
O nlanto

\

*
7

*7
/

d




33.3

17.3

21.9

52.6

55.6

33.3

13.2 .......... 44.1 . . . . . .
6.3 12.5 81.3

42.6

317

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL" M ILLS.
T

able

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912.
S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.
C H A R G IN G -M A C H IN E

Year and district.

OPERATORS.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
N um ­ age
N um ­ ber of full­
Over
Over
ber of em ­ tim e
Over
48
56
48
plants. p loy­ hours and
60
72
and
and under 60
and
72
per
ees.
and
84
un­
under
week. der. under
under
60
56
72
84

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est—

2
1

16
6

72.0
72.0

16
6

T otal.......................................

3

22

72.0

22

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
1

16
6

72.0
72.0

16
6

T otal.......................................

3

22

72.0

22

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
1

16
6

72.0
72.0

16
6

T otal.......................................

3

22

72.0

22

1912.

REH EATERS.

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
2

12
11

72.4
72.0

10
11

2

T otal.......................................

4

23

72.2

21

2

1911.
Pittsburgh............ ..........................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
2

12
11

72.0
72.0

12
11

T otal.......................................

4

23

72.0

23

1912.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
2

12
11

72.0
72.0

12
11

T otal.......................................

4

23

72.0

9

REHEATERS’ HELPERS.

1910.
P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
2

12
12

70.5
72.0

12

T otal.......................................

3

24

71.3

12

P ittsb u rgh .......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
2

12
12

72.0
72.0

12
12

T otal.......................................

3

24

72.0

24

1912.
P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

1
2

12
12

72.0
72.0

12
12

T otal.......................................

3

24

72.0

24

12
12

1911.




BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS,

318
T

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

S T A N D A R D R A IL M IL L S — Continued.

ROLL ENGINEERS.

Year and district.

Num N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
tim e
Over
Over
56
48
48
hours and
72
60
and
per
and under 60
72
and
and
84
week. un­ under
under
under
der.
60
72
56
84

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

8
34

75.0
78.0

6
14

6

2
14

T otal.......................................

6

42

77.4

20

6

16

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

3
4

14
29

76.7
75.3

18

12
6

2
5

T otal.......................................

7

43

75.8

18

18

7

1912.
Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes ahd M iddle W e s t ...

3
4

14
34

76.7
73.1

12
6

2

28

T o t a l.....................................

7

48

74.1

28

18

2

6
4

2

10

2

8
4

2

12

2

8
4

2

12

2

ROLLERS.
1910.
2
6 72.0
P ittsburgh........................................
6 72.5
3
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
T otal.......................................

5

12

72.3

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
3
8 72.0
6 72.5
3
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
T otal.......................................

6

14

72.2

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
3
8 72.0
6 72.5
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
3
T o ta l...

w..............................




6

14

72.2

ROLLERS’ HELPERS.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
T

319

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
TABLE LEVER M EN.

Year and district.

Num ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
56
72
hours 48
48
60
and and and
84
per
72
and
and
under 60
un­
under
under
week. der. under
60
72
84
56

1910.

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

14
60

72.0
64.0

24

14
30

6

T otal.......................................

6

74

65.5

24

44

6

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

14
55

72.0
62.0

24

14
31

T otal.......................................

6

69

64.0

24

45

P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
4

14
60

72.0
62.8

24

14
36

T otal.......................................

6

74

64.5

24

50

1911.

1912.

TABLE M EN.
1910.

Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
2

12
14

72.0
72.0

12
14

T otal.......................................

4

26

72.0

26

72.8
72.0

12
1
14 .......

1911.

P ittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

3
2

T otal.......................................

5

27

72.4

26

3
2

13
12

72.9
72.0

12
12

1

5

25

72.5

24

1

1

1912.

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...
Total,

GUIDE SETTER S.
1910.

3

6
8

3

3

14

70.0
62.8

3
3

1

6
5

6

3

27

66.8

3

6

1

11

6

3
4

15
15

70.0
64.6

3
3

1

6
8

6

3

7

30

67.3

3

6

1

14

6

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
3

9
11

68.0
65.7

3

T otal.......................................

5

20

66.8

P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

3
4

15
12

Total...................... ................

7

P ittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...
T otal.......................................

1911.

1912.




320

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS — Continued.
H O T-SA W M EN.

Y ear and district

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
time
Over
Over
48
56
72
hours and
48
60
and
per
and and
84
and
un­ under under 60 under 72
under
week. der.
60
72
84
56

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

4
15

72.0
72.0

4
15

T otal.......................................

6

19

72.0

19

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
6 72.0
3
Great Lakes and 10 iddle W e s t ...
4
M 72.0

6
10

T otal.......................................

7

16

72.0

16

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

3
4

6
12

72.0
72.0

6
12

Tot&l.......................................

7

18

72.0

18

H O T-SA W MEN’S HELPERS.
1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
4

8
56

72.0
72.4

Total.......................................

6

64

72.4

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st. . .

3
4

21
45

72.2
72.0

13
45

8

Total.......................................

7

66

72.1

58

8

1912.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

3
4

21
52

72.2
72.0

13
52

8

Total.......................................

7

73

72.1

65

8




8
54
..........1
..........

HOTBED LEVER M EN.

2

62

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

321

T a b l e Y . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

STANDARD RAIL M ILLS— Continued.
HOTBED MEN.

Num ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Year and district.

N um ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
tim e
Over
56
48
72
hours and
60
48
and
84
72
per
and under 60
and
and
un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
72
84
56

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

16
28

72.0
74.6

16
22

6

Total..................................... .

6

44

73.6

38

6

Pittsburgh ............................... .....

3

Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

4

18
29

72.0
72.0

18
29

Total.......................................

7

47

72.0

47

1913.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

3

18
30

72.6
72.0

16
30

2

4

Total.......................................

7

48

72.2

46

2

1911.

S T R A IG H T E N E R S , G A G P R E S S .
1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
4

30
76

48.0
63.4

30
36

6

12

22

Total.......................................

5

106

59.0

66

6

12

22

1911.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e st.. .

2
4

31
63

51.1
59.8

27
29

6

4
28

Total.......................................

6

94

56.9

56

6

32

6

4
32

6

36

23

20
72

24
24

1913.
Pittsburgh........................................
2
24
28 51.4
32
Great Lakes and 70 60.0 e s t ...
4
Middle W
Total.......................................

6

98

57.6

56

S T R A IG H T E N E R S * H E L P E R S .
1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
1
20 72.0
Great Lakes and119 iddle W e s t ...
4
M 72.1
Total.......................................

5

139

72.1

23

92

1911.
P ittsb u rgh .......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
4

23
97

72.0
69.4

2i

23
76

Total.......................................

6

120

69.9

21

99

22

29
83

22

112

1913.
Pittsburgh........................................
2
29 72.0
Great Lakes and105 69.5W e s t ...
4
Middle
T ota l.......................................

6

134

44929°—Bull. 151—14-----21



70.0

1
" " 1 ........

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

322

V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

STANDARD RAIL M ILLS— Continued.
CHIPPERS.

Year and district.

N um ­
N um ­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. p loy­
ees.

N um ber of employees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
time
Over
Over
56
hours 48
48
72
60
and
and
per
and under 60
72
84
and
and
un­
week. der. under
under
under
60
56
72
84

1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

1
4

22
92

72.0
72.1

12

16

22
39

25

Total.......................................

5

114

72.1

12

16

61

25

2

16

27
46

1911.
2
27 72.0
Pittsburgh........................................
4
Great Lakes and 64 iddle W e s t ...
M 69.4
6

91

70.2

2

16

73

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
4

27
72

72.0
69.7

2

16

27
54

Total.......................................

6

99

70.3

2

16

81

Total.......................................

1919.

DRILLERS AND PUNCHERS.
1910.

.

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
4

24
128

72.0
77.6

20

24
28

80

Total.......................................

5

152

76.7

20

52

80

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

30
103

72.0
70.2

21

30
82

Total.......................................

6

133

70.6

21

112

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

30
115

72.0
70.1

24

30
91

T otal.......................................

6

145

70.5

24

121

1911.

1919.

COLD -SAW M EN.
1910.
Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

1
4

5
13

84.0
71.1

6

2

5
5

T otal.......................................

5

18

74.7

6

2

10

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

5
14

76.0
66.9

1
6

4

8

T otal.......................................

6

19

69.3

8

7

4

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

5
14

76.0
66.9

1
6

4

8

Total.......................................

6

19

69.3

8

7

4

1911.

1919.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
T

323

V — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D IS T R IC T S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
COLD -SAW MEN’ S HELPERS.

AverYear and district.

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

N um ­
N um ­ ber of X
Over
ber of em ­ time
48
56
plants. p loy­ hours
48
per and
and and
ees.
u n ­ under under
week. der.
60
56

60

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

84

1910.

Pittsburgh.......................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ..

1
2

18
12

76.0
76.0

12
8

6
4

Total.......................................

3

30

76.0

20

10

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

2
2

24
12

72.0
72.0

24
12

Total.......................................

4

36

72.0

36

P itts b u rg h ......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

2
2

21
8

72.0
72.0

21
8

Total.......................................

4

29

72.0

1911.

1912.
•

29

INSPECTORS.
1910.

Pittsburgh......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

1
4

4
64

72.0
75.8

9

4
26

29

Total.......................................

5

68

75.5

9

30

29

Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t .. .

3
4

24
44

72.0
70.2

3

6

24
35

Total.......................................

7

68

..........
70.9 1
I..........

3

6

59

Pittsburgh........................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e s t .. .

3
4

22
54

72.0
70.6

3

6

22
45

T otal............... .......................

7

76

71.0

3

6

67

1911.

1912.

LABORERS.
1910.

Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

2
4

122
379

76.4
75.9

4
41

1
21

68
141

49
176

T otal.......................................

6

501

76.0

45

22

209

225

Great Lakes and Middle W e s t ...

3
4

'116
266

71.9
71.9

5
15

56

107
123

44

4
28

Total.......................................

7

382

71.9

20

56

230

44

32

Great Lakes and M iddle W e s t ...

3
4

100
317

71.2
72.1

11
19

54

85
153

68

4
23

Total.......................................

7

,417

71.9

30

54

238

68

27

P itts b u r g h _ _ .......................................

1911.
P itts b u r g h ____

__________ ______

1912.
P ittsb u rgh

__

...................




BU LLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

324

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912.
STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

C H A R G IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R S .

District, and num ber o f plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em ­
p loy­
ees.

Aver-

Num ber o f employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Over
tim e
48
56
48
hours and
and
per
un­ and under
week. der. under
60
56

60

Over
60
and
under
72

Over
72
and
under
84

72

84

Pittsburgh:

\1911

16
16
16

72.0
72.0
72.0

16
16
16

f 1910

6
6
6

72.0
72.0
72.0

6
6
6

f 1910

2 plants...................................

1 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
1 plant....................................

\1911

l 1912

REHEATERS.
Pittsburgh:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

12
12
12

72.4
72.0
72.0

1
0

11
11
11

72.0
72.0
72.0

11
11 .........
11 .........

12
12

2

.

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

R E H E A T E R S ’ H E LPER S.
Pittsburgh:
f 1910

1 plant........................................

\1911

1 1912

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910

2 plants......................................

\1911

l 1912

12
12
12

70.5.
72.0
72.0

12
12
12

72.0
72.0
72.0

12
12
12
12
12
12

R O L L EN G IN E E RS.
Pittsburgh:
f 1910
2 plants...................................... \ 1911
/
3 plants...................................... \
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f
4 plants......................................
l




8
8

75.0
79.5

1911
1912

14
14

76.7
76.7

1910

34
29
34

78.0
75.3
73.1

\1911

1912

ROLLERS.

6

2
2

12
12

2
2

6
6
6

14
5

6

14
18
28

WAGES AND HOUBS OP LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

325

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.
STANDARD RAIL M ILLS— Continued.
R O L L E R S ’ H E LPER S.

District, and number of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year.
em ­
ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
tim e
48
56
72
48
60
hours and
and
72
84
and
and
per u n ­ and under 60
week.
under
under 60
under
der.
72
84
56

Pittsburgh:

1 plan t.

/ 1911
\ 1912

2
4

73.0
72.9

f 1910

1 p lan t......................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:

3
1
2

72.0
72.0
72.0

\1911

l 1912

TA BL E LE VE R M EN.
Pittsburgh:
2 plants.....................................

1910
1911
1912

14
14
14

1910
1911
1912

60
55
60

64.0
62.0
62.8

14
14
14

72.0
72.0
72.0

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants.....................................

24
24
24

30
31
36

T A B L E M EN .
Pittsburgh:
2 plants...................................
3 plants...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
2 plants...................................

1910
1911

12
12

1911
1912

13
13

72.8
72.9

1910
1911
1912

14
14
12

72.0
72.0
72.0

GUIDE SE T T E R S .
Pittsburgh:
2 plants...................................
3 plants...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
3 plants...................................
4 plants...................................

1910
1911

9
9

68.0
68.0

1911
1912

15
15

70.0
70.0

1910
1911

11
8

65.7
63.4

1911
1912

12
15

62.8
64.6

H O T -S A W M EN.
Pittsburgh:
2 plants...................................
3 plants...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants...................................




12
12

72.0
72.0

1910
1911

4
4

72.0
72.0

1911
1912

6
6

72.0
72.0

1910
1911
1912

15
10
12

72.0
72.0
72.0

1
j

... . (..
i
..........1
..........

12
12
14
14
12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

326

T able V I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

PER WEEK IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1912—Continued.
STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
H O T -S A W M EN’ S H E LPER S.

District, and number of plants.

Pittsburgh:
2 plants.
3 plants....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants.

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Year. em­ time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
60
72
ploy­ hours and and and
72
60
84
per
and
and
ees. week. un­
under
under 60
under
under
der.
56
72
84

/ 1910
\ 1911

8
14

72.0
72.3

/ 1911
\ 1912

21
21

72.2
72.2

[ 1910
\1911

56
45
52

72.4
72.0
72.0

l 1912

H O TB E D L E VE R M EN.
Pittsburgh:
2 plants.
3 plants....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4

plants.

1910
1911

12
12

72.0
72.3

1911
1912

16
16

72.3
72.3

1910
1911
1912

22
15
19

75.3
72.0
72.0

H OTB E D M EN.
Pittsburgh:
2 plants.
3 plants....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4

plants.

1910
1911

16
14

72.0
72.0

1911
1912

18
18

72.0
72.6

1910
1911
1912

28
29
30

74.6
72.0
72.0

ST R A IG H TE N E R S , G A G P R E S S .
Pittsburgh:
1 plant.

1910
1911

30
27

48.0
48.0

30
27

2 plants....................................

1911
1912

31
28

51.1
51.4

27
24

1910
1911
1912

76
63
70

63.4
59.8
60.0

36
29
32

4
4

Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants....................................




6
6
6

12
28
32

2
2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
T

327

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D I S T R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Continued.

able

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
S T R A IG H T E N E R S ’ H ELPER S.

District, and number of plants.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
A ver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
hours and
60
72
per
60
72
84
and and
and
and
week. un­ under under
under
under
der.
60
56
84
72

Pittsburgh:

\1911

/1910

20
19

72.0
72.0

20
19

/1911
\1912

23
29

72.0
72.0

23
29

f 1910

119
97
105

72.1
69.4
69.5

Great Lakes and Middle West:
4 plants......................................

11911

11912

72
76
83

23
21
22

24

C H IPPER S.
Pittsburgh:
/1910
1 p la n t...................................... 11911

22
18

72.0
72.0

22
18

/1911
1912

27
27

72.0
72.0

27
27

f 1910

92
64
72

72.1
69.4
69.7

2 plants....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
4 plants......................................

\

\1911

1 1912

12
2
2

16
16
16

39
46
54

25

D R IL LE R S AND PU N CH ERS.
Pittsburgh:
/1910
1 plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ 1911
/1911
2 plants...................................... \ 1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
4 plants...................................... 1911
11912




\

24
20

72.0
72.0

24
20

30
. 30

72.0
72.0

30
30

128
103
115

77.6
70.2
70.1

C O L D -S A W M EN.

20
21
24

28
82
91

80

328
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

V I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S O F W O R K
P E R W E E K I N E A C H D I S T R IC T , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

STANDARD RAIL M ILLS— Concluded.
C O L D -S A W M EN ’ S H ELPER S.

' District, and number of plants.

Pittsburgh:
1 plan t....................................
2 plants..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
2 plants..................................

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
N um ­ A verber
of
Year. em­ time
Over
Over
Over
48
56
48
60
72
ploy­ hours and
and
per
72
and
and
84
ees. week. un­ and under 60
under
under
under
der.
60
56
84
72

SB.

/1910
\1911

18
19

76.0
72.0

12
19

/1911
\1912

24
21

72.0
72.0

24
21

f 1910
■ 1911
j
11912

12
12
8

76.0
72.0
72.0

8
12
8

6.

4

IN S PE C T O R S .
Pittsburgh:
/1910
1 p lan t........................................ \1911
/1911
3 plants...................................... \1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
f 1910
4 plants...................................... 1911
1912

\

4
4

72.0
72.0

4
4

24
22

72.0
72.0

24
22

64
44
54

75.8
70.2
70.6

9
3
3

6
6

26
35
45

29
i
1

LA B O R E R S .
Pittsburgh:
/1910
2 plants...................................... \1911
/1911
3 plants...................................... \1912
Great Lakes and Middle W est:
(1910
4 plants...................................... •11911
1.1912




122
104

76.4
71.9

4
5

116
100

71.9
71.2

5
11

379
266
317

75.9
71.9
72.1

41
15
19

1

49
4

107
85
21
56
54

68
95

4
4

141
123
153

44
68

176
28
23

BAR MILLS.
SUM M ARY.

Summary figures relating to the bar-mill department are given
with figures for other departments of the iron and steel industry in
the introductory summary on pages 7 to 15. An explanation of the
scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given on
pages 16 to 22.
Briefly summarized the average full-tim e weekly earnings of
employees in the bar-m ill department in 1912 were 2.3 per cent lower
than in 1907, 8.7 per cent higher than in 1908, 6.3 per cent higher
than in 1909, 3.8 per cent lower than in 1910, and 1.0 per cent higher
than in 1911. The average full-tim e hours of labor per week were
lower in 1912 than in any of the five preceding years, being 1.3
per cent lower than in 1907, 0.8 per cent lower than in 1908, 1.8
per cent lower than in 1909, 1.4 per cent lower than in 1910, and
0.2 per cent lower than in 1911. The average rate of wages or
earnings per hour in 1912 was 1.8 per cent lower than in 1907, 9.4
per cent higher than in 1908, 7.3 per cent higher than in 1909, 3.1
per cent lower than in 1910, and 1.1 per cent higher than in 1911.
The m ost significant facts concerning the several occupations
of the bar-m ill department are summarized in the table below. Data
are presented for each year from 1907 to 1912, inclusive, the figures
for identical plants being bracketed together.
Referring to the first occupation, laborers, direct comparison
can be made of data for 10 identical plants from 1907 to 1910, for 15
for 1910 and 1911, and for 17 for 1911 and 1912. The first line
of the table shows that in 1907 the 10 bar mills for which-reports
were obtained employed 296 laborers whose average full-tim e hours of
work were 68.3 per week. For 17.5 per cent of the 296 laborers the
full-tim e horns per week were over 48 and not more than 60; for 47.3
per cent, over 60 and under 72; for 25 per cent, 72 hours; and for 10.1
per cent, over 72 hours.
The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the
year considered (1907) was $0,153. Of the total number 9.1 per
cent received under 14 cents per hour; 58.4 per cent, 14 and under 16
cents and 32.4 per cent, 16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average
full-tim e weekly earnings were $10.44. The other lines of the table
may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 10
identical plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers

;




329

330

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

were $10.44 in 1907, $9.93 in 1908, $10.17 in 1909, and $10.81 in 1910.
While the average full-time weekly earnings in 1910 in 10 plants were
$10.81, in 15 plants in the same year the average was $10.86. In the
15 plants there was a decrease from $10.86 in 1910 to $10.59 in 1911.
The difference between $10.86 and $10.59 measures the change from
1910 to 1911. It would not be a proper comparison, however, to
state that earnings decreased from $10.81 in 1910 to $10.59 in 1911
because of a change in the number of plants and the difference
known to exist in the averages for 1910 in the two groups of plants.
In 17 plants there was an increase from $10.40 in 1911 to $10.52 in
1912. The other items of the table should be studied with like care.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1912 of
the several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of
laborers, which was $10.52. The averages for 4 other occupations
were only slightly higher, but the averages for the remaining 13
occupations were from 30 per cent to over 400 per cent higher, the
highest being that of rollers, which was $53.63.
A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S O F W O R K P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S O F
W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F
T H E P R IN C IP A L OC C U PA TIO N S, 1907 T O 1912—B A R M IL L S .
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of
A ver­
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
age
full­
rate
tim e
of
14
week­
wages Un­ and 16
and 18
ly
der
per
Over hour. 14 un­ un­ cts. earn­
der der and ings.
72
cts.
16
18 over.
cts. cts.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Aver­
N um ­ age
ber
full­
Occupation, and num ­ Year.
of
tim e
ber of plants.
em­
hours 48
ploy­ per
ees. week. and
un­
der.

Over
48
and
in­
clud­
ing
60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Laborers:

1 7 n lo T ito

[1907
11908
' 1909
U910

296
227
324
424

68.3 . . . . 17.5
64.8 ___ 42.3
67.8 . . . . 24.1
67.2
30.2

47.3 25.0 10.1 $0.153 9.1 58.4 32.4
$10.44
47.6 7.9 2.2
.153 17.2 39.6 43.2 ........ 9.93
42.3 27.2 6.5
.150 15.4 56.2 28.4
10.17
26.7 41.5 1.7
.161 9.4 7.3 83.3 ........ 10.81

/1910
\1911

1 A pidiJLl IS * .......................
IvJ n l o n t o

511
355

67.8
31.0
66.0 . . . . 29.2

25.0 35.8
49.3 19.7

8.2
1.7

.160 10.0 13.7 76.3
10.86
.160 12.4 7.3 80.3 ........ 10.59

/1911
\1912

390
424

65.5
35.4
65.9 . . . . 30.2

44.9 18.2
48.1 19.8

1.5
1.9

.159 11.3 15.6 73.1
.159 10.4 12.7 76.9
16
U n­ and
der un­
16 der
cts.
20
cts.

............

10.40
10.52

20
and 25
un­ cts.
der and
25 over.
cts.

Bundlers:
[1907
11908
11909
11910

41
41
41
41

66.9 . . . . ........ 75.6 24.4 ........
66.9
75.6 24.4
. . . . . 100.0
........
66.8
67.1 . . . . ............ 100.0 ........ ........

.202
.174 34." 2
.186 9.8
.213 4.9

A n la n to
U p i a U t o • .........................

/1910
\1911

77
81

66.1
63.5

100.0
44.4* 55.6

.207
.193

*7 ^JXd»Ilf c .......................... ..
i t-\1q l b

/1911
1.1912

131
132

62.0
62.0

65.6
65.2




34.4
34.8 ........

56.1 39.0
56.1 7.3
75.6 14.6
26.9 63.4

4.8
2.4
4.9

13.53
11.68
12.42
14.23

2.6 42.9 51.9
1.2 59.3 37.0

2.6
2.5

13.69
12.28

.197
.8 36.6 61.1
.193 ........ 80.3 18.2

1.5
1.5

12.20
11.94

331

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS,

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S OF
W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H OF
T H E P R IN C IP A L OC C U PA TIO N S, 1907 TO 1 9 1 2 -B A R M IL L S —Continued.

Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of
Aver­
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
age
•fnll
lullrate
time
of
16
20
week­
wages Un­ and and 25
ly
per
der un­ un­ cts. earn­
Over
hour.
72
16 der der and ings.
cts. 20
25 over.
cts. cts.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

N um ­
ber
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Chargers and helpers:

Aver­
age
full­
Over Over
tim e
48
hours 48
60
per and and and
in­
week.
un­ clud­ un­
der. ing der
72
60

72

0907
11908
12 plants................. 11909
11910

104
102
107
110

65.5 ........ 14.4 68.3 15.4 1.9 $0,173 48.1 36.5
14.7 65.7 19.6 .
.161 59.8 35.3
65.6
.161 62.7 29.9
65.9 ........ 13.0 74.8 7.5 4.7
.181 21.8 61.9
66.3 ........ 12.7 78.2 9.1

/1910
18 plants................. 11911

179
177

65.3
65.1

6.7 14.5 59.2 19.6
6.8 14.6 59.9 18.6 ........

.192 13.4 59.2 14.0 13.4
.185 21.5 52.6 21.5 4.5

12.40
12.02

(1911
19 plants................. 1.1912
H otbed men:
1907
1908
15 plants................. ‘ 1909
U910

185
182

64.8
65.0

6.5 16.2 59.5 17.8
4.9 15.9 61.0 18.1 ........

.184 22.7 52.5 20.5 4.3
.192 12.6 57.7 15.4 14.3

11.90
12.45

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

4.0
4.0
4.2
5.0

26.2
33.8
30.0
40.7

19.9 12.2
11.7 6.6
18.9 8.3
19.2 20.2

11.98
10.93
11.00
13.02

(1910
25 plants................. (1911

500
434

62.9 11.4 30.2 43.2 11.8 3.4
62.0 12.4 30.2 47.7 9.7 ........

.200 26.0 39.6 16.6 17.8
.189 29.5 42.4 15.0 13.1

12.46
11.69

(1911
26 plants................. (1912
R oll engineers:
(1907
11908
13 plants................. 11909
(1910

450
461

61.9 12.0 30.4 48.2 9.3
61.7 11.7 31.6 45.3 11.3 ........

.188 31.1 41.8 14.4 12.6
.192 21.5 43.2 21.9 13.4

11.61
11.80

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

........ ........ 53.4 8.6 37.9
........ ........ 50.0 17.9 32.2
........ ........ 53.6 10.7 35.7
55.2 6.9 38.0
........

.226 ........ 15.5 56.9 27.6
.221
17.8 62.5 19.6
.217 7.1 21.4 53.6 17.9
.230 ........ 13.8 62.1 24.1

16.29
15.76
15.52
16.52

(1910
22 plants................. <1911
(1912
Shearmen’s helpers:
(1907
15 p l a n t s ...................... 11908
11909
(1910

99
95
97

72.0
3.0 40.4 26.3 30.3
70.4 ........ 3.2 56.8 13.7 26.3
70.0 ........ 5.1 52.6 12.4 29.9

14.1 59.6 26.3
.229
.228 ........ 14.7 62.1 23.3
.229 ........ 13.4 64.9 21.6

16.46
16.07
10.05

.174
.168
.169
.184

62.2 20.4 1.0
58.7 16.9 4.7
59.5 4.3 15.7
65.1 11.6 ........

65.9
66.2
67.3
65.3

(1910
23 plants................. <1911
(1912
Stockers:
(1907
8 plants................... 11908
11909
11910

355
359
358

64.7 12.7 15.2 44.5 21.7
63.8 13.4 18.1 50.4 18.1
63.9 13.4 18.8 46.4 18.2

13 plants................. (1910
(1911

170
164

59.0 15.9 28.8 50.6
59.6 16.5 37.2 42.7

15 plants................. (1911
(1912

211
217

60.9 12.8 40.4 34.1 12.8
60.9 12.4 43.7 30.9 12.9

64.4
64.1
64.2
64.3

........
........
........
........

16.4
19.8
20.6
23.2

43.0 18.5 ........
34.8 20.7
53.8 4.9 ........
54.0 6.6 ........

201
172
185
215

93
90
88
87

.....
........
........
........

34.4
40.5
37.1
34.5

17.2
20.0
18.2
17.2

5.9
3.4*

69.9 8.6 4.3
65.6 14.4 ........
78.4 3.4 ........
79.3 3.4 ........

.189
.174
.180
.208

41.8
47.8
42.7
19.9

30.4
30.8
26.5
38.1

9.6 5.8
4.9
7.5
9.1 *7.3"

$11.34
10.56
10.60
11.87

13.9
12.2
14.6
22.3

7.0
2.9
3.8
8.3

11.46
11.07
11.32
12.00

.187 27.0 38.9 24.5
.178 28.4 49.6 15.9
.184 17.9 47.5 26.3

9.5
6.2
8.4

12.02
11.28
11.74

48.7
54.0
55.2
31.2

.178 8.7 67.7 23.7 ........ 11.43
.167 28.9 62.2 8.9
10.72
.168 39.8 46.6 11.4 2.3 10.79
.190 8.0 59.8 32.2 ........ 12.17
.250
.230

4.1 30.6 30.0 35.3
3.6 36.6 26.8 32.9

14.24
13.41

.217
.231

4.7
3.7 ........

2.8 48.8 22.7 25.6
3.2 36.4 26.3 34.2

12.94
13.79

20
30
Un­ and and 40
der un­ un­ Cts.
20 der der and
30
cts.
40 over.
cts. cts.
Drag downs:
(1907
11 plants................. 11908
11909
(1910

86
82
83
89

(1910
19 plants................. (1911

132
123




64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

........
.....
........
........

18.6
24.4
24.1
22.5

60.5 18.6 2.3
52.4 23.2 ........
69.9 3.6 2.4
69.7 3.4 4.5

65.1
21.2 56.8 18.9
64.9 ........ 22.8 55.3 20.3

3.0
1.6

.271
.246
.250
.286

26.8
40.3
32.5
29.1

38.4
34.2
41.0
34.8

23.3 11.7
18.3 7.3
21.7 4.8
27.0 9.0

.269 25.8 46.3 22.0
.262 18.8 62.6 12.2

17.31
15.58
15.93
18.19

6.0 17.44
6.6 J 16.88

332

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S OF
W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H OF
T H E P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S, 1907 TO 1 9 1 2 -B A R M ILL S—Continued.
Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of
A ver­
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
age
fun­
rate
time
of
30
week­
wages U n­ 20
and and 40
ly
per
Over hour. der un­ un­ cts. earn­
72
20 der der and ings.
cts. 30
40 over.
cts. cts.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Aver­
N um ­ age
ber
fuUof
Occupation, and num ­ Year.
Over
em­ time
ber of plants.
48 Over
hours 48
60
ploy­
per and and and
ees.
week. un­ in ­ un­
clud­ der
der.
ing
72
60

72

Drag downs—C on d d .
11911
20 plants................. \1912
Finishers:
1907
1908
10 plants................. 1909
11910

127
130

/1910
17 plants................. \1911

111
110

(1911
19 plants................. \1912
H e a te d helpers:
1907
1908
14 plants................. 1909
11910

65
63
63
64

64.7 . . . . . 23.6 55.1 19.7
64.3 . . . . . 25.4 53.8 19.2
65.9
66.4
66.2
66.1

........
........
........
........

47.7 26.2 ........
49.2 27.0 ........
68.3 9.5 ........
75.0 4.7 ........

6.2 $16.78
6.2 16.12

.309 9.2 47.7 18.5 24.6
.279 11.2 60.3 19.0 9.5
.300 8.0 49.2 27.0 15.9
.329 4.7 34.4 39.1 21.9

20.45
18.53
19.85
21.80

64.0 13.5 16.2 55.0 15.3
63.4 13.6 22.8 45.5 18.2 ........

.323
.309

4.5 42.3 32.4 20.7
6.3 41.8 36.4 15.4

20.48
19.50

121
126

62.8 12.4 26.4 44.6 16.5
62.5 11.9 28.6 43.7 15.9 ........

.313
.319

7.4 38.8 34.7 19.0
7.2 46.8 27.0 19.1

19.60
19.92

167
153
151
166

65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

64.7 15.6
56.2 20.9
74.2 1.3
74.7 1.8

3.6
2.6
4.0
4.8

.246
.227
.234
.262

/1910
24 plants................. \1911

295
281

62.6 16.3 18.3 52.2 10.5
62.5 17.1 16.1 53.4 10.7

2.8
2.8

.273 20.0 46.8 25.1
.262 22.0 50.5 20.3

8.1
7.2

16.77
16.05

/1911
25 plants................. \1912
H ook ups:
(1907
11908
12 plants................. 11909
11910

293
319

62.7 16.4 15.4 55.3 10.2
62.2 14.1 24.8 50.5 9.4

2.7
1.3

.259 23.2 50.1 19.8
.260 23.2 49.9 20.1

6.8
6.9

15.94
16.01

(1910
20 plants................. \1911

174
144

63.2 15.5 17.2 42.5 24.7
63.4 14.6 16.8 43.8 25.0 ........

.272 26.4 37.4 25.9 10.3
.251 37.5 28.5 31.2 2.8

17.13
15.81

(1911
21 plants................. \1912
R oll hands, other:
(1907
11908
9 plants................... 11909
*1910

154
167

63.0 13.6 19.4 43.5 23.4
62.2 12.6 25.8 40.7 21.0

.250 37.0 31.1 29.2
.249 34.2 44.3 16.8

2.6
4.8

15.66
15.56

33.0 9.3
11.7 12.8
14.9 10.7
35.8 17.9

18.53
16.97
17.65
21.06

hm

(1910
11912

180
177
176

.295 28.3 25.5 28.3 17.7
.273 28.7 41.2 18.6 11.3
.287 23.9 41.4 23.3 11.3

18.35
16.97
17.97

(1907
11908
15 plants................. 11909
*1910

94
92
93
97

(1910
I
25 plants................. •1911
11912
Stranders:
(1907
11908
13 plants................. 11909
11910

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

175
174
174
180

59.5
59.7
59.7
59.7

(1910
21 plants................. \1911

272
254

(1911
262
22 plants................. l\1912 l 266

18 plants.................

92
84
82
93

97
94
94
95

1.8
2.0
2.0
1.8

63.9 9.8
65.3 3.6
65.7 3.7
65.6 ........

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

6.2
6.4
6.4
6.3

26.1
23.8
22.2
20.3

1.6 $0,262 18.0 63.7 11.8
1.5
.253 27.7 44.6 21.5

14.4
18.3
18.5
16.8

12.0
21.5
14.6
17.3

8.3
8.5
8.5
8.5

40.2
40.4
70.2
70.5

26.1
33.3
24.4
19.4 ........

45.4
44.7
14.9
14.7

........
.....
........
........

62.8 21.7 13.9 44.4 20.0
62.5 22.0 15.2 42.4 20.3 ........
62.7 20.5 15.4 43.8 20.5 ........

Shearmen:




52.2
41.7
57.3
63.4

64.8 - . ••.
65.1
65.3 ........
65.0 ........

30.9
33.7
33.4
32.0

51.1 18.1 ........
45.7 20.7
59.1 3.2 *4.Y
61.9 6.2 ........

9.6 30.1 46.2 10.3 3.8
9.9 34.4 45.0 10.6 ........
9.7 36.3 40.9 11.7 1.3
22.3
22.4
22.4
21.7

28.5
28.7
28.7
29.9

34.3 14.9 ........
31.6 17.2 ........
42.0 6.9
41.7 6.7 ........

.268
.225
.241
.303

.278
.255
.266
.315

.249
.216
.225
.247

44.4
54.3
46.4
24.7

18.4
39.4
21.9
14.0

37.1
36.2
37.2
21.0

40.5
52.2
49.5
42.2

34.8
28.8
39.1
51.8

59.8
41.6
61.0
28.0

20.6
39.3
37.2
25.2

13.8 7.2
12.4 4.6
10.6 3.9
10.8 12.6

19.6 2.2
19.0
17.1
38.7 i.9.4*

15.77
14.50
14.87
16.70

17.30
14.70
15.82
20.06

34.1 21.3
40.2 6.5
38.7 9.7
33.0 20.6

4.2
1.1
2.2
4.1

16.20
14.10
14.72
16.11

.264 35.9 35.9 19.9
.254 45.1 31.8 13.2
.254 40.2 36.3 16.2

8.3
9.9
7.1

16.40
15.55
15.59

.334 6.8 37.1 34.3 21.7
.277 12.0 48.3 39.7
.297 5.2 51.7 36.2 *6*9*
.344 7.7 36.1 35.6 20.6

19.45
16.25
17.34
20.06

60.6 17.6 30.2 39.7 12.5
59.9 18.9 32.3 35.4 13.4 ........

.301 13.6 46.7 26.1 13.6
.268 25.6 43.7 20.1 10.6

17.85
15.83

59.8 18.3 34.3 34.4 13.0
59.6 18.0 36.5 32.7 12.8 ........

.272 24.8 42.4 19.5 13.4
.283 22.7 44.7 18.0 14.7

16.03
16.62

333

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S IF IE D F U L L -T IM E H O U R S OF W O R K P E R W E E K A N D R A T E S OF
W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R A G E F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S IN E A C H O F
T H E P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S, 1907 T O 1912—B A R M ILL S—Concluded.

Per cent of em ploy­
ees earning each
classified rate of
A ver­
wages per hour.
A ver­
age
age
fvi11
iulirate
tim e
of
week­
30
40
wages U n­ and and 50
ly
Over per
der un­ un­ cts. earn­
hour.
72
30 der der and ings.
cts.
40
50 over.
cts. cts.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

N um ­
ber
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Catchers:

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
Over
48 Over
hours 48
60
per
and and and
week.
in ­
un­
un­
der. clud­ der
ing
72
60

62.5 . . . . .
62.0 ........
61.9 ........
62.0

43.4
45.7
45.7
42.4

72

36.2 20.3 . . . . . $0,442 8.7 40.6 18.8
34.3 20.0 . . . . .
.381 21.5 44.3 15.7
54.3 ........ ........ .400 12.8 52.9 14.3
57.5
.452 6.9 27.4 38.4

31.9 $27.68
18.6 23.57
20.0 24.93
27.4 28.17

fl907
|1908
11 plants................. |1909
(1910

69
70
70
73

11910
20 plants................. <1911
(.1912
Roughers:
11907
11908
15 plants................. 11909
11910

115
111
110

60.2 13.0 40.0 40.0
59.9 13.5 38.7 40.5
59.7 13.6 39.1 40.0

252
242
243
257

61.5 13.5 25.0 44.0 17.5
62.5 9.9 27.7 40.1 22.3 . . . . .
62.4 9.9 27.6 56.8 5.8 . . . . .
62.3 9.7 27.7 56.4 6.2 ........

.434
.343
.368
.407

22.2 23.8
31.0 3.3
21.8 9.5
27.6 22.5

26.28
21.35
22.72
25.21

11910
25 plants................. \1911

425
395

61.0 17.2 27.1 46.4
60.6 18.2 26.5 45.6

9.4
9.6 ........

.402 21.4 29.9 30.1 18.6
.376 22.2 44.1 20.5 13.2

24.51
22.65

11911
\1912

403
408

60.5 17.9 27.1 45.7
60.2 17.6 28.4 44.9

9.4
9.1

.377 21.9 43.7 21.6 12.9
.389 23.5 29.9 28.9 17.6

22.68
23.36

7.0
7.2 . . . . .
7.3 ........

.419 17.4 27.8 33.0 21.8
.392 18.0 49.5 18.0 14.4
.399 22.8 33.6 29.1 14.6
17.4
34.3
23.1
21.7

36.5
31.4
45.7
28.0

25.45
23.70
23.92

50
60
U n­ and and 70
der un­ un­ cts.
50 der der and
70 over.
cts. 60
cts. cts.
Heaters:

11907
11908
15 plants................. 11909
11910

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

70.2 9.9
60.7 15.2
69.6 4.5
72.5 7.0

1.7
1.8
3.6
4.2

.508
.467
.488
.502

35.5 10.7 9.9
22.3 9.8 6.3
35.7 9.8 5.4
31.0 8.5 10.6

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

11910
25 plants................. \1911

217
180

62.9 8.3 20.7 58.1 10.1
62.6 10.0 18.8 59.4 9.4

2.7
2.2

.507 50.7 26.3 14.3 8.8
.512 45.0 30.6 14.4 10.0

31.73
31.97

11911
26 plants................. \1912
Rollers:
11907
1908
13 plants................. 11909
11910

184
199

62.7
62.4

2.2
2.0

.510 46.3 29.9 14.1
.482 54.3 20.6 18.6

9.8
6.5

31.87
29.84

72.3
63.5
71.4
70.1

66.88
57.88
60.40
66.23

11910
22 plants................. \1911

124
116

62.4 12.1 29.0 46.8 12.1
62.0 12.9 29.3 42.2 15.5 ........

.928
.882

8.9 6.5 17.7 66.9
8.7 10.3 18.1 62.9

58.21
55.26

11911
23 plants................. \1912

120
124

62.0 12.5 30.0 42.5 15.0
61.7 12.1 33.0 40.3 14.5 ........

.873 10.0 10.0 17.5 62.5
.860 5.6 12.9 16.9 64.5

54.65
53.63

65
63
63
67

2.5
2.7
2.7
2.1

15.8
19.7
19.7
14.1

9.8 18.5 60.3
9.0 22.6 57.3

9.2
9.0

43.9
61.7
49.2
50.0

65.5 ........ 33.8 43.1 18.5 4.6 1.013 . -.
65.7 ........ 31.7 44.4 19.0 4.8
.878 6.4
65.5
31.7 52.4 15.9 ........ .917 9.5
65.2 ........ 28.4 61.2 10.4 ........ 1.010 7.5

7.7
7.9
7.9
3.0

20.0
22.2
11.1
19.4

In order to compare the earnings of the various members of the
rolling crews in the mills of different sizes, the following table, showing
simply the average earnings per hour in 1912, has been prepared.

Although the exertion increases with the size of the mill, skill and
experience are such large factors that the increase in wages in any




334

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

one of the occupations is by no means proportionate to the increase
in the size of the mill and the weight of the product. In the case of
rollers, it will be noticed that there is no connection between the size
of the mill and the average earnings per hour. Whatever difference
does exist is due entirely to the skill and experience of the particular
roller and to the custom of the individual establishment in which
he is employed.
A V E R A G E E A R N IN G S P E R H O U R O F M E M B E R S O F R O L L IN G C R E W S , 1912—B A R M IL L S .
Size of mills.
Occupation.
8-inch.

Rollers..........................
Roughers.....................
Catchers.......................
Stranders.....................
Finishers......................
H ook u p s.....................
R o ll hands, other___

9-inch.

10-inch.

80.887
.336
.340
.244
.295

$0,808
.429
.508
.235
.282

$1,066
.399
.419
.370
.358

.248

.257

.351

12-inch. 13,14, and 16-inch.
15 inch.
$0,831
.391
.348
.309
.311
.269
.298

$0,709
.364
.407
.217
.319
.229
.268

$0,814
.381
.511
.405
.377
.269
.394

18-inch.

$0,751
.465
.391
.336
.217
.235

Total,
all sizes.

$0,860
.389
.399
.283
.319
.249
.287

Owing to the change in the number of plants from year to year
and the consequent difference in the averages for the overlapping
year in the two groups, it is difficult to make a comparison of the
actual data over a period of several years which will give an accurate
measure of the changes throughout the period. To aid in making
such a comparison relative or index numbers have been computed
from the averages of the table on pages 330 to 333 for full-time hours
per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings for
each occupation from 1907 to 1912, inclusive, and are presented in
the following table.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages in which the
data for 1912 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent that the average for that year is of the
average for 1912. For example, the relative full-time weekly earn­
ings of stockers in 1907 was 93.6 as compared with 100 in 1912;
that is, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 93.6
per cent of the full-time weekly earnings of this occupation in 1912.
The method of computing the relative numbers is explained on
page 21.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of in­
crease or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1912 as compared with each
specified year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings of
stockers in 1912 were 6.8 per cent higher than in 1907, 13.9 per cent
higher than in 1908, 13.1 per cent higher than in 1909, 0.4 per cent
higher than in 1910, and 6.6 per cent higher than in 1911.




335

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS,

In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the
full-time weekly earnings of stockers were 6.2 per cent lower in 1908
than in 1907; 0.7 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908; 12.7 per cent
higher in 1910 than in 1909; 5.8 percent lower in 1911 than in 1910,
and 6.6 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911. The other occupations
and items of the table can be studied in like manner. The percentages
of increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T OF
IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E , IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U P A T IO N S B A R M IL L S .
[T he figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Heaters:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Heaters’ helpers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Chargers and helpers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Drag downs:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
R oll engineers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................




Rela­
tive
fu ll­
time
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.
Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
tive
Each
tive
1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
1912 as speci­
rate of com ­
fied
fied
com ­
time
com ­
fied
pared year as wages pared year as weekly pared year as
per
with
with
com ­
earn­
com ­
with
com ­
hour.
each
each
pared
ings.
pared
each
pared
speci­
with
speci­
with
speci­
with
year
fied
year
fied
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

99.1
98.7
98.8
99.0
100.0
100.0

+ 0 .9
+ 1 .3
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .0
C
1)

100.5
100.5
100.7
101.0
100.5
100.0

- .5
- .5
- .7
-1 .0
- .5

101.1
100.8
100.7
101.0
100.8
100.0

-1 .1
- .8
- .7
- 1 .0
- .8

98.8
98.9
99.4
100.0
99.7
100.0

+ 1 .2
+ 1 .1
+ .6
0)
+ .3

101.6
100.8
100.9
100.9
100.6
100.0

-1 .6
- .8
— .9
- .9
- .6

103.7
102.4
102.6
102.9
100.6
100.0

-3 .6
-2 .3
-2 .5
-2 .8
- .6

-0 .4
+ .1
+ .2
+ 1 .0

0)

95.7
89.7
90.3
102.1
93.9
100.0

+ 4.5
+ 11.5
+10.7
- 2.1
+ 6.5

+
+
—

.2
.3
.5
.5

106.0
97.5
101.9
104.8
105.8
100.0

+
-

+
-

.3
.1
.3
.2
.8

97.5
89.9
92.7
103.8
99.6
100.0

+ 2.6
+ 11.2
+ 7.9
- 3.7
+ .4

+
+
+
+

.i
.5
.6
.3
.3

95.1
88.5
88.5
99.5
95.8
100.0

+ 5.2
+ 13.0
+13.0
+ .5
+ 4.4

- .8
+ .1
(*)
- .3
- .6

100.8
91.5
92.9
106.3
103.6
100.0

+
+
-

-1 .3
+ .2
+ .3
-2 .2
- .6

98.3
96.1
94.3
100.0
99.6
100.0

+ 1.7
+ 4.1
+ 6.0
(l )
+ .4

(l)

1 No change.

5.7
2.6
1.9
4.6
5.5

.8
9.3
7.6
5.9
3.5

- 6.3
+ •7
+13.1
- 8.0
+ 6.5

93.6
87.8
88.4
99.6
93.8
100.0

+ 6.8
+13.9
+13.1
+ •4
+ 6.6

+
+
+
—

8.0
4.5
2.8
1.0
5.5

107.6
98.6
103.3
106.0
106.8
100.0

—
+
-

- 7.8
+ 3.1
+ 12 .0
- 4.0
+ .4

98.2
90.3
92.6
104.0
99.6
100.0

+ 1.8
+10.7
+ 8.0
- 3.8
+ .4

6.9
0)
+ 12.4
- 3.7
+ 4.4

94.2
87.7
88.1
98.6
95.6
100.0

+ 6.2
+ 14 .0
+ 13.5
+ 1.4
+ 4.6

- 9.2
+ 1.5
+ 14.4
- 2.5
- 3.5

102.3
92.1
94.2
107.5
104.1
100.0

+
+
-

- 2.2
- 1.9
+ 6.0
.4
+ .4

100.1
97.8
96.3
102.6
100.1
100.0

.1
+ 2.2
+ 3.8
- 2.5
.1

-

7.1
1.4
3.2
5.7
6.4

2.2
8.6
6.2
7.0
3.9

- 6.2
+ •7
+ 12.7
- 5.8
+ 6.6
+
+
+
—

8.4
4.8
2.6
.8
6.4

- 8.0
+ 2.5
+12.3
- 4.2
+ .4
- 6.9
+ .5
+ 11.9
- 3.0
+ 4.6
- 1 0 .0
+ 2.3
+14.1
- 3.2
- 3.9
+
-

2.3
1.5
6.5
2.4
.1

336

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E N T O F
IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E , IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S—
B A R M IL L S —Continued.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Occupation and year.

Rollers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Roughers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Catchers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Stranders:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
Finishers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
H ook ups:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
R o ll hands, other:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
H otbed men:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Per cent o f in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
Rela­
Each
tive
tive
Each
Each
1912 as speci­ rate of 1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
com ­
fied
tim e
com ­
wages
fie d
com ­
fied
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
per
with
com ­
earn­
hour.
with
com ­
w ith
com ­
pared
each
each
ings.
pared
each
pared
with
speci­
speci­
with
speci­
with
fied
year
fied
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

101.6
101.9
101.6
101.1
100.5
100.0

-1 .6
- 1 .9
- 1 .6
- 1 .1
- .5

99.9
101.5
101.3
101.2
100.5
100.0

+ .1
-1 .5
-1 .3
-1 .2
- .5

101.7
100.8
100.7
100.8
100.3
100.0

—1.7
- .8
- .7
- .8
- .3

101.2
101.5
101.5
101.5
100.3
100.0

—1.2
-1 .5
-1 .5
-1 .5
- .3

101.1
101.9
101.6
101.4
101.5
100.0

—1.1
-1 .9
- 1 .6
- 1 .4
- 1 .5

98.3
100.5
101.1
101.0
101.3
100.0

+ 1 .7
- .5
-1 .1
- 1 .0
- 1 .3

100.3
100.6
100.3
100.2
99.7
100.0

+

101.8
101.6
101.8
101.8
100.3
100.0

—1.8
- 1 .6
-1 .8
- 1 .8
- .3

.3
.6
.3
.2
.3

+ 0 .3
- .3
- .5
- .6
- .5

107.1
92.8
97.0
106.8
101.5
100.0

+
+
-

+ 1 .6
- .2
- .1
- .7
- .5

110.4
87.3
93.7
103.6
96.9
100.0

— 9.4
+ 14.5
+ 6.7
- 3.5
+ 3.2

+
—

.9
.1
.1
.5
.3

102.7
88.5
92.9
105.0
98.2
100.0

— 2.6
+ 13.0
+ 7.6
- 4.8
+ 1.8

+ .3
0)
C
1)
-1 .2
— .3

104.8
86.9
93.2
107.9
96.1
100.0

— 4.6
+15.1
+ 7.3
- 7.3
+ 4.1

+ .8
- .3
- .2
+ .1
-1 .5

96.3
87.0
93.5
102.6
98.1
100.0

+ 3.8
+ 14.9
+ 7.0
- 2.5
+ 1.9

+ 2 .2
+ .6
- .1
+ .3
-1 .3

96.2
80.8
86.5
108.8
100.4
100.0

+ 4.0
+ 23 .8
+ 15.6
- 8.1
.4

+
+

.3
.3
.1
.5
.3

90.7
83.2
86.8
102.8
95.1
100.0

+10.3
+ 20 .2
+ 15 .2
- 2.7
+ 5.2

- .2
+ .2
0)
-1 .5
- .3

94.2
86.7
89.7
103.6
97.9
100.0

+ 6.2
+ 1 5 .3 .
+ 11.5
- 3.5
+ 2.1

i N o change.

6.6
7.8
3.1
6.4
1.5

- 1 3 .4
+ 4.5
+10.1
- 5.0
— 1.5

108.4
93.8
97.9
107.3
101.9
100.0

—
+
+
-

- 2 0 .9
+ 7.3
+ 10 .6
- 6.5
+ 3.2

109.5
89.0
94.7
105.1
97.1
100.0

— 8.7
+ 12 .4
+ 5.6
- 4.9
+ 3.0

- 1 3 .8
+ 5.0
+ 13 .0
- 6.5
+ 1.8

104.5
89.0
94.2
106.4
99.1
100.0

— 4.3
+ 12 .4
+ 6.2
- 6.0
+ .9

-1 7 .1
+ 7.2
+ 15 .8
- 1 0 .9
+ 4.1

105.5
88.1
94.0
108.8
96.5
100.0

— 5.2
+ 13.5
+ 6.4
- 8.1
+ 3.6

+
+
+

96.9 + 3.2
87.8 .+ 1 3 .9
94.1 + 6.3
103.3 - 3.2
98.4 + 1.6
100.0

9.7
7.5
9.7
4.4
1.9

7.7
6.6
2.1
6.8
1.9

-1 6 .0
+ 7.1
+25.8
- 7.7
— .4

94.0
79.9
86.0
109.0
100.6
100.0

+ 6.4
+ 25 .2
+ 16.3
- 8.3
.6

- 8.3
+ 4.3
+18.4
- 7.5
+ 5.2

89.8
82.3
85.6
102.1
94.4
100.0

+ 11 .4
+ 21.5
+ 16 .8
- 2.1
+ 5.9

- 8.0
+ 3.5
+ 15.5
- 5.5
+ 2.1

96.5
88.0
88.6
104.9
98.4
100.0

+ 3.6
+ 13 .6
+ 12.9
- 4.7
+ 1.6

-1 3 .5
+ 4.4
+ 9.6
- 5.0
- 1.9
- 1 8 .7
+ 6.4
+ 11.0
- 7.6
+ 3.0
-1 4 .8
+ 5.8
+ 13 .0
- 6.9
. . + .9
-1 6 .5
+ 6.7
+15.7
-1 1 .3
+ 3.6
+
+
+

9.4
7.2
9.8
4.7
1.6

-1 5 .0
+ 7.6
+26.7
- 7.7
— .6
- 8.4
+ 4.0
+19.3
- 7.5
+ 5.9
- 8.8
+ •7
+18.4
- 6.2
+ 1.6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR—-BAR MILLS,

337

R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D
F U L L -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C EN T O F
IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y P R IN C IP A L O C C U PA TIO N S—
B A R M IL L S —Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Occupation and year.

Shearmen:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1 9 1 2 ..................................
Shearmen’s helpers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
Bundlers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912....................................
Laborers:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
Each
tive
1912 as speci­ rate of
com ­
fied
wages
pared year as
per
with
com ­
hour.
each
pared
with
speci­
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
com ­
com ­
time
fied
fied
pared year as weekly pared year as
with
earn­
com ­
with
com ­
each
pared
each
pared
ings.
speci­
with
speci­
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

101.1
101.6
101.9
101.4
100.2
100.0

- 1 .1
-1 .6
-1 .9
- 1 .4
- .2

102.2
102.6
104.4
101.2
99.8
100.0

—2.2
-2 .5
-4 .2
-1 .2
+ .2

103.8
103.8
103.6
104.1
100.0
100.0

—3.7
-3 .7
-3 .5
-3 .9
C
1)

103.8
98.5
103.0
102.1
99.4
100.0

—3.7
+ 1 .5
-2 .9
- 2 .1
+ .6

+ 0 .5
+ .3
- .5
- 1 .2
— .2

104.8
90.9
94.7
103.9
100.0
100.0

— 4.6
+ 10.0
+ 5.6
- 3.8
0)

+ .4
+ 1 .8
-3 .1
- 1 .4
+ .2

96.1
92.8
93.3
101.6
96.7
100.0

+
+
+
+

- .2
+ .5
-3 .9
C
1)

103.8
89.4
95.6
109.5
102.1
100.0

— 3.7
+ 11.9
+ 4.6
- 8.7
- 2.1

- 5 .1
+ 4 .6
- .9
-2 .6
+ .6

95.0
95.0
93.2
100.0
100.0
100.0

+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 7.3
C
1)
0)

0)

4.1
7.8
7.2
1.6
3.4

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

-1 3 .3
+ 4.2
+ 9.7
- 3.8
C
1)

105.8
92.1
96.1
105.2
99.7
100.0

—
+
+
+

5.5
8.6
4.1
4.9
.3

+
+
+

3.4
.5
8.9
4.8
3.4

97.8
94.4
96.6
102.4
96.1
100.0

+
+
+
+

2.2
5.9
3.5
2.3
4.1

-i3 .9
+ 6.9
+ 14.5
- 6.8
— 2.1

108.3
93.5
99.4
114.0
102.2
100.0

— 7.7
+ 7.0
+ •6
-1 2 .3
- 2.2

C
1)
- 1.9
+ 7.3
C
1)
(i)

98.0
93.1
95.4
101.4
98.9
100.0

+
+
+
+

2.0
7.4
4.8
1.4
1.1

- 1 2 .9
+ 4.3
+ 9.5
- 5.2
+ .3
+
+
+

3.5
2.3
6.0
6.2
4.1

-1 3 .7
+ 6.3
+14.7
- 1 0 .4
— 2.2
+
+
+

5.0
2.5
6.3
2.5
1.1

1 N o change.

A like table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the bar-mill department as a whole, as determined by a combi­
nation of the data for the several principal productive occupations
of the department which are covered by this report. The method
of computing the figures of this table is explained on page 22.
From the table below, under “ weekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the industry as a whole in
1907 were 102.4, as compared with 100 in 1912. In other words,
the full-time weekly earnings in 1907 were 102.4 per cent of those in
1912. The relative dropped to 92.0 in 1908, advanced to 94.1 in
1909, and to 104.0 in 1910, dropping in 1911 to 99.0. In 1912, the
base year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1912
were 2.3 per cent lower than in 1907, 8.7 per cent higher than in 1908,
4 4 9 2 9 °— B u ll. 151— 14------ 22




338

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

6.3 per cent higher than in 1909, 3.8 per cent lower than in 1910,
and 1.0 per cent higher than in 1911.
The third column under “ weekly earnings ” shows the per cent
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as
compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full­
time weekly earnings were 10.2 per cent lower in 1908 than in 1907,
2.3 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 10.5 per cent higher in
1910 than in 1909, 4.8 per cent lower in 1911 than in 1910, and
1.0 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911. The relative numbers
and percentages for full-time hours per week and rates of wages per
hour may be read in like manner.
R E L A T I V E F U L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1912, T O G E T H E R W I T H P E R C E N T O F IN C R E A S E
O R D E C R E A S E IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , A L L O C C U PA TIO N S—B A R M IL L S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Year.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

Rela­
tive
fu ll­
tim e
hours
per
week.

101.3
100.8
101.8
101.4
100.2
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

Rela­
Each
tive
1912 as speci­ rate of
com ­
fied
wages
pared year as
per
w ith
com ­
hour.
each
pared
with
speci­
year
fied
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
1912 as speci­
full­
1912 as speci­
fied
com ­
tim e
com ­
fied
pared year as weekly pared year as
with
com ­
w ith
earn­
com ­
each
pared
each
ings.
pared
with
speci­
speci­
w ith
fied
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

-1 .3
- .8
-1 .8
-1 .4
- .2

-0 .5
+ 1 .0
- .4
-1 .2
2

101.8
91.4
93.2
103.2
98.9
100.0

-1 .8
+ 9 .4
+ 7 .3
- 3 .1
+ 1 .1

- 1 0 .2
+ 2.0
+10.7
- 4.2
+ 1.1

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or de­
crease ( —) in—

102.4
92.0
94.1
104.0
99.0
100.0

- 2 .3
+ 8 .7
+ 6 .3
-3 .8
+ 1 .0

- 1 0 .2
+ 2.3
+ 10.5
- 4.8
+ 1.0

In considering weekly earnings, it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Between 1907
and 1912 it will be observed that hours were reduced 1.3 per cent,
and between 1908 and 1912 that wages per hour were increased 9.4
per cent, each tending to offset the other in weekly earnings. Still
another influence on average weekly earnings for the department
must be considered; that is, the change in the relative number of
employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is ob­
vious that an increase in the relative number of employees in the
lower-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those
in the higher-paid ones would tend to lower the average for all occu­
pations, just as an increase in the relative number of employees in
the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number in
the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the average.
The number and per cent of employees in bar-mill plants whose
customary working time per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or



339

W A G E S * A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— BAR M IL L S ,

7 days, or variations thereof, are shown in the following table. The
figures are presented for each of the 3 districts for which bar mills
are reported and for the 3 combined. The employees given under
the heading “ 5 days, 5 days, and 6 days in rotation” and
days,
6 days, and 6 days in rotation” are engaged in occupations for
which the plant employs three shifts instead of the customary two
to complete the 24 hours of the day. For example, every week onethird of the employees reported, or one shift, worked 6 turns instead
of the customary 5 per week.

“5

N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T OF E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H S P E C I­
F IE D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1912—B A R M IL L S .
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

N U M BE R .
Employees whose custom ary w orking tim e per week was—

District, and number
of plants.

Year.

Num ­
ber of
em­
ployees. 5 days.

Eastern:

5 days, 5 days,
5 days 6 days
5 days 5 days, 6 days,
and
and
and
and
and
6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days. 7 days 7 days 7 days.
alter­
alter­
alter­
in ro­
nately. in ro­
nately. nately.
tation. tation.

1907
1908
1909
1910

313
355
357
380

1
1
1
11

242
290
290
266

70
64
66
103

f 1910
1911

890
794

2 157
1

323
453

406
340

] 1911
1912

831
887

1
14

455
551

375
322

1 1908
6 plants............... 1 1909
l 1910

1,215
1,060
1,163
1,311

32
58
26
17

561
455
465
675

42
42
42
45

521
479
579
552

8
4
4
4

34
16
18
14

17
6
29
4

| 1910
1911

2,185
1,999

18
33

676
730

45
42

1,403
1,167

4
4

14
23

25

] 1911
1912

{

2,096
2,157

33
37

806
886

42
42

1,188
1,167

4
4

16
12

7
9

1907
1 1908
6 plants............... i 1909
l 1910

[

850
801
795
869

10
12
4

421
335
346
223

64
48
48
49

336
385
356
571

6
6
6
6

4
6
24
8

9
9
11
12

/ 1910
7 plants............... \ 1911

1,017
914

4

227
347

49
45

651
3 496

6
6

8
10

76
6

/ 1911
8 plants............... \ 1912
Total:
1907
1908
15 plants.............
1909
1910

997
1,006

4
4

429
421

45
45

8 497
3 502

6
6

10
22

6
6

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560

43
71
31
28

1,224
1,080
1,101
1,164

42
42
42
45

64
48
48
49

927
928
1,001
1,226

14
10
10
10

38
22
42
22

26
15
40
16

/ 1910
1 1911

4,092
3,707

2 175
38

1,226
1,530

45
42

49
2,460
45 3 2,003

10
10

22
33

105
6

/ 1911
26 plants............. \ 1912

3,924
4,050

38
55

1,690
1,858

42
42

45
45

10
10

26
34

13
15

3 plants...............

8 plan ts1.............
Pittsburgh:

10 plan ts1............
Great Lakes and
Middle W est:

25 plants.............

[
( 1907

3 2,060
3 1,991

4

1
For 3 plants it was impossible to secure data for one occupation for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.
One plant, data for which was secured for 1910,1911, and 1912, reported its customary working days per
week as 5 in 1910 and as 6 days and 5 nights alternately in 1911 and 1912.
8 Including 10 employees who worked 7 days every fifth week.




340

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S IN E A C H D IS T R IC T W O R K IN G E A C H SPEC IF IE D N U M B E R O F D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912—B A R M IL L S —Concluded.
P E R CENT.
Em ployees whose customary working time per week was—

District, and number Year.
of plants.

N um ­
ber of
em ­
ployees. 5 days.

5 days,
5 days 5 days,
and
and
6 days 6 days
alter­
in ro­
nately. tation.

5 days,
5 days 6 days
6 days,
ana
and
and
6 days. 7 days 7 days 7 days.
6 days
alter­
alter­
in ro­
nately. nately.
tation.

Eastern:
313
355
357
380

0.3
.3
.3
2.9

77.3
81.7
81.2
70.0

22.4
18.0
18.5
27.1

fl910
1911

890
794

17.6
.1

36.3
57.1

45.6
42.8

1911
1912

831
887

.1
1.6

54.8
62.1

45.1
36.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,215
1,060
1,163
1,311

2.6
5.5
2.2
1.3

46.2
42.9
40.0
51.5

3.5
4.0
3.6
3.4

42.9
45.2
49.8
42.1

0.7
.4
.3
.3

2.8
1.5
1.5
1.1

1.4
.6
2.5
.3

1910
1911

2,185
1,999

.8
1.7

30.9
36.5

2.1
2.1

64.2
58.4

.2
.2

.6
1.2

1.1

1911
1912

2,096
2,157

1.6
1.7

38.5
41.1

2.0
1.9

56.7
54.1

.2
.2

.8
.6

.3
.4

1907
1908
‘ 1909
1910

850
801
795
869

1.2
1.5
.5

49.5
41.8
43.5
25.7

7.5
6.0
6.0
5.6

39.5
48.1
44.8
65.7

.7
.7
.8
.7

.5
.7
3.0
.9

1.1
1.1
1.4
1.4

7 plants. . . . . . . . . f 1910
\ 1911

1,017
914

.4

22.3
38.0

4.8
4.9

64.0
54.3

.6
.7

.8
1.1

7.5
.7

f 1911
1912

997
1,006

.4
.4

43.0
41.8

4.5
4.5

49.8
49.9

.6
.6

1.0
2.2

.6
.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560

1.8
3.2
1.3
1.1

51.5
48.7
47.6
45.5

1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8

2.7
2.2
2.1
1.9

39.0
41.9
43.2
47.9

.6
.5
.4
.4

1.6
1.0
1.8
.9

1.1
.7
1.7
.6

j 1910

1907
1908
1909
1910

3 plants...............

8 p lan ts1.............

0.4

Pittsburgh:
o plants...............

10 p lan ts 1............
Great Lakes and
Middle W est:
A ■nlQTVf'Q

O p i c u l I/O • • • • « • • • •

\

Total:
* 0 pk loln t S ....................
1
1 r i o l fo

1911

4,092
3,707

4.3
1.0

30.0
41.3

1.1
1.1

1.2
1.2

60.1
54.0

.2
.3

.5

\

.9

2.6
.2

OA r v lo l l t S .................... /
p i d tifo
\

1911
1912

3,924
4,050

1.0
1.4

43.1
45.9

1.1
1.0

1.1
1.1

52.5
49.2

.3
.2

.7
.8

.3
.4

OK p i a lL t S
<£0 T ^lo n fo ....................

1For 3 plants it was im possible to secure data for one occupation for 1910, hence the tw o reports for 1911.

In addition to the text tables presented in the summary, six general
tables are presented for the bar-mill department as follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in the United States, b y years, 1907 to
1912.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, b y districts, 1907 to
1912.
Table III.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each district, by years, 1907 to
1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

341

Table IY.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1912.
Table Y.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each year, by districts, 1907 to 1912.
Table VI.—Average and classified full-time hours of work per week
in each district, by years, 1907 to 1912.
In Tables I and IY, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 330 to 333.
Tables III and VI repeat the data for the several districts given in
Tables II and V, rearranged for the convenience of the reader.
A brief description of the function of the bar mill is presented on
pages 24 and 25.
DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS.

The following description of occupations refers to those occupa­
tions only which appear in the tables of this report—these being
nearly all of the principal productive occupations in the bar-mill
department.
The order in which the occupations are given follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
STOCKERS.
D u t i e s .—Unload and handle the pieces of steel (billets) for the
heating furnaces. The billets are usually stacked in piles in the
yard, each pile representing a separate size and character of steel,
which is indicated by marks on each billet. The billets are taken
from these piles or from the cars in which they are received and
loaded on barrows or trucks, which are pushed to the furnaces. In
the most modern plants this occupation is largely eliminated by the
use of magnet cranes and low trucks operated electrically or by
narrow-gauge locomotives or by the use of roller conveyors. The
stockers also handle the coal for the furnaces if solid fuel is used.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—Heavy, varying considerably both in character
and in severity and performed by unskilled workmen.
HEATERS.
D u t i e s .—In charge of one or more heating furnaces; see that
specified stock is charged; that the proper temperature is main­
tained; and are otherwise generally responsible for the proper working
of a furnace and for minor repairs to the lining.
N a t u r e o f w o r k .—A very important and responsible position, re­
quiring considerable practical knowledge of the heat treatment of
metals, which can be gained only by long experience. The heater
probably has more to do with the successful operation of a mill than
any other employee. The work is largely supervisory.




342

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
HEATERS’ HELPERS.

D ties
u

.— The duties of the heaters’ helpers vary entirely with the
character of the furnace or mill and with the division of work in the
various plants. In some plants the heaters’ helpers perform all the
duties connected with heating the steel and delivering it to the rolls.
That is, they fire the furnace, clean the grates, and tap the cinder,
repair the furnace bottoms, charge and draw the steel, and carry it
with tongs down to the rolls. The firing of the furnace and the clean­
ing of the grates frequently is eliminated from the list of duties by
the use of a gas-fired furnace, the charging of the steel by the em­
ployment of chargers, or by the use of continuous furnaces, while the
drawing and delivery of the steel to the rolls is almost always elimi­
nated by the employment of drag downs or the use of some form of
mechanical conveyor in connection with a charging machine.
.— The character and skill required by the work
vary widely, ranging from that of a first helper, who takes charge
of the operation of a furnace, to that of an unskilled laborer, who
wheels out cinder.

N tu of w
a re
ork

CHARGERS AND HELPERS.

D ties
u

.— Put the iron or steel billets into the heating furnace as
directed by the heater. A large part of the charging is done by hand,
the billet being laid on the flat end of a long iron tool known as a
“ peel,” which is pushed into the furnace and the billet laid at the
proper point. In many of the newer plants, however, the billets are
pushed into the furnace by mechanical pushers, which are controlled
by levers. In a number of establishments the heaters’ helpers charge
the furnaces.
.— Where the charging is done by hand, the work
is heavy, demanding very little skill and comparatively little expe­
rience. The work is intermittent in character.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

DRAG DOWNS.

D ties
u

.— Draw and carry the steel from the furnace to the rolls,
except where mechanical conveyors are used. The steel is drawn by
grasping it with a pair of tongs and pulling it out of the furnace, and
is then carried to the rolls either by simply dragging or sliding it
along the steel floor; or, if the piece is heavy, the tongs may be sup­
ported by a chain from an overhead trolley (telegraph) and the steel
be carried down without touching the floor, or the steel is put on a
small iron buggy and wheeled down to the rolls.
.— No great skill is required, but considerable dex­
terity, acquired only through experience, is necessary in order to
handle the material with facility.

N tu of wrk
a re o




WAGES A N D HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

343

BOLL ENGINEERS.

D ties
u

.— Operate the engines which drive the rolls and see that
they are kept in proper condition. All engines used in these mills
are nonreversing.
.— Work is similar to that of an ordinary stationary
engineer.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o

ROLLERS.

D ties
u

.— Are in charge of and responsible for the operation of the
rolls. The duties consist chiefly in seeing that the proper rolls are
installed, that they are properly set and kept in good condition, and
that the rolling crew performs every part of its work properly. The
roller also directs and takes part in the changing of the rolls, and
when there is a “ cobble” or any other difficulty he works with the
crew. In case the steel is not properly heated he notifies the heater.
.— Very responsible position in which a thorough
practical knowledge of the properties of steel is indispensable.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

ROTTGHERS.

D ties
u

.— Pass the steel back and forth through the first stand of
rolls. The rougher down takes the billet from the drag down, grasp­
ing it near the end with a pair of specially shaped tongs. The other
end is thrust between the lower set of rolls, where it is gripped and
drawn through by the revolving rolls. As it comes from the rolls on
the other side it is grasped with a similar set of tongs by the rougher
up, frequently known as the catcher, who, in a “ three-high” mill,
puts it between the center and upper rolls, which carry it back under
pressure to the rougher down. In “ two-high” mills, of which few
remain, the piece is put on top of the upper roll and is thus carried
back without being worked to the rougher down. This process is
repeated until the piece has been considerably elongated and reduced
in cross section.
.— Heavy work, requiring considerable experience.
A rather long period of training in other positions is necessary before
a man is able to work at the roughing rolls. The difficulty and
severity of the work increase generally with the size of the piece
handled and the speed of the mill.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

CATCHERS.

D ties
u

.— This term is used to cover both the position of the rougher
up and also the work on any of the intermediate sets of rolls.
.— Same as that of roughers or of stranders.

Ntu ofwrk
a re o




344

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
STRANDERS.

D ties.
u

— When the piece comes from the roughing rolls it is grasped
with tongs by the strander and the end put into the proper pass.
— The work of the strander is lighter than that of
the rougher, as the piece is by this time greatly reduced in section;
but it requires a great deal of dexterity to handle the rapidly length­
ening piece of steel and to enter it in the proper passes.

Ntu of wrk
a re o .

F IN IS H E R S .

D ties.
u

— Handle the steel at the last or finishing pass. In rolling
bars the piece is usually run out to the floor and lies there for a
moment in order to allow the scale to form, so that the finishing rolls
will remove it.
— The work is lighter, but the amount of skill
and dexterity required depends entirely on the size of the product
and the speed of the rolls. -

Ntu of wrk
a re
o.

HOOK UPS.

D ties.
u

— The rougher on mills with rolls i2 inches or more in diame­
ter and on the larger mills the catchers and finishers are almost always
assisted by hook ups. The hook up derives his name from the long
bar which is used in his work. It has a hook on one end and a
handle on the other, and is suspended b y a chain at a point nearer
the hook than the handle. The hook is placed underneath the billet
to raise it, the bar acting as a lever, with the chain as a fulcrum.
— A considerable amount of skill is required in
handling heavy pieces.

Ntu of wrk
a re
o.

ROLL HANDS, OTHER.

D
uties—

Include a miscellaneous collection of occupations around
the rolls, which have been placed under this designation in order that
the rolling crew as a whole may be assembled. Some of the workers
in these positions are highly skilled, due to the nature of the work
required either by the type of mill used or by the special character of
the product, while others are engaged in comparatively unimportant
work.
HOTBED MEN.

D ties.
u

— In the greater number of bar mills the piece as it comes
from the finishing rolls is grasped by the drag out with a pair of
tongs and dragged off down the steel floor to the hotbed. The piece
is straightened either by being laid out at full length or, if a more
perfect straightening is needed, by putting the two ends in grips which
pull away from each other, thus effectually stretching the piece out
perfectly straight; or, if the bar is large, wooden mallets are used to
maul out any bends. In the most modern mills the piece is carried




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

345

out by roller or cone conveyors to an inclined automatic hotbed, the
piece rolling down the incline as the fingers which hold it in place are
lowered. In this case men are required only to operate levers and to
straighten out any piece that is bent.
.— The work of the drag outs and the hot straighteners on the older mills, which, however, are by far the greater in
number, varies in difficulty and severity with the size of the product
rolled. In the most modern mills the hotbed man is simply a lever
man and needs little skill or experience to perform his work.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

SHEARMEN.

D ties
u

.— Operate the shears by which the finished material is cut
to proper lengths.
.— The work varies in character according to how
nearly the material has to be sheared to a given size. Scrap shearing
requires no skill or experience.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.

D ties
u
Ntu of wrk
a re
o

.— Assist in handling the material at the shears and clean
up accumulated scrap.
.— Chiefly fight work, demanding only unskilled
workmen.
BUNDLERS.

D ties
u

.— Assemble the sheared bars into bundles and bind them
with wire for shipment. The work is usually done in direct connec­
tion with the shearing and is very frequently a part of the duties of
the shearman’s helpers.
.— Light work, demanding only unskilled workmen.

Ntu of wrk
a re o

LABORERS.

D ties.— Clean up and do the many fight jobs around the mill.
u
Ntu of wrk Chiefly fight, and requiring only unskilled work­
a re o .—
men.




346

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y

E A R N IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D

A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912.

BAR MILLS.
[The figures set opposite each bracketed group of years are for identical plants.]

NUMBER.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em ­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

AverAver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­ rate full­
time
time
of week­
hours wages
ly
per
per
earn­
week. hour.
ings.

Stockers:

Employees earning each classified rate ofwages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

64.4 $0.178 $11.43
64.1 .167 10.72
64.2 .168 10.79
64.3 .190 12.17

2
U4
23
2

6
12
32
5

51
34
23
28

12
22
18
24

22
8
10
28

59.0
59.6

.250 14.24
.230 13.41

2
2

5
4

28
32

24
28

51
44

23
19

16
35

211
217

60.9
60.9

.217 12.94
.231 13.79

2
2

4
5

65
64

38
15

48 ' 19
57
37

35
37

1907
1908
1909
1910

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

.508
.467
.488
.502

10
19
4
11

25
14
13
24

18
35
34
36

43
25
40
44

13
11
11
12

12
7
6
15

/ 1910
25 p la n ts ... \ 1911

217
180

62.9
62.6

.507 31.73
.512 31.97

16
13

39
37

55
31

57
55

31
26

19
18

/ 1911
26 p la n ts ... \ 1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

.510 31.87
.482 29.84

13
23

38
45

34
36

55
41

26
37

18
13

f 1907
1 1908
14 p la n ts ... i 1909
| 1910

167
153
151
166

65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

.246
.227
.234
.262

/ 1910
24 plants. . . \ 1911

295
281

62.6
62.5

.273 16.77
.262 16.05

1911
1912

293
319

62.7
62.2

.259 15.94
.260 16.01

1907
1908
1909
1910

104
102
107
110

65.5
65.6
65.9
66.3

.173
.161
.161
.181

/ 1910
18 p la n ts ... \ 1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

/ 1911
19 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Drag downs:
f 1907
1 1908
11 p la n ts ..- 1 1909
l 1910

185
182

1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90
88
87

/ 1910
13 p la n ts ... \ 1911

170
164

/ 1911
15 p la n ts ... \ 1912

8 p la n ts ....

Heaters:
f
1
15 p la n ts ... 1
l

Heaters' help­
ers:

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

4

21

10
14
6
10

28
33
19
21

36
36
31
10

28
29
32
60

30
15
27
26

23
19
16
18

8
5
4
11

2
2

14
2

15
13

21
25

21
24

89
97

49
45

74
57

11
10

11
10

17
21

27
18

24 100
35 95

47
64

58
64

10
16

10
2

48
58
51
24

30
25
20
50

8
11
12
18

10
5
8
10

5

1

8

.192 12.40
.185 12.02

24
38

62
69

44
24

25
38

24
6

2

64.8
65.0

.184 11.90
.192 12.45

42
23

73
87

24
18

38
28

6
24

2
2

86
82
83
89

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

.271
.246
.250
.286

9
10
16
6

4
8
6
6

10
5
5
14

19
15
14
10

14
13
20
21

20
15
18
24

6

4
6

4
4

4

/ 1910
19 p la n ts ... \ 1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

.269 17.44
.262 16.88

4

6
6

8
8

20
5

34
42

27
35

29
15

4
4

4
4

/ 1911
20 p la n ts ... \ 1912
R oll engineers:
1907
1908
13 p la n ts ... 1909
1910

127
130

64.7
64.3

.262 16.78
.253 16.12

4
2

6
20

8
4

5
10

44
31

37
27

15
28

4
8

4

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

.226
.221
.217
.230

4
4

5
6
12
4

33
35
30
36

16
11
10
14

/
25 p la n ts ... \
Chargers and
helpers:
f
1
12 p la n ts ... 1
l

15.77
14.50
14.87
16.70

1
4

2

11.34
10.56
10.60
11.87

17.31
15.58
15.93
18.19

16.29
15.76
15.52
16.52

2
»3
16

2 10

4
4

1 Including 6 em ployees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2 em ployees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Including 1 em ployee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




8

2
2
2
2

4

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,
T

347

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BAR M ILLS— Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Concluded.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­ Average
age
rate full­
tim e
of
wages w eek­
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.

\1911

l 1912

99
95
97
16
16
16
15

62.5 1.089 68.27
62.6 .970 60.88
62.5 .956 60.31
62.7 1.028 64.69

f 1910
11 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
Rollers, 9-inch:
f 1907
1 1908
6 p la n t s .... i 1909
l 1910

28
29
29

59.0
58.0
58.0

12
11
11
12

66.7 1.038 69.72
67.7 .809 55.06
67.1 .832 56.25
67.0 .969 65.03

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

24
22
23

63.2
63.5
63.1

f 1907
1 1908
5 p la n ts ... i 1909
l 1910

12
12
12
12

f 1910

l 1912

18
18
18
15
13
13!
15

68.1
69.9
69.8
68.5

.900
.801
.864
.888

\

27
24
26

64.4
64.9
64.3

.864 56.26
.844 54.85
.831 53.75

\

7
7
7

60.6
60.6
60.6

63.3 .897
63.3 .868
63.3 .850
62.3 1.074

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

10
8
8

59
59
63

25
30
40
50
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
50
40
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

.835 48.77
.676 39.73
.709 42.11

7
7
7
9

16
and
un­
der18
cts.

65.0 1.069 70.38
63.6 .967 56.28
63.6 1.066 68.13

f 1907
1 1908
7 plan ts___ 1 1909
[ 1910

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

67.3 1.114 76.01
67.3 .974 66.06
67.0 1.095 73.38
67.0 1.183 79.72

\1911

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

72.0 $0,229 $16.46
70.4 .228 16.07
70.0 .229 16.05

f 1907
1908
7 plan ts___ i 1909
[ 1910

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

22 p la n ts ...

f 1910

Rollers, 8-inch:

\

11 p la n ts..
Rollers, 10-inch:

7 plan ts___
Rollers, 12-inch:

f 1910
13 p la n ts ... 1911
11912
Rollers, 13-inch,
14inch, and
15-inch:
f 1910
R>11
3 plants___
l 1912
Rollers, 16-inch:
f 1907
1 1908
4 p la n t s .... 1 1909
l 1910

.961 57.71
.929 55.00
.887 52.81

4
6
5

26
22
21

.

|
i
1
1
i
i
i

1
!
1

58.11
56.00
54.77
68.32

/ 1910
\ 1911

11
8
12
12

62.8
62.4
61.0
58.3
58,3
58.3

.942
.684
.753
.860

9
8
9

60.8
60.3
59.1

.669 40.08
.771 46.69
.751 44.76

1

3
5
4

15
15
17

1
2

5 plants___

2
2

1
2
4

1

1

1
1
2
2
2

1
1

........
1

1
4
5

1
1

2
2
2

.. .
2
1

.929 59.52
.814 51.35

3
4
4
4

5
2
4

62.6 1.007 64.13
63.9 1.081 70.85

/ 1911
6 p la n t s .... \ 1912

1

12
10
11
9

1
2
1

.943 60.20
.825 53.07
.808 51.36

61.69
55.63
60.16
61.05

2
3

1
1

i
1

i
1

1
2

Rollers, 18-inch:
2 plants—

5 plants,

f 1907
1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

[ 1910
\1911
l 1912




58.06
39.66
43.79
49.92

1
1
2

2
2
1

14
13
15
10
9
11
11
17
15
17

1
1

8
9
11

19
17
18

348

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BAR MILLS — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

AverA ver­ Aver­
age
N um ­ age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation,
tim e
of
of
and number of Year. em­ time
hours wages w eek­
plants.
ploy­ per
ly
per earn­
ees.
week. hour. ings.

R o lle r s , a ll
sizes:

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
50 60
40
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

65.5 $1,013 $66.88
65.7 .878 57.88
65.5 .917 60.40
65.2 1.010 66.23

3
1
1

1
5
4

5
5
5
2

13
14
7
13

47
40
45
47

62.4
62.0

.928 58.21
.882 55.26

3
1

8
9

8
12

22
21

83
73

62.0
61.7

.873 54.65
.860 53.63

1

11
5

12
16

21
21

75
80

44 ♦
44
44
41

61.2
61.2
61.0
61.2

.397
.373
.363
.393

7
14
6
9

22
3
28
16

8
27
9
7

7
1
9

<1911

l 1912

84
81
79

57.5
56.0
56.0

.368 21.49
.347 19.68
.336 19.03

6
6
6

27
15
28

26
43
23

10
13
21

15
4
1

f 1907
1 1908
7 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

58
54
54
58

56.3
60.4
56.5
56.9

.564
.392
.422
.454

29.94
23.30
23.20
25.14

3
6
9
12

13
20
12
4

12
20
16
20

8
8
, 17
16

6

f 1910
!
12 p la n ts ... < 1911
l 1912
Roughers, 10inch:
f 1907
1 1908
5 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

88
83
84

58.2
57.4
57.2

.449 25.69
.414 23.87
.429 24.17

16
14
17

6
29
14

38
24
22

22
12
23

6
4
8

33
37
37
38

64.4
65.2
65.0
64.8

.441
.323
.370
.395

3
15
14
12

4
8
7
6

18

6
12
9

4
11

l 1912

51
51
51

64.8
63.3
63.3

.412 26.45
.366 22.72
.399 24.69

3
6

28
29
20

12
17
18

11
2
7

f 1907
1 1908
8 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

62
55
54
58

64.5
64.1
67.7
67.5

.416
.301
.351
.400

6
18
9

24
22
39
34

28
4
6
24

4

<1911

f 1910
1 1912

89
81
85

64.6
65.3
64.4

.397 25.80
.361 23.35
.391 25.24

10
22
7

39
42
46

37
10
6

3
7
22

1 plan t........

f
J
1
[

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.289
.250
.262
.289

17.34
15.00
15.72
17.34

12
12
>2
12

f 1910

\1911

48
46
47

61.5
61.2
61.4

.379 22.89
.338 20.51
.364 22.23

12
14
12

22
25
11

11
7
24

3

5 plants___

13 p la n ts ...

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
67

22 p la n ts ...

\19ll

/ 1910

124
116

/ 1911
23 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Roughers,
8inch:
f 1907
1 1908
7 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

120
124

f 1910

11 p la n ts ...
Roughers,
inch:

24.40
22.76
22.28
24.14

1

9-

7 plants___
Roughers,
inch:

1

l 1910
\1911

29.11
21.09
23.73
25.40

8
8

12-

14 p la n ts ...

27.10
19.45
23.77
27.06

11

4

Roughers, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:

1912




22

349

WAGES AND HOURS O F LABOR— BAB MILLS,
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
N U M B E R — C o n tin u e d .

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Roughers,
inch:

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
AverA ver­
age full- '
12 14 16 18 20 25
rate tim e
30
40
50 60
and and and and and and and and and and 70
of
wages w eek­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
der der der der der der der der der der and
hour. earn­ 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
50
60 70 over.
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

16-

f 1907
1908
1909
5 plants----1910
l 1911

36
32
34
42
34

/ 1911
\ 1912

42
40

62.3
61.8

.415 26.05.
.381 23.63 .

2 plants—

f 1907
1 1908
i 1909
l 1910

7
8
8
8

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

.384
.348
.380
.523

5 plants—

\1911
[ 1912

23
19
22

59.4
60.3
58.9

.414 24.92,
.444 26.73 ,
.465 27.34.

f 1907
1 1908
15 p la n ts ... i 1909
l 1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

.434
.343
.368
.407

26.28
21.35
22.72
25.21

/ 1910
25 p la n ts ... \ 1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

/ 1911
26 p la n ts ... \ 1912
C a t c h e r s , 8inch:
f 1907
1 1908
3 plants----- i 1909
l 1910

403
408

\

6 plan ts—
Roughers,
inch :

8
8
8
14
8

1

8
14

24
10
12
6

4
14l
14
14
10

8
12

2
8

16
12

12
2

6
6
6

63.0 $0,349 $22.20
63.1 .349 22.23 .
63.4 .347 22.22 .
62.2 .390 24.65
63.4 .415 26.55.

2
1

4
4

f 1910

'

23.68
20.83
22.73
31.55

,
,
,
.

1
1
8

15

11
11
5

92
76
111
72

56
75
53
71

38
8
23
52

65
74

127
174

128
81

73
48

6

74
72

176
122

87
118

48
60

4

2
2

12
6
16
14

4
8

6

6
2
2

6

16
33
8
14

28
50
48
42

.402 24.51
.376 22.65

26
14

60.5
60.2

.377 22.68
.389 23.36

14
24

18
18
18
17

56.6
56.6
56.6
56.4

.362
.350
.335
.371

20.48
19.66
18.90
20.97

2
2

f 1910
1911
6 plants----l 1912
C a t c h e r s , 9inch:
f 1907
1 1908
2 plants— 1 1909
l 1910

26
27
25

54.3
54.1
54.1

.351 19.14
.319 17.32
.340 18.48

3
2
1

12
12
12
12

58.0
58.0
58.0
58.0

.474
.455
.495
.526

f 1910

17
17
15

56.5
56.8
55.7

.499 28.19
.4*0 24.76
.508 27.86

(

10
10
10
10

72.0
72.0
71.5
71.5

.352
.377
.379
.456i

f 1910

16 66.8 .383 26.24
16i 65.9i .365 24.46
16i 65.9• .419» 28.23
'

Roughers,
sizes:

4

18-

all

\

4 plants —
C a t c h e r s , 10inch:

l 1911

l 1912

1907
1 1908
1 plan t........ i 1909
l 1910
3 plan ts___

\1911

| 1912




1

1

2

3
4

17
23
12

9
7
3

1

4
1

2
3;
4

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

9
7
7

1

12

7

4
4

25.35
27.14
27.06
32.63

4

3

4

2
4

6

2

4

27.30
25.94
28.68
30.37

22

1
3
3
10

3
2

10
8
8

2

350

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

Table

BAR M ILLS — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

Average
ber
fu ll­
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ tim e
hours
plants.
ploy­ per
ees.
week.

Average
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Average
full­
12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
tim e
and and and and and and and and and and 70
w eek­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der der der and
earn­ 14 16 18
40
50
20 25 30
60 70 over.
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

C a t c h e r s ,1 2 inch:
f 1907
1 1908
5 plan ts___ i 1909
l 1910

16
17
17
18

65.6 $0,446 $29.52
64.1 .317 20.42
63.9 .349 22.61
63.7 .411 26.37

f 1910

28
27
29

62.5
62.1
61.7

.403 25.40
.368 22.90
.348 21.52

\1911

1 1912

7
7
7

61.7
61.7
61.7

.458 27.63
.392 23.92
.407 24.70

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65.0
64.5

.636
.499
.552
.547
.664
.511

41.02
32.46
36.02
35.32
43.23
33.00

f 1907
1 1908
2 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.423
.314
.346
.466

25.96
18.51
20.40
27.72

f 1910
5 plants___
1911
l 1912
C a t c h e rs, all
sizes:
f 1907
1 1908
ll p l a n t 3 ... 1 1909
l 1910

9
8
9

58.6
59.0
58.0

.375 22.36
.369 21.99
.391 22.87

69
70
70
73

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

.442
.381
.400
.452

115
111
110

60.2
59.9
59.7

.419 25.45
.392 23.70
.399 23.92

1907
1908
1909
1910

56
56
56
54

62.6
62.8
62.7
62.8

.305
.267
.274
.305

f 1910
11 p la n ts ... 1911
1912
Stranders,
9inch:
f 1907
1 1908
6 p la n t s ....
1 1909
l 1910

75
73
73!

61.6
60.4
60.4

.275 17.00
.249 15.12
.244 14.88

41
39i
39l
39>

56.2
56.4:
56.3l
56.3!

.395
.276
.287
.332!

f 1910

6;
62!
61.

10 p la n ts ...

\1911

1 1912

f 1910

9

2
8

2

6
4
6

9
15
12

9
5
5

2

2
5
4

4

2
4

C a t c h e r s ,13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
3 plants___

2
9
8
4

1

7
2
4

2
2
3

4
3
4

2

4

1
1

4

1

3

C a t c h e r s , 16inch:

4 plants___

C a t c h e r s ,1 8 inch:

\

f 1910

20 p la n ts ...

\1911

1 1912

Stranders,
inch:

2

4
4
7

2
1
2

27.68
23.57
24.93
28.17

1
1

{
[

10 p la n ts ...

< 1911

1 1912

4

19.11
16.77
17.22
19.11

20.75
15.10
15.75
18.28

2

4
2
4

1
1
2

2
2
2
2

28
31
37
20

13
11
10
28

18
10 **’ i
10
16 " *4

2
3

7
6
6

11
11
18

32
55
37

38
20
32

21
12
6

2

20
18
18
6

11
20
22
24

11
16
14
18

6

6

1
5
4" ii
4
7

15
20
14

26
14
26

19
20
15

4

1

1

1
1
2

14
2
14
15 * 2

1

9
2
8!
21

6
6
10
s

59.1. .289' 16.64
58.6i .247' 14.39 ........
58. C .235i 13.44
1
2

1
2
2
a:
4
i

ai
6i

6i 191
11. 17'
£ 14i
>

9
IS
9

28
7
17

4
1
8

4

6
20
18
26

2
2
1

2
2

1

13
5
4

1 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




1

4
2
3

1

6
2
4
1

8-

f
" p la n t s ___ 1
1
l

1
2
2
2

2
2
4 *4
1
2

9

3

g

4
2
4

3
2

351

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BAR MILLS — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

N um ­
ber
O ccupation,
of
Year. em­
and number of
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Stranders,
inch:

A ver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
A ver­
age
full­
50 60
25
40
12 14 16 18 20
30
time
and and
week­ and and and un­ un­ and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un ­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der and
earn­ der der
14 16 18 20 25
50
60 70 over.
30
40
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
cts.

101907
1908
1909
1910

43
43
43
43

f 1910
1911
7 p la n t s ....
l 1912
Stranders, 12inch:
1907
1 1908
3 p la n t s .... 1 1909
l 1910

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

.390 21.13
.322 17.35
.370 19.71

13
14
14
16

69.0
70.4
70.4
69.1

.352
.284
.293
.411

f 1910
1911
9 plants___
1 1912
Stranders, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1907
1908
1909
1 plan t........
1910
1911
1912
Stranders, 16inch:
1907
1908
1 p lan t___ « 1909
1910
1911

48
40
43

64.4
65.3
64.7

.286 18.71
.271 17.71
.309 20.38

20
20
20
26
20
22

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.233
.201
.211
.224
.221
.217

14.00
12.06
12.65
13.46
13.25
13.01

2
2
2
2
2

65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0

.361
.344
.299
.484
.480

4

55.1 $0.354 $19.47
55.1 .320 17.08
55.0 .378 19.95
55.0 .444 23.09

23.47
22.36
19.44
31.46
31.20

f
1
5 p la n t s .... 1
l

\
{

\

8

2
• 10

39
29
21
18

i2

6
9
15

18
9
9

21
9

3

4

2
2
10
2

4

3

4
1 *5
1

8
9
11

24.53
19.99
20.62
28.82

12
4

4
4
16
14

2
2
2

24
6
6

2
2
2
2 * *8
4
6

8
16
16
8
16
16

4
2
8

21
12

8
10
10
1
10

8
8

2
2
2
2
2

/ 1911
2 plants___ \ 1912
Stranders, all
sizes:
1907
1908
13 p la n ts ... 1909
1910

10
10

57.0
57.0

.424 24.28
.405 22.86

175
174
174
180

56.5
59.7
59.7
59.7

.334
.277
.297
.344

19.45
16.25
17.34
20.06

3
1

/ 1910
21 p la n ts ... 1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

.301 17.85
.268 15.83

14
14

4
6

11
12

f 1911
22 p la n ts ... \ 1912
8-

262
266

59.8
59.6

.272 16.03
.283 16.62

14
17

6
6

12
16

1907
1908
1909
1910

14
14
14
13

64.5
64.8
64.7
65.1

.298
.277
.290
.309

f 1910

24
25
25

60.6
59.6
59.6

.303 18.24
.302 18.01
.295 17.60

\

6
15
5

2i

2
2
3

4
4

10
8

37
44
42
20

28
40
48
45

60
69
63
64

14

15

12
16

21

18
43

74
68

53
43

71
51

16
27

43
31

68
61

43
58

51
48

35
17

2
2
2

4
4
2
2

2
3
2
4

4
3
6
5

1
2
2
2

2
2
3

7
9
9

11
10
9

2
1
1

4
6
2 13
4
2 *8

9

21

22

Finishers,
inch:

f
J
6 plants___ 1
l
9 plants___

\1911

1912

19.43
18.03
18.77
20.19
2
2
2

1 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




1

|
iL ...
il...

352
T

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— C on tin u ed.

able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occui ation,
of
and number of Year.
em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Finishers,
inch:

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

9-

5 plants —

9 plants___

(
J
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

15
14
14
14

[ 1910
\1911

24
23

1 1912
Finishers,
inch:

Aver- Average
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

10-

24

66.8 $0,244 $16.24

i2

67.9
67.8
67.8

.245 16.53
.254 17.10
.261 17.58

1
1
1

64.3
63.8
63.4

.287 17.98
.272 17.18
.282 17.61

1
1
1

2

2
1

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

2
1 **’ i
1
1

6
6

9
7
9

1
2

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

.396
.342
.387
.412

f 1910
1911
5 plants___
1 1912
Finishers, 12inch:
f 1907
I 1908
4 plants___ ] 1909
l 1910

12
12
12

69.3
68.4
68.4

.376 26.20
.329 22.72
.358 24.73

1

12
11
11
12

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

.336
.271
.297
.359

2

/ 1910
8 plants___ \ 1911

20

65.8
65.2

.349 22.74
.324 20.78

f
10 p la n ts ... \
Finishers, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
f
1 plant........ jI
l

19

4

27.29
23.48
26.16
28.19

23.28
19.04
20.85
24.97

1911
1912

22
24

63.7
63.0

4
4
4
4

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.315
.275
.289
.316

f 1910
1911
4 plants___
l 1912
Finishers, 16inch:
f 1907
2 plants___ I 1908
1 1909
l 1910

15
15
15

64.0
64.0
64.0

8
8
8
9

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.2

.262
.242
.265
.310

3 plants___ J 1910
\ 1911

11
11

62.5
63.5

4 plants___ / 1911
1912
18-

19

20

61.1
61.1

.363 22.08
.377 22.77

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

.435
.417
.438
.438

f 1910

5
5

l 1912

6

61.9
60.7
58.9

.308 19.15
.350 21.38
.336 1 20.02

\

f 1907
I 1908
1 plant.-___ | 1909
l 1910
3 plants___

\1911

2
2

2

4

4
5

2

2

2

2

4

2

4

1

2
1
2

6

2
2

4

6
5

18.90
16.50
17.34
18.96

3

4
4

1
1
2

2

7
5

6
2

5
5

2
1

6
10

5

1

3

4
4
4

6
2
2

2

2

2

2

4
4
4
4

6
4
4
4
5

1
3

4
3

2

16.39
15.11
16.68
19.37

6
10
8

6

j

8

3

9

2
8

11
2

27.30
26.25
27.48
27.48

1

3

........j

!
!
........I " ' T ‘ "

2
2

3!

6

3

1
2

1Including 1 em
ployee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




5

2
2

2
2

.324 20.34
.325 20.73

Finishers,
inch:

5

6

5

1

2
2

.339 21.01
.316 19.83
.319 19.97

\

5

6

.309 19.51
.311 19.81

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
1

4

10
10
10
10

\

2

2

1907
1908
1909
1910

f
I
4 plants___ j
[

2
2

2
2

6
4

4

2
1
2
2
2
2
2

|
i

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

353

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BAR MILLS — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
Year.
and num ber of
em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Finishers,
sizes:

Aver­ Aver­ Average
age f X
full­ rate tim e
of w eek­
time
hours wages
ly
per
per
earn­
week. hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
20 25
cts. cts.

all

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

19
23

12
12

13

3

16

17
25

6
10
10

4

34
30

36
40

16
14

7
3

12

31
47

42
34

20

3
3

12

21

16
4
3
3

14

3

14

7

8

65.9 $0,309 $20.45
66.4 ' .279 18.53
66.2 .300 19.85
66.1 .329 21.80

12
1
1
1

64.0
63.4

.323 20.48
.309 19.50

1
1

4
4

126

62.8
62.5

.313 19.60
.319 19.92

1
1

4
5

4
3

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

.289
.230
.241
.318

6

2

18

5

4

20
8

10
12

f 1910
13 p la n ts ... J 1911
l 1912
H ook ups. 13inch , 14-mch,
and 15-inch:
1907
1 1908
1 plant........ 1 1909
( 1910

69
53
56

62.8
63.4
62.5

.282 17.93
.244 15.38
.269 17.15

4

14
7

31
15
15

g
14

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.184 11.04
.163 9.77
.173 10.40
.197 11.84

4
14

4

8
12

6

2
8

f 1910
5 p la n ts .... J 19H
l 1912
H ook ups, 16in ch :
( 1907
1908
5 plants___ J 1909
1910
l 1911

50
45
51

64.2
64.2
63.8

.237 14.66
.225 14.06
.229 14.29

7
3

18
18
16

26
23
27
35
25

63.9
64.4
64.7
64.1
64.4

.263
.269
.274
.326
.337

6 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912
H ook ups, 18inch:
f 1907
2 plants___ J 1908
i 1909
l 1910

35
36

62.4
61.5

.308 19.43
.269 16.61

9

62.2
61.0
61.0
60.8

.238 14.83
.190 11.64
.202 12.39
.294 18.13

f 1910
5 plants___ J 1911
1 1912
H ook ups, a l l
sizes:
f 1907
J 1908
12 p la n ts ... 1 1909
l 1910

20
21
24

60.4
60 5
59.2

.227 13.85
.221 13.48
.217 12.93

2
24
2

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65.7
65.6

.268
.225
.241
.303

17.30
14.70
15.82
20.06

4

/ 1910
20 p la n ts ... \ 1911

174
144

63.2
63.4

.272 17.13
.251 15.81

2
24

4
7

10

/
21 p la n ts ... \ 1911
1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

.250 15.66
.249 15.56

24
2

7
4

16

1907
1908
10 p la n ts ... ' 1909
1910

65
63
63
64

17 p la n ts.. 4 / 1910
\ 1911

111
110

19 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912

121

H ook ups, 12inch :

f 1907
J
6 plants___ 1 1908
1909
l 1910

{

10
10
9

18.98
15.75
16.46
22.33

16.91
17.35
17.80
20.97
21.83

4

2

2

1
3

2

2
1
2

2
6
2

10
2

4

3

2

12

2

15

3

10
6

21

13
16
16

2

10
12

2
2
2

1

3
3
3

1
2 ***i

3
4

4

2

4

5
5

9
23
7

1

12

4

8
15

8

5
4

8

9
9
9

8

2
12
11

4




2
2

2

2

3

6
6

3
3
3

15
29
30

6
6
6
6

3
3
7

4
4

6

14

16

2

27
33

24
25

41
16

45
45

16

2

2
2

10 36

25
29

23
45

45
28

2
8

2

2

13

35

12

40

2

18
16
14
36

6
11

6
20

1 Including 1 em ployee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

44929°—Bull. 151—14----- 23

2
2

18

8
22

2

27
18

16
1

10
2
1

3

5
4

1

10

15

6

354

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BAR MILLS — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
Year.
and num ber of
em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ A ver­
age
age
fu ll­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
A ver­
age
fu ll­
12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
tim e
and and and and and and and and and 70
w eek­ and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der der and
earn­ der
50
18 20 25 30
40
60 70 over.
ings. 14 16
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

R oll h a n d s ,
other, 8-inch:

2

4

5
5

1

2

4

4

4
7 ” ’i
1
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
20
20
20

65.1 $0,250 $16.20
65.3 .237 15.29
65.1 .235 15.15
65.1 .257 16.51

13
2
2

f 1910
1911
9 plants___
l 1912
R oll h a n d s ,
other, 9-inch:
1907
1 1908
3 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

33

33

60.6
60.0
60.0

.251 15.01
.253 15.04
.248 14.75

24
32
45

18
18
18
18

59.7
60.4
60.3
60.3

.224 12.91
.223 12.95
.222 12.90
.234 13.64

f 1910
1911
6 plants___
1 1912
R oll h a n d s .
other, 10-incn:
f 1907
’•
*
1 1908
4 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

35
35
36

56.5
56.1
56.3

.267 14.49
.242 13.24
.257 14.05

29
29
29
29

70.4
70.4
70.0
70.0

.388
.327
.346
.409

f 1910
1911
7 plants___
l 1912
R oll h a n d s ,
other, 12-inch:
f 1907
J 1908
4 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

39
39
39

67.8

.359 24.58
.327 22.11
.351 23.69

24

21
21
22

70.1
70.4
70.3
69.9

.194 13.60
.210 14.75
.302 21.27

f 1910
1911
9 plants___
l 1912
R oll h a n d s ,
other, 13-inch,
14-inch, a n d
15-inch:
f 1910
1911
3 plants___
1 1912

\

33
32
33

67.0
67.7
67.5

.285 19.06
.254 16.95
.298 20.25

2
2

\

29
28
25

62.1
61.7
63.4

.307 17.94
.268 15.81
.268 16.17

10
10

4
4
4
4
4
3

64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5

.331
.331
.359
.374
.398
.394

f
1
5 plants___ 1
l

\
(

\

\

33

66.8
66.8

27.24
22.89
24.04
28.38

2 plan ts___

2
2

21.26

21.21
22.97
24.13
25.63
25.51

2
4

8
8
10
2
2
10
11

8

4

3
4

8
2
9

7
3
3
3

2
2
2

9

6
8
6

2
2
1

6
6
6
6

2

2

2
1
1

3
3

6
2

2

2
2
2
2

7

11

6

5
5

2

22

3
3
3
4

5
4
3

2

1
2

2

4

2
1

2

2

1

10
8

2

1
4

1

i
i
,

13

1
12
1

.201 14.04

R o ll h a n d s ,
other,16-inch:
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

2
1

2

5
15

2
6 ....
1 5
4
16

8
20

17

6

17
5
4

16
16

6

7
4

2

2

10

6

2

4
5
3

2

14

12

5

2
12

” "i

2
12

6
6

2
2
2
2
2
1

1

6
8

2

*Including 3 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

2

2
2
4

2

12

9

1
1
1

3

2
2

17

1 Including 1 em ployee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




1

3

15

5

9

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
2

1
1
1

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

355

I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
N U M B E R —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

R o ll han ds,
other, 18-inch:

Aver­ A ver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

2
2
2
2

62.8 $0,237 $14.84
62.8 .181 11.33
62.8 .200 12.55
62.8 .296 18.57

f 1910
1911
l 1912

7
6
7

59.9
60.8
59.2

.226 13.67
.256 15.55
.235 13.91

1907
1 1908
i 1909
l 1910

97
94
94
95

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

.278
.255
.266
.315

f 1910
18 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912
H otbed men:
f 1907
I 1908
15 p la n ts ... i 1909
l 1910

180
177
176

62.8 .295 18.35
62.5 .273 16.97
62.7 - .287 17.97

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

.189
.174
.180
.208

/ 1910
25 p la n ts ... \ 1911

500
434

62.9
62.0

.200 12.46

852
950

/ 1911
26 p la n ts ... \ 1912
Shearmen:
f 1907
J 1908
15 p la n ts ... 1 1909
l 1910

450
461

61.9
61.7

.188 11.61 9 50
.192 11.80 1 57
9

94
92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

.249
.216
.225
.247

f
25 plants. . . {
l
S h e a r m e n 's
helpers:
f
15 p la n ts ... J
1

1910
1911
1912

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

.264 16.40
.254 15.55
.254 15.59

1907
1908
1909
l 1910

201

65.9

172
185
215

66.2
67.3
65.3

.174
.168
.169
.184

f 1910
23 p la n ts ... 1911
l 1912

355
359
358

64.7
63.8
63.9

4 plants—

9 plants—

\
{

<

\

18.53
16.97
17.65
21.06

11.98
10.93
11.00
13.02

.189 11.69

16.20
14.10
14.72
16.11

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

1

f 1907
1 1908
1 plan t........ 1 1909
l 1910

R o ll h a n d s ,
other, allsizes:

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

1

1
1

25
40
30
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
50
40
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1

1
2

4

1
1
4

2
1
3

2

1

1

2
19
5
2

26
9
11
6

8
3
17
10

8
21
11
8

12
16
24
16

32
11
14
34

4
8
5
7

5
4
4
6

10
5

31

33
39
49

51
33
41

6

4

13
34
24

22
15

2

6
31
29

4 18 108
527 116
852 70
7 22 38

47
64
53
87

32
37
33
36

60
35
54
58

17
13
9
36

20

78
78

127
125

71
59

83
65

57
27

11

90
42

125
130

63 65
69 101

27
38

1

17
24
13

12

20
6

13
2
2
24

24
37

2

1
6
9

8

11

20
21

20
22
20
14

15
16
18

30
41
38

27
23
31

29
25
25

27
24

7
15
4

11

2
3

19

24

4

2

2

2
2

24
24

2

2
3
4

2

19
4

1
2

2

9

20

2
2
2

13

11

5

17
17

11.46 u 22
11.07 u 19
11.32 4 39

49
33
32
69

12
20

28

12

21

12.00 212

76
74
63
55

17
13

27
48

3
5
16

58
57
30

109
156
142

29

87
57
94

20

1
1

14

18
26

1

2

2
2
2
2

2
.187 12.02 4 38
3
.178 11.28 1 45
.184 11.74 4 34
4

2
1
3

4

8

22

28

31

20
25

2

9

10
6

1
5
5

3

2

1 Including 1 em ployee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 3 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
4 Including 14 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
6 Including 6 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 4 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 2
employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
e Including 6 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 8 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
7 Including 6 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 6 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
8 Including 6 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 18 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.
9 Including 23 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
19
Including 3 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 5 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 19
em ployees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1 Including 7 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1
12 Including 6 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, and 8 earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
13 Including 11 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
14 Including 2 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 11 earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




BU LLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

356

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BAR MILLS— Continued.
N U M B E R —Concluded.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Bundlers:

A ver­ A ver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Average
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

f 1907
1 1908
5 plants----- 1 1909
l 1910

41
41
41
41

66.9 $0,202 $13.53
66.9 .174 11.68
66.8 .186 12.42
67.1 .213 14.23

/ 1910
\ 1911

77
81

66.1
63.5

f 1911
7 plants----- \ 1912
Laborers:
1 1907
J 1908
10 p la n ts ... i 1909
l 1910

131
132

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1
l

12
4
2

10
15
13
9

13
8
18
2

16
3
6
26

2
1

9
16

24
32

40
30

2
2

62.0
62.0

.197 12.20
.193 11.94

1

16
16

32
90

80
24

2
2

296
227
324
424

68.3
64.8
67.8
67.2

.153 10.44
.153 9.93
.150 10.17
.161 10.81

27 173
39 90
50 182
40 31

96
98
92
353

/ 1910
15 p la n ts ... \ 1911

511
355

67.8
66.0

.160 10.86
.160 10.59

51
44

70
26

390
285

/ 1911
17 p la n ts ... \ 1912

390
424

65.5
65.9

.159 10.40
.159 10.52

44
44

61
54

1

2

.207 13.69
.193 12.28

285
326

6 plan ts—

2

i
i

j
i
i

1

|

i

1

PER CENT,
Stockers:

64.4 $0,178 $11.43 2.2 6.5
64.1 .167 10.72 115.6 13.3
64.2 .168 10.79 2 3.4 36.4
64.3 .190 12.17 2.3 5.7

93
90
88
87

/ 1910
13 p la n ts ... \ 1911

170
164

59.0
59.6

.250 14.24
.230 13.41

1.2 2.9 16.5 14.1 30.0 13.5 9.4 12.4
1.2 2.4 19.5 17.1 26.8 11.6 21.3 ........

............

15 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912
Heaters:
f 1907
4
15 plants • « . J 1908
1 1909
l 1910

211
217

60.9
60.9

.217 12.94
.231 13.79

.9 1.9 30.8 18.0 22.7 9.0 16.6
.9 2.3 29.5 6.9 26.3 17.1 17.1 ........

............

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

.508
.467
.488
.502

25 p la n ts ... / 1910
\ 1911

217
180

62.9
62.6

.507 31.73
.512 31.97

/ 1911
t 1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

.510 31.87
.482 29.84

f
I
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

167
153
151
166

65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

.246
.227
.234
.262

6.0
9.2
4.0
6.0

16.8 21.6 16.8 18.0 13.8
21.6 23.5 19.0 9.8 12.4
12.6 20.5 21.2 17.9 10.6
12.7 6.0 36.1 15.7 10.8

p la n ts ... / 1910
\ 1911

295
281

62.6
62.5

.273 16.77
.7 5.1
.262 16.05 ........ 4.6

7.1 7.1 30.2 16.6 25.1
8.9 8.5 34.5 16.0 20.3

3.7
3.6

3.7
3.6

zo plan ts. . . / 1911
\ 1912

293
319

62.7
62.2

.259 15.94
.260 16.01

9.2 8.2 34.1 16.0 19.8
5.6 11.0 29.8 20.1 20.1

3.4
5.0

3.4
.6 *i.*3

26 p la n ts ...

54.8
37.8
26.1
32.2

12.9 23.7 ........ ........ ............ ........ ___ ........
............
............ _____
24.4 8.9
20.5 11.4 * 2*3 ........ ........ ........
27.6 32.2 ........ ........ ........ ........
........

1907
1908
1909
1910

8 plan ts—

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

8.3 20.7
.9 17.0 12.5
3.6 3.6 11.6
7.7 16.9

OR ■n lo tifo

2.0

10.7 9.9
9.8 6.3
9.8 5.4
8.5 10.6

7.1 20.7 18.5 29.9 14.1
11.6 22.6 18.1 20.6 18.6

15.77 . . . . .
.
14.50
14.87 9.3
16.70 ........

............

5.8
6.6

1Inclu din g 6.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2Including 2.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




35.5
22.3
35.7
31.0

7.4 18.0 -25.3 26.3 14.3 8.8
7.2 20.6 17.2 30.6 14.4 10.0

Heaters’ help­
ers:
14 plants. . .

14.9
31.3
30.4
25.4

............

9.8
6.5

4.8 1.2 1.2 ........
3.3 1.3
2.6
'i.*3
6.6 **4.8 1.2 ........
.7
... .

............

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.
T

357

I ___ A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1 90 7 T O 1 9 1 2 — C o n t i n u e d .

able

BAR MILLS—

C o n t in u e d .

P E R C E N T — Continued.

Aver­ Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber
full­ rate
Occupation,
of
of
and number of Year. em­ time
hours wages
plants.
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. hour.

Chargers a n d
helpers:

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

28.8
24.5
18.7
45.5

7.7
10.8
11.2
16.4

30
25
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ u n ­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

9.6 4.8 1.0 ........ ........ . . . . . . . . .
4.9
........
7.5
9.1 * 7 .3

1907
1908
1909
1910

104
102
107
110

65.5 $0,173 $11.34 1.9 46.2
65.6 .161 10.56 i 2.9 56.9
65.9 .161 10.60 15.0 47.7
21.8
66.3 .181 11.87

/ 1910
18 p la n ts ... \ 1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

.192 12.40
.185 12.02

13.4 34.6 24.6 14.0 13.4
21.5 39.0 13.6 21.5 3.4

1.1

/ 1911
19 p la n ts ... 1912
Drag downs:
1907
1908
11 p la n ts ...
1909
1910

185
182

64.8
65.0

.184 11.90
.192 12.45

22.7 39.5 13.0 20.5 3.2
12.6 47.8 9.9 15.4 13.2

1.1
1.1

86
82
83
89

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

.271
.246
.250
.286

/ 1910
19 p la n ts ... \ 1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

.269 17.44
4.5
.262 16.88 ’ *3*3 4.9

6.115.2 25.8 20.5 22.0
6.5 4.H34.1 28.5 12.2

3.0
3.3

1911
1912

127
130

64.7
64.3

.262 16.78
.253 16.12

6.3 3.9 34.6 29.1 11.8
3.1 7.7 23.8 20.8 21.5

3.1
3.1
6.2 . . . . . . . . . ........

1907
1908
1909
1910

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

.226
.221
.217
.230

f 1910

99
95
97

72.0
70.4
70.0

.229 16.46
.228 16.07
.229 16.05

1907
J 1908
7 plants___ i 1909
[ 1910

16
16
16
15

62.5 1.089 68.27
62.6 .970 60.88
62.5 .956 60.31
62.7 1.028 64.69

f 1910
1 p la n ts ... J 1911
1
l 1912
Rollers, 9-inch:
f 1907
6plants___ iJ 1908
1909
l 1910

28
29
29

59.0
58.0
58.0

1
2
1
1
11
12

66.7 1.038 69.72
67.7 .809 55.06
67.1 .832 56.25
67.0 .969 65.03

f 1910

24
22
23

63.2
63.5
63.1

1907
1 1908
5 plants___ i 1909
l 1910

12
12
12
12

67.3 1.114 76.01
67.3 .974 66.06
67.0 1.095 73.38
67.0 1.183 79.72

f 1910

18
18
18

65.0 1.069 70.38
63.6 .967 56.28
63.6 1.066 68.13

12 p la n ts ...

\

/
20 p la n ts ... \
R oll engineers:
f
J
13 p la n ts ... 1
[

2 p la n ts.. . \1911
2

l 1912

Rollers, 8-inch:

11 p la n ts ...

(

\1911

[ 1912

Rollers, 10-inch:

7 plants___

[

\1911

1912

10.5
17.31
15.58 2i2.*2 12.2
15.93 ........ 19.3
18.19 ........ 6.7

16.29
15.76
15.52
16.52

.961 57.71
.929 55.00
.887 52.81

3.1 4.7
1.5 15.4

7.1

4.7,11.6
9.8 6.1
7.2 6.0
6.715.7

22.1
18.3
16.9
11.2

16.3
15.9
24.1
23.6

23.3
18.3
21.7
27.0

4.7
7.3 . . . . ........
4.8 ........ . . . .
4.5 ........ . . . .
4.5
3.0
3.3

6.9 8.6 56.9 27.6
7.1 10.7 62.5 19.6
21.4 53.6 17.9
**6.9 6.9 62.1 24.1
4.0 10.1 59.6 26.3
6.3 8.4 62.1 23.2
5.2 8.264.9 21.6

6.3
6.3 *ii*5

20.0

3.4

6.3 18.8 75.0
6.3 25.0 62.5
12.5 68.8
6.7 13.3 60.0

17.9 10.7 17.9 53.6
6.9 17.2 24.1 51.7
........ 13.8 13.8 10.3 58.6
16.7 16.7 66.7
9.1 18.2 18.2 54.5
18.2
27.3 54.5
8.3
41.7 50.0

.943 60.20
.825 53.07
.808 51.36

4.5

4.2
9.1

4.2 33.3 58.3
9.1 18.2 59.1
17.4 17.4 65.2

8.3

1

1Including 1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2.4 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




i
7.0

5.6

16.7 83.3
25.0 75.0
91.7
*8*3 91.7

5.6 94.4
5.6 5.6 83.3
94.4
5.6

358

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I , — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
P E R C E N T —C ontinued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year.
em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

A ver­ Aver­ A ver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate tim e
time
of
hours wages w eek­
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wage5 per hour.
:
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Boilers, 12-inch:
f 1907
7 plants___ 1 1908
1 1909
1 1910

15
13
13
15

68.1 $0,900 $61.69
69.9 ’ .801 55.63
69.8 .864 60.16
68.5 .888 61.05

[ 1910
13 p la n ts ... \1911

27
24
26

64.4
64.9
64.3

.864 56.26
.844 54.85
.831 53.75

{ 1911

l 1912

7
7
7

60.6
60.6
60.6

.835 48.77
.676 39.73
.709 42.11

f 1907
1 1908
4 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

7
7
7
9

63.3 .897
63.3 .868
63.3 .850
62.3 1.074

/ 1910
5 plants___ \ 1911

11
8

62.6 1.007 64.13
63.9 1.081 70.85

1911
1912

12
12

62.8
62.4

.929 59.52
.814 51.35

1907
1908
1909
1910

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.942
.684
.753
.860

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

9
8
9

60.8
60.3
59.1

.669 40.08
.771 46.69
.751 44.76

f 1907
I
13 p la n ts ... 1 1908
1909
l 1910

65
63
63
67

/ 1910
22 p la n ts ... \ 1911

l 1912

13.3 13.3 73.3
15.4 15.4 61.5
15.4 15.4 69.2
20.0 73.3

7.7
6.7

3.7 22.2 70.4
16.7 12.5 70.8
19.2 7.7 69.2

3.7
3.8

Rollers,13-inch,
14-inch, and
15-inch:
f 1910

3 plants___

28.6
28.6

Rollers, 16-inch:

/
6 plants___ \
Rollers, 18-inch:
f
J
2 plants___ 1
l
5 p la n t s ....

71.4
57. i 14.3
28.6 42.9 28.6
42.9
42.9
28.6
11.1 22*2

58.11
56.00
54.77
68.32

57.1
57.1
71.4
66.7

9.1 18.2 72.7
25.0 75.0
16.7

*25.0

58.06
39.66
43.79
49.92

16.7 66.7
50.0 50.0
33.3 66.7
75.0
75.0
100.0

25.0

22.2

22.2
25.0
11.1

Rollers, all sizes:

20.0
22.2
11.1
19.4

72.3
63.5
71.4
70.1

65.5 1.013 66.88
65.7 .878 57.88
65.5 .917 60.40
65.2 1.010 66.23

4.8
1.6
1.5

1.6
7.9
6.0

124
116

62. 4
62.0

.928 58.21
.882 55.26

2.4
.9

6.5 6.5 17.7 66.9
7.8 10.3 18.1 62.9

1911
1912

120
124

62.0
61.7

.873 54.65
.860 53.63

.8

9.2 10.0 17.5 62.5
4.0 12.9 16.9 64.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

44
44
44
41

61.2
61.2
61.0
61.2

.397
.373
.363
.393

24.40
22.76
22.28
24.14

15.9 50.0 18.2 15.9
31.8 6.8 61.4
13.6 63.6 20.5 2.3
22.0 39.0 17.1 22.0

f 1910

84
81
79

57.5
56.0
56.0

.368 21.49
.347 19.68
.336 19.03

7.1 32.1 31.0 11.9 17.9
7.4 18.5 53.1 16.0 4.9
7.6 35.4 29.1 26.6 1.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

58
54
54
58

56.3
60.4
56.5
56.9

.564
.392
.422
.454

f 1910
12 p la n ts ... -1 1911
1912

88
83
84

58.2
57.4
57.2

.449 25.69
.414 23.87
.429 24.17

/
23 p la n ts ... \
R ou gh ers,
8-inch:
f
I
7 p la n t s .... 1
[
11 p la n ts ...

\1911

| 1912

0.8

.8

7.7
7.9
7.9
3.0

55.6
75.0
33.3 55.6

R ou gh ers,
9-inch:
f
J
7 p la n t s .... |
l




29.94
23.30
23.20
25.14

11.1

5.2 22.4 20.7
37.0 37.0
*i6.*7 22.2 29.6
20.7 6.9 34.5

13.8
37.9
14.8
31.5
27.6 10.3

18.2 6.8 43.2 25.0 6.8
16.9 34.9 28.9 14.5 4.8
20.2 16.7 26.2 27.4 9.5

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

359

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— C ontinued.

T able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
P E R C E N T —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and n um ber of Year. em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Roughers,
inch:

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age
full­ rate full­
tim e
time
of
hours wages w eek­
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
30
50
40
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
30
40
50
60
cts. cts. cts. cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

101907
1908
1909
1910

33
37
37
38

64.4 $0,441 $29.11
65.2 .323 21.09
65.0 .370 23.73
64.8 .395 25.40

\1911
[ 1912

f 1910

51
51
51

64.8
63.3
63.3

.412 26.45
.366 22.72
.399 24.69

f 1907
8 p la n t s .... 1 1908
| 1909
l 1910

62
55
54
58

64.5
64.1
67.7
67.5

.416
.301
.351
.400

[ 1910
\1911

l 1912

89
81
85

64.6
65.3
64.4

.397 25.80
.361 23.35
.391 25.24

f
1
1
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.289
.250
.262
.289

f 1910

48
46
47

61.5
61.2
61.4

.379 22.89
.338 20.51
.364 22.23

36
32
34
42
34

63.0
63.1
63.4
62.2
63.4

.349
.349
.347
.390
.415

6 plants___ / 1911
\ 1912
Roughers, 1 8 inch:
f 1907
2 plants___ J 1908
1 1909
1 1910

42
40

62.3
61.8

.415 26.05
19.0
.381 23.63 ........ . . . . ........ . . . . 35.0

7
8
8
8

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

.384
.348
.380
.523

f 1910

23
19
22

59.4
60.3
58.9

.414 24.92
.444 26.73
.465 27.34

26.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

.434
.343
.368
.407

6.3
13.6
3.3
5.4

/ 1910
\ 1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

.402 24.51
.376 22.65

6.1 15.3 29.9 30.1 17.2 1.4
3.5 18.7 44.1 20.5 12.2 1.0

26 p la n ts ... / 1911
\ 1912

403
408

60.5
60.2

.377 22.68
.389 23.36 ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5 18.4 43.7 21.6 11.9 1.0
5.9 17.6 29.9 28.9 14.7 2.9

5 p la n ts ....

f
I
1
l

7 p la n t s ....
Roughers,
inch:

12-

14 p la n ts ...
Roughers, 1 3 inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1

plant.

5 plants___

\1911

l 1912

Roughers, 1 6 inch:
f 1907
1908

5 plants___

\1909

1910
i 1911

5

plants_

\1911

l 1912

24.2
9.1 12.1 54.5
21.6 16.2 40.5 21.6
32.4 37.8 18.9 10.8
23.7 31.6 15.8 28.9
"

27.10
19.45
23.77
27.06

54.9 23.5 21.6
5.9 56.9 33.3 3.9
11.8 39.2 35.3 13.7
9.7 38.7 45.2
20.0 32.7 40.0 7.3
16.7 72.2 11.1
58.6 41.4

4.7

11.2 43.8 41.6 3.4
27.2 51.9 12.3 8.6
8.2 54.1 7.1 25.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

17.34
15.00
15.72
17.34

22.20
22.23
22.22
24.65
26.55

6.5

25.0 45.8 22.9
30.4 54.3 15.2
25.5 23.4 51.1
22.2
25.0
23.5
33.3
23.5 *ii.*8
9.5

66.7
31.3
35.3
14.3

6.3

11.1
43.8
41.2
33.3 19.0
29.4 35.3

4.8 38.1 28.6
20.0 30.0 5.0 10.0
85.7
14.3
75.0 *25*6
75.0 12.5 12.5
100.0

23.68
20.83
22.73
31.55

26.1 47.8
*io.*5 *3L6
57.9
9.1
68.2 22.7

Roughers, a l l
sizes:
15

f
I
p la n ts ...
i
l

25 p la n ts ...




26.28
21.35
22.72
25.21

11.1
20.7
19.8
16.3

36.5
31.4
45.7
28.0

22.2 15.1
31.0 3.3
21.8 9.5
27.6 20.2 2.3

8.7

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

360
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— C ontinued.

able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
P E R C E N T —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and num ber of Year.
em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Average
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
40
30
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Catchers,8-inch:
3 plants___

f
J
1
l

6 plants___

ii.i
66.7 22.2
11.1 " i i . i 33.3 44.4
11.1 88.9
5.9
82.4 11.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
17

56.6 $0,362 $20.48
56.6 .350 19.66
56.6 .335 18.90
56.4 .371 20.97

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

26
27
25

54.3
54.1
54.1

.351 19.14
.319 17.32
.340 18.48

( 1907
2 plants___ 1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

12
12
12
12

58.0
58.0
58.0
58.0

.474
.455
.495
.526

f 1910
4 plants___ -J 1911
l 1912

17
17
15

56.5
56.8
55.7

.499 28.19
.440 24.76
.508 27.86

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

72.0
72.0
71.6
71.5

.352
.377
.379
.456

\1911

f 1910
l 1912

16
16
16

66.8
65.9
65.9

.383 26.24
.365 24.46
.419 28.23

f 1907
5 p lants___ 1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

16
17
17
18

65.6
64.1
63.9
63.7

.446
.317
.349
.411

28
27
29

62.5
62.1
61.7

.403 25.40
.368 22.90
.348 21.52

21.4 32.1 32.1 14.3
7.4 14.8 55.6 18.5
13.8 20.7 41.4 17.2 6.9

7
7
7

61.7
61.7
61.7

.458 27.63
.392 23.92
.407 24.70

28.6 28.6 42.9
71.4 28.6
57.1 42.9

1907
1908
1909
4 plants___
1910
1911
. 1912
Catchers.
18inch:
f 1907
J 1908
2 plants___
1 1909
l 1910

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65.0
64.5

.636
.499
.552
.547
.664
.511

41.02
32.46
36.02
35.32
43.23
33.00

40.0
40.0 20.0
22.2
22.2
22.2 33.3
22.2
33.3
44.4
33.3 33.3 33*3
44.4 22.2 11.1 22.2
22.2
77.8

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.423
.314
.346
.466

25.96
18.51
20.40
27.72

33.3 33.3 33.3
50.6 50.0
25.0 50.0 25.0
50.0
50.0

f 1910

9
g
9

58.6
59.0
58.0

.375 22.36
.369 21.99
.391 22.87

4.0

11.5 11.5 65.4 11.5
7.4 7.4
85.2
4.0 16.0 48.0 28.0

Catchers, 9-inch:
27.30
25.94
28.68
30.37

33.3

11.8 41.2
26.7 20.0

33.3 66.7
66.7
33.3 66.7
33.3 66.7
52.9 47.1
47.1
53.3

Catchers,
10inch:
f
1 plant___ * J
1
l
3

plants_

Catchers, 12inch:

f
p la n t s ...
l
Catchers,
13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
f
3 plants___
l
Catchers,
10inch:
10

1910

\1911

1912

1910

\1911

5 plants___

1912

\ 1911

1912




90.0 10.0
70.0 30.0
70.0 30.0
100.0

25.35
27.14
27.06
32.63

25.0 12.5
62.5
6.3 6.3 18.8 18.8 50.0
25.0 12.5 50.0 12.5

29.52
20.42
22.61
26.37

25.0
*4i.*2
23.5 11.8
22.2

22.2
........

12.5 6.3 56.3
52.9
5.9
* 5. 9
47.1 *ii.*8
22.2 44.4 11.1

44.4 11.1 22.2
ii*5 25.*6 25.0 12.5 25.0
44.4 22.2 22.2
ill. 1

3.7

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,

361

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.

PEB CENT—Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Catchers,
sizes:

AverAver- Aver­
age
rate tim e
time
of
hours wages w eek­
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
40
30
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
40
50
60 70 over.
30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

all

f
1
11 p la n t s ... 1
l

.......

62.5 $0,442 $27.68 ........
62.0 .381 23.57
61.9 .400 24.93
62.0 .452 28.17

1907
1908
1909
1910

69
70
70
73

\1911

r 1910
l 1912

115
111
110

60.2
59.9
59.7

.419 25.45
.392 23.70 . . . . .
.399 23.92 . . . . .

f 1907
1 1908
7 plants----- 1 1909
l 1910

56
56
56
54

62.6
62.8
62.7
62.8

.305
.267
.274
.305

\1911
[ 1912

f 1910

75
73
73

61.6
60.4
60.4

.275 17.00 15.3 2.7
.249 15.12 15.3
.244 14.88 16.8 *2.7

f 1907
1 1908
6 plants___ i 1909
[ 1910

41
39
39
39

56.2
56.4
56.3
56.3

.395
.276
.287
.332

f 1910
10 p la n ts ... J 1911
1 1912
Stranders, 10inch:
r 1907
J 1908
5 plants___ i 1909
1 1910

64
62
61

59.1
58.6
58.0

.289 16.64
.247 14.39
.235 13.44

43
43
43
43

55.1
55.1
55.0
55.0

.354
.320
.378
.444

r 1910

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

.390 21.13
.322 17.35
.370 19.71

1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14
14
16

69.0
70.4
70.4
69.1

.352
.284
.293
.411

f 1910
9 p la n ts .... J 1911
1 1912
Stranders, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1907
1908
1909
1 p lan t........ 1910
1911
1912

48
40
43

64.4
65.3
64.7

.286 18.71
.271 17.71
.309 20.38

20
20
20
26
20
22

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.233
.201
.211
.224
.221
.217

20 p la n ts ...

6.9

40.6
8.7
2.9 i 8 .6 44.3
5.7 7.1 52.9
1.4 5.5 27.4

18.8
15.7
14.3
38.4

26.1
14.3 i.*4
14.3
21.9 *5.5

5.8
2.9
5.7

1.7 6.1 9.6 27.8 33.0 18.3 3.5
2.7 5.4 9.9 49.5 18.0 10.8 .9 " 2.*7
5.5 16.4 33.6 29.1 5.5 7.3 1.8

S tra n d e rs,
8-inch:

11 p la n ts ...
S tra n d e rs,
9-inch:

7 plants___
Stranders,
inch:

1 1911

l 1912

3.6 35.7 19.6 19.6 10.7 10.7
19.11
32.1 35.7 28.6
16.77 *’ i.*8 *i.*8
17.22
32.1 39.3 25.0
1.8 **i.*8
11.1 44.4 33.3 7.4
19.11
3.7

20.75
15.10
15.75
18.28

20.0 34.7 25.3 5.3
6.7
5.5 i s . i 27.4 19.2 27.4
5.5 9.6 19.2 35.6 20.5 ........ ........ ___ ........

4.9
5.1
23.’ i
2.6 *2.6 ’ *2*6
5.1

22.0
5.1
20.5
5.1

14.6
15.4
25.6
23.1

14.6
51.3
46.2
66.7

9.4 29.7 14.1 43.8
3.1
4.8 ’ *4.8 17.7 27.4 29.0 11.3
3.3 6.6 9.8 14.8 23.0 14.8 27.9

19.47
17.08
19.95
23.09

9.3
9.3 ii.*6 ” 4*7
23.3
9.3
*5.3

22.0 22.0

4.8

90.7
67.4
48.8 27.9
41.9
48.8

7.0
14.0 10.5 31.6
36.8
1.8 *8.*8 15.8 15.8 15.8 *36*8
1.8 19.3 26.3 15.8 15.8 21.1

12-

f
J
3 plants___ 1
l

24.53
19.99
20.62
28.82

14.00
12.06
12.65
13.46
13.25
13.01 ........

23.1
85.7
28.6
25.0

15.4 61.5
14.3
71.4
12.5 62.5

8.3 50.0 8.3 12.5 20.8
40.0 15.0 5.0 37.5 2.5
23.3
! ! ! ! ! 32.6 14.0 18.6 11.6

10.0 10.0 . . . . 40.0
10.0 10.0 . . . . 80.0
10.0 10.0 „ 80.0
7.7 30.8 30.8
80.0
20.0
___ 27.3 ___ 72.7

40.0 ........
........ ........
........
*30*8
........

<Including 2.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




........

—

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

362

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

T able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
P E R C E N T —Continued.

N um ­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Stranders,
inch:

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

A ver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­
age
fifll12 14
16 18 20 25
30
40
50 60
time
and
week­ and and and and un­ and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
50
60 70 over.
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

16-

\ 1909
1910
[ 1911

2
2
2
2
2

/ 1911
2 plants----- \ 1912

10
10

57.0
57.0

.424 24.28
.405 22.86

1907
1908
1909
1910

175
174
174
180

59.5
59.7
59.7
59.7

.334
.277
.297
.344

21 p la n ts .. . / 1910
\ 1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

.301 17.85 i l . 5 1.5
.268 15.83 2 1.6 2.4

4.0 6.6 27.2 19.5 26.1 5.9 7.7
4.7 16.9 26.8 16.9 20.1 10.6 ........ —

O piairis. . . / 1911
OTil
\ 1912
Finishers, 8inch:
f 1907
J 1908
6 plants___ 1 1909
| 1910

262
266

59.8
59.6

.272 16.03 2 1.5 2.3
.283 16.62 2 2.7 2.3

4.6 16.4 26.0 16.4 19.5 13.4
6.0 11.7 22.9 21.8 18.0 6.4 ’ *8.3

14
14
14
13

64.5
64.8
64.7
65.1

.298
.277
.290
.309

1910
1911
1912

24
25
25

60.6
59.6
59.6

.303 18.24
.302 18.01
.295 17.60

1907
1908
1909
1910

15
14
14
14

66.8
67.9
67.8
67.8

.244
.245
.254
.261

f 1910
1911
l 1912

24
23
24

64.3
63.8
63.4

.287 17.98
.272 17.18
.282 17.61

f 1907
4 plan ts___ I 1908
1 1909
1 1910

10
10
10
10

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

.396
.342
.387
.412

f 1910

12
12
12

69.3
68.4
68.4

.376 26.20
.329 22.72 ........
.358 24.73

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
11
11
12

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

.336
.271
.297
.359

/ 1910
\ 1911

20
19

65.8
65.2

.349 22.74
.324 20.78

/ 1911
10 p la n ts ... \ 1912

22
24

63.7
63.0

.309 19.51
9.1 27.3 27.3 9.1 22.7
.311 19.81 ........ ___ ........ 8.3 20.8 41.7 12.5 8.3

f 1907
1908

1 plan t........

65.0 $0,361 $23.47
65.0 .344 22.36
65.0 .299 19.44
65.0 .484 31.46
65.0 .480 31.20

Stranders, all
sizes:
13 p la n ts ...

f
9 plan ts___ i
l
Finishers, 9ineh:
f
I
5 plan ts___
[

\

9 plants—
Finishers,
inch:

l

100.0
100.0
100.0
20.0 80.0

19.45
1.1
16.25 " i . 7 1.7
17.34
.6 2.3
20.06
2.2

\1911

l 1912

2.3 3.4 21.1 16.0 34.3 8.0 8.6 5.1
1.1 7.5 25.3 23.0 39.7
.....
24.1 27.6 36.2 * 6 .9
2.3
..I ll
1.1 4.4 11.1 25.0 35.6 8.9 *ii.*7

19.43
18.03
18.77
20.19

14.3 28.6
14.3 28.6
14.3 14.3
15.4
8.3
8.0
8.0

14.3
21.4
14.3
30.8

28.6 7.1
21.4 14.3
42.9 14.3
38.5 15.4

8.3 29.2 45.8
8.0 36.0 40.0
12.0 36.0 36.0

8.3
4.0
4.0

4.2
4.3
4.2

........

7.1

4.6
4.0

........ 13.3 26.7 33.3
16.24 813.3
13.3
16.53 7.1 ii .3
28.6 35.7 *i4.*3
17.10 7.1
7.1 7 .i 28.6 35.7 14.3
17.58 7.1 —
14.3
28.6 35.7
14.3 ........ —

10-

5 plan ts___
Finishers,
inch:

100.0
100.0
100.0

........

8.3
25.0 37.5 4.2 20.8
4.3 *4.3 26.1 30.4 21.7 8.7
4.2 4.2 16.7 37.5 25.0 8.3
20.0 20.0 40.0 20.0
40.0 40.0 20.0
50.0 50.0
60.0 20.0 20.0

27.29
23.48
26.16
28.19

16.7 16.7 33.3 16.7 16.7
8.3 8.3 16.7 16.7 16.7 25.0 8.3
41.7 33.3 8.3 16.7

12-

f
4 p lan ts___ I
1
l
8 plan ts___

23.28
19.04
20.85
24.97

18.2

50.0 16.7 33.3
i8.2 36.4 18.2 9.1
18.2 36.4 36.4 9.1
33.3 33.3 16.7 16.7
35.0 30.0 25.0 10.0
31.6 26.3 10.5 26.3 5.3

1 Including 0.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 0.8 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Including 6.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




4.5
........
8.3 1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,

363

T a b l e ! • — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B A R M IL L S — Continued.
P E R CEN T—Continued.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation,
time
of
of
and number of Year. em­ time
hours wages week­
plants.
ploy­ per
ly
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Finishers, 13inch,14-inch,
and 15-inch:

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

( 1907
J 1908
1 plant....... 1 1909
| 1910

4
4
4
4

f 1910
4 plants___ J 1911
l 1912
Finishers, 16inch:
( 1907
J 1908
2 plants___ 1 1909
l 1910

15
15
15

64.0
64.0
64.0

.339 21.01
.316 19.83
.319 19.97

8
8
8
9

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.2

16.39
9A9. 15.11
.265 16.68
.310 19.37

50.0 50.0
62.5 37.5
25.0 75.0
33.3 66.7

/ 1910
3 plants___ \ 1911

11
11

62.5
63.5

.324 20.34
.325 20.73

27.3 72.7
18.2 81.8

1911
1912

19
20

61.1
61.1

.363 22.08
.377 22.77

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

.435
.417
.438
.438

f 1910
3 plants___ -j 1911
{ 1912
Finishers, all
sizes:
f 1907
10 plants... J 1908
i 1909
t 1910

5
5
6

61.9
60.7
58.9

.308 19.15
.350 21.38
.336 20.02

65
63
63
64

65.9
66.4
66.2
66.1

.309
.279
.300
.329

/ 1910
17 plants... \ 1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

.323 20.48
.309 19.50

.9
.9 —

11.7 30.6 32.4 14.4
3.6
3.6 *i.*8 14.5 27.3 36.4 12.7

6.3
2.7 .... .......

19 plants. . . / 1911
\ 1912
Hook ups, 12inch:
f 1907
1908
6 plants___ j 1909
1
{ 1910

121
126

62.8
62.5

.313 19.60
.319 19.92

.8
_
.8 _

3.3 3.3 13.2 25.6 34.7 16.5
4.0 2.4 9.5 37.3 27.0 11.9

2.5
2.4 *4.*8

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

.289
.230
.241
.318

f 1910
13 plants... \ 1911
l 1912
Hook ups, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
f 1907
1908
1 plant...... J 1909
1
1.1910

69
53
56

62.8
63.4
62.5

.282 17.93
.244 15.38
.269 17.15

8
14
8
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.184 11.04
.163 9.77
.173 10.40
.197 11.84

f 1910
5 plants_ \ 1911
_
l 1912

50
45
51

64.2 .237 14.66
64.2 .225 14.06
63.81 .229 14.29 ...... L...

/
4 plants___ \
Finishers, 18inch:
f
1 plant....... J
i
l

60. C$0.315 $18.90
60.0 .275 16.50
60.0 .289 17.34
60.0 .316 18.96

100.0
100.0

100.0

40.0 40.0
20.0
26.7 66.7 6.7
26.7 53.3 20.0

10.5 57.9 31.6
40.0 10.0 20.0

10.0

27.30
26.25
27.48
27.48
60.0

20.0

24.5
5.4 16.2 5.4 48.6
10.8 54.1
21.6

40.0
*20.*6 *40.*6 40.0
33.3 33.3 33.3
29.2
36.5
33.3
25.0

.......
18.5 20.0 4.6
19.0 9.5 ....... . . . . .......
27.0 15.9
....
39.1 15.6 *6. 3
.......

42.9 32.7
13.5 10.8
27.0 8.1
32.4 8.1 37.8

1.4 2.9 5.8 20.3 44.9 4.3 20.3
5.7 11.3 18.9 13.2 28.3 22.6
3.6 3.6 21.4 17.9 26.8 12.5 14.3

50.0 50.0
100.0
75.0 25.0
66.7 33.3
14.0 36.0 16.0 16.0 18.0
6.7 40.0 33.3
20.0
19.6 31.4 15.7 15.7 17.6 ....... ....... ___ .......

1Includ ing 1.5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




i

100.0
50.0 50.0
100.0
100.0

6.2 18.5
20.45 13.0
18.53 1.6 3.2 *3.2 3.2 23.8
19.85 1.6 ___ 1.6 4.8 15.9
21.80 1.6 —
3.1 . . . . 9.4

18.98
15.75
16.46
22.33

100.0

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

364
T

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
P E R C E N T — C o n tin u e d .

O c c u p a tio n ,
a n d n u m b er o f
plants.

A ver­ A ver­
N um ­
age
age
ber
fu ll­ ra te
of
tim e
Y ea r.
of
em ­
h o u rs w ages
p lo y ­
per
p er
ees.
w eek. hou r.

H o o k u p s , 16in ch :

E m p lo y e e s earning e a c h
A v e r­
age
fu ll­
12
14
18 20
16
tim e
a n d a n d a n d an d a n d
w eek­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
d e r der d er der der
earn­
14
16
18
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

cla ssified ra te o f w ages p e r hour.

25
and
un­
d er
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
d er
50
cts.

50
60
a n d an d 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts
der der and
60
70 over..
cts. cts.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

26
23
27
35
25

63.9 $0,263 $16.91 15.4
64.4
.269 17.35
.274 17.80
64.7
7 .4
64.1
.326 20.97
64.4
.337 21.83

/ 1911

35
36

62.4
61.5

.308 19.43
.269 16.61

1907
1908
1909
1910

9
10
10
9

62.2
61.0
61.0
60.8

.238
.190
.202
.294

f 1910
l 1912

20
21
24

60.4
60.5
59.2

.227 13.85 10.0 15.0 20.0 15.0 10.0
30.0
.221 13.48 U 9 .0 19.0 4 .8 14.3 14.3 . . . . . 28.6
.217 12.93 8.3 8.3 16.7 12.5 29.2 ......... 25.0

1a pioUTS - - *

r
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65.7
65.6

.268
.225
.241
.303

aU p ia n rs . . .

/ 1910
\ 1911

174
144

63.2
63.4

.272 17.13 1.1 2.3
.251 15.81 2 2 .8 4.9

7.5 15.5 13.8 23.6 25.9
6.9 22.9 17.4 11.1 31.2

9 .2
1.4

1.1
1.4

/ 1911
T\lQt>+o
pioHtS •••
\ 1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

.250 15.66 3 2 .6 4.5
.249 15.56 1.2 2.4

6.5 23.4 16.2 14.9 29.2
9 .6 21.0 17.4 26.9 16.8

1.3
4 .8

1.3

f 1907
1 1908
1909
l 1910

20
20
20
20

65.1
65.3
65.1
65.1

.250
.237
.235
.257

f 1910

5 p la n ts ____

6 p la n ts ___

\1912

H o o k u p s , 18in ch :

f
|
2 p la n t s .... 1
(
5 p la n ts ___

H o o k u p s , all
sizes:

Ol
a1

B o ll h a n d s ,
oth er, 8-in ch:

\ 1911

7.7
61.5 7.7
13.0 *8.7 2 L 7
4.3 52.2
14.8 37.0 40.7
5 .7 77.1
*5*7
4.0 72.0
8 .0

7.7
5 .7
8 .0

5 .7
8 .0

5.7

5.7

9 .8 4.3 16.3 43.5 19.6 2 .2
17.30 4.3
14.70 1.2 *6.0 27.4 4 .8 34.5 7.1 19.0
15.82
8.5 7.3 36.6 24.4 17.1
6.1
2.2 11.8 12.9 15.1 38.7 17.2
20.06 .........

2 .2

14.3
11.1 i i . 'i

22.9 51.4
61.1 16.7

33.3 33.3
14.83
33.3
11.64 10.0 30.0
60.0
60.0
12.39
30.0 *io.*o
22.2 11.1
18.13
66.7

16.20
10.0 20.0 10.0 10.0 15.0
15.29 ^15.0 25.0
20.0 15.0
30.0 5 .0
15.15 10.0 25.0 * *5.0
16.51 10.0 10.0 20.0 . . . . 10.0 20.0

35.0
15.0 10.0
15.0 10.0
15.0 10.0 **5*6

5 p la n ts ___

\

9 p la n ts ___

\1911

1 1912

33
33
33

60.6
60.0
60.0

.251 15.01 512.1 12.1 12.1
6.1 30.3 18.2
.253 15.04 66.1 6.1 21.2 *3.6 9.1 24.2 24.2
.248 14.75 U5.2 3 .0 15.2 3 .0 12.1 27.3 18.2

3 p la n ts ___

f
1
i
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
18

59.7
60.4
60.3
60.3

.224
.223
.222
.234

f 1910

6 p la n ts ____

\1911

l 1912

35
35
36

56.5
56.1
56.3

.267 14.49
5 .7 5 .7 22.9 5 .7 20.0 31.4 8.6
.242 13.24 *5." 7 2 .9 28.6 ___ 25.7 17.1 14.3 5 .7
.257 14.05 5 .6 2 .8 30.6 . . . . 5 .6 36.1 13.9 ......... * *5.6

f
1
i
l

29
29
29
29

70.4
70.4
70.0
70.0

.388
.327
.346
.409

39
39
39

67.8
66.8
66.8

.359 24.58
10.3
5.1
15.4 43.6 10.3 5.1 5.1
5.1
.327 22.11 ......... 2 .6 ‘ *2*6 15.4 . . .
41.0 12.8 15.4 2 .6 7.7
.351 23.69 ......... —
2 .6 2 .6 12.8 41.0 10.3 20.5 ......... 5.1 **5.*i

R o ll h a n d s ,
oth er, 9 -in ch:

R o ll h a n d s ,
o t h e r , 10in ch :
4 p la n ts ___

7 p la n ts ___

1907
1908
1909
1910

[ 1910
{ 1911
1 1912

12.91
12.95
12.90
13.64

27.24
22.89
24.04
28.38

ii.i

44.4 11.1
44.4
55.6
11.1 44.4

33.3
33.3
33.3
33.3

3 .4
41.4 *i7 .2
3 .4 51.7
6 .9

3 .0
. .
3 .0

11.1
11.1
11.1
11.1

75.9 3.4 17.2
17.2 10.3 13.8
20.7 10.3 10.3 3 .4
58.6 13.8 6 .9 6 .9

1 In clu d in g 9.5 p e r ce n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h o u r .
2In c lu d in g 1.4 p er ce n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p er h o u r .
8 In c lu d in g 1.3 p e r ce n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts per h o u r.
* I n c lu d in g 5.0 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 c e n ts per h o u r.
* I n c lu d in g 6.1 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts per h o u r.
* E arn in g 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts per h o u r .
7 In clu d in g 9.1 per ce n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts p er h o u r.




6.1
6.1
3 .0

6 .9

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.
T

365

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BAR MILLS — Continued.
P E R C E N T — C o n tin u e d .

O ccu p a tion ,
and num ber of
plan ts.

R o ll h a n d s ,
o t h e r , 12in ch :

A v e r ­ A v e r­
N um ­
age
age
ber
fu ll­ rate
of
tim e
of
Y e a r.
em ­
h o u r s w ages
p lo y ­
p er
per
ees.
w eek . h ou r.

{

E m p lo y e e s earn in g e a c h
A ver­
age
fu ll­
12
14
16
18 20
tim e
a n d a n d a n d a n d and
w eek­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
d e r der d e r d er der
earn­
14
16
18
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

classified ra te o f w ages per h ou r.

25
and
un­
d er
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
50
60
a n d a n d an d 70
u n ­ •un­ u n ­ cts.
d e r d er der a n d
50
60
70 over.
cts. cts. cts.

1907
1 1908
1 1909
l 1910

24
21
21
22

70.3 $0,201 $14.04
70.4 ' .194 13.60
70.3 .210 14.75
69.9 .302 21.27

f 1910
9 p la n ts ___
1911
l 1912
R o ll h a n d s ,
o t h e r . 13in c h , 14-ineh,
a n d 15-inch:
f 1910
1911
3 p la n ts ___
l 1912
R o ll h a n d s ,
o t h e r , 16in ch :
1907
1908
1909
2 p la n ts ___
1910
1911
1912
R o ll
hands,
oth er, 18-inch:
f 1907
1908
1 p la n t .........
| 1909
l 1910

<

33
32
33

67.0
67.7
67.5

.285 19.06
.254 16.95
.298 20.25

\

29
28
25

62.1
61.7
63.4

.307 17.94
.268 15.81
.268 16.17

4
4
4
4
4
3

64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5

.331
.331
.359
.374
.398
.394

21.26
21.21
22.97
24,13
25.63
25.51

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

.237
.181
.200
.296

14.84
11.33
12.55
18.57

1910
1911
1912

7
6
7

59.9
60.8
59.2

.226 13.67
.256 15.55
.235 13.91

1907

97
94
94
95

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

.278
.255
.266
.315

4.1
8.5
5.3
7.4

5.2
........
4 .3
4.3 i . 'i
6.3 2.1
2. i

180
177
176

62.8
62.5
62.7

.295 18.35 1 2 .2 5 .6 3 .3 17.2 7.2 18.3 28.3 12.2
.273 16.97 1 2.2 2 .8 17.5 6.2 19.2 22.0 18.6 8.5
.287 17.97 2 4 .0 1.1 16.5 2 .3 13.6 27.8 23.3 6.2

3.3 1.1
1.1
1.1 1.7
1.7 2.3 " i . ’ i

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

.189
.174
.180
.208

4 p la n ts ___

J

f
4 p la n ts ___ i
l
R o ll
hands,
oth er, all sizes:
f
ft p la n + . . . .
y i
ts
|
l

J 1908

1909
1910

f 1910

18 p l a n t s . . .

\1911

l 1912

H o tb e d m en :
15 p l a n t s ...

[

1907
I 1908
1 1909
l 1910

57.1

58.3 16.7
9.5
76.2
9.1

16.7
23.8
14.3
27.3

21.2 24.2
* 6. 3 12.5 62.5
6.1 6.1 27.3

8.3
9.5
9.5
54.5

9.1

3 .0 45.5
3.1 3.1 i2.*5
3 .0 51.5

6.1
6.1

•
34.5
35.7
40.0

17.2 6 .9 41.4
*3*6 17.9 42.9
24.0 36.0

50.0 25.0 25.0
50.0 25.0 25.0
50.0 25.0
25.0
50.0
25.0 25.0
50.0
25.0 25.0
33.3
66.7
50.0 50.0
50.6 50.0
50.0 50.0
100.0
16.7 i6 .7

57.1 14.3 28.6
16.7 16.7 33.3
57.1 42.9

18.53
2.1 26.8 8.2 8.2 12.4
16.97 1 3.2 20.2 9 .6 3.2 22.3 17.0
17.65 2.1 5.3 11.7 18.1 11.7 25.5
21.06 2.1 2.1
6.3 10.5 8 .4 16.8

11.98
10.93
11.00
13.02

3 6.0
4 9.0
5 18.2
8 7.3

35.8
38.8
24.5
12.6

15.6
21.4
18.5
28.8

10.6
12.4
11.5
11.9

19.9 5 .6
11.7 4.3
18.9 3.1
19.2 11.9

33.0
11.7
14.9
35.8

6.6
2.3
5.2
1.3

6.3

.7

........

1 In clu d in g 1.1 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
2 In clu d in g 1.7 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r hou r.
3 In clu d in g 4.6 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
4 In clu d in g 2.0 p e r c e n t earning 8 a n d u n d e r 9 ce n ts , 1.3 p e r c e n t earning 9 a n d u n d e r 10 cen ts, a n d 0.7
p e r ce n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
5 In clu d in g 2.1 p e r ce n t earning 9 a n d u n d e r 10 ce n ts a n d 2.8 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts
p e r h ou r.
6 In clu d in g 2.0 p e r c e n t earning 9 an d u n d e r 10 ce n ts a n d 2.0 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts
p e r h ou r.




366
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1912— Concluded.

able

BAR M ILLS— Continued.
P E B C E N T — C o n clu d e d .

O c cu p a tion ,
a n d n u m b er o f
p lan ts.

A ver­ A ver­
N um ­
age
age
b er
fu ll­ ra te
of
tim e
Y ea r.
of
em ­
h o u r s w ages
p lo y ­
per
p er
ees.
w e e k . h ou r.

E m p lo y e e s earning e a ch
A ver­
age
fu ll­
12
14
16
18 20
tim e
a n d an d a n d an d an d
w eek­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
der der d er der der
earn­
14
16
18
20 25
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

classified rate o f w ages p e r h ou r.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
d er
50
cts.

50
60
a n d an d 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts.
d e r der a n d
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

H o t b e d m en —
C on clu d ed .
n_ .
...
/ 1910
\ 1911

500
434

62.9 $0,200 $12.46 110.4 15.6 25.4 14.2 16.6 11.4
62.0 .189 11.69 U 1 .5 18.0 28.8 13.6 15.0 6.2

2 .2
5.5

3 .8
.9

0 .4
.5

/ 1911
\ 1912

450
461

61.9
61.7

.188 11.61 8 11.1 20.0 27.8 14.0 14.4
.192 11.80 <12.4 9.1 28.2 15.0 21.9

5.3
5.2

.9

.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

.249
.216
.225
.247

f 1910
25 p l a n t s ... «[ 1911
1912
S h e a r m e n ’s
h elpers:
f 1907
1 1908
15 p l a n t s ...
1 1909
l 1910

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

.264 16.40
.254 15.55
.254 15.59

201
172
185
215

65.9
66.2
67.3
65.3

.174
.168
.169
.184

13.9
12.2
14.6
22.3

6 .0
1 .7
2 .7
7.4

1.0
1.2
1.1
.9

\1911
[ 1912

355
359
358

64.7
63.8
63.9

.187 12.02 9 10.7 16.3 30.7 8.2 24.5
.178 11.28 1012.5 15.9 43.5 6.1 15.9
.184 11.74 a 9.5 8.4 39.7 7.8 26.3

5 .6
5 .0
7.3

3.9
.6
1.1

f 1907
1908
5 p l a n t s . . . . 1 1909
l 1910

41
41
41
41

66.9
66.9
66.8
67.1

.202
.174
.186
.213

39.0
7.3
14.6
63.4

2 .4
2 .4

2 .4

77
81

66.1
63.5

.207 13.69
.193 12.28

2 .6 11.7 31.2 51.9
1.2 19.8 39.5 37.0

2 .6
2.5

131
132

62.0
62.0

.197 12.20
.193 11.94

.8 12.2 24.4 61.1
12.1 68.2 18 .2

1.5
1.5

296
22^
324
424

68.3
64.8
67.8
67.2

.153 10.44 9.1 58.4 32.4
.153 9.93 17.2 39.6 43.2
.150
15.4 56.2 28.4
.161 10.81 9 .4 7.3 83.3

511
355

67.8
66.0

.160 10.86 10.0 13.7 76.3
.160 10.59 12.4 7.3 80.3

390
424

65.5
65.9

.159 10.40 11.3 15.6 73.1
.159 10.52 10.4 12.7 76.9

6 .0
8.2

S hearm en:
15 p la iU s .. •

f
1
1
l

{

f 1910

23 p l a n t s ...
B u n d lers:

J

6 p la n t s ....
7 p la n ts ___

/ 1910
\ 1911
/ 1911
\1912

16.20
1.1 18.1 21.3 21.3 12.8 21.3
14.10 ” 2.*2 1.1 26.1 22.8 23.9 16.3 6.5
14.72
6.5 14.0 29.0 21.5 17.2 9.7
16.11
9 .3
24.7 14.4 18.6 20.6

.....

11.46
11.07
11.32
12.00

13.53
11.68
12.42
14.23

8.2

1.3 8.3
7.1 19.2 17.3 18.6 19.9
1.3 5 .3 11.3 27.2 15.2 16.6 13.2
1.3 3.2 11.0 24.7 20.1 16.2 16.2
5 10.9 37.8
• 11.0 43.0
7 21.1 34.1
8 5 .6 25.6

24.4
19.2
17.3
32.1

6 .0
11.6
9.2
6 .0

24.4 31.7
36.6 19.5
9 .8 31.7 43.9
4 .9 22.0 4 .9

**4.*9 29.’ 3

..... 2.1
.....
” i.’i
3.1 ’ ’i.o
5.8
6 .6
3 .9

.6
3.3
3.2

.6

2.1
1.1
1.1

.....

1.9

.....

4 .9

L ab orers:
f 1907

10 p l a n t s .. .

11908
1 1909
l 1910

/ 1910
\ 1911
/ 1911
17 p l a n t s . . .
\1912

15 p l a n t s .. .

1 .V
0

1 In clu d in g 1.2 p e r c e n t earning 9 an d u n d e r 10 cen ts an d 3.6 p e r ce n t earning 10 an d u n d e r 12 cen ts
p e r h ou r.
2In clu d in g 5.3 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r hou r.
3 In clu d in g 5.1 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
< In clu d in g 0.7 p e r c e n t earning 8 an d u n d e r 9 ce n ts , 1.1 p e r c e n t earning 9 a n d u n d e r 10 cen ts, and 4.1
p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
6 In c lu d in g 3.5 p e r c e n t earn in g 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
« In clu d in g 4.1 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
7 In clu d in g 7.6 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 c e n ts p e r h ou r.
8 In clu d in g 0.9 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r h ou r.
3
In clu d in g 1.7 p e r ce n t earning 8 an d u n d e r 9 ce n ts a n d 2.3 p e r ce n t earning 10 an d u n d e r 12 cen ts
p e r hou r.
13 In clu d in g 3.1 p e r c e n t earning 10 an d u n d e r 12 ce n ts p e r hou r.
11
In clu d in g 0.6 p e r c e n t earning 9 an d u n d e r 10 ce n ts a n d 3.1 p e r c e n t earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cents
p e r hou r.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,
T

367

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S I F I E D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912.

able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
[T h e a b b r e v ia tio n

“ G . L . a n d M . W . ” in th e first or reading c o lu m n sta n d s fo r “

G reat L a k e s a n d M id d le

W e s t .” ]

STOCKERS.

A v e rN um ­
age
ber
fu ll­
N um ­
of
Y e a r a n d d is­ b er of
tim e
em t r ic t.
hou rs
plan ts.
p lo y - per
w eek .

N um ber
A ver­
A ver­
age
age
fu ll­
rate
tim e
12 14
of
w eek­ a n d and
w ages
un­ un­
ly
per
earn­ d er der
h ou r.
14
16
ings.
cts. cts.

o f e m p loy ees earning each classified rate of
w ages p e r h o u r .

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
d er
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
an d
un­
der
60
cts.

60
a n d 70
un­ cts.
der an d
70 over.
cts.

1907.
62.3 $0.161 $10.06
69.6 .185 12.76
62.9 .180 11.29

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h ........
G . L .a n d M .W .

12

64.

.178 11.43

62.3
68.3
63.1
64.1

.167 10.72

114

62.3

.159 9.97
.181 12.26
.166 10.48

64.2

.168 10.79

23

57.6
56.5
63.3

.250 14.24

59.1
61.0
62.9
60.9

12.94

71
92
54

59.1
61.0
63.1

10

.210 12.37

211

18

.268 15.08
.279 15.01
.196 12.35

59.0

22

23

63.4

12

.165 10.29
.179 12.13
.164 10.33

.263 15.43
.213 12.56
.219 13.76

93

T o t a l------

51

1908.
E a s te rn .........
P it ts b u r g h ..
G . L . a n d M .W .
90

T o t a l____

12

34

32

23

1909.
E a s te rn .........
P it ts b u r g h ..
G . L .a n d M .W .

68.0

T o t a l...

1910.
E a s te r n .............
P itts b u r g h ____
G . L .a n d M .W
T o t a l....

13

170

16

28

24

51

23

16

48

19

21

35

1911.
E a s te rn .........
P it ts b u r g h ..
G . L . a n d M .W
T o t a l.. .

15

.236 13.82

.205 12.84
65

1912.
E a s te rn .........
P it ts b u r g h ..
G . L . an d M .W .
T o t a l____

15

.231 13.79

217

-20
15

2
64

15

37

HEATERS.
1907.
E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........

3
6
6

22
61
38

T o t a l... .

15

121

62.1 $0.448 $27.96
64.6 .525 33.83
G
63.7 .516 32.53 L . an d M .W .
63.9

.508 32.35

8
2
10

19
6

6
12

14
17
12

7
6

10
2

25

18

43

13

12

i
1 In clu d in g 6 e m p lo y e e s earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts p e r h ou r.
2 In c lu d in g 2 em p lo y e e s earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts p e r h ou r.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

368
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
HE A T E R S —C o n c lu d e d .
N um ber
A ver­
A v e r- A v e r­
N um ­
age
age
ber
full­
N um ­
rate
tim e
12
14
of
Y e a r a n d dis­ ber o f
tim e
of
em ­
w e e k ­ a n d and
trict.
plan ts.
hou rs w ages
un­ un­
p lo y ­
ly
per
p er
ees.
earn­ der d er
w e e k . hou r.
14
ings.
16
cts. cts.

o f em p lo y e e s earning each classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

16
18 20
a n d and a n d
u n ­ un­ u n ­
der der der
18
20 25
cts. cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
d er
60
cts .

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and 70
u n ­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1908.
E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G . L . a n d M .W .

3
6
6

26
53
33

60.2 80.447 $27.19
65.3 .477 30.75
64.5 .465 29.84

1

8
9
2

10
4

8
13
14

6
10
9

4
3
4

7

T o t a l... .

15

112

63.9

.467 29.66

1

19

14

35

25

11

7

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G .L .a n d M .W .

3
6
6

26
53
33

60.2
65.5
64.5

.437 26.51
.532 34.38
.457 29.32

4
2
2

2
7
4

10
8
16

10
21
9

9
2

6

T o t a l....

15

112

64.0

.488 31.06

4

4

13

34

40

11

6

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G . L . a n d M .W .

8
10
7

65
114
38

60.7
63.3
65.7

.482 29.19
.518 32.70
.514 33.14

9
5
2

12
23
4

9
34
12

25
22
10

10
15
6

15
4

T o t a l... .

25

217

62.9

.507 31.73

16

39

55

57

31

19

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G .L .a n d M .W .

8
10
8

57
88
39

61.9
62.3
64.9

.489 30.13
.521 32.46
.517 33.07

6
5
2

12
21
5

6
17
11

21
21
13

10
14
2

2
10
6

T o t a l....

26

184

62.7

.510 31.87

13

38

34

55

26

18

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G . L . an d M .W .

8
10
8

65
94
40

61.2
62.0
65.1

.479 29.19
.475 29.36
.501 32.00

4

4
14
5

17
24
4

14
10
12

18
19
4

10
12
15

2
11

T o t a l....

26

199

62.4

.482 29.84

4

23

45

36

41

37

13

10
20

4
15
4

1909.

1910.

1911.

1912.

....

H E A T E R S’ H E L P E R S .
1907.
E a s te rn ...............
32
3
P itts b u r g h .........
5
89
G . L . an6 M .W .
d
46

62.5 $0.213 $13.30
66.8 .237 15.73
64.2 .285 17.59

10

8
12
8

24
12

18
10

8

2

2

14

167

65.3

.246 15.77

10

28

36

28

30

23

8

2

2 1........
,

E a s te rn ...............
P ittsbu rgh
G . L . a n d M .W .

3
5
6

36
73
44

61.1
67.3
64.6

.210 12.87
.217 14.44
.257 15.94

10
4

8
15
10

22
14

8
17
4

6
5
4

4
10
5

5

2

T o t a l... .

14

153

65.1

.227 14.50

14

33

36

29

15

19

5

2

3
5
6

36
73
42

61.1
67.2
64.5

.204 12.44
.233 15.40
.260 16.04

14

G . L . a n a M .W .

2
4

ii
8

2
19
10

8
20
4

12
11
4

10
6

T o t a l....

14

151

65.0

.234 14.87

14

6

19

31

32

27

16 !

T o t a l....

1

1908.

i

1909.

E astern,
P it.tshi irgh




1

2 ,.........

‘

i
<1 ........

!

2 '.........

.

.

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR,— BAR MILLS,
T

369

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BAR MILLS — Continued.
H E A T E R S ’ H E L P E R S — C o n clu d e d .

A v e r­
N um ­
age
ber
full­
N um ­
of
Y e a r an d dis­ ber o f
tim e
em ­
trict.
plan ts. p lo y ­ hou rs
p er
ees. w e e k .

A v e r­
age
rate
of
w ages
p er
h ou r.

N um ber
A ve r­
age
fuH14
tim e
12
w e e k ­ an d and
u n ­ un­
ly
earn­ der der
14
ings.
16
cts. cts.

o f e m p loy ees earning ea ch classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
dts.

20
25
and a n d
un­ un­
der der
25
30
cts. cts.

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

40
an d
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der an d
70 over.
cts.

1910.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.

8
3
10

5
9
7

13
68
8

29
10
10

18
52
4

9
2

3
8

15

21

21

89

49

74

11

11

.243 15.20
.256 15.43
.286 18.15

13
4

5
10
12

11
7
6

7
78
15

33
6
8

12
45
1

4
6

62.7

.259 15.94

17

27

24 100

47

58

10

104
155
60

61.1
61.7
65.5

.242 14.79
.258 15.69
.299 18.92

17
4

8
2
8

18
13
4

10
77
8

31
21
12

18
36
10

2
6
8

2

<1.......

319

62.2

.260 16.01

21

18

35

95

64

64

16

2

4

8
9
7

90
154
51

62.1 $0.242 $14.98
62.0 ! .282 17.04
65.6 | .302 19.08

2

G .L .a n d M .W .
T o t a l....

24

295

62.6:: .273 16.77

2

Eastern
P ittshn rgh

8
9

G . L .a n d M .W .

8

81
150
62

62.4
61.6
65.8

T o t a l....

25

293

G .L .a n d M .W .

8
9
8

T o t a l____

25

15

2
2 .......

1911.

!
... j

10 - . - - 1
.......

1

10

1912.
Eastern
Pittsburgh

i

i
1
. . . J .......

CH ARGERS AND H ELPERS.

1907.
Eastern t _____
Pittsburgh.

1
6

G. L. and M. W .

5

4
58
42

12

104

E astarn , _____
Pittsburgh

1
6

G . L .a n d M . W .

5

T o t a l........

64.5 $0.176 $11.35
66.6 .172 11.52
64.1 .175 11.10

2

32
16

4
10
16

6
2

4
6

3
2

1

65.5

.173 11.34

2

48

30

8

10

5

1

4
56
42

64.5
66.5
64.5

.183 11.80
.161 10.72
.159 10.23

13

32
26

13
12

4
5
2

3
2

12

102

65.6

.161 10.56

13

58

25

11

5

P itts b u r g h .........
G .L .a n d M . W .

1
6
5

4
57
46

64.5
66.6
65.2

.181 11.67
.159 10.62
.162 10.48

16

21
30

12
8

4
4
4

4
4

T o t a l........

12

107

65.9

.161 10.60

16

51

20

12

8

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

3
9
6

16
105
58

59.9
65.9
65.9

.172 10.30
.193 12.52
.195 12.78

24

10
46
6

6
32
6

19
6

8
16

T o ta l........

18

179

65.3

.192 12.40

24

62

44

25

24

T ota l

____

1908.

1909.
Eastern, __

i
i
i ........
i........

..

**

i

i

|
.........

1910.

i

In clu d in g 1 e m p lo y e e earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts p er hour.

4 4 9 2 9 °— B u l l . 151— 14------- 24




i

!

BULLETIN OE THE . BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS,

370
T

I I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
C H A R G E R S AND H E L P E R S —Concluded.

A v e r­
N um ­
age
ber
fu ll­
N um ­
Y e a r a n d dis­
of
tim e
ber o f
trict.
em ­
hours
plan ts.
p lo y ­ p e r
ees. w e e k .

A v e r­
age
rate
of
wages
per
h ou r.

N um ber
A v e r­
age
fu ll­
tim e
12
14
w e e k ­ a n d and
un ­ on
ly
earn­ der der
14
ings.
16
cts. cts.

o f em p lo y e e s earning each classified rate o f
w ages p e r hou r.

25
16
18 20
an d and and a n d
u n ­ un­ un­ u n ­
der der der der
20 25
18
30
cts. cts. cts. cts.

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

40
an d
un­
der
50
cts.

50
60
an d and 70
u n ­ un­ cts.
der der and
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

1911.
E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G. L . and M. W .

3
9
7

16
105
64

61.7 SO. 173 S10.60
.185 11.98
65.1
65.0 .186 12.11

8
4
30

65
8

4
10
10

4
22
12

4
2

2

T o ta l........

19

185

64.8

.184 11.90

42

73

24

38

6

2

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

3
9
7

15
103
64

61.2
65.5
65.0

.179 10.90
.188 12.20
.203 13.21

5
18

10
65
12

1
11
6

4
10
14

10
14

2

T o t a l........

19

182

65.0

.192 12.45

23

87

18

28

24

2

1912.

D R A G D O W N S.
1907.
3

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h __ _
G . L .a n d M . W .

16
48
22

61.4 $0,213 $13.19
67.6 .265 17.77
59.7 .325 19.31

4
5

4

10

8
11

4
4
6

6
14

4
2

4

3

T o ta l........

11

86

64.4

.271 17.31

9

4

10

19

14

20

6

4

E a s te rn ________
P itts b u rg h .
G . L .a n d M . W .

3
5
3

20
43
19

59.2
68.0
59.6

.204 12.24
.225 15.11
.339 20.19

110

4
6

4
4

2
3

6
5
4

4
7
2

4
11

4
2

T o ta l........

11

82

63.9

.246 15.58

110

10

8

5

15

13

15

6

5

1908.

.

1909.
E a s te r n ,
P ittsb u rg h
G . L .a n d M . W .

3
5
3

20
44
19

59.2
68.1
59.6

.215 12.85
.250 16.78
.288 17.19

2
14

2
4

4
1

6
4
4

6
7
7

10
8

4

T o ta l........

11

83

64.0

.250 15.93

16

6

5

14

20

18

4

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G. L . an d M. W .

7
8
4

35
76
21

61.1
68.2
60.4

.224 13.78
.270 18.25
.343 20.61

2
4

4
4

2
18

20
14

6
18
3

1
14
14

4

T o ta l........

19

132

65.1

.269 17.44

6

8

20

34

27

29

4

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G. L . and M. W .

7
8
5

32
70
25

61.6
67.7
60.0

.238 14.76
.246 16.52
.335 20.10

4

2
4

8

5

15
27
2

14
15

8

1
3
11

4

T o t a l....

20

127

64.7

.262 16.78

4

6

5

44

37

15

4

E a s te r n ...............
P itts b u r g h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

7
8
5

33
72
25

60.9
67.4
60.0

.241 14.77
.229 15.34
.338 20.17

2

20

io

17
14

10
12
5

2
10
16

4
4

T o ta l........

20

130

64.3

.253 16.12

2

20

10

31

27

28

8

1910.
___4
. 4

1911.

8

.... 4
...4

1913.
4

4

i In c lu d in g 2 em p lo y e e s earning 10 a n d u n d e r 12 cen ts p e r h o u r.




•

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

371

T a b l e I I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BAR MILLS— Continued.
R O L L EN GIN EERS.

N um ber
N um ­
Y e a r a n d dis­
of
b er o f
trict.
em ­
p lan ts.
p lo y ­
ees.

A ve r­
age
fu ll­
tim e
hours
p er
w eek.

A v e rage
rate
of
w ages
per
hou r.

N um ber
A ver­
age
full­
tim e
14
12
w e e k ­ a n d and
un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der
14
ings.
16
cts. cts.

o f em p loyees earning ea ch classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1
2
2

23
10

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts.

6
10

40
an d
un­
der
50
cts.

50
60
a n d and 70
u n ­ u n ­ cts .
der der a n d
60
70 over.
cts. cts.

1907.
E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

2
6
5

5
31
22

72.0 $0.171 $12.33
73.8 .224 16.58
.239 16.80
7 0.3

4

T o ta l........

13

58

72.3

.226 16.29

4

5

33

16

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

2
6
5

6
30
20

70.0
71.6
71.6

.174 12.15
.223 16.02
.231 16.46

4

2
2
2

23
12

5
6

T o ta l........

13

56

71.4

.221 15.76

4

6

35

11

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L .a n a M . W .

2
6
5

6
30
20

70.0
71.8
71.6

.168 11.72
.217 15.65
.231 16.46

4

2
8
2

18
12

4
6

T o t a l ____

13

56

71.5

.217 15.52

4

12

30

10

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L . an d M . W .

6
10
6

19
58
22

71.6
72.1
72.1

.205 14.69
.232 16.76
.240 17.22

4

4
4
2

7
42
10

4
12
10

T o ta l........

22

99

72.0

.229 16.46

4

10

59

26

E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u rg h .
G. L . an d M . W .

6
10
6

17
56
22

69.0
70.2
71.8

.197 13.61
.231 16.29
.244 17.41

6

2
4
2

7
39
13

2
13
7

T o ta l........

22

95

70.4

.228 16.07

6

8

59

22

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G. L . a n a M . W .

6
10
6

18
57
22

66.7
70.3
72.1

.201 13.43
.231 16.30
.244 17.53

5

2
4
2

9
41
13

2
12
7

T o ta l........

22

97

70.0

.229 16.05

5

8

63

21

1908.

1909.

1910.

1911.

1912.

R O L L E R S : 8-IN C H .
1907.
E astern ...............
P it t s b u r g h ..
G . L .a n d M . W .

1
4
2

2
10
4

T o ta l........

7

16

62.5 1.089 68.27

E a s te r n ..
P itts b u rg h .
G. L .a n d M . W .

1
4
2

2
10
4

59.3 .650 38.51
63.7 1.071 67.79
61.5 .877 54.80

T o ta l........

7

16

62.6

2

59.3 $0,650 $38.51
63.7 1.201 76.54
61.0 1.028 62.45

"*i

9
3

3

12

1
1

1908.




.970 60.88

2
1
" *2

1
1

1

8
2

4

10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

372
T

I I , — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
R O L L E R S : 8 - I N C H — C o n c lu d e d .

N um ber
A verA v e r­ A v e r ­
N um ­
age
age
ber
full­ rate
N um ­
14
Y e a r an d dis­
tim e
12
oi
tim e
b er o f
of
trict.
em ­
w e e k ­ an d and
plan ts.
hours w ages
un­ un­
p lo y ­
ly
p er
per
ees.
earn­ der der
w e e k . h ou r.
14
16
ings.
cts. cts.

X

o f em p lo y e e s earning ea ch classified rate of
w ages p e r h ou r.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
an d
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
d er
50
cts .

50
and
un­
d er
60
cts .

60
and 70
u n ­ cts .
der an d
70 o ve r.
cts.

1909.
E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .
G. L .a n a M . W .

1
4
2

2
10
4

59.3 $0,755 $44.73
63.5 1.114 70.33
61.5
.664 43.06

1

1
1

1
1

2
8
1

T o ta l........

7

16

62.5

1

2

2

11

E astern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

3
6
2

4
20
4

55.8 .744 41.90
59.2 1.055 63.37
61.5
.706 45.23 ........

3
2

3

3
1
1

1
13
1

T o ta l........

11

28

59.0

.961 57.71

5

3

5

15

E astern ...............
P itts b u rg h ........
G. L . ana M. W .

3
6
2

5
20
4

54.8 .654 36.20
58.1 1.028 60.82
61.5
.783 49.40

2

2
3

2
2
3

1
13
1

T o ta l........

11

29

58.0

.929 55.00

2

5

7

15

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G. L .a n d M . W .

3
6
2

2
0

5

54.8
58.1
61.5

.724 40.29
.964 57.36
.706 45.70

4

2
2

4

1

*i
2

3
13
1

T o ta l........

11

29

58.0

.887 52.81

1

4

4

3

17

.956 60.31

1910.

1911.

1912.




R O L L E R S : 9 -IN C H .

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,

373

T a b l e I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B A R M IL L S — Continued.
R O L L E R S : 9 - I N C H — C o n clu d e d .

A ver- A v e rN um age
age
ber
M irate
Y e a r a n d dis­ N u m ­
of
tim e
ber o f
of
trict.
em ­
plan ts.
hou rs w ages
p lo y ­
per
per
ees.
w e e k . hou r.

N um ber
A v e r­
age
full­
12
tim e
14
w e e k ­ a n d and
u n ­ un­
ly
earn­ der der
14
ings.
16
cts . cts.

o f em p loyees earning ea ch classified rate o f
w ages p e r h o u r.

16
an d
un­
der
18
cts .

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
d er
30
cts .

30
an d
un­
der
40
cts .

40
an d
un­
der
50
cts .

50
an d
un­
der
60
cts .

60
and 70
u n ­ cts .
der an d
70 over.
cts.

1911.
E a s te rn ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G. L . ana M. W .

2
6
3

4
11
7

61.5 $0,643 $39.44
61.5
.789 49.45
67.8
.984 66.56

1

2

1
1

1
1
2

2
6
5

T o ta l........

11

22

63.5

.825 53.07

1

2

2

4

13

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........
G . L .a n d M . W .

2
6
3

5
11
7

61.2
61.0
67.8

.634 38.71
.845 52.22
.874 59.05

2
2

2
2

3
7
5

T o ta l........

11

23

63.1

.808 51.36

4

4

15

1912.

R O L L E R S : 1 0 -IN C H .

1907.
E astern ...............
P itts b u rg h ........

1
4

2
10

59.3 $0.650 $38.51
68.9 1.207 83.51

2

T o t a l____

5

12

67.3 1.114 76.01

2

10

1

10

1908.
E a s tern ...............

Pittsburgh____

4

2
10

59.3
.650 38.51
68.9 1.039 71.56

2
1

9

T o t a l....

5

12

67.3

3

9

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........

1
4

2
10

59.3 1.024 60.67
68.6 1.110 75.92

1

T o t a l....

5

12

67.0 1.095 73.38

1

E a s tern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........

1
6

4
14

52.5
.750 39.38
68.6 1.160 79.23

T o t a l....

7

18

65.0 1.069 70.38

E astern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........

1
6

4
14

48.8
67.8

.862 42.01
.997 67.50

1

1

i

T o t a l....

7

18

63.6

.967 56.28

1

1

1

E astern ...............
P itts b u rg h .........

1
6

4
14

48.8 .945 46.04
67.8 1.101 74.44

1

4
13

T o t a l____

7

18

63.6 1.066 68.13

1

17

.974 66.06

1909.
2
9
ii

1910.
1
1

........ I.........

4
13
17

1911.

1

4
11
15

1912.




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

374
T

I I .—A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y .
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BAR MILLS—Continued.
R O L L E R S : 1 2 -IN C H .

Aver- Average
age
ber
full­ rate
Year and dis­ N um ­
of
of
ber o f em­ time
trict.
plants. p loy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Average
full­
time
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
20 25
cts. cts.

50 60
25
30
40
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.

Eastern___
Pittsburgh........
G .L . and M .W .

1

2

3
3

6

T o t a l . ...

7

15

7

64.5 $1,056 $68.11
68.7 .795 55.27
68.7 .971 67.03

2

1
1

4
5

68.1

2

2

11

.900 61.69

2

1908.

1

2
6

64.5 1.071 69.08
71.0 .608 43.05
70.8 .924 65.33

1

2

2

2
1

69.9

.801 55.63

1

2

2

8

2 64.5
6 70.7

Eastern___
P ittsburgh.___
G. L .a n d M . W .

3
3

5

T o t a l....

7

13

5

1909.

1

Eastern___
Pittsburgh.
G .L .a n d M .W .

3
3

T o t a l . ...

2

70.8

.934 60.24
.755 53.19
.967 68.50

2

5

1
1

3
4

7

13

69.8

.864 60.16

2

2

9

Eastern___
Pittsburgh.
G. L .a n d M . W .

4

7
15
5

60.4
64.1
70.8

.858 52.39
.831 53.87
.972 68.84

i

3

T o t a l . ...

13

27

64.4

.864 56.26

1

4

6
13
5

63.0
63.5
70.8

.883 55.61
.781 49.35
.963 68.22

4

3
13

24

64.9

.844 54.85

Eastern...........
Pittsburgh___
G. L .a n d M . W .

4
3

7
14
5

61.1 1.036 63.46
63.6 .687 44.14
70.8 .947 67.06

T ota l. . . .

13

26

64.3

1910.

6

2

5

10

1

3

1

6

19

2
“ i

4
9
4

4

3

17

1

5

i
l

7
7
4

1

5

2

18

1

4

1911.

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .
T o t a l ...

6

1912.

6

.831 53.75

R O L L E R S : 1 3 -IN C H , 1 4 -IN C H , A N D 1 5 -I N C H .

1910.

P ittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .

2
1

2

5

57.6 $0,978 $55.33
68.0 .476 32.37

2

T o t a l....

3

7

60.6

.835 48.77

2

Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M . W .

2
1

2

5

57.6

68.0

.761 43.06
.462 31.42

2

T otal___

3

7

60.6

.676 39.73

5
5

1911.




4
.

1 .

2

1

4

1

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BAR MILLS.

375

T able I I .— AVERAGE

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.
B A R M IL L S — Continued.
R O L L E R S : 1 3 -I N C H , 1 4 -I N C H , A N D 1 5 -I N C H —Concluded.

Aver- Aver?
N um - age
age
ber
N um ­
full­ rate
Year and dis­ ber of
of
time
of
em­
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
fifiltime 12 14 16
40
50
18 20 25
30
60
week­ and and and- and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
60
50
70 over.
16 18 20 25 30
ings. 14
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1912.
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .

2
1

2

5

57.6 $0.772 $44.02
68.0 .549 37.33

2

T otal___

3

7

60.6

.709 42.11

2

3

2

3

2

R O L L E R S : 1 6 -IN C H
1907.

2
2

4
3

61.0 $0.726 $44.52
66.3 1.126 76.23

2
1

2
2

4

7

63.3

.897 58.11

3

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

2
2

4
3

61.0 .750 46.10
66.3 1.025 69.20

2
1

2
2

T otal___

4

7

63.3

.868 56.00

3

4

2
2

4
3

61.0 .711 43.78
66.3 1.037 69.41

2

4

7

63.3

.850 54.77

2

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

2

5

6

60.3 .718 43.77
64.5 1.249 81.09

1

2

3

2
6

T o t a l . ...

5

11

62.6 1.007 64.13

1

2

8

2

66.8 1.415 95.87

Eastern..
Pittsburgh

.

T o t a l . ...
1908.

1909.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh .. .
Total___

2
3
5

1910.

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .

3

1

4
4
4

Total.......

6

Eastern___ ____
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

2

Total.......

61.0

2

.746 45.84

2
4

60.5

.625 36.85

2

12

62.8

.929 59.52

2

1

3
5
4

59.8
65.4
60.5

6

12

62.4

2
2

8

.673 40.35
.954 63.50
.745 44.41

2
2
2

3

.814 51.35

6

6

1912.
3

1
2

R O L L E R S : 1 8 -IN C H
1907.
Eastern.............
G. L . and M .W .

1
1

1
2

57.5 $0,932 $53.59
62.8 .947 60.29

1

1
1

T o t a l . ...

2

3

61.0

.942 58.06

1

2




376
T

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— C on tin u ed .

able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
R O L L E R S : 1 8 -I N C H —Concluded.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num ­
Num­ ber
of
ber of
em­
plants.
p loy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time . o f.
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time 12 14 16
30
40
18 20 25
50
60 1
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14
40
50
60
16 18 20 25 30
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1908.
Eastern..............
G. L. and M. W .

1
1

2
2

53.8 $0,783 $42.06
62.8 .585 37.27

1

2
1

Total___

2

4

58.3

.684 39.66

1!

3

Eastern..............
G. L .a n d M . W .

1
1

2
2

53.8
62.8

.844 45.34
.663 42.24

‘ T o t a l . ...

2

4

58.3

.753 43.79

7

1909.
-

1

2
1

1

3

1910.
Eastern..............
G. L .a n d M . W .

1

2

60.2
62.8

.624 36.72
,826 51.83

2

T o t a l . ...

5

9

60.8

.669 40.08

2

Eastern..............
G. L .a n d M . W .

4

1

6
2

59.4 .654 38.44
62.8 1.122 71.44

2

T otal___

5

8

60.3

.771 46.69|........

2

7

4

2

3

2
2....

5

1911.
4

2
6

1912.
Eastern..............
G. L. and M. W .

4

1

2

58.1
62.8

.703 40.70
.921 58.98

1

T otal___

5

9

59.1

.751 44.76 ........
i

1

3

4

3

5

1

R O L L E R S : A L L S IZ E S .
1907.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M. W .

3

11

6

34

4

20

60.7 $0,777 $47.45
66.9 1.097 73.79
65.6 .999 65.83

4

6
2

1

5

5
28
14

T otal___

13

65

65.5 1.013 66.88

5

13

47

1908.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M . W .

3

12

6

59.8
67.3
66.7

.776 46.73
.929 62.20
.853 57.38

2
1

6

33
18

1

5

4

4
4

6
21

T otal___

13

63

65.7

.878 57.88

3

1

5

14

40

3

1

3
4

25

3

1

5

5

7

45

13

1909.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

3

12

6
4

33
18

59.8 .830 49.76
66.9 1.014 67.51
66.7 .799 54.44

T otal___

13

63

65.5




.917 60.40

2
1

2

10
10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS,

377

T able I I . —A V E R A G E

F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

BAR MILLS— Continued.
R O L L E R S : A L L S IZ E S —Concluded.

Aver­
N um ­
age
ber
Num ­
full­
Year and dis­ ber of
of
time
em­
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
30
40
50
time 12 14 16
18 20 25
60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
50
60
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910.
Eastern.............

7

10

32
72

58.6 $0.748 $42.74
62.9 1.048 66.52
66.8 .785 53.08

2
1

4
4

3
5

9
7
6

18
55

22

83

G. L. and M. W .

5

20

T o t a l . ...

22

124

62.4

.928 58.21

3

8

8

7

1

2
5
4

3
9

1

11

4

1

10

1911.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

10
6

29
67
24

58.4
62.2
65.8

.741 43.26
.937 58.89
.854 56.57

T otal___

23

120

62.0

.873 54.65

7

10
6

31
69
24

57.7
62.1
65.8

.799 46.11
.902 56.80
.817 54.24

23

124

61.7

.860 53.63

7

8
6

17
44
14

12

21

75

4

5
9
7

22

10
2

5

16

21

80

i4

8

5
3

4
3

22

8

7

i........

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
T otal___

1
1
1
........

11
1

1

R O U G H E R S :: 8 -IN C H .
1907.
E astern............
Pittsburgh____
G. L .a n d M . W .

1

6

4

24
14

59.3 $0.250 $14.81
65.7 .418 27.-64
54.3 .423 22.95

6
1

2

T o t a l.__

7

44

61.2

.397 24.40

7

1
Eastern.............. 59.3
6
4
24 65.7
Pittsburgh........
2
14 54.3
G. L .a n d M . W .

.250 14.81
.376 24.67
.422 22.88

8j

3

13
14

3

27

14
14

9

1

28

9

1

4

3
7

15

1908.

44

61.2

.373 22.76

14 l
j

1
Eastern..............
6
4
24
Pittsburgh........
2
G. L .a n d M . W .
14

59.3
65.4
54.3

.290 17.18
.396 25.86
.338 18.33

j

T otal___

7

6
^

1909.

7

44

61.0

.363 22.28

6

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .

3

6
2

10
60
14

56.5
58.4
54.3

.346 19.59
.373 22.23
.362 19.65

6

3
24

T otal____

11

84

57.5

.368 21.49

6

27 i

T otal___
1910.




I
I

8
1 14
26

1
10

. lfil1

45
13

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

378
T

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

BAR MILLS— Continued.
R O U G H E R S : 8 -I N C H —Concluded.

N um ­
ber
N um ­
of
Year and dis­ ber of
em­
trict.
plants. p loy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
horns
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
time 12 14 16
18 20 25
30
40
50
60
w eek­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40
60
70 over.
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1911.
___
Eastern
Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M .W .

13
54
14

55.7 $0,292 $16.24
56.5 .362 20.81
54.3 .342 18.54

6

6
2

T otal____

11

81

56.0

.347 19.68

13
54

3

4

3

11

29
14

10

4

6

15

43

13

4

8
14

2
21

1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh____
G. L .a n d M .W .

6
2

55.7
56.5
54.3

.322 17.96
.334 19.19
.359 19.47

6

12

T o t a l.. . .

11

79

56.0

.336 19.03

6

3

6

3

12
6

1
1

28

23

21

R O U G H E R S : 9 -I N C H .
1907.
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
4

14
44

66.3 $0,357 $23.65
53.1 .630 31.94

3

7
6

4
8

8 ....

22

T o t a l . ...

7

58

56.3

.564 29.94

3

13

12

8 ....

22

Pittsburgh........
G. L . and M .W .

3
4

13
41

66.2
58.6

.297 19.70
.422 24.45

6

7
13

20

8

T o t a l.. . .

7

54

60.4

.392 23.30

6

20

20

8

Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
4

13
41

65.9
53.6

.339 22.29
.449 23.49

9
12

4
12

17

T o t a l . ...

7

54

56.5

.422 23.20

9

12

16

17

Eastsm .............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
6
4

12
34
42

59.2
63.9
53.4

.372 22.08
.412 26.14
.500 26.36

4
12

2
4

6
16
16

6
16

6

T o t a l . ...

12

88

58.2

.449 25.69

16

6

38

22

6

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
6
4

12
31
40

59.0
62.4
53.1

.286 16.87
.381 23.90
.479 25.94

8
6

4
13
12

12
12

12

4

T o t a l . ...

12

83

57.4

.414 23.87

14

29

24

12

4

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
6
4

15
29
40

58.2
62.2
53.1

.283 16.45
.397 24.60
.505 26.75

9
8

6
5
3

10
12

6
17

8

T o t a l.. . .

12

84

57.2

.429 24.17

17

14

22

23

8

1908.

1909.

1910.

1911.

1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.
T

379

I I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y
D IS T R IC T S , 1907 T O 1912— Continued.

able

B A R M IL L S — Continued.
ROUGHERS: 10-IN CH .

Aver­
N um ­
age
ber full­
Num ­
Year and dis­ ber of
of
time
em­
trict.
plants. p loy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­
rate time
of w eek­
wages
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

and
un­
der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
30
40
50 60
and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der der and
30
40
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1907.

T o t a l....

1

8
25

59.3 $0,225 $13.33
66.1 .510 34.16

8

4

Eastern..