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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BU REA U O F LABOR S T A T I S T I C S /
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

‘

LABOR

/WHOLE ^ I Q
" \ NUMBER £ 1 0
S E R IE S:

No.

25

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
IN THE I RON AND STEEL
I N D U S T R Y : 1907 TO 1915




WITH A GLOSSARY
OF OCCUPATIONS

OCTOBER, 1917

WASHINGTON
GO V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFIC E
1917




A D D IT IO N A L COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING- OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

35 CENTS P E R COPY

A

CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction and summary...........................................................................................
7-26
Condition monthly, July, 1913, to June, 1915..................................................
8,9
Changes in employment and earnings in 1915 and 1916...............................
10-14
Index numbers, by departments.........................................................................
14-17
Full-time working days per w eek........................................................................
17-20
Full-time working hours per w eek......................................................................
21-24
Common laborers......................................................................................................
24-26
Volume of employment, July, 1913, to June, 1915..................................................
26-55
Full-time force..........................................................................................................
28
Turns and pay-roll totals.......................................................................................
29-55
Scope and method............................................................................................................
55-59
Proportion of total iron and steel equipment of the United States included
in this report..................................................................................................................
59-62
Explanation of the data presented..............................................................................
62-67
Method of computing averages.............................................................................
64
Reasons for taking 1915 as base year...................................................................
64, 65
Method of computing relative numbers.............................................................
65-67
Previous reports................................................................................................................
67
Blast furnaces............................................................................................................... 68-109
Su mmary....................................................................................................................
68-83
Index numbers.................................................................................................
75-80
Full-time working days per week................................................................
80-83
Table A.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1915.. 1 84-93
Table B .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time Weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.............. 94-109
Bessemer converters........................................................................................................ 110-147
Summary.................................................................................................................... 110-124
Index numbers................................................................................................. 117-122
Full-time working days per week................................................................122-124
Table C.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
tim e weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1 9 1 5 ... 126-135
Table D .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in each district, b y years, 1913 to 1915.............. 136-147
Open-hearth furnaces...................................................................................................... 148-181
Summary.................................................................................................................... 148-159
Index numbers................................................................................................. 152-155
Full-time working days per w eek................................................................ 156-159
Table E .—Full-time hours per week, rates of Wages per hour, and full­
tim e weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1 9 1 5 ... 160-165
Table F .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time Weekly earnings, in each district, b y years, 1913 to 1915.............. 166-181
Puddling m ills................................................................................................................. 182-203
Summary.................................................................................................................... 182-187
Index numbers................................................................................................. 185,186
Full-time working days per week................................................................ 186,187




3

4

CONTENTS.

Puddling mills—Concluded.
Page.
Table G.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1914 and 1 9 1 5 ... 188-191
Table H .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time w eekly earnings, in each district, b y years, 1914 and 1915............ 192-203
Blooming m ills.................................................................................................................. 204-231
Summary.................................................................................................................... 204-213
Index numbers.................................................................................................. 208-211
Full-time working days per w e e k .............................................................. 211-213
Table I .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time w eekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1 9 1 5 ... 214-219
Table J.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in each district, b y years, 1913 to 1915.............. 220-231
Plate m ills.......................................................................................................................... 232-263
Summary.................................................................................................................... 232-243
Index numbers................................................................................................. 237- 240
Full-time working days per week................................................................ 241-243
Table K .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1915---- 244-251
Table L.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in each district, b y years, 1913 to 1915............... 252-263
Standard rail m ills........................................................................................................... 264-301
Summary.................................................................................................................... 264-277
Index numbers................................................................................................. 270-274
Full-time working days per w eek................................................................ 275-277
Table M.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
tim e w eekly earnings, in the United States, b y years, 1910 to 1 9 1 5 ... 278-287
Table N .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time Weekly earnings, in each district, b y years, 1913 to 1915.............. 288-301
Bar m ills............................................................................................................................. 302-405
Summary.................................................................................................................... 302-319
Earnings of rolling crews................................................................................
309
Index numbers................................................................................................. 310-314
Full-time working days per w eek................................................................315-319
Table O.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1 9 1 5 ... 320-351
Table P .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.............. 352-405
Sheet m ills......................................................................................................................... 406-435
Summary.................................................................................................................. .. 406-419
Index numbers................................................................................................. 410-414
Full-time working days per w eek................................................................ 414-419
Table Q.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1 9 1 5 ... 420-425
Table It.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
tim e weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.............. 426-435
Tin-plate m ills................................................................................................................... 436-465
Summary........................................................................................ ............................ 436-447
Index numbers.................................................................................................. 441-445
Full-time working days per week................................................................ 445-447
Table S.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1 9 1 5 ... 448-455
Table T .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.............. 456-465




CONTENTS.

5
Page.

Glossary of occupations................................................................................................... 467-526
Blast furnaces............................................................................................................ 467-475
Bessemer converters................................................................................................. 475-481
Open hearth furnaces.............................................................................................. 481-484
Puddling m ills........................................................................................................... 484r-486
Crucible furnaces...................................................................................................... 487-489
Blooming m ills.......................................................................................................... 489-493
Plate m ills.................................................................................................................. 494-497
Standard rail m ills................................................................................................... 498-501
Bar m ills..................................................................................................................... 501-506
Rod m ills.................................................................................................................... 506-508
Wire m ills................................................................................................................... 508-510
Tube m ills.................................................................................................................. 510-519
Sheet m ills................................................................................................................. 519-523
Tin and tem e plate m ills....................................................................................... 523-526







BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
W O E N . 218.
HL O

WASHINGTON.

O T B R 11
C O E , 97

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE IRON AND
STEEL INDUSTRY, 1 9 0 7 TO 1915.
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
Rates of wages or earnings per hour, full-time hours per week, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1913, 1914, and 1915 are presented in
this report for 10 departments of the iron and steel industry in the
United States, together with similar statistics for 1907 to 1912,
repeated from Bulletins 151 and 168.
These statistics may be taken as fully representative of general
conditions in the industry ,1 as they are based on reports from plants
whose total tonnage capacity, in each department covered, is from
35 to 63 per cent of the total tonnage capacity of all plants in the
United States.
The increases in rates of pay to both tonnage workers and time
workers, which were general in this industry during the early part
of 1913, were not affected by the period of depression extending
from the summer of 1913 to the summer of 1915, b u t the earnings
per hour of tonnage workers, and consequently their earnings per
week, were materially decreased thereby, owing to the gradual
slowing up which is almost unavoidable when a plant has little work
ahead. This decrease in the earnings of tonnage workers reduced
the combined full-time weekly earnings of tonnage workers and time
workers in May, 1915, as compared with May, 1913, in blast-furnace
plants 4 per cent, in Bessemer plants 10 per cent, in open-hearth
plants 1 per cent, in blooming mills 5 per cent, in standard rail mills
3 per cent, in bar mills 4 per cent, and in sheet mills 5 per cent. The
weekly earnings in plate mills were the same in 1915 as in 1913, while
in tin-plate mills they were 3 per cent higher in 1915 than in 1913.
In May, 1915, as compared with May, 1914, full-time weekly
earnings had increased from 1 to 5 per cent in Bessemer plants, openhearth plants, plate mills, bar mills, and tin-plate mills; they were
1 The figures of the general tables of this report end w ith May, 1915, and therefore do not show the phe­
nomenal increase in rates and earnings during 1916 which are indicated by the data published on pages
10 to 14.




7

8

W A G E S AND HOURS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

unchanged in blast-furnace plants and blooming mills, and had
decreased from 2 to 7 per cent in puddling mills, standard rail mills,
and sheet mills.
Full-time weekly earnings in May, 1915, were from 4 to 8 per cent
higher than in May, 1907, in the three departments for which reports
are made for nine years (blast furnace, Bessemer converting, and
bar mill); and in all departments, excluding puddling mills, they
were from 2 to 22 per cent higher than in May, 1910. These increases
in full-time weekly earnings represent an even greater increase in
average earnings per hour, as the average full-time hours per week
had decreased in 1915 from 2 to 6 per cent as compared with 1907
in three departments, and from 1 to 6 per cent as compared with 1910
in seven departments. The hours in plate mills and tin-plate mills
were the same in 1915 as in 1910. The facts above quoted are
drawn from the tables of index numbers, pages 15 and 16.
Statistics are presented in this report for employees in—
Blast furnaces, 1907-1915.
Bessemer converters, 1907-1915.
Open-hearth furnaces, 1910-1915.
Puddling mills, 1914, 1915.
Blooming mills, 1910-1915.
Plate mills, 1910-1915.
Standard-rail mills, 1910-1915.
Bar mills, 1907-1915.
Sheet mills, 1910-1915.
Tin-plate mills, 1910-1915.
These statistics are based on actual pay-roll "data for one pay-roll
period in each year, in most cases the second half of May, b u t in
a few instances, when conditions in May were not representative
of the year, reports were taken for a normal period as near May as
available.
CONDITION MONTHLY, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915.

The depressed condition existing in the several departments of
the industry from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is very clearly depicted
in the table given on page 9, in which index numbers show for each
month of such period the per cent th a t the pay roll was of the esti­
mated pay roll for full time and the per cent of the customary full­
time turns th a t actually were worked.
The index numbers are computed from the figures in Table 10 ,
where such basic figures are fully explained. The method of comput­
ing these index numbers is explained on pages 65 to 67. Referring
to the table, the figures for blast furnaces for July, 1913, show th a t
the aggregate pay roll in th a t month was 84 per cent of the estimated
average monthly pay roll had the full equipment of all plants been
running full time. The next column shows th a t 85 per cent of the
customary turns of th a t particular month, July, actually were worked.




9

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
T a b l e 1.—IN D E X N U M B E R S—VOLUM E OF EM PLOYM ENT, JU LY, 1913, TO JU N E , 1915.

[Per cent pay roll was of estimated pay roll for full customary time as computed from actual pay rolls for
broken time. Per cent turns actually worked were of full-time customary turns in tlie same month.]
Blast furnaces.

Bessemer con­
verters.

Open-hearth
furnaces.

Puddling mills.

Blooming
mills. "

Year and month.
Pay
roll.

Turns.

Pay
roll.

Turns.

Pay
roll.

Turns.

Pay
roll.

Turns.

Pay
roll.

Turns.

1913.
July..............................
August.........................
September..................

84
84
82

85
84
81

129
131
123

96
98
98

85
88
85

82
83
82

42
58
67

36
49
58

101
100
97

95
97
95

October.......................
Novem ber................
December...................

81
73
67

78
71
59

116
86
68

99
88
62

84
71
60

77
72
59

74
58
56

61
55
54

96
79
67

93
81
66

1914.
January.......................
February....................
March... ...................

66
62
71

58
69

' 81
95
98

73
96
94

66
70
81

65
75
78

61
67
78

56
71
76

74
81
91

74
88
89

April............................
May..............................
June.............................

66
67
61

68
63
58

82
67
71

86
76
78

76
72
73

76
73
73

70
60
58

70
61
58

81
73
77

80
70
76

July..............................
August........................
September..................

61
62
60

61
62
59

77
73
69

83
79
80

72
76
70

74
75
71

44
57
50

46
62
51

79
81
72

77
82
74

October.......................
November...................
December...................

56
49
47

55
50
45

65
47
51

73
57
58

60
49
50

59
47
51

42
39
41

39
41
40

66
52
58

67
54
58

1915.
January.......................
February....................
March..........................

48
47
55

47
56
60

65
73
80

71
83
84

56
56
71

54
60
71

53
52
62

58
61
67

66
65
80

64
71
81

April............................
May..............................
June.............................

55
59
61

‘ 63
65
70

75
81
85

86
93
95

71
77
79

75
81
82

55
49
59

61
56
65

82
88
88

84
88
88

Plate mills.
Year and month.
Pay
roll.

Turns.

Standard rail
mills.
Pay
roll.

Turns.

Bar mills.
Pay
roll.

Sheet mills.

Turns.

Pay
roll.

Turns.

Tin-plate m ills.
Pay
roll.

Turns.

1913.
July..............................
August........................
September..................

79
82
79

80
78
74

I ll
116
108

94
99
97

79
84
87

74
84
87

69
76
71

73
79
75

70
74
81

67
74
85

October.......................
Novem ber..................
December...................

84
69
66

75
64
61

100
74
63

91
75
58

87
68
59

79
71
61

77
62
56

77
68
55

85
66
67

80
69
62

1914.
January.......................
February....................
March...........................

61
67
64

54
73
63

53
62
71

46
67
69

63
67
71

64
73
69

72
72
79

65
77
80

82
83
95

78
85
91

April............................
Mav..............................
~ j ..............................
June.............................

67
59
63

68
58
64

75
77
72

77
82
72

63
55
59

64
55
59

80
61
63

80
66
67

91
85
84

87
86
87

July..............................
August........................
September..................

62
59
55

63
59
58

75
62
61

80
61
66

64
65
62

62
65
63

66
78
82

63
81
82

67
71
82

04
73
86

October.......................
Novem ber..................
December...................

42
37
35

39
38
35

54
38
43

56
44
43

55
44
47

53
43
47

71
50
50

68
50
45

66
45
48

66
47
48

1915.
January.......................
February....................
March..........................

40
58
67

44
66
64

38
44
55

43
57
57

54
54
61

53
57
57

60
64
79

57
66
70

66
75
81

68
79
75

A pril............................
May..............................
June.............................

57
65
74

61
68
80

56
75
79

60
85
83

63
63
68

63
64
69

71
61
66

72
59
62

83
77
78

85
80
81




10

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.
CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT AND EABNINGS IN 1915 AND 1916.

The iron and steel industry was at the lowest ebb during the winter
of 1914-15. An improvement in general conditions began in the
late winter and continued quite steadily, m onth by month, until
February, 1916, when the increased activities had assumed such
proportions as to fully w arrant the remarkable series of increases in
rates of pay which has continued to the present time (December,
1916).1
The general tables of this report speak for one specific period in
each year—the month of May—and therefore do not in any way
reflect month to month changes; moreover, as the last figures of these
tables are for May, 1915, the unusual increases in rates of pay referred
to above are not suggested. However, the figures of Table 1
show the increasing activity in the several departments from the
winter of 1914-15 to June, 1915, and the following tables, com­
piled from the issues of the M o n t h l y R e v i e w of this bureau, show
the great increase in employment in the industry as a whole from Jan ­
uary, 1915, to December, 1916. The phenomenal increases in rates
made during 1916 are shown in the text statements below, which also
are taken from issues of the M o n t h l y R e v i e w .
The plants furnishing information for the M o n t h l y R e v i e w on
volume of employment are the same ones which furnished wages data
published in the general tables of this report, b u t the figures in the
monthly report cover entire establishments and are not limited
to the 10 departments discussed in this report.
Table 2 , below, shows the total number of employees on the
half-monthly pay roll ending nearest the 15th of each m onth and
the total amount of such pay roll in identical establishments report­
ing for the same m onth in 1915 and 1916, and also the per cent of
increase in employees and pay-roll total in each m onth of 1916 as
compared with the same m onth in 1915. Comparisons can not be
made between succeeding months in this table because of changes in
the number of establishments reporting.
The report for May, 1916, from 102 establishments shows 31.7 per
cent more employees on the pay roll than in May, 1915, and an
increase of 69.2 per cent in the amount of the pay roll, there being
an increase in earnings of 28.5 per cent per capita in the 12
months.
In Table 3 is shown the number of employees a t work on the
last full-time day of each pay period reported and the per cent of
increase on the stated day in each m onth of 1916 as compared with
th a t day in the same m onth of 1915. Although some establishments
did not furnish data for this table the per cent of increase in
employees corresponds very closely with that in Tabfe 2 .
i Later uneompiled data show other increases in rates of pay up to October, 1917.




11

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
T able

2 .— COM PARISON

OF EM PLOYM ENT, AS SH O W N B Y F IG U R E S
MONTH PA Y PE R IO D S, 1915 A N I) 1916.

Number
of estab­
lishments
reporting.

Month.

January.....................
February...................
March.........................
A pril...........................
May.............................
June.................. ........
Ju ly.............................
A ugust.......................
Septem ber................
October......................
November.................
D ecember..................

86
93
103
96
102
94
98
98
100
92
97
95

Number of employees
on one-half month
pay roll in—
1915

1916

100,792
94,200
105,190
107,099
118,545
106,911
125,613
130,696
140,545
130,071
128,091
132,951

Per cent
of in ­
crease in
1916.

135,831
134,920
143,318
139.920
156;126
137,524
159,676
163,783
173,533
154,418
154,496
162,709

Amount of one-half month
pay roll in—

1915
34.8
43.2
36.2
30.6
31.7
28.6
27.1
25.3
23.5
18.7
20.6
22.4

T a b l e 3.—COM PARISON OF EM PLO Y M EN T, B Y LAST

FO R H A L F­

$2,625,977
2,737,536
3,-223,996
3,312,324
3,572,210
3,396,861
3,597,452
4,076,274
4,435,177
4,226,304
4,313,773
4,597,075

Per cent
of in­
crease in
1916.

1916
$4,257,314
4,737,278
5,167,920
5,052,726
6,043,820
5,338,785
5,378,285
6,125,481
6,669,870
6,283,242
6,065,891
6,554,472

62.1
73.0
60.3
52.5
69.2
57.2
49.5
50.3
50.4
48.7
40.6
42.6

D A Y OF PA Y PE R IO D S, IN 1915

A N D 1916.

Month.

January.......................
February....................
March..........................
A pril............................
M ay.............................
June.............................
J u ly .............................
A ugust........................
Septem ber.................
October.......................
Novem ber..................
December...............

Number of employees actu­
ally working on last full
day of reported pay Per cent
of in­
period i n crease in
1916.
1915
1916

Number
of estab­
lishments
reporting.

83
90
85
76
87
81
82
83
87
78
75
86

85,730
78,026
81,546
86,025
92,954
86,444
99,269
104,788
112,755
103,704
97,273
112,105

118,549
113,112
112,575
108,582
123.526
111.527
124,797
128,618
140,321
126,162
116,493
134,922

38.3
45.0
37.9
26.2
32.9
29.0
25.7
22.7
24.4
21.7
19.8
20.4

i

Other figures published in the M o n t h l y R e v i e w show changes in
volume of employment from month to month in identical plants,
which plants vary in number as in the preceding tables. Index num­
bers have been computed for the iron and steel industry from the
data available, with January, 1915, taken as the base, or 100 . These
index numbers indicate the percentage of increase or decrease in each
succeeding month, as compared with January, 1915. Thus, the index
of the number on the pay roll in December, 1916, was 160, indicating
th at the number on the pay roll was 160 per cent of th.e number on the
pay roll in January, 1915, or an increase of 6b per cent in the number
of persons on the pay roll. The amount of the pay roll in December,
1916, was 234 per cent of the amount of the pay roll in January, 1915.
These index numbers probably understate the per cent of increase,
both in the number of employees and in the am ount of wages paid in
the industry, as the figures are based on reports made by plants th at




12

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

were in operation in both 1915 and 1916. No account is taken of any
plants from which no reports were received—th at may have been
shut down in the winter of 1914-15, and started up later in 1915
or in 1916.
T a b l e 4.—IN D E X N U M B E R S OF EM PL O Y EE S ON TH E PA Y ROLL A N D T H E AM OUNT OF

T H E PA Y ROLL EACH M ONTH, 1915 A N D 1916.
[January, 1915=100.]

Year and month.

1915.
January.......................................................
February....................................................
March..........................................................
A pril............................................................
M ay.............................................................
J u ly .............................................................
A ugust........................................................
September..................................................
October.......................................................
November..................................................
December...................................................
1916.
January............... ^.....................................
February....................................................
March..........................................................
A pril............................................................
M ay.............................................................
J u ly .............................................................
A ugust........................................................
September..................................................
October.......................................................
November..................................................
December...................................................

Number on Amount of
pay roll.
pay roll.

100
96
104
108
111
115
117
121
125
130
131
130

100
106
116
122
120
132
121
135
140
147
159
164

135
138
141
141
146
147
149
152
155
155
158
160

162
184
186
186
204
207
181
203
211
219
224
234

The M o n t h l y R e v i e w for July, 1916, contains the following report
as to changes in wage rates between May 1 , 1915, and May 15, 1916:
Ninety-one of the 101 establishments in the iron and steel industry
reporting announced increases in rates of wages since May 1 , 1915;
10 only reported having made none. Seven other establishments
reported as to volume of employment, bu t failed to answer this ques­
tion. Of these 91, 83 increased wages in May, 1916, and for 71 of the
83 this was a t least a second increase during the 13 months’ period.
One establishment reported having advanced its rates every 60 days,
with aggregates of from 15 per cent to 30 per cent in the different
departments. February, 1916, ranks next to May in increases, 38
establishments reporting advances during th a t month.
One-half the increases made were of 10 per cent each, with a range
in the several increases of from 5 per cent to 30 per cent, aggregating
33 per cent in one establishment where there had been 3 separate
advances. Forty-five establishments reported 2 increases of 10 per
cent each. In nearly every case approximately all the employees of
the establishments were affected by the increases, although 3 estab­
lishments reported th a t common labor only was benefited. These
increases are not confined to any one district, but have been general
in establishments in the Eastern, Middle Western, and Southern
States.




INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

13

The August R e v i e w notes the changes in wage rates between
May 15 and June 15, 1916:
More changes in wage rates were reported for the iron and steel
industry than for any other. Twelve establishments reported in­
creases as follows: Two per cent to a little over half the force in one
establishment; 5 per cent on a few positions in two establishments;
5 per cent to a third of the force in one establishment; and 5 per cent
to three-fourths of the force in another. One plant reported an
increase of 7 \ per cent to “ labor” and another an increase of 5 to
10 per cent w ithout specifying the proportion of force affected.
A 10 per cent increase was made in one plant to the men in a single
department, while another made a 10 per cent increase to 40 per
cent of the force; 3 establishments reported an increase of 10 per
cent to all employees. Fifty-two plants reported no change, and
34 failed to make a report. The reported increases were not con­
fined to any particular locality.
The September

R e v ie w

states:

The greatest number of increases in wages [during the month
ending July 15] is reported for the iron and steel industry, where
certain groups of employees or those in a selected occupation are
reported as receiving increases of from 5 to 15 per cent; seven estab­
lishments report increases ranging between these figures.
The October R e v i e w presenting information for the month ending
August 15, states:
Three establishments report increases ranging from 5 to 16§ per
cent to all employees. Twelve establishments report increases
ranging from 5 to 16§ per cent to a part of the force, the high rate
being reported in several cases for puddlers. One establishment
reports an increase in rate to furnace men of 15 cents a day to 12-hour
men and 10 cents a day to 10 -hour men.
The November R e v i e w states:
One establishment in this industry reports [for the m onth ending
September 15] an increase of 2\ per cent to three-fourths of the force.
Three establishments report an increase of 3 per cent to from onehalf to three-fourths of the force. One establishment reports an
increase of 5 per cent, but does not specify the class of employees
receiving such increase. An increase of 10 per cent is reported by
three establishments; in one of these establishments the increase is
given to all employees, in another to three-fourths of the force, and
in the third to a small percentage of the employees.
The December R e v i e w states:
In the iron and steel industry there was an increase [in the month
ending October 15] of from 3 to 5 per cent to all employees in 5 plants
and an increase of 7 per cent to all in 6 plants. Six and one-tenth per
cent increase to all is reported by 1 plant; another reports an increase
of 71 per cent to one-third of the force, and an increase of 5 per cent
to the other two-thirds; 7 | per cent to one-fourth of the force and 5
per cent to the other three-fourths is reported by 1 establishment.




14

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

Two establishments report an increase of 10 per cent; in one case the
10 per cent increase is general, while in the other the proportion of
the force receiving it is not stated.
The January (1917) R e v i e w states:
In the iron and steel industry [for the month ending November 15]
a 1 per cent increase to one-third of the force is reported by one
establishment; an increase of
per cent to tonnage men is reported
by another establishment; while the same rate of increase is given to
men covered by the amalgamated scale, about 20 per cent of the force,
in still another establishment; and tonnage men get an increase of
2f per cent in one establishment.
The February (1917) R e v i e w states:
In the iron and steel industry [for the m onth ending December 15]
one establishment reports an increase of 7 per cent, but does not state
the proportion of the force receiving the same. An increase of 10
per cent to all employees is reported by two establishments; another
applies the same rate of increase to the office force, while still another
makes the same rate of increase apply to all b u t salaried people.
One establishment gave a 10 per cent increase, but does not state
the proportion of the force receiving the advance. In one blast
furnace the entire force received an increase of 15 cents a day for
10-hour men and 25 cents a day for 12-hour men.
INDEX NUMBERS, BY DEPARTMENTS.

In the sections relating to the several departments the full-time
weekly earnings, the full-time hours of labor per week, and the rates
of wages or earnings per hour are shown for each group of occupa­
tions. These figures are summarized in the form of percentages,
which show the trend of wages and hours from year to year in each
department as a whole, and are assembled, for the convenience of
the reader, in Table 5, below. The percentages (relative or index
numbers) for each year previous to 1914 are based on a combination
of the principal productive occupations only, in each department, but
those for 1914 and 1915 are computed on data covering all occupa­
tions in each department, including the unclassified groups (see pp. 55
and 56) tabulated in this report for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.
The heavy-faced figures of the table following are relative or index
numbers. These relative numbers are simply percentages com­
puted from the actual weekly earnings, the actual hours of labor,
and the actual rates of wages per hour appearing in the tables giving
statistics by occupations in the several departments. In computing
such index numbers the actual figures for 1915 are taken as the
base, or 100 per cent; thus the facts for each preceding year are
brought into direct comparison with the facts for the latest year
available, namely, 1915. The relative for each year preceding 1915
is the per cent which the average in th a t year is of the average for
1915. For example, in Table 5, it is shown th a t the relative full­




15

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

time weekly earnings of employees in the principal productive occu­
pations in blast furnaces in 1907 were 93 per cent of such weekly
earnings in 1915. The weekly earnings decreased in 1908 to 88
per cent of the earnings in 1915, and in 1909 to 87 per cent. There
was an increase to 94 in 1910, a one-point increase in 1911, and a
similar decrease in 1912, followed by a marked increase in 1913,
When the relative was 104, and a decrease to 100 in 1914, the same
as in 1915. The relative numbers for full-time hours per week in
blast furnaces decreased from 106 in 1907 to 100 in 1915—in other
words, the average full-time hours of work per week in 1907 were
106 per cent of the average full-time hours in 1915. The other
relative numbers of the table are read in like manner. The method
of computing these relative numbers from the averages of the hours
and wages shown in the several tables of this report is explained on
pages 65 to 67.
T a b l e 5.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D W E E K L Y

E A R N IN G S, T O G E T H E R W ITH P E R CENT OF INC R EA SE OR D ECR EA SE, IN SPECI­
F IE D Y E A R S, B Y D E PA R TM E N TS.
[1915=100.]
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in —

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
im—
Department and year.

Blast furnaces y
1907.......................................
1908....................................... I
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................
Bessemer converters:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................!
1913.......................................
1914.......................................!
1915.......................................!
Open-hearth furnaces:
I
1910.................................
1
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................!
1915.......................................
Puddling mills:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
ela
Each
Each
Each Rtiv ­
tive
1915 as speci­ rate eof 1915 as speci­
full­ 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
tim e
pared year as wages pared year as weekly pared year as
per
w ith
com­
com­
w ith
with
com­
earn­
hour.
each
each
pared
each
pared
pared
ings.
with
speci­
w ith
with
speci­
speci­
fied
year
year
fied
fied
year
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

106
104
105
106
105
102
103
100
100

-6
-4
-5
-6
-5
-2
-3
0)

103
99
103
103
101
101
100
100
100

—3
+1
-3
-3
-1
-1
0)
C
1)

102
100
102
103
100
100

—2
0)
-2
-3
C
1)

102
100

-2

-2
+1
+1
-1
-3
+1
-3
<
*>

88
84
83
89
91
93
101
100
100

+14
+19
+20
+ 12
+10
+ 8
- 1
0)

-4
+4
C
1)
-2
0)
-1
0)
0)

95
89
92
96
92
102
113
97
100

+ 5
+12
+ 9
+ 4
+ 9
- 2
-1 2
+ 3

-2
+2
+1
-3
C
1)

86
86
90
98
96
100

+16
+ 16
+ 11
+ 2
+ 4

104
100

—4

-2

5
1
7
2
2
9
1

93
88
87
94
95
94
104
100
100

+ 8
+14
+15
+ 6
+ 5
+ 6
- 4
C
1)

- 6
+ 3
+ 4
- 4
+11
+ 11
-1 4
+ 3

96
88
93
93
93
100
111
96
100

+ 4
+14
+ 8
+ 2
+ 8
C
1)
-1 0
+ 4

(l )
+ 5
+ 9
- 2
+ 4

89
86
91
101
97
100

+ 12
+16
+ 10
- 1
+ 3

- 4

105
100

—5

+
+
+
+
C
1)

- 5
- 1
+ 8
+ 1
- 1
+11
- 4
0)
- 8
+ 6
+ 5
- 5
+ 8
+11
-1 4
+ 4
- 3
+ 6
+11
- 4
+ 3
- 5

16

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 5 .— R E LA T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , W AGES PEIR H O U R , A N D W E E K L Y

E A R N IN G S, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF INC R EA SE OR D E C R E A SE , IN SPECI­
F IE D Y E A R S, B Y D E PA R T M E N T S—Concluded.
i.
1

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
D epartment and year.

Blooming mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Plate mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................
Standard rail mills:
1910.................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Bar mills:
1907.................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915...................................
Sheet mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Tin-plate mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................

Rela­
tiv e
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
R ela­
tive
Each
tiv e
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­ tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
wages com­
per
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
earn­
com­
w ith
w ith
with ' com­
hour.
com­
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
w ith
with
speci­
speci­
speci­
w ith
year
fied
fied
year
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

-2

88
89
94
105
100
100

+14
+12
+ 6
- 5
C
1)

88
85
91
99
95
100

+14
+18
+10
+ 1
+ 5

92
92
93
103
102
100

+
+
+
-

95
86
87
97
93
94
104
99
100

+ 5
+16
+15
+ 3
+ 8
+ 6
- 4
+ 1

—2
+1
(l)
(l )
(1)

91
99
102
106
108
100

+10
+ 1
- 2
- 6
- 7

0)
C
1)
<x)
C
1)
C
1)

82
92
93
96
98
100

+22
+ 9
+ 8
+ 4
+ 2

102
101
101
101
99
100

—1
—1
+1

100
100
101
101
100
100

0)
(l)
—1
(l)

0)
+1
0)

104
99
100
100
99
100

_4
+i
0)
C
1)
+1

—5
+1
C
1)

102
101
102
102
101
100
100
101
100

_2
_1
—2
—2
—1
C
1)
0)

101
99
100
100
100
100

—1
+1
0)
0)
0)

100
100
100
100
100
100

0)
C
1)
(1)
0)
C
1)

—1
0)
C
1)
+1

o7

+1

+1
C
1)
—1
C
1)
+1

9
9
8
3
2

+ 1
+ o
+12
- 5
(*)

89
90
85
105
100
100

+12
+11
+ 5
- 5
C
1)

+
+
+

3
7
9
4
5

88
85
91
100
95
100

+14
+18
+10
0)
+ 5

C
1)
+ 1
+11
- 1
- 2

94
91
92
103
102
100

+ 6
+10
+ 9
- 3
- 2

- 9
+ 1
+11
- 4
+ 1
+11
- 5
+ 1

96
86
88
97
93
94
104
99
100

+ 4
+16
+14
+ 3
+ 8
+ 6
- 4
+ 1

+
+
+
+
-

9
3
4
2
7

91
98
101
105
108
100

+10
+ 2
- 1
- 5
- 7

+12
+ 1
+ 3
+ 2
+ 2

82
92
93
97
99
100

+22
+ 9
+ 8
+ 3
+ 1

+ 1
+ 6
+11
- 5
C
1)
- 3
+ 7
+10
- 5
+ 5
- 3
+ 1
+12
- 1
- 2
-1 0
+ 2
+10
- 4
+ 1
+11
- 5
+ 1
+
+
+
+
-

8
3
4
3
7

+12
+ 1
+ 4
+ 2
+ 1

i No change.

In addition to the relative numbers of this table, percentages have
been computed showing the per cent of increase or decrease in 1915
as compared with each year preceding, and in each year compared
with the year immediately preceding. Referring to the weekly
earnings of blast-furnace employees in Table 5, it is seen th at
full-time weekly earnings in 1915 were 8 per cent higher than in




INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

17

1907, 14 per cent higher than in 1908, etc. The next column shows
th at the weekly earnings of blast-furnace employees in 1908 were
5 per cent lower than in 1907, 1 per cent lower in 1909 than in 1908,
8 per cent higher in 1910 than in *1909, and so on. The percentages
for hours per week and wages per hour for this department and for
the other departments presented in the table are read in like manner.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

A blast furnace, from the nature of its process, must be in con­
tinuous operation day and night seven days per week. In 1907, in
the 20 plants reported for th a t year, for 97 per cent of all employees
in the occupations considered the customary working time per week
was seven days, and for the remaining 3 per cent six days, but since
1910 there has been a material reduction in seven-day work, many
plants having made provision to lay off each employee in rotation
one day in seven, thus making a six-day week for the employee,
while the plant is continuously in operation seven days.
Eighty-nine per cent of all the employees reported in blast-furnace
operation, in 34 plants, worked seven days per week in 1911; 82
per cent, in 36 plants, worked a seven-day week in 1912 and 80 per
cent in 1913; while only 58 per cent, in 38 plants, worked seven
days per week in 1914 and only 59 per cent in 1915. The figures
above embrace the principal productive occupations alone, but in­
cluding the unclassified productive and nonproductive occupations
which are tabulated for the first time for 1914 and 1915 (see pp. 55 and
56), the per cent of seven-day workers is further reduced to 53 per cent
in 1914 and to 54 per cent in 1915. In 1915 42 per cent of all blast­
furnace employees were down to a six-day-per-week basis.
The steel-making departments—Bessemer converters and openhearth furnaces—usually are in operation day and night for six
days per week, a shut-down being made over Sunday for a period
varying from 12 to 36 hours. When the demand for production is
heavy, however, the plants are operated seven days per week. In
1907, a year of large production, 24 per cent of the employees in
the 9 Bessemer plants covered worked seven days per week. In
the next two years the percentage was smaller. In 1910, another
prosperous year, 34 per cent of the employees in the same 9 plants
worked seven days per week. In 1913 only 1 1 per cent of the em­
ployees of the 10 plants covered worked seven days per week.
Throughout the nine-year period the m ajority of the employees in
the Bessemer converting department worked six days per week,
while a few worked six and seven days in alternate weeks. The
employees in open-hearth furnaces during the six years covered were
as a whole about equally divided among the seven day, seven day
and six day alternately, and the six day groups. In all rolling mills
89728°—17—B ull. 218------2




18

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

the per cent of employees working seven days per week was very
small.
The figures for all years covered in the ten departments appear in
Table 6 . The figures for the years grouped are strictly comparable
as they represent identical plants. The inclusion of additional plants
in the comparison of later years makes some differences in the per­
centages, as must be expected.
table

6.—P E R CENT OF EM PL O Y EE S IN EACH D E PA R T M E N T W ORKING EACH SPECI­
F IE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1915.

{The figures for each group of years are for identical plants. Two sets of figures are given for the plants
reporting for 1914 and 1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupations in each depart­
ment as shown for all the preceding groups of years, and therefore strictly comparable w ith th em , and
the second including also the unclassified occupations (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915
for the first time.J
Per cent of employees whose customary working tim e per week was—

Department, and number Year.
of plants.

Blast furnaces:
20 plants..............

5
days
and 6
5
days
days. alter­
nate­
ly-

5
days,
5
days,
and 6
davs
in
rota­
tion.

5
5
days,
6
days, days,
5
6
days days
6
6
days,
and 7 and 7 days, days,
6
and 6 days. days days and 7 and 7
alter­ alter­ days days
days
in
in
nate* nate­ in
rota­
ly. rota­ rota­
tion. tion.
tion.

iy-

days,
7
days,
7
and 7 days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

1907
1908
1909
1910

97
95
97
95

34 plants..............

1910
1911

35 plants..............

1911
1912

36 plants..............

1912
1913

35 plants..............

1913
1914

81
58

38 plants..............

1914
1915

58

38 plants..............

1914
1915

53
54

1907
1908
1909
1910

24
19
22
34

10 plants..............

1910
1911

32
15

10 plants..............

1911
1912

15
15

10 plants..............

1912
1913

Bessemer converters:
9 plants...............

10 plants..............

82

8

80

16
73

11

12
14

1914
1915

12 plants............

C)
1

1913
1914

12 plants..............

0)
0)

1914
1915




0)

12
13
13
14

» Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

19

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

TABLE 6.— PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DEPARTMENT WORKING EACH SPECI­

FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—Continued.
Per cent of employees whose customary working time per week was—

Department, and number Year.
of plants.

Open-hearth furnaces:
17 p lan ts...............

5
days
and 6
5
days
days. alter­
nate­
ly-

5
days,
5
days,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
days,

5
days
days,
and 7
and 6 days. days
days
alter­
in
nate­
rota­
ly.
tion.

6

days
and 7
days
alter­
nate­
ly-

1910
1911

17 p lants...............

1912
1913

33
33

17 plants...............

1913
1914

34
35

22 plants...............

1914
1915

34
35

22 plants................

1914
1915

0)

1914
1915

13
25

1914
1915

13
24

Puddling mills:
29 plants...............
29 plants................
Blooming mills:
19 plan ts...............

19 plants...............
19 plants...............
23 plants...............
23 plants...............
Plate mills:
11 plants...............

6
days,
7
days,
7
and 7 days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

32
18

0)
0)

1911
1912

17 plants...............

5
6
days, days,
6
6
days, days,
and 7 and 7
days days
in
in
rota­ rota­
tion. tion.

C)
1

39

26
27

18
25

C
1
)
1

29
34

2

35
30

(J)
C)
1
0)
C)
1

31
32

0)
(l)

34
34

0)

C)
1
1
1

l
l

1910
1911
1912

10
15
15

18
16
16

1912
1913

10

17

12

12

1913
1914

15

11

11

6

10

1914
1915

5
5

1914
1915

11

11

1910
1911
1912

11 plants...............

1912
1913

11 plants...............

1913
1914

13 plants...............

1914
1915

13 plants...............

1914
1915

(>
)

Standard rail mills:
6 plants.................

0)

(l.)
(l)
0)
1
0)

C)
1
C)
1

C)
1

30

1910
1911

7 plants.................

1911
1912

7 plants.................

1912
1913

6 p l a n t s .....................

1913
1914




C
1
)
i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

20

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 6 .— PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DEPARTMENT WORKING EACH SPECI­

FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—Concluded.
j Per cent of employees whose customary working tim e per week w as-

Department, and number Year
of plants.

5
days
and 6
5
days
days. alter­
nate­
ly-

5
days,
5
days,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
days,

5
days
days,
and 7
and 6 days. days
days
alter­
in
nate­
rota­
lytion.

days
and 7
days
alter­
nate­
ly-

6
6
5
days, days, days,
6 6 7
days, days, days,
7
and 7 and 7 and 7
days days days days.
in
in
in
rota­ rota­ rota­
tion. tion. tion.

Standard rail mills—Conoid.
7 plan ts............................. 1914
1915
7 plants............................. 1914
1915
Bar mills:
15 plants........................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

52
49
48
46

1910
1911

30
41

26 plants........................... 1911
1912

43
46

26 plants........................... 1912
1913

48
51

44 plants........................... 1913
1914

48
44

57 plants........................... 1914
1915

53
54

(J)
C
1)

57 p lants........................... 1914
1915
Sheet mills:
9 plants............................. 1910
1911

47
48

(*)
0)

25 plants...........................

9 plants............................. 1911
1912
8 plants............................. 1912
1913
13j>lants........................... 1913
1914
15 plants........................... 1914
1915
15 plants........................... 1914
1915

Tin-plate mills:
5 plants............................

1910
1911

6 p lants............................

1911
1912

6 plants............................

7
5

(l)
0)
0)
C
1
)
0)
0)
C)
1
0)
0)
0)1
0)
0)
0)

2
1
1
2
2
2
(l)
0)
0)1

1
1
C
1
)
(0
C)
1
C)
1
C)
1
C
1
)

C
1)
0)
0)

0)

(0
0)
0)

(l)
0)

(*)

• 0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

C)
0)

0)
0)

(l)

0)

2

1
1

1
1

1912
1913

(»)

0)

0)
(l)

0)
0)

(')

(l)
0)

10 plants..........................

1913
1914

0)

11 plants..........................

1914
1915

0)

11 plants..........................

1914
1915




0)

C
1)
0)

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

21

INTRODUCTION AN D SUM M ARY.

FULL-TIME WORKING HOURS PER WEEK.

Employees in the several departments are classified in Table 7
to show the per cent working specified hours per week.
T able 7.—P E R CENT OF EM PL O Y EE S IN EACH D E PA R T M E N T W ORKING EACH SP E C I­
F IE D N U M B E R OF H O U R S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1915.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants. Two sets of figures are given for the plants
reporting for 1914 and 1915, the first cm ering only the principal productive occupations in each depart­
ment, as shown for all the preceding groups of years and therefore strictly comparable w ith them , and
the second including also the unclassified occupations (see pp. 55 and 56), tabulated for 1914 and 1915
for the first tim e.]
Per cent of employees whose full-time hoars per week wereDepartment, and num­ Year.
Over 48 56 and
ber of plants.
48 and
and
under. under under
60
56
Blast furnaces:

1907
1908
1909
1910

34 plan ts.................

3
5
3
4

13
12

5

4
5

4
1

Over
84

84

1

80
71
74
76

1
6

8
6

75
72

12
11

6
13

6
6

72
61

5
5

11
12

13
14

6
6

61
63

1
1

6
7

11
11

13
26

6
7

64
46

1
1

8
6

11
12

25
26

'7
7

46
47

0)
(1)
0)
(1)
0)

1

4
5

13
12

12
12

22
23

7
7

41
41

0)
0)

1
2
1

1
2
1
3

8
8
6
1

21
27
25
30

24
15
26
13

23
16
18
25

(!)

1
7

33
41

12
20

24
9

0)

0)
0)
0)

26 plan ts. . . . . . . . . .

1912
1913

35 plants .................

1913
1914

38 p lan ts.................

1914
1915

0)

38 p la n ts................. 1914
1915

G)
0)

Bessemer converters:
9 plan ts...................

4
4

Over 72
and
under
84

72

5
7
8
7

1911
1912

_

13
17
15
12

0)

1910
1911

35 p lan ts. . . . . . .

Over 60
and
under
72

60

O)
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)
0)

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
29
22
18

1
1
2
7

10 plan ts.................

1910
1911

17
19

7
1

1

3
3

10 p lants.................

1911
1912

19
23

1
1

1
1

2
2

7
7

41
30

20
22

9
15

10 p lants.................

1912
1913

22
17

2
8

1

2
1

7
8

30
33

21
24

15
10

10 plants.................

1913
1914

16
17

10
9

0)
0)

1

10
12

29
37

24
12

11
13

1914
1915

18
18

8
8

1
0)

3
4

10
7

39
41

10
9

11
12

1914
1915

12
12

7
6

2
1

4
5

11
8

40
44

13
11

12
13

5
4
4
6
5

2
2
2
2
2
1
1
4
6
5
6
5

13
25
25
11
11
8
8
10
8
10
9
11

25
23
23
26
23
23
21
22
20
22
23
24

33
34
34
40
40
37
37
38
40
38
32
30

27
15
15
20
23
31
32
22
21
22
24
23

12 plan ts.................
12 plants.................
Open-hearth furnaces:
17 plan ts.................
17 plants.................
17 plan ts.................
17 plants.................
22 plants.................
22 m ants.................




1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915
1914
1915

1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

0)

0)
0)
0)
0)

l
2

0)

0)
(l)
0)
0)
(1)

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

3
3

0)
0)
0)
0)

22

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 7 .— PER

CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DEPARTMENT WORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER W EEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—Continued.
Per cent of employees whose full-time hours per week were—

Department, and num­ Year.
Over 48 56 and
ber of plants.
and
48 and
under. under under
60 >
56
Puddling mills:

Over 60
and
under
72

60

Over 72
and
under
84

72

84

1914
1915

29
32

44
43

14
12

5
5

7
7

1
1

0)
0)

29 plan ts................. 1914
1915
Blooming mills:
19 plan ts.................. 1910
1911
1912

27
31

42
42

13
11

6
6

9
9

1
1

0)

2
2
2

6
8
8

1
2
1

10
11
11

57
56
55

7
10
11

17
12
12

1912
1913

2
2

8
8

1
1

11
12

52
52

13
17

12
8

19 p lan ts.................. 1913
1914

3
4

11
11

1
3

12
9

47
55

19
14

6
4

23 p lan ts.................. 1914
1915

6
6

13
13

3
3

8
6

56
55

11
15

3
2

23 p lan ts................. 1914
1915
Plate mills:
11 plan ts.................. 1910
1911
1912

3
2

7
7

C
1)

5
4

8
7

59
58

9
12

9
9

0)
c1)

7
9
9

57
47
44

32
42
43

1
1
3

3
1
1

(1)
0)

8
7

42
42

43
41

5
5

2
1

7
4

43
48

43
39

5
7

1
1

2

4
4

48
48

39
36

7
8

1
1

2
3

4
5

44
41

39
38

6
7

4
4

19 plants

____

11 plants.................. 1912
1913

1

11 plan ts.................

1913
1914

1

0)
0)

13 plan ts.................

1914
1915

1
2

(1)

1914
1915

1
2

13 plants.................
Standard rail mills:
6 plants...................

1

0)
0)

1910
1911

4
5

2
2

8
4

4
9

52
71

1
6

30
3

7 plants...................

1911
1912

4'
4

2
2

4
5

8
8

72
72

7
8

3
2

7 plan ts...................

1912
1913

4
4

2
2

4
7

8
4

78
80

3
3

2
2

6 plan ts...................

1913
1914

6
8

2

2
3

1
2

86
86

2

2
1

7 plan ts...................

1914
1915

8
6

3
2

11
7

78
82

2

7 plan ts...................

1914
1915

5
4

1

3
2

13
9

74
77

1
2

Bar mills:
15 plan ts.................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

C
1)

0)

(1)

4
5

5
4
4
4

5
7
7
6

8
7
7
6

9
12
10
12

52
47
59
57

19
20
9
13

3
1
3
1

25 plants.................. 1910
1911

11
12

8
10

4
8

12
7

46
48

17
14

3
1

0)

26 plan ts.................

1911
1912

11
11

11
12

9
10

8
7

47
45

14
14

1
1

0)
0)

26 plan ts.................

1912
1913

11
2

11
21

16
15

7
8

41
47

13
5

1
2

C
1)
(l)

44 plan ts.................. 1913
1914

6
6

20
20

17
14

10
10

41
43

4
6

2
1

C
1)
0)




1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

2

1
0)

1
1
1

23

INTRODUCTION AN D SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 7.— PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DEPARTMENT WORKING EACH SPECI­

FIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 191^-Concluded.
Per cent of employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Department, and num­ Year.
Over 48 56 and
ber of plants.
and
48 and
under. under under
60
56
Bar mills—Concluded.
57 p lan ts.................
57 plan ts.................
Sheet mills:
9 plan ts...................

Over 60
and
under
72

60

72

Over 72
and
under
84

Over
84

84

1914
1915

0)
0)

1914
1915

0)

1910
1911

0)

9 plan ts...................

1911
1912

8 plan ts...................

1912
1913

13 pjants.................

1913
1914

90

15 plan ts................. 1914
1915

87

1911
1912

6 plan ts.................

0)

8

8

8

C
1
)*

8
8

C)
1

1913
1914

8

0)

8

80

8

8
C
1
)

11 plan ts................. 1914
1915
11 plan ts................. 1914
1915

8

10

1912
1913

10 p lan ts................

0)
C
>

8
C)
1
C
1
)
0)

8

15 plants................. 1914
1915
Tin-plate mills:
5 p lan ts................... 1910
1911
6 plan ts..................

0)

8

1

60

0)

C
1
)

(0
0)
0)
0)
0)

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Referring to tlie figures for blast furnaces it is seen th a t in 1907, in
20 plants reported, 3 per cent of the employees reported worked 60
hours per week when they worked full time; 13 per cent worked over
60 and under 72 hours per week; less than half of 1 per cent worked
72 hours per week; 5 per cent worked over 72 and under 84 hours
per week; and 80 per cent worked 84 hours per week. By 1910 the
employees working 84 hours per week had decreased to 76 per cent
in the same plants, or, as shown by 34 plants, to 75 per cent. A
very material reduction was made in working hours by 1911 and a
still greater reduction by 1912.' Between May, 1913, and May, 1914,
in the same group of 35 plants, the number of employees working
84 hou*rs was reduced from 64 per cent to 46 per cent, or to 41 per
cent as shown by 38 plants. There was no change between 1914
and 1915.




24

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

The per cent of employees working specified hours in the Bessemer
converting department, and some other departments, differed m ate­
rially in the several years owing to fluctuations in the volume of
business and to changes from 12 to 8 hour shifts or vice versa.
COMMON LABORERS.

The rate of wages paid common laborers is to a large extent a basic
rate from which are determined the rates for other occupations requir­
ing little skill, hence the rate for common labor is of importance
beyond the limits of the occupation proper. The rate per hour of
common labor is practically the same in all the departments of a
plant, b u t the earnings per day or week, of course, are determined
by the number of hours worked.
T a b l e 8.— A V E R A G E R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R OF COMMON L A B O R E R S IN EACH

D E PA R T M E N T , B Y D ISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1915.
[In this table each departm ent of an establishm ent is counted as a separate plant. The number of plants
stated is th e total of all departments, the number of plants in each departm ent is not show n here.
The figures for1each group of years are for identical plants.]

District, year, and
number of plants.

Besse­ OpenA ll
mer
Pud­ Bloom­ Plate Stand­ Bar Sheet Tin­
ard
de­
fur­
ing
con­ hearth dling
plate
fur­ mills. mills. mills. rail mills. mills. mills.
part­ naces. vert­
mills.
naces.
ments.
ers.

Eastern:
4 plan ts...........1907 $0,134 $0,135
1908
.120
.115
1909
.123
.119
1910
.138
.138

$0.132
.131
.131
.138

$0

$ .1 3 $0.131
0 ,1
.139

.131

.147
.148

.140
.144

.139
.141

.131
.131

.145
.142

.144
.157

.144
.151

.141
.163

.133
.151

.145
.160

28 plants.........1913
1914

.157
.153

.151
.150

.162
.160

.151 $0
.150

. lt>
6

39 plants.........1914
1915
Pittsburgh:
17 plants.........19Q7
1908
1909
1910

.156
.155

.153
.151

.172
.154

.151
.151

.151
.150

.154
.156
.152
.164

.152 $0,156
.154
.156
.152
.153
.164
.165

57 plan ts.........1910
1911

.164
.166

.166
.165

.164
.167

.168
.170

.167
.168

161

.161 $0.164
.166
.163

59 plants.........1911
1912

.166
.167

.165
.164

.167
.167

.170
.169

.168
.173

.163
.163

.166
.169

.164

167

59 plan ts.........1912
1913

.167
.190

.163
.188

.168
.192

.192

.172
.193

.163
.182

.168
.191

.167
.190

.191
.192

.192
.192

.192
.192

.191
.191

.183
.180

.191
.190

.192
.192

.192

.193
.193

.192
.192

.188

.183
.184

.192
.192

.192
.194

18 plants.........1910
1911

.142
.141

.142
.140

19 p lants.........1911
1912

.141
.143

20 plants.........19i2
1913

61 plants.........1913
1911
76 plants.........1914
1915




.190
.190

$0,163
171
.157

.151

.154
.157
.151
.163

188

.190

$0.165
.163

25

INTRODUCTION AN D SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 8, —A V ER A G E R A TE S OF W AGES PE R H O U R OF COMMON L A B O R E R S IN EACH

D E PA R T M E N T , BY DISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1915—Concluded.

and
nts.

Besse­ OpenAll
Stand­
Blast mer hearth Pud­ BloomBar
de­
ard
Plate
fur­
dling
con­
fur­ mills. £ 1 . mills. rail mills.
part­ naces. vert­
naces.
ments.
mills.
ers.

Tin­
Sheet 1 plate
mills, j mills.

Middie West:

..1907 $0.158 $0.162 10 154
1908
. 153
. 152
152
1909
146
. 151
. 153
1910
.162
.161
159

$0.159
.158
.157
. 169

]

..1910
1911

.163
.166

.162
.166

39 plan ts.

.1911
1912

.166
.167

.166
.167

164
166

.166
.167

.166
.167

.164
.165

.169
.169

.166
.167

40 p lants.

..1912
1913

.168
.191

.166
.189

166
190

.170
.193

.167
.191

.162
.188

.169
.194

. 170
.194

..1913
1914

.189
.190

.189
.190

190
.193

.190
.192

.190
.192

.195
.190

.191
*192

.189 $0.187
.192
.188

$0.186
.186

..1914
1915

.189
.188

.190
.187

.191
.191

.191 $0.182
.191
.180

.190
.190

.190
.189

.192
.189

.190
.190

.180
.ISO

.186
.186

1907
1908
1909
1910

.130
.111
.112
.127

.130
.111
.112
.127

1910
1911

.129
.131

.128
.131

.130
.130

.131
.132

1911
1912

.131
.131

.131
.130

.130
.134

.132
.131

1912
1913

.130
.138

.130
.136

.132
.150

.131
.140

1913
1914

.140
.141

.136
.139

.152
.152

.138
.141

.142
.141

1914
1915

.146
.141

.137
.134

.169
.158

.148
.140

.141
.142

1907
1908
1909
1910

.151
.147
.145
.157

.146
.140
.138
.152

.155
.155
.151
.163

1910
1911

.158
.161

.150
.151

.163
.166

.157
.161

.162
.163

.159
* 158
.

.163
.169

. 160
.160

.164
.166

.165
.163

1911
1912

.161
.162

.151
.152

.166
.167

.161
.163

.163
.164

. 158
.160

.169
.168

.159
.159

.166
.169

.164
.169

1912
1913

.162
.183

.152
.171

.167
.192

.164
.187

.163
.184

.161
.181

.169
.193

.160
.178

.168
.191

.167
.190

1913
1914

.181
.181

.173
.176

.192
.192

.185
.186 ............

.185
.187

.175
.174

.187
.190

.169
.168

.190
.190

.189
.189

1914
1915

.181
.180

.177
.171

.193
.193

.185
.186

.187
.187

.174
.174

.185
.182

.173
.173

.188
.188

.189
.190

70 plants.
Southern:
6 plants. .

22 plants.

Total:
39 plants.

161 $0.162
, 164
.166

$0.163 SO.164 $0.163
.164
.166
.169

.167 ............1............
.166

1

.144
.146

i
. - !

.153
.153
.150
.161

.173
.167

There are in every department various occupations which require
little skill but which have distinctive positional names and are neces­
sary to the proper operation of the department, and employees in
these occupations must be on duty during the entire working time of
the department. They are usually paid little if any more than the




26

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN DUSTRY.

regular rate for common labor, but such positions are eagerly sought
by laborers, owing to the regularity of employment and the conse­
quent stability of earnings, as well as to the fact th a t men in these
occupations are in line for promotion. Employees in these occupa­
tions are not generally classifies as common laborers by iron and steel
establishments, and consequently, so far as possible, they are not so
classified in this report. However, even after this exclusion, 1 1 per
cent of all the employees tabulated for 1915 are classified as laborers.

VOLUME OF EMPLOYMENT, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915.
To determine the variable amount of employment afforded by the
iron and steel industry during the last two years covered by this
report, data as to the number of turns worked in each department,
the number of turns not worked owing to slack work and other causes,
and the total amount of the pay rolls, were obtained from the plants
which furnished wages data for the several departments, for each
month of the period from July, 1913, to June, 1915, inclusive. These
reports are tabulated by months and presented in Table 10 , while
the number of employees necessary to operate the entire equipment of
the total plants in each departm ent on full time is shown in Table 9.
These tables clearly demonstrate the depressed condition of the
iron and steel industry during this period. The early part of 1913
was a time of such large production th a t nearly all plants increased
their rates of pay to employees, but the latter p art of 1913 was of
opposite character; business improved somewhat during the spring
and summer of 1914, but November and December of th a t year were
the months most affected by the depression. However, every depart­
ment shows an improvement from the first month of 1915. Unfor­
tunately similar data are not at hand for the last half of 1915, b u t it
is a well known fact thp,t all plants have been working at practically
100 per cent of full time since the autumn of th a t year and through
1916. The bureau's reports published in the M o n t h l y R e v i e w
clearly demonstrate the enormous increase in number of employees,
in the amount of pay rolls, and in wage rates. A brief r 6sum 6 of
such more recent figures is given on pages 10 to 14.
A “ tu rn ” is a day’s work for a crew composed of several men work­
ing together. Each plant in a department is made up of one or more
units, each unit having its own crews. One blast-furnace plant m ay
represent from 1 to 12 separate stacks, an open-hearth furnace plant
from 5 to 25 separate furnaces, a sheet or tin-plate mill plant from
5 to 42 separate mills, etc., and in computing turns each unit is con­
sidered separately, so th at if a bar-mill plant is made up of five
separate mills, each one working two turns per day, in a 31-day
month there would be 5X 2X 31=310 possible turns for the plant.




VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.

27

Turns for Bessemer converting plants, however, indicate the total
turns for each plant as a whole only, as there is not a separate crew
for each converter, the number of men in the crew varying according
to the number of converters operated. For this department, there­
fore, the amount of the pay-roll totals more clearly illustrates the per
cent of full-time operation of the entire equipment than does the per
cent which the turns actually made is of the turns customarily worked.
The length of a turn in the various plants, or in the several depart­
ments of a plant, varies from 8 to 12 hours froni Monday to Friday,
and, except in blast furnaces, open-hearth furnaces, and sheet and
tin-plate mills departments, the Saturday turn is usually from onehalf to three-quarters as long. Frequently u lighting u p ” adds to the
length of the first turn of a week. The majority of blast furnace,
open-hearth furnace, blooming mill, plate mill, and rail mill employees
work 12 hours per day; Bessemer converting employees generally
work 12 hours per turn, although in a large proportion of plants
there are some employees divided into three shifts, working 8 hours
each; the greater number of sheet and tin-plate mill employees
also are divided into three shifts working 8 hours each; puddling mill
employees to a large extent work turns of 8 , 9, or 10 hours each; and
bar mill employees work turns of 8 , 9, 10 , 1 1 , or 12 hours each. In
addition to the inconstant length of a turn as shown above there is
another condition, especially pronounced in dull periods, which
affects the average number of hours in a turn, th at of working a
shorter turn than is customary in order th a t work sufficient for a few
days only may be extended over a longer period, the employees
preferring part-tim e work for a week to full time for a few days fol­
lowed by a complete shutdown.
I t will be seen, therefore, th a t there is no standard turn for the iron
and steel industry as a whole, and even if one were created arbi­
trarily to attem pt to conform all the odd turns to it would present in­
superable difficulties. The turns tabulated simply indicate the total
number of separate days when the several crews of each depart­
ment worked, irrespective of the number of hours worked each day.
Identical plants were included in each of the 24 months of the
period, hence the figures are comparable from month to month.
Separate computations were made of the facts reported for each
plant in a district, b u t only the monthly totals for each district are
presented in the tables.
The maximum number of turns 'possible is the total number of
turns th a t could be made in a month by the several plants reported,
if no shutdowns were made any day for any reason, the number for each
plant having been computed on the basis of the number of turns per
day under the plan under which it operates. The total number of
turns customarily not worked on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays




28

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOE---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

is next presented, followed by the percentage which th at total is of
the maximum number of turns possible.
The aggregate numbers of turns customarily worked were obtained
by deducting the turns customarily not worked on Saturdays, Sun*
days, and holidays from the maximum possible turns. The number
of turns customarily worked were in turn separated into turns actually
worked and turns down (not worked) owing to slack work or to all
other causes. The actual number of turns worked is stated, and the
table also shows the percentages th at this actual number of turns
worked and the actual number of turns down, in either group, are
of the aggregate number of turns customarily worked.
The total of the pay rolls in each department is the total am ount
of the pay rolls of the various plants reported for each month.
Occasionally a plant changed its custom of working from a twoturn to a three-turn basis, or vice versa, and this fact accounts for
differences in the maximum possible turns in two months of equal
lengths.
FULL-TIME FORCE.

Table 9 shows the full complement of employees necessary to
operate all the units of each plant on a regular full-time basis.
Counting each department of each plant as a separate and distinct
working organization, there are 227 plants included in this report,
and to fully man them on a 100 per cent time and capacity basis
would require 59,752 men. Table 1 1 shows th a t 48,140 men were
employed in these 227 plants in May, 1915. In other words the
plants, as operated in May, 1915, were using 81 per cent of the num­
ber of employees th at would have been required had they been
operating their entire equipment on a full-time basis.
T a b l e 9.—N U M B E R QF E M P L O Y E E S N E C E SSA R Y TO O P E R A T E T H E E N T IR E E Q U IP ­

M ENT OF TH E TOTAL PL A N T S IN EACH D E PA R T M E N T ON F U L L TIM E, B Y D IS­
TRICTS, MAY, 1915.
D istrict.

Department.

Eastern.

Pittsburgh.

Great Lakes and
Middle W est.

Total.
Southern.

Em ­
Em­
Em­
Plants. ployees. Plants. ployees. Plants. ployees. Plants.
B last furnaces............
Bessemer converters
Open-hearth
fur­
naces........................
Puddling m ills..........
Blooming mills.........
Plate m ills.................
Standard rail m ills..
Bar mills...............
Sheet m ills............
Tin-plate m ills...

Total..




4,531
1,668

4,050
1,131

1,343
1,817
276
815
452
2,075

2,282
1,791
1,416
1,346
693
3,499
5,285
4,575

1,982
1,041
851
634
1,495
2,698
2,294
3,119

8,145

27,086

19,295

1,367

11

Em-

2,423

Em­

Plants. ployees.

12

875
586
257
1,085

31

5,226

38

12,371
2,799

22
29
23
13
7
57
15
11

5,235
2,800
2,795
2,640
9,357
7,579
7,694

227

59,752

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.

29

TURNS AND PAY-ROLL TOTALS.

The volume of employment during the period from July, 1913, to
June, 1915, in the plants covered, is shown by departments in Table
10. The figures are presented by means of monthly totals for each
geographic district and for all districts combined. Index numbers
computed from this table appear in Table 1.
In a few instances the total number of plants, or number of separate
units, may not agree with such totals as presented in the regular wage
tables of a department. These variations may be explained by using
bar mills as an illustration. The table of plants and units covered by
this report (Table 1 2 ) states th a t 57 plants and 128 separate mills
were represented in the report for the 1914-1915 wage group. The
volume of employment table (Table 10 ) shows 58 plants and 131
mills. By following the comparison back to the several districts it
will be found th a t the difference is in the Eastern district. In this
district one plant having three separate bar mills, which was re­
ported for the 1913-1914 group, was not in operation in 1915 owing
to lack of orders, and was omitted therefore from the 1914-1915
wage group; but to have omitted it from the table showing volume
of employment would have unjustifiably lessened the per cent of
slack work in th a t study.
The first section of the volume of employment table concerns the
blast-furnace department. The totals for July, 1913, show th a t 39
plants, having 134 stacks, were covered. The maximum number of
turns possible in the month was 1 3 4 x 31x2= 8,308, and, as the
operation of a blast furnace is continuous, the aggregate turns cus­
tomarily worked is the same. All the 134 stacks were not in opera­
tion during the entire month, however, and the turns actually made
in the 39 plants were 7,102, or only 85 per cent of the 8,308 turns
customarily possible. The turns down were equally divided between
slack work and all other causes combined, each being 7 per cent of
the aggregate turns customarily possible. The number of turns down
is not stated, only the per cents computed therefrom being shown.
All per cents in these tables are computed to the nearest whole num­
ber, hence the sum of those in the three columns may add one point
above or below 100 . The total pay rolls in July was $846,737, but
this amount represents 35 plants only, as the pay roll totals of four
plants were not obtainable.
The next month, August, 1913, had the same number of possible
and customary turns as July, b u t the number of turns actually made
by the 39 plants was less in August than in July, being 7,012, or only
84 per cent of the customary full number. Nine per cent of turns
were lost on account of slack work and 6 per cent from all other causes
combined. The pay-roll total was a little larger than in July, being
$852,865 for the same 35 plants as reported in July.




30

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIB L E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL P A Y ROLL IN EACH D IS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915.
|T he abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” in this table stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle W est.”]
B LA ST FU R N A C ES.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Plants. Stacks.
1913.
7
17
July. Eastern................
10
Pittsburgh..........
47
11
47
x G .L . andM . W .
11
23
Southern..............

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack All
other
work. causes.

1,054
2.914
2.914
1,426

No. P . c t
76
806
93
2,710
82
2,386
84
1,200

8,308

No.

7,102

85

7

1,054
2.914
2.914
1,426

714
2,752
2,364
1,182

68
94
81
83

17
2
13
13

P .ct.

1 , 054!
2,914|
2,914
1,426

12
13
9

T otal.............

39

134

Aug. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
47
47
23

T otal.............

39

134

8,308'

8,308

7,012

84

9

Sept. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
2 48
47
23

1,020
2,864
2,820
1,380;

1,020
2,864
2,820
1,380

660
2.588
2,143
1,140

65
90
76
83

23
2
14
13

8,308
1.054___
2.914
2.914
1,426;

-

T otal.............
Oct.

39

135

8,0841

8,084

6,531

81

11

Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054!
2,976!
2,914
1,426 1............

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

676
2,690
1,915
1,230

64
90
66
86

24
6
23
9

8,370'............

12
7
5
7

$90,638
354,213
314,525
1 87,361

7 1 846,737
15
4
6
4

89,167
352,524
320,452
1 90,722

6 1 852,865
12
8
10
4

88,424
338,057
308, m
1 89,448

9 1 824,622
12
4
11
4

91,609
341,323
290,819
198,625

T otal.............

39

135

8,370

6,511

78

15

8

1 822,376

N ov. E astern................
..........
G .L .a n d M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17 1,020
Pittsburgh
48 2,880
47 2,820
23 1,380

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

546
2,490
1,599
1,122

54
86
57
81

38
7
28
12

9
6
15
7

83,096
306,746
258,077
1 88,401

T otal.............

39

135

8,100

8,100

5,757

71

19

10 1 736,320

Dec. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

522
1,935
1,371
1,114

50
65
47
78

45
21
34
12

6
14
19
10

8,370

4,942

59

27

14 1 677,691

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

428
1,908
1,383
1,116

41
64
47
78

54
19
31
13

6
17
21
9

T otal.............

39

135

8,370

1914.
Jan. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426
8,370

-

79,875
272,127
235,660
190,029

68,240
273,838
229,145
193,353

T o ta l............

39

135

8,370

4,835

58

27

15 1 664,576

Feb. Eastern................
..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
952
Pittsburgh
48 2,688
47 2,632
23 1,288

952
2,688
2,632
1,288

392
1,980
1,505
1,014

41
74
57
79

53
15
27
13

6
12
16
8

49,207
270.491
222,429
1 81,867

T otal.............

39

135

7,560

7,560

4,891

65

24

12 1 623,994

Mar. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

562
2,330
1,786
1,130

53
78
61
79

46
15
24
16

1
6
14
4

T otal.............

39

135

8,370

8,370

5,808

69

23

1 Not including 4 plants (7 stacks) not reported.




73,310
301,856
252,286
1 88,820

8 1 716,272

2 47 stacks previous to Sept. 9.

31

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.

T ab l e 10.— TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
BLA ST F U R N A C E S—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

No.

Plants. Stacks.

1914.

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

39
7
10
11
11

T otal. . .
.Tuna. E a ste r n ____

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Actually
worked.

No.

P .ct.

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.
A ll
Slack other
work. causes.

P .c t.

T otal. . .
Pittshnnrh

W.

Southern.. . .

Southern.. . .

W.

Total
1913-14:
TCast.Arn
P ittsb u r g h __

G. L. and M. W .
Southern.. . .
Total

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

660
2,114
1,792
924

65
73
64
67

135

8,100

8,100

5,490

17
48
47
23

1,054
2 ,9 /6
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

666
1,935
1,732
930

135

8,370

8,370

5,263

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1.020 .............
2,880
2,820
1,380

1,020
540
2,880 • 1,773
2,820 1,477
1,380
888

39

G. L. and M. W .

1,020
2,880
9. 820
1 ,3 8 ^ ............

39

P ittsburgh

135

8,100

8,100

4,678

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

12,410
34,900
34,310
16,790

135 98,410

39

1914.

35
19
23
29

8
13
4

$76,182
274,318
242,636
i 78,615

68

24

8

i 671,751

63
65
59
65

37
26
23
30

9
17
4

77,494
272,331
240,652
i 82,407

63

27

10

1672,884

53
62
52
64

41
26
26
31

6
13
22
4

65,061
254,427
226,422
i 75,710

58

29

14

1621,620

12,410 7,172
34,900 27,205
34,310 21,453
16,790 12,990

58
78
63
77

35
13
23
17

7
932,303
9 3,612,251
14 3,141,790
6 i 1,045,358

98.410 68.820

70

20

10 18,731,708

53
68
54
63

41
21
37
26

6
14
9
11

75,368
266,299
210,834
i 67,920

7

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

558
2,034
1,574
900

39

135

8,370

8,370

5,066

61

30

11

i 620,421

Southern.

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

544
2,098
1,573
1,012

52
70
54
71

41
23
39
26

7
7
7
3

73,440
270,366
208,589
i 77,219

Total

39

135

8,370

8,370

5,227

62

31

6

i 629,614

S o u th er n ., Tr

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

424
1,972
1,420
982

42
68
50
71

41
24
41
26

17
7
9
3

69,183
256,714
190,601
i 79,015

Total

39

135

8,100

8,100

4,798

59

33

8

i 595,513

E a ste r n ____

Southern.. . .

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054,
442
2,976 1,758
2,914 ! 1,380
992
1,426 !

42
59
47
70

41
32
44
26

17
9
9
4

67,392
237,750
183,362
1 77,734

Total

39

135

8,370

8,370

4,572

55

36

9

1 566,238

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

1,020
2,880
2 ,8 2 0
1,380

398
1,445
1,278
916

39
50
45
66

44
35
48
26

17
14
7
8

62,740
199,435
163,952
i 68,778

39

135

8,100

8,100

4,037

5oj

39

11

i 494,905

July. E astern........
Pittsburgh
G. L. ana M. W .
Southern.
Total
A n sr. "EastA m ____

Pittsburgh

G. L». and M W

S «n t. E astern

Pittsburgh..........
G. Tj. and M. W

Oct.

Pittsburgh..........
G.

J j.

and

M.

W

N o v . E a s te r n ____
P ittsb u r g h _____

G. L. and M. W .
Southern.. . .
T otal




1 Not including 4 plants (7 stacks) not reported.

32

WAGES AND H O U RS OP LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 1 0 .— T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL PA Y R OLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
B LA ST FU R N A C E S—Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

1914.
Dec.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
in
not worked
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
m um
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack A ll
work. other
causes.

Plants. Stacks.
7
17
48
10
11
47
G. L. and M. W .
Southern. . . . .
11
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

No. P .c t.
34
355
1,358
46
1,142
39
928
65

53
42
52
26

14
13
9
9

39

135

8,370

8,370

3,783

45

44

11 i 476,237

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054^
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

373
1,507
1,170
876

35
51
40
61

59
39
53
30

6
10
7
9

57,202
199,504
161,171
i 65,687

8

1 483,564

Total

.. .

1915.
Jan. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .

No.

P .ct.

39

135

8,370

8,370

3,926

47

45

. .
Feb. Eastern
P itts b u r g h ........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern..

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

952
2,688
2,632
1,288

952
2,688
2,632
1,288

345
1,762
1,284
810

36
66
49
63

58
27
48
26

$57,175
191,181
158,643
i 69,238

6
51,650
7
197,807
3
166,543
11 , 1 61,448

T otal.............

39

135

7,560

7,560

4,201

56

38

6

i 477,448

Mar. Eastern
P itts b u r g h ........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

418
2,165
1,554
876

40
73
53
61

54
22
45
26

6
5
2
12

66,600
233,219
187,542
i 67,017

8,370 ______ _____
1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

8,370

5,013

60

35

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

420
2,160
1,688
867

41
75
60
63

53
21
38
25

T otal.............

39

135

Apr. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

5 i 554,378
6
4
2
13

64,911
240,615
189,829
i 64,538

T otal.............

39

135

8,100

8,100, 5,135

63

31

5 1559,893

May. E astern...............
P ittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

1,054
2,976
2,914
1,426

411
76!
60 !
67 |

53
20
36
26

6
4
4
7

67,844
259,569
202 664
168,211

434
2,268
1,746
958

T o ta l.............

39

135

8,370

8,370| 5,406

65

31

5

1598,288

June. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

1,020
2,880
2,820
1,380

420
2,461
1,742
1,020

41
85
62
74

53
12
34
22

6
3
4
4

64,670
285,687
200,506
i 70,915

8,100

5,643

70

26

4

i 621,778

T otal.............

39

135

8,100

1914-15:
E astftm _______
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

7
10
11
11

17
48
47
23

12,410
35,040
34,310
16,790

12,410 5,131
35,040 22,988
34,310 17,551
16,790 11,137

41
66
51
66

49
27
43
26

9
778,175
8 2,838,146
6 2,224,236
8 1837,720

T otal.............

39

135 98,550

98,550| 56,807

58

35

7 ' 6,678,277




i N o t including 4 plants (7 stacks) not reported.

33

VOLUM E OF EM PLO Y M EN T.

T a b l e 10.—TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
B E SSE M E R C O N V E R T E R S.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns
Turns
pos­
sible customarily
in
not worked
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Con­
Plants. verters,
1913.
7
July. Pittsburgh..........
19
G. L. and M. W.
5
13

527
310

No. P .ct.
18
93
18
56

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

434
254

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack A ll
work. other
causes.

No. P .ct.
415
96
245
96

4
4

(l)

$147,446
91,432

Total.............

12

32

837

149

18

688

660

96

4

C
1)

238,878

Aug. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

527
310

85
52

16
17

442
258

434
250

98
97

1
3

C
1)

152,112
90,636

0)

242,748

Total.............

12

32

837

137

16

700

684

98

2

Sept. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

510
300

74
42

15
14

436
258

432
249

99
97

1
3

140,394
87,953

Total.............
Oct.

12

32

810

116

14

694

681

98

2

228,347

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

527
310

68
40

13
13

459
270

454
270

99
100

1

130,199
83,820

Total.............

12

32

837

108

13

729

724

99

1

Nov. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

510
300

87
51

17
17

423
249

375
215

89
86

11
14

C
1)
C
1)

214,019
100,772
58,448

Total.............

12

32

810

138

17

672

590

88

12

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

527
310

87
54

17
17

440
256

281
153

64
60

29
34

8
7

80,615
46,238

Total.............
1914.
Jan. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

12

32

837

141

17

696

434

62

30

7

126,853

7
5

19
13

527
310

80
40

15
13

447
270

350
172

78
64

21
34

1
2

95,624
53,806

26

1

Dec.

Total.............

12

32

837

120

14

717

522

73

Feb. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

476
280

68
40

14
14

408
240

407
213

100
89

Total.............

12

32

756

108

14

648

620

96

4

Mar. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

527
310

75
50

14
16

452
260

441
230

98
88

2
12

159,220

0)
0)

0)

149,430
114,054
61,251

11

175,305
119,363
61,393

Total.............

12

32

837

125

15

712

671

94

6

Apr. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

510
300

68
40

13
13

442
260

397
208

90
80

8
19

2
1

95,942
55,816

180,756

Total.............

12

32

810

108

13

702

605

86

12

2

151,758

May. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

527
310

89
50

17
16

438
260

364
167

83
64

15
27

2
9

77,266
47,571

5

124,837

10

83,413
47,957
131,370

Tot'd.............

12

32

837

139

17

698

531

76

19

June. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

510
300

68
40

13
13

442
260

378
167

86
64

14
26

Total.............
1913-14:
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

12

32

810

108

13

702

545

78

18

4

7
5

19
13

6,205
3,650

942
555

15
15

5,263
3,095

4,728
2,539

90
82

9
15

1 1,337,200
2
786,321

Total.............

12

32

9,855

1,497

15

8,358

7,267

87

11

2 2,123,521

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

89728°— 17— B u ll. 218------ 3




(l)

34

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D T O ^A L P A Y R O LL IN EACH D IS ­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915-Continued.
B ESSE M E R GONVERTHRS—Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Con
Plants. verters.
1914.
7
19
July. Pittsburgh.
5
13
G. L. and M. W.
T otal..
Aug. Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.
T otal..
Sept. Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W .
T otal..
Oct.

Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.
T otal..

N ov. Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.
Total..
Dec. Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.
Total..
1915.
Jan. Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.
T otal..
Feb. Pittsburgh,
G. L. and M. W .
Total..

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

527
310

No. P .c t.
83
16
50
16

Turns customarily worked in
period.
Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

444
260

Per cent not
worked
Total
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack All
work. other
causes.

No. P .ct.
386
87
198
76

11
24

2

$89,250
53,507

1

142,757

12

32

837

133

16

704

584

83

16

7
5

19
13

527
310

85
52

16
17

442
258

395
160

89
62

11
38

88,622
46,026

12

32

837

137

16

700

555

79

21

134,648

7
5

19
13

510
300

75
47

15
16

435
253

374
174

86
69

14
31

82,965
44,038

12

32

810

122

15

688

548

80

20

127,003

7
5

19
13

527
310

78
41

15
13

449
269

367
158

82
59

18
41

79,890
40,926

12

32

837

119

14

718

525

73

27

120,816

7
5

19
13

510
300

77
51

15
17

433
249

253
134

58
54

42
46

55,791
30,885

12

32

810

128

16

682

387

57

43

86,676

7
5

19
13

527
310

90
54

17
17

437
256

277
128

63
50

37
46

4

59,602
34,687

12

32

837

144

17

693

405

58

40

1

94,289

7
5

19
13

527
310

87
50

17
16

440
260

350
148

80
57

20
40

3

79,133
40,545

12

32

837

137

16

700

498

71

28

1

119,678

7
5

19
13

476
280

68
40

14
14

408
240

365
174

89
73

10
28

1

89,448
45,303

12

32

756

108

14

648

539

83

16

Mar. Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

527
310

68
40

13
13

459
270

409
207

89
77

11
23

95,674
52,679

134,751

C
1)

Total........... .

12

32

837

108

13

729

616

84

16

148,353

Apr. Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.

7
5

19
13

510
. 300

68
40

13
13

442
260

386
215

87
83

13
17

86,807
52,568

Total............

12

32

810

108

13

702

601

86

14

139,375

7
5

19
13

527
310

87
50

17
16

440
260

417
232

95
89

5
11

92,190
57,731

12

32

837

137

16

700

649

93

7

149,921

7
5

19
13

510
300

68
40

13
13

442
260

428
238

97
92

3
8

98,473
58,758

12

32

810

108

13

702

666

95

5

157.231

7
5

19
13

6,205
3,650

934
555

15
15

5,271
3,095

4,407
2,166

84
70

16
29

(*)

12

32

9,855

1,489

15

8,366

6,573

79

21

C
1)

May. Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.
T otal..
June. Pittsburgh
G. L . and M. W .
T otal..
1914-15:
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.
Total.,




i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

1

997,845
557,653
1,555,498

35

VOLUM E OF EM PLO Y M EN T.

T able 10.—TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S .

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Turns customarily
Turns
period.
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays, Ag­
gre­
Maxi­ Sundays,
A ctually
gate
mum
and
worked.
num ­ holidays). num ­
ber.
ber.

Fur­
Plants. naces.
1913.
6
46
July. E astern................
6
Pittsburgh..........
89
G. L. and M. W .
7
73
Southern..............
3
20
Total.............

22

Aug. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............
Oct.

22

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

N ov. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

Dec. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. ana M .W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T o ta l............
1914.
Jan. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern.............

22
6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

Feb. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

Mar. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

Apr. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

Total ..........

22




2,852
5,518
4,526
1,240

228 14,136
46
89
73
20

No. P.Ct.
396
14
14
776
519
11
96
8
1,787

2,852
5,518
4,526
1,240

340
690
434
no

228j 14,136

1,574

46
89
73
20

2,760
5,340
4,380
1,200

286
542
386
88

228 13,680

1,302

47
89
73
20

2,856
5,518
4,526
1,240

279
488
328
88

229 14,140

1,183

47I
89
73!
20'

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

347
632
440
122

229 13,740

1,541

47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

402
835
492
114

229 14,198

1,843

47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

348
549
355
88

229 14,198

1,340

2,632
4,984
4,088
1,120

272
488
328
88

229 12,824

1,176

47
89
73
20

47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

306
549
383
no

229 14,198

1,348

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

272
488
328
88

229 13,740

1,176

47
89
73
20

2,456
4,742
4,007
1,144

No. P.Ct.
1,975
80
4,424
93
3,042
76
642
56

13 12,349 10,083
12
13
10
9

2,512
4,828
4,092
1,130

1,951
4,531
3,297
652

11 12,562 10,431
10
10
9
7

2,474
4,798
3,994
1,112

1,900
4,426
3,245
547

10 12,378 10,118

worked in
Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.
A ll
Slack other
work. causes.

4
2
12
27

16
4
12
17

$87,476
192,090
165,033
50,740

82

8

10

495,339

78
94
81
58

14
2
12
24

8
4
7
18

85,363
196,401
175,809
52,406

83

10

7

509,979

77
92
81
49

13
4
13
30

11
3
6
21

88,307
192,942
165,285
45,931

82

11

7

492,465

1,977
4,440
3,020
581

77
88
72
50

15
8
22
25

8
4
6
25

90,184
197,966
151,985
48,426

8 12,957 10,018

77

15

7

488,561

2,473
4,708
3,940
1,078

1,678
4,113
2,557
465

68
87
65
43

24
7
28
36

8
5
8
21

71,898
180,442
123,696
35,949

11 12,199

8,813

72

20

8

411,985

2,512
4,683
4,034
1,126

1,138
3,091
2,651
391

45
66
66
35

44
26
24
42

11
8
10
23

52,208
135,528
124,783
35,807

13 12,355

7,271

59

30

11

348,326

12
10
8
7

2,566
4,969
4,171
1,152

1,284
3,420
3,186
409

50
69
76
36

40
19
17
39

10
12
7
26

58,863
153,565
137,248
35,017

9 12,858

8,299

65

24

11

384,693

2,360
4,496
3,760
1,032

1,415
3,687
3,092
521

60
82
82
50

31
7
12
30

9
11
6
19

61,177
165,236
140,192
40,751

9 11,648

8,715

75

16

10

407,356

2,608
4,969
4,143
1,130

1,786
4,303
3,456
532

68
87
83
47

22
6
12
31

10
7
5
22

76,621
189,770
160,655
43,670

9 12,850 10,077

10
9
7
7

12
12
10
10

14
15
11
9

10
10
8
8

11
10
8
9

2,577
5,030
4,198
1,152

78

13

8

470,716

2,548
4,852
4,052
1,112

1,816
3,925
3,272
567

71
81
81
51

20
15
14
27

8
4
5
22

72,213
171,167
156,498
41,880

9 12,564

9,580

76

17

7

441,758

10
9
7
7

36

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN DUSTRY.

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL PA Y ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
O P EN -H EA R T H FU R N A C E S—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns customarily worked in
Turns
period.
Turns
pos­
sible customariJy
Per cent not
not worked
in
Total
worked
period: (Saturdays, Ag­
Maxi­ Sundays,
gre­
owing to— pay roll.
Actually
gate
and
mum
worked. num ­ holidays). num ­
Slack A ll
ber.
ber.
work. other
causes.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

J
Fur­
Plants. naces.
1914.
6
47
May. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
6
89
G. L. and M. W .
7
73
20
Southern.............
3

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

No. P . ct.
12
347
610
11
410
9
110
9

22

229 14,198

1,477

June. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

272
520
328
88

Total.............
1913-14:
E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

22

Total.............

6
6
7
3

Total.............

22

1914.
July. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

Aug. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

6
6
7
3

T otal............
Oct.

22

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

N ov. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

Dec. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22




47
89
73
20

229 13,740

1,208

34,068
64,970
53,290
14,600

3,867
7,167
4,731
1,190

47
89
73
20

229 166,928 16,955
47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

356
785
473
128

229 14,198

1,742

47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

340
690
434
140

229 14,198

1,604

47
89
73
20

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

286
542
356
112

229 13,740

1,296

47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

306
549
361
118

229 14,198

1,334

47
89
73
20

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

320
571
377
134

229 13,740

1,402

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

415
800
484
140

229 14,198

1,839

47
89
73
20

2,567
4,908
4,116
1,130

No. P . ct.
1,690
66
78
3,849
78
3,223
511
45

26
17
16
33

8
5
6
22

$69,210
159,999
151,747
39.349

10 12,721

9,273

73

20

7

420,305

2,548
4,820
4,052
1,112

1,542
3,856
3,224
525

61
80
80
47

31
11
13
33

9
9
7
20

65,724
167,617
148,769
41,916

9 12,532

9

424,026

10
10
7
7

9,147

73

18

30,201 20,152
57,803 48.065
48,559 37,265
13,410 6,343

67
83
77
47

24
10
16
31

10
879.244
6 2,102,723
7 1,801,700
21
511,842

10 149,973 111, 825

75

17

9 5,295,509

12
14!i
10,
10 |
12 j

2,558
4,733
4,053
1,H 2

1,611
3,974
3,189
458

63
84
79
41

28
5
15
40

9
11
6
18

72,378
174,389
137,153
35,630

12,456

9,232 j

74

16

10

419,550

12
13
10
11

2,574
4,828
4,092
1,100

1,461
4,247
3,217
564

57
88
79
51

36
5
15
30

8
7
6
19

70,689
186,487
143,028
42,347

11 12,594

9,489 1

8

442,551

1,345 |
4,040
2,975
492

75 1
53!
84i
74
45

17

2,534
4,798
4,024
1,088

38
io
22
38

9
6
4
17

64,063
178,216
132,325
35,066

9 12,444

8,852

71

22

7

409,670

2,608
4,969
4,165
1,122

1,135
3,373
2,698
355

44
68
65
32

50
26
32
48

6
6
3
20i

56,371
149,568
116,086
26,529

9 12,864

7,561

59

35

6

348,554

2,500
4,769
4,003
1,066

1,014
2,380
2,181
258

41
50
54
24

52
43
41
63

7
7
4
13

52,777
112,973
94,818
21,827

10 12,338

5,833

47

46

7

282,395

14
14
11
11

2,499
4,718
4,042
1,100

855
2,796
2,280i
320

34
59
56
29

58
34
40i
58;

7
6*
4
13;

49,081
121,776
92.846
24 ; 566

13 12,359

6,251

51

43

6

288,269

11
11
9
8

10
10
8
9

11
10
8
10

11
11
9
11

37

VOLUM E OF EM PLO Y M EN T.

T a b l e 10.—TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT. BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913. TO JUNE, 1915-Continued.
O P E N -H E A R T H F U R N A C E S —Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plantstm d
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Fur­
1915.
Plants. naces.
Jan. Eastern...............
6
47
Pittsburgh..........
6
89
G. L. ana M. W .
7
73
Souther; i..............
3
20
T otal............

22

Feb. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

Mar. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

Apr. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

Mav. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

June. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal............

22

1914-15:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

6
6
7
3

T otal.............

22

Turns customarily worked in
Turns
period.
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
in
not worked
Per cent not
Total
period: (Saturday^, Ag­
worked
Maxi­ Sundays,
owing to— pay rolL
gre­
Actually
mum
and
gate
worked.
num ­ holidays). num ­
All
Slack other
ber.
ber.
work. causes.

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

229 14,198

No. P .ct.
12
361
610
11
410
9
140
11
1,521

2,632
4,984
4,088
1,120

272
488
328
112

229 12,824

1,200

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

279
488
328
112

229 14,J98

1,207

47
89
73
20

47
89
73
20

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

272
488
328
112

229 13,740

1,200

47
89
73
20

47
89
73
20

2,914
5,518
4,526
1,240

340
610
410
140

229 14,198

1,500

2,820
5,340
4,380
1,200

272
520
328
112

229 13,740

1,232

47
89
73
20

47
89
73
20

34,310
64,970
53,290
14,600

3,819
7,141
4,617
1,500

229jl67,170 17,077

2,553
4,908
4,116
1,100

No.
P.ct.
44
M l
3,132
64
2,292
56
368
33

47
30
32
54

7
6
13
12

$60,407
142,636
94,462
27,171

6,905

54

36

10

324,676

2,360
4, 496
3,760
1,008

1,274
3,022
2,316
381

541
67,
62I
38

41
26
28
43

5
6
11
19

63,948
135,181
98,214
28,103

9 11,624

6,993

60

31

9

325,446

2,635
5,030
4,198
1,128

1,712
3,939
3,072
523

65
78
73
46

27
16
21
38

8
5
6
16

80,400
167,791
124,851
38,448

9 12,991

9,246

71

22

7

411,490

2,548
4,852
4,052
1,088

1,811
3,664
3,315
555

71
76
82
51

23
17
14
36

6
7
4
13

80,747
157,431
136,441
37,450

9 12,540

9,345

75

19

6

412,069

2,574 ! 1,866
4,908 4,192
4,116 3,550
614
1,100

72
85
86
56

19
8
9
29

9
6
5
16

83,961
174,742
150,796
41,089

11 12,698 10,222

81

12

7

450,588

10
10
7
9

1,932
4,403
3,393
577

76
91
84
53

18
1
11
27

6
7
5
20

86,388
189,396
142,45S
40,434

9 12,508 10,305

82

10

8

458,676

30,491 17,129
57,829 43,162
48,673 34,478
13,100 5,465

56
75
71
42

36
19
23
42

7
821,210
7 1,890,586.
6 1,463,478
16
398,660

10 150,093^100,234

67

26

8 4,573,934

8,035
1,273
2,383
1,299

59
9
44
48

29

25 36,040 12,990

36

11 12,677
10
' 10
8
10

10
9
7
9

10
9
7
9

12
11
9
11

11
11
9
10

2,548
4,820
4,052
1,088

P U D D L IN G M ILLS.
1913.
July. Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W
Southern...........

9
7
8
5

T otal...........

29




289 18,476
298 18,600
92 7,292
76 3,379

4,780
4,432
1,830
665

755 47,747 11,707

26 3,696
24 14,168
25 5,462
20 2,714

1 Not including 2 plants not reported.

30
127

12
91
26
25

$70,345
23, 664
44,820
42,005

1 18

46

180,894

38

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL PA Y R O L L IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
P U D D L IN G M ILLS—Continued.

Year, m onth, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Turns
Turng
pos­
sible customarily
in
not worked
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
and
mum
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Fur­
Plants. naces.
1913.
9
289 18,476
E astern...............
Aug.
7
298 18,600
Pittsburgh..........
8
92 7,502
G. L. and M. W .
76 3,379
Southern..............
5
T o ta l............

29

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

9
7
8
5

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

No. P .ct.
4,939
27 13,537
24 14,090
4,510
26 5,542
1,960
23 2,589
790

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

A ctually
worked.

Slack A ll
work. other
causes.

No. P .c t.
8,451
62
2,682
19
4,357
79
1,861
72

34
13
12
121

4
68
9
7

$75,682
45,745
82,826
43,649

755 47,957 12,199

25 35,758 17,351

49

121

30

247,902

4,492
4,086
1,794
653

25 13,388 10,626
23 13,914 3,260
25 5,466 4,391
20 2,617 2,103

79
23
80
80

19
16
12
U7

2
61
8
3

97,672
55,653
88,374
42,095

289 17,880
298 18,000
92 7,260
76 3,270

T otal.............
Oct.

29

755 46,410 11,025

24 35,385 20,380

58

1 16

26

283,794

Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

9
7
8
5

289 18,476
298 18,600
92 7,502
76 3,379

4,012
3,608
1,568
632

22 14,464 12,754
19 14,992 4,085
21 5,934 4,299
19 2,747 2,110

88
27
72
77

11
17
16
i 14

1
55
12
9

121,312
68,588
91,758
34,668

T otal............

29

755 47,957

9,820

20 38,137 23,248

61

i 14

25

316,326

N ov. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

289 17,880
298 18,000
92 7,260
76 3,270

4,775
4,780
1,968
790

27 13,105 11,133
27 13,220 2,805
27 5,292 3,150
24 2,480 1,797

85
21
60
72

14
24
37
110

1
55
3
17

106,499
50,606
58,445
29,893

755 46,410 12,313

27 34,097 18,885

55

121

23

245,443

289 18,476
298 18,600
92 7,502
76 3,379

26 13,750 10,173
25 13,923 4,831
27 5,452 3,048
23 2,586 1,398

74
35
56
54

19
34
43
130

7
31
1
16

96,487
70,456
49,860
24,125

26 35,711 19,450

54

130

16

240,928

23 14,265
22 14,492
24 5,724
20 2,698

9,844
5,965
3,769
1,357

69
41
66
50

28
30
33
121

3
29
1
28

90,346
81,931
62,216
24,827

755 47,957 10,778

22 37,179 20,935

56

i 29

15

259,320

289 16,688
298 16,800
92 6,776
76 3,052

3,708
3,608
1,568
632

22 12,980 11,442
21 13,192 7,489
23 5,208 3,875
21 2,420 1,333

88
57
74
55

11
19
23
i 26

1
24
2
18

106,408
93,966
68,319
16,089

Total.............

29

Dec. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern............

9
7
8
5

T otal............

29

1914.
Jan. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

T otal............

29

Feb. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

4,726
4,677
2,050
793
/
755 47,957 12,246
289 18,476
298 18,600
92 7,502
76 3,379

4,211
4,108
1,778
681

T otal.............

29

755 43,316

9,516

22 33,800 24,139

71

U7

11

284,782

Mar. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

289 18,476
298 18,600
92 7,502
76 3,379

4,304
4,208
1,810
741

23 14,172 11,238
23 14,392 10,820
24 5,692 4,124
22 2,638 1,730

79
75
72
66

18
20
26
121

3
5
2
13

107,296
117,299
76,611
29,961

Total.............

29

755 47,957 11,063

23 36,894 27,912

76

i 20

4

331,167

Apr. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

289 17,880
298 18,000
92 6,840
76 3,270

4,032
3,608
1,456
632

23 13,848 9,578
20 14,392 10,710
21 5,384 3,347
19 2,638 1,674

69
74
62
63

30
23
38
i 24

1
3
12

90,162
117,365
60,329
31,396

29

755 45,990

9,728

21 36,262 25,309

70

i 28

2

299,252

T otal............




i Not including 2 plants not reported.

39

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.

T a b l e 10.— TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
PU D D L IN G M ILLS—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns
pos­
Turns
Number of
sible customarily
plants and
in
of stacks, period: not worked
converters, Maxi­ (Saturdays,
Sundays,
furnaces,
mum
and
or m ills.
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Fur­
1914.
Plants. naces.
9
289 18,476
May. E astern................
298 18,600
7
Pittsburgh_____
G. L. and M .W .
92 7,068
8
Southern.............
76 3,379
5
T otal............

29

June. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

No. P .c t.
29 13,111
5,365
26 13,843
4,757
1,828
26 5,240
23 2,589
790

755 47,523 12,740
289 17,880
298 18,000
92 6,840
76 3,270

Turns customarily worked in
period.

4,488
3,608
1,456
632

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

A ctually
worked.

Slack A ll
work. other
causes.

No. P .c t.
7,726
59
9,262
67
58
3,019
52
1,255

41
29
4
42 ............
128
24

$74,146
105,672
55,515
22,297

3

257,630

3
10
31

67,607
99,310
49,351
30,572

5

246,840

27 34,783 21,262

61

136

7,149
9,674
2,724
1,069

53
67
51
41

46
29
39
129

25 13,392
20 14,392
21 5,384
19 2,638

(2)

Total.............

29

755 45,990 10,184

22 35,806 20,616

58

137

1913-14:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

289 217,540 53,832
298 219,000 49,990
92 86,846 21,066
76 39,785 8,431

25 163,708 118,149
23 169,010 72,856
24 65,780 42,486
21 31,354 18,986

72
43
65
61

25
21
29
122

3 1,103,962
930,255
36
788,424
6
371,637
17

755 563,171 133,319

24 429,852 252,477

59

i 24

17 3,194,278

287 18,290
298 18,600
93 7,099
76 3,379

26 13,510
21 14,668
22 5,526
19 2,735

4,641
8,900
2,392
831

34
61
43
30

23
14
29
144

43
25
27
26

45,555
82,417
44,361
13,887

T otal..........

29

1914.
July. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

T otal.............

29

Aug. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

T otal.............

29

Sept. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

Total.............
Oct.

29

Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

9
7
8
5

Total.............

29

Nov. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

T otal.............

29

Dec. E astern...............
1 ittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

Total............

29

4,780
3,932
1,573
644

754 47,368 10,929

23 36,439 16,764

46

122

32

186,220

287 18,290
298 18,600
93 7,099
76 3,379

5,481
4,510
1,875
790

26 12,809 6, 745
24 14,090 10,651
26 5,274 3,224
867
23 2,589

53
76
61
33

19
28
23
2
39
145 ........22

59,453
105,158
64,014
15,326

754 47,368 12,606

26 34,762 21,487

62

125

13

243,951

287 17, 700
298 18,000
93 6,870
76 3,270

27 12,951
23 13,850
25 5,181
20 2,617

5,900
7,812
3,185
759

46
56
61
29

29
42
38
i 49

26
1
1
22

49,609
90,368
56,350
16,543

754 45,840 11,241

24 34,599 17,656

51

137

12

212,870

287 18,290
298 18,600
93 7,099
76 3,379

26 13,501
21 14,690
22 5,503
20 2,698

2,772
7,866
2,386
1,042

21
54
43
39

60
44
52
138

20
3
4
23

26,657
88,605
43,231
20,396

754 47,368 10,976

23 36,392 14,066

39

151

11

178,889

287 17,700
298 18,000
93 6,870
76 3,270

28 12,754
25 13,522
27 5,039
23 2,529

5,521
4, 999
2,542
931

43
37
50
37

49
62
48
155

8
1
2
8

50,022
54,255
47, 249
16,771

754 45,840 11,996

26 33,844 13,993

41

1 54

4

168,297

287 18,290
298 18,600
93 7,099
76 3,379

27 13,410
24 14,200
25 5,355
23 2,586

5 857
5,’006
2,536
998

44
35
47
39

56
64
44
151

9
10

53,194
56,839
43, 704
19,606

25 35,551 14,397

40

157

2

173,343

4,749
4,150
1.689
653

4,789
3,910
1,596
681

4,946
4,478
1,831
741

4,880
4,400
1, 744
793

754 47,368 11,817

1 Not including 2 plants not reported.




(2)

2Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

40

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 10.— T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL PA Y R O LL IN EACH D IS­

TRICT, B Y MONTHS, JU LY, 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
PU D D L IN G M IL L S—Concluded.

Turns
pos-

Turns
Number of
customarily
plants and
in
not worked
of stacks,
con erters, period: (Saturdays,
MaxiSundays,
furnaces,
and
or m ills.
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Year, month, and
district.

Fur­
Plants. naces.
1915.
9
287 18,290
Jan. Eastern................
298 19,464
7
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
8
93 7,099
5
Southern..............
76 3,379
T otal....................

29

Feb. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

T otal.............

29

Mar. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

T otal.............

29

Apr. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

Total............

29

May. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

Total...........

29

June. Eastern................
P ittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

No. P .ct.
5,303
23 12,987
4,948
25 14,516
1,825
26 5,274
790
23 2,589

754 48,232 12,866

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

A ctually
worked.

Slack A ll
work. other
causes.

No. P .ct.
8,066
62
8,741
60
2,640
50
1,050
41

38
39
49
2 50

27 35,366 20,497

58

8,124
8,388
2, 796
1,150

65
61
56
48

35
36
43
2 51

754 43,680 10,016

23 33,664 23, 4c8

61

2 38

287 18,290
298 19,592
93 7,099
76 3,379

4,060
3,938
1,460
632

22 14,230 9,527
20 15,654 11,994
21 5,639 2,793
19 2,747 1,277

67
77
50
46

754 48,360 10,090

21 38,270 25,591

67

33 !
23
50 !
2 48
1
2 32

287 17,700
298 18,960
93 6,870
76 3,270

25 13,336 8,594
20 15,096 10,508
21 5,410 2,445
19 2,638
762

64
70
45
29

35
28
52
2 52

287 16,520
298 17,696
93 6,412
76 3,052

4,060
3,864
1,460
632

4,364
3,864
1,460
632

12,460
13,832
4,952
2,420

754 46,800 10,320

22 36,480 22,309

61

32 12,483
26 14,592
26 5,235
23 2,589

8,078
8,750
2,083
660

65
60
40
25

35
38
60
2 53

754 48,360 13,461

28 34,899 19,571

56

287 17,700
298 18,960
93 6,870
76 3,270

4,377
3,864
1, 460
632

25 13,323 7,229
20 15,096 12,520
21 5,410 2,830
19 2,638 1,050

54
83
52
40

46
14
47
2 51

227,307

3

67,932
89, 716
47,064
19,081

1
1
0

0)
0)
6

2?3, 793
79,618
119, 734
47, 429
17,856
264,637

C
1)

C
1)

0)

7?,558
10", 069
43, 764
17,817
226,208

2
22

66,431
93 , 293
38,202
14,747

3

0)

2
3
19
1

C
1)

2 41

5,807
5,000
1,864
790

$71,276
96,459
42,836
16,706

C
1)

2 36

287 18,290
298 19,592
93 7,099
76 3,379

C
1)

1
1
10
2

2 41

25!
22j
23'
21

0)

210,673

3
1
9

64,571
121,059
48,063
16,862

2

250,555

T otal............

29

754 46,800 10,333

22 36,467 23,629

65

2 33

1914-15:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

9
7
8
5

287 215,350 57,596
298 224,664 50,858
93 83,585 19, 787
76 39,785 8,410

27 157, 754 81,054
23 173,806 106,135
24 63, 798 31,852
21 31,375 11,377

51
61
50
36

38
35
46
2 49

11
707,876
4 1,038,972
4
564, 297
15
205,598

T otal............

29

754 563,384 136,651

24 426, 733 230,418

54

2 39

7 2,576,743

ct.
100
95
92
93

4
6
4

1
3
3

$22,980
125,978
76,323
24,550

95

4

1

249,831

BLOOMING M ILLS.
Plants. Mills.
1913.
3
3
July. Eastern...............
10
3 11
Pittsburgh..........
48
7
G. L. and M. W.
3
3
Southern.............
Total.............

23

5 25

186
713
465
124
1,488;

No. P .ct.
43
23
17
119
17
77
17
14

143
594
388
107

17

1,232

256

No. P .
143
567
356
100
1,166

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 N ot including 2 plants not reported.
3 12 m ills in our wage report, 1 not reported here.
* 10 in our wage report, 2 rail blooming m ills not reported here.
6 28 mills in our wage report, 3 not reported here.




41

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.

T a b l e 10.— TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.

Year, m onth, and
district.

1913.

Turns customarily worked in
Turns
period.
pos­
Turns *
sible customarily
Per cent not
in
not worked
Total
worked
period: (Saturdays, Ag­
Maxi­ Sundays,
owing to— pay roll.
gre­
A ctually
mum
and
gate
worked.
num ­ holidays). num ­
Slack A ll
ber.
ber.
work. other
causes.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Plants Mills.
£
3
11
10
G. L. and M. W.
7
8
Southern.............
3
3

186
713
465
124

No. P.Ct.
22
40
no
15
74
16
20
16

146
603
391
104

No. P.Ct.
132
90
597
99
377
96
100
104

10
1
3

0)

3

C
1)

Total.............

23

25

1,488

244

16

1,244

1,210

97

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690
450
120

32
94
61
16

18
14
14
13

148
596
389
104

144
583
367
84

97
98
94
81

2
6
18

0)

Total.............

23

25

1,440

203

14

1,237

1,178

95

4

0)

Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

11
8
3

186

713
465
124

32
88
56
16

17
12
12
13

154
625
409
108

152
581
373
95

99
93
91
88

1,488

192

13

1,296

1,201

93

7

180
690
450
120

40
114
72
22

22
17
16
18

140
576
378
98

94
512
286
75

67
89
76
77

31
11
23
21

$19,380
126,808
78,145
24,618

Oct.

3!

Total.............

23

25

N ov. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
C. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3!
11 1
8|
3

248,951
3

1

19,96
125, l l 6
76,208
20,577
241,870

1
7
9
12

21,439
123,318
73,302
19,189
237,248

(!)

1
2

14,283
106,719
59,354
14,902

2

Total.............
Dec.

23

25

1,440

248

17

1,192

967

81

18

1

195,258

Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

36
123
79
20

19
17
17
16

150
590
386
104

74
428
237
68

49
73
61
65

46
19
32
20

5
9
6
14

9,914
88,111
52,663
14,870

258

17

1,230

807

66

26

8

165,558

22
14
13
13

146
611
405
108

59
499
297
79

40
82
73
73

60
16
24
27

3
3

7,544
102,015
60,007
14,986

Total.............

23

31
186
713
11
8
465
31
124
25 1,488

1914.
Jan. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

11
8
3

186
713
465
124

40
102
60
16

3

Total.............

23

25

1,488

218

15

1,270

934

74

25

2

184,552

Feb. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

168
644
420
112

36
88
56
16

21
14
13
14

132
556
364
96

64
541
297
2 103

48
97
82
107

52
2
18

1
1

10,127
111,591
61,508
18,141

Total.............

23

25

1,344

196

15

1,148

1,005

88

12

1

201,367

Mar. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124]

41
99
66
20

22
14
14
16

145
614
399
104

110
572
333
3 105

76
93
83
101

23
7
16

1
C
1)

15,543
121,530
67,128
21,291

0)

Total.............

23

25

l,488j

226

15

1,262

1,120

89

11

Apr. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690,
450
120 !

36
88
56
16

20
13
13

144
602
394
104j

113
480
317
89

78
80
80
86

19
17
19
14

Total.............

23

25

l,440j

196

14

1,244

999

80

18

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




12 j

* Including 7 extra turns.

225,492
3
3

16,728
102,487
64,061
18,214

2

201,490

C
1)

3 Including 1 extra turn.

42

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TO TAL PA Y R O L L IN EACH D IS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
BLOOMING M ILLS—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

1914.
Plants. Mills.
3
3
May. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
10
11
7
G. L. and M. W.
8
Southern.............
3
3

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

186
713
465
124

Turns custom arily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

No. P .c t.
24
45
114
16
70
15
20
16

141
599
395
104

Per cent n o t
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

A ctually
worked.

Slack All
work. other
causes.

No. P .c t.
103
73
375
63
308
78
82
79

27
32
21
21

6
1

$14,553
85,344
62,725
18,401

Total.............

23

25

1,488

249

17

1,239

868

70

27

3

181,023

June. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690
450
120

36
88
56
16

20
13
12
13

144
602
394
104

114
438
311
83

79
73
79
80

21
24
20
17

3
1
3

15,507
94,760
62,593
18,362

Total.............

23

25

1,440

196

14

1,244

946

76

22

2

191,222

1

1913-14:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

2, 190
8,395
5,475
1,460

457
1,227
783
215

21
15
14
15

1,302
6,173
3,859
1,067

75
86
82
86

24
12
16
13

1
187,967
2 1,313,777
794,017
1
1
228,101

2,682

15 14,838 12,401

84

15

2 2 ,523,862

76
84
74
57

24
14
26
6

2
1
37

14,512
104,972
60,840
15,097

4

195,421

7

12,213
112,604
59,241
18,243

1

202,301

7

11,072
98, 798
56,012
13,687

Total.............

23

25 17,520

1914.
July. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124

38
109
70
17

1,733
7,168
4,692
1,245

20
15
15
14

148
604
395
107

113
506
291
61

Total.............

23

25

1,488

234

16

1,254

971

77

18

Aug. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W.
Southern..............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124

45
110
74
20

24
15
16
16

141
603
391
104

89
548
288
94

63
91
74
90

37
9
26
3

Total.............

23

25

1,488

249

17

1,239

1,019

82

17

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W.
Southern..............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690
450
120

36
97
63
16

20
14
14
13

144
593
387
104

77
479
277
76

53
81
72
73

47
19
28
20

Total.............

23

25

1,440

212

15

1,228

909

74

25

1

179,569

Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M. W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124

40
99
60
16

22
14
13
13

146
614
405
108

87
439
268
62

60
71
66
57

40
29
34
36

6

11,558
86,235
54,691
10,423

Total.............

23

25

1,488

215

14

1,273

856

67

32

1

162,907

N ov. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690
450
120

41
103
68
20

23
15
15
17

139
587
382
100

79
326
198
53

57
56
52
53

43
44
48
36

11

10,497
68,775
41,541
9,442

Total.............

23

1,440

232

16

1,208

656

54

45

1

130,255

Dec. Eastern................
Pittsburgh. .
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124

48
123
76
19

26
17
16
15

138
590
389
105

64
381
208
59

46
65
53
56

54
35
42
32

4
11

8,941
79,695
43,695
10,752

Total.............

23

25

1,488

266

18

1,222

712

58

39

2

143,083

Oct.




25

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

0)
0)

C
1)

0)

43

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.
T a b l e 10.— TURNS

POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
BLOOMING MILLS—Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns customarily worked in
Turns
period.
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
Per cent not
in
not worked
Total
worked
period: (Saturdays, Ag­
Maxi­ Sundays,
gre­
owing to— pay roll.
A ctually
gate
mum
and
worked.
num ­ holidays). num ­
Slack A ll
ber.
ber.
work. other
causes.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

1915.
Plants. Mills.
3
Jan. Eastern
_
11
10
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
7
8
Southern.............
3
3

186
713
465
124

No. P .ct.
24
45
114
16
70
15
20
16

141
599
395
104

No. P .c t.
56
40
422
70
68
267
53
51

60
30
32 V 1)
41
8

$7,101
92,450
51,777
11,802

Total.............

23

25

1,488

249

17

1,239

798

64

35

1

163,130

Feb. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

168
644
420
112

36
88
56
16

21
14
13
14

132
556
364
96

57
422
274
58

43
76
75
60

55
22
25
33

2
2
6

7,683
86,276
53,982
13,309

Total.............

23

25

1,344

196

811

71

28

2

161,250

Mar. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124

36
88
56
16

15
19
12
12
13

1,148
150
625
409
108

99
523
336
88

66
84
82
81

34
16
18
18

1

14,333
106,238
62,274
16,761

Total.............

23

25

1,488

196

13

1,292

1,046

81

19

0)

199,606

Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690
450
120

36
88
56
16

20
13
12
13

144
602
394
104

88
523
344
90

61
87
87
87

39
13
13
13

(!)

13,183
110,608
63,178
16,268

0)

203,237

Apr.

Total.............

23

25

1,440

196

14

1,244

1,045

84

16

May. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh.. ..
G. Jj . andM . W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

186
713
465
124

45
112
70
20

24
16
15
16

141
601
395
104

92
563
338
95

65
94
86
91

35
6
14
9

14,370
122,893
64,536
17,256
219,055

Total.............

23

25

1,488

247

17

1,241

1,088

88

12

June. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

180
690
450
120

36
88
56
16

20
13
12
13

144
602
394
104

89
584
322
100

62
97
82
96

38!
3
18
3

1
1

14,268
125,538
62,301
17,585

Total.............

23

25

1,440

196

14

1,244

1,095

88

12

0)

219,692

1914-15:
E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .
Southern.............

3
10
7
3

3
11
8
3

2,190
8,395
5,475
1,460

482
1,219
775
212

22
15
14
15

1,708
7,176
4,700
1,248

990
5,716
3,411
889

58
80
73
71

42
20
27
21

0)
0)
0)

139,731
1,195,082
674,068
8
170,625

Total.............

23

25 17,520

2,688

15 14,832 11,006

74

25

1 2,179,506

71
86
80

29
11
20

3

$51,797
107,619
53,205

1

212,621

P L A T E M ILLS.

1913.

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M . W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

113
100
41

23
18
19

383
458
176

273
395
141

T otal............

13

21

1,271

254

20

1,017

809

80

19

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

120
100
40

24
18
18

376
458
177

256
393
135

68
86
76

32
14
24

50,715
116!341
54,979

Total.............

13

21

1,271

260

20

1,011

784

78

22

222,035




i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

44

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TO TAL PA Y R O LL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU LY, 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
PL A T E MILLS—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

1913.
Pittsburgh..........
G .L. and* M. W .

Turns custom arily worked in
Turns
period.
Turns
pos­
Number of
sible customarily
plants and
in
not worked
Per cent not
of stacks,
Total
worked
converters, period: (Saturdays, Ag­
Maxi­ Sundays,
owing to— pay roll.
gre­
furnaces,
A ctually
mum
and
gate
or mills.
worked.
num ­ holidays). num ­
Slack All
ber.
ber.
work. other
causes.
Plants. Mills.
8
3
6
9
4
4

480
540
210

No. P .c t.
96
20
15
80
17
36

384
460
174

No. P .c t.
246
64
84
388
115
66

36
16
34

$51,709
112,813
48,275
212,797

Total.............

13

21

1,230

212

17

1,018

749

74

26

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

96
80
32

19
14
15

400
478
185

274
382
138

69
80
75

32
20
25

C
1)

54,029
116,209
54,862

Total.............

13

21

1,271

208

16

1,063

794

75

25

0)

225,100

N ov. E astern...............
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

480
540
210

120
*104
40

25
19
19

360
436
170

201
333
88

56
76
52

44
24
48

43,640
102,009
39,849
185,498

Oct.

T o ta l................

13

21

1,230

264

21

966

622

64

36

Dec. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

113
103
43

23
18
20

383
455
174

207
305
105

54
67
60

46
29
35

4
5

42,954
93,916
40,248

T otal.............

13

21

1,271

259

20

1,012

607

61

37

2

177,118

1914.
Jan. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

104
89
33

21
16
15

392
469
184

219
255
95

56
54
52

37
48
48

7

44,460
86,574
35,529

1,271

226

18

1,045

569

54

43

3

166,563

96
80
32

21
16
16

352
424
164

252
310
122

72
73
74

28
26
26

C
1)

46,446
93,468
40,793

0)

180,707

T otal............

13

21

Feb. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

448[
504
196j

T otal............

13

21

1,148

208

18

940

684

73

27

Mar. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

112
92
39

23
16
18

384
466
178

251
288
109

65
62
61

35
38
39

46,646
87,954
38,617

T otal............

13

21

1,271 !

243

19

1,028

648

63

37

173,217

Apr. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

480!
540!
210

96
80
32

20
15
15

384
460
178

238
337
118

62
73
66

38
27
34

45,384
98,030
37,337
180,751

T otal.............

13

21

1,230

208

17

1,022

693

68

32

May. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L. and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

496
558
217

120
100
40

24
18
18

376
458
177

218
262
111

58
57
63

42
40
37

3

43,982
79,250
34,741

T otal............

13

21

1,271

260

20

1,011

591

58

40

1

157,973

June. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

8
9
4

480
540
210

96
80
32

20
15
15

384
460
178

248
298
113

65
65
63

35
3 5 ______
37

45,215
89,922
33,728

Total.............

13

21

1,230

208

17

1,022

659

64

36

1913-14:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W -

3
6
4

8
9
4

5,840 1,282
6,570> 1,088
440
2,555

22
17
17

4,558
5,482
2,115

2,883
3,946
1,390

63
72
66

36
27
34

19 12,155

8,219

68

33

T otal............




13

21 14,9651 2,810

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

168,865

C
1)

1
566,977
1 1,184,105
512,163
1 2,263,245

45

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.

T a b l e 10.— TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
PL A T E M ILLS—Continued.

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
m
not worked
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Year, month, and
district.

Plants. Mills.
1914.
3
7
July. E astern...............
6
Pittsburgh..........
9
4
G .L . and M .W .
4

434
558
217

No. P .ct.
21
91
16
91
18
38

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

343
467
179

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to — pay roll.

A ctually
worked.

A ll
Slack other
work. causes.

No. P .c t.
66
228
285
61
115
64

34
38
36

1

$48,205
87,462
32,511

13

20

1,209

220

18

989

625

63

36

Aug. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

434
558
217

105
100
40

24
18
18

329
458
177

231
234
99

70
51
56

30
49
44

48,209
82,273
29,253

T otal............

168,178

0)

T otal.............

13

20

1,209

245

20

964

564

59

41

159,735

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

7
9

420
540
210

92
84
36

22
16
17

328
456
174

210
246
98

64
54
56

36
46
44

39,351
77,746
30,248
147,345

T otal.............
Oct.

13

20

1,170

212

18

958

554

58

42

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L . and M .W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

434
558
217

91
88
33

21
16
15

343
470
184

125
184
82

36
39
45

64
60
55

C
1)

24,005
61,470
27,611

0)

113,086

T o ta l.............

13

20

1,209

212

18

997

391

39

61

N ov. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

420
540
210

98
96
39

23
18
19

322
444
171

127
156
75

39
35
44

61
65
56

25,124
49,586
26,103

T otal.............

13

20

1,170

233

20

937

358

38

62

Dec. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

434
558
217

98
109
44

23
20
20

336
449
173

78
192
63

23
43
36

47
56
64

30
1

14,412
56,605
21,886

100,813

Total.............

13

20

1,209

251

21

958

333

35

54

11

92,903

1915.
Jan. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

434
558
217

105
100
40

24
18
18

329
458
177

148
191
83

45
42
47

30
57
53

25
1

22,907
58,530
26,108

T otal............

13

20

1,209

245

20

964

422

44

47

9

107,545

Feb. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

392
504
196

84
80
32

21
16
16

SO
S!
424
164

183
306
102

59
72
62

41
24
38

4

32,269
92,095
30,487

2

154,851

T otal............

13

20

1,092

196

18

896

591

66

32

Mar. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

434
558
217

84
80
32

19
14
15

350
478
185

200
338
114

57
71
62

43
29
38

38,383
107,815
33,521

T otal............

13

20

1,209

196

16

1,013

652

64

36

179,719

Apr. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

3
6

420
540
210

84
80
32

20
15
15

336
460
178

238
245
112

71
53
63

29
47
37

0)

42 289
76,’ 826
33,727

I_____ !

7
1
9j
4

T otal............ |

13

20

1,170

196

17

971|

595 .

61

39

(0

152,842

May. Eastern............... 1
Pittsburgh.......... !
G .L . and M .W . j

3
6
4

7
9
4

434
558
217

107
100
40

25
18
18

397i
458!
177|

990
309
117

70
67
66

30
32
34

0)

44,558
95,042
34,768

13

20

1,209

247

20

902

655

68

32

0)

174,368

T otal............




1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

46

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTBY.

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIB L E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL P A Y R O L L IN EACH D IS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
PL A T E M ILLS—Concluded.

Year, m onth, and
district.

Turns
Turns
pos­
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Plants. Mills.
1915.
7
3
June. Eastern................
6
9
Pittsburgh..........
4
4
G .L .a n d M . W .

420
540
210

No. P .ct.
84
20
15
80
32
15

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

336
400
178

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

All
Slack other
work. causes.

No. P .ct.
269
80
379
82
134
75

20
17
25

1

$46,564
112,909
38,506

T otal.............

13

20

1,170

196

17

974

782

80

19

1

197,979

1914-15:
Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
4

7
9
4

5,110
6,570
2,555

1,123
1,088
438

22
17
17

3,987
5,482
2,117

2,266
3,065
1,194

57
50
56

39
43
44

4
1

426,276
958,359
364,729

T otal.............

13

20 14,235

2,649

11,586

6,525

56

42

2 1,749,364

99
102
135

100
96|
88

1
7

3
5

$45,816
‘ 55,459
103,906

3

3

205,181

i 1
9

S T A N D A R D R A IL M ILLS.
1913.
July. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L .a n d M . W .
T otal.

2
2
3

2
2
3

124
124
186

25
18
32

7

7

434

2

2
3

124
2
124
186

20
15
17

99
106
154

75

17

359

336

941

25
20
30

20
16
16

99
104
156

i 103
104
148

1041
100
95 j

Aug. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

3

T otal............

7

7

434

75

17

359j

355

99|

_
Sept. E astern_
Pittsburgh.
G. L. andM . W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

120
120
180

21
16
28

18
13
16

99,
104
152

99
104
143

100
100
941

7

7

420

65

15

355

346

E a ster n ...
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

124
124
186

20
16
24

16
13
13

104
108
162

2 106;

8 109
124 !

7

7

434

60

14

374

339

2
2
3

2
2
3

120
120
180

26
20
30

22
17
17

94
100
150

71
100
87

7

7

420

76

18

344

258

2
2

2
2

124
124
3
186

24
19
34

19
15
18

100
105
152

47
76
84

7

7

434

77

18

357

2
2
.3

2
2
3

124
124
186

21
18
24

17
15
13

Oct.

T o ta l..
N ov. E a ster n ...
Pittsburgh____
G. L .a n d M . W .
T o ta l.
_
Dec. E astern_
Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M . W .
T otal.
1914.
Jan. E a ster n ...
Pittsburgh
G. L .a n d M . W .
T otal.

2

3

~
k

•
l!1
I

6

457951
57,564
112,256
215,771
44,301
57,051
99,392

3 j............
-------- 1
----------

200,744

---------102 ........ 1

44,098
59,250
81,690

97

101
77l
91'

23

9
185,038
1
24
_ 27,392
76!
52,C21
100
56,302
58
4 2 ............
! .
1
136,315
75
25
18,525
43,841
54,929

207

47,
72
55!
1
58|

53!............
281_____
45
42

103
106
162

34
51
86

33
48
53

67
52
47

14,692
26,667
57,179

117,295

7

7

434

63

15

371

171

46

54

98,538

Feb. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

112
112
168

20
16
24

18
14
14

92
96
144

28
83
112

30
86
78

70
14
22

12,226
40,106
61,851

T otal............

7

7

392

60

15

332

223

67

33

114,183

i Including 4 extra turns.




* Including 2 extra turns.

* Including 1 extra turn.

47

VOLUM E OF EM PLO Y M EN T.

T a b l e 10.—TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­

TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915-Continued.
ST A N D A R D R A IL M ILLS—Continued.

Year, m onth, and
district.

Turns customarily worked in
Turns
period.
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
Per cent not
not worked
in
Total
worked
period: (Saturdays, Ag­
owing to— pay roll.
Maxi­ Sundays,
gre­
Actually
mum
and
gate
worked.
num ­ holidays). num ­
A ll
Slack other
ber.
ber.
work. causes.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Plants. Mills.
1914.
2
2
Mar. Eastern................
2
2
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .
3
3

124
124
186

No. P.Ct.
24
19
18
15
16
30

100
106
156

No. P.Ct.
77
77
66
70
66
103

23
34
31

3

$29,429
39,827
61,443

T otal.............

7

7

434

72

17

362

250

69

30

1

130,699

Apr. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

120
120
180

20
16
24

17
13
13

100
104
156

85
80
112

85
77
72

15
23
25

3

34,601
42,504
62,507

T otal.............

7

7

420

60

14

360

277

77

22

1

139,612

May. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

124
124
186

25
20
30

20
16
16

99
104
156

86
103
104

87
99
67

13
1
33

33,540
50,461
59,166
143,167

T otal.............

7

7

434

75

17

359

293

82

18

JnneT "Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

120
120
180

20
16
24

17
13
13

100
104
156

82
75
101

82
72
65

18
28
35

1

33,204
40,250
59,589

T otal.............

7

7

420

60

14

360

258

72

28

0)

1913-14:
Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M .W .

2
2
3

2
2
3

1,460
1,460
2,190

271
213
334

19
15
15

1,189
1,247
1,856

917
1,057
1,339

77
85
72

23
15
27

C
1)

T otal.............

7

7

5,110

818

16

4,292

3,313

77

22

1 1,819,586

1914.
July. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .and M .W ..

2
2
3

2
2
3

124
124
186

22
19
30

18
15
16

102
105
156

82
99
111

80
94
71

20
6
29

31,871
47,624
60,166

133,043

1

383,775
565,001
870,210

T otal.............

7

7

434

71

16

363

292

80

20

139,661

Aug. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M.W.

2
2
3

2
2
3

124
124
186

25
20
30

20
16
16

99
104
156

22
98
98

22
94
63

78
6
37

9,441
50,109
55,690

T otal.............

7

7

434

75

17

359

218

61

39

115, 240

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .and M .W ..

2
2
3

2
2
3

120
120
180

20
16
28

17
13
16

100
104
152

46
104
85

46
100
56

54
44

16,541
45,826
49,937

71

7

420

64

15

356

235

66

34

112,304

Oct. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L.and M .W ..

T otal.............

2
2
3

2
2
3

124
124
186

21
18
24

17
15
13

103
106
162

47
99
63

46
93
39

54
7
61

18,359
42,090
40,283

T otal.............

7

7

434

63

15

371

209

56

44

100,732

Nov. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L.and M .W ..

2
2
3

2
2
3

120
120
180

24
18
30

20
15
17

96
102
150

61
38
55

64
37
37

36
63
63

23,606
17,668
29,968

T otal.............

7

7

420

72

17

348

154

44

56

71,242

Dec. Eastern................
P ittsb u rg h .........
G.L. ana M .W ..

2
2
3

2
2!
3i

124
124
186

22
20
32

IS!
ie>
17

102
104
154

21
74
61

21
71
40

79
29
60

10,465
31,689
37,716

T o ta l.............

7

7

434t

74

17

36Cl

156

43

57

79,870




1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

48

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 10.— TURNS

POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
ST A N D A R D R A IL M ILLS—Concluded.

Year, m onth, and
district.

Turns
Turns
pos­
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
and
mum
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
con erters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

No.

Plants. Mills.
1915.
2
Jan. Eastern..........
2
Pittsburgh. . .
3
G.L. and M .W ..

16
16

No.
104
156

168

$12,798
24,214
33,771
70,783
15,708
30,388
35,482

57

392

81,578

104
108
162

124
124
186

T otal.

'.ct.
29
54
44

92
96
144

112

T otal.

A ll
Slack
work. other
causes.

43

56

17

112

Mar. E astern..............
Pittsburgh........
G.L. and M .W .

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

A ctually
worked.

20

75

434

T otal.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

P .ct.

124
124
186

Feb. Eastern..........
Pittsburgh. . .
G .L .and M .W ..

Turns customarily worked in
period.

ll
...!
16

25!.

120
180

100
104
156
217

60

31

124
124
186

99
104
157

74
104
127

75|

25;.

100|......|
811

19:

100
104
156

74
104

74|
1001
,
77;

26 .

83

17

120

52|.
21!

T otal.
May. Eastern.
Pittsburgh..
G .L .an d M .W ..

434

T otal.
June. E astern..........
Pittsburgh_____
G .L.and M .W ..

74

120
180

T otal.

120

5,110

103,154
25,579
49,788
64,121

57,414
61,523

23

18
15
15

1,196
1,245
1,861

650
956
1,035

16

264
215
329

34,288
21,744
47,122

139,488

360

T otal.
1.460
1.460
2,190

20j

17

120

1914-15:
Eastern..........
P ittsburgh...
G .L.and M .W ..

101,814

36

434

Apr. Eastern.
Pittsburgh..
G.L. and M .W ..

31,916
30,816
39,082

4,302

2,641

61

37

257,200
449,370
554,861
2 1,261,431

B A R M ILLS.
1913.
July. Eastern................
Pittsburgh..........
G.L. and M .W ..
Southern..............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
837

461
575
467
170

23
22
22
20

1,554
2,060
1,610
667

1,132
1,847
1,037
536

73
90
64
79

19
9
15
9

8
1
21
12

$104,087
285,281
184,450
65,028

22

13

9

638,846

8
6

107,859
289,672
215,876
68,659

3

682,066

4
5

114,806
320,923
226,490
64,673

2,

708,892

T otal.............

58

131

7,564

1,673

Aug. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G.L. and M .W ..
Southern..............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
837

487
540
470
190

T otal.............

58

131

7,564

1,687

Sept. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L.and M .W ..
Southern..............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

1,950
2,550
2,010
810

438
439
437
162

58,j

131

7,320

1,476

T otal.............




1

5,891

4,542 1

24| 1,528
201 2,095
23 1,607
23j
647

1,195i
1,922 ;
1,245:
563;

77
78
92
77
87

22
8
15
7

22'

5,877

4,925

84

13

22 1,512
17 2,111
22 1,573
20 1
648
20, 5,844:

1,254
1,996
1,292
532

83 !
95
82
82 1

14
13

5,074

87 i

U|

Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

17
5

0)

0)

49

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.
T a b l e 10.— TURNS

POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
BAR. M ILLS—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

Turns customarily worked in
period.
Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
worked
Total
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack All
other
work. causes.

Plants. Mills.
16
36
14
41
35
19
19
9
T otal.............
131
58

2,015
2,635
2,077
837

No. P .ct.
20
399
412
16
376
18
152
18

1,616
2,223
1,701
685

No. P.ct.
1,184
73
90
2,008
1,246
73
500
73

7,564

1,339

18

6,225

4,938

Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M. W .
Southern.............

1913.

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

1,950
2,550
2,010
810

524)
5271
486!
206

27
21
24
25

1,426
2,023
1,524
604

924
1,739
869
437

Pittsburgh..........
G. L .andM . W .
Southern.............

27
9
17
25

1
10
2

$112,730
307,832
228,195
60,042

79

18

3

708,799

65
86
57
72

35
13
36
23

1
7
5

91,745
256,305
160,297
48,131

T otal.............

58

131

7,320

1,743

24

5,557

3,969

71

26

3

556,478

Dec. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,035
2,077
837

476
548
482
201

24
21
23
24

1,539
2,087
1,595
636

894
1,435
852
371

58!
69
53
58

36
20
38
31

6
11
8
10

83,612
199,492
153,171
42,051

T otal.............
1914.
Jan. E astern................
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern.............

58

131

7,564

1,707

23

5,857

3,552

61

31

9

478,326

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
837

457
451
420
166

23
17
20
20

1,558
2,184
1,657
671

937
1,573
930
420

60
72
56
63

37
26
39
34

3
2
5
4

89,817
213,525
162,350
46,248

7,564

1,494

T otal.............

58

Feb. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19

131
36
41
35
19

1,820
2,380
1,876
756

3921
4121
376
152i

20

6,070

3,860

64j

33

3

511,940

22
17
20
20

1,428
1,968
1,500
604

1,021
1,551
1,048
389

71
79
70
64

29
21
27
34

1
4
2

98,322
225,313
182,065
42,319

T o ta l............

58

131

6,832

1,332

19

5,500

4,009

73

26

1

548,019

Mar. E astern.............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L .a n d M . W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
837

454
476
443
179

23
18
21
21

1,561
2,159
1,634
658

930
1,760
1,091
381

60
82
67
58

38
17
31
37

2
1
3
5

92,323
246,986
191,347
44,511

T o ta l............

58

131

7,564

1,552

21

6,012

4,162

69

29

2

575,167

Apr. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

1,950
2,550
2,010
810

400
424
376
152

21
17
19
19

1,550
2,126
1,634
658

953
1,499
920
444

61
71
56
67

37
26
41
29

2
4
3
4

89,490
211,597
160,697
47,971

T otal............

58

131

7,320

1,352

18

5,968

3,816

64

33

3

509,755

May. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
837

509
539
480
196

25
20
23
23

1,506
2,096
1,597
641

753
1,190
865
417

50
57
54
65

48
40
41
28

2
3
4
7

69,878
178,781
151,584
46,975

T otal............

58

131

7,564

1,724

23

5,840

3,225

55

41

3

447,218

June. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W
r.
Southern.............
T otal.............
1913-14:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern.............
T o ta l.............

16
14
19
9
58

36
41
35
19
131

1,950
2,550
2,010
810
7,320

391
432
376
152
1,351

20
17
19
19
18

1,559
2,118
1,634
658
5,969

880
1,345
• 805
482
3,512

56
64
49
73
59

43
35
40
22
37

1
2
11
5
4

77,971
194,300
151,506
52,751
476,528

16
14
19
9
58

36
41
35
19
131

23/725 5,388
31,025 5,775
24,455 5,189
9,855 2,078
89,060 18,430

23
19
21
21
21

18,337
25,250
19,266
7,777
70,630

12,057
19,865
12,200
5,462
49,584

66
79
63
70
70

32
19
29
24
26

2
2
7
6
4

1,132,640
2,912,007
2,168,028
629,359
6,842,034

89728°—17— B u ll. 218------ i




50

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR---- IBO N AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBL E , T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL PA Y ROLL IN EA CH D IS­

TRICT, B Y M ONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
B A R MILLS—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns
Turns
pos­
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Turns customarily worked in
period.
Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
worked
Total
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack All
work. other
causes.

Plants. Mills.
1914.
36
16
July. Eastern...............
41
14
Pittsburgh..........
35
G .L .a n d M . W .
19
19
Southern.............
9

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

No. P .ct.
21
427
20
527
428
21
150
19

1,588
2,108
1,649
656

No. P. ct.
812
51
1,544
73
972
59
387
59

38
24
35
31

11
3
6
10

$80,964
214,969
174,749
46,686

T o ta l............

58

31

7,533

1,532

20

6,001

3,715

62

32

6

517,368

Aug. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

480
570
471
175

24
22
23
22

1,535
2,065
1,606
631

856
1,499
1,048
394

56
73
65
62

41
27
33
29

3
1
2
8

80,824
209,918
193,062
46,194

1,696

23

5,837

3,797

65

33

2

529,998

23
20
22
19

1,510
2,043
1,573
630

799
1,464
989
354

53
72
63
56

47
28
35
34

1
2
9

76,326
206,358
181,471
42,163

2

506,318

2
1
9

63,165
176,842
162,340
44,708

2

447,055

2
1

61,355
140,953
119,380
32,010

T o ta l............

58

131

7,533

Sept. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

1,950
2,550
2,010
780

4401
507
437
150

T o ta l............
Oct.

58

131

7,290

1,534

21

5,756

3,606

63

35

E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

415
493
403
148

21
19
19
18

1,600
2,142
1,674
658

677
1,285
853
391

42
60
51
59

58
38
48
32

T o ta l.............

58

131

7,533

1,459

19

6,074

3,206

53

45

N ov. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. andM . W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

1,950
2,550
2,010
780

478
510
469
186

25
20
23
24

1,472
2,040
1,541
594

601
980
598
274

41
48
39
46

59
50
60
54

0)

C
1)

T o ta l............

58

131

7,290

1,643

23

5,647

2,453

43

56

1

353,698

Dec. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

477
558
463
181

24
21
. 22
22

1,538
2,077
1,614
625

675
1,123
729
252

44
54
45
40

54
41
51
60

2
5
4

65,857
152,409
134,762
29,538

T o ta l.............
1915.
Jan. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

58

131

7,533

1,679

22

5,854

2,779

47

49

3

382,566

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

508
545
482
175

25
21
23
22

1,507
2,090
1,595
631

756
1,340
723
291

50
64
45
46

47
33
53
54

3
3
2

76,495
184,838
139,783
34,348

131

2

435,464

2
2
6

66,835
178,480
157,627
34,495

2

437,437

1
3
2

94,419
219,936
140,984
37,668

T o ta l............

58

Feb. E astern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

7,533

1,710

23

5,823

3,110

53

44

36 1,820
41 2,380
35. 1,876
19»
728

388
436
376
140

21
18
20
19

1,432
1,944
1,500
588

711
1,308
837
271

50■
67
56
46

49
30
42
48

20' 5,464

3,127

57

40

57
70i
43■
48I

43
28
55
50i

C
1)

Total.............

58

1,340

16
14
19
9

131
36>
41
35i
'19'

6,804

Mar. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G .L .a n d M . W .
Southern.............

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

391
436
376
143

131

7,533

1,346

18; 6,187

3,510

57

42:

2

493,007

36. 1,950
41 2,550
35. 2,010
19»
780

386
444
376
140

20■ 1,564
17 2,106
19 1,634
18
640

904
1,652
863
330

58
78
53
52

41
21
44
46

1
1
3
2

88,429
230, 674
154,914
36,967

5,944

3,749

63

36

1j

510,984

Total.............

58

Apr. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

Total.............

58




131

7,290

1,346

19' 1,624
925
17 2,199' 1,546
18 1, 701
723
18;
663
316

18

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

(x)

51

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.
T a b l e 10.— TURNS

POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
B A R MILLS—Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
con \ erters,
furnaces,
or mills.

1915.
Plants. Mills.
May. Eastern...............
16
36
14
41
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
35
19
Southern.............
19
9

Turns
Turns
pos­
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­
Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Turns customarily worked in
period.
Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
worked
Total
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

A ll
Slack other
work. causes.

2,015
2,635
2,077
806

No. P.ct.
26
516
21
565
481
23
22
175

1,499
2,070
1,596
631

No. P. ct.
941
63
1,649
80
50
795
54
339

37
19
48
46

C
1)

1
3
1

189,572
235,508
145,240
37,754

Total.............

58

131

7,533

1,731

23

5,796

3,724

64

35

1

508,074

June. Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36
41
35
19

1,950
2,550
2,010
780

384
456
376
140

20
18
19
18

1,566
2,094
1,634
640

999
1,800
905
389

64
86
55
61

36
13
42
39

1
3

93,297
256,421
161,187
44,091

Total.............

58

131

7,290

1,356

19

5,934

4,093

69

30

1

1914-15:
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Southern.............

16
14
19
9

36 23,725
41 31,025
35 24,455
19 9,490

5,290
6,047
5,138
1,903

22 18,435 9,656
19 24,978 17,190
21 19,317 10,035
20 7,587 3,988

53
69,
521
53

45
29
46
43

2
9^,7,538
2 2,407,306
3 1,805,409
4
466,622

Total.............

58

131 88,695 18,378

21 70,317 40,869

58|

40

2 5,676,965

79
61

14
12

6
27

$349,670
133,119

C
1)
=

554,996
=

SHEET MILLS.
1913.
July. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Total.............

15

Aug. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

Total.............

15

Sept. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

91
46

8,463
4,278

2,126
1,018

137 12,741
8,463
4,278

137 12,741

91
46

91
46

25 I 6,337

5,037
1,976

24

3,260

3,144

25

9,597

7,013

73

13

13

482,789

2,275
1,148

27, 6,188
27| 3,130

5,012
2,359

81
75

15
23

4
2

375,510
153,839

3,423

27: 9,318

7,371

79

18

3

529,349

8,190
4,140

1,958
997

24
24

6,232
3,143

4,630
2,427

74
77

24
20

2
2

338,597
159,475

Total.............

15

137 12,330

2,955

24

9,375

7,057

75

23

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

91! 8,463
46 4,278

1,820
892

22
21

6,643
3,386

4,883
2,799

74
83

26
17

C
1)
0)

356,429
186,112

Total.............

15

137 12, 741

542,541

Nov. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Oci.

Total.............

15

Dec. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Total.............

15

1914.
Jan. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Total.............

15

Feb. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Total.............

15

Mar. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Total.............

15




2

2,712

21 10,029

7,682

77|

23

0)

8,190
4,140

2,299
1,115

28
27

5,891
3,025

3,643
2,416

62
80

38
17

C
1)

137 12,330

91
46

3

498,072

276,687
160,886

3,414

28

8,916

6,059

68

31

1

437,573

8,463
4,278

2,174
1,030

26
24

6,289
3,248

3,124
2,168

50
67

43
25

7
9

245,368
145,745

137 12,741

3,204

25

9,537

5,292

55

37

8

391,113

8,463
4,278

2,002
977

24
23

6,461
3,301

3,871
2,454

60
74

34
26

6

318,541
183,131

137 12,741

2,979

23

9,762

6,325

65

31

4

501,672

7,644
3,864

1,820
892

24
23

5,824
2,972

4,473
2,265

77
76

20
24

3

332,820
169,027

137 11,508

2,712

24

8,796

6,738

77

21

2

501,847

8,463
4,278

2,093
1,030

25
24

6,370
3,248

4,976
2,679

78
82

17
18

5

370,308
182,853

137 12,741

3,123

25

9,618

7,655

80

17|

3

553,161

91
46

91
46

91
46

91
46

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

0)

0)

52
T a b le

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .
10.—TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
SH E E T M ILLS —Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period:
• Maxi­ (Saturdays,
Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

1914.
Plants. Mills.
Apr. Pittsburgh..........
10
91
G. L. and M. W .
5
46
Total.............

15

May. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

Total.............

15

June. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

8,190
4,140

No. P .ct.
22
1,820
892
22

15:
10
5

Total.............
Oct.

15l

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

Total.........

15

Nov. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

Total.............

15

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

Total.............

Dec.

15

16
38
14

3

556,831

2
8

267,082
159,869

9,618

7,700

80 !

3,679
2,453

59
78

137 12, 741

3,390

27

9,351

6,132

66

30

4

426,951

8,190
4,140

1,820
829

22
22

6,370
3,248

4,263
2,172

67
67

29
29

4
4

308,302
129,666

137 12,330

2, 712;

22

9,618

6,435

67

29

4

437,968

25 75,163 52,370
24 38,372 29,089

70
76

27
20

4 3,895,417
5 1,964,450

24 113,535 81,459

72,

24

4 5,859,867

14
13

22
26

91
46

137 150,015 36,480

Total.............

$356,103
200,728

6,188
3,163

15

Sept. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

5

22

Total.............

10
5

20
10

27
26

91 99,645 24,482
46 50,370 11,998

15

No. P .ct.
4, 779
75
2,921
90

2,275
1,115

10
5

Total.............

All
Slack other
work. causes.

2, 712

15

Aug. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6,370
3,248

Actually
worked.

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

8,463
4,278

91
46

Total.............

10
5

I
Ag­
gre­
gate
num­
ber

137 12,330

1913-14:
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

1914.
July. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

Turns customarily worked in
period.

92
4o

23
23

6,554
3,300

4,206
2,021

64
61

2,980

23

9,854

6,227

63

13

23

461,048

8 ,556J 2j J00
4,278 1,148;

27
27

6,256
3,130

4,922
2,693

79
86 1

11
10

10
4

385,866
163,172

3,448

27

9,386

7,615

81 !

n

8,280 2,048
4,140 | 1,004

25
24

6,232
3,136

4,806
2,844

77
91 i

8 ,55e! 2,002
4 ,278|
978

138 12,834;
92
46

138 12,834
92
46

1

138 12,420

3,052

25

9,368

7,650

82

8,556
4,278

2,024
977

24
23

6,532
3,301

3,878
2,773

59 l
84 1

138 12,834

3,001

23

9,833

6,651

2,140
1,030

26
25

6,140
3,110

2,465
2,174

92
46

92
46

8,280
4,140

574,563

34
16

327,229
168,566

68

28

5

495,795

40
70

57
30

3

212,143
137,543

48
50
46

2

349,686

7
4

243,869
106,146

49

6

350,015

4

294,980
128,226

3,170

26

9,250

4,639

50 1

2,188
1,020

26
24

6,368
3,258

2,710
1,614

43
50

138 12,834

3,208

25

9,626

4,324

45|

10
5

2 95
46

8,835
4,278

2,375
1,150

27
27

6,460
3,128

3,421
2,008

141 13,113

7
9

549,038
395,302
179,261

7

8,556
4,278

1915.
Jan. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

8
13
2
9

138 12,420
92
46

338,682
122,366

53
64

I

43
36

0)

(})

Total.............

15

3,525

27

9,588

5,429

571

40

3

423,206

Feb. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

s 47

7,980
3,906

1,900
900

24
23

6,080
3,006

3,975
2,063

65 i
69;

28
31

6

325,599
124,612

Total.............

15

142] 11,886

2,800

24

9,086

6,038

66

29

4

450,211

Mar. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

10
5

8,835
4,371

1.900
908

22
21

6,935
3,463

4,756
2,495

69
72

28
28

3

395,272
156,130

Total............

15

142! 13,206

2,808

21 10,398

7,251

70

28

2

551,402

95

95
47

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




2 92 mills prior to Jan. 1.

0)

0)

3 46 m ills prior to Feb. 15.

1

53

VOLUM E OF EM PLO YM ENT.
T a b le

10.—TURNS POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Continued.
SH E E T M ILLS—Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or mills.

1915.
Plants. Mills.
Apr. Pittsburgh..........
95
10
G. L. and M. W .
47
5
Total.............

15

May. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

10
5

Total.............

15

June. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .

10
5

Total.............

15

1914-15:
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .
Total.............

Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
not worked
in
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
mum
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

8,550
4,230

142 12,780

No. P.Ct.
22
1,900
21
897

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack All
work. other
causes.

No. P.Ct.
4,497
68
2,678
80

6,650
3,333

24
18

8
1

$344,466
152,826

2,797

22

9,983

7,175

72

22

6

497,292

8,835
4,371

2,375
1,080

27
25

6,460
3,291

4,244
1,550

66
47

27
35

8
18

340,188
89,263

142 13,206

95
47

3,455

26

9,751

5,794

59

29

11

429,451

8,550
4,230

1,900
864

22
20

6,650,
3,366

4,501
1,734

68
52

26
31

7
18

359,734
98,901

142 12,780

2,764

22 10,016

6,235

62

27

10

458,635

95 102,369 25,052
47 50,778 11,956

24! 77,317 48,381
24 38,822 26,647

63
69

29
25

8 3,963,330
6 1,627,012

142 153,147 37,008

24 116,139| 75,028
!
i

65

28

8 5,590,342

82:
50

11
12

95
47

i
10 *
5
15

T IN -P L A T E MILLS.
1913.
July. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............
\
Aug. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

11

T otal............

11

Sept. Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Nov. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

T otal.............

11

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Oct.

Dec.

6
5

Total.............

11

1914.
Jan. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

6
5

T otal.............

11

Feb. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

6
5

Total.............

11




72
64

6,696
5,952

1,662
1,412

25
24

5,034
4,540

4,140
2,278

136 12,648

7
38

$290,555
159,810

3,074

24

9,574

6,418

67j

11

6,696
5,952

1,800
1,615

27
27

4,896
4,337

4,465
2,377

91
55

8
44

136 12,648

3,415

27

9,233

6,842

74

25

6,480 i 1,572
5,760 1,436

24
25

4,908
4,324

4,437
3,386

90
78

9
20

136 12,240

3,008

25

9,232

7,823

85

14

6,696
5,952

1,440
1,280

22
22

5,256
4,672

4,243
3,653

81
78

19
20

136 12,648

2,720

22

9,928

7,896

80

20

6,480
5,760

1,800
1,621

28
28

4,680
4,139

3,271
2,840

70
69

30
27

136 12,240

3,421

28

8,819

6,111

69

28

2

430,865

6,696
5,952

1,680
1,472

25
25

5,016
4,480

3,246
2,613

65
58

27
39

8
3

268,420
163,829

136 12,648

3,152

25

9,496

5,859

62

33

5

432,249

6,696
5,952

1,584
1,408

24
24

5,112
4,544

4,596
2,893

90
64

8
33

2
4

340,803
190,865

136 12,648

3

531,668

3

340,086
194,846

2

534,932

72
64

72
64

72
64

72
64

72
64

72
64

2,992

24

9,656

7,489

78

1,440
1,280

24
24

4,608
4,096

4,375
3,028

95
74

5
23

136 11,424

2 ,720|

24

8,704

7,403

72
64

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

13

450,365

1

319,689
162,917

1
C
1)

482,606

2

323,870
199.935

1

523,805

2

325,547
222,959

1
(*)

19

6,048
5,376

22
C
1)

<*)

548,506

4

259,864
171,001

54

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 10.—T U R N S PO SSIBLE, T U R N S W O R K E D , A N D TOTAL P A Y ROLL IN EACH D IS­

TRICT, B Y MONTHS, JU L Y , 1913, TO JU N E , 1915—Continued.
T IN -P L A T E M ILLS—Continued.

Year, month, and
district.

Number of
plants and
of stacks,
converters,
furnaces,
or m ills.

1914.
Plants. M ills.
Mar. Pittsburgh..........
6
72
G. L. and M. W .
5
64
Total.............

11

Apr. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .

6
5

Total.............

11

May. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

June. Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

1913-14:
Pittsburgh_____
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

1914.
July. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Aug. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Sept. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Nov. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Oct.

Total.............
Dec.

11

Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

1915.
Jan. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

Feb. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11




Turns
pos­
Turns
sible customarily
in
not worked
period: (Saturdays,
Maxi- Sundays,
and
num ­ holidays).
ber.

6,696
5,952

Turns customarily worked in
period.

Ag­
gre­
gate
num ­
ber.

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

Actually
worked.

Slack All
work. other
causes.

No. P .ct.
1,656
25
1,472
25

5,040
4,480

No. P .c t.
4,768
95
87
3,882

5
13

C
1)
0)

617,831

G)

347,244
244,355

3,128

25

9,520

8,650

91

9

6 480
5,760

1,440
1,280

22
22

5,040
4,480

4,536
3, 767

90
84

10
16

136 12,240

136 12,648
72
64

$364,025
253,806

2, 720

22

9,520

8,303

87

6,696
5,952

1,800
1,600

27
27

4,896
4,352

4,363
3,553

89
82

13 C i
1)
11 .......... |
15
4

136 12,648

72
64

591,599
324,356
225,153

3,400

27! 9,248

7,916 1

86:

13

2

550,509

6,480
5,760

1,440
1,280

22
22

5,040
4,480

4,535
3,738

90
83

10 ~
14

2!

325,130T
216,858

136 12,240

2,720

22

9,520

8,273

87

12

i'

541,988

72 78,840 ! 19,314
64 70,080 ( 17,156

24 ! 59.526 50,975

24 52,924 38,008

86
72

13
25

2 3,829,589
3 2,407,334

136 148,920 36,470

24 112.450 1 88,983

79

18

2 6,236,923

77
50

7
3

16
48

72
64

6,696
5,952

1,580
1,365;

24 ! 5,116

23

4,587

136 12,648

2,945

23

9,703

6,203

64

5

311

435,070

6,696
5,952

1,800
1,615

27
27

4,890
4,337

4,128
2,649

84
61

12
19

3|

296,754
164,853
9

136 12,648

3,415

27

9,233

73

16

6,480
5,760

1,662
1,373

26
24

4,818
4,387

6,777 !
3
4,290
3,662

89
83

7
4

72
64

72
64

72
64

3,932
2,271

286,852
148,218

1
H

461,607

4!
13!

315,896
216,444

3 , 035 ;

25

9,205

7,952

86

5

8

532,340

6,696
5,952

1,584
1,408

24
24

5,112
4,544

3,798
2,567

74
56

24
44

2

1

292,218
135‘ 130
,

136 12,648

2,992

24 1

9,656

6,365

66

33

1

427,348

6,480
5,760

1,722
1,472

27
26

4,758
4,288

2,326
1,922

49
45

50
55

1|
1

185,965
106,924

136 12,240

136 12,240
72
64

72
64

3,194

26

9,046

4,248

47

52

ll

292,889

6,696
5,952

1,648
1,481

35
25

5,048
4,471

2,724
1,807

54
40

29
54

17!

209,506
101,920

136 12,648

3,129

25

9,519

4,531 j

48 1

41

12

6,696
5,952

1,800
1,600

27
27

4,896
4,352

3,763
2,482

77
57

19
43

136 12,648

3,400

27

9,248

6,245

68

30

2

428,075

6,048
5,376

1,440
1,280

24
24 1

4,608
4,096

4,156
2,692

90
66

4i
30 !

309,868
175,076

136[ 11,424

2,720

24

8,704

6,848

79

16}

6
4
5

72
64

72
64

72
64

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

1

(

5

311,426

*

276,084
151,991
)

484,944

l
i

55

VOLUME OF EM PLO YM ENT.
T a b l e 10.— TURNS

POSSIBLE, TURNS WORKED, AND TOTAL PAY ROLL IN EACH DIS­
TRICT, BY MONTHS, JULY, 1913, TO JUNE, 1915—Concluded.
T IN -P L A T E MILLS—Concluded.

Year, month, and
district.

Turns
pos­
Turns
Number of
sible customarily
plants and
in
n ot worked
of stacks,
converters, period: (Saturdays,
Maxi­ Sundays,
furnaces,
mum
and
or mills.
num ­ holidays).
ber.

Plants. Mills.
1915.
72
Mar. Pittsburgh..........
6
G. L. and M. W .
64
5
T otal.............

11

Apr. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

May. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Total.............

11

June. Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W .

6
5

Turns customarily worked in
period.

A g­
gre­
gate
num­
ber.

A ctually
worked.

Slack All
work. other
causes.

No. P . ct.
4,164
79
3,304
71

16
20

5
10

9,928

7,468

75

18

7

522,215

5,040
4,438

4,338
3,731

86
84

9
3

5
13

-310,686
226,244

No. P .ct.
22
1,440
22
1,280

5,256
4,672

136 12,648

2,720

22

72
i 63

6,480
5,703

1,440
1,265

22
22

2 135 12,183

6,696
5,952

Per cent not
Total
worked
owing to— pay roll.

$313,588
208,627

2,705

22

9,478

8,069

85

6

9

536,930

6,696
5,859

1,866
1,550

28
26

4,830
4,309

3,975
3,349

82
78

12
9

6
14

290,949
207,123

135 12,555

72
63

3,416

27

9,139

7.324

80

10

10

498,072

6,480
5,670

1,448
1,240

22
22

5,032
4,430

4,311
3,369

86
76

9
6

5
18

301.036
203; 570

135 12,150

2,688

22

9,462

7,680

81

8

11

504,606

72
63

Total.............

11

1914-15:
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M. W.

6
5

72 78,840 19,430
63 , 69,840 16,929

25 59,410 45,905
24 52,911 33,805

77
64

16
24

6 3,389,402
12 2,046,120

Total.............

11

135148.680 36,359
I '

24 112.321! 79.710

71

20

9 5,435,522

i 64 mills prior to Apr. 12.

2 136 m ills prior to Apr. 12

SCOPE AND METHOD.
The number of plants and the number of employees for which
data are shown in this report are specified for each year, by depart­
ments, in Table 1 1 . The great increase in the number of em­
ployees shown in the 1914-1915 group in each department, as illus­
trated by the total number in all departments in 1915—48,140,
or nearly double the number for 1914 in the 1913-1914 group—is due
in part to the greater number of plants reported (227 as compared
with 165) but mainly to the fact th at for 1914 and 1915, in addition
to the principal productive occupations which alone were reported
in previous years, all other occupations except salaried men, clerks,
and foremen are included, grouped as u Unclassified.” These unclassi­
fied occupations are tabulated in two groups: Productive and non­
productive.
Employees in productive occupations are those whose services are
directly required in the production of iron and steel. Employees in
nonproductive occupations are those whose services are not directly
required in production, b u t whose employment is necessary to secure
successful operation and to provide for the maintenance of the equip­




56

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

m ent in the various producing departments. In the latter group
are included th at part of the power, mechanical, and yard force
chargeable to each department. The number of employees engaged
in the principal productive occupations who are represented in this
report for 1915 is 32,517, and the number in unclassified occupations
is 15,623, a total of 48,140. This number would have been 24 per
cent greater (59,752—see Table 9) had every plant reported been
working its entire equipment, for each departm ent reported, on full
time.
T a b l e 11.—N U M BER OF PL A N T S A N D N U M B E R OF E M PL O Y EE S IN C L U D E D IN THIS

~ R E P O R T , B Y D E PA R T M E N T S, 1907 TO 1915.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

N um ­
ber of
identi­
cal
plants.
20

34
35
36
35
38

Year.

N um ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em ­
cal
ployees. plants.
4,278
3,028
4,104
4,381
7,050
5,268
5,336
5,973
6,101
6,589
6,636
5,246
9,253
8,563

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

Pudding mills.
Num­
ber of
identi­
cal
plants.

Year.

29

9

10
10
10
10
12




Year.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

N um ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of
identi­
em ­
cal
ployees.
plants.
1,757
1,179
1,352
1,649
1,-730
1,342
1,350
1,460
1,494
1,661
1,339
1,067
2,267
2,218

4,606
4,472

19
19
19
23

Year.

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

Year.

25
26
26
44
57

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560
4,092
3,707
3,924
4,050
4,114
4,320
5,841
5,461
8,802
8,732

Plate m ills.

N um ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em­
cal
ployees. plants.
1,064
948
988
975
998
1.019
892
2,476
2,659

Open-hearth furnaces.

Num ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em ­
cal
ployees.
plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

15

Blooming m ills.

N um ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em ­
cal
ployees. plants.

1914
1915

Bar mills.

Bessemer converters.

Blast furnaces.

11
11
11
13

Year.

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

17
17
17
17
22

Year.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

Num ­
ber of
em ­
ployees.
3,341
3,065
3,073
3,182
3,246
3,498
3,244
2,953
5,415
5,423

Standard rail m ills.

Num ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em­
cal
ployees. plants.
1,330
1.203
1.203
1,248
1,256
1,167
1,046
2.301
2,245

6
7
7
6
7

Year.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

Num ­
ber of
em ­
ployees.

1,535
1,252
1,355
1,457
1,435
1,427
1,137
943
1,725
1,945

SCOPE AND METHOD

OF REPOET.

57

T a b l e 11.—N U M B E R OF PL A N T S A N D N U M B E R OF E M P L O Y E E S IN C L U D E D IN THIS

R E PO R T , B Y D E PA R T M E N T S, 1907 TO 1915—Concluded.

Sheet mills.
N um ­
ber of
identi­
cal
plants.

Year.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

9
9
8
13
15

Tin-plate mills.

Num­
Num ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em ­
cal
ployees.
plants.
2,346
2,772
2,781
2,716
2,439
2,487
3,545
3,446
6,304
5,736

5
6
6
10
11

Year.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

Total.

Num ­ N um ­
ber of
ber of identi­
em ­
cal
ployees. plants.
2,149
2,310
2,487
2,694
2,739
2,778
4,625
4,396
6,033
6,147

44

136
140
140
165
227

1

Year.

Num ­
ber of
em ­
ployees.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915

8,413
6,423
7,771
8,590
24,637
21,867
22,457
23,723
23,791
25,014
28,553
25,450
49,182
48,140

Reports from 20 identical blast furnaces, in Table 1 1 , above, were
obtained for the period 1907 to 1910. These same 20 plants furnished
data for the years 1911 and 1912, and 14 additional plants reported
data for the years 1910, 1911, and 1912, thereby making comparable
data available for 34 plants for 1910 and 1911. Another plant was
included for 1911 and 1912, making comparable figures available for
those two years from 35 plants; and for 1912 and 1913 still another
plant was included, making 36 blast-furnace plants for these two
years. One plant was out of blast in 1914 and 1915, and 5 other
plants were likewise “ down” in 1915; b u t 8 additional plants were
included in the report with data for both 1914 and 1915; thus there
are 35 identical plants with comparable data for 1913 and 1914, and
38 plants for 1914 and 1915. Comparable data were obtained for
4,278 blast-furnace employees in 1907 and 4,381 employees in 1910;
for 7,050 in 1910 and 5,268 in 1911; for 5,336 in 1911 and 5,973 in
1912; for 6,101 in 1912 and 6,589 in 1913; for 6,636 in 1913 and 5,246
in 1914; and for 9,253 in 1914 and 8,563 in 1915. The figures for other
departments may be explained in a similar manner.
The figures for 1910, published in this report, are a part of the
data included in the report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron
and Steel Industry, made by this bureau and published as Senate
Document No. 1 1 0 , Sixty-second Congress, first session. These fig­
ures for 1910 were collected in the fall of th a t year. The collection
of data for the other years, from 1907 to 1912, was begun in the fall
of 1912, complete reports for all years having been obtained at one
time, and plants not continuously in operation from the time of start­
ing until 1912 having been omitted.




58

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

The collection of data for the year 1913 was begun in the summer
of th a t year, and to keep a fair representation it was necessary, in
some instances, to report new plants in place of those which for one
reason or another were temporarily or permanently not in operation.
In such added plants comparable data for 1912 were obtained to­
gether with data for 1913.
Reports for 1914 and 1915 were obtained during those years, and
owing to the dull period prevailing in this industry a number of
plants previously reported in the several departments were not in
operation and other plants were substituted for them. Puddling
mills were added to the report in these two years and many new
plants in other departments, noticeably in the bar-mill department,
were also reported.
D ata for establishments were not included in this report unless in­
formation for at least two consecutive years was available. Direct
comparisons of data for two or more successive years can be made
properly only when the plants furnishing the data are identical, and
the word is here used in the strictest sense. By identical plants is
meant not only identical establishments of identical companies but
also identical units or departments—as, for example, separate bar
mills or groups of open-hearth furnaces. Frequently in this report
the number of plants remains unchanged from year to year while
the plants are not identical—one plant may have been shut down
and another substituted, or when there was no change in the plants
themselves it may have been impossible in one plant to obtain
reports for one occupation in one year, or an establishment report­
ing several bar mills, for example, may have ceased operating one,
or have added a new one. As in nearly every instance substituted
plants were located in the immediate vicinity of those omitted, it
frequently happens th a t the new data correspond very closely to the
old, and the two reports for one year are, therefore, in such cases
nearly the same.
In some instances an occupation as tabulated embraces two or
more subclasses of employees (for example, see Glossary, p. 493, for
description of shearmen’s helpers in blooming mills) and for some
reason it may have been impossible to secure reports for one year for
one class. In such a case, while the number of plants for the occu­
pation remains unchanged, the plants in the two years are not con­
sidered identical and two reports are made for the connecting year,
one comparable with the previous year when all classes making up
the occupation were represented, and another comparable with the
succeeding year when one class was omitted.
Information was secured from plants located in 14 States. To
make the groups of data of sufficient volume to be of representative




SCOPE AN D M ETHOD OF REPORT.

59

value, the several plants covered have been divided into four dis­
tricts only. These districts were not established strictly on geo­
graphical lines, b u t rather on account of similar industrial condi­
tions. The “ E astern” district covers the northeastern p a rt of the
United States as far west as central New York and central Pennsyl­
vania, and including Maryland. The “ P ittsburgh” district includes
not only the plants in Pittsburgh proper b u t also those in western
Pennsylvania, those along the border line in Ohio from Youngstown
south to Bellaire, and the plants which are located in the “ P an­
handle” of West Virginia. The “ Great Lakes and Middle W est”
district includes plants scattered along the Great Lakes from western
New York to Illinois and Wisconsin, and also some plants in inland
districts, including Colorado. Although this is a very large territory
geographically, it is essentially a unit industrially (so far as the iron
and steel industry is concerned), the wage rates of the entire district
being based largely on those paid in the two producing centers, Buf­
falo and Chicago. The “ Southern” district includes the establish­
ments in Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky, and in
the southern part of Ohio. The southern Ohio plants are included
with the Southern district because the conditions both as to wages
paid and the general class of labor employed resemble much more
closely the conditions of the Alabama and Kentucky plants than they
do those of the other plants of Ohio. The plants included in the
report are representative of the industry, and a fair apportionment
is given to the several districts.

PROPORTION OF TOTAL IRON AND STEEL EQUIPMENT OF
THE UNITED STATES INCLUDED IN THIS REPORT.
In Table 12 is given for each department and district the number
of plants, the total number of units represented, and the tonnage
capacity, first, of all plants in the United States, as listed in the Iron
and Steel Works Directory of the United States, published by the
American Iron and Steel Institute in 1916, and second, of the plants
included in this report for 1915. The proportion of the total plants,
units, and tonnage capacity embraced by the plants herein covered
is indicated by percentages.
The “ T otal” columns relating to the directory cover not only the
four districts specified, but the Pacific coast district also, making it
a total for the United States. Additional columns of the table show
the number of employees in 1915 in each district and department.
The number of employees in plants not covered is of course not
available.




60

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e 12.— N U M B E R

OF PL A N T S, TOTAL N U M B E R OF U N IT S R E P R E S E N T E D , A N D
COV ERED B Y TH IS R E PO R T , FOR

Eastern district.

Pittsburgh district.

Number of—
L ine
No.

Number of—

Department.
Fur­
Fur­
naces, E m ­ Capacity
naces, Em ­
(tons).
con­
con­
Plants. vert­ ploy­
Plants. vert­ ployers, or ees.
ers, or
mills.
mills.
Blast furnaces:
Directory—1916_
_
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Bessemer converters:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Open-hearth furnaces:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Puddling mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Blooming mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Plate mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Standard rail mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Bar mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Sheet mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915..
Per cen t..............
Tin-plate mills:
Directory—1916...
This report—1915.
Per cen t..............
Total number of employ­
ees covered in this report.




Capacity
(tons).

5.592.000
794 1.882.000
34

50
10
20

128
48
38

3 ,176

448.000
, 928,000
43

440,000

12
7
58

32
19
59

1,463

, 796,000
, 981,000
64

26
6
23

152
47
31

4.646.000
1,116 1.762.000

32
6
19

334
89
27

2,013

, 458,500
,558,000
26

36
9
25

865
287
33

1,506

628,700
244.000
39

15
7
47

539
298
55

1,640

344.000
215.000

17
3
18

22
3
14

4.298.000
895.000

30
10
33

43
12
28

1,364

21

,360,500
,113,000
36

8
3
28

23
7
34

1.099.000
355.000
32

16
6
38

27
9
33

1,121

!, 568,000
885,000
34

3
2
67

4
2
50

1.560.000
800.000
51

3
2
67

5
2
40

62
15
24

191
33
17

42
14
33

181
41
23

1

4

23
10
43

239
95
40

23
6
26

342
72
21

10,000

6, 711

!, 250,000
,400,000
62
3,366
, 247,400
512,700
41
3, 485
22,09:

,296, 250
370,050
29

PROPORTION OF E Q U IP M E N T IN U . S. IN C LU D ED IN REPORT.

61

TOTAL TONNAG E CAPACITY IN TH E U N IT E D STA TES, A N D TH E E X T E N T TO W HICH
EACH DISTRICT, B Y D E PA R TM E N TS.

Great Lakes and Middle W est
district.

Southern district.

Total.

Number of—

Number of—

Number o f-

Fur­
Fur­
Fur­
naces, E m ­ Capacity
naces, E m ­
naces, E m ­ Capacity
con­ ploy­ (tons).
con­ ploy- (tons). Plants. con­ ployPlants. vert­
Plants. vert­
vert­
ers, or
ers, or
ers, or ees.
mills.
mills.
mills.

92
47
51

12,528, 725
2,761 6,995,025
56

5.812.100
1 ,832 2.198.100
38

170
38
22

370
133
36

20
13
67

4,977, 000
3, 503,000
70

180,000

22
12
55

57
32
56

186
73
39

7.994.000
1, 755 3.206.000
40

30
20
67

1.483.000
539 1.168.000
79

87
22
25

709
229
32

162
93
57

364.000
189.000
52

115
76
66

91.000
48.000
53

27
10
37

9.385.000
792 3.995.000
43

6
3
50

1,310,000
820,000
63

70
23

11
4
36

425

1.140.000
570.000
50

20.000

4
67

31
13
42

62
20
32

5
3
60

5.
3
60

2.370.000
1.110.000

380,000

12
7
58

15
7
47

945

173
57

555
128

Capacity
(tons).

732

33

Line
No.

23

44

113
35
31

15
5
33

135
4'
35

1,928

705, 600
290,000
41

8
5
63

80
63
79

2,662

313,650
226,300
72

43
19

2,484

15,220




1,006

42,380,825
8, 563 19,003,125
45

1
2
3

218

13,393,000
8.484.000
63

4
5
6

423

27, 701,500
9.694.000
35

7
8
9

1, 427, 700
696.000

10
11
12

29,353,000
659 10, 823.000
37

13
14
15

4.827.000
1, 810,000
37

16
17
18

6.560.000
3.310.000
50

19
20
21

72 1,681
754
29
45
40

42
15

22
23
24

4,117

404 ..
142, 5 736

2,090,000
802, 700
38

25
26
27

422
135
32

127,000

1,609,900
596,350
37

28
29
30

48,140

62

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

I t is seen from the table above th a t in the blast-furnace departm ent
this report for 1915 covers 38 of the 170 plants, or 22 per cent, of the
blast-furnace plants in the U nited States, 133 of the 370 stacks, or
36 per cent of the separate stacks, and 19,003,125 of the 42,380,825
tons, or 45 per cent of the tonnage capacity. These 38 plants
employed 8,563 men. Sixty-three per cent of the to ta l tonnage
capacity of plants in the U nited States m aking bessemer-steel ingots
is included; 35 per cent of the to ta l tonnage capacity of plants makingopen-hearth steel ingots; 49 per cent of puddling-m ill capacity; 37
per cent of blooming-mill capacity; 37 per cent of plate-m ill capacity;
50 per cent of standard-rail-m ill capacity; 38 per cent of sheet-mill
capacity, and 37 per cent of tin-plate-m ill capacity. Figures showing
the tonnage capacity of b ar mills are not available, b u t this report
covers 33 per cent of the plants and 23 per cent of the separate bar
mills in the U nited States. A to ta l of 48,140 men were employed in
1915 in both productive and nonproductive occupations of the 10
departm ents covered. This num ber does not include salaried men,
foremen, and clerks.

EXPLANATION OF THE DATA PRESENTED.
The greater p art of the d ata presented was obtained by personal
visits of agents of this bureau to the several plants. A p a rt of the
inform ation was obtained from the plants by correspondence, on
schedules and under instructions prepared by the bureau. In certain
instances agents visited plants th a t had furnished d a ta by corre­
spondence to harm onize d ata not clearly expressed on the schedule.
The num ber of employees shown in the several tables, w ith the
exception of laborers and those employed in certain other unskilled
general occupations, represents the num ber of employees required to
m an properly the positions in the mill under norm al operating con­
ditions and is not the num ber of employees who m ight have appeared
on the pay rolls during the pay period covered. For example, a
certain operation required 4 men, b u t during the pay-roll period
there were times when one of these 4 did not report for d u ty and the
position was filled by a different employee, and during the pay period
a to ta l of 6 men covered the 4 positions and appeared on the pay
roll. In such instance the num ber of employees was reported as 4
and not 6.
The data presented are for one pay-roll period in each year—the
pay roll for the second half of May, except in the very few plants
where abnorm al conditions in May m ade it desirable to take some
other period.
The full-time hours of labor per week shown in the tables of the
report are the regular hours of work of the several employees under
norm al conditions in the establishm ent. The working tim e is the




EXPLANATIO N OF TH E DATA PRESENTED.

63

tim e on duty, including intervals of w aiting for work; in other words,
the tim e between the hour of reporting for d u ty and the hour of
going off duty.
The working tim e of employees is not always the working tim e of
their occupation as a whole. Some plants operating seven days per
week m ake provision for laying off each employee one day a week.
In such a plant the full-time hours per week of an employee working
12 hours a day is 72 hours. In a plant m aking no such provision,
the full-time hours per week of an employee working 12 hours a day
is 84 hours. The full-time hours per week and the relative or index
num bers based thereon do not in any way indicate the extent of
unem ploym ent. Em ployees m ay work overtime, broken tim e, or
be laid off, or a tem porary reduction m ay be m ade in working hours
without such change affecting the full-tim e hours per week.
The rates of wages per hour- appearing in the tables include both
the wages of time workers and the earnings of tonnage or piece­
workers. All tim e rates by the day or week have been reduced to
rates per hour. The earnings of tonnage workers, the earnings of
employees working ‘at both tim e and tonnage rates, and the earnings
of employees who, in addition to a regular tim e rate, receive a bonus
based on production, also have been reduced to earnings per hour
by dividing the earnings by the hours worked. The tim e workers
and tonnage workers of each occupation are combined as one group.
In this connection it should be noted th a t while in other indus­
tries the earnings of employees paid on a piecework basis usually
are proportionate to the exertion and skill of the individual employee,
in the iron and steel industry the earnings of tonnage workers depend
upon the production of an entire departm ent or group of employees.
A change in the earnings per hour of tonnage workers does n o t
of necessity indicate a change in tonnage or piece rates. A change
in m ethods or m achinery, a speeding up, or more steady work result­
ing from a greater volum e of business, m ay increase the hourly earn­
ings or, on the other hand, changes in m ethods, a slowing down in
speed, or a lull in business m ay reduce hourly earnings. Varying
intervals while on d u ty waiting for work m ay also affect hourly
earnings.
The reports from the plants in m ost instances showed wages of
each individual employee, b u t in some cases, particularly in the
sheet and tin mills, reports gave the aggregate wages of two or more
such persons in an occupation instead of wages of each individual.
In such plants the classification of wages per hour is m ade of aver­
ages of aggregate wages of the employees, instead of wages of each
individual, and hence the classification in the tables of this report
for the departm ent as a whole is to a very lim ited extent a combina­
tion of such averages and of individual earnings.




64

WAGES AN D H OU RS OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

The full-tim e weekly earnings are the earnings per week of em­
ployees working full time, or the earnings on broken tim e reduced
to equivalent earnings for a full week.
In considering weekly earnings it should be rem embered th a t a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings ju st as an increase
tends to increase them . Thus between 1907 and 1915 it will be
observed th a t in the blast-furnace departm ent the hours for the
departm ent were reduced 6 per cent and wages per hour were
increased 14 per cent, each tending to offset the other, and m aking
tho increase in weekly earnings only 8 per cent. F urther, a reduc­
tion in the hours of a pieceworker m ay reduce his earnings in a week
and leave his earnings per hour unchanged, while a reduction of
hours for a tim e worker will, if his weekly rate rem ains the same,
increase his rate per hour.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
m ent as a whole m ust be considered. T h at is, the changes in the
num ber of employees in the several occupations from year to year.
I t is obvious th a t an increase in the num ber of employees in the
lower-paid occupations, or a decrease in the num ber of those in the
higher-paid ones would lower the average rate and earnings for all
occupations, ju st as an increase in the num ber of employees in the
higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the num ber in the lowerpaid ones would increase the average.
METHOD OF COMPUTING AVERAGES.

The averages of full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-tim e weekly earnings are com puted by adding the d a ta for
each individual employee and dividing the to ta l by the num ber of
employees.
REASON FOR TAE3NG 1915 AS BASE YEAR.

R elative full-tim e hours of labor, relative rates of wages per hour,
and relative full-tim e weekly earnings are briefly described on pages
14 and 15.
I t will be observed th a t in the tables of relative num bers the data
for the latest year available, 1915 in this report, are taken as the
base, or 100 per cent. R elative or index num bers are m ost fre­
quently used to compare the late st year w ith preceding years, as
1914 w ith 1915, 1913 w ith 1915, etc., and a comparison w ith 100
conveys a clearer idea th an a comparison of any two num bers,
neither of which is 100. F or example, the ratio 96.4:100 is more
readily grasped th an the equal ratio 137.3:142.4.
A nother and m ore im portant reason for taking the last year,
1915, as the base, or 100 per cent, is th a t the d a ta for 1915 are greater
in am ount and b e tte r in quality th a n for any preceding year. Thus




65

EXPLANATIO N OF TH E DATA PRESENTED.

for b last furnaces d a ta were obtained from 20 plants for 1907 and
from 38 plants for 1915. While the average for 20 plants m ight
possibly have been a fairly acceptable base, the average of nearly
twice as m any plants recently canvassed becomes more nearly
representative of the industry, and thus a more satisfactory base.
Starting w ith 1915 and com puting the index back year by year to
1907 the weakness, if any, in the d a ta of earlier years can no t m ani­
fest itself in the relative num bers except in the earlier years. B u t
if the average for 1907 were taken as a base, any weakness beginning
in the index of the earlier years would be continued down through
the later years, though the basic d a ta for such later years were entirely
satisfactory.
METHOD OF COMPUTING RELATIVE NUMBERS.

The m ethod of com puting the relative num bers is best explained
by an illustration. The full-tim e weekly earnings in 1913, 1914,
and 1915 of stockers in the blast-furnace departm ent is taken as
an example.
Number
of
identical
plants.
Full-time weekly earnings..................................................................... /
\
R elative full-time weekly earnings computed therefrom..............
Full-time weekly earnings in identical establishments cover­
ing the full 3 years................................................................................
Relative full-time weekly earnings computed therefrom..............

Year.

29

1914

$15.00
106

33
35

1913

$14.19
14.03
100

$13.99
100

15.12
104

14.31
99

14.47
100

1915

D ata are available for this occupation from 1907 to 1915, b u t the
figures for 1913 to 1915 only are used, being sufficient to illustrate
the m ethod of com puting the relative num bers.
The average for 1915 is taken as the base (100), then $14.03 divided
by $13.99 equals 100 (100.3), the relative for 1914. The ratio of
1913 to 1914 is $15.00 divided by $14.19. The relative for 1914 just
determined, 100 (100.3), m ultiplied by $15.00 divided by $14.19 equals
106 (105.7), the relative for 1913. In this report the relative num ­
ber is published w ithout decimals.
This m ethod of com puting relative num bers is used because of the
change th a t was m ade in the num ber of establishm ents to get a wider
representation in the later years. In com puting a series of relative
num bers, account m ust be taken of changes in plants from year to
year, as some discontinue operations or cease to be representative
and new plants come into operation. T hirty-three plants furnished
d a ta for 1913 and 1914, b u t in 1915 four of these plants were not
in operation and six other plants furnished d a ta for b oth 1915 and
1914, m aking 35 for th a t group. These changes reduced the weekly
89728°—17—Bull. 218------5




66

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

earnings somewhat, the average in 1914 for 35 plants being $14.03
as against $14.19 for 33 plants. W ith a varying num ber of plants
such differences m ust be expected.
The average of the weekly earnings for the 35 plants in 1915 was
$13.99. In the 29 plants, running through the full 3-year period,
the average earnings in 1915 were $14.47. Thus the averages for
35 plants show a decrease in earnings from $14.03 in 1914 to $13.99
in 1915, while the averages for 29 plants show an increase from $14.31
in 1914 to $14.47 in 1915. Relatives have been com puted on the
d ata of the 29 plants, and are presented in the table sim ply to illus­
tra te the difference shown by relatives based on different am ounts
of data. The relatives based on the greatest am ount of available
data, being more nearly representative, are presented in the several
tables of relative num bers in the report.
A word of caution is given as to the use of relative num bers. The
per cent of increase or decrease from one year to another is not the
difference betw een the relative num bers for the two years. Thus, in
Table 14, the relative full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers increased
from 95 in 1907 to 106 in 1913, a difference of 11 in the relatives.
This difference, 11, is 11.6 p e rc e n t of the relative 95, b u t as deci­
mals are not used in this table this becomes 12 per cent.
The above illustration shows the m ethod of com puting the relative
num bers for an occupation. Precisely the same m ethod was used in
com puting the relative num bers for each departm ent as a whole.
F or example, for each year the full-tim e weekly earnings of each
employee of all occupations covered were added and the sum divided
by the to ta l employees covered, giving the average full-tim e weekly
earnings of all employees in the departm ent. From these averages
(unpublished) the relative full-tim e weekly earnings for the industry
were com puted by the m ethod illustrated above. This explanation
applies equally to relative full-tim e hours of labor and to relative
rates of wages per hour.
In Table 10 figures are given concerning the volume of employ- *
m ent in the several departm ents, m onthly, from July, 1913, to June,
1915, and in Table 1 there are presented index num bers com puted
therefrom . As the m ethod of com putation is complex, an expla­
nation is given in the form of an illustration. The tin-plate mill
figures are taken as the example.
W hat constitutes custom ary turns is explained on page 29. The
turns actually worked in July, 1913, were 6,418. The num ber of
custom ary turns in July, 1913, was 9,574, of which num ber the turns
actually worked (6,418) constituted 67 per cent.
The estim ated full custom ary tim e p ay roll was com puted from the
actual pay rolls of the turns worked. The custom ary turns for each
of the 24 m onths were added and the sum (224,771) was divided by




EXPLANATION OF TH E DATA PRESENTED.

67

24, giving 9,365 custom ary turns as the average m onthly num ber for
these mills. The actual pay rolls for the 24 m onths were added and
the sum ($11,672,445) was divided by the sum of the turns actually
m ade in the 24 m onths (168,693) and the quotient m ultiplied b y the
average m onthly full num ber of custom ary turns (9,365), giving
approxim ately $648,000 as the estim ated full-tim e m onthly p ay roll.
The actual pay roll in July, 1913, was $450,365, which num ber is
70 per cent of $648,000.

PREVIOUS REPORTS.
Wages in the iron and steel industry have entered into several
reports published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among such
reports being the Sixth Annual, the N ineteenth Annual, and Bulletins
Nos. 59, 65, 71, 77, 151, and 168.
Two Senate docum ents contain reports of investigations m ade by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics treating in p a rt of wages in the iron
and steel industry, nam ely:
R eport on Strike at Bethlehem Steel W orks. Senate Docum ent
No. 521, Sixty-first Congress, second session.
R eport on Conditions of Em ploym ent in the Iron and Steel
In d u stry in the U nited States (4 volumes). Senate Docum ent No.
110, Sixty-second Congress, first session.
The last-nam ed docum ent is a very comprehensive study of the
wages, hours of labor, working conditions, etc., in the industry in the
year 1910. I t covered all occupations in the industry and practically
all plants in operation in the U nited States. The wage data of this
report were based m ostly on a half-m onth pay roll, in m ost instances
in the m onth of May.
The resources of the B ureau of Labor Statistics would not w arrant
such a large and expensive stu d y to be m ade each year. This present
report contains representative d a ta only, as before stated, b u t such
d ata cover not only 1910, b u t all the years from 1907 to 1915, in­
clusive, in three departm ents; from 1910 to 1915, in six departm ents,
and 1914 and 1915, in one departm ent.
Figures for each departm ent and each geographical division for
years preceding 1914, corresponding to those given in this report for
1913, 1914, and 1915 were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this
bureau.
Descriptions of the occupations in each departm ent are to be
found in the Glossary of Occupations, pages 467 to 526.




BLAST FURNACES.1
SUMMARY.

The year 1913 m arked the highest point in wages per hour and per
week in this departm ent in the period 1907 to 1915. Wages per hour
fell off 1 per cent in 1914, accompanied b y a reduction of 3 per cent
in the hours of labor, m aking a reduction of 4 per cent in the earn­
ings of a full-tim e week. B oth wages and hours of labor rem ained
practically unchanged in 1915 as compared w ith 1914. The lowest
point in wages during the nine-year period was reached in 1909. The
figures stated apply to the departm ent as a whole (“All occupations” ),
b u t there are some deviations therefrom in the several occupations as
is indicated in the table of relative num bers (Table 14).
From 1907 to 1915 there was a steadily exerted effort to reduce the
turns (days) per week and therew ith the hours per week of individual
employees in blast-furnace operation. Some seven-day occupations
were reduced to six-day occupations, and m any seven-day “ tu r n ”
occupations m ade six-day positions, one day out of seven being
worked by a relief m an.
The m ost significant facts concerning wages and hours of labor in
the several occupations of the blast-furnace departm ent appearing
in this report are sum m arized in the table following. D ata are
presented for the years 1907 to 1915, the figures for each group of
years being for identical plants. The inform ation for 1915 represents
8,563 employees, and was obtained from 38 plants having 133 stacks
and capable of producing 45 per cent of the to tal tonnage capacity of
blast furnaces in the U nited States. Of the 8,563 employees 4,914
are in the 16 principal production occupations specified each year
from 1907 to 1915, and the rem aining 3,649 are in the unclassified
productive and nonproductive groups reported for the years 1914 and
1915 only. In this sum m ary table occupations are grouped according
to wages paid, beginning w ith the lowest-paid group, and the occu­
pations in each group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified
full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by
percentages which were com puted from the actual figures given in
Table A.
i Summary figures relating to this department are given w ith figures for other departments of the iron
and steel industry on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volume of employm ent in this and other depart­
m ents from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of the scope of
the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.
68




69

BLAST FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 13.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D A V ER ­

AGE FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—B L A S T F U R [The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of tim e
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Laborers:

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employ­
whose full-time hours
ees whose earnings
Aver­
per week were—
per hour were—
age
rate
Over
Over
14
of U n­ and and : 16 18
12J
60
60
72
and
and and 72 and 84 wages der un­ un­ un­ cts.
per 12
un­ un­
un­
and
hour. cts. der der der over.
der. der
14 16 18
der
84
cts. cts. c ts.
72

1907
1908
1909
1910

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

11
20 !
14 ;
18

1910
1911

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

1911
1912

937
961

35 plants................. 1912- 1,049
1913 1,273
34 nlants................. 1913
1914
37 p la n ts................ 1914
1915

1,193
1,010
1,096
885

4
25
24
4

29
10
26
22

40
41
24
21

28
24
26
53

$11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

.150;
. i5i i

3
4

23
26

33
24

41
46

11.23
11.13

31
31

. 151
. 152

4
3

26
25

24
24

46
48 C
1)

11. l i
11.15

10
10

Q 31
4 2 30

. 152
.171

3
1

23
14

26
17

47 C
1) 11.15
20
48 12. 43

10
25

5
8
y
7

1
.173
: 176 C
1)

13
9

13
14

18
19

2
5

8
12

11
11

1
18!
23

50

37

2
3

5
15
7
5

47 $0.146
27 .140
28 .138
38 .152

19
21

28
31

2
3

21
14

30
31

73.3
73.1

21
20

31
31

3
8

14
10

73.1
72.5

20
22

30
34

70.8
70.8
71.3

29
31
35
31

37 0 )
38

22
11

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1

12
16

21
19

33
24
25
26

I

.177
.171

55 12.65
12. 47
57
61 12 52
49 12.20

14 16 18
U n­ and and and 20
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
14 der der der and
cts. 16 18 20 over.
cts. cts. cts.
B ctiom fillers:
7 plants...................

1907
1908
1909
1910

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
100
100
100

.160
.150
. 138
.160

36 11
40 18
69
33 ” i9

30
22
17
30

23
21
1 4 ___
19

13. 40
12.59
11.61
13. 41

14 plants................. 1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

100
100

.152
.148

26
35

48
40

14
9

12
16

12. 77
12. 46

15 plants................. 1911
1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

15

100
85

.149
.152

33
28

42
45

101 u
12 16

12.50
12.53

16
20

84
80

.153
.167

31
21

34
41

18

18
21

12.63
17 13. 74

18
16

34
30

18
28

12
12

17 13. 88
13 13.76

11
15

49
24

20
32

13 14.52
19 14. 48

1912
1913

423 plants.................
14 82.0
461 81.6

13 plants...............

1913
1914

82.1
82.0

16
17

84
83

.168
.167

9 plants..................

1914
1915

469
360 ;
1
208
148

83.3
82.4

6
14

94
86

.174
.176

1907
1908
1909
1910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
1
82.9 0 )

32 plants................. 1910
1911

482
339

82.9 C
1)
81.3

32 plants................. 1911
1912

333
397

81.3
75.2 '*'23

33 plants................. 1912
1913

356
380

77.3
79.9

31 plants................. 1913
1914

357
285

80.3
78.2

31 plants................. 1914
1915

286
254

78.3
78.6

Cinder men:
20 plants.................

15
1'
|
2
4
1
3
6

2
8
9
7
I
1
7
10
1
10
11
10
12

10
10
13
6
4
2
10
11
2
9 o

12
14

12
15 (1)7
1
11
7
25 | (’)

13
9-

27 ' C
1)
24

71
9
5
22;
34;
12
l
12
2i
i
78 . 158 2J
56 .164 11
i
63 .162 12
04 . 179, 9
;
88 . 173 1
82 . 156|
78 . 150
87' .166
i
89 . 1631
78( . 158

24
34
20
12

68
57

. 183
.177!

45
9
34
40
63 "12
1
20 58
9
21 46 10
1
22 44 10
29 37 16
i
i
23 44 19'
12 13 36
1
6 12’ 11 38
11 I 111 15 35]

57
62

. 176
.174!

12 13 13
18! 11! 14

35
31 ;

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including less than oae-nalf of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week wore 91.




16
10
6
2

14.46
12. 83
12. 34
13. 78

2 1r 5fi
l 1 12.84
11 12.82
8 12.20
1
2 12. 49
31 14.27
33^ 14.62
27, 13.82
28 13.78
27 < 13.64

70

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 13.—FULL-TIM E H OURS T ER W E E K , R A TE S OF WAGES P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R -

AGE FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—B L A S T F U R NA CES—Continued.

Per cent of em ploy­
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hburs
ees whose earnings
per hour were—
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of tim e
14 16 18
Over
Over
of
em­
ber of plants.
60
60
72
wages U n­ and and and 20
ploy­ hours and and
u n ­ un­ un­ cts.
per
per
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 and 84 hour. der der der der and
un­
14
der
der. der
cts. 16 18 20 over.
c ts . c ts. c ts.
72
84
Keepers’ helpers:

100 $0.165
100 . 160
100 .155
100 .169

23
28
32
16

8
4
9
14

35
39
35
31

19
22
20
32

.168
.167
1
92: . 167
81 .170

16
21

17
13

31
27

28!
32

16 $13.89
7 13.41
3 13.04
14.22
8
81 14.13
8 13. 83

21
16

13
16

27
23

32!
33 j

8 13.84
12 13.74

78’ . 173
85' . 186

15
8

16
14

23
12

32
9

15 13.75
57 15.30

7

85'
64

. 186
.186i

9
10

12
10

12
15

9
8

58 15.31
57 14.87

7
5

66
65

.185 ! 13
.182 18

7
9

15
10

8
8

57 14. S3
55 14. 48

9
13
36
g

30
46
30
29

62
42
34
50

15

13.35
! 12.80
: 12.53
! 13.69

.165
.168
.173

5
5
4

24
16
5

64
73
74

7
7
6

1 13.88
| 13.89
11 13.67

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

877
734

84.0
83 1

1911
1912

742
846

8 3 .1 ____
4
81.0

1912
1913

870
902

80.2
82.2

35 plants................. 1913
1914

9513
695

82.2
80.4

15
29

1914
1915

734
727

80.6
80.1

28
30

1907
1908
1909
1910

115
79
135
134

84 0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
100
100
100

.159
.152
.149
. 163

1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

23 plants................

1912
1913

359
342

79.6
82.6

23 plan ts................

1913
1914

352
238

82.6
78.5

11
44

27 plan ts.

1914
1915

250
275

78.6
78.3

43
46

1907
1908
1909
1910

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

16 plan ts. .

1910
1911

291
259

83.9 0 )
82.4 0 )

17 plants

1911
1912
1913

267
275
290

19 plates.........

1913
1914

21 plan ts................

Larry men’s helpers:
10 plants

19 plants.

...

Pig-machine men:
9 plants

Stockers:
18 plan ts................

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

1
'
!
|
I

8

100
92

8
8
15
14
15

11

12
13

100
88
77

10

14
12

76
88

.172
. 190

5
5

6
1

73
8

7
42

10 13. 64
44 15.69

3

89
53

.191
. 189

3
4

1
2

7
8

46
55

42 15.78
31 14.79

3
3

54
51

. 187
.185

6
8

2
2

9
11

54
43

30 14.67
36 14. 43

2
2

100
98
98
99

. 167
. 163
. 162
. 170

13
12
15
7

16
8
7
15

57
69
65
51

3
8
9
24

11
4
4
3

13

99
87

.169!
.169

6
11

15
13

57
53

20
18

2 14.14
5 13.90

82.4 C
1)
81.9 i})
81.8 (!)

12
17
17

87
83
82

.169
.171
.192

11
7
3

13
8
3

52
63
12

20
18
39

5 13.98
4 13. 97
43 15. 69

303
236

81.9 C
1)
79.4 C
1)

17
33

83
9 2 57

.192
.192

3
3

3
3

15
15

31
28

49 15.72
52 15.25

1914
1915

259
245

79.2 0 )
79.6 C
1)

1

36
32

8 2 55
7 2 59

.192
.190

3
3

2
4

17
20

28
33

50 15.15
40 15.07

1907
1908
1909
1910

824
473
737
904

81.4
2
79.1
1
80.9
81.0 C
1)

9
26
10
8

17
9
9
7

1910
1911

1,445
898

79.9
79.8

18
12

1

1
(L
)

14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27

2

13
15
30
25

77
58
60
66

. 170
.157
.158
.166

14
19
28
22

15
26
18
9

53
40
39
44

1
6
7
18

2
7

15
16

64
62

. 164
.167

19
16

20
18

38
42

15
17

7 13.17
8 13.36

904 79.7
4
12
7
16
62 .168 15 18 44 17
32 plan ts................ 1911
13
23
49 .173 10 15 47 21
1912 1,045 78.7
4
11
1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including less than one-half of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.

7 13.40
8 13.61

32 plan ts................




1
4

13.83
12.43
12. 75
13.43

71

BLAST FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

T abus 13.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF WAGES P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R ­
AGE FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—B L A S T F U RNA CES—' ontinued.
C

Per cent of employ­
Per cent of employees
ees whose earnings
whose full-time hours
per hour were—
per week were—
A ver­
A ver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
Over
Over
of
14 16 18
em­ time
ber of plants.
60
72
wages U n ­ and and and 20
ploy­ hours 60 and
per
per
cts.
ees. week. and un­ 72 and 84 hour. der u n ­ un­ un­ and
un­
14 der der der
un­
der
cts. 16 18 20 over.
der. der
84
72
cts. cts. cts.
Stockers—Concluded.
34 p la n ts................

1912
1913

1,069
1,187

78.8
78.9

4
4

11
9

13
14

23
23

50 SO 171
.
51 .190

33 p lan ts................

1913
1914

1,269
1,001

78.0
75.0

4
4

18
30

12
22

22
16

45
27

35 plan ts................

1914
1915

1,031
878

74.9
74.6

7
7

27
27

21
22

16
17

1907
1908
1909
1910

66
44
50
48

1910
1911

142
84

1911
1912

14 plants. . .

A ver­
age
fuUtime
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

13
10

15
7

44
8

20
32

8 $13.46
44 14.98

.192
.190

5
3

7
8

11
14

35
37

41 15.00
37 14.19

29
27

.188
.188

6
8

8
9

13
11

38
31

35 14.03
41 13.99

84.0
84.01
........
8 4 .0 ____
84.0

100
100
100
100

.177
.168
.161
.181

24
41
44
8

12
9
14
20
33 ""*8

15
18
12

39
27
24
50

82.8
82.0

4

96
93

.169
.170

19

26
24

54
33

2

17 13.85
21 13.67

92
96

82.2
80.0

7
6

19

93
75

.171
.176

17
13

22
31

30
15

11
17

20 13. 84
25 13.90

1912
1913 |

96
98

80.0
80.3

6
6

19
16

75
78

.175 17
.191 , 8

27
18

15
14

17
22

25 13. 81
37 15.19

13 plan ts. . .

1913
1914

95
80

81.2
80.1

6
8

8
15

85
78

.201
.199

4
5

8
15

13
5

15
15

60 16.15
60 15. 71

8 plan ts..............

1914
1915

56
44

80.1
79.0

11
14

7
9

82
77

.210
.213

7
9

5

14
14

79 16.54
73 16. 44

Top fillers:
8 plants..

13 plants
14 plants.

i

U n­
der
16
cts.

l
1

Blowing engineers’
assistants:
11 plants.............. . 1907
1908
1909
1910

•

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911
1912

94
91
.108

84.0
83.2
80.4

18 plants................

1912
1913

106
94

80.8
83.2

18 p lants................

1913
1914

94
87

83.2
79.1

6
34

1914
1915

99
96

79.0
78.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

1910
1911
1911
1912

18 plan ts................

21 plan ts................
Iron handlers and
loaders:
9 plants..................

18 p lants................
19 plants................




3

16
and
un­
der
20
cts.

14.86
14.15
13.56
15.18

20 25
and and 30
un-J un­ cts.
der der and
25 30 over.
cts. cts.

100
100
100
100

i

.203
.199
.191
.208

16
16
9

9

27
24
41
21

49
45
30
55

15
16
14
15

! 17.02
16. 72
16.08
17.48

11

8

7
10

100
93
82

207
. 20iV
.211 i

9
9
7

21
23
19

60
64
67

7

17.38
17.06
16.85

9

7
6

85
94

. 21-3!
. 225!

4
4

19
6

701 8
fifi! 19

17.13
4 18.67

14

94
52

.225
.224

4
5

6
7

66
63

19
23

4 18.67
2 17.68

36
42

12
13

52
46

6
.223
.223 I 10

12i 54
8 51
I

24
25

4 17.57

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0

60
60 !........
57 I........
59

6
9
7
10

34
32
36
31

.193
.190
.177
.195

18
33
31
20

51
31
41
45 ;

25
25 "*3
21
7
16

6 14.20
9 13.95
13.05
14.24

305
300

74.2
72.7

1

591
63!

6
6

35
30

.194
.195

18
18

50
43|

18
25

12
7

308
359

73.0
72.2

1
8

50 !

6
5

32
27

.195
.195

18
20

44i 24
49i IP

7
5

61
10

4

19

5 17.41

3
7
7
8

14.36
14.11
14.17
14.04

72

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 13.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R ­

AGE FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—B L A S T FJJRNA CES —Continued.

Per cent of employ­
Per cent of employees
ees whose earnings
whose full-time hours
per hour were—
per week were—
A ver­
AverN um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of tim e
16 20 25
Over
Over
of
ember of plants.
60
72
wages U n­ and and and 30
ploy- hours and and
per der un ­ un­ un­ cts.
per
72 and
week. un­ un­
un­
hour. 16 der der der and
der
cts. 20 25 30 over.
der. der
cts. c ts. c ts.
72
84
Iron handlers and
loaders—Concld.
19 plants...............
16 plants...............
16 plants...............
Keepers:
20 plants...............

1912
1913

406
446

73.1
72.5

1913
1914

333

Aver­
age
1U
.11tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$0.2
.220

16
.5

44
37

20
40

5
1

15 $15.11
18 16.07

.227
.222

3
5

31
33

44
38

2
8

20 16.54
16 16.09

72.0
71.5

10

73.8
74.0

1914
1915

40

.218
.204

17
17

28
41

31
23

6
5

18 16.16
14 15.22

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
100
100
100

.218
.210
.205
.219

12
15
17
8

7
6
6
13

64
75
75
75

16
4
3
4

18.34
17.68
17.26
18.43

34 plants...............

1910
1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

100

.215
.217

10
10

20
18

67
70

3
2

18.09
17.95

35 plants..............

1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

.217
.223

10
7

17
19

71
63

2
11

17.95
17..61

36 plants...............

1912
1913

218
224

79.
81.9

74
82

.223
.234

6
4

20
20

63
30

11
47

17.59
19.13

35 plants...............

1913
1914

230
178

82.0
79.6

83
60

.235
.233

3
3

17
16

31
30

49
51

19.28
18.52

38 plants..............

1914
1915

184
187

79.6
79.4

60
58

.232

5
9

14
13

32
27

49
51

18.47
18.33

1907
1908
1909
1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
100
100
100

.195
.184
.186
.202

18
26
27
5

24
23
50
36

42 15
51
23
45 " u

16.41
15. 48
15.64
16.97

21 plants...............

1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

100
91
71

.196
.194
.200

4
5
4

52
49
37

35
37
50

9
8
9

16.47
15.99
15.48

23 p lants...............

1912
1913

241
234

78.2
82.3

71

5
5

37
9

50
70

9
15

15.46
17.60

23 plants...............

1913
1914

238
174

82.3
78.6

53|

3
3

9

72
70

15
15

17.77
17.10

68
65

14
14

16.88
16. 51

54
44
17 i
50

2
3
2
2

16.19
15.49
15.40
16.46

48
57
40

5
8
22

16.56
16.60
16.14

Larry men:
11 plants..............

27 plants...............
Skip operators:
11 plan ts...............

1914
1915

192
212

78.6
78.6

15

53
53

6
9

11
13

1 11
12 33
19 34
9 72
8 40
j
8 39
7 29
6 32

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100
100
100
100

19 plants...............

1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

100
98
78

20 plants...............

1912
1913

138
150

79.3
82.9

78
91

6
5

32
13

41
73

22
8

16.19
17.95

22 plants...............

1913
1914

158
123

82.9
79.5

91
59

5
5

13
16

75
68

8
11

17.97
17.26

28 plan ts..............

1914
1915

139
152

79.5
79.4

60
59

7
7

17
20

66
66

9
8

16.98
17.03




73

BLAST FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 13.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TES OF WAGES P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R ­

AGE FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—B L A S T F U R ­
N A CES—Continued.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employ­
whose full-time hours
ees whose earnings
per week were—
per hour were—
Aver­
A ver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Over
of
j 16 20 | 25
tim e
em- hours 60 Over
72
60
wages Un- and and and 30
P-oy- per and and
per dor un nn- un­ cts.
72 and
ees. week. un­ un­
un­
hour. 16 der der der and
der. der
der
cts. 20 25 30 over.
84
cts. cts cts.
72

Occupation, and num ­
ber of plants.

Stove tenders:
20 plan ts. .

34 plan ts.
35 plants..
3G p lan ts.
35 plan ts.
38 plan ts.
Unclassified—produc­
tive:
37 plants................
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
38 plants................

100 $0,192
.185
.181
.197

1907
1808
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.01
84.0;
84.0

1910
1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

1911
1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

1912
1913

214
213

79.5
81.8

.211

1913
1914

220

81.9
79.6

.211

177

1914
1915

183
186

79.7
79.4

1914
1915

1,140
1,152

76.7
75.5

48
144

.214
.214

10
12

1914
1915

2,801
2,497

70.4
70.9

2 26
129

.223
.224

9 26
10j 23

19i
40 .
31 .

100
100
100

.190

16.21
15.69

.190
.195

49’.
59

15.68
15.42

.195

58;.
77j.

15.38
17.24

.209

7 7|.
75j.

17.30
16.54

.209
.208

74

49

75.
76 .

16 56
16.46

52 .

33
27

20

16.39
10 16.07

3/
37

15. 51
15.69

3 and
0 40

U n­ and and
der un­ un­
20 der der
cts 30 40
cts. cts
Blowing engineers:
20 plants...........

$16.10
15,52
15.22
16.55

58 .

100

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

50
and
un­ un­
der der
50 60
cts. cts.

.242
.235
.230
.245

1907
1908
1909
1910

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants.

1910
1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

35 plan ts.

1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

.244
.249

20 15
19.93

35 plants.

1912
1913

142
148

80.6
81.6

.249
.263

19.93
21.37

35 plants.

1913
1914

156
139

82.0
79.2

3 56

.260
.259

21.28
20.42

1914
1915

147
153

79.3
79.1|.

3 57
3 56

.262
.262

20 64
20.64

38 plan ts.
Blowers:
18 plants.

100
100
100
100
100

37

.243
.244

20.30
1!) 77
r . 35
20. 59
20
19

100 .300
1907
78 84. o l
100 .283
1908
68 84.0!.
100 .286
86 84.0;.
1909
49
100 .3071
1910
90 84.0 .
1 Including less than one-half of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including less than one-half of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91, and 1 man
hours were 98.
3 Including 1 per cent whose full-time weekly hours were 91.




?0. 39
20.20

25 17
23 74
24.04
25.80
whose

74

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 13.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D A V E R ­

AGE FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1915—B L A S T FURNA CES—Concluded.

Per cent of employ­
Per cent of employees
ees whoso earnings
whose full-time hoars
per hour were—
per week were—
A ver­
N um ­ A ver­
age
age
ber full­
!
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
Over
20 30 40 50
Over
of
em­ tim e
ber of plants.
72
hours 60
60
wa^es U n­ and and and and
ploy­ per and and
per der un- un­ un­ un­
and
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. 20 der der der der
cts. 30 40 50 60
der. der
der
72
84
c ts. c ts. c ts. cts.

A ver­
age
full­
time
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

B lowers—Conclud ed.
32 plants................ 1910
1911

131
121

3.5
82.

$24.74
25.24

1911
1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

31 plan ts................

1912
1913

139
147

80.3
82.0

34 plan ts................

1913
1914

154
130

82.2
80.5

38 plan ts................

1914
1915

143
149

33 plan ts................

$0.296
.306
.305
.313

85

48
45

41
40

25.21
24.84

.315
.329

16

44; 40
31! 54

25.01
26.84

.332
.329

29 57
23 j 62

27.21
26.42

.333
.336

24j 59
28! 52

26.74
26.93

1 Including 2 per cent whose full-time weekly hours were 91.
2 Including 1 per cent whose full-time w eekly hours were 91.

Referring to the first occupation presented in Table 13, “ Labor­
ers,” direct comparison can be made of figures for 20 identical plants
from 1907 to 1910, for 34 plants for 1910 and 1911, for 35 plants for
1911 and 1912, for 35 plants for 1912 and 1913, for 34 plants for
1913 and 1914, and for 37 plants for 1914 and 1915. The first line
shows that in 1907 the 20 blast-furnace plants which furnished
information employed 957 laborers, and that the average hours of
these laborers, when working full time, was 75.8 hours per week. For
11 per cent of th^se laborers the full-time hours per week were 60 and
under; for 37 per cent, over 60 and under 72; for less than 1 per cent,
72; for 5 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 47 per cent, or nearly
one-half, 84 hours. The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of
laborers in the year considered (1907) was 14.6 cents. Of the total
number, 4 per cent earned under 12 cents per hour; 29 per cent re­
ceived 12 and under 14 cents per hour; 40 per cent received 14 and
under 16 cents per hour, and 28 per cent received 16 and under 18
cents per hour. The average earnings for a full week’s work was
$11.13. The other lines of the table are read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 20 identi­
cal plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers was $11.13
in 1907. In the next two years there was a drop to $10.24 and $10.17
respectively, and in 1910 an advance to $11.18. While the average
full-time weekly earnings in 1910 in 20 plants was $11.18, the average
in 34 plants for the same year was $11.23. In the 34 plants there was
a decrease from $11.23 per week in 1910 to $11.13 in 1911. The




BLAST FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

75

difference between $11.23 and $11.13 measures the change from 1910
to 1911. I t would not be a proper comparison, however, to state th a t
earnings decreased from $11.18 in 1910 to $11.13 in 1911, because of
the change in plants and the difference known to exist in the averages
for 1910 in the two groups of plants. In 35 plants there was an in­
crease from $11.14 in 1911 to $11.15 in 1912, and in the second group
of 35 plants an increase from $11.15 in 1912 to $12.43 in 1913. Com­
paring the 34 plants reported for the years 1913 and 1914 a decrease
from $12.65 to $12.47 is shown. In the next comparison there are
37 plants showing a decrease from $12.52 in 1914 to $12.20 per week
in 1915. The other items of this table should be studied w ith like
care.
Comparing the full-tim e earnings for both the years 1914 and 1915
of the several occupations it is seen th a t the lowest earnings are found
in the occupation of laborers; the average being $12.52 and $12.20
respectively. Several other occupations receive b u t little more,
bottom fillers, cinder men, keepers’ helpers, larry m ens’ helpers, and
stockers all receiving less th an $15 per week. The highest earnings
in any occupation of this departm ent are found in the occupation of
blowers, the average full-time weekly earnings in this occupation
being $26.74 for the year 1914 and $26.93 for 1915.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

Owing to changes in the num ber of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the over­
lapping year in two groups of plants, it is difficult to m ake a comparison of the actual d ata over a period of several years which will
give an accurate measure of the changes throughout the period.
To aid in m aking such a comparison, relative or index num bers have
been com puted from the averages shown in Table 13 for full-tim e
hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earn­
ings, for each occupation from 1907 to 1915 inclusive. Such figures
appear in Table 14, following. These relative or index num bers
are simply percentages for which the data for 1915 are taken as a
base, or 100 per cent. The relative for. each year is the per cent
th a t the average for th a t year is of the average for 1915. For exam ­
ple, the relative full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 95
as compared w ith 100 in 1915; th a t is the full-time weekly earnings
of stockers in 1907 were 95 per cent of the full-tim e weekly earnings
in this occupation in 1915. The m ethod of com puting relative num ­
bers is explained on pages 65 to 67.
Table 14 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase or
decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1915 as com pared w ith each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in
1915 were 5 per cent higher th an in 1907, 16 per cent higher th an in




76

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN DUSTRY.

1908, 14 per cent higher th an in 1909, 8 per cent higher th an in 1910,
6 per cent higher th an in 1911, 5 per cent higher th an in 1912, 6 per
cent lower th an in 1913, and the same as in 1914.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as com pared w ith the year im m ediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1908 were 9 per cent
lower th an in 1907, 2 per cent higher in 1909 th an in 1908, 6 per cent
higher in 1910 th an in 1909, 1 per cent higher in 1911 th an in 1910, 1
per cent higher in 1912 th an in 1911, 12 per cent higher in 1913 than
in 1912, 6 per cent lower in 1914 th an in 1913, and the same in 1915 as
in 1914. The other item s of the table can be studied in like m anner.
The per cent of increase or decrease is com puted from the relative
num bers. The figures for the departm ent as a whole (“ All occupa­
tio n s” ) appear a t the end of the table.
T a b l e 14.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E EK , R A TES OF W AGES P E R HO U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT
OF INCREA.SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—B L A S T
F U RN ACES.
per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)

Occupation and year.

Stockers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Bottom fillers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
i m ..........
191 4
191 5
Top fillers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
.




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

106
103
106
106
106
104
104
100
100

102

103
101
100

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
tiv e
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
fied
com­
fied
com­
fied
wages
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
per
earn­
w ith
com­
w ith
com­
with
hour.
com­
ings.
each
each
pared
pared
each
pared
speci­
with
with
speci­
with
speci­
fied
year
fied
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

-6
-3
-6

-6

-6

-4
-4
C
1)

-3
+3
0)
0)
-2

87
88
91
101
100

C
1)

104
104
104
104
104
102
101
101
100
106
108
106
106
105

W eekly earnings.

100

C
1)

8 I
C
1) !
-2 ,
-1
(J) !
-l

-6
-6
-5
—2

91
100
100

0)

C
1)
C
1)
-1
-3
+1

91
100

-1

100

-2

1 No change.

+12
+22
+20
+ 15
+ 14
+ 10
- 1
0)
+ 9
+ 16
+27
+ 9
+ 12
+10
C
1)
+ 1
+ 16
+22
+28
+14
+12
+ 10
0)
+ l

95

+ 5
+16
+14
+ 8
+ 6
+ 5
- 6
(0

+ 1
+ 5
+ 1
+ 3
+ 11
- 1
0)

93
94
95
106
100
100

- 7
- 8
+16
- 3
+ 2
+ 10
- 1
+ 1

95
89
82
95
93
93
101
100
100

+ 5
+ 12
+22
+ 5
+ 8
+ 8
- 1
0)

+
+
+
+
+

93
88
85
95
94
94
103
101
100

+ 8
+14
+ 18
+ 5
+ 6
+ 6
- 3

5
5
13
1
2
10
1
1

-

1

+
+
+
+
+
0)

9
2
6
1
1
12
6

+16
- 2
C
1)
+ 9
- 1
(0
- 5
- 3
+ 12
1
0)
+ 10
—2
— 1

77

BLAST FU RN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 14. — R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES PE R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT
OF IN C R EA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SP EC IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—B L A S T
FU RN A CES—Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Larry men:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Larrv men’s helpers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Skip operators:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................
Blowers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Blowing engineers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................
Blowing engineers’ assistants:
1907............................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tiv e
full­ 1915 as speci­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
wages
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
per
earn­
with
with
com­
w ith
com­ hour.
com­
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­
with
speci­
with
fied
year
year
fied
fied
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

107
107
107
107
106
100
105
100
100

-7
-7
-7
-7
-6
C
1)
-5
(l )

107
107
107
107
106
102
106
100
100

-7
-7
-7
-7
-6
-2
-6
0)

106
106
106
106
106
100
104
100
100

—6
-6
-6
-6
-6
(l)
-4
C
1)

104
104
104
104
104
100
102
100
100

-4
-4
—4
-4
-4
i1)
-2
(l )

107
107
107
107
106
103
104
100
100

—7
-7
-7
-7
-6
-3
-4
C
1)

108
108
108
108
107
103
106
101
100

_7
—7
—7
—7
-3
-6
-1

0)
0)
0)
-1
-6
+5
-5
0)

89
84
85
92
91
94
101
102
100

+12
+ 19
+ 18
+ 9
+ 10
+ 6
- 1
- 2

(!)
i1)
0)
-1
-4
+4
-6
(1)

86
82
81
88
90
93
102
101
100

+16
+22
+23
+14
+ 11
+ 8
- 2
- 1

01)
0)
-6
+4
-4
0)

89
85
84
90
91
94
100
100
100

+ 12
+ 18
+ 19
+ 11
+ 10
+ 6
(l)
(0

C
1)
0)
C
1)
0)
-4
+2
-2
0)

88
83
84
90
93
96
100
99
100

+ 14
+20
+ 19
+ 11
+ 8
+ 4
0)
+ 1

0)
0)
0)
-1
-3
+1
-4
0)

92
89
87
93
93
95
100
100
100

+ 9
+ 12
+ 15
+ 8
+ 8
+ 5
0)
(*)

0)
0)
(1)
-1
-4
+3
-5
-1

91
89
86
93
92
95
100
100
100

+10
+ 12
+ 16
+ 8
+ 9
+ 5
C
1)
0)

C
1)

i No change.

6
1
8
1
3
7
1
2

96
91
92
99
96
93
106
102
100

+ 4
+10
+ 9
+ 1
+ 4
+ 8
- 6
- 2

+
+
+
+
-

5
1
9
2
3
10
1
— 1

93
90
88
96
96
94
109
102
100

+ 8
+ 11
+14
+ 4
+ 4
+ 6
- 8
- 2

- 4
- 1
+ 7
+ 1
+ 3
+ 6
0)
0)

94
90
90
96
96
94
104
100
100

+ 6
+ 11
+11
+ 4
+ 4
+ 6
- 4
0)

+
+
+
+
+
+

6
1
7
3
3
4
1
1

93
87
88
95
97
95
102
99
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
0)
+
+
(l)
0)

3
2
7

98
95
93
99
98
97
104
100
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
C
1)

2
5
8
1
2
3
4

+
+
+
C
1)
0)

2
3
8
1
3
5

98
97
93
101
99
98
107
101
100

+
+
+
+
+
-

2
3
8
1
1
2
7
1

+
+
+
+
+
—

2
5

-

8
15
14
5
3
5
2
1

- 5
+ 1
+ 8
- 3
- 3
+14
- 4
—2
- 3
- 2
+ 9
0)
- 2
+ 16
- 6
—2
- 4
0)
+ 7
0)
- 2
+ 11
- 4
0)
+
+
+
+
+

6
1
8
2
2
7
3
1

+
+
0)

3
2
c
>
1
1
7
4

+
+
-

1
4
9
2
1
9
6
1

78

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 14.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S PE R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES PE R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W IT H P E R C ENT
OF INC R E A SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—B L A S T
F U RNA CES—Continued.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Stove tenders:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.......................................
1913.....................................
1914.....................................
1915......................
Keepers:
1907.............................
1908...............................
1909.....................................
2910...............................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
191?.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................
Keepers’ helpers:
1907.....................................
1908...............................
1909.....................................
1910.....................................
1911.....................................
1912.....................................
1913...................................
1914.............................
1915.....................................
Iron handlers and loaders:
1907.............................
1908...................................
1909.....................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.....................................
1913.....................................
1914.......................................
1915...... ..............................
Pig-machine men:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913...................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Cinder men:
1907.......................................
190 8
190 9
191 0
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

106
106
103
106
104
100
103
100
100
106
106
10S
108
104
100
103
100
100

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

R ela­
R ela­
tive
Each
tiv e
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
fied
com­
com­
fied
wages
fied
per
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
earn­
com­
w ith
w ith
com­ hour.
com­
w ith
ings.
each
each
pared
pared
each
pared
w ith
speci­ w ith
speci­
speci­
w ith
year
year
fied
fied
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

-6
-6
-6
-6

-4

0)

-3

(0
—6
—6
-6
—6

—4

0)

-3
0)

104
104
104
104
103
100
103
101
1G
0

—4
—4
-4
—4
—3
0)
—3
-1

305
105
105
104
102
101
100
100
100

—5
—5
—5
-4
-2

—1
G)
0)

105
105
105
105
103
103
103
100
100

—5
—5
—5
—5
—3
—3
—3
0)

no
109
108
109
107
99
102
100
100

—9
-8
-7
—8
—7
+1
—2

(l )

0)
0)

(1)

-2

-4
+3
-3
C
1)
0)
0)

<*)

-2

-4
+3
—3
C
1)
0)

(!)
(*)

-1

-3
+3
-2
-1
0)

C
1)

-1
-2
—1
-1

0)
(l)
0)
0)
0)

—2
(l)
(l)
—3
C
1)
-1
-1
-1-1
-2
—7
+3
-2

C
O

91
87
85
93
91
94
102
101
100
93
89
87
93
94
97
101
100
100

+ 10

+15
+18
+ 8
+ 10
+ 6
- 2
- 1
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

8
12

15
8
6

3
1

0)

91
88
86
93
93
95
102
102
100

+ 10
+ 14
+16
+ 8
+ 8
+ 5
—2
—2

101
99
93
102
102
102
109
107
100'

—1
+ 1
+ 8
- 2
- 2
—2
—8
- 7

87
85
85
89
89
90
101
101
100

+ 15
+ 18
+ 18
+ 12
+12
+ 11
—1
- 1

98
88
85
94
91
95
105
101
100

+ 2
+ 14
+ 18
+ 6
+10
+ 5
—5
—1

i No change.

96
92
91
99
95
94
105
101
100

+ 4
+ 9
+ 10
+ 1
+ 5
+ 6
—5
- 1

99
95
93
99
98
96
105
101
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
-

+ 5
+ 9

2

95
92
90
98
96
95
106
102
100

—2
—6
+ 10
0)
C
1)
+ 7
- 2
- 7

105
103
97
105
104
103
109
106
100

—5
—3
+ 3
—5
—4
—3
—8
—6

- 2
0)
+ 5
C
1)
+ 1
+ 12
0)
—1

92
90
89
94
92
92
104
101
100

+ 9
+ 11
+ 12
+ 6
+ 9
+ 9
—4
- 1

-1 0
- 3
+ 11
—3
+ 4
+ 11
—4
- 1

109
97
93
104
98
94
107
101
100

—8
+ 3
+ 8
—4
+ 2
+ 6
—7
—1

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

4
2

9
2

3
9
1
1

4
2

7
1

3
4
1

0)

—
+
0)
+
+
C
1)
—

3
2
8
2

7

1

5
8
1
2

4
5
1

+ 11

+ 2
+ 4
+ 5
—6
—2

—4
—l
+ 9
—4
—1
+ 12
—4
—1
—4
—2
+ 6
—1
—2
+ 9
—4
- 1
—3
—2
+ 9
—2
—l
+ 12
—4
—2
—2
—6
+ 8
—1
—l
+ 6
—3
—6
—2
—1
+ 6
—2
C
1)
+ 13
—3
- 1
-1 1
- 4
+ 12
—6
—4
+ 14
—6
- 1

79

BLAST FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

T ab l e 14.— R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S PE R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT
OF INC R EA SE OR D E C R EA SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—B L A 8 T
F URN A CES—Concluded.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Laborers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—productive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
U nclassified—nonproductive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
All occupations:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

R ela­
Rela­
tive
tive
Each
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
com­
fied
wages
fied
per
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
earn­
com­ hour.
w ith
with
w ith
com­
com­
ings.
each
each
pared
each
pared
pared
with
speci­
speci­
w ith
speci­
with
year
year
fied
fied
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

108
104
104
105
103
103
102
99
100

-7
-4
-4
-5
-3
-3
-2
+1

102
100

-2

99
100

-fl

106
104
105
106
105
102
103
100
100

—6
-4
-5
-6
-5
-2
-3
(0

-4
C
1)
+1
-2
C
1)
-1
-3
+1

86
82
81
89
90
90
102
104
100

+16
+22
+23
+12
+11
+11
- 2
- 4

-2

100
100

(*)

+1

100
100

0)

-2
+1
+1
-1
—3
+1
-3
C
1)

88
84
83
89
91
93
101
100
100

+ 14
+19
+ 20
+ 12
+ 10
+ 8
- 1
0)

- 5
- 1
+10
+ 1
0)
+13
+ 2
—4

94
86
86
94.
93
93
104
103
100

+ 6
+ 16
+16
+ 6
+ 8
+ 8
- 4
- 3

102
100

- 2

0)

+ 1

0)

99
100

+
+
+
+
C
1)

93
88
87
94
95
94
104
100
100

+ 8
+ 14
+ 15
+ 6
+ 5
+ 6
- 4
(l)

5
1
7
2
2
9
1

- 9
(1)
+ 9
- 1
(l)
+12
- 1
- 3
- 2
+ 1
+
+

5
1
8
1
— 1
+11
- 4
(0

1 No changc.

Comparing 1915 w ith 1909, the year of lowest wage in the depart­
ment, it appears th a t the advance in weekly earnings varies in the
several occupations from 3 per cent for iron handlers and loaders to
22 per cent for bottom fillers. The reduction in hours in the nineyear period varies in the several occupations from 4 to 9 per cent and
in the departm ent as a whole is 6 per cent. Between 1907 and 1910
there was some variation in hours, b u t the steady decline did not
begin until after 1910.
The figures for all occupations combined for years previous to 1914
are based on the principal productive occupations only, b u t for 1914
and 1915 they are com puted on data for all employees in the dep art­
m ent including the unclassified groups (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated
for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.
The relative full-time weekly earnings of the departm ent as a
whole in 1907 were 93 per cent of such earnings in 1915. The rela­




80

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

tive dropped to 88 in 1908 and to 87 in 1909, advanced to 94 in 1910
to 95 in 1911, dropped to 94 in 1912, advanced to 104 in 1913, and
dropped to 100 in 1914, the same as the base year 1915. The nex t
column shows th a t in 1915 the full-time weekly earnings of the depart­
m ent as a whole were 8 per cent higher th an in 1907,14 per cent higher
th an in 1908, 15 per cent higher th an in 1909, 6 per cent higher than
in 1910, 5 per cent higher th an in 1911, 6 per cent higher th an in
1912, 4 per cent lower th an m 1913, and the same as in 1914. The
th ird column under “ W eekly earnings ” for the departm ent as a whole
shows th a t the full-tim e weekly earnings in 1908 were 5 per cent
lower th an in 1907; in 1909, 1 per cent lower th an in 1908; in 1910,
8 per cent higher th an in 1909; in 1911, 1 per cent higher th an in
1910; in 1912, 1 per cent lower th an in 1911; in 1913, 11 per cent
higher th an in 1912; in 1914, 4 per cent lower th an in 1913; and in
1915 there was no change as com pared w ith 1914.
FU L L -T IM E W O RKING D A Y S P E R W E EK .

The num ber and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in blast-furnace plants whose custom ary working tim e
per week was 6 days or turns, or 7 days, or variations thereof, are
shown in Table 15. The figures are presented for each district and
for the four districts combined.
Two sets of figures are given for the plants reported for 1914 and
1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupations, as
shown for all of the preceding groups and therefore strictly comparable
with them, and the second including the unclassified occupations (see
pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.

While the blast-furnace process represents a continuous operation,
a m arked difference is seen in the working days per week of employees
in the few years betw een 1907 and 1915; 7 days was the regular
working tim e of 97 per cent of the employees in the selected occupa­
tions in 1907, while in 1915 the num ber working 7 days per week h ad
been reduced to 59 per cent in the same group of occupations. W hen
all the employees, including the newly introduced unclassified groups,
are taken into account only 54 per cent were working 7 days per
week in 1915. This reduction is due to the fact th a t during recent years
m any establishm ents have carried into effect a provision to lay off em­
ployees one day in 7, thus m aking the working tim e for each individual
6 days, while the plant continues in operation 7 days. U nder this work­
ing condition the 24-hour double tu rn form erly m ade by one individual
when turns shifted has been practically eliminated.
The most marked evidence of the progress of this plan is seen in
the data for the Pittsburgh and the Great Lakes and Middle West
districts. The Eastern district has made a considerable reduction in
hours per week in this department, while in the Southern district
the change seems to be taking a backward turn.




81

BLAST FURN ACES— SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 15.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF EM PL O Y EE S IN EACH DISTR IC T W OR K IN G

EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R Y fE E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1915—B L A S T
FURNACES.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose
customary working time
per week was—
District, and number of
plants.

Eastern:
2 plan ts.

Year.

Per cent of employees whose
customary workinig tim e
per week was-

Num ­
ber of
1
em­
6 days 6 days,
ploy­
days,
and 7 i6 ana
ees. 6 days. days
7 days
alter­ in ro­
nately. tation.

6 days
and 7 i6
days 7^ays
alter- I V?®?8
nate1^ S i o n .

90
82
97
100

1907
1908
1909
1910

320
235
328
346

1910
1911
1912

1,436
779

79
118
135

2
2

1,357
659
547

(0
0)

95
85
80

6 plants.

1912
1913

660
743

134
178

2
2

524
563

(l)
C
1)

79
76

6 plants.

1913 |
1914 1

811
659

185
184

6 plants.

1914
1915

604
421

6 plants.

1914 i 1,078
1915
794

354
256

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,731
1,161
1,683
1,613

9 plan ts...

1910
1911

9 p la n ts..

6 plants.

287
192
317
346

626
475

77
72

443
335

73
80

678
533

63
67

74
87
66
103

1,657
1,074
1,617
1,510

96
93
96
94

2,302
2,135

111
127

2,191
2,008

95
94

1911
1912

2,127
2,396

127
101

2,000

94
96

9 p la n ts..

1912
1913

2,415
2,469

101
58

2,314
2,411

10 plants.

1913
1914

2,640
2,105

65
853

267

2,575
985

47

10 plants.

1914
1915

2,061
1,980

853
860

267
204

941
916

46
46

10 plants.

1914
1915

3,176

1,466
1,470

405
316

1,427
1,390

43
44

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,310
947
1,163
1,622

14
27
44
95

1.296
920
1,119
1,527

97
96
94

9 p la n ts..

1910
1911

2,103
1,302

116
337

1,987
965

10 plants.

1911
1912

1,387
1,648

343

1,044
1,080

75
66

10 plan ts.

1912
1913

1,722
1,932

607
665

1,115
1,267

65

10 plants.

1913
1914

1,928
1,446

660
676

770

66
53

11 plan ts.

1914
1915

1,650
1,408

777
612

47
43

11 plants.

1914 3,172 1,883 1
3 1,286
1915 2,761 1,643
3 1,115
i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Pittsburgh:
6 plants.

Great Lakes and Middle West:
6 plan ts................................

89728°— 17—B u ll. 2 1 8 ------- 6




46
5

2.295

1
873 1
............
796 1

26

59

94
74

41
40

82

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR.---- IRON AN D STEEL IN DUSTRY.

T able 15.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF E M PL O Y EE S IN EACH DISTR IC T W O R K IN G
EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S PE R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1915—B L A S T
FU RN A C ES—Concluded.

Number of employees whose
customary working tim e
per week was—
District, and number of
plants.

Num ­
ber of
em­
6 days
ploy­
ees. 6 days. and 7
days
alter­
nately.

6 days,
6 days,
and
7 days 7 days. 6 days.
in ro­
tation.

6 days
and 7
days
alter­
nately.

6 days,
6 days,
and
7 days 7 days.
in ro­
tation.

1

100
100
99
100

3
C
1)

97
100

1,041
978

C
1)
21

100
79

265
431

1,039
1,014

20
30

80
70

1,257
1,036

347
229

910
807

28
22

72
78

1914
1915

997
1,105

52
67

945
1,038

5
6

95
94

1914
1915

1,705
1,832

198
230

1,507
1,602

12
13

88
87

1907
1908
1909
1910

4,278
3,028
4,104
4,381

121
157
129
201

4,157
2,871
3,975
4,180

3
5
3
5

97
95
97
95

1910
1911

7,050
5,268

343
584

2

6,707
4,682

5
11

0)

95
89

35 plants.................................

1911
1912

5,336
5,973.

590
1,071

2
2

4,744
4,900

11
18

0)
C
1)

89
82

36 plants.................................

1912
1913

6,101
6,589

1,107
1,332

2
2

4,992
5,255

18
20

C
1)
(0

82
80

35 plants.................................

1913
1914

6,636
5,246

1,257
1,942

267

5,379
3,037

19
37

5

81
58

P
oc
ec

Southern:
6 plants...................................

Year.

Per cent of employees whose
customary working tim e
per week was—

1914
1915

5,312
4,914

1,939
1,809

267
204

3,106
2,901

37
37

5
4

58
59

38 plants.........................

1914
1915

9,253
8,563

3,901
3,599

451
321

4,898
4,640

42
42

5
4

1907
1908
1909
1910

917
685
930
800

8
3

917
685
922
797

1910
1911

1,209
1,052

37
2

1,172
1,050

10 plan ts................................

1911
1912

1,043
1,245

2
267

11 plants.................................

1912
1913

1,304
1,445

9 plants...................................

1913
1914

11 plants.................................
11 plants.................................

10 plants.................................

Total:
20 plants.................................

34 plants.................................

1

3
3

«

0)
0)

53
54

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Two general tables are presented for the blast-furnace departm ent,
as follows:
Table A.—Full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in the U nited States, b y years, 1907 to
1915.
Table B .—Full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-tim e weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.




BLAST FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

83

The d a ta from Table A are sum m arized in Table 13, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified full-tim e hours
per week and rates of wages per hour.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables A and B
and in the table of relative num bers follows th a t of the process of
m anufacture. “ Identical p la n ts /’ as used in the tables of this
report, are identical units of identical establishm ents reporting the
same occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year
back to 1907 corresponding to those given for 1913, 1914, and 1915,
in Table B were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this bureau.
Descriptions of the occupations which are specified in this chapter
and of other occupations of the blast-furnace departm ent tab u lated
as “ unclassified” m ay be found in the Glossary of Occupations, pages
467 to 475.




84

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T able A ,— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

Num­
ber
Line Occupation and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy-

Stockers:
18 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

824
473
737
904

32 plants..

1910
1911

1,445

32 plants..

1911
1912

34 plan ts-.

13
14
15
16
17
18

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

81.4 $0.170 $13.83
79.1 .157 12.43
80.9 .168 12.75
81.0 .166 13.43

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84.

14
4

74
123
71
70

12

12
21

263
107

1

16

105
70
224
222

631
276
442
595

30
59

222
142

917
557

79.
79.8

.164 13.17
.167 13- 36

1

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

.168 13.40
.173 13.61

1

12
11

25
26

107
112

59
136

142
244

559
515

1912
1913

1,069
1,187

78.8
78.9

.171 13.46
.190 14.

1
1

11
14

26
34

112
101

138
161

244
277

537
599

33 p la n ts..

1913
1914

1,269
1,001

78.0
75.0

.192 15.00
.190 14.19

14
31

32
15

224
301

148
223

277
164

574
267

35 plants - .

1914
1915

1,031
878

74.
74.6

.188 14.03
13.99

31
19

42
40

283
240

217
192

164
149

294
238

1907
1908
1909
1910

194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.160
.150
.138
.160

13.40
12.59
11.61
13.41

293
194
282
267
672
391

10
11
12

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Bottom fillers:
7 plants - -.

19
20

14 plants..

1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

.152 12.77
.148 12.

21
22

15 plants

1911
1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

.149 12.50
.152 12.53

69

417
399

23
24

14 plants..

1912
1913

423
461

82.0
81.6

.153 12.63
.167 13.74

69
91

354
370

13 plants. .

1913
1914

469

82.1
82.0

.168 13.
.167 13.76

75
60

394
300

27

9 p la n ts-..

1914
1915

208
148

83.3
82.4

.174 14.52
.176 14.

12
20 1

196
128

29

Top fillers:
8 p la n ts...

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.177 14.86
14.15
.161 13.56
.181 15.18

1907
1908
1909
1910

66
44
50
48

13 plants..

142
84

82.8
82.0

13.85
.170 13.67

6
6

14 p la n ts..

37

1910
1911
1911
1912

92

82.2
80.0

.171 13.84
.176 13.90

6
6

18

86
72

14 p la n ts..

1912
1913

96

80.0
80.3

.175 13.81
.191 15.19

6
6

18
16

72
76

13 p la n ts..

1913
1914

95

81.2
80.1

.201 16.15
.199 15. 71

6
6

8
12

81
62

8 plants. -.

1914
1915

56
44

80.1
79.0

.210 16.54
.213 16.44

6
6

4
4

46
34

1907
1908
1909
1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.195
.184
.186
.202

1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

.200 15.48

Larry men:
11 p la n ts..

21 plants..




136
78

132
86
135
149

16.41
15.48
15.64
16.97

.196 16.47
.194 15.99
36

19
33

231
184
168

85

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
B L A S T FURNACES.
years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

and
un­
der
9
cts.

and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.




14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

24

84
37
122
164

127
122
133
81

191
286
397

10
29
48
165

113
40
67
62

230
85

294
159

551

221
152

105
27

85
53

159
155

395
487

152
217

27
37

53
61

162
77

470
97

217
383

37
446

9
10

36
21

90
82

137
141

449
375

456
348

11
12

130

390
275

348
321

13
14

28
28

15
16
17
18

60
134
87
176
137

320
156

137
129

174
209

129
95

142
190

34

19
20

64

21
22
76

23
24

102

25
26

102
36

27
28

160

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

12

37
38
39
40
41
42
56
44
31
67
81
76
118

20

43
44
45
46

49

86

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D £T E E L IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e A .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation and num­ Year. of
tim e
em­ hours
No.
ber of plants.
p lo y ­ per
ees. week.

1
2

Larry men—Concld.
23 plants................

1912
1913

241
234

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

78.2 $0.19© $15.46
82.3 .215 17.60

Employees whose full-time hours
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

36

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

72

1

33
34
34
74

8

204
92

82
92

8
8

102
112

3
4

23 plan ts. .

1913
1914

938
174

82.3
78.6

.217 17. 77
.218 17.10

!
i

r
>
6

27 plants.

1914
1915

192
212

78.6
78.6

.215 1 16.88
.211 16.51

|
l

1907
1908
1°09
1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.159
.152
.149
.163

1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

.165 13.88
.168 13.89
.173 13.67

7
8
9
10

Larry m en’s helpers:
10 plants

19 plants.............

14
U

23 plants...............

1912
1913

359
342

79.6
82.6

.172 13.64
.190 15.69

16
17

23 p la n ts ...............

1913
1914

352
238

82.6
78.5

1914
1915

250
275

78.6
78.3

.187 14.67
.185 14.43

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
64
94
97

84.0
84 0
84.0
84.0

.193
.184
.183
.196

1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

. 197 16 56
.198 16.60
.206 16.14

115
79
135
134

.191 15.78
.189 14.79

20
21
22
23

27 plants..............
Skip operators:
11 plants................

172
200

13.35
12.80
12.53
13.69

11
12
13

18
19

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

278
260
264

34
43

36

49 1
40
40 1
104 !
1

16.19
15.49
15. 40
16.46

8

312
126

108
126

36

•

134
140

1
!
p.

.

274
302

8
64
94
97

1
j

24
25
26

19 plants__

27
28

20 p lan ts................

1912
1913

138
150

79.3
82.9

.206 16.19
.217 17.95

29
30

22 plants................

1913
1914

158
123

82.9
79.5

.217 17.97
.217 17.26

14
42

8

144
73

1914
1915

139
152

79.5
79.4

.214 16.98
.215 17.03

48
54

8
8

83
90

1907
1908
1909
1910

78
68
86
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.300
.283
.286
.307

31
32
33
34
35
36

28 plan ts................
Blowers:
18 plan ts................

18

2
12

125
122
106

18

1
12
14 I

108
136

25.17
23.74
24.04
25.80

78

37
38

32 p lants................

1910
1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

.296 24.74
.306 25.24

39
40

33 plants................

1911
1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

.305 25.21
.313 24.84

41
42

34 plants................

1912
1913

139
147

80.3
82.0

.315 25.01
.329 26.84

43
44

34 plants................

1913
' 1914

154
130

82.2
80.5

.332 27.21
.329 26.42

1

23
34

7

38 plants................ 1914
1915
Blowing engineers:
20 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

143
149

80.7
80.6

.333 26.74
.336 26.93

1
1

36
38

7
7 i 103

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.242
.235
.230
.245

45
46
47
48
49
50

3

11

128
110

9

11
21

112
102

9

22
25

108
122

20.30
19. 77
19.35
20.59

1 Including 2 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




131

100
85
103
112

87

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME W EEK LY EARNINGS, IN THE U NITED STATES,
B L A S T F U R N A C E S — Continued.

Employees wliose rates of wages per iiour w ere8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

I ine
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

6
6

6
6

46
4

42
18

120
164

21
36

1
2

2
2

6
4

4
2

18
18

172
122

36
26

3
4

8
16

4
4

2
6

22
18

130
138

26
30

5
6

2

8
10
10
8

38

34
36
41
39

71
33
46
67

20

12
2

2
12
14

66
46
18

178
214
255

20
20
20

36

11
12
13

16
16

20
4

283
28

24
143

33
151

14
15

12
10

4
4

26
20

162
130

148
74

16
17

8
8

6
6

22
30

134
119

74
98

18
19

6

10
6
8
8

24
16
28
31

4
6
40
8

46
28
16
48

2
2
2
2

20
21
22
23

10
8
8

35
34
38

14
2
6

60
70
54

6
10
30

24
25
26

8
8

38
6

6
14

56
110

30
12

27
28

8
6

6'
6

14
14

118
84

12
13

29
30

6
6

6
8

18
22

92
100

13
12

6
14




4
4

7
8
9
10

i

31
32

i
£

10
12
20
11

22
30
33
33

41
26
33
44

2

27
24

45
33

55
50

3
12

2
2

24
21

35
38

50
53!

12
18

2

23
22

38
24

20
15

2
2

17
14

28
16

5fi!
801
1
88 1
81

2

12
22

22
19

84
78

23
30

12
6
12
8

12
30
42
42

65
41
39
46

3

47
48

8

50

1

2

2
4
4
2

6
4
6
6

2

15
17

33
34
35

1
i

37
............1
39
40
4
4

i

41
42
43
44
45
46

88

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

A.—FULL-TIME

HOURS

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation and num­
of
Year. em­ time
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

B low ing engineers—
Concluded.
34 plants................

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

60

Over
00
and
un­
der
72

Over1
72
and
un­
der
84

72

1910
1911

153
135

84.0 $0.243 $20.39
83.0 .244 20.20

35 plants................. 1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

.244 20.15
.249 19.93

1912
1913

142
148

80.6
81.6

.249 19.93
.263 21.37

1913
1914

139

82.0
79.2

.260 21.28
.259 20.42

26
52

q

1914
1915

147
153

79.3
79.1

.262 20.64
.262 20.64

54
59

t; i 84
C i 85
.

Blowing
engineers’
assistants:
11 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.203
.199
.191
.208

18 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

.207 17.38
.205 17.06
.211 16.85

18 plants .............. 1912
1C13

106
94

80.8
83.2

.213 17.13
.225 18.67

18 plants................. 1913
1914

94
87

83.2
79.1

.225 18.67
.224 17.68

6
30

12

1914
1915

79.0
78.3

.223 17.57
.223 17.41

36
40

12
12

Stove tenders:
20 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

99
96
140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.192
. 185
.181
.197

34 plants................. 1910
1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

.193 16.21
.190 15.69

35 plants................. 1911
1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

.190 15.68
. 195 15.42

36 plants................. 1912
1913

214
213

79.5
81.8

.195 15.38
.211 17.24

35 plants................. 1913
1914

220
177

81.9
79.6

.211 17.30
.209 16.54

38
60

12

182
105

.......... 1914
1915

183
186

79.7
79.4

.209 16.56
.208 16.46

60
66

12
12

111
108

.......... 1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.218
.210
.205
.219

1910
1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

.215 18.09
.217 17.95

35 plants................. 1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

.217 17.95
.223 17.61

__ 1912
1913

218
224

79.6
81.9

.223 17.59
.234 19.13

35 plants

■ ■

28 p lan ts

21 p la n ts ...............

29

38 plants
Keepers:
20 plants

34 plants .............

36 plants

.

11

153
124

6

13
26

124
110

6

26
30

110
118

17.02
16.72
16 08
17.48

9
9

6
11
7
6

16.10
15.52
15.22
16.55

18.34
17.68
17.26
18.43

110
146
20

200
158

18

20
38

160
156

18

38
39

158
174

I

141
142
20

201
162

18

20
38

164
160

18

38
40

162
184

i Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




130
i 78

89

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
—
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

I ine
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

2
2

14
10

15
14

45
40

69
61

8
8

1
2

2
2

10
10

14
20

42
31

61
63

8
16

3
4

2
2

10

20
24

31
31

63
51

16
38

2
2

1

24
18

35
41

57
45

38
32

8

5
7

16
14

43
40

45
53

38
39

9
10

5
(3

2

2
4
2

16
12
26
12

33
23
22
36

10
8
10
10

11
12
13
14

6
6
4

3
2
4

17
19
16

56
58
72

10
4
8

4
4

16
2

74
62

8
18

4

15
16
17
18
19

4
4

4
6

2

62
55

18
20

4
2

20
21

2
2

4
8

12
8

53
49

24
24

4
5

22
23

4
8
12
4

16
8
17
12

9
4
14
18

73
36
52
28

26
38
43
84

12

6
6

22
22

32
22

36
40

104
§8

28
29

6
6

22
22

24
30

40
30

88
124

39
31

8
6

22
10

30
29

30
5

124
163

32
33

4
4
2

2
2
4
4

4
4

2
2

4
4
2
2
2
2
4

2
6

10
8

28
22

9
10

169
133

34
35

4
8

10
10

19
13

12
12

138
141

36
37

18
8
14
11

8
6
4
2

2

6
10

4
16

94
72
105
107

24
4
4
6

38
39
40
41

19
18

4
4

37
28

135
128

6
4;

42
43

18
14

4
12

28
29

130
137

4
24

14
8

12
12

31
32

137
66

24
106

|




24
25
26
27

;

44
45
46
4.7

WAGES A N D H O U R S OP LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL

e A .—FULL-TIME

«u.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

HOURS

P E R W EEK,

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation and num­ Year. of
tim e
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Keepers—Concluded.
35 plants................

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-tin
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1913
1914

230
178
184
187

79.6
79.4

.233 18.47
.232 18.33

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.165
.160
.155
.169

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

82.0 $0,235 $19.28
79.6 .233 18.52 ,

1914
1915

38 plants..
Keeper's helpers:
20 p lan ts.........

RATES OF W 1
BY YEARS, 190

13.89
13.41
13.04
14.22

9
10

34 plan ts.

1910
1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

.168 14.13
.167 13.83

11
12

35 plan ts.

1911
1912

742
846

83.1
81.0

.167 13.84
.170 13.74

13
14

36 plan ts.

1912
1913

870
902

80.2
82.2

.173 13.75
. 186 15.30

15
16

35 plan ts.

1913
1914

950
695

82.2
80.4

.186 15.31
.186 14.87

17
18

38 p lants.

1914
1915

734
727

80.6
80.1

.185 14.83
.182 14.48

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0

.193
.190
.177
.195

19
20
21
22

Iron handlers and
loaders:
9 plan ts................

122
97
138
105

14.20
13.95
13.05
14.24

23
24

18 plants.

1910
1911

305
300

74.2
72.7

.194 14.36
.195 14.11

25
26

19 plants.

1911
1912

308
359

73.0
72.2

.195 14.17
.195 14.04

27
28

19 plants.

1912
1913

406
446

73.1
72.5

.206 15.11
.220 16.07

29
30

16 plants.

1913
1914

398
333

72.0
71.5

.227 16.54
.222 16.09

16 plants.

1914
1915

305
323

73.8
74.0

.218 16.16
.204 15.22

1907
1908
1909
1910

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

.167
.163
.162!
.170|

31
32
33
34
35
36

Pig-machine men:
9 plants............

179
189 i
28

211
172
123

20i
13
10

14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27

37
38

16 plan ts.

1910
1911

291 83.9
259i 82.4

.169i 14.14
.169i 13.90

39
40
41

17 plants.

1911
1912
1913

267' 82.4
275i 81.9
290> 81.8

.169' 13.98
.171 13.97
.192! 15.69

1913
1914

3031 81.9
236i 79.4

.192! 15.72
.192! 15.25

1914
1915

259i
245i

79.2
79.6

.192! 15.15
.1901 15.07

1907
1908
1909
1910

262!
24£►
38C\
35?'

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

.1731
.156i
.150l
.1661

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

21 plants..
Cinder men:
20 plants..




189
179

14.46
12.88
12.34
13.78

i Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.

157
171

91

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

8
6

8
12

30
17

72
53

112
90

1
2

2
2

8
14

8
6

17
19

59
50

90
96

3
4

48
48
90
38

94
68
101

46
16
54
83

216
161
211
188

116
88
120
192

96
28
20
50

5
6
7
8

38
60

105
92

149
96

269
196

244
234

nl
56

9
10

60
62

92
76

96
138

198
192

240
279

561
99

11
12

40
40

86
36

140
J24

196
110

279
78

129
514

13
14

58
43

28
26

118
68

114
106

84
58

548
394

15
16

59
66

36
68

51
65

112
72

58
56

418
400

17
18

3

10
23
28
17

26
27
47
19

86
45
86
68

18
6
13
12

51
40
50
33

5
18
28

14

12

19
20
21
22

24
21

32
33

129
98

22
30

54
75

36
22

R
2 1 ............

23
24

21
11

33
59

98
115

38
60

75
68

22
18

21*............
2 8 ............

25
26

11
1

55
22

119
128

60
36

80
176

21
4

601
7 9 ............

27
28

8

12
8

94
74

28
37

177
125

8
27

7/

5 4 ............

.

-1

9Q
30

11
32

25
10

42
95

43
37

94
73

19
16

«'
4 6 _____

............!
i

31
as

25
18
23
13

30
13
11
27

110
108
98
92

6
12
14
44

20
6
6
6

2

17
29

44
34

166
138

58
46

6
12

37
38

29
18
8

34
23
10

138
174
35

52
50
112

14
10
125

39
40
41

8
8

10
6

44
35

94
65

147
122

42
43

8
8

6
10

43
48

73
80

129
99

44
45

12
34
105
31

64
82
75
41

118
84
153
224

24

42
24
21

46
47
48
49

17
14

*

2
2
2

2

2
17
24
9




42

8

.

33
34
35
36

92

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOE---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T able

A.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation and num­ Year. of
tim e
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy- hours
per
week.

Cinder men—Concld.
32 plants................

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over 56
week­
48
and and and
ly
earn­ un­ un­ un­ 60
ings. der. der der
60
56

1910
1911

482
339

82.9 $0.163 $13.56
81.3 .158 12.84

32 plants................

1911
1912

333
397

81.3
75.2

.158 12.82
.164 12.20!

33 plants................

1912
1913

356
380

77.3
79.9

31 plants................. 1913
1914

357
285

31 plants................ 1914
1915
Laborers:
20 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

286
254

34 plants................. 1910
1911

full-time hours per
were—
Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

34
33 ’ *’35

20
6

33
44

35
36

6
1

259
224

.162 12. 49'
.179 14.27

36
47

42
58

1
26

225
244

80.3
78. %
I
78.3
78.6|
I
75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

.183 14.62
.177 13.82

42
40

39
72

26
1

243
162

.176 13. 78
.174 13. 64

36
24

78
1
60 ........

163
157

11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

350
272
378
332

15
23

52
109
53
45

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

.150 11.23
.151 11.13

404
j 288

26
28

298
134

426

134
92

290
294

957
718
757
902

.146
.140
.138
.152

1
24

1

448
195
343

35 plants................

1911
1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

.151 11.14
.152 11.15

’ 288
! 302

28
81

35 plants................

1912
1913

1,049
1,273

73.1
72.5

.152 11.15
.171 12.43

318
i 438

109
125

93 322
54 1 375

34 plants................

1913
1914

1,193
1,010

72.5
70.8

.173 12.65
.176 12.47

! 262
111

122
257

64 5401
78 242

37 p la n ts...v.......... 1914
1915

1,096
885

70.8
71.3

.177 12.52
.171 12.20

133
144

232
170

78
64

1,140
1,152

76.7
75.5

.214 16.39
.214 16.07

' 112
! 144

281
251

79 551
80 *507

2.801
2,497

70.4
70.9

.223 15.51
.2241 15.69

. 369
' 307

440
388

187 ‘ 747
149 J724

Unclassified—produc­
tive:
37 plants................

1914
1915
Unclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
38 plants................. 1914
1915




379i
i

1 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including 2 employees "whose full-time honrs per week were 91.
3 Including 3 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.

269
227

93

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
B L A S T FURNA CES—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

2
2

11
6

43
69

96
72

280
155

42
33

1

2
2

6
6

69
35

74
113

147
148

33
62

1
31

2

14
14

28
21

81
46

158
48

66
135

7
116

2

8
6

14
25

42
31

41
43

135
100

114
75

6
6

27
39

38
28

37
35

99
78

79
68

35
173
175
38

274
74
196
197

381
295
185
190

267
172
197
477

11
12
13
14

44
38

332
240

466
224

581
433

15
16

38
31

240
237

226
227

433
465

1

35
10

241
179

276
217

496
250

1
465

152

19
20

10

155
94

159
146

212
191

499
404

158
170

21
22

26
41

88
110

123
95

193
206

496
320

170
113

23
24

18
26

38
40

54
75

141
138

196
173

432
432

47
54

88
90

114
no

262
195

4
4
*

2

8
1

1
2

1

3
4
5
6
7
8

3
3

9
10

17
18

153
154

104
111

2
1

2
2
1
2

25
26
1
1

27
28
%
4 Including 11 employees whose full-time hotfrs per week were 91, and 1 employee whose full-time hours
per week were 98.
2

1




454
367

1,047
920

420
420

334
310

31
26

94

■WAGES A N D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e B . — FULL-TIME

HO URS

PER

W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
Y EA RS, 1913 TO 1915—

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” in this table stands for “ Great Lakes and

Num ­
ber
Lino Occupation, district, Year. of
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

1
2

Stockers:
Eastern—

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

69.4 $0.183 &12. 68
.
___
69.711 .181 19

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

72

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

14
7

26
11

33
25

21
14

25
12

7

19
18

21
28

14
10

1

18
18

2
4

110
199
158

3
122
106

277
153
136

397
138
116

4
4

26
20

88
79

116
85

17
12

10
10

81
76

85
49

55
67

36
8

1913
1914

119
69

1914
1915

79
75

69.8
71.1

.173 12.06
.156 11.16 ........

1913
1914
1915

789
636
533

80.1
74.9
74.8

.200 16.07
.197 14.73
.201 14.98

1913
1914

234
178

77.5
77.3

.193 14.91
.194 14.93

193
153

76.1
74.3

.193 14.68
.191 14.17

12
13

1914
1915
Southern—
9 plants........... 1913
1914

127
118

74.5
74.6

.145 10.66
.149 11.04

14
15

10 plan ts......... 1914
1915

123
117

76.2
76.8

.140 10.65
.143 11.02

16
17

Total—
33 plan ts......... 1913
1914

1,269
1,001

78.0
75.0

.192 15.00
.190 14.19

1914
1915

1,031
878

74.9
74.6

.188 14.03
.188 13.99

B ottom fillers:
Eastern—
3 p lan ts........... 1913
1914

174
142

84.0
84.0

.164 13.79
.165 13.84

174
142

1 p la n t............ 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 p la n ts........... 1913
1914

102
36

84.0
84.0

.171 14.32
.172 14.41

102
36

48
46

84.0
84.0

.208 17.50
.209 17.55

48
46

24
24

84.0
84.0

.210 17.61
.210 17.61

92
46
52

84.0
80.9
79.4

.196 16.47
.192 15.53
.190 15.14

12
20

92
34
32

31
32

1 p la n t............ 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W.—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
Southern—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

155
126

78.2
79.4

.144 11.32
.146 11.65

1 75
| 48

80
78

33
34

4 plan ts........... 1914
1915

36
36

84.0
84.0

.139 11.70
.137 11.52

1

36
36

35
36

T o t a l13 plan ts......... 1913
1914

469
360

82.1
82.0

.168 13.88
.167 13.76

37
38

9 pla n ts........... 1914
1915

208
148

83.3
82.4

.174 14.52
.176 14.48

39
40

Top fillers:
Eastern—
3 plants........... 1913
I 1914

24
26

84.0
84.0

.189 15.88
.194 16.26

3
4
Pittsburgh—
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

IS
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

41
42

G .L .a n d M. W .—

35 plants .

1 plant............. 1 1914
! 1915




24
13

6

11

36
32

11
12

53
55

6
6

53
44

14
31

32
15

224
301

148
223

277
164

574
267

31
19

42' 283
40 240

217
192

164
149

294
238

24
24

I
:

1

!
:
1

75
60

394
300

12
20

196
128

I

!
22; 84.0
10' 84.0

.200 16.80
.200 16.80

24
26
I
i

22
10

95

BLAST FU RN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B L A S T FU RNACES.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.”]

Employees whose rates of wages per liour were—

9
and
un­
der

8

and
un­
der
9
cts.

10

and
un­
der

10

12

cts.

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12

and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20

18
and
un­
der

and
un­
der
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
- un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

9

59
31

10

4
1

11
10

35
45

18
16

1
1

84
72
51

298
283
207

363
281
245

137
91

77
61
61
58

2

10

6
6

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

4
4

106
67

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

30

16

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

10

14

22
22

26

14
18

10

8

14
3
44

4

10
11
12
13

31

26

12

12

31
51

23
37

31
40

17
18

51
35

18

..........
!

31

36

12

21

90
82

137
141

449
375

456
348

22

!.

31
40

28
28

86

130
99

390
275

348
321

18 I
35

88

86
102

801

40

6

14
15

1

18

6

62

|

s'............

1

1
1

16
17
18
Is)

102

36

j
i............

20
21

i

* ”

22
23

12
10

24
25

8
8

16
16

27

46
34
40

!
..........i
..........|...........

36
36

46

28
29
30

12
12

!

72

83!
58
2

2

2
10

2
10




31
32

121
2!

22
22

33
34

83
58

1

68

160
108

86
102

58
44

82
48

35

12
2

22
22

102

42
48

28
28

37
38

16
22

39
40

22
10

41
42

4

36

8

96

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Table B.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1913 TO 1915-

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year
of
No. and number of plants.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Top fillers—Concld.
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts___
1 p la n t.........
G. L. and M. W
3 plants.......
Southern—
5 plan ts___
3 p lan ts___
T o t a l13 p la n ts...
8 p lan ts___
Larry men:
Eastern—
3 plan ts___
4 plants.......
Pittsburgh—
9 p lants___
G. L. and M. W
7 plan ts___
9 plan ts___

Southern—
4 plants.......
5 plan ts___
T o t a l23 plants__
27 plants—
Larry m en’s helpers:
Eastern—
3 plan ts___

37

4 plan ts___
Pittsburgh—
9 plan ts___
G. L .andM . W .7 plan ts___

9 plants___




Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
tim e
week­
48
and and and 60
ly
earn­ un­ un­ un­
der
ings. der. der 60
56

1913
1914

84.0
84.0
30 78.4
16 70.5
16| 70.5
301
28 80.6

.164 13. 25 .
.164 13.20,.

1914
1915

J

12

84.0
84.0

.162, 13.64 .
.1611 13.52 .

1913
1914

95
80

81.2
80.1

.2011 16.15 .
.199 15.71.

1914
1915

56, 80.1
44 79.0

.210 16.54 .
.213 16.44 .

1913
1914

10
10

79.2
79.2

1914
1915

80.0
81.6

.201 16.011
.201 16.01
I
.198 15.90
.198 16.16

1913
1914
1915

12
10|
134'
98,
106

84.0
78.7
78.6

1913
1914

70
46,

78.9
76.2

1914
1915

56

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

.2381 18. 211
.25i; 17.07,.
.251 17.07,.

1913
1914

72

.238 19.99 .
. 238f 19.99 .

1913
1914
1915

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

84.0 SO 227, $19. 04
.
84.0 . 2281 19.15;

1914
1915

full-time hours per
were—

.214 17.981
.217 17.13
.217 17.07
j
.239 18.68
.239 18.18 1
.237 17.91
.233 17.50

1913
1914

75.9
75.1
62|
24' 84.0
20 84.0

.175 14.68
.178 14.95

1914
1915

26 84.0
34! 84.0

134
50
54
40
16

.168 14.13
. 155; 13.05

18
16

1

24
20

1

26
34

1913
1914

238
174

82.3;
78.6;

.217 17.771.
.218 17.10,.

34
74

8

204
92

1914
1915

192
212)

78. 6'
78.6;

.215 16.88 .
.211 16.51 .

82
921

8
8

102
112

1913
1914

10
10

79. 2\
79.2

168 13.34
168 13.34

1914
1915

12; 80.0:
10 81. 6|

166 13.33
164 13.43

1

1913
1914
1915

236
160
178

84.0!
77.6
77.3

197 16. 55
196 15.20
196 15.15

1913
1914

82
46

78.7
78.8

190 14.93
189 14.91

1914
1915

52
53

78.5
77.2

189 14.80
187 14.46

236
72
74

24

97

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT. BY
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

*18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
, 25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
. 40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

]
70
cts.
and
over.

No.

11
10
6
6
24
10
10
2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

8
8

2
2

6
6
6

14
12

2

8
6

12
4

14
12

51
42

6
6

12
13

2

8
6

38
26

6
6

14
15

6
6

8
12

4
4

4
4

16
17

8
2

4
4

18
19

4

10
11

128
90
98

20
21
22

40
28
2
4

6
8
8
30
18

23
24

36
36

18
22

25
26

2
2

6
4

4
2

12
12

8
16

4
4

2
2

12
12

2
2

6
4

4
2

18
18

172
122

36
26

31
32

8
16

4
4

2
6

22
18

130
138

26
30

33
34

4
4

2
2

4
4

35

6
6

2

4
4

37
38

27
28
i

29
30

94
88
90

142
72
88

40
41

12
6

64
38

6
2

42
43

8
18

42
25

2
10

44
45

89728°— 17— B u ll. 218------ 7




98

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T able B __ FULL-TIME HO URS

PER

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
em­ time
No. and number of plants.
hours
ploy- per
week.

Larry men’s helpers—
Concluded.
Southern—
1913
4 plan ts___
1914
5 p lan ts. . .
T o t a l23 plan ts. . .

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PE R
Y EA R S, 1913 TO 1915—

Aver­
age
full­
time

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Over
48
48
and and
iy
earn­ un­ un­
ings. der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

84.0 $0.144 $12.12
84.0 .146 12. 27

1914
1915

84.0
84.0

11.79
10.90

1913
1914

352

82.6
78.5

191 15. 78
14.79

40
104

312

1914
1915

250
275

78.6
78.3

14.67
14.43

108
126

1M
110

1913
1914

79.2
79.2

.196 15.70
.196 15. 70

4 plan ts........... 1914

1915

80.0
81.

.194 15.64
.196 16.08

1913
1914
1915

84.0
78.4
78.7

.227 19.
.230 18.06
.231 18.23

1913
1914

81.1
79.0

.225 18.24
.228 18. 02j

1914
1915

78.2
76.8

.224 17. 531.
.224 17. 22: .

1913
1914

84.0
84.0

.170 14. 26j .171 14.39,.

1914
1915

84.0
84.0

.169 14.161.
.169 14. 22 .

27 p la n ts. . ,
Skip operators:
Eastern—
3 plan ts___

Pittsburgh—
9 plan ts___
G. L .andM . W .6 plan ts___
8 plan ts___
Southern—
4 plants___
7 p lan ts___
T o t a l22 plan ts___
28 p lan ts___
Blowers:
Eastern—
5 p lan ts___
6 p lan ts___
P ittsb u r g h 10 plan ts___
G .L .a n d M. W.
10 plan ts---11 plants_
_
Southern—
9 plan ts___
11 p la n ts .. .

1




1913
1914

158
123

82.9
79.5

.217 17. 97
.217 17. 26

1914
1915

139
152

79.5
79.4

81.4
81.1
82.1
82.8

.285 23.19'.
.282 23.11 .

1913
1914
1915

84.0
80.4
80.5

.343 28.82
.333 26.77
.347 27.77

1913
1914

80.4
79.6

.364 29.08
.367 29.09

1914
1915

78.5
77.6

.375 29.32
.381 29.50

1913
1914

82.4
82.1

.288 23.74
.284 23.29

1914
1915

84.0
84.0

.291 24.43
.282 23.

18 .
24 .

.260 20.94 .
.277 22.09 .

1914
1915

26

.214 16.98
.215 17.03

1913
1914

126

Including 2 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.

144
73

1 11
1 11

41

99

BLAST FU R N A C ES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

12
12

8
8

1
2

12
12

12
10 >
6
14

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

3
4

12
10

26
20

162
130

148
74

5
6

8
8

6
6

22
30

134
119

74
98

7
8

4
4

2
2

4
4

9
10

4
6

6
14

4
4

4

4
4

11
12

76
56
64

13
14
15

38
24
2
4

8
8i
8
4
5

16
17

30
32

5
4

18
19

8
6

12
18

2

6
6

14
14

118
84

12
13

24
25

6
6

6
8

18
22

92
100

13
12

26
27

4
1

2
3

1
1

28
29

4
4

4
3

2
2

30
31

2

11
9
10

39
46
40

6
2
10

32
33
34

8
2

36
22

6
14

2




2
2

5
5

-

6
6

7
5

4
4

12
12

8
6

4
4

2
2

24
24

18
17

37
38

20
21
22
23

4

35
36

2
2

10
9

5
4

11
10

2

39
40

2

7
15

7
5

10
11

1
1

41
42

100

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Table B.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1913 TO 1915-

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
emNo. and number of plants.
pi°y-

B lowers—Conclud ed.
Total—
34 plants___
38 plants.
Blowing engineers:
Eastern—
6 p lan ts. . .
6 p la n ts..
P ittsb u r g h 10 p lan ts.
G .L .a n d M. W.10 plants___
11 plants.
Southern—
9 p la n ts..
11 plants.
T o t a l35 plan ts.
38 plants.
Blowing engineers’ a
sistants:
Eastern—
3 plan ts___
3 plants.
Pittsburgh—
8 plants.
G .L .a n d M .W .4 plan ts___
5 plan ts.
Southern—
3 plan ts.
5 plan ts.
T o ta l18 plan ts.
21 plants.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Average
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

84

1913
1914

154
130

82. 2 $0.332 $27.21
;0.5 .329 26.42

131

1914
1915

143
149

.333 26.74
.336 26.

i 103

1913
1914

82.8
82.7

.199 16.44
.205 16.97

18
2 15

1914
1915

82.7
82.5

.209 17.25
.214 17.66

2 15
2 13

1913
1914
1915

84.0 .286 23.99
78.9 .288 22.68
78.81 .287 22.

50
22
24

1913
1914

.283 22.52
.280 21.44

38
16

1914
1915

75.
75.6

.287 21.79
.286 21.62

1913
1914

82.3
82.3

.210 17.30
.212 17.42

24
25

1914
1915

84.0
84.0

.211 17.69
.207 17.42

31
32
130
2 78

1913
1914

156
139

82.0
79.2

1914
1915

147
153

79.3
79.1

.262 20.64
.262 20.64

1913
1914

80.0
80.0

.181 14.49
.179 14.40

1914
1915

80.0
80.0

.172 13.81
.170 13.58

1913
1914
1915

84.0
77.9
77.2

.234 19.68
.237 18.47
.237 18.32

1913
1914

81.0
78.9

.238 19.10
.230 18.07

1914
1915

76.8
76.

.249 18.97
.250 18.93

1913
1914

84.0
84.0

.188 15.79
.185 15.53

1914
1915

84.0
84.0

.176 14. 75
.165 13.84

1913
1914

83.2
79.1

.225 18.67
.224 17.68

79.0
78.3

17.57
.223 17.41

39

.260 21.28
.259 20.42

1914
1915

99

i Including 2 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




Over
72
and
un­
der
84

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

54

16
16

284

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

1 0 1

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

8
and
un­
der
9

9
and
un­
der
10

10
and
un­
der
12

12
and
un­
der
14

cts.

cts.

cts.

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16

16
and
un­
der
18

18
and
un­
der
20

20
and
un­
der
25

25
and
un­
der
30

30
and
un­
der
40

cts.

cts.

cts.

cts.

cts.

40
and
un­
der
50

cts.

cts.

60
and
un­
der
70

17
14

28
16

88
81

15
17

2

12
22

22
19

84
78

14
8

4
7

6
2

9
7

and
over.

2
2

1
3

Line
No.

23
30

1

70
cts.

cts.

cts.

2
2

!

50
and
un­
der
60

4

2
4
36
30
34

14
14
14

10
11

16
18

18
12

24
18

12
13

18
18

12
14

24
25

1-1
i;>

10
10

15
16

1
1

1G
17

4
4

10
12

16
15

1
1

IS
19

1

24
18:

35
41

57
45

38
32

5
7

16
14

43
40

45
53

38
39

2
2
|




2
2

4
4
-

24
25
2G
27

6
6

12
13
4
4

2

2
6
2
4
6

4
8

12
8

4
4

4
5

2

j............

33
34

j
j
i

7
4

4
4

31
32

4
2

8
7

4
8

28
29
30

18
20
20

<12
12

2
2:

22
23

*

2
2

40
34
32

2
2

20
21

i

62
55

18
20

53
49

24
24

1
1
!
4 ............ |
I..........................
2 ............
j
J
5 .......... ..........................1............

2Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.

35
3G
37
3S
39
40
41
42

102

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y ,

Table B.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1913 TO 1915-

Num ­
ber
Occupation, district, Year. of
em­
and number of plants.
ploy-

Stove tenders:
Eastern—
6 p la n ts .. .
6 plan ts__
Pittsburgh—
10 p la n ts ..
G.L. and M.W.
10 p la n ts ..
11 p la n ts ..
Southern—
9 p la n ts .. .

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
Over
tim e
Over
48
week­
60
72
and and and
and 72 and
ly
un­
earn­ un­ un­ der
un­
un­
ings. der. der 60
der
der
56
72
84

1913
1914

82.1 $0.175 $14.37
174 14.29
81.8

1914
1915

81.8
82.5

.177 14.51
.174 14.43

1913
1914
1915

84.0
78.9
78.8

.222 18.65
.221 17.42
17.50

1913
1914

78.6
77.8

.229 17.97
.224 17.37

1914
1915

77.3
76.3

.224 17.24
.224 17.02

1913
1914

12.5

.177 14.66
.178 14.70

1914
1915

33

84.0
84.0

.177 14.
.169 14.22

1913
1914

220
177

81.9
79.6

.211 17.30
16.54

1914
1915

183
186

79.7
79.4

.209 16.56
16.46

1913
1914

81.8

.196 16.08
.197 16.

1914
1915

81.
82.5

.199 16.27
.195 16.05

1913
1914
1915

84.0
78.9
78.

G. L. and M. W .—
10 plan ts. .
1913
1914

.259 21. T
.259 20.38
.258 20. 34'

79.1
77.

.247 19. 56^.
.245 19.06 .

1914
1915

77.1
76.3

.245 18. 89^
.246 18.72

1913
1914

82.7
82.5

.181 15.00
.182 15.03

1914
1915

84.0
84.0

.177 14.
.172 14.48

11 p la n ts ..
T o t a l35 p la n ts ..
38 p la n ts ..
Keepers:
Eastern—
6 plan ts___
6 plan ts___
P ittsb u rg h 10 plan ts. . ,

11 plan ts. .
Southern—
9 plan ts. . .
11 p la n ts ..
T o t a l35 plan ts. . .
38 p la n ts ..,
K e e p e r helpers:
Eastern—
6 plan ts___

6 plants___




1913
1914

230
178

82.0
79.6

.235 19.
.233 18.52

1914
1915

184
187

79.6
79.4

.233 18.47
.232 18.33

1913
1914

126

82.9
82.5

.164 13. 62
.165 13.63

1914
1915

92
68

82.4
82.9

.167 13. 81
.161 13.32

60

32

103

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

18
14
2

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Tine
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

7
8

12
6

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

10
8
92
74
78
2
2

65
48

2
4

\

i
1
i

52
52

10
11
|

12
13

4
4

2




10
8

12
11

4
8

10
8

7
7

11

14
15

4
4

2

10
8

10
8

28
22

9
10

169'
133,

16
17

4
8

10
10

19
13

12
12

138
141'_____

18
19

4

12
3

14
15

20
21

2
2

3
4

17
10

22
23

J

92
74
78

24
25
2G

54
34

20
16

27
28

40
38

16
18

29
30

8
6

2
2

18
14

4
4

31
32

8
14

6
4

14
15

2
2

33
34

8
6

2
2

8
8

8
12

30
17

72
53

112
90

35
36

8
14

8
6

17
19

59
50

90
96

37
38

48
28

72
62

6
8

39
40

14
34

70
30

8
4

41
42

104

WAGES AN D H O U E S OP LABOE---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST B Y .

T able B .—FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
Y EA RS, 1913 TO 1915—

Num ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
of
tim e
No. and number of plants.
em­ hours wages
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. hour.

1
2
3

Keepers7helpers—Con.
P ittsb u rg h 10 plants......... 1913
1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1913
1914

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

326
268
252

84.0 $0.208 $17.47
78.9 .208 16.39
78.6 .208 16.38

92
96

300
184

80.4
80.1

.204 16 35
.203 16.04

90
74

210
110

208
210

79.2
77.4

.204 15. 99
.202 15. 61

98
116

8
9

11 plan ts......... 1914
1915
Southern—
9 plan ts........... 1913
1914

198
145

81.5
82.2

. 138 11. 24
.139 11.39

42
22

110
94
l
1 156
123

10
11

11 plants......... 1914
1915

166
197

84.0
84.0

.136 11.40
.134 11.24

12
13

T o t a l35 plan ts......... 1913
1914

950
695

82.2
80.4

.186 15.31
.186 14.87

144
200 *'*48

806
447

14
15

38 plants......... 1914
1915

734
727

80.6
80.1

3
.185 14. &
.182 14. 48

202
218

48
36

484
473

1913
1914

56
54

73.6
69.3

.263 19.02
.200 13.50

18

3 plants........... 1914
1915

39
35

72.0
75.5

.196 13.66
.220 16.03

9

1913
1914

32
32

80.1
84.0

.270 21.73
.258 21.71

1 p la n t............ 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
3 plants........... 1913
1914
1915
Southern—
7 plants........... 1913
1914

18
18

84.0
84.0

.270 22.66
.278 23.31

119
105
102

75.7
74.0
73.8

.269 20.49
,266 20.06
.241 18.10

191
142

68.0
67.7

.183 12.47
.191 12.88

1914
1915

143
168

72.9
72.8

.183 13.16
.171 12.43

1913
1914

398
333

72.0
71.5

.227 16.54
.222 16.09

18

1914
1915

305
323

73.8
74.0

.218 16.16
.204 15.22

9

Pig-machine men:
Eastern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

27
15

76.0
76.5

.161 12.26
.161 12.37

18
10

23
19

79.1
80.6

. 163 12.89
.160 12.86

10
6

146i 84.0
96i 78.7
116i 79.8

.197 16.55
.198; 15.62
.195. 15.54

4
5
6
7

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
20
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Iron handlers and
loaders:
Eastern—
4 plants...........

Pittsburgh—
2 plants.............

9 plants...........
T o ta l16 plants.........
16 plants.........

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
7 plants........... 1913
1914
1915

166
197

10

8
6

8

30
30

6
3

8

24
24
14
32

18

18
18
4
8
10
13

71
61
54

8
8

48
32
32

34
27

93
62

32
20

22
20
47
51

96
117
20
13

42
37

172
123

32
28

8

10
11

157
171

114
114

8
8

Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




326
128
120

48
36

21

32
31

18

121
125

1

9
1^
i 13
i 13

22
17

146
42
66

105

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B LA S T FU RNA CJSS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
9
and
un­
der

8

and
un­
der
9
cts.

10

cts.

10

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12

and
un­
der

and
un­
der
14
cts.

12

cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
25
cts.

20

cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

20
20

292
248
232

1
2
3

8

44
30

256
146

4
5

8
10

30
32

170
168

6
7

34

58
43

28
26

70
40

42
36

9

59
66

36
68

37
31

34
32

10
11

58
43

28
26

118
68

114
106

84
58

548
394

12
13

59
66

36
68

51
65

112
72

58
56

418
400

14
15

10
24

8
6

12
15

24
16

6
3

8

8

26
9

14
14

16
17

8

18
19

10
10

20
21

9

1
1

8
8

8
8

17
14

11
32

1

22
23

35
8

10
10

19
8

76
42
15

16

43
44
28

i
s
I

24
25
26

12■
8

84
50

20
12

75
54

10

25
10

18
44

18
26

44
42

10

1

12!

1

27
28
29
30

8
i

17
14

!
r




8

94
74

28
37

177
125

8
27

79
5 4 ............

31
32

11
32

25
101

42
95

43
37

94
73

19
16

54S
4 6 _____

33
34

101
6,

17
g1

35
36

6>
1
1C

17
9

37
38

£!
2!
14[

62!
401
52!

76
541
5C

39
40
41

106

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T able

B.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
tim e
em­ hours
No. and number of plants.
ploy- per
week.

Pig-machine men—
Concluded.
G. L. and M. W —
1913
8 p la n ts....
1914
9 plants..
Southern—
2 plants..

T o ta l19 plants..

1914
1915

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Avertim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

100

78.5
77.7

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

.200 15.68
.200 15.52

84.0
84.0
84.0

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
56

80.3 $0.199 $16.01
79.4 .200 15.

115
84

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

.151 12.72
.155 12.
.156 13.

110

1913
1914
1915
1913
1914

303
236

81.9
79.4

.192 15. 72
.192 15.25

1914
1915

259
245

79.2
79.6

.19? 15.15
.190 15.07

1913
1914

82.4
81.5

.154 12. 71
.157 12.

1914
1915

82.3
82.7

.157 12.
.153 12.62

1913
1914

80.7
76.2

.194 15. 62
.194 14.73

6 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
10 plants......... 1913
1914

76.3
77.0

.192 14.61
.193 14.80

138
99

79.4
79.6

.192 15.17
.190 15.06

1914
1915

105
82

79.1
79.2

.190 15.04
.189 14.95

1913
1914

80.5
77.7

.146 11. 66
.140 10.86

1914
1915

78.1
78.3

.135 10. 60
.130 10 . 22

21 p lan ts..
Cinder men:
Eastern—
5 plan ts...
5 plants..
Pittsburgh—
8 plants..

11 plan ts..
Southern—
8 plants...
9 plants..
Total—
31 plants..
31 plan ts..
Laborers:
Eastern—
6 plan ts..
6 plan ts...
Pittsburgh—
10 plants..
G. L. and M .W .9 plants.........
11 plan ts..

259
i 135

1913
1914

357
285

80.3
78.2

.183 14.62
.177 13.82

243
162

1914
1915

254

78.3
78.6

.176 13. 78
.174 13.64

163
15'

1913
1914

129
122

69.0
67.4

.151 10. 35
.150 10.20

i 32
35

1914
1915

100
53

68.7
70.0

.153 10. 58
.151 10.64

1913
1914
1915

351
294
266

78.
73.1
74.9

.191 15.00
.192 14.04
.189 14.17

23

1913
1914

442
397

73.0
70.6

13.72
.190 13.36

105
157

1914
1915

322

68.9
67.5

.190 13.04
.187 12.65

237
169

1

i Including 1 employee whose'full-time hours per week were 91.




34
128
113

216
70

105
23

62

i 135
106

24
27

104
57

106
50

107

BLAST FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B L A S T FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

7
7

33
28

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

75
49

12
17
18

8
8

10
6

44
35

94
65

147
122

|
............I.............

8
8

6
10

43
48

73
80;

129
99

|
i

29
11

6
14

12
19

..........I...........

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

71
68

7
7
8
8
8

32
25

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

16
8

10
11

12
13
............1............ i
1
|

|

61
49

71
46

48
42

46
49

|
............ !
|
]

23
21

14
25

13
20

6
6|

2

8
6

27
39
H
26

42
31

33
19

!
a1
6|

27
39

38
28

4

104
84

2
121
!




41
43
37
35

135
100
99
78

114
75
79
68

i

3
3
1

t

|

25
34'_____

.............. ...........I._.........

26
27
28
29
30
31

32
33

i

36 !
23

8j

831
54'
65!
I
53
63

175
182
127

93
58
66

324
222

65
112

1

I

63 1
82 !

314
193

I
112
47

|

..........1 .........1 " 1
..........|...........:...........,...........

22
23

1

62
1
18

,

20
21

21
25

j

|

..........1
..........
i
1
1

12
8

IS
19

:

2
2

26
9

8
6

51
36

16
17

|
............j

41
27

21
27
2

74
51

3
3

It
lo

I

36
37
38

_____

39
40
41
42

108
T

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

able

B.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
tim e
em­ hours
No. and number of plants.
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Laborers—Concluded.
Southern—

80
48

46
61

67
76

2
5

342
317

262
111

122
257

64 1401
78 242

5
19

379
258

133
144

232
170

78
64

14
12

10
10

26
18

6
15

29
50

35
31

151
136

10
11

32
48

26
41

103
95

22
28

41
62

1
2

9 190
6 2 163
I
3 113
3; 131

16
26

97
138

112
144

281
251

1
79; 551
80, 3 507

29i

78
44

8
9

33
27

57 123
19 2 89

1

33 221
381 197

97
71

141
149

80 4 211
82! 2 218

1

322t 239i
2361 215i

135
118

266
210

22! 2 167
21. 187

129 ... .
logi
2!

2?5 246
27' 2 230

1913
1914

271
197

65.7 $0.136 $8.94
70.0 .139 9.80

3
4

1914
1915

213
244

73.1
72.7

.137 10.11!
.134 9. 79

5
6

T o ta l34 plants......... 1913
1914

1,193
1,010

72.5
70.8

I
.173 12.65'
. 176 12. 47:

7
8

1914
1915

1,096
885

70.8
71.3

.177 12.52!
.171 12. 20|

3

138
122

76.6
75.9

.183 13.99
.181 13.63

4
6

452
440

76.4
75.0

.229 17.56
.234 17.44

370
364

76.7
75.2

.234 17.83
.233 17.50

180
226

77.6
76.9

. 161 12.34
.163 12.42 1
........

1,140
1,152

76.7
75.5

.214 16.39
.214 16.07

4
6

336
251

72.1
70.6

.187 13.27
.187 13.04

37
34

785
756i

71.5
72.1

.238- 16.83
.235' 16. 76

1
1

1,152! 67.2
98S> 68.3

. 23S> 15.94
.214t 16.47

74.4
74.1

. 19C 14.05
1
.18$! 13. 84

1
1
2t
2>

.222i 15.51
.224 15.6£>
I

4
t
4
I

15
16
17
18

Total—
37 plants......... 1914
1915

9
10

11
12

13
14

19
20

21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28

U nelassi ~ed—nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
0 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
10 plants......... 1914
1915
G. L. nnd M. W .—
11 plants......... 1914
1915
Southern—
11 plants......... 1914
1915
T o ta l38 plants........

1914
1915

26
36

40

18
31

40
34

60
73

269
227

68
16
23j 153
!
51: iso
48, 160

-

525;
501

2,801l 70.4t
2,49-J 70. 9

1 Including 2 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.

s Including 3 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




84

147
42

1
2

Unclassiiied—produc­
tive:
Eastern—
6 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
10 plants......... 1914
1915
G. X . and M .W .—
>
11 plants......... 1914
1915
Southern—
10 plants......... 1914
1915

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

123l
131.
38I 35ci 661.
35> 30cI 587'

36$i 44C1 187’ s 747
307r 388; m ) 3724

109

BLAST FU RN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
B L A S T FURNACES—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

and
un­
der
9
cts

and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

10
5

12
and
un
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

155
90

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

1
2

26
41
10
5

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

3
4

40,.
36 .
159
146;

212

191

499
404

158
170;

6

123,
95

193
206

496
320

170
113

7
8

25
25

10

237
243

155;
94 j

11
12

151
142

13
14

35
18
20

19i
22
141
138

18
26

196
173

432!
4321

9

15
16

11,14
153!
154!

104

17

111

18

134
73

19

2
0
106
137

414
390

253
158
47
54

88
90

219
233
116
106

81
89

47
54

136!
129!

114
110

262
195

454
36'

35

1,047
920

420
420

21
22
156'
159

23
17

54 .
50 .
334
310

23
24
25
26

31
26

27
28

4 Including 10 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91 and 1 employee whose full-time hours
per week were 98.
5 Including 11 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91 and 1 employee whose full-time hours
per week were 98.




BESSEMER CONVERTERS.1
SUMMARY.

In 1915 the average rate of wages or earnings per hour of em­
ployees in the Bessemer converting department ranged from 12 per
cent lower to 12 per cent higher than in the years of the period 1907
to 1914. Wages per hour were highest in 1913, owing to the large
tonnages made, and the fact that in so many of the occupations earn­
ings are based on production.

In 1914 and 1915 Bessemer production, not taking into account
Bessemer duplexing, was greatly reduced.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of
the Bessemer converting department appearing in this report are
summarized in Table 16. Data are presented for the years 1907
to 1915, inclusive, the figures for each group of years being for
identical plants. The data for 1915 represent 1,187 Bessemer con­
verter employees in 19 selected occupations and 1,031 employees in
unclassified occupations, making a total of 2,218 employees. Em­
ployees other than those in the selected occupations are included in
the reports for 1914 and 1915 only.
These data were obtained from 12 plants having 32 converters and
capable of producing about two-thirds of the tonnage of Bessemer
steel ingots made in the United States.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified full-time hours
per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by percentages
which were computed from the actual figures given in Table C.
i Summary figures relating to the Bessemer converting department are given w ith figures for other de­
partments of the iron and steel industry on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volume of employm ent in
this and other departments from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation
of the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.
11 0




BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- SUMMARY*

111

T a b l e 16.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—BESSEM ER CONVERTERS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of tim e
Over
12 14 16 18 20
Over
of
em ­
ber of plants.
48
48
72
wa^es and and and and and
ploy­ hours and and
per
per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
and 84
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. der der der der der
14 16 18 20 25
der. der
der
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
72
84
Laborers:
9 plan ts.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­

ly

earn­
ings.

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

42 $0.155
34 .155
30 .151
i 43 .163

10 plants

1910
1911
1912

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

1 41
12
26

.163
.166;
. 167 j

10 plants

1912
1913

620
681

75.8
75.1

27
20

. 167!
.192

52

12.68
28 14.38

10 plants

1913
1914

575
450

75.2
75.7

23
29

.192
.192

52
59

28 14.43
23 14.57

1914
1915

546
496

74.0
74.3

24
28

.193'
.193

56
61

29 14.27
25 14.31

12 plants

16

$12.12
11.80
11.02

12.69
12. €9
12.39
12.64

U n­
der
16
cts.
Bottom makers’help­
ers:
9 p lants................

16 ! 20
and and
un- un­
der der
20 30
cts. cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
cts.
and
over.

1907
1908
1909
1910

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1'
72.9

.257
.204
.234
. 239 ..

10 p lants...............

1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8*
72.2
72.2

. 235 .
.2341 3
. 238' 7

12 .
19 .

17.10
16.88
17.18

10 plants...............

1912
1913
1914

39
40
33

72.4
73.1
72.5

.224
5
.255 . . . .
. 226
6

5
15'

16.19
18.59
16.38

12 plants...............

1914
1915

39
38

72.4
72.6

. 225:
. 239,

5
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4!
67.3

.206|
.1731
.178j
10i . 213;

31
58
3’
10

9 plants................

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

.211) 9
. 199; 3
. 204 . . . .

9 plants................

1912
1913

99
113

68.1
67.3

. 200 . . .
. 238 . . .

17
76

13.23
15.56

8 p lan ts................

1913
1914

99
46

67.8
72.0,

. 227'...
. 213 . . .

83
9 91.

15.02
15.30

9 p lants................

1914
1915

52
48

71.9'
72.0

. 213 L .
. 214 . . .

29; 71 .

1907"
1908
1909
1910

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

.255
.209
.230

31 j
32
38
38

Cinder pitmen:
8 plants................

Ladle liners’ helpers:
9 plants.................




51

18.82
14.75
17.08
17.38

74
53
46
34
51
58'

14
9.
5
24

16.29
17.30
13.32
11.27
11.88
13.77

61' 22 7 ........ 13.69
13.55
87 . . . J 10 ..
13.27
76 17; 7...

8 92 .

1 Including 7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.

39!
36!
38 .
49.

15.30
15.42
13 16.65
13.79
15.26
15.83

112

WAGES A ^ D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 16.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TES OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D FU L L -

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Continued.
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
N um ­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of tim e
Over
of
Over
16 20 30
em­
ber of plants.
48
wages U n­ and and and 40
72
hours 48
ploy- per and and
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
and 84
hour. 16 der der der and
week. un­ un­ 72 un­
der. der
der
cts. 20 30 40 over.
72
84
cts. cts. cts.
Ladle liners’ help­
ers—Concluded.
10 p lan ts...............

1910
1911
1912
1913

68.7
69.1
69.6
69.8

15
9
9
9

3
44
44
44

67
47
41
29

10
6
18

5 $0.236
.233
.228
.255

8

40
60

21
33

32
7

53
36

41
59

6
6

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

41
41
41
24

46
38
38
56

3
6
6

13 $15.73
12 15.75
9 15.43
15 17.36

.247
.225

37
17

45
83

5

13 17.09
15.32

.222
.233 ***3

21
32

79
53

12

15.24
15.91

6
6

1913
1914

30

70.9
68.8

1914
1915

34
34

69.1
69.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
260
266
350

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

46
58
43
33

12
11
8
16

7
10
12
19

22
10
23
6

12
12
15
26

.246
.275
.204
.266

17
14
27
3

28
21
20
38

27
26
12
25

22
23
20
20

7
15
22
15

10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

32
46
46

17
7
15

19
24
8

6
11
18

26
12
13

.266
.233
.312

3
5

37
40
38

26
40
14

20
10
21

15 16.03
5 13.60
28 17.66

10 plan ts..............

1912
1913

337

62.1
62.5

45
23

16
31

8
27

15
13

16
6

.306
.331

41
26

12
27

20
11

27 17.38
36 19.05

5 plants...............

1913
1914

194
162

58.1
57.1

23
56

53
25

11
12

10
7

3

.405
.349

5
11

29
40

9
4

57 22.07
46 18.91

6 plan ts................

1914
1915

167
157

55.5
55.6

63
61

8
10

22
20

7
8

1914
1915

652
666

69.7
69.8

6
7

24
17

43
54

21

1
7

1914
1915

356
365

72.3
73.2

29
26

37
38

6
6

11 pants...............
Stockers:
9 plants................

U n c l a s s i f i e d —pro­
ductive:
12 plan ts..............
U n c la s s if ie d —non­
productive:
12 plan ts..............

.351
.313

....

6
4

46
46

4
29

44 18.59
21 16.70

6
5

.237
.247

....

2

13
15

73
68

11
14

1 16.23
4 16.93

29
30

.233
.230

17
17

71
73

11
1 16.81
10 (0 16.79

Un­
der
20
cts.

Cupola tappers:
8 p la n ts ___

9 plants . .

2 plants . . ,
4 plants . . .
Ingot strippers;
9 plants . -.




60.5
59.3
61.5
i 58.9
41 59.3

54
56
56
64
59

1911
1912
1913

i 60.4
1 60.6
l 59.5

53
56
30

1913
1914

14.27
14.93
15.31
16.04

20
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30 40
and and
un­ un­
der der
40 50
cts. cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

18
30
12
13
27

12
5
19
14
5

8
5
14
9
10

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

2
2
2
2
2

12
23
47
34
34

34
63
7
32
63

52
12
44
27

22.16
19.67
19.74
5 20.30
18.19

4
32

33
10
23

4
21
15

9
8

.314
.369
.393

....

2
2

40
42
32

58
2
12

54
39

18.36
20.94
17 22.25

1 54.3
! 54.3

82
82

18
18

.461
.276

82

18
18

1914
1915

: 56.9
: 55.8

71
75

29
25

.286
.332

53
4

47
96

1907
1908
1909
1910

I 67.4
31
14
21
21
14
21
; 68.4
21
36
21
; 70.2
21
21
14
21 "*'2i
10
21
21
21
\ 67.9
28
1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

.310
.238
.264
.307

62
79
79
69

17
7
21

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50

8
5

82

24.66
15.18
16.47
18.43

14
31

7 19.60
16.34
18.17
19.85

113

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- SUM M ARY.

T able 16.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L TTME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—BESSE M E R CONVERTERS—Continued.
1

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of tim e
Over
20 30 40 50
Over
of
em­
ber of plants.
48
48
72wages U n­ and and and and
ploy­ hours and and
per
per der un­ un­ un­ un­
and 84
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. 20 der der der der
der. der
der
cts. 30 40 50 60
72
84
cts. cts. cts. cts.
Ingot s t r i p p e r s Concluded.
10 plants...............

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914

31
27
28
28
23

68.1
70.4
68.8
69.9
70.7

10
11

19
33
25
29
22

32
44
29
21
35

19
22
36
50
35

1914
1915

29
31

66.0
66.2

21
19

17
10

28
39

28
32

1907
1908
1909
1910

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

75
77
77
26

52

17
18
14
9

8
5
9
4

) plants.

1910
1911
1912

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

23
32
55

46

19
62
32

4
5
14

10 plants.

1912
1913

52
61

61.5
59.5

46
54

12
10

27
23

8 plants.

1913
1914

51
31

56.9
57.9

65
48

10

27
42

1914
1915

39
40

60.8
60.9

38
38

8
18

54
45

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

20
22
44
9

40
44
22
73

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914

12
10
10
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.6
70.0

8
20
30
20
40

75
60
50
80
60

1914
1915

12
12

70.2
69.7

42
25

58
75

12 plants - .
Mold cappers:
8 p la n ts ...

10 plants___
Stopper makers:
9 plants.........

10 plants.

12 plants.,

19 $0,303
.282
.320
.334
9 .304

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$19.69
19.26
21 20.90
22.81
21.03

15

.313
.332

20.11
21.39

.347
.196
.271
.326

13 18.02
10.57
14.26
17.07

.314
.282
.324

16.96
17.36
18.03

15
13

.301
.360

17.23
20.28

8

.382
.267

7

9
8

33

18 20.71
15.37

.260
.294
30
11
11

10
22
22
18
17
20
20

15.67
17.53

.316
.223
.270
.263
.273
.272
.302
.253

23.01
16.10
19.22
19.33

30
11

19.14
19.53
18.91
21.25
17.67

10

.251
.263

17.60
18.13
J 25 40 50
Un- and and and 60
der un-| un- un­ cts.
25
der der and
cts.
50 60 over,
cts. cts.

Bottom makers:
9 plants.........

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

1910
1911
1912
1913

19
19
20
20

10 plants.
12 p la n ts.,

10 plants.

28.10
20.45
25.57
25.92

10

.346
.337
. 345
.384

25.28
24.18
24.96
10 28.05

11
11

.386
.295

28.25
21.56

65
65
69
77

24
12
19
12

12

73.4
71.8
72.5
73.8

11

11

21
20
20

79
79
70
50

10
20

1913
1914

19' 73.8
181 73.2
,

21
22

47
56

21
11

1914
1915

22 73.0
22I 73.0

18
18

64
64

9
9

9
S

89728°— 37—B u ll. 218------ 8




.386
.283
.351
.355

12
24
13

21.34
24.02

114

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e 16.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TES OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—B E SSE M E R C O N V E R TE R S—Continued.

Per cent of empl oyees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num ­ age
age
ber full­
1
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
Over
25 40 50
Over
of
Bm­ tim e
ber of plants.
72
48
wages U n­ and and and 60
hours . 48
p’oy- per and and
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
and
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­ 84 hour. 25 der der der and
der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
der. der
84
cts. cts. cts.
72
Cupola melters:
7 plan ts.................. 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15
15
15
16
15

65 2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

40
40
40
38
40

13
13
13
19
13

1911
1912
1913

17
18
19

65.2
61.6
62.4

35
50
32

12
11

29
17

26

5 plants................... 1913
1914

14
14

62.7
63.0

21
21

6 plants................... 1914

15
15

59.5
59.3

21
21
21

13 1 13 $0,509
13
13 .350
13
13 .419
13
13 .447
13
13 .390

20
20
20

8 plants....... .

1915
Ladle liners:
9 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
10 plants.................

10 plants......... .

12 plants.................

Regulators, first:
'9 plants...........

23

19
20

7
13

12
11
11

6
6

36

21 30.89

29

.507
.346

21

21.40

20
20

53
40

13
27

.390
.449

60 1 40
47l 13

40

23.00
25.90

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

29
29
29
26

14
24
14
4

48
38
48
52

13
13
|

4
21
21

56
67
58

23
23
38

55
45
52

32
31

60
62

8

8
8
8

66.8

68.3
68.9

24
13
13

1912
1913
1914

22
22
21

68.6

14
14

1914
1915

25 68.6
26! 68.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

26 1
25i
25
29

1910
1911
1912

21

68.7
68.0

33
24
17

.378
.342
.369

16
25

10

.384
.418
.304

9
9
19

55
27
67

23
32
14

8
8

.304
.344

16

72
73

12
12

8

42
28
36
38

35
16
35

9

8

8

8i ........
1
1
9
18

31
29
17
16

39
50
32

1912
1913

24
24

68.5
67.6

25
25

8
8

25
33,

33
33

9 plants................... 1913
1914

20

18

66.4
69.0

30
17

10
22

20

40
33

1 1 plants................. 1914
1915
Regulators, second:
6 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

24
26

63.8
64.7

38
35

17

18
14
14
18

65.3
33
73.5
73.8
66.7 ” ‘33

29
14

1910
1911
1912

22
21

23

67.5
65.0
63.5

27
29
39

19
17

46
52
26,'" i7

9 plants................... 1912
! 1913

24
24

67.0
67.0

25
25

17
17

33l
33

28
22

1 1 plants................. 1 1914




1 1915

68.3
69.0

25 66.5
26! 66.6

21

14

24
23 1

28

8

9

14
18
16

8

.437
.266
. 344
.414
.408
.377
.411

14

8
8
8

22

29
32
281
46

29
29
22

25
25
36
36
32
23

56
32
7
7

17
8
8

22

25
21

8

20. 77
23.47

8

24
14

15 27.28
17. 78
22.97
7 25.60

42
38
36

32
38
40

13

7 25.45

46
25

38

29

8 30.28

10

35

10 32.23
22.20

8

16

38

8

18

56

45
17

.328
.351

31

33
43
57 1
44

.399
.451

8

10
10

.484
.324 ’ *28

21 r 25

35j
11

8
8
8

13

1
1

24 28.95
19. 78
l" 'i4 25. 22
25.20
"22
1
1
25.05
20
17
22.85
24.95
13
1
25.84
141
28.22
32
20.55

20

17

44
33
50

" io
10 . . . . .

19
25
36

8

10

11
14

19
14
38

21

16

.4*4
.306
.392
.383

22

38
43
24
39

10

R 1
9.
24; 66. 8
25 64.7

| 1914

24.62
23.82
16 28.23

14
14

25
24
24

10 plants................. ' 1913

12

22.20

26 09
19 25 85
24.45

64
35

31
32
40
35

8 plants...................

28
42

35

33 $31.67

47
44'
32
I
29 1
79.

46
36
36

10 plants.................

33
13
33
31
13

21

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

10 plants....... .

7

27
53 *'26
13 33
44
40 "40

12
11
11

1910
1911
1912

.386
.409
.477

20
6

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

21
12

67
54

13
27

. 427
.269 "57
.3%
7
.403

11

36
50
39

78
7
43
50

.378
.333
.367

9

19

.381
.411 "i7
.394
.281

.289
.324

14
41

41
48
83

41
33

67
25

25
38

36
45

36 52
27' 42

1 Including 7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.

32
14
12

31

8
11

t 11
9

! 17
1
!
I
8

24. 79
26.24
27.16

20. 71
22.91
27.81
19.64
26.80
26.96
25.52
21. 41
23.36
25.63

13
1
1

8 27.56

11

7 26. 81
19.22
18.90
21.64

115

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- SUM M ARY.

t a b l e 16.— FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N I) F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO m 5 —B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S—Continued.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Average
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
Over
25 40 50
of
em- tim e 48 Over
ber of plants.
48
72
wages U n­ and and and 60
ploy- hours and and
per
Q
A
'7 2 and cy± per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­
week. un­ un­
hour 25 der der der and
der. der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
der
72
84
cts. cts. cts.
Vessel men’s helpers
9 plants...............

10 plants.............
10 plants.............
12 plants............. .

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

51
40
40
49 ,

19
20
20
31

9
18
18
8

1910
1911
1912

56.5
57.6
55.9

1912

1913

10 plants.............

1907
1908
1909
1910

56.5
56.0

28
18]
17
28
36

1913
1914

56.4
54.6

45
471
i
57i
1
45 1
,
45!
34
35

1914

54.3
55.5

37
32

1915

17
18
18

8
15

11
4
4

8
11

15
8

11
16

8

49
43

14
25

15
29
22
16

26
27
38
51

13
13
18
4

47:
4 21.65
18 28.24
29 28.86

4
12

19
27
38

47
28
21

4
28
25

26 28.22
6 23. 48
17 25.47

38
17

26
34

19
17

17
32

17
65

34
22

17
2

32 29.15
18.31

65
52

23
21

2
13

18.42
4 21.18

4

48
49

” 27
4

4
4
4
12

15
24
8

.421

|
1
,‘ ‘i2
I 11
11

40
Un­ and
der un­
40 der
cts. 50
cts.
Blowers:
9 plants..

10 plants,

10 plan ts.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

30
16
16
15

1911
1912
1913

72.0
69.1
63.2

14
26

1913
1914

63.3
: 65.6

26
14

i
221
22
1
1
72
64
64
70
i
66 1
70
75
1
71
71

23
18
18

1907
1908
1909
1910

1 55.4.
57.4
; 57.5
i 54.5

10 p la n ts..

1910
1911
1912

! 55.6
i 55.1
! 54.7

10 plan ts. .

1912
1913

: 55.7
34 55.7

10 p la n ts...

1913
1914

55.7
53.4

71
48

1914
1915

52.5
i 53.5

57
60

1907
1908
1909
1910

51.5
I 54 3
: 55.4
’ 51.5

87
75
71
73

1910
1911
1912
1913

I
l
!
I

12 p la n ts...

10 p la n ts...




52.6
55.3
51.7
51.6

11
io
10
22
22

64.1
64.0

Stopper setters:
9 plants_
_

!
I
I

1914
1915

12 plants
Steel pourers:
9 plan ts..

10
11
11

10
9

50
63
63
60
89

10
11
11
15

90
67
44

10
9

35
55

17
9

52
52

1

14
14
14
13

13
30
13 ” ‘i3
18
18
18
23

12

24
17

16

69
15
69
86
86 I........

10
31
10
9

50 ' 60
!
and and 70
un­ un­ cts.
der der and
60 ! 70 over.
cts. cts.

20
45
15
42 " i i ___
11
47 21
11
45 20 " i s
10
56 22 - - - *
11
1
10 60 20
10
57, 24 *’io
10
35 22
22
1
1 22
35 22 22
22
50
9
1
I 27i 14
48 261 19
7
41 30 22
7
t
7 17 10 14
52
4 32 , I8
47
39
18 '**43
“ 23 "*20 i io
40
7
28 19
38
9
6
23 10 27 30
10
25
6 34 31
3

20
37
21
10
11

1
'
.
.630
1
.617
1
;
I
• 6
18
|
i 12
' 48

19
23
9
20
24
5

13

12
12

29

'
i
i
.
\
I
1
1

7
7

14
21
21
7

10

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

39. 55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.84
35.48
3rt. 36
37.33
37.33
3o. 25
34.43
35. 61
36.39
24.25
31.61
32.94
32.74
27.91
30.57

29
32

3
9

24 30.65
38 33.94

9 32
6, 42

9
3

38 34.39
23.12

38
3

41
23
4
5
6

5
5

5
5

i
;
!
•

14;' 38
14 34

8 ...... 23.42
27.96
20

27
68
35
30

161 13
18
6 " is
16
8

13
5
9
14

31
10
35
32

31.79
18 50
29.36
30.08

8 13
8
7 ” io
5 21

31
31
14
28

29.81
26.08
25.36
28.37

33
1 44
i 33
!, 19

15
18
36
28

116

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 16.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E EK , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—B E S SE M E R C O N V E R TE R S—Concluded.

Per Cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
Over
40 50 60
of
em­ tim e 48 Over
ber of plants.
72
wages U n­ and and and 70
48
ploy­ hours and and
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
and 84
per
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. 40 der der der and
der
cts. 50 60 70 over.
der. der
72
cts. cts. cts.
84
Stopper s e t t e r s—
Concluded.
10 plants................. 1913
1914

43
38

51.6
51.2

86 ........ i
24
63

9
13

1914
1915

44
42

50.7
51.5

68
71

20
14

11
14

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

52
41
41
50

13
14
14
25

9
18
18
8

17
18
18

10 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

46
48
58

23
12
12

15
24
8

10 plants................. 1912
1913

26
26

58.3
57.4

35
35

35
35

10 plants................. 1913
1914

26
25

57.8
56.4

23
24

12 plants................. 1914
1915

31
32

56.01

29
28

12 plan ts................
Vessel men:
9 plan ts..................

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1
SO.553
! .363

23
66

23
34

5

. 376
.423

64
45

30
24

5
21

9
9
9
17

.793
.528
.630
.708

9
9
41 *" 9
18 23 ” ‘fl
8
8
|

8
15

15
8
8

.685
.580
.703

8
24
8

8
15

15
15

8

.688
.744

8

46
48

15
20

15
8

49
47

16
19

6
6

5

21
2'
10
22
32
14
50

.744
.492 ’ *24

15
f 46
8 **i6 ! 24
19 15
12
19 15 ■ 12
15
8
l 31
8 31
15
8
16 52

.499
.554

23
13

19
19

45
44

28 $28.01
18.58

1 ........

13
16

61
18
36
33

19.03
21.76
44.58
31.27
37.19
38.88

31 38.18
28 32. 45
46 38.32
46 38. 60
46 41.09
46 41.52
27.71
27.64
9 30.87

Referring to the first occupation presented in Table 16—laborers—
direct comparison can be m ade of d ata for 9 identical plants
from 1907 to 1910, for 10 plants from 1910 to 1912, for another
group of 10 identical plants for 1912 and 1913, and y et another group
of 10 identical plants for 1913 and 1914, and for 12 identical plants
for 1914 and 1915. The first line of the table is analyzed as follows:
In 1907 the 9 Bessemer plants from which reports were obtained
employed 801 laborers, whose average full-tim e hours of w ork were
78 per week. F or 3 per cent of the 801 laborers the full-tim e hours
per week were over 48 and under 72; for 22 per cent, 72; for 33 per
cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 42 per cent, 84 hours. The
average rate of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the year
considered (1907) was 15.5 cents. Of the to ta l num ber 71 per cent
received 14 and under 16 cents per hour, and 29 per cent, 16 and
under 18 cents per hour. The average full-tim e weekly earnings
were $12.12. The other lines of the table m ay be read in the same
m anner. Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen th a t
in 9 identical plants th e average full-tim e weekly earnings of laborers
were $12.12 in 1907. I n the n ex t two years there were drops to $11.80
and $11.62, respectively, and in 1910 an advance to $12.69. In
the 10 identical plants reporting for 1910, 1911, and 1912, the average
for 1910 was also $12.69. There was a decrease to $12.39 in 1911 and




BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- SU M M AR Y.

117

an increase to $12.64 in 1912. Despite the fact th a t the two reports
for 1910 are the same, it would not be an accurate comparison to
state th a t earnings increased from $12.12 in 1907 to $12.64 in 1912,
because one more plant is included in the 1912 average th an in th a t
for 1907. In the second group of 10 plants the full-tim e weekly
earnings were $12.68 in 1912 and $14.38 in 1913. In the th ird group
of 10 identical plants the full-tim e weekly earnings were $14.43 in
1913 and $14.57 in 1914. In the group of 12 plants for 1914 and
1915 the full-time weekly earnings decreased to $14.27 and $14.31*
respectively.
Comparing the average full-tim e weekly earnings for 1915 of the
several occupations, it is seen th a t the lowest average was th a t of
laborers, which was $14.31. The averages of th e other 18 occupa­
tions for this departm ent show 7 w ith a range between $15.42 and
$18.43, 8 ranging between $21.18 and $25.90, and 1 each a t $27.96
for steel pourers, $30.87 for vessel m en, and $35.61 for blowers. The
averages for all other occupations in this departm ent, which are
shown only for the years 1914 and 1915, are, respectively, $16.23 and
$16.93 for the unclassified productive and $16.81 and $16.79 for the
nonproductive occupations.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

Owing to changes in the num ber of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the over­
lapping year in two groups, it is difficult to m ake a comparison of
the actual d a ta over a period of several years which will give an
accurate m easure of the changes throughout the period. To aid
in m aking such, a comparison, relative or index num bers have been
com puted from the averages given in Table 16 for full-tim e
hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-tim e weekly earn­
ings for each occupation from 1907 to 1915, inclusive. Such fig­
ures appear in Table 17. These relative or index num bers are
sim ply percentages for which the data for 1915 are taken as the base,
or 100 per cent. The relative for each year is the per cent th a t the
average for th a t year is of the average for 1915. For example, the
relative full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 96, as
compared w ith 100 in 1915; th a t is, the full-tim e weekly earnings of
stockers in 1907 were 96 per cent of the full-tim e weekly earnings in
this occupation in 1915. The m ethod of com puting relative num bers
is explained on pages 65 to 67.
Table 17 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1915 as compared w ith each specified
year preceding. Thus, the full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers in
1915 were 4 per cent higher th an in 1907, the same as in 1908, 3 per




118

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

cent lower th an in 1909, 7 per cent lower th an in 1910, 10 per cent
higher th an in 1911, 16 per cent lower th an in 1912, 23 per cent lower
th an in 1913, and 10 per cent lower th an in 1914.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared w ith the year im m ediately preceding. Thus,
the full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers in 1908 were 4 per cent
higher th an in 1907, 3 per cent higher in 1909 th an in 1908, 5 per
cent higher in 1910 th an in 1909, 16 per cent lower in 1911 th an in
1910, 31 per cent higher in 1912 th an in 1911, 9 per cent higher in
1913 th an in 1912, 15 per cent lower in 1914 th an in 1913, and 10
per cent lower in 1915 th an in 1914. The other occupations and
item s of the table m ay be studied in like m anner. The percentages
of increase and decrease are com puted from the relative num bers.
T a b l e 17.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, TO G E TH E R W ITH P E R C ENT OF
INC R EA SE OR D E C R EA SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—BESSEM ER
CO NVERTERS.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Cupola melters:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Cupola tappers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Relatr e
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

RelaRela­
ti e
Each
E ach
Each
tiv e
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­ tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
fied weekly com­
fied
wages
per
pared year as earn­ pared year as
pared year as
with
w ith
hour.
com­
com­
com­
w ith
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­
with
speci­
w ith
with
speci­
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

102
95
104
106
101
101
102
100
100

+
_
C
1)

2
5
4
6
1
1
2

106
105
105
98
104
99
100
100
100

—
+
+

6
5
5
2
4
1

106
104
107
103
104
104
102
102
100

Weekly earnings.

(l)
—6
- 4
- 7
- 3
- 4
- 4
- 2
- 2

+
+
C
1)
+
(1)

7
9
2
5

C
1)
+
+
(l)
l l)

1

+
+
0)
C
1)
-

1
2

7
6
5
1

2
3
4
1
2
j
2 1

1 No change.

95
106
102
102
90
120
130
112
100

+ 5
- 6
- 2
- 2
+11
-1 7
-2 3
-1 1

134
92
111
118
103
109
127
87
100

—25
+ 9
-1 0
-1 5
- 3
- 8
-2 1
+15

137
121
123
131
115
135
144
86
100

-2 7
-1 7
-1 9
-2 4
-1 3
-2 6
-3 1
+16

+12
- 4
0)
-1 2
+33
+ 8
-1 4
—11

96
100
103
108
91
119
130
111
100

+ 4
C
1)
- 3
- 7
+ 10
-1 6
-2 3
-1 0

-3 1
+21
+ 6
-1 3
+ 6
+17
-3 1
+ 15

145
101
119
118
112
108
128
89
100

—31
- 1
-1 6
-1 5
-1 1
—7
-2 2
+12

-1 2
+ 2
+ 7
-1 2
+17
+ 7
-4 0
+ 16

146
130
130
134
120
137
145
89
100

—32
-2 3
-2 3
-2 5
-1 7
-2 7
-3 1
+12

+ 4
+ 3
+ 5
-1 6
+31
+ 9
-1 5
—10
-3 0
+18
- 1
- 5
- 4
+ 19
-3 0
+ 12
-1 1
C
1)
+ 3
-1 0
+14
+ 6
-3 9
+12

119

BESSEMER CONVERTERS— SUMMARY*

T a b l e 17.— R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E T H E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INCREASE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—B E S SE M E R
CONVER TER S—Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( 4-) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Blowers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913...............................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Regulators, first:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909.......................................
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1 0 :3 .....................
1914.......................................
1915.................................
Regulators, second:
1907......................................
1908.....................................
1909.....................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.....................................
1915.................................
Vessel men:
1907.......................................
1908...............................
1909.......................................
1910.................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913.......................................
1914......................................
1915.....................................
Vessel men’s helpers:
1907....................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910.....................................
......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1915.......................................
Cinder pitmen:
1907.......................................
1908......................................
1909.......................................
1910......................................
1911.......................................
1912......................................
1913.......................................
1914..............................................
1915.......................................




Relati e
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

RelaRelati e
tr e
Each
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
wages
fied
per
pared year as weekly pared year as
pared year as
earn­
with
com­
hour.
with
com­
w ith
com­
ings.
each
pared
each
each
pared
pared
speci­
with
with
w ith
speci­
speci­
year
fied
year
year
fied
fied
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100
105
105
107
110
106
97
100
100

—
+
0)

94
97
97
92
99
96
95
99
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

103
116
116
105
101
99
99
100
100

- 3
-1 4
—14
- 5
- 1
+ 1
+ 1
0)

108
113
113
104
107
103
102
99
100

109
82
86
95
88
94
107
97
100

—8

+ 4
+ 1

130
79
102
123
113
124
140
93
100

-2 3
4-27
- 2
-1 9
—12
-1 9
—29
+ 8

4-13
0
- 9
—4
—2
0)
+ 1
0)

127
80
108
120
105
116
125
89
100

-2 1

—7

107
88
90
100
97
100
102
97
100

—7
+14
+ 11
C
1)
+ 3
(l)
—2
+ 3

+21
- 8
+ 10

122
79
103
114
111
118
131
90
100

-1 8
+27
—3 *
—12
—10
—15
—24
+ 11

128
90
123
124
104
113
122
87
100

—22 !
+ 11
—19
—19
—4

—20
+ 12

—37
+35
+ 11
—12
+ 10
+ 8
—29

137
92
109
123
104
126
136
90
100

—27
+ 9
- 8
-1 9
—4

—33
+ 18
+ 13
—15

—31
— l 1
—17 ;

—34
+ 11

144
101
120
125
107
126
134
90
100

143
- 6
106
95
111
-1 0
+ 5
123
111
-1 0
0)
- 7
133
103
—3
111
105
1911 - 5
+ 2
- 3
123
102
- 2
— 1
— 1
140
101
—3
1914....................................... 89
+ 2
100
100
+ 2

—30
+ 5
-1 9
—25
—10
—19
—29
98 12
+

—34
+ 29
+ 8
-1 7
+ 11
+ 14
—36
+12

151
103
134
137
114
123
139
87
100

-3 4
—3
—25
—27
—12
—19
—28
" 15
j"

83
75
- 3
77
+ 3
- 1
92
87
+ 3
- 4
83
- 1
106
100
+ 6
100
C
1)
i N o cha-nge.

+ 12
+33
+30
+ 9
+15

-1 6
+ 3
+19
- 5
+ 2
+19
- 6

83
70
74
85
85
S3
97
C9
100

-i-20
+43
+35
+ 18
+18

97
94
97
96
99
95
94
100
100

(0

5
5
7
9
6

3

6

3
3
9
1
4
5
1

—12
-1 2

- 4
—7
- 3
- 2
+ 1

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
C
1)

3
6
3
4
1
5
6

+ 5
C
1)
+ 2
+ 3
—4
—8
+ 3
0)
4(L
)
+
-

3
5
8

3

— 1

4- 5
(i> 8
+ 3
—4
—1
- 3
+ 1

4-22

4-16
+ 5
4-14
+ 6
- 7
+ 3

4-25
—7
—17
—5
-1 4

-2 1

—26
+ 11

+ 12

—6
0)

-2 5
+ 5
+ 10

—7
+ 7
+ 14
—9
+ 3
—39
+29

+ 13
—34
+ 8

+ 12

+21
+ 8

—12

—18
+15

—20

—7
-2 1 |
—25
+ 11 !
j

+20

+ 3
+ 1

-1 8
+ 2
+ 11

—3
+ 3
+ 2
—5
+ 3
—35
+30
+ 11

- 3
+ 6
+ 11
—31
+ 11
—30
+ 37
+ 1
—16
4- 9
+ 8
—29
+ 15
-3 0
+19
4- 4
-1 4
+18
+ 6
-3 3
+ 11

-3 2
+30
+ 2
-1 7
+ 8
+13
-3 7
+15
-1 6
+ 6
+15
«

a
+17
+ 2
+ 1

120

WAGES A N D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le 17.— R E L A T IV E FU LL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G ES P E R HO U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W IT H P E R CENT OF
IN C R E A SE OR D E CR EA SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—BESSEM ER
CONVER TE R S—Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

B ottom makers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915 . .
........
Bottom makers’ helpers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909......................................
1910.......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1914......................................
1915......................................
Ladle liners:
1907......................................
1908......................................
1909......................................
1910.......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1914......................................
1915.......................................
Ladle liners’ helpers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Stopper makers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Stopper setters:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tiv e
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tiv e
Each
Each
Each
tiv e
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
fied weekly com­
fied
wages
pared year as earn­ pared year as
pared year as
per
com­
w ith
w ith
com­
com­ hour.
w ith
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
with
w ith
speci­
with
speci­
speci­
year
year
fied
fied
year
fied
pre­
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

114
83
103
105
100
104
116
89
100

-1 2
+20
- 3
- 5

+ 14
-1 1
+ 6

100
79
91
93
92
93
107
94
100

0)
+27
+ 10
+ 8
+ 9
+ 8
- 7
+ 6

—32
+27
- 2
-1 0
+ 8
+ 9
-2 8
+ 14

128
88
112
112
102
111
122
89
100

-2 2
+ 14
-1 1
-1 1
- 2
-1 0
-1 8
+12

-1 ?
+ 9
+ 4
- 1
- 2
+ 12
-io
+ 5

102
84
93
97
97
95
107
96
100

—2
+19
+ 8
+ 3
+ 3
+ 5
- 7 !
+ 4

118
105
—5
—15
-3 0
83
+20
105
- 5
0)
- 1
101
+22
103
—2
—3
98
- 3
105
- 5
+ 2
+ 2
- 1
1911.......................................103 104 3 - 4 5
+
103
- 2
- 2
- 3
102
0)
~ 2
114
-1 2
102
+11
0)
- 1
95
-1 7
101
- 1
+ 5
—1
100
100
+ 5

125
88
105
105
107
104
117
97
100

-2 0
+14
- 5
- 5
—7
- 4
-1 5
+ 3

101
107
109
101
106
99
99
98
100

147
85
135
139
121
118
132
88
100

-3 2
+ 18
-2 6
-2 8
-1 7
—15
—24
+14

100
99
100
100
98
99
101
100
100

C
1)
+
C
1)
0)
+
+
c)

101
99
101
100
100
100
101
100
100

—
+
—
C
1)
0)
0)
—
0)

96
97
96
98
100
101
101
100
100

+ 4
+ 3
+ 4
+ 2
0
—1
- 1
0)

101
99
101
101
102
102
103
99
100

—1
+ 1
—1
—1
- 2
- 2
- 3
+ 1

1
2
1
1

1
1
1

1

—1
—7
—8
- 1
- 6
+ 1
+ 1
+ 2

+ 1
+ 2
—1
c)

113
83
103
104
101
104
116
88
100

-1 2
+20
—3
—4
- 1
- 4
-1 4
+ 14

—2
+ 2
—1
(*)(x)
-t- 1
—1
0)

99
79
90
92
92
93
106
94
100

+ 1
+27
+ 11
+ 9
+ 9
+ 8
- 6
+ 6

+
+
+
+
C
1)
—
C
1)

136
92
117
115
104
112
122
88
100

-2 6
+ 9
—15
-1 3
—4
-1 1
-1 8
+ 14

103
85
93
97
96
94
105
95
100

—3
+ 18
+ 8
+ 3
+ 4
+ 6
- 5
+ 5

—1
+ 1

1
1
2
2
1
1

- 2
+ 2
C
1)
+ 1
C
1)
+ 1
—4
+ 1

150
82
+ G
131
+ 2
—7
140
121
+ 5
—7
120
135
o
—1
89
100
+ 2
1 No chainge.

—33
+22
—24
-2 9
—17
—17
—26
+ 12

-2 7
+24
+ 1
- 3
+ 3
+ 12
-2 4
+14
-2 0
+14
+ 2

—45
+60
+ 7
—14
—1
+13
-3 4
+12

-1 4
+12

-2 7
+24
H 2
- 5
+ 4
+12
-2 3
+ 12
-2 1
+ 15
+ 2
- 1
+ 1
+ 15
-1 2
+ 6
-3 1
+27
(L
)
- 9
+ 9
+10
-2 7
+12
-1 8
+11
+ 4
0)
- 2
+13
-1 0
+ 4
-3 0
+19
C
1)
+ 2
- 3
+ 13
-1 7
+ 3
-4 2
+59
+ 3
-1 3
—2
+12
—33
+14

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- SUM M ARY.

121

TABLE 17.— R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R CENT OF
INC R E A SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—BESSEM ER
CONVERTERS—Concluded.

Hours per week.

Occupation and year.

Steel pourers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Mold cappers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Ingot strippers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Laborers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—productive :
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—nonproductive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
All occupations:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tiv e
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
*

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
R ela­
tive
Each
Each
tive
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
fied
com­
fied weekly com­
wages
fied
per
pared year as
pared year as earn­ pared year as
com­ hour.
com­
w ith
w ith
w ith
com­
ings.
each
pared
each
each
pared
pared
with
with
speci­
speci­
speci­
with
year
year
fied
fied
year
fied
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

6
8
9
4
3
2
2
2

96
95
95
97
109
101
98
100
100

+
+
4+
+
0)

4
5
5
3
8
1
2

95
97
99
96
99
97
99
100
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
0)

5
3

103
100
101
103
98
100
99
100
100

—3
0)
- 1
- 3
+ 2
i})
+ 1
0)

100
100

—3
+ 1
- 3
- 3
- 1
- 1
0)
C)

—8
+61
+18
- 3
+ 9
- 6
-2 1
+14

+
+
+
+
+
C
1)

2
2
3
3
2
2
1

95
73
81
94
87
99
104
94
100

+ 5
+37
+23
+ 6
+15
+ 1
- 4
+ 6

+
+
+
+
(x)

3

81
81
79
85
87
87
100
100
100

+23
+23
+27
+18
+15
+ 15
(x)
0)

96
100

1

4
1
3
1

101
100

+ 5
+ 12
+ 9
+ 4
+ 9
- 2
-1 2
+ 3

—25
+12
-1 4
-1 7
- 3
-1 2
-2 0
+19

-4 3
+37
+21
-1 1
+15
+20
-3 1
+ 14

102
60
80
96
99
102
120
89
100

—2
+67
+25
+ 4
+ 1
- 2
-1 7
+12

-2 3
+ 11
+16
- 7
+14
+ 5
-1 0
+ 6

87
72
81
88
86
93
102
94
100

+15
+39
+23
+14
+16
+ 8
- 2
+ 6

C
1)
- 2
+ 8
+ 2
C
1)
+15
0)
C
1)

84
81
80
87
85
87
99
100
100

+19
+23
+25
+ 15
+18
+15
+ 1
0)

96
100

+ 4

1

100
100

C
1)

- 6
+ 3
+ 4
- 4
+ 11
+ 11
-1 4
+ 3

96
88
93
98
93
100
111
96
100

+ 4
+14
+ 8
+ 2
+ 8
C
1)
-1 0
+ 4

—1

95
89
92
96
92
102

133
89
116
121
103
113
125
84
100

+ 4

+ 1

103
99
103
103
101
101
100
100
100

109
62
85
103
92
106
127
88
100

0)

99
100

- 1
(0
+ 2
+ 12
- 7
- 3
+ 2
(J)

-3 6
+31
+ 9
-1 3
+ 9
+11
-3 3
+18

+ 4

4
2

—25
+18
-1 0
-1 7
- 5
-1 2
-2 1
+18

+ 1

—
+

133
85
111
121
105
114
126
85
100

C
1)

106
109
no
104
103
102
102
98
100

+
+
0)
+

3
1
5
1
1

1

2
5
2
1
1

- 4
+ 4
0)
- 2
C
1)
1
C
1)
0)

1 No change.

113
97
100

—

-3 3
+30
+ 4
-1 5
+10
+ 11
-3 3
+19
-4 1
+33
+20
+ 3
+ 3
+ 18
-2 6
+ 12
-1 7
+ 13
+ 9
- 2
+ 8
+ 10
- 8
+ 6

t
- 4
- 1
+ 9
- 2
+ 2
+14
+ 1
C
1)
+ 4
0)
- 8
+ 6
+ 5
- 5
+ 8
+11
-1 4
+ 4

122

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

The relative full-time weekly earnings for all occupations of
the department combined in 1907 were 96 as compared with 100
in 1915. In other words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1907
were 96 per cent of those in 1915. The relative dropped to 88 in
1908, advanced to 93 in 1909, and to 98 in 1910, dropped in 1911
to 93, advanced in 1912 to 100, and in 1913 to 111, and dropped to 96
in 1914. In 1915, the base year, the relative was 100. These rela­
tive numbers for each year previous to 1914 are based on the prin­
cipal productive occupations only, b u t' those for 1914 and 1915
include also the unclassified groups tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for
the first time.
The next column shows th a t full-time weekly earnings in 1915
were 4 per cent higher than in 1907, 14 per cent higher than in 1908,
8 per cent higher than in 1909, 2 per cent higher than in 1910, 8 per
cent higher than in 1911, the same as in 1912, 10 per cent lower than
in 1913, and 4 per cent higher than in 1914.
FU L L -T IM E W O RKING D A Y S P E R W E EK .

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in Bessemer converting plants whose customary working
time per week was 6 days or turns, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in Table 18. The figures are presented for each of the
two districts for which these plants are reported and for the two
combined. The employees given under the headings “ 5 days, 6
days, and 7 days in rotation, ” “ 6 days, 6 days, and 7 days in rota­
tio n /' and “ 6 days, 7 days, and 7 days in ro tatio n ” are engaged in
occupations for which the plant employs three shifts instead of the
customary two to complete the 24 hours of a day. The heading
“ 6 days, 6 days, and 7 days in rotation,” for example, indicates th a t
each week one-third of the employees reported work 7 turns instead
of the customary 6, the plant being shut down during the time of
two shifts on one day each week.
Two sets of figures are shown for the plants reported for 1914 and
1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupations
as shown for all the preceding groups and therefore strictly comparable
with them, and the second including the unclassified occupations
(see pp. 55 to 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.




123

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- SU M M AR Y.

T able 18.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF EM PL O Y EE S IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING
EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S, 1907 TO 1915—B E S ­
SEMER CONVERTERS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose custom­
ary working tim e per week was—
Num ­
ber of
District, and
number of Year. employplants.

Pittsburgh:
6 p la n ts...

3 plan ts. . .

6
days
and 7
6
days. days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
days,
6
days,
and 7
days
in
rota­
tion.

days, days,
days
days, days,
and 7
7
and 7 and 7 days. days. days
alter­
days days
in
in
nate­
rota­ rota­
ly.
tion. tion.

1907 1,325
896
1908
992
1909
1910 1,246

999
727
778
825

1910 1,248
1911
950
1912 1,019

827
765
824

days,
and 7
days
in
rotar
tion.

325
146
.148

1912 1,037
1913 1,176

3 plan ts..,

1913
1914

996
825

761
594

1914
1915

914

3 674
3 6^8

7 plan ts. ..

6
6
5
days, days, days,
days,
and 7
days
in
rota­
tion.

days,
7
and 7 days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

273
127
170
325

3 plan ts..,

Great L a k e s
and Middle
West:
3 plan ts. ..

Per cent of employees whose custom­
ary working tim e per week was—

12
253
2 50

21
14
17
26
26
15
15

C
1)
C
1)

159
153

1
6

15
13

132
148

5
6

13
18

148
153

1914 1,500 1,061
1915 1,463 1,044

367
3 61

1
1

291
287

0)
0)

16
18
19
20

1907
1908
1909
1910

432
2 8
360
403

74
88
63
98

177
71
142
44

18
18
18
18

151
94
125
231

4 plan ts..

1910
1911

482
392

173
267

48
44

18
18

231
51

10
11

4S
13

4 plan ts..

1911
1912

400
441

275
183

44
158

18
18

51
70

11
36

13
16

4 plan ts..

1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915
1914
1915

457
485
343
242
345
318
767
755

225
325
243
240
343
316
757
740

136
114
66
2
2
2
4
2

4 20
4 20
12

76
26
22

30
24
19
1
1
1
1
C
1)

17
5

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913
1913
1914
1914
1915
1914
1915

L757
,
L 179
,
1,352
L 649
,
[,720
[,342
1,350
L460
,
[,494
[,661
[,339
[,069
L 259
,
[,187
1, 267
J, 218

1,073
815
841
923
1,000
1,032
1,040
1,007
1,028
1,215
1,004
834
31,017
3954
1,818
1,784

230
113
186
62
66
80

4 p la n ts..
5 plan ts..
5 plan ts..
Total:
9 plan ts..

10 plan ts.
10 plan ts.
10 plants.
10 p lan ts.
12 plan ts.
12 plan ts.

99

80

202
190
166
116
35
31
23
79
67

35
33
35
57

2 65
2 50
57
51
3 67
3 61

424
221
295
556
556
197
197
218
235
179
154
148
148
153
297
300

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including 2 employees who worked 7 days every fourth week.
« Including 4 employees who worked 7 days every fourth week.
4 Including 8 employees who worked 7 days every fourth week.




24
19
22
34
32
15
15
15
16
11
12
14
12
13
13
14

124

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Two general tables are presented for the Bessemer converting
departm ent, as follows:
Table C.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1907 to
1915.
Table D .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915. •
The data from Table C are summarized in Table 16, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables C and D,
and in the table of relative numbers, follows th a t of the processes of
manufacture. ‘1
Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this re­
port, are identical units of identical establishments, reporting the
same occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation, see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year,
back to 1907, corresponding to those given for 1913, 1914, and 1915
in Table D, were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this bureau.
Descriptions of the specified occupations which appear in the tables
of this chapter and of others included in the two groups designated
as “ Unclassified—productive” and “ Unclassified—nonproductive,”
are to be found in the Glossary of Occupations on pages 475 to 48i.







126

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

C.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
tim e
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Stockers:
9 plan ts. . .

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
260

1910
1911
1912

352
241

10 plan ts. .

1912
1913

_
5 plants_
6 plan ts. . .

350

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$14.27
62.5 $0.
58.3 .275 14.93
63.6 .264 15.31
64.9 .266 16.04

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

171
150
114
114

4

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

18
24
16

28
‘ ” 25

31

4

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

27
27
33
68

83
25
60
20

44
30
39
92

64.9
61.7
62.0

16.03
.233 13.60
.312 17.66

114
31
.111
123 . . . . .

15
20

27
2
2

18

68
57
21

20
26
48

92
30
36

280
337

62.1
62.5

.306 17.38
.331 19.05

125
77

6
72

20

2
2

18
29

23
92

42
45

44
20

1913
1914

194
162

58.1
57.1

.405 22.07
.349 18.91

44
90

72
6

2

2
2

29
30

22
20

19
12

6

1914
1915

167
157

55.5
55.

.351 18.59
.313 16.70

105
96

6
6

4
2

2
7

2
2

36
32

12
12

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

.509
.350
.419
.447
.390

31.67
22.20
26.09
25.85
24. 45

6
6
6
6
6

2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3

2
2
2
2
2

i2
2
2
2
2

1911
1912
1913

17
18
19

65.2
61.6
62.4

24.62
23.82
.477 28.23

6
9
6

3

2
2
2

5
3
4

2
2
2

2
2
2

5 p la n ts....

1913
1914

14
14

62.7
63.0

.507 30.89
21.40

3
3

3
3

6
2

4

2
2

6 p la n ts....

1914
1915

15
15

59.5
59.3

.390 23.00
.449 25.90

3
3

6
0

2

2
4

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.
61.5
58.9
59.3

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

22.16
19.67
19.74
20.30
18.19

27
24
24
36
24

4
2

9
13
5
7
11

6
2
8
8
2

4
2
6
5
4

1911
1912
1913

45
48
69

60.4
60.
59.5

.314 18.36
.369 20.94
22.25

24
27
21

15
5
16

2
10
10

4
4

2 plants.

1913
1914

22
22

54.
54.3

.461 24.66
.276 15.18

18
18

4
4

4 plants.

1914
1915

34
24

56.9
55.8

16.47
.332 18.43

24
18

10
6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71 9

.619
.466
.486
.536
.498

39.55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.

6
3
3
3

1911
1912
1913

20
21
23

72.0
69.1
63.2

.493 35.48
.529 36.36
.600 37.33

3
6

1913
1914

23
22

63.3
65.6

37.33
.543 35. 25

6
3

10 p lan ts..

Cupola melters:
7 plants_
_

8 p la n ts....

Cupola tappers:
8 plants.. ..

9 plants.

Blowers:
9 plants.

10 plants

10 plants
12 plants

27
27

3

18

2
2
2
2

10
12
12
12
16

3

2
2
2

18
14
10

2
2

3
3

2
2

8
12

4
2

2
2

14
14

2
2

64.1 .545 34.43
6
3
64.0 .561 35. 6ll
6
3
i Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




1914
1915

2
4

2
2
2
3

2

127

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES*

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
BESSEM ER CONVERTERS.
years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

Line
60
and 70 cents No.
and
under
over.
70
cents.

20
10
14
16
40
50
18
25
30
12
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under and
under under under under under under under
10
60
16
25
12
30
50
18
40
14
20
cents. cents. cents. cents.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

ie
22




63
21
49
10
10
12

6

97
55
37
m

16

46
20
19
32

54
48
12
57

81
60
54
69

24
16
49
51

115
81
80

16
15
21

34
58
23

57
39
13

69
24
55

511
12
40

36

86
4

29
83

21
69

13
23

55
36

40'
74I

36
36]

18
6

62
62

12

6
45

62
30

361
12'
1
!
12
3
5
2
5
5
2

2

1

9
17

37
28

20
36

1
3

9
4

36
49

41
23

1
2
3
1
1

1
3

1
1

2
2
4

l
i

2
2

4

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

2
7
2
2
2
2
2

6
8
13
17i
12
1
16
18
20
18
18
1

3
51
3
2
5
5 _____ I
4
61
1
6
6!
6
4i
2
2
1
4
2
7
3
1
6
9
7
2
1
26
17
5
27
3
19
15
18
26
I
26
1,
26
8
27

24
9

12
10
11
12
13
3

3

2
5
8

19
20
21

3

5

3

22
23
24
25

6

26
27
28
29
30

1 ............
3

14
15
16
17
18

1
|
i

31
32
33

12

1
i 34
..............1 35
!
36
37

4
41
161
23

18

4
7
4
2
2

4
8
9
9
10

2
4
4
4

2

12
12
8

4
5
5

8
11
13
11

3

9
^
2
2\
2!
2|

39
40
41
42

2
5

2
2
5

43
44
45

5
6

5
3

5
2

46
47

7
8

5
6

2
2

48
49

3

128

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy­
ees.

Regulators, first:
9 plan ts............

10 plants...........

Employees whose
week
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate tim e
Over 56
of
tim e
48
hours wages week­ and and and
ly
per
per
un­ 60
un­
week. hour. earn­ der. un­ der
ings.
der 60
56

1907
1908
1909
1910

26
25
25
29
31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

.408 25.45
.377 24.79
.411 26.24

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

2
4
2

62.3 $0.437 $27.28
64.7 .266 17.78
64.8 .344 22.97
61.4 .414 25.60

1910
1911
1912

full-time hours per
were—

2
2
io;
2
1 0 ........!

9
!

9

4
4

!

10 p lants...........

1912
1913

24
24

68.5
67.6

.399 27.16
.451 30.28

9 p lan ts.............

1913
1914

20
18

66.4
69.0

.484 32.23
.324 22.20

11 plan ts...........

1914
1915

24
26

63.8
64.7

.328 20. 71
.351 22.91

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

.427
.269
.365
.403

1910
1911
1912

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

.378 25.52
.333 21.41
.367 23.36

9 plants................

1912
1913

24
24

67.0
67.0

.381 25.63
.411 27.56

4

10 p lants..............

1913
1914

28
22

68.3
69.0

.394 26.81
.281 19.22

4
4

11 plants..............

1914
1915

25
26

66.5
66.6

.289 18.90
.324 21.64

4
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

.793
.528
.630
.708

1910
1911
1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

.685 38.18
.580 32.45
.703 38.32

!
:

1912
1913

26
26

58.3
57.4

.688 38.60
.744 41.09

10 plants..............

1913
1914

26
25

57.8
56.4

12 plants..............

1914
1915

31
32

1907
1908
1909
1910

Regulators, second
6 plan ts............

8 plan ts................

Vessel men:
9 p lants................

10 plants...............

10 p lants..............

Vessel m en’s helpers:
9 plants................

10 p lants..............

10 plants..............
10 plants..............

12 plants.............




2
2
J
4'
1
4i
I
I
2
4
2:

27.81
19.64
26.80
26.96

44.58
31.27
37.19
38.88

4

12,.
12 -

1

8'
6
i
6
8
l
4
4
4
4
4

2

4!
4}
4

12:

3
3
3
6

4
6
6

1

io 1
8’
I
8
6
2

4
4
4

I

2i

2
4

4
2

6
3
3

2
4;

'
'

9
9

4
4 ..

.744 41. 52
.492 27. 71

;
i

12
12

4'.
2

55.6
56.0

.499 27.64
.554 30. 87

i
i

12
15

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55T3

.566
.376
.484
.524

31.84
21.65
28.24
28. 86

;
!

9
9
9
15

8
8
8

1910
1911
1912

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

.506 28. 22
.421 23.48
.470 25. 47

I

15
9
9

4
8

6
2
2

1912
1913

53
53

56.5
56.0

.467 25.70
.528 28.87

15
15

4

8
4

2

I

1913
1914

53
51

56.4
54.6

.528 29.15
.338 18.31

1
i

21
21

4

4

1914
1915

57
56

54.3
55.5

.342 18.42
.383 21.18

;

21
24

2
2

1

3

2
2

I

4

3

4

2
2
2

.

6

129

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

14
18
30
40
16
25
10
12
20
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
10
14
16
18
20
25
30
12
40
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

2
2
2

9

3
6
2

50
and
under
60
cents.

Line
60
70 cents No.
and
under •and
70
over.
cents.

5
5

2
2
2

2

2
6
5

2
4

12
13

3
1

2
1

14
15
16
17

2
1

3

10
11

5
3
5

2
2

2
1
6

18
19
20

6

21
22

4
4

4
4

23
24

4
7

4
6

25
26

4
2

3

2

3

5
7
3
12

27
28
29
30

12
6
3

8
7
12

31
32
33

3
8

12
12

34
35

8
2

12

36
37

4
5

2

14
4
8
8

3

2

11
2

2
6
4
2

17
2
5
8

3
6

40
41
42
43

2
4

2
5
3

8
1
5

6
2
4

44
45
46

5
8

4
9

47
48

8

1

9

3

17

5

38
39

6
i

89728°—17—Bull. 218-




2

14

49
50

6
3

14
2

51
52

130

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

C.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

Num ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy­
ees.

1
2

Cinder pitmen:
8 plan ts..................

44
23

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

13.69
13.55
.204 13.27

6
6
21

1912
1913

99
113

68.1
67.3

13.23
15.56

21

1913
1914

99
46

67.8
72.0

15.02
15.30

21

1914
1915

52
48

71.
72.0

15.30
15.42

18

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

i 28.10
20.45
25.57
25.92

2

1910
1911
1912
1913

19
19
20
20

73.4
71.
72.5
73.8

25.28
24.18
i 24.96
.384 28.05

4
4
4

4

2

10 plan ts................

1913
1914

19
18

73.8
73.2

i 28.25
, 21.56

4
4

9

4

10

2

2
2

12 p lan ts................

1914
1915

22
22

73.0
73.0

21.34
.332! 24.02

4
4

14
14

2
2

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

’ 18.82
14.75
: 17.08
I 17.38

8

14
18
15
26

8
2
6
2

2

1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

* 17.10
: 16.88
1 17.18

30
10
10

20

2

19

2

1912
1913
1914

39
40
33

72.4
73.1
72.5

16.19
i 18.59
i 16.38

12
12
12

23
18
15

8

4

2
2

1914
1915

39
38

72.4
72.

1 16.29

12
6

21

26

4
4

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

21
21
21

.
i
!
l

28.95
19.78
25.22
25.20

6
6
6
6

1
1
1
1

2

23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

10
8
10
12

2
2

2

1910
1911
1912

25
24
24

68.3
68.9

! 25.05
1 22.85
l 24.95

3
3

6

1
1
1

4
4

2

2

1912
1913
1914

22
22
21

i 25.84
, 28.22
.30 1 20.55

3
3
3

1
1
1

4
4
4

12
10
11

2

68.7
68.0

12 plan ts................ 1914
1915
Ladle liners’ helpers:
9 plants..................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

25
26

68.

68.8

I 20.77
i 23.47

3
3

1
1

4
4

15
16

2
2

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

i 16.65
1 13.79
I 15.26
.2391 15.83

1
1
1
1

10
10
10

20
12

2

9 p lan ts..................

10
11

8 plants..................

9 plants..................
B ottom makers:
9 plants..................

10 p lan ts................

20
21

23
24
25

2f>
27
28
29

Bottom makers’ help­
ers:
9 plan ts..................

30
31
32

10 plants................

33
34
35

10 plan ts................

36
37
38
39
40
41

12 plan ts................

Ladle liners:
9 plants..................

42
43
44

10 plants................

45
46
47

10 plants................

48
49
50
51
52
53

84

21
21
6

9 plants..................

22

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

24

8

18
19

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

$13.32
.173 11.27
.178 11.8 8
.213 13.77

9

14
15
16
17

Over 56
48 and
48
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

7

13

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

118
71
92
79

6

12

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

1907
1908
1909
1910

3
4
5

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.




68.6

15
15
16

27
12
6

4

2

7

8

I 17.30

6
6
6
6

4

2

38
28
30
40

10
10
10

8
8

46
34
36

10
6

8

30

46
48

12

30
36

2
2

44
30

34
4

30
38

4
4

11
11
11

2

4

8

4
3

13

2

2

15
15
14

2

2

10

11

16
14

18
24

2

2
1

4

2

2

2

4

2

4

2

4 "**2

131

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

10
18
12
30
20
16
14
40
25
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
10
12
20
14
16
25
40
50
18
30
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.
cents. cents. cents.




12
6
15
15

6

50
and
under
60
cents.

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

60
and
under
70
cents.

6

6
6
6
6
6

20

6
9

18

7

6
10
11
12
13

4
5
5
9
3

4

14
15
16
17

2
2

18
19
20
21

8

4
4
2
4

5
6
3

8
7
11
8

4
2
2
6

2

7
5

6
2

5
3

6
10

2
2

2
4

4
4
•4
4

2

26
27
28

4
3
8

4
6
2

2

30
31
32

!

8
5
4

2
6
3

2
4

!

6
8

3
4

2

3
6
2
2

5
3
3
7

4
3
8
5

2
2

2
4

9
4
12

5
6
5

5
4
3

42
43
44

2
8

12
4
6

5
7
3

3
7

45
46
47

10
6

8
13

3
3

2

>

!

!
l

12

1
t
►

6

4
3
1
2
2
31............

2

2

22
23

2

24
25

2

4

1
3
5

34
35
37
2
2

5

2

3
1

40
41

48
49
1

3
1
2 ..............
1

50
51
52
53

132

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

C.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

Num ­ Average
ber full­
of tim e
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
em- hours
ber of plants.
No.
ploy- per
week.

Ladle liners’ helpersConcluded.
10 plants................

9 plants......... .
11 plants.......
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Stopper makers:
9 plants.........

10 plants.......

12 plants.......
Stopper setters:
9 plants.........

Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time
of week­
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per |
week were—
|
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

Over;
72
and 84
un­
der
84

72

4

1
1
1
1

14
14
14

26
16
14
10

3

1
1

14
14

8
10

3
3

1
1

14
8

14
20

2!

23.01
16.10
19.22
19.33

2
2
2
1

2

4
4
2
8

3
1
1

19.14
19.53
18.91
21.25
17.67

1
2
3
1
1

1
3

9
6
5
8
6

70.2
69.7

.251 17.60
.263 18.13

1
2

4
1

7
9

1907
1908
1909
1910

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

.630
.343
.552
.589

31.79
18. 50
29.36
30.08

39
30
24
27

1910
1911
1912
1913

52.6
55.3
51.7
51.

.577
.498
.496
.558

29.81
26.08
25.36
28.37

27
27
36
37

1910
1911
1912
1913

68.7 $0.236 $15. 73
69.1 .233 15. 75
69.6
15.43
.255 17.36

6
3
3
3

1913
1914

70.9

.247 17.09
.225 15.32

3

1914
1915

69.1
69.5

.222 15.24
.233 15.91

1907
1908
1909
1910

72.
72.9
71.6
73.1

.316
.223
.270
.263

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.6
70.0

.260
.273
.272
.302
.253

1914
1915

4
8
8
2

6

4
12
4
4

6

24
25
26
27

10 plants.,

28
29

10 plants..

1913
1914

51.
51.2

.553 28.01
.363 18.58

37
24

9

4
5

12 plants..

1914
1915

50.7
51.5

.376 19.03
.423 21.76

30
30

9
6

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

36.39
.439 24.25
.576 31.61
.630 32.94

21
18
18
21

3

4
6
6
2

2i.......
2

]

2
2
2

5
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
61
1
12!

30
31
32
33
34
35

;eel pourers
9 plants...

10 plan ts..

1910
1911
1912

55.6
55.1
54.7

.617 32.74
.535 27.91
.578 30.57

21
21
24

39
40

10 plan ts..

1912
1913

55.7
55.7

.570 30.65
.633 33.94

41
42

10 plants..

1913
1914

55.7
53.

.640 34.39
.429 23.12

24
15

9

43
44

12 plants..

1914
1915

52.5
53.5

.444 23. 42
.525 27.96

21
21

J
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

54.6
53.7
54.0
55.0

.347
.196
.271
.326

18.02
10.57
14.26
17.07 I

J

1

1
36i . 1 .
i
30i
33' .. 1 ..
12i 24

49
50
51

9 plan ts...

1910
1911
1912

57.0 .314 16.96 1
64.2 .282 17.36*!
59.5] .324 18. (

52
53

10 plants..

1912
1913

61. s! .301 17.23 1
59.51 .360

24>
!
1
33ii........'.........

!
!
I
1
i

4
4
4

4
1
J
4’

6
7

V
!

7
8

6
6>

8
7
6
4

4
2
4
2

10
23
14

!
1

12| J
12'____1____
24




1

4
9
4!

24
24

Mold cappeTs:
8 plants_
_

2

6
6;

36
37
38

45
46
47
48

2
2

2
2
6

14
14

8
8

133

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FUI^L-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

12
10
14
16
18
25
20
30
40
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under and
under under under under
10
32
14
16
18
20
40
25
30
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

'
'

|
1
!

1

14
3

16
19

1
6

5
10

21
13

6
5

4

1
1

1
1
1
1

3
4
3
5

3
1
1
2

1
2
3

1

1
1
2

6
3
4
4
5

2
1
1
2
2

3
4
2
3
2

7
7

2
1

2
3

2
4

1
4
4

11
5
4
11

7
7
2
6

6

10

5

3

13
9
14
8

6
7
15
12

7

i

3
2
4‘

2
1

!

15
11
9
18

2

1

4
4
4
8

1

|
!

10
18

7
4

v
1

1
!
'
s
........... ............................1............
........... 1
.
i

1

i
!
i

...

1
6
1
|
'

J
!

............!............
i
!
!

2

j
1

4

1

............1............
j
!
j

|
3
1

!

............1............ ........... 1............
1
■




4

s
1
1
!

1

2
1!

5
4'
3
5'
1
5

i
1
1
1|

3
3
3
2

5
4
9

12,
12,
6
12i

10
13

2

9

J

21
13

13
10

2
9

1
4

2
4
51
21
9
2
1
2
2
2
2 _____
1
2
6
!
4
3:
8

5
1

3
9

15

7

6

4
5
5
3

9
3
11

6
8
10

3
9
1

12
3
8

36
37

13
1

10
11

1
3

8
13

39
40

3
2

11
13

3
1

13

41
42

J !
12

3
7

27
2
5
27

3

4
8
8

8
6
6

9
4

8
12

5

18
19
14
4!
12
12!

4
3i

4
1

13
14
15
16
17

i
i

5
5

4
5
26
2

9
10
11
12

1

8
6

8
2
4

1

3

3
2!

20
2
4

____

i

4

I

2

1
2
2
2

6
2
3
5

( ...

1
i
|

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

60
and
under
70
cents.

12
10
10

2
2

!

1
1

50
and
under
60
cents.

3
3
to
fi!
1
6!
6

5
3

6
2

16
13

2
17

6
9

1

6

6

i

26
27

32
33
34
35

43
44

6
6

27
6
16

24
25

30
31

12
12

1

6

20
21
22
23

3

45
46
47
48
49
50
51

1

52
53

134

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Table C.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
of tim e
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
em­ hours of
No.
ber of plants.
wages
ploy- per
per
week, hour.

Mold cappers—Concld,
8 plants.................... 1913
1914

Averfull­
tim e

Over 56
48
48
and and and
iy
earn­ un­ un­ u n ­
ings. der. der der
60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
60 un­
un­
der
der
84
72

56.9 $0. 382 m 71
57.9 .267 15.37

1914
1915

60.
60.9

.260 15.67
.294 17.53

1907
1908
1909
1910

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

.310
.238
.264
.307

10 plants................ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914

68.1
70.4
68.8
69.9
70.7

19.
19.26
.320 20.90
.334 22. 81
.304 21.03

10 plants................
Ingot strippers:
9 plan ts..................

19.60
16.34
18.17
19.85

1914
1915

29
31

66.0

66.2

.313 20.11
.332 21.39

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

.155
.155
.151
.163

1910
1911
1912

626

77.8
74.6
75.7

.163 12.
.166 12.39
.167 12. 64

10 plants.

1912
1913

620
681

75.
75.1

.167 12.
.192 14.38

10 plants.

1913
1914

575
450

75.2
75.7

.192 14.43
.192 14.57

12 plan ts.

1914
1915

546
496

74.0
74.3

.193 14.27
.193 14.31

1914
1915

652

12 plan ts.
Laborers:
9 plan ts. .

10 plants.

U nclassified—produc­
tive:
12 plan ts..............

31

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—

U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
12 plan ts..............

1914
1915

12.12
11.
11.62
12.

.237 16.23
.247 16.93
72.3
73.2

.233 16. 81
.230 16.79

i Including 54 employees whose full-time hours per week were 85.




172
131
141
242

266
93
221
152 i

275
253
242

12

337
143
167
319

154 1321
73
215
174 163
164
227

207
215

187
73

131
131

256

70

170
138

73
50

131
138

281
360

140
112

132
139

102
109

135

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS— GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
BESSEM ER CONVERTERS—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

20
30
18
25
12
10
16
40
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
10
30
40
14
16
20
12
18
25
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

4
4

8
12
20
13

3
5

12
16

6
10
10
12

5
2
6

10
8
8

12
10
12
16
16

2
4
1

2
2

16
12

7
10

60
70 cents
and
and
under
over.
70
cents.

2

12
12
12
8

2




17

4

92

13
12

4

1

3

50
and
under
60
cents.

4
7

4
3

4

9

2

9
9
5
6
8
4

571
327
309
204

230
98
163
544

204
105
49

582
488
577

42

578
135

354

192

113
81

301
266

161
103

81
70

307
304

158
122

19
31

64
67

329
293

145
160

74
91

7
19

10
7

51
54

205
210

46
55

40
38

3
1

14

4

1
1

136

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

D.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BESSEM ER
[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” in this table stands for “ Great Lakes and
1
1

N um ­
ber
Occupation, district, Year. of
Line
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Stockers:
Pittsburgh—
4 plants...........

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1913
1914

176
142

56.8 $0.421 $22.54
55.2 .356 18.57

44
90

72
6

2

1914
1915
G. L .an dM . W .—
1 plant............. 1913
1914

129
128

51.1
52.2

.377 18.68
.328 16.56

105
96

6
6

2

18
20

70.7
70.8

.248 17.50
.303 21.31

1914
1915

38
29

70.7
70.7

.259 18.26
.245 17.34

1913
1914

194
162

58.1
57.1

.405 22.07
.349 18.91

44
90

1914
1915

167
157

55.5
55.6

.351 18. 59
.313 16.70

1913
1914

12
12

60.2
60.5

1914
1915

11
11

Over
60
and
60 un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

29
30
6

6
2

19
12

2
2

2
6

12
12

2
2

16
18

2
2

2
1

34
26

72
6

2

2
2

29
30

22
20

19
12

105
96

6
6

4
2

2
7

2
2

36
32

12
12

.513 29.93
.333 19.47

3
3

3
3

6
2

4

53.8
53.6

.389 20.65
.471 24.74

3
3

6
6

2

2
2

78.0
78.0

.470 36.66
.424 33.03

1914
1915

4
4

75.0
75.0

.392 29.49
.387 29.10

1913
1914

14
14

62.7
63.0

.507 30.89
.346 21.40

3
3

3
3

1914
1915

15
15

59.5
59.3

.390 23.00
.449 25.90

3
3

6
6

Cupola tappers:
Pittsburgh—
1 plant............. 1913
1914

18
18

50.3
50.3

.482 24.25
.263 13.24

18
18

1914
1915

24
18

50.6
50.3

.275 13.93
.338 17.00

24
18

1913
1914

4
4

72.0
72.0

.368 26.50
.332 23.90

4
4

1914
1915

10
6

72.0
72.0

.313 22.56
.316 22.75

10
6

1913
1914

22
22

54.3
54.3

.461 24.66
.276 15.18

18
18

4
4

1914
1915

34
24

56.9
55.8

.286 16.47
.332 18.43

24
18

10
6

1913
1914

15
14

57.7
61.7

.622 35.41
.540 32.65

6
3

3
3

2
2

4
6

1914
1915

16
16

63.0
62.9

.529 32.61
.557 34.72

3
3

3
3

2
2

8
8

2 plants...........
Total—

6 plants...........
Cupola melters:
Pittsburgh—
4 plants...........
4 plants...........

G. L. and M. W .—
1 plant............. 1913
1914
2 plants...........
Total—
5 plants...........
6 plants...........

2 plants...........
G. L. and M. W.—
1 p la n t............
2 plants...........
Total—
2 plants...........
1

4 plants...........

36

37
38
39
40

6

Blowers:
Pittsburgh—
6 plants...........
7 plants...........




2
2
2
2
2

2
2

6
2

4

2
2

2

2
4

2
2

6

BESSEM ER

C O N V E R T E R S -----G E N E R A L

137

T A BLES.

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNING S, IN EACH DISTRICT, B Y YEARS,
CO N VER TERS.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

20
12
14
16
18
10
25
30
40
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
10
25
12
14
16
20
30
18
50
40
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

Line
60
No.
and
70 cents
under
and
70
over.
cents.

50
and
under
60
cents.

'
1

9
17

35
26

4
20

18
6

62
60

36
12

1
3

7
2

18
39

25
6

6
45

60
30

12
3

2
2

16
16

2
2

18
10

16
17

1

9
17

37
28

20
36

18
6

62
62

36
12

1
3

9
4

36
49

41
23

6
45

62
30

12
3

4

4
7

1

7
5

4

12

2
2

5

11
12

3

i

4
7

2
3
6
2

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

5

21
22

3

23
24

6

25
26

18

1




2
2

9
7

4

i
1

1

6

2
2
2
2

9
10

12

18
6
18

27

4
4

18

29
30

1

18
18;
1

............

4
4

............. 1
..............I

10
5

16
23

31
32
33
34

18
i

o:
5

5
6

5
3

7
i
S

6*
6

3
5

3

35
36

37

40

138

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

D.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BESSEM ER

N um ­
ber
Occupation, district, Year.
of
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Blowers—Concluded.
G .L .andM . W.—
4 plants..........

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate time
of
tim e
hours wages week­
ly
per earn­
per
week. hour. ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

73.9 $0.554 $40.93
72.4 .549 39.79

4
6

T o t a l10 plants.........

1913
1914

8
8

1914
1915

11
11

65.7
65.7

.569 37.08
.565 36. 92

1913
1914

23
22

63.3
65.6

.598 37.33
.543 35.25

6
3

27
27

64.1
64.0

.545 34.43;
.561 35.61

fi
6

3
3

1
3:..................
3
;

4
2

&
6

3
3

1914
1915

5 plants........

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
60 un­
un­
der
der
72
84

2
2

2
2

8
12

4
2

2
2

14
14

2
2

i

|

Regulators, first:
Pittsburgh—
6 p la n ts........... 1913
1914

14
13

63.1
67.7

.493 31.49
.315 21.02

!
I
6
.........1
.........
3 ........1

2
4

2

6
4

1914
1915

16
16

64.0
64.4

.321 20.18
.346 22.43

4

2'
4

4
6

1913
1914

6
5

74 0
72.6

.464 33.95
.348 25.27

4
3

2
2

4 pla n ts........... 1914
1915

8
10

63.4
65.1

.343 21.78
.360 23.67

i
!
6
6 ........i.........i.........
;
1
i
3
..i.
!
3
1

3
5

2
2

Total—
9 p la n ts........... 1913
1914

20
18

66.4
69.0

6
3

2
4

4
5

8
fi

1914
1915

24
26

63.8
64.7

.484 32.23
.324 22.20 i
1
.328 20.71
.351' 22.91

4

5
9

6
8

1913
1914

14
13

62.0
66.5

.437 27.73
.299 19.72

6
3

4
4

2

4
4|

7 p la n ts........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

16
16

63.0
63.1

.308 19.13
.327 20.69

6
6

4
2

2
4

4

14
9
10

74.6
72.7
72.3

.350 25.89
.255 18.49
.320 23.16

8
5
8

6
4
2

T o t a l10 pla n ts......... 1913
1914

28
22

68.3
69.0

.394 26.81
.281 19.22

6
3

4
4

8
7

10
8

1914
1915

25
26

66.5
66.6

.289 18.90
.324 21.64

6
6

4
2

7
12

8
6

Vessel men:
Pittsburgh—
6 pla n ts........... 1913
1914

17
17

53.2
53.2

1
.780 41.03
.518 27.64

6
6

7 plants , , .
G. L. and M. W .—

11 p la n ts ..
Regulators, second:
Pittsburgh—
6 p lan ts. .

29

11 plants.

7 p lan ts........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
4 p la n ts........... 1913
1914

20
20

53.6
53.5

.510 27.42
.562 30.19

9
8

66.7
63.4

9
9

I
I
____ ____ ■
1
!

.

1

.675 42.46
.436 27.88

6
6

|
i

9
9
9
12

31
!
j

3
3

!

5 p lan ts........... 1914
1915

11
12

59.2
60.3

.478 28.02
.539 32.00

3
3

3
3

!

T o t a l10 pla n ts......... 1913
1914

26
25

57.8
56.4

.744 41.52
.492 27. 71

6
6

12
12

i
r

12 p la n ts......... 1914
1915

31
32

55.6
56.0

.499 27.64
.554 30.87

9
9

12
15




3

4

2
2!

1

2
2
4
5

2

5
6
4
5

2

5
6

2
2

4

139

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
CONVER TERS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
40
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under and
under under
10
12
14
18
20
16
25
30
40
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.
cents.

50
and
under
60
cents.

60
Line
and 70 cents N o.
under
and
over.
70
cents.

6
6

2
2

1
2

6
6

2
2

3
4

5
6

5
3

5
2

5
6

13
11

|

2
1

8
11
i

1
2

8

5
6

2
2

7
8

3

2

4

2

6

9
1

4
2

2
3

9
4

1
7

2

2

1

11
12

2

4

1

5
6

2

2
2

8

9
3

7

5
5
3

2
4

14
10

3
7

2

1

3

6
6

4
1

2

2

1

3
5

2
2

9
3

1
6

4
1
2

4
2
4

2

5
2
2

1

2

3

4
4

4
4

6
6

9
3

3

2
21
1

3

4
7

4
6

9i
5!

3
8

2
i

___V. .

j
| .

l

. ■ ..
.
|

3

l




l

t

2

1

17
18
19
20

2

21
22
23
24
25
26
27

2

28
29

i

30
31

1

2
11

6
2

4
1

1

3
5
3

i

15
16

2

|
L

...

1
.......... L.
|
i

13
14

1

1
1

.

9
10

11
8

2
3

9

3

l
2
1
2
1
.............. 1
3
2
6
2

4
3

1

I
1

!
'

3
3

6

1

3
1

4
4

2
13

8
2

6
6

7
4

14
14

4
5

1

1
i
I

1

1

32
33
34
35

3

36
37
38
39

12

40
41

3

42
43

140

W A G E S A N D H O U R S O F L A B O R -----I R O N A N D S T E E L I N D U S T R Y .

T a i ; l e D . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BESSEMER

N um ­
ber
Occupation, district, Y ear. of
Line
em ­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate tim e
of
tim e
hours wages week­
ly
per earn­
per
week. hour. ings.

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
u n ­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Vessel m en’s helpers:
Pittsburgh—
6 p lan ts........... 1913
1914

34
34

52.2 $0.531 $27.67
51.9 .347 17. 73

18
18

12
12

1914
1915

37
34

52.3
53.0

.345 17.75
.383 20.16

18
15

12
15

1913
1914

19
17

63.8
59.8

.523 31.80
.321 19.47

1914
1915

20
22

58.1
59.3

.338 19.67
.383 22. 77

3
3

1913
1914

53
51

56.4
54.6

.528 29.15
.338 18.31

18
18

21
21

1914
1915

57
56

54.3
55.5

.342 18.42
.383 21.18

21
18

21
24

Cinder pitmen:
Pittsburgh—
4 plants . . . . 1913
1914

71
34

65.4
72.0

.232 14.78
.214 15.38

21

1914
1915

40
36

71.9
72.0

.214 15.37
.212 15.24

1913
1914
1915

28
12
12

73.8
72.0
72.0

.213 15.64
.210 15.08
.222 15.97

Total—
8 plants........... 1913
1914

99
46

67.8
72.0

.227 15.02
.213 15.30

1914
1915

52
48

71.9
72.0

.213 15.30
.214 15.42

1913
1914

12
12

73.9
73.8

.416 30. 42
.272 19.99

1914
1915

14
14

73.5
73.6

.271 19.87
.329 23 89

1913
1914

7
6

73.7
72.0

1914
1915

8
8

1913
1914

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

G. L a n d M .W .—

Total—

5 plants...........
G. L. and M .W .—
4 plants . . . .

4
4
3

4

9
9
9
____
9 ____1

3

.

4

8

4
4
4

1
!
1
........1
.........
1
I
1

.

4
6
8
10i
1
6l
8
8
!4|

«!
1
1
|

18
6

i

26 ;
18
i
18 i
26

24 !
1

18
19
19

12

t

21

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

J

4

4
4

I........

1

12

44
30

34

18
6

30
38

4
4

4
4

4
4

2
2

2
2

4
4

6
6

2
2

2
2

.335 24.54
.343 24.70

5
6

2

72.0
72.0

.332 23.90
.337 24.26

8
8

19
18

73.8
73.2

.386 28.25
.295 21.56

4
4

9
10

1914
1915

22
22

73.0
73.0

.293 21.34
.332 24.02

4
4

14
14

2:
j
I
9
91

B ottom makers7 help­
ers:
Pittsburgh—
6 plants........... 1913
1914

26
24

72.8
72.7

.258 18. 74
.214 15.52

12
12

8
6

4
4

i
2
2j

7 plants........... ' 1914
J 1915

26
24

72.6
73.0

.213 15.44
.235 17.02

12
6

8
12

4
4

2
2

9 plants...........
Bottom makers:
Pittsburgh—
6 plants...........
7 p la n ts __
G. L. and M .W .—
4 plants...........
5 plants.........
Total—
10 plants.......
12 plants.........

39




1
j

........t_
_
s
1

4!

1
I
1

1

4!

2!
2
2
2

141

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME W EEK LY EARNING S, IN EACH DISTRICT, B Y Y EA RS,
C O N V E R T E R 8 —Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10
14
16
18
20
12
25
30
40
and
and •and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under
12
14
16
18
25
30
40
20
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

lU

50
and
under
60
cents.

Line
70 cents iNO.
and
over.

60
and
under
70
cents.

7

3
11

16
9

3
1

6

6
6
3

7
1

14
15

9
5

1
5

2

i

6
8

2
2

6

2

7

|

7
1

9
12 !

4
7

2

1

I
I

2

!
1

i

!
6
i
!

i

2

14

9
19!

11

6
3

14
2

23
27!1

13
12

1
7

14

10
4
2

14
8
4
64
42

18

4
12

48
30

2
6

2

6
2

17
18
19

4
4

20
21

7

22
23

4
3

4
1

2

3
8

2

3
2

2
1

3
3

3
2

1
2

2

4
7

2

7
5

6
2

2

7
3

5
3

6
10

2
2

24
25

1

1
1




11
12

21
..............

4

1

2

9
10

13
14

2
1

i

9

8

15
16

2
' 2

5
6

40
26

10
4
2

3

7

10

2

3
4

7
8

9
1

50
34

i

1
2

6

2

26
27

2

28
29
............. I
!..............
2 ............. j
1
J
j
!
2

r "
;

30
31
32
33
34
35

1

2

8
16

2
4

6

2

!
I
............. 1
...............1
...............

36
37

2
2

8
2
3
6

17
6

4
6

3

............. 1..............
i ..............1

38
39

142

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

D.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BESSEM ER

Occupation, district, Year.
and number of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Bottom makers’help­
ers—Concluded.
G. L. and M. W.—

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Em ployees whose full-tim e hours per
w eek were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

60

4

1913
1914

14
9

73.7 $0,250 $18.31
72 0 .259 18.66

10
9

1914
1915

13
14

72.0
72.0

.250 17.97
.247 17.76

13
14

1

1913
1914

40
33

73.1
72.5

.255 18.59
.226 16.38

12
12

18
15

8'
41

2
2

1914
1915

39
38

72.4
72.6

.225 16.29
.239 17. 30:

12
6

21
26

4

2
2

1913
1914

12
12

71.9
71.8

.404 29.04
.274 19.69

4
4

6
6

2
2

1914
1915

14
14

71.8
71.9

.271 19.49
.308 22.16

4
4

8
8

2
2

1913
1914

10
9

64.8
63.0

.434 27.22
.343 21.70

3

4
5

2

1914
1915

11
12

64.6
65.3

.345 22.42
.385 24.99

3
3

8

1913
1914

22
21

68.7 .418 28.22
68.0 '.304 20.55

1914
1915

25
26

68.6
68.8

.304 20.77
.344 23.47

Ladle liners’ helpers:
Pittsburgh—
6 p lan ts........... 1913
1914

24
22

71.8
71.3

7 plan ts......... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
3 plan ts......... 1913
1914

24
22

T o t a l-

12 p la n ts...
Ladle liners:
Pittsburgh—

G. L. and M. W .—
4 plants...........
5 plants...........
T o t a l10 p la n ts.. ..

3

1
i

3

4
4

10
11

4
2

3
3

4
4

15
16

2
2

.243 17.46
.218 15.56

14
14

6
6

4
2

71.3
71.8

.218 15.57
.226 16.18

14
8

8
12

2
2

14
8

69.4
61.9

.253 16.45
.243 14.68

2
4

8

3

1914
1915

10
12

63.9
65.3

.232 14.45
.247 15.42

3
3

6
8

1913
1914

38
30

70.9
68.8

.247 17.09
.225 15.32

11 plan ts......... 1914
1915

34
34

69.1
69.5

.222 15.24
.233 15.91

1913
1914

6
6

69.7
68.8

7 plan ts......... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
4 plan ts......... 1913
1914

7
7

5 plan ts........... 1914
1915

12 plants.......

4 plan ts.........
Total—
9 plan ts.........

Stopper makers:
Pittsburgh—
6 plan ts.........




3

1

3

3

14
14

8
10

12
2

1

14
8

14
20

2
2

.280 19.31
.239 16.35

1
1

1
2

4
3

69.0
68.0

.239 16.41
.254 16.94

1
2

3
1

3
4

4
4

72.0
71.8

.336 24.16
.274 19.66

1

4
3

5
5

71.8
72.0

.268 19.27
.275 19.80

1

4
5

3
3
3

-

1
1

143

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
CONVERTERS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

40
12
10
14
18
30
20
16
25
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under and
under under under under
10
50
14
12
16
20
40
18
25
30
cents. cents. cents.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

7
6

2

3

Ivin©
60
70 cents No.
and
under
and
70
over.
cents.

50
and
under
60
cents.

2

1
2

3

2

2
2

6
6

2
2

3
1

1

2

8
2

15
22

5
4

6
3

4

2

5
8

23
12

6
8

3
4

2

2
4

2
3

6

5

4

7
4

3
6

2

2
3

2
3

1
3

3
2

5
7

3
1

2
4

2
8

4
6

7
3

7

4

10
6

8
13

3
3

2

12
16

2

2

2

2
2
2




______

2

2

2

5
6
7
8

_______
2

9
10
11
12

5

13
14
15
16

2

17
18
19
20

1
j
1
..............................

21
22

18
9

2
4

4
3

1
4

3
4

3
4

4
1

3

14
3

16
19

1
6

2

2
l

2
6
6
1

i

2
1

8
2

3
4

2
1

5
10

21
13

6
5

4

31
32

1

3
3

1
1

2
1

33
34

1

4
4

1

1
2

35
36

1
2

1
1

1
1

3
3

1
1

1
1

1

1
3

23
24
25
26
27
28

5

29
30

1

37
38
...

. 1

39
40

144

WAGES AN D H O U B S OF LABOB— IBON AN D STEEL IN D U ST B Y .

T a b le

D.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BESSEM ER
Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­ age
age full­
age
full­ rate tim e
of week­
tim e
hours wages ly
per per earn­
week. hour. ings.

1913
1914

10
10

70.6 SO. 302 S21.25
70.0 .253 17.67

1
l

1
3

8
6

1914
1915

12
12

70.2
69.7

.251 17.60
.263 18.13

l
2

4
1

7
9

1913
1914

31
27

47.9
47.8

.534 25. 61
.368 17.59

31
24

3

1914
1915

30
30

47.8
47.9

.365 17.43
.397 19.05

27
27

3
3

1913
1914

12
11

61.0
59.5

.600 34.21
.349 21.02

6

Line Occupation, district, Year.
No. and number of plants.

Stopper makers—Con.
Total—

Over 56
48 and
48
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

Stopper setters:
Pittsburgh—

G. L. and M. W .—

1914
1915
T o t a l10 p lan ts......... 1913
1914
12 plan ts......... 1914
1915

14
12

.398 22.46
.488 28.52

57.0
60.3

Over
Over
60
72
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

60

1
I
1

.

...
1

4
5

6
3
3

6
3

1

2

5
6

1
1

43
38
44
42

.553 28.01
.363 18.58

51.6
51.2

37
24

4
5

9

.376 19.03
.423 21.76

30
30

18 47.9
181 47.7

.737 35.27
.473 22.54

18
15

3

7 plan ts........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
4 plan ts......... 1913
1914

21
21

47.7
47.9

.468 22.34
.530 25.37

18
18

3
3

16
13

64.5
61.4

.531 33.40
.369 23.93

6

5 plan ts........... 1914
1915

16
14

58.9
61.9

.412 24.83
.518 31.84

Total—
10 plan ts......... 1913
1914

34
31

55.7
53.4

12 plan ts......... 1914
1915

37
35

Mold cappers:
Pittsburgh—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

5
6

9
6

2
I

Steel pourers:
Pittsburgh—
1
6 plan ts........... 1913
1914

50.7
51.5
1
I

!
6

6
7

3
3

6
3

7
8

.640 34.39
.429 23.12

24
15

9

6
7

52.5
53.5

.444 23.42
.525 27.96

21
21

9
6

7
8

35
20

49.3
50.1

.431 21.00
.265 13.11

33
15

3

2
2

6 p lan ts........... 1914
1915
G. L. & M. W .—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914

24
24

53.8
53.5

.259 13.68
.303 15.73

15
15

3
3

16
11

73.5
72.0

.275 20.06
.271 19.49

12
11

4 plan ts........... 1914
1915

15
16

72.0
72.0

.262 18.85
.281 20.23

15
16

Total—
8 plants........... 1913
1914

51
31

56.9 '.382 20. 71
57.9 .267 15.37

33
15

3

10 plan ts......... 1914
1915

39
40

60.8
60.9

.280 15.67
.294 17.53

15
15

3
3

4




4

6
2

14
13
4

4

21
18

4

4

145

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
CONVER TERS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

18
12
14
16
25
10
20
30
40
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
10
16
18
20
30
12
14
25
50
40
cents. cents.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

1
1
1

4
5

2
2

3
2

7
7

2
1

50
and
under
60
cents.

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

60
and
under
70
cents.

1

2
3

*
6

13
9

11
10

4
8

2

8
4

2

2
7

1
1

10
18

10
13

2

9;

7
4

21
13

13
10

2
9

i
4

1

5

1
2

5
9

1

1

..........!............
i

6
4

7

_____
!

10
11

1

2

6
10

5
6

5

9
10

2

1

2

9

6

3

2
2

6

9
10
11
12

12

13
14
15
16

12

17
18

1
2

3

19
20

6
4

3

1

5

5
2

2
5

4

2

4
3

4

2
2

3

4

3

4
8

3
2

11
13

3
1

13

25
26

4

3
2

8
6

5
5

14
12

3
7

3

27
28

2
8

3

7
6

17

9

3
3
1

12
5

3
5

6
10

2

4
1

6
4

6
6

1
2

* '

8
8

r
6!
6

4
4

8
12

3

17

4
3

20
13

3
5

is!
12
12 !
16l

l

!

I
i

I

i
|

1

... L . .....
.._

1

89728°—17—Bull. 218----- 10




2

23
24

29
30
31
32
33
31
35
36

9

1

!
1
i
............. !...............1
...............

37
38
39
40

146

WAG-ES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

D.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—B E S S E M E R

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of tim e
em­ hours
No. and number of plants.
ploy- per

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

25
26
27
29
29
30

31
32
33
34
35
36

Ingot strippers:
Pittsburgh—
6 plan ts.........
7 plan ts.........
G. L. & M. W .—
4 p lan ts.........
5 plan ts.........
Total—
10 p lan ts___
12 plan ts___
Laborers:
Pittsburgh—
6 p lan ts.........
7 plan ts.........
G. L. & M. W .—
4 plan ts.........
5 plan ts.........
Total—
10 plan ts___

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
per earn­
hour. ings.
Aver­
age
rate
of

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der
der. der 60
56

60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

o $ o .3 6 4 m :
.324 21.95

1913
1914
1914
1915

66.2
65.8

.326 20.98
.347 22.10

1913
1914

75.0
72.4

.296 22.24
19.30

1914
1915

65.7
66.7

.291 18. 70
.310 20.40

1913
1914

70.7

.334 22.81
.304 21.03

1914
1915

66.2

.313! 20.11
.3321 21.39

66.0

14

1913
1914

445,
372,

75.4
76.6

.192 14. 53;.
.192 14. 72 .

121
142

1914
1915

4271 74.7
400 74.9

.193 14.42'.
_
.193 14.471

142
133

1913
1914

130; 74.5
78, 71.7

.190 14.09 .
.193 13.85,.

1914
1915

71.8
71. 7,

.191 13. 74'.
.191 13. 66 -

114
90

1913
1914

575
450

75.2 .192 14.43'.
75. 7 .192 14.57 .
1

207
215

1914
1915

546
496

74.0
74.3

.193 14. 27 .
.193 14.31 .

386
390,

69.3
68.6

.235 15.91
.250 16.73

1914
1915

266
276

70.4
71.5

.239 16. 70
.243 17.21

21 .
9.

196'
223

1914
1915

652
666

69.7

.237 16.23
.247 16.93

51

281
360

Unclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
Pittsburgh—
7 plants......... 1914
1915
G. L. & M. W .—
5 plan ts......... 1914
1915

200
204

75.0
76.1

.226 17.00
.227 17.23,

109
131
131
138

256
223

1914
1915

172
70

12 p lan ts___
Unclassified —
produc­
tive:
Pittsburgh—
7 plants.........
G. L. & M. W .—
5 plan ts.........
Total—
12 plants___

Total—
12 plan ts___




1914
1915

.243 16. 57 .
.234 16. 23 .

156
161
356
365

72.3
73.2

.233 16.81 .
.230 16. 79 .

36
46

187
73

131
131
131
138

85 100
137, 82

30
10

140
112

100
102

103’
109 .
132
139

102
109

147

BESSEM ER CONVERTERS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
CONVER TERS—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

30
25
18
20
40
14
16
10
12
9 and and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under
10
40
18
20
30
50
25
16
14
12
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cerits.

2

8
8

i

8
10

4
1
4

2

8
2

3
9

2

16
16

4
1

8
4

2
2

16
12

10

70 cents
and
over.

4
7

8
8

60
and
under
70
cents.

8
4

2

50
and
under
60
cents.

4
7

i

)

............1
............

78
69

242
236

125
67

69
60

236
241

122
99

35
12

59
30

36
36

12
10

71
63

1
j

36
23

i
i

I_____ ■
|

j

1

I

|

113
81

14
14

33
22

194
173

82
112

49
57

2
9

5
17

31
45

135
120

63
48

25
34

5
10

9 ______

14

19
31

64
67

329
293

145
160

74
91

7
19

4

10
4

22
21

132
138

20
24

16
17

29
33

73
72

26
31

24
21

3
1 ______

1

3




158
122

2

!

307
304

12

1

161
103

81
70

1

301
266

10
7

51
54

905
910

46
55

40
38

3
1

1

I

1

1

i
i

2

1
1

1

............. i...............
1 ______

..
i

i

OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.1
SUMMARY.

In 1915 the average rate of wages or earnings per hour in the openhearth furnace departm ent was from 2 to 16 per cent higher than in
any of the five years.preceding, and as the average full-time hours
per week had decreased only a little during the period full-time
weekly earnings in the several years followed the same course as
rates of wages.
The most significant facts concerning the open-hearth furnace
occupations which are covered in this section of the report are sum­
marized in Table 19. D ata are presented for each year from
1910 to 1915, inclusive, figures for identical plants being grouped
together. The data for 1915 represents 3,358 open-hearth employees
in the 15 specified occupations and 2,065 in unclassified productive
and nonproductive occupations reported for 1914 and 1915 only,
making a total of 5,423, and were obtained from 22 plants, having
229 furnaces, capable of producing 35 per cent of the total tonnage
of open-hearth steel ingots made in the United States.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified full-time hours
per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by percentages
which were computed from the actual data given in Table E.
T a b l e 19.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915—O P E N - H E A R T H F U R N A C E S .
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
AverN um ­ age
ber- full­
rate
Occupation,and num­ Y ear. of tim e
Over
of
10 12
7
em­ hours 60 Over
ber of plants.
and land and and 14
72
60
ploy­ per and and
per
un­ un­ un­ cts.
ees. week. un­ un­ 72] and 84 hour
un­
der der der and
der. der
der
10 12 14 over.
84
c ts. c ts. c ts. c ts.
72
Door operators:
15 p lan ts___

1910
1911
1912

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

38
24;
28

21

1912
1913
1914

155
160
148

76.4
76.9
76.8|

25!
19;
24 j

21
28;
28;

34
34
31

.100
.112
.108

19 p la n ts................ 1914
1915

170
176

77.01.
76.5i.

24!
251

32!
38i

31

.109 . . . .
.1 1 1 . . . .

15 plan ts.

22
31

$0.101
.100
.102

24

6 45
6 ; 40
6 : 33

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$7.72
7.53
7. 72
7.68
8.68

33
30

32
41

32
18

4
11

8.35

8.43

Summary figures relating to the open-hearth furnace department of the iron and steel industry are
given w ith figures for other departments on pages 7 to 26; and an account of the volum e of em ploym ent in
this and other departments from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; an explanation of the
scope of the investigation and of the methods em ployed is given on pages 55 to 59.
1

148




149

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

TABLE 19.— FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL.

TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1915—OPEN-H EAR TH F U R N A CES—Continued.
Per cent of em ployees
Percent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
ver­
A ver­
per week were—
hour were—
N um ­ Aage
age
ber- full­
rate
Over
Over
Occupation, and num ­ Y ear. of tim e
18 20
12
of and 1 16 and and 25
em­
and
ber of plants.
60
72
60
ploy­ hours and and 72 and 84 wages u n ­ u n ­ un-: u n ­ cts.
per
per der
un­
der and
ees. week. un­ un­
hour. 16 der der 1 25 over.
18 20
der. der
der
c ts. cts. cts. c ts.
72
84
Laborers:
17 p la n ts...............

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1910
1911
1912

1,038
806
897

74.5
73.2
74.4

10
11
12

20
24
13

13
15
15

35
37
44

22 $0,157
14 .161
17 .163

45
34
22

55
64
75

2
3

1912
1913

948
1,109

74.7
76.2

11
8

13
6

17
25

39
31

21
30

.164
.187

22
6

70
29

8
19

46

12.21
14.24

1913
1914

800
672

76.2
70.8

10
28

7
17

19
5

29
40

34
10

.185
.186

8
4

32
36

24
25

37
35

14.05
13.15

22 plan ts............... 1914
1915
Melters’helpers,third:
1910
17 p lan ts..............
1911
1912

805
723

69.5
70.8

38
29

14
22

4
6

34
30

9
13

.185
.186

4
4

41
30

22
24

33
41

12.84
13.19

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

8
20
7

36
37
30

30
36
46

27
8
16

.196
.185
.199

4
21
18

38
22
14

17
24
15

41
33
45

14.97
13.67
9 15.01

16 p la n ts................

1912
1913

390
416

75.8
77.6

2
1

28
26

50
40

20
33

.200
.217

19
5

13
8

11
14

48
53

9 15.17
21 16.86

16 pla n ts..............

1913
1914

458
392

7 7 .9 ........
77.3

1

25
42

38
25

36
33

.214
.207

4
3

15
16

13
11

50
61

19 16.64
9 16.04

21 plan ts...............

1914
1915

442
454

77.4
77.7

39
38

30
29

31
33

.207
.212

3
3

18
7

14
20

58
52

8 15.98
19 16.44

1910
1311
1912

448
419
403

76.8
74.4
76.6

13
26
7

24
24
30

34
28
39

28
19
25

.177
.172
.176

33
38
31

19
25
40

17
34
7

32
4
18

13.69
12.73
5 13.49

17 plan ts..............

1912
1913

413
417

77.0
77.8

7
8

25
22

40
40

28
31

.176
.197

32
1

38
29

13
30

14
32

4 13.51
8 15.30

17 plan ts...............

1913
1914

411
355

77.7
76.7 C
1)

8
9

22
21

41
45

30
224

.198
.205 oV

30
35

30
23

33
24

8 15.37
18 15.66

22 plan ts...............

1914
1915

409
366

77.0 0 )
2
77.3

8
8

21
21

48
38

2 23
30

.204 Q)
1
.199

32
26

25
28

26
43

16 15.66
3 15.41

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

109
113
117
112
118
117

77.3
74.5
74.4
74.6
75.2
76.8

6
22
36
20
39 • 19
16
29
15
19
15
15

44
35
34
46
56
50

28
9
9
9
10
21

.185
.187
.186
.198
.199
.230

11
5
7
5
5
2

32
26
25
18
15
7

31
46
44
41
44
3

26
23
24
2j
29
56

14.29
13.90
13.85
7 14. 75
7 14.92
32 17.63

1913
1914
1914
1915

127
131
149
150

76.3
76.3
76.5
77.0

13
12
11
5

49
41
44
45

16
24
22
25

.230
.227
.226
.225 ' i

5
5
5
5

9
8
11
7

52
56
53
65

34
32
31
22

17 p la n ts...............
17 p la n ts...............

Stockers:
17 p lan ts...............

Switchmen:
14 p lan ts...............
15 p lan ts...............
15 p lan ts...............
16 plan ts...............
21 plan ts...............

Charging - m a c h i n e
operators:
17 plants................
17 plants.
22 plants.

3

23
23
23
25

$11.69
11.78
12.10

20 25 30
U n­ and and and 40
der u n ­ u n ­ u n ­ cts.
20 der der der and
c ts. 25 30 40 over.
c ts. cts. cts.
___
19101911
1912
1912
1913
1914
1914
1915

73
72
72
72
76
74
86
86

76.8
74.7
75.5
75.8
78.0
77.0
77.4
77.7

8
25
14
14
13
5
5
5

34
25
39
36
16
38
33
30

30
27
33
17
22
25
25
25
32 1 40
24j 32
30
33
33
33

.294
.287
.312
.312
.335
.309
. 307
.330

d
11
6
6

3
14
3
3
5
16
16
14

48
36
22
19
26
36
34
21

36
31
69
72
55
45
48
44

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including less than one-half of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were £




17.55
.17.32
17.29
17.33

8 22.52
8 21.37
23.56
23.67
13 26.12
3 23.66
2 23.66
21 25.55

150

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le 19.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D P U L L TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915- O P E N - H E A R T H F U R N A CES—Continued.

NumberOccupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
A ver­
Aver­
age
age
rate
full­
Over
20 25 30
Over
of
tim e
wages U n­ and and and 40
72
hours 60
60
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
per and and 72 and 84
un­
hour. 20 der der der and
week. un­ un­
der
c ts . 25 30 40 over.
der. der
84
cts. cts. cts.
72

Engineers, locomotive:
14 plants................. 1910
1911

107
no

77.3
74.4

6
36

23
20

45
36

1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

38
14

19
20

1912
1913

117
114

75.8
76.8

14
14

1913
1914

119
119

76.6
76.3

1914
1915
Ingot strippers:
15 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

137
138

76.5
77.1

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

7
6
6

1912
1913

55
61

72.9
74.5

1913
1914

41
39

18 plants................. 1914
1915
Ladle cranemen:
16 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

A ver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

9
5

49
41

36
52

6
2

$18.92
18.40

35
58

26 SO. 244
.248
8
8 .247
8 .261

7
7

40
23

52
51

2
18

18.32
19.61

10
15

67
51

9
20

.262
.293

7
4

22
12

54
36

17
48

19.86
22.50

12
12

19
20

52
45

17
23

.295
.284

2

12
12

40
50

46
39

22.55
21.67

10
6

20
21

48
49

21
24

.281
.279 ‘ *’3

15
14

48
54

36
28

21. 51
21.57

22
8

30
63
69

17
20
20

24
4
4

.275
.256
.281

9
39
8

41
14
41

22
22
12

22
20
33

7 19.88
6 18.06
6 20.00

6
5

69
46

18
30

7
20

.278
.296

4
3

47
5

35
56

29
26

6 19.99
10 21.85

76.0
74.9

7
8

34
36

29
41

29
15

.302
.292

15
15

5
10

32
38

37
28

12 22.54
8 21.41

47
48

75.8
76.3

6
6

30
29

47
42

17
23

.292
.303

11 113
4 21

32
23

36
42

6 21.72
10 22.76

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

9
24
10

28
34
32

31
23
31

32
19
27

.294
.287
.317

7
8
7

22
16
8

21
40

43
28
86

7 22. 76
8 21.32
24.22

17 p la n ts .............. 1912
1913
1914

88
90
89

76.0
77.2
76.2

10
9
7

33
18
24

32
44
45

25
29
25

.317
7
.341
.307 ” '7

8
9
7

2
7
33

83
80
54

24.14
4 26.34
23.39

22 plants................. 1914
1915
Melters’ helpers, sec­
ond:
17 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

104
107

76.5
76.0

6
6

24
29

47
47

23
19

.305
.327

6
6

10
3

31
25

54
54

23.34
12 24.92

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

8
35
20

38
21
37

22
21
14

31
23
29

.272
.263
.274

5
8
6

25
32
21

40
39
44

30
22
29

20.87
19.62
20.77

17 plants................. 1912
1913
1914

345
360
352

76.1
76.7
74.1

10

20
19
17

35
29
28

15
14
21

31
37
23

.275
.292
.280

6
1
4

19
22
25

47
30
39

29
47
31

20.98
1 22.36
1 20.67

22 plants................. 1914
1915
Mold cappers:
8 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

402
420

74.7
74.5

9
10

15
14

25
24

29
31

22
21

.278
3
.291 C
1)

28
29

37
25

31
44

1 20.70
2 21.57

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

21
19

55
26
29

15
42
33

30
11
19

.217
.215
.223

35
37
19

35
37
43

15
11
29

15
16
10

16.49
15. 78
16.86

9 p la n ts ................ 1912’
1913

52
56

79.3
79.2

15

8
11

27
50

50
39

.228
.257

27
29

35
14

31
29

8
29

18.00
20.34

12 plants.................

1913
1914

68
62

78.6
77.3

6
13

12
29

41
23

41
35

.255
.231

21
13

32
55

24
32

24

20.04
17.78

1914
13 p la n ts .........
1915
Stock cranemen:
13 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

70
72

77.7
76.1

11
11

26
42

31
28

31
19

.232
.254

11
11

60
28

29
51

10

17.96
19.24

75
70
66

78.8
75.6
77.7

3
23

16
10
18

40
43
52

40
23
30

.223
.207
.235

15
24
12

67
76
49

39

14 plants....... .




1
1

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

19

17.60
15.61
18.29

151

O PE N -H E A R T H FU RN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

19i.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1915—OP EN-HEAR TH FUR NA CES—Concluded.

T able

NumberOccupation, and num ­ Y ear. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy-

Stock cranemen—Con.
14 plants................. 1912
1913

Per cent of employees
Percent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
rate
full­
20 25 30
of
tim e
Over
Over
72
wages U n­ and and and 40
60
hours 60
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
per and and 72 and 84
un­
week. un­ un­
hour. 20 der der der and
cts. 25 30 40 over.
der
der. der
84
72
c ts. cts. c ts.

11
10

72

47
48

42 $0.228
43 .239

22
8

44
66

33
24

3

$18.02
19.01

2

18. 85
18. 70
18.58
5 19. 77

79.1
78.3

5
5

10
13

45
43

40
40

.238
.239

7
1

68
73

23
26

94

78.4
77.4

4
4

12
23

49
47

35
26

.237
.253

5
5

67
50

28
36

3

849
917

75.3
75.4

4
2

10
12

36
36

27 i 21
28 121

.217
.227

30
25

52
42

14
24

4 (2)
8 (2)

25
29

9
12

20
20

11 3 35
10 329

.227
.233

34
33

38
38

15
15

9
8

20
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
undar
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

15 plants................. 1913
1914
20 plants................. 1914
1915
U nclassified—produc­
tive:
22 plants................. 1914
1915
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
21 plants................. 1914
1915

Melters’ helpers, first:
17 plants...............

1,141
1,148

1910
1911
1912

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

1912
1913
1914

345
364
354

76.8
77.1
74.8

10

1914
1915

404
422

75.6
75.5

9
10

1910
1911
1912

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

15 plants...............

1912
1913

50
52

16 plants...............

1913
1914

21 plants...............

17 plants...............

22 plants...............
Steel powers:
14 plants...............

Stopper setters:
10 plants...............

8 plants.................

16.29
17.11
5 16.37
5 16.39

60
cts.
and
over.

7
17
2

22
21
24

40
49
55

31
13
19

.416
.400
.417

4
10
6

36
40
30

50
42
50

11
8
13

2
3

21
17
16

55
55
61

21
26
13

.417
.440
.424

6
3
5

32
28
35

50
42
44

13
25
13

14
13

62
63

15
14

.420
5
.437 (2)

38
32

43
44

11
23

11
23
22

49
27
30

17
41
30

23
9
17

.308
.304
.313

51
45
39

40
50
52

9
5
9

23.05
22.32
23.52

76.5
77.6

20
4

24
19

28
46

28
31

.321
.352

28
19

64
62

8
19

24. 57
27.26

56
56

77.0
75.9

4
14

25
39

46
21

25
25

.370
.339

14
32

57
57

21
4

7
7

28.46
25. 72

1914
1915

70
70

76.4
75.7

11
11

37
43

29
29

23
17

.339
.356

31
21

54
53

9
26

6

25.94
26.99

1910
1911
1912

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

28

37
21
21

57
52
72

•7 .313
* .313
.329

47
45
45

33
38
28

13
10
28

7
7
:

23.63
23.11
24.92

.326
.363

46
31

31
46

23
15

8

24.80
27. 78

7

1912
1913

76.0
76.7

15
15

77
85

8

9 plants.................

1913
1914

77.3
74.4

13
67

80
27

7
7

.325
.292

47
67

47
33

10 plants...............

1914
1915

74.6

63
38

25
25

13
13

.287
.296

69
55

31
44

25

1 Including less than one-half of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 98.
2 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
8 Including less than one-half of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.




Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

32. 27
30.12
31.89

.....

31.99
33.89
3 31.59

2 31.60
1 32.80

25.10
21.67
21.46
21.96

152

WAGES A N D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Referring to the first occupation presented in Table 19, above, door
operators, direct comparison can be made of data for 15 identical
plants for 1910 to 1912, inclusive, for another group of 15 plants for
1912, 1913, and 1914, and for 19 plants for 1914 and 1915. The first
line of the table is analyzed as follows: In 1910 the 15 open-hearth
furnaces for which reports were obtained employed 165 door opera­
tors, whose average full-time hours of work were 75.9 per week. For
12 per cent of the 165 door operators the full-time hours per week
were over 60 and under 72; for 38 per cent, 72; for 22 per cent, over
72 and under 84; and for 28 per cent, 84. The average rate of wages
or earnings per hour of door operators in the year considered (1910)
w as 10.1 cents; of the total number 51 per cent received under 10
T
cents per hour; 32 per cent 10 and under 12 cents; 9 per cent, 12 and
under 14 cents; and 9 per cent 14 cents and over per hour.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen th a t in 15 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of the door operators were
$7.72 in both 1910 and 1912, decreasing to $7.53 in 1911, while in
the second group of 15 plants the average was $7.68 in 1912, $8.68
in 1913, and a decrease to $8.30 in 1914. In the group of 19 plants
there was an increase from $8.35 in 1914 to $8.43 for 1915. Com­
paring the average full-time weekly earnings for 1915 of the several
occupations, it is seen th at with the exception of door operators,
who are usually boys, the lowest average was th at of laborers, which
was $13.19, and the highest th a t of melters’ first helpers, which was
$32.80.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the six years
which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout the
period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages shown in Table 19 for full-time hours per week, rates of
wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings for each occupation
from 1910 to 1915, inclusive. Such figures appear in Table 20, which
follows. These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for
which the data for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The
relative for each year is the per cent which the average for th a t year
is of the average for 1915. For example, the relative full-time weekly
earnings of stockers in 1910 were 89 as compared with 100 in 1915;
th at is, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1910 were 89 per
cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1915. The
method of computing relative numbers is explained on pages 65 to 67.
Table 20 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings in 1915 as compared with each speci­
fied year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers
in 1915 were 12 per cent higher than in 1910, 20 per cent higher




153

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.

than in 1911, 14 per cent higher than in 1912, the same as in 1913,
and 2 per cent lower than in 1914.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1911 were 7 per cent
lower than in 1910; in 1912 6 per cent higher than in 1911; in 1913
14 per cent higher than in 1912; in 1914 2 per cent higher than in
1913; and in 1915 2 per cent lower than in 1914. The other occupa­
tions and items of the table can be studied in like manner. The per
cent of increase and decrease is computed from the relative numbers.
T a b l e 20.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E HO U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INCREASE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—O P E N - H E A R T H
F U R N A CES.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1910.................................
1911...................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914..........................
1915.................................
Stock crane men:
1910.......................................
191 1
191 2
|
191 3
191 4
191 5
Charging-machine operators:
1910........
1911....................................... 1
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.........................
Door operators:
1910...........................
1911.................................
1912.....................................
1913.......................................
1914.....................................
1915................
Melters’ helpers, first:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912............ .........................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.....................................
Melters’ helpers, second:
1910
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
tive
Each
tiv
1915 as speci­ rate eof 1915 as speci­
full­ 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
tim e
fied
pared year as wages pared year as weekly pared year as
per
with
com­
with
com­
w ith
earn­
com­
each
each
pared
each
pared hour.
ings.
pared
with
speci­
with
speci­
speci­
with
fied
year
fied
year
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100
97
100
101
100
100

0)
+3
0)
—1
0)

103
99
101
102
101
100

-3
+1
-1
-2
-1

100
97
98
101
100
100

0)
+3
+2
-1
0)

100
99
100
101
101
100

C
1)
+1
(‘i l
-1

104
-4
101 !
-l
103
—3
103 1
-3
100 | 0 )
100
..............
—4
104 !
101 i
-i
103 !
-3
104 i
-4
100
100 1 0 )

-3
+3
+1
-1
0)

89
86
88
99
103
100

+
+
+
+
-

12
16
14
1
3

-4
+2
+1
-1
-1

85
78
89
93
94
100

+
+
+
+
+

18
28
12
8
6

-3
+1
+3
-1
0)

88
86
94
101
93
100

+
+
+
+

14
16
6
1
8

-1
+1
+1
C
1)
-1

90
89
91
102
98
100

+
+
+
+

11
12
10
2
2

-3
+2
0)
-3
0)

94
91
95
100
96
100

+ 6
+ 10
+ 5
0)
+ 4

-3
+2
+1
-4
(0

93
90
94
100
96
100

+ 8
+ 11
+ 6
0)
+ 4

i No change.

+
+
+
-

3
2
13
4
3

89
83
88
100
102
100

+ 12
+20
+ 14
C
1)
- 2

+
+
+
+

8
14
4
1
6

87
77
90
95
94
100

+ 15
+30
+ 11
+ 5
+ 6

+
+
+

2
9
7
8
8

89
84
93
102
93
100

+
+
+
+

12
19
8
2
8

+
+
+

1
2
12
4
2

92
90
92
104
99
100

+
+
+
+

9
11
9
4
1

+
+
+

3
4
5
4
4

99
92
98
103
96
100

+
+
+
+

1
9
2
3
4

+
+
+

3
4
6
4
4

98
92
98
104
96
100

+
+
+
+

2
9
2
4
4

—7
+ 6
+ 14
+ 2
- 2
-1 1
+ 17
+ 6
- 1
+ 6
+
+
+

6
11
10
9
8

+
+
+

2
2
13
5
1

+
H
+

7
7
5
7
4

+
+
+

6
7
6
8
4

154

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T able 20.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C ENT OF
IN C R E A SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—OP E N - H E A R T H
F UR NA CES—Continued.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in —
Occupation and year.

Melters* helpers, third:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.................. ....................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Stopper setters:
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Steel pourers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Mold cappers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Ladle cranemen:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Ingot strippers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Engineers, locomotive:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Switchmen:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Laborers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

100

96
98

100
100
100

104
100

f1)
+4
+2
0)

-4
+2
+2

101
100

-1

10 1

-4
+4
0)
-3

92
92
97
108
97

-1

105
101

104
104

102
100
102

98

100
102
101
100
101

98
99

101

99

100
101

97
98
100

99

100
101

97
97
99
99

100

104
102

104
106
98
100 I

-1
-2
-1

-2
+2
+1
-1
-1

-5

-1

-4
-4
-2

101

100

-1

+1

92
8?
93

f1)
C
1)

-4
-4
-4

99

Per cent of in ­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

R ela­
R ela­
Each
Each
tiv e
Each
tiv
1915 as speci­ rate eof 1915 as speci­
full­ 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
tim e
fied
com­
fied
pared year as wages pared year as weekly pared year as
per
com­
w ith
withcom­
earn­
w ith
com­
each
pared hour.
each
pared ings.
each
pared
speci­
w ith
speci­
w ith
speci­
w ith
fied
year
year
fied
year
fied
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

104
104

101
102
101
100

W eekly earnings.

—4
+3
( 11 2

98

100

93
92
95
104
95
100

87

86

89

101

91

-2

-2
+ 2.
0)
-2
-1
-1
+2
+1
-1
+1

100

-4
+2
+2

89
87
96
104
93

-1
-1

100

-3

92
85
94

+1
+2
-2
+1

-1

+3
+2
0)
+1

-4
+1

—4

82
83

-6
+2

9
15

+
+
+
+

9
9
3
7
3

8
1
2

—2
+2
+2
—8
+2

+ 8
+ 9
+ 5
—4
+ 5
+
+
+
+

15
16
12
1
10

+ 12
+ 15
+ 4
—4
+ 8
+ 9
+ 18
+ 6
0)
+ 4
+ 15
+ 12
+ 6
—5
- 1
+22
+20

1 No change.

88
102
100
100

+ 14
—2
0)
+19
+ 16
+ 15
+ 1
(l)

86

87
99
100
100

—
+
+
+

5
7
9
3

90
83
91
10 1

97

2

100

+ 5
+ 11

101

96
94

(0

-1 0

113
98

+ 3

84

(‘ 2
i
%

-2

87
89
94
105
101
100

-4
—4

96

100

+2
-1
+1

-1

+3
+3
+1
+1

100

+
+
+
+

100

—
+
+
—
+

1

3
9
9
5

—1
+ 3
+ 13
-1 0
+ 10

—2
+ 10
+ 8
—1 1
+ 8
—8
+ 11
+ 6
—4
+ 4

94
91
96
106
96
100

91
87
93
105
93
100

91
85
97
106
94
100

91
83
92
101

95

100

88
86

+ 2
+ 6
+ 12
—4
—1

100 •
100

+ 1
+ 6
+ 16
—2
0)

86
101
100
100

92
104

83
80

86

+ 2
+ 1
+ 14
+ 1
(0

87
89
104
97
100

+ 11
+20
+ 10
—1

+ 3
+ 4
+ 6
—1

—8
+ 10
+ 11

—4
+ 3

-1 2
+ 2

—2
+ 7
+ 12
—13
+ 2

+ 6
+ 10
+ 4
—6
+ 4

—3
+ 5

+ 10
+ 15
+ 8 ;
—5
+ 8
+ 10

+ 18
+ 3
—6
+ 6
+ 10
+20

+ 9
—1
+ 5
+ 14
+ 16
+ 9
—4
0)
+ 20

+25
+ 16
—1
0)
+ 16
+ 15
+ 12
—4
+ 3

+ 10

—9
+ 4
_ 4
+ 7
+ 13
—11
+ 8
_ 7
+ 14
+ 9
—1 1
+ 6
—9
+ 11
+ 10
—6
+ 5
x—2
+ 7
+ 13
—4
0)
—4
+ 8
+17
—1
0)
+
+
+
_
+

2
1

17
7

3

155

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.
T a b l e 20.— R E LA T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF

W AGES P E R HOUR,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EA R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INCREASE OR D ECR EA SE IN SPEC IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—O P E N -H E A R TH
FURNA CES—Concl uded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+") or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Unclassified—productive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—nonproductive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
A ll occupations:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

100
100

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
R ela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tiv
1915 as speci­ rate eof 1915 as speci­
full­ 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
tim e
com­
fied
fied
fied
pared year as wages pared year as weekly pared year as
per
w ith
com­
com­
w ith
com­
earn­
w ith
hour.
each
each
pared
each
pared
pared
ings.
w ith
speci­
w ith
speci­
w ith
speci­
year
fied
year
fied
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

+ 4

102
100

—2

—2
+2
+1
—3
0)

+
+
+
+
+

(1i 2
—3
C
1)

100
100

C
1)

(1 )c
+ 5
+ 9
—2
+ 4

89
86
91
101
97
100

+ 12
+ 16
+ 10
—1
+ 3

+ 3

86
86
90
98
96
100

+ 5

+ 3

97
100

95
100

+ 4

(*)

—2

102
100
102
103
100
100

96
100

-*2

0)

16
16
11
2
4

+ 5
0)
—3
+ 6
+ 11
—4
+ 3

1 No change.

The relative full-time weekly earnings for all occupations com­
bined, in 1910, were 89 as compared with 100 in 1915. In other
words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 89 per cent of such
earnings in 1915. The relative dropped to 86 in 1911, advanced to
91 in 1912, to 101 in 1913, dropped to 97 in 1914, and advanced to
100 in 1915, the base year. These relative numbers for each year
previous to 1914 are based on the principal productive occupations
only, but those for 1914 and 1915 include also the unclassified group
tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.
The next column shows th a t full-time weekly earnings in 1915
were 12 per cent higher than in 1910, 16 per cent higher than in 1911,
10 per cent higher than in 1912, 1 per cent lower than in 1913, and
3 per cent higher than in 1914.
The third column under Weekly earnings” shows the per cent
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings in each year as
compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full­
time weekly earnings in 1911 were 3 per cent lower than in 1910,
in 1912 6 per cent higher than in 1911, in 1913 11 per cent higher
than in 1912, in 1914 4 per cent lower than in 1913, and in 1915
3 per cent higher than in 1914. The relative numbers and percent­
ages for full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour can be
read in like manner.




156

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .
FU L L -T IM E W O RKING D A Y S P E R W E EK .

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in* open-hearth plants whose customary working time
per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations
thereof, are shown in Table 21.
The heading “ 5 days and 6 days alternately,” for example,
indicates th a t the plants were running 6 days and 5 nights each week,
being shut down for one day and a half each week, and th a t the
employees reported under this heading work 6 turns 1 week and 5
turns the next.
The figures are presented for each district and for the four districts
combined, two sets of figures being given for the plants reported for
1914 and 1915, the first covering only the principal productive occu­
pations, as shown for each of the preceding groups and therefore
strictly comparable with them, and the second including the unclas­
sified occupations (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915
for the first time.
T a b l e 21.— N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF EM PL O Y EE S IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING

EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1915—O P E N H EARTH FURNACES.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.] .
NUMBER.
Employees whose customary working tim e per week was—
Num­
days,
5 days
District, and number Year. ber of
5 days 6 days 6 days, 6 days,
em­
6 days, 7
of plants.
and
and
ploy­ 5 days. 6 and
and
and
days 6 days. 7 days 7 days 7 days 7 days
ees.
alter­
alter­
alter­
nately.
nately. nately. in rota­ in rota­
tion.
tion.
Eastern:
4 plan ts.

1910
1911

583
469

4 plants.

1911
1912

477
480

282
311

4 plan ts.

1912
1913

471
490

296
301

26
28

1 plants.

1913
1914

480
357

287
194

32
92

0 plan ts.

1914
1915

491
516

248
263

154
149

104

Gplan ts.

1914
1915

1,064
1,116

1 635
2 655

215
225

214
229

1910
1911
1912

1,491
1,432
1,428

837
630
881

311
171
319

5 plants.

1912
1913

1,452
1,571

5 plants.

1913
1914

Pittsburgh:
5 plants.




1,474
1,394
1 Including 10 employees who
* Including 14 employees who
3 Worked 7 days every fourth
4 Including 47 employees who
6 Worked 6 days every iourth

207
83

32

252
274

343
558
225
225
121

84

32

873
879

94

71

3 20
3 60

106
853
343 ..............
worked 7 days every sixth week.
worked 7 days every sixth week.
week.
worked 6 days every fourth week.
week.

3
* 50

331
461
433
352

157

O PEN -H EA R TH F U BN A C ES---- SUM M ARY.
T a b l e 21.—NU M B E R A N D

P E R CENT OF E M PL O Y EE S IN EACH DISTRICT W OR K IN G
EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1915—O P E N H E A R T H F U R N A CES—Continued.
KTTMBER—Concluded.
Employees whose customary working time per week was—

District, and number Year. ber of
5 days
5 days 6 days 6 days, 6 days,
em­
6 days, 7 days,
of plants.
and
and
ploy­ 5 days. 6 and
and
days 6 days. 7 days 7 days 7 and
7 days.
ees.
7
alter­
alter­
alter­ in days in days
rota­
rota­
nately.
nately. nately. tion.
tion.
Pittsburgh—Concld.
6 plan ts...................

1914
1915

1,532
1,409

375
316

697
668

10

450
425

1914
1915

2,149
2,013

468
2 404

852
814

10

i 819
3 795

1910
1911
1912

975
941
1,020

340
461
517

63
263
204

1912
1913

1,073
1,171

477
4 422

182
168

6 plan ts...................

1913
1914

1,039
1,001

4 340
391

168
214

531
396

7 plan ts...................

1914
1915

1,069
1,122

394
405

274
304

401
413

7 plants...................

1914
1915

1,632
1,755

751
846

311
356

570
553

1910
1911
1912

292
223
254

188
100
98-

58
68

104
65
88

2 plants...................

1912
1913

250
266

86
126

70
62

6
6

88
72

2 plants...................

1913
1914

251
201

124
82

54
34

6

73
79

3 plants...................

1914
1915

333
311

163
126

34
50

6

130
135

3 plan ts...................

1914
1915

570
539

269
226

38
58

9
3

254
252

1910
1911

3,341
3,065

207
115

1,123
1,393

16
32

924
983

3

1,071
539

17 plants.................

1911
1912

3,073
3,182

115
55

1,401
1,151

32

983
1,179

3
3

539
794

17 plants.................

1912
1913

3,246
3,498

55
62

1,084
4 970

1,151
1,137

5 20
6 75

9
7 56

927
1,198

17 plants.................

1913
1914

3,244
2,953

62

4 857
1,010

1,107
1,029

40
10

8 42
6

1,136
898

22 plan ts.................

1914
1915

3,425
3,358

1,180
1,110

1,159
1,171

10

6

1,070
1,077

1,416
1,453

1
10 1
3 !

9
3

i 1,857
a 1,829

6 plants...................
Great Lakes and Mid­
dle West:
6 plants...................

6 plan ts...................

Southern:
2 plan ts...................

Total:
17 plan ts.................

22 plan ts.................

1914
1915

5,415
5,423

2

2

9 2,123
2,131

572
217
299
414
566

15

1 Including 121 employees who worked 6 days 3 months of the year, and 16 employees who worked 6 days
for 7 weeks and 7 days the eighth week of each 8-week period during 3 months of the year.
2 Including 10 employees who worked 6 days lor 7 weeks and 7 days lor 3 weeks during each 10-week
period.
3 Including 131 employees who worked 6 days for 3 months during the year, and 16 employees who worked
6 days for 7 weeks and 7 days the eighth week of each 8-week period during 3 months ol the year.
4 Including 6 employees who worked T days every sixth week.
5 Worked 7 days every fourth week.
6 Including 60 employees who worked 7 days every fourth week.
i Including 47 employees who worked 6 days every fourth week.
* Worked 6 days every fourth week.
9 Including 10 employees who worked 6 days every fourth week.
10 Including 14 employees who worked 7 days every sixth week, and 10 employees w ho worked 6 days
for 7 weeks and 7 days for 3 weeks during each 10-week period.




H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL
AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRIC'
NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
ES—Continued.

I­
t

P E R C E NT .

Employees whose customary working tim e per ■
Num­
ber of
5 days
Year. em­
ploy- 5 days. 6 and
days
alter­
nately.

5 days 6 days 6 days,
days,
and
and
7 days 7 days 7 and
alter­ in days
alter­
rotar
nately. nately. tion.

'S.

1910
1911

583
469

14
18

1911
1912

477
480

18
18

1912
1913

471
490

20
20

1913
1914

480
357

1914
1915

491
516

1914
1915

1,064
1,116

1910
1911
1912

1,491
1,432
1,428

1912
1913

1,452
1,571

23
29

1913
1914

1,474
1,394

29
25

1914
1915

1,532
1,409

29
30

1914
1915

2,149
2,013

1910
1911
1912

975
941
1,020

59
23
29

1912
1913

1,073
1,171

39
48

1913
1914

1,039
1,001

51
40

1914
1915

1,069
1,122

38
37

1914
1915

1,632
1,755

35
32

1910
1911
1912

292
223
254

36
29
35

1912
1913

250
266

35
27

1913
1914

251
201

49
41

1914
1915

333
311

49
41

39
43

1914
1915

570

47
42

*5
47




13

21
20
18
20

C
1)

0)

20
21

0)
C
1)

0)

21
12
22

C
1)

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

17

38
39

29
39

159

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- SUM M ARY.
T a b l e 2 1 .— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING
EACH SPECIFED NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—OPENHE A R TH FUR NA CE8—Concluded.
PER CENT—Concluded.
Employees whose customary working tim e per week w as-

Num­
District, and number Year. ber of
em­
of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Total:
17 plants.

5 days
5 days 6 days
and
and
and
5 days. 6 days 6 days. 7 days 7 days
alter­
alter­ alter­
nately.
nately. nately.

6 days,
6 days,
and
7 days
in rota­
tion.

6 days,
7 days,
and
7 days 7 days.
in rota­
tion.

1910
1911

3,341
3,065

C
1)

32
18

17 plants.

1911
1912

3,073
3,182

C
1)
0)

18
25

17 plants.

1912
1913

3,498

1913
1914

3,244
2,953

22 plants.

1914
1915

3,425
3,358

22 plants.

1914
1915

5,415
5,423

17 plants.

33

0 ),

33
34

0)

39

0) '

0)

0)

0)

(*)
<»)

35
30

(0

0)
C
1)

29
34

34
34

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Two general tables are presented for the open-hearth department,
as follows:
Table E .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1915.
Table F .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.
The data from Table E are summarized in Table 19, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages per hour.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables E and F,
and in the table of relative numbers, follows th a t of the processes of
manufacture. “ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report,
are identical units of identical establishments reporting the same
occupations in each of the two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year, back
to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1913, 1914, and 1915 in
Table F, were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this bureau. Descrip­
tions of occupations which appear in the tables of this chapter and
of others included in the two unclassified groups may be found in the
Glossary of Occupations, on pages 481 to 484.




160

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON ANI> STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

E.^-FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R H O UR ,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

Num­
ber
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy-

Stockers:
17 plants..

Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
rate tim e
of week­
time
hours wages
ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

1541
116
155

30
32

102
90

165:
1671|

i

32
32

90
75

167
160

1
7

32
30

85
78

19bI
140.

2
16

12
7
12

30'
30
34

8
8

34
38

4
4

8
10

38
34

.237
.253

4
4

12
22

48
44

76.8
74.7
75.5

.294
.287
.312

6
18
10

25
18
28

20
24|
18l

1912
1913
1914

75.8
78.0
77.0

.312
.335
.309

10
10
4

26
12
28

18
24
18

18
30
24

1914
1915

77.4
77.7

.307
.330

4
4

28
26

28
28

26
28

20
34
32

63
38
44

36
50
33

46
38
48

32
32
24

38
30
36

33
44
42

52
54
46

24
24

40
44

54
66

52
42

24
58
8

75
72
82

136
164
191

106
44
66

8
10

76.8 $0,177 $13.69
74.4 .172 12.73
76.6 .176 13.49

1912
1913

413
417

77.0
77.8

.176 13.51
.197

1913
1914

411
355

77.7
76.7

.198 15.37
.205

22 plants____

1914
1915

409

77.0
77.3

.204
.199 15.41

1910
1911
1912

78.8
75.6
77.7

.223
.207 15.61
.235 18.29

1912
1913

79.6

.228
.239

79.1
78.3

.239

78.4
77.4

1910
1911
1912

17 plants..

22 plants..

Stock cranemen:
13 plants........

13
14

14 plants.

15
16

15 plants..

1913
1914

20 plants.

1914
1915

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
60 un­
un­
der
der
72
84

107
102
122

448
419
403

17 plants.

17
18

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

60
109
26

1910
1911
1912

17 plants..

10
11
12

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Charging-m a c h i n e
operators:
17 plants..............

Door operators:
15 plants___

94

13

1
1

87

22 p lan ts.
Melters’ h e l p e r s ,
second:
17 plants...............

46
47
48

17 plants.

49
50

22 p lants................

.101
.100
.102

155
160
148

76.4
76.9
76.

.100

1914
1915

170
176

77.0
76.5

.109

1910
1911
1912

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

.416
.400
.417

i ........

345
364
354

76.8
77.1
74.

.417
.440
.424

I
) ........
>........

36

72
60
56

191
200
216

74
94
46

1914
1915

404
422

75.6
75.5

.420
.437

>
)

36
42

56
56

250
264

62
60

1910
1911
1912

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

.272
.263
.274

f
>
?

28
118
68

129
71
129

76
70
50

106
76
100

1912
1913
1914

17 plants.

75.
75.5
76.0

1912
1913
1914

19 plants.
Melters’ helpers, first:
17 plants..............

165
160
157

1912
1913
1914

15 plan ts.

1910
1911
1912

345
360
352

76.1
76.7
74.1

.275
.292

\

68
70

119
106
100

50
50
74

108
134

1914
1915

402
420

74.7
74.5

)
. 2911 21.57'

60

100

.112
.108

i ........

.111

36
36
42

i Including 1 employee whose full time hours per week were 89.




58

102

118

130

161

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
OPEN-HEAR TH FURNA CES.
years are for identical plants.]
Employees whose rate of wages per hour were—
Line
No.

12
7
8
60
10
14
70
50
9
16
20
25
18
30
40
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
cts.
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. over.

26
3
6

155
120

83
103
159

76
142
28

142
16
72

18

10

120

155

54
123

56
134

18
32

121

6

122

i

124

122

123
82

134
84

32
44

20

1
2

132
94

104

108
157

44

20

50
53
32

14
26

101

12

i

5
5
4

12

4

12

32
53

24
19

2

6
1

57
58

19

2

21

5
5

66
47

34

3

5

17
18

4
4
4

2
10
2

35
26
16

26
22

6
6

50

19
20
21

20

27

52
42
33

10
2

29
18

41
38

18

6
4
6

4

4

2

4
12

14
12
10
10
10

46
54
43

10

43

29

62
62
70

14
24
26

12

10
8

20

27

14

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

22
23
24

2

25
26

14

2
12

50
38

70
48
46

40
46

44
34

54
72

54
32

6
15

30
31
32

20

12

27
28
29

18

6

33
34

5
6
4

28
~ 17

124
135
105

169
143
175

36
26
46

2

17
9
19

109

124

101

171
154
155

46
96
46

10

19

155
134

174
184

46
98

10
2

12

2

35
36
37
38
39
40

4

2

41
42

!

15

84
107
72

137
130
154

100

21

5

15
4

2

12

64
78

88

162
108
136

99
168
109

2

12
2

112
120

148
105

123
186

4

89728°—17—Bull. 218----- 11




18

43
44
45

73
99

5

2

47
48

6

49
50

7

162

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR----IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

Table E__ FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OP WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—OPEN-

Num ­ Average
ber full­
of tim e
Occupation, and num ­ Year.
ember of plants.
ploy- hours
per
week.

M elters*
h e lp e r s
third:
17 p la n ts..............

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Em ployees whose full-time hoars per
w eek were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

30
78
28

141
144
126

116
142
192

106
30
68

.200 15 .17
.2 1 7 16 .8 6

8
4

110
108

196
166

76
138

.2 1 4
.2 0 7

16.64
16 .04

4

114
164

174
98

166
130

7 7 .4
7 7 .7

.2 0 7

15.

174
174

132
130

136
150

30
29
29

7 6 .2
7 3 .5
75.

.3 1 3 2 3 .6 3
.3 1 3 23.11
.3 2 9 2 4 .9 2

11
6
6

17
15
21

2

26

7 6 .0
7 6 .7

.3 2 6 24.
.3 6 3 27. 78

4
4

20
22

2

1913
1914

7 7 .3
7 4 .4

.3 2 5 2 5 .1 0
.2 9 2 2 1 .6 7

4
20

24
. 8

2
2

1914
1915

7 5 .0
7 4 .6

.2 8 7 2 1 .4 6
.2 9 6 2 1 .9 6

8

20
12

8
8

4
4

1910
1911
1912

75.
7 3 .7
7 5 .3

.3 0 8 23 .0 5
.3 0 4 2 2 .3 2
.3 1 3 2 3 .5 2

5
10
10

23
12
14

8
18
14

11
4
8

15 plan ts..............

1912
1913

7 6 .5
7 7 .6

.321 24 .5 7
.3 5 2 2 7 .2 6

10
2

12
10

14
24

14
16

16 plan ts..............

1913
1914

7 7 .0
7 5 .9

.3 7 0 28. 46
.3 3 9 2 5 .7 2

2
8

14
22

26
12

14
14

21 plan ts..............

1914
1915

7 6 .4
7 5 .7

2 5 .9 4
2 6 .9 9

8
8

26
30

20
20

16
12

1910
1911
1912

7 6 .5
7 4 .0
7 5 .9

.2 1 7 1 6 .4 9
.2 1 5 15. 78
.2 2 3 16 .8 6

8
8

22
10
12

6
16
14

12
4
8

9 plan ts................

1912
1913

7 9 .3
7 9 .2

.2 2 8 1 8.00
.2 5 7 2 0 .3 4

8

4
6

14
28

26
22

12 plan ts..............

1913
1914

7 8 .6
7 7 .3

.2 5 5 2 0 .0 4
.2 3 1 1 7.78

4
8

8
18

28
14

.28
22

13 plan ts..............

1914
1915

7 7 .7
7 6 .1

.2 3 2 17.
.2 5 4 1 9 .2 4

8
8

18
30

22
20

22
14

1910
1911
1912

7 7 .2
74.
7 6 .2

.2 9 4 22. 76
.2 8 7 2 1 .3 2
.3 1 7 24.221.

8
21
9

25
29
29

28
20
28

29
16
24

17 plan ts..............

1912
1913
1914

7 6 .0
7 7 .2
7 6 .2

2 4 .14|.
.3 r
.3 4 1 2 6 .3 4 ;.
.3 u 7 2 3 .39i.

9
8
6

29
16
21

28
40
40

22
26
22

22 p lan ts..............

1914
1915

104
107

7 6 .5
7 6 .0

• 3n5 23 3 4 '.
.3 2 7 2 4 .9 2 .

6
6

25
31

49
50

24
20

1910
1911
1912

7 3 .7
71.
7 2 .4

.2P5 19. 88

51

10
.4

14
32
34

8
10
10

11
2
2

7 2 .9
7 4 .5

.2 7 8 19.
.2 9 6 2 1 .8 5

38
28

10
18

4
12

1910
1911
1912

393
394
414

7 6 .5 $0,196
7 3 .9
.1 8 5
75 .4
.1 9 9

16 p lan ts..............

1912
1913

390
416

7 5 .8
7 7 .6

16 p la n ts..............

1913
1914

458
392

7 7 .9
7 7 .3

21 plan ts..............

1914
1915

442
454

1910
1911
1912

8 p la n ts................

1912
1913

9 plan ts................
10 p lan ts..............

Stopper setters:
10 plan ts..............

Steel pourers:
14 plan ts..............

Mold cappers:
8 plan ts................

Ladle cranemen:
16 plan ts..............

Ingot strippers:
15 p la n ts..............

15 p la n ts..............




1912
1913

.212 16 .4 4

.2 5 3 18.00!1
.2 8 1 20.00

8

3

3 ....
3 ___
a!
3l. ..

........

2

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

163

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
H E A R TH FURNACES—Continued.
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

70
60
7
8
12
10
14
16
18
9
50
40
20
25
30
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
cts.
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. over.

Line
N o,

1
2
3

24
20

14
59
53

151
85
56

66
94
63

162
131
186

1
36

20

53
20

52
31

43
58

186
221

36
74

12

20
12

67
62

58
42'

227
240

74
36

12

12
13

78
30

60
90

256
237

36
84

14
9
5

4
8

10
11
8

4
3
8

2
2

10
11
12

2

10
8

8
12

6
4

2______

13
14

2
2

12
18

14
1C

2

4
6

18
12

10
14

5
6
6

19
14
12

19
22
24

6
4

8
6

32
32

10

4

4
18

32
32

12
2

4

18
15

38
37

6
18

2
2

14
14
18

6
4
12

6
6
4

6

6

6
8

2
8

18
8

16
16

12
6

22
34 |

16
20

6
6

42
20

20
37

20
14
7

19
34

39
24
77

6

7
8
6

2
6
29

6
6

10
3

16

2

6
5

6

i




19
20
21

4
2
4|............

22
23
4
• 4'
I
4 ............
1

2
4
4
2

24
25
26
27
28
29
30

7

2
6

17
18

16

2
2

15
16

4
16

2
2

2

6
7
8
9

8
12
6

1
1
j

4
5

1

31
32

............!............

33
34
35
36

6I
7

37
38
39

73
72
48

4

40
41
42

32
27

56
58

13

43
44

19
7
20

10
11
6

10
10
16

3
2

45
46
47

26
3

8
34

16
16

i
3
3
61............1............

48
49

164

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

E.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—OPEN-

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
emNo.
ber of plants.
ploy-

Ingot strippers—Con.
14 p lan ts..............

Average
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

E m ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate tim e
iOver
(
Over
of week­ 48 Over 56
72
48
60
and and and 60 and 72 and 84
ly
per earn­ un­ un­ un­
un­
un­
hour. ings. der. der der
der
der
60
72
84
56

1913
1914

41
39

76.0 $0.3 *22.54
74.9 .292 21.41

3
3

14
14

12

16

12
6

1914
1915

47
48

75.8
76.3

21.72
22.76

3
3

14
14

22
20

8
11

1910
1911

107
110

77.3
74.4

.244 18.92
.248 18.40

6

25

39

22

48
40

28
9

15 plan ts.

1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

.247 18.32
.261 19.61

43
16

22
22

40
64

9
9

15 plants..

1912
1913

117
114

75.8
76.8

.262 19.86
.293 22.50

16
16

12

17

78
58

23

16 plan ts.

1913
1914

119
119

76.6
76.3

.295 22.55
.284 21.67

14
14

23
24

62
54

20

21 plan ts.

1914
1915

137
138

76.5
77.1

.281 21.51
.279 21.57

14
8

28
29

66
68

29
33

1910
1911

109
113

77.3
74.5

.185 14.29
.187 13.90

7
41

24

48
40

30

1911
1912

117
112

74.4
74.6

.186 13.85
.198 14.75

45
18

22

32

40
52

10
10

1912
1913

118
117

75.2
76.8

.199 14.92
.230 17.63

18
18

22

66

58

24

1913
1914

127
131

76.3
76.3

.230 17.55
.227 17.32

16
16

29
30

62
54

31

1914
1915

149
150

76.5
77.0

.226 17.29
.225 17.33

16

34
37

66
68

33
37

1910
1911
1912

1,038
806
897

74.5
73.2
74.4

.157 11.69
.161 11.78
.163 12.10

29
35
51

.....

8

63
55
52

212

192
115

137
117
131

365
298
392

224
109
151

1912
1913

1,109

74.7
76.2

.164 12.21
.187 14.24

51
35

4
13

50
43

125
61

159
281

365
343

194
333

17 p lants.

1913
1914

800
672

76.2
70.8

.185 14.05
.186 13.15

35i
15>

10
38i 55
69I 105> 1 1 1

154: 234
35* 271

274

22 plants.

1914
1915

805
723

69.5
70.8

.185 12.84
13.19

1

15i

72! 219i 112
45i 155> 15S

351 276
41 217

75
95

1914
1915
Unclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
21 plants.........
1914
1915

849
917

75.3
75.4

.217 16.29
.227 17.11

2

12!
131

1,141
1.148

73.1
71.5

.227
.233

£
;
r

3(; 17/r 71 10 $ 226> 121 2397
5
)
74I 134t 12C> 14C 227’ 114t 2 332

18 plants.
Engineers,locomotive:
14 plan ts...........

10

Switchmen:
14 p la n ts..
15 plan ts..
15 p lan ts..
16 p lan ts.,
2 1 plants.

Laborers:
17 p lan ts.

17 plants.

Unclassified—produc­
tive:
22 plants.........




8

11

15>
125

22

17

11

27

10

12

20

66

8t 8S 30S1 233 1 182
>
aI 10 C 3325 26C i 191
»

1 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 98.

O PE N -H E A R T H FU BN A C ES---- GENERAL TABLES.

165

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
H E A R TH FURNACES—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hoar were—

7
40
8
12
14
16
18
50
10
20
25
30
70
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
cts.
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and
8 cts.
cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts, 5acts 60 cts. 70 cts. over.

Line
No.

1
2
3
4

10

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
50

13
14
15
16

26

17
18
34

19
20
21
22
23
24

204
140
118
120
11

259
135
80

575
512
676

25
26
27

666
323

77
214

258
239

189
167

293
236

30
31

331
217

176
177

268
297

32
33

79

142
123

440
388

117
224

34
70

34
35

216
123

144
211

438
433

167
174

97

36
37

28

2 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




166

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

F .— FULL-TIME

HOURS

P E R W EEK , RATES OF WAGES PE R
B Y Y EA RS, 1913 TO 1915—

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” in this table stands for Great Lakes

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
No.
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
60 un­
un­
der
der
84
72

Stockers:
Eastern—
1913
1914

98
73

73.8 10.171 $12.61
73.4 .170 12.44

1

32
32

46
20

10

20
10

1914
1915

93
98

73.8
74.6

.174 12.87
.184 13.71

1
1

32
30

30
29

20
22

10
16

1913
1914

167
161

78.8
77.2

.212 16.65
.224 17.13

14

34
133
110 1 37

1914
6 plants
1915
G. L. and M. W .~
1913
6 plan ts.
1914

175
125

77.6
78.4

.225 17.31
.218 17.20

14
14

124 i 37
72
39

124
103

79.7
78.6

.202 16.10
.206 16.18

32
29

24
34

68
40

1914
1915

115
120

78.6
77.3

.204 15.96
.199 15.34

29
32

46
46

40
36

1913
1914

22
18

74.7
74.7

.185 13.89
.168 12.56

12
12

10
6

1914
1915

26
23

77.5
82.4

.170 13.22
.161 13.29

12
3

6

1913
1914

411
355

77.7
76.7

.198 15.37
.205 15.66

1

32
32

90
75

167 122
160 1 87

1914
1915

409
366

77.0
77.3

.204 15.66
.199 15.41

1
7

32
30

85
78

196 1 95
140 111

1913
1914

12
12

75.0
76.3

.205 15.30
.213 16.15

4
4

4
2

2

4
4

6 p lan ts........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts........... 1913
1914

18
20

76.2
75.8

.205 15.51
.216 16.24

4
4

4
6

6
6

4
4

38
36

79.2
77.3

.241 19.06
.233 17.92

4

26
20

12
12

fi plants
Pittsburgh—
5 plarits

7 p la n ts...
Southern—
2 plants
3 p la n ts ..
T o t a l17 p la n ts ..
22 plants.
Stock cranemen:
Eastern—
4 p lan ts. . .

6

8
20

1914
6 p lants___
1915
G .L .and M. W .—
5 plan ts......... 1913
1914

42
36

77.8
78.5

.236 18.32
.256 20.26

4
4

26
20

12
12

30
30

80.8
80.4

.246 19.90
.258 20.76

4
4

8
10

18
16

6 plants........... 1914
1915

34
34

80.1
76.9

.257 20.60
.278 21.64

4
12

14
16

16
6

1913
1914

4
2

78.0
78.0

.252 19.66
.223 17.36

4
2

35
36

2 plan ts........... 1914
1915

4
4

81.0
81.0

.221 17.85
.214 17.25

2
2

2
2

37
38

T o t a l15 plan ts......... 1913
1914

84
80

79.1
78.3

.238 18.85
.239 18.70

4
4

8
10

38
34

34
32

39
40

20 p lan ts......... 1914
1915

98
94

78.4
77.4

.237 18.58
.253 19. 77

4
4

12
22

48
44

34
24

29
30
31
32
33
34

Southern—
1 p la n t............




i Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 89.

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

167

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
and Middle West.

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

12
7
60
70
20
14
16
18
8
10
40
25
50
9
30
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
cts.
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. over.




Line
No.

1

68
68

30
4

1
1

68
58

14
26

10
13

14
14

81
70

40
33

32
24

20

14
14

70
20

47
79

24
12

20

28
24

12
8

84
51

20

10

24

20
55

51
65

20

11
12

12
18

13
14

10

1

26
22

1

122
124

123
82

134
84

32
44

1
2

132
94

104
101

108
157

44
12

6
1

6
11

21
22

5
5

13
15

23
24

15
16

20

17
18

20

19
20

29
30

7
6

2

25

30
16

12
18

2

27
28

22
15

8
15

19
12

15
16

2

29
30
1

5

4

31
32
33
34

4
4

35
36

6
1

57
58

19
21

2

5
5

66
47

27
34

3

37
38
5

39
40

168

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOB---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le F .—

FULL-TIME

HOURS

•
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
ber of plants.
No.

1
2

Charging-machine op­
erators:
Eastern—
j

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

PER

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY Y EA RS, 1913 TO 1915— O P E N -

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-tim e hours per
w eek were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ u n ­
der. der der
60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
60 u n ­
un­
der
der
72
84

10
4

4

2

4
4

4
4

4
4

6
6

4
4

.321 25.40
.293 22.57

10

18
8

12
12

78.0
78.0

.297 23.03
.316 24.59

10
10

12
12

12
12

26
24

79.4
75.5

.384 30.54
.360 27.17

8
14

4
6

14
4

26
26

75.7
76.6

.357 26.97
.409 31.42

14
12

8
8

4
6

13
14

1914
1915
Southern— .
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914

6
6

74.0
82.0

.351 25.95
.337 27.64

4

2
2

# 4

15
16

3 plan ts........... 1914
1915

8
8

82.5
82.5

.318 26.21
.290 23.87

2
2

6
6

17
18

Total—
17 plants......... 1913
1914

76
74

78.0
77.0

.335 26.12
.309 23.66

10
4

19
20

22 plan ts......... 1914
1915

86
86

77 4
77.7

.307 23.66
.330 25.55

4
4

21
22

Door operators:
Eastern—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914

26
18

74.6
77.9

.104
.108

7. 75
8.36

8

22
34

76.9
77.5

.113
.123

8.63
9.46

60
60

75.2 ! .103
74.0 .103

7.74
7.61

24
24

8

68
62

74.5
73.5

.103
.104

7.68
7.64

24
24

8
8

|
2;1
8
I
28'
20,1
1
28
28

64
60

78.6
78.2

.123
.113

9.74
8.80

22
20

14'
18!

1913
1914

14
14

73.8 $0.267 $19.52
75.9 .242 18.28

1914
1915

18
18

76.3
76.3

.249 18.96
.259 19.63

1913
1914

30
30

79.6
77.6

1914
1915

34
34

9
10

1913
1914

11
12

3
4
5
6

Pittsburgh—

g
G. L. and M.W —

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

4 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
4 plan ts........... 1913 i
1914
1
5 plan ts........... 1914 :
1915
G .L .a n d M .W .—
6 plants........... 1913 1
1914

33
34

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

35
36

33 plants......... 1914
1915

37
38

T o t a l15 p lan ts......... 1913
1914

39
40

19 plan ts......... 1914
1915

31
32




78.2
77.4

.114
.113
.119
.113

.105. 8.75
.098 8.07

24
18

30
24

28
281

26
28

8
8

2

10
8

*

9.90
9.36

16i 83.3
16i 82.5

1
12 !
28
I
28
26

12
14

8.86
8.75

10i 82.8
10I 82.8

i

64
64

20
22

!

1

22|
26
!

8
12
8
8
8
2
28
22
22
16

2’
2
4

. . . J ........

8
8
14
12

!
16C1 76.9i .112! 8.68
1481 76.8i .108i 8.30 ........

!

........!

32
24

30
36

44
42

54
46

17C1 77.01 .109i 8.35
17€i 76.5; . 1 1 1 8.43

1
I

____i
|

24
24

40
44

54
A
ft
!

52
42

169

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
H EARTH FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

25
40
50
60
30
20
10
12
14
16
18
7
8
9
and
and
and 1 and and and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
8 e l s . |9 cts. 10 ets. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

|
j
i

4
8

6
6

4

!
i

10
8

6
8

2
2

1

4

12
20

18
6

___ 11
___

20
10

10
22

2
1

14

2
1

10
2

1

23
8

2
18

4
2

i

!

J

. 1

t

..

i
I
j

6
6
i
i
j
I
i
i

2

20
27

42
33

10
2

14
12

1

1
1

6
6

4
12

i

29
18

41
38

2
18

11
12

1
i
|
i

10

.

2

13
14
1

15
16

1

i

1

|

*
18
10
i

!
'
1

|
8
8

i

8

28
28

32
32
40
40

4

1

10
12

28
22

!

16
14

24
30

2 0 _____
6

1
14!
16ij

34
32

ft_ .

......
inI ___
1 0 ......
2 ......
2 ___

10i

1
2!j
8
1
1
2i
12
12!

18!
I

:

J . . . J .....1
9
5

6

8
8

I

501
38

48!
46;

40
461

!

44
34

54:
72!

54

€
IS1

!.
|

]
i
|




32!

27
28

1
1
1

!

)
2C ......
6

8

21
22
23
24

8

6

19
20

!

..........1
...........1.........

1
|

|
............i.............

i..........
1
!
'

j

17
18

|
i

1
!
i

1

1

1

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

!
5

30
40

170

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN DUSTK Y .

T a b l e F . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—OPEN-

J ine Occupation, and num ­
Year.
No.
ber of plants.

Melters’ helpers, first:
Eastern—
4 plan ts.........
6 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants.........
6 plants.........

10

G. L. and M. W .6 plants.........
7 plants.........
Southern—
2 plants.........
3 plants.........
Total—
17 plants.......
22 plants.......
Melters’ helpers, sec­
ond:
Eastern—
4 plants.........
6 plants.........

?5

Pittsburgh—
5 plants.........
6 plants.........
G. L. and M. W .6 plants.........
7 plants.........
Southern—
2 plants.........
3 plants.........
T o t a l17 plants.......
22 plants.......




Num ­
ber
of
em­
ploy-

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Over 56
48 and
48
and and un­
iy
earn­ un­ un­ der
ings. der. der. 60
56

1913
1914

74.4 $0.
76.4

1914
1915

77.7
77.8

60

Over
60
and 72
tin­
der
72

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

.337 26.22
.354 27.48

125. 79
24.81

10

1913
1914

160
152

76.2
76.4

.465 35.38
.411 31.37

148
152

1914
1915

168
172

77.0
77.0

.415 31.95
.441 33.93

168
172

1913
1914

122
132,

78.7
71.1

.442 34.56
33.34

1914
1915

1401 71.4
148, 70.9

.463 33.01
.478 33.90

1913
1914

22' 82.9
20 ; 82.

.499 41.35
.470 38.76

1914
1915

83.1
82.6

12

.438 36.27
.420 34.56

36,.
42

1913
1914

364
354

77.1
74.8

.440 33. 89
.424 31.59

36,-

1914
1915

404j 75.6
422 75.5

.420 31.60
.437 32.80

36 .
42 .

1913
1914
1914
1915

72.8
74.4

60

56

200
216
250
264

.231 16.82
.214 15.97

74.9
75.1

58
50

10

.228 17.09
.245 18.39

1913
1914

160
152

75.7
75.4

.317 23.92
.284 21.37

1914
1915

168
172

75.9
76.0

21.75
.310 23. 61

1913
1914

120
130

78.8
76.1

.291 22.76
.305 21.54

36 .

1914
1915

138
146

71.5
70.9

.300 21.27
.304 21.22

36 .
42 .

1913
1914

82.4
82.8

.284 23.39
.260 21. 51

1914
1915

8 3J
8ZT

.248 20. 58
.234 19.35

20
40

1913
1914

360
352

76.7
74.1

.292 22.36
20.67

36

1914
1915

402
420

74.7
74.5

.278 20.70
.291 21. 57

36 .
42 .

134
82

106
100
60

100
102

118
130

171

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
HEAR TH FURNA CES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

i

3
15

1
" ‘

.J

I

j

I
I

I

I

1

I

I
I
i

l

i

i
!

90
101

8
26

66
69

29
14

69
71

2

2
2

6
10

32
36!
1
36
61
1
14
2

2
1

1

8
12

10
6

21
8

9
19

101
124

154
155

96!
46

19
2

i
..........1
...........

i

I*

1 '
”

155
134

174
184

46
98

j
|

1
1
|
1'




4 ............'
^
i............
1
............
2 ............

5
6
7
8

1
............;
9
6 ............i 10
1
6 _____ 1 11
12
2
!............!
4 ............

13
14

J

!

15
16

J ............
10 ............
1
10 _____ !
2
2|

17
18

1

1

2
10

44
38

12
2

10
21

48
53

10!
11

2
9

21
2

12
18

301
86

J
44

2

18
10

90
67

56
91

i

20
26

54
381

|
i

34
36

38
22

2

2
6

12
10

2

12
21

10
5

vs
88

108
136

i
1
..........1
...........
i
..I . . . .
I

1
1
;

1

I

|

1
I

3
4

19
20

1

|

; . . . . i—\ . . j . ; . . . .
*
i

i

68
43

i

1
l

50
8

1

1

1
i

80
76

24
21

i
!

20
66

1
............
i
i

3

2

!
l

l

|

i
i ’

1

5
6

1
I

I
I
I
.
1
..........-...........i...........
...
..1

50
65

1
2

2

6
2

1'
i
i
I

55
35

15
2
i
!
1
I

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

30
14
60
25
40
18
20
12
16
10
7
8
50
9
and and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts.

i

1
j

2
2

4!
12.
1
12 ,
21

112
120

............|
1

............! 23
............> 24

,
2

25
26

2
4

27
28

1
4 6 ..........
63
3

29
30

1

631
86
1
8
2
J
2
|

148
105]

»
22

168
109

i

123
186i,

31
32

J
2
!

33
34
35
36

2
5
.
7

1
1

37
38
39
40

172

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR----IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e F . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—OPEN-

ine Occupation, and num ­ Year.
Jo.
ber of plants.

1
o

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Melters’ helpers, third
(cinder pitmen):
Eastern—

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
1
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

60

Over
60
and 72
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

17
14

8

10
8

.176 13.38
.189 14.41

24
28

18
14

8
12

77.9
75.6

.226 17.56
.211 15.85

88

136
50

48
32

186
182

76.0
76.3

.213 16.15
.228 17.35

88
88

66
58

32
36

1913
1914

183
150

79.9
79.4

.218 17.37
.218 17.24

51
42

24
32

108
76

1914
1915

158
169

79.3
79.4

.217 17.11
.213 16.83

42
43

40
44

76
82

n
14

1913
1914

60
42

73.4
77.1

.185 13.59
.183 14.31

46
20

14
8

14

15
16

3 plan ts........... 1914
1915

48
49

78.0
78.6

.181 14.28
.175 13.89

20
15

8
14

20
20

17
18

Total—
16 plan ts......... 1913
1914

458
392

77.9
77.3

.214 16.64
.207 16.04

4| 114
164

174
98

166
130

19
20

21 plan ts......... 1914
1915

442
454

77.4
77.7

.207 15.98
.212 16.44

174
174

132
130

136
150

18
18
18

77.5
72.7
72.0

.354 27.44
.299 21.75
.318 22.95

16
8

18
2
2

10
10
10

76.8
76.8
76.8

.286 21.86
.286 21.89
.286 21.85

4
4
4

4
4
4

2
2

78.0
78.0

.260 20.28
.255 19.89

4
4

81.0
81.0

.237 19.10
.220 17.78

1913
1914

5
6

50

76.0
76.2

1913
1914

184
170

1914
1915

Pittsburgh—

7
8
9
1ft

75.0 $0,170 $12.82
76.7 .168 12.94

1914
1915

3
4

31
30

G. L. & M. W —

11
1?
Southern—

29
30

Stopper setters:
Pittsburgh—
4 plants........... 1913
1914
1915
!
G. L. andM . W.—
1
4 plants........... 1913
1914
1915
Southern—
1 p lan t............ 1913
1914
i
i
2 plan ts........... 1914
1915

31
32

Total—
9 plan ts........... 1913
1914

30
30

77.3
74.4

.325 25.10
.292 21.67

33
34

10 plan ts......... 1914
1915

32
32

75.0
74.6

.287 21.46
.296 21.96

1913
1914

6
6

73.8
77.8

.331 24.24
.317 24.43

1914
! 1915

12
12

75.9
75.9

.296i 22.42
.317 24.01

1 1913
j 1914

24
24

78.1
74.8

.345( 27.13^
.297 22.15,

4

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Steel pourers:
Eastern—
3 plants...........
5 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants ___

6 plants........... 1 1914
1915




!

26! 75.7’
28! 75.7

. 32C) 24.32*
.3455 26.151

8

2
2
2

2
2
2
2

2
2

4
20

24
8

2
2

8

20
12

8
8;

4
4

2!

2
2!

2!

2
2

6;
6i

4
4;

2
2

18
!
5

6
6

1
i

1
. .

I

!
1

!
|

i
1

S
1

£!

!

!

•

*i
*;

£I
iI

€>
€►

6
6

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

173

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
H E A R T H FU RNACES—Continued.
Emplo 37ees whose rates of wages per hour were—

7
8
10
12
9
14
16
18
20
25
30
40
50
70
60
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
cts.
under imder under under under Under under under under under under under under under and
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. over.

21
22

!

18
22

14

48
34

80
132

44

4

..........1...........
1
1
1
I
! '

10
8

32
18

90
91

30
36

41
1
1
28
24

34
8

24

.

Line
No.

8
42

12

I
1481
____
123:
48
i
:
30
125 '
90
35

10
11
12

20
12

1
..........1 . . .
..........!...........

18
12

22
18

13
14

12
13

.J

1 8 ____
12
i
18
i
58
07 i
42
G
2
|
78
60
90
30

18
6

15
16

20
12

1

12
13

-•

227
240

74
3G

12

17
18

256
237

30
84 1..........

19
20

l
6
10
6

1
i
2
2
2

10
8
12

4
6
6

2

4
2
2

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

2
2
I

29
30

2
4

2

2
2

12
18

14
10

4

18
12

10
14

2
2

2
4

2

3.5
30

4

2
6

6
5

1

37
38

4

2
16

14
8

4

39
40

16
7

8
17

4
4

41
42

1
____

1

6

*I




2

31
32
33
34

!•.........

174

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR----IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

F . — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—OPEN-

Occupation, and num ­ Year.
ber of plants.

Num ­
ber
of
empioy-

Steel pourers—Concld,
G. L .andM . W .—
6 plants........... 1913
1914
7 plants...........
Southern—
2 plants...........
3 plants...........
T o t a l16 plants.........
21 plants.........
Mold cappers:
Eastern—
2 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants...........
6 plants...........
G .L .andM . W 5 plants...........

Average
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
rate tim e
of week­
wages
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

78.0 $0.372 $29.15
78. o; . 356 27.81

1914
1915

78.0
75.6

27.67
29.12

1913
1914'

73.5
73.5

.462 34.05
.444 32. 73

1914
1915

75.6
75.6

.416 31.20'.
.380 28.65 .

1913
1914

77.0
75.9

.370 28.46 .
.339 25.72 .

1914
1915

76.4
75.7

.339 25.91 .
. 35G 2G. 99 .

1913
1914
1915

10 76.6
8! 80.8
10.8

.182 14.03 .
.180 14.57 .
.180 14.57 .

1913
1914

79.1
75.8

.262 20.61 .
.229 17.29 .
I
.231 17.73 .
.252 19.38 .
I
.273 21.58 .
.249 19.45 .
.280 20.47 .

1914
1915

38

70.!
76.!

1913
19J 4
1915

78.9
78.0
73.4

1913
1914

78. G . 255 20.04 .
.231 17.78 .
77.

1914
1915

77.7
76.1

.232 17.96 .
.254 19.24 .

Ladle cranemen:
Eastern—
4 plants........... 1913
1914

74.1
76.0

.259 19.21'.
.242 18.39 .

1914
1915

75.5
75.5

.246 18.63 .
.255 19.27;.

1913
1914

78.2
75.5

.338 26.37'.
.295 22.24 .

1914
1915

76.1
76.1

.300 22.80 .
.320 24.44 .

1913
1914

78.4
78.2

.370 29.08 .
.345 26.87 .

1914
1915

78.2
76.4

26. 71 .
.385 29.44 .

1913
1914

73.5
73.5

.386 28.35 .
.369 27.13 .

1914
1915

75.7
75.6

.344 25.94 .
.325 24.42 .

T o t a l12 plants.........
13 plants.........

6 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants...........
6 plants...........
G. L. & M. W .—
6 plants...........
7 plants...........
Southern—
2 plants...........
3 plants...........




Over
60
60 and 72
un­
der
72

175

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
H E A R TH FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were-

25
40
50
12
30
70
14
16
18
7
8
9
10
60
20
and
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
cts.
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. over.




12
16

6
2

18
11

2
9

4
4
..........1..........
|

2
4
4

2
2
2i

4
18
18
15

4
4

6
4

4

4

32
32

12
2

4
4

9
10

38
37

6
18

4

11
12

8
6
6
4

Line
No.

13
14
15
14
22

2
8

10

30
11

8
27

8
12
9

14
12
10

6

16
17
18
19
20
21
22

7

2
2

12
6

22
34

16
20

16

23
24

2
2

6
6

42
20

20
37

7

25
26

6

8
1

4
7

2
2

27
28

6
6

5
1

7
11

4
4

4

20

38
14

31
32

4
2

20
12

18
28

33
34

1

2
2

24
24

1

2
2

26
18
8
8

3
2

1

29
30

4
37
38

13
!
1

8
8 ..........I

39
40
41
42

176

WAGES AN D H O U RS OE LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e F . — FULL-TIME

HOURS

Num­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy-

Ladle cranemen—Con.
T o t a l17 p la n ts .......... 1913
1914

90

1914
1915

104
107

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS. 1913 TO 1915—OPEN-

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week

Employees whose
week
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate tim e
Over 56
of week­ 48
48
and and and
ly
per earn­ un­ un­ un­
hour. ings. der. der der
60
56

full-time hours per
were—
Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
84
72

77.2 $0,341 $26.34
76.2 .307 23.39
76.5
76.0

1913
1914

79.0
79.0

.183 14.48
.185 14.62

2 plants............. 1914
1915

78.8
78.

.219 17.20
.226 17. 73

1913
1914

72.7
71.9

.352 25.07
.335 23.44

6 plants............. 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W —
6 plants............. 1913
1914

72.9
73.6

.332 23.54
.338 24.40

78.9
77.0

.287 22.53
.279 21.43

7 plants............. 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants............. 1913
1914

77.1
77.6

.285 21.97
.317 24.53

75.0
75.0

.322 23.90
.308 22.90

3 plants............. 1914
1915

78.0
78.0

.278 21.37
.258 19.87

1913
1914

76.0
74.

.302 22.54
.292 21.41

18 plants........... 1914
1915

75.8
76.

.292 21.72
.303 22.76

Engineers,locom otive:
Eastern—
3 plants.......... 1913
1914

74.3
74.

.239 17.64
.238 17. 74

1914
1915

75.0
74.

.229 17.10
.233 17.36!

1913
1914

77.
76.2

.310 24.10 .
21.99

1914
1915

76.
76.9

.292 22.39
.297 22.91

1913
1914

77.6
78.4

.277 21.46
.284 22.19

1914
1915

78.3
78.3

.280 21.90
.280 21.91

1913
1914

73.4
73.6

.323 23.65
.314 22.99

1914
1915

74.7
78.0

22,

.305 23.34
.327 24.92

.307 22.81
.274 21.41

22 plants...........
Ingot strippers:
Eastern—
1 p la n t..............

Pittsburgh—
5 plants.............
10

T o ta l14 plants...........

5 plants..........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants..........
6 plants..........
G .L .and M. W .~
6 plants..........
7 plants..........
Southern—
2 plants..........
3 plants..........
T o ta l16 plants____
21 plan ts.......




1913
1914

119
119

76.
76.3

.295 22.55
.284 21.67

1914
1915

137
138

76.5
77.1

.281 21.51
.279 21.57

10

14

66

177

O PEN -H EA R TH FURN ACES— GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
H E A R TH FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
Lino
12
20
10
7
14
18
25
30
40
50
8
16
60
70
9
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
cts. No.
under under under under under under under under under under, under under under under and
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. over.

I

6

1
1

I

6

i

6

8
6
10
3

6
29,
32
27

!

72
48

4

56
58

i3

1
|
I

1

6
6

1

i

1
i

6

2

1
i

2
2

4
2

j

i

1

L

i

1

11
12

8
9

3
3

1

13
14

5
4
2
2
2
2

.

1

|
i

3
3 _____ 1______

2

..

8
12

4
4

......... L

10

6
2

9
9

_____1________I________

4
3

2

1
i

10
6

2

i

I

3
6

2
2

_______ 1_______ 1_______

|

......... 1
...........
I

.

15
1G

2

17
18
19

20

......... I ............
1

6
6

I

i

2

1
j
i

15
11

5
3

21
22

6
10

15
11

17
20

3
5

23
24

2

i

13
15

6

I

2
4

10
10

4
4

25
26

4

l

17
12

4
6

27
28

24
34
.

34
24

29
30

34
38

28
24

31
32

4
4

16
18

10

4
4

22
22

10
10

I

35
36

4
3

13
12

1

37
38

4

6
9

12
5

1

39
40

2

14
14

48
59

55
46

i

4

21
20

66
75

50
39

!
I

i _____

1

. . J .

i

1

J

j
1

. . J.

...

i

_____
.

..... ....

89728°—17—Bull. 218----- 12




....

_______ ! _______ 1_______
i
i

8
_______ 1

______ 1

|

_

33
34

41
42
1

43
44

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

Table F*—FULL-TIME HOURS

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—OPEN-

A ver­
N um ­ Aver- Aver- age
age
ber fu ll­ rate fu ll­
of
tim e
Occupation,and num ­ Year.
of week­
em- tim e
ber of plants.
ploy- hours per
ly
per
earn­
hour. ings.

Switchmen:
Eastern—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

Em ployees whose full-tim e hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and
un­ u n ­
der der

50
and
un­
der
60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
60 un­
un­
der
der
84
72

74.3 $0.193 $14.28
74.9
14.05
75.0
74.9

.191 14.26
.196 14.62

77.0
75.7

.228 17.57
.220 16.67

6 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W —
6 plants........... 1913
1914

76.0
76.4

.224 17.03
.228 17.48

77.6
79.0

.237 18.37
.244 19.27

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

78.9
78.9

.239 18.82
.235 18.55

73.4
73.6

.263 19.22
.253 18.55

3 plants........... 1914
1915

74.7
78.0

18.43
.223 17.32

5 p la n ts.. . . . . 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

66

Total—
16 plants......... 1913
1914

127
131

76.
76.3

.230 17.55
.227 17.32

21 plants......... 1914
1915

149
150

76.5
77.0

.226 17.29
.225 17.33

Laborers:
Eastern—
4 plants........... 1913
1914

113
46

63.1
65.1

10.49
10.81

67.2
64.3

11.29
.171 10.90

424

78.5
71.9

.190 14.86
.187 13.50

6 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W —
6 plants........... 1913
1914

414
349

71.3
72.8

.188 13.38
.193 13.98

214
213

79.0
69.4

.190 15.01
.192 13.32

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

221

69.5
71.9

.191 13.30
.191 13.74

73.7
74.7

13

.152 11.02
.152 11.22

6 plants___. . . 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

3 plants......... .

235

41

62
120
62

1914
1915

112

64.3
63.4

10.75
9.

91

93

Total—
17 plants....... . 1913
1914

800

76.2
70.8

.185 14.05
.186 13.15

38
105

1914
1915

805
723

69.5
70.8

.185 12.84
.186. 13.19

219
155

22 p la n ts.._
_




55
111
112

159

154
35

179

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
H E A R TH FURNACES—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

18
20
25
40
60
30
8
12
16
50
7
9
14
10
and
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
under under under under under under under under under under tinder under under under
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts.




Line
No.

10
8

6
6
2

11
12

12
10

36
50

18
6

10
10

50
49

10
7

..........j

16
12

12
24

4

2

70
cts.
and
over.

12
18

24
22

8
8

I

4
3

i
1

12

13
14

j

i

15
16

|
i
[

6
6

12
10

66
73

43
42

2

8
8

16
10,!
1

79
97

46
29

31
11

4!
20

41
15

i
t

11
20

31
3;

16
23

..........i...........

133
157

82
70

209
l^r
i

.
4

1

1
!
i

11

12

............

|

13
12

6
18

!
4

i
1

17
18
19
20

j '

i
I

i
........... j
1
1
............i
1

................
|

!
I

21
22
23
24
25
26

157
81

70
65

187
203

64
50

66
82

84
81

29
30

50 .
52

90
89

81
94

31
32

27
28

7
51
I
5i
4j

22
14
14
8

93
81

7
5

53
25

258
239

189
167

293
236

37
38

5>
4

25
28

331
217

176
177

268
297

40

33
34

20
12
i

35
36

180

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le

F.—
FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—OPENl

Num ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year.
of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy;
ees.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

U nclassified—produc­
tive:
Eastern—
6 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
6 plants
. * 1914
1915
G. L .andM . W .—
7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
3 plants
__ 1914
1915
T o ta l22 plants......... 1914
1915

U nclassified—
-nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
6 plants........... 1914
11
1915
12
Pittsburgh—
6 plants........... 1914
13
1915
14
G. L .andM . W —
6 plants........... 1914
15
1915
16
Southern—
3 plants........... 1914
17
1915
18
19
20

T o t a l21 plants.........




1914
1915

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der. der
60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
84
72

60

1

13
34

56
35

6
10

36
43

28
49

51
70

45
45

' 4

13
18

78.3
77.9

.213 16.71
.225 17.53

6
6

128
176

77.2
77.9

.237 18.22
.223 18.04

5 - 2

64
69

74.4
75.7

.217 16.01
.204 15.40

849
917

75.3
75.4

.217 16.29
.227 17.11

2

265
259

68.9
67.1

.235 15.96
.236 15.34

2

268
273

78.1
77.1

.226 17.61
.239 18.44

435
457

71.1
68.9

.228 16.03
.233 15.97

173
159

76.4
76.3

.213 15.96
.216 15.81

3
7

3

1,141
1,148

73.1
71.5

.227 16.37
.233 16.39

5
7

36
74

13

2

2
2

6

233 i 182
260 i 191

3

89
106

308
332

72
59

6
8

31
19

7
9

7
4

12

9

48
51

19
17

98
71

15
79

26
69

185
180

16

38
24

3

15

1

21

3
5

71

108
140

226
227

15

13

12

35
64
7

1

177
134

120

i Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 98.

13

166 i 108
165 190

8

12

10

171
209

349
331

12

35
40

70
62

71.2 SO 212 $15.06
.
71.7 .231 16.57

2

4
4

4

308
341

64
48

48
52

38 2144
55 a 130
6

95
52
110

98

121 2 397

114 * 332

181

O PE N -H E A R T H FURN ACES---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT,
H E A R T H FURNACES—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

12
14
16
8
7
18
20
25
30
9 ' 10
60
50
40
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under, under under under under
8 cts. 9 cts. 10 cts. 12 cts. 14 cts. 16 cts. 18 cts. 20 cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts.

.

■ 1___

62
50

154
107

41
124

2
12

36
22

12
13

1

36
34

48
35

208
179

52
68

26
31

63
80

18
22

16
27

15
22

6
10

1
1

11
4

6
7

3
4
2

8
15

13
9

5
2

20
28:

88
79

142
123

440
388

117
224

34
70

1
3

5

10
17

29
40

39
33

76
70

74
58

15
20

22
15

I
1




73
16

20
25

92
132

42
58

39
38

50
4

2

76
142

219
203

41
48

24
23

1

16
25

64
63

9
11

51
28

10
10

19
15

1
5

26
44

216
123

144
211

438
433

167
174

97
96

2 Including

5
6

2

5
2

1

Line
No.

1
2

5
27

3
14

......1......

70
cts.
and
over.

7
8
2

9
10

1
1

2
2 '...........
19
31

44
49

13
14

6
6

1
H.......
i
6
6

1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.

11
12

15
16
2
6

17
18

2
7

19
20

PUDDLING MILLS.1
SUMMARY.

Wages and hours of labor in the puddling-mill department are
presented for the first time in this series of reports. Figures are given
for 1914 and 1915.
The puddling mill produces wrought iron by oxidizing and remov­
ing most of the silicon, carbon, manganese, and phosphorus contained
in pig iron, the operation being conducted on the hearth of a reverbatory furnace.
Puddlers work in different combinations in the various plants:
First, puddler and helper, the puddler receiving a larger tonnage rate
than the helper; second, two puddlers, dividing the earnings equally—
“ level-handed” ; third, two puddlers (“ level-handed” ) with a helper;
fourth, three puddlers, dividing the earnings into three equal shares—■
“ three-handed.”
The busheling process is practically the same as the puddling,
except that scrap iron is charged instead of pig iron and th at each
heat requires a shorter time.
The depression which affected other departments of the industry
in 1914 and 1915 was felt to even a greater degree in puddling mills
and in addition labor troubles caused the closing of some mills for
several months.
Considering the department as a whole, full-time weekly earnings
of all employees combined were 5 per cent lower in 1915 than in 1914,
rates of wages per hour being 4 per cent lower and full-time hours
per week 2 per cent lower. Comparing the various separate occupa­
tion groups there were reductions of from 1 to 12 per cent in the
full-time weekly earnings of employees in 16 groups in 1915 as com­
pared with 1914, increases of from 1 to 12 per cent in 9 groups, and
weekly earnings in one group were unchanged. These facts are shown
in the table of relative numbers on pages 185 and 186.
The most significant facts appearing in this chapter concerning the
several occupations of the puddling-mill department are summarized
in averages and percentages in the table following. D ata are pre­
sented from identical plants for the years 1914 and 1915. The figures
for 1914 represent 4,606 employees, and for 1915, 4,472 employees,
in 26 specified occupations, covering all occupations of a puddling
mill, including muck rolling and shearing. The information on which
the figures are based was obtained from 29 plants having 754 fur­
naces, capable of producing 49 per cent of the total tonnage of all
1 Summary figures relating to th is department are given w ith figures for other departments of th e iron
and steel industry on pages 7 to 26; an account of th e volum e of employm ent in th is and other
departm ents from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of th e
scope of th e investigation and of th e methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.

182




183

PUDD LING M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

puddle furnaces in the United States. In this report a double fur­
nace is counted as 2 single furnaces.
In Table 22 , which follows, occupations are grouped according to
the wages paid, beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occu­
pations in each group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified
full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by
percentages, which were computed from the actual figures given in
Table G.
T a b l e 22.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S PE Jl W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1914 A N D 1915—P U D D L IN G M IL L S .

A ver­
N um ­ age
full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. ber of time
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees.
week.

Laborers:
24 plan ts................

Bloom boys:
25 plan ts................
Bushelers’ helpers:
1 2 plan ts................
Heaters’ helpers:
8 plan ts..................
Hook-ups:
27 p la n ts................
Hotbed men:
26 plan ts................
Puddlers’ helpers:
15 plan ts................

1914
1915

322
303

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
A ver­
per week were—
hour were—
age
rate 1 2 14 16 18 2 0
Over 56
of and and and and and
72
60
48
48
and and and and and wages un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­ un­ un­ per der der der der der
un­ un­
der. der der der der hour. 14 16 18 2 0
25
72
84
60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
56

18
35

59.5
57.5

63
51

1

SO 173
.
.167

4
3

9
36

56
38

9

1914
1915

77

1914
1915

112

54.3
53.9

16
18

53
49

19
19

90

49.0
50.0

50
42

35
45

15

1914
1915

48
52

52.3
52.3

50
46

29
35

1M4
1915

97
94

54. 4
53.8

19
19

45
48

14
13

1914
1915

117
112

54.2
54.2

21
22

42
38

17
16

64
70

35
29

68

8

11

.2 0 1

15

.199

34
26

5

.264
.246

18

23 HO. 35
17 9.66

6

16 2 0 30
U n­ and and and
der un­ un­ un­
16 der der der
cts. 2 0 30 40
cts. cts. cts.
----- — ----- -----

1914
475 55.2
2
456 52.8
2
1915
P u d d l e r s , threehanded:
255 47.1
6 plan ts.................. 1914
58
68
1915
285 46.8
Roll engineers:
23 plan ts................ 1914
47 66.9
45 66.9
1915
R oll hands, other:
8 plan ts................. 1914
17 51.9
18
1915
14 53.6
21
Shearmen:
19 p la n ts. - ............ 1914
43 57.3
39 57.8
1915
Shearmen’s helpers:
2 0 plan ts................ 1914
110
58.0
1915
109 58.1
Stockers:
28 plants ................ 1914
300 57.6
12
1915
304 58.1
10
U nclassified—produc­
tive:
27 p lan ts................ 1914
354 56.8
18
1915
328 55.0
25
Unclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
2 1 plants................ 1914
147 65.1
4
1915
146 62.9
5
1 Includes 7 per cent working 84 hours.




18
14

Aver­
age
full­
time
w eek­
ly
earn­
ings.

40
cts.
and
over

36
44

12

21

9

10. 79
1 0 . 62

7

9
7

51
50

39
35

12. 79
12.09

.311
.308

4
4

10
12

42
40

35
35

22
20

.251
.233

17
24

20

19

41
30

22

7 13. 58
4 12. 40

19
25

.245
.243

5
13

23

54
55

15
19

3 13.10
4 12.98

.241
.224

2
2

14

79

21

66

6
11

13.25
11. 78

49
71

48
27

55
58

17
18

53
50

35
14
21

13
12

8
8

42
32

1

10

.299
.302

4
4

4
4

56
51

59
36

24
29

47
41
47
46

15

4
4

23

.286
.295 1**14

12

14

14
15

40
44

. 239
.247

19
15

16
13

42
46

13

40
42

. 192
.196

25
30

14

12

8

39
37

6
6

41
46

.205
.204

7
12

36
34

5
4

33
27

.223
.242

14
18

16'
25

48 1 30 .226
1
32 52
8
5
3
43 2 25 .225 1 0 29 56
3
2 Includes 8 per cent working 84 hoars.

36
40

1
1

9
10

.239
.242

20

8
10

2
2

15. 63
15. 53

14.03
14.09
15.92
16.14

21

14. 75
15.86

23

2 13.70
3 14.40

62
58

4

11.23
11.50

24
19

68
66

2

31
28

42
36

9

11.78
11.85

1

8

12.32
9 12.78

6

2
2

14.47
13.80

184

WAGES AND H O U E S OF LABOE— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 2 2 — FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TES OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1914 A N D 1 9 1 5 -P U D D L I N G M I L L S —Concluded.
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
Aver­
per week were—
age
rate
Over 56
72
60
of
48
48
and and and and and wages
un­ un­ un­ per
un­ un­
der. der der der der hour,
84
72

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per Aver­
hour were—
age
full­
tim e
30 40 50
Un­ and and and 60 w eek­
de] un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
30 der der der and earn­
cts. 40 50 60 over, ings.
cts. cts. cts.

50.4
53. 6

SO 462
.
.413

$23.14
22.03

G
7

47.1
45.7

.418
.419

274
246

43.4
44.9

.565
.523

AverN um ­ age
full­
Occupation,and num­ Year. ber o? tim e
ember of plants.
ploy- hours
per
week,

56

Bushelers:
4 plan ts................ . 1914
1915
B a s h e l e r s , level­
handed:
6 plants.............. . 1914
1915
B u s h e l e r s , level­
h a n d e d (w it h
helpers):
9 p lan ts.................. 1914
1915
B u s h e l e r s , threehanded:
1914
3 plan ts..............
1915
Catchers:
27 plan ts................ 1914
1915
Puddlers:
13 plants................ 1914
1915
P u d d l e r s , levelhnnded:
1914
17 p la n ts..............
1915
P u d d le r s ,
levelh a n d e d (w ith
helpers):
2 p lan ts................ . 1914
1915
Roughers:
2 0 plan ts................ 1914
1915

42. S
43.0

. 100
100

23.97
23.16

. 556
.627

91

53.4
52.8

458
422

54.8
52.4

896
924

49.3
48.0

. 416
.392

54.
52.5

50

23.84
26.92

.340
.324

51.9
51.8

9 ........

11
80

.362
.363

20.07
19.37

25

35

.416
.390

35

18.99
18.89

(J)

12

22.76
20.45

0)

15

20.37
18.60

18.22
17.01

38

•

21

22.17
9 21.69

40 50 60
U n ­ and and and 70
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
40 der der der and
0
cts. 50 0 70 over.
cts. cts. cts.
Heaters:
9 plants.
Rollers:
24 plan ts.

1914
1915
1914
1915

53.1
52.4

. 709 . . . .
. 730 ..

61.0
50.

1

12__

24

11

35.28
36.37
29.38
29.89

Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Twenty-four plants employed 322 laborers (tlie first occupation
presented in the table above) in 1914 and 303 in 1915. The average
full-time hours per week were reduced two hours, from 59.5 in 1914
to 57.5 in 1915; in 1915 35 per cent of the 303 employees worked
over 48 and under 56 hours per week, 14 per cent 56 and under 60,
and 51 per cent 60 and under 72 hours. The average rate of wages
per hour decreased from 17.3 cents in 1914 to 16.7 cents in 1915; 3 per
cent of the 303 employees in 1915 earned 12 and under 14 cents per
hour, 36 per cent 14 and under 16 cents, 38 per cent 16 and under
18 cents, 6 per cent 18 and under 20 cents, and 17 per cent 20 and
under 25 cents. The average full-time weekly earnings decreased




185

PUDDLING M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

from $10.35 in 1914 to $9.66 in 1915. The full-time weekly earnings
in 1915 of 1 occupation were $9.66, of 14 occupations from $10.62
to $16.14, of 9 other occupations from $17.01 to $26.92, and those of
rollers $29.89, and of heaters $36.37.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

To aid in making a comparison of the earnings and hours in the
two years, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages given in Table 22 and these are printed in Table 23. The
figures for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent, and the
relative for 1914 is the per cent th at the average for 1914 is of the
average for 1915. For example, the relative full-time weekly earn­
ings of stockers in 1914 were 99 as compared with 100 in 1915—th a t is,
the full-time weekly earnings in 1914 were 99 per cent of the full­
time w
reekly earnings in 1915.
Table 23 also shows for each occupation and for all occupations
combined the per cent of increase or decrease in hours, rates of
wages, and weekly earnings in 1915 as compared with 1914, computed
from the relative numbers. For example, weekly earnings of puddiers
decreased 10 per cent in 1915 as compared with 1914. The actual
difference between the relative numbers is 1 1 , which divided by 1 1 1 ,
the relative for 1914, gives 10 (9.9), the per cent of the decrease.
T a b l e 23.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1914 A N D 1915, TO G E TH E R W IT H PE R CENT OF
INCREASE OR D E C R EA SE IN 1915, B Y OCCUPATIONS—P U D D L IN G M IL L S .
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1914..........................................
1915...................
Puddiers:
1914..............................
1915........................................
Puddiers, level-handed:
1914........................................
1915..........................................
Puddiers, level-handed (w ith
helpers):
1915...........................
Puddiers, three-handed:
1914...........................
1915.................................
Puddiers’ helpers:
1914....................................
1915..........................................
Bushelers:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Bushelers, level-handed:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Bushelers, level-handed (with
helpers):
1915..........................................




W eekly earnings.

Per cent
of increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in 1915 as
compared
w ith 1914.

R elative
full-time
hours per
week.

Per cent
of increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in 1915 as
compared
w ith 1914.

R elative
rate of
wages per
hour.

99
100

+1

101
100

-

1

99
_100

+ 1

105
100

—5

107
100

—7

111
100

-1 0

103
100

-3

106
100

-

6

110
100

- 9

103
100

-3

105
100

-

5

107
100

—7

101
100

- 1

99
100

+

1

100
100

105
100

-5

108
100

—7

113
100

-1 2

94
100

+ 6

112
100

-1 1

105
100

- 5

103
100

-3

100
100

104
100

-

4

97
100

+3

108
100

104
100

-

4

iN o change.

0

)

-

7

Relative
full-time
weekly
earnings.

Per cent
of increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in 1915 as
compared
w ith 1914.

0

)

186

WAGES AN D HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 23.—R E L A T IV E FTJLL-TIME H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES PE R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1914 A N D 1915, T O G ETH ER W IT H P E R CENT OF
IN C R E A SE OR D E C R EA SE IN 1915, B Y OCCUPATIONS—P U D D L IN G M IL L S —Concluded.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Relative
full-time
hours per
week.

Occupation and year.

Bushelers, three-handed:
1914..........................................
1915.
.
...............
Bushelers’ helpers:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Heaters:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Heaters’ helpers:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Bloom boys:
1914.........................................
1915..........................................
Roll engineers:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Rollers:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Rougher s:
1914..........................................
1915............: ............................
Catchers:
1914r.........................................
1915..........................................
Hook-ups:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Roll hands, other:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Hotbed men:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
Shearmen:
1914................
. ..
1915..........................................
Shearmen’s helpers:
1914............
..........
1915..........................................
Laborers:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
U nclassified—productive:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
U nclassified—nonproductive:
1914..........................................
1915..........................................
A ll occupations:
1914........................................
1915..........................................

100
100

Per cent
of increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in 1915 as
compared
w ith 1914.

0

Relative
rate of
wages per
hour.

0

100
100

100
100

100
100

-1

0)

89
100

+

107
100

- 7

106
100

—

+ 3

97
100

+ 3

-

1

101
100

—

1

101
100

-

1

102
100

—

2

+

1

99
100

+

1

98
100

+

2

98
100

+

2

102
100

C
1)

+12

99
100

- 1

101
100

Per cent
of increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in 1915 as
compared
w ith 1914.

101
100

(0

)

101
100

R elative
full-time
w eekly
earnings.

97
100

+ 2

100
100

Per cent
of increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in 1915 as
compared
w ith 1914.

89
100

)

98
100

W eekly earnings.

-

2

102
100

—

2

C
1)

101
100

—

1

12

6

101
100

—1

100
100

101
100

—1

108
100

—7

110
100

—9

97
100

+3

97
100

+ 3

93
100

+

8

101
100

—

1

101
100

-

1

97
100

+ 3

95
100

+ 5

98
100

+

2

98
100

+

100
100

0)

99
100
100
100

+1
0

)

2

104
100

—4

104
100

—4

107
100

—7

103
100

—3

92
100

+ 9

96
100

+ 4

104
100

—4

100
100

)

105
100

—5

102
100

—2

104
100

—4

105
100

—5

-

0

i No change.
F U L L -T IM E W ORKING D A Y S P E R W EEK .

The number and per cent of employees in puddling mills whose
customary working time per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or
7 days, or variations thereof, are shown in Table 24.
In 1915 24 per cent worked 5 turns per week; 50 per cent worked 6
days one week and 5 nights the next; 1 1 per cent were employed in
three shifts in 24 hours, two working 5 days each only (Monday to




187

PUDD LING M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

Friday) while the third worked a turn on Saturday, making 6 for
the week; 13 per cent worked 6 days per week; 1 per cent 6 and 7
turns alternately; and 1 per cent 7 days per week.
T a b l e 24.— N U M B E R A N D P E R

CENT OF E M PL O Y EE S IN EACH D ISTRICT W ORKING
EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S PE R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S, 1914 A N D 1915—P UDD L IN O M IL L S .
[The figures for each year are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose custom­
ary working tim e per week was—

District, and
number of
plants.

Eastern:
9 plan ts..
Pittsburgh:
7 plan ts..
G. L. & M.W.
8 plan ts..
Southern:
5 plants..

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

Per cent of employees whose custom ­
ary working tim e per week was—

5
5
days,
6
days
days
days
5
and days,
and
and
7
6 and 6 7
7
5
7
days days. days. days
6 days. days days.
alter­
alter­
alter­ days
nate­
nate­ in
nate­
ly.
ly. rota­
ly.
tion.

5
5
days,
days
5
and days,
6 and
5
days. days
6
alter­ days
nate­ in
ly. rota­
tion.

1914
1915

1,656
1,506

402

1914
1915

1,580
1,640

1,342
1,265

36
204

174
147

1914
1915

913
850

446
453

329
293

132

1914
1915

457
476

Total:
29 plants.. 1914
1915

205
206

20
0

114
118

4,606 1 600 2
4,472 21,093 2,238

,!

26

239

23
59

(s)
(3
)

(a)
77

(3
)
(«
)

136
150
365
497

681
595

1 Including 247 employees who worked 5 days and
2 Including 216 employees who worked 5 days and
* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

6
6

days alternately for 5 months of the year.
days alternately for 5 months of the year.

Two general tables also are presented for this departm ent:
Table G.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1914 and 1915.
Table H .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1914 and 1915.
The facts from Table G are summarized in Table 22 , percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables G and H
and the table of relative numbers follows th a t of the processes of
manufacture. “ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this
report, are identical units of identical establishments reporting the
same occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation see page 58.
Descriptions of the occupations which appear in the tables of this
chapter and of other occupations of the puddling departm ent in­
cluded in the two groups designated as “ Unclassified—productive,”
and “ Unclassified—nonproductive / 7 are to be found in the Glossary
of Occupations, pages 484 to 486.




188

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T able

G .—FU L L -T IM E

HOURS

PER

W E E K , R A T E S O F W AGES P E R
B Y Y E A R S , 1914 A N D 1915—
[The figures for each group of

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60

Over
60

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Stockers:
28 plants................. 1914
1915
Puddlers:
13 plants................. 1914
1915
P u d d le r s , le v e l ­
handed:
17 plants................. 1914
1915
Puddlers, level-hand­
ed (w ith helpers):
2 plants................... 1914
1915
P u d d le r s , th re e handed:
6 plants................... 1914
1915
Puddlers’ helpers:
15 plants................. 1914
1915
Bushelers:
4 plants................... 1914
1915
Bushelers, l e v e l ­
handed:
6 plants................... 1914
1915
Bushelers, level-handed (withhelpers):
9 plants................... 1914
1915
Bushelers, t h r e e handed:
3 plants................... 1914
1915
Bushelers’ helpers:
1 2 plants................. 1914
1915
Heaters:
9 plants................... 1914
1915
Heaters’ helpers:
8 plants................... 1914
1915
Bloom boys:
25 plants................. 1914
1915
Roll engineers:
23 plants................. 1914
1915
Rollers:
24 plants................. 1914
1915
Roughers:
2 0 plants................. 1914
1915
Catchers:
27 plants................. 1914
1915
Hook-ups:
27 plants................. 1914
1915
Roll hands, other:
8 plants................... 1914
1915
Hotbed men:
26 plants................. 1914
1915




300
304

57.6 SO 205 111.78
.
58.1 .204 11.85

458
422

54.8
52.4
49.3
48.0

.416 20.37
.392 18.60

34
68

54.3
52.5

.340 18.22
.324 17.01i

255
285

47.1
46.8

.299 14. o j
.302 14.09

475
456

55.2
52.8

. 241 13.25
.224 11.78

18
19

50.4
53.6

.462 23.14
.413 22.03

98
67

47.1
45.7

.418 20.07
.419 19.37

274
246

43.4
44.9

.565 23.97
.523 23.16

54
27

42.8
43.0

.556 23.84
.627 26.92

112

96

49.0
50.0

.264 12. 79
.246 12.09

25
27

51.0
50.9

.709 35.28
.730 36.37

48
52

52.3
52.3

84

.416 22.76
.390 20.45

898
924

72

and
un­
der

72

72

56

1
2

Over

60

and
un­
der

.311 15.63
.308 15.53

77 54.3
6 8 ; 53.9

32|
37!

442
596

91
104

332

147
195
302
318

222
174

10. 79
.199• 10.62

41

.2 0 1

21

47 66.9> .2391 15.92
451 66.9' .242! 16.14

18

661 53.1
.573! 29.38
64: 52.4: .583 29.89

I:
10.

71 51.91 .436i 22.17
691 51.81 .426i 21.69
53.4: . 3625 18.99
52. $
1 .3631 18.89

14

97; 54.4t .251l 13.58
94 53.S . 23c\ 12.40
I

14

91.
;
8£

10

1

12
10

I
17^ 51. C . 28fi 14.75
14 53.t) .295 15.86
117
112

1

}
54.S . 245 13.10
54. S . 243 12.98
!

25
2>
5

49
421

17 .
15 .

4 .
4'.

2
0
18l

19 .
23 .

15
16

PUDD LING M ILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

189

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EAR NING S, IN THE U N IT E D STATES,
PUD D LING M ILLS.
years are for identical plants.]
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
and
un­
der
10
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.
2
2

3
5

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.
35
30

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
35
cts.

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

35
40
and and
un­ un­
der der
45
40
cts. cts.

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

65
and
70 Line
un­ cents No.
der and
70 over.
cts.

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

3
7

27
23
4
8

17 260
82 223

47
5

85
38

35
56

7
8

2
I

28
37

48
49

20 93
50 211

480
447

189
66

28
30

2
6

2

12
4

8
60

6
4

8

126 105
3 198 57

20

36 177
28 179
1
2

17
30

18
21

6
6

6
8

1
3

10
11
12

5

3
2

2
1

3
1

3
3

3
2

3

15
10

2
11

4
6

14
26

35

7
2

2

6

6

26
17

14
24

33
40

51
60

12
9

18

2
1

4

2

3
1

26
52

4

9
7

96
18

13

1
2

5
59

60 278
36 284
2

o

5
5

1
1

1
3

1

27
40

30
8

1

13
14

3
2
4

4
4

15
16

46
26

35
17

15
24

48
21

17
18

9

3
3

3
6

6
9

19

.J

44
34

4

__
4

2
3

12
16

23
24

4

25

3I
3f

20
21
22

2
2
1
1

6
5.
2

3
3

13
12

7
9

12
11

5
7

191
10•

5
5

9
9

4
7

7
6

2
1

2!

2!
7

9'
2;

24
23
14
12!

12:
14

8
8

l

2
!

2
3

5
5

4
3;

8;
8i

12
11

8
10'

8
4

1
2

4

1

15
20

31
32

4
2!

7
4

16i
14

9•
10i

5
5

13
121

4

2
10i

5
4

8
2

2

33
34

16► 15
11 2C
I

17
14

10i
8I

10I

4

2;
6

6
l

'2

2 13:
!
i
13! 1£> C
S Ii
1
£
(;
1
]

4
2!

1
2

2

3
!
3
!
2

1
2
5

1
1
]L
I

1
}

>
2

lc1
I tI

cr

iJ

4

4I
I
5

£
>
1
3
5

5
I
1()

2()
1()




12!
12!

14L IS;
lci U >
]
]
\r

].

325

4c
;

ie;

13I
ii

27
28
29
30

22!

31

4

1

4[
4I

7

35
36
37
38
40
41
42

190

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T able 6 . —FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
B Y Y EA RS, 1914 AND 1915—

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
em­
No.
ber of plants.
hours
ploy- per
week.

1
2

Shearmen:
19 plants...........

1914
1915
Shearmen’s helpers:
3
2 0 plants................. 1914
4
1915
Laborers:
5
24 plants................. 1914
6
1915
U nclassified—productive:
7
27 plants................. 1914
8
1915
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
2 1 plants................. 1914
9
10
1915




Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time
Over
Over
of week­ 48 Over 56
72
60
48
and and and 60 and 72 and
ly
un­
per earn­ un­ un­
un­
un­
hour. ings. der. der der
der
der
60
72
84r
56

57.3 $0,239 $13.70
57.8 .247 14.40

110
109

58.0
58.1

303

59.5
57.5

.173 10.35
.167 9 . 6 6

354
328

56.8
55.0

. 223 12.32
.242 12.78

14'
146

65.1
62.9

.226 14.47
.225 13.

10

.192 11.23
.196 11.50
107
62

134
107

127
113

32

47

PUDD LING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

191

H O UR, AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EAR NING S, IN THE U N ITED STATES;
P U D D L I N G M I L L S —Concluded.

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10 12 14
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10 12 14 16
cts. cts. cts. cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20 25 30
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
20 25 30 35
cts. cts. cts. cts.

35
40
and and
un­ un­
der der
45
40
cts. cts.

14
5

17
38

2
0
15

5

10




5
5

cts.

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

65
and
70 Line
un­ cents No.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

60
59
28
17

60
45
31
35

50
and
un­
der

l

13
14

12 15 11
12 21 6
12 30 179
10 109 116

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

3
4

73 .
51 .

5

6

128

8
6

16
7

19
33

40
42

37
40

15
18

13

11

7

8
9

10

192

WAGES AN D H O U RS OP LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T able H.—FULL-TIME HOURS

PER WEEK,

RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1914 AND 1915—

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and

Num ­
ber
Occupation, district,
of
Line
and n u m b e r of Year. em­
No.
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Stockers:
Eastern—
9 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
7 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
1914
1915
Southern—
1914
1915
Total—

1914
1915

Tuddlers:
Eastern—
8 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
1914
1 plant............
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1914
1915
T o ta l13 plan ts......... 1914
1915

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der
der. der 60
56

8
11

84

13
15

8

31
25

68

73

55.1
55.6

.231 12.54
.233 12.82

15
15

32
32

124
137

60.8
61.1

.208 1 2 . 6 6
.209 12.84

26
29

56.2
55.7

.157
.156

8.71
8.58

5
7

7
7

4
3

6
8

4
4

300
304

57.6
58.1

.205 11.78
.204 11.85

37
30

118
112

18
17

32
37

91
104

379
339

55.2
52.3

.406 22.42
.367 19.22

315
301

64
38

56
65

51.4
51.7

.514 26.39
.527 27.24

3
5

54.5
54.5

.515 28.09
.488 26.57

20

13

57.7
57.9

.316 18.26
.283 16.38

458
422

54.8
52.4

.416 22.76
.390 20.45

114
130

56.5
55.4

.341 19.39
.294 16.32

72
85

48
48

9
7

4
4

4
4

47
58
3
5
20

13
9
7

365
364;

47.7
46.0

.435 20.73
.424 19.48

406
552

80
84

48.2
47.5

.466 22.59
.404 19.14

36
44

40
44

57.6
57.5

.2 2 0

896
924

49.3
48.0

.416 20.37
.392 18.60

Puddlers, level-hand­
ed, (with helpers):
Pittsburgh—
1 p la n t............ 1914
1915
Southern—
1 p lan t............ 1914
1915

16
44

49.0
49.0

.395 19.33
.330 16.15

18
24

59.0
59.0
54.3
52.5

.340 18.22
.324 17.01

!

.292 17.23
.315 18.57

34

256
114

84
51 r ***

82

32
54

666




Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

2

17

662

1914
1915

18
18

55.3:SO.197 S10.78
55.8 .183 10.13

Total—
17 plan ts......... 1914
1915

35
36

14
14

82
65

P u d d le r s , le v e l­
handed:
Eastern—
6 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Pitsburgh—
6 plan ts........... 1914
1915
G.L. and M .W .—
3 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plan ts........... 1914
1915

Total—
2 plants

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

76

J ____

44 1
40'____I____
1

68

40
44’

1 2 .6 6

.190 10.95
442
596

332
208

122^
120

16
44
18
24
16>
44

18
24

........ 1.........
i

193

P UDD LING M ILLS----GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
P U D D L I N G MILLS.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

E m ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—
18
25
35
14
16
20
30
8
12
10
and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­
der der der der der der der der der der
14
25
30
35
12
16
18
20
40
10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

4

28

10

20

15
7

28
15

2
2

6
6

37
39

20

12
12

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

65
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70 Line
cents No.
and
over.

1
2

7
4

2
2

i

40
and
un­
der
45
cts.

110

I
. . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 . . . . .

2
2

3
5

13

3

11

6

2
2

3
5

17
30

3
3

35
30

19

3
7

3
4
5

6

123
I
l

2
2

3r ,77
>
28 179

27
23
|
i

9

10

3
79

259

45
5

221

2

l

|

3

68

15
4

4
t
71

35
54

*

14
3

1

1
!
2
1

8

*

17
82

260
223

47
5

42
48

20

26

26

40

20

2

67
169

424
401

155
58

16
30

6

12

2

22

30
46

34

8

22

8

1
6
8

28
15'I

6
8

2 «!
371
1

48
49

..........1...........
85
38

35
56

7

1

50

93
211

17
18

20

1

21
22
23
24
25
26

2

8

27
28

1
20J

15
16

19

2

8

6

20

20

i

!
1

1

2

13
14

I

1

2

1
!
2

i

11
12

1

34

2

1

1

8

3
7j

1
1

'

7

i

480
447

189

28
30

66

2
6

29
30

2
1

..........

I

2

2!
3S

6

12
2

1

6
2 2

12

1

fI
60'

4

89728°— 17—B u ll. 218------ 13




8

4

1

1

|

____1_____
ei
41

!

•
!

1

1

8

1
1

31
32
33
34
35
36

194

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

H.—
FULL-TIME

Occupation, district,
and n u m b e r o f
plants.

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1914 AND 1915—

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Year. em­ tim e
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

P u d d le r s , th r e e handed:
Pittsburgh— *
228
258

1914
1915

27
27

46.2
46,3

.346 15.99
.343 15.86

27
27

1914
1915

255
285

47.1
46.8

.299 14.03
.302 14.09

147
195

1914
1915

379
339

55.7
52.8

.287 13.17
.213 11.18

1914
1915

64
87

51.1
51.0

.289 14.76
.278 14.24

1914
1915
Southern—
3 p la n ts.......... 1914
1915

3
5

54.5
54.5

.298 16.24
.282 15.37

29
25

58.1
58.4

.182 10.58
.182 10.62

T o t a l15 plants......... 1914
1915

475
456

55.2
52.8

.241 .13.25
.224 11.78

9
7

302
318

9

45.0
47.5

.509 23.21
.531 26.39

6

6

3
3

5
5

54.5
54.5

.481 26.20
.496 27.03

4
8

57.5
57.5

.333 19.15
.272 15.65

1914
1915

18
19

50.3:
53.6

.462 23.14
.413 22.03

3

1914
1915

86

47.1
45.8

.390 18.93
.365 17.00

44
33

42

55

1914
1915

12
12

46.8
45.3

.617 28.28
.669 30.25

8
10

4

Total—
6 plants........... 1914
1915

98
'67

47.1
45.7

.418 20.07
.419 19.37

52
43

46
24

B u s h e l e r s , level'handed (with help­
ers):
G. L. and M.W.—
7 plants........... 4914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1914
1915

260
232

43.3
44.8

.573 24.23
.536 23.71

208
160

52
72

14
14

46.3
46.3

.411 19.03
.305 14.11

14
14

274
246

43.4
44.9

.565 23.97
.523 23.16

222

Total—

47.1 $0,294 $13.80
46.9 .297 13.90

108
90

1914
1915

S o u th ern -

120

168

Puddlers’ helpers;
Eastern—
Pittsburgh—
G .L . and M .W .—

Bushelers:
Eastern—
2 p la n ts.......... 1914
1915
G. L .andM .W .—
1914
1 p la n t. . . . . . .
1915
Southern—
1914
1 p lan t............
1915
Total—
4 plants...........
B u s h e l e r s , level­
handed:
Eastern—
3 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
3 plants_____

Total—
9 plants...........




1914
1915

108
90

244
233
9
7

135
106

55
80
3
5
29
25

3

164
131

5
5
4
8

6

174

4

8
8

8

22

2

.J

72

1

I

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

84

195

PUDD LING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
PUDDLING MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
35
40
30
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
45
40
35
cts. cts. cts.

25
18
16
12
14
20
8
10
and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
14
25
30
18
16
12
20
10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

3

126
186

90
51

?
,
53

3

126
198

105
57

21

62

2

51
13

268
4
2

32
16

24
49

2

5

3

2

3

6
6

18

3
4
5

6

6

3

5
59

60
36

278
284

9

1

6

10
11
12

1
1

s

12
12

5
5

7

8

3

2

13
14

1

96
18

26
52

2

1

2

6
6

2

3

3

65
and
70 Line
un­ cents No.
der and
70 over.
cts.

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

1
2

6

6

20

2

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

18

15

3

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

12

12

3

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

15
16

3

1

1

3
5

2

5

13

15
10

3

3
3

19

2
2

2

20
21
22

1

1

3
2

2
11

3

2
1

1

4

35

10

26

6

3

3

23
24

1

3

7

25
26

2

4

2

2

4
2
11

4
6

14
26

35

10

2

4
5

24
15

6
22

31
40

4

2
2

2
2

8
2

6

4

6

7

26
17

14
24

33
40

15

I

7

4

4
4

27
28

4

4

4
4

29
30

35
17

15
24

48

31
32

2

4

13

. ____ _




17
18

1

3
2

1

2

3

1

2

2

2

51
60

46
26

21

33
34

i
51
60

I
46
26 :

35
17

15
24

48
21

35
36

.196

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Table

H . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1914 AND 1 9 1 5 -

i
Num ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
a n d n u m b e r of
em­
No.
plants.
ploy­
ees.

B u s h e l e r s , three*
handed:
Pittsburgh—
2 plants.........

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

» 566 $24.28
.
.714 30.76

1914
1915

42.7
42.7

.523 22.29
.451 19.24

1914
1915

42.8
43.0

.556 23.84
.627 26.92

1914
1915

43.0
46.4

.284 12.20
.278 13.33

49.9

.273 13.47
.262 12.84

50.3
52.3

.164
.151

49.0
50.0

.264 12.79
.246 12

1914
1915

54.9
54.0

.568 31.15
.624 33.75

1914
1915

48.4
48.4

.707 34.28
.794 38.17

1914
1915

42.7
42.7

1914
1915

51.2
51.2

.698
.739

1914
1915

51.0
50.9

.709 35.28
.730 36.37

1914
1915

54.8
54.2

.257 14.07
.262 14.18

1914
1915

44.0
44.0

.375 16.50
.375 16.50

1914
1915

52.
52.4

.441 21.55
.424 20.83

1914
1915

52.0
52.0

.253 12.72
.261 13.12

1914
1915

52.3
52.3

.311 15.63
15.53

1914
1915

55.9
54.9

.183 10.27
.183 10.10

1914
1915
G .L .a n d M.W.—
8 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Southern—
1914
5 plants
1915

48.4
49.9

.270 13.07
.261 13.15

54.
54.3

.231 12.32
.228 1 2 . 1 2

54.4

.144
.132

Bushelers’ helpers:
Eastern—
2 plants.......
G. L. and M .W .7 plants.......
Southern—
3 plants..
Total—
1 2 plants..
Heaters:
Eastern—
3 plan ts...
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts...
G. L. and M.W.—
1 plan t............
Southern—
3 plants...........
Total—
9 plants.
Heaters’ helpers:
Eastern—
3 plan ts..
Pittsburgh—
1 plan t. . .
G. L .a n d M .W .1 plan t..........
Southern—
3 plants Total—
8 plan ts. .
Bloom boys:
Eastern—
8 plan ts. .

40

Aver-

42.9
43.1

Total—
3 plan ts.,

37

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

1914
1915

G. L. and M. W.—
1 p la n t............

10

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Pittsburgh—
4 plan ts. .




1914
1915

74

1914
1915
1914
1915

112
96

10 55.0

12

8.25
7.82

.

1.1

46.42
.984 41.98

7.75
7.16

22

10

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

197

PUDD LING M ILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
P UDDLING MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
14
8
12
10
16
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
18
14
16
12
10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1

18
25
20
30
35
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
35
20
25
30
40
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

40
and
un­
der
45
cts.

12

i
1
1

3

|
‘'“ I ’

........I.........

3

9
12

3

1

1
2

9
7
9
7

1

4

1
2

15

4
3

19
7

40
31

30

6

6

9

3
3

9

3

3

6

6

9

6

18

N
o.

3
3

3

3

C5
and
70
un­ cents
der and
70 over.
cts.

44
34

____

1

9

10
11
12

I

1

4

11
1

21
36
1

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

9

===== =====

------

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

i

1

27
40

8

1

13
14
2
1

1
1

1
1

2

2

1

1

3

3

1

3

1

1

2

15
16

3
4
4
1

)
i

2
2

6
1

5

3
5

2

1
1

20

6

3
3

1

3

4

2

12

3

16

1

4
4
4
4
3

7
7

2
2

1

2

2
2

2

3
3

13

3

12

5
4

6
6

23
24
25
26

1

4

19

5

2

2

2
1

17
18

27

4
4

4
4

30
31

6

18
10

1

!

1
1

5

1




1
1
2
2

3

7
9

12
11

5
7

10
10

1

1

4
4

1

3

4

4

6

2

37
38

3
3

39
40

10 1
91

4
1

1

4

33
34

2

41
42

198

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

Table

H . — FULL-TIME

HOURS

N um ­
ber
Occupation, district,
of
Line
a n d n u m b e r o f Year. em­
No.
plants.
ploy­
ees.

B loom boys—Concld.
Total—
25 p la n ts......... 1914
1915
Roll engineers:
Eastern—
. 8 plants.
Pittsburgh—
4 plan ts.
G .L .a n d M .W .7 plan ts____
Southern—
4 plants.
Total—
23 p la n ts.
Rollers:
Eastern—
9 p la n ts..
Pittsburgh—
6 plan ts. .
G .L .andM .W .5 plan ts___
Southern—
4 plan ts.
Total—
24 plants.
Roughers:
Eastern—
2 plan ts.
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts.
G. L. and M.W.8 plants.......
Southern—
5 p lan ts..
T o t a l2 0 plants..
Catchers:
Eastern—
9 p la n ts...




Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

15
13

1914
1915

18
16

67.8
67.6

.2 1 2
.2 1 0

1914
1915

10
10

64.5
64.5

.286 18.37
.286 18.37

1914
1915

12
12

69.8
69.9

.271 18. 91
.279 19.50

1914
1915

7
7

63.4
63.4

.183 11.63
.191 12.08

1914
1915

47
45

66.9
66.9

.239 15.92
.242 16.14

2
2

2
2

5
5

1914
1915

37
34

55.4
54.1

.403 22.39
.400 21.59

25
24

10
8

2
2

1914
1915

13
14

51.0
51.6

.883 43.74
.885 45.56

7

5
3

4

1914
1915

10
10

47.5
47.5

.806 36.61
.831 38.36

6
6

3
3

1
1

1914
1915

6
6

52.5
52.5

.555 29.36
.503 26.22

3
3

1914
1915

66

64

53.1
52.4

.573 29.38
.583 29.89

15
16

1914
1915

10
10

55.8
55.8

.296 16.47
.332 18.41

1914
1915

20
20

50.3
51.2

.419 20.78
.463 23.71

10
10

10
8

1914
1915

30
28

51.8
50.8

.531 26.86
.482 23.98

12
12

9

1914
1915

11
11

51.8
51.8

.337 17.06
.301 15.15

6
6

1914
1915

71
69

51.9
51.8

.436 22.17
.426 21.69

28
28

1914
1915

47
44

55.5
54.5

.315 17.54
.318 17.30

21
22 !

50.2
51.0

.408 2 0 . 2 2
.442 22.54

10
10

11
10

2

14 50.4
131 49.2

.485 23. 59
.441 2 1 . 0 0

6
6

5

3

54.8 .307 16.56
54.6i .273 14.68

3
3

91 53.4 .362 18.99
! 52.8: .363 18.89
8S

19i
19i

1914
1915

77

8i

i
S

12
12

41
33

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

54.3 $0 , 2 0 1 $10.79
53.9 .199 10.62

1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
7 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Southern—
5 plants........... 1914
1915
T o ta l27 plants..

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

68

Pittsburgh—
6 p la n ts...

40

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1914 AND 1915—

14.23
14.00

4

5

2

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

8

9
7

2
2

6

2
2

7
7

6
6

2
2

4
5

5
5
5

6

33
30

2
2

21

18

2

1
1

2
2

12
10

8
8

2
2

4
6

2
2

2

9
5

11

4
4

1
1

27
27

4
4

2
2

33
34

10
6

4
4

4
4
49
50

10
8

1

6

14
1C
i

2
2

4
4

2
2

5
5

15
16

2
2

84

PUDD LING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

199

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
PUDDLING MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of

per hour w ere-

14
18
16
8
12
25
35
10
20
30
and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der
18
12
14
20
25
35
16
40
10
30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

2

19

5

10

5
5

9
9

24
23

?
,
7

6

1
1

7

7
7

4
7

7

2

2

i

2

5
G

8
10

2
2

14

2

12

9

3
3

9

7
8

10

12

14

8
8

3
3

11
12

7

11

8

9

1

6

2
1
1

1

1

1

5
5

4
3

8
8

6
2

4
4

5

6
1

4

1
1

4
6

4
4

1
1

l
l

8
10

2

2

1

6
1

1

8;

3

16
14

Q
10

5
5

6
2

14

5

8

12

8
10

8

8
10

5

1

13

.

_ I ....
l'
i

1.!




4

12
12

1

4

9

2
1

1
1

1

16

2
2

11

25
26
5
4

17
14

10
8

15

2

8
2

27
23

5
4

8
2

31
32

1

4

2
10

1

34

2

2
2

35
36

2
1

20

21
22

29
30

6

2
1

4
2

20

1

4
1

15

1

19
20

1

12

2

j '

4

1
1

3
1

1
2

2
2

1
2

7
4

8

4

3

3

4

1

17
18

1
2

1

6
10

2

2

4

6
1

3

2

1

15
16

23
24

4

l!
i

1
1

8
11

1

1

12
11

13
14

4

1

'

1
2

2

1

70 Line
cents No.
and
over.

4
4

5
4

1

65
and
un­
der
70
cts.

3
4

4
4

2
2

2

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

2
2

2

2

55
and
un­
der
60
ets.

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

6

9
9

2

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

40
and
un­
der
45
cts.

1

5
1

3

2

11

i!
|

37
33
39
40

i

o,

7
10

4

6

6

1;

2

41
42

200

WAGES AND H OURS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Table

H .—

FULL-TIME HOURS

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
YEARS, 1914 AND 1 9 1 5 -

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, district,
of
Line
a n d n u m b e r of Year. em­ tim e
No,
plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Hook-ups:
Eastern—

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

72

4
4

G. L. and M. W .—
S o u th ern -

1914
1915

44
42

55.5;$0 . 2 1 1 1
111.74
54.4 .195 10.57

1914
1915

15
16

51.9
52.9

.316 15.92
.332 17.39

6
6

5
4

1914
1915

27
25

55.1
54.3

.309 17.07
.266 14.19

6
6

9
13

1914
1915

11
11

51.7
51.7

.183
.162

6
6i

1914
1915

Pittsburgh—

97
94

54.4
53.8

.251 13.58
.233 12.40

1914
1915

8

5

52. 5
53.8

.292 15. 29
.277 14.90

3

4
4

52.3
56.8

.340 17.78
.408 23.27

4

5
5

50.8
50.8

.233 11.52
. 2 2 2 10.90

3
3!

17
14

51.9
53.6

.286 14.75
.295 15.86

3
3

54
48

55. 2
54.7

.230 12.67
.225 12.30

31
32

52.3
53.3

.281 14.24
.281 14.54

14
14

9
6

8
12

21
21

55.0
55.0

.271 14.61
.274 14.75

6
6

6
6

9
9

11
11

53.2
53.1

.167
.150

9.05
8.03

5
5

117

54.2
54.2

.245 13.10
.243 12.98

25
25

49•
42!

20'

12.44
. 19S; 11.69i ........

2!

0•
01

Total—

10
Roll hands, other:
Eastern—

Pittsburgh—
2 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
3 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Total—
8 plants........... 1914
1915
Hotbed men:
Eastern—•
9 plants

25

2G

1914
.
1915
Pittsburgh—
7 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W —
5 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
5 plants ___ 1914
1915
Total—
26 plan ts......... 1914
1915

27
28

29
30
31
32

i

'

Shearmen:
Eastern—
4 plants .
Pittsburgh—
5 p la n ts .........

1914
1915

1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1914
5 plants
1915
Southern—
1914
5 plants
1915
Total—
19 plants




1914
1915

112

9 58.0
9i 59.1
1C
l
1C
l

9.15
8.07

.2 1 0 »

58.1. . 28SI 16.77
59. S . 29£i 17.94
1

c1 58. £) .271. 16.0C
c> 58. ^ .273: 16. O
>
C
j
11> 55. ? . 2 0 C
)
5 . 2 2 ci
1 ]l 53. £
4ct
3i)

1 1 .0 1
12. 0c

\
57. c .23<) 13.7()
57A5 .24-1 14.4()

30
30

10
8

i

12

s ____
1
1

4

4i

i
44
45

14

6

18
18

4
6

2
2

12

4
4

1

17
15

|
1

2

2
2
2

1

5

4
4

34
30

16
14

10

2

4
4

4
4

18

2
2

4
4

191
23

1

3

4

4
c

r
r

4
4I

0

7
7
)
2:
Ifj

8

4I
(5
(

)
£
J

II
1 ()

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

201

PUDD LING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

H OUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IK EACH DISTRICT, BY
PUDDLING MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were-

8

25
35
14
30
20
16. 18
and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der
18
25
30
35
40
16
20
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

12

10

and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
14
12
10
cts. cts. cts.

9
7

3

12

8
8

1

. ..

1

...

8

6

18

3

7

2
2

2

7
3

4

3

13
18

2

13

6

1
2

1

5
3

U
15

18
15

22

2

13

15

1

9

1
1

6

»

5

6

1

1
1

24
9

9
16

7
3

5
7

2
2

8
11

8

4

4
2!
10 i

2
1

13
14
15
16

X
I

3 ____ 1_____

18

2

4

3

ll

2

2

i

..........

i
i

1

23
24

|
..........i...........

27

1

31
16

2
2I

1

2!
1

4
i
3!

1

1

4
4

3
2:

2

|
1

'

2!

20
10

2!

3

7

19

20
21
22

1

3

32
46-

.....

1

3;

i
1

j
_|____

.... .

1

3

2
2

2

4

11
12

6

12

9

10

1

|

17

2

3

2:

|

2

..........I...........

1
1

4

o

J
2!

i

10

16

4

2

1
2

1
1

1
1

2

2

1

|

1
1

2

2

1.......

L
}

..... ...




\
4
t[

1
2>

1

t[
i)

t}
I

4
t

13
17

1
2

I>
I
4

2

29
30

4
6

31
32

(i
(i

2
2

33
34

[
2
c!

3
4
I

70
cents N o.
and
over.

2

2

i

65
and
un­
der
70
cts.

4

2

6

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

1
2

2

3

1

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

6

4
4

7
5

1
2

1

2

4

9

2
1

3

3

1

2

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2

2
1
2

40
and
un­
der
45
Cts.

1
1

lc1
[
1^

i

1
£
c>

1
1

35
36

i

]
1

.. .....

.

..

37
38

202

WAGES A N D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

H.—
FULL-TIME

HOURS

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation,m district, Year. of
and nu ber of
emNo.
plants.
ploy-

Shearmen’s helpers:
Eastern—
5 plants.......
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts..
G. L. and M. W.5 plants.........
Southern—
5 plants..
T o t a l2 0 plants..

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PEE'
YEARS, 1914 AND 1 9 1 5 -

Average
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1914
1915

61.8
62.5
60.4
60.4

.210 12.69
.210 12.

1914
1915

53.0
53.0

.150
.151

7.
7.93

1914
1915

109

110

58.0
58.1

.192 11.23
.196 11.50

1914
1915

130
147

59.9
56.8

.163
.157

1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
1914
4 plants..
1915

116

61.1
59.9

.190 11. 65
.189 11.33

58.0
57.7

.182 10.61
.180 10.46

54.4
54.4

.144
.146

59.5
57.5

.173 10.35
.167 9.66

57.4
55.3

.186 10.67
.186 10

118
126

55.4
54.7

12.66

108
82

60.7
56.2

.225 13.07
.247 12.97

53.
54.2

.227 11.73
11.87

56.8
55.0

.223 12.32
.242 12. 78

64.
61.8

.225 14.40
.221 13.34

64.9
63.7

.254 15.82
.259 15.79

71.5
71.5

.213 15.06
.222 15.74

63.8
63.

.166 10. 51
.166 10.51

65.1
62.9

.226 14.47
.225 13.80

Laborers:
Eastern—
6 plants...
Pittsburgh—
7 plan ts...

T o ta l24 plants..
U nclassified—produc­
tive:
Eastern—
7 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
7 p la n ts....

27

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

.227 14.10
.251 15.69

1914
1915

Over
56
48
48
and and and
un­ u n ­
un­
der. der der

57.1 $0.186 $10.58
57.1 .179 10.17

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

1914
1915

1914
1915
1914
1915

G .L .a n d M. W .—
1914
8 plants_
_
1915
Southern—
5 plants..
1914
1915
T o t a l27 plants..
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
7 plants...........

322
303

1914
1915

1914
1915

97

Pittsburgh—
7 plan ts..

1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1914
4 plants_
_
1915
Southern—
1914
3 plants..
1915
Total—
21 plan ts..




1914
1915

147
146

118
93

9.79
8.91

7.81
7.
59
107

.

13.82

62

127
113

134
107

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

84

203

PUDD LING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
PUDDLING MILLS—Concluded.
per hour were—

Employees whose rates of
14
18
25
16
20
30
35
12
8
10
and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der der der
16
18
25
14
20
30
35
40
12
10
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

4

8
2

1

12
12

11
11

12
12

15
21

7
83

1
1

15
14

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

65
and
70 Line
un­ cents N o.
der and
70 over.
cts.

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

15
15

28
28

3
3
11
6

1

2
2

10

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

40
and
un­
der
45
cts.

8

4

4

123
64

2
2

4
3

60
59

1

i

i
8

4

4

10

i

11
12

40
36

15
14

61
39

13
14

16
16

13
3

12
12

15
16

12
10

23
26

12
10

30
109

179
116

9

17
18
73
51

12

8

12

4

18

19
19

1

28
17

20
20

53
37

19

20

2
1

15
24

3
6

14
5

17
37

11

14
5

17
38!

20

12

9

4

58
42

8

8
12

7

23
24

>
..........

3 ..........

25
26

1.......... 1

s '..........
4’...........

1!

6

2

4

1

7

8

5
7

2

5

60
45

48
47

128

15

86

19
33

15
18

5
2;

24
28

10 i

3

20i
22 !

30i
31

4
3

2!
2!

18i
16,

4

2!

2
2

35

1
1

37
38

2!
2!

1
1

2!
2!

2!
2!

5
5

5

7
4

31
35

4

10i




16> -40i
42!
7

40'

2

91
9:

4
3

4
2

2

..........1

41

3i

,!
3;

4
9

2
1

4
2

1

1

4

i
1 !____

1
1

27
28
29
30

31
32

1
1

2
2

6

37

13
11

5
3

4

1

1
2

4
2!

2!

5

4’

3

1

9
13

15

4

1

1

6

1
20

21
22

1

1
1

1
1

1
1

33
34

39
40

BLOOMING MILLS.1
SUMMARY.

In 1915, the average rate of wages or earnings per hour in the
blooming-mill department was from 5 per cent lower to 14 per cent
higher than in any one of the five years preceding. There was
a marked increase in the full-time weekly earnings from 1910 to 1913,
inclusive, but in 1914 and 1915 the average full-time weekly earnings
were 5 per cent less than in 1913.
The most significant facts concerning wages and hours of labor
of blooming-mill employees for the years 1910 to 1915 are sum­
marized by means of averages and percentages in Table 25. The
data for 1915 represents 2,659 employees; of these 1,066 are in
the 12 specified occupations, and the remaining 1,593 in the un­
classified groups tabulated in 1914 and 1815 for the first time. They
were obtained from 23 plants and for 28 separate mills, capable
of producing 37 per cent of the total tonnage of blooming mills in the
United States.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified full-time
hours per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by percentages
which were computed from the actual figures of Table I.
T a b l e 25.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , FULL-TIM E

W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S P E R H O U R , 1910 TO 1915—B L O O M IN G M IL L S.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
N um ­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of tim e
Over
14 16 18 2 0
12
of
em­ hours 48 Over
ber of plants.
72
48
wages and and and and and
ploy­ per and and
and. 84
per mi­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. lder der der der der
der. der
der
14 16 18 2 0
25
84
72
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
Laborers:
19 plants................

19 plants................
19 plants................

24 $0.162
18 . 163
18 .164

10
12
10

13

11

8
1

79
89

50
54

13

21

15

.163
.184

12

12

2
10

87
18

55

50

15
7

11

.185
.187

3

7
7

22

54

43

22

1910
1911
1912

449
363
396

74.1
73. 7
73. 8

16
14
14

54
59
57

1912
1913

344
352

74.0
73.4

16
20

1913
1914

292
212

73.1
72.0 C
1)

24
23

66

6

9

4

3
8

Aver
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$11.97
1 2 .0 2

12.13
1 2 . 08
16 13.53

14 13. 51
32 13. 44

4 .187
3 2 1 61
3
13 13. 39
21
5
69
1914
267 71.7 0 )
2
16 63
6
13 13. 49
66
13
3 .187
18
1915
290 72.3 C
1)
i Summary figures relating to the blooming-mill department of the iron and steel industry are given
w ith figures for other departments on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volum e of employm ent in this and
other departments from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of the
scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.
22

plants................

204




205

BLOOMING M ILLS— SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 25.— FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , FU LL-TIM E

W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S P E R H O U R , 1910 TO 1915—B L O O M I N G M I L L S —Continued.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
Over
12
time
of
16 2 0 30
em­ hours 48 Over
ber of plants.
72
48
wages and and and and 40
ploy­ per and and
per un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 and 84 hour. der der der der
un­
and
der
der. der
16 2 0 30 40 over.
84
72
cts. cts. cts. cts.
Bottom makers’ help­
ers:
1 2 plants................

1910
1911
1912

47
46
48

70.3
70.3
70.4

20
20

79
65
61

11

15

9 $0.251
4 .243
4 .257

9
9
4

17
15
13

49
54
57

26

13 plan ts................

1912
1913

50
55

70. 6
70.8

12
11

60
56

24
26

4
7

.257
.276

4

12
22

60
36

1913
1914

65

72.0
71.3

9

51
48

31
36

9
5

.263
. 258

31

11

20

34
57

35
23

1914
1915

70
76

69.8
70.5

9

9
9

44
38

34
39

4
5

.273
.269

3

16
17

57
49

19
24

1910
1911
1912

100

3
3

17
24
25

56
58
62

10

14

96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

13

2
2

14
14

11

.218
.217
.237

35 42
26 57
31 ' 49

9
3
18

1912
1913

99

70.2
70.5

23

65
55

10

2

3

24

.230
.259

33
26

49
48

15
25

56
78

22
2

. 267
.249

27

43
59

23

20

18
18

80
78

1
9

2

. 256
.258

25

55
46

26
26

14
12

64
60

6

18
17

59
59

ly

earn­
ings.

24
42

13 j)lants................

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­

17 plants................
Shearmen’s helpers:
18 plants................

18 plants................
18 plants................
20

plants................

Unclassified—produc­
tive:
23 plants................
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
2 2 plants................

Bottom makers:
16 plants................

15 plants................
15 plants................
20

plants................

Heaters’ helpers:
1 1 plant"................

11

10

10

plants................
plants................
plants................




101

1913
1914

111

1914
1915
1914
1915
1914
1915

13

8

21

69.5
68.7

5

113
114

68.

3
3

445
481

72.0 C
1)
72.6

973

72.7
72.8

98

1 ,1 1 2

4
68.5

1
0

)

17

12

17
7
8

1
1
1

20

10
10

.2 2 0

.219

3
4

30
35

.219
.218

2
2

26
25

$17.23
16.83

17.84
17.95
19.33
18.72

9
8

5

66

64 - 7
7

18.14
1 . 45
8
18.46
15.15
14.90
1 .4
6 4
15.93

1 18.07
6 18.17
16.83

20

61
54

16
15

26
22

17.23

3 17.35

1 1 .7
5 5
1 .8
5 1

2

1
1

15.92
15.86

16 2 30 4
0
0
and and and and 50
un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der and
30 40 50 over.
20
cts. cts. cts. cts.
----- ----- ----- ----1910
1911
1912

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

13
16
16

80
67
69

9
9

1912
1913

56
60

71. 4
71.4

14
17

64
60

13

1913
1914

62
60

71.9
71.8

16
17

48
45

1914
1915

79
76

6 8 .6

24
23

1910
1911
1912 i

34
34
34

73.4
73.5!
73.5

1912
1913

50
52

67.
67.2

1913
1914

52
43

I
64.6
64.0 j

1914
1915

39
39

62.4
62.1

68.5

7

3
4
3

40 27
24 47
26 , 36

27
26
35

3 23.26
23.24
24.44

11
10

.346
.384

4

30
33

30
15

36
45

24.50
7 27.28

26
32

10

7

.367
.347

39
33

15
33

44
30

3 26.32
3 24.70

39
38

28
33

5
3

.370
.389

25
20

38
39

30
26

6 24.68
14 25.77

35
35
35

27
18
18

18
27
27

.344
.363
.354

6
6
6

44
29
24

24
32
27

21

38
*37
7

.335
.331
.347

21
21
21

4
4
.

7
7

32
39

12

18

. 352
.390

4

10

16
27

50
31

48
44

19
14

31
33

2
2

.359
.337

27
37

23
47

56
56

21

21

26

15

3
3

.355
.369

26
15

44
59

11

15

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

18
44

9 24.62
26.71
25.58

12

30
21

23.63
26.01

44
14

6
2

22.76
20.95

28

3 21.50
5 22.48

21

1
1

21

206

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le 25.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , FULL-TIM E
W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S P E R H O U R , 1910 TO 1915—B LO O M IN G M IL L S —Continued.

Num ­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
ber of plants.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
Aver­
Aver­
per week were—
hour were—
age
age
rare
full­
of
Over
Over
16 20 30 40
time
wages and and and and 50
72
48
hours 48
per and and 72 and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
hour. der der der der and
un­
week. un­ un­
der
der. der
20 30 40 50 over.
84
cts. cts. cts. cts.
72

Shearmen:
1910
1911
1912

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

6 > 15
20
7
7
20

58
61
61

13
9
9

8 $0,303
4 .306
4 .328

1912
1913

52
52

69.8
69.6

6
6

17
17

65
58

8
19

4

1913
1914

56
58

67.2
65.6

16
10

16
24

50
62

18
3

23 plants................ 1914
1915
Table men:
13 plants................. 1910
1911
1012

65
62

65.0
65.9

14
10

25
24

62
66

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

8

19
34
34

56
49
49

6
11
11

11
6
6

.271
.254
.285

1912
1913

33
31

68.5
68.0

36
32

46
55

12
13

6

11 plants................. 1913
1914

29
31

67.3
67.4

35
28

59
65

7
6

14 plants................

36
34

63.6
63.1

26
27

58
56

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

12 plants................

Manipulators:
19 plants................

1914
1915

17
18

44
50
46

17

6 $20.85
. . . . . 20.96
22.39

33
31

44
37

15
21

4 21.93
12 24.80

.370
.329

29
34

34
48

27
12

11 24.23
5 21.16

.345
.362

34
34

40
31

17
19

9 21.84
16 23.09

17
23
14

56
51
46

19
26
31

9

8 18.03
17.05
19.00

.290
.316

12
7

45
39

33
32

9
13

19. 24
10 20.95

.322
.277

7
6

34
48

34
45

14

10 21.14
18.34

.314
.327

6
6

33
32

42
38

19
18

19.36
6 19.94

20
and
un­
der
30
cts.

19 plants.............

50
30
33

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

.319
.363

"“ 9

4

50
and 60
u n ­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912

52
48
47

68.4
67.9
66.6

12
6
13

19
29
26

56
50
47

6
10
11

8
4
4

.365
.350
.390

39
40
28

29
27
30

23
27
23

4
6
9

6 24.21
23.26
11 24.94

19J2
1913

49
51

66.8
66.5

12
12

24
28

49
47

10
14

4

.388
.432

27
16

33
37

22
22

8
8

10 24.92
18 27.60

19 plan ts................ 1913
1914

60
54

65.3
63.8

10
22

33
21

42
54

15
4

.431
.386

18
22

32
37

22
30

13
6

15 26.86
6 23.89

1914
1915

62
60

62.4
63.4

19
15

27
26

53
58

.394
.420

18
15

34
28

39
33

5
18

5 23.95
5 25.81

1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

69.6
68.8
68.7

29
34
37

51
50
46

4
6
6

16
11
10

.315
.309
.328

43
41
35

34
55
51

22
4
14

21.41
21.01
22.33

1912
1913

95
99

71.6
71.4

25
20

47
55

17
20

11
5

.319
.373

42
10

43
46

15
44

22.63
26.48

19 plants................

1913
1914

115
105

69.3
69.0

28
28

52
49

16
19

4
4

.369
.337

13
20

45
66

42
14

25.39
23.04

23 plants................

1914
1915

124
119

66.6
66.7

5
5

31
28

44
44

16
22

3
1

.357
.375

14
13

67
53

12
24

1910
1911
1912

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

7

17

20
20

14
15
15

.392
.385
.428

12

20
20

45
38
32

17

8

15

41
58
59

36
18
5

1912
1913

46
46

68.4

13
13

22
22

24
28

33
33

9
4

.437
.491

4

6 8 .0

52
37

17

28
15

11 28.79
30 32.04

1913
1914

52
52

68.5
67.5

12
12

20
20

37
44

29
21

4
4

.471
.425

44
50

15
23

13
13

27 30.96
1 0 27.81

1914
1915

60
59

65.6
65.4

20
20

16
15

43
46

17
15

3
3

.447
.471

43
39

22
22

18
20

13 28.30
19, 29.81

19 plants................

23 plants................
P it cranemen:
18 plants................

19 plants................

Roll engineers:
18 plants................

19 plants................
19 plants................
23 plants................




N

10

• ‘ *4
3

4

7
9

23.29
24.44

5
7 27.12
15 ... .. . 26.66
32
28.65

207

BLOOMING MILLS— SUMMARY.

TABLE 25.— FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S O F W A G ES P E R H O U R , FU L L -T IM E

W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915—B L O O M I N G M I L L S —Concluded.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-tim e hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
A ver­
Num- age
age
ber- full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Y ear. of tim e
Over
of
30 40 50 60
Over
em­ hours
ber of plants.
48
48
wages and and and and 70
72
ploy­ pter and and
and 84
per un­ un­ u n ­ un­ cts.
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. der der der der and
der. der
40 50 60 70 over.
der
c ts. c ts . cts. c ts .
72
84
Heaters:
19 plants................

1910
1911
1912

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

16
15

61
51
59

8
12
8

22
20

19 plan ts................

1912
1913

55
53

72.9
73.2

15
15

60
51

7
15

18
19

.552
.604

19 plan ts................

1913
1914

79
77

71.2
7a 7

24
23

38
43

23
21

15
13

.594
.513

1914
1915

89
84

69.3
69.9

27
24

46
42

16
24

11
10

1910
1911
1912

46
41
42

67.6

13
7
14

17
29
29

63
59
52

5
5

7

1912
1913

46
46

65.9

13
13

26
26

52
48

1913
1914

46
46

65.5

13
13

26
24

48
59

1914
1915

54
53

63.6
63.5

17
17

27
25

57
58

23 plants................
Rollers:
18 plan ts................

19 plan ts................
19 plan ts................
23 plants................

6 6 .6

65.0
6 6 .2
6 6 .2

10

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

29
35
26

45
45
43

14
4
15

4 $37.88
37.50
15 4a 42

29
23

42
34

15
19

15 40.14
25 44.18

5
16

15
36

33
32

25
8

22
8

41.88
36.12

.542
.584

11
1

34
23

38
37

7
30

10
10

37.03
40.06

.605
.585
.652

....
....

35
27
17

24
32
31

24
29
17

17 40.00
1 2 38.49
36 41.41

9
13

.632
.703

4
4

20

28
24

15

9

20

33 40.53
44 45.11

13
4

.701
.632

4
4

9
17

24

20

20

28

43 44.98
30 40.51

17

20

11

23

28
25

35 42.44
42 43.26

$0,521
.512
19 .556

.684
.697

8
8

....
....

8

Referring to the first occupation presented, laborers, direct com­
parison can be made of data for 19 identical plants for 1910 to 1912,
inclusive, for a second group of 19 plants in 1912 and 1913, for a third
group of 19 plants in 1913 and 1914, and for a group of 22 plants in
1915. The first line of Table 25 is read as follows: In 1910 the 19
blooming mills from which reports were obtained employed 449
laborers whose average full-time hours of work were 74.1 per week.
For 16 per cent of the 449 laborers the full-time hours per week were
over 48 and under 72; for 54 per cent, 72; for 6 per cent, over 72 and
under 84; and for 24 per cent, 84 hours per week. The average rate
of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the year considered (1910)
was 16.2 cents. Of the total number, 10 per cent received 12 and
under 14 cents per hour; 13 per cent, 14 and under 16 cents; and 77
per cent, 16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average full-time
weekly earnings were $11.97. The other lines of the table may be
read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen th a t in 19
plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers were $ 11.9 7
in 1910. In 1911 there was a slight advance to $ 12 .02, and in 1912
a further small advance to $12.13. In the second group of 19 plants
the full-time weekly earnings were $12.08 in 1912, with an advance




208

WAGES AND H O U RS OF LABOR----IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

of $1.45 per week for the following year, making $13.53 for 1913. In
the third group of 19 plants there is little change for 1913, as shown
by the figures $13.51, while there was a slight drop to $13.44 in 1914.
In the group of 22 plants for 1914 and 1915 the full-time weekly
earnings were $13.39 for 1914 and $13.49 for 1915. Comparing the
average full-time weekly earnings for 1915 of the several occupations,
i t is seen th a t the lowest average was th a t of laborers, which was
$13.49, and the highest th at of rollers, which was $43.26.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the six years,
which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout the
period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of Table 25 for full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupation from 1910
to 1915, inclusive. Such figures appear in Table 26.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
th e data for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The rela­
tive for each year is the per cent which the average for th at year is
of the average for 1915. For example, the relative full-time weekly
earnings of pit cranemen in 1910 were 86, as compared with 100 in
1915; th a t is, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 86 per cent
of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1915. The
method of computing relative numbers is explained on pages 65
to 67.
Table 26 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings in 1915, as compared with each speci­
fied year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of pit
cranemen in 1915 were 16 per cent higher than in 1910, 18 per cent
higher than in 1911, 11 per cent higher than in 1912, 5 per cent
lower than in 1913, and 5 per cent higher than in 1914.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of pit cranemen in 1911 were 1 per
cent lower than in 1910, 6 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911, 17
per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912, 10 per cent lower in 1914 than
in 1913, and 5 per cent higher in 1915 than in 1914. The other
occupations and items of the table can be studied in like manner.
The percentages of increase and decrease are computed from the
relative numbers.




209

BLOOMING M ILLS— SUM M ARY.

T a b le 28.—R E LA T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INC R EA SE OR D E C R EA SE IN SP E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—B L O O M IN G
M IL L S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in ­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

P it cranemen:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913......................................
1914.....................................x
1915.......................................
Heaters:
1910.......................................
1911......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915......................................
Heaters’ helpers:
1910.......................................
1911......................................
1912.......................................
1913......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Bottom makers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Bottom-makers’ helpers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913........ .............................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Roll engineers:
1910.......................................
1911......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Rollers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Manipulators:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

R ela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

102
101
101
100
100
100
100
100

99
100

99

- 2
- 1
- 1

)
C
1)

99

0

(i)
0 )
4*1
0 )
+ 1

- 2
- 2
—2
- 1
- 1

_ i
) *
- 1

0

102
102
102
101
101
100

100
100
100
100

)
C
1)

0

(0
- 1
+ 1
- 1
+ 1

)
C
1)
0

- 1
0

)

- 1
0

)

f1)
0 )
0 )
(!)
0 )
0 )
0 )

)
)
(l)
0
0

—5
-5

102
102
100
100

- 2
- 2

C
1)

- 1
- 1
0

- 2
- 2

86

91
101

95

0

94
91
96
103

+

6
+10

+ 4
- 3
- 2
+
+
+
+

16
19

88

98
109
98

)

5
5

+ 10
+ 14
+ 2
- 8
+ 2

100

)

—4
—3

- 1

101
101

- 1
- 1
+ 2

-2
C
1)
-3

84
94
105
94

+ 2

100

88

1 No change.

86

- 2
+ 6
+17
- 9
+ 5
- 1
+ 8
+ 10
-1 4
+ 8
+
-

6
2
+11

- 7
+ 4
- 1
+ 6
+ 11
- 6
+ 5
- 3
+ 5
+ 7
- 1
- 2

85
90
105
95
91
90
97
107
92
91
98
94
104
96
87
87
92
102

96

14
19
C
5
6

+ 3
- 7
+ 9
+10
+ 2
+ 6

- 4
+ 4
+
+
+
+

15
15
9
2

4

100

93
90
96
103
100
100

95
106
95

- 3
+ 11
+ 11

95
91
98
109
98

+ 8
+ 11
+ 4
- 3
0 )
+ 11
+ 14
+ 5
- 6
- 5

100

-1 0
2

88

5

88

94
104
93
100

-1 0

” “ -* i
+ 8
+10

-1 4
+ 9
+ 8
- 4
+11

- 8
+ 4
C)
+

6
+11

- 6
+ 4
+
+
0 )

3
7
7
3

+

2
8
+12
-1 0

+ 5
+ 5
+ 10
+ 2
- 8
+ 2

- 4
+ 8

+ 9
+ 14
+ 6
- 4
+ 8

- 4
+ 7
+ 11

100

92
-

+12
+ 12
-1 0
+ 6

- 1
+ 6
+17
+ 5

+10
+11

100

2
+12
+12
-1 0

+
+
+
+
+

- 5
+ 5

100

90

-

+16
+ 18
+11

100

+ 5

6

100

104
103

100

+ 15
+ 16
+ 10
- 1
+ 5

100

- 1

0

+ 11
+ 5
+ 8
- 3
+ 4

100

91

)

89728°— 17—B u ll. 218------ 14




90
95
93
103
96

86

- 2

+ 9
+ 10
+ 2
- 7
+ 8

100

84
94
105
95

—5
-3

101
101
100
100

92
91
98
108
93

)
-3
0 )

0

+16
+ 19
+ 12
- 4
+ 5

100

102
100

C
1)

105
103

84
89
104
95

- 1
+ 1

+ 1

105
105

86

87
)
)
)
)
( 1)
0
0
0
0

100

98

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

R ela­
R ela­
tive
Each
Each
tiv e
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­ tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
wages
fied
weekly pared
per
pared year as
pared year as earn­
year as
with
com­
com­
com­
hour.
w ith
w ith
ings.
each
each
pared
each
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
w ith
speci­ w ith
fied
fied
year
fied
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100

100
100
100
100
100
100

W eekly earnings.

+11
-1 0
+ 2

-1 1
8

+

210

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le 2ft.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R C ENT OF
IN C R EA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN S P E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—B LO O M IN G
M IL L S —Concluded.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Table men:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Shearmen:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Shearmen's helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Laborers:
1910.................................
1 9 1 1 ..............................
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
U nclassified—productive:
191 4
191 5
.
Unclassified—nonproductive:
191 4
191 5
A ll occupations:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5

R ela­
tiv e
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

97
91

102

101
101

112
96
100

161
100
102

—2

101

- 1
- 1
- 1

101
101
99
100

-fl

101

101
99
100

0

)

(Ii 2
-2

+

1

- 1

(I! i
(>)

C
1)

-2

+1

+1
0

+1

+ 15
+ 14

+ 15
+ 15
+ 6
- 6
+ 1

100

10
0

+15
+ 15
+ 14
+ 1

(l)

0

)

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

6

+12
+10
-1 4
+ 4

112

97
100

-2
+1

94
105

-11

96
108
95

+ 5

100

)
+ 8
+ 13
- 7
+ 1

95
107
99
100

87
0

)
+ 1
+ 13
+ 1
0 )

0

- 1

100

100

+12

+ 6
- 5
C
1)

+2

+ 9
- 3

-11

+ 3

-

6

+12

+ 9
-1 3
+ 3

+12
+ 1
+ 7
+ 14

10
0
100

92
103

8
6

8
8
100
88

+

100
100
100
100

+12
- 5
0 )

+ 4
- 7
+ 5
+
+
+
+

15
16
5
7
1

+ 14
+ 14
+12

105

100
100

+ 1
+ 7
+ 13
-1 2
+ 5
-

C
1)

+ 5
- 5
(l)

1

+10
+ 13
- 7
+ 1

“l 12
+l
- 1
+

C
1)

+12
+11

1

+6

+11

99
100

+ 14

2
1
1
1

+1

-

101
101

)
-

2
-1 1
+ 4
-

87
87
94
108

100

- 1

+1

+10

+6
- 7
+5

+1

- 1

+ 3

94
107
95

- 1

99
100

102
101

8
8

—2

102
101
102
101
99
100

100
100

87
- 1

+ 1

102
100
101
100

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
R ela­
tive
Each
Each
tiv e
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­ tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
fied
com­
wages
fied
per
pared year as weekly pared year as
pared year as
earn­
w ith
w ith
com­ hour.
com­
w ith
com­
ings.
’each
each
pared
pared
each
pared
speci­
speci­
w ith
w ith
speci­
w ith
fied
year
fied
year
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

103
101

101
100

W eekly earnings.

1

(l)
*(!)•
+

1

+6
+11

- 5
C
1)

i No change.

The relative full-time weekly earnings of all occupations com­
bined in 1910 were 89 as compared with 100 in 1915. In other
words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 89 per cent of
such earnings in 1915. The relative increased to 90 in 1911, to
95 in 1912, to 105 in 1913, and decreased to 100 in 1914, and was
unchanged in 1915, the base year. These relative numbers for all




BLOOMING M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

211

years previous to 1914 are based on the principal productive occu­
pations only, b u t those for 1914 and 1915 include the unclassified
groups tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.
The next column shows th at full-time weekly earnings in 1915
were 12 per cent higher than in 1910, 11 per cent higher than in 1911,
5 per cent higher than in 1912, 5 per cent lower than in 1913, and
the same as in 1914.
The third column, under Weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full-time
weekly earnings in 1911 were 1 per cent higher than in 1910, in 1912
6 per cent higher than in 1911, in 1913 11 per cent higher than in*
1912, in 1914 5 per cent lower than in 1913, and in 1915 there was no
change as compared with 1914. The relative numbers and per­
centages, for full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour
can be read in. like manner.
FU L L -T IM E W ORKING D A Y S P E R W E E K .

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in blooming-mill plants whose customary working time
per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations
thereof, are shown in Table 27. The heading “ 5 days and 6 days
alternately” indicates th at the plants were running 6 days and 5
nights each week, being shut down for one day and a half each
week, and that the employees reported under this heading worked
6 days one week and 5 nights the next. The heading “ 6 days and 7
days alternately” indicates th at the plants were not in operation
half a day in each week, the employees reported working 6 turns one
week and 7 turns the next week.
The figures are; presented for each district and for the four dis­
tricts combined.
Two sets of figures are: given for the plants reporting for 1914 and
1915, the first covering'only the principal productive occupations as
shown for all preceding groups of years, and, therefore, strictly com­
parable with them, and the second including also the unclassified
occupations (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the
first time.
For descriptions of occupations which appear in the tables of this
chapter and: of others included in the two unclassified groups see the
Glossary of Occupations on pages 489 to 493.




212

WAGES AN D H O U B S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e 27.— N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF E M PL O Y EE S IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING

EACH SP E C IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO
IN G M IL L S.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose custom­
ary working tim e per week was—

District, and
number of Year.
plants.

Eastern:
3 plan ts. . .

Num­
ber
of
em­
ploy-

5
days
and

6

days
and
6
7
5 days 6
days
days al- days. alterternatenateiy.
iy.

110

LOOM­

Per cent of employees whose custom­
ary working time per week was—

6
6
6
6
5
6
days days
days
days days days
7
6
7
6
and
and days days
days days
6
7
7
5 days 6 days and and
and and
7
days al7
7
7 days days
7 days
days days
days days
terter- in
in
in
in
natenate- rota­ rota­
rota­ rota­
iy.
iy. tion. tion.
tion. tion.

8

97
95

70
52
46

6
10

14

22
22

9
13
13

64
54
48

15

23
23
23

13
14

3 p la n ts ... 1912
1913

100

48
50

14
13

24
24

13
13

49
50

14
13

24
24

13
13

5 p la n ts ... 1913
1914

95
77

46
18

12
1

24
24

13
7

48
23

13

35

25
31

14
9

1914
1915

94

27
27

18

45

4
4

29
31

19
12

48
52

3 p la n ts ... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh: .
8 p la n ts ... 1910
1911
1912

248
239

42
52

50
38

18

17

20

20

22

16

3 plan ts. . .

1910
1911
1912

8
6

27

25

10

13
39
47

82
74
72

16
18
19

53
53

66
66

8

15
15

3

48
29

62
70

13

14

11

12

1
1

60
60

3
3

29
29

71
67

12

11
11

1
1

69
69

3
3

136
133

72
71

11

139
84
97

59
64
64

1
8

22

7

40
28
30

95
49

64
72

7
14

29
15

37

45
18

72
85

16

87
83

522
480
493

426
355
354

86

92

plan ts. . . 1912
1913

474
482

314
319

35
38

72
72

1913
1914

490
470

303
330

64
51

69
57

1914
1915

524
546

i 371
i 365

61
89

1 0 p lan ts.. 1914
1915
Great Lakes
and Middle
West:
6 p la n ts ... 1910
1911
1912

1,216
1,364

i 879
i 966

129
193

346
296
328

205
188
209

plan ts. . .

10

plan ts..

83

6

2

24

6

plan ts. . .

1912
1913

326
327

207
234

24
44

0

p la n ts ... 1913
1914

360
278

259
237

56
16

7 plan ts. . . 1914
1915

354
355

4 307
* 293

6
12

37
5 18

18

20

7 plan ts. . . 1914
1915
Southern:
2 p la n ts ... 1910
1911
1912

744

4 652
* 672

28
34

6
12

37
5 18

51
56

61
49
55

12
12

1
1

4
5
4
5

10
11

8

1

52
49

128
118

8

6
10

16

16
14

(2)
5 (2)

3

6

5

2

6

3
1
2

1
2

71
65
76

16
17

13
G

5

4
4

88

1
1

5

11
10

6

85

12

25
13
4

7

3

8
10
11
11
10
6
6

2

7
7
29
17

6

1 ........
1 ........
4
75
76
1
57
14 ...................
1
18 ..................
5
p la n ts... 1912
6
161
78
14
5
1
69
1
1913
1 Including 9 employees who worked 7 days every ninth week and 6 employees who worked 7 days every
six th week.
2 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
3 F ive employees worked 6 days every fourth week and 2 employees worked 6 days for 3 weeks and 7
days for 5 weeks in each 8 -week period.
4 Including 9 employees who worked 7 days every ninth week.
5 Fourteen employees worked 6 days every fourth week and 4 employees worked 6 days for 3 weeks and 7
days for 5 weeks in each 8 -week period.
2




213

BLOOMING M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

T a b l e 27.—N U M BER A N D P E R CENT OF E M P L O Y E E S IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING

EACH SP EC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1915—B L O O M ­
I N G M I L L S —Concluded.
Number of employee? whose custom­
ary working tim e per week was—

Per cent of employees whose custom­
ary working time per week was—

N um ­
6
6
6
6
5
6
5
6
ber
days
days days days
District, and
days
days days days
of
7
6
7
6
number of Year. em­
and
and days days
and
and days days
plants.
7
6
6
7
ploy­ 5 days 6
7
6
5
7
days and and days days days days days and and
ees. days al- days. al7
7
7 days
7
alalter- days days
terterter- days days
in
in
in
in
natenate- rota­ rota­
natenate- rota­ rota­
iy. tion. tion.
1y.
iy.
iy. tion. tion.
S o u th e r n Concluded.
2 p la n ts... 1913
1914

74
67

66

2
2

6

61

4

89
91

8
6

3
3

88

6
1

5

1914
1915

86

76
74

5

79

1

5
4

94

1914
1915

288
264

184
174

5
5

79
85

66

2
2

29
32

Total:
19 plan ts.. 1910
1911
1912

1,064
948
988

1
1

70
52
46

698
602
632

144
148

18
16
16

19 plan ts.. 1912
1913

975
998

1
1

48
50

592
635

120

72
72

19 plan ts.. 1913
1914

1,019
892

27

46
18

640
629

150
95

69
57

6
2 10

108
56

3

23 plan ts.. 1914
1915

1,058
1,066

27
27

18

799

a777

82

66

110

72

2 10
421

56
49

3
3

23 p la n ts.. 1914
1915

2,476
2,659

42
52

50 3 1,843
38 |3 1,930

172
243

75
81

2 10
«21

284
294

2
2

3 plan ts. . .
3 plants. . .

10

3

186
149 (*)
161 0 )

110

97

69

165
120

0
0

6

7

10

5

64
64

15
15

5
5

61
64

10
12

7
7

5

)
)

66

6

15

7

2

63
71

11

6

2
.1

76
73

8
10

6

2
1

74
73

7
9

3
3

17
12
1
1
1
2

7
0

11
6

5
5

)

11
1
11

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including 5 employees who worked 6 days every fourth week and 2 employees who worked 6 days
for 3 weeks and 7 days for 5 weeks in each 8 -week period.
3 Including 18 employees who worked 7 days every ninth week and 6 employees who worked 7 days
every sixth week.
4 Including 14 employees who worked G days every fourth week and 4 employees who worked 6 days
for 3 weeks and 7 days for 5 weeks in each 8 -week period.

Two general taoles are presented for the blooming-mill depart­
ment, as follows:
Table I .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years 1910 to 1915.
Table J .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.
The data from Table I are summarized in Table 25.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I and J,
and in the table of relative numbers, follows th at of the processes of
manufacture. “ Identical p lan ts,” as used in the tables of this
report, are identical units of identical establishments, reporting the
same occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year,
back to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1913, 1914) and 1915
in Table J, were given in Bulletins No. 151 and No. 168.




214

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e I . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of tim e
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Pit cranemen:
18 p la n ts..

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

18
18
18

14
18

50
47
45

19 plan ts.............. . 1912
1913

95
99

71.6
71.4

.319 22.63
.373 26.48

6
6

18
14

45
54

19 plan ts................

1913
1914

115
105

69.3
69.0

.369 25.39
.337 23.04

18

60
51

23 plan ts................

10
11
12

97

69.6 SO.315 $21.41
.309 2 1 . 0 1
6 8 .8
68.7 .328 22.33

1914
1915

124
119

6 6 .6

66,7

.357 23.29
.375 24.44

55
52

49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

.521 37.88
.512 37.50
.556 40.42

3
3
3

1
1

4
4

31
25
31

1912
1913

55
53

72.9
73.2

.552 40.14
.604 44.18

3
3

1
1

4
4

33
27

4
8

10
10

1913
1914

79
77

71.2
70.7

.594 41.86
.513 36.12

15
15

4
2

1

30
33

18
16

12
10

1914
1915

89
84

69.3
69.9

.542 37.03
.584 40.06

21

2
2

1
1

41
35

14
20

10
8

1910
1911
1912

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

.344 24.62
.363 26.71
.354 25.58

3
3
3

4
4
4

12
12
12

9

6

6
6

9
9

1912
1913

50
52

67.9
67.2

.352 23.63
.390 26.01

15
15

4
4

20

6
8

9
5

1913
1914

52
43

64.6
64.0

.359 22.76
.337 20.95

1914
1 0 p lan ts................
1915
B ottom makers:
16 plan ts........... ..... 1910
1911
1912

39
39

62.4
62.1

60
55
58

19 plan ts................

15
16

19 p lan ts..........

17
18

23 p lan ts................

19

Heaters 7 helpers:
1 1 plan ts....... ........

11

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

99

Heaters:
19 plan ts................ 1910
1911 ,
1912

13
14

2
0
21
22

1910
1911
1912

10

plants................
plan ts................

11

12
6
6

4

14
14

21

4
4

14

24

18

6
2

4

16

4

16

6
6

10
10

16

10

20

5

18
20

5
4

20

4

26
4
6

4

1
11
10
10

x

15

4

10
6

16
14

1

.355 21.50
.369 22.48

18
18

4
4

8
10

8
6

1
1

70.5
70.8
70.9

.335 23.26
.331 23.24
.347 24.44

6
6
6

2

48
37
40

5
5

4
4
4

3

21

3
3

31
32

15 plan ts___ . . . . .

1912
1913

56
60

71.4
71.4

.346 24.50
.384 27.28

6
6

2

36
36

6

4

g

6
6

33
34

15 p lants................

1913
1914

62
60

71.9
71.8

.367 26.32
.347 24.70

6
6

4
4

30
27

16
19

4

1914
1915

79
76

6 8 .6

.370 24.68
.389 25.77

15
15

4
2

31
29

22

68.5

4

25

2

1910
1911
1912

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

.251 17.23
.243 16.83
.257 17.84

6
6
6

3
3

37
30
28

5
7

2
2

SO 70.6
55 70.8

.257 17.95
.276 19.33

6

30
31

12

2

a

14

4

6
6

33
27

20
20

6

6
6

31
29

24
30

3
4

35.
36
37

41

20

p la n ts ..............

Bottom m akers'helpers:
1 2 plants................

13 plants................ 1912
1913
13 p lants................

1913
1914

65
56

72.0
71.3

.263 18.72
.258 18.14

17 plan ts.............. .

1914
1915

70
76

69. S
70.5

.273 18.45
.269 18. 46

3
3




6
6

1

6

4

3

215

BLOOM ING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EAR NING S, IN TH E U N IT E D STATES, B Y
B L O O M IN G M I L L S .
years are for identical plants.]

Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

12

14 and
under
16
cents.

16 and
under
18
cents.

18 and
under
20

cents.

and
under
25
cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

40 and
under
50
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

60 and
under
70
cents.

70 cents
and
over.

22
30
27

34
52
49

22

9
7
13
7

27
3

41
45

14
44

12
8

3
13

52
69

48
15

4

13
14

83
63

15
29

4
4

15
17
14

23

7

2

22

2
8

4

23

16

23
18

8
10

21

2

4
14

12

9
11

8
8

13

4

4
4
5

2

5
3

10

28

26
25

20
6

2

2
2
2

12

2

8
1

30
19

34
31

6

9

25

8

6

3

11
6

8
11

3

9

7
15

3

25
16

11

11

3
4

11
12

12
20

23

3

6

1

4

6

11
8

1
2
2

2

16
26

16
14

21

10
6

7
14

17
9

20

16
13

9
20

27
18

7
6

13
9

30
30

15
9
9

8

16
17

12
10
12

7
6

8

9
3

21

17

14
6

5
15

17
17

2

6

9

19
15

21
22

13
18




20

23
13

5
4l1

24

23

5

4

27

12

IQ

6

4

20

7

6
2

14
7
5

8

2

10
6
10

2

2

4

17
23

2
2
2

4
4

6

15

11

17

6
6

2
2
2
8

3
3

216

WAGES AND H O U B S OF LABOE---- IEO N AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e I . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
ber of plants.
No.

1
2

Roll engineers:
1 plan ts................
8

3

11
90
11
91
19 2
1
11
92

Num ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Employee
week w ereAver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
age full­
full­ rate tim e
Over
Over
Over
tim e
of
4 4 56
8 8
60
72
hours wages week­ and and and
and 72 and 84
ly
per
per earn­ un­ un­ un­ 60 un­
un­
week. hour. ings. der. der der
der
der
5 60
6
72
84

4 70.910.392$27.12
2
40 70.9 .385 26.66
41 69.2 .428 28.65
46 68.4 .437 28.79

3
3
6

3
3'
3

4
5
5

19
15
13

7
8
8

6
6
6

6 8 .0

.491 32.04

6
6

4
4

13

15
15

4

46

6
6

11

1913
1913
1914

52
52

68.5
67.5

.471 30.96
.425 27.81

6
6

6
6

4

15

2

2

19
23

2
2

60
59

65.6
65.4

.447 28. *30
.471 29.81

12
12

6
6

2
2

2
1

26
27

10

10
11
12

23 plan ts................ 1914
1915
Rollers:
18 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

46
41
42

67.6

.605 40.00
.585 38.49
.652 41.41

6

3

5

6 6 .6

3
6

6'
6'

6
6

13
14

13 plants................. 1912
1913

46
46

.632 40.53
.703 45.11

6
6

6
6|

6
•6

15

19 D ia n ts.................... 1913
1914

46
46

6 6 .2

65. 5

.701 44.98
.632 40. 51

6
6

6
6

23 p la n ts................ 1914
1915
Manipulators:
19 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

54
53

63.6
63.5

.684 42.44
.697 43.26

9
9

9
9

52
48
47

68.4
67.9

.365 24.21
.350 23.26
.390 24.94

6

3

7

3
6

6
6

8
6

19 p la n t s .................... 1912
1913

49
51

6 6 .8

23

66.5

.388 24. 92
.432 27.60

6
6

6
6

24
25

19 p l a n t s .................... 1913
1914

60
54

65.3
63.8

.431 26.86
. 3S6 23.89

6
12

26
27

23 plants................. 1914
1915
Table men:
13 plants................. 1810
1911
1912

62
60

62.4
63.4

.394 23.95
.420 25.81

12

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

.271

1812
1913

33
31

68.5
6 8 .0

.290 19.24
.316 2 0 .95

plants................. 1913
1914

29
31

67.3
67.4

.322 21.14
.277 18.34

36
34

63.6
63.1

.314 19.36
.327 19.94

6
6

37
38
39

14 plants................. 1914
1915
Shearmen:
19 Diants................. 1910
1911
1912

6
6
6
6

48
46
46

70.0

69.4
69.5

.303 20.85
.306 20.96
.328 22.39

3
3
3

3
3
3

40
41

19 plants................. 1912
‘ 1913

52
52

69.8
69.6

.319 21.93
.363 24.80

3
3

3

42
43

19 plants................. 1913
1914

56
58

67.2
65.6

.370 24.23
.329 21.16

9

6

3
9

2

44
45

23 plants................. 1914
1915

65
62

65.0
65.9

.345 21.84
.362 23.09

6

9

9
9

2
2

4
5

19 plan ts................

6

19 plan ts................

7
8

9

1
6

17
18
10
20
21
22

28
29
30
31
32

12

33
34

11

35
36

p l a n t s ....................




65.0
65.9
6 6 ,2

6 6 .6

18.03
.254 17.05
.285 19.00

9
3

j
1

29
24!
j

22

11

9

2

2
2

3
2
2

24;!
22!

4

6

22

2

3

27

6
2

2
2

3
2

31
31

6

22

3
5
5

6
8

24
24

5
7

8

4

2

29
24

1
2
6

2

3

25
29

12
12

2
2

3
2

2

33
35

4

2
2

3
6
6

9

20

2

4

6
6

17
17

4
4

2
2

6

6

15
17

4
4

2

2
2

4

6

4

17

2

1

20

2
2

1
1

21

4

6

4

6
6

28
28
28

4
4

2
2

6
6

34
30

4

2

10

6

28
36

10
2

3

3
5
4

19

40
41

217

BLOOMING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EAENINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

12

14 and
under
16
cents.

16 and
under
18
cents.




18 and
under

and
under
25
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

20

cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

5
4

40 and
under
50
cents.

Lino
70 cents No.
and
over.

60 and
under
70
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

17
23
24

15
7

2
6

13

2

24
17

2
8

13
7

5

23
26

8
12

26
23

.1
2

3

2

3

7
7

11

3

6

13
13

11
12

7
9

1
2

11

8

13
13

11
12

2
2

9
4

11

2
2

2

4
5

7

2

3

11

_____1________

11

16

2

4

11

13

9
4
5
3
3
3
6
2

7
9

20

9
13

11
12

15
13

15

9

10
11
12
13
14

14

15
16

19

17
IS

20

22

12

2

3

13
11

3
4

5

5

16
19

11
11

4
4

6

3

5

19

8

6

20

3

3

10

13
16

3

2
2

9
7

21

21

3

3

17

20

11

1

10

10

9

9

7
9

8

8

11

3

4

7

s'

2

10

2

11
10

3
4

3

2
2

8

2
6

10

4

3

9

2
2

8
8

4
3

15
13

11

13
7

21

23

5

8

21

8

2

37
38
39

8

4

2
1

4
2

10

5
15

8

15
13
14

6
6

16
14

•

7

7

9

8

6

5

7
7

10

5

19

2

23

24
25
26
27
28
29
30

3

31
32
33
34

14

35
36

7
6

20
21
22

2

3

11

5

23
19

8
11

2
6

40
41

11
12

5

19
28

15
7

6

8

42
43

26
19

11
12

3
81

9

13
13

9
8

3
3
2 '...............

44
45

.

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

L I .—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
iE
YEARS, 1910 TO 1 9 1 5 -

<ine Occupation, and num ­ Year.
ber of plants.

Num ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

3

Shearmen’s helpers:
18 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

100
96
93

4
5

18 plants................. 1912
1913

101

6

18 plants................. 1913
1914

Jo.

1
*2

7

8

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

E m ployees whose full-time -hours per
week wT
ere—
Aver­ 1
age
full­
Over
Over
Over 56
tim e
72
48 and
week­ 48
60
ly
per eam- and and un­ 60 and 72 and
un­ un­ der
un­
un­
hour.
der. der 60
der
der
72
84
Aver­
age
rate
of

70. $0.218 $15.15
69.5 .217 14.90
70.1 .237 16.44
70.2
70.5

.230 15.93
.259 18.07

69.5
68.7

99

.267 18.17
.249 16.83

2 0 plants................. 1914
1915
Laborers:
19 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

113
114

68.4
68.5

.256 17.23
.258 17.35

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.

.162 11.97
.163 12.02
.164 12.13

13
14

19 plants................. 1912
1913

344
352

74.0
73.4

.163 12
.184 13.53

15
16

19 plants................. 1913
1914

292
212

73.1
72.0

.185 13.51
.187 13.44

146
140

17
18

2 2 plants................. 1914
1915
Unclassified—produc-'
tive:
23 plants................. 1914
1915
Unclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
2 2 plants................. 1914
1915

267
290

71.7
72.3

.187 13.39
.187 13.49

185
192

445
481

72.0
72.6

.220 15.75
.219 15.81

291

973

72.7
72.

.219 15.92
.218 15.

9

10
11
12

19

20
21
22




1,112

242
214
224

.

57

109
65
72

172
190

72
51

53

16

i Including 3 whose full-time hours per week were 91.

57

97

577
661

1 154
87 2 171

219

BLOOMING M ILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BLOOMING MILLS—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

14 and
under
16
cents.

12

16 and
under
18
cents.

14

18 and
under
20

cents.

18
17

17

i

20

9

3

24

1

12

9
14

1

12
8

18

8
10

1

12

and
under
25
cents.

20

25 and
under
30
cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

40 and
under
50
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

60 and
under
70
cents.

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

26
29
27

16
26
19

9
3
17

29
20

19
28

15
25

1

4
5

18
35

30
23

25

7

6

12

20

1

14
19

33
28

29
24

29
30

3

8
9

8

1
2

3

45
45
41

60
30
3

344
288
352

41
9

5
34

298
62

192

55

13
14

8
8

20

64
43

158

7

122

42
32

15 ^
16

8

7
18

55
45

162
182

35
38

13

107
126

219
205

52
53

23
27

4

20

27
42

17]
18
W
i
19

8

20

16
19

50

207
172

512
605

111

101

70
80

6
8:

21
22

10
11
12

1

7

1




127

'I

^Including 2 whose full-time hours per week were 91.

220

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T able

J ..—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—
[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and

Num­
ber
Occupation, district, Year, of
em­
and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Pit cranemen:
Eastern—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
time
48
week­
and and and 60
ly
earn­ un­ un­ un­
der
ings. der. der 60
56

67.8

$0,326 $21.94
.320 21.42

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
8 plants........... 1913
1914

64.;
6 4 -1

.344 22.27
.354 22

1 0 plants......... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
6 plants........... 1913
1914

67- <
67-

.353 23.56
.368 24.43

68

.356 24.34
.327 22.17

.

.383 26.52
.350, 24.03

22.

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

24.54

.440 31.64
.349 25.09

3 plants........... 1914
1915

.344 24.78

Total—
19 plants......... 1913
1914

115
105

. 369, 25.39
. 337j 23.04

23 plants......... 1914
1915

124
119

.3571 23.29
.375 24.44

Heaters:
Eastern—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

78.9
76.8

.568 44.1'
.511 39.16

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
8 plants........... 1913
1914

75.0
75.0

.525 39.44
45.38

71.4
71.3

.652 46.70
.553 39.19

1 0 plants......... 1914
1915
G .L .and M. W .—
6 plants........... 1913
1914

69.5
69.9

.550 38.02
.585 40.70

68.2
68.2

.555
.474 31.92 .

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

67.0
67.0

.533 34.46
.591 37.90

76.0
76.0

.642 49.71
.596 45.91

3 plants........... 1914
1915

75.0
78.0

.578 43.87
.535 41.95

T o t a l19 plants......... 1913
1914

71.2
70.7

.594 41.86'.
.513 36.12!.

23 plants......... 1914
1915




.542 37.03'.
.584 40.06 .

full-tim e hours per
were—
Over
60
and
un­
der
72

221

BLOOMING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS IN EACH DISTRICT, B Y YEARS,
BLOOM ING MILLS.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

12

14 and
under
16
cents.

16 and
under
18
cents.

18 and
under
20

cents.

and
under
25
cents.

4
4

1

1
6

24
26

6

1

36
30

3

*

1

18
10

i

10

1

18

l

20

1

7
4

2

20

7

25

5

4

7
11

25
15

5

1

2
8

|

11

I

............. r'.............

3
13

52
69

4

13
14

83
63

15
29

2

|
,2

.

9
11

4

2

2

6

2

............. 1
..............

2
2

6
2

3

1

8

8

2

2
10

4

5

7
4

2

10

11

4

17

5

4
3

7
17

11
12

17
10
1
1

x 3
3

1

5
3

2

1

1

..
1

i

I

4

j

2

6

i

2

6
1

|
............. ................

1
!
,

1
1

...

48
15

1

...I

11!

!
J

6

12
8

i

9

10
8

I
I

1

70 cents
and
over.

4

6
10
12
10

60 and
under
70
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

40 and
under
50
cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

3

|

8
10
1

6

12

1

9

12

3
4
2
2
2

i

4

12

2

10

28

26
25

20
6

1

2

8
1

30
19

34
31

6

9

25

8

j




17
6

222

WAGES A N D HOTJKS OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

Table

& — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BLOOMING

Occupation, district,
No. and number of plants. Year.

N um ­
ber
of
em ­
ploy­
ees.

Heaters’ helpers:
Eastern—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914

10
10

1914
1915

6
6

1913
1914
1915

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

72.7 $0,350 '$24.80
71.4 .311 i 22.08

4

64; 0
64.0

.359 23.22
.370 23.93

4
4

*31
27
27

62.8
6L 7
61'. 2

.378 23- 41
.354 21.14
.370 22.19

1913
1914

11
6

62.2
62:0

.312 19.10
.301 18.17

1914
1915

6
6

64.0
64,0

.351 21.41
.363 22.34

1913
1914

52
43

64.6
64-0

.359 2 2 . 76
.337 20.95

1914
1915

39
39

62.4
62.1

.355 21.50
.369 22.48

1913
1914

4
4

65.5
65.5

.297 19.45
.326 21.35

4
4

plan ts........... 1914
1915

8
0

6 8 *8
.
69.8

.326 22.38
.362 25.23

2

1913
1914

30
30

71.1
70.6

.425 30.18
.395 27:59

6
6

8
8

12

4

14

2

9 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and. M. W .—
5 plants .
1913
1914

41
41

66.3
65.9

.394 25.82
.413 26.54

15
15

8
8

16
18

2

22
20

74. 2
74.9

.307 22 84
.290 2 1 . 6 8

16
13

4
5

2
2

plants........... 1914
1915

23

71.3
71.7

.359 23.98
. 382 25.82

13

5

22

11

6

2
2

1913
1914

6
6

72.0
72.0

.338
.313 22.51

6
6

3 plants......... .. 1914
1915

7
7

72.9
72.9

.315 22.97
.296 21.56

6
6

1
1

1913
1914

62
60

71.9
71.8

.367 26.32
.347 24.70

1914
1915

79
76

68-6
.

68:5

.370 24.68
.389! 25.77

Bottom makers' help­
ers:
Eastern—
1 plant............ 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
7 plants
1913
1914

2
2

72.0
72,0

.225 16.20
.237 17.06

34
34

69.8
69.4

.302 20.90
.289 19.81

6
6

8
10

20

1914
1915

38
40

70.4
70.9

.283 19.65
.284 19.86

6
6

10
8

22;

2

plants...........

Pittsburgh—
5 plants...........
G. L. and M. W .—
3 plants...........
3 plants...........
T o t a l1 0 plants.......
10

plants.........

B ottom makers:
Eastern—
1 p la n t............
2

Pittsburgh—
7 p la n ts .........

6

28

Southern—
2 plants___ „

Total*—
15 plants.........
20

38

8

plants.........

plants




4

6
6
2
2

15
15
15

6

4
6

10
8
6

4
2

3
3
4!

1
1

2
2

6

3

1
1

15

4

10
6

16
14

1
1

18
18

4
4

8
10

8
6

1
1

21

3

4

3
3

4
4

6

f>
3
3

4
4

30
27

16
19

6

15
15

4

31
29

22

4

25

2

2

2
2

18'
26 i

4

BLOOMING M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

12

14 and
under
16
cents.

16 and
under
18
cents.

18 and
under
20

cents.

and
under
25
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

40 and
under
50
cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

60 and
under
70
cents.

70 cents
and
over.

[D
Q
0.

3
2
2

1
6
2

4
2

4

1
2

4
4

6
6

2
2

3
4

5

4

19

3

12

6

18

3

1
2

5

6
7

8

7
4

9

2

1
1

3
3

11
12

12
20

23

3

6

1

13

4

6

2

4

17
23

11
8

1
2

14
15

2

3
4
_______ _______

IQ

11

12

4
4

16
17

8
6

18
19

2

5

21

4

8

16

4

13
17

22

2
0
21
22

2
2
8

16

6

10

5

9

4

9
9

4

24
25

2

2

23

6
2

5
4

2

3
3

4

26
27

2
2

4
4

28
29

2
2

5
5

30
31

7

16
13

20

27
18

2

7

13
9

30
30

2A

2

20

8

6

_______ _______




9

32
33

2

8 1...............

3
3

34
35

36
37

2
2
2
2

2

13
17

19
13

38
39

2
2

4
4

19
W

13
18

40
41

224

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T able

J .—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO n i b —BLOOMING

Num ­
ber
Occupation, district, Year. of
em­
and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

B ottom makers’ help­
ers—Concluded.
G .L .and. M. AV.4 plan ts.........
5

plants..

Southern—
2 plants..
3 plants..
T o t a l13 plants..
17 plants..
Roll engineers:
Eastern—
3 plan ts..
3 plan ts...
Pittsburgh—
8 plan ts...
10

p lan ts....

G. L.andM . W.6 plants___
7 plan ts..
Southern—
2 plan ts..
-3 plan ts..
T o ta l19 plan ts..
23 plants..
Rollers:
Eastern—
3 plants..
3 .plants...
Pittsburgh—
8 p lan ts...
10

plants..

G .L. and M.W.6 plants........
7 plants..




Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Employees whose
Aver­
week
age
full­
tim e 48 Over 56
48
and and and
iy
per earn­ un­ un­ un­ 60
der
hour. ings. der. der 60
56
Aver­
age
rate
of

full-time hours per
were—
Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

74.9 $0.217 .$16.12........
75.2 .208 15.54........

1913
1914

22

67.8
69.4

.273 17. I ll
.264 17.101

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.238 17.141.
.216 15.53!.

1914
1915

72.0
72.0

.235 16.92'.
.225 16.23 .

1913
1914

72.0
71.3

.263 18. 721
.258 18.14

1914
1915

69.8
70.5

1914
1915

IS. 45
IS. 46

1913
1914

. 415 28.19 .
. 365j 24.66..

1914
1915

.441j 29.34^
. 48o[ 3 2 .4 0 .

1913
1914

.539! 31.85
.474' 27.87

1914
1915

. 473 27.49
. 501 i 29.06

1913
1914

. 3961 29.39 .
. 371 27.48 .

l

'

1914
1915

.414 28. 201
.439! 30.061

I

j

06
.0 1

1913
1914

9.36'.
.513 39.:
.497i 35.76,.

1914
1915

.458' 32.99'.
. 422 30.40 .

1913
1914

.4711 30.96
.425 27.81

1914
1915

60

.447 28.30
.471 29. 81

1913
1914

69.3
68.2

499 33.75
.490 32.96

1914
1915

65.8
65.9

.672 45.17
.706 47.63

1913
1914

60.5
60.4

.791 46.31
.697 41.28

1914
1915

59.7
59.7

.6871 40.28
.692 40.47

1913
1914

73.9
72.0

.612 45.17
. 558 40.17

1914
1915

67.5
67.5

44.16
45.88

131.
13'.

225

BLOOMING M ILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
M ILLS—Contin ued.

Employees whose rates of wages per hour wereand
under
14
cents.

12

14 and
under
16
cents.

18 and
under

16 and
under
18
cents.

20

cents.

and
under
25
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

30 and
under
40
cents.

4
3
•

12

4

5
9

I

3
4

4
7

9
5

40 and
under
50
cents.

4'

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

60 and
under
70
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

4
6
6

1

4

2
2

4
4

2
2

6

14

5
2

i

4

6

5
4

9

6

21
2

1

5
15

17
17

23
13

19
15

21
22

13
18

11
12

6
6!
I

!
2

5
3
1

2
1

2

13
14

1
2

2
2'

15
1G

1

2

4

5

o
5

3

10
11

5

7
5

6

2

9

9
2
2

6

11
10

5
7

10
11

7
5

3

19

1...............

3

2

1

24

2

1
1

25
26

2

2
2

2

J

27
28

8
12

7
7

26
23

13
13

11
12

2
1

1

2I
2I

1
1

1
1

2
1

2
2

2

2

23
26

2
2

2

5
3

4
3

10!

5
7

11

5
4

3

12i
3

2

2

4
3

2

5

3

6

2

2

4

89728°—Bull. 218—17----- 15




2
0
21
22

3

!
!

17
18

11

3

29
30

1
2

31

5
7
9

9

33
34

J
io!

35
36
27
38
33
40
41
42
43
44

226
T

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

able

J .—FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PE R HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—B L O O M I N G

Line Occupation, district, Year.
No. ami number of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

»
1-

1
2

3
4"
5
6

7
8

9
10

Rollers—Concluded.
Southern—
2 plants............ 1913
1914

3
3

72.0 $0.777 $55.92
72.0 .707 50.93

1914
1915

4
4

72.0
72.0

.647 46. 57
.651 46.84

T o t a l19 plants.......... 1913
1914

46
46

66. 2

65.5

.701 44.98
.632 40.51

6
6

6
6

2

54r 63.6
53 63.5

.684 42.44
.697 43.26

9!
9!
l

9
9

2
2

8
6

68.3
6 8 .2

.360 24.25
.322 21.64

2

6

2
2

2
1!

3
3'

6*
2

3 plants...........

23 p la n ts..___ 1914
1915
Manipulators:
Eastern —
3 plants........... 1913
1914
3 plan ts

!
'

!
J

J
4'____

&
3

22

3

31
31

2

27

6
2

|
2
2

1914
1915

5

65,8
65.9

.366 24.20
.435 28.83

1913
1914

24
24

60.5
60.4

.511 29.43
.444 25.88

6
6

6
6

1 0 p lan ts......... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
6 p lan ts........... 1913
1914

28
28

59. 7
59. 7

.439 25.31
. 452 25.97

6
6

9
9

25

6 8 .0

21

65.1

.375 24.60
.332 21.30

6

24
23

63. 2
6 6 .0

.345 21.37
.383 24. 49

3

21
22

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

3
3

72.0
72.0

.446 32.14
.426 30.67

3
3

23
24

3 plants........... 1914
1915

4
4

72.0
72.0

. 411 29. 56
.395 28. 44

4
4

25
26

Total—
19 plants......... 1913
1914

60
54

65.3
63.8

.431 26.86
.386 23.89

11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
89
40
41
42
43
44

Pittsburgh—
8 plants

23 plants.........

!
2.
1

10
11

1
1

12
12

6

6

6
12

2
2

12

a
31

12
6

15
17

2

3

25
29

2
2

i
3i
2i

33
35

8

1914
1915

62
60

62.4
63.4

.394 23.95
.420 25. 81

Table men:
Eastern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

4
4

71.1
69.5

.270 18 91
.236 16.53

2

4
4

6 6 .0
6 6 .0

.318 21.56
.340 23.11

2
2

16
18

63.8
64.6

.386 24.24
.316 20.06

6 p la n ts.. -___ 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W\—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

19
17

61.1
59.8

.341 20.42
.365 21.37

5
5

72.0
72,0

.216 15.55
.209 15.03

3 p la n ts ...,,... 1914
1915

8
8

63.0
63.0

.303 17. 65
. 305 17.90

1913
1914

4
4

72.0
72.0

.249 17.93
.230 16.52

4
4

1914
1915

5
5

72.0
72.0

.2 2 0

.227 16.33
15. 84

*
5
5

plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 p lants........... 1913
1914
2

Southern—
2 plants...........
3 plants...........




12

9

12
12

2

n
2
2
1

8
11

6
6

1
1

9
7
5
5

3
3

9
2

2
2

6
6

3
3

7

15

5
5

84

227

B L O O M IN G M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
MILLS—Continued.
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

14 and
under
16
cents.

12

16 and
under
18
cents.

18 and
under
20

cents.

and
under
25
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

30 and
under
40
cents.

40 and
under
50
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

60 and
under
70
cents.

1
1

1
2

1
1

|

2
2

1
1

2
2

3
4
5

4

11

9

9
13

20

8

14

6

9

2
2

1

11
12

15
13

19

8

6

1

3

3

2

2

9
9

6

9

3

3

1
1

9

12
10

3

3

6

1

6
2

3
7

5

7
4

4

2
2

7
5

8
6

8

8

2

6

23
24

2

5
10

19
20

13
16

9
7

21

17

2
2

2

24

3
11

1

6

15
13

2
2
2.
2

2

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

4
2
1

33
34

3

2

............... .................
3 _______
3i

5
5

3

3

20

14

5
5

1
1

6

3

2
2

I

2
2

8

3

2

2
2




17
18

2
2

2

15
16

2
1
1

2
2

13
14

2
0
21
22

2
2

2
2

2

4

6

6
2

i

3

19

7

1
1

|
I

10
11
12

1

1
1

1
2

7

9

4
3

2
2

!

22

35
36
37
38
1

39
40

j

41
42

i
............... j................
. ..j .

43
44

228

W AGES AND- H O U R S O F.LA BO R ---- IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T able

J .—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—BLOOMING

Line Occupation, district, Year.
No. and number of plants.

Table men—C o n d i
T o t a l1 1 p la n ts....

N um ­
ber
of
em ­
ploy*

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914

07.3 $C. 322 $21.14
67.4 .277 18.34

1914
1915

63.6
63.1

.314 19.36
.327 19.94

1913
1914

69.1
68.2

.382 26.19
.329 2 2 . 61

1914
1915

65.8
65.9

.353 23. 54
.385 25.81

1913
1914

67.3
65.4

.358 23.34
.334 21.10

1 0 plants. . .
1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
6 plan ts___
1913
1914

66.0

66.0

.337 21.54
.341 21.73

65.7
64.0

.386 24. 82
.315 2 0 . 08

1914
1915

61.7
64.4

.359 21
.403 24. 92

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.359 25. 85
.353 25. 39

1914
1915

72.0
72.0

.330 23. 76
.312 22. 46

1913
1914

67.2
65. 6

.370 24.23
.329 21.16

1914
1915

65.0
65.9

.345 21.84
23.09

1913
1914

67.2
64.8

17.98
14.

1914
1915

68.0

.272 18. 78
.295 20.41

1913
1914

66.8

67.4

.291 18.94
.271 17.86

1914
9 plan ts___
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1913
6 plan ts. . .
1914
1V15
Southern— #
1913
2 plants*.. .
1914

66.4
66.4

.274 17. 74
17.08

74.8
72.0
72.5

.237 17.69
.222 15.95
.237 17.14

72.0
72.0

.203 14. 58
.202 14.53

1914
1915

72.0
72.0

14.25
.190 13.66

14 pla n ts...
Shearmen:
Eastern—
3 plan ts---3 plan ts___
Pittsburgh—
8 plan ts___

7 plan ts----Southern—
2 plan ts___
3 plan ts___
T o t a l19 plan ts. . .
23 plan ts. . .
Shearmen’s helpers:
Eastern—
2 plan ts___
2

plants___

Pittsburgh—
8 plan ts___

3 plan ts. . .

40

T o t a l18 plan ts. .
20

plan ts. .




68.0

.

1913
1914

I ll
98

69.5
68.7

.267 18.17
.249 16.83

1914
1915

113
114

68.4
68.5

.256 17.23
.258 17.35

Employees whose, full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

C
O

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
84
72

229

BL O O M IN G M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EAENINGS IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

and
under
14
cents.

12

14 and
under
16
cents.

18 and
under

16 and
under
18
cents.

and
under
25
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

20

cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

40 and
under
50
cents.

4

2
2

2
6

10

9

2
2

8
8

4
3

15
13

4
1

2

2
2

1
1

1
1

8

14
6

2

1

4
3

3

14

5
4

3
5
1

2

3

9
14

9
9

3
4

12

3
3

2

4

9

3

10

2

3
3

3

10

1

5

2
6

1
1

2
2

2
2

t

2
2

5

19
28

15
7
11
12

11
12

8

13
13

8

26
19

2
6

4

4
4

6

8

20

17

17

15

17
18

15
16

23
14

4

6
8
8

4
4

8

2

1

2

1?
18
19

20
21
22

6

3

2

4

4

3

23
24

3

8

2

i
7

27
28

1

i
31
32

3

33
34
35

4
l

I

36
37
38
39

2

18

3

25
26

4
4

3




15
16

3
2

6

6

6

3
4

13

14

20

6
10

10
11
12

6
12

11
6

9

5

2

2
2

5

9

2

10

2

4

8
8

1

3

7

1

1

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

50 and 60 and
un d er, under
60
70
cents.
cents.

12
8

12

18
35

30
23

25

8
10

14
19

33
28

29
24

29
30

7

40
41

3

42
43

20

230

W AGES A N D H O U R S O F LABOR----IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

J. — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, BATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1£15—BLOOMING

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

Laborers:
Eastern—
3 plants...........

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
Aver- age
full­
rate time
of week­
ly
per earn­
hour. ings.

.
66.3 SO
64.2

1913
1914

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48 and
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

$
10.66
10.18

61.3
69.

.172 10.54
.154 10.60

147
133

73.1
72.1

.192 14.01
.192 13.

9 plan ts........... 1914
1915
G .L . and M .W .—
6 plants........... 1913
1914

136
158

72.0
72.8

.192 13.84
.192 14.01

102

56

74.4
72.0

.190 14.13
.192 13. 79

7 p la n ts ...___ 1914.
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

96

72.0
72.0

.190 13. 67
.190 13.64

73.0
73.3

.138 10.07
.141 10.29

74.1
71.3

.148 10.97
.140 9.95

3 p la n ts.......... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
8 p la n ts.......... 1913
1914

3 plants...........

102

1914
1915

31

91
31

T o t a l19 plan ts......... 1913
1914
19

212

73.1
72.0

.185 13.51
.187 13.44

146
140

1914
1915

267
290

71.7
72.3

.187 13.
.187 13.49

185
192

65.5
67.7

.229 15.18
.225 15.34

22

plants.........

U nclassified—produc­
tive:
Eastern—
3 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
1 0 plants.........
G. L. and M .W —
7 plants...........
Southern—
3 plants...........
T o t a l23 plants.........

1914
1915
1914
1915

208
232

72.7
72.8

.22'

16.40

1- .22
6

119
123

1914
1915

121

126

73.2
73.4

.214 15.52
.216 15.85

104
101

74.9
76.1

.192 14.34
.191 14.51

33

72.0
72.6

.220 15. 75

1914
1915
1914
1915

U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
3 plants*.......... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
9 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
7 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern1914
3 pis
1915
T o ta l2 2 plants

292

1914
1915

445
481

.224

21

.219 15.81

283
291

.216 14.
15.41
484
586

73.6
73.5

.223 16.39
.221 16.21

269

ail

72.1
72.3

.226 16.20
*224 16.14

132
132

73.6
74.5

973

72.7
72.8

.219 15.92
.218 15.86

157

.195 14.42
.186 13.95|

1,112

327
394
26

15

15

16

57
59

1 Including 3 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




30

197
223

5'
661

1 154
2 171

231

BLOOM ING M ILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
MILLS—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
under
14
cents.

16 and
under
18
cents.

14 and
under
16
cents.

12

18 and
under
20

cents.

and
under
25
cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

20

40 and
under
50
cents.

50 and
under
60
cents.

60 and
under
70
cents.

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

1
2

4

12

1

4

3

1
10

11
1

1

33
27

79
79

35
27

5

27
29

79
97

30
32

8

19
8

76
43

5

8
12

83
84

5

3
4

6
7

9

10
11
12

6

8
8

16
6

4

13
14

8

6
8

9
3

15
16

8
8

20

7

64
43

122

8

7
18

55
45

5

7

158

17
18

162
182

35
38 !

20

15
26

9
7

21;
12

8
8

41
73

114

1

3

39
28

74
84

13
15

3
5

18
18

10

7

13

7

42
32

27
42

107
126

13

19

13
4

4
12

4
4

21
22

4

23
24

4;

3
3

25
26

6

2
2

27
28

219
205

52
53

23
27

18
15

31
25

23
24

40
40

346
442

6

93
107

35
86

50

4

14

3

20

*31
35

6
2

1

1

16
15
16
19

101

102

8-

4

10

4
8

29
30

3
7

2

31
32

62
63

31
35

3
3

33
34

125
131

20

34

29
31

2
2

35
36

56

10

10

7

6
6

7
7

1
1

37
38

207
172

512
605

111

70
80

6
8

39
40

127

2 Including 2 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




PLATE MILLS.1
SUMMARY.

The average rate of wages or earnings per hour in 1915 in the platemill department was from 1 to 18 per cent higher than in any one of
the five years preceding, and as the average full-time hours per week
were practically stationary during the period, the full-time weekly
earnings followed the course of hourly earnings. These facts are
shown in the table of relative numbers for “ All occupations,” Table 29.
The most significant facts appearing in this chapter concerning
wages and hours of labor of plate-mill employees for the years 1910
to 1915 are summarized by means of averages and percentages in
Table 28. The information for 1915 represents the 2,245 em­
ployees of 20 plate mills in 13 plants. These 20 mills are capable of
producing 37 per cent of the total tonnage of all plate mills in the
United States. Fifteen of these mills, which range in size from 72
to 152 inches, are sheared-plate mills, where the edges are not rolled
and must be sheared off, while the remaining 5 are 48-inch universal
mills where the edges are rolled, hence only the ends need be cut.
Of the 2,245 employees 1,172 are in the 16 principal productive occu­
pations reported for the years 1910 to 1913 and the remaining 1,073
are in the unclassified productive and nonproductive groups reported
for the years 1914 and 1915 only.
In this summary table occupations are grouped according to the
wages paid, beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupa­
tions in each group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified
full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by
percentages which were computed from the actual figures given in
Table K.
1 Summary figures relating to this department are given w ith figures for other departments of the iron
and steel industry on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volum e of employm ent in this and other
departments from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of th e
scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.

232




233

PL A T E M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

T a b l e 28.—FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D FU L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915—T L A T E M I L L S .
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings'per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
A ver­
Num ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
Over
Over
of
12
14 is 18
em­ time
ber of plants.
72
60
wages and and and and 2 0
ploy­ hours 60
per
per un­ un­ un­ u n ­ cts.
ees. week. and and 72 and 84
un­
un­ un­
hour. der der der der and
der. der
der
14 16 18 2 0 over.
84
72
cts. cts. cts. cts.
Laborers:
1 1 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

6 6 .8
6 6 .2

25
26
25

58
52
45

10

1

68.3

18
17

3
7

plants................. 1912
1913

339
349

68.9
69.3

22
22

36
36

31
32

6

1913
1914

228
190

68.5
67.9

34
28

29
31

25
25

plants................. 1914
1915

216
208

67.6
66.7

27
36

30
29

27
19

11

12

i

7 $0,159 18
.158 24
.160 26

1
6

10
10

7
9
25

10

10

12

plants...........

Hook men, shearedplate mills:
9 plants.............

11.17
“ 32‘ 12.62

21

25
18

23

13
13

3
3

. 174
.174

31
31

31
29

16
17

20
20

4
3

66

64

28
30
30

3

1912
1913

113
107

68.7
68.7

3

61
65

25
23

8
12

1913
1914

105
103

68.5
6 8 .2

72
76

11
8

1914
j 1915

112

67.7
67.6

76
76

9

109

68

8

3
20

37
.175
.174 ‘ *3* 35

69.5
67.3
67.5

plants.............

66

3

101

plants_
_

$1 0 . 6 8
10.51
11.04

1

38

111

67

1

4
14

1910
1911
1912

108

1

.161
.181

22

2
2

16
Un­ and
der un
16 der
cts. 2 0
cts.
Heaters’ helpers:
1 0 plants_
_

71
67
65

s5
27

3

Aver­
age
full­
time
vi eekly
earn­
ings.

23
18

20

and
un­
der
30
cts.

21

12.09
11.93
11.85
1 1 .6 6

30
and 40
un­ cts.
der and
40 over.
cts.

30
31
30

45
48
56

5
5
7

11

7
7

16.98
15.31
16.71

34
32

54
45

6

13

6
10

16. 74
17.50

16
17

.252
23
.239 " 6 * 19

55
57

11
11

10

4

17. 42
16.23

15
16

.247
.264

17

62
40

12

11

25

4
9

16.68
18.04

25
42
30

37
29
35

27
17
17

3
17

17. 8 8
16. 81
19.07

17
24

18.90
21.35

24

21.55
18.95

5
1

4

.243
.227
.247

9
10

.243
.252

6

15

1
1

1910
1911
1912

73
72
69

68.3

58
57

32
42
43

.262
.246
.279

9 plants................. i 1912
1913

72
75

6 8 .6

68.5

53
51

47
49

.276
.310

28
16

39
39

21

9 plants. . . .

1913
1914

76
65

68.4
67.9

57

43
34

313
.'277 "<S

11

66

9

45
60

21
12

plants................. 1914
1915

74
76

6 8 .2
6 8 .0

57
58

43
42

.294
.314

4

54
42

26

11

8

20

25

20.27
21.57

1910
1911
1912

14
14
14

6 8 .0

68.9
68.9

71
43
43

29
57
57

.263
.242
.279

43
i4' 14
14 14

14
57
36

2i

14
14

17.71
16.64
19.16

plants.......

1912
1913

16
16

69.3
69.3

37
37

63
63

.269
.280

13

19
25

38
31

19
31

13
13

18.54
19.31

7 plants.......

1913
1914

20

69.1
68.7

50
56

50
44

.265
30
.246 'i7* 17

35
39

25
28

10

18. 28
17. 08

8
.257
13
24 67.4
67
33
9 plants................... 1914
8
25
58
42
.268
24 67.4
1915
1 Including 5 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including 3 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
3 Including 4 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91

50
25

25
33 i

4

17. 42
18.12

11

Roll hands, other,
sheared-plate mills:
6 plants...............

6




18

68.3
6 8 .1

8

4

5
5

17

43

8

12

8

234

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e 28.— FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , RATES- OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915— P L A T E M I L L S —Continued.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
A ver­
Aver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of time
Over
of
Over
em­ hours 60
ber of plants.
wages
72
60
ploy­ per and and
per
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 and 84 hour.
un­
der
der. der
72
84
Shearmen’s helpers:
1 1 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
6 8 .6

2 1 57
4 1 41
3
39

42
56
58

plants................. 1912
1913

392
393

68.3
68.4

2
2

42
43

55
56

.226
.253

1913
1914

425
373

68.7

(i)

6 8 .2

1

42
48

57
51

13 plants................. 1914
1915

408
406

6 8 .2

(i)
1

48
46

52
50

2

1914
1915

565
552

69.1
69.1

1
2

47
46

45
41

5
5

1914
1915

551
521

70.3
69.8

16

30
22

33
37

7

21

11

11

plan ts................

Unclassified—produc­
tive:
13 plants................
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
1 2 plants.................

68.4

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
age
full­
time
16 2 0 30
week­
U n­ and and and 40
ly
der un ­ un ­ un­ cts. earn­
16 der der der and ings.
over.
cts. 2 0 30 40
cts. cts. els.

14

$0,215 1 0
.206 14
4
.223

29
27
20

18

4
6

53
17

24
50

18
23

.250
.240

6

47
53
56

6
8

17

52
60

21

11

.248
.260

6
12

12
12

2
2

.229
.237

13
12

14
14

.219
.229

7
3

6

) $14. 71
C
1) 14.20
15.42
1

0

5

15.59
17.47

18

4
3

17. 25
16.53

61
46

18
27

3
3

16.71
17.89

22
22

51
45

10

16

4
5

15.91
16. 45

29
28

53
52

12

(l)

15.29
15.87

16

2

2

30 40
20
Un­ and and and 50
un­ un­ cts.
der un­
2 0 der der der and
cts. 30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts.
Charging-crane and
charging - machine
operators:
9 p la n ts ,..............

10

plants...............

1910
1911
1912

41
39
38

71.6
69.4
69.1

1912
1913

42
44

69.6
70.3

8
8

5

34
33
34

56
56
58

33
32

33
41

15
3

.303
66
.283 ‘i3* 44
.315 1 1 37

39
37

29
27

.315
.343

10

9

33
32

43
27

27

4
7

39
43

26
33

26
17

10

3

20

11
10

3
5

21.85
19. 70
21.85

5
5

21.98
24.24

4

24.07
21.47

10

plants................

1913
1914

46
42

70.7
70.3

35
38

39
38

26
24

.339
.303

12

plants...............

1914
1915

52
54

70.2
70.3

42
41

31
30

27
30

.306
.329

10
11

38
37

35
26

20

6

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

28
34
34

61
37
34

33
29
29

6

9
9

45
54
54

6

9

.300
.290
.289

11

17
17

9
9

21.45
20.55
20.78

32
33

27
31

22
22

14
14

.287
.309

8
8

57
44

27
42

8
6

20.93
22.63

38
41

29
41

18
13

15
6

.308
.305

9
3

47
50

32
41

12
6

22.45
21.53

70.2
45
34
28
69.7
1 51
1 Less than one-half of

16
15

5
5

.307
.309

3
13

53
44

34
28

13

Roll engineers:
1 1 plants...............

11

plants...............

1912
1913

37
36

72.5
72.8

11

plants...............

1913
1914

34
32

72.4
70.5

1914
1915

38
39

13 plants...............




6
6

5

11

1

6

per cent.

17

11

3

21.69
23.39

21.55
21.58

235

P L A T E M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

T a b l e 28.— FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D FU L L ­

TIME W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915—P L A T E M I L L S —Continued.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
A ver­
N um ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
time
ver
Over
of
20
30 40
em­ hours 60 O60
ber of plants.
72
wages U n­ and and and 50
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. and and 72 and 84 hour. der un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­
un­ un­
2 0 der der der and
der
der. der
cts. 3 40 50 over.
0
84
72
cts. cts. cts.
Roll hands, other, uni­
versal mills, 48-inch:
2 plants.................. 1910
1911
1912

4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

1912
1913

5
6

69.6
72.0

4 plants..................

1913
1914

8
8

70.3
70.3

5plants..................

1914
1915

10

69.5
69.2

1910
1911
1912
1913

10

1913
1914

3 plants..................

Screw men, side rolls,
universal mills, 48inch:
4 plants..................

6

9

33
50
50

67
50
50

$20.93
21.55
20.74

100

.277
.288

60
67

40
33

19.41
20. 74

25
25

75
75

.261
.241

25
25

50
75

25

18.50
17.06

40
44

60
56

........ 1' .266
.310

20

60
33

20

18.48
21.46

60
44
44
50

40
33
33
50

.314
.296
.271
.294

40
44
56
25

20
11

44*
50

13

13

67
50

.332
.262

33
50

33
50

17

17

67
100
100

80

20

69.2
66.3
66.3

8

6 8 .6

6
8

69.8
6 8 .6

33
50

1914
1915

10
10

6 8 .1
6 8 .1

60
60

40
40

.271
.332

40

1910
1911
1912

70

67.5

3

66
68

6 8 .0
6 8 .2

6
6

64
42
40

33
52
54

.378
.356
.386

1
2

1912
1913

69
69

68.3

7
3

38
38

55
59

.384
.413

1913
1914

69
64

68.4

1

39
45

59
53

13 plants................. 1914
1915

73
73

68.4

1

6 8 .2

4

45
44

5plants..................
Shearmen:
1 1 plants................

11

11

plants................
plants................

T a b l e o p e r a to r s ,
s h e a r e d - p i a te
mills:
9 plants..................

6 8 .8
6 8 .8

ly

earn­
ings.

S0.29S
.299
.288

33

9
9

4 plants..................

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­

22
22

2

40
44

67

21.77
19. 80
18.12
20.56
23.47
18.27
18.69
22.83

40

60
40

33
38
37

33
32
28

10

12

23
18
24

25.69
24.45
26.61

3

38
16

30
30

9
23

23
28

26.48
28.63

.415
.402

3
3

14
28

30
33

25

28
30

28.81
27.74

53
52

.406
.436

1
3

26
16

34
25

25

29
32

27.97
29.68

20

U

6
10

1910
1911
1912

26
28
28

68.4
6 8 .1
6 8 .1

69
57
57

31
43
43

.318
.300
.341

ii

14

54
46
43

15
25
7

31
18
29

7

21.64
20. 44
23.24

1912
1913

30
31

68.3
68.4

53
52

47
48

.334
.361

13
7

47
42

7
3

27
36

7
13

22.85
24.74

9 plants................... 1913
1914

31
27

6 8 .2

55
63

45
37

.363
.324

3

45
52

3
26

35

13

11

11

24.87
22.18

.317
.332

45
19

29
31

10

2
2

10

19

9 plants..................

67.7

1
11

plants...............




1914
1915

31
32

67.6
67.5

61
63

39 |........
37 1 . ..

6

9

21.73
22. 63

236

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T abe e 28.—FU LL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915—P L A T E M I L L S —Concluded.

Per cent of employees
Ter cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num ­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num ­ Year
of
Over
of
30 40 50
em­ time 60 Over
ber of plants.
72
wages U n­ and and and 60
60
ploy­ hours and and
per
per
cts.
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 and 84 hour. der un­ un­ un­ and
un­
30 der der der
der. der
der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
cts. cts. cts.
84
72
Heaters:
11 plants................

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­

ly

earn­
ings.

1910
1911
1912

71.0
69.1
69.4

5
6

39
38
36

54
55
53

6

7 $0,508
2
.468
.513

7
6
6

14
27
17

21
20
11

36
38
45

21 $36.35
9 32.46
21 35.78

11 plants................ 1912
1913

69.9
71.0

4 . 36
37

33
35

27
28

.513
.557

6

16
11

13
32

46
20

20
37

36.02
39.93

1913
1914

71.7
71.8

39
40

26
29

35
23

8

.562
11
.520 ’ ’4 ’ 21

24
13

28
37

37
25

40.59
37.73

1914
1915

70.5
70.6

48
49

23
21

22
23

6
7

.529
.557

2
3

16
16

17
15

42
21

23
44

37.63
39.73

1910
1911
1912

68 4
68 1
68 5

71
54
48

29
43
48

.712
.607
.729

21
21
4

7
7
8

14
14
24

7
11
8

50
46
56

48.18
41.46
50.03

1912
1913

68 7
68.5

48
50

52
50

.711
. 718

4
12

7

30

7
8

52
58

48.93
49.21

1913
1914

68.5
68.1

52
58

48
42

; . 755
! .691

8

24
4

8
8

60
67

51.55
47.32

1914
1915

68.0
67.9

57
57

43
43

.703
.734

4 i 11

68
79

47.94
49.89

1910
1911
1912
1913

69.5
68.4 ’ ii*
17
67.8
69.8

50
29
33
33

50
57
50
67

1

75
71
67
67

44.22
40.31
39. 78
47.81

4 plants.

1913
1914

69.8
69.8

33
33

67
67

.636
. 584
. 581
; .672
I
i .672
.575

!
!

!
j

67
67

47.81
40. 78

5 plants.

1914
1915

68. 8
68.8

50
50

50
50

1

i

75
75

41.08
47.10

1910
1911
1912
1913

69.5
66. 6
66. 6
70.1

25

32. 75
28.23
27.38
32.66

1913
1914

11 plants................
13 plants................
R o lle r s , sh e a re d plate mills:
9 plants..................

9 plants.................
9 plants................
11 plan ts..............
Rollers,
universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants................

Screw men, main
rolls, universal mills
48-inch:
4 plants.................

4
4

8 i 15

i

21

7

18
14

i

1

.590
1 .676
!

25
29
33
33
33
33
25
25

50
29
29
29

50
43
43
71

.470
.421
.407
.460

i4
29
29

j
i
25 J 25
14 1 57
1 57
! 43

70.1
70.1

29
29

71
71

.460
.392

29
29

14

43
29

29

1914
1915

69.2
69.2

44
44

56
56

.386
. 451

22
22

33
22

22
33

22

1910
1911
1912

68. 6
68.6
68.8

4
4

64
46
44

36
50
52

.421
.393
.446

21
14
11

9 plan ts...............

1912
1913

69.0
69.0

3

41
45

55
55

.435
.482

14 36
25 36
19 i 33
j
24 ! 31
7 45

plan ts...............

1913
1914

68.9
68.5

48
56

52
44

.488
.426

7
26

10 plants.............

1914
1915

68.7
68.3

50
54

50
46

.434
.474

21
15

4 plants................
5 plan ts................
Screw men, shearedplate mills:
9 plants................




29
29

25
14
14

29
29

32.66
27. 76

22

26.96
31.51

14
18
15

14
7
22

28. 75
26.95
30. 67

10
7

14

21
41

30.00
33.36

41
26

7
22

4

44
22

33.78
29.46

25
23

29
19

4
12

21
31

30.08
32. 61

1

PL A T E M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

237

Referring to the first occupation shown in Table 28, laborers, direct,
comparison can be made of data for 1 1 identical plants for 1910 to
1912, inclusive, for a second group of 11 plants for 1912 and 1913,
for 10 plants in 1913 and 1914, and for 12 plants in 1914 and 1915.
The first line of the table is read as follows: In 1910 the 1 1 plate
mills for which reports were obtained employed 355 laborers whose
average full-time hours of work were 66.8 per week. For 25 per
cent of the 355 laborers the full-time hours per week were 60 and
under; for 58 per cent, over 60 and under 72; for 10 per cent, 72;
for 1 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 7 per cent the working
hours were 84 per week. The average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of laborers in the year considered (1910) was 15.9 cents. Of
the total number, 18 per cent received 12 and under 14 cents per
hour; 10 per cent, 14 and under 16 cents; 71 per cent, 16 and under
18 cents; and 1 per cent, 18 and under 20 cents per hour. The
average full-time weekly earnings were $ 10 .68. The other lines of
the table may be read in the same manner.
The lowest full-time weekly earnings in this department in 1915
were those of laborers, which were $ 1 1 .66, and the highest those of
rollers in sheared-plate mills, which were $49.89.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the four years,
which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout the
period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages given in Table 28 for full-time hours per week, rates of
wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupation
from 1910 to 1915, inclusive. Such figures appear in Table 29.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The rela­
tive for each year is the per cent which the average for th at year is
of the average for 1915. For example, the relative full-time weekly
earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators in 1910
were 94 as compared with 100 in 1915, th a t is, full-time weekly
earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators in 1910
were 94 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation
in 1915. The method of computing relative numbers is explained
on pages 65 to 67. Table 29 also shows for each occupation the
per cent of increase or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of
wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1915, as compared
with each specified year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earn­
ings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators in 1915 were
6 per cent higher than in either 1910 or 1912, 18 per cent higher than
in 1911, 4 per cent lower than in 1913, and 8 per cent higher than
in 1914.




238

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR----IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus,
the full-time weekly earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine
operators in 1911 were 10 per cent lower than in 1910; in 1912 11
per cent higher th an in 1911, in 1913 11 per cent higher th a n in 1912;
in 1914 11 per cent lower than in 1913, and in 1915 8 per cent higher
than in 1914. The other occupations and items of the table can be
studied in like manner. The percentages of increase and decrease
are computed from the relative numbers.
T a b le 29.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OP W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EA R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R C ENT OF
INC R EA SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—P L A T E M IL L S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (,—)
in Occupation and year.

Charging-crane and charging.machine operators:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Heaters:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Heaters’ helpers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Roll engineers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Rollers, sheared-plate mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




R ela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

103
100
100
101
100
100
101
98
98
100
100
100
104
100
101
101
100
100

Per cent of in­
crease (4-) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

R ela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tive
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
wages
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
per
earn­
w ith
com­
with
w ith
com­
com­
hour.
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­
with
with
with
specispeci­
year
fied
year
year
* fied
fied
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

—3
C
1)
(0
- 1
0

-3
C
1)
+ 1
-1

)
0
—1
+ 2

4-2
C
1)
0 )

0

—4
)

- 1
- 1

)

-3
0)
+ 2

)
C
1)
0

-4
+1
0 )
- 1

0

103
102
103
103
101
100
101
100
101
101
100
100

W eekly earnings.

)

-3
- 2

-3
-3
-1

0

—1
)
- 1
- 1

0

)

-1

+
0 )

1

- 2
—1

-1

+
0 )

1

-1

c1)
i No change.

92
86
96
104
93
100

+
+
+
+

9
16
4
4

94
86
95
103
95
100

+
+
+
+

16
5
3
5

94
87
95 .
99
94
100

+ 6
+ 15
+ 5
+ 1
+ 6

97
94
93
100
99
100

+ 3
+ 6
+ 8
C
1)
+ 1

101
86
104
105
9€
100

— 1
+ 16
- 4
- 5
+ 4

8

6

-1 1
+ 8

94
85
94
104
93
100

+ 6
+ 18
+ 6
- 4
+ 8

- 9
+ 10
+ 8
- 8
* + 5

93
83
92
102
95
100

+

- 7
+ 12
+ 8

97
87

8
+20

+ 9
- 2
+ 5

9
5

6

99
93
100

+ 3
+ 15
4- 5
+ 1
+ 8

- 3 !
- 1
+ 8
- 1
+ 1

100
95
96
104
100
100

(i)
+ 5
+ 4
- 4
0 )

+
+
+

7
9 ;
4 !
5

:
-1 5
+21
+ 1

- 9
+ 4

(i)
100
86
+ 16
104
- 4
105
- 5
96
+ 4
100 __

-1 0
+11
+ 11
-1 1
+ 8

-1 1
+ 11
+ 11

- 7
+ 5
-1 0

+ 9
+ 4
- 6
+ 8
- 5
+ 1
+ 8
- 4
0 )
-1 4
+21
+ 1

- 9
+ 4

PL A T E M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

239

T a b le 29.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, TO G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INC R EA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATION S—P L A TE M IL L S —
Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in —
Occupation and year.

Screw men, sbeared-plate
mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Table operators, shearedpiate mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915......................................
Hook men, sbeared-plate
mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Roll hands, other, shearedplate mills:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Rollers, universal mills, 48inch:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Screw men, main rolls, uni­
versal mills, 48-ineh:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Screw men, side rolls, uni­
versal mills, 48-inch:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

101
101
101
101
100
l-oo
101
101
101
101
100
100

-

1
1
1
1

100
9ft
97
100
100
100

89
83
95
105
92
100

—1
- 1
- 1
-1

C
1)
(l)
0 )

C
1)

- 1

0

)

—1
- 1

c
’1)
( 1)
0 )

—1
—1
0

)

- 1

0

)

+ 1
- 1
- 1
- 1

|
;

C
1)

+ 2

)
C
1)

0

- 1
(0

(1 )
+ 2

+3
0 )
0 )

99
95
95
100
100
100

+1
+5
+5
C
1)
C
1)

103
98
98
102
100
100

+2
+ 2
- 2

- 2
- 1

+3
(l)
0 )
—4
)
+5
0 )
0

(0

—3
-5
C
1)
+4

C
1)

—2

)
i N o change*
0

+
+
+
+

89
83
94
106
94
100

- 1

+ 12
+20

92
87
99
107
90
100

C
1)
0 )
(l)
C
1)

1

99
101
101
101
100
100

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tiv e
Each
Each rate of
Each
full­
speci­
speci­ wages 1915 as
time 1915 as speci­
com­
fied
fied
com­
fied
weekly
per
year as hour. pared year as earn­ pared year as
com­
with
w ith
com­
com­
ings.
pared
each
each
pared
pared
with
speci­
w ith
speci­
with
year
fied
fied
year
year
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

^915 as
com­
pared
with
each
sp eci-.
fied
year.

101
101
101
101
101
100

W eekly earnings.

+

+ 5
- 5
+ 9

9
15
I
7
4

12
+20
6
6
6

+
+

- 7
+ 14
+ 11
-1 2

+ 9

- 5
+ 14
+ 8
-1 0

+ 4

+ 6
+ 16
+ 1
- 3
+ 4

97
89
88
102
m
100

+ 3
+ 12
+ 14
- 2
+ 15

103
92
89
100
86
100

—3
+ 9
+ 12
C
1)
+ 16

110
104
95
103
82
160

—
+
-

9
4
5
3

+22

+ 12
+ 19
+ 5
- 6
+ 9

93
88
99
108
96
100

+ 8
+ 14
+ 1
- 7
+ 4

-1 1
6

+
+
+

9
15
4
7
4

91
86
99
103
96
100

+ 10
+ 16
+ 1
- 3
+ 4

- 8
- 1
+ 16
-1 5
+ 15

95
86
85
102
87
100

+
+
+
+

101
87
85
101
86
100

—1
+ 15
+ 18
- 1
+ 16

111
101
9S
105
82
100

—1 0
- 1
+ 8
- 5
+ 22

-1 1

- 3
+ 12
-1 4
+ 16

—5
- 0
+ 8
-2 0
+22

- 6
+ 13
+ 12
-1 3
+ 9

- 5
+ 13
+ 9
-1 1

+ 4

89
83
95
107
94
100

- 7
+ 13
+ 13
+

94
86
99
103
96
100

89
84
95
1&6
92
100

+

12
+20

+ 5
—7
+ 6

5
16
18
2

15

- 7
+ 14
+ 13
-1 2
+ 6

+
+
+

5
15
4
7
4

- 9
- 1
+ 20
-1 5
+ 15

-1 4
- 2
+ 19
-1 5
+ 16

- 9
- 8
+ 15
—2 2 .
+22

240

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le 29.—R E L A T IV E FU LL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, TO G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
IN C R E A SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IF IE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—P L A TE M IL L S —
Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Roll hands, other, universal
mills, 48-inch:
1910.....................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Shearmen:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Shearmen’s helpers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Laborers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—productive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—nonproductive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
A ll occupations:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

94
97
97

10
0
10
0
10
0

0
0

-1

(')
(!)
C
1)
)
)
C
1)

0
0

+ 1
+ 1
- 2
- 2
-1

1

+1
-1

0)

0)
(l)
(*)
(1)
(l)

(l)
+3
0 )
-1
-1

C
1)
-1

C
1)
+
(')

1

-1

C
1)
0

+ 4

85
91
99
95

+ 14
+ 18
+ 10
+ 1
+ 5

)

8
8

+ 3

10
0

90

10
0
8
8

- 1
0

- 1
- 1

8
8
11
0
10
0
10
0

+ 12
+ 14
+ 11
- 1
(l)

8
6
10
0
8
8

10
0

(l)

)
C
1)

+ 19
+25
+ 15
+ 3
+ 6

96

+

0)

+ 14
+ 22
+ 12
+ 4
+ 8

97

+ 1

(!)
(l)

82
89
96
93

10
0

0)

+ 8
+ 8
+ 12
+ 8
+ 16

89

+3

0+3
)
(0

93
93
89
93

84
80
87
97
94

+ 6

+3
+3
)
)

99
99

12
0
12
0
11
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
11
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
11
0
11
0
10
0
10
0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tive
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
time 1915 as speci­
fied
com­
fied
com­
fied
wages com­
weekly pared
pared year as earn­
pared year as
per
year as
com­
with
com­
w ith
with
com­
hour.
ings.
each
pared
each
each
pared
pared
with
with
speci­
with
speci­
speci­
year
fied
fied
year
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

99

10
0
10
0
11
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0

Weekly earnings.

10
0

91
87
93

3
7
9
4
5

88
87
91
103

+ 14
+ 15
+ 10
- 3
- 2

10
0

+ 3

96

+
+
+

+ 20
+25
+ 15
+ 2
+ 8

97

+ 4

83
80
87
98
93

+ 4

85
91

+ 14
+ 18
+ 10
C
1)
+ 5

10
0

—5
+ 9 i
+ 11 !
- 3 !
—6

+ 3

+ 15
+ 20
+ 10
+ 2
+ 6

8
6
10
0

- 7
+ 9
+ 8
- 3
+ 8

- 1
+ 2
+ 12
- 1
C
1)

+ 14
+ 10
+ 15
+ 8
+ 16

87
83
91
98
94

C
1)
- 4
+ 4
- 8
+ 16

i
|

10
0
12
0
10
0
10
0
8
8
10
0
95
100

+
+
+

3
4
7
8
16

- 5
+ 10
+ 8
- 4
+ 6
- 4
+ 9
+ 13
- 5
+ 8
- 1
+ 5
+ 13
- 1
—2
+ 3
+ 4
+
+
+

3
7
10
5
5

i No change.

The relative full-time weekly earnings for the department as a
whole ("All occupations ” ) in 1910 was 88 per cent of such earn­
ings in 1915 and in 1913, when the relative was 100 . The rela­
tive was 85 in 1911, 91 in 1912, and 95 in 1914. These relative num­
bers for all years previous to 1914 are based on the principal pro­
ductive occupations only, while those for 1914 and 1915 include the
unclassified groups (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and
1915 for the first time.




241

P L A T E M IL L S — SU M M A R Y _
FU L L -T IM E W O R K H m B A Y S P E R W E EK .

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in plate-mill plants whose customary working time per
week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in Table 30.
The heading “ 5 days and 6 days alternately” indicates th at the
plants were running 6 days and 5 nights each week, being shut down
for 1 J days each week, and th a t the employees reported under this
heading worked 6 days one week and 5 nights the next. The head­
ing “ 6 days and 7 days alternately” indicates th at the plants were not
in operation half a day in each week, the employees reported working
6 turns one week and 7 the next week. The figures are presented for
each of the three districts for which reports from plate mills were
obtained and for the three districts combined.
Two sets of figures are shown for the plants reported for 1914 and
1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupations as
,shown for all the preceding groups, and therefore strictly comparable
with them, and the second including the unclassified occupations (see
pp. 55 to 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.
30.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF E M PL O Y EES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING
EACH SPEC IFIE D N U M B E R OF D AYS PE R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1915—P L A TE
M ILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for indentical plants.]

T a b le

Number of employees whose cus­
tomary working tim e per week
was—
N um ­
6
ber
5
days
days
District, and num­ Year. of
and
em­
and
ber of plants.
7
ploy­
6
5
6
ees. days. days days. days
alalterternatenately.
iy.

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—

6
5
6
days,
days
days
7
and
and
days,
7
6
and
7
6
5
7
days. days. days days. days
alaldays
terterin
natenaterota­
ly.
iy.
tion.

6

days,
7
days,
and
7
7
days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

Eastern:
2 plan ts.......... 1910
1911
1912

343
343
330

84
268
245

253
75
84

6

i
1|

25
78
74

22

plants.......... 1912
1913

333
339

242
287

86

45

5
7

73
85

26
13

2
2

plants. . .

1913
1914

343
310

230
216

105
91

7
3

1914
1915

378
390

295
337

80
49

3
3

2

2

3 plan ts.
cplants.

1

1

1

74




0

)

0

)

67
70

31
29

2
1

78

21

0

)

86

13

1
1

32
67
475 2 184
46
1914
707
2f
32
74
47 0 )
1<
3 516 2 131
1915
699
1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including 6 employees who worked 7 days every sixth week.
3 Worked 6 days every fourth week.

89728°—Bull. 218—17------16

2

26

0
0

)
)

7
7

242

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e 30.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF E M P L O Y E E S IN EACH D ISTR IC T W O R K IN G

EACH S P E C IF IE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1915—P L A TE
M IL L S —Concluded.

N u m b ero f employees whose cus­
tomary working tim e per week
was—’
Num ­
5
ber
days
D istrict, and num­ Year. of
and
em­
ber of plants.
6
ploy­
6
5
ees. days, days days.
alternateiy.

Pittsburgh:

1910
1911
1912

709
621
631

1912
1913

668

1913
1914

569
514

6 plants

1914
1915

585
576

6 plants

1914
1915

1,139
1,121

Great Lakes and
Middle West:
4 plants

8

6

78
78

6

6
5
6
days days,
days
days days,
7
7
and days,
and
and
days,
6
7
7
7
5
and
6
7
and
days
7
days. days. days days. days
7
days.
alalal- days
days
terterterin
in
natenate- rota­
nate- rota­
iy.
iy. tion.
iy- tion.

6

6651
492
477 1
526!
4901

62
74

38
57
80

2
\

6

5
9

13

98 2 4081 28
124 2 324l 3 40
1
i 124 3 379
56
124 3 371
49

35
26

17
24

72
64

5

8

6
5

26
32

21
22

65
64

10
9

6

15
16

72
72

7
5

7
7

32
38
36

62
51
52

3

42
38

44
57

4
1

2

1

1
1

172
174
!

90
91
87

172
121
125

8

16
5
1

91
95

97
142

8

2

6

4
4

3

3
3

1
1

37
42

60
56

3
3

1
1

42
39

56
59 1

3
3

6

4

29
25

67
69

13
35
34

82
57
57

33
37

57
54

1
2

36
41

57

52

3
4

49
46

5
4

0

57
55

3
3

19

4 plants

1913
1914

255
222

95
93

153
125

4 plan ts.......... 1914
1915

222
206

93
81

125
121

4 plants.

455
425

130
106

306
294

10
18

174 1,090
421
688
406
686

6

Total:
11 plan ts........ 1910
1911
1912

1,330
1.203
1.203

30

plan ts. . . . 1912
1913

1,248
1,256

19

plan ts........ 1913
1914

1,167
1,046

1

13 plan ts........ 1914
1915

1,185
1,172

13 plan ts........ 1914
1915

2,301
2,245

21

4

79
81

219
249

!

12
12

3 71
3 59

1912
1913

i

1
3

J817
807

2

4 plants

411
460

1

512
542

3

777 41,307
796 4 1,232

9

60
62
82

2

8

14
24 1

3
2

6

95
89

31!
3 40i

3
3

43
30

56
49

3
3

30
36

43
46

81
77

&
5
55

131
132

34
35

709
677

423 2 666
433 2 540

9
9

1

584
541
3
3

2

0

0

)

)

3
3

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Including 6 employees who worked 7 days* every sixth week.
3 Including 4 employees who worked 7 days every fourth week.
4 Includ’r
12 employees who worked 7 days every sixth week,
s Includinf 2 emloyees who worked 6 days every fourth week.




1
0)

76
73

22
21

11

94
79
76

11
12

278
239
212

11

86

10
12

78

1910
1911
1912 i

1914
1915 |
!

1

22

696

i

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary working tim e per week
was—

6
2
0)

2
2
C1)

1

1
1
1
1

2
4

1
1
1
1

1

5
5
7

0)
1

g
1

7

4
3

8

0

)
)

3
3

0
0

)
)

6
6

PL A T E M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

243

Two general tables are presented for this department, as follows:
Table K .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1915.
Table L.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.
The data from Table K are summarized in Table 28, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables K and L
and the table of relative numbers follows th at of the processes of
manufacture. “ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this
report, are identical units of identical establishments reporting the
same occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year, back
to 1910, corresponding to those given in Table Lf o r 1913, 1914, and
1915, were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this bureau.
Descriptions of the specified occupations which appear in the tables
of this chapter and of other occupations of the plate-mill department
included in the two groups designated as “ Unclassified—productive,”
and “ Unclassified—nonproductive,” are to be found in the Glossary
of Occupations, pages 494 to 497.




244

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IK O N AND S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

K .— FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Num ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy­
ees.

Charging-crane a n d
charging - machine
operators:
9 plan ts..................

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Aver-' Aver­
age
age full­
rate time
Over
of | week­
48
wages
and and
ly
per j earn­ un­ un­
hour. ings. der. der
56

1910
1911
1912

41
39
38

56
and
un­
der
60

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

71.6 $0,303 $21.85
69.4 .283 19.70
69.1 .315 21.85

10

p lan ts.

1912
1913

42
44

69.6
70.3

10

plants..

1913
1914

46
42

70.7
70.3

12

p lan ts.

1914
1915

52
54

1910
1911
1912

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

.508 36.35
.468 32.46
. 513 35.78

Heaters:
11 plants.

.315 21.98
.343 24.241

.339 24.07
.303 21. 471
j
70.2 .306 21.69
70.31 .329 23.39

1

11

plants.

1912
1913

55 69.9
!
541 71.0

plants.

1913
1914

54
52

71.7
71.8

. 562; 40.59
.520 37.73

13 plants.

1914
1915

64
61

70.5
70.6

.529 37.63
.557 39. 73

1910
1911
1912

111
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

1 0 ,.

14'.
16 .

.513 36.02
.557 39.93

11

12.

.243 16.98
.227 15.31
.247 16.71

Heaters’ helpers:
1 0 p lan ts.........

108

10

plan ts.

1912
1913

113 1
107;

6 8 .7
6 8 .7

.243 16. 74
.252 17.50

10

plants.

1913
1914

105^
103

6 8 .5
6 8 .2

.252 17.42
.239 | 16.23

12

plan ts.

1914
1915

112

109

67.7
67.6

.247 16.68
.264 18.04

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

.300 21.45
.290 20. 55
.289 20.78

Roll engineers:
1 1 plants. . .

11

plants.

1912
1913

37
36

72.5
72.8

.287 20.93
.309 22.63

11

plants.

1913
1914

34
32

72.4
70.5

.308 22.45
.305 21.53

1914
13 plants.
1915
Rollers, sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants................ . 1910
1911
1912

38
39

70.2
69.7

.307 21.55
.309 21.58

28 68.4
28: 6 8 . 1
25 68.5

.712 48.18
.607 41.46
.729 50.03

9 plants. .

1912
1913

27 68.7
26» 68.5

.711 48.93
.718 49.21

9 plan ts. .

1913
1914

25>
24

6 8 .5
6 8 .1

.755 51. 55
.691 47.32

11 plants.

1914
1915

28; 6 8 . 0
281 67.9

.703 47.94
.734 49.89




13

84

245

P L A T E M IL L S — G EN ERA L. TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
P L A T E MILLS.
years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

Line
25
18
7
8
9
10
12
60
50
14
16
20
30
40
70
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
8
9
10
12
14
20
70
16
60
30
18
25
40
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. oyer.
<

4
4

16
7
7

g
15
14

7

7

18

6

8

12

4
5

8

12

6

10

9

3

11

3

1

5

9
15

15
9

3

9

1

i
|
I

. . . !..........

i
1
I

14

8

6

1

.

3

18
14

4
3
3

2

9

2

..

2
1

10

2

_____1

1
2

7

11

5
4

1

1

1

1
1

2

7

8

9

10
11
12

2
?|
^1
25!

13
14

n|

6
11

15j

io!

27

10

15
16

19
13

13

17
18

12

1

i

1
1
1

1

i
2

1




3

2

l
|
i

4
2
12

3
4

14
16
16

28
19
19

6

33
38

11
20

10
11

I
!

19
17
14

27
14

42
35

19
13

7
14

16
12

8
8

45
35

13
24

12
11

24
25

11
8

8

4

37
14

32
30 1

13
27

26
27

2

I

2

2

3
3

14
16
16

12
10
10

29
30

3
3
3

22

19

2
0
21
22

5
7

2

3
3

18
13

1

2
1

3
4

13

11

12

1

6

4

5

2
8

10

1

23

1

31
32

15
131

33
34

14

13

35

12

11

6
1

2
2
2

6

2
!
2

6

12
7
12

37

40
41

5
2

2
2
2

1

3

42
43

5
4

44
45

246

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

K. — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber
full­ rate
of
jine Occupation, and num ­ Year.
em­ tim e
of
ber of plants.
^0 .
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees.
week. hour.
i

Over 56
48
48 and
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

1

Screw men, shearedplate mills:
1
2

3

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1

1910
1911
1912

28
28
27

6 8 .6
6 8 .6
6 8 .8

$0.421 $28. 75
.3931 26.95
.446 30. 67

18
13
j

12
12

4
5

9 plants..................

1912
1913

29
29

69.0
69.0

.435 30.00
. 482| 33.36

6

9 plan ts.................. ^ 1913
1914

27
27

68.9
68.5

.4881 33. 78
.426j 29. 46

28
26

68.

.434 30.08
.474 32. 61

10
11
12

1914
1 0 plan ts................
1915
T a b l e operators,
sheared-plate mills:
9 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

26
28
28

68.4
6 8 .1
6 8 .1

.318 21.64
.300 20.44
.341 ; 23.24^

18|
16

13
14

9 plants................... 1912
1913

30
31

68.3
68.4

.334 22.85*
.361 24.74

16!

15
16

9 plants................... 1913
1914

31
27

6 8 .2

67.7

.363 24.87
.324 22.18

17
i7j

17
18

1 1 plants................. 1&14
1915
Hook men:
9 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

31
32

67.6
67.5

.317 2 1 .73
.332 22.63

19*

73
72
69

68.3

50
42
39

23

9 plants................... 1912
1913

72
75

68.5
6 8 .6

.262 17.88^
.246 16.81
.279 19.07
|
.276 18.90
.310 21.35

24
25

9 plants..................

1913
1914

76
65

68.4
67.9

.313 21.55
.277 18.95

43
43

1 1 plants................. 1914
1915
Roll hands, other,
sheared-plate mills:
6 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

74
76

6 8 .2
6 8 .0

.294 20.27
.314 21.57

42
44

14
14
14

6 8 .0

68.9
68.9

.263 17. 71
.242 16.64
.279 19.16

10
6
6

7
8

9

19
20
21
22

26
27
28
29
30

7
68.3

13

13
15
14'
14]
l
f

6 8 .1

68.3

1

!6[
10i
2°

38
38

31
32

6

plants................... 1912
1913

16
16

69.3
69.3

.269 18. 54
.280 19.31

33
34

7 plants................... 1913
1914

20

18

69.1
68.7

.265 18.28
.246 17.08

10
10

35
36

24
24

67.4
67.4

.257 17.42
.268 18.12

16
14

37
38
39
40

9 plants................... 1914
1915
Rollers,
universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants................... 1910
1911
1912
1913

6i
6i

69.5
68.4>
67.8i
69.8i

.636
.584
.581
.672

41
42

4 plants................... 1913
1914

6i
6i

69.8: .672 47. 81
69.8; .575 40. 78

43
44

5 plants................... 1914
1915

8.
8.

6 8 .8 .
6 8 .8 .




8

7

44.22
40.31
39.78
47.81

.590 41.08
.676 47.10

10

247

P L A T E M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
P L A T E MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

Line
No,

8
9
14
12
18
7
10
16
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
9
10
8
12
16
18
20
25
30
40
60
14
50
70
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.




4
1
1

4
5
4

4

4
3

9
13

3

4

11

2
6

10
10

6

i
i

2

9

6
2
2

1

I

4

7

5

6

1
2

2

5

1

3

5

1

8

2

1

4;

4
5

8
2

4'
4,

6

7

1
2
2

2

1
2

• 3

3

7

8

1

2

6

5

3

8
1
1

4

6

4

4
7

8

9
4

8

2

8

2

!

12

8

2
1

8
11

2

!

13
14

i

15
16

6
8

5

4
3

5
6

4

1

9
10
11

5

4

1

11

7

3

4
3

6

9

3

3

10

3
7

3
3

17
18

18
18
13

19

8

12
8

20
12
12

2
6
10

2

20
21

9
3
3
9

12

10

16

2
2

22

16

12
20

16

16

2

8

8

24
25

19
15

14

13

25

2

20

4

4

22

6

19

i

1

5

3
1

19

12
21

7

4

8

8

10

4

7

4

2

2

4
2

9
8

1

2!

20
11

!
21!

20

23

26
27

8

5

|
4
2
2

2

5

2
2

2

3

a ____
3!
3

2
2

28
29
30

2
2

31
32

2j

6

3

2

3
4

31

2

l!

S

3

3
3

6

1j

41

5
5

2

3

33
34

8
2

4|
4!

6
8

1
2

35
36

i

2
2

2

2
2
2

1

5

3
1

4

2
2

1
2

3
2

37
38
39
40

2
2

2
2

2
2

41
42

4
3

2i

43
44

2J
1

2

2

3

2

3

248

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

K.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, BATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Line Occupation, and num ­
ber of plants.
No.

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
G
O
50

Screw men, main rolls,
universal m ills, 48inch:
4 plants................. 1910
1911
1912
1913
4 plants..

4

4 plants..

.386 26. £

1910
1911
1912
1913

69.2
66.3
66.3

.314
.296
.271
.294

1913
1914

68.6
68.1
68.1

.332
.262

70.0
72.0
72.0

.299
.299

68.6

1914
5 plants..
1915
B oll hands, other, uni­
versal mills, 48-inch:
2 plants................... 1910
1911
1912
3 plants..

1912
1913

4 plants..

1913
1914

5 plants..

1914
1915

Shearmen:
1 1 plants..

11

11

plants..
plants..

13 plants..
Shearmen’s helpers:
1 1 plants.............

.271
.332

i

2
2

.261
.241

67.5

1912
1913
1913
1914

6.
8
6 .8
S

1914
1915

6
6

4
4

5

4
4

45
28
27

23
34
37

5

.378
.356

I .....

26
26

33
41!
I
41!
34*

2

1

.415
.402

L

.406
.436

I

1
1

[ .....
) .....
}

1

27
29

1
1

2

7
16

1912
1913

392

.226 15.' )
i
.253

2

plants..

1913
1914

425
373

.250
.240

}

13 parts...

1914
1915

408
406

.243
.260

L
)

2
2

261
174
170

9
4

166
167

2
2




68.7

68.2

33
32

11

.215
.206
.223

11

4
2
2

429
432

plants..

4
4
4
6

».

1910
1911
1912

11

4
4

1

68.4

68.2

4
4

2

68.4

64

4
3
3
4

4
4
4

6
6

i

68.3

68.0
68.2

5
5

4

.310

1910
1911
1912

5
5

2
1

.277
.288
70.3
70.3

4
3
3
5

6

2
2

.

2
2
2

4
4

1
"1

1914
1915

Screw men, side rolls,
universal mills, 48inch:
4 plants..................

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

2
2

.

1913
1914

5 plants..

Over
60
G and
O un­
der
72

180
180
6

195
185

6

39'
38
|
192
239'
25li
|
217|
220'
|
2431
191>
21J

203i

10

24a

PLATE . MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
P L A T E M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

Line

8
14
7
9
10
60
18
20
12
40
30
25
16
53
70
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
20
16
8
9
14
18
10
12
40
50
60
30
70
25
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

1

2
1

2

2
2

2
1
1

4
4
3

2
2

1

!

2

3

2
1

2

4
4
4
4

2

2

1

1

2

4
4
5

2

2

1

1

3

2

2

1

3

I

N
o.

2

1

2

2

2
I..........
2

4

2

2

10
11
12
1?

1

6
2

2

1
4

4

1
5

1C

2
1

2
2
2
1

3
I

2
1

i
1

1
1

3

1

i

2

|

1
1

9
9
8

j
4!

17
18
19

2
2

2
0
21
22

2
1

2
2

1
6

2

6
1

2
6

14
16
17

21

7
7

19

8

23

____

1
l

23

1

24
25

9
9

4
3
7

9

8

4

26
27
28

7
5

19

2

6

21
21

16

10

7
7

2
2

5
9

5
9

21
21

17
4

10
8

2

8

3

31
32

1

10

5

9
7

25
18

7
18

9
14

9
4

3
5

33
34

2
1
6

2

6

14
14
14

i.......... 1...........'...........

i
1 1
1
......................!...........




‘
7

145
48
98

73
178
145

76
55
69

55
62
18

64
26
78

10
10

4
15

84
30

123
35

71
162

22

34

72
89

15
9

29
11

45
30

184
165

35
57

89
67

12

8
22

11
8

37
39

180
87

69

74

12

101

110

13

29
30

fi
18'___

10

1

31
45
4

7

2

15

7

10

10

16

18

35
46
37

I

1

42
43

250

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able K __ FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W EEK , RATES OF WAGES P E R H O UR ,
Y EA RS, 1910 TO 1915—
I
i

Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
No.
ber of plants.

1
2

Laborers:
11 plants

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

89
70
73

206
142
129

35
50
48

20

1

1912
1913

339
349

68.9
69.3

. 161 11.17
. 181 12.62

73
78

123
124

105
113

20
11

2

. __ 1913
1914

223 68.5
190! 67.9

. 175 12.09
.174 11.93

77
45

67
58

56
47

9
27

3

7

1914
1915

216 67.6
2081 6 6 . 7

.174 11.85
.174 1 1 . 6 6

14

65
60

59
39

27
28

6

15

45
39

56J 69. 1
552: 69.1

.229 15.91
.237 16.45

1
2

6

9

267
255

252
244

27
30

12
12

551
521

.219 15.29
.229 15.87

44
46

44
46

164
115

182
193

41
32

75
72

10

plants

13

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

$0.159 $1 0 . 6 8
. 158 10.51
. 160 11.04

6

7

12

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

68.3

p la n ts ...............

10
11

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

6 6 .8
6 6 .2

11

9

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

355
274
287

4
5

12

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

.......... 1910
1911
1912

3

8

Num ­
ber
of
em ­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

p la n ts ...............

U nclassified—produc­
tive:
.......... 1914
13 plants
1915
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
1 2 plants................. 1914
j 1915
1 Including
2 Including




70.3
69.8

20

1

17

15 employees whose fu iy time hours per week were 91.
9 employees whose lull- ime hours per week were 91.

2

9

23
3
17

18
3 23
19
6

7

P L A T E M IL L S ----G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIM E W EEK LY EARNING S, IN THE
P L A T E M IL L S —Concluded.

251

U N IT E D STATES, B Y

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
Line
8 9
60
10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50
70
No.
and
and
and and and and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
9
10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60
70
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

36
26
211

253
183
187

222
81

10

100

12

65
38

82

87
74j

206
184

71
72

58

228

3 Including 10 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.




10
11
12
13

252

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e L . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—
[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
No. and number of plants.
em­
ploy-

Charging-crane and
charging-m ach ine
operators:
Eastern—
2 plan ts..........

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
per earn­
hour. ings.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
rate
of

1913
1914

66 J

65.1
65.3
65.3

.227 14.86
.238 15.56

1913
1914

72.
72.5

.366 26.59
.351 25.49

1914
5 p la n ts.
1915
G .L .and M .W .—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

73.3
73.3

.360 26.49
.391 28.77

70.5
70.5
70.5

.373 26.01
.301 21
.317 22.18

1913
1914

70.7
70.3

.339 24.07
.303 21.47

1914
1915

70.2
70.3

.306 21
.329 23.39

1913
1914

67.6
67.7

.426 28.97
.404 27.61

1914
1915

65.9

66.1

.466 30.83
.447

1913
1914

74.3
75.3

.631 47.12
.616 46.48

75.4
75. a

.6 8 50.21
6

1913
1914
1915

72.6
70.4
70.1

.625 44.77
.489 34.27
.555 38.52

1913
1914

71.7
71.

.562 40.59
.520 37.73

1914
1915

70.5
70.6

.529 37.63
.557 39.73

1913
1914

66.3

13.46
11.64

1914
1915

65.1
65.2

.205 12.81
.200 13.02

1913
1914

70.9
70.0

.270 19.52
.280 19.89

6 plan ts. . .
1914
1915
G .L .and M .W .—
3 plan ts. . .
1913
1914
1915

70.1

3 plan ts. .
Pittsburgh—
4 plan ts. .

T o t a l1 0 plan ts.
12

plan ts.

Heaters:
Eastern—
2 plan ts.
3 plan ts. .
Pittsburgh—
5 plants. .
6

plants.

G .L .and M. W .4 plants____

T o t a l1 1 plan ts.
13 plan ts.
Heaters’ helpers:
Eastern—
2 plan ts. .
3 plan ts.
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts.
37

Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

$0,235 $15.72
.210 13.77

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—




1914
1915

26

.

.

.610 46.11

20.20

.309 21.84

.375 25.44
.282 19.48
.346 23.74

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
60 un­
un­
der
der
72
84

84

PL A T E M IL L S — G E N E R A L T A B L ES,

*

253

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
P L A T E M ILLS.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

Line
10
12
9
8
30
14
16
7
18
25
60
20
50
40
70
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
12
40
9
10
14
18
20
8
30
16
25
60
70
50
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

2
2

2
1

6

2

3

3

1

7
3

5

2
2 !..........

5

4
4

12

9

3
4

1

2
2

2

1
2

j

1

5

8
7

6

1

4
2

____ 1_____

i
i

9

3
6

9

9

2

1

-1

]

1

i

71

5

i

......... 1 ...........

3

1

2
1

10

8

12

9

9

14

3

11

18

5

9
15

11

11

6
11

8

1

10
10

4

1

12

2

j

14
15

4
2

2

16
17

9

1

1

2

1

|
i

1

1

9

10
11

1

2

1

8

2

2

i

7

11

12

1

7

13

s

2

18
19

4

|

4

6

9
13

9

15
7

1

4
2

I

9
6

13

2

2

4
'

l

........1

''

1

3
7
5

1
1
i

1

1
1

2

16
4

3

12

2

2
12

3
4

11
8

27
13

13

2

12

15

8

17

4

8

9
13

1

21
20

4

10

11

31
32

1

9

1
1
i

11

11

15

18

5

20
6

2
2
8

12
2

29
30

11

4

1

27
28

10
10

24
15

1




12
2

8
11

9

23

24
25
26

15
19

7

20
21
22

2

4
2

13

6
8

1

1

2

6
11

2

2

8
2

6

33
34
4
4
4
5

|

37
38

1

7
4

35
36

t

39
40
41

254

W AGES AND H O U R S OP LABOR----IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

L.—
FULL-TIME HOURS

PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—PL A T E

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
ploy- per
week.

N um ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em­
No. and number of plants.

Heaters’ helpers—Con.
T o ta l1 0 plan ts......... 1913
1914

105
103

112

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
Aver­
week were—
age
full­
Over
Over 56
Over
tim e
48
60
72
week­ and and and
and 72 and 84
ly
un­ un­ un­
un­
un­
earn­ der. der der
der
der
ings.
84
56 60
7
2

67.7
67.6

.247 16.68
18.04

65.6
65.6

.257 16.86
.256 16.79

1914
1915

65.3
65.3

18.38
17.

1913
1914

76.4
72.7

.337 25.63
.329 23.

1914
1915

73.2
73.1

.322 23.46
.339 24.62

1913
1914
1915

73.3
72.0
72.0

.318 23.35
.316 22.73
.329 23.72

1913
1914

72.4
70.5

.308 22.45
.305 21.53

1914
1915

70.2
69.7

.307 21. 55
.309 21.58

1913
1914

65.6
65.6

.491 32.26
.415 27.28

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

65.1
65.1

.524 33.92
.487 31.56

70.5
69.9

.719 50.74
59.20

plants...........

1914
1915

70.2
70.1

.812 56.87
.870 60.60

1913
1914
1915

67. 1.398 92.78
67.6 .770 51.76
67.6 .875 58. 26

1913
1914

.755 51.55
.691 47.32

plan ts......... 1914
1915
Roll engineers:
Eastern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914
12

3 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants...........
6

plants...........

G. L. and M. W .4 plants...........
Total—
1 1 plants.........
13 plants.........
Rollers, sheared-plate
mills:
Eastern—
2 plants...........

6

27

G. L. and M. W .2 plants...........
Total—
9 plants...........
11

plants.........

Screw men, sheared- plate mills:
Eastern—
2 plants...........

40

12

68.5 $0,252 $17.42
.239 16.23

68.2

1914
1915

10

28

68.0
67.9

1913
1914

2 plants........... 1914
1916
Pittsburgh—
5 plants........... 1913
1914
6 plan ts..........
1914
1915
G .L . and M. W.—
2 p la n ts....
1913
1914
1015




109

85

.703 47.94
.734 49.89

.353 23.38
.277 18.34
65.5
65.5

.278 18.25
.292 19.14

70.2
69.4

.472 33.34
.491 34.46
.487 34.26
.517 36.13

69.1
69.1
67.6

.682 46.93
.448 30.76
.580 38; 74

10

255

P L A T E M IL L S — G E N E R A L TA BLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
40
18
14
60
50
30
20
25
16
9
12
8
10
7
70 Line
and
and
No.
and and and and and and and and and and and and
under ranter under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
9
30
40
16
18
14
60
70
50
20
25
10
12
8
cen ts. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

2

4

3

1.6
12

8
8

45
35

13
24

12
11

2

2
12

3
4

1.1
8

8

4

37
14

32
30

13
27

1

2
1

3
4

2
2

2
2

1

6

4

5

2
2

2
2

2
2

7

4

4

9

6

6

2

10

8
8

6

2

4

3

1

4
4
_____1_____

2

1

4
9

3
4

1

5
6

7
8

1

11
12

.

13
14
15

4

16
17

3
4

13
12

13

6

14

4

5

12

V
]j

2
1

1
2

4

5
5 ____
5 i..........

1

1

11

11

2

4
5

4

2

5

18
19

1

2
1

20
21

1

1

1

1
2

2
2

22

2
1

2
1

7

24
25

2

5
4

1

2

2

I

2
1

-

1
2
2

5
2

5
4

10

13

26
27

4
3

28
29
30

10

2

6
1

2
2

4
3

13

31
32

1

3

4
5

15
17

33
34

11

7
2
2
2

.




3

23

35
36

2

!
2

37
38

2
2

2

2
2

4
5

2
1

2

5
4

3
3

3

5

1

2

4

39
40

2
6

4

41
42

4
2

4
2

2

1

1

43
44
45

256

WAGES A N D H O U R S 0 E LABOR— IBO N AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e L . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—P L A T E

N um ­ Averber
u s.
L ine Occupation, district, Year. of tim e
em­
N c and number of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Screw men, shearedplate mills—Concld.
Total—
9 plants...........
plants.........

10

3 plants.......

6

plants.......

G .L .and M. W.2 plants.......
Total—
9 plants.........
11

plants.......

Hook men, shearedplate mill:
Eastern—
2 plants.........
3 plants..
Pittsburgh—
5 plants..
6

plants.......

G .L .and M .W .2 plants.......
Total—
9 plants.........
11

35

plants.......

Roll hands, other,
sheared-plate mills:
Eastern—
2 plants.........
3 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
4 plants.........

5 plants..




Aver• age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

14

13
15

12

.434 30.08
.474 32.61

14
14

12

.281 18. 44
.254 16.67

8

9

1913
1914

27
27

68.9 $0.488 $33. 78 !
68.5 .426 29.46

1914
1915

28
26

68.7
68.3

8

7

65.6
65.7

9

T a b le o p e r a to r s ,
sheared-plate mills:
Eastern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

Pittsburgh—
5 plants.......

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

14

71

1914
1915

10

65.1 .233 15.23
65.1 ' .219 14.31

1913
1914

15
14

69.9
69.3

.341 24.07
.364 25. 521

5
6

10
8

1914
1915

16
16

69.6
69.5

.365 25. 73^
.386 2 7 .1 2 ____

6
6

10
10

1913
1914
1915

8
6
6

67.6

.488 32. 79
.314 20.83
.374 24. 55

4
4
4

4

1913
1914

31
27

6 8 .2

67.7

.363 24 8 7
.324 22.18

17
17

1914
1915

31

.317 21. 73
.332 22.63

19

32

67.6
67.5

20

1913
1914

27
23

66.3
66.4

.241 15.99
.216 14.33

27
23

1914
1915

22

65.5
65.5

.226 14.80
.208 13.62

22

24

1913
1914

30
30

69.9
69.1

.299 21.07
.315 2 2 . 0 2

10

1914
1915

40
40

69.8
69.6

.331 23.32
.371 26.11

14
14 1

1913
1914
1915

19
12
12

69.2
67.6
67.6

.439 30.21
.298 20.15
.332 22.30

6
6
6

1913
1914

76
65

68.4
67.9

.313 21.55
.277 18.95

43
43

33

1914
1915

74
76

6 8 .2
6 8 .0

.294 20.27
.314 21.57

42
44

32
32

1913
1914

6
6

67.3
67.3

.193 12.95
.169 11.39

6
6

1914
1915

10
10

64.1
64.1

.232 14.79
.228 14.52

I
10'
in 1

1913
1914

12
10

70.9
70.7

.264 18 83
.290 20.62

2
2

10
8

1914
1915

12
12

70.9
70.9

.278 19.78
.289 20.57

4
2

8
10I

6 6 .2
6 6 .2

10

2
2!

10]
12'
12
____ *

24
14

20

161
I

26
26

I
13'
61
6

22

1

.

257

PL A T E M IL L S ----G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

Lina

14
8
9
10
12
7
16
18
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
9
8
10
12
14
18
16
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
cen ts. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

2

11

2

5

7

2
6

2
2

4

7

8

2

6

5

2

1
2

5

2

4

8
2

4
4

1

2

4

3

7

1

1

4
5

N o.

1

5

6
7

2
2

8

2

2

1

5
3

3
5

3

5
3

2

1

5
4

2

4

3

3
5

3
3

6

1

4
3

2

13
14
15

9

2

10
11
12

2

9

5

1

11

8

1

6

7

3

4
3

16
17

9

3
7

3
3

18
19

2
6

6

7

12
6

3

3

8

6

1

1

9
16

6

4
4

12
2

5

3

12

4
4

4

6

3

2

4

8
2

4

6
12

4

13

5

27

9
4
7

8

2

28
29
30

2

31
32

12
20

16

16

19

8

8

20
21

19
15

14

1

20
11

2
2
2
1

4

33
34

8

2
1

5

1
1
1

5

35
36
1

1
2

4

2

6

39
40

5

4

37
38

1
2

5
5

2

1




1

3

1

89728°—17—Bull. 218----- 17

8

8

22

5

2
2

14

4

2
2

23
24
25

8
8

6

4

4
4

20
21
22

5

8

4

10

4
2

1

41
42

258

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

L.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—P L A T E

N um ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em ­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

Roll hands, other,
sheared-plate m ills
—Concluded.
G .L .andM . W —
1 p la n t.......... .

Total—
7 plants.........
9 plants.........
R o l l e r s , universal
mills, 48-inch:
Eastern—
1 plant...........
2

plants.........

Pittsburgh—
1 plan t..........

Screw men, main rolls,
universal mills:
Eastern—
1 plant..........
2

plants.........

Pittsburgh —
1 plan t..........
G .L .and M. W . 2 plants.........
Total—
4 plants.........
5 plants.........
Screw men, side rolls,
universal mills:
Eastern—
1 plant...........
2

plants.........

Pittsburgh—
1 plan t..........

1913
1914

69.1
68.7

.265 18.2
.246 17. C

67.4
67.4

.257 17.42
.268 18.12

1913
1914

65.3
65.3

.261 17.03
.266, 17.32

1914
1915

65.6
65.6

.451 29.65
.509 33.47

1913
1914
1915

72.0 1.078 77.62
72.0 .795 57.24
72.0 .992 71.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and
un­
der

63. $0,490 $30.96
63.3 .260 16.45
63.3 .340 21.47

1914
1915

24

72.0
72.0
72.0

.678 48.78
.664 47.77
.696 50.08
.672 47.81
.575 40. 78

1914
1915

.590 41.
.676 47.10

1913
1914
1914
1915

65.3
65.3
65.6
65.6

.227
.226
.296
.336

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.704 50.69
.525 37. 76
.665 47.84

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.452 32.54
.413 29.76
.461 33.19

1913
1914
1914
1915

70.1
70.1
69.2
69.2

.460
.392
.386
.451

1913
1914
1914
1915

65.3
65.3
65.5
65.5

.181 11.81
.179 11
14.57
18.35

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.497 35.75
.370 26.64
.469 33.73

72.0
72.0
72.0

.318 22.86
.321 23
.353 25.38

G .L .and M. W .—
1913
2 plants.........
1914
1915




Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914
1915

G .L .and M. W .—
1913
2 plants.........
1914
1915
Total—
4 plants......... 1913
1914
5 plants.........

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

14.81
14.75
19.47
22.09

32.66
27.76
26.96
31.51

.

10

84

259

PLATE MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were8
14
20
12
9
7
25
30
40
10
16
18
50
60
70
and and and and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under un&er under under under under under under under under under cents
and
8
14
18
20
10
25
40
60
12
16
9
30
50
70
cen ts. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

Line

N
o.

2
2
2
1

3
2
2
2

1

3
3
3

5

3

5
5

2

4

8
2

4
4

6
8

1
2

6
1

1

1

i

2
2

1

2

2
2

2

2
2
2

10
11
12
13
14

2
2
1

2

•

2
2

18
19

4
3

2

15
16
17

2
2

2
2

1

1

2

20
21

3

22

2
2
2
2

23
24
25

2
2
1

1

2

29
30
31

3
1

2

3

1

3

2
2
2

2

2

2

3

2
2




32
33
34
35

2
2
1

1

1

36
37
2

1..........

2

2
2

2

2

3

2

2

1

2

1

26

2?
28

2

2
2
2
2
2

1

40
41
42
43
44
45

260

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e L . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—P L A T E

Num ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Screw m en,side rolls,
universal m i l l s —
Concluded.
Total—
1913
4 plants. . .
1914
5 plants.
Roll hands,other, uni­
versal mills:
Eastern—
1 p la n t............
2

p lan ts. .

Pittsburgh—
1 p la n t. . .

5 p lan ts.

19

Shearmen:
Eastern—
2 plan ts.
3 p la n ts..
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts. .

13 plants'.
Shearmen’s helpers:
Eastern—
2 plan ts.........
3 plan ts. .

38

Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts. .

6 plants.




Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

69.8 $0,332 $23.47
.262 18.27
.271 18.6
.332 22

1914
1915

.£

1913
1914

65.3
65.3

.181 11.81
.179 11.68

1914
1915

65.6
65.6

.273 17.93
20.24

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.365 26.28
.273 19.
.339 24.41

72.0
72.0
72.0

.250 17.96
.256 18.45
.293 21.12

1913
1914

70.3
70.3

.261 18.50
.241 17.06

1914
1915

9.2

.266 18.48
.310 21.46

1913
1914

66.2
66.2

19.71
.267 17.66

1914
1915

65.6
65.6

.309
.307

70.9
70.3

.491 34.79
.534 37.43

70.5
70.1

.515 36.21
.555 38.44

67.2
67.2
67.2

.371 25. 25
.303 20.55
.347 23.26

68.8
68.4

.415 28.81
.402 27.74

1914
1915

68.4

.406 27.97
.436 29.68

1913
1914

65.7
65.7

1914
1915

65.1
65.0

.197

1913
1914

35

1914
6 plan ts.
1915
G .L . and M .W .—
1913
4 plan ts. . .
1914
1915
T o t a l1 1 plan ts.

full-time hours per
were—

68.6

G. L. and M .W .—
2 p lan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
Total—
4 p lants.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over 56
week­
48 and
and and un­ 60
ly
earn­ un­ un­ der
ings. der. der 60
56

1913
1914

64

68.2

.200
.183

20.22
20.12

13.16

12.00
12.86
12.33

1913
1914

219
196

70.7
70.3

.276 19.60
.277 19.59

176
140

1914
1915

216 70.5
214} 70.6

.277 19.60
.297 21.04

166
154

261

PL A T E M IL L S — G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

Line
No.

60
9
20
25
50
14
8
12
18
30
16
40
10
7
70
and
and
and and
and and and and and and and and and and
under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
and
9
14
30
10
20
18
60
70
16
8
12
25
40
50
cen ts. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. over.

2
2

2

2
2
2
2

1

4

2

2
1

1

1

6
2

1

1

4

2
2

7

2

2

10
11
12

8
9

2
2

3

1

13
14

4
1

1

2
1

1

3

1
2

2

1
6

2

15
16

6
1

2
6

17
18

2
2




2

3

3
5

.7
4

3
6

7
3

5

1

9

19

4

6

1
1

5

2

1

6

1

10
8

8

3

23
24

3
5

25
26

7

8

3

10

6

8

8

4

-

20
21
22

9

13

4

2

27
28
29

2
6
1

9

7

8
11

1

1

4

1

2
2

5
9

5
9

21
21

17
4

10
8

7

2

8

3

30
31

1

10

9
7

25
18

7
18

9
14

9
4

3
5

32
33

3

5

2

10

7

15

7

10i

10 i

16

15
9

21

8
22

11

U

1
2

12

18
13

4

19

34
35

9

27

17
30

2
2

36
37

81

11

8I

34
18I

65
63

15
42!

85
61

12
12

38
39

ISS
U\

70
58

50I
28l

66 i
97

12

40
41

13

262

W AGES AND H O U R S OP LABOR---- IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e L .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—PL A TE

Aver­
N um ­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
time
of time
em ­ hours wages week­
No. and number of plants.
ploy- per
ly
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Shearmen’s helpers—
Concluded.
G .L .a n d M . W .—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

125
93

425
373

68.2
68.2

Over
G
O
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

.250 17.25
.240 16. 53'

68.4

.243 16. 71! .260 17.89 .

62.9
62 2

.151
.150

9.49
9.30

61.6
61.

.151
.151

9.28
9.28

118

72.8
71.8

.191 13.96
.191 13. 71

116
108

71.5
71.1

13.48
13.46

16
16
15

71.3
65.1

.195 13.62
.190 13.53
12.27

68.5
67.9

.175 12.09
.174 11

216
208

67.6
66.7

.174 11.85
.174 11.66

1914
1915

172
167

65.5
65.2

.192 12.57
.191 12.46

1914
1915

316
319

71.0
70.8

.249 17.
.260 18.41

1914
1915

77

69.5
70.8

.231 16.09
.241 17.05

1914
1915

565
552

408
406

Laborers:
Eastern—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914
3 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914
5 plan ts........... 1914
1915
G .L .and M.W.—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
T o t a l1 0 plan ts......... 1913
1914
12

plan ts......... 1914
1915

Unclassified —produc­
tive:
Eastern—
3 plan ts..........
Pittsburgh—
6 plan ts..........
G .L .and M .W .—
4 plan ts..........
Total—
13 plan ts........

Unclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
3 plan ts.......... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts.......... 1914
1915
G .L .and M .W .—
4 plan ts.......... 1914
1915
T o ta l1 2 plan ts____




10.236 $15.77
67. 0 $l
.211 13.99
.250: 16.56

101 66.0
68.7

13 plan ts......... 1914
1915 !

29

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

66.9

T o t a l1 1 plan ts......... 1913
1914

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

1914
1915

180
180
61

243
191

195
185

211
203

27

.

172
167
193
188

15.91
16.45

267
255

157
142

71.1
72.0

.182 12.84
.186 13.28

70.7
69.5

.232 16.36
.240 16. 71

10

28

238
226

252
244

63

156
153
551
521

.237 16.12
.253 17.03
70.

.219 15.
.229 15.87

i Including 10 employees whose hours per week were 91.

164
115

182
193

84

263

PLATE MILLS----GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
M ILLS—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

8
9
7
18
20
10
12
30
16
14
25
40
50
60
and and and and and and and and and
and
and
under under under under under under under under under under and and under and
under under
under
10
9
8
18
20
16
12
14
25
30
50
60
70
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. 40
cents. cents. cents. cents.

10
10
10

1

107
83
29

43

Line
No.

6
11

2
2

6

15
9

29
11

45
30

184
165

35
57

89
67

11
8

37
39

180
87

69

74

12

16

8
22

101

110

13

84
67

10

5

66

13
15

10

7

15

7

10

10

..........i...........

70
cents
and
over.

5
5

65

18
12

'

4

10
11
12

30
33

44
24

44
41

51
41

24
28

41
39

1

12
10

7

3
3
3

16
17
18

20
21
22

3
5

13
%

14
15

84
67

41
40

56
34

47
44

5
5

66

65

67
61

34
35

44
42

19

29
32

34
43

27
22

29
19

16
15

8
11

2
2

1

11

23
24

7

3
2

10
12

44
38

132
133

56
36

45

6

68

16
17

3
7

25
26

6

11

4

9

45
32

8
11

5
9

2
1

58
88

20
20

5

2

2

1
1

1
1

1

1




6
8

19

27
28

6
8

26
17

38
38

44
55

82
69

206
184

80
62

4
3

32

71
64

19
27

20

7

2

24

8

4
3

16

24

10

22

128
115

34
29

35
49

1
1

33
34

28
23

80
59

23
34

25
30

7

35
36

71
72

228
198

64
71

64
82

1
8

37
38

11

,

2:

4
3

32
11

87
74

4
7

31
32

STANDARD RAIL MILLS,1
SUMMARY.

In 1915 the average rate of wages or earnings per hour of employees
in standard rail mills was 9 per cent higher than in the years 1910
and 1911, 8 per cent higher than in 1912, 3 per cent lower than in
1913, and 2 per cent lower than in 1914. The average full-time
hours per week in 1915 were 4 per cent lower than in 1910, 1 per
cent higher than in 1911 and 1914, and the same as in 1912 and 1913.
The average full-time weekly earnings in 1915 were 6 per cent higher
than in 1910, 10 per cent higher than in 1911, 9 per cent higher than
in 1912, 3 per cent lower than in 1913, and 2 per cent lower than in
1914. These facts are drawn from the table of relative numbers, for
all occupations combined (Table 32).
The most significant details concerning the several standard-railmill occupations which are covered in this section of the report are
summarized by means of averages and percentages in the table follow­
ing. D ata are presented for the years 1910 to 1915 inclusive, figures
for identical plants being grouped together. The data for 1915
represents 1,945 employees of whom 1,194 are employed in the 21
specified occupations covered and 751 in the unclassified productive
and nonproductive occupations tabulated in this report for 1914 and
1915 for the first time. The information for 1914 and 1915 was
obtained from 7 plants .whose tonnage capacity is 50 per cent of the
total capacity of all standard rail mills in the United States.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified full-time hours
per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by means of per­
centages computed from the actual figures of Table M.
1 Summary figures relating to the standard-rail-mill department of the iron and steel industry are given
v. ith figures for other departments on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volume of employm ent in this and
other departments from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of the
scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.

264




265

STANDARD BAIL M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .
T a b l e 31. —FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 191.5—S T A N D A R D R A IL
MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
Aver­
Averper week were—
hour were—
AverN um ­ age
age
ber full­
full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
tim e
time
Over
of
16 I 18 20
ember of plants.
60
72
and and and 25 week­
ploy- hours Un­ and
ly
un­ un­ un­ cts.
per der un­ 72 and
per
84 hour.
week.
der der der and earn­
60 der
der
18 20 25 over. ings.
72
cts. cts. cts.
84

un­

Cold-saw m en’s help­
ers:
3 plants................

1910
1911

76.0
72.0

67
100

4 plants................

1911
1912

72.0
72.0

100
100

7 p lan ts.-.............

1912
1913

plants................

7 plants................

33 $0.171
.172*

$12.98
12.40

.172'.
.173 .

12.38
12.45

73.3
73.5

.183 .
.204 .

13.56
15.10

1913
1914

73.8
70.9

.197 .
. 185 .

15
27

14.70
13.14

1914
1915

70.5
74.3

.186 .
.185 .

33
31

13.09
13.82

1910
1911

74.1
72.1

.209 .
.197 .

41
33

15.61
14.24

7 plants................

1911
1912

72.1
72.1

.201 .

.195 .

36
34

14.06
14.51

7 plants................

1912
1913

72.1
72.1

.195 .
.213 .

34
28

14.07
15.36

plants.............;.

1913
1914

34
30

72.1
72.0

.202

24
17

14.57
14.93

1914
1915

32

71.6
71.8

16
21

15.21
14.94

18
5

12.95
12.60

6

Hotbed lever men:
6 plants................

6

7 plants................
Hotbed men:
6 plants................
7 plants................

47

7 plants................

1912
1913

46
48

plants................

1913
1914

7 plan ts................ 1914
1915
Hot-saw men’shelpers:
1910
6 plants.............
1911

76
100

.207
.213

73.6
72.0

1910
1911
1911
1912

6

54

14

72.0 .
72.2 .

100

96

.176
.180

72.0 .
72.0 .

100
100

.181
.209

72.0 .
72.0 .

100
100

.188
.187

32 .
5

13. 54
13.47

.185
.174

97 .

.165
.168

10 .

11. 92
12.14

12 .

11 .

.168
.169

9.
14 .

12.10

85

15 .
14 .

.170

76

18 .
54 46 .

12.24
14.52

87

13 .

.197 .

10

27 .
46

14.16
14.47

.197 .
.189 .

16

7 plants.............

1912
1913

72.1 .
72.1 .

plants.............

1913
1914

72.1 .
72.0 .

1914
1915

71.3 .
71.8 .

100 .

1910
1911

501
370

76.0 .
71.9 .

42 .
59

7 plants.............

1911
1912

382
417

71.9 .
71.9 .

60
57

7 plants............

1912
1913

327
377

70.2 .
70.5 .

79 .
82 .




13.01
15.01

95 .
98 .

72.1 .
72.1 .

7 plants.............

7
38

71.7 .
71.9 .

1911
1912

Laborers:
6 plants.............

12. 65
12.98

72.4 .
72.1 .

43
49

7 plants.............

6

.176
.175

12
12

16

.201 .
.201 .

13.30
1 2 . 54

12.20

54
67

14.08
13. 56

.163
.169

12.31

.169
.168

12.12

.193 .

11.88
13.61

12.12

12.07

49

37 .

266

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

31.— FTJLL-TIME H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R , A N D
FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, B Y OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 191o—S T A N D A R D R A I L
M IL L S —Continued.

T able

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
of
Over
time
16 1 8 20
60
em­ hours
ber of plants.
wages Un­ and and and 25
72
ploy­ per U n­ and
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
and 84
ees. week. der un­ 72 un­
hour. 16 der der der and
60 der
cts. 18 2 0 25 over.
der
72
cts. cts. cts.
84
Laborers—Concluded.
6 plants................... 1913
1914

262

71.0
70.5

89
84

1 $0.187

16
27
11

73
89

.185
.182

10

222

339

69.9
71.0

1914
1915
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
7 plants................... 1914
1915

254
361

71.6
72.4

1
1

7
3

89
87

3

6

.207
.203

414
390

71.7
71.9

1

26
24

57
56

3

4

13
15

.226
.228

Unclassified—produc­
tive :
7 plants...............

3

2

50
46

19
30

$13.28
13.38

6

27
51

40
26

27
23

12.99
12.95

1

14
23

28
31

44
31

12 14.82
14 14.65

36
33

26 16.17
26 16.29

1

7

30

3

6

3
2

14
and
un­
der

20 25 30
and and and 40 un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der and
20 25 30 40 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

♦

Charging-machine op­
erators:
3 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

100
100
100

.234
.232
.244

plants................... 1912
1913

14
14

72.0
72.0

100
100

.284
.321

3 plants................... 1913
1914
1915
Chippers:
5 plants................. 1910
1911

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

100
100
100

.255
.280
.226

114
82

72.1
70.0

25

1911
1912

91
99

70.2
70.3

20

18

80
82

7 plants................... 1912
1913

113
103

70.2
70.0

19
17

5 plants................... 1913
1914

60
44

72.0
72.0

6 plants................... 1914
1915
Cold-saw men:
5 plants................... 1910
1911

54
58

70.8
70.9

18
18

plants................... 1911
1912
plants................... 1912
1913

2

ly

earn­
ings.

31
24

.190

1914
1915

7 p lants..................

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­

36
36
36

27
27

36
46
71

64
36 ” 27

36
18
29
100

16.87
16.72
17. 58
20.43
23.12

36
36

18.39
20.17
16. 27

100

.231
.240

29
40

.233
.2 2 1

46
39

49

81
83

.224
.267

40
3

43
29

7
49

11

19

15.79
18.76

100
100

.293
.258

5

41

67
18

33
36

21.09
18.56

19
17

81
83

.270
.301

4
3

33
3

15
47

48
47

19.07
21.31

74.7
69.1

33
44

"*22

.191
.194

89
94

11

33

19
19

69.3
69.3

42
42

37
37

21
21

. 194
. 196

95
95

22

71.8
72.3

36
35

27
26

18
17

22

.213
.233

77

23

plants................... 1913
1914

17
14

76.7
72.0

47

24

29

7

86

7

7 plants................... 1914
1915

16
13

71.3
73.4

19
16

75
62

23

6

6

6

6

plants.................




22

54
78

22

56

11

18

6

12

50
33

15

16. 78
16. 8 8

11

30

13

16.44
15.60

21

12

14. 21
13.43

6

5

5

13.43
13.60

” 78

9
17

14
4

15.50
17.04

.239
.219

71
93

24

6

7

18.47
15.77

.217
.218

94
92

6
8

15. 46
15.99

267

STANDARD RAIL M IL L S-— SU M M A R Y .

31.— FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1915—8 TA ND A R D RA IL
MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
AverAver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
time
Over
of
14 2 0 25 30
ber of plants.
em- hours
60
72
40
ploy- per U n­ and 72 and 84 wages and and and and cts.
per un­ un­ un­ un­
der un­
week. 60
un­
hour. der der der der and
der
der
20
25 30 40 over.
72
cts. cts. cts. cts.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week*
l-T
T
earn­
ings.

I

Drillers and punchers:
5 plants.................. 1910
1911

152
123

76.7
70.5

34
83

plants..................

1911
1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

1912
1913

203
179

1913
1914

102

1914
1915

100

6

7 plants..................
5 plants..................
plants..................

8
8

$
0.1

47
27

34
24

84
83

18
49
!
i 53
.206 61

25
37

23

70.5
70.5

83
87

.214
.249

35
56

8

1

36

7

15.05
17.45

72.0
72.0

100!.

57
1

$16.78
15.59
15.35
14.51

1

.

.245
.233

43
55

57
39

7

17.60
16.75

88j.

.251

48
33

34
51

18

17.80
16 19.67

.289
.258

37
50

11

36

53
14

20.79
18. 56

.251
56
.257 " r i ‘28

31
44

13

18.10
18.52

25
30

40
25

45

18. 69
20.36

.259
.265

50
44

25
38

25
19

18.67
19.03
18.86
19. 52

100

I

71.2
71.0

841.

1910
1911

72.0
72.0

ioo!.

1911
1912

72.0
72.0

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

7 plants.................. 1914
1915
Inspectors:
5 plants................... 1910
1911

71.6
71.6

94
94

.263
.272 " i 2

47
29

35
35

18
24

75.5
70.4

44
8]

.225
.233

44
29

44
56

3
4

7

7 plants................... 1911
1912

70.9
71.0

87

.230
.228

21

60
57

12

6

28

9

3

7 plants................... 1912
1913

70.9
70.5

.229
.258

28

55
48

10

84

3

40

8

71.6
70.9

91
76

.244
.240

55
66

36
24

10

71
81

.236
.239

65
54

23
28

10
11

6

Hot-saw men:
6 plants..................
7 plants..................
7 plants..................
6

6

plants..................

plants................... 1913
1914

7 plants.................

90

67

i

lO j.
O

10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0

.260
.283

100

§
8
8
8

1914
1915

70.5
71.5

12!

1910
1911
1912
1913

71.3
72.0
72.0
72.0

501

plants.................. 1913
1914
1915
R oll engineers:
6 plants..................
1910
1911

72.0
72.0
72.0

10
0
100

42! 77.4
37 76.2

48
49

14
32

7 plants................... 1911
1912

75.8
74.1

42
58

7 plants..................

1912
1913

75.2
74.9

plants..................

1913
1914

7 plan ts..................

1914
1915

Reheaters’ helpers:
3 plan ts..................




3
8

4
4
4

20

2
2

8

16.77
16.29

2 16.25
4 16.12

4 16.17
4 1 8 .1 1

9

17.46
16. 95

I

16.65
17.11

i
46
50
1........
25 "n
4 46 ” 46
4
96

19.95
18.98
21.87
24.87

30

100
10
0
1001

.264
.304
.345

iooj

.324
.354
.254

45

55

5 5 ____ 23.30
75
25 25.49
18.27

38
19

.310
.282

38
43

24
27

14
24

24' 24.30
5 21.67

42
38

16
4

.277
.304

47
27

28
40

21

44
63

44
25

13
13

.307
.323

38

25
50

25
38

5, 21.14
8 22.44
|
13 2 2 .95
13 24.16

74.
73.7

2

6

50

15

11

64

21

14
14

.287
.301

14
14

43
36

43
43

1 21.48
71 2 2 . 2 2

73.5
72.5

12

80

20

.317
.322

13
13

31
33

38
33

1

45

25

191 23.33
23.30

20 j

268

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

'Table 31.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1915—S TA NDABD RA IL
MILLS—Continued.
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
Over
time
60
em­ hours
ber of plants.
72
ploy­ per U n­ and
and
ees. week. der u n­ 72 un­ 84
60 der
der
72
84
Straighteners’ helpers:
1910
5 plan ts................
1911

139
116

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
hour were—
Aver­
age
rate
of
14 20 25 | 30
wages and and and and 40
IJ un- cts.
per un­ un­ un- 1
hour. der der der der and
2 25 30 40 over.
0
cts. cts. cts. cts.

72.1

17 $0.205
.205

$14.55
14.04

.205

14.05
14.51

plants

1911
1912

120
134

70.0

.212

7 plants

1912
1913

146
131

70.2
70.0

.211

5 plants

1913
1914

125
97

72. O'.
72.0,.

plants

1914
1915

102;

71.7'.
71.4 .

1910
1911

72. O
’
72.0

5 plants

1911
1912

72.4
72.5

5 plants

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

3 plants

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

4 plants

1914
1915

70.4
71.1

6

6

Table men:
4 plants

118

100.....
100,.....

1910
1911

65.8

.205
.215

14.73
15.50

95'.
92,.

.226
.219

16.12
15.47

100 .
10 .
0

.279
.264

20.06
19.00

.262
.287;

10
0
10
0
10
0
100

44
20

23- 32
25.47

.437 .
. 327 .

31.49
23.57
24.92
23.68

3i

29

60
cts.
and
over,

15
18

15
18

.440
.373

29.26
24.31

26
23

.336
.346

22.20
23.14

1911
1912

66.8

67.3

11
10

4 plants.

1912
1913

68.3
69.2

18
18

4 plan ts.

1913
1914

67.9
67.8

5 plants.

1914
1915

68.6
68.6

1910
1911
1912

72.2
72.0
72.0

3 plants.

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

3 plants.

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0




18.97
20.77

22
52

.324
.354 .

. 356'.
.336 .

7 plan ts.

Reheaters:
4 plants.

14.54
17.28

3 11
3.

.253

30 40 j 50
Un­ and and and
der un­
30 der
cts. 40
cts.
Guide setters:
5 plants. .

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

.340
.384

41
12

41
47

41'.

12

22.61
26.20

18
18

.394
.386

6 65
1
12 47

29 .
29,

26.49
26.31

14
14

.394
.417

10

43
48,

27.11
28.45

.429
.421
.410

4 ...
4 44
48
4

52 .
4,

31.00
30.28
29.50

35'.
35 .

91

10
0
10
0
10
0
100
100
100
10
0

38

.531
.586

8
77
15 . . .

.382
.336
.385

29 .
7|
67 .

38.23
77 42.23

27.53
24.18
27.70

269

STANDARD RAIL M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .
T a b l e 31.— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND
FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1915—S TA N DA RD RAIL
MILLS—Concluded.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation,and num­ Year. of
Over
time
of
30 40 50
em­ hours
60
ber of plants.
72
wages Un­ and and and 60
ploy­ per Un­ and
and 84
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
ees. week. der un­ 72 un­
hour. 30 der der der and
60 der
der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
72
84
cts. cts. cts.
Rollers:
5 plants____
6

plants. . . .

5 plants.
6

plants____

Rollers’ helpers:
1 p la n t........

1910
1911

12
12

1911
1912
1913

14
14
14

72:2
72.2
72.6

1913
1914

12
12

72. 3
72.0

1914
1915

14
13

83

72.3
72.3

1

1913
1914

2
2

1914
1915

4
4

1910
1911

106
90

1911
1912

7 plan ts___

plants

plan t........

3
1

j

72.0
72.0

67145.09
67 44.40

.591
.646
.690

8 46.65
6
10 50.18
0

83

|
71.1'
71.5

1911
1912
1913

2

$0.624
.614

.622
.655

83 44.95
83 47.18

92

.649
.603

86

10
0
10
0

.561
.458

33
33
50

.304
.323

|

72.01
72.0
|
3 72.7'
6
72.6
6
73.3

1910 ^
1911

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn-

10
0
8
6

10
0

57 42.67

46.1(>
69 43.09

100
67 . . . .
6 7 ....
67 33

100

40.39
32.98
20.56
21.98
23.61

33
33|

100

.396
.470

10
0

.468
.407

50

33.66
29.30

59.0
56.3

.564'..
.534'..

16

32.41
30.12

94
98

56.9
57.6

.526!..

1912
1913

110
101

59.1
59.2

. 514'..
. 576,..

5 p lan ts____

1913
1914

89
75

55.0
54.7

plan ts____

1914
1915

84
85

1910
1911
1912

1

2

plants. . . .

S t r a ig h teners
press:
5 plants___
6

6

plan ts____

Table lever men:
6 plants___

|
72.01
72.0

50

33

30.45
34.06

. 552'..
.533'

30.41
29.44

53.7
56.2

.571 ..
. 612 ..

30.59
34.22

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

.454
.422
.427

28.25
26.08
26.82
25.62
27.51

6

plants. . . .

1912
1913

80
80

67.1
67.1

.392
.416

6

plants___

1913
1914

52
52

64.0
63.7

.377

7 plants___

1914
1915

62
53

64.0
65.0

.324
.366




28.51
33.80

29.91
30.79

18

. 530 ..

29

50

19

23.28
20.61
20.49
22.92

270

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

Referring to the first occupation of Table 31, cold-saw men’s helpers,
direct comparison can be made for three identical plants in 1910
and 1911, for four identical plants in 1911 and 1912, for seven iden­
tical plants in 1912 and 1913, for six identical plants in 1913 and
1914, and for seven identical plants in 1914 and 1915. The first
line of the table is read as follows: In 1910 the three standard rail
mills from which reports were obtained employed 30 cold-saw men's
helpers, whose average full-time hours of work were 76 per week.
For 67 per cent of these cold-saw men's helpers the full-time hours per
week were 72 and for the remaining one-third the working hours
were 84 per week. The average rate of wages or earnings per hour
of cold-saw men’s helpers in the year considered (1910) was 17.1
cents. All of the 30 employees received 16 and under 18 cents per
hour. The average full-time weekly earnings were $12.98. The
other lines of the table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen th a t in three
plants the average full-time weekly earnings of cold-saw men's helpers
were $12.98 in 1910, and in 1911 in the same three plants the average
dropped to $12.40; in four plants in 1911 the average was $12.38,
while in 1912 there was a slight increase to $12.45; in seven plants
the full-time weekly earnings were $13.56 in 1912 and $15.10 in
1913; in six plants in 1913 and 1914 these earnings were $14.70
and $13.14, respectively, while in the group of seven plants in 1914
and 1915 they were $13.09 in 1914 and $13.82 in 1915. The highest
point reached was for 1913 when it was $15.10 in the group for seven
plants and $14.70 in the group for six plants. The figures for the
two years show an appreciable difference which is readily accounted
for by reference to the details. Comparing the average full-time
weekly earnings for 1915 in the several occupations, it is seen th a t the
lowest average was th a t of hotbed men, which was $12.54. Several
occupations received b u t little more. The highest earnings in any
occupation of this departm ent are found in the occupation of rollers,
the average full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1915
being $43.09.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

Owing to changes in the number of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the over­
lapping year in two groups of plants, it is difficult to make a com­
parison of the actual data for the various years which will give an
accurate measure of the changes throughout the period. To aid
in making such a comparison relative or index numbers have been
computed from the averages of Table 31 for full-time hours per
week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each
occupation from 1910 to 1915 inclusive. Such figures appear in
Table 32. These relative or index numbers are simply percentages




271

STANDARD RAIL M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

for which the data for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent.
The relative for each year is the per cent which the average for th a t
year is of the average for 1915. For example, relative full-time
weekly earnings of charging-machine operators in 1910 were 96 per
cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1915. The
method of computing relative numbers is explained on pages 65 to 67.
Table 32 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1915 as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of chargingmachine operators in 1915 were 4 per cent higher than in 1910, 5
per cent higher than in 1911, no change in 1912, 12 per cent lower
than in 1913, and 19 per cent lower than in 1914.
In other columns of this table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of charging-machine operators in 1911
were 1 per cent lower than in 1910, 5 per cent higher in 1912 than in
1911, 13 per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912, 10 per cent higher in
1914 than in 1913, and 19 per cent lower in 1915 than in 1914. The
other occupations and items of the table may be studied in like
manner. The percentages of increase and decrease are computed
from the relative numbers.
T a b l e 32.—R E L A T IV E FU LL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W IT H P E R CENT OF
INCREASE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—S T A N D A R D
R A IL M IL LS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in —
Occupation and year.

Charging-machine operators:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Reheaters:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of i n ­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tiv e
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
wages
pared year as
per
pared year as Weekly pared year as
earn­
with
with
com­
com­
with
com­
hour.
ings.
each
each
pared
each
pared
pared
speci­
with
with
with
speci­
speci­
fied
year
year
fied
fied
year
year.
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100
100
100
100
100
100

0

100
100
100
100
100
100

C
1)
C
1)
<l)
C
1)
(!)

C
1)
C
1)
)
(1)
C
1)

C
1)
0 )
C
1)
(!)
C
1)
)
C
1)
(l)
(l )
C
1)
0

i No change.

96
95
100

113
124

+ 4
+ 5
0 )
-1 2

-1 9

100

94
92
90
99
87
100

+ 6
+ 9
+ 11
+ 1
+ 15

96
95

- 1
+ 5
+ 13
+ 10
-1 9

113
124

- 2
- 2
+ 10

95
92
90
99
87

-1 2

+ 15

100

100.

100

+ 4
+ 5
0 )
-1 2

-1 9 !
+
+
+
+
+

5
9

11
1

15

- 1
+ 5
+ 13

+10

-1 9

- 3
- 2
+ 10
-1 2

+ 15

272

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U ST B Y .

T able 32.—R E LA T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INC R E A SE OR D ECR EA SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—S' T A N B A R D
R A I L M IL L S —Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in —
Occupation and year.

Reheaters’ helpers:
1910
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915
Roll engineers:
1910..........................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915..........................
Rollers:
1910..............
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Rollers’ helpers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Table lever men:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Table men:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Guide setters:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Hot-saw men:
1910.......................................
1911................ , ....................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

99
100
100
100
100
100

+
(*)
(*)
C
1)
C
1)

1

101
100

-

99

+
+
+
C
1)
+

•

1

1
1
1

+
+
+

1
1
1

101

—

( 1i

2
—1

98
99
99
99

+
+
+
+

2
1
1
1

88

96
102

104
85
91
97
115

(!)
%
(!)
(i)
—3
+ 1

C
1)
(i)

1
1

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

89

+ 1

(1 )o
+ 2
+ 1
C
1)
I1)
i})
i1)
i1)
C
1)

+10
+ 6

+ 12
+ 14
+ 4
—2
—7

- 2

+
+
C
1)
C
1)

—4
+ 18
+ 10
+ 3
-1 3

1
1

(!)
0
0

*)
(*)

1 No change.

—2
+ 5
+ 4
—2
+12

100

125
118
130
142
106

(J)
m
m

100

95
96
102

1
1
1

- 9

+12
+ 6
+ 2

100
102

+ 1

+
+
+
+
+

+23

100

108

100

- 1
+ 9
+ 6
+ 6
- 7
-1 8
+ 7
+ 7
+19
-1 3
—7
+ 1
+ 6
—13

— 20

—15
—23
—30
- 6
+

2
+20

+ 18
+ 3
+ 5

100

95
85
87
95
97

+ 4
+ 2

+12

100

98
83
85
97
95

102

- 6
+14
+14
+ 9
-2 8

+12

100

+1
—1

100

98
99

89
81
89
94
98
89

C
1)
C
1)

1

)
C
1)

-2 8

100

+1

0

100

-1 1
-2 2

128
139

- 2

1

100
100
100

99
99
99
99
99

—4
+ 2

112

-3

100

99
99
99

104
98

+ 1

(i)
(i)
m

- 7
- 6
- 3
- 3

100

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
Each
Each rate of
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ wages 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
com­
per
weekly pared year as
pared year as hour. pared year as earn­
com­
with
w ith
com­
com­
w ith
ings.
each
each
pared
pared
pared
each
w ith
with
speci­
speci­
with
speci­
year
fied
fied
year
year
fied
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

108
106
103
103

99
99
99

W eekly earnings.

+
+
+
+
+

5
18
15
5
3

—6
+ 10
+ 9
—25
—6
—15
+ 2
+ 14
—2
+ 5
—11
+ 2
+ 9
+ 2
+ 3 l

97
112

128
140

- 2
+ 3
-1 1
-2 2

-2 9

100

97
87
92
97
100
100
88

87
95
102

107

+ 3
+ 15
+ 9
+ 3
C
1)
+ 14
+15
+ 5
- 2
- 7

100

103
84
90
97
115

- 3
+ 19
+ 11
+ 3
-1 3

100

103
95
97
101

89

- 3
+ 5
+ 3
—1
+ 12

100

124
118
129
141
105

-1 9
—15
— 22

—29
—5

100

96
79
83
96
95

+ 4
+ 27
+20

+ 4
+ 5

100

95
85
87
95
97
100

+
+
+
+
+

5
18
15
5
3

- 5
+ 15
+ 14
+ 9
-2 9
-1 0

+ 6
+ 5
+ 3
C
1)
+
+
+
-

1

9
7
5
7

-1 8
+ 7
+ 8
+ 19
-1 3
- 8
+ 2
+ 4
-1 2
+ 12

—5
+ 9
+ 9
—26
- 5
—18
+ 5
+ 16
—1
+ 5
-1 1

+ 2
+ 9
+ 2
+ 3

27a

STANDARD RA IL M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

T a b le 32.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, TO G E TH E R W IT H P E R CENT OF
INCREASE OR DECR EA SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—/S TA N D A R D
R A IL M IL L S —Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in —

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Hot-saw men’s helpers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Hotbed lever men:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912........................... ; .........
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Hotbed men:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Straighteners, gag press:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914......................, ...............
1915.......................................
Straighteners’ helpers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Chippers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915......................................
Drillers and punchers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Cold-saw men:
1910.......................................
1911.........................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

100
99
99
99
99

100
103

100
100
100
100
100
102

99

(*)
+ 1
+ 1
+ 1

+ 1

—3
C
1)
0 )
0 )
C
1)
-

+
+
+
+
+

104

-

103

109

100
100
' 100
100
100
111

103
103
103
97

100

+1
-3

0)

C
1)
0 )

C
1)
C
1)

-

-3
C
1)

-1

-3
C
1)
0)
C
1)

( 1)
- 8

C
1)
( 1)
C
1)
(1)

-7
0)
0)
- 6

+3

i No change.

89728°—Bull. 218—17----- 18




102
100

+ 14
+ 10
(})
- 2

+ 11
+ 16
+ 16
+ 3
- 8

100

97
93

2

+ 19
+ 2
t- 4
- 6
+ 3
+ 10
+

2
2

—
+ 10
+ 10
+ 8
- 7
- 6

C
1)

+ 2
+ 15
- 1
—6
- 4
)
+ 13
_ 4
+ 8

0

79
79
82
98
103

+ 27
+27
- 3

+ 5
—3

87
90

+ 15
+ 11
+ 16
- 2
+ 11

+ 3
- 4
+ 19

100

86
102
90

100
86
81
94
90

100

97
98
99
109

100
100

+22
+ 2

+ 18
+ 16
+23
+

+

6
11

+ 3
+ 2
+ 1

-

C
1)

8

83
85

+20

C
1)
+ 4
+20

-1 2
+ 11

104

+ 18
+ 16
- 2
- 4

97

+
C
1)

+ 6

91
91
93
107
106

85

8

3
3
3
3

100

100

— 10

+

91

)
C
1)
+4
0

- 3

0)
0)
C
1)
C
1)

88

86
86

-4

0)
C
1)

0)
C
1)
C
1)
0)

100

+ 1

4

1
1

104

+19
4-16
+ 16
- 2
- 4

90

-3
+1
0 )
(l )
C
1)

1

5
4
4
4

86
86
102

94

2

+ 1

99
95
96
96
96

100
100
100
100
100

84

-1
C
1)
(l )
(*)

C)

C
1)
0 )
0 )

101
101
100
100
100

Per cent of in ­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
Each
Each
Each rate of
full­
speci­
1915 as speci­ wages 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as
com­
com­
fied
fied
fied
com­
per
pared year as hour. pared year as weekly pared year as
earn­
w ith
com­
w ith
com­
com­
w ith
ings.
each
pared
each
pared
each
pared
speci­
with
speci­
with
with
speci­
fied
year
fied
year
year
fied
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100
100
100
100

100

W eekly earnings.

+ 3

86
102
100

88
91
99

102
100
93
90
92
107
106

100
86

80
83
92
89

100
84
81
83
99
104

100

+ 14
+ 10
+ 1
- 2
+

—4

- 9
+
+ ^
+ 3
—2

8

- 3
+ 2
+16
- 1
—6

+ 16
+25
+ 20
+ 9

- 7
+ 4

+12

+19
+23
+20

+ 1

- 4

+ 11
+ 11
+ 16
- 2

90

+11

100

+19

+ 2

+ 11
+ 9
- 7
- 6

90
90

86
102

+ 2
+ 1

+ 11

- 3

+ 12

- 4
+ 2
+19
+ 5
- 4
C
1)

- 4
+19

-12

+ u

1

- 6
+ 16
- 4
+ 11
+
+
+

_

0

1
1
10
8

)

93
87
82
95
91

+ 8
+ 15

108

+

—7
- 2
- 3

- 6

+ 3

-1 4
+ 3

100
102

103
113
97

100

+22

+ 5

+

10

-12

- 6
- 6
+16
- 4

+ 10

+ 1

+ 10

274

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T able 32.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E T H E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
IN C R EA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SPEC IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—S TA N D A R D
R A I L M IL L S —Concluded.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or ;
decrease (—)
in—
Occupation and year.

Cold-saw m en’s helpers:
1 9 1 0 .,...................................
1911.............. .......................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Inspectors:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Laborers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—productive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Unclassified—nonproductive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
All occupations:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

—
+
+
+
+

107

—
0 )
0 )
0 )
+

7

—
+
+
+
+

4

10
0
10
0
10
0
99
10
0
104
99
99
99
99

10
0
99

10
0
10
0
10
0
104
99

10
0
10
0
99
10
0

Per cent of in ­
crease (+j) or I
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)*
in—

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
Each
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
wages com­
fied
fied weekly com­
fied
com­
per
pared year as earn­ pared year as
pared year as
hour.
w ith
com­
with
w ith
com­
com­
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
with
with
with
speci­
speci­
speci­
year
year
fied
fied
year
fied
pre­
pre­
year.
year.
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

104
99
99
99
95

10
0

W eekly earnings.

4
1
1

-5
0 )
0 )
-4
+5

1

5

-7
C
1)
0 )
-1
+1

1

95
95
96
107

11
0
10
0
87
90
89

10
0
99
10
0
85

+
+
+
-

5
5
4
7
1

+ 15
+ 11
+ 12
0 )
+ 1

8
8
8
8
10
0
12
0
10
0
12
0
10
0

+ 18
+ 14
+ 14
0 )
- 2

99

)

10
0

+ 1

—5
+1
C
1)

92
92
93
103

+ 9
+ 9
+ 8
- 3
- 2

-5
0 )
0 )
0 )

1

1
1
1

—
1

+ -1
+1

C
1)
0

—4
+ 1
0 )
0 )
+ 1

-1
+1

1

12
0
10
0

—

C
1)
+ 1
+11
—6
_ 1

+ 3
—l
+ 12
—l
+ 1
+ 4
0 )
+ 14
+ 2
—2

2

—

2

99
95
95
106
95

10
0
93
90
90

10
0
97
10
0
89
87
87

10
0
10
0
10
0
11
0
10
0

+
+
+
+

l
5
5
6

- 4
C
1)
+ 12

5

-1 0

+ 8
+ 11
+ 11
C
1)
+ 3
+ 12
+ 15
+ 15
0 )
0 )

0

1

)

+ 1
+11
- 1
—2

- 3
)
+11

- 3
+ 3
- 2
C
1)
+ 15
0 )
0 )
—

10
0

+ 1

94
91
92
103

+ 6
+ 10
+ 9
- 3
- 2

12
0
10
0

0

—1

99

+

+ 5

1

+

1

—3
+ 1
+ 12
—1
- 2

No change.

The relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a
whole (“all occupations” ) in 1910 were 94 as compared with 100
in 1915. In other words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were
94 per cent of such earnings in 1915. The relative decreased to 91
in 1911, advanced to 92 in 1912, to 103 in 1913, decreased to 102
in 1914 and in 1915 the base year, the relative was 100 . These
relative numbers for each year previous to 1914 are based on a com­
bination of the principal productive occupations only, but for 1914
and 1915 they are computed on data for all employees in the depart­
ment including the unclassified groups (see pages 55 and 56) tabu­
lated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.




275

STANDARD RA IL M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .
F U L L -T IM E W ORKING D A Y S P E R W EEK .

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in standard rail mills, whose customary working time
per week was 6 days or turns, or 7 days, or variations thereof, are
shown in Table 33. The heading “ 6 days and 7 days alternately”
indicates that the plants were not in operation half a day each week;
the employees reported working 6 turns one week and 7 turns the
next week. The figures are presented for each of the two districts
for which standard-rail-mill data were obtained, and for the two dis­
tricts combined.
Two sets of figures are shown for the 7 plants reported for 1914
and 1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupations
as shown for all the preceding groups of years and therefore strictly
comparable with them, and the second including the unclassified
occupations (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the
first time.
T a b l e 33.—N U M B E R A N D P E R CENT OF E M PL O Y EE S IN

EACH DISTRICT W OR K IN G
EACH SP E C IFIE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1915—S T A N D ­
A R D R A IL M IL L S .
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—

Num ­ 5
6
5
6
5
ber
days,
days days,
days days
District, and num­ Year. of em- days 6
6
6
6
and
and days,
and
ber of plants.
ploy- and
6 and 6 7 days, 7 6 days
7
and
and
and
7
days 6
days 6 days. days 7
days 7 days.
al- days days. al- days days. alal- days
ter- in
terterterin
in
nate- rota­
nate- rota­
nate- rota­
nate- rota­
iy. tion.
iy. tion.
tion.
tion.

iy.

iy

1

plant.............

1913
1914

199
195

2

plants............ 1914
1915

303
322

206
235

2

plants............ 1914
1915

430
481

Pittsburgh:
2 plants............ 1910
1911

374
348

312
332

3 plants............ 1911
1912

447
431

430
412

3 plants............ 1912
1913

495
507

467
473

2

plants............ 1913
1914

382
350

350
345

2

plants............ 1914
1915

356
452

351
427

2

plants............ 1914
1915

548
656

503
567

10
0

199
195




117

18

too

298
368
17

10

2

8
6

6
11

276

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e 3 3 .— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—S T A N D ­
AR D RA IL MILLS—Concluded.
Number of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—

Num­
5
ber
5 days,
of
District, and
Year. em­ days 6
number of plants.
ploy­ and days, 6
6
ees. days and days.
6
alter­ days
nate­ in
ly. rota­
tion.

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—

6
5
6
5 days,
days days,
6
days
6
and days,
and days,
days,
7
6
7
and
7
and
6
and
7
7
6
days. days
days. days
al- days days.
alter­ days
days
terin
nate­ in
in
nate- rota­
rota­
ly- rota­
iy- tion.
tion.
tion.
6

6

days
and
7
days
alternateiy.

days,
6

Great Lakes and
Middle West:
4 plants.......... 1910 1,161
1911
904

727
792

27
27

399
33

63

52

908
4 plants.......... 1911
1912 1,026

796
900

52
76

27
27

33
23

4 plants.......... 1912
1913

940
920

926
904

6
6

8

3

7

3 plants.......... 1913
1914

556
398

532
398

2

21

1

3 plants.......... 1914
1915

398
420

398
420

747
3 plants.......... 1914
1915
808
Total:
6 plants.......... 1910 1,535
1911 1,252

718
779

8

1,039
1,124

27
27

461
39

68

1

62

90

5

7 plan ts.......... 1911 1,355
1912 1 ,457

1,226
1,312

62

27
27

40
30

91
90

5

7 plants.......... 1912 1,435
1913 1,427

1,393
1,377

14
19

3

28
28

97
97

1
1

plants.......... 1913 1,137
1914
943

1,081
938

12

21

23
5

95
99

1

6

8

2

3

34
4

88
88

6

3
3

2

99
98

1
1

)

1
1

96

7

0

)

0

4

4

C
1)

100
100
100

96
96

29
8

88

7 plants.......... 1914 1,057
1915 1,194

88

69

955
9
18 1,082

6

plants.......... 1914 1,725
1915 1,945

117
89

9 1,519
18 1,714

22

7

1
6

88

14

21

4
3

1

6

2
2

' 30
3

2
2

3

C
1)
2

2
2
2
2
1

5
19

8
6

1
2

90
91

1

1
2

66
102

7
5

1
1

88
88

1
1

4
5

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Two general tables are presented for the standard-rail-mill depart­
ment, as follows:
T a b l e M.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hoar, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1915.
T a b l e N .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to
1915.
The data from Table M are summarized in Table 31, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages.




STANDARD RAIL M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

277

The order in which the occupations are given in Tables M and N
and in the table of relative numbers follows th at of the processes of
manufacture. “ Identical p lan ts/' as used in the tables of this re­
port, are identical units of identical establishments, reporting the same
occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a more
extended explanation see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year
back to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1913, 1914, and 1915,
in Table N, were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this bureau.
Descriptions of the occupations which are specified in the tables of
this chapter and of other occupations of this department in the un­
classified groups appear in the Glossary of Occupations, pages 498
to 501.




278

WAGES AND H O U R S OF XABOE— IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

M .-~FULL-TIM E

HOURS

P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PE R
B Y Y EA RS, 1910 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy-

Charging - m a c h i n
operators:
3 plants...............

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

1

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

1910
1911
1912

72.0 $0,234 $16.87
72.0 .232 16.72
72.0 .24£

22
22
22

plants...............

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

.284 20.43
.321

14
14

3 plan ts...............

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.255 18.39
.280 20.17
.226

22
22
22

1910
1911
1912

72.0
72.0
72.0

.429 31.00
.421
.410

21

3 plan ts...............

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

.531 38.23
.586 42.23

13
13

3 plants...............

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.382 27.53
.336 24.18
.385 27.70

12

1910
1911
1912
1913

71.3
72.0
72.0
72.0

.280
.264
.304
.345

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.324
.354
.254

22
20
20

1910
1911

77.4
76.2

.310
.282

20

18

6
12

1911
1912

75.8
74.1

.277
.304

18
28

18
18

1912
1913

75.2
74.9

.307
.323

14

14

20

8

plants..............

1913
1914

74.9
73.7

.287
.301

18
24

6

7 plants..............

1914
1915

73.5
72.5

.317
.322

\

28
24

6

1910
1911

72.3
72.3

.624
.614

i
i

10
10

2
2

1911
1912
1913

72.2
72.2
72.6

.591
.646
.690

12
12
11

3

5 plants..............

1913
1914

72.3
72.0

.622
.655

10
12

plants..............

1914
1915

71.1
71.5

.649
.603

i

1910
1911

72.0
72.0

.561
.458

» ...

1911
1912
1913

72.7
72.6
73.3

.284
.304
.323

plant.................

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.470

plants..............

1914
1915

72.0
72.0

.468
.407

84

2

Reheaters:
4 plan ts..............

Reheaters’ helpers:
3 plan ts...............

2

plan ts...............

Roll engineers:
6 plants...............
7 plants..............
7 plan ts...............
6

31

Rollers:
5 plants...............
6

6

plants...............

Rollers’ helpers:
1 p la n t................
2

1

2

p lants...............




2

23
23

14
14
12

12

24
24
23

2
1

2
2

2

3
1
1
2

28.51
i
i ........

2
2

4
4

7
2

4
4
4
4
4

12
12

3

16

2

4
3

STANDARD KAIL MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

279

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
STAN D ARD R A IL MILLS.
years are for identical plants.]
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour w ere12
14
10
and
and
and
under under under
1 2 % 14
16
cts.
cts.
cts.




16
and
under
18
cts.

18
and
under
20

cts.

8
8
8

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

6
6

.............

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

8
8
10
10

14

4
4
14

6

8
8

1
1
11

10
1

22
12
1

1
1

1
2

10

8

60
and
under
70
cts.

4

7
4

1
8

22

1

5
1
1
1!

11

10

13

It)

14
15
16

1

17
18
19

12

fi

17

1

11

11
22

10

______ I

9

10
11
12

10

12

i

2
0
21
22

15

rt

6

9

10
2

24
25

12

9

2

19

12

4

26
27

8

8
12

4

16
4
4

12
10

12
12

4
4

10
10

12
10

9

11

16
16

10
10

20

13
12

23

28
29

4

30
31

2
6

4

2

1

4
3

3

3

1

1

8

7

1

7
9!
1 ft'

1
3

4

37
38
39
40

2
2

in
8

2

2

10

2

4
3
1

4
4

41
42
43
44
45
46
47

1
2

2

9

2
2
1

2

1

49

3i

1
1

50
51

1

280

W AGES AN D H O U B S OP LABOB----IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e M ___FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Occupation, and num­ Year.
of tim e
of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.
Table lever men:
6 plants................

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

1910
1911
1912

65.
64.
64.

$ .454 $28.25
0

24
24
24

44
45
50

6

422 26.08
427 26.82

18
18

60
60

2
2

18

34
34

6

plan ts................

1912
1913

67.
67.

.392 26.52
.416 27.51

6

plan ts................

1913
1914

64.
63.

.377 23.28
.328 20.61

18

1914
1915

64.
65.

.324 20.49
.366 22.92

18
14

1910
1911

72.
72.

.279 20.06
.264 19.00

26
26

5 plants................ .

1911
1912

72. ‘
72. i

.262 18.9'
.287 20.77

26
24

5 plants................ .

1912
1913

72.
72.

.324 23. 32
.354 25.47

30
30

3 plan ts................

1913
1914

72.
72.

.437 31.49
.327 23. 57

28
24

4 plan ts................ .

1914
1915

70.
71.

.356 24.92
23.68

65.1

.440 29.
.373 24.31

3
3

3
3

.336 22.20
.346 23.14

3
3

6
6

.340 22.61
.384 26.20

7 plants................
Table men:
4 plan ts................ .

Guide setters:
5 plan ts................ .
7 plan ts.................

32

1910
1911

6 .!
6

1911
1912

67.;

10

5

8

4

34
34

1
1

1

24
24
14
11

1
1

14

11

6
6

3
3

8
8

6
6

3

4 plants. .............

1912
1913

4 plan ts................ .

1913
1914

67.!
67.:

.394 26.49
26.31

3

14
14

5 plan ts..................

1914
1915

68.6

.394 27.11
.417 28.45

3
3

18
18

Hot-saw men:
6 plan ts................ .

1910
1911

20.79
18.56

1

19
14

7 plants................ .

1911
1912

.251 18.10
.257 18.52

1

16
18

7 plan ts................ .

1912
1913

!
.260 18.69
.283 20.36 ........i' ■ ■

20

plan ts................ .

1913
1914

.259 18.67
.265 19.08

16
16

7 plants................ .

1914
1915

.263 18.86
i
.272

6

H o t-sa w m e n ’s
helpers:
6 plan ts................

1910
1911

64

16
16

.165 11.921
.
.168 12.14'.

62
51

12.101
.
12.20’.

58
65

1911
1912

72.1
72.1

.168

7 plants................ .

1912
1913

72.1
72.1

plan ts................ .

1913
1914

72.1
72.0

7 plants................ .

1914
1915

71.3
71.8

1.
.170 12. 241
.201 14. 52 .
!
.197 14.16 .
.201 14. 47;.
!
.197 14.08!.
.189 13.561
.




1
1

72.4
72.1

7 plan ts................ .

6

29

2
8

‘

8
8

47
51
52
50
6

3

si
8'
«!

50
50

1
8

........

STANDARD R A IL 'M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

281

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
STAN D ARD R A IL M ILLS—Continued.
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—
12
14
10
and
and
and
under under under
12
14
16
cts.
cts.
cts.

16
and
under
18
cts.

18
and
under

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

2
10

32

5

21

13

6

13

13

12

11
12

20
11

13
21

25
30

5

7

5
7

8

18

40
13

10
12

10
6

10
11
12

2

6

12

5
4
6
6

5

5

12

2

3
3

12

5

2

5

13

6

6

1
2

4
2

3

12
10

22

2
12

4
5

6

10

14

11

13

4

12

16
28

6

4

20

6

9

13
14
15

6

5

21

4

5
5

1

8

1

14

4

5
4

1
8

18

6

12

1
1

1
1

1

1
1

5
5
2

14

16
17

3

2
1

18
19

5
7

4

9

6

1

20
21

4

10

9

6
8

1
1

22

6

5

7

2

1

2

8

7

24
25

1
2

11
8

5
5

2

9

2

23

26
27
28
29

2

8

4

4

2

10
2

30
31

2
2

32
33

7
7
2

1

2

1

5

9
5

5

5

8

8

10

3

6

4
9

34
35

8

4

7

6

4
3

36
37

8
2

5

6
6

3
4

38
39

5

18
9
3

40
44

6
6

40
41

13

47
60

6
10

42
43

3




42
6

io

44
45

10

32

27

38
24

16
23

3

46
47

30
41

23

3

48
49

10

282

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

M .— FULL-TIME HOURS PER

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
time
of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
60 un­
un­
der
der
72
84

Hotbed lever men:
6 plan ts.................. 1910
1911

34
27

74.1 $0.209 $15.64
72.1 .197 14.21

28
19

8

7 plants..................

1911
1912

31
35

72.1
72.1

.195 14.06
. 2 0 1 14.51

23
27

8
8

7 plan ts..................

1912
1913

35
30

72.1
72.1

.195 14.07
.213 15.36

27
28

8
8

plan ts..................

1913
1914

34
30

72.1
72.0

.2 0 2

14. 57
.207| 14.93

26
30

8

7 plan ts.................. 1914
1915
Hotbed men:
6 plan ts.................. 1910
1911

32
29

71.6
71.8

.213! 15.21
.209 14.94

44
43

73.6
72.0

.176 12.95
.175 1 2 . 60

38
43

7 plan ts.................. 1911
1912

47
48

72.0
72.2

.176 12.65
.180 12.98

47
46

46
48

72.0
72.0

.181 13. 01
.209 15.01

84

46
48
56
41

6

2
1

6

30
28

7 plan ts..................

1912
1913

plan ts..................

1913
1914

56
41

72.0
72.0

. 188 13 54
.187 13.47

7 plan ts.................. 1914
1915
S tra ig h te n e rs, g a g
press:
5 plan ts.................. 1910
1911

43
49

71. 7
71.9

. 185 13 30
.174 12.54

106
90

59.0
56.3

.564 32.41
.534 30.12,

66

56

6

94
98

56.9
57.6

.526 29.91
.530 30. 79

56
56

6
6

32
36

7 plan ts..................

1912
1913

110
101

59.1
59.2

.514 30.45
.576 34.06

56
51

6
6

48
44

5 plan ts..................

1913
1914

89
75

55.0
54.7

.552 30.41
.533 29.44

63
54

26

plan ts..................

1914
1915

53.7
56.2

.571 30.59
.612 34.22

63
54

21

Straighteners’ helpers:
5 plan ts.................. 1910
1911

84
85
139
116

72.1
69.8

.205 14. 55
.205 14.04

23
21

92
95

plan ts.................. 1911
1912

120

134

69.9
70.0

.205 14.05
. 2 1 2 14.51

21
22

112

7 plan ts..................

1912
1913

146
131

70.2
70.0

.2 1 1

14.54
.253 17.28

22
22

124
109

5 plants..................

1913
1914

125
97

72.0
72.0

.205 14.73
.215 15.50

plants j*............... 1914
1915

102

118

71.7
71.4

.226 16.12
.219 15.47

1910
1911

114
82

72.1
70.0

.231 16.78
.240 16.88

plan ts.................. 1911
1912

91
99

70.2
70.3

.2 2 1

1912
1913

113
103

70.2
70.0

2

28

plan ts.................. 1911
1912

6

6

6

6

6

6

Chippers:
5 plants..................
6

7 plan ts..................




.

2
1

6

41
48
12

22

21

31
24

99

125
97
10

97
108

12
2

16
16

61
64

.233 16.44
15.60

2
2

16
16

73
81

.224 15. 79
.267 18. 76

2

20

14

4

91
85

5

25

STANDARD R A IL M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

283

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
STAND ARD R A IL M ILLS— Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

18
and
under

16
and
under
18
cts.

14
10
12
and
and
and
under under under
14
16
12
cts.
cts.
cts.

20

cts.

4

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

14
9

10
12

11
12

12
12

12
10

22

5

18

3

4
4

5

60
and
under
70
cts.

5

Line
N o.

70
cts.
and
over.

26

8

50
and
under
60
cts.

12

4
4

40
and
under
50
cts.

6
8

9
11

6

2

6

16
18

8
2

20

25

4
3

6

24

3
18

»
16

16
7

18
2

16

7
14

2

10

1

6
6




.

.

10

1
6

6
6

.

ii

13

2

4

6
6

1

.!

14
13

4

6
6

18
16

.

2
1

22

I
!

8
8

4

18

i

4
2

6

.

.!

..

..

..

1

4

i.

.

.

.
52
27

18
24

.

27
18

13
14
15
16

12

.
36
49

.
6

19

20 .
21
22

49
50

6

23
24

18,

50
41

6
6

25
26

8

12

41
13

18

27
28

24

8

12

33

13

8

27
27

29
30

36

>8

36
48

24

72
63

18

42
14

63
90

18

18
18

4

34

30
71

4
4

60
14

65
83

14

90

23

1

16
16

33
34

'

6
22

35
36
37
38

20

83
44

21
1

12

24

32

10

57
27

32
36

10

3

48

9

36
3

48
30

10

10

6

21

*

7

31
32

21

44

5
10

39
40

12

41
42

27

12
12

43
44

8

12
20

45
46

50

.

..

..

..

17
18

14

1

.

10
11
12

1

2

.
9

.

284

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e M . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, and num­ Year.
ber of plants.

N
o.

Chippers—Concld.
5 plan ts............

Number
of
em­
ployees.

j

Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
1lours wages
per
per
i
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914

60
44
54
58

70.8
70.9

152
123

76.7
70.5

.220 16.78
.221 15.59

plan ts.

1911
1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

1912
1913

203
179

70.5
70.5

1913
1914

102
88

72.0
72.0

1914
1915

100

90

71.2
71.0

.251 17.80
.280 19.67

1910
1911

18'
18

74.7
69.1

.191 14.21
.194 13.43

plan ts.

6

Drillers and punchers:
5 plan ts................
6

6

Cold-saw men:
5 plan ts. . .
plan ts.

1911
1912

19
19

6

plants.

1912
1913

22

23

71.8
72.3

10

.213 15.50
.233 17.04

plants.

19i3
1914

17
14

76.7
72.0

.239 18.47
.219 15.77

7 plants.

1914
1915

16
13

71.3
73.4

.217 15.46
.218 15.99

1910
1911

30
31

76.0
72.0

.171 12.98
.172 12.40

4 plants..

1911
1912

36
29

72.0
72.0

.172 12.38
.173 12.45

7 plants.

1912
1913

54
48

73.3
73.5

.183 13.56
.204 15.10

plan ts.

1913
1914

52
44

73.8
70.9

.197 14.70
.185 13.14

7 plan ts.

1914
1915

48
52

70.5
7'4.3

.186 13.09
.185 13.82

1910
1911

68

75.5
70.4

.225 16.77
.233 16.29

6

Cold-saw m en’s help­
ers:
3 plants.................

6

Inspectors:
5 plan ts.

48

7 plants.

1911
1912

68

76

70.9
71.0

.230 16.25
.228 16.12

7 plants.

1912
1913

74
73

70.9
70.5

.229 16.17
.258 18.11

p lan ts.

1913
1914

67
58

71.6
70.9

.244 17.46
.240 16.95

7 plants.

1914
1915

62
80

70.5
71.5

.236 16.65
.239 17.11

6

44

21

.194 13.43
.196 13.60

6

30

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

.245 17.60
.233 16.75

plan ts.

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

.214 15.05
.249 17.45

5 plan ts.

60

.218 15.35
.206 14.51

7 plants -

56
and
un­
der
60

.270 19.07
.301 21.31

1910
1911

Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

72.0 $0. 293 $21.09
258 18.56
72.0

1914
1915

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
week were—




29

16

285

STANDARD RAIL M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES,
STAND ARD R A IL M ILLS—Continued.
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

10

12

and
and
under under
12
14
cts.
cts.

14
and
under
16
cts.




18
and
under

16
and
under
18
cts.

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

20

cts.

2

18

2
2

30
and
under
40
cts.

40

2
2
2

1
1

8

Line
No.

26
27

2

27

56

72
33

52
30

56
87

33
54

30

113

70
100

16
65
58
34
34
46

15
16

2

9

2
12

10
11
12

6

18

13
14

14

15
16

2
1

17
18

1

70
cts.
and
o er.

16

18

- 48
30

14

60
and
under
70
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

20

8

44
48

28
4

40
and
under
50
cts.

17
18

1
1
2

4

1

12

4

19

3

18

1
1

17

13
15
12

20
21
22
23
24

1
1

30
31

25

36
29

27
28
10

4
18

4

12

8

30

20

8
12

16
16

8

31
32

16
16

16
16

4
4

26

30
27

2
2:

5
4

4

10

46

16
16
20

10

33
34
1
1

35
36

1

37

4

19

41
43

8

2

7

2

3 ______

2

191

41
35

7
29i

2
6

2!

37
381

24
14

e

1
4C
431

14

6

22 !

S

2!

3

5i

6

3

1

39
40
41
42
43
44

286

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e M .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER
BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

Line Occupation,and num­ Year.
ber of plants.
No.

1
2

Laborers:
6 plants..................

3
4

7 plan ts..................

5

7 plan ts..................

7

6

6

8
9

10
11
12
13
14

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

1910
1911

501
370

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

60

84

20

56

209
218

44

225
32

20

76.0 $0.163 $12.31
71.9 .169 1 2 . 1 2

56
54

230
238

44
68

32
27

45

22

1911
1912 i
!
1912
1913

382
417

71.9
71.9

I
.169 1 2 . 1 2 !
.168 12.07

327
377

70.2
70.5

.169 1 1 . 8 8
.193 13.61

28

46
37

257
309

3
3

1913
1914

262
195

71.0
70.5

.187 13.28
.190 13.38

25
24

234
163

3

8

7 plants.................. 1914
1915
U nclassified—produc­
tive:
7 plants.................. 1914
1915
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
7 plants.................. 1914
1915

222

69.9
71.0

.185 12.99
.182 12.95

24
16

35

339

22

163
301

254
361

71.6
72.4

.207 14.82
.203 14.65

4
5

13
7

226
313

414
390

71.7
71.9

.226 16.17
.228 16.29

16
4

90
90

235
217

plan ts..................




30
21

3
3
1

6

14

12

14
8

8
21

52
57

287

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

HOUR, A ND FULL-TIME W EEK LY EAR NING S, IN TH E U N IT E D STATES,
S T A N D A R D R A I L M IL L S — Concluded.

Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

16
and
under
18
cts.

14
12
10
and
and
and
under under
under
14
12
13
cts.
cts.
cts.

18
and
under
20

cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

25
and
under
30
ets.

30
and
under
40
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

40
and
under
50
ets.

60
and
under
70
cts.

70
ets.
and
over.

Line
No.

117
37

384
333

37

345
396

3

310
52

5
185

140

a

81
47

132
89

49
59

8

61
172

89
89

59
78

10

36
83

72
113

112

22

9

113

42

8

2

11
12

3

29

12

22

126
126

148
127

49
32

58
ffl

1
2

13
14

21




17

13

a

1
2

4

7
9

288

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b le

N . — FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER H O UR ,
1913 TO 1915—
[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year, of
time
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

C h a r g in g -m a c h in e
operators:
Eastern—
1 plan t............
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts.

Total—
3 plan ts.

Reheaters:
Eastern—
1 p la n t.
Pittsburgh—
2 p lan ts. .

Total—
3 plan ts.

Reheater’s helpers:
Eastern—
1 plan t___
Pittsburgh1 plan t.

Total—
2 plan ts.

R oll engineers:
Eastern—
1 plan t.........
2

plants___

Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts___
G .L . and M.W,
3 plan ts___

38

Total—
6 plants.

7 plants.




Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48* 48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

72.0 $0,231 $16.63
72.0 .266 19.08
72.0 .227 16.34

56
and
un­
der
60

60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
unun­
.der
der
72
84.

1913
1914
1915

6
6
6

1913
1914
1915

16
16
16

72.0
72.0
72.0

.265 19.04
.286 20.57
.226 16.24

16
16
16

1913
1914
1915

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

.255 18.39
.280 20.17
.226 16.27

22
22
22]

1913
1914
1915

2
2
2

72.0
72.0
72.0

.470 33.84
.379 27.29
.327 23.54

2
2
2

1913
1914
1915

12
12
10

72.0
72.0
72.0

.368 26.48
.329 23. fifi
.396 28.53

12
12
10

1913
1914
1915

14
14

72.0
72.0
72.0

.382 27.53
.336 24.18
.385 27.70

14
14

12

1913
1914
1915

10
10
10

72.0
72.0
72.0

.287 2 0 . 6 8
.310 22.32
.259 18.66

10
10
10

1913
1914
1915

12
10
10

72.0
72.0
72.0

.354 25.49
.398 28.66
.248 17.88

12
10
10

1913
1914
1915

22
20
20

72.0
72.0
72.0

.324 23.30
.354 25.49
.254 18.27

22
20
20

1913
1914

4
4

72.0
72.0

.233 16. 78
.240 17.28

4
4

1914
1915

8
6

72.0
72.0

.336 24.19
.319 22.97

8
6

1913
1914
1915

10
10
10

80.1
76.8
73.5

.282 22.64
.290 22.42
.290 21.29

6

1913
1914
1915

14
14
ft

72.0
72.0
72.0

.306 2 2 . 0 0
.326 23.50
.346 24.88

14
14
14

1913
1914

28
28

74.9
73.7

.287 21.48
.301 2 2 . 2 2

18
24

1914
1915

32
30

73.5
72.5

.317 23.33
.322 23.30 ........

28
24

84

6
6
6

12

6

4

......

6

4
4

4
4
4

6

STANDARD RA IL M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

289

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
STAN D ARD R A IL MILLS.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

14
and
and
and
under under under
14
16
12
cts.
cts.
cts.
12

10

16
and
under
18
cts.

18
and
under
20

cts.

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
o. er.

Line
No.

6
6
6
8
81

8
8

I
1
i

16'i
14'
8
2 2

J
6

8

..............

1
i . .

.

10
11
12

2
1

2
2

!

ll
1
8 1..............

5
2

1

J

10

5

7
4

1!
s1

|
10

1
1
1

[

______ I..............
i
|

1 0

io
............ 1............
l
9
io
9

13
14
15

J

10

5

!

12

51.............

5

1

12

19

20
21
22
23
24

25
26
27

5 ______

15

16
17
18

ii
i

4
4
..............1...............

4
4

4
2
8
6
6

1
..............1..............

28
29

i

1

2'
4 ..............
4'______

30
31
32
33
34

10
8
6

4

35
36
37

12
10

12
12

2

38
39

4
4

10
10

12
10

. 1..............
............ 1..............
i

*
!
i

89728°—17—Bull. 218----- 19




4
4
4
4
4

............1............

2

6

4

2

40
41

)

W AGES ANI> H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

le

N . — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF

WAGES PER
YEARS, 1913 TO 1915—STA N D A R D

N um ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em ­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

Rollers:
Eastern—
1 plan t____
2

plants___

Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts___

8
9
10

G. L. and M. W
2 plants___

11
12

Total—
5- plants.-----

13
14

15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22

6

plan ts___

Rollers’ helpers:
Pittsburgh—
1 p la n t____
G. L. andM. W. 1 p lan t.........

T otal—
1 p la n t........
2

plan ts___

23

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Table lever men:
Eastern —
1 plan t........
2

G .L .and M. W.
3 plants___

Total—
6 plants__ _

36
37

38
39
40
41
42
43
44

plants___

P ittsb u r g h 2 plants — .

7 p la n ts ..
Table men:
Eastern—
1 p la n t..........
2

plants.

Pittsburgh—
1 plant.




Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914

6 8 .8

69.8
72.0
72.0
72. 0
72.8
72.0
72.0

.661 48.05
. 6 6 8 48.06
. 6 6 8 48.06

1913
1914

72.3
72.0

.622 44.95
.655 47.18

1914
1915

71.1
71.5

.649 46.16
.603 43.09

1914
1915

72.0
72.0

.466 33.52
.303 21. 78

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.396 28.51
.470 33.80
.512 36. 83

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.396 28. 51
.470 33.80

1914
1915

72.0
72.0

.468 33.66
.407 29.30

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.323 23.24
.260 18.75

1914
1915

68.8

.282 19.30
.302 20.92

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.358 25.77
26.50
24.76

1913
1914
1915

58.2
57.6
59.1

.400 22.13
.335 18. 87
.413 23.22

1913
1914

64.0
63.7

.377 23.28
.328 20.61

1914
1915

64.0
65.0

.324 20. 49
.366 22.92

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

35.77
26.18

1914
1915

70.0
70.8

.3 8 27.04
8

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.259 18.61
.256 18.40
.2971 21.35

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

.633 45.55
.695 50.00
.588 42.34

1913
1914
1915

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

.562 38.48
. 546 37.96

1913
1914
1915

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

72.0 $0. 513 $36.94
72.0 .513 36.94

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

.364 25.58

18

34

84

291

STANDARD RA IL M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

HOUR, AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY
R A IL M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10

12

and
and
under under
14
12
cts.
ets.

14
and
under
16
ets.

16
and
under
18
cts.

18
and
under
20

cts.

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

2
2
2
2

2
1
6

2

4
4

2

4
4
4
2
2

10
8

2

2

10

2

4

9

2
2

— ,—




2
1
1

1
1

2
1

!

2

1

3

1
1

1

8
10
10
10

10

5

3

9i

2

1
2

4

6
2

5
4

5
2

2
1

4

10

24

4

6

3

ii

25
30

6

10

5

40
13

5
7

n

8

6

14

6

5

5

12

5
4

18

12

8

14
18
6
1
1

4
6

12
1

1
2

3

2
1

292

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e N .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—STAND ARD

Line Occupation, district, Year.
No. and number of plants.

Table men—Concld.
G. L. & M . W .—
1 plant...........

Total—
3 plants.........
4 plants.........
Guide setteis:
Pittsburgh—
1 plan t...........
2

plants.........

G. L. & M. W .—
3 plants.........

Total—
4 plants.........
5 plants.........
Hot-saw men:
Eastern—
1 plan t...........
2

plants.........

Pittsburgh—
2 p lants.........
G. L. & M .W .—
3 plants.........

Total—
6 plants.........
7 plants.........
Hot-saw men’s help­
ers:
Eastern—
1 plan t...........
2

37

plants.

Pittsburgh—
2 plants-

G. L.andM. W.3 plants___




Num ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
time
48 and
week­
ly
per earn­ and and un­ 60
un­ un­ der
hour. ings. der. der
60
56
Aver­
age
rate
of

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0

.437 31.49 .
.327 23.57 .

1914
1915

70.4
71.1

72.0
72.0
72.0
72.0

.369 26.54
.365 26.26

1913
1914
1915

65.7
65.5
65.5

.405 26.26
.416 27.62
.464 30.44

1913
1914

67.9
67.8

.394 26.49
.386 26.31

1914
1915

68.6
68.6

.394 27.11
.417 28.45

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

.374 26.93
.332 23.90

1914
1915

72

.356 24.92 .
.336 23.68!.

1913
1914

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72.0 $0,200 $14.40
72.0 .200 14.40
72.0 .200 14.40i

1913
1914

full-time hours per
were—

.222 15.98

1914
1915

24

.216 15.55

.226 15.74
.216 15.02

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.250 17.98
.246 17.71
.241 17.33

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.272 19.57
.281 20.25
.302 21.75

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

18.67
.265 19.08

1914
1915

71.6
71.6

.263 18.86
.272 19.52

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.192 13.79
.195 14.00

1914
1915

70.2
70.9

.185 13.04
.181 12

1913
1914
1915

72.3
72.0
72.4

.215 15.53
.221 15.90
.192 13.

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.191 13.72
.192 13.85
.191 13.78

.

14

STANDARD RA IL M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

293

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
R A IL MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

12
14
10
and
and
and
under under under
14
12
16
cts.
cts.
cts.




16
and
under
18
cts.

18
and
under

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

4
4
4
5
5

1

8

1

14

4

5
4

1
8

18

6

12

3

1
2

3
3

2
1

2

3

4

2

5
4

14
2
1

10
11
12

5

3
4

2

2

6

3

13
14

1
2

11
8

5
5

2

15
16

2

8

9

2

4

4

10

8

20
21
22

3
3
2
2

4
3

17
18

19

2
2

2

3

.

2
1
2
2

1

4

23
24
25

5
4

2

2

8

4

7

6

4
3

30

8

6
6

3
4

31
32

4

27
28

2

6

5

10
6

10

33
34

10

35

7

12
10

3

3

11
8

28
18
28

2
2
2

14
3

37
38
39
40
41
42

294

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOE----IEON AND STEEL INDUSTBY.

T a b l e N .— FULL-TIME

HOUKS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—(S
'TANDARD

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of time
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em ­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Hot-saw men’s help­
ers—Concluded.
Total—
6 plants.........
7 plan ts.
Hot-bed lever men:
Eastern—
1 plan t.........
2

plants.

Pittsburgh—
2 plants.
G. L. and M. W.3 plan ts____

Total—
6 plan ts.
7 plants.
Hot-bed men:
Eastern—
1 p la n t. .
2

plants. .

Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts..

Total—
6 plants.
7 plan ts.
Straighteners,
gag
press:
Eastern—
1 plan t..........
2

p la n ts ..

Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts...
G .L . & M .W .—
2 plants.........




Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

1913
1914

60
50

72.1 $0.197 $14.16
72.0 . 2 0 1 14.47

1914
1915

56
61

71.3
71.8

.197 14.08
.189 13.56

1913
1914

4
4

72.0
72.0

. 120
.1 2 0

1914
1915

6

5

69. 8
70. 7

.179 1 2 . 2 2
. 163 11 31

1913
1914
1915

12
10
10

72.3
72.0
72.0

. 2 2 1 15.96
.225 16.23
.208 14.94

10
10

1913
1914
1915

18
16
14

72.0
72.0
72.0

.208 14. 97
.218 15. 69
.226 16. 24

18
16
14

1913
1914

34
30

72.1
72.0

. 2 0 2 14. 57
.207 14. 93

26
30

1914
1915

32
29

71.6
71.8

.213 15. 21
.209 14.94

1913
1914

16
16

72.0
72.0

. 176 12. 67
.175 12.60

1914
1915

18
17

71.3
71.6

.172 1 2 . 28
. 164 11.75

1913
1914
1915

14

72.0
72.0
72.0

.2 1 2

22

72.0
72.0
72.0

.183 13.15
. 171 12.29
.173 12.49

22

1913
1914

56
41

72.0
72.0

.188 13. 54
. 187 13.47

56
41

1914
1915

43
49

71.7
71.9

. 185 13.30
.174 12.54

1913
1914

12
12

48.0
48.0

.494 23. 71
.510 24.48

12
12

1914
1915

21

30

46.9
46.4

.672 31.22
.765 35.12

30

1913
1914
1915

36
32
35

56.0
54.0
55.5

.453 25.20
.373 20. 72
.441 24.98

24
24
24

1913
1914
1915

41
31

56.2: .655 36.96
58.1 .707 40.36
72.0 .681 49.03

27
18

G. L. and M. W .—
3 plants —
1913
1914
1915

30

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

10
10

26
15

20

52
50
6

3

50
50

8

8

4
4

8.64
8.64
2
1

4
4
4

2
1

8

8

30
28

16
16
2
1

15. 24
.231 16.63
. 195 14.00

16
16
14
10
10

26
15

____

2
1

41
48 ____

21

12
8
11

14
13
20

84

295

STANDARD R A IL M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,'
R A IL MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose raters of wages per hour were—

10

14
and
under
16
cts.

12

and
and
under under
12
14
cts.
cts.

18
and
under

16
and
under
18
cts.

20

cts.

6

10

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

38
24

16
23
23

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

3

30
41

60
and
under
70
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

3

10

4
4
4
4

2
1

4
4
6

4
1

8

4
4
14
14

1
2

12

4
4

8

4
4

18

1

13
14

I

15
16

22

5

10
11
12

2

5
6

3
1

5

18;
16

2

1

17
18

i

16
16
2
1

19

16
16

i
j

14
10
2

4

4

16
7

!

4

............. J..............

6
6
6

4

10

6
6

16
16

16
7

2

7
14

2
6

10

2
1

22

i

!
!

___

26
27
28

|
............. I1

10

16

6
6

31
32

!
i
!
s
i

'

12

9(
is;

12
12

36
i

24
8

8
21

i




1

35
36
37
38
39

6

1

30

33
34

12

1

23
24
25

* !

18

2
2l
l

!

20
21
22

41
13
10 i

18
9

40
41
42

296

W AGES AN D H O U R S OP LABOR— IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e iV .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—STAND ARD

N um ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

Straighteners
gag
press—Concluded.
Total—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

75

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over 56
week­
48
and and and
ly
earn­ un­ un­ un­
ings. der. der der
60
56

55.0 $0.552 $30.41
54.7 .533 29.44

1914
1915

53.7
56.2

72.0
72.0
71.3
71.0

.247 17.49
.224 15.59

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.211 15.17

G .L .& M . W .—
2 plants........... 1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

54

.202 14.58

1914
1915

Over
Over
60
72
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

.571 30.59
.612 34.22

Straighteners* helpers;
Eastern—
1913
1 p la n t............
1914

full-time hours per
were—

.201 14.46

6

2

plants...........

plants...........

Pittsburgh—
2 plants...........

Total—
5 plants...........
6

plants...........

Chippers:
Eastern—
1 plan t___
2

plants...........

Pittsburgh—
2 plants...........
G .L . & M .W .—
2 plants...........

Total—
5 plants...........
6

plants...........

Drillers and punchers:
Eastern—
1 plan t............
2

plants...........

Pittsburgh—
2 plants.........

.214 15.37
.203 14.61

.215 15.48
.215 15.46

1913
1914

125
97

72.0
72.0

.205 14.73
.215 15.50

125
. 97

1914
1915

102
118

71.7
71.4

.226 16.12
.219 15.47

97
108

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.251 18.07
. 195 14.04

1914
1915

66.6
66.6

.304 20.13
.314 20.77

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.286 20.60
.231 16.63
.294 21.14

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.301 21
.300 21.62
.302 21.85

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.293 21.09
.258 18.56

1914
1915

70.8
70.9

.270 19.07
.301 21.31

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.222 15.

69.2
69.0

.317 21.73
.334 22.60

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

19.35
.224 16.10
.259 18.62

1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

,234 16.87
.229 16.45
.244 17.60

1914
1915

G.L. andM. W.—
2 plants........ . 1913




.224 16.14

28

.262 18.86

297

STANDARD RAIL M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
R A IL MILLS—Continued.
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10

12

and
and
under under
12
14
cts.
cts.

14
and
under
16
cts.




16
and
under
18
els.

18
and
under

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

24

8

12

41
13

18

24

8

12

13

8

33

7

10

27
27

48

26

Line
No.

8

40
5

40
44

8

10

32
28
24

1*
11
12

34
14

20

13
14

60
14

65
83

15
16

14
44

25
15

12

■
83
44

20

5
10

20
21

10
10

18

16

20

18
2

20

8

-

26
27
28

12

16
9

40

18

2
2

8

9

2
2

2

23
24
25

8

8

18

16

8

26
27

27

33
34

16
16
16

12

16

14

20

28
28
14

22
2
10

35
36
37

36
16
36

*

17
18

19

2
2
2
2

i..............

6

40
41
42

298

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOE— IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e N .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUP,
1913 TO 1915—STAN D ARD

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year,. of
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

Drillers and punch­
ers—
-Concluded.
Total—
5 plants.........
6

plants.........

Cold-saw men:
Eastern—
1 plan t..........
2

plants.........

Pittsburgh—
2 plants.........
G. L .an dM . W.~
3 plants.........

Total—
6 plants.........
7 plants.........
Cold-saw men’s help­
ers:
Eastern—
1 plan t..........
2

plants.........

Pittsburgh—
2 plants_
_
G. L .an dM . W .3 plants.........

Total—
6 plants.........
7 plants.........
Inspectors:
Eastern—
1 p la n t..........
2

plan ts...

Pittsburgh—
2 p la n ts...

G. L.andM . W.3 plants........




Employees whose
week
Aver­ Aver- Aver­
age
age
full­
full­ rate tim e
Over 56
time
of week­
48
hours
and and and 60
ly
per
per earn­ un­ un­ un­
der
hour.
ings. der. der 60
56

1913
1914

102

72.0 $0,245 $17.60
72.0 .233 16.75

1914
1915

100
90

71.2
71.0

.251 17.
19.67

1913
1914

72.0
72.0
69.0
70.0
80.9
72.0
78.0
72.0
72.0
72.0

.240 17.24
.232 16.
.224 16.13

1913
1914

76.7
72.0

.239 18.47
.219 15.77

1914
1915

71.3
73.4

.217 15.46
.218 15.99

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.160 11.52
.160 11.52

1914
1915

70.0
70 0

.170 11.86
.166 11.60

1913
1914
1915

76.0
69.6
79.2

.222 17.08

1913
1914
1915

72.0
72.0
72.0

.182 13.13
.184 13.27
.186 13.38

1913
1914

73.8
70.9

.197 14.70
.185 13.14

1914
1915

70.5
74.3

.*186 13.
.185 13.82

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.213 15.31
.210 15.12

1914
1915

69.6
70.2

.200 14.03

1913
1914
1915

71.7
69.3
72.0

.261 18.72
.261 18.05
.263 18.97

1913
1914
1915

71.6
71.5
71.6

.241 17.23
.234 16.74
.234 16.72

102

.212 15.
.213 16.65

1913
1914
1915

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

.201 13.87
.213 14.84

1913
1914
1915

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

.200 14.40
.200 14.40

1914
1915

full-time hours per
were—

76

20.20

.196 13.68
.196 15.60

.202 14.09

40.
28:.

84

STANDARD RAIL MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

299

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
R A IL M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

14
10
12
and
and
and
under under under
12
14
16
cts.
cts.
cts.

18
and
under

16
and
under
18
cts.

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

44
48

58
34

48
30

34
46

50
and
under
60
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

6

18
14

2
2

4
3
5

I

4

9

10

6

4

11

5
5
5

1

12

4

1
1

15
12

1
1

15
16

1

13

12
13
14

17
18

1

19

8
8
8
12

20

2
1

4

22

4
4

16
16
16

23
24
25

8

26
27
28

12
8
8

8
8
12

20

8
12

16
16

16
16

16
16

31
32

6

33
34

16
16
20

29
30

8

7
2
1

i

1

........... ;............ i..............
............
........... i............ i—




5

35
36

9
3

2

8
8
10

4
4

6
6

8

9

23
23
30

20
10
12

I
1

37
38
39
40
41
42

300

W AGES AND HOTJES OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

N.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO m b —STAN D ARD

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, district, Year.
of
tim e
em­
and number of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Inspectors—Concld.
Total—
6 plants..........
7 plants..........
Laborers:
Eastern—
1 plant............

Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time
of week­
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.

1913
1914

70.5
71.5

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

71. $0,244 $17.46
70.9 .240 16.95

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

.236 16.65
.239 17.11

1913
1914

27
18

67.6
65.3

.160 10.81
.160 10.45

plants.......... 1914
1915

45
56

65.4
67.4

.157 10.29
.161 10.

1913
1914
1915

79
74
164

70.9
70.5
71.6

13.39
.194 13.68
.184 13.18

58
158

1913
1914
1915

156
103
119

71.6
71.3
72.0

.191 13.65
.192 13.67
13.64

149
97
119

1913
1914

71.0

195

70.5

.187 13.28
.190 13.

234
163

1914
1915

222
71.0

.185 12.99
.182 12.95

163
301

69.9
71.2

.174 12.17
.180 12.78

126

72.1
73.:

.219 15.89
.217 15.

115
156

71.4
71.7

.211 15.01
.203 14.52

254
361

71.6
72.4

.207 14.82
.203 14.65

1914
1915

a 7

16.49
15.

1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1914
3 plants___
1915

71.8
75.1

.229 16.39
18.

234
232

72.4
71.6

.221 15.97
.221 15.75

161

414
390

71.7
71.9

16.17
.228 16.29

235
217

2

Pittsburgh—
2 plants..........

G .L .a n d M .W .—
3 plants..........

Total—
6 plants..........
7 plants..........
U nclassified—produc­
tive:
Eastern—
2 plan ts.........
Pittsburgh—
2 plants..........

1914
1915

1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
3 plants......... 1914
1915
Total—
7 plants.........
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
2 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
2 plants.........

Total —
7 p la n ts.. .




1914
1915

1914
1915

24
68

112
149!
13

226
313

301

STANDARD R A IL M IL L S ---- GEN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
R A IL M ILLS—Concluded.
Em ployees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10

12

and
and
under under
14
12
cts.
cts.




18
and
under

16
and
under
18
cts.

14
and
under
16
cts.

25
and
under
30
cts.

20

and
under
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
under
50
cts.

30
and
under
40
cts.

60
and
under
70
cts.

50
and
under
60
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

lin e
No.

37
38
2
1

5

24
14

6
6

1
2

40
43

14

6

22

9

3
4

[
I

27
18
13

32
56
30
15

49
59
78

86

.

6

: : ..: ...

j

j
i
!

8

- .

t
|

i
i

132
89
89

81
47

132
89

49
59

13

61
172

89
89

59
78

3

25
51

12

6
10

11

........

6

19

12

1
i

8
8

6

16

4

49
77

44
36

14
18

3
3

36
83

72
113

112

22

113

42

9

20
21

9

15

18

____ i

11

16
7

6

22

1

19i
15

51
35

2

22

4

23

I
10C

98i

81
85

32
22:

18
24

1
1

126i
i 2 ei

14£!
127

49i
32!

»
6S

5£

]
>

2

1

........ 1
.........

1

8

20

1 ........
I____

62
77

17
18

!

' '

1

15
16

1
l........

1

13
14

!
i

|
!
|

22

3

9
10
11

i
i

17

5

7

1

i
i
i
i

24
14
30

5

21
22

19

23
24
25
26

2

i
3
12

5
1

4

3i
12 !

2Sl
22 !

..

..

____ 1____

1
1

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

BAR MILLS.1
SUMMARY.

The average rate of wages or earnings per hour in the bar-mill
departm ent in 1915 was from 1 to 16 per cent higher than in any one
of the 8 years preceding, except 1913, which was a year of such
large production th a t a general increase in time and piece rates was
made by practically all companies. There was no decrease in rates
of pay in 1915, as compared with 1913, but the lower production
reduced the average hourly earnings 4 per cent as compared with
1913. Beginning with 1907, a prosperous year in this industry,
bar-mill employees, as shown by their average earnings per hour, have
had one good year followed by two poor years in each 3-year period.
The years 1907, 1910, and 1913 were prosperous years, as shown by
the figures of this report, while in 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, and
1915, lower production considerably reduced average hourly rates
of wages, and consequently the average full-time weekly earnings in
proportion. To complete tb.e analogy, the statements published on
pages 10 to 14 indicate th a t 1916 figures when computed will show
a very substantial increase in earnings per hour and per week.
The most significant facts appearing in this chapter concerning
wages and hours of labor of bar-mill employees, for the years 1907
to 1915, are summarized by means of averages and percentages in
Table 34. The information for 1915 represents 8,732 men, and was
obtained from 57 plants having 128 separate bar mills, of various
sizes from 8 to 18 inches, inclusive, being 23 per cent of the bar mills
in the United States. Of the 8,732 employees 7,220 are in the 18
principal productive occupations reported for the years 1907 to 1913,
and the remaining 1,512 are in the unclassified productive and non­
productive groups reported for the years 1914 and 1915 only.
The bar mills considered in this report are, with a few exceptions, handoperated mills—the exceptions being certain mills using a combination
of continuous rolls and rolls in which the material is handled by men,
and include both mills rolling bar iron and those rolling bar steel.
In this summary table occupations are grouped according to the wages
paid, beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in
each group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified full-time
hours per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by percentages
which were computed from the actual figures given in Table O.
1 Summary figures relating to this department are given w ith figures for other departments of the iron
•and steel industry on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volume of employm ent in this and other departments
from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of the scope of the investi­
gation and of the methods employed is given on pages 55 to 59.

302




303

BAR M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

T a b l e 34.— FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­

TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1915—BA R MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

0

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
ccupation, and num­ Year. of
em­ time
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Laborers:
1 0 plants................. 1907

Per cent of employees
w hosefull-tim e hours
per week were—
48
and
un­
der.

Aver­
age
rate
Over Over
of
48
60
and and
Over wages
per
in­ un­ 72 72
hour.
clud­ der
ing 72
60

1909
1910

296 68.3
227 1908
64.8
324 67.8
424 67.2

18
42
24
30

47
48
42
27

1910
1911

511
355

67.8
6 6 .0

31
29

17 p la n ts .............. 1911
1912

390
424

65.5
65.9

p l a n t s .. .. .. .. .. 1912
1913

536
705

65.0
64.3

1913
1914

891
796

62.5
63.6

54 p l a n t s .. .. .. .. .. 1914 1,039
3915 1,029

63.3
62.9

15 plants.................

21

42 plants.................

2

$0.153
.153
.150
.161

9
17
15
9

58
40
56
7

32
43
28
83

$10.44
9.93
10.17
10.81

8
2

.160
.160

10
12

14
7

76
80

1 0 .8 6

2
2

.159
.159

11
10

16

73
77

10.40
10.52

18
4

2

.160
.178

14

11

7

1

7

72
49

34

9

10.38
11.51

2

5
3

.169
.168

12

16
18

39
40

23

9

13

10. 66

21

8

10.75

2
1

.173
.173

10
10

14
17

37
31

20
22

18

1 1 .0 0

20

10.91

25
8

10
2

27
42

7

25
49

36

35
30

45
48

18
20

37
46

43
44

)
C
1)

59
52

33
38

7

1
1

48
48

42
41

0

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
age
full­
14 16 18 2 0 tim e
U n­ and and and and week­
der un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
14 der der der der earn­
cts. 16 18 2 0
25 ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

20

7
8

13

10.59

3

16 2 0 25
U n­ and and and 30
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
16 der der der and
cts. 2 0 25 30 over.
cts. cts. cts.
Bundlers:
5 plants...................

1907
1908
1909
1910

41
41
41
41

67.1

plants................... 1910
1911

77
81

63.5

44

7 plants................... 1911
1912

131
132

62.0
62.0

66

7 plants................... 1912
1913

129
136

plants................. 1913
1914

6

12

13 plants................. 1914
1915
Chargers and helpers:
1 2 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

66.9
66.9

76
76

6 6 .8

100
100

56
.174 *3 4 ’ 56
.186 1 0 76
.213
5 27

39
7
15
63

2
2

5

12.42
14.23

.207
.193

3

56

43
59

52
37

3
3

13.69
12.28

34
35

.197
.193

1

65

37
80

61
18

2
2

11.94

61.6
61.4

71
72

29
28

.194
.228

80

19

2

2

88

9

2

11.96
14.05

178
168

61.4
64.1

73
45

27
55

.218
.203

3
5

16
44

73
49

7
1

1
1

13.38
13.00

178

63.9
64.4

45
38

55
58

.203
.208

5

42
51

52
37

1

1

10

<x)

12.97
13.38

14
15
13
13

68
66

.173
.161
.161
.181

48
60
63

37
35
30
62

10

5

1

9

7

15
15

59
60

20

13
22

59
53

14

19

.192
.185

22

13
3

1

1 2 .0 2

60
61

18
18

.184
.192

23
13

53
58

21

3

1

15

13

1

11.90
12.45

.199
.224

12
1

50
43

22

1

35

15
12

9

12. 72
14.17

2
2

41
36

32
41

15
15

10
6

14.00
13.58

4
6

29
32

46
38

16
14

5
11

13.47
13.56

210

104

6 6 .1

24
24

.2 0 2

100

•

4

110

65.5
65.6
65.9
66.3

18 plants................. 1910
1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

7

19 plants................. 1911
1912

185
182

64.8
65.0

7

5

16
16

19 plants................. 1912
1913

181
185

64.3
63.7

7

25
32

49
60

20

31 plants................. 1913
1914

262
233

62.5
62.2

4

29
31

63
62

3

1

4

.226

2

1

.2 2 0

41 plants................. 1914
1915

346
333

61.9
61.7

4
9

32
27

62
62

1
2

1
1

.219




102

107

7

75
78

15
20
8

2

.....

9

9

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

.2 2 2

1

2

22

2

13.53
1 1 .6 8

1 2 .2 0

5
8

11.34
10.56
10.60
11.87
12.40

304

W AGES AND H O U E S OF LABOE---- IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U S T B Y .

T a b l e 34.—FU LL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—B A R M IL L S —Continued.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
Num­ age
full­
Over Over
Occupation, and num­ Year. ber time
of
48
ber of plants.
em­ hours 48 and 60
ploy­ per and in­ and 72 Over
72
ees. week. un­ clud­ un­
der. ing der
72
60

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
time
16 2 0 25
of
wages U n­ and and and 30 week­
ly
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
hour. 16 der der der and earn­
cts. 2 0 25 30 over. ings.
cts. cts. cts.

Hotbed men:
1 p la n ts ............... 1907
5
1908
1909
1910

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

4
4
4
5

34
41
37
35

43
35
54
54

$0.189
.174
180
.208

25 plants................. 1910
1911

500
434

62.9
62.0

11
12

30
30

43
48

12
10

1911
1912

450
461

61.9
61.7

12
12

30
32

48
45

9

26 plants................. 1912
1913

455
467

61.5
60.9

12

3

35
43

43 plants................. 1913
1914

600
573

60.3
60.6

7
6

.......... 1914
1915

714
721

60.3
60.0

5
14

Roll engineers:
13 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

plants................. 1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

72.0
70.4
70.0

1912
1913

93
97

1913
1914

52 pants.................. 1914
1915
Shearmen’s helpers:
15 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910
23 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

355
359
358

64. 7
63.8
63.9

plants................. 1912
1913

337
316

1913
1914

26 plants.........

56 plants

20
12

20

26
34
30
41

.189

26
30

40
42

31

11

.188
.192

22

42
43

43
50

10

.192

20

5

.2 2 1

45
41

45
47

4
5

44
34

47
43

4

53
50
54
55

9
18

3
3
5

40
57
53

26
14

70.1
70.5

5
8

153
149

69.2
68.7

183
178

6 8 .8
6 8 .6

201

19

42
48
43

6

7
2

7
3

8

5

12

8

17

11
6

6

14
22

6
8

7
5

22

8

9

46
34

36

5

13

8

13
14

30
34

37
32

13
17

8

.213
.216

5

4
3

.217
.209

21

12

32
32

35
37

18
14

4
7

16
18

28

.2 0 0

9

1
5

7

4

$11.98
10.93
1 1 .0 0

13.02
12.46
11.69
11.61
11.80

11.73
13.43
13.06
12.61

12.7
7
12.83

16.29

38
32
36
38

.217
.230

21

14

57
63
54
62

30
26
30

.229
.228
.229

14
15
13

60
62
65

26
23

12

53
40

13
9

29
42

.228
.249

14
4

66

20

31

59

6

16.02
17.56

13
13

45
44

16
24

26
19

.247
.248

1
1

12
11

25
25

48
45

14
17

17.06
17.02

11
10

47
49

26
27

15
14

.247
.246

1

3

12
12

28
26

42
42

17
16

16.97
16.7
7

65.9

16

1

17
4

49
54
55
31

30
31
27
38

6
2

1
1
1

11.46

23

5
16

.174
.168
.169
.184

14

20
21

62
59
60
65

20

6 6 .2

22

13
13
13

15
18
19

45
50
46

22

6

18
18

3

.187
.178
.184

27
28
18

39
50
48

25
16
26

63.4
62.8

15

20

34

47
61

14 * 4
1 3

.183
.214

18

49
34

24
36

7

418
377

62.7
62.9

4
4

30
27

61
62

3
7

32
36

32
33

10
6

9
5

12.98

20

1914
1915

487
471

62.7
62.3

3

30
24

63
60

5
7

.203

15
13

37
33

37
40

6
8

5
3

12.57

1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90

17

70

.178
.167
.168
.190

9
29
40

68

11
32

2

8

62
47
60

24
9

87

64.4
64.1
64.2
64.3

13 p la n ts................. 1910
1911

170
164

59.0
59.6

15 p la n ts................. 1911
1912

211

217

17 plan ts................. 1912
1913

215
226

22

20

pllants...............

41 plants................

22

85 plants.................
48 plants.................
Stockers:
8 plants...................




172
185
215

88

67.3
65.3

10

11

7

12

2

.226

19
19

.2 2 1

.209
.198
.2 0 1

4

11

17

12

15

15.76
15.52
16.52

20

18
24

16.46
16.07
16.05

22

3
7
6

5
7
8

11.07
11.32

1 12.00
4 12.02
1 11.28
1 11.74
1 11.52
11
13.30
12.43
1 2 .6 6

20

66

18
17

78
79

19
4
3
3

16
17

29
37

51
43

5
4

.250
.230

4
4

31
37

30
27

14
12

22
21

14.24
13.41

60.9
60.9

13

40
44

34
31

13
13

.217
.231

3
3

49
36

23
26

9
17

17
17

12.94
13.79

60.9
60.6

13

40
52

34
45

13
3

.232
.253

3

35
27

27
27

18
21

17
24

13.88
15.12

12

1

11.43
10.72
10.79
12.17

305

BAR M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.
T able

34.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS—1907 TO 1915—B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and num­
of
Year. em­ time
ber of plants.
48
ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Stockers—Concluded.
31 plants................. 1913
1914

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
Over Over
time
of
16 20 25
48
wages U n­ and and and 30 we 3k60
and and
iy
per
in­ un­ 72 Over hour. der un­ un­ un­ cts. earn­
72
16 der der der and
clud­ der
cts. 20 25 30 over. ings.
ing 72
cts. cts. cts.
60

374
343

60.2
59.9

4
4

59
54

36
41

1
1

10.216
.207

10
11

31
33

34
38

16
13

41 plants................. 1914
603
582
1915
Unclassified—produc­
tive:
43 plants................. 1914
392
1915
419
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
43 plants................. 1914 1,087
1915 1,093

60 4
60.2

2
1

51
55

43
39

4

.199
.198

13
14

38
36

38
40

8

2

5

5

63.6
63.3

3

35
37

48
44

.201

2

15

65.3
63.7

(*)
0)

48
61

21

16
15

15

4
11

17
17

23
23

49
47

9

2

6

7

12.63
13.05

14
9

.206
.208

14
14

37
30

31
36

10
12

8
8

13.38
13.23

20 30 40
C
A
U n­ and and and ou
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
and
20 der der der
cts. 30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts.
----- ----- ----- -----

64.4
63^ 9
64.0
64.0

19
24
24
23

61
52
70
70

19
23
4
3

2

19 plants................. 1910
1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

21

19

23

57
55

20

20 plants.................

1911
1912

127
130

64. 7
64.3

24
25

55
54

1912
1913

121

124

63.8
63.1

36
36

33 plants................. 1913
1914

186
174

60.8
60. /

9
10

45 plants................. 1914
1915

265
256

60.7
61.1

6
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
64

65. 9
66.4

1910
1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

1911
1912

126

121

1912
1913

40 plants................

1913
1914

54 plants................

17 plants................
19 plants................
21 plants................

86

7

5

5

.271
.246
.250
.286

27
40
33
29

38
34
41
35

27

5

3
2

.269
.262

26
19

46
63

22
12

3

3

3

3

20

2
2

.262
.253

18
28

64
45

12
22

3
6

3

19

45
55

17
7

2
2

.251
.281

25

52
52

20

3

11

28

9

38
40

44
41

7

9

2
1

.282
. 2 /2

13
17

43
44

35
30

9

38
36

49
51

6

1
1

.277
.280

12

47
49

32
30

8
6

9
11
8

48
60
49
34

19
19
27
39

20
10

16
16

6

32
36

14
13

3

6

20.48
19.50

3

19. 60
19! 92

/

2

13

23
18
22

" 5

7
.....

17.31
15.58
15.93
18.19
17.44
16! 88
16.78
16! 12
15.81
17! 57

9

16.98
16! 26
2
5

16.58
16! 96

22
20

48
49

26
27

68

10

5

.309
.279
.300
.329

14
14

16
23

55
46

15
18

.323
.309

5

6

42
42

62. 8
62.5

12
12

26
29

45
44

17
16

.313
.319

7
7

39
47

35
27

17
12

7

137
134

62.0
61.8

11

38
50

38
43

13

. 328
.363

7

5

42
28

31
37

11

8

10

16

20. 29
22! 36

182
173

59. 6
60.0

63
52

35
46

2
2

. 350
.330

8
12

29
30

33
33

IS
17

12
8

20. 77
19! 64

1914
223
1915 , 222

60. 0
59.8

45
49

55
51

. 341
.352

10

28
G 27

31
32

21
21

9
11

20. 42
20.95

26
24

66.2
66.1

75

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

89728°— 17— B u ll. 218------ 20




11.91

.205

82
83
89

Finishers:
10 plants................

12.00

2

3

Drag-downs:
11 plants................. 190',
1908
1909
1910

20 plants.................

9 $12.89
4 12.34

5

14

20. 45
18! 53
19.85
21.80

306

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e 34.— FU LL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G E S P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­

TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S , 1907 TO 1915—B A R M I L L S —Continued.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Aver­
N um ­ age
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­ time 48
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
Over Over
time
of
20 30 40
48
60
wages U n­ and and and 50 week­
and and
ly
per
cts.
in­ un­ 72 Over hour. der un­ un­ un­ and earn­
72
20 der der der
clud­ der
cts. 30 40 50 over. ings.
ing 72
cts. cts. cts.
60

Heaters’ helpers:
14 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

167
153
151
166

65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

2
2
2
2

14
18
19
17

65
56
74
75

4 $0,246
3
.227
.234
4
.262
5

44
54
46
25

35
29
39
52

14

21
1
2

1910
1911

295
281

62.6
62.5

16
17

18
16

52
53

11
11

3
3

.273
.262

20
22

47
51

25

1911
1912

293
319

62.7
62.2

16
14

15
25

55
51

10

3

9

1

.259
.260

23
23

1912
1913

318
324

61.9
62.0

14

31
44

47
50

6

1
1

.251
.273

1913
1914

467
427

60.5
60.6

8

7

44
42

44
43

6

0)
0)

.54 plants _ _____ 1914
1915

582
570

60.9
60.3

6
11

37
32

52
50

5
5

0)
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65. 7
65.6

10

12
22

15
17

52
42
57
63

20 p la n t s ..............

1910
1911

174
144

63. 2
63.4

16
15

17
17

21 plants................

1911
1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

14
13

22 p la n t s ..............

1912
1913

177
175

61.9
61.4

12
2

36 plants................

1913
1914

227
220

47 plants................

1914
1915

16

5
3
3
7

2 $15.77
1 14.50
1 14. 87
6 16.70

20

4
4

4
4

16.77
16.05

50
50

20
20

3
5

3
2

15.94
16.01

26
17

51
53

21

3

24

6

1

15.41
16.77

.269
.264

21
21

45
49

24
24

8

4

1
2

16.21
15.89

.265
.272

18
16

55
54

20
22

5

2
2

16.09
16.37

26
33
24
19

.268
.225
.241
. 303

18
39

20

19
17
39

2

14

60
42
61
28

17

2

17.30
14. 70
15.82
20.06

43
44

25
25

„ 272
.251

26
38

37
29

26
31

9
1

1
1

17.13
15.81

19
26

44
41

23

. 250
.249

37
34

31
44

29
17

1

1

5

15.66
15.56

32
42

36
43

20

13

.254
.300

32
5

43
41

20

40

5
14

15. 74
18.27

59. 6
59.7

47
61

48
33

5
5

.291
.266

15

8

44
51

36
32

12
1

17.32
15.89

262
245

59. 8
60. 3

48
41

52
59

.268
.270

14

55
54

31
28

1
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

97
94
94
95

66.8

8

21

33

4
9
5
7

11

1910
1911
1912

180
177
176

6

18 plants................

1912
1913

24 plants. . . . . . . . .
37 plants................

24 plants................
25 plants.

. _

42 plants................

Hook-ups:
12 plan ts................

R oll hands, other:
9 plants..................

1

4
4

3

4

21

22

11

12
11
11

6

C
1)

16.03
16.25

9
9
9

40
40
70
71

45
45
15
15

.278
.255
.266
.315

37
36
37

66.7

6
6
6
6

21

39
37
25

62. 8
62.5
62.7

22
22
21

14
15
15

44
42
44

20
20
21

.295
.273
.287

28
29
24

26
41
41

28
19
23

12

6

3
5

18.35
16.97
17.97

170
168

62.2
61.8

21

17
38

43
48

19

.284
.320

24

43

20

21

24
41

4
9

5
10

17.56
19. 71

1913
1914

199
198

63.2
63. 6

24
24

76
76

.316
.280

27

21

25
42

38
23

7

9

20.02

1914
1915

240
235

63.2
62.6

21

.285
.291

25
26

41
33

25
28

3

26

79
74

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

31
34
33
32

51
46
59
62

21

4

41
52
50
42

34
40
39
33

21

3

.249
.216
.225
.247

25 plan ts................. 1910
1911
1912

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

30
34
36

46
45
41

10
11
12

4

.264
.254
.254

36
45
40

36
32
36

18 plants................

Shearmen:
15 plan ts................




67.0

66.8

4

10
10
10

11

18
6

1

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

12

15
36

9

1

5
4
5

6

18.53
16.97
17.65
21.06

17. 82

8

6
6

17.92
18.23

4

10
21

"l
3

1
1
1

16.20
14.10
14.72
16.11

20

6

3
3
3

16.40
15.55
15.59

7

13
16

7
4

307

BAB M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

Table 3&—FUKL-TIMrE HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FU LL­
TIME W EEK LY EARNING S, 1907 TO 1915—B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

N um ­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
ember of plants.
ploy-

Shear men—Concld
24 plan ts...........

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
hour were—
Aver­
AverAver­
age
age
age
full­
rate
full­
Over Over
time
of
time
20 30 40
48
wages U n­ and and and 50 week­
60
hours
ly
per and and and 72 Over per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
72 hour.
in­ un­
week. un­ clud­
20 der der der and earn­
ings.
der. ing der
cts. 30 40 50 over.
72
cts. cts. cts.
60

$0,251
.287

40
15

38
55

15
13

12

3 $15.40
5 17.54

60.2
60.3

.281
.270

21
21

48
47

14
19

12
8

5
4

16.74
16.08

60.5
60.5

.280
.293

19
18

51
48

17
19

8

7

6
8

16.78
17.56

12

7

37
48
52
36

34
40
36
36

8

14

7
9

12

19.45
16.25
17.34
20.06

47
44

26
20

6
11

13

1912
1913

156
159

62.4
62.0

41 plan ts...........

1913
1914

218
205

54 plants...........

1914
1915

Stranders:
13 plants...........

10

4

1907
1908
1909
1910

175
174
174
180

59.5
59.7
59.7
59.7

.334
.277
.297
.344

21 plants

1910
1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

.301
.268

5
8
14
26

22 plants

1911
1912

262
266

59.8
59.6

.272
.283

25
23

42
45

20

20 plants

1912
1913

252
246

59.2
58.7

.284
.328

22

9

46
40

16
27

11

42 plants

1913
1914

491
485

58.3
58.3

.345
.316

7
9

35
40

30
32

11

56:plants

1914
.1915

635
615

58.4
58.1

.318
.326

10

9

38
32

33
40

12
12

U n­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Catchers:
11 plants

18

8

17.85
15.83

6

8

16.03
16.62

7

9
13

16.56
19.07

15
7

20.15
18.39

6

18.57
18.99

13

7

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

1907
1908
1909
1910

70
70
73

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

.442
.381
.400
.452

22

13
7

41
44
53
27

19
16
14
38

20 plants

1910
1911
1912

115
111
110

60.2
59.9
59.7

.419
.392
.399

17
18
23

28
50
34

33
18
29

11
6

20 plants

1912
1913

108
110

59.4
59.4

.415
.462

16
13

34
19

35
33

26

44 plants

1913
1914

222
213

58.1
58.2

.445
.414

12

13

25
40

31
23

1914
1915

293
296

58.6
58.8

.430
.432

11
11

35
34

23
30

1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

.434
.343
.368
.407

17
34
23

31
22

15
3

22

37
31
46
28

28

10
20

9. 26.28
21.35
22.72
2 25.21

1910
1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

.402
.376

21
22

30
44

30

17

1
1

24.51
22.65

.377
.389

22

44
30

1

29

22.68

57 plants
Rough ers:
15 plants

25 plants
26 plants




1911
1912

60.5
60.2

27

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

9

24

22

21
22

26
14
14

6
6
6

27.68
23.57
24.93
28.17

18

4
4
9

25.45
23.70
23.92

9
10

24.81
27.67

25
19

8
6

25.73
23.80

24
15

10

7

25.03
25.35

22

6

12

12

15

4

3

23.36

308

WAGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le 34.—FU L L -T IM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E OF W A G ES P E R H O U R , A N D F U L L ­
TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915—5.422 M I L L S —Concluded.

Per oent of employees
whose earnings per
hour were—
Aver
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
age
full­
full­
rate
Over Over
tim e
time
30 40 50
of
48
hours 48 and 60
wages U n­ and and and 60 week­
ly
per and in­ and 72 Over per der un­ u n ­ un­ cts. earn­
72 hour. 30 der der der and
week. un­ clud­ un­
ings.
cts. 40 50 60 over.
der. ing der
72
cts. cts. cts.
60
Per cent of employees
whos^ full-time hours
per week were—

Num­
ber
Occupation,and num­ Year. of
ber of plants.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Rougher s—Concld.
26 plan ts................. 1912
1913

405
407

59.9
59.8

18

35
48

40
43

4

$0,393
.436

24
13

28
24

28
36

44 plan ts................. 1913
1914

305
290

58.5
58.4

3

64
62

32
31

1
1

.452
.423

9

6

11

23
35

57 plan ts................. 1914
1915

385
386

58. 8
58.9

2
2

65
62

32
36

9

U n­
der
40
cts.
Heaters:
15 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

121
112
112

25 p lants................. 1910
1911

6

3
3

142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

217
180

62.9
62.6

8
10

21

26 plan ts................. 1911
1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

10

26 plan ts................

3
2

9

8

.436
.438

70
61
70
73

10
15
5

7

4
4

10

3

19

58
59

9

19
23

60
57

31
39

16

20
20

14

25

8

31
34

27
31

24
16

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

22

5
7
10

11
10
10

10
6

36
31

49

11

25
28

25
17

26
31

14
14

9

2

.507
.512

9
9

2
2

.510
.482

28
36

19
18

30
21

50
53

8

2
2

.499
.560

34
14

18
23

46
42

3
4

3

14
19

20

3

.590
.559

2
2

.548
.562

21

3

5
5

1.013
.878
.917

211

44 plan ts................. 1913
1914

295
272

59.7
58.9

10

13

38
38

57 plants................ 1914
1915

409
392

59.9
60.1

9
9

36
34

52
52

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
67

65.5
65.7
65.5
65.2

34
32
32
28

43
44
52
61

19
19
16
10

1910
1911

124
116

62.4
62.0

12

29
29

47
42

12

13

23 plants................. 1911
1912

120

124

62.0
61.7

13
12

30
33

24 plan ts................. 1912
1913

128
130

61.6
61.5

12
2

42 plants................. 1913
1914

173
165

56 plants................. 1914
1915

216
215

4

2

25
27

18

22

5

1.010

2
2

2
8
6

16

.928
.882

2
1

43
40

15
15

.873
.860

1
2

9
4

• 35
48

38
37

16
13

.863
.989

2
2

4

59.3
59.6

56
44

43
55

1
1

.985
.909

2
2

59.6
59.4

49
51

51
49

.936
.944

2
1

22

26.32
24.42
25.41
25.76

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

36

9




36
27

15
31
30
25

61.8
61.7

22 plants.................

3 $23.42
5 26.00

30
19
25

196

Rollers:
13 p la n t s .........

29

17

.508
.467
.488
.502

1912
1913

1

2
2

11

22

5

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

10

31.73
31.97

14
19

10

31.87

7

29.84

21
22

19
24

8

16

30.60
34.25

22
21

23
14

21
20

34.74
32.42

19
29

14
14

18
17

32.49
33.50

8
8
8

20
22
11

66.88

3

19

72
64
71
70

7

7

8

10

18
18

67
63

58.21
55.26

13

18
17

63
65

54.65
53.63

13
6

18
9

63
81

53.60
60. 71

3
5

6
6

8

15

81
73

58.85
54.44

5
5

6

14
13

74
76

56.13
56. 75

2

10

5

57.88
60.40
66.23

309

BAR M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.

Referring to the first occupation of the table, laborers, direct com­
parison can be m ade of d a ta for 10 identical plants from 1907 to
1910, 15 for 1910 and 1911, 17 for 1911 and 1912, 21 for 1912 and
1913, 42 for 1913 and 1914, and 54 for 1914 and 1915. In 1915 the
54 plants reporting employed 1,029 laborers whose average full tim e
per week was 62.9 hours, a slight reduction as compared w ith 1914.
One per cent of the 1,029 m en worked 48 hours and under per week,
48 per cent over 48 and including 60 hours, 41 per cent over 60 and
under 72 hours, 8 per cent 72 hours, and 1 per cent over 72 hours
per week. The average ra te of wages per hour was 17.3 cents, exactly
the same as in 1914. Ten per cent of the 1,029 laborers earned
under 14 cents per hour, 17 per cent 14 and under 16 cents, 31 per
cent 16 and under 18 cents, 22 per cent 18 and under 20 cents, and
20 per cent 20 and under 25 cents per hour. The average weekly
earnings of the 1,029 laborers was $10.91, or nine cents less th an in
1914.
The full-tim e earnings in 1915 in 15 occupation groups were from
$10.91 to $18.99 per week, in 3 other groups from $20.95 to $25.76
per week, and the full-tim e earnings of heaters were $33.50 and of
rollers $56.75 per week.
E A R N IN G S OF ROLLING C REW S.

In order to compare the earnings of the various members of the
rolling crews in the mills of different sizes, Table 35, showing simply
the average earnings per hour in 1915, has been prepared.
Although the exertion increases w ith the size of the mill, skill and
experience are such large factors th a t the increase in wages in any
one of the occupations is by no means proportionate to the increase
in the size of the mill and the weight of the product. In the case of
rollers, i t will be noticed th a t there is no connection betw een the
size of the mill and the average earnings per hour. W hatever dif­
ference does exist is due entirely to the skill and experience of the
particular roller and to the custom of the individual establishm ent
in which he is employed.
T a b l e 35.— A V E R A G E E A R N f^ G S P E R HOU R 0 £

M EM BERS OF R O LLIN G CREW S, 1915—
B A R M IL L S .
Size of mills.

Occupation.
8-inch.

Rollers...........................
Roughers......................
Catchers........................
Stranders......................
Finishers.......................
Hook-ups.....................
Roll hands, other___




9-inch.

10-inch.

$0,987
.425
.427
.282
.319

$0,924
.435
.446
.270
.287

$0,999
.464
.465
.343
.417

.260

.245

.367

12-inch. 13,14, and 16-inch.
15 inch.
$0,933
.408
.397
.334
.347
.293
.297

$0.686
.454
.438
.365
.360
.273
.261

$0. 928
.430
.422
.427
.360
.251
.246

18-inch.

$1.013
.480
.434
.469
.390
.268
.321

Total, all
sizes.

$0.944
.438
.432
.326
.352
.270
.291

310

WAGES AND H O U R S OP LABOR---- IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .
INDEX NUMBERS.

Owing to changes in the num ber of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the overlap­
ping year in two groups of plants, it is difficult to m ake a comparison
of th e actu al data over a period of several years which will give an
accurate m easure of the changes throughout the period. To aid in
m aking such a comparison relative or index num bers have been
com puted from the averages of Table 35 for full-tim e hours per week,
rate s of wages per hour, and full-tim e weekly earnings, for each
occupation group from 1907 to 1915, inclusive, and are presented in
Table 36.
These relative or index num bers are sim ply percentages for which
the data for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent th a t the average for th a t year is of the
average for 1915. For example, the relative full-tim e weekly
earnings of stockers in 1907 were 90 as com pared w ith 100 in 1915;
th a t is, th e full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 90
per cent of the full-tim e weekly earnings in this occupation in 1915.
The m ethod of com puting relative num bers is explained on pages
65 to 67.
Table 36 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-tim e weekly earnings in 1915 as com pared w ith each specified
year preceding. Thus, the full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers in
1915 were 11 per cent higher th an in 1907, 18 per cent higher th an in
1908 and in 1909, 4 per cent higher th an in 1910, 10 per cent higher
than in 1911, 3 per cent higher th an in 1912, 5 per cent lower th an in
1913, and 1 per cent lower th an in 1914.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared w ith the year im m ediately preceding. Thus,
the full-tim e weekly earnings of stockers were 6 per cent lower in
1908 th an in 1907, the same in 1909 as in 1908, 13 per cent higher
in 1910 th an in 1909, 5 per cent lower in 1911 than in 1910, 7 per cent
higher in 1912 th an in 1911, and 8 per cent higher in 1913 th an in
1912, 4 per cent lower in 1914 th an in 1913, and 1 per cent lower in
1915 th an in 1914. The other occupations and item s of the table
can be studied in like m anner. The percentages of increase and
decrease are com puted from the relative num bers.




311

BAR M ILLS---- SU M M AR Y.

36.—RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1915, TOGETHER WITH PER CENT OF
INCREASE OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, BY OCCUPATIONS-BAR M ILLS.

T able

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —);
in Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1907.......................................
1908.....................................
1909.....................................
1910.....................................
1911............................... .
1912..................
1913......................
1914..................
1915..........................
Heaters:
1 9 0 7 ..............................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.....................................
M l .................................
1912................
1913..................
1914.....................................
1915..................
Heaters ’ helpers:
1907....................................
1908.......................................
1909.....................................
1910.....................................
1911.............................
1912.............................
1913.........................
1914................ .....................
1915.........................
Chargers and helpers;
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.....................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913......................................
1914.......................................
1915...................................
Drag-downs:
1907....................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910................................. .
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915..................................... .
R oll engineers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................i
1910.......................................1
1911.......................................1
1 9 1 2 ..:................................ |
1913.......................................!
1914.......................................1
1915.........: ........................... I




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

101
100
100
100
101
101
101
100
100

1915 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

92
86
87
98
90
96
105
101
100

+ 9
+16
+15
+ 2
+ 11
+ 4
- 5
- 1

0)
0)
-1
C
1)
-1
C
1)

97
89
93
96
97
92
103
98
100

+ 3
+12
+ 8
+ 4
+ 3
+ 9
- 3
+ 2

-1
0)
+1
-1
0)
0)
0)
—1

89
82
85
95
91
91
99
97
100

+ 12
+22
+ 18
+ 5
+ 10
+ 10
+ 1
+ 3

(0
0)
+1
-1
+1
-1
-1
C
1)

86
80
80
90
86
90
101
99
100

+ 16
+25
+25
+ 11
+ 16
+ 11
- 1
+ 1

-1
+1
0)
-1
0)
-1
-1
+1

92
84
85
98
95
92
103
99
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

-1
0)
C
1)
-2
-1
+1
-1
0)

90
88
86
92
91
92
100
100
100

+ 11
+ 14
+ 16
+ 9
+ 10
+ 9
C
1)
0)

—1

—2
—2
-2
-2
-2
-1
-1
C
1)

102
101
101
102
101
101
101
101
100

—2
-1
-1
-2
-1
-1
-1
-1

101
101
101
102
101
102
iu l
100
100

—1
-1
-1
-2
-1
-2
-1
0)

102
101
102
102
101
101
100
99
100

—2
-1
-2
-2
-1
-1
0)
+1

104
103
103
103
101
100
101
100
100

—4
-3
—3
-3
-1
0)
-1
0)

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

R ela­
Rela­
tive
' Each
Each
tiv e
Each
full­
speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
fied
com­
fied weekly com­
wages
fied
per
pared year as earn­ pared year as
year as
com­
w ith
com­
w ith
hour.
com­
ings.
each i pared
each
pared
pared
with
with
speci­
speci­
with
fied
year
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

(l ) ‘
(l )
-1
-1
-1
0)

102
102
102
102
102
101
101
100
100

W eekly earnings.

-1
0)
(*)
+1
V)
i 1)
-1
0)
(J)

i No change.

9
19
18
2
5
9
3
1

- 7
+ 1
+13
- 8
+ 7
+ 9
- 4
—1

90
85
85
96
91
97
105
101
100

+11
+ 18
+ 18
+ 4
+ 10
+ 3
- 5
- 1

- 8
+ 4
+ 3
+ 1
- 5
+12
- 5
+ 2

100
92
96
98
99
93
104
97
100

(i)
+
+
+
+
+
+

- 8
+ 4
+ 12
- 4
C
1)
+ 9
- 2
+ 3

91
83
85
96
92
92
100
98
100

+ 10
+20
+18
+ 4
+ 9
+ 9
0)
+ 2

- 7
0)
+13
- 4
+ 5
+12
- 2
+ 1

87
81
81
91
88
92
102
99
100

+ 15
+23
+23
+ 10
+ 14
+ 9
- 2
+ 1

- 9
+ 1
+ 15
- 3
- 3
+12
- 4
+ 1

94
85
87
99
96
92
102
98
100

+ 6
+18
+15
+ 1
+ 4
+ 9
- 2
+ 2

+
+
+

94
91
89
95
93
93
101
101
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
-

(0

2
2
7
1
1
9

9
4
2
1
8
4
3

6
10
12
5
8
8
1
1

- 6
(x)
+ 13
- 5
+ 7
+ 8
- 4
— 1
+
+
+
+
+

8
4
2
1
6
12
7
3

- 9
+ 2
+ 13
- 4
(x)
+ 9
—2
+ 2
C
1)
+
+
+
+

7
12
3
5
11
3
1

-1 0
+ 2
+ 14
- 3
- 4
+ 11
- 4
+ 2
+
0)
+
C
1)
-

3
2
7
2
9
1

312

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOE---- IRON AND STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b le 36.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K ,. R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
IN C R E A SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—B A R M I L L S —
Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Rollers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.............. .......................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Roughers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1013.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Catchers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Stranders:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Finishers:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Hook-ups:
1907
.............................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in—
Occupation and year.

Weekly earnings.

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tive
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
time 1915 as speci­
com­
com­
fied
fied
com­
fied
wages
weekly pared year as
pared year as earn­
pared year as
per
w ith
with
com­
com­
com­
w ith
hour.
ings.
each
each
pared
pared
pared
each
with
with
speci­
with
speci­
speci­
fied
year
year
year
fied
fied
year.
pre­
pre­
year.
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

102
102
102
101
101
100
100
100
100

—2
-2
-2
-1
-1
0)
0)
f1)

100
102
102
101
101
100
100
100
100

0)
-2
-2
—1
-1
0)
0)
0)

101
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

-1
0)
(l)
0)
0)
0)
(l)
C
1)

103
103
103
103
102
101
101
101
100

-3
-3
-3
-3
-2
-1
-1
-1

101
102
102
101
100
100
100
100
100

—1
-2
-2
-1
(0
0)
0)
C
1)

98
100
101
101
101
100
99
99
100

+2
0)
-1
-1
-1
0)
+1
+1

0)
0)
-1
0)
-1
0)
0)
0)

101
87
91
100
95
94
108
99
100

- 1
+15
+ 10
0)
+ 5
+ 6
- 7
+ 1

+2
0)
—1
C
1)
-1
0)
0)
0)

106
84
90
99
93
96
106
100
100

- 6
+ 19
+ 11
+ 1
+ 8
+ 4
- 6
0)

-1
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)
(l)
0)

99
85
89
101
94
96
107
100
100

+ 1
+ 18
+ 12
- 1
+ 6
+ 4
- 7
0)

0)
0)
(0
-1
-1
0)
(x)
—1

97
80
86
100
89
92
107
98
100

+ 3
+25
+ 16
0)
+ 12
+ 9
- 7
+ 2

+1
0)
-1
-1
0)
0)
0)
0)

89
81
87
95
91
93
103
97
100

+ 12
+23
+ 15
+ 5
+ 10
+ 8
- 3
+ 3

+2
+1
(0
0)
-1
-1
0)
+1

89
74
80
100
92
92
109
99
100

i No change.

-u
+ 5
+ 10
- 5
- 1
+ 15
- 8
+ 1

102
89
92
101
96
94
107
99
100

+
+
+
+
+

2
12
9
1
4
6
7
1

-2 1
+ 7
+ 10
- 6
+ 3
+ 10
- 6
(*)

105
85
91
101
93
96
106
99
100

- 5
+ 18
+ 10
—1
+ 8
+ 4
- 6
+ 1

-1 4
+ 5
+ 13
- 7
+ 2
+ 11
- 7
0)

100
85
90
102
95
96
107
99
100

(i)
+ 18
+ 11
- 2
+ 5
+ 4
- 7
+ 1

- 8
+ 8
+ 16
-1 1
+ 3
+ 16
- 8
+ 2

98
82
87
101
90
93
107
98
100

+ 2
+ 22
+ 15
- 1
+ 11
+ 8
- 7
+ 2

+
+
+
+
+

9
7
9
4
2
11
6
3

91
82
88
97
92
94
103
98
100

+ 10
+22
+ 14
+ 3
+ 9
+ 6
- 3
+ 2

+ 12
+35
-1 7
+ 25
+ 8
+25
0)
- 8
+ 9
+ 9 * 0)
- 8 1 +18
+ 1 ! - 9
; + 1

87
7*
80
101
93
93
108
99
100

+ 15
+35
+25
- 1
+ 8
+ 8
- 7
+ 1

-1 3
+ 3
+10
- 5
- 2
+14
- 7
+ 1
-1 9
'+ 7
+ 11
- 8
+ 3
+ 10
- 7
+ 1
-1 5
+ 6
+ 13
- 7
+ 1
+ 11
- 7
+ 1
-1 6
+ 6
+ 16
-1 1
+ 3
+ 15
- 8
+ 2
-1 0
+ 7
+ 10
- 5
+ 2
+ 10
- 5
+ 2
-1 5
+ 8
+26
- 8
0)
+ 16
- 8
+ 1

313

BAR M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

T a b le 36.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E HO U R S PE R W E E K , R A TE S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EA R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G ETH ER W IT H P E R CENT OF
IN C R EA SE OR D ECR EA SE IN SP EC IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATIONS—B A R M I L L S —
Continued.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —)
in—
Occupation and year.

Roll hands, other:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Hotbed men:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Shearmen:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Shearmen’s holpers:
...................
1907
.
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Bundlers:
1907......................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915
.......................
Laborers:
1907 .....................................
1908.......................................
1909.......................................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
tive
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
time 1915 as speci­
fied
com­
com­
fied
fied
wages com­
pared year as weekly pared year as
pared year as
per
earn­
com­
with
w ith
com­
w ith
com­
hour.
ings.
pared
each
each
each
pared
pared
with
speci­
speci­
w ith
sp ect
with
year
fied
fied
year
fied
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

101
102
101
101
101
101
100
101
100

—1
-2
-1
-1
-1
-1
0)
-1

103
103
103
103
101
101
100
101
100

—3
-3
-3
-3
-1
-1
0)
-1

102
102
102
102
101
100
100
100
100

—2
-2
-2
-2
-1
(l)
(l )
0)

104
104
106
103
101
101
100
101
100

—4
-4
-6
-3
-1
-1
(l)
-1

99
99
99
99
95
95
95
99
100

+1
+1
+1
+1
+5
+5
+5
+1

104
98
103
102
99
100
99
101
100

—4
+2
-3
-2
+1
(L
)
+1
-1

+1
-1
0)
0)
0)
-1
+1
-1

89
82
85
101
93
98
111
98
100

+ 12
+22
+ 18
- 1
+ 8
+ 2
-1 0
+ 2

0)
0)
0)
-2
0)
-1
+1
—1

84
77
80
92
87
89
102
99
100

+ 19
+30
+25
+ 9
+ 15
+ 12
- 2
+ 1

0)
0)
0)
-1
-1
0)
0)
(1)

91
79
82
91
87
87
100
96
100

+ 10
+27
+ 22
+ 10
+ 15
+ 15
0)
+ 4

C
1)
+2
-3
-2
C
1)
-1
+1
-1

86
83
83
91
86
89
105
99
100

+ 16
+ 20
+20
+ 10
+ 16
+ 12
- 5
+ 1

0)
C
1)
0)
-4
0)
0)
+4
+1

93
80
85
98
91
89
105
98
100

+ 8
+25
+ 18
+ 2
+ 10
+ 12
- 5
+ 2

-6
+5
-1
-3
+1
-1
+2
-1

86
86
84
90
90
90
101
100
100

+ 16
+ 16
+ 19
+ 11
+ 11
+ 11
- 1
0)

1 No change.

- 8
+ 4
+ 19
—'8
+ 5
+ 13
-1 2
+ 2

88
81
84
101
93
98
110
98
100

+ 14
+23
+ 19
- 1
+ 8
+ 2
- 9
+ 2

- 8
+ 4
+ 15
—5
+ 2
+ 15
- 3
+ 1

87
79
80
94
89
90
103
100
100

+ 15
+27
+25
+ 6
+ 12
+ 11
- 3
0)

-1 3
+ 4
+ 11
- 4
C
1)
+ 15
- 4
+ 4

93
80
84
92
87
87
100
96
100

+ 8
+25
+ 19
+ 9
+ 15
+ 15
C
1)
+ 4

- 3
(0
+ 10
- 5
+ 3
+ 18
- 6
+ 1

88
85
87
92
86
90
104
99
100

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

-1 4
+ 6
+ 15
- 7
- 2
+ 18
- 7
+ 2

92
79
84
97
87
85
100
97
100

+ 9
+ 27
+ 19
+ 3
+ 15
+ 18
0)
+ 3

(0
—2
+ 7
0)
C
1)
+ 12
- 1
0)

88
84
86
91
89
90
100
101
100

+ 14
+ 19
+ 16
+ 10
+ 12
+ 11
0)
- 1

14
18
15
9
16
11
4
1

- 8
+ 4
+20
- 8
+ 5
+ 12
-1 1
+ 2
- 9
+ 1
+18
- 5
+ 1
+ 14
- 3
(0
-1 4
+ 5
+ 10
- 5
(x)
+15
- 4
+ 4
- 3
+ 2
+ 6
- 7
+ 5
+16
- 5
+ 1
-1 4
+ 6
+ 15
-1 0
- 2
+ 18
- 3
+ 3
+
+
+
+
+
-

5
2
6
2
i
11
1
1

314

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e 36.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1907 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R CENT OF
INC R EA SE OR D EC R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATIONS—B A R M I L L S —
Concluded.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease (4-) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease (4-) or
decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

U nclassified—productive:
1914.......................................
1 9 1 5 .........................
U nclassified—nonproductive:
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
All occupations:
1907.......................................
1908.......................................
1909
...............................
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912.......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

1915 as
com­
pared
w'ith
each,
speci­
fied
year.

101
100

-1

103
100

-3

102
101
102
102
101
100
100
101
100

-2
-1
—2
-2
-1
(>)
0)
—1

W eekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease (4-) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
tive
Each
Each
Each rate of
full­
1915 as speci­
speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
wages
fied
com­
com­
fied
fied
weekly pared year as
per
year as hour. pared year as earn­
com­
w ith
w ith
com­
: com­
ings.
each
pared
each
pared
pared
with
speci­
speci­
w ith
with
fied
year
fied
year
year
year.
pre­
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

—1

98
100

4- 2
+ 1

-3

99
100
95
86
87
97
93
94
104
99
100

4- 5
4-16
4-15
4- 3
4- 8
4- 6
- 4
4- 1

4-1
C
1)
_1

97
100

4- 3

4- 2

-

4- 1

101
100

—9
4- 1
4-11
- 4
4- 1
4-11
—5
+ 1

96
86
88
97
93
94
104
99
100

4- 4
4-16
4-14
+ 3 1
4- 8
+ 6 !
- 4
4- l 1

4- 3
1

-

!•

1

—10
4- 2
4-10
- 4
+ i
+ 5
—11
4- 1

1 No change.

The relative full-tim e weekly earnings for all occupations com­
bined in 1907 was 96 as com pared w ith 100 in 1915. In other
words, the full-tim e weekly earnings in 1907 were 96 per cent
of the full-time weekly earnings in 1915. The relative was consider­
ably lower in 1908 and in 1909, increased in 1910 to 97, was lower in
1911 and in 1912, increased to 104 in 1913, and again was lower in
1914 and in 1915. These repeated three-year periods already have
been referred to on page 302. They are fu rth er shown by the
two columns of per cents of increase or decrease in weekly earn­
ings. Referring to the last column it is seen th a t the relative
for 1908 was 10 per cent less th a n th a t for 1907, while for 1910 it was
10 per cent higher th a n for 1909. Again, the relative for 1911 was 4
per cent less th an th a t for 1910, while for 1913 it was 11 per cent
higher th a n for 1912, and for 1914 5 per cent less th an for 1913.
These relative num bers for all occupations combined for each year
previous to 1914 are based on the principal productive occupations
only, b u t for 1914 and 1915 include also the unclassified groups ta b u ­
lated for 1914 and 1915 for the first tim e.




315

BAR M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .
FU L L -T IM E W ORKING D A Y S P E R W E EK .

The num ber and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in bar-m ill plants whose custom ary working tim e per
week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in T^ble. 37. The figures are presented for each of the
three districts for which bar mills are reported, and for the
three combined. The employees given under the heading u 5 days,
5 days, and 6 days in ro ta tio n 7’ and “ 5 days, 6 days, and 6 days in
rotation ” are engaged in occupations for which the p lan t employs
three shifts instead of the custom ary two to complete the 24 hours
of the day. All three of the crews in such cases work from M onday
to Friday inclusive, while only one crew or two crews, as the case
m ay be, work a S aturday turn.
Two sets of figures are shown for the plants reported for 1914 and
1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupations as
, shown for all the preceding groups of years and therefore strictly
comparable w ith them , and the second including the unclassified
occupations (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the
first time.
T a b l e 37.—N U M B E R A N D

P E R C E NT OF E M P L O Y E E S IN EACH D ISTRICT W O R K IN G
EACH SP E C IF IE D N U M B E R OF D A Y S P E R W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1915—B A R
M IL L S .
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUM BER.
Employees whose customary working tim e per week was—

District, and number of
plants.

Num ­
5
ber
days
of
Year. emand 6
5
ploy- days. days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
days,
5
days,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
6
6
6
days,
5
days, days,
days days
6 | 7
6
days,
6 and 7 and 7 days, days,
7
and 6 days. days days and 7\ and 7 days.
days
alter­ alter­ days ; days
nate­ nate­ in j in
in
rota­
ly.
ly. rota- j rota­
tion. tion.
tion.
j

Eastern:
3 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

313
355
357
380

1
1
1
11

242
290
290
266

8 plan ts.

1910
1911

890
794

157
1

323
453

406
340

8 plan ts.

1911
1912

831
887

1
14

455
551

375
322

8 plan ts.

1912
946
1913 1,083

14
46

588
684

344
353

12 plants

1913 1,387
1914 1,232

57
62

912
790

3
3

410
372

15 plants

1914 1,562
1915 1,543

64 1,144
63 1,130

3

349
348

15 plants

1914 1,851
1915 1,876

69 1,207
70 1,211

3

554
573

1907
1908
1909
1910

32
58
26
17

j

70
64
66
103

Pittsburgh:
6 plants.




1,215
1,060
1,163
1,311

561
455
465
675

42
42
42
45

521
479
579
552

!
!

1 .

4

..........1

1
2
2

i

3
3
I
1

2
2

11
12
8
4
4
4

1J

34
16
18
14

17
6
29
4

316

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e 37.— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—5 4 #
M ILLS—Continued.
NUM B EE.—Cont inued.
Employees whose customary working tim e per week w as-

District, and number of
plants.

Pittsburgh—Co ncluded.
10 plan ts........'................

Num ­
ber
5
of
days
Year. em­
and 6
5
ploy- days. days
alter­
nate­
ly-

1910
1911

5
days,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
5
6
days, days,
days,
6
7
6
days days
days,
and 7 and 7 days, days,
and 6 days. days days and 7 and 7
days
alter­ alter­ days days
in
nate­ nate­ in
in
rota­
ly- rota­ rota­
lytion. tion.
tion.

676
730

185

1,403
1.167

25
7

10 p la n ts.........................

1911
1912

806

1,188
1.167

10 p la n ts.........................

1912
1913

967
37
121 1,146

1,120
590

11 p lan ts..........................

1913
1914

21,154
1,018

3 700
6 798

14 p la n ts.........................

1914
1915

100 1,388
1,439

890
1,242

14 p la n ts;.......................

1914
1915

i 162 *1,461
i 122 51,549

61,128
81,562

850
801
795

421
335
316
223

336
385
356
571

7 plan ts...........................

1910 1,017
914
1911

227
347

651
9 469

8 plan ts...........................

1911
997
1912 1,006

429
421

9 497
9 502

8 pla n ts...........................

1912
1913

975
928

420
358

12 plan ts.........................

1913 1,279
1914 1,220

457
411

19 plan ts.........................

1914 2,207
1915 |2 ,113

19 p la n ts.........................

1914 12,694
1915 2,484

Great Lakes and Middle
West:
6 p lan ts...........................

Southern:
9 p lan ts...........................

1907
1908
1909
1910

295

4 54
7 38

349
12
7 64
56

9
12

297
280

349
12

12

14
4
28
15

11
12

6
15
Ill

621
570

“ 10
1 10
1

21
15

1,189
1,152

111
67

755
762

ii 10

17

1,284
1,246

120
70

u 10
ii 10

48
23

1913
1914

795
714

207
155

252
195

335
363

9 p lan ts...........................

1914
1915

721
719

156
172

195
146

369
400

9 p lan ts...........................

1914 1,007
1915 1,006

215
229

219
172

558
591

15
14

1 Including 4 employees who worked 6 days during 5 months of the year.
2 Including 62 employees who worked 6 days during 5 months of the year.

3 Including 16 employees who worked 5 days during 4 months of the year; 112 employees who worked 5
and 6 days alternately during 4 months of the year; and 4 employees who worked 7 days every eighth week.
* Including 9 employees who worked 6 days for 5 weeks and 7 days for 4 weeks in each 9-week period.
5 Including 64 employees who worked 6 days during 5 months of the year.
6 Including 15 employees who worked 5 days during 4 months of the year; 112 employees who worked 5
and 6 days alternately during 4 months of the year; and 6 employees who worked 7 days every eighth week.
7 Including 18 employees who worked 6 days for 5 weeks and 7 days for 4 weeks in each 9-week period.
8 Including 15 employees who worked 5 days during 4 months of the year; 114 employees who worked 5
and 6 days alternately during 4 months of the year; 18 employees who worked 7 days every ninth week;
6 employees who worked 7 days every sixth week; and 3 employees who worked 7 days every eighth week.
9 Including 10 employees who worked 7 days every fifth week.
10 Including 8 employees who worked 5 days every fourth week.
1 Worked 7 days every fifth week.
1




317

BAR M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .
T a b l e 37.— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—BAR
MILLS—Continued.
N UM BER —Concluded.
Employees whose customary working tim e per week was—

District, and number of
plants.

Total:
15 p la n ts.

N um ­
ber
5
of
days
Year. em­
and 6
5
ploy- days. days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
days,
5
days,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
6
days days
days,
and 7 and 7 days,
6
7
and 6 days. days days and 7 and 7 days.
alter­ alter­ days days
days
nate­ nate­ in
in
in
rota­
ly*
ly. rota­ rota­
tion. tion.
tion.

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560

1,224
1,080
1,101
1,164

42
42
42
45

927
928
1,001
1,226

26
15
40
16

25 plants

1910 4,092
1911 3,707

175 1,226
38 1,530

45
42

2,460
12,003

105

26 plants

1911 3,924
1912 4,050

1,690
1,858

42
42

12,060
11,991

13
15

26 plants

1912 4,114
1913 4,320

55 1,975
172 2,188

42
42

1,918
1,412

10
352

15
24

44 plants

1913 5,841
1914 5,461

3 390 42,775
3 360 72,414

132
153

52,066
82,103

i 310
i 293

31
28

57 plants

1914 7,323
1915 7,220

383 3,916
385 3,867

153
109

2,363
2,752

i 359
i 12

34
15

57 plants

1914 8,802
1915 8,732

3 523 74,171
3 497 74,178

162
112

83,325
103,715

i 359
i 22

1907
1908
1909
1910

P E R CENT.
E a ste r n :

3 plan ts.

1907
1908
1909
1910

313
355
357

(u )
(u )
(n )

8 plan ts.

1910
1911

794

18
(u )

8 p lan ts.

1911
1912

831
887

(")

8 p lants.

946
1912
1913 1,083

12 plan ts.

1913 1,387
1914 1,232

(u )
(u )

15 p lan ts.

1914 1,562
1915 1,543

(ll)

15 p lan ts.

P1)

C
11)
(")

(u )
(n )
(u )
(u )

1914 1,851
(u )
(u )
1915 1,876
1 Including 10 employees who worked 7 days every fifth week.
2 Including 8 employees who worked 5 days every fourth week.
3 Including 4 employees who worked 6 days during 5 months of the year.
4 Including 62 employees who worked 6 days during 5 months of the year.
5 Including 16 employees who worked 5 days during 4 months of the year; 112 employees who worked 5
and 6 days alternately during 4 months of the year; and 4 employees who worked 7 days every eighth week.
®Including 9 employees who worked 6 days for 5 weeks and 7 days for 4 weeks in each 9-week period.
7 Including 64 employees who worked 6 days during 5 months of the year.
s Including 15 employees who worked 5 days during 4 months of the year; 112 employees who worked 5
and 6 days alternately during 4 months of the year; and 6 employees who worked 7 days every eighth week.
9 Including 18 employees who worked 6 days for 5 weeks and 7 days for 4 weeks in each 9-week period.
10 Including 15 employees who worked 5 days during 4 months of the year; 114 employees who worked 5
and 6 days alternately during 4 months of the year; 6 employees who worked 7 days every sixth week; 3
employees who worked 7 days every eighth week; and 18 employees who worked 7 days every ninth week.
1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
1




318

WAGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

37.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—B A R
MILLS—Continued.
PER CENT—Continued.

T able

Em ployees whose customary working tim e per week was—

District, and number of
plants.

Pittsburgh:
6 plan ts.

N um ­
ber
5
of
days
Year. em­
and 6
5
ploy- days. days
alter­
nate­
ly-

1907
1908
1909
1910

days,
5
days,
ana 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

6
6
5
days, days,
6
5
days,
6
7
days days
6
days,
and 7 and 7 days, days,
7
and 6 days. days days and 7 and 7 days.
alter­ alter­ days days
days
in
nate­ nate­ in
in
rota­
ly.
ly. rota­ rota­
tion. tion.
tion.

1,215
1,060
1,163
1,311

0)

10 pla n ts.........................

1910 2 ,185
1911 1,999

10 plan ts.........................

1911 2,096
1912 2,157

10 plan ts.........................

1912 2,193
1913 2,309

15

0)

0)
0)

11 p lan ts.........................

1913 2,380
1914 2,295

12
12

C
1)
0)

C
1)

14 plan ts.........................

1914 2,833
1915 2,845

12
0)

C
1)

0)
C
1)

14 p la n ts.........................

1914 3,250
1915 3,366

11
C
1)

0)

Great Lakes and Middle
West:
6 plants...........................

7 plan ts..........................

1907
1908

C
1)
C
1)

0)
1
1
1
1

850
801
795

1910 1,017
914
1911

C
1)

(l)

1
1

8 plan ts...........................

1911
1912 1,006

8 plan ts...........................

1912
1913

12 plan ts.........................

1913 1,279
1914 1,220

(!)
C
1)

C
1)

19 plan ts.........................

1914 2,207
1915 2,113

C
1)
C
1)

C
1)
C
1)

19 plan ts.........................

1914 2,694
1915 2, 484

(!)
C
1)

Southern:
9 plants...........................

975

1
1
C
1)

1
1
1
1

C
1)
(')
C
1)
C
1)

1913
1914

795
714

C
1)
C
1)

9 plan ts...........................

1914
1915

721
719

0
C
1)

9 plants...........................

1914 1,007
1915 1,006

Total:
15 plants.........................

25 plants.......................




1907
1908
1909
1910

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560

1910 4,092
1911 3,707

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

1
1
C
1)
C
1)
(!)
C
1)

C
1)

319

BAR M ILLS---- SUM M ARY.
TABLE 37.—NUMBER

AND PER CENT OP EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING
EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, -1907 TO 1915—BAR
MILLS—Concluded.
P E R CENT—Concluded.

Employees whose customary working tim e per w eek was—

District, and number of
plants.

N um ­
ber
of
Year. em ­
5
ploy­ days.
ees.

5
days
and 6
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
5
days, days,
5
6
days
5
days, 'days,
and 7
6
and 6 and 6 days. days
alter­
days days
in
nate­
in
rota­ rota­
lytion. tion.

6
days
and 7
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

Total—Concluded.
26 plan ts........................... 1911 3,924
1912 4,050

1
1

43
46

1
1

1
1

53
49

(i)
(i)

1
4

48
51

1
1

1
1

47
33

C '
1)

1
2

44 plants........................... 1913 5,841
1914 5,461

7
7

48
44

2
3

1
1

35
39

(l)
C
1)

57 plants........................... 1914 7,323
1915 7,220

5
5

53
54

2
2

1
1

32
38

(i)
C
1)

57 plan ts........................... 1914 8,802
1915 8,732

6
6

47
48

2
1

1
1

38
43

W

6
days,
7
days,
and 7 7
days days.
in
rota­
tion.

1
1

26 plan ts........................... 1912 4,114
1913 4,320

6
days,
6
days,
and 7
days
in
rota­
tion.

C
1)
C
1)
0)

0)

8

0)

1

1
1

5
5

C
1)
C
1)

1
1

1

5
C
1)

C
1)

1
1

4
C
1)

C
1)

p)

C
1)
C
1)
1
1

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Two general tables are presented for this departm ent, as follows:
Table O.—Full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-tim e weekly earnings, in the U nited States, by years, 1907 to 1915.
Table P .—Full-tim e hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.
The d a ta from Table O are sum m arized in Table 34, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages.
v
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables O and P
{
and the table of relative num bers follows th a t of the processes of
m anufacture. “ Identical p la n ts ” as used in the tables of this rep o rt
are identical units of identical establishm ents reporting the same
occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. F or a more
extended explanation see page 58.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year
back to 1907 corresponding to those given for 1913, 1914, and 1915
in Table P were given in Bulletins 151 and 168 of this bureau.
Descriptions of the specified occupations which appear in the tables
of this chapter and of other occupations of the bar-m ill departm ent
included in the two groups designated a s : “ Unclassified—productive , ”
and 1 Unclassified—nonproductive/ 9 are to be found in the Glossary
1
of Occupations, pages 501 to 506.




320

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able O.—FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR.
■ Y EA RS, 1907 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
time
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

1
2
3
4

Stockers:

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90
88
87

64.1
64.2
64.3

$0.178 $11.43
. 167 10. 72
. 168 10. 79
.190 12.17

1910
1911

170
164

59.0
59.6

.250 14.24
.230 13.41

27
27

42
28

7
8

1911
1912

211
217

60.9
60.9

.217 12.94
.231 13. 79

27
27

9
10

1912
1913

215
226

60.9
60.6

.232 13.88
.253 15.12

11
12

1913
1914

374
343

60.2
59.9

1914
1915

603
582

1907
1908
1909
1910

5
6

13 plan ts........

13
14
15
16
17
■18.

Heaters:
15 plants..............

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

8
10
8
8

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

8
8
8
7

65
59
69
69

8
13
3
3

13

7
20

86
70

8
6

28
32

13
4

44
59

72
67

27
28

27

34
69

8
4

45
44

73
102

28
7

.216 12.89
.207 12.34

14
14

90
78

4

128
106

133
140

5
5

60.4
60.2

.199 12.00
.198 11.91

14
8

187
177

10
92

107
52

259
228

26
25

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

.508
.467
.488
.502

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

3
3
3
3

6
14
14
16

10
6
6
4

3
2
2

85
68
78
103

12
17
5
10

2
4

84

4

2
2
2
2
2

19
20-

25 plants................

1910
1911

217
180

62.9
62.6

.507 31.73
.512 31.97

18
18

25
26

4
6

16
2

126
107

22
17

4
2

>21
,22

26 plants................

1911
1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

.510 31.87
.482 29.84

18
18

26
12

6
31

2
2

111
114

17
18

2'
2

23
24

26 plants................

1912
1913

196
211

61.8
61.7

.499 30.60
.560 34.25

18
3

28
45

30
34

2
3

98
112

16
9

2
3

2
2
2

25
26

44 plants................

1913
1914

295
272

59.7
58.9

.590 34.74
.559 32.42

29
36

66
65

44
34

3
3

135
115

9
11

7
6

2
2

27
28

57 plants................

1914
1915

409
392

59.9
60.1

.548 32.49
.562 33.50

36
36

80
68

60
68

3
1

211
202

9
12

8
3

1907
1908
1909
1910

167
153
151
166

65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

.246
.227
.234
.262

15. 77
14. 50
14. 87
16.70

3
3
3
3

8
16
16
16

12
8
8;
8;

4
4
4
4

108
86
112
124

26
32
2
3

29
30
31
32

Heaters’ helpers:
14 plants................

2
2
|
6
41
6 . ..
4
4

33
34

24 plants................

1910
1911

295
281

62.6
62.5

.273 16. 77
.262 16.05

48
48

23
26

8;
12!

23
7

154
150

31
30

35
36

25 plants................

1911
1912

293
319

62.7
62.2

.259 15.94
.260 16.01

48
45

26
29

12!
44

7
6

162
161

30'
30'

4
8
1
S'
4I

37
38

24 plants................

1912
1913

318
324

61.9
62.0

.251 15.41
.273 16. 77

45
3

21
63

72
76

6
5

150
163

201
10'

4
2

9
10

204
185

21
26
27
31

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

1

42 p lants................

1913
1914

467
427

.269 16.21
.264 15.89i

37
31

96
95

98
78

54 plants................

1914
1915

582! 60. S .265■ 16.09•
i
57C1 60.3! .27 2! 16.37'

35i
65.

1161
87’

96
95!

6
2

300i
286i

1907
1908
1909
1910

104■
102!
107'
11C
1

6;
6i
6i
61

d'
4[\
4i
d

z
5

71
67
80i
86i

1910
1911

17£l 65. a .192! 12.40|
!
17 :’ 65.1. . 185> 12.02,

10I
11

4L
10)

Chargers and helpers:
12 plants............

18 plants................




60.5,
60.6.

65.5*
65. €
i
65. £
1
66.3!

.173!
. 161
.161
. 181

11.34
10. 56
10. 60 .. .
11.87
12!
12!

4

d

19! 106*
5; loei

16i
201..
S
!|
101
1
35'
33!

2
2

4

2
2
2

2:
2
5

2
2

321

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BA R MILLS.
years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
9
and and
un­ un­
der der
9
10
cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

]
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

51 . 12
34
22
18
23
28
24

22
8
10
28

2

5
4

28
32

24
28

51
44

23
19

16
35

2
2

4
5

65
64

38
15

48
57

19
37

35
37

2
3

5

56
1

19
59

57
60

39
48

37
43

12

9
10

32
34

5
5

24
51

91
63

128
131

60
45

28
14

6

11
12

38
40

40
38

148
126

83
85

227
233

50
30

14
26

1

13
14

1
4

10
19
4
11

25
14
13
24

18
35
34
36

43
25
40
44

13
11
11
12

12
7
6
15

15
16
17
18

16
13

39
37

55
31

57
55

31
26

19
18

19
20

13
23

38
45

34
36

55
41

26
37

18
13

21
22

1

23
3

43
26

36
49

41
47

37
51

16
34

23
24

1
1

3
5

36
47

60
69

65
57

67
38

63
55

25
26

3

8
5

76
66

112
88

77
113;

58
55

75
65

27
28

2!
2

2

6
2
..........1
•
1

2
8
1
2

6
12
32
5

..........I
_____1

2
2

____1_____

3
3

l

4

21

1

14

10
14
6
10

28
33
19
21

36
36
31
10

28
29
32:
60i

30
15
27
- 26

23
19
16
18

8
5
4
11

2:

15
13

21
25

21
24

89'
97

49
45

74
57

17
21

27
18

24
35

1001
95

47
64

21
13i

18;
12!

43:
29I

981
106i

1

2?i
12!

331
351

3€1
4]

1

12!
1
2C

1
3C
I

5C
)
41

>
J
1()

485
5?*
51I
24\

3()
21)
2)
C
5()

£
I
11[
i:I
u5

24[
3*I

65l
6t)

44
241

1
1
!
1
I
1
1
1
I

]

89728°— 17— B u ll. 218------ 21




2
2

29
30
31
32

11
10

11
2
1 1..........
C

33
34

58
64

10
16

If) _____
2
4

35

64
66

66»
77

8
19i

I
5

142!
128;

1
7C
sc1

112!
104i

39,
18!

4
>
8

39
40

182l
16()

13£)
)
14C

118!
12/

3C
.
36;

J
<

41
42

1()
£1
>
*
i
1()

I»

[
1

21>
3*I

I
2l
()

tI

* 8;

1
6
|
1
..........1..........

37

43
44
45
46
47

5

322

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOE— IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

Table ‘O.—FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E EK , RATES OP WAGES P E R HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
of
em­
p loy­
ees.

1911
1912

185
132

64.8 SO 184 $11.90
.
65.0 .192 •12.45

12
9

15
17

10
6

5
6

110
111

33
33

1912
1913

181
185

64.3
63. 7

.199 12. 72
.224 14.17

12

13
26

26
26

6
7

88
110

36
1-6

1913
1914

262
233

62.5
62.2

..226 14.00
.220 13. 58

10
10

34
33

37
36

6
4

105
144

8
4

2
2

1914
1915

346
333

61.9
61.7

.219 13. 47
.222 13.56

13
29

46
30

63
60

4
1

214
205

4
6

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
82
83
89

64. 4
63.9
64.0
64.0

.271
.246
.250
.286

17,31
15. 58
15.93
18.19

'8
16
16
16

8
4
4
4

52
43
58
62

16
19
3
3

2
2
4

75
68

25
25

4
2

70
70

25
25

2
2

Line 'Occupation, and num­
Year.
No.
ber of plants.

1
2

Chargers and help­
ers—Concluded.

3
4
ft
6

31 plants....... . ..

7
8
9
1ft
11
12

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Aver­
Aver- Aver­ age
age full­
S t rate tim e
tim e
of week­
hourg wages ly
per earn­
per
week. hour.' ings.

Drag-downs:
11 plants.........

Over 56
48
48 and
and and u n ­
un­ u n ­ der
der. der 60
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
72 un­ 84
der
84

13
14

19 plants.........

1910
1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

.269 17.44
.262 16.88

20
23

4
5

1ft
16

20 plants................. 1911
1912

127
130

64. 7
64.3

.262 16. 78
.253 16.12

25
27

5
6

17
18

20 plants. ............... 1912
1913

121
124

63. 8
63.1

. 251 15.81
.281 17, 57

24
24

20
19

2

54
68

21
9

2
2

-19
20

33 plan ts.. . ............ 1913
1914

186
174

60. 8
60.7

.282 16.98
.272 16.26

16
17

34
29

36
38

1
1

82
71

13
16

4
2

21
22

265
256

60.7
61.1

.277 16.58
.280 16.96

17
14

54
51

47
42

130
130

15
17

2
2

.23
24
25
26

45 plants................. 1914
1915
Roll engineers:
13 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

.226
.221
.217
.230

31
28
30
32

5
1-0
6
4

18
10
18
19

4
2
2
3

27
28
29

22 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

72.0
7a 4
70.0

.229 16. 46
.228 16.07
.229 16.05

4

3
3
1

40
54
51

26
13
12

23
23
27

7
2
2

30
31

20 plants.^.............. 1912
1913

93
97

70.1
70.5

.528 16-02
.249 17.56

4
0

1
2

49
39

12
9

25
39

2
2

32
33

41 plants................. 1913
1914

153
149

69.2
68.7

.247 17.06
.248 17.02

3
3

8
6

9
11

69
65

25
36

33
24

6
4

34
35

183
178

68. 8
6S.6

.247 16.97
.246 16.77

3
3

8
8

9
7

86
87

48
48

2
2

8
4

36
‘37
38
39

52 plants................. 1914
1915
Rollers, 8-inch:
.............. 1907
7 plants. —
1908
1909
1910

16
16
16
15

62.5 1.089 68. 27
62.6 .970 60. 88
62.5 .956 60. 31
62.7 1.028 64.69

3
3
3
4

3
3
3
1

2
2
2
2

6
6
7
8

40
41
42
43

11 plants................. 1910
1911
1912
1913

28
29
29
29

59. 0 .961
58. -0 .929
58.0 .'887
58.1 1.070

57,71
55.00
52. 81
62.33

6
6
6
2

6
7
7
13

2
4
4
2

2
2
2
2

12
9
9
9

44
45

15 plants................. 1913
1914

35
34

58.0 1.055 62.31
58.9 .943 56.59

4
4

13
10

4
4

2
4

11
11

46
47

20 plants................. 1914
1915
Rollers, 9-inch:
6 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

44
43

59.1
59.3

.912 54.60
.987 59.46

4
8

15
9

3
2

5
6

16
17

12
11
11
12

66. 7 1.038 69.72
67.7 .809 55.06
67.1 .832 56.25
67.0 .969 65.03

3
2
2
1

7
7
8
10

48
49
50
51




4

16. 29
15. 76
15.52
16.52

’
1

323

BAR M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

9
7
8
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
8
10
7
9
cts. ets. cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

42
23

73
87

24
18

38
28

6
24

2
2

22
I

70
27

20
52

40
65

27
23

2
10

4
4

44
46

64
39

•85
96

40
35

13
13

14
16

49
50

51
56

160
126

54
45

18
29

7

9
10
16
6

4
8
6
6

10
5
5
14

19
15
14
10

14
13
20
21

20
15
18
24

4
4

4

6
6

8
8

20
5

34
42

27
35

29
15

4
4

4
2

6
20

8
4

5
10

44
31

37
27

15
28

4
8

2
4

14

4
1

10
9

32
38

31
26

24
35

4
11

17
18

4

4
4

1
2

10
12

10
8

49
48

31
29

65
52

16
15

19
20

4
4

5
4

3
6

13
8

8
11

77
77

48
48

86
77

21
15

4
4
4

5
6
f2
4

33
35
30
36

16
11
10
14

23
24
25
26

4
6
5

10
8
8

59
59
63

26
22
21

27
28
29

5
4

8

61
30

19
57

6

30
31

2
2

9
9

9i
81

39
37

73
67

21
26

32
33

2
6

14
12!

5;
i
S

51
47

76•
|
75|

32
29

34
35

j

1
1

4
2

'

8

4

6

1

11

1

6

........i




4
1
1
4
4
4

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

21
22

6

1
1
1

3
4
2:
2!

12
1
C
11
g

36
37
38
39

3
5,
4
51

5»
7
3!
2!

11
1£
17
21

40
41
42
43

1
31

€;
3i

2
!
i>

21
2S

44
45

3i
5

3i
5
5

t}
7
7

2{
3^

47

I
5
I

5
I
i>
5
f)

I
(
(
(

48
49
50
51

2
3

1
l
1 ____ ______
1
1

4
6

5
2!
4

]
1
]I

]L
>
]L

824

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

Aver­ Aver­
age
Num ­ Aver­ age
age
ber full­ rate full­
of tim e
Line Occupation, and num­ Year.
tim e
of
em­
No.
ber of plants.
wages week­
ploy­ hours per
ly
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week wrere—
Over
Over
Over 56
72
48
60
48
and and a n d . 60 and 72 and 84
un­
un­
un­ un­ un­
der
der
der. der der
60
84
72
56

1
2
3

Rollers, 9-inch—Con.
11 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

24
22
23

63.2 10.943 $60.20
63.5 .825 53.07
63.1 .808 51.36

3
3
3

1
1
1

5
4
5

12
11
11

3
3
3

4
5

10 plants................. 1912
1913

22
22

63.0
62.8

.812 51.60
.932 59.16

3

1
4

5
6

10
10

3
2

6
7

15 plants................

1913
1914

29
29

61.4
61.4

.913 56.41
.868 53.45

1
1

6
6

4
4

5
5

11
11

2
2

32
32

61.0
60.7

.878 54.11
.924 56.81

1
3

7
5

4
4

6
6

13
14

1

10
11
12
13

16 plants................ 1914
1915
Rollers, 10-inch:
5 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

67.3 1.114 76.01
67.3 .974 66.06
67.0 1.095 73.38
67.0 1.183 79.72

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

4
4
5
7

2
2
3
1

14
15
16

7 p la n ts..;.............. 1910
1911
1912

18
18
18

65.0 1.069 70.38
63.6 .967 56.28
63.6 1.066 68.13

4
5
5

2
2
2

9
6
6

3
5
5

17
18

7 plants................... 1912
1913

18
18

62.1 1.068 67.18
61.9 1.132 71.56

5
5

2
2

2
2

6
6

3
3

19
20

13 plants................. 1913
1914

27
27

58.5 1.150 68.08
58.2 1.069 62.92

3
3

7
7

6
6

2
2

7
7

2
2

21
22

44
44

58.6 1.049 62.64
58.5 .999 59.18

3
6

15
13

5
3

3
3

16
17

2
2

23
24
25
26

21 plants................. 1914
1915
Rollers, 12-inch:
7 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

15
13
13
15

68.1
69.9
69.8
68.5

.900
.801
.864
.8 88

2

6
6
8
9

7
7
5
5

27
28
29

13 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

27
24
26

64.4
64.9
64.3

.864 56.26
.844 54.85
.831 53.75

3
3
3

2
1
2

1
1

1

12
12
12

7
7
7

30
31

12 plants................. 1912
1913

27
28

64.7
64.4

.837 54.44
.961 61.47

3
1

2
4

1
1

1
3

11
11

9
8

32
33

19 plants................. 1913
1914

38
35

61.6
61.8

.936 57.96
,807 50.13

1
1

12
12

1

2
2

17
14

5
6

34
35

44
43

61.0
60.8

.881 53.57
.933 56.58

2
3

16
15

3
2

17
18

6
5

36
37
38

24 plants................. 1914
1915
Rollers, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
3 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

7
7
7

60.6
60.6
60.6

.835 48.77
.676 39.73
.709 42.11

3
3
3

2
2
2

2
2'
2

39
40

4 plants................... 1912
1913

9
9

63.1
62.7

.637 38.91
.676 40.90

3

41
42

5 plants..................

1913
1914

10
10

62.4
62.4

.685 41.42
.612 37.67

13
14

61.6
60.4

.703 42. 78
.686 40.99

45
46
47
48

7 plants................... 1914
1915
Rollers, 16-inch:
4 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

49
50

5 plants................... 1910
1911

11
8

8
9

43
44




7
7
7
9

61.69
55.63
60.16
61.05

1
3

3

2
2

4
3

3
3
3

1
2
2

2
2

3
31

4
2

2
2

4
5

3
2

58.11
56.00
54. 77
68.32

2
2
2
3

1
1
1
1

4
4
4
5

62.6 1.007 64.13
63.9 1.081 70.85

3
2

2
1

6
5

63.3 .897
63.3 .868
63.3 .850
62.3 1.074

2
2

325

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R j!fJLLiS--Continiied.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
20
and and
un­ un­
der
der
25
20
cts. . cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
70
fto.
cts.
and
over.

1
2

1
2
3
1

4
3
10
11
12
13

..........

14
15
16

1

17
18
19
20
1
1

21
22
23
24
25
26

l
1




19
17
18

27
28
29

18
24

30
31

33
23

32

2
3

30
36

34
35

1

*
1
1

2
2

36
37

2
2

2

40

2
2

2

41
42

2
2

43
44
45
46
47
48
6

50

326

WAGES AND H OURS OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U STR Y .

T a b l e O . —FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
No.
ber of plants.

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy-

Rollers, 16-inch—Con.
1911
6 plants.............
1912

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earnings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

56
48
48
and and and
un­
un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

62.8 10.929 $59.52
62.4 .814 51.35

!
5

2
2

1
2

7
6

.787 48.92
62.00

\
!

2
2

1
1

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

72

6
6

5 plants.............

61.7
61.5

11 plants...........

1913
1914

___
57.1 1.003 58.04
57.3 1.003 57.66

3
2

3
3

5
4

1
1

16 plants...........

10
11
12

1912
1913

1914
1915

59.1 1.
61.53
59.0 .928 56.45

2
3

5
4

8
9

2
2

1

1
1
1

1
1
1
2

1

2
1
1

5
4
4

Rollers, 18-inch:
2 p lan ts............

27

1907
1908
1909
1910

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.942 58.06
.684 39.
.753 43.79
49.92

13
14
15

5 plan ts............

1910
1911
1912

60.8
60.3
59.1

40.08
.771 46.69
.751 44.76

16
17

7 plan ts............

1912
1913

58.7
58.8

52.19
.975 57.83

2
3

1
2

4
4

18
19

7 p la n ts............

1913
1914

54.7
54.7

.956 53.10
.959 53.42

3
2

2
2

2
2

8 plants.............

1914
1915

54.
55.47
54.6 1.013 57.55

2
3

2
1

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

65.5 1.013 66.88
65.7 .878 57.
65.5 .917 60.40
65.2 1.010 66.23

8
7
7
6

11
8
8
7

28
28
33
41

12
12
10
7

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Rollers, all sizes:
13 plan ts..........

!

22 plants...........

1910
1911

124
116

62.4
62.0

58.21
55.26

5
8

16
10

58
49

15
18

23 plan ts..........

1911
1912

120
124

62.0
61.7

.873 54.65
.860 53.63

8
7

10
13

51
50

18
18

24 plan ts...........

1912
1913

128
130

61.6
61.5

53.60
60.71

11
10

12
17

48
48

20
17

42 plan ts...........

1913
1914

173
165

59.3
59.6

.985 58.85
.909 54.44

53
36

74
90

2
2

56 p lan ts..........

1914
1915

216
215

59.6
59.4

56.13
.944 56.75

72
70

110
106

1907
1908
1909
1910

44
44
44
41

61.2
61.2
61.0
61.2

.397 24.40
.373 22.76
22
24.14

8
8
8
5

15
15
21
21

11 plan ts...........

1910
1911
1912
1913

84
81
79
79

57.5
56.0
56.0
56.4

.368
.347
.336
.391

21.49
19.68
19.03
22.32

8
11
11
17

33
21
21
15

10 plan ts...........

1913
1914

32
32

57.3
56.0

.414 23.49
.402 22.21

14
12

1

5
7

1914
1915

51
49

57.7
60.0

22.
.425 25.36

11
12

1
1

19
23

1907
1908
1909
1910

58
54
54
58

56.3
60.4
56.5
56.9

.564
.392
.422
.454

3
3

Roughers, 8-inch:
7 plants.............

15 plan ts...........
Roughers, 9-inch:
7 plan ts............




29.94
23
23.20
25.14

28
30
21
24

-

6
6

4
4
4

327

BAR M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

8
7
9
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
10
8
9
cts. cts. cts.

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
ets.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
No.

2
6

2

1

i
I

3
4

1
3

17
15

5
6

3

22
21

7
8

2
3
3
4

9
10
11
12

5
6
5

13
14
15

8
11

16
17

11
11

18
19

1
2

4

1

5
10

2
1

2

6

3
2

1

1
2

3

1

8
6

1

2

12
10

20
21

1

!

2

i

2
2
1
1

1




70
cts.
and
over.

3
1
1

i
5
4

5
5
5
2

13
14
7
13

47
40
45
47

22
23
24
25

3
1

8
9

8
12

22
21

83
73

26
27

1

11
5

12
16

21
21

75
80

28
29

2
3

5
3

16
8

23
11

81
105

30
31

3
3

6
8

11
10

13
24

140
120

32
33

5
2

11
10

10
12

31
27

159
164

34
35

7
14
6
9

22
3
28
16

8
27
9
7

7
1
9

36
37
38
39

6
6
6
7

27
15
28
12

26
43
23
24

10
13
21
14

15
4
1
19

40
41
42
43

3
2

5
5j

7
8

8
9

8
8

1

44
45

2

6
4

18
21

16
15

8
5

1
4

46
47

3

13
20
12
4

12
20
16
20

8
8
17
16

i

1

l

2
!

1
1

6
9
12

1

22
6

48
49
50
51

328

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le

O.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
of time
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
em-v hours of
No.
ber of plants.
ploy- per wages
per
ees. week. hour.

1
2
3

Roughers,9-inch—Con.
12 plan ts................ 1910
1911 1912

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

72

30
30
28

10^
91

6
6

23
29

3

16
15

7
7

18
18

15
12

11
11

22
21

8
8
8
9

8
8
26
26

14
18

34
30
30

6
6
6

88
83
84

58.2 $0.449 $25.69
57.4 .414 23.87
57.2 .429 24.17

28
27
27

10
17
20

27
22

17
23

10

4
5

11 plan ts............ .

1912
1913

82
83

57.0
56.6

.433 24.35
.484 27.20

6
7

14 p la n ts................

1913
1914

43
42

60.2
60.4

.454 27.21
.419 25.10

48
47

60.0
59.5

.420 25.11
.435 25.92

3

10
11
12
13

15 plan ts................ 1914
1915
Roughers, 10-inch:
5 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

33
37
37
38

64.4
65.2
65.0
64.8

.441
.323
.370
.395

29.11
21.09
23.73
25.40

3
3
3
3

14
15
*16

7 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

51
51
51

64.8
63.3
63.3

.412 26. 45
.366 22.72
.399 24.69

3
3
3

8
12
12

17
18

7 plants................... 1912
1913

53
53

61.7
61.5

.374 22.57
.413 25.17

3
3

8
8

16
16

26
26

19
20

14 plants................. 1913
1914

57
55

55.4
55.1

.459 25.17
.425 22.94

9
9

18
18

18
16

12
12

21
22

82
81

57.4
57.2

.435 24.76
.464 26. 47

9
15

23
16

18
20

32
30

23
24
25
26

21 plants................. 1914
1915
Roughers, 12-inch:
8 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

62
55
54
58

64.5
64.1
67.7
67.5

.416
.301
.351
.400

27.10
19. 45
23.77
27.06

9
9

3

26
14
38
40

24
26
10
12

27
28
29

14 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

89
81
85

64.6
65.3
64.4

.397 25.80
.361 23.35
.391 25.24

6
6
6

16
10
16

3

45
45
47

18
17
16

30
31

13 plants................. 1912
1913

81
84

64.4
63.8

.401 25.84
.447 28. 44

6

15
24

2
2

42
48

16
10

32
33

20 plants.................

1913
1914

74
71

61.7
61.7

.461 28.47
.414 25.28

6
6

18
18

5
5

41
36

25 plants................. 1914
1915

86
88

60.6
60.5

.424 25.39
.408 24.55

6
9

28
25

9
9

37
31

fil
14 I

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.289
.250
.262
.289

17.34
15.00
15. 72
17.34

40
41
42
43

5 plants................... 1910
1911
1912
1313

48
46
47
41

61.5
61.2
61.4
61.8

.379
.338
.364
.386

22.89
20.51
22.23
23.30

12
12
12

12
12
12
6

18
16
17
21

6
6
6
2

44
45

5 plants................... 1913
1914

14
14

57.7
57.7

.418 23.61
.428 24.53

6
6

2
2

4
4

2
2

7 plants................... 1914
1915
Roughers, 16-inch:
48
5 plants................... 1907
‘ 49<
1908
50
1909
51
1910
52
1911

20
22

58.4
57.7

.473 27.56
.454 26.29

6
6

2

8
8

2
2

8
9

34
35
36
37
38
39

Roughers, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
1 p la n t....................

46
47




36
32
34
42
34

63.0
63.1
63.4
62.2
63.4

.349
.349
.347
.390
.415

22.20
22. 23
22.22
24.65
26.55

6
6
6
4

3'

J
2

|
41
6' ___

12
12
12
12

12

2

2
4
1
s1
8
8
14'
8

28
24
26
28!
26 1

329

BAR M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
9
6
7
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10
9
7
8
cts. cts. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

5
5
2
8
8

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

1
2

19
20

2

21
22
23
24
25
26

11

27
28
29

4

30
31
32
33

i




34
35

4

36
37
38
22
25
11
18

11
7.
24 .
11

40
41
42
43
44
45

8
12
S
8
8
14
8

24
10
12

46
47

4.
14 .
14 .
14
10

48
49
50
51
52

8.
12 .

330

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able O .—FULL-TIM E HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

Num ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

1
?
,

Roughers, 16-inch—
Concluded.
6 plants................... 1911
1912

42
40

62.3 $0.415 $26.05
61.8 .381 23.63

4
4

8
8

30
28

3
4

5 plan ts.................. 1912
1913

32
34

61.0
61.4

.384 23.50
.435 26.85

4
4

8
8

20
22

5
6

14 plants................. 1913
1914

51
44

58.9
59.4

.429 25.24
.430 25.07

10
8

6
5

10
8

21
19

4
4

7
8

61
63

60.5
60.4

.473 28.37
.430 26.14

8
8

7
7

7
9

35
35

4
4

9
10
11
12

19 plants................. 1914
1915
Roughers, 18-inch:
2 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

7
8
8
8

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

.384
.348
.380
.523

23.68
20.83
22.73
31.55

2
2
2

1

6
6
6
6

13
14
15

5 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

23
19
22

59.4
60.3
58.9

.414 24.92
.444 26.73
.465 27.34

8
4
10

3

16
17

7 plants................... 1912
1913

31
33

58.9
58.6

.494 29.04
.500 29.42

11
13

8
8

12
12

18
19

13 plants................. 1913
1914

34
32

55.5
55.5

.504 27. 85
.460 25.40

3
3

17
15

6
6

8
8

14 plants................. 1914
1915

37
36

55.2
54.9

.451 24.80
.480 26.43

3
9

18
11

8
8

8
8

1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

.434
.343
.368
.407

26.28
21.35
22. 72
25.21

34
24
24
25

23
31
31
31

28
24
24
28

12
12
12
12

111
97
138
145

44
54
14
16

26
27

25 plants................. 1910
1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

.402 24.51
.376 22.65

73
72

61
68

22
25

32
12

197
180

40
38

28
29

26 plants................. 1911
1912

403
408

60.5
60.2

.377 22.68
.389 23.36

72
72

72
85

25
19

12
12

184
183

38
37

30
31

26 plants................. 1912
1913

405
407

59.9
59.8

.393 23.42
.436 26.00

72
25

78
131

51
57

12
6

161
173

31
15

32
33

44 plants................. 1913
1914

305
290

58.5
58.4

.452 26.32
.423 24.42

8
16

99
68

99
113

97
91

2
2

34
35

385
386

58.8
58.9

.436 25. 41
.438 25. 76

8
8

47
34

205
205

125
139

36
37
38
39

57 plants................. 1914
1915
Catchers, 8-inch:
3 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
17

56.6
56.6
56.6
56.4

.362
.350
.335
.371

20.48
19.66
18.90
20.97

8
8
8
8

10
10
10
9

40
41
42
43

6 plants................... 1910
1911
1912
1913

26
27
25
25

54.3
54.1
54.1
54.3

.351
.319
.340
.400

19.14
17.32
18. 48
21.98

6
6
6

10
10
8
16

10
11
11
9

44
45

10 plants................. 1913
1914

25
25

56.7
57.6

.427 24.06
.387 21.99

2
5

6
3

15
7

2
10

38
38

58.4
60.3

.394 22.70
.427 25.56

5
2

9
8

6
6

18
22

20
21
22
23
24
25

46
47
48
49
50
51

Roughers, all sizes:
15 plants........... ..

15 plants................. 1914
1915
Catchers, 9-inch:
2 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1
1910 1




12 58.0
12 58.0
12 58.0
12| 58. O
l

.474
.455
.495
.526

27.30
25.94
28.68
30.371

8
8
8
8

6

9
12
12

.

4
4
4
4

i
1
i
1
i

.

BAB MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

331

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNING S, IN T H E U N IT E D STATES, B Y
B A R M IL L S —Continued.




332

WAGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IRON A N D STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

T a ble O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
Over
Over
tim e
72
week­ 48
48 and
60
ly and and un­ 60 and 72 and 84
earn­ un­ un­ der
un­
un­
der
der
ings. der. der 60
72
56
84

Catchers, 9-inch—Con.
4 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

17
17
15

56.5 $0,499 $28.19
56.8 .440 24. 76
55.7 .508 27.86

3
3
3

8
8
8

1912
1913

13
13

54.3
54.9

.546 29.55
.619 33.98

3

8
11

6
7

14 plants................. 1913
1914

30
30

59.1
59.1

.470 27.74
.434 25.54

8
9

15 plants................. 1914
1915
Catchers, 10-inch:
1 p la n t.................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

35
35

59.2
58.9

.438 25.97
.446 26.37

10
10
10
10

72.0
72.0
71.5
71.5

.352
.377
.379
.456

14
15
16

3 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

16
16
16

66.8
65.9
65.9

.383 26.24
.365 24.46
.419 28.23

4
4
4

10
10
10

17
18

2 plan ts..................

1912
1913

18
18

66.4
66.4

.449 30.49
.484 33.12

4
4

14
14

19
20

13 plan ts................

1913
1914

41
39

55.7
55.2

.454 24.98
.425 23.03

6
6

14
14

13
11

8
8

64
62

57.7
57.4

.438 25.11
.465 26.72

6
12

19
13

14
14l

25
23

23
24
25
26

20 plants................ 1914
1915
Catchers, 12-inch:
5 plan ts.................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

16
17
17
18

65.6
64.1
63.9
63.7

.446
.317
.349
.411

27
28
29

10 p lants................. 1910
1911
1912

28
27

.403 25.40
.368 22.90
.348 21.52

3
3
3

4
5
7

1

.2
9

62.5
62.1
61.7

3.0
31

9 p lan ts..................

1912
1913

25
25

61.1
61.0

.372 22. 88
.416 25.26

3

6
9

32
33

19 plan ts................

1913
1914

48
47

62.0
61.8

.449 27.74
.390 23.87

4
4

24 plan ts................

1914
1915

60
62

60.4
60.9

.411 24.47
.397 24.01

4
7

27.63
23.92
24.70
27.58

3
3
3

1

2

3
4
5

10
11
12
13

21
22

34
35
30
37
38
39

3 p la n ts .................

Catchers, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
3 plan ts..................

1910
1911
1912
1913

7 61.7
7 . 61.7
7 61.7
7 61.1

.458
.392
.407
.461

2

2
2

13
13
3

5
5

U
U

13
10

7
7

15
15

25.35
27.14
27.06
32.63

1913
1914

14
14

57.7
57.7

.411 23.14
.417 23. 69

42
43

7 plan ts..................

1914
1915

18
20

58.1
57.3

.444 25. 56
.438 25.10

6
6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65. 0
64.5

.636
.499
.552
.547
.664
.511

1912
1913

7
8

64.4
64.4

.418 26.90
.499 32.12

50
51

3 plan ts..................




*
M

2
2
2

4
4

17
16
17

2
2
2

2
2

12
14

2

11
11

3
4

28
25

2
3

19
14

8
8

26
25

3
8

2

4
4
4
2

2

3

6
6

41.02
32.46
36.02
35.32
43.23
33.00

10
10

10
9
13
14

2
4
4
4

29.52
20.42
22.61
26.37

5 p lan ts..................

Catchers, 16-inch:
4 p lan ts..................

1
1

io
10

40
41

44
45
46
47
48
49

4

6
4

2
2
2

2

4

4

4

2
2

2

6
6

2
2

1

9
9
91
121
9
9i
7
8

333

BAB M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
7
6
9
8
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. ts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

2
4
2
2
5

5
2

5
3

4
3
10
11
12

13

i
i

1
|
i
I
L.
1
1

...... i

i




14
15
16

2
3

1

2
3
4

17
18

1
1

1
1

20

1

5
3

21
22

4

7
2
4

23
24
25
26

2
4

6
4
6

*2 1

27
28
29

6
4

2.
6.

30
31

3
7

15 .
1

32

2
2
4

7
6

5
4

34
35

4
1

4

i
i
i
i
|
i
1
i
i
I
|
1

...

2.
4.

37

i

40
41

!(

42
43
2

......1 ......

19

44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

334

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
No.
em­
ber of plants.
ploy-

Catchers, 16-inch—Con.
14 plan ts................ 1913
1914
19 p la n ts................
Catchers, 18-inch:
2 plan ts..................

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
per earn­
hour. ings.
Aver­
age
rate
of

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

58.8 $0,413 $24.45
59.5 .419 24.66

1914
1915

60.6
60.7

.464 27.92
.422 25.80

1907
1908
1909
1910

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.423
.314
.346
.466

27

25.96
18.51
20.40
27.72

9
10
11

5 plan ts..................

1910
1911
1912

58.6
59.0
58.0

.375 22.36
.369 21.99
.391 22. 87

4
4

12
13

7 plan ts..................

1912
1913

57.5
57.3

.467 27.01
.463 26. 76

4
4

14
15

13 p lan ts................

1913
1914

54.3
54.3

.473 25.62
.436 23.58

4
4

54.1
53.7

.429 23.18
.434 23.37

4
4

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

.442
.381
.400
.452

16
17
18
19

20
21

14 plan ts................. 1914
1915
Catchers, all sizes:
11 p la n ts................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

27

70
70
73

27.
23.57
24.
28.17

25
24
38
42

23
24

20 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

111

60.2
59.9
59.7

.419 25.45
.392 23.70
23.92

10
13

110

11

46
45
44

25
26

20 plants..........

1912
1913

108
110

59.4
59.

.415 24. 81
.462 27.67

15
13

39
44

27
28

44 plants................. 1913
1914

222

213

58.1
58.2

.445 25.73
.414 23.80

64
49

74
85

29
30

58. 6
58.

.430 25.03
.432 25.35

94

111

106

113

31
32
33
34

57 plants................. 1914
1915
Stranders, 8-inch:
7 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

62.6
62.8
62.7
62.8

19.11
.267 16. 77
.274 17.22
.305 19.11

20
20
20

18

30
30

35
36
37

11 plan ts................ 1910
1911
1912

61.6
60.4
60.4

.275 17.00
.249 15.12
.244 14. 88

19
25
21

42
30
32

38
39

11 plants.................

1912
1913

60.6
60.7

40
41

16 plants.................

1913
1914

22

115

116

58.0
58.

.236 14. 53;
.302 18. 54 .
I
.299 17.39'
15.52

144
141

58.9
59.0

.260 15. 241
.282 16. 631

56.2
56.4
56.3
56.3

.395
.276
.287
3321

1910
1911
1912

59.1
58.6
58.0

16.64
.247 14.
.235 13.44

9 plants................... 1912
1913

57.6
56.9

.241 13. 68
.293 16.33

21 plants................. 1914
1915
Stranders, 9-inch:
6 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
10 plants.................




117

20. 75 !
15.10
15. 75
18.28

16

27
24
30
20

17
17

22
22

Over
72
and 84
un­
der
84

335

BAR M ILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BA R MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
7
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
10
9
8
cts. cts. cts. cts.




10

and
un­
der
12

cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20

18
and
un*der

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
25
cts.

20

cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

10.

11
12

14
21

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

6
11

10

12
4

1
2.
2

2.
4
2
4

1
1
2

4

4
4

2

10
11
12
13

2.
4.

12

6

7
2

7
11

14
15

15
12

4
6

11
3

16
17

13
5
4

28
31
37
20

11
10

18
19

28

18 .
10
10 .
16

11
11

32
55
37

38

21

20

32

1
2
6

37
21

36

18

21
10

23
25

20

11
20

68

17

10

18
18
15
11

20

7

14

13

48

20

21

22
23
24
25
26

55
40

13
11

27
28

18
27

102
102

31
32

24

11
16 .
14 .
18

14
26

19
20 .
15 .

35
36
37

22

14

9.
25

10 .

26

19
37

43
28

14
6.

39
23

41
38

33
54

42
43

2
8

6
6
10

20 .
18 .

44
45
46
47

28 .
7
17 .

48
49
50

12
20
11

5

2

6

11

19
17
14
14
14

38

39
40
41

51
52

336

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T able O.—FULL-TIM E HO URS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R H O U R ,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
No.
ploy­
ees.

1
2

Stranders, 9 - in c h —
Concluded.
15 plants.................

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose
Aver­
week
age
full­
tim e 48 Over 56
48
week­ and and and
ly
un­ un­ un­ 60
earn­ der. der der
ings.
60
56

full-time hours per
were—
Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

2
2

1913
1914

82
86

56.7 $0.287 $16.00
56.5 .271 15.04

18
18

21
25

15
15

26
26

1914
1915

96
98

56. 8
56.4

.275 15.41
.270 15.15

18
27

25
18

19
19

34
34

1907
1908
1909
1910

43
43
43
43

55.1
55.1
55.0
55.0

.354
.320
.378
.444

19.47
17.08
19.95
23.09

21
21
21
21

4
4
4
4

8
8
18
18

10
10

7 piartt,s.................. 1910
1911
1912

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

.390 21.13
.322 17.35
.370 19.71

21
21
21

4
8
8

26
22
22

6
6
6

1912
1913

55
55

55.2
55.1

.372 19.39
.392 20.77

21
21

4
4

12
12

18
18

14
15

1913
1914

110
107

57.6
57.1

.386 22.35
.354 20.07

28
28

12
12

32
29

38
38

16
17

1914
1915

172
172

57.6 .341 19.63
57.2 ’ .343 19. 60

28
43

49
34

33
33

62
51

11

1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14
14
16

69.0
70.4
70.4
69.1

.352
.284
.293
.411

24.53
19.99
20. 62
28.82

5
4
4
6

8
10
10
10

18. 71
17. 71
20.38
20.28

13
9
8
18

20
20
20
10

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

11

12
13

18
19
20
21

Stranders, 10-inch:
5 plants...................

7 plants.

Stranders, 12-inch:
3 p la n ts ....
•

22
23
24
25

9 plants.................

1910
1911
1912
1913

48
40
43
49

64.4
65.3
64. 7
62.4

.286
.271
.309
.319

26
27

16 plants...............

1913
1914

92
91

61.0
60.8

.351 21.70
.308 19.01

22 plants...............

1914
1915

116
97

59.5
59.3

.312 18. 75
.334 19. 85

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913

20
20
20
26
20
22
11

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.233
.201
.211
.224
.221
.217
.255

1913
1914

39
39

61.6
61.6

.348 20.96
.350 21. 66

7 plants................... 1914
1915

48
52

61.3
59.2

.357 21.92
.365 21.69

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

2
2
2
2
2

65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0

.361
.344
.299
.484
.480

46
47

2 plants................... 1911

1912

10
10

57.0
57.0

.424 24.28
.405 22.86

8
8

48
49

1 p l a n t ................

1912
1913

8
8

55.0
55.0

.431 23. 71
.523 28. 77

8
8

50
51

10 plants................. 1913
1914

35
31

53.8
53. 8

.439 24.21
.428 23.23

13
11

9
9

3
2

10
9

52
53

14 plants................. 1914
1915

43
41

56.9
57.9

.445 25.57
.427 25.12

11

9
9

2
3

21
21

28
29
30
31
22
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

Stranders, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
1 plan t. .

5 plants..................

Stranders, 16-inch:
1 plant....................




6

10
7
6
15

1
6
6

35
38

3
3
3

2

6
6

41
35

10
12

56
39

10
8

38
36

12
8

13
13

13
13

4
4

13

19
20

4
4

20
20
20
26
20
22
11

14.00
12.06
12. 65
13.46
13.25
13.01
15.27
9
9
9

9
13

3
6

2
2
2
2
2

23.47
22.36
19.44
31.46
31.20

8

2
2

337

BAR M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BAR M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere6
7
8
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
10
9
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

6
3

23
14

13
16

24
32

12
13

18
18

14
17

40
43

2

2
10

39
29
21
18

Line
70
cts. No.
and
over.

9
2

2

7
4

7
12

12

7

3

1

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

4
4

8
4

4
1

..

1
i
t
i

21

1
i
i

i
i
1
i

18
9
9

21
9

12

15
2

9
12

9
18

9
9

12
12

2
8

25
26

43
40

11
14

22
15'

J

10
8

11
9

33
34

70
71

27
20

15^
10

12

2
2
10
2

8

24
6
6
21

4
2
8
13

6
15
5
2

10
11

26
36

17
19

17
18

12
16

37
27

8

6
9
15

3
12
4
4

6

8
9
11

2
4
1

5
1
1
2

3

32
17

26
24

18
22

4
16
14

1
1
. .. 1 .

i
1
i

I

i
i
i
i
l
i

1
l

1

I
i
i
i

2
2
2

2
21
2
2
4
6

8
8
16
1 6 ____
8
8
16
16
3
8_

8

1

..
..

1
!

3
1

7
5

1
1
1
1

.

19
4

1
1
I
.. I .
. 1
|
. . 1.

3
3

1
1
i
1
1

1

j

2

1
1

1

.

1

.

1

2

2
2

14
15

......1......

4
1

17j
21 (

89728°—17—Bull. 218-




10
8

-2 2

16
17
18
19
20
21

i
I
i

1
1
1
...........
1 0 ..........1
12’_
_ _ _ _ _ _
1
H
,'
1
2
2
i
1
3
1
6

1

22
23
24
_
25

1

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
.38
. 40 . . .
.

4Q
47

1

|
8
10|
11

2

11
51

2
2

48
49

ro
51

1
1

_

26
27

41
42
43
44
45

1
7
3
8
io

8

i

14
15

i

1
1

2
2

... . 1
..........
|

12
13

1
1

I

I I

1

1
i
i

10

10
11

i
i
!
1
1____1
_1
______ '____
1
1
i
1
_ 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _
1
6
6
5
1 . . . . . . . .
.
23
9
1
I
1'
23
1
. . . . .
lj
34
2
2

11
1

21

52
53

_

338

WAGES AND HOTJBS OF LABOE— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of tim e
em­
No.
ber of plants. ’
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Stranders, 18-inch:
6 plants........... .
7 plants.............
Stranders, all sizes:
13 plants...........

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914

16
15
16
14

59.3
60.0

175
174
174
180

59.5
59.7
59. 7
59.7

.334
.277
.297
.344

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

.436 26.03
.469 28.30

1907
1908
1909
1910

Over
56
48
48
and and and
un­
un­ ' un­
der. der der
60
56

59.1 $0,444 $26. 70
59.4 .424 25.45

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

24
24
24
22

19.45
16.25
17.34
20.06

20
20
20
26

60
55
73
75

26
30
12
12

9
10

21 plants...........

1910
1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

.301 17. 85
.268 15.83

25
36

19
26

38
20

108
90

34
34

11
12

22 plan ts..........

1911
1912

262
266

59.8
59.6

.272 16.03
.283 16.62

44
48

26
27

20
22 j

90
87

34
34

13
14

20 plants..........

1912
1913

252
246

59.2
58.7

.284 16.56
.328 19.07

35
52

51
48

22!
11

68’
84

15
16

42 plants..........

1913
1914

491
485

58.3
58.3

.345 20.15
.316 18.39

150
188

163
149

28 .
124.
6.

56 plants..........

1914
1915

635
615

58.4
58,1

.318 18.57
.326 18.99

156
146

209
327

1907
1908
1909
1910

14
14
14
13

64.5
64.8
64.7
65.1

.298
.277
.290
.309

19.43
18.03
18.77
20.19

1
2
2
2

3
2
2
1

9 plants............

1910
1911
1912

24
25
25

6Q.6
59.6
59.6

.303 18.24
.302 18.01
.295 17.60

2
3
4

2
5

10 plants...........

1912
1913

31
31

59.3
59.4

.301 17.84
.354 21.07

2
10

13 plants..........

1913
1914

34
33

59.2
60.2

.328 19.53
.304 18.30

12 .
16!.

18 p la n ts.. ___

1914
1915

42
42

60.4
60.4

.303 18.37
.319 19.29

2l!_
20

1907
1908
1909
1910

15
14
14
14

66.8
67.9
67.8
67.8

.244
.245
.254
.261

16.24
16.53
17.10
17.58

11
11
12
13

9 plants.............

1910
1911
1912
1913

24
23
24
24

64.3
63.8
63.4
63.2

.287
.272
.282 ,
.293

17.98
17.18
17.61
18.26

15
13
13
14

14 plants...........

1913
1914

32
32

61.8
61.8

.273 16.79
.268 16.45

17
16

14 plants...........

1914
1915

33
33

61.4
61.0

.286 17.52
.287 17.53

16
16

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

.396
.342
.387
.412

5 plants.............

1910
1911
1912

12
12
12

69.3
68.4
68.4

.376 26.20
.329 22.72
.358 24. 73

5 plants...........

1912
1913

12
12

66.3
66.0

.367 24.71
.4271 28.62

17
18
19
20
21
22

Finishers, 8-inch:
6 plants............

Finishers, 9-inch:
5 plants.............

Finishers, 10-inch:
4 plants.............




27.29
23.48
26.16
28.19

174
142
70
...j

198
140
5;

6,
9.
10 I
14 .
10 .
II .

339

BAR M IL L S ---- GE N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE U N IT E D STATES, B Y
BAR MILLS —Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

9
8
and and
un­ un­
der der
9
10
cts. cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

1

:
'

1

1
|
!
i
I
|
!

.

i

1
!
i

3
1
2
2

2
2

2

1

i .
1 .

4
3
3
1

21
2

37
44
42
20

28,
40
48
45

60
69
63
64

12
16

21

74
68

53
43

71
51

16
27

21

9
10

51
48

35
17
17
28

22

11
12

22
32

13
14

2
3
4
4

4
2
4
2

6
13

4
6

11
12

18
43

8

2
2

2
5

6
6

12
16

43
31

2

5
7

2

16
3

2
3

7
6

9

3
2

6
6

15
8

1

43
58

1

I
!

7
8

1

31
13

68
61
65
52

52
46

40 !
67!1

8
4

17
24

78
90

95
106

147^
156

6
12

34
26

111
80

133
114

2
2
2

4
4
2
2

61
36

11

2

15
16

209
248

63
51
77
74

37
26

3
18

1
1

17
18

2
3
2
4

4
3
6
5

1
2
2
2'

1

2
2
3

7
9
9

11
10
9

2
1
1

i
l

23
21
25

2

3
4

9
4

15
12

1
5

l
4

26
27

2
1

6
10

6
4

12
13

3
3

4
1

28
29

1
1

12
8

4
5

16
16

5
7

1
1

30
31

2

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

2
2

2

32
33
34
35

6
6
4

9
7
9
13

1
5
6
5

5
2
2
3

36
37
38
39

2
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
1

1
1
1
1

2

1
1
1

2

1
2

1

2
1
1
2

1
1
1

2

19
20
21
22

i

1




2
3

3

11
11

9
8

3
4

40
41

1
1

1
1

3
3

2
3

11
10

8
11

6
4

42
43

2
4

I
........1.........

3
2

1

j

1
3

2
4
5
6

4
2
5
2

2
2

44
45
46
47

2
2
5

4
2
4

2
3
1

2
1
2

3
1

6
5

1
2

1
1
2 ___________
2
2

48
49
53

1

1

2
2

51
52

340

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915-

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year. of tim e
em ­ hours
No.
ber of plants.
ploy- per
week.

Finishers, 1 0 -in ch —
Concluded.
10 plants................

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate tim e
Over
Over
of week­ 48 Over 56
60
72
48
and and and 60 and 72 and 84
ly
per earn­ un­ un­ un­
un­
un­
hour. ings. der. der der
der
der
60
72
84
56

1913
1914

.406 22.25

12
12

1

55.5

8
7

1914
1915

57.0
56.5

.400
.417

12
15

6
4

9
7

1907
1908
1909
1910

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

.336
.271 19.04
.297 20.85
.359 24.97

8 p la n ts..

1910
1911

65.
65.2

.349 22.74
.324 20.78

3
3

1

1

10 plants.

1911
1912
1913

63.7
63.0
62.

.309 19.51
.311 19. 81
.363

3
3

4
5
8

17 p lants.

1913
1914

62.0
62.2

.340
.295

24 plants.

1914
1915

61.1
61.

.317
.347

1907
1908
1909
1910

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.315
.275

4 plants.

1910
1911
1912
1913

64.0
64.0
64.0
63.4

.339
.316
.319 19.97
.345 21.

5 plants.

1913
1914

64.0
64.0

.347
.344

7 plants.

1914
1915

63.
61.8

.344 21.67
.360

1907
1908
1909
1910

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.2

.262
.242
.261
.310

2
2
2
3

3 plants.

1910
1911

62.5
63.5

.324
.325

3
2

4 plants.

1911
1912
1913

61.1
61.1
61.1

.377
.410

8 plan ts.

1913
1914

56.0
56.0

.380
.380

!

14 plants.

1914
1915

58.9
58.

.389
.360

I
l

1907
1908
1909
1910

62.8
62.
62.8
62.8

.435
.417
.438
.438

) ........
!

1910
1911
1912

61.
60.7
58.9

.308
.350
.336

!
»

1912
1913

58.6
58.7

19 plants.
Finishers, 12-inch:
4 plants.............

Finishers, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
1 p la n t..................

Finishers, 16-inch:
2 pla n ts............

40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Finishers, 18-inch:
1 p la n t..............

47
48
49

3 plants.

50
51

5 plants.




9
10
1
1

17
15

2

1

5
5
7
9

6
6
4
2

1

12
8

4
6

1
2
2

1
1

8
7
9

6
6
4

13
12

3
3

1
1

17
13

4
6

16
14

5
3

1
2

17
17

6
5

3

4
4
4
2

4

8
8
8
4

3
3

4
4

2
2

6
6

4
2

4
6

6
4

1

1
3

4
4
4
4
3
3
3

3

3
2

I
2

6
6
6
6
1

7
9

4
4
4

2
2
2

6
5

5
5

2
1

1
1

7
6

5

5
5

2
3

3
2

13
14

5

13
14
12

1

1........

2
1
2
2

1

2
2
2

3
2
2

4
4

2
3

2
2

2
3
3

341

BAR MILLS— GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

2
1

1
4

7
7

16
15

2
2

2

3
2

4
2

13
13

21
14

4
10

2

2
2

6
4
4
4

2
2
4
4

4
1'
1
2,

2

7
8

6

7
5

6
2

5!

2
1

9
10

2
2
2

6
5

6
10
7

2
3
9

2
1

2

2
3

11
12
13

6

2
2

4

9
13

12
7

2
5

4
2

3

14
15

6
2

5
4

1
4

13
10

7
10

8
6

5
4

1
1

1
2

2

1

J

4
4
4

4




6
10
8
4

1
3
2

6
2

6
12

2
1

2
4
4
5
2

14
9

1

1

1
1

28
29

6

30
31

1
1
1

1

34
35

1
61

11
2
10

4
4

4

3
4

8
• 6

5

2

5
3

5
7

8
9

2
7

1

3

26
27

1
2

6

2
8

22
23
24
25

3

8
9

16
17
18
19
20
21

1

4
3
6
3
3
2

2

2

1
1
1

6
4
4
6

*

1

4

36
37
38

4
4

2

39
40

4

2

2
2

41
42

2
1
2
2

43
44
45
46
47
48
49

1
2

2
2

2
2
2

2
2

3
4

2
2

4
4

50
51

342

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOB— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­
of
Year. em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Finishers, 18-inch—
Concluded.
7 plan ts..................
7 p lan ts..................
Finishers, all sizes:
10 p la n ts................

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
tim e
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
00
56

Over
Over
60
72
60 and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

1913
1914

12
11

59.3 $0.415 $24. 70
59.8 .393 23.46

4
3

2
2

1

6
5

1914
1915

11
11

59.8
60.0

.393 23.46
.390 23.39

3
3

2
2

1
1

5
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
64

65.9
66.4
66.2
66.1

.309
.279
.300
.329

1
2
2
2

7
6
6
6

9
7
6
5

31
31
43
48

17
17
6
3

20. 45
18. 53
19. 85
21.80

9
10

17 plan ts................

1910
1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

.323 20. 48
.309 19.50

15
15

3
8

5
9

10
8

61
50

17
20

11
12

19 p la n ts................

1911
1912

121
126

62.8
62.5

.313 19. 60
.319 19. 92

15
15

15
20

9
7

8
9

54
55

20
20

13
14

21 plan ts................

1912
1913

137
134

62.0
61.8

.328 20.29
.363 22.36

15

IS
34

25
25

9
8

52
57

18
10

15
16

40 plants................. 1913
1914

182
173

59.6
60.0

.350 20. 77
.330 19.64

48
26

67
60

3

63
80

4
4

54 plants................. 1914
1915

223
222

60.0
59.8

.341 20. 42
.352 20.95

19
44

78
62

3i 123
3 113

1

1907
1908
1909
1910

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

.289
.230
.241
.318

18.98
15. 75
16. 46
22.33

9
3
3

16
6
14
19

2J
28!
201
18

23
24
25
26

13 plants................. 1910
1911
1912
1913

69
53
56
58

62.8
63.4
62.5
61.5

.282
.244
.269
.323

17.93
15. 38
17.15
19.68

18
12
12
3

4
4
7
20

2
2
2

23
19
20
22

J
16
15
11!

27
28

16 plants.................

1913
1914

66
64

60.8
60.2

.311 18.97
.257 15. 60

3
3

24
27

3
3

36
21

29
30

20 plants.................

1914
1915

72
63

59.9
60.5

.258 15.62
.293 17. 71

3
12

31
13

5
5

23
22

10i
1
10
11

8
14
8
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.184 11.04
.163 9. 77
.173 10.40
.197 11.84

8
7
8
15

21
20
20
12

17
18
19
20
21
22

31
32
33
34

Hook-ups, 12-inch:
6 plants...................
*

Hook - ups, 13-inch,
14-inch, and 15-inch:
1 plant..................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

2

8
14
8
12

35
36
37
38

5 plants-.................

1910
1911
1912
1913

50
45
51
43

64.2
64.2
63.8
63.8

.237
.225
.229
.263

14. 66
14.06
14.29
16.32

9
9
9
9

12
9
14
7

39
40

6 plants...................

1913
1914.

43
44

63.5
63.6

.263 16.25
.266 16.82

3
3

6
6

7
7

15
16

12
12

3
9

6
7

7

18
18

12
12

41
42

47
48

63.4
61.9

.267 16. 82
.273 16.70

43
44
45
46
47

8 plants................... 1914
1915
Hook-ups, 16-inch:
5 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

26
23
27
35
25

63.9
64.4
64.7
64.1
64.4

.263
.269
.274
.326
.337

48
49

6 plants................... 1911
1912

35
36

62.4
61.5

.308 19.43
.269 16.61

50
51 i

5 plants................... 1912
1913

32
34

61.1
61.5

.263 16.08
.329 20.28




16.91
17.35
17.80
20.97
21.83

1
2
2
2
2
2
2

24
21
25
33
23

6
8

2
2

27
26

8
8

2
2

22
24

343

BAR M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES,

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of

and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
9
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts.




10

and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

per hour were—

18
and
un­
der
20

cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

2
1
1
2

4
4

12
15
10

19
23
21
16

12
12
17
25

13
16

34
30

16
12

31
47

12

4

10 .
10

20
15

11
12

45
33

43
49

15
19

35
37

60
57

33
30

23
21

40
40

70
72

46
46

12
18
20

21
5
10
12

16 .
4.
3.

14
7
13

31
15
15
7

3
12 .
7
20

19
25

4
10
12

10

42
34

18
15
9
10

16
14

7
6

10

14 .

21
21
23
25

26
13
4
14 .
6
7
3
10

7
17

13
14
15
16

14
15

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

16 .
1.

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

18
18
16

8

15 .
37
38

27
23
14

23

7 .

4

39
40

14
17

26
13

7.
18 .

41
42

2

43
44
45
46
47

11

16
1
10
2

1

12 .
11 .
27
18
18

22

1

2.

26

50
51

344

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOE— IEON AND STEEL INDUSTEY.

T able O.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—
Aver­
Num ­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and num ­ Year. of tim e
tim e
of week­
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours wages ly
per
per earn­
ees. week. hour.
ings.

Em ployees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

60

Hook-ups, 16-in ch —
Concluded.
13 plants...........
1913
1914

67
61

56.9 $0.297 $17.08
57.4 .281 16.00

17
13

14
14

6
6

30
28

1914
1915

85
79

59.1
60.7

.280 16.43
.251 15.29

13
7

17
13

4
5

51
54

1907
1908
1909
1910

9
10
10
9

62.2
61.0
61.0
60.8

.238
.190
.202
.294

14.83
11.64
12.39
18.13

1
2
2
2

8
8
8
7

1910
1911
1912

20
21
24

60.4
60.5
59.2

.227 13.85
.221 13.48
.217 12.93

4
4
10

3

7 plants................. .

1912
1913

38
40

59.0
58.8

.258 15.31
.281 16.60

12
14

12
12

14
14

12 plants...............

1913
1914

51
51

58.4
58.4

.280 16.41
.261 15.30

19
19

14
14

18
18

13 plants............... .

1914
1915

58
55

57.9
57.9

.264 15.32
.268 15.58

6

22
13

18
18

18
181

1907
1908
1909
1910

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65.7
65.6

.268
.225
.241
.303

17.30
14.70
15.82
20.06

9
3
3

2
2
2

3
2
2
2

8
14
8
12

48
35
47
59

24
28
20
18

20 plants...............

1910
1911

174
144

63.2
63.4

.272 17.13
.251 15.81

27
21

8
8

2
7

20
9

74
63

43
36

21 plants............... .

1911
1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

.250 15.66
.249 15.56

21
21

14
25

7
4

9
14

67
68

36
35

22 plants............... .

1912
1913

177
175

61.9
61.4

.254 15.74
.300 18.27

21
3

27
51

16
16

14
7

64
75

35
23

36 plants...............

1913
1914

227
220

59.6
59.7

.291 17.32
.266 15.89

42
23

63
112

110
73

12
12

47 plants............... .

1914
1915

262
245

59.8
60.3

.268 16.03
.270 16.25

4
24

121
77

137
144

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
20
20
20

65.1
65.3
65.1
65.1

.250
.237
.235
.257

16.20
15.29
15.15
16.51

2
2
2
1

2
2
2
4

1
1
1
1

11
11
15
14

9 plants.................

1910
1911
1912
1913

33
33
33
36

60.6
60.0
60.0
59.6

.251
.253
.248
.284

15.01
15.04
14.75
16.83

3
3
4
16

7
9
7
4

1
1
1
1

16
14
15
15

10 plants...............

1913
1914

37
39

60.7
62.5

.298 18.03
.257 15.94

12
10

6
2

1
3

18
24

17 plants...............

1914
1915

52
51

61.7
61.7

.250 15.36
.260 15.97

6

17
8

2
2

3
3

30
28

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
18

59.7
60.4
60.3
60.3

.224
.223
.222
.234

12.91
12.95
12.90
13.64

6
6
6
6

1910
1911
1912
1913

35
35
36
36

56.5
56.1
56.3
57.2

.267
. 242
.257
.275

14.49
13.24
14.05
15.38

18
18
18
6

19 plants...........
Hook-ups, 18-inch:
2 plants.............

5 plants..................

Hook-ups, all sizes:
12 plants............... .

R oll hands, other, 8inch:
5 plants.................

R oll hands, other, 9inch:
3 plants.................

6 plants.................




6
6
6

6

10
14
14

12
12
12
12
2
2
13

2!
2 ..

15
151
161

4
4

4

I
'
i
i

345

BAR M IL L S — G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
6
7
8
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2
2
1

2
4

3
5

11
8

6
14

39
27

4
3

5
3

14
35

25
20

34
15

70
cts.
and
over.

Lino
No.

4
1

2
1

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

1

1

3
3

2
2
2
2

3

3
6
6t

1

3

1
2

i

3
4
2

4
1
4

3
3
3

2
3
7

6
6
6

2
2

4
1

3
4

9
13

18
18

2

2

3
3

3
5

15
9

9
14

17
16

2

2

3
1

5
5

10
16

19
13

nl
10

6

5
5

9
23
7
2

4
4
6
11

15
29
30
12

40
6
20
14

18
16
14
36

16

2

18
19
20
21

2
2

4
7

13
10

27
33

24
25

41
16

45
45

16
2

2
2

22
23

7
4

10
16

36
35

25
29

23
45

45
28

2
8

2

1

24
25

2

4
4

16
1

35
4

31
56

45
15

36
70

8
25

26
27

2

2

6
4

6
10

6
16

68
56

33
57

81
71

27
2

28
29

2
2

2
1

4
4

10
8

18
13

64
81

79
52

81
68

2
15

1

2
2
2

2
5
5
2

4

2

1
4

2
4
6
2

3
3
1
4

7
3
3
3

4
2
1

4
7
5

1
1
6

2
3
4
1

10
8
9
4

6
6

1
6
6
5

2

2

2

2
2

2
4
1

I '




2
2

2
2
3
3

2

1
3

3
1

2

3

1
5

5
1

1
6

10
11

8
8
10
2

2
3

2
2:

2
1
i

8

2:
8
10i ........
11
4j
3i

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

2

2
9
2
2:

1

30
31

2
2
2

1
i
1
'
1 ..........

32
33
34
35

6
8
6
15

2
2
1
3

11
1
l1
..........
1

37
38
39

8
4

12
17

5

1

40
41

6
6

20
13

3

1

42
43

6
6
6
6

2

2

6

2
2
2
2

7
6
13
9i

11
5
5
9

44
45
46
47
3
2
2

2
2

48
49
50
51

346

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOE— IEON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy.

R oll hands, other,
9-inch—Concluded.
8 plants.................
) plan ts..
R oll hands, other, 10inch:
4 plants.................

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914

Over 56
48 and
48
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
84
72

59.4 $0,248 114.51
59.4 .250 14.61

1914
1915

Em ployees whose full-tim e hours per
w eek were—

.250 14.72
.245 14.31

1907
1908
1909
1910

70.4
70.4
70.0
'70.0

27.24
.327 22.
.346 24.04
.409 28.38

1910
1911
1912

67.8
66.8

66.8

.359 24.58
.32' 22.11
.351 23.69

6 plants..

1912
1913

66.0
66.0

.341 22.72
.387 25.95

6 plan ts..

1913
1914

64.2
64.2

.377 24.81
.372 24.38

12 plan ts..

1914
1915

63.0
61.5

.378 24.13
.367 22.87

1907
1908
1909
1910

70.1
70.
70.

.201 14.04
.194 13.60
.210 14.75
.302 21.27

9 plants..

1910
1911
1912

67.0
67.7
67.5

.285 19.06
.254 16.95
20.25

7 plants..

1912
1913

67.5
67.4

.284 19.20
.304 20.15

10 plants..

1913
1914

68.8

.321 22.04
.275 18.97

7 plan ts..

R oll hands, other, 12inch:
4 plan ts..................

11 plants..
Roll hands, other, 13inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
3 plants................. .

68.9

1914
1915

1910
1911
1912
1913

.272 18.76
.297 20.28

29

62.1
61.7
63.4
60.0

.307 17.94
15. 81
.268 16.17
.335 19.38

2 plan ts..

1913
1914

60.9
60.9

.298 17.51
.251 14.97

3 plants..

1914
1915

60.9

.257 15.42
.261 15.30

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5

.331
.331
.359
.374
.398
.394

1 plant.

1912
1913

64.5
64.

.350 22.59
.408 26.36

3 plants.

1913
1914

64.5
64.5

.342 22.06
.232 15.00

5 plants.

1914
1915

65.1 .2451 16.
65. lj .2461 16.10

Roll hands, other, 16inch:
2 plants..................




21.26
21. 21
22.97
24.13
25.63
25.51

12

36

347

BAR M IL L S — G E N E R A L TA BLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BA R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
9
and and
un­ un­
der der
10
9
cts. cts.




10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

4

1

1

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

2
6

4
3

8
11

4
3

3

6
6

3
2

11
8

3
7

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1
12
1
4
1

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

7

2
2

2

2
3

7
6

2

2

5
15
2

22
5
6
17

1
3
3
4

5
4
3
2

6
16
16

17
5
4

4
6
8

2
1

2

1
2

2

9
10
11

2

2
1

2
3

12
13

3

2
3

1
1

3
2

14
15

2
8

5
6

1

2
2

16
17

1
1

5

1
4

5
2

14

4
18

4
3

4
4

2

1
5

12
13

4

2
3

7
7

25
19

4
2
16
2

4
5
3
6

7
4
2

8
20
9

1
1
1

15
1
17

2

8
6

1
2

17
15

3

2
2

4
19

19
31

27
2

3
2

3
6

20
3

31
24

2
15

5
5
6
4

2
12
9
4

12

4
4

2

4

3
1

4
4

6
2

1
5

2
2
2
2
2
1

1
1
1

2
2
4
14

2
2
2

10
10
10

1

4

I

2
12

4

1
4
2
2

'

5

6
6
3

2
11

2
2
2

2
2

22

4

2

23

2

24
25
26

2
3

2
29
30

31
32
33
34

7

35
36
j

1
1

37
38

1
1
1

39
*0
41
42
43
44

2

46

2
2

10
2

6
2

18
19
20
21

2

1
1
2
4

2
2

2
3
2

2
6
1

1

12

Line
70
cts. No.
and
over.

1
1

49
50

348

W AGES AN D H O U R S OP LABOR— IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

Num ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year.
of
No.
em­
ber of plants.
ploy-

Roll hands, other, 18inch:
1 plan t.................. .

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1912

59.9
60.8
59.2

1912
1913

58.9

.309 18.35
.344 20.41

6 plan ts..

1913
1914

55.8
55.9

.353 19. 57
.305 17.09

7 plants..

1914
1915

55.9
55.1

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

13. 67
.256 15. 55
.235 13.91

5 plants..

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

62.8 $0. 237,114. 84
62.
.181 11.33
62.8 .200 12.55
62.8 .296 18.57

4 plants..

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

.312 17.47
.321 17.76

Roll hands, other, all
sizes:
9 plants..................

67.0
66.8
66.7

.278
.255
.266
.315

18.53
16. 97
17. 65
21. 06

2
2
2
4

1910
1911
1912

180
177
176

62.8
62.5
62.7

.295 18. 35
.273 16. 97
.287 17.97

7
10
7

18 p lan ts..

1912
1913

170
168

62.2
61.8

.284 17. 56
.320 19. 71

11
10

24 plants..

1913
1914

199

63.2
63.6

.316 20.02
.280 17. 82

19
18

151
151

37 plants..

1914
1915

240
235

63.2
62.6

.285 17. 92
.291 18. 23

18
27

189
175

1907
1908
1909
1910

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

11.98
.174 10.93
.180 11.00
13.02

12
12
12
15

12
12
12

54
52
52
45

130
104
154
163

25 plants..

1910
1911

500
434

62.9
62.0

.200 12.46
.189 11

57
54

32
39

48
63

216
207

26 plants..

1911
1912

450
461

61.9
61.7

.188 11.61

.192 11.

54
54

45
61

63
60

217
209

26 plants..

1912
1913

455
467

61.5
60.

.192 11.73
.221 13.43

54
12

54
110

82
75

194
233

43 plants..

1913
1914

600
573

60.3
60.6

.217 13.06
.209 12.61

39
35

139
145

118
81

267
271

56 plants..
41
42
43
44

97
94
94
95

18 p lan ts..

27

1907
1908
1909
1910

1914
1915

714
721

60.3
60.0

.213 12. 77
.216 12.83

35
104

200
133

102
115

338
312

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
. 92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

.249
.216
.225
.247

16. 20
14.10
14. 72
16.11

48
42
55
60

1 7 ........
19:........
3‘
4

Hotbed men:
15 plants..

Shearmen:
15 plants..

17

45
46
47

25 plants..

1910
1911
1912

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.

.264 16.40
.254 15.55
.254 15.59

72
68
63

16
161..
18,

48
49

24 plants..

1912
1913

156
159

62.4
62.0

.251 15.40
.287 17.54

67

18
4

50
51

41 plants..

1913
1914

218
205

60.2
60.

.281 16. 74
.270 16.08

52
53

54 plan ts..

1914
1^15

263 , 60.5
k 60.5

16. 78
17.56




120
123

131.

2

349

BAB M IL L S — G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BAR M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

7
8
9
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10
8
9
7
cts. cts. cts. cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1
1

1
1

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

1

1
2

1
«

2
2
2
2

2
1
3
3
3

3

2
2

2
5

6
4

10
11

2
2

1

1
1
4
4
2

4

5
2

4
5

12
13

2

1

2
2
2

2
19
5
2

26
9
11
6

8
3
17
10

8
21
11
8

12
16
24
16

32
11
14
34

14
15
16
17

2
2
3

2
2
4

10
5
2

6
31
29

31
11
4

13
34
24

33
39
49

51
33
41

18
19
20

3
3

4
3

2

29
4

2
24

23
13

50
22

•41
68

21

1
3

7
3

2
8

6
7

26
33

17
30

33
54

75
46

23
24

3
1

3
6

11
9

6
12

38
32

35
31

63
46

61
65

25
26

4
6
6

14
2
8
6

4
15
38
10

108
116
70
38

47
64
53
87

32
37
33
36

60
35
54
58

17
13
9
36

20
7
15
4

27
28
29
30

6

18
23

28
27

78
78

127
125

71
59

83
65

57
27

11
24

31
32

3

5

23
19

27
30

90
42

125
130

63
69

65
101

27
38

24
24

3

3
3

5
2

17
5

22
8

42
21

138
27

73
132

99
168

34
61

22
27

35
36

3
3

3
3

2
2

11
12

12
10

47
48

50
69

127
126

221
182

79
95

35
23

37
38

3
3

3
3

2

10
14

12
8

56
401

88
86

135
145

248
269

125
100

32'
371

40

2

1
1
6
9'

17
24
13
8

20
21
27
24

20
22
20
14

12
15
16
18

201
61
9
20

41
42
43
44

2
2:
2:

13
8i
5

11
17
17

30
41
38

27
23
31

29
25
25

31
20
25

10
6

45
46
47

2:

5

16
10>

40
13

35
55

24
33

23
21

6
19

48
49

4
5

11
14

13
12!

17
13

65
6-3

40i
34

31
39

26
17

50
51

5
6i

14
12i

12!
14

18
13;

82!
51
75’ IklL531

<44

20
18

6




2!

Ill

52
53

350

WAGES AN D HOTJBS OF LABOB----IEON AN D STEEL INDTTSTBY.

T a b l e O .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1907 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
of tim e
Line Occupation, and num ­ Year.
of
em­
No.
ber of plants.
ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Shearmen’s helpers:
15 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

201
172
185
215
355
359
358

64.7
63.8
63.9

.187 12.02
.178 11.28
.184 11.74

22 plants................. 1912
1913

337
316

63.4
62.8

35 plants................. 1913
1914

418
377

48 plants......... .... 1914
1915
Bundlers:
5 plants................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

65.9 10.174 $11.46
66.2 .168 11.07
67.3 .169 11.32
65.3 .184 12.00

23 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

8
8
8
8

4
4
4
3

21
22
26
39

125
101
110
140

41
29
8
25

2
8
29

45
48
48

8
8
12

3
20
20

43
37
35

158
181
m

77
65
65

21

.183 11.52
.214 13.30

51

14
69

20
17

34
22

158
194

48
4

12
10

62.7
62.9

.209 12.98
.198 12.43

18
15

70
53

29
28

23
23

256
232

12
26

10

487
471

62.7
62.3

.201 12.57
.203 12.66

15
45

77
50

38
42

27
18

306
281

24
35

41
41
41
41

66.9
66.9
66.8
67.1

.202
.174
.186
.213

31
31
41
41

10

6 plants................... 1910
1911

77
81

66.1
63.5

.207 13.69
.193 12.28

36

77
45

7 plants................... 1911
1912

131
132

62.0
62.0

.197 12.20
.193 11.94

86
86

45
46

7 plants................... 1912
1913

129
136

61.6
61.4

.194 11.96
.228 14.05

90
97

1
1

38
38

12 plants................. 1913
1914

178
168

61.4
64.1

.218 13.38
.203 13.00

4
4

123
69

3
3

48
92

13 plants................. 1914
1915
Laborers:
10 plants................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

178
210

63.9
64.4

.203 12.97
.208 13.38

8
6

69
72

3
2

98
122

8

296
227
324
424

68.3
64.8
67.8
67.2

.153 10. 44
.153 9.93
.150 10.17
.161 10.81

1
2
2
9

51
94
76
119

140
108
137
113

74
18
88
176

24

15 plants................. 1910
1911

511
355

67.8
66.0

.160 10.86
.160 10.59

31

9
3

149
70

128
175

183
70

24 i 18
2
4i

17 plants................. 1911
1912

390
424

65.5
65.9

.159 10. 40
.159 10.52

31
18

3
41

104
69

175
204

71
84

4
5

2
3

21 plants................. 1912
1913

536
705

65.0
64.3

.160 10.38
.178 11.51

35
43

87
115

79
164

229
310

98
25

5
44

3
4

42 plants................. 1913
1914

891
796

62.5
63.6

.169 10. 66
.168 10. 75

1
1

83
42

150
90

292
286

297
301

20
58

44
14

4
4

54 plants................. 1914
1915
U nclassified—produc­
tive:
43 plants................. 1914
1915
U nclassified—nonpro­
ductive:
43 plants................. 1914
1915

1,039
1,029

63.3
62.9

.173 11.00
.173 10.91

7
10

67
77

118
145

318
282

437
427

72
79

14
6

6
3

392
419

63.6
63.3

.201 12.63
.205 13.05

12
9

43
38

29
57

66
58

189
185

45
62

2
8

6
2

1,087
1,093

65.3
63.7

.206 13.38
.208 13.23

2
2

77
72

67
198

384
392

233
167

172
164

99
72

53
26

13.53
11.68
12.42
14.23

10

12

1
!

i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
!'* ”
i
!
j

i

i

13

6
5
8
7

1 Including 4 employees whose full-time hours per week were 84J, and 2 employees whose full-time hours
per week were 91.




351

BAR M IL L S — G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
BAR M ILLS—Concluded.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
8
9
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
10
8
9
cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
undfcr
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

7
7
14
2

1

2

2
2

2

49
33
32
69

12
20
17
13

28
21
27
48

12
3
5
16

2
2
2
2

8
11
11

24
34
21

58
57
30

109
156
142

29
22
28

87
57
94

20
18
26

14
2
4

2

11
2

19
10

30
22

143
21

23
88

80
113

27
22

2
34

i
2

1
!

31
34

39
41

31
31

101
106

132
125

42
23

36
17

2'
1

|

34
25

41
30

49
40

133
122

178
190

27
38

24
16

1

8

10
15
13
9

13
8
18
2

16
3
6
26

1
1

1

12
4
2

2

2
1

2

76
74
63
55

2

6

........! . . .
i ■

15
12
25
10

2

1
........i;: ;..
i

9
16

24
32

40
30

2
2

1

80
24

101

24
120

2
12

2

iao
26
74 * 83

12
1

2
1

93
77

1
20

1
1




2

6
2

3

27
39
50
40

173
90
182
31
70
26
61
54

285
326

77
8

60
52

385
343

20
21
22
23

|

24
25

!
i

26
27

|

390
285

44
44

14
15
16
17

1

96
98
92
353

51
44

74
105

12
13

..........
1
i

2
2

4
6

i

28
29
30
31

i
!

32
33

i
1

i
1
14
237

34
35

1

36
37

1

65
|

3
2

103
104

147
144

349
317

208
168

81
61

2

104
99

146
176

386
323

211
223

190
208

18
36

49
34

30
44

61
53

191
195

34
27

9
28

2

57'
65

97
90

217
160i
1

184
173

337
392

108
128

63
63

12^
12
1

3
2

10
11

18
19

32
90

3
2
I
........1
.........
I
i
I

!

!

16
16

2
3

..

i

|

2
2
I

Line
No.

70
cts.
and
over.

39
40
41
42
43
6
0

3
2

44
45

352

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e P .—

FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—
[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and

Num­
ber
Occupation, district, Year. of
emand number of plants.
ploy-

Stockers:
Eastern—
9 plants........
_
12 plants_
Pittsburgh—
6 plants.......
7 plants.......
G .L .a n d M .W .
10 plants_
_
15 plants_
_
Southern—
6 plants.......
7 plants.......
T o t a l31 plants_
_
41 plants_
_
Heaters:
E a ste r n 12 plants_
_
15 plants_
_
P ittsb u r g h 11 plants_
_
14 plants__
G. L. and M .W
12 plants__
19 plan ts....
Southern—
9 plants___

Total—
44 p lan ts....
57 plan ts...,




Average
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
time
48
week­
and and and 60
ly
earn­ un­ un­ un­
ings. der. der der
60
56

1913
1914

110
99
139
131

60.1

.201
.192

1913
1914

102
82

62.4
63.4

.207 12.8
.206 13.0

1914
1915

119
133

63.8
62.3

.197
.199

1913
1914

105
109

61.6
59.4

.221
.228

1914
1915

266

59.7

.206
.205

1913
1914

58.0
57.9

.155
.157

1914
1915

58.1
57.9

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

58.0 .$ 251 $14.
;o.
(
58.8 .210 12.

1914
1915

full-time hours per
were—

.162
.172

117
111

1913
1914

374
343

60.2
59.9

603
582

60.4
60.2

128
106

.199 12.00
.198 11.91

1913
1914
1914
1915

14
11

2
2

.483 28.65
.492 29.06

14
18

2
1

62.1
61.

36.32
.530 32.58

18
14

62.
61.

.568 35. 25
.615 37.87

19
19

58.
56.

.637 36.33
.613 33.59

2

59.5
60.4

.553 32.18
.553 32.82

56.3
56.6
56.6

.707 39.55
.663 37.04
.652 36.25

111
112

110
112

1913
1914
1914
1915

259
228

29.58
29.06

1913
1914
1914
1915

187
177

133
140

107
52

.216 12.
.207 12.34

1914
1915

119
115

15

151
132

1913
1914
1915
1913
1914

295
272

59.7
58.

.590 34.74
.559 32.42

1914
1915

409

59.
60.1

.548 32.49
.562 33.50

62
1
91

10

36

211
202

BAR

M I L L S -----G E N E R A L

353

TA BLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS.
Middle W est.”

The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

2
8

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cl s.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

6
34

12
17

3

........i.........1.........
i
;
i
i

8
18

36
11

20
14

36
11

6

32
14
23
47

41
39

4

14
3

4

........!.........
j
I

I

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
15

69

2
8

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

6

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

3

6

1
t

4
4

15
4

64
90

11
7

10

30
30

41
48

22
26

4

100
103

41
34

106
90

34
19

30
26

5
5

8
8

4
4

10
10

26
23

5
3

8
8

4

16
14

1 .
i ..........

32
34

5
5

24
51

91
63

128
131

60
45

28
14

6

3
3

38
40

40
38

148
126

83
85;

227
233

50
30

14
26

1

18
18

33
30

14
18
17 ... 13

6
2

21
22

2

4
2

29
35

30
18

23
37

17
14

6
6

23
24

1
1

3
4

7
15

14
17

24
21

17
7

22
12

25
26

1

4
3

19
16

24
17

21
33

17
16

24
27

27
28

5
11

11
16

18
10

27
14

16
26

29
30

25
13

52
44

24
33

20
24

30
18

31
32

6
3
2

2
6
9

5
9
10

9
4
1

19
15
14

33
34
35

25
25

!
i
........1
.........1
.........
1
!
........!.........i.........
!

;
j

1
i
i
i........'* ' " i \ "
i

i

%

I
1
l

!
i
i
!

1
1

■

2

9
10
11
12

i

16

13
14
____ I_____

15
16

!
..........r - - - ;

17
18

..........
1 ..........1

19
20

4

1
;

i
1.
j
1

!
i

|
i

1

i

____ ! .
!
l
l
!

i
!
|

!
!
1
1.

i
____1

. _

!

I

!
i

!
!

..... 1
.
|

!
1

i
!

!
i
.

!
I.

i
.

i
I
!
I

..

L...

........|.
’
I
!
........I...................j.........t...........
i
i - L . . * . __

89728°—17—Bull. 238----- 23




.
i

.........1
...........!.......... !...........!..........
_____ t_____ 1_____ !_____
:____1

........1
.........•.........i.........
i
i
I
... L
1
I.
1
........:............... 1..

1____l.. . . . . .

i.
!

1
1

3
5

36
47

60
fa

65
57

67
38

63
55

37

3

8
5

76
66

112
88

77
113

58
55

75
65

38

354

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a bl e P .—

FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, district,
No. and number cf plants. Year.

1
2

Heaters’ helpers:
Eastern—
12 plants.........

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

1913
1914

156
129

59.5 $0.235 m . 06
59.0 .246 14.73

43
46

49
30

7
7

49
38

8
8

1914
1915

155
145

58.8
59.3

.257 15.29
.265 15. 75

52
40

46
46

2
1

47
50

8
8

1913
1914

179
177

62.0
62.0

.300 18.41
.267 16.43

3
3

41
40

33
32

92
92

10
10

14 plants......... 1914
1915
G .L .a n d M .W .—
10 plants......... 1913
1914

235
237

61.7
60.8

. 262 16.08
.266 16. 06

31

51
31

32
30

135
128

10
15

69
70

63.8
63.1

.298 18.47
.310 18.89

10
10

141
133

63.7
62.1

.291 18.17
.310 19. 22

10
16

4
6

13
14
15

16 plants......... 1914
1915
Southern—
9 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

63
51
55

54.8
55. 8
56.1

.233 12. 78
.232 12.81
.225 12.44

24
18
18

12
9
10

10
10 A . . .
11

16
17

T o ta l42 p lan ts......... 1913
1914

467
427

60.5
60.6

.269 16.21
.264 15.89

37
31

96
95

98
78

18
19

54 plan ts......... 1914
1915

582
570

60.9
60.3

.265 16.09
.272 16.37

35
65

116
87

20
21

Chargers and heipers:
Eastern —
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914

27
19

60.9
60.3

. 184 11.14
.202 12.17

1914
1915

40
37

59.9
60.0

1913
1914

110
99

12 plan ts......... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W . 10 plants......... 1913
1914

3
4

15 plants.........
P ittsb u r g h 11 plants.........

5
6
7
8

2

6
6

2
3

46
46

3
3

2
2

8
8

4
1

109
97

4
3

2
2

17
9
11

5
5

9
10

204
185

21
26

96
95

6
2

300
286

27
31

2
2

5
5

4
2

16
10

.211 12. 50
.214 12.68

4
4

14
12

2
]

20
20

62.9
62.6

.229 14. 22
.224 13.90

15
15

26
26

67
56

133
130

62.4
61.7

.222 13.70
.227 13.77

2
21

18

28
24

83
79

4

92
83

63.8
63.5

.238 15.04
.230 14. 41

6
6

10
9

2
2

66
62

8
4

140
130

62.7
63.0

.226 14.06
.231 14.50

6
3

17
19

16
16

2

95
90

4
2

32
33

10 plants......... 1914
1915
Southern—
7 plan ts........... 1913
1914

33
32

59.0
59.0

.214 12.68
. 192 11.27

4
4

7
7

6
5

16
16

34
35

7 plants........... 1914
1915

33
36

58.6
58.6

.193 11.23
.179 10.34

5
5

7
7

5
8

16
16

36
37

Total —
31 plants......... 1913
1914

262 -62.5
233 62.2

.226 14.00
.220 13.58

10
10

34
33

37
36

6
4

165
144

8
4

2
2

1914
1915

346
333

.219 13.47
.222: 13.56

13
29

46
30

63
60

4
1

214
205

4
6

2
2

Drag-downs:
Eastern—
9 plants........... 1913
1914
1

42
42

60.1 .252: 15.21
60.2! . 251 15.29

14
12

9
13

1
1

12
10

f,
6

61
54

60.1
60.1

20
20

12
7

23
2*
1

6
6I

9
10
11
12

22
23

6 plan ts..........
P ittsb u rg h 10 plants.........

24
25
20
27
28
29
30
31

38
39

40
41

41 plants.........

42
43 1

11 plan ts......... 1914
1915




61.9
61.7

.244: 14.78
.242! 14.61

2
2
2

2
2
2
2

2
2

355

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR M ILL8—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

and and
un­ un­
der der
9
10
cts. cts.




10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

12
.46
45
36
46

10

33
25

11
12

3
5
4

12
20

23
25

33
34

41

34
50

17
13

28
12

42
34

60
49

20

11
5
7

13
14
15

142'
128;
183
166

104

39
18

118
127

30
36

112

139
140

16
17
10|.
4!

18
19

20
21
10
10

22
23
31!
46

19
12

24
25

72
61

17
17

27

16
18

28
29

28
16

30
31

69
61
6
14

18
6

32
33

14
15

34
35

44
46
14
16;

85
96

40!
35

36
37

49
50

160
126

54
45

38

16
19

18

40
41

29
31)

18
121

13|

42
43

356

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----I R O N A N D S T E E L I N D U S T R Y .

T a b le P .—

FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR.
1913 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Drag-downs—Concld,
Pittsburgh—
9 plan ts.........
12 plan ts___
G. L. and M. W .7 plan ts.........
14 plants
Southern —
8 plan ts.........

T o ta l33 plants
45 plants
Roll engineers:
Eastern—
12 p la n ts .. . .
14 plan ts___
P ittsb u r g h 11 p la n ts .. . .
14 plants
G. L. and M. W . ~
10 plants
16 p la n ts .. ..
Southern—
8 plants.........

T o ta l41 p la n ts .. . .
52 plants___
Rollers, 8-inch:
Eastern—
4 plants.........
6 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
6 plan ts.........
7 plan ts.........
G. L. and M. W .2 plan ts.........

4 plants........




Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
age
full­ rate time
tim e
of
hours wages week­
ly
per earn­
per
week. hour. ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
Over
72
'60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

65.8 $0.261 117.15
65.7 .234 15.30

1914
1915

65.1
64.8

. 234 15.19
. 242 15.65

46
43'
I
r> i
5
03j

1913
1914

56.0
54.9

1914
1915

57.5
59.1

.375* 20.98
.381 20.77
I
.356 20.34!
. 365| 21.55

12
12i
36].
40 .
12'.
61
6

1913
1914

73

1913
1914
1915

38

56.2
56.4
56.4

. 274- 15.12
.277! 15.25
.265: 14.50

1913
1914

186
174

60.8
60.7

.282! in. 98
.272 16.26

1914
1915

265
256

60.7
61.1

.277 16.58
.280 16.96

1913
1914

67.1
67.4

.216 14.37
.215 14.38

1914
1915

67.8

.210 14.10

1913
1914

70.6
69.6

.261 18. 36
;260 18.10

22j.

.259 18.00
.259 17.88

14.
14 .

68.0

1914
1915

34
130
130

.205 13.81

1913
1914

73.0
71.4

.270 19.73
. 275 19.64

1914
1915

70.6
69.1

19.05
18.65

1913
1914
1915

64.4
64.7
64.9

14*.

.240 15.45
.241 15.54
.242 15.65

1913
1914

153
149

i. 2 .247 17.06
;. 7; . 248 17.02(

1914
1915

183
178

68.8 .24’ 16.97 .
68. 6! . 246 16.77.

1913
1914

53.5
53.4
55.6
55.6

.748 41.70'.
49.44!.

1913
1914

20

59.1 1.118 67.10!
60.5 .984 60.22

1914
1915

61.0 .978 60.23
60.1 1.073 65.42

1913
1914

61.5 1.061 64.92
61.5 .944 58.70

1914
1915

51.52
59.5
63.6 1.056

i

86!
871

. 815; 43.80'
.723 39.04.

1914
1915

33!
24:

9.
n

2
2

48
48

357

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

A ND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
B AR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
10

8
9
7
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10
8
9
7
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

and
un­
der
14
cts.

and
un­
der
12

cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

20

20

cts.

4

4
4

1

5

9
4

4

4
4

1

4

5
4

4|
4:

i
i
i

I
1
1
2

8

i

3
4
11

3 . 19
2
16
'

10

!
!
i
I

19

3

16
16
14

2
2
2

10
11

13

8
6

2
1

4

12

10 '
8

49
48

31
29

65
52

5
4

3

13
8

8
11

77
77

48
48

86

6

7.

16
16

13

14

6

i
!

|

6

77 !

4

18
15

71
5l

10
10

41 j
42

16
16

421
42\

12

14
15

6

15

12

7

1

18
19
20
21

4
3

o

l
! . !
........ 1.........1...........

16*
14:

,
71
i
11
13

9!

i
j
..........I...........

'____ I
|

16
17

____1

4
4
!
5
5

..........r " ' "
i........;

4

;

1

1
1

!

J

9

2!

9
9

6

16
15

1
!
:........ 1......... 1......... 1...........

' 1 ...i
. . . l ____'

7
8

47
37

16

10
12

!

1 ■ 1

5
6

13

1
2

I
!

1

j

23!
27 i

17'_____1
...........
1
13!_____ 1

9'

3
4

9

1:

9

8

39
37

8

r

8

i

22

1
1 ____

23

1
1 ■'* *

24
25
26
27

1

2
2
2

2

Line
No.

1
2

16
23

4
4

.

i

70
cts.
and
over.

3

4

........

i ■

|

1
2

4_____ !

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

SO
and
un­
der
60
cts.

4

| '

!

19
17

8

2

4

I

i

24
14

42
40

j

___ !_____ i_____

i

13

l

i
!

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

25
23

1

1

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
25
cts.

5
4
5

1

28
29
30

1

I
1
1..........
1 '
J
I

*

I
1
j

14

|
i

1
21 ..........
...........
26'..........1.......... !...........1

31
32

51!
471

9

12

73
67j
76!
75

32:..........!...........1_____ !...........
1
j.......... 1
29 1
1

33
34

|

r

9
9

j
1
1

I ........

1

!

1!
1!

..........1..........
1

i
!........

!

1

I

1
!

i
|
i
1

2 ..........

1

l
f

1

i

3

1
1

1

1:

1
3

t

1

1
1

1
1

3
4

1

1
1

1




..........1...........1...........

3
2

!

1
!
11

1.

1

l!
2

1

2'
I!

37
38

15
14
I

35
36

4
9

3

;
j

i
........i...........

2

39
40

16
16

41
42

2

3

43
44

5
5

45
46

O LABOB---- IRON
F

!

WAGES AND H O U R S

AND STEEL IN D U ST R Y .

le

P.— FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,

1913 TO 1915—

N um ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of tim e
No. and number of plants.
em­ hours
ploy- per
week.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Rollers, 8-inch—Con,
Southern—
3 p lan ts.........

Total—
15 plants___
20 plants
Rollers, 9-inch:
Eastern—
3 plan ts.........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants.........
6 plan ts.........
G. L. and M. W 3 plants.........
3 plants.........
Southern—
4 plants.........

T o ta l15 plants.......
16 plants.......
Rollers, 10-inch:
Eastern—
3 plants.........
3 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants.........
8 plants.........
G. L. and M. W 2 plants.........
7 plants.........
Southern—
3 plants.........

Total—
13 plants.......
21 plants.......




Employees whose
w eek
Aver­ Average
rate tim e
of w eek­ 48 Over 56
48 and
ly
per earn­ and and un­ 60
un ­ un­ der
hour. ings. der. der
60
56

1913
1914
1915

$63.25
55.9 $1.
55.9 .999 57.93
55.9 .690 38.11

1913
1914

58.0 1.055 62.31
58.9 .943 56.59

1914
1915

59.1
59.

.912 54.60
59.46

1913
1914
1915

60.2
60.2
60.2

.753 45.51
.653 39.20
.691 41.51

1913
1914

60.7
60.7

.930 57.23
.854 52.10

1914
1915

60.3
59.3

.781 47.52
.851 51.16

1913
1914

1.044 70.04
1.022 68.83

1914
1915

66.3 1.159 76. 75
66.3 1.213 80.67

1913
1914
1915

56.3
56.3
56.3

50.03
.925 52.03
.919 51.61

1913
1914

61.4
61.4

.913 56.41
.868 53.45

1914
1915

61.0
60.7

.878 54.11
.924 56.81

1913
1914

52.6
52.6

.917 48.22
.832 43.70

1914
1915

54.8
54.8

47.02
47.95

1913
1914

66.8 1.239 83.41
66.8 1.205

1914
1915

63.3 1.055 67.98
62.7 1.004 64.14

1913
1914

54.0 1.505 80.71
51.3 1.249 63.13

1914
1915

58.0 1.193 70. 72
58.3 1J
63.53

1913
1914
1915

49.5 1.053 51.52
49.5 .964 47.37
49.5 .976 47.

1913
1914

58.5 1.150 68.08
58.2 l.i
62.92

1914
1915

58 J

1.049 62.64

59.18

full-time hours per
were—
Over
60
and
un­
der
72

359

BAR M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

7
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
10
cts.
cts. cts.




10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No.

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
21!
19

22
23

20
22

24
25

26
27
28
29
12
11

30
31

14
15

3?
33
34
35

12
10

36
37
38
39
40

27
26;

41
42
43
44

360

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOB---- IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

P.— FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,

1913 TO 1915—
Aver­
N um ­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of tim e
of tim e
No. and number of plants.
em­ hours wages week­
ploy­ per
ly
per earn­
ees. week. hour.
ings.

Rollers, 12-inch:
Eastern—
8 plants....... .
10 plants___
Pittsburgh—
6 plants....... .
7 plants....... .
G. L. and M. W.3 plants.........
5 plants....... .
Southern—
2 plants....... .

T o ta l19 plants
24 plan ts----Hollers, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
Eastern—
1 plan t..........
3 plants........
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts........
G. L. and M. W.2 plan ts. . . .

Total—
5 plan ts. . .
7 plants. . .
Rollers, 16-inch:
Eastern—
3 plants. . .
3 plan ts. . .
Pittsburgh—
2 plants. . .
4 p la n ts .. .
G .L. and M .W
2 plan ts. . .
5 plan ts. . .




1913
1914

56.9
56.6
63.5
63.5

.978 61.68
.704 45.0'

1914
1915

63.6
62.9

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

.87 49. 85
.896 50.52

1913
1914

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

57.0 $0.862 $49.68
848 48.60
57.3

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

.784 50.2’
61.78

1913
1914

.972 67.23
.950 65.77

1914
1915

64.5 1.086 67.67
66.4 .922 59.85

1913
1914
1915

61.3 1.03' 65.35
62.0 .881 57.14
62.0 .913 58.19

1913
1914

61.6
61,

57.96
.807 50.13

17
14:

1914
1915

61.0
60.8

.881 53.57
.933 56.58

17
18|

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.385 27. 72
.385 27.72

1914
1915

64.3
63.5

.756 46.97
.666 41.25

1913
1914
1915

56.
56.8
54.

.875 49.72
.705 40.61
.719 39.97

1913
1914
1915

65.3
65.3
63.3

.570 36.73
.610 39. 41
.673 42.18

1913
1914

62.4
62.4

.685 41. 42
.612 37.67

1914
1915

61.6
60.4

.703 42. 78
40.99

1913
1914

60.4
61.1

52. 57
64.

1914
1915

62.7 1.055 66.30
61.6 .820 50.36

1913
1914

64.3
64.3

1914
1915

63.4 1.040 66.86
63.4 1.097 70.43

1913
1914

51.7 .970 49.
51.7 1.056 53.95

1914
1915

56.4 1.052 59.00
56.4 .886 52.80

76.52
57.55

3
3

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

BAR

M I L L S -----G E N E R A L

361

TA BLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
6
7
8
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
No.
70
cts.
and
over.

1
1

13
11

1
1

1

1
2
3
2

14
15

2
_
. _ i__

1

14
7

2

1

1
1

9
14
4
4

1

9
10

1
2

6
5

11

1
1

* 2
1
2

13
14
15

1

12

2
..........1
...........

j
\.L .

.

!
1

i
i




I
|
I
i
!
..........i...........
..........i...........

1

4
8

33
23

16
17

2
2

9
5

30
36

18
19

I

i
!
1
!

..........I...........

1
2

3

|
1

1
i
I

i

20

2
2

1
I
..........1
...........
i

21

2

I

1 '
1
1
j

2

i
i
..........j...........
i
1
I
..........!...........
..........i........... ..........1
...........

2
2

2

2

!
!
i

i

i

t

I

i

i

22
23

5
3
2

24
25

2

1
1
1

27
28
29

6
4;
j

30
31

2

2

2

2
7

32
33

4
^
3]

34
35

1

!
i

5

1
1

2
2

|

j
j

3
2

2
3

2
2

3
4!

37

1

1

J

38

5
5!

1
2

1
1

3

1

1

J

J

40
41

5!

42
43

7i

44
45

362

W AGES A N D H O U B S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, district, Year.
No. and number of plants.

Num­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Rollers, 16-inch—Con.
Southern—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
T o ta l11 plan ts.
16 plants.
Boilers, 18-inch:
Eastern—
2 p lants.
Pittsburgh—
2 p lan ts. .
G. L. and M. W .2 p la n ts.........
3 p la n ts.
Southern—
1 p la n t. .

Total—
7 plants.
8 plants.
Rollers, all sizes:
Eastern—
12 plants.
15 plants.
P ittsb u rg h 11 plants.

Southern—
9 p la n ts..

Total—
42 plants.
42
43

56 p lants.




Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over ^
48
and and 1un­
and
un­
der. der d-er
60
56

60

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

55.1 $1,038 $59.
56.
.979 56.86
56.
.925 53.78

1913
1914

57.1 1.003 58.04
57.3 1.003 57.66

1914
1915

59.1 1.036 61.53
59.0 .928 56.45

1913
1914
1915

58.3
59.7
59.5

1913
1914
1915

57.3 1.276 73. 74
57.3 1.262 72.50
57.3 1.059 61.29

1913
1914

50.7 1.037 54.84
50.7 .936 49.78

1914
1915

51.7 1.015 54. 82
52.1 1.066 60.18

1913
1914
1915

52.0
52.0
52.0

.766 39.83
.669 34.79
.733 38.12

1913
1914

54.7
54.7

.959 53.42

1914
1915

54.9 .993 55.47
54.6 1.013 57.55

1913
1914

57.4
57.7

.811 46.49
.793 45.59

1917'-

1914
1915

58.0
57.9

47.62'
.836 48.04

20.

1913
1914

61.7 1.074 66.90
62.1 .933 58.45

14 plants.
1914
1915
G .L .a n d M . W . lO p la n ts...
1913
1914
18 plants.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
weok. hour.

82

61.7
60.9

.663 38. 77
.790 46.63
.925 53.

57.87
.987 61.01

21

.

15!.

60.3 1.019 60.86
60.1 .978 58.35

1914
1915

5 9 . 7 1.050 62.

60.4 1.014 62.55

32 .
241.

19 .
19.
25 .

1913
1914
1915

55.1 1.006 56.31L
55.2 .945 53.00!.
55.2 .876 48.48L

6.

3.

11 .

1913
1914

173
165

59.3
59.6

.985 58.85'.
.909 54.44 .

1914
1915

216
215

59.6
59.4

.936 56.13 .
.944 56.75 .

1
9

11

53f

1

-

.

Mj........
72'
^ ........

74
90
110
106

363

BAB M ILLS---- GENERAL TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
B A R M ILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rales of wages per hour were—

6
and
un­
der
7
ets.

7
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
8
10
9
cts. ets. cfs.




10

and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over,

9
10

11

1
2
13

14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22

23
24

25
26
27
28
3
11

30

14!
9'

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

11
10

11
10

13
24

140
120

40
41

10
12

31

159
164

42
43

27

364

W AGES AND H O U R S OP LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e P .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Aver­
N um ­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of time
of time
em­ hours wages week­
No. and number of plants.
ploy- per
ly
per earn­
week. hour.
ings.

Roughers, 8-inch:
Eastern—
3 p la n ts..

Employees whose full-time hours per
week wore—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1913
1914

51. G .423 21.41
61.1 .424 25.88 .
49.8
49.
51.6

.545 27.02'
.520 25. 86
.449 22.86'

2
2

57.3
56.0

.414 23.49
. 402; 22. 21

8j

1914
1915

Roughers, 9-inch:
Eastern—
3 p la n ts. .

.428 23.19 .
.438 19.94;

1913
1914

15 plants.

54.3
45.6

1913
1914
1915

T o t a l10 p lan ts.

.415! 26.21'.
. 443; 27.67:.

1914
1915

Southern—
2 p lan ts.

63.6
63.2

1913
1914

4 plan ts..

.423 25.55!.
.396 24.65!.

1914
1915

4 plants.

61.3
63.0

57.7
60.0

.399 22.80
.425; 25.36,

8
2

1913
1914
1915

10

17
17

62. 5
62.5

21
20 '

61.
60.6

10

I

io;

61.5
61.5

. 607! 36.29 .
. 553 , 33.45 .

1914
1915

12 60.6
12 60.6

.579 34.96 .
«573j 34.69 .

1913
1914
1915

55.8
56.3
56.3

.388 21.57.4131 23.03 .
.418 23.29 .

60.2
60.4

.454 27.21 .
. 419 25.10 .

15 plants.........! 1914
! 1915

48; 60.0
47i 59.5

.420 25.11 .
.435 2o. 92

Roughers, 10-inch:
;
Eastern—
j
4 plants........... 1913
I 1914

54.1
54.1

.432 23.16 .
.400 21.43 .

1 1914
! 1915

56.1
56.3

.427 23.98'.
.396 22.37 .

' 1913
! 1914

59.0
58.9

.398 23.28
.372, 21.47,

! 1914
; 1915

59.7
59.0

. 392 23.19,
• 426 24. 87i

3 plants.

Total—
!
14 plan ts.........' 19J3
| 1914

j

4 plants.
Pittsburgh—
5 plants.
7 plan ts.




6

2'

6!

4

i
I
!

2'

2

!

11
4

I

12
u

!

1
1
2

14
12
19 .
23).

11
12|

4'.

10!

43
42

J:
1

.440, 27.37 .
.412! 25.38 .
!
I
. 388 23.70 .
. 433, 26.17

1913
1914

Southern—
3 plants.

111.

Hi.

57. 7 . 362! 21. 20 .
57. 7 .299j 17.30 .
57.7! . 281 16.19 .

1914
1915

Cplan ts----G .L .and M .W .3 plan ts. . . .

10

1913
1914

Pittsburgh—
5 plants.

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

.328' 18.66'.
.395: 22.371
.

1913
1914

G .L . and M. W.2 p lan ts___

56.9
56.9

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

54.lil0.283iflo.27 .
54.1 .292; 15.87 .

1914
1915

5 p la n ts..
Pittsburgh—
3 p la n ts ..

60

10ii°
101-

i

T
4;
4'

BAR

M I L L S -----G E N E R A L

365

TA BLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hoar were—
7
8
6
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1

3
3

8
11

i
i

2
2

2
2

4
6

2

..........

!
........i____
........|.........!...........
|
|
i
i
1

i '

|

2
4

6
4

1
I
j
1
|

..

i

.

J

.

i
. . . . . . . . j . . . . . . . . . . . ._ . . _

'

!

_

I

. J

i
i_ _ _ _
|
1

4
4

1
!

!
i
j
!
|

1
1'

!

O
!
51
1
6
8
a!
6

|
i
!
1[
i

5
5
3

j
;
1
i

4
1
____ 1
................

3
3
1

5

7
8

8

6
4

18
21

2

2
2
2

4
8
6

11
12

1
3

4
6

8
4

4
2

3
10

6
2

4
2

4

4

13
14
15

4

4
4
4
2

.

4
4

i
!
I
16 ;
t
15
!

1

8
8

1G
17

1
4

8
.
o

18
19

20

21
22

2
2

|
i
j
!

2

........ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
3

1

J ..............

9
10

|
i

8
10

2

!

l!
]

\

I
lj|

I

j
_ _ _ _ i 1 _ . . _ . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . , *

j

I
J
31
i
2
1
1

4

3
2

i
;

!

'

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

23
24

i

i
I
1
i

i

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

2

j

i

!

............

__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2

1

!
!
I
........i.........i...........
!
1
:
1
'..........i----i
1
j
j
!
.
.
.i
i
i
1
..........j...........
i
’
!
1
1
I
..........!'"* 1 . . . .
'..........1
|
i
!
i
1
i
..........i
i
........i.........
!
1
i

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1
2

i

1

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

4

1

i

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

3

25
26
4

27
28
29
30

1
2
2

31
32
33

j
|

!

!

1
|

........ 1 ......... 1 .........

j
1
i

I
i
1

1
'

i
i
!

1

8
2

7
15

11
6

9
10

4
4

5
2

6
4

13
19 1

61
2

14

41
6

!

2

2

1
i
6i
3i

2

1

|
!

5

2

i

1
1
1
3

j

1
1
i
!
i

. . . . . . . . t. . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .




4
4

34
35
36
37

I

3!
5I
!
7j
8

5
2

38
39

4

40
41

14
18

6
3

3
f t _____

42
43

19
11

3
8!

7
8

44
45

1!
7

366

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R H O U R ,
1913 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, district,
No. and number of plants. Year.

1
2
3
4

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Roughers, 10-inch—
Concluded.
G .L. and M .W.—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours* wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
Over
60
72
and 72 and 84
60 un­
un­
der
der
72
8
4

i
10
8

.
55.1 SO 608 £33. 47
52.7 .555 29.30

2
2

28
28

58.7
58.7

.466 27.15
.526 31.01

2
2

4

8
8
8

47.4
47.4

47.4

.511 24.17
.503 23.84
.513 24.30

4
4
4

4
4
4

9
9
9

18
18

5
6
7

8 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Southern —
2 plants........... 1913
1914
1915

8
9

T o t a l14 plan ts......... 1913
1914

57
55

55.4
55.1

.459 25.17
.425 22.94

10
11

21 plan ts......... 1914
1915

82
81

57.4
57.2

.435 24.76
.464j 26.47

1?13

Roughers, 12-inch:
Eastern—
7 plan ts........... 1913
1914

22
23

56.7
57.0

9 plan ts........... 1914
1915

29
29

56.9
56.8

i
. 430i 24.59
.414 ! 23.51
1
.4291 24.29
.387 21.89

1913
1914
1915

29
27
27

66.2
66.4
65.5

.475 31.25
.385 25.64
.432 28.11

3

1913
1914

12
12

58.0
58.0

.504 29.04
.509 28.65

6
6

1914
1915

21
23

56. 5
57.8

.490 27.05
.449 25.80

6
6

1913
1914
1915

11
9
9

63.6
64.4
64.4

.441 .28.26
.371 24.19
.296 19.25

1913
1914

74
71

61. 7
61. 7

.461 28.47
.414 25.28

6
6

1914
1915 j

86
88

60.6
60.5

.424 25. 39
.408 24.55

6
9

1913
1914

2
2

72.0
72.0

.422
.515

1914
1915

8
10

62.9 .561 35.25
61.9j .487 30.16

1913
1914
1915

2
2

8
6

66.0 I .394 25.97
66.0 .352 23.23
65.0 .391 25.42

14
15
16
17 i
18 !
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

3
0
31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Pittsburgh—
6 plants...........

G. L. and M. W.—
3 plants...........
6 plants...........
Southern—
4 plants...........

Total—
20 plants.........
25 plants.........
R o u g h e r s , 13-inch,
14-inch, and 15 inch:
Eastern—
1 p la n t............
3 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
1p la n t............
G. L. and M. W —
3 plants...........

2

15

4

23

1
6

10
12

12
10

18
16

12
12

1
8

32
30

20

7
8

15
15
17
17

4
4

8
8

3
3

2
2
2

24
22
16

6

2
2

4
4

3
3

4
6

8
4
4

2
2

3
6

41

4
6

37
31

6
14;
1

8
8
3
3
3

1
8
1
8
2
8
2
5

5

5
9
9

30.38
37.08

2
2
2
4

1915

10
10
10

53.2
53.2
52.0

.422 21.78
.426 22.28
.434 22.59

6
6

Total—
5 plants_ . 1913
_
1914

14
14

57.7
57.7

.418 23.61
.428 24.53

6
6

20
22

58.4
57.7

.473 27. 56
.454 26.29

6
6

7 plants...........




1914
1915

2
2

2
2
2

11
94

1913

4
4

6

2
2

2

2
4

2
2
2

2
2

2

4
4

2
2

2

8
8

2
2

367

BAR M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
E m p lo y e e s w h o s e r a te s o f w a g e s p er h o u r w e r e —

8
9
6
7
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
9
8
10
7
cts. cts. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1
3
2

4
5

3
10

15
4

4
2

5

Lino
N o.
70
cts.
and
over.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

6
2| ..........j
i
2’
121
|

4
6
8

i

1
2

1
3

20
21

13
11

16
16

6
2

2

8
3

23
20i

15
26

32
20

2
12

1
1

6
18

10

5
2

1
3

18
16

4
8

2

2
2i

2
6

20
15
17

5

2

6

6
8

6

I

I

!
..........!

4

3
2

10
13

4
6

1
1
1

2
6
2

4
2
2

4

10
30

40
25

8
6

33
27

31'
40i
i

1
1.




2
1
2
2

_!
1
..........t..........
i
..........t...........

4
4
2

1..........
1
j
..........1" '
i
1
2
41
1
61
2 1‘
!

6
6

s
12

27
28
29

30
31
4

33
34

35
36

i
j
2
i

23
24
25

2

2

J
. 6
8
J
6

20
21
22

2

11
I

5
6

14
15
16

4

2
4

2
4

13

19

6
9

1

12

17
18

20
2

2

2

4

2
8

4

2

3

2
s

10
11

2
4

4 !..........

—

I
1

37
38
39
40
41
42
43

368

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS P E R WEEK. RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
em ­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Roughers, 16-ineh:
Eastern—
4 plants__

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Em ployees whose full-time hours per !
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
j
72 j
72 and j 84 j
un- !
i
der ;
84 '

i

,

1913
1914

11
9

59. 5 *0.355 $21.19
59.9 .405 24.50

1
1

6
4

j
4:

4 plants...........

1914
1915

9
11

61. 2
60.6

.438 27.07
.419 25.53

1
1

2
4

d
6|

1913
1914

12
10

66.8
67.4

.507 33.97
.396 26.81

1914
1915

17
17

65. 9
65.9

.522 34. 26
. 554 36.41

1913
1914

13
13

54.5
54.5

.481 25.50
.497 26.20

6
6

2
2

1
5'

......*... J

1914
1915

23
23

57.8
57.8

.489 27.44
.360 20.78

6
6

4
4

13
13

|

1913
1914
1915

15
12
12

55.9
57.6
57.6

.375 21.03
.403, 22.81
. 396,, 22.43

4
2
2

3
2
2

Pittsburgh—
3 plants...........
5 plants...........
G. L. and M. W .—
3 plants...........
6 plants...........
Southern—
4 plants...........

J
6j
j

1
1

4
4
4

i
i
;
,

4
4
4
4

...
,

1
j
|
J

■

I

4
4
4

i

1

1

!

1

:

!

|

16
17

Total—
14 plan ts......... 1913
1914

51
44

58.9
59.4

.429 25.24
.420 25.07

10
8

6
5

10
8

21
19

4
4

18
19

19 plan ts......... 1914
1915

61
63

60.5
60.4

.473 28.37
.430 26.14

8
8

7
7

7
9

35
35

4
4

Roughers, 18 inch:
Eastern—
6 plants........... 1913
1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

16
14
13

56.0
56.3
56.3

.469 26.29
.423 23.38
.518 28.59

12
10
9

8
8

55.4
55.4

.520 28.98
.450 25.24

4
4

4
4

|
I

j
!

3 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

11
11

54.1
52.6

.423 23.19
.392 20.94

6

7
1

4
4

I
|

!
;

7
7

54.1
54.1

.578 30.69
.561 30.27

3
3

|
1

!

9
9

54.7
55.3

.538 29.30
.556 31.10

3
3

31
32
33

3 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Southern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914
1915

3
3
3

56.0
56.0
56.0

.473 26.56
.425 23.84 !
.415 23.14 i

34
35

T o t a l13 plan ts......... 1913
1914

34
32

55.5
55.5

.504 27. 85I
.460 25.40;

36
37

14 plan ts......... 1914
1915

37
36

55.2
54.9

.451 24.80
.480 26.43

38
39

Roughers, all sizes:
E a ste r n 12 plan ts......... ! 1913
1914

80
77

56.8
57.0

.410 23.36
.392 22.27

100
102

57.6
57.7

.412 23.75
.409 23.52

42
43

15 plants......... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
11 plan ts......... 1913
1914

109
105

62.5
62.7

.450 28.02
.393 24.49

44
45

14 plan ts......... 1914
1915

128
127

62.5
61.8

.413 25.74
.444: 27.42

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

40
41




4
4
4

4
4
2
2

!

4
4

1

,

1
1
........1
.........i.........

1
1
1

2
2
2

3
3

17
15

6
6

8
8

3
9

18
11

8
8

8
8

19
19

59
56

i
i
I

2
2

83
81

17
21

8
8

25
25

76
72

11
11i

30
30

j

.. ..
....

87
8G

i

369

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
7
9
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
9
10
7
8
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
16
and and
un­ un­
der
der
16 ' 18
cts.
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

4

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Line
70
cts. No.
and
over.

2
4
2
4

7
6

1

6
6

6

4

5
7j

6
4

2
2

4
1
41_____

8
8

1

11

1

2
2

2
2

10
11
12

1

6i14

4
5

11
4

4
6
2

2
1

1

4
4!

17
12

16
17

14
10

1

81

„
29

23
17

15
4

3
3

3
2

1

4
4
4
j

____

5
0

!
!

1
1

13
14
15

10
17

1
8
19

!
!
i
1
..........!...........

1
1
!
i
1

I

1
1
i

i
i
!
1

2

t
i

|
1

2

8

3!

i

2
5
2

2
1
4

,
3

2
1

3
4

2

6
5

1
2

4
2

1
!
1

i
|

|
|

1
i

j
i

!

i
i
!

'

1
I
I

2
2:

|
____ ______
!
2
I
2
3
2
9
1
2
12,
in !
4

1
|
j
I
1

1
..........j..........
i' ’

2
0
21
22
23
24
25
26

4
7

!

1

1
!

j
1
1

1
i"
l

2!
2'
2!

3

7
3

4

27
28
30
I
|

2!
x
3
1 1..........

31
32
33

12 1
4

*
16

7
1

6

16
7

1
8

1

36
37

34
35

|
!
t

I
!

1
2

i
1

1
t

|
j..

.

|
........1.........

i
i

j
i
j
,

1

i

89728°— 17— B u ll. 218------ 24




i

12
in

21

1
4i;

32
in j

12
11

2
1

2

38
39

2
2

11
7

4'A
'
49

22!
3tt1

13
7

7
6

2
1

40
41

3
6

231
42

41
32

30
16

5

9

47
46

3fi
38

22
20

2
10

6

13
11

42
43
2
2

44
45

370

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1916—

Occupation, district, Year.
and number of plants.

Houghers, all sizes—
Concluded.
G. L. and M. W .—

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

1

Total—

68

117
116

56.7
57.9

. 483: 27.05
. 468 27. 12

1913
1914
1915

46
40
41

55.9
56.2
56.2

.434' 24.12
. 4271 23. 6 6
. 40fr 22.30

70

5 plants
Pittsburgh—
3 plants
4 plants
G. L. & M. W .—
2 plants
i

4 plants
Southern—
2 plants

T o t a l1 0 plants

■

8
8
8

48
38:

12
12

33
19

8

72
74

23

24
3
4

3

111

20
20

9
9

10
10
12

!

1
1

. 452 26. 32
.423 24. 42,

16

99j 99*
681 113

58.8
58.9;

.436 25.41
.438 25.76

8
8

47] 205^
34] 205

125
139

4
4

53. 3
53. 3

.284 15.02
.287 15.32

2!
2

j

9
9

55. 8 !
55.8
1
i
59.9 1
63.9 1

.336 18.76
.406 22.58
i
.443 26.27
.374 23.66

6
6

1
1

290

58.5
58. 4

385
386

1913
1914
1914
1915
1913
1914

!

97
91

1913
1914
1914
1915

Catchers, 8 -inch:
Eastern—

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
60 un­
un­
der
der
72
84

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

55.9 *0.516 $28.51
54.7 .503j 27.17

1913
1914
1914
1915

Southern—

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

14
14

1

1914
1915

16
16

64.1
63.9

4
4

54.3
45.6

10
10

54.0
61.7

1913
1914
1915

3
3
3

1913
1914

25
25

!
!

4
4
4

1

I
r

3

i
i

i

12
12

|

.545 27.02
.520 25.86
.468 23.03

2
2
2

56.7
57.6

.427 24.06
.387 21.99

1

3
2

49. 8
49.8
49.8

4

1
1

8

|

1
1
1

1

I

1

6
3

15
7

2
10

5

9

6
6

22

2

5
1

1914
1915

38
38

58.4
60.3

.394 22.70
.427 25.56 !

2

8

1913
1914
1915

6
6
6

56.8
56.8
56.8

. 3 2 2 18. 79!
1........
.270 15.49
. 255 14.57i

4
4
4

1913
1914

10
10

60.7
60.7

.438 26. 4 9 !
.414 24.82

3
3

2
2

5
5

1914
6 p lan ts. . .
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1013
3 p la n ts. .
1914

12
12

60.3
59.3

3

4
4

9
9

60.3
60.3

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
3 plants........... 1913
1914
1915

12
12

60.6
60.6

.393 23.44'
.420 24.97 1
1
.640 j 37.83 i
.577 34.42*
1
.579 34.96
.573 34.69

5
5
1
I
4i
4
*
1
8'

5
5
5

56.3
56.3
56.3

15 plants
Catchers, 9-inch:
Eastern—
3 plants
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts.




1

.408 22.80\
.413 23.03
.429 23.93
i

3

18

_

21
21
2

4
4
4
4
2
2
2

1

1

2
10

1

.417j 2 2 . 0 0
.429 26.40

i

1

2
2

4
3

1

i
I

.

2

12

.428 23.19
.438: 19.94

1914
1915

2
2

|

.388 24.76
. 429 27.19

1913
1914

8

1
1

8

3
3
3

..... 1.....
..... Ii.....

371

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour wcre6

7

8

9

10

12

14

16

18

20

25

30

40

50

60

ayd
un­
der

and
un­
d er

and
un­
der

and
un­
d er

and
un­
d er

and
un­
der

and
un­
d er

and
un­
d er

and
un­
der

and
un­
d er

and
un­
der

and
un­
der

9
cts.

10
cts.

12
cts.

14
cts.

16
cts.

18
cts.

25
cts.

30
cts.

40
cts.

and
un­
der

7
cts.

20
cts.

and
un­
d er

8
cts.

and
un­
d er

50
cts.

60
cts.

70
cts.

19
23

22
24

13
11

4

5
6

20
24

34
44

45
24

12
18

1

1
4

3
5
5

13
8
13

17
13
6

13
13
12

1

4
9

22
241

69
101

109
78

77
64

20
12

4
2

J
6

J
29[
1

118
132

105
118

93
63

21
35

5

!

1
1

!
I
. .! .
i

J ........
1
i

1
!

1
1

........i.........!.........i.........
. i . . . i ...

1
1
i

.J

i
1

1
I

..........1.......... 1..........
|

!

|

■

N o.

and
o v er.

12
10

!

.

Line

70
cts.

j
1
l!

i
i '

2

3
3

3

12
13

14
15

6

2
3

1
1

1
1

2
10

6

4

1

1
2

10

2

2
1

i

4

6

1

5

2

18
19

1

20
21
22

3
4

4

16
17

2

5

3

10
11

1

6

23

1

1

1

24
25
26'

*
■

27
28

3
3
t




2
1

3

9
4

4

18
16

15

2
2
2

2
1

1
1

2

2
2
3

11

2

1

4

4

1
2

31
4!
1
4
1
!

4

1

2

i

4

4
4

10

4
2

2
2!

2
1

2

2
1
1

!
..........i..........
I
1

1

9

1
2
3

3

!
i
i
3!
i
i
!

1
2

29
30

31
32
33
34
35

2

36
37

2

1
2
2

4

38
39
40
41
42
43
44

372

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T a b le P .—

FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PE R HOUR,
1913 TO 1 9 1 5 -

Aver­
N um ­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
of tim e
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of tim e
em­ hours wages week­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­ per
ly
per earn­
ees. week. hour.
ings.

Catchers, 9-inch—Con,
T otai—
14 p la n ts .. . .
15 plants----Catchers, 10-inch:
Eastern—
4 plants.........
4 plan ts.........
Pittsburgh—
4 plants.........

8 plan ts.........

Total—
13 plants----20 p lants___
Catchers, 12-inch:
Eastern—
6 plants.........
8 plants.........
Pittsburgh—
6 plants.........
G. L. and M. W .3 plants.........
6 plan ts.........
Southern—
4 plants.........

Total—
19 plants. . . .

24 plants___




Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1913
1914
1914
1915

C
O

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and
un­
un­
der
der
84
72

59.1 ,$0,470 $27.74!
59.1 .434 25.54 .
59.2 .438 25.97!.
58.9j . 446 26.37!

1913
1914
1914
1915
1913
1914

6 p lants......... 1914
1915
G .L .andM . W .—
3 plants......... 1913
1914

Southern—
2 p lan ts.........

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

9
9l
io'
10i
18

52.9
52.9

.442 23.16!.
.411 21.541.

54.7
54.7

.432 23.57 .
.402 21.97 .

60.4
60.4
18|
23 61.1
23 60.2

.370: 22.46
.358 21.48
.388 23.73
.410 24.63

8
6

54.6
51.2

.6041 32.93
.5671 29.23

1914
1915

25
23

58.5
58.5

.471| 27.33
.535 31.59

1913
1914
1915

6
6
6

47.0
47.0
47.0

.526 24.68
.504 23.68
.510 23. 99

55.7
55.2

.454 24.98
.425 23.03

57
57.4

.438 25.11
.46£ 26. 72

5'
58.2

.440 25.67
.403 23.36

1913
1914
1914
1915

1913
1914

64

.429 24.54
.406 23.28

1914
1915
1913
1914
1915

65.4
65.5
64.6

.440 28.63
.348 22.91
.401 25.68

1913
1914

57.5

.502 28.63
27.50

12
2
2

1914
1915

56.0
58.8

26.85
25. 76

3
3

1913
1914
1915

65.0
64.0
64.2

.428 27.91
.360 23.32
.272 17.58

5

1913
1914

62.0
61.8

.449 27.74
.390 23.87

1914
1915

60.4
60.9

24.4'
24.01

16
15

2

25

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

373

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere6
7
8
9
and .and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
70
N o.
cts.
and
over.

2
5

5
2

2
7

8
4

5
8

4
4

5
3

4
3

6
11

4
1

12
13

4
4

1

1

3
2

3
4

3
1

1

1

1
4

5
6

2

1

1

13
15

3
3

16
9

3
6

3

4

i

♦ !
. .. i . . .
i , i
I

i
!
j

i'l
J

..........

..
1
i

i

,
!

!
i

. .J

1 1
!.
........
!
!
i
i

i
i
1
........1 .
1
. 1

|

1
1

I

1

!
i

, . . . i ..........

____ . " ' I ...........!*"_*.
1
!
1
..........!"
I
i
2
!

!

i
i

i

3
81
i
21
1i
!
i

13
4

2
10

15
16

8'
9

11
9

4
5
6

16
17

5
31

20
14

12
20

24

2
2

2!
10 I

5

4
1

2
2

10
10

4
6

1

4
2

6
8
8

10
6
9

l

l

:
i
i
■
......... _____i__

1
1

!




i

. !

1
:

20
21
22

5

4

17
18
19
4
2
2
10

1

23

1
2
2

24
25

1

26
27
28
29
30

1

2
3

7
8

4
3

1
1
“
1

1
1
1

1
3
1

2
1
1

31
32

2

33
34

2

4

2

35
36
37

!

i
i
I

l

2

3
7

9
21

21
13

15
1

2

1

!
!

!
;

f"

2
4

7
6:i

23!
22

18
24

4

4
2

1

'

i
.J

'

1
!
1

I
i
1
_____ 1
____ >
1

!
!

i

13
14

1

I

11
12
4
2

1
1!
i

!
!
!

|
|
1
i

4

4
6

!
i

1
i

1
1

..........1
“

1

3
1

|
j

4
3

1

*

4

38
40
41

374

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T able P.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK , RATES OF WAGES PER H O U R ,
T
1913 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, district, Year.
No. and number of plants.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Catchers,
13-inch,
14-inch, and 15-inch:
Eastern—
1 p la n t............
3 p lan ts..........
Pittsburgh—
1 p la n t............

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1913
1914

2
2
6
8

63 5
62.1

2
2
2

66.0
66.0
65.0

60

2
2

.503 31 79
.452 27.95

1913
1914
1915

.394 25.97
.352 23.23
.391 25.42

10
10
10

53.2
53 2
52.0

.422 21.78
.426 22.28
.436 22.75

6
6
6

11
12

Total—
5 plants........... 1913
1914

14
14

57. 7
57.7

.411 23.14
.417 23.69

6
6

13
14

7 plants........... 1914
1915

18
20

58.1
57.3

.444 25.56
.438 25.10

6
6

15
16

Catchers, 16-inch:
Eastern—
4 plants........... 1913
1914

8
6

58.4
58.7

.319 IK 87
.355 21.33

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

2
2

2
2
2

G. L. and M. W.—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

4 plan ts........... 1914
1915

2
2

2
4

8
9
10

17
18

Over
Over
60
72
and 72 and
un­
un­ 84
der
der
72
84

72.0 $0.376 $27.07
72 0 .433 31 18

1914
1915

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

2
2

2

1
1

2
4

4
4

2
2

2

6
6

2
2

5
3

1
1

I

2
4

2
2
2

2
2

2

2
2
•

3
3

6
8

59.7
59.2

.380 23.26
. 375 22. SI

1913
1914

8
7

66.3
66.6

.517 34.2fi'
.392 26.20

5 plants........... 1914
1915
G .L .a n d M. W .—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

15
15

65.1
65.1

.500 32.56
.532 34.62

10
10

58.0
58.0

.465 26.30
.478 26.86

3
3

2
2

5
5

1914
1915

17
17

59.2
59.9

.483 27.75
.357 21.21

3
3

4
3

10
11

1913
1914
1915

10
8
8

53.8
55.7
55.7

.353 19.23
.417 23.06
.404 22.31

4
2
2

2
2
2

Pittsburgh—
3 plants...........

6 plants...........
Southern—
4 plants...........

6
5
1
1

2
2
2

2
2

12
12

2
2

2
2
2

t

30
31

T o t a l14 plants.......... 1913
1914

36
31

58.8
59.5

.413 24.45
.419 24.66

7
5

5
5

7
5

15
14

2
2

32
33

19 plants.......... 1914
1915

46
48

60.6
60.7

.464 27.92
.422 25.80

5
5

7
6

5
7

27
28

2
2

1913
1914
1915

12
11
10

55.1
55.2
55.3

.412 22 84
.385 21.03
.445 24.31

10
9
8

1913
1914

9
9

55.1
55.1

.502 27.82
.438 24.42

5
5

4
4

3 plants........... 1914
1915
G .L .and M .W .—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

12
12

54.0
52.7

.416 22.75
.377 20.14

6

8
2

4
4

5
5

50.7
50.7

.599 29.78
.565 28.55

3
3

52.4
52.8

.534 27.79
.537 28.60

3
3

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Catchers, 18-inch:
Eastern—
6 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
3 plants...........

3 plants...........




1914
1915

7
7

!

2
2
2

2
2
2
2

2
2

|
i

____

375

BAR M IL L S — G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNIN@S, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,'
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cfcs.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2

1
j

2
2

4
4

70
cts.
and
over.

Line
No. i

2

9.____

1
2
2

1

4
4
2

6
6'
8'

7
6

J
8

6
6

10
12

1
3

2
2

2
4

3
2

1

17
18

3
4

5

19

3
4
6

4
2

4
2

2
4

4
4

1

5
5

1

4

6
8

2
5

7

1

2
2
2

6
2
3

2
2
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

6
2

11
12

8
8

10
6

2

1
1

2
6

14
21

11
10

12
4

4
5

2
1

32
33

3
1
2

3
7
5

4

2
2

1
2

1

34
35
36

2
4

2
1

3
4

7
5

1
4

4

I
i

1
1

4

1
1

!
j
........! . . .




I
1
..........t...........
1
..........1
...........

3

U
12
13

2

1
4

2

15
16

2

1
1

2
0
21
22
23
24

1

25
26
27
28

30
31

37
38
39
40

2
5
2
2

3

41
42

5
3

2

43
44

376

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR----IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

P.— FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of
No. and number of plants.
em ­
ploy­
ees.

Catchers,
18-incli—
Concluded.
Southern—
2 p la n ts. , .

Aver­ Average
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

E mployees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48 and
48
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
60 un­
un­
der
der
84
72

1
1
1

1
1
1

3
3

16
15

5
5

4
4

3
9

18
11

7
7

4
4

.389 22.11
.372 21.09

25
24

27
26

57.2
57.2

.398 22.79
.400 22.86

30
29

32
34

6
8

82
80

61.8
62.4

.438 27.01
.377 23.42

9
9

14

59
71

14 p la n ts......... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W —
12 plan ts......... 1913
1914

100
100

62.2
61. 5

.400 24.89
.426 26.27

12
12

12

88
76

54
52

56.0
55.0

. 522 28.80
.502 27.29

27
21

18
18

9
9

96
94

57.0
58.3

.484 27.24
.471 27.46

27
17

57
55

12
22

I
20 I
j
21 I
22

19 plan ts......... 1914
1915
Southern—
9 plan ts........... 1913
P
1914
1915

32
29
31

54.7
54.8
55.4

.429 23.34
. 433 23.41
.402 21.73

6
6
6

15
13
13

5
5
5

6
5
7

23
24

T o t a l44 plan ts......... 1913
1914

222
213

58.1
58.2

.445 25.73
.414 23.80

6
10

76
67

64
49

74
85

25
26

57 p la n ts......... 1914
1915

293
296

58.6
58.8

.430 25.03
. 432 25.35

6
6

82
71

94
106

111
113

1913
1914
1915

2
2
2

T o t a l13 p la n ts......... 1913
1914

28
27

54.3
54.3

.473 25.62
.436 23.58

14 plan ts......... 1914
1915

32
31

54.1
53.7

.429 23.18
.434 23.37

1913
1914

54
52

56.5
56.7

10
11
12

15 p la n ts,
1914
1915
P ittsb u r g h 11 p lan ts......... 1913
1914

68
71

14
15

Catchers, all sizes:
Eastern—
12 plants

13

16
17

IS
19

27 j
28 j
i
29
30 :
31 1
;
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Stranders. 8-inch:
Eastern—
4 plants...........

55.0 $0.396 $22.01
55.0 .387 21.43
55.0 .358 19.78

4

2
2

19
19

1914
1915

31 56. 4
31: 56.41

.262 14.75
.279 15.80

20
20

6\
6'
1
3
3

1913
1914

08 58.81 .290 17.11
68j 59.91 .260 15.47

24
24

7 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L .and M .W .—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

70 60. ft . 258 15.42
70i 59. ft! . 297 17. 43

24

6 plants...........

5 plants...........
Southern—
3 plants...........




i

1

2
2

1

1
1913
1914

Pittsburgh—
6 plants...........

i
I

54.4 ! 0.288 io. 66
54.4 . 277 15.06

18' 59. J . 366 21.72
17! 59. 4; .300 17.77

1914
1915

12! 57.4
12! 57.4
12! 57.4!

24

31' 59.2j . 272 16.07'
28i 62.6 ' . 288 18.03 ^

1913
1914
1915

12
12

.265 15.22!
.235 13.381
.196 10.91

4
4
4

8
8

I

i

22'
12;

22
32

!

!

12:
12i

34
26

|
!

|

1

!

12
11
17
6

1
1!

8

6
6
j
2
2
2

i

6
6
6
-

1
;

j
!

14
22

i

!

i

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

377

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
E m p lo y e e s w h o s e r a te s o f w a g e s p er h o u r w e r e —

7
9
6
8
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
8
10
7
9
cts. cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

la n e

70
N o.
cts.
and
over.

1
1
2

1
1

3
1

6
12

2

7
11

5
1

1
5

15
12

4
6

11
3

1
4

1

4
4

13
9

12
25

16
8

9
4

1

1

9
6

26
32

18
21

5
3

5
4

1
1

4
5

25
44

28
18

21
8

2

10
11
12

11

49
43

20
271

16
10

2
8

1
1

14
15

10
9

14
17

15
17

11
9

4

16
17

4
5

19
17

25
37

37
21

10
14

1

18
19

4
3
3

8
8
10

10
5
3

10
11
10

i
1

........I.........
1
!
i

j

i
!

|

4
4

i

!
I

2
5

1
...J ....:
r

!
|i . J ........
i
1
........f " '
i
!
1
____
f
1

20
21
22

10!
I
101
8

;

i

1
4

13

!
i
)------

- - - - - - - - - - -

—

21
17

55
86

68
48

55
40

13
11

4
1

23
24

23
25

102
102

68
88

69
44

18
27

3
2

25
26

| " ...-

l
I

I
!
:

i
!

i
1

i

i
1
j

2:
3

7
3

j
3;
1

3
4

1
1

4
6

1

1
4

6

1

10
2

4
12

6
7

8
8

2
2

29
30

1
1

3

2

10
22

12
13

22
23

11
1

31
32

2
2

1
1

24
6

13
13

23
37

1
6

33
34

13

3
3

2
0

3

j

2

1
i

1

1
i

!
i
I
i
i
:
1
i
i
:
i
I.................. , .........i.........




!
i

2.
H.

;
1
i

9I
I

9

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

i
2!!
!
i

i1
1
a!
!

1

8;
2!’
a!
a:

2

27

2

14
16
16:
i!
6.
1

2

!

35
36
37
38

i
I

3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .

!

9

l

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
.

I

.

39
40
_
41

_

i

378

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LAE OB---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1933 TO 1915—■

Occupation, district,
and number ol plants. Year.

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

1 Over

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un- un­
der. i d^r der
60
56

Over

60
and
und f,r
72

60

i1and
! un­
der
j 84

84

|

Stranders,8-inch—Con.
T o ta l10 plants......... 1913
1914

117
110

58.0 ■O 299’*17.39
S.
58. 0 .206 15. 52

4
4

48:
47'

30
20

1914
1915

144
141

58.9
59.0

. 200 15. 24
. 282j 10. 03

4
281

01
26

17
17

1913
1914
1915

14
14
16

58.1
58.1
57.7

.255 15.06
. 200 11.95
. 194 11.18*

8
8
10

1913
1914

24
27

61.0
59.9

.252 15.01
.251 14.59

6
9

6
6

12
12

Gplants........... 1914
1915
G .L .and M. W .—
3 plants........... 1913
1914

31
31

59.7
58.5

.246 14.31
.254 14.64

9

9

10
10

12
12

28
28

52.8
52.8

.367 19.20
.351 18.63

18
18

8
8

1914
1915

34
34

51.3
51.3

. 350 19.35
.339 18.01

18
18

16
16

1913
1914
1915

10
17
17

65.9
55. 7
55. 7

8
.227 12. G
.223 12.41
.231 12.86

1913
1914

82
80

50.7
56.5

.287 16.00
.271 15.04

1914
1915

90
98

50. 8
56.4

.275 15. 41
.270 15.15

1913
1914

18
18

53.7
53. 7

1914
1915

22
22

1913
1914

8 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914

Stranders, 9-inch:
Eastern—
3 plan ts..
Pittsburgh—
5 plants...........

3 plants.
Southern—
4 plants

T o ta l15 plants
10 plants.........
Stranders, 10-inch:
Eastern—
3 plants.
3 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
5 plants...........

34
i
44

1;

|
8i.. ..

02
62!

i

8 plan ts........... 1914
1915
Southern—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

0;
0
6

7
8
8
18
18

21
25

15
15

26
26

18
27

25
18

19
19

34
34

.284 15. 40
.205 14.34

8
8

10
10

56.9
56.8

.294 17.15
.291 17.12

8
8

6
6

58
58

62.0
02.6

.434 26.78
.391 24.00

12
12

79
79

eo. 2
59.3

.381 22. 59
.373 21.44

12
27

20
17

53.3
48.9

.408 21.54
. 371 17.93

8
8

57
57

I
56.4 .317 17.93
56.5, .335 19.42

8
8

20
20

17
17

14
14
14

48. 6
48.6
48.6

.289 14.08
.282 13.75
.283 13.81

8
8
'8

4
4
4

2
2
2

57.6 ^ .386 22.3.5
57.1 .354 20.07

28
28

12
12

32
2Q

38
38

57.6'
57.2

28
43

49
34

33
33

62
51

2
2

9
9
9

Total—
14 plan ts......... 1913
1914

110
.107

22 plan ts......... 1914
1915

172
172




l

.341 19.63
.343 19. 60

8
8
17
2

2
2

____! ____
I
8
8
>
1
38'
38

8
8

421
31;
1

11

12
9
12i
19

1

1
j
!

11

------r

7

2

BAR M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

379

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere7
8
9
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10
9
8
7
cts. cts. cts. cts.




10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

2
3

3

2

2
4

8
7

20
26

19
37

43
28

14
6

3
1

3
6

2
4

6
2

11
5

39
23

41
38

33
54

6
8

6
8
8

2

2
4
3

2

2

2
10
8

7
6

2
5

1
2

12
10

6
8

5
8

2

2

20
26

Line
No.
70
cts.
and
over.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

6

2
2

1

4
3

3

3

3
2

2

1

2

2

10
11
12
13

34
34

16
17
18

3

7
4

9
6
6

4
4
6

1
1

6

7
12

23
14

13
16

24
32

9
2

12
13

18
18

14
17

40
43

2

2

2
6

9
4

3
2

2
2

23
24

4
2

6

2
9

8
7

2
2

25
26

22
23

5
10

22
13

1
3

7

1
4
4

8
12

3

2

2
4

2

i

14
15

17
15

35
41

13
8

13

2i
1
4|
6

2

12
9'!

4
2
12

8
8
8

21 1
17
1
6
6
6

25
26

i
43
40'!

|
11!
14
!
27 i
20

2

6
6

6
6

1
..........1
...........
1
1
6'____
1
8
I

2
4
10
8!

2
8
11
9

1

6
2

33
34

70
711

10

19

20
21
22

1

!
j
1 2 ..........i

27
28
29
30

J ..........i
2
21..........|...........|
10

31
32

1
i
..1

35
36
37

1
22
15
!
15
10,

i

5

!
!

12

|
t
i
!

33
34

38
39
40
41

380

W AGES AND H O U B S OF LABOE— IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Num ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
time
of
em­ hours wages
No. and number of plants.
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over 56
48
48 and
and and un­
un­ un­ der
der. der 60
56

Stranders, 12-inch:
Eastern—
1913
1914

39
42

56.0 $0.296 $16.61
55.9 .289 16.14

29
32

1914
1915

50
43

55.9
55.9

.295 16.45
.297 16.56

36
31

4
2

10
10

1913
1914

36
32

62.3
62.1

.341 20.95
.276 17.16

6
6

6
6

24
20

6 plan ts........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

34
34

62.2
61.2

.280 17.45
.332 20.12

6

6
6

22
22

13
15

70.6
70.0

.480 34.16
.412 29.12

5 plants........... 1914
1915

30
18

61.5
62.2

.367 23.07
.415 26.01

1913
1914
1915

4
2
2

66.0
72.0
72.0

.570 37.59
.462 33.26
.428 30. 78

Total—
16 plan ts......... 1913
1914

92
91

61.0
60.8

. 351 21.70
.308 19.01

22 plan ts......... 1914
1915

116
97

59.5
59.3

.312 18.75
.334 19.85

Stranders, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
Eastern—
1 plant............. 1913
1914

4
4

72.0
72.0

.285 20.52
.419 30.17

13
16

63.6
62.5

.394 25.23
.328 20.50

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

Pittsburgh—

Southern—
1 p la n t...........

6

3
5

10
10

6
4

14
8

10
6

4
2
2
35
38

41
35

10
12

56
39

6

6
6
10
8

38
36

12
8

4
4

3 plan ts.......... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

11
11
11

53.5
53.5
51.1

.506 26.92
.390 20.90
.402 20.69

24
24
25

63.7
6?. 7
60.7

.286 18.29
.321 20.59
.371 22.89

13

Total—
5 plan ts........... 1913
1914

39
39

61.6
61.6

I
.348 20.96
.350| 21.66

9
9

7 plants........... 1914
1915

48
52

61.3
59.2

. 357 21.92
.365’ 21.69

Stranders, 16-inch:
Eastern—
3 plan ts..........

10
10

!

6
6

3
6

2
2
2

9
9
9

9

9
13

13
131
i

1

3
6

1
13'
13'
1
13

11
Hi
12
13
13

4
4

19
20

4
4

5

60.4

. 3 7 J 23.07

4

6 1 .1

. 446j 2 7 .7 7

3
2

2
2

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914

4
5

62.7
6 1 .6

.4721 2 9 .91
.4 2 4 2 6 .3 4

1
2

3
3

6
5

6 4 .3
64.4

. 500' 3 2 .1 8
.330! 21 .2 4

4 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914

91 63. $
9' 63. £

1913
1914

4 p lan ts........... 1914
1915




6
5

1
1

.431! 21 .4 2
.444, 21 .9 9

9

25 53.8; .425 22.90
22; 55.3; . 389' 21.64

9

17'
17'

48 .5 i
48 .5 1

1
1

. 483 3 0 .9 0
.5 2 3 33 .4 5
9
6

8
8

8
8

8
8

4
4

8
8

84

BAB M IL L S — G EN EB A L TABLES.

381

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BA R MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
7
8
9
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. CtS. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

11
17

12
8

10
14

6
3

17
14

12
9

17
15

4
5

15
19

5
6

4
3

4
3

8
1

19
10

6
7

5
6

3
9

1
2

3
5
1
3

14
1

3
2

11
7

1
4




_____

_ _____ _____
_

10
11
12

1
2

1

17
18

12
16

18
2

37
27

32
17

26
24

18
22

3
6

3
3

16
17

1

17
19

4

13
14
15

2

2

26
36
__ ___

9

10
10

1
1

_____ _____

70
cts. No.
and
over.

1

18
19

_____

20
21
22

4
10

23

13
6
7

6
5
4

3
3
1

15
4
2

6
17
14

19
4

6
23

6
9

3
1

5

23
34

15
12

2!

1
2

2

1
3

27
28
29

8

3
3

24
25
26

5

2!

2
5

5
5

;
2
r
>

I
I
L

1]L
101

32
33

2

34
35

1

2
2

36
37

4t|
1
|
i
i

2

38

c) .........
{) .........

J

30
31

5

^
I
9

5
5
>

1
1

40
41

£1.........
J

42
43

?
*
1 „
L

44
45

,

382

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—■

Num­
ber
Occupation, district, Year. of
No. and number of plants.
em­
ploy­
ees.

Stranders, 16-inch—
Concluded.
Southern—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915

A verage
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1914
1915

43
41

56.9
57.9

.445 25.57
.427|! 25.12

1913
1914
1915

8
7
5

56.8
57.1
58.0

.303 17. 37
.276 15. 57
.336 19.33

1913
1914
1915

4
4
4

59.5
59.5
59.5

.573 34.06
.529 31.48j
.485 28.83

4
4

63.4
63.4

.599 37.99
.579 36. 71

1914
1915

5
5

62.0
62.5

. 586 36. 31
.590 36. 84

1913
1914

16
15

59.1
59.4

.444 26. 70
.424 25.45

7 plants........... 1914
1915

16
14

59.3
60.0

.436 26.03
.469 28.30

Stranders, all sizes:
Eastern—
12 p lan ts......... 1913
1914

107
108

56.5
56.4

14 p la n ts__
Stranders, 18-inch:
Eastern—
3 plan ts.
Pittsburgh—
1 p lan t_
_

3 plan ts. . .
Total—
6 plants .

9
9

3
2

9
9

2
31

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

84

21
21

2
2
2!

|
6
5i____'____
3
I
4
4
<
41
!
j

t
.

2
2
2

!

1

1
i
1

4
4

1
1

4
4

6
5

4
4

6
6

5
3

5
5

6
6

.291 16. 54
. 282 16. 02!
.292 16. 89 1
.290 • 16. 76

37
79

61
21

5
4

50'
43

74
74

17
21

11
11

72
99

124
95

11
11

35
184

1

’

1

4
4
j
I
|

15 plan ts......... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
9 plan ts......... 1913
1914

141
138

57.3
57.4

207
205

60.6
60. 7

13 plan ts......... 1914
1915

238
238

60.2
59.2

.358 21.53
.313 18. 78
1
!
.320 19.05
. 338 19. 73

1913
1914

124
122

57.5
57.2

.385 22. 25
.369 21.15

65
62

18
17

41
43

19 plants......... 1914
1915
Southern—
9 plants........... 1913
1914
1915

206
189

57.9
58.1

.344 19.99
.354 20.88

59
56

88
57

59
76! ........1.........

53
50
50

54.7
54.8
54.8

.308 17.12
.275 15.19
.264 14.51

37
36
36

12
12
12

4

1913
1914

491
485

58.3
58.3

.345 20.15
.316 18.39

150
188

163
149

174
142

4
6

56 plants......... ‘1914
1915

635
615

58.4
58.1

.318 18.57
.326 18.99

156! 209
146; 327
!

198
140

2
2

G. L. and M. W .—
12 plan ts___

T o ta l42 plants.........

j

!

ioi
9

11
8

35
31

1
1
11

13
11

1913
1914

Total—
10 plants.........

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

4
2
2

52.9 $0.451 $24.94
55. 5 .457! 25.79
55.5 . 425, 24.16
I
53.8 .439 24.21
53.8 .428 23.23

G. L. and M. W .—
2 p la n ts, ,
1913
1914

1
I
|

7
5
5

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Finishers, 8-inch:
'
Eastern—
41
2 plants...........
42

1913
1914

3
2

55.2
55.8

.347 19. 47
.351 19.56

2
1

j
44 i

1914
1915

7
7

57.6
57.6

.266 15.26
.279 15.94

41
4i

70

1
j

122
43
i

!

.

I
2
*

2!
1
1

70

1

_ 1 .

1

5 plants...........




i

|
1

I!
1

1 .
1

1

” ” 1........
2
.................. I*;.;*
2

i

I31

^ND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEA
3AR MILLS—Continued.

S ,1

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLED.

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
7
8
9
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
10
8
9
ets. cts. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

[
|
1

_____

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

|
i

I
.1
1

i

1

1
!
!

1

i

|

1

2
2'
j
4!
I!

1
1

4
3
1

1

i

i

i
!

1

1
2:
|

;
1
'
i
I
!
..........I...........

!
i
4
1
l
1[
i..........ii
1
!
1
..........i
2

|

L
ie

70
cts.
‘and
over.

0.

1
2

2

1
2

3

10
11
11
5

4
5

2
2
2

1
1

6

1
j
|
!..........I...........
1
i !..........i ' *
,
2I
21
i
.1
4!
i
2

8
9
10
11
12

2!
4’_____i

7

13

,

'

41
i
2

3 ..........

4'
1

1
i
1

4!
8

V

1
1
J

2

|

3
1

1
2
2I
1

1

1'
2

81
51

x!
3

14
15
16
17

i

4
3

1
l

1
1

1
1

:
..........I

i
‘ i

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

j

!
1

i
)
i

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

!
7l
3;
1
8
10'

17
21

9
2i

i
........1...........1..........

1

14
15

;

|

i

i

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

4
2
3

i

|
1

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
19

2
0
21

1
1

191
191

24
27

30
22!

22
23

i
161
12!

1

1
1

2

2

2
2

1
2

23
12

30
29

29
33

34
47

20 !
9

,1
3

1
I

35
49

32
39

50
62

31
22

3< f
*i
18

3
°

56
29

44
43

77
104

25
30

18
4

2
14

7
5

|
i

15
27

63
61

13
15

20
14

6

30
31

1
4 _____

32
33

2

2

34
35
36

|

1
2
3

7
6

5
1

3

5

3
1

6
4

5
4

1
3

1

6

j
I

2

6
6

16
13

42
22

88
86

30
34

15
17

2
2

2
5
7

12
9
9

18
18
16

12
10
11

3
2
1

22
23
24
25
26
27
1|
li

2
2

28
29

2
2
3

7
6

8
4

17
24

78
90

95
106

147
156

63
51

61
36

11

2

9

37
38

3!
2

i

2
2

6
6

15
8

6
12

34
26

111
80

133
114

209
248

77
74

37
26

a
18

1
1

39
40

3
2
i




2
2

2
2

2
2

41
42
1
1

43
44

384

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E EL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915-

N um ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of tim e
of
No. and number of plants.
em ­ hours wages
ploy- per
per
week. hour.

Finishers,
8-inchConcluded.
Pittsburgh—
6 plants.......
7 plants___
G .L . and M .W
2 plants.......
3 plants.......
Southern—
3 plants.......

T o ta l13 plants_
_
14
15

1
6
17

1
8
19

2
0
21
2
2

23
24
25

2G
27
28
29
30

18 plants_
_
Finishers, 9-inch:
.Eastern—
3 plants.......
2 plants.......
Pittsburgh—

6 plants.......
G. L. and M. W.
3 plants.......
3 plants.......
Southern—
3 plants.......

Total—
14 plants_
_
14 plants_
_

35 s
36 !

Finishers, 10-inch:
Eastern—
1 p la n t.........
2 plan ts___

40

Pittsburgh—
5 plants.......
8 plants.......




Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1913
1914

59.1 $0.367 $21.89
60.5 .324 19.67

1914
1915

61.0
60.1
64.0
64.0
64.0
66.5

.323 20. 441.
.313 20. 75!.

1913
1914
1915

55.9
55.9
55.9

.225 12.77!
.207 U. 57
. 184 10.05'

1913
1914

59.2
60.2

.328 19.53
.304 18.30,

1914
1915

60.4
60.4

.303 18. 37!
.319 19.29

1913
1914

56.8
56.8

.267 15.08,
.240 13.38

1914
1915

53.8
53.8

15.47
15. 47

1913
1914

60.7
60.7

17.04
.288 16.94

1914
1915

60. 3
59.3

.279 16.41
.281 16.40

1913
1914

68.2
68.2

.295 19.96!.
.295 19.96!.

1914
1915

67.2
67.2

.328
.328

1913
1914
1915

56.0
56.0
56.0

un­

.276 17.51L
.301 18.92'.

1914
1915

Over
Over
72
60
and 72 and 84
un­
der
der
72
84

.329 20.14 .
.364 21.93;

1913
1914

60

10

2

10 10

21.8
fil
21.8 1
6.

.202

11. 37'.
.203 11.42!.
.205 11.51!.

1913
1914

32
32

61.8
61.8

.273 16. 79
.268 16.45

1914
1915

33
33

61.4
61.0

.286 17.52
.287 17.53

57. i
57.,

.396 22. 77
.316 18.14

1913
1914
1914
1915

.309 18.83
.332 20.13

1913
1914

17

.454 25. 26
.422 23.37

1914
1915

1
1

.417 23.15
.430 23.14

12

llL
8'

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

A.ND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEA
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

9
8
7
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10
9
8.
7
cts. cts. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

60
and
70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

tne

o.

*
2
1

2
4

2
2j

7
10

3
2

4
1

1
2

1

4
2

2
3
1
1
2j
2i

12
11

2
5

1
1

3
4

2
1

1

2
2'
1
2;

2
3

2
1

2
2
2
2

5

6
7

8

2
4
2 ......................

1
1
2

1

1
1

2
1

6
10

o!
4

12
13

3
3

4
1

1
1

12
8

4
5

16
16

5
7

1
1

2

2i
2!

2
2

2
2

2
2

5
4

2
2

1

4
4

2
4

2

4
4

4
4

2
2

24
25

4
4

4
4

4
4

26
27

3
2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2
2

1
1

1

1
1
1

1
3
1

1

1
3

3
2

2
3

3

11
11

9
8

1

1
1

1
1

3
3

2
3

11
10

8
*11

1

12

13
j
|

1

i

1
1

89728°—17—Bull. 218------25




16
17

!

18

1
9

20
21
22

• •' Y -r-j „
tri

23

1

28
29
30

1
3
41
4I .
r

I

31
32

I
I

33
34

i

35

1

2
3

1
3
..........

14
15

1

2
1

1

1

9

10
11

3
4

11
11

2
2

3
2

7
7

14
7

2
9

i

j
2

$
1

39
40
41
42

386

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1 9 1 5 -

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, district, Year.
of
em ­
No. and number of plants.
ploy­
ees.

F inishers, 10-inch—
Concluded.
G. L. and M. W .2 plants....... .

1913
1914

4
3

1914
1915

11
11

Employees whose full-time hours per
Aver­
week were—
age
full­
Over 56
Over
tim e 48
48
60
week­ and and and
and
un­
84
ly
per earn­ un ­ u n ­ der 60 un­ 72
der. der 60
hour.
der

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of

ings.

56.8 $0.403 $22.94
58.3 .399 23.34
60.3
60.7

.402 24.46
.436, 26.88

1913
1914
1915

5 51.0
4 49.2
4 49.2

.341 16.72
.374 17.90
.374| 17.87

T o t a l10 plants......... 1 1913
1914

55.2
55. 5

.424 23.36
.406 22.25

7 plants..
Southern—
2 plan ts..

19 plan ts..
Finishers, 12-inch:
Eastern—
7 plants_
_
9 plan ts...
Pittsburgh—
6 p lan ts...
7 plants..
G. L. and M. W.2 plants.......
6 p lan ts..
Southern—
2 p lan ts..

27

72

Total—
17 plan ts..
24 plan ts..
Finishers, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
Eastern—
1 p lan t..........
3 plan ts...
Pittsburgh—
2 p lan ts...
G. L .andM . W.2 plan ts___

Total—
5 plants.

7 plants.




1914
1915

57. o; .400 22. 62
56. 5: .417 23.32

1913
1914

56.5
56.7|

1914
1915

56.5! .274 15.43
56.4j .275 15.59

1913
1914

63. 5j
63.51

1914
1915

63. 6j .323 20.35
62.9 .406 25.04

1913
1914

70.0i .413 29.10
70. O .384 27.04
j

1914
1915

63.8,
64.8

.366 23.06
.359 23.34

1913
1914
1915

65.9,
65.9

.448 28.86
.370 24.67
.358 23.91

I

I
63.9!

.253 14. 20
.253 14.17

.370 22. 85
.287 17.96

1913
1914

62.2

62. o;

.340 21.12
.295 18.49

1914
1915

61.1
61.3

.317 19.37
.347 21.34

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.297 21.38
.349 25.13

1914
1915

66.8
65.7

.346 23.
.333 21.72

1913
1914
1915

59.4
59.4
57.7

.378 21.61
.321 18.75
.342 19.57

1913
1914
1915

64.0
64.0
61.0

.342 21.
.379 24.30
.443 27.16
.347 21.62
.344 21

1913
1914
1914
1915

.93

63.3
61.8

.344 21.67;.
.360 22.07

10

BAE M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

387

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
8
6
7
.9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts. cts.




10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
16
and and
un­ un­
der ; der
20
18
cts.
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2
2

4
4

Line
70
cts. No.
and
over.

2
1

4
3

1
1

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

2
1

2
1

2

3
3
3

1
2
1

5

7
7

16
15

2
2

2

1

2

1
4

3
2

4
2

13
13

21
14

4
10

2

2
1

4

2
4

3'i
1

1
...........
2|

1

10
11
12

1

13

’
i

3
4

1

1
2

1

1

1

1

1
2

3
1

5
7

1

1

4
4

6;
3

1
2

2

1

7
4

3
4

2
2

1
2

1

2
2

5
1
1

i

2
2

2
2

2
3

|

1
1
1

1
1

16
17

2

29

3
2

21
22

1

2

i ..........

23

i

i ...........

2
2

4

6

9
13

12
7

2
5

| ‘
4
3
2‘____ I

6
2

5
4

1
4

13
10

7
10

8
6

5!
4

2

1

18
19

2

2
2
2

14
15

1

i!

29
30

L -= i

4
6
5

2
2
2

2
4
4

2
1
1

i

1
1

!

1

4
6
12

2
1

2
4

14
9

2
c

31
32

i
i

33
34
35
36
37

1
..........j
..........j
i

4
4

6
2

1

i

!

..........L. .

4
2

27
28

1

38
39
40
41
42
43
44

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .
,e P .— FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1 9 1 5 -

Occupation, district, Year.
and number of plants.

1
2
3
4
5

6

Finishers, 16-inch:
Eastern—
1 p la n t........

57.5
57.5

i. 361 $20.76
.394 22.66

1914
1915

62.7
61.6

.348 21.73
.300 18.33

1913
1914

64.3
64.3

.413 26.55
.282 18.13

1914
1915

63.4
63.4

.436 27.80
.471 30.01

1913
1914

53.3
53.3

.442 23.87
.487 26.84

1914
1915

56.9
56.9

.435 24.96
.375 21.36

1913
1914
1915

54.0
55.5
55.5

.270 15.25
.245 13.96
14.20

1913
1914

56.0
56.0

.380 21.62
21.57

14 plants......... 1914
1915

58.9
58.8

23.14
.360 21.39

58.5
60.0
60.0

.302 17.62
.231 13.43
.277 16.33

57.3
57.7
57.3

.640 37.
.600 34.93
.560 32.55

63.4
63.4
64.0

.394 24.95
.394 24.95
.375 23.

52.0
52.0
52.0

.274 14.25
.253 13.16
.282 14.66

1913
1914
1915

59.3
59.8
60.0

.415 24.70
.393 23.46
.390 23.39

1913
1914

58.5
59.0

16.85
.276 16.23

3 plants___
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts___
4 plants___

9

CL L.and M. W.
2 plan ts___

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

1
8
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
tim e
Over
48 and
week­ 48
60
ly and and un­ 60 and
earn­ un­ un­ der
un­
der
ings. der. der 60
56
72

1913
1914

7

8

N um ­
ber
of
em­
ploy-

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
tim e
of
hours wages
per
per
week hour.

4 plan ts___
Southern—
3 plan ts___

Total—
8 plants----

Finishers, 18-inch:
Eastern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 p lan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
2 plants........... 1913
1914
1915
Southern—
1 plan t............ 1913
1914
1915
Total—
7 plants..

Finishers, all si/.es:
E a ste r n 10 plants__
14 plants—
P ittsb u rgh 11 plants—
14 p la n ts....
G. L.andM . W.
10 plants—

17 plants....




13 *
141.

.292 17.29
.294 17.44

1914
1915
1913
1914

59.6
59.9

.392 23.08
.347 20.42

1914
1915

59.9
59.1

.362 21.42
.390 22.78

1913
1914

63.0
63.2

.362 22.57
.373 23.35

1914
1915

62.4
62.8

.376 23.33
.370 23.22

19

25

47

c

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

LND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEA
3A ll MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour wcre-

6 7
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
7
8 9 10
cts. cts. cts. cts.




10

and
un­
der

12

cts.

12

and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der

2
0

cts.

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

n©

5
.

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15

10
17

18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

15

12

35
36

11

7

16
17

37
38

15
19

23
25

20|
18'

39
40

2
0
1?

30
33

21j
15

41
42

19
18

10
10

22
19

43
44

15
24

45
46

390

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY.

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
em ­ time
No. and number of plants.
hours
ploy- per
week

Finishers, all sizesConcluded.
Southern—
9 plants.......

T o t a l40 plants..

1913
1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over 56
time
48
72
60
week­ 48
and and and 60 and 72 and 84
ly
un­
per earn­ un­ un­
un­
un­
hour. ings. der. der der
der
der
56
84
72

Aver­
age
rate
of

55.3 $0,283 $15.87
.262 14.49
55.
55.3 .258 14.21

1913
1914

182
173

59.6
60.0

.350 20.77
.330 19.64

1914
1915

223

60.0
59.8

.341 20.42
.352 20.95

1913
1914

56.2
56.2

.229 12
.244 13.76

1914
1915

56.1
56.6

.243 13.68
.234 13.29

1913
1914

61.0
59.8

.317 18.87
.226 13.40

1914
7 plants..
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
2 p lan ts..
1913
1914

60.1
60.8

.232 13.88
.296 17.49

64.9
64.9

.390 25.91
.364 24.05

1914
1915

63.4
63.4

.348 22.51
.366 23.73

1913
1914
1915

67.9
67.9

.359 23.49
.281 19.41
.273 18.84

1913
1914

60.8
60.2

.311 18.97
.257 15.60

1914
1915

59.9
60.5

.258 15.62
.293 17.71

1913
1914

72.0
72.0

.232 16.73
.274 19.75

54 plants..
Hook-ups, 12-inch:
Eastern—
6 plants___
8 plan ts...
Pittsburgh—
6 pla n ts...

3 plants..
Southern—
2 plants..

T o ta l16 p lan ts..
20 plants..
Hook-ups, 13-inch. 14inch, and 15-inch:
Eastern—
1 plant...........
3 plants..
Pittsburgh—
2 p la n ts.
G. L. and M. W .3 plan ts.........

Total—
6 plan ts.

8 plants.




222

63

.

.21

1914
1915

67

19.19
.257 17.62

1913
1914
1915

59.4
59.
57.7

17.32.
.258 14.93!.
.260 14.51!

1913
1914
1915

60.8
61.2
58.9

.249
.267 16. 33!
.296 17.59!

1 .0 !
52

1913
1914

43
44

63.5
63.6

.263 16. 25
.266 16.82

1914
1915

47
48

63.4
61.9

.267 16. 82:
.273 16.70

10

BAB M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

'

391

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wrages per hour were—

8
7
9
6
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ u n­
der der der der
7
9
10
8
cts. cts. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.




12
and
un ­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Line
No.
70
cts.
and
over.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

1
2
3

2
1
3

2
3
3

8
8
6

3
3i
2,

3
2
3

4
4
4

2

2
1

1
1
1

4
4

3
8

7
7

18
15

35j
37,

60
57

33
30

15
9

5
2

2
2

4
5

3

4
4

6
5

9
io!

23
21

40!
40|

70
72

46
46

14
15

3
5

4
4

6
7

5

8
5

2
3

l!

8
9

- 7
4

5
3

3
5

l

10
11

14
5

6

12
13

7
10

5

14
15

3
11

8

16
17

1
1;

11
8

4

18
19

t
I
1

2
2
2

2

20
21
22

2

1

2

2

3

11
20

2

3
2

20
10

'1
1

4
2
1
4‘
2
i
3 ’
41
I
4:
3!

1
1

2
2

1
3

6

19
25

7!
6

a
21

16
1

23
24

2
1

3
•4

8
5

26
13

9
6

23
25

1
9

25
26

8

4
12
1
15I
6

9
8
8j
8,1
!

7
6

23
14
j..........

14
17

2
7
91
7!
11
23
26
13

27
28
!
1 ____ 1_____
1
1
5
4
j
6
|
3
3
i
11 ..........1
...........
i
5 ____
4
7
1
7
18 ’ " I ..........

29
30
31
32
33

i
!
1
i

34
35
36
37
38
39
40

392

W AGES AN D HOTJHS OF LABOR---- IB O N AND ST E EL IN D U ST R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

N um ­
ber
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
em­
No. and number of plants.
ploy-

Hook-ups, 16-inch:
Eastern—
4 p lan ts----4 plan ts___
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts----4 plants___
O. L. and M. W,
3 plan ts___
7 plan ts___
Southern—
4 plan ts___

T o ta l13 plan ts. . .
19 plan ts. . .
Hook-ups, 18-inch:
Eastern—
5 plan ts___
Pittsburgh—
3 plan ts___
3 plan ts___
G. L. and M. W
2 plan ts___
3 plan ts___
Southern—
2 plants___

Total—
12 plants__
13 plants....
Hook-ups, all sizes:
Eastern—
11 plan ts....
14 plants__
Pittsburgh—
9 plants-----

11 plants—




Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.
Aver­
age
rate
of

1913
1914

62.8
62.4
64.3
64.3

.370 23.79
.229 14.73

1914
1915

63.5
63.5

.223 14.20
.227 14.41

1913
1914

50.8
50.8

.323 16.28
.333 16.88

1914
1915

56.3
60.2

.311 17.31
.255 15.46

1913
1914
1915

54.4
56.6
56.6

.250 13.94
.255 14.35
.253 14.24

1913
1914

56.9
57.4

.297 17.08
.281 16.00

1914
1915

59.1
60.7

.280 16.43
.251 15.29

1913
1914
1915

56.2
56.3
56.7

.201 11.21

1913
1914

57.2
57.2

.339 19.39
.302 17.34

1914
1915

56.2
55.4

.295 16.68
.278 15.48

1913
1914

63.3
63.3

.319 20. i7
19.35

1914
1915

61.
62.4

.306 18.88
.314 19.59

1913
1914
1915-

55.0
55.0
55.0

.219 11.96
.220 12.05
.224 12.22

1913
1914 I

58.4
58.4

16.41
.261 15.30

1914
1915

57.9
57.

.264 15.32
.268 15.58

60.6
60.6

.228 13.95
.245 15.03

1914
1915

60.7
61.2

.252 15.44
.243 14.93

1913
1914

60.5
59.9

.329 19.58
.249 14. 76

1914
1915

59.9
59.6

.248 14.73
.269 15. 78

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

.316 20.00
.275 17.30

1913
1914

Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

60.1 $0,256 $15.81
60.9 .283 17.55

1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

1913
1914

59

11.08
10.41

30

20

30

Over
72
72 and
un­
der

84

BAB M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

.

393

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNING S, IN EACH DISTRICT, B Y YEARS,
B A R M IL L S —Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

10
9
and and
un­ un­
der der
12
10
cts. cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

4
2

1
4
1

J
8

3

4

5

10

3

8
16

7
4

1

1

J
19

1

4
13

6
7

2
2
2

6
2
'2

5
8
8

11
8

6
14

20'
7i
4!
1
i
1
39
27

1

1
1

3

2
•

1

2
2
1

1
2
. . !
1
..........!.........
1
|
!'
1
|

4
1
|

___ i

3
5

2
1

4
31

5
3

14
35

25
2C

34
15

1

2

3l
31
1

2
5
4

9
1
1

2
1

1
2

!

2
2

2
6

11
9

2

3
4

9
6

:

2
2

8
10
6
6I

6
6

4
1

1

2
9

9
1

2

!
2

2
2

2

..I
! . ..
I
I
r ': ’
!
!
i
1
!
1
!
1
3!
,
3
1
3
5

2
4
2
15
9

16
17
. . 18
- 19

i

..

j

j

I
I..........
|

..........1..........
1

I
1
1
1!........
I
......... i......... ;
........ ........ 1
1
11
........ ........ r '

9!
14

„
16

!

6

2

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1

7 '
2

9
10

13
14
15

I

2

8

11
12

l

........ I.........

2

2
2

i
1
I
!
i

5
G

1
1

1

2
4

i

3
4

j
. '. . . J

2
2
i

60
Line
and
70 No.
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

8
8

4

2
4

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

!
2|

3
1

5
5

10
19
16:i . 13

17
10

4

5
7

3
9

10i

29!
8

8
17

10
9
12

12
8

6

17

25

12
16

1

4

40
41

3

17

36
18

17

3

21
34

5

2!

42
43

2!

6
2

3

39
38

21
17

20
22 !

6

1

l

!

1
1

.

'

1

2
2

2

|

!
i

1
I

. . . . . . . . . . . . ! '




4
3

'

10

I

1

1

5
1

38
39

44
45

394

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—■

Aver­
N um­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Line Occupation, district, Y ear. of
time
of week­
em­ time
No. and number of plants.
ploy- hours wages ly
per
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Hook-ups, all sizes—
Concluded.
G. L. and M .W .—
8 plants...........

T o t a l36 plan ts..

Over 56
48
48
and and and
u n ­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

85

59.6
60.9

.306 18. 23
.296 18.25

56.3
57.8
5'

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

19
19

59.0 $0.314 $18.56
59.2 .313] 18.55

1913
1914

14 plan ts..
1914
, 1915
Southern—
j
8 plants........... 1 1913
; 1914
1915

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

.265 15.36
.252 14.62
.250 14. 50

Roll hands, other, 8inch:
Eastern—
2 plants......... .
5 p la n ts...
Pittsburgh—
6 plan ts...
7 plants..
G. L. and M. W.1 p la n t........
4 plan ts..
Southern—
1 p la n t. .

36
18

49
61

23
4
4

15
15

5
3
3

1913
1914

220

227

59.6
59.

.291 17.32
.266 15.

42
23

63
112

110
73

1914
1915

262
245

59.8
60.3

.268 16.03
.270 16.25

4 121
24 [ 77

1913
1914

51.4
51.4

.253 13.15
.210, 12.48

4
4

1914
1915

55.2
55.3

.209 1L49
.220 12.13

7
7

1913
1914

25: 60.
27 i 62.8

.328, 19.77
.275; 17.17

8
6

6
2

1
3

10
16

1914
1915

63.0
62.3

.269, 16.83
.299' 18.47

6

2
2

3
3

18
14

1913
1914

69.0
69.0

.183; 12.63
.1831 12.63

1914
1915

62.2
64.8

.2431 14.97
.214! 13.84

1913
1914
1915

4: 65.0
4 j 65.0

37! 60.7
39 62.5

. 29Si 18.03
. 257j 15.94

1914
1915

52
51

61.7
61.7

.250 15.36
.260 15.97

31
32
33
34
35
36
37 1

Roll hands, other, 9inch:
Eastern—
2 plants......... .

1913
1914
1915

4
4
4

57.7
57.8
57.8

.217 12.62
.177 10.12
.167 9.44

Pittsburgh—
2 plants.

1913
1914
1915

10
10
10

54.2
54.2
52.2

.338 18.32
. 353 19.19
.345 18. 41

G. L. and M .W .3 plants........

1913
1914

12
12

65.6
65.6

.247 15.84
.247 15.84

2
2

10
10

4 plants.
Southern—
1 p la n t..

1914
1915

14
14

65.4
65. 4

.249 15.94
. 249 15.94

2
2

12
12

1913
1914
1915

8
8
8

57.5
57.5
57.5

.151
.162
.153




........i........
. J

137
144

Total—
10 plan ts..
17 plants..

84

42
43

1

1914

47 plan ts..

Over
72
72 and
un­
der
84

6

12
12

2
2

4

4

4
4
1

6
8
4
4

41 O. 0
S

%

4

8.68
9.29
8. 78

12
10
6

6
2

1
3

18
24

17
8

2
2

3
3

30
28

2
2
2

6

7
7
1

2
2
2
2
2
2

8
8
8

1
1
1

4

395

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ER A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS — C o n tin u e d .
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

10
9
and and
un­ un­
der der
12
10
cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

10
8

14
lo i

29
39

25'
16!

47
28

60
Line
and
70
No.
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

8

!

1

2

1

13
22

1

1

2
2
1

3
3
4

8
6
4

6;
8
9

2

2

6
4

6

10

0

16

68
56

33!
57j

81
71

2
1

4
4

10
8

18
13

64
81

79!
52]

81
68

2
!5j

1

2
1

1

27'

2
2

1

1
1

101
i
2

6
2
V
1
2 .......... 1

i
1
i
i

1

1

2

I

1

10
11

1

i
l

2
2

1
3
3

3

1

1

,*
5

I

2

2
4

2
2

2
2

1

1

1
1|!

4i
3!

2
2

4
4
6
5

1
3
3

3
1
1
5

4
4

6
6

2
5
1

2

i

31
3!

1

1
2;
2

1
6

10
11

1
6
6
5

14
15

!

5|

16

1

16
17

1

18
19

j

16
12

3
1
1

2

1
1

j
i

!

1
i

13

10

1

12

j

2
1

1
2

3

1

!

4| ..........

____ 1_____
i

|

8
4

12i
17'

'

j

6,

fi'

5

!

1

1

2ft____
IS!
3

1
ii

i

1

20
21
22
23

24
25
26
27
28
29
30

I

4
2
2

2

1

1

2

2

1
5

i

1
■
3
1

8
8
8
8
4
i




1

2
4
5

2
3
2

!

1
3
2
4
4!

2
2

t

1

1
2
2

2
2

31
32
33
34
35
36

2

37
38

*

4
4

39
40

1
i

41
42
43

396

W AGES AND H O U B S OF LABOB— IB O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Line Occupation, district,
No. and number of plants. Year.

Num ­
ber
of
em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1
2

R oll hands, other, 9inch—Concluded.
Total—
8 plants........... 1913
1914

34
34

9 p lants........... 1914
1915

36
36

59.7
59.1

.250 14.72
.245 14.31

5
6

R oll hands, other, 10inch:
Eastern—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

7
7

52.7
52.7

6
6

Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

59.4 $0,248 $14.51
59.4 »250 14.61

3
4

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

7
8
9
10
11
12

2 plants........... 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
4 plan ts........... 1913
1914

11
11

10
10

11
.5

10
10

15
15

.193 10.19
.197 10.43

4
4

3
3

53.9
53.9

.212 11.65
.198 10.89

4
4

23
23

67.7
67.7

.433 29.27
.425 28.62

1
1

2
2

2
2

18
18

34
34

64.0
62.5

.402 25.83
.379 23.79

8
2

2
2

2
2

22
16

8
9

65.4
62.9

.398 26.25
.431 27.36

2
4

1
1

5
4

5
5

5
5

2
2

18
18

12
6

4
6

3
3

29
22

13
14
15
16

Total—
6 p lants........... 1913
1914

30
30

64.2
64.2

17
18

12 p lants......... 1914
1915

48
49

63.0
61.5

.378 24.13
.367 22.87

6
6
3

61.3
61.3
61.3

.240 14. 71
.243 14.86
.207 12.54

32
31
29

68.9
69.1
67.9

.329 22.33
.259 17.84
.292 19.48

18
18

71.7
71.7

20
20

6

.377 24.81
.372 24.38

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

6

6

2
2

3
3

5
4
6

24
24
20

.338 24.26
.312 22.40

2
2

16
16

70.1
71.1

.301 21. 46'
.320 22.81

4
4

16
16

1
1
1

59i8
59.8
59.8

.283 16.91
.282 Ifi 85
.271 16.19!
I

32
33

T o t a l10 p lan ts......... 1913
1914

57
56

68.8
68.9

34
35

11 plan ts......... 1914
1915

58
53

68.8
68.6

.272 18.76
.297 20.28

2 61.0
2: 61.0

.286 17.42
.262 15.98

9
9
9

.298 17.51
.251 14.97!
.260 15.15

3

.321 22.04
.275 18.97 I

38
39
40

1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915




6

4
4
2

29
30
31

36
37

6

2
2
1

3 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
1 plan t............. 1913
1914
1915

Roll hands, other, 13inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
Eastern—
1 p la n t............

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84

13
13

7 plants........... 1914
1915
G .L .and M.W —
3 plan ts........... 1914
1915

Ilo ll hands, other, 12inch:
Eastern—
2 p lants........... 1913
1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
5 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
2 plants........... 1913
1914

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

56
and
un­
der
60

60.9
60.9
59.3

1
1
1

..... r1........
...

5
5

11
10

40^
40,

5
1

3

1
1
1
1

12
12

40
36 . . .

........
3
3
3

1

|
1

2
2
6
6
6

397

BAR M IL L S — G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were-1

6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

10
9
and and
un­ un­
der der
10
12
cts. cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
Line
and 70 No.
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

4

4
3

8
11

4
3

3

5
7

2
2

2
2

6
6

3
2

11
8

3
7

2
3

7
6

2

2

2
2

4
4

4

12
13

3

2
3

1
1

3
2

4
6

23
15

6

3
3

1

2
2

2

1

2
6

1

j

2
4

2
2

2
3

4

4

1
1
1
1
2
1
2

i

!
I
!
;
i
!

.

...1
1

2
2
4

......

!

i

1

12
13

3

2
3

1
1

3
2

15

4

2
3

7
7

25
19

2
8

5
6

1

2
2

1
8

2!
4
j

4
2
i

2

13

14
14
21

2
2

14

1

3
3

14
1

i

‘

i
1’

i
i

i
13
2
1

2

14

3
I
1

i
I
j
1
2
21____ i____

2
2

14

1
1
1

.......i......... t.........
i1
........ i .
.j

13
14

1
5

!

j

9

10
11
12

2

!

!
:

1
1

4
4

2
2
4
I

2

16
17

19

2
0
21
22
23
24

25
26
27
28

1
j
1

2
2

4
19

19
31

27
2

3
6

20
3

31
24

2
15

3
2
2

30
31

21

32
33
34
35

2
3
j

!
i

•




2
2

■i
1
i

4
4
4

4

i

3
1
5

2
i

36
37
38
39
40

398

W AGES AN D H O U R S O F LABOR-— IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T able P .—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

)

Aver­
N um ­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Line Occupation, district, Year. of
time
tim e 1 of
No. and number of plants.
em­
week­
ploy­ hours wages ly
per
per earn­
ees. week. hour.
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
Over
48 ; 48
and and
un­ un­
der. : der
56

Over
Over
60 ;
72
60 and 72 ' and 84
un­
un­
der
der
72
84

56
and
un­
der
60

1
9

Roll hands, other, 13inch, 14 inch, and
15-inch—Concluded.
Total—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914

9
9

3
4

3 p la n ts........... 1914
1915

11
11

60.9
59.6

5
6

Roll hands, other, 16inch:
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914

14
13

64.4 .358 23.08
64.5 ..242 15.58

14
14

64.5
64.5

.246 15.85
.240 15.84

3
3

68.0
68.0

.292 20.11
.294 20.22

2.
2

2
2
2

65.0
65.0
65.0

.230 14.95
.172 11.18
.181 11.77

2
2
2

i
........1.........
1
j

<30.9 $0,298 $17.51
60.9 .251 14.97

3
3

.257! 15.42
.261 15. 30

3

3

6
6
8
8

1

!

j

1
1

13
12

1
1

13:
13

11
12
13

3 plan ts........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M. W .—
1 p la n t............ 1914
1915
Southern—
1 p la n t............ 1913
1914
1915

14
15

Total—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914

16
15

64.5
64.5

. 342 22.06
.232 15.00

1
1

15
14

10
17

5 plan ts........... 1914
1915

19
19

65.1
65.1

.•245 16.03
.246 1G 10
.

1
1

17
17

6
5
5

57.3
58.0
58.0

.228 12.95
.202 11.45
.221 12.59

4
3
3

8
8
8

52.9
52.9
50.9

.443 23. 70
.353 19.04
.345 17.92i

6
6

2
2

62.8
62.8

.365 22. 90
.373 23.41!

3
3

60.7
61. 5

.385 23.32^
.422 25.93

16
15

55.8
55.9

.353 19.57
.305 17.09

16
16

55.9
55.1

.312 17.47
.321 17.76!

27
26

56.2
56.3

.224 12.61
.212 11.91

1

7
8
9
10

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
20
27
28
29
30
31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Roll hands, other, 18inch:
Eastern—
3 plan ts........... 1913
1914 i
1915
Pittsburgh—
2 plan ts........... 1913
1914
1915
G. L. and M .W .—
1 p la n t............ 1913
1914
2 p lan ts........... 1914
1915
Total—
6 plan ts..........

1913
1914

7 plants........... 1914
1915
Roll hands, all sizes:
Eastern—
7 plants...........

1913
1914

1

6

! "■

1

........| .........

■

I

.216 12.34
.210 11. 89

1913
1914

121
121

63. 5
64.0

.358 22. 6ll
.306 19.47,

1914
1915

135
133

63.4 .308 19.21!
62.2) .316 19.-511........

2
2

4
4

9
3

3
3

11
11

6

2
2

10
9

j

57.2
56.8




1

1
1

2!
2

1
1

32
29

13 plants.........

J

1;

2
2

10 plants.......... 1914
1915

P ittsb u rg h 10 plants.........

2
2
2

1
1

r

10
9!

6
6

15
15

9

8
5

1
i

18
18
18
18

4
4

103
103
9j

117
106

1

BAR M IL L S — G EN ERA L TABLES.

399

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNING S, IN EACH DISTRICT, B Y Y EA RS,
B A R M IL L S —Continued.




400

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,

1913 TO 1915—

Num ­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, district, Year. of
tim e
em ­ hours
and number of plants.
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Em ployees whose
week
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
time
48 and
week­ 48
ly and and un­ 60
earn­ un­ un­ der
ings. der. der

full-time hours per
were—
Over

60

56

Over

60

72
72 and
un­

and
un­
der

84

der

72

84

Roll hands, all sizes—
Concluded.
G. L .andM . W .—
4 plants......... . 1913
1914

36 68.9 $0,292 $20.09
36 68.9 .280 19.18

36
36

1914
1915

58 66.7 .295 19.69
58 66.8 .307 20.49

58
58

1913
1914
1915

15 60.7 .201 12.39
15 60.7 .187 11.41
15 60.7 .170 10.34

1913
1914

199 63.2 .316 20.02
198 63.6 .280 17.82

1914
1915

240 63.2
235 62.6

1913
1914

131 58.3
118 58.3

11 plants........
Southern—
3 plants..........

Total—
24 plants........
37 plants........
Hotbed men:
E a ster n 12 plants........
15 plants........
Pittsburgh—
11 plants........
14 plants.
G .L. and M.W —
11 plants........
18 plants........
Southern—
9 plants.........

T o t a l43 plants........
56 plants........
Shearmen:
Eastern—
12 plants........
15 plants........
P ittsb u rg h 10 plants........
13 plants........
G .L .andM . W.—
10p la n ts .. . .

17 plants___




|
.......!.......
1

9
9
9

6
6
6
i

29
29

19
18

151'
151

.285 17.92
.291 18.23

33
33

18
27

189^

.198 11. 61
.199 11. 75

50
51

39
27

30
28

12
12

1914
1915

155 58.5 .207 12.22
167 58. 5 .206 12. 08

64
61

34
49

45
45

12
12

1913
1914

260 61.3 .238 14.49
254 61.6 .217 13. 27

12
12

56
59

46
26

142
153

4
4

1914
1915

291 61.3
290 60.4

.217 13.19
.227 13. 49

12
81

73
4

33
31

169
141

4
33

1913
1914

135 62.5
132 62.7
199 61. 8
195 61.9

.213
.213
.218
.216

13.20
13.22

9
9

18
17

12
9

13
13

75
76

8
8

13.37
13.30

9
9

45
50

16
16

13 110
112

6
8

1913
1914
1915

74 55.9 .187 10.34
69 56.2 . 189 10.49
69 56.2 . 189 10.49

18
14
14

15
18
18

21
19
19

20
14
14

4
4!

1913
1914

600 60.3 .217 13.06
573 60.6 .209 12.61

39 139 118
35 145 81

13 267
13 271

24
28

1914
1915

714 60.3 .213 12. 77 35 200 102
721 60.0 .216 12.83 104 133 115

13 338
312

26
57

1914
1915

i

175

j

i
i

1913
1914

64 56.7 .218> 12.22
57 56.8 .2161 12.05

35
31

9
7

6
5

12
12

2
2

1914
1915

75 57.6 .222 12.64
72 57.8 .228 12.97

37
32

8
11

5
5

23
22

2
2

1913
1914

73 62.0 .336 20.60
69 62.3 .300 18.51

16
16

16
10

1
3

38!
37i

2
3

1
1

1914
1915

86 62.0 .293 17.94
88 61.6 .309 18.67 ' “ is

20
2

13
13

3
1

471
47,

3
7

|
!

1913
1914

53
52

63.1 j .296 18.12
62.7 i .307 18.64

5
5

6
5

3
3

5
5

31i
31

1
3

1914
1915

75 62.8
77 62.8

5
5

9

5

8

45

3

.338| 20.81
.3561 22/14

10

6

4

1

49

3

*!.......
'

|
1

401

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BAR MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour w ere-

12
and
un­
der
14

10
8
6
7
9
and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der
12
9
7
8
10
cts.

cts.

cts.

cts.

cts.

14
and
un­
der
16

cts.

16
and
un­
der
18

cts.

18
and
un­
der
20

cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

cts.

30
and
un­
der
40

25
and
un­
der
30

cts.

cts.

4
i

2
4
i

5
6'

20
6

10
22

2
4

5
1
1

4

4
6

26
33!

17
30

33
54

75
46

14
2

11
9

4
1

3
2

6
12

J
32

35
31

63
46

61
65

6
19

11
10

1
2

2
2

15
22

48
30

3
1

3
6

11]
9!

4
4
6
4

12
5

23
32

5
8

6
4
4
2

17
14
18
15

l

]

t

3
"3
3
3

2

3
3
j

3
3

2
2

2
i

3
3

3!
3

3
3

i
3I
31

2
2

2

2
2
2

8

12
10

11
12

]'
4

5
22
25
17

21
36
40
54

111
97
116
112

46!
50i
|
53
50

31

6
5

46
50

54
43

15
20

20
21

54
47

75
84

34
21

13
18
12

24
20
16

12
10
12

14
5
8

7
10
8

47
48

50
69

127
126

221
182

12

Hi
15i

13

17
1
21
18,
j

1
4

15
10

16
17
18
19

14

s'

20
21
22

2
1!
1

2

24
25
26

79
95

35! 10
231
........

27
28

1
32'_____
37
16

29
30

41
4

!

14

23

i

12
8

56
40

88
86

135
145

248
269

125
100

4
4

2
4

9
7

13
10

24
21

8
5

1
4

3
2

31
32

4
6'

4
2

7
10

14
6

28
28

10
3

6
13

2
2

33
34

I

1

2

2
1

2
2

7
6

19
22

10
8

4
1

1

26
26

1

2

1
1

3
3

19
18

26
30

22
22

11
9

1
5

30
31

4
2

8
8

7
5

3
3

1
3

30
25

14
20

11
9

5
5

7
5

8
5

2

10
14

|
i

2s|
21l
i

8
8

8
2

31
32

9
81

10
11

-

i

i
42*
37i
i
52:
65

8
8

..

i
1
I

2

2

6
7

7
3

|
2!
8:

2
4

..................

20
6

1
2i

2
2

|

14

cts.

2
5
6

1
3

j

’

2
2

15
13
i

cts.

cts.

12
12

60
Line
and
70 No.
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.

50
and
un­
der
60

40
and
un­
der
50

I

2

........i
1
1
1

1

89728°—17—Bull. 218----- 26




2

3

35
36
37
38
39
40
6

41
42

402

W AGES AN D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,

1913 TO 1915—

N um ­ Average
ber full­
Occupation, district, Year. of tim e
em- hours
and number of plants.
ploy- per
week.

Shearmen—Concld.
Southern—
9 plan ts___

T o t a l41 p la n ts. . .
54 p la n ts. . .
Shearmen's helpers:
Eastern—
8 plan ts___
11 p la n t s ...
P ittsb u r g h 10 plan ts. . .
13 p la n ts. . .
G. L. and M. W.
10 p lan ts. . .
17 plan ts. . .
Southern—
7 plan ts___

T o t a l35 plan ts. . .
48 p lan ts. . .
Bundlers:
Eastern—
2 plants
2 plan ts___
Pittsburgh—
7 plants___
8 plan ts___
Southern—
3 plan ts-----

T o ta l12 plants.......
13 plants.......




1913
1914
1915

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60

56

Over

60
60 and
un­
der

72

57.7 $0.255 $14.40
57.8 .238 13.46
57.6 .234 13.14

1913
1914

218 60.2
205 60.3

.281 16.74
.270 16.08

1914
1915

263 60.5
264 60.5

.280 16.78
.293 17.56

1913
1914

57 60.1
53 60.8

.176 10.50
10.15

1914
1915

65 60.2
59 59.5

.185 11.04
.183 10.84

1913
1914

207 63.1
185 63.9

.227 14.25
.207 13.30

142
131

1914
1915

225 63.4
229 63.0

.206 13.13
.217 13.69

155
139

1913
1914

102

65.1
97 64.3

.207 13.18
.207 12.97

1914
1915

155 63.9
139 63.8

.208 13.04
.202 12.73

1913
1914
1915

52 59.2
42 58.4
44 58.3

.175 10.20
.173 10.18
.162 9.48

1913
1914

418 62.7
377 62.9

.209 12.98
.198 12.43

256
232

1914
1915

487 62.7
471 62.3

.201

306
281

1913
1914

52.5
52.5

.200 10.50
.200 10.50

1914
1915

53.
53.3

.206 11.09
.217 11.58

1913
1914

168 61.5
157 64.5

.221 13.61
.206 13.25

1914
1915

163 64.5
197 64.8

.205 13.24
.210 13.58

.203

85
32

12.57

12.66

1913
1914

178 61.4
168 64.1

.218 13.38
.203 13.00

1914
1915

178 63.9

.203 12.97

210

64.4

13.38

123

10

123

6
6
6
6

63.1 .143 9.07
61.9 .140 8.69
61.9 .149 9.28

1913
1914
1915

120

120
4

2
2
123
72

92

72

403

BAR M IL L S — G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, BY YEARS,
BA R MILLS—Continued.
Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—
6
and
un­
der
7
cts.

7
and
un­
der
8
cts.

8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

10
9
and and
un­ un­
der der
12
10
cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
14
and and
un­ under i der
18
16
cts. cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Line
60
and >0 No.
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

9
8
10

4
5
4

2
1

3
5
5

6
2
2

1
1

4
5

11
14

13
12

17
13

65
63

40
34

31
39

26
17

7
5

4
3

6

14
12

12
14

18
13

82
75

51
53

44
49

20
18

9
11

8
5

6
10

19
19

8
7

10
9

12
6

2
2

4

10
3

19
17

8
13

12
7

8
8

2
6

6
1

2

2
2

2
8

12
10

30
45

99
103

24
2

8

16
16

51
40

131
145

32
15
15
18

8

14
15

12
12

10
10

50
46

12
11

8
4

10
14

16
17

........
121
12

.J

2
1
2

2
2

.

2
4
3

21
5

64
70

34
33

8
13

15
6

..

2

6

I

i

I

i

■ i '"
!

2

J

i
j

2

1
2

18
19

1

18
14
13

1
4
6

11
6
5

9
5
4

2
1

31
34

39
41

31
31

101
106

132
125

42
231

3
f>

8

34
25

41
30

49
40

133
122

178
190

27!
38

24
16

20
21
22

2
1
1

2

2

13

I
2

11
10
8

I

i

10
11
12

4

|

2

23
24

1

17

25
26

4
4

!

1

27
28

8
5
1

1

i

.......i.......

i

I

i
|

i

26
74

126
79

12
1

1

74
104

85
72

1
19

2

1

1
1
i

|

1

1

'




1

2
2
2

4
5
2

2

1

2
3

4

2

26
74

3
2!

6
6
2!

29
30
2
1
]

1
1

33
34
35
35
37

!

3

74
105

........ i......... 1
.........
r
130
83
93
77

12
1i

I

1;
20i

J

i

1

1

1
i

1 1
........ ........

1

31
32

i
38
39
40
41

404

W AGES AN D H O U E S OF LABOE---- IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b l e P . — FULL-TIME

HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
1913 TO 1915—

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Num ­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­ rate
of
Line Occupation, district, Year.
time
of
em­ hours wages
No. and number of plants.
ploy­ per
per
ees. week. hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
48
48
and and
un­ un­
der. der
56

56
and
un­
der
60

Over
60
60 and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

1

1
2

Laborers:
Eastern—

1913
1914

255
194

58. 8 $0.156 $9.17
61. 7 . 151 9.35

39
6

95
27

107
118

14
19

24

t

1914
1915

200
213

61.8
61.4

.151
.150

9.38
9.25

6
11

22
35

123
108

25
48

24
11

!
j

1913
1914

319
338

66.6

.183 12.19
.180 12.00

10
10

16
21

77
60

171
219

4
17

14 plants........... 1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
10 plants........... 1913
1914

445
413

65.5
65.1

.183 12.00
.184 11.96

20
23

63
66

288
216

21
52

160
123

64.8
65.0

.189 12.41
. 192 12.49

34
40*
!
7;
14

39*
9j
9,
4,

32
27

98
61

16
14

o!

2
2

1914
1915

253
267

63.5
63. 3

.190 12.09
.190 12.03

15
17

34'
30;

51
44

122
161

24
13

2

1913
1914
1915

157
141
136

58.1
58.1
57.9

.142
. 141
. 142

8.22
8.15
8.17

34
26
26

32
28
40

76
81;
64!

14
2
2

5
2;
j
I
I
i

1913
1914

891
796

i
62. 5- .169 i 10.66
63.6 .168; 10.75

83
42

150 292
90 ! 286

297
301

20
58

|
41.
14

4
4

1914
1915

1,039
1,029

67
77

118
145

318
282

437
427

72
79

14
6

6
3

9
11

15
18

3

4
32

37
17

63
57

13
26

2
6

16
17

8
10

4
3

106
106

25
32

2

6
2

1
1

18
14

17
15

16
27

5
4

4
4

12 1
9I

43
38

29
57

66
58

189
185

45
62

2
8

6
2

3
4
Pittsburgh—
5

6
7

8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23

24
25
26
27
28
29

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

So u th ern -

Total—
42 plants..........
54 plants...........

Unclassified—produc­
tive:
Eastern—
6 plants............. 1914
1915
Pittsburgh—
11 plants
! 1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
18 plants. . .. 1914
1915
Southern—
8 plants............. 1914
1915

|

63.3
62.9

.173 11.00
.173 ; 1 0 . 9 1

6
9

7
10

3
31

2
2
4
3

i
36
36

61.2
61. 2

. 157 9.56
. 155i 9.43

119
141

66. 7
64.8

176
177

64.1
64.4

61
65

57.9
58.4

. 215i 13 73
.225 , 14.64
1
.215 13.72
.218 14.00
I
. 159 9.17
. 155; 9.02

1914
1915

392
419

63.6
63.3

.201 12. 63
.205 13.05

1914
1915

253
297

63.2
61.3

.202 12. 58
.212 12.87

19
17

19
29

134
201

16
24

54
12

11
14

1914
1915
G. L. and M.W.—
12 plants........... 1914
1915
Southern—
9 plants............. 1914
1915

298
380

66.8
65.9

.212 14.09
.210 13. 86

9
3

16
134

108
46

47
42

21
95

81 ■ 15
51
8

311
194

68.8
66.6

.215 14. 78
.223 14.72

4
8

10
5

36
48

138
70

90
49

225
222

60.8
60.7

.190 11.39
. 189 11.33

1
1

45
44

22
30

106
97

32
31

7
8

6
61
|
1
1;

1,087
1,093

65.3
63.7

. 20‘* 13. 38
.208 13. 23

2
2

77
72

67
198

384
392

233
167

172
164

I
99;
72,

Total—
43 plants...........
IT
nclassilied—nonpro­
ductive:
Eastern—
11 plants...........
Pittsburgh—
11 plants...........

T o ta l43 plants...........




1914
1915

9
7
3
11

27
8
n
10
"3
26

405

BAR M IL L S ---- G EN ERA L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, IN EACH DISTRICT, B Y YEARS,
B A R M I L L S —Concluded.

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

6
7
8
9
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
V
8
9
10
cts. cts. cts. cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
40
and and
un­ un­
der
der
50
40
“ cts.
cts. '

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

Line
70
No.
cts.
and
over.

!

i
i
I
1

86
103

!
. . j . ....

;

.

1

1
1

1

1
I

1

37
33

I
!

i
i
t

i
i
i
:

2
5

!

611
!
88i
89|

I
!

5
G
7
8

1

9
10

!

1

3
4

11
12

31
29
i

89
105

22
18

3
2

103
104;

147
144

349
317

208
168

61

2

104
Q
Q

146
176

386|
323

211
223

190
208

2
16!
1
i
i

20
3

10 ..
14!

7
7

3
4

8
11

1

5
13

48
38

|

1
1..........

1

(

1
2

1

52
37
48

!

........I.........
I

1

1
1
..........!

1
I

J

13
14
15

1

!
1

i
i

1" '

!
1

1

16
20

i
i
;

■
...........'...........i
!

1

16
17

1
1
1

18
19

1

I1

21
23

12
13

49
341

30
44

98!
95
1
7
5

5
4

18'
3fV

4
2
1
82
92

20
21

61
53

191
195

15
8

4
17

19

5
II1_____

19

34
27

I
!
i
I
i
!
1
1
' P
i




i

I
j

i
e

!
1
9
28

2

!
i
!

4
3
>

3;!
;
2»
i

5l!
5o'
1

691
55

3l'
2
!!
i

57';
65 j
I

97
I
9C

I
!

1

24
25

1
i
!

1

..

26
27

i

28
29

!

95
65

14
16

61
106

43
61

6
6

2

321
4fi

72
91

142
182

34
37

11
18

88
55

115
87

15
12

21
17

6
4

26
32!
1

10
11

19
17

16
18

25
22

3
3

184
173

337
392

108
128

63
63

12
12:

....

1

3
3

64
17

2,
32

22
23

2

|

i

........! .
i

92!

1

1

!

i
!
1_____ , _____

1

!
77|
80,
70,

1

........i.........
I
!
........1.........

i
j____

74
68

101
103

1

!

i

1

1
i

i

121
130

1
i

VI

i

|
!
!
i____ 1
i
I
!

202
160

3
2

1
i

i
I
j

177
180

21
20

j
i

i
!
........i.........i . . . . ,
i
|
1
. Jr ' .
i
l
1
I

88
77

4
21

24
29

|
1

110
82

28
2
i
2
<
4 ____ 1
1
88
50 . . .
32
105

91
86

26
24

I
!

217|
160j

21
1

2
2

30
31
32
33

1
1
2
i
a,1
3 ____ ______

J

6
i

i
,! ..........
2

34
35
36
37
38
39

SHEET MILLS.1
SUMMARY.

The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of sheet-mili
employees in 1915 was 7 per cent lower than in 1914, 6 per cent lower
than in 1913, and 2 per cent lower than in 1912, Jbut it was 1 per cent
higher than in 1911 and 10 per cent higher than in 1910. The aver­
age full-time weekly earnings have followed very nearly the same
course, as full-time hours per week have been unchanged since 1912
and were only 1 per cent lower in 1915 than in 1910. These facts
are shown in the table of relative numbers, for UA11 occupations ”
(Table 39).
The most significant facts appearing in this chapter concerning
wages and hours of labor of sheet-mill employees for the years 1910
to 1915 are summarized by means of averages and percentages in the
following table. The facts for 1915 are reported for 5,736 men, and
were obtained from 15 plants having 142 hot mills and capable of
producing 38 per cent of the total tonnage of all sheet mills in the
United States. Of the 5,736 employees, 3,940 were in the 14 prin­
cipal productive occupations and the remaining 1,796 are in the
unclassified productive and nonproductive groups reported for the
years 1914 and 1915 only. These 15 plants roll ordinary commercial
black sheets, gauges 12 to 30, and mills are not included which roll
extra heavy sheets or thin plates. Some sheet mills occasionally roll
black plates for tinning, but when so utilized they are classified in this
report as tin-plate mills.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order. Classified full-time hours
per week and rates of wages per hour are shown by percentages which
were computed from the actual figures given in Table Q.
i Summary figures relating to this department are given with figures for other departments of the iron
and steel industry on pages 7 to 26; an account of the volume of employment in this and other depart­
ments from July, 1913, to June, 1915, is given on pages 26 to 55; and an explanation of the scope of the
investigation and of the methods employed is given (H pages 55 to 59.
i

406




S H E E T M IL L S — SU M M A R Y .

407

T able 38.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULLTIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1915—S H E E T MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Laborers:
9 p la n ts.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
Aver­
Aver­
per week were—
hour were—
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate 14 16 18 20
Over
Year. of em­ tim e 48 Over
of and and and and 25
48
60
ploy- hours and and
72
un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
and and
per un­ un­ 60 un­
per der der der der and
der. der
der over. hour. 16 18 20 25 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts.
72
60

Aver­
age
full­
tim e
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1910
1911
1912

347
361
354

63.1
63.6
63.5

4
5
4

64
53
54

13
25
26

19 $0.164
17
.166
16

8 p la n ts..

1912
1913

238
260

63.8
65.0

5
8

55
42

15
18

24
32

.168
.191

10.76
12.39

13 plan ts.

1913
1914

351
286

64.9
65.9

17
13

37
21

13
36

33
29

.190
.190

12.28
12.46

15 plan ts.

1914
1915

378
394

65.9
65.0

10
10

26
32

32
30

31
27

.188
.188

12.21

1910
1911

50
49

70.8
71.8

10
10

90
90

.181
.172

12.75
12.35

5 plants. .

1911
1912

58
39

71.2
71.7

9
13

76
72

.177
.186

12.54
13.23

4 plants..

1912
1913

33
30

72.4
70.0

15
17

85
83

.183

1913
1914

71
71

68.1
68.2

11
11

7
7

8
6

73
76

.216
.215

69.6

7
6

4
3

8
6

81
84

.211

7
4

21
27

24
27

41
36

.212
.211

2
C
1)

17
17

33
42

48
40

.208
.207

Picklers:
4 p la n ts..

8 p la n ts..

9 plants..
1914
121
1915
126
Unclassified—produc­
tive:
13 p la n ts.........
1914 1,445
1915 1,207
U nclassified—nonproductive:
13 plants.........
514
1914

66.5

66.0

6
6

16
15

?10.35
10.54
10.72

12.37

61

.202

23

13.1714.06
14.49
14.40
14.55
14.44

62

.209

14.05
13.88
14.41
14.25

13
25 30 40
U n ­ and and and 50
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
25 der der der and
cts. 30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts.

Openers:
7 p la n ts.

1910
1911
1912

138
1G7
180

46.0
45.2
45.8

86
89
87

14
11
13

.274
.275

1912
1913

170
168

46.0
45.4

86
88

14
12

.274
.279

7 plants.

1913
1914

161
159

42.8
42.8

100
100

9 plants.

1914
1915

20
0
180

42.8
43.6

100
96

1910
1911
1912

62
83
77

46.4
44.9
45.1

1912
1913

67

1913
1914

111

1914
1915

6 p lan ts.

Shearmen’s helpers:
6 p lan ts..............

5 plants.
7 plants.
9 plants.




11

12.57
12.35
13.04
12.43
12.56

39

.291
.282

12. 45
12.09

2

.282
.273

12.06
11.93

84
90
90

16
10
10

.261
.308
.290

45.5
45.3

88
89

12
11

.267
.267

91

42.9
43.0

100
100

128
146

42.9
43.8

100
95

70

2

12

3

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

.282
.242

12.88
11.97
11.93

16

10.77
12.45

.251
.290
2

11.99
13.59

56

18

12.09
10.59

408

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N A N D S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T able 38.—FULL-TIME-HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1915—S H E E T MI LLS—Contd.

AverOccupation, and
number of plants.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Num| ber a t
Year.!of em­ time 48 Over
48
p loy­ hours and and
ees. per un­ un­ 60
week. der. der
60

Aver­
age
rate
Over
of
60
72
and and wages
per
un7 over. hour.
der
72

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per Aver­
hour were—
age
full­
30 40 50
time
U n­ and and and 60 week­
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
30 der der der and earn­
cts. 40 50 60 over. ings.
cts. cts. cts.

ly

Doublers:
9 plants...............

1910 j 210 42.7
1911 | 252 42.7
246 42.7
1912

$0,372
.401
.412

11
4
2

50
48
31

40
40 " s '
62
6

8 plan ts...............

216 42.7
1912
1913 , 222 42.7

.423
.450

2
1

21
18

71
64

7
16

1

18.06
19. 21

13 plants.............

1913 j 336
1914 ; 333

42.8
42.8

.429
. 459

2
4

32
19

49
43

16
31

3

18.34
19.66

15 p lan ts.............

1914 1 399
354
1915

42.8
42.8

. 462
.453

3
1

16
19

48
57

30
21

3
4

19. 75
19.42

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7
42.7
42.7

.387
.418
.429

11
6
3

38
43
25

52
33
61

18
11

8 plan ts...............

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

.439
.462

3
1

15
15

69
60

13
23

1

18. 75
19. 72

13 plan ts.............

1913
1914

336
333

42.8
42.8

.448
.480

2
4

27
16

45
35

25
39

1
6

19.16
20. 56

15 p lan ts.............

1914
1915

399
354

42.8
42.8

.484
. 475

3
1

13
17

39
42

39
34

7
6

20. 70
24.30

1912
1913

115
139

42.7
42.7

.474
.517 l

30
49
43 **5’ 23

22
29

20.21

8 plants..............

1913
1914

171
187

42.7
42.7

32
31

27
34

17
10

24
25

21.48
24.46

10 plan ts............

1914
1915

264
233

42.9
42.9

33
33

28
49

11
4

28
13

23.77
19. 77

1910
1911
1912

174
215
208

42.7
42.7
42.7

56
34
33

36
42
47

2
24
19

i
1

16.07
18.59
18.71

7 plan ts..............

1912
1913

178
178

42.7 100
42. 7 j 100

.439

38
15

38
34

23
35

1
16

18.74
21.81

10 plants.............

1913
1914

230
230

42.9 ! 100
42.9 100

.483
.494

22
20

34
31

33
33

12 20.70
15 i 21.16

13 plan ts.............

1914
1915

309
275

42.8
42.9

.485 ; 1 19
j . .. . 20

39
61

29
12

12
7

Matchers:
9 plan ts..............

Rollers’ helpers or
finishers:
6 p lan ts..............

S h eet b e a te r s’
helpers:
8 plan ts..............

I

j'T
.461
i
! 5

100
100

$15.86
17.10
17.58

16.53
17.83
18.30

22.05

20.73
19.60

40 50 60
!U n­ and and and 70
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
40 der der der and
cts. 50 60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts.
Catchers:
9 plants.

1910
1911
1912

215
258
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

8 plants.

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

13 plants

1913
1914

336
333

42.8
42.8

16 plants

1914
1915

399
350

42.8
42.8




100
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
0
100
10
0
100
10
0

.544
.587
.603

9
5
2

19
13
19

38
45
16

34
18
52

20 }
12 i

.617
.652

2
1

8
5

18
15

59
51

14
28 j

.629
.629

1
3

11
10

26
23

35
40

27 !
24 ;

.636 ! 2
. 595
1

8
11

21
43

43
32

1

26 ' 27.23
13

409

S H E E T M IL L S ---- S U M M A R Y .

T able 38.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1915—S H E E T MILLS—Concld.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Pair heaters:
9 plants..............

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
j whose earnings per
per week were—
A verAver­ j hour were—
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Year, of em­ time
Over
of
Over
40 50 60
U n­ and and and 70
48
ploy- hours 48
60
72 wages
per and and 60 and and per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­ over. hour. 40 der der der and
week. un­ un­
der. der
der
cts. 50 60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts.
60
72

10
0
10
0
10
0
100 '
10 s
0
10 !
0
10 i
0
i
100 '

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

1912
1913

219 1 42.7
219 42.*7

13 plan ts.......... .

1913
1914

330 ; 42.8
333 , 42.8

15 pla n ts............

1914
1915

354

42.8
42.8

100 ;........I.........j.........1........

1910 | zio
1911 I 259
1912
252

42.7
42. 7
42.7

10 !
0
10
0
10
0

1j

100 ........1.........1.........'......... 1.242
100 ........1.........1
.........!......... 1.380

8 plan ts..............

Rollers:
9 plan ts..............

42.7
42.7
42.7

8 plan ts..............

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42. 7

13 plant s ............

1913
1914

335
332

42.8
42.8

1914
1915
1910
1911
1912

394 1 42.8
348 . 42. 9
i
215 42.7
255 I 42. 7
252 i 42.7

1912
1913

222
222

15 p la n ts:..........
Roughers:
9 plants..............

8 p lan ts..............

336
333

13 plan ts............

1913
1914

15 plants............

1914 i 399
1915 j 353

Shearmen:
7 plants..............

Gplants..............

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913 i

85
104
105
95
93

10
0

10 1
0
10
0
10
0
I
I
0i
42. 7 10 !
01
1 42.7 10 !
0
42.8 10
0
42.8 10
0:
42.8 , 10
0
42. 8 | 10
46. 0 ! 8 ;
6;
!
44.9
44.9

45. 1
45.2

90 !
90 1
!
1

.$0,466
.! .502
.517

20
16
6

1
2

23.23
22.99

22

1.431
1.280
6

16
6
! 17
■i
I
1

1 j 9
1
9

. 642
.644
,........I
!
i .648
. 619

6
1

6
7

10
24 ; 66

34.42
36. 34

.814
1
2
1 .836 , 3
1
! . 860 1 2 j 1
.827 j
3

10
11

18 | 69
9 I 76

34.90
35. 84

7
2

10
23

80
72

36. 84
35. 48

4

11
15
14

85 37. 68
85 j 38.88
85 1 40.51

12 plants............

1913
1914

307
301

42.8
42.9

.993
.963

11 plan ts............

1914
1915

364
324

42.8
42.9

100
10
0
10
0
10
0

I
|
1

.966
.868

1
1

1913
1914

42.7
42.7

100
100

1914
1915

42.7
42.7




26.99
28.40

3
3

.989
! .998

2 p lan ts............ .

18
33

30. 79
32. 86
34. 67

42. 7 j 100
42. 7 ' 100

Sheet heaters, levelhanded:
2 plants. : .........

19
16

11 : 54
9 ! 49
9 , 77

223
223

1
I

23.82
20 : 25. 71
16 26.29

1
j
1
j
.18 ’
50 !

15
29
6

I 801
!

39 ! 39
18
17 1 51

7
6
6

1912
1913

136
115

i
|

61. 20
54.80

n l
8
3

! .689
. 722
. 768

8 plants..............

1914
1915

114

63. 21
61. 58

8
7

215
259
253

114 * 42.9
42.9 !

61. 31
62. 08

1

1910
1911
1912

10 plants............
Sheet heaters:
9 plants..............

1913
1914

52. 98
58.99
60. 41

26 ' 31
33 27.49
21 , 39 , 29 27.54
I
30 1 27.73
19 - 43
36 i 40
17 I 26.51

11
11
I

92
100
100

i
1

1
I

558
603
.616

1 i 23.10
1 22.17

! 100
100
i
!
100
j
, 100
i
|
100
0 ) j 100

1

.666 '

14
10
10 1

51 ! 22
46 ; 9

-I 0)

i

!

19
41

3

j

! ........i
1
1
1
i
i
;

24

i

1

!
i
i
1

22.69
23.79

1. 476
1.439

1
1

1

2

1.437
1.455

1
i
1
j

i

16
27

540
.518

i

!

21.42
22.06

. 543
. 537

|
!
1
1

1

. 532
. 558

i

18 j
14

100 i
100 ;
;
|
42.9 | 100 !
43.0 | 100
42.7 ! 100 I
I
42.7 I 100 i
42. 7 100

8 plants..............

Aver­
age
full
timeweek­
ly
earn­
ings.

1
f

883
.911
. 949

........ ! .........
___ i____

l

o

<*>; 3
4

97
96

42. 21
42.60

5
1 ! 3
j

95 ' 42.50
96 41.24

1
1

3
11

96
88

43
60

0

57 30.17
40 , 28.72

14
35

86 ! 32.65
47 | 29.27

41.34
37.19

j
I
|
j
!

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

. 707
.673

i

. 762
. 686

18
I

410

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

Referring to the first occupation shown in Table 38, laborers, com­
parison can be made of data from 9 identical plants for 1910, 1911,
and 1912, 8 plants for 1912 and 1913, 13 plants for 1913 and 1914,
and 15 plants for 1914 and 1915. In 1915 the 15 plants from which
reports were obtained employed 394 laborers whose average full-time
hours of work were 65 per week. Ten per cent of the 394 laborers
worked over 48 and under 60 hours per week, 32 per cent worked 60
hours, 30 per cent worked over 60 and under 72 hours, and 27 per
cent worked 72 hours and over per week. The average rate of wrages
or earnings per hour of *the 394 laborers in 1915 was 18.8 cents, 24 per
cent having earned 16 and under 18 cents, 73 per cent 18 and under
.20 cents, and 3 per cent 20 and under 25 cents per hour. The average
full-time weekly earnings were $ 12 .2 1 .
The average full-time weekly earnings of sheet-mill employees in
1915 ranged from $10.59 for shearmen’s helpers to $54.80 for rollers.
IN D E X N U M B E R S.

Owing to changes in the number of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the overlap­
ping year in two groups, it is difficult to make a comparison of the
actual data over a period of several years which will give an accurate
measure of the changes throughout the period. To aid in making
such a comparison, relative or index numbers have been computed
from the averages given in Table 38 for full-time hours per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each
occupation, and for the department as a whole as determined by a
combination of the data for the several occupations, from 1910 to
1915. Such figures appear in Table 39.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1915 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent which the average for th at year is of the
average for 1915. For example, the relative full-time weekly
earnings of pair heaters in 1910 were 91 as compared with 100 in
1915, th a t is, the full-time weekly earnings of pair heaters in 1910 were
91 per cent of the full-time weeldy earnings in this occupation in
1915. The method of computing relative numbers is explained on
pages 65 to 67.
Table 39 also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1915, as compared with each specified
year preceding. These percentages of increase and decrease are
computed from the relative numbers. Thus the full-time weekly
earnings of pair heaters in 1915 were 10 per cent higher than in 1910,
2 per cent higher than in 1911, the same as in 1912, 5 per cent lower
than in 1913, and 4 per cent lower than in 1914.




411

SHEET MILLS— SUMMARY.

I

In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the
full-time weekly earnings of pair heaters in 1911 were 8 per cent
higher than in 1910, in 1912 2 per cent higher than in 1911, in 1913 5
per cent higher than in 1912, in 1914 1 per cent lower than in 1913, and
in 1915 4 per cent lower than in 1914. The other occupations and
items of the table can be studied in like manner. The percentages
of increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers.
The figures for the department as a whole appear at the end of the
table.
T a b l e 39.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES PE R H O U R ’

A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E TH E R W ITH P E R C ENT OF
IN C R EA SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SPEC IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATION—S H E E T M IL L S .

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —)
in —
Occupation and year.

Pair heaters:
1910...........................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1914......................................
1915..........
Rollers:
1910.................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1 9 1 3 ..................................
1914......................................
1915.................................
Rollers’ helpers or finishers:
1910..........
1911....................................
1912....................................
1913......................................
1914......................................
1915...........................
Roughers:
1910......................................
1911.......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1914.......................................
1915...................................
Catchers:
1910...........................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1914......................................
1915......................................




Rela­
tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
R ela­
tive
Each
Each
tiv e
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
com­
fied
fied
com­
fied
wages com­
pared year as
per
pared year as weekly pared year as
earn­
w ith
com­
com­
w ith
w ith
com­
hour.
ings.
each
each
pared
pared
pared
each
w ith
w ith
speci­
with
speci­
speci­
year
fied
year
year
fied
fied
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
year.
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100
100
100
100
100
100

(i)
(0
0)
C
1)
(x)

100
100
100
100
100
100

(1)
0)
(l)
(1)
(l)

100
100
100
100

(1)
0)
0)

100
100
100
100
100
100

(1)
C
1)
C
1)
C
1)
0)

100
100
100
100
100
100

(1)
0)
(l)
0)
0)

(l)
C
1)
(l)
0)
0)

91
98
100
105
104
100

+ 10
+ 2
(0
- 5
- 4

C
1)
(l)
0)
0)
0)

99
111
113
115
112
100

+ 1
-1 0
-1 2
-1 3
-1 1

C
1)
(l)
0)

97
106
120
100

-1 3
- 6
-1 7

C
1)
0)
C
1)
0)
0)

90
97
99
104
105
100

+
+
+
-

11
3

91
98
101
107
107
100

+
+
-

10
2

(l)
0)
h
0)
1 No change.

1

4
5

1

7
7

+ 8
+ 2
+ 5
- 1
—4

91
98
100
105
104
100

+ 10
+ 2
0)
- 5
- 4

+ 12
+ 2
+ 2
- 3
-1 1

99
110
113
115
112
100

+ 1
- 9
-1 2
-1 3
-1 1

+ 9
+ 13
—17

97
106
120
100

+ 3
- 6
-1 7

+
+
+
+
—

8
2
5
1
5

90
97
99
104
105
100

+
+
+
-

+
+
+
(0
—

8
3
6

91
98
101
107
107
100

+10
+ 2
- 1
- 7
- 7

7

11
3
1

4
5

+ 8
+ 2
+ 5
- 1
—4
+ 11
+ 3
+ 2
- 3
—11

+ 9
+ 13
- 17
+ 8
+ 2
+ 5
+ 1
—5
+
+
+
(l)
-

8
3
6
7

412

WAGES AN D H O U RS OF LABOR---- IRON AN D STEEL IN DUSTRY.

T a b le 39.—R E L A T IV E FULL-TIM E H O U R S P E R W E E K , R A T E S OF W AGES P E R H O U R ,
A N D FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S, 1910 TO 1915, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R C E NT OF
INC R EA SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S , B Y OCCUPATION—S H E E T M I L L S —
Continued.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)

Occupation and year.

Matchers:
191 0
191 1
.
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
.
Doublers:
191 0
.
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Sheet heaters:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Sheet heaters, level-handed:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Sheet heaters’ helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Shearmen:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Shearmen’s helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
Openers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
10
0
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
102
100
10
0
100
100
100
101
98

100
100
98
100
98
98

100

1915 as
comwith
each
speci­
fied
year.

0)
0)
8
0)
0)
0)
(l)
0)
0)

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)

(0
(0
0)
(l)
0)

102
100

C
1)
C
1)
0)

81
87
90
95

(l)
0)
<1)
0)
0)
0)

90
95

102
100
106
109
114
115

111
100
117

+22
+ 14
+11
+ 5
- 2
+23
+ 15

+11

+ 5
- 2

-12
-1 3
-10

111
100
0)
0)
C
1)
8

0)
0)
0)
0)

(l)

+2
+2
+2

—X
o

77

+30
+ 14

8
8

C
1)
0)
(l)
C
1)

C
1)
(0
0)
C
1)

-1

+2
+2
+2
+2

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
Each
tive
full­
speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
fied
com­
fied
com­
fied
wages
pared year as w eekly pared year as
year as
per
earn­
with
com­
com­
with
com­
hour.
ings.
each
pared
pared
pared
each
with
speci­
with
speci­
w ith
fied
year
fied
year
year
pre­
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

8

8
0)
0)

W eekly earnings.

-3
0)
0)
C
1)

+2

-2
+2
-2
0)
+2
* No change.

89
104
106

100
90
96

101
104
100

-1 0

+12

- 4
- 6
+ 16
+ 11
+ 4
- 1
- 4
+ 10
- 7
- 1
- 1
-1 5

100

+ 1
C
1)
- 5
- 7
- 3

105
107
103

100

+2
+ 6
+ 7
- 2
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

7
3
6
7
2
3
5
1
3

-10

8
8

+22
+11
+14

102
10
0

+ 5
- 2

+
+
+
+

81
87

+23
lo

+ 7

102
100

+ 5
- 2

+ 7
+ 7

106
109
114
115

- 8
-12
-1 3
-10

90
95

111
100

+12

7
2
6
7

- 2
+2
—2
+
+
+
-

3
5
1
3

-10

117

—5
-1 0

91
107

101
101
117
100

82

+ 7

112
100
76

+U !
+ 1
+ 17
+ 2
- 6
+
+
+
+
_

5
7
5
3
4

+ 18
- 6
(l)
+16
-1 5
+ 1
+ 5
+ 2
- 4
- 3

88

89
104
106
100

- 4

-11

+32
+ 14
+ 12
- 4
- 6 j

+ 16
+ 1
+ 17
+ 2
- 6

.413

S H E E T M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

T a b l e 39.— R E L A T IV E FU LL-TIM E H O U R S PE R W E E K , R A T E S OF W A G ES P E R H O U R ,

A N D FULL-TIME^ W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S; 1910 TO 1915, T O G E T H E R W IT H P E R CENT OF
INC R E A SE OR D E C R E A SE IN SP E C IFIE D Y E A R S, B Y OCCUPATION—5 H E E 7 M I L L S —
Concluded.
i
!

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in—
Occupation and year.

Pieklers:
1910.......................................
1911.......................................
1912......................................
1913.......................................
1914.......................................
1915.......................................
Laborers:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1911......................................
1915......................................
Unclassified—productive:
1914......................................
1915.......................................
U nclassified—n onprod ucti ve:
1914......................................
, 1 9 1 5 ......................................
All occupations:
1910......................................
1911......................................
1912......................................
1913......................................
1914......................................
1915......................................




Rela. tive
full­
tim e
hours
per
week.

101
102
103
100
100
100
98
98
98
100
101
100

W eekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
tive
Each
Each
full­
1915 as speci­ rate of 1915 as speci­
tim e 1915 as speci­
fied
com­
fied
wages
fied
com­
com­
pared year as
pared year as weekly pared year as
per
earn­
hour.
w ith
com­
with
w ith
com­
com­
ings.
pared
pared
pared
each
each
each
speci­
with
with
speci­
w ith
speci­
fied
fied
year
fied
year
year
pre­
pre­
year.
pre­
year.
year.
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

92
88
92
102
101
100

+ 9
+ 14
+ 9
- 2
- 1

(0
+ 2
+1
—1

85
86
88
100
100
100

418
+ 10
+ 14
0 )
C
1)

—1

101
100

-

—1

101
100
91
99
102
106
108
100

+ 10
+ i
- 2
- 6
—7

—1
- 2

-3
(l)
(1)

+1
+1

-3
0 )
(0

+2
+ 2
+ 2
0

)
-1

101
100

—1

101
100

-1

101
99
100
100
100
100

C
1)

—1
+ 1

- 2

+1

)
C
1)
0 )
0

)
C
1)
0 )
0

1

No change.

- 4
+ 5
+ 11
- 1
—l
+ 1
+ 2
+ 14
0 )
0 )

—1

93
90
95
101
101
100
84
85
87
100

101
100

+

8

+19
+18
+15
(l)
- 1

1

1

101
100

-

—1

—1

j

- 3
+ 6
+ 6
C
1)
—1

+11

+ 5
- 1
- 1

101
100

- 1

+ 9
+ 3
+ 4
+ 2

91
98
101
105
108
100

+ 1
+ 2
+ 15
+ 1
—1

1

—1

+10

+ 2
- 1

- 5
- 7 !
i

+ 8
+ 3
+ 4
+
_3
7

414

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

The relative full-time weekly earnings for all occupations com­
bined in 1910 was 91, as compared with 100 in 1915. The relative
increased to 98 in 1911, to 101 in 1912, to 105 in 1913, and to 108
in 1914, but in 1915 there was a drop of 7 per cent, the relative
being 100 . These relative numbers for each year previous to 1914
are based on the principal productive occupations only, while those
for 1914 and 1915 include the unclassified groups (see pages 55 and
56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for the first time.
FU L L -T IM E W ORKING D A Y S P E R W EEK .

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in sheet-mill plants whose customary working time
per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations
thereof, are shown in Table 40. I t will be noticed th a t the cus­
tomary working time of a large number of the employees in this
departm ent was u 5 days, 5 days, and 6 days in rotation.” In all
except one of the plants covered, the hot-mill employees were divided
into three groups, each working 8 hours per turn, five turns per week,
Monday to Friday, inclusive, with one crew working one turn Satur­
day morning. In the one plant excepted two turns were worked on
Saturday. Each crew advances one turn each week, thus giving each
crew the extra Saturday turns in rotation.
Two sets of figures are shown for the 15 plants reported for 1914
and 1915, the first covering only the principal productive occupa­
tions as shown for all the preceding groups of years, and therefore
strictly comparable with them, and the second including the unclas­
sified occupations (see pp. 55 and 56) tabulated for 1914 and 1915 for
the first time. The inclusion of these occupations makes a greater
change in this table for sheet mills and in th a t for tin-plate mills as
well than for any other departments, owing to the general custom of
sheet and tin-plate hot-mill employees in the principal productive
occupations of working three turns per day, 5 or 6 days per week,
as stated above, while employees in the unclassified occupations, being
largely mechanics or laborers, work 6 days to a large extent.




415

S H E E T M IL L S — SU M M A R Y .
T a b l e 40.— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH SPECIFIED
NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1915-SH EET MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.3
NU M BER.
Employees whose customary working tim e per week
was—

Number of plants.

N um ­
Year. ber of
em5
days.

Pittsburgh:
9 plants...................................

5
days,
and
6
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
days,
5
days,
and

5
days,
6
days,
and

days
in
rota­
tion.

days
in
rota­
tion.

6

6

6

days.

days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

7
days.

1910
1911

2,346
2,772

1,907
2,320

380
391

11
13

9 plants...................................

1911
1912

2,781
2,716

2,326
2,281

400
370

13
13

8 plants...................................

1912
1913

2,439
2,487

2,126
2,159

248
276

13

9 plants...................................

1913
1914

2,455
2,422

2,155
2,177

278
210

25

10 plants, principal occupa­
tions.

191.4
1915

2,824
2,532

2.521
2.179

268
266

25
37

10 plants, all occupations ..

1914
1915

2.521
2.179

1,282
1,208

234
237

Great Lakes and Middle West:
4 plants...................................

110
144

10

1913
1914

1,090
1,024

732
710

195
195

107
113

1914
1915

1,521
1,408

1,102
9G6

216
252

197
186

1914
1915

2,154
1,928

1,144
994

216
252

705
625

1910
1911

2,346
2,772

1,907
2.326

380
391

11

9 plants...................................

1911
1912

2,781
2,716

2.326
2,281

400
370

13
13

8 plants...................................

1912
1913

2,439
2,487

2,126
2,159

248
276

13 plants.................................

1913
1914

3,545
3,446

15 plants.................................

1914
1915

4,345
3,940

15 plants.................................

1914
1915

6,304
5,736

5 plants...................................
5 plants...................................
Total:
9 plants...................................




10

13

4 ,

195
195

385
323

15
27

3,623
3,145
119
150

2.887
2.887

216
252

465
452

27
37

3,665
3,173

216
252

1,987
1,833

245
245

416

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR— IR O N AND S T E E L IN D U ST R Y .

40.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH SPECIFIED
NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—S H E E T MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

P E R CENT.

Employees whose customary working tim e per week
was—

Number of plants.

5
days
and

N um ­
Year, ber of
em­
ployees.
days.

6

days
alter­
nate­
ly-

5
days,
5
days,
and

6

days
in
rota­
tion.

5
days,

6

6

days,
and

6-

rota­
tion.

6

days.

days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

Pittsburgh:
9 plants.................................... 1910
1911

2,340
2,772

(*)

9 plants.................................... 1911
1912

2,781
2,716

C
1
)
(l)

C
1)

8 plants.................................... 1912
1913

2,439
2,487

(l)

0)

9 plants.................................... 1913
1914

2,455
2,422

1914
1915

2,824
2,532

10 plants, all occupations .. 1914
1915
Great Lakes and Middle West:
4 plants................................... 1913
1014

4,150

5 plants..................................

1914
1915

1,521
1,408

5 plants..................................

1914
1915

2,154
1,928

1910
1911

2,346
2,772

9 plants..................................

1911
1912

2,781
2,716

8 plants..................................

1912
1913

2,439
2,487

13 plants................................

1913
1914

3,545
3,446

15 plants................................

1914
1915

4,345
3,940

15 plants................................

1914
1915

6,304 '
5, 736 ,

7
days.

10 plants, principal occupa­
tions.

Total:
9 plants..................................




1,090
1,024

C
1
)

C
)
0)
0)
C)
1
(l) ]

0)

C
1
)
(x
)

90

(V

C
1)

0)

8

0)

C
1
)
(1
)

C
1
)
C
1
)

0)

C)
1
0)
0)

C
1
)

0)
0)
(*)

C
1)

(1
)

C
1)

(*)

C
1
)
(l)

0)
0)

(l)

0)
0)

C
1
)
C
1
)

(*)

C)
1
58

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

C
1
)
C
1
)

S H E E T M IL L S ---- SU M M A R Y .

417

I t was a custom years ago for rolling-mill companies to pay the
roller a lump sum per ton of rolled product, and for the roller to
furnish and pay the necessary rolling crew, the company not being
concerned with the wages of the individual men. This custom had
objectionable features, and as a whole has nearly disappeared,
although to a limited extent it continues, in th a t a company may pay
one man for a specified part of the rolling process, while two men are
necessary all or a part of the time to the successful performance of
the duties of the occupation. In such a case the company-paid man
hires a helper on whatever terms he is able to make. This custom
has frequently been found in sheet and tin-plate mills in the past, the
company paying one man for each specific position (occupation) in
the rolling crew, leaving the m atter of spell hands or helpers to be
settled by the men on their own terms. However, most companies
now consider it advisable to carry all men working in their mills on
their own pay rolls in order th a t they may know just who is employed
in the plants and what rates are paid. Reports for 1914 and 1915
show a marked increase in the number of sheet-mill companies paying
each individual workman directly, their pay rolls thus showing the
frequency with which helpers were employed and their pay. Where
information in former years was somewhat indefinite as regards help­
ers, it is now possible to obtain facts. These facts somewhat disturb
data previously shown for certain occupations, although changes in
methods of work have made it necessary to some extent to employ
helpers where formerly they were not required.
In one plant in particular, when the company, in 1915, began pay­
ing each individual employee it developed th at pair heaters, matchers,
and doublers employed helpers interm ittently. These helpers re­
ceived from 75 cents to $2 per turn, or occasionally worked 1 level1
handed” with the head man. This company in previous years had
reported th a t in their belief helpers were seldom employed, and the
average rate per hour for their occupations was computed from gross
earnings without any deductions for helpers. Further, no deduction
was possible, as the pay to helpers could not be ascertained. This
company is of the impression th a t some changes in methods of work
in 1915, and perhaps more frequent rolling of heavier product, ac­
counted to a large degree for the additional number of helpers em­
ployed. I t is thought to be fairer to this plant to continue to com­
pute the average rates per hour from the gross earnings of each occu­
pation, and to this extent the figures represent the pay for the opera­
tion rather than the wage of an individual. In order to illustrate the
exact condition existing in this plant, Table 41 has been prepared,
showing for six crews the gross earnings of pair heaters in the pay
89728°—17—Bull. 218------27




418

W AGES AN D H O U E S OF LABOR— IR O N A N D ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

period reported, the last half of May, 1915, the hours worked, the
number of turns when a helper was employed and his rate, the
average cost per hour of the pair-heating job, and the net earnings
per hour of the pair heater himself.
T a b l e 41.—GROSS A N D N E T E A R N IN G S OF 6 PA IR H E A T E R S IN A C E RT A IN SHEET-M ILL

P L A N T , MAY, 1915, SHO W ING IR R E G U L A R IT Y OF EM PLOYM ENT OF H E L P E R S .
[A sheet-mill turn is 8 hours in length.]
Pair heaters.

Pair heaters’ helpers.

Gross eamings.

Crew number.
Hours
worked.

Amount.
1 .............................
2 .................................
3 .................................
4 .................................
5 ......... .......................

48
64
64
56
64

$26.19
32.01
33.25
30.22
34.60

N et eamings.
Rate per
turn.

Turns
made.

Average
per hour.

Amount.

$0,546
.500
.520
.540
.541

4
7

27.40

.489

$2.00
1.00

Level-handed.
4

f

2

1

6 . . . . . ......................

56

Pair heaters.

i

1.25
1.00 |
1.50 V
2.00

Average
per hour.

$26.19
24.01
26.25
15.11
29.60

$0,546
.375
.410
.270
.463

17.90

.320

Matchers and doublers in this plant employed helpers with like
irregularity, and the average rates per hour used in the tables of this
report were computed on the gross earnings of the job. In a consid­
erable number of plants catchers are assisted by “ 2 d catchers” or
helpers, who are paid by the company or by the catcher, or by both,
but for this occupation satisfactory information has always been
obtained, and catchers’ hourly rates have been computed on their net
earnings.
In both sheet mills and tin-plate mills the custom of two heaters
working level-handed (dividing the pay evenly), instead of one heater
working with a helper, has been increasing in recent years. Begin­
ning with 1913, in both these departments a new group—“ heaters,
level-handed”—is included in this report; in previous years the scat­
tering level-handed work was shown with th a t of the regular heaters.
Two general tables are presented for this department, as follows:
Table Q.—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1915.
Table R .—Full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings, in each district, by years, 1913 to 1915.
The data from Table Q are summarized in Table 38, percentages
being used instead of the actual figures for classified hours and rates
of wages.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables Q and R
and the table of relative numbers follows th a t of the processes of




S H E E T M IL L S — SU M M A R Y .

419

manufacture. “ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this
report, are identical units of identical establishments reporting the
same occupations in each of two or more consecutive years. For a
more extended explanation, see page 58.
Descriptions of the occupations which are specified in the tables of
this chapter and of other occupations of the sheet-mill department
included in the two groups designated as: “ Unclassified—productive ,”
and 1 Unclassified—nonproductive,” are to be found in the Glossary
1
of Occupations, pages 519 to 523.




420

W AGES AND H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AND ST E E L IN D U ST R Y .

T able Q.— FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R H O U R ,.
YEARS, 1910 TO 1915—
[The figures for each group of

No.

N um ­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Pair heateis:
9 plants.................

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

i

Employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over 56
48
48
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7 $0.4665 $19.89
42.7 .5021 21.42
42.7 .517 22.06

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

.532 22.69
.558 23.79

219
2ia

_
13 plants_

1913
1914

336
333

42.8
42.8

.543 23.23
.537 22.99

399
354

42.8
42.8

.540 23.10
.518 22.17

399
354

215
259
252

42.7 1.242 52.98
42.7 1.380 58.89
42.7 1.416 60.41

215 [
259
252

8 plants................... 1912
1913

222
222

42.7 1.437 61.31
42.7 1.455 62.08

222
222

13 plants................. 1913
1914

335
332

42.8 1.476 63.21
42.8 1.439 61.58

335
332

__ 1914
1915

394
348

42.8 1.431 61.20
42.9 1.280 54.80

394
348

1912
1913

115
139

42.7
42.7

.474 20.21
.517 22.05

115
139

8 plants.................

1913
1914

171
187

19
21
22

42.7
42.7

.503 21.48
.573 24.46

23
24

10 plants...............

1914
1915

264
233

42.9
42.9

.555 23.77
.461 19.77

264
233

25
26
27

1910
1911
1912

215
255
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

.558 23.82
.603 25.71
.616 26.29

28
29

222
222

42.7
42.7

.633 26. 99
.666 28.40

222
222

42.8
42.8

.642 27.49
.644 27.54

336
333

84

215
255
252

1912
1913

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

171
187

15 plants...

20

72

336
333

15 plants................. 1914
1915
Rollers:
9 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

210
255
249

8 plants.......

60

Rollers' helpers or fin­
ishers:
6 plants.................

R outliers:
9 plants.................

8 plants..................

!

!
I
i

I
i
!
!
>
........i.........1
.........

s

-

1
1"
|
........1
.........
‘

. . . ........j.........

...I
1

i
|
I

___ i . . .

1
I
1

i

30
31

13 plants..

1913
1914

336
333

32
33

15 plants...............

1914
1915

399
353

42.8
42.8

.648 27.73
.619 26.51

399
353

!

1910
1911
1912

215
258
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

.544 23.19
.587 25.03
.603 25. 71

215
258
252

t

37 1
38

8 plants................... 1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

.617 26.33
.652 27.84

222
222

39
40

13 plants................. 1913
1914

336
333

42.8
42.8

.629 26.92
.629 26.93

336
333

1

41
42

15 plants................. 1914
1915
Matchers:
9 plants................... 1910
1911
1912

399
350

42.8
42.8

.636 27.23
.595 25.49

399
350

1

210
255
249

42.7
42.7
42.7

.387 16.53
.418 17.83
.429 18.30

210
255
249

219
219

42.7
42.7

.439 18.75
.462 19. 72

219
2191

34
35
36

43
44
45
46
47

Catchers:
9 plants.

8 plants...............




1912
1913 ,

......i.......

)

i
::::::::::
........i . .
i
t

i
1

j

.

i

I
i
I
|
i

!
___
I
1

421

S H E E T M IL L S ---- G E N E R A L TABLES.

AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS, IN THE UNITED STATES, BY
SH E E T MILLS.
years are for identical plants.]

Employees whose rates of wages per hour were—

12 and
under
14
cents.

14 and
under
16
cents.

16 and
under
18
cents.




18 and
under
20

cents.

20 and
under
25
cents.

30 and
under
40
cents.

25 and
under
30
cents.

40 and
under
50
cents.

50 and
under
cents.

60 and
under
70
cents.

Line
70 cents No.
and
over.

103
69
144
144
128
161
159
77
146

204
162

5
3!
198}
258!
252

10
11
12

222
222

13
14

I

335!
3321

15
16

3941
347|

17
18

25 .
18

22

20

I

32

19

47

29

19
17

22'
29;

21

19

74
115

29
9

41
10

32

23
24

34
14
42

84
144
42

45;
129

12

42
35

129

3
29

89
70

13lj

76
126

171
140

40!
33!

82
115
39

74'.
46
130

is:
li

39
33

37
33

76

33
40

82
152

63

3:
0
3^
0
2j
6
17
12

4
4

1

18
10

4
41
2l

111

I
105

21!

22

25
26
27
39,
73

28
29
30
31

118!
61

32

521
31 j

34
35
36

130

HI

31
63!

37
38

116

14
3

92
81

39
40

173

102

112

44

41
42

79
109
63

109 .
85
151

43
44
45

33
32

151
132

46

1
7

422

W AGES A N D H O U R S OF LABOR---- IR O N AN D S T E E L IN D U S T R Y .

T a b le

Q.—FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR,
YEARS, 1310 TO 1 9 1 5 -

N um ­
ber
Line Occupation, and num­ Year. of
ember of plants.
No.
pioy-

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees whose full-time hours per
w eek were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
Over
time
Over
72
week­ 48
48
60
and and 60 and 72 and 84
ly
earnun­ un­
un­
un­
der der
der
der
60
84
56
72

Matchers—Concluded.
1913
13 plants...........
1914

336
333

42.8 $0.448 $19.16
42.8 .480 20.56

336
333

1914
1915

399
354

42.8
42.8

.484! 20.70
.475 20.34

399*
354

1910
1911
1912

210
252
246

42.7
42.7
42.7

.372 15.86
.401 17.10
.412 17.58

8 plants_
_

1912
1913

216
222

42.7
42.7

.423 18.06
.450, 19.21

13 plan ts...

1913
1914

336
333

42.8
42.8

.429 18.34
.459 19.66

15 plants...

1914
1915

399
354

42.8
42.8

.462 19.75
.453 19.42

2101
252
246
,
216'1
222
|
J
336
333
j
!
399i ........
354

1910
1911
1912

215
259
253

42.7
42.7
42.7

.883 37.68
.911 38.88
.949 40.51

215
259i .....
253

8 plan ts...

1912
1913

223
223

42.7
42.7

.989 42.21
.998 42.60

223
223

12 plants..

1913
1914

307
301

42.8
42.9

.993 42.50
.963 41.24

307
301

14 plants..

1914
1915

364
324

42.8
42.9

.966 41.34
.868 37.19

364l
324i

1913
1914

14
10

42.7
42.7

.707 30.17
.673 28.72

14i
)
10

1914
2 p lants.
1915
Sheet heaters’ helpers:
8 plants.................. 1910
1911
1912

56
34

42.7
42.7

.762 32.65
.686 29.27

56
t
34

174
215
208

42.7
42.7
42.7

.377 16.07
.436 18.59
.439 18.71

L
174
21*
208

15 plants..
Doublers:
9 plants...

Sheet heaters:
9 plants_
_

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Sheet heaters, level
h a n le i:
2 p lants................ .

l

I

1

1

1
1
'
i
. 1 ..J .
|
|
1 . J
|
|
>
1
1
1
i
1
. J ..J 1 .

i
1
' . J .
|
1 . i
|
|
I
l
i

i
(

i
i
I
|
I

30
31

7 p lants. .

1912
1913

178
178

42.7
42.7

.439 18.74
.511 21.81

178
?
1
178

32
33

10 plants.

1013
1914

230
230

42.9
42.9

.483 20.70
.494 21.16

)
230
)
23J

13 p lants.

1914
1915

309
2/5

42.8
42.9

.485 20.73
.458 19.60

30P
275

1910
1911
1912

85
104
105

46.0
44.9
44.9

.689 30.79
.722 32.86
.768 34.67

}
73
4
94
95

12
10
10
10
10

34
35
36
37
38

Shearmen:
7 plants. .

39
40

6 plants. .

1912
1913

95
93

45.1
45.2

.757 34.42
.801 36.34

85
J
83

41
42

8 plan ts. .

1913
1914

114
114

42.9
42.9

.8