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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

R O Y A L M E E K E R , C o m m issio n e r

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES\
/W H O L E 1 /?Q
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ ‘ ' * tNUMBER 1 0 0
W AGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

S E R IE S :

N o.

16

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
1907 TO 1913




A P R I L , 1 91 5

W A S H IN G T O N
G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T IN G O F F IC E
1 91 5




C O N T E N T S .

Page.

Introduction and summary....................... - ..................................................... 5-15
Full-time working days per week............................................................... 9-11
Full-time working hours per week.............................................................. 11-13
Common laborers......................................................................................... 13-15
Explanation of scope and method...................................................................... 15-23
Method of computing averages.................................................................... 20,21
Keason for taking 1913 as base year............................................................
21
Method of computing relative numbers...................................................... 21-23
Description of departments and of occupations.................................................
23
Previous reports................................................................................................. 23,24
Blastfurnaces..................................................................................................... 25-58
Summary.................................................................................................... 25-37
Full-time working days per week..................................................... .. 35,36
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1913.... 38-44
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913............. 45-48
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1907 to 1913.................................................................. 49-54
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913...................................................................... 55-58
Bessemer converters........................................................................................... 59-95
Summary.................................................................................................... 59-71
69, 70
Full-time working days per week............................... ................... .
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1913....... 72-78
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913............ 79-83
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1907 to 1913............................................................. .
84-90
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913...................................................................... 91-95
Open-hearth furnaces.......................................................................................97-122
Summary...................................................................................................97-106
Full-time working days per week.................................................... 103-105
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1913 . . 107-110
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913......... 111-114
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1910 to 1913............................................................... 115-118
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913................................................................... 119-122
Blooming mills............................................................................................... 123-142
Summary................................................................................................. 123-130
Full-time working days per week..................................................... 129,130
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1913... 131-133




3

4

CONTENTS.

Blooming mills—Concluded.
Page.
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913......... 134-136
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1910 to 1913............................................................... 137-139
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913.................................................................. 140-142
Plate mills...................................................................................................... 143-167
Summary................................................................................................. 143-151
Full-time working days per week............................................ ............
150
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1913... 152-155
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913......... 156-159
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1910 to 1913............................................................... 160-163
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913.................................................................. 164-167
Standard rail mills.......................................................................................... 169-202
Summary........................................... ..................................................... 169-178
Full-time working days per week.........................................................
177
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to 1913... 179-184
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913........ 185-190
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1910 to 1913............................................................... 191-196
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913................................................................... 197-202
Bar mills......................................................................................................... 203-296
Summary................................................................................................. 203-217
209
Earnings of rolling crews, by size of m ills..........................................
Full-time working days per week..................................................... 214-216
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907 to 1913... 218-242
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913......... 243-258
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the United
States, by years, 1907 to 1913............................................................... 259-280
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each year,
by districts, 1912 and 1913 .................................................................. 281-296
Sheet mills.................................................................................................. :. 297-310
Summary................................................................................................. 297-304
Full-time working days per week..................................................... 303, 304
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour, by years, 1910 to 1913.................................... 305-307
Table II.—Average and classified full-time hours per week, by years,
1910 to 1913.......................................................................................... 308-310
Tin-plate mills............................................................................................... 311-328
Summary................................................................................................. 311-319
Full-time working days per week.........................................................
318
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classified
rates of wages per hour, by years, 1910 to 1913..................................... 320-324
Table II.—Average and classified full-time hours per week, by years,
1910 to 1913........................................................................................... 325-328



B U L L E T IN

O F

T H E

U . S. B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .
WHOLE NO. 168.

W A S H IN G T O N .

APRIL, 1915.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE IRON AND
STEEL INDUSTRY, 1907 TO 1913.
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
In this report are presented the full-time weekly earnings, the rates
of wages or earnings per hour, and the customary full-time hours of
labor per week in the principal productive occupations in nine de­
partments or subdivisions of the iron and steel industry in the United
States for the years 1912 and 1913, in addition to similar statistics
for 1907 to 1912, inclusive, repeated from Bulletin 151 (May, 1914)
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The several departments of the industry covered and the years for
which information is now shown are as follows:
Iron smelting:
Blast furnaces, 1907-1913.
Steel making:
Bessemer converters, 1907-1913.
Open-hearth furnaces, 1910-1913.
Steel working:
Rolling mills—
Blooming mills, 1910-1913.
Plate mills, 1910-1913.
Standard rail mills, 1910-1913.
Bar mills, 1907-1913.
Sheet mills, 1910-1913.
Tin-plate mills, 1910-1913.
The information here presented is for one pay-roll period in each
year, obtained from certain representative plants in the industry.
The pay period selected in most cases was the second half of May
each year, but when conditions in May were not normal reports were
taken for a normal period as near May as available. The number of
plants covered and the number of employees for whom data are pre­
sented each year are stated in the table on pages 15 and 16.
In the chapters relating to the several departments the full-time
weekly earnings, the full-time hours of labor per week, and the rates of
5



6

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

wages or earnings per hour are shown for each occupation, and these
figures are summarized in the form of percentages which show the
trend of wages and hours from year to year in each department as a
whole. Such summary figures for the several departments are as­
sembled, for the convenience of the reader, in this general intro­
duction.
A marked increase in the rates of pay in the iron and steel indus­
try was made in the early part of 1913. As a result, in the three
departments for which reports for seven years have been obtained—
blast furnaces, Bessemer converters, and bar mills —full-time weekly
earnings in 1913 in the principal productive occupations combined
were from 6.6 to 26.4 per cent higher than in any one of the six years
preceding.
In 1913 full-time weekly earnings in such occupations in blast
furnaces were 11.4 per cent higher than in 1907, 18.2 per cent higher
than in 1908, 19.2 per cent higher than in 1909, 10.5 per cent higher
than in 1910,. 9.5 per cent higher than in 1911, and 10.1 per cent higher
than in 1912.
Full-time weekly earnings in such occupations in the Bessemer
converting department in 1913 were 15.7 per cent higher than in
1907, 26.4 per cent higher than in 1908, 18.9 per cent higher than in
1909, 13.6 per cent higher than in 1910, 19.2 per cent higher than in
1911, and 10.9 per cent higher than in 1912.
In bar mills the full-time weekly earnings in such occupations
in 1913 were 8.2 per cent higher than in 1907, 20.5 per cent higher
than in 1908, 17.9 per cent higher than in 1909, 6.6 per cent higher
than in 1910, 12 per cent higher than in 1911, and 10.9 per cent higher
than in 1912.
In each of the three departments either 1908 or 1909 was the year
of lowest full-time weekly earnings during the seven-year period.
For the remaining six departments, for which reports have been
obtained back to 1910 only, full-time weekly earnings in 1913 were
from 3.8 per cent to 18.3 per cent higher than in any one of the three
years preceding.
In the selected occupations for the blast-furnace, Bessemer, and
bar-mill departments there was a reduction of hours of labor between
1907 and 1913, and, except open-hearth furnaces and plate mills,
all departments show a reduction of hours between 1910 and 1913.
The facts above quoted are drawn from the following table, which
treats of three correlated subjects: Full-time hours of labor per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings. The heavy­
faced figures of this table are relative numbers. These relative num­
bers are simply percentages computed from the actual weekly earn­
ings, the actual hours of labor, and the actual rates of wages per hour




W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D S U M M A R Y .

7

appearing in the tables relating to the occupations in the several
departments. In computing such relative numbers the actual figures
for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent; thus the facts for each
preceding year are brought into direct comparison with the facts for
the latest year available, namely, 1913. The relative for each year
preceding 1913 is the per cent which the average in that year is of
the average for 1913. For example, the table following shows that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of employees in the principal
productive occupations in blast furnaces in 1907 were 89.8 per cent
of such weekly earnings in 1913. The weekly earnings decreased in
1908 to 84.6 per cent of the earnings in 1913, and in 1909 to 83.9
per cent. There was an increase to 90.5 in 1910, a slight increase in
1911, and a slight decrease in 1912, followed by a marked increase
in 1913, when the relative is 100. The relative numbers for full-time
hours per week in blast furnaces decreased from 103 in 1907 to 100
in 1913; in other words, the average full-time hours of work per week
in 1907 were 103 per cent of the average full-time hours in 1913.
The other relative numbers of the table are read in like manner.
The method of computing these relative numbers from the averages
of the hours and wages shown in the several tables of this report
is explained on pages 21 to 23.
In addition to the relative numbers of this table, percentages have
been computed showing the per cent of increase or decrease in 1913
as compared with each year preceding 1913, and in each year com­
pared with the year immediately preceding.
Referring to the weekly earnings of blast-furnace employees in
the table, it is seen that the weekly earnings in 1913 were 11.4 per
cent higher than in 1907, 18.2 per cent higher than in 1908, etc.
The next column shows that the weekly earnings of blast-furnace
employees in 1908 were 5.8 per cent lower than in 1907, 0.8 per cent
lower in 1909 than in 1908, 7.9 per cent higher in 1910 than in 1909,
and so on.
The percentages for hours per week and wages per hour for this
and the other departments presented in the table are read in like
manner.




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATJ OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , WAGES PER HOUR, AND W E E K L Y EARN­
INGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE, IN SPECI­
FIED YEARS, B Y DEPARTMENTS.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Department and year.

Blast furnaces:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Bessemer converters:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Open-hearth furnaces:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Blooming mills:
191 0
.
191 1
191 2
:. . .
191 3
Plate mills:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Standard rail mills:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Bar mills:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
.
191 3
Sheet mills:
191 0
191 1
191 2
.
1913....................... .
Tin-plate mills:
191 0
.
191 1
.
191 2
.
1913........................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Weekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
tive
Each
rate 1913 as speci­
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
of
fied
time 1913 as fied
comcom­
comyear
wages
year weekly
year
pared
per
earnas
as
as
with
with
with
hour.
com­
com­
com­
each
each
each
pared
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
speci­ with
with
with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
prepreceding.

103.0
101.5
102.4
102.5
101.5
99.0
100.0

- 2 .9
- 1 .5
-2 .3
-2 .4
-1 .5
+1.0

102.9
98.7
102.6
103.4
101.0
100.7
100.0

-2 .8
+1.3
- 2 .5
-3 .3
- 1 .0
- .7

99.4
96.9
98.6
100.0

- 1 .5
+ .9
+ .1
-1 .0
-2 .5
+1.0

87.1
83.1
82.1
88.6
90.2
92.3
100.0

+14.8
+20.3
+21.8
+12.9
+10.9
+ 8.3

-4 .1
+4.0
+ -8
-2 .3
- .3
- .7

83.9
78.0
81.3
84.9
81.2
89.8
100.0

+19.2
+28.2
+23.0
+17.8
+23.2
+11.4

+3.2
+1.4

-2 .5
+1.8
+1.4

88.2
88.2
91.9
100.0

+13.4
+13.4
+ 8.8

101.0
100.4
100.4
100.0

- 1 .0
- .4
- .4

-

83.9
84.8
89.5
100.0

+19.2
+17.9
+11.7

99.3
98.7
99.6
100.0

+ *7
+1.3
+ .4

104.3
99.7
99.9
100.0

-4 .1
+ .3
+ .1

101.6
101.1
102.1
101.8
100.5
100.3
100.0

-1 .6
-1 .1
-2 .1
-1 .8
- .5
- .3

100.9
99.8
99.6
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.6
100.0

.6

+12.6
+16.8
+ 9.2

+ .9
+ .4

85.6
91.6
100.0

-4 .4
+ .2
+ .1

89.2
89.6
100.0

- .5
+1.0
- .3
-1 .3
- .2
- .3

91.5
82.2
83.8
92.8
89.0
89.9
100.0

+ 9.3
+21.7
+19.3
+ 7.8
+12.4
+11.2

+ .2
+ .4

-1 .1
- .2
+ .4

85.6
93.5
96.4
100.0

+16.8
+ 7.0
+ 3.7

(1 )o
+ .2
+ ..4

- .2
- .2
+ .4

85.0
95.0
96.4
100.0

+17.6
+ 5.3
+ 3.7

1No change.

+12.5
+12.1
+11.6

-4 .6
- 1.2
+ 7.9
+ 1.8
+ 2.3
+ 8.3

89.8
84.6
83.9
90.5
91.3
90.8
100.0

+11.4
+18.2
+19.2
+10.5
+ 9.5
+10.1

- 7.0
+ 4.2
+ 4.4
- 4.4
+10.6
+11.4

86.4
79.1
84.1
88.0
83.9
90.2
100.0

+15.7
+26.4
+18.9
+13.6
+19.2
+10.9

/ I ,

85.6
90.8
100.0
84.8

+13.4
+16.8
+10.1
+17.9
+16.6
+11.4

+ 1.1
+ 5.5
+11.7

100.0

- 3.6
+ 7.0
+ 9.2

87.7
84.5
91.1
100.0

+14.0
+18.3
+ 9.8

+ .3
+ •4
+11.6

91.3
88.6
89.4
100.0

+ 9.5
+12.9
+11.9

-1 0.2
+ 1.9
+10.7
- 4 .1
+ 1.0
+11.2

92.4
83.0
84.8
93.8
89.3
90.2
100.0

+ 8.2
+20.5
+17.9
+ 6.6
+12.0
+10.9

+ 9.2
+ 3.1
+ 3.7

86.0
93.4
96.1
100.0

+16.3
+ 7.1
+ 4.1

+11.8
+ 1.5
+ 3.7

85.0
94.9
96.3
100.0

+17.6
+ 5.4
+ 3.8

- 5.8
- .8
+ 7.9
+ .9
- .5
+10.1
- 8.4
+ 6.3
+ 4.6
- 4.7
+ 7.5
+10.9
- 2.9
+ 6.1
+10.1
+ 1.2
+ 4.7
+11.4

+ 7.8
+ 9.8
- 3.0
+ .9
+11.9
-1 0 .2
+ 2.2
+10.6
- 4.8
+ 1.0
+10.9
+ 8.6
+ 2.9
+ 4.1
+11.6
+ 1.5
+ 3.8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

9

FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

A blast furnace from the nature of its process must be in continuous
operation day and night seven days per week. In 1907, in the 20
plants reported for that year, for 97.2 per cent of all employees
in the occupations presented, the customary working time was
seven days per week, and for the remaining 2.8 per cent it was
six days per week. Between 1907 and 1913 there was a material
reduction in seven-day work, many plants having made provision to
lay off each employee in rotation one day in seven, thus making
a six-day week for the employee, while the plant was continuously
in operation seven days. Therefore, in 1913, 36 plants reported only
79.8 per cent of all employees in the occupations presented working
seven days per week and 20.2 per cent working six days per week.
The steel-making departments— Bessemer converters and openhearth furnaces—normally are in operation day and night six days
per week. A shutdown usually is made over Sunday for a period
varying from 12 to 36 hours. When the demand for production is
heavy, however, the plants are operated seven days per week. In
1907, a year of large production, 24.1 per cent of the employees
in the 9 Bessemer plants covered worked seven days per week.
In the next two years the percentage was small. In 1910, another
prosperous year, 32.1 per cent of the employees in the 10 plants
covered that year worked seven days per week. In 1913 only 10.8
per cent of the employees of the 10 plants covered worked seven
days per week. Throughout the seven-year period the majority of
the employees in the Bessemer converting department worked six
days per week, while a few worked six and seven days in alternate
weeks.
In open-hearth furnaces in 1913, 34.2 per cent of the employees were
customarily working seven days per week and 36.2 per cent were
working six and seven days in various combinations.
In blooming mills in 1913,12 per cent of the employees were working
seven days per week and 12 per cent six and seven days in alternate
weeks. In the other rolling mills in 1913 the per cent of employees
working seven days per week was very small.
The figures for all years covered in the nine departments appear in
the table following.




10

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUEEAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN EACH
DEPARTMENT W ORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, B Y
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees whose customary working time per week was-

5
days
Department, and number Year.
and
of plants.
5
6
days. days
alter­
nate­
ly.

Blast furnaces:
20 plants...

5
5
d y s , days,

5
days
days, days,
and
and and
6
7
6
6
days. days
days days
alter­
in
in
nate­
rota­ rota­
ly.
tion. tion.

6
days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
6
6
days, days, days,
7
days, days, days,
7
and and and
days.
7
7
7
days days days
in
in
in
rota­ rota­ rota­
tion. tion. tion.

1907
1908
1909
1910

2.8
5.2
3.1
4.6

1910
1911

4.9
11.1

(*)

95.1
88.9

35 plants.

1911
1912

11.1
17.9

(1
)
C)
1

88.9
82.0

36 plants.

1912
1913

18.1
20.2

C)
1
(1)

81.8
79.8

1907
1908
1909
1910 ......... ......... ......... .........

61.1
13.1
9.6
69.1
62.2
13.8
56.0 ......... 3.8

10 plants.

1910
1911

57.8
76.9

3.8
6.0

10 plants.

1911
1912

77.0
69.0

10 plants.

1912
1913

68.8
73.1

34 plants.

Bessemer converters:
9 plants...............

Open-hearth furnaces:
17 plants...............

97.2
94.8
96.9
95.4

1.0
1.5
1.3
1.1

0.7
1.0
.9
.7

24.1
18.7
21.8
33.7

1.0
1.6

.7
.9

32.1
14.7

5.9
13.8

1.6
1.4

.9
.8

14.6
14.9

12.7
10.0

2 2.1
25.4

.6
.7

15.7
10.8

4.7
4.5

1910
1911 .........

6.2
3.8

33.6
......... 45.4

0.5
1.0

27.7
32.1 .........

.1 .........

32.1
17.6

17 plants.

1911
1912

3.7
1.7

45.6
36.2

1.0

32.0
37.1

.1
.1

17.5
25.0

17 plants.

1912
1913 .........

1.7
1.8

33.4
427.7

1910
1911
1912

0.1
.1

6.6
5.5
4.7

65.6
63.5
64.0

1912
1913

.1
.1

4.9
5.0 .........

1910
1911
1912

2.5
1.7

13.1
35.0
33.7

60.7
9.9
63.6 ......... 12.0 .........
82.0
.5
57.2
.2
57.0
.7

1912
1913

1.5

32.9
36.6

56.8
53.9

1.1
1.9

1910
1911

67.7
89.8

.5
5.0

1.8
2.2

30.0
3.1

7 plants.

1911
1912

90.5
90.0

4.6
6.0

2.0
1.9

3.0
2.1

7 plants.,

1912
1913

97.1
96.5

1.0
1.3

.2

2.0
2.0

Blooming mills:
19 plants___

19 plants.
Plate mills:
11 plants.

11 plants............
Standard rail mills:
6 plants.............

35.5
3.6
.3
32.5 ......... 62.1 6 1.6

28.6
34.2

10.3
15.2
15.0

17.5
15.7
16.3

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
2 Including 0.5 per cent who worked 7 days every fourth week,
s Worked 7 days every fourth week.
4 Including 0.2 per cent who worked 7 days every sixth week.
5 Including 1.7 per cent who worked 7 days every fourth week.
6 Including 1.3 per cent who worked 6 days every fourth week.




7.4
7.2 .........

16.9
12.0
4.5
5.2
6.8

.5

7.6
7.1

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D S U M M A R Y .

11

PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN EACH
DEPARTMENT W ORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EE K , BY
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913—Concluded.
Per cent of employees whose customary working time per week was—

5
days
Department, and number Year.
and
of plants.
6
5
days. days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
5
days, days,

5
days
days, days,
and
6
and and
7
6
6
days. days
alter­
days days
in
in
nate­
rota­ rota­
ly*
tion. tion.

6
days
and
7
days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
6
6
days, days, days,
7
days, days, days,
7
and and and
days.
7
7
7
days days days
in
in
in
rota­ rota­ rota­
tion. tion. tion.

Bar mills:
15 plants... . . . . . . . r. - - - 1907
1908
1909
1910

1.8
3.2
1.3
1.1

51.5
48.7
47.6
45.5

1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8

2.7
2.2
2.1
1.9

39.0
41.9
43.2
47.9

0.6
.5
.4
.4

1.6
1.0
1.8
.9

1.1
.7
1.7
.6

25 p la n ts..................... 1910
1911

4.3
1.0

30.0
41.3

1.1
1.1

1.2 60.1
1.2 154.O

.2
.3

.5
.9

2.6
.2

26 plants....................... 1911
1912

1.0
1.4

43.1
45.9

1.1
1.0

1.1 152.5
1.1 249.2

.3
.2

.7
.8

.3
.4

26 plants........................ 1912
1913

1.3
4.0

48.0
50.6

1.0 3 1.3
1.1
1.0

46.6
32.7

.2
.1

1910
1911

.1
.1

2.0
1.4

81.3
83.9

16.2
14.1

1911
1912

.1
.1

1.4
1.7

83.6
84.0

14.4
13.6 .........

.1 ......... ......... .........

8 plants......................... 1912
1913
Tin-plate mills:
5 plants......................... 1910
1911

.1
.1

1.9
1.7

87.2
86.8

10.2
11.1

.2

.1
.1

.6
.5

79.2
79.6

20.1
19.8

.1

.4
1.5

78.8
79.0

20.7
19.5

1.8
.6

77.8
75.4

Sheet mills:
9 plants.........................
9 plants.........................

6 plants.........................

1911
1912

6 plants.........................

1912
1913

1.9

20.2
22.0

.9
1.6 .........

0.2
8.2

.4
.6

‘o.T

.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.3
(4
)
(4
)
.1

.3

1 Including 0.3 per cent who worked 7 days every fifth week.
2 Including 0.2 per cent who worked 7 days every fifth week.
* Including 0.2 per cent who worked 5 days every fourth week.
4 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

FULL-TIME WORKING HOURS PER WEEK.

Employees in the principal productive occupations of the several
departments are classified in the next table to show the per cent
working specified hours per week. Referring to the figures for blast
furnaces it is seen that in 1907, in 20 plants reported, 2.8 per cent
of the employees reported worked 60 hours per week when they worked
full time, 12.9 per cent worked over 60 and under 72 hours per week,
less than one-tenth of 1 per cent worked 72 hours per week, 4.6 per
cent worked over 72 and under 84 hours per week, and 79.7 per cent
worked 84 hours per week. By 1910 the employees working 84
hours per week had decreased to 76.3 per cent in the same 20 plants,
or as shown by 34 plants to 74.6 per cent. A very material reduction
was made in working hours by 1911 and a still greater reduction by
1912, In 1911 the employees working 84 hours per week had been



12

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

reduced to 71.7 per cent of all employees as shown by the returns
from 34 plants, or to 71.9 per cent as shown by 35 plants. In 1912
the per cent of employees in 35 plants working 84 hours per week
had been reduced to 61.4 per cent, or to 61.2 per cent in 36 plants.
In 1913 the per cent working 84 hours had increased slightly, being
62.6, including less than one-tenth of 1 per cent working 91 hours.
The per cent of employees working specified hours in the Bessemer
converting department and some other departments differed ma­
terially in the several years owing to fluctuations in the volume of
business, and to changes from 12 to 8 hour shifts or vice versa.
PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN EACH
DEPARTMENT W ORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER W EE K , B Y
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Department, and number of Year.
Over
plants.
48 and 48 and 56 and
under. under under
60
56
Blast furnaces:
20 plants....

1907
1908
1909
1910

60

Over
60 and
under
72

2.8
4.8
2.6
3.7

12.9
16.9
15.1
12.1

0.1
.3

4.1
4.2

(i)

72

Over
72 and
under
84

84

0.4
.9

4.6
7.3
8.4
7.0

79.7
71.0
73.5
76.3

12.5
11.7

.8
6.3

7.9
5.7

74.6
71.7

C)
1

34 plants..

1910
1011

35 plants..

1911
1912

(l)

.3
4.5

4.3
4.5

11.6
10.7

6.3
12.9

5.6
5.9

71.9
61.4

1912
1913

0)
0

4.4
.5

4.5
5.4

10.9
12.1

13.2
13.8

5.8
5.7

61.2
2 62.6

.5
2.4
.5
3.0

7.5
7.7
6.1
.8

20.5
27.1
24.9
30.0

23.7
14.8
26.1
12.9

3 23.1
16.0
17.5
4 28.6

Bessemer converters:
9 plants................

C)
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

23.1
28.5
22.0
17.5

0.7
1.4
1.8
7.2

1.0
2.0
1.2

10 plants..

1910
1911

16.6
19.4

6.8
1.1

1.1

3.1
2.5

.9
6.8

32.8
40.5

12.4
19.7

5 27.4
8.8

10 plants..

1911
1912

19.3
23.2

1.1
1.0

1.1
1.4

2.4
1.6

6.7
6.6

40.9
29.9

19.6
21.5

8.7
14.6

10 plants..

1912
1913

21.6
17.0

2.2
7.6

1.4

1.6
.8

7.0
7.7

30.1
33.2

20.7
23.7

15.4
10.0

1910
1911

.1

.9
1.3

.2

1.9
2.2

12.5
24.6

24.9
22.9

32.8
34.4

26.6
14.6

Open-hearth furnaces:
17 plants................
17 plants..

1911
1912

1.3
1.7

.2

2.2
1.6

24.8
10.9

22.8
25.9

34.3
39.8

14.6
19.9

17 plants..

1912
1913

1.7
1.1

.1
.4

1.5
1.2

10.5
7.5

23.3
22.7

39.5
36.6

23.4
30.5

Blooming mills:
19 plants......

19 plants..

1910
1911
1912

2.3
1.6
2.1

5.9
7.7
7.6

1.0
1.6
1.3

10.3
11.3
11.4

56.5
55.8
54.7

6.6
10.0
10.6

17.4
12.0
12.2

1912
1913

2.2
2.1

8.0
7.6

1.3
1.0

11.1
12.3

51.7
52.1

13.3
16.5

12.4
8.3

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
2 Including less than one-tenth of 1 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 91.
s Including 0.1 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 91.
* Including 3.3 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 85.
®Including 3.1 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 85.




W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D S U M M A R Y .

13

PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTIVE OCCUPATIONS IN EACH
DEPARTMENT WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS PER W EE K , B Y
YEARS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913—Concluded.
Per cent of employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Department, and number of
plants.

Plate mills:
11 plants..........

11 plants..........
Standard rail mills:
6 plants...........

Year.

Over
48 and 48 and 56 and
under. under under
60
56

60

Over
60 and
under
72

72

Over
72 and
under
84

1910
1911
1912

7.4
8.7
8.5

57.4
46.6
43.9

32.0
42.4
43.0

0.8
1.2
2.7

2.5
.7
11.7

1912
1913

8.2
6.6

41.9
41.9

42.5
44.3

5.1
4.7

*2.2
3 2.2

1910
1911

4.3
4.5

1.8
2.2

7.7
4.4

8.5

51.9
71.1

.7

30.0
3.1

7 plants...........

1911
1912

4.1

2.0
1.9

4.3
4.7

8.0
7.5

71.9
71.8

6.9
8.2

2.9
2.1

7 plants...........

1912
1913

3.9
3.6

1.5
1.5

3.9
6.7

7.9
4.2

78.1
79.7

3.2
2.8

1.5
1.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

4.5
4.1
3.9

4.6
7.1
6.7

9.0
12.4
10.2
11.8

51.6
47.2

2.6

57.4

19.4
20.1
9.3
12.9

.5
.4
.5

25 plants..........

1910
1911

11.1
12.1

8.1
10.4

11.7
6.9

45.5
48.1

16.5
13.7

2.5
1.1

.2

26 plants..........

1911
1912

11.4
10.8

10.6
11.8

8.0
7.3

46.7
45.1

13.5
13.7

1.0
1.3

.2

26 plants..........

1912
1913

10.8
2.2

11.3
20.8

7.0
7.6

41.2
46.6

12.5
5.0

1.3
2.4

.2
.2

1910
1911

81.3
83.9

9.7
7.1

3.7
4.5

4.3
3.5

.4
.4

9 plants...........

1911
1912

83.6
84.0

7.0
7.3

4.9
5.1

3.5
2.8

.4
.2

8 plants............

1912
1913

87.1
86.8

.1

5.5
4.5

3.2
3.5

3.1
4.4

1910
1911

80.5
80.8

2.1
2.2

4.0
5.2

2.8
2.5

.1

6 plants...........

1911
1912

80.1

2.1
3.0

5.5
5.2

3.1
2.7

.1
(5)

6 plants...........

1912
1913

79.3
78.9

2.9
1.0

5.9
6.2

3.1
4.6

.1
(5)

Bar mills:
15 plants..........

Sheet mills:
9 plants...........

Tin-plate mills:
5 plants...........

1.4
3.4
1.2

(5)
.1
.1

(5
)

1 Including 1.2 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 91.
2 Including 0.7 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 91.
3 Including 0.8 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 91.
* Including 0.1 per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 84|, and less than one-tenth of 1
per cent whose full-time working hours per week were 91.
8Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

COMMON LABORERS.

The rate of wages paid common laborers is to a large extent a basic
rate from which are determined the rates for other occupations requir­
ing little skill, hence the rate for common labor is of importance be­
yond the limits of the occupation proper. The rate per hour is prac­
tically the same in all the departments of a plant, but the earnings
per day or week, of course, are determined by the number of hours
worked.



14

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

There are in every department various occupations which require
little skill but which have distinctive names and are necessary to the
proper operation of the department, and employees in these occupa­
tions must be on duty during the entire working time of the
department. They are usually paid very little if any more than the
regular rate for common labor, but such positions are eagerly sought
by laborers, owing to the regularity of employment and the consequent
stability of earnings, as well as to the fact that men in these occupa­
tions are in line for promotion. Employees in these occupations
are not generally classified as common laborers by iron and steel es­
tablishments and that custom so far as possible has been followed in
this report. However, even after this exclusion, 22 per cent of all the
employees tabulated for 1913 are classified as laborers.
The table below shows the average rate per hour for common labor
in the several departments, by years. For detailed information con­
cerning the rates of wages per hour, weekly earnings, and customary
hours of labor in the occupations the reader is referred to the several
chapters of this report.
AVERAGE RATES OF WAGES PE R HOUR OF COMMON LABORERS IN EACH D E PART­
MENT, B Y DISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913.
[In this table each department of an establishment is counted as a separate plant. The number of plants
stated is the total of all departments; the number of plants in each department is not shown here. The
figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Besse­ Open- Bloom­
Plate
mer hearth
ing
con­
mills.
fur­
verters. naces. mills.

All de­
part­
ments.

Blast
fur-

E astern:
4 plants___1907 $0,134
1908
.120
1909
.123
1910
.138

$0,135
.115
.119
.138

18 plants... 1910
1911

.142
.141

.142
.140

$0.145
.146

$0.143
.139

$0,131
.131

.147
.148

19 plants.. .1911
1912

.141
.143

.140
.144

.146
.152

.139
.141

.131
.131

.145
.142

20 plants.. .1912
1913
Pittsburgh:
17 plants... 1907
1908
1909
1910

.144
.157

.144
.151

.152
.168

.141
1

.133
.151

.145
.160

.154
.156
.152
.164

.152
.154
.152
.165

$0,156
.156
.153
.164

57 plants... 1910
1911

.164
.166

.166
.165

.164
.167

.162
.164

.168
.170

.167
.168

$0,161
.169

.161
.163

$0.164
.166

$0.165
.163

59 plants... 1911
1912

.166
.167

.165
.164

.167
.167

.164
.165

.170
.169

.168
.173

.169
.167

.163
.163

.166
.169

.164
.169

59 plants... 1912
1913

.167
.190

.188

.168
.192

.165
.190

.169
.192

.172
.193

.168
.191

.163
.182

.168
.191

.167
.190

Great Lakes and
Middle West:
12 plants...1907
1908
1909
1910

.158
.153
.151
.162

.162
.152
.153
.161

.154
.152
.146
.159

37 plants... 1910
1911

.163
.166

.162
.166

.161
.164

District, year, and
number of plants.




Stand­
Bar
ard rail mills.
mills.

Sheet
mills.

Tin­
plate
mflls.

$0,132
.131
.131
.138

.154
.157
.151
.163

.159
.158
.157
.169
. 162
.166

. 163
.166

.164
.164

.163
.169

.167
.166

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

15

A V E R A G E RATES OF W AG ES PER HOUR OF COMMON LABO RERS IN EACH D EP AR TM ENT, B Y DISTRICTS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913—Concluded.

District, year, and
number of plants.

All de­
part­
ments.

Great Lakes and
Middle West—Con.
39 plants.. .1911 $0.166
1912
.167

Blast
far­

Openmer hearth Bloom- Plate
ing
con­
furmills. mills.
verters,

$0.166
.167

$0.164
.166

$0.166
.167

$0.166
.167

$0.164
.165

$0.169

$0.166
.167

.166
.190

.170

.167
.191

.162
.188

.194

.170
.194

Stand­
Bar
ard rail mills.
mills.

.168
.191

.166
.189

.130
.111
.112
.127
.129
.131

.128
.131

.130
.130

.131
.131

.131
.130

.130
.134

.130
.138

.130
.136

.132
.150

.146
.140
.138
.152

126 plants. .1910
1911

.158
.161

.150
.151

.163
.166

.157
.161

.162
.163

.159
.158

.163

131 plants. .1911
1912

.161
.162

.151
.152

.166
.167

.161
.163

.163
. Ib4

.158
.160

.162
.183

.152
.171

.167
.192

.164
.187

.163
.184

.161
.181

.193

.168
.191

.167
.190

.168

134 plants. .1912
1913

.164

.160
.178

.155
.155
.151
.163

.166

.131
.140

.151
.147
.145
.157

$0.165
.163

.132
.131

15 plants.. .1912
1913
Total:
39 plants.. .1907
1908
1909
1910

$0.164
.166

.131
.132

14 plants.. .1911
1912

.160
.160

.130
.111
.112
.127

14 plants.. .1910
1911

Tin­
plate
mills.

.159

40 plants.. .1912
1913
Southern:
6 plants... .1907
1908
1909
1910

Sheet
mills.

.153
.153
.150
.161

EXPLANATION OF SCOPE AND METHOD,
The scope of the present investigation is stated in part on page 5.
The number of plants and the number of employees for which data
were obtained each year are specified in the following table:
NUMBER OF PLANTS AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES INCLUDED IN THIS REPO RT, B Y
DEPARTMENTS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913.
Blast furnaces.
Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.
2 0 ...

3 4 ...
3 5 ...
3 6 ...




Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

4,278
3,028
4,104
4,381
7,050
5,268
5,336
5,973
6,101
6,589

Bessemer converters.
Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.
9 ......

1 0 ...
1 0 ...
1 0 ...

Year.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

Bar mills.

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
iden­
em­
ployees. tical
plants.
1,757
1,179
1,352
1,649
1,730
1,342
1,350
1,460
1,494
1,661

1 5 ...

2 5 ...
2 6 ...
2 6 ...

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560
4,092
3,707
3,924
4,050
4,114
4,320

16

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

NUMBER OF PLANTS AND NUMBER OF EM PLOYEES INCLUDED IN THIS R E PO RT, B Y
DEPARTM EN TS, 1907 TO 1913 OR 1910 TO 1913—Concluded.
Open-hearth furnaces.
Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.
1 7 ...
1 7 ...
1 7 ...

Year.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

Blooming mills.

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
iden­
em­
ployees. tical
plants.
3,341
3,065
3,073
3,182
3,246
3,498

1 9 ...
1 9 ...

Standard rail mills.
Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.
6 ....
7 ....
7.. .

Year.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

1,535
1,252
1,355
1,457
1,435
1,427

Plate mills.

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913

1,064
948
988
975
998

1 1 ...
1 1 ...

Sheet mills.
Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.
9 ___
9 .
8 .. .

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913

1,330
1.203
1.203
1,248
1,256

Tin-plate mills.

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

Num­
ber of
iden­
tical
plants.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

2,346
2,772
2,781
2,716
2,439
2,487

5 ....
6 ....
6

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees.

1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

2,149
2,310
2,487
2,694
2,739
2,778

Reports from 20 identical blast furnaces were obtained for the
period 1907 to 1910. These same 20 plants furnished data for the
years 1911 and 1912 and 14 additional plants reported data for the
years 1910, 1911, and 1912, thereby making comparable data avail­
able for 34 plants for 1910 and 1911, while another plant was in­
cluded for 1911 and 1912, making figures available for those two
years from 35 plants, and for 1912 and 1913 still another plant was
included, making 36 blast-furnace plants for these two years. Com­
parable data were obtained for 4,278 blast-furnace employees in
1907 and 4,381 employees in 1910; for 7,050 in 1910 and 5,268 in
1911; for 5,336 in 1911 and 5,973 in 1912; and for 6,101 in 1912 and
6,589 in 1913.
Reports were obtained from 9 identical Bessemer converting plants
for the years 1907 to 1910, inclusive, and from 10 identical plants for
the years 1910 to 1912, inclusive. Data for 1910 were not available,
however, for one occupation in one of the ten plants reporting, so that
two reports are shown for 1911. The first, 1,342, represents the
number with data available for comparison with 1910; and the sec­
ond, 1,350, the number with data available for comparison with 1912.
A second group of 10 identical plants furnished data for 1912 and
1913. The figures for other departments are explained in like
manner.
The figures for 1910 published in this report are a part of the data
included in the report on “ Conditions of Employment in the Iron
and Steel Industry,” made by this Bureau and published as Senate
Document No. 110, Sixty-second Congress, first session. These




W AGES A N D H O U RS

OF L A B O R — SC O PE A N D M E T H O D .

17

figures for 1910 were collected in the fall of that year. The collection
of data for the other years covered in Bulletin 151, from 1907 to
1912, was begun in the fall of 1912, complete reports for all years
having been obtained at one time, and plants not continuously in
operation from the time of starting until 1912 having been omitted.
The collection of data for the year 1913 was begun in the summer
of that year, and to keep a fair representation it was necessary, in
some instances, to report new plants in place of those which for one
reason or another were temporarily or permanently not in operation.
In such added plants comparable data for 1912 were obtained
together with data for 1913.
Data for establishments were not included in this report unless
information for at least two years was available. Direct compari­
sons of data for two or more successive years can be made properly
only when the plants furnishing the data are identical, and the word
is here used in the strictest sense. By identical plants is meant not
only identical establishments of identical companies but also identical
units or departments— as, for example, separate bar mills or groups
of open-hearth furnaces. Frequently in this report the number of
plants remains unchanged from year to year while the plants are
not identical— one plant may have been shut down for repairs and
another substituted, or when there was no change in the plants
themselves it may have been impossible in one plant to obtain reports
for one occupation in one year, or an establishment reporting several
bar mills may have ceased operating one, or have added a new one.
As in nearly every instance substituted plants were located in the
immediate vicinity of those omitted it frequently happens that the
new data corresponds very closely to the old and the two reports for
one year are, therefore, in such cases nearly the same.
In some instances an occupation as tabulated embraced two or
more classes of employees (as, for example, shearmen’s helpers in
blooming mills) and for some reason it may have been impossible to
secure reports for one year for one class. In such a case, while the
number of plants for the occupation remains unchanged, the plants
in the two years are not considered identical and two reports are
made for the connecting year, one comparable with the previous
year when all classes making up the occupation were represented,
and another comparable with the succeeding year when one class
was omitted.
Information was secured from plants-located in 11 States. To
make the groups of data of sufficient volume to be of representative
value, the several plants covered have been divided into four dis­
tricts. These districts were not established strictly on geographical
fines, but rather according to the logical distribution of the industry.
The “ Eastern district” includes eastern and central Pennsylvania,
83021°—Bull. 168—15----- 2



18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Maryland, and New Jersey. The “ Pittsburgh district” includes not
only the plants in Pittsburgh proper but also those in western Penn­
sylvania, those along the border line in Ohio from Youngstown south
to Bellaire, and the plants which are located in the “ panhandle” of
West Virginia. The “ Great Lakes and Middle West district” in­
cludes plants scattered along the Great Lakes from western New
York to Illinois and Wisconsin, and also some plants in inland dis­
tricts, including Colorado. Although this is a very large territory
geographically, it is essentially a unit industrially (so far as the iron
and steel industry is concerned), the wage rates of the entire district
being based largely on those paid in the two producing centers, Buf­
falo and Chicago. The 1 Southern district” includes the establish­
1
ments in Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky, and in
the southern part of Ohio. The southern Ohio plants are included
with the Southern district because the conditions both as to wages
paid and the general class of labor employed resemble much more
closely the conditions of the Alabama and Kentucky plants than
they do those of the other plants of Ohio.
The plants included in the report are representative of the industry,
and a fair apportionment is given to the several districts. The table
following shows the number of plants, the number of furnaces, con­
verters, or mills represented, and the number of employees in the
several departments for which data are published for the year 1913,
by districts.
NUMBER OF PLANTS, NUMBER OF FURNACES, CONVERTERS, OR MILLS, AND
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, INCLUDED IN THIS R EPO RT, B Y DISTRICTS, 1913.
Pittsburgh district.

Eastern district.
Department.
Plants.

Blast furnaces. . . » .................
Bessemer converters..............
Open-hearth furnaces............
Blooming mills......................
Plate mills.............................
Standard rail mills................
Bar mills................................
Sheet mills............... •
............
Tin-plate mills ..................

Fur­
Fur­
Fur­
naces,
naces, Em­
naces,
Em­
Em­
con­ ployees. Plants. con­ ployees. Plants. con­ ployees.
verters,
verters,
verters,
or mills.
or mills.
or mills.

6

11

743

4
3
2

29
3
6

490
100
339

8

16

1,083

9
6
5
8
5
3
10
8
6

43
15
82
10
8
3
32
76
75

2,469
1,176
1,571
482
668
507
2,309
2,487
2,778

Southern district.
Department.

Blast furnaces........................
Bessemer converters.............
Open-hearth furnaces............
Blooming mills......................
Plate mills.............................
Standard rail mills.............
Bar mills
.........................
Sheet mills.............................
Tin-plate mills......................




Great Lakes and Middle
West district.

37
11
60
7
4
4
16

1,932
485
1,171
327
249
920
928

Total.

Furnaces,
converters, Employees.
or mills.

Plants.

10
4
6
6
4
4
8

11

23

1.445

2
2

11
2

266
89

Plants.

36
10
17
19
11
7
26
8
6

Furnaces,
converters, Employees.
or mills.
114
26
182
22
18
7
64
76
75

6,589
1,661
3,498
998
1,256
1,427
4,320
2,487
2,778

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — SC O P E A N D M E T H O D .

19

The greater part of the data presented was obtained by personal
visits of agents of this Bureau to the several plants. A part of the
information was obtained from the plants by correspondence, on
schedules and under instructions prepared by the Bureau. In certain
instances agents visited plants that had furnished data by corre­
spondence, to harmonize data not clearly expressed on the schedule.
In general, the number of employees shown in the several tables,
with the exception of laborers and those employed in certain other
unskilled occupations, represents the number of employees required
to man properly the positions in the mill under normal operating
conditions, and is not the number of employees who might have
appeared on the pay rolls during the pay period covered. For ex­
ample, a certain operation required 4 men, but during the pay-roll
period there were times when one of these 4 did not report for duty
and the position was filled by a different employee, and during the
pay period a total of 6 men covered the 4 positions and appeared
on the pay roll. In such instance the number of employees was
reported as 4 and not 6.
The data presented are for one pay-roll period in each year— the
pay roll for the second half of May, except in the very few plants
where abnormal conditions in May made it desirable to take some
other period.
The full-time hours of labor per week shown in the tables of the
report are the regular hours of work of the several employees under
normal conditions in the establishment. The working time is the
time on duty including intervals of waiting for work; in other words,
the time between the hour of reporting for duty and the hour of going
off duty.
The working time of employees is not always the working time of
their occupation as a whole. Some plants operating 7 days per week
make provision for laying off each employee one day a week. In
such a plant the full-time hours per week of an employee working 12
hours a day is 72 hours. In a plant making no such provision, the
full-time hours per week of an employee working 12 hours a day is
84 hours. The full-time hours per week and the relative or index
numbers based thereon do not in any way indicate the extent of
unemployment. Employees may work overtime, broken time, or
be laid off, or a temporary reduction may be made in working hours,
without such change affecting the full-time hours per week.
The rates of wages per hour appearing in the tables include both
the wages of time workers and the earnings of tonnage or piece workers.
All time rates by the day or week have been reduced to rates per hour.
The earnings of tonnage workers, the earnings of employees working
at both time and tonnage rates, and the earnings of employees who,
in addition to a regular time rate, receive a bonus based on produc­



20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tion, also have been reduced to earnings per hour by dividing the
earnings by the hours worked. The time workers and tonnage
workers of each occupation are combined as one group.
In this connection it should be noted that while in other industries
the earnings of employees paid on a piecework basis usually are
proportionate to the exertion and skill of the individual employee,
in the iron and steel industry the earnings of tonnage workers depend
upon the production of an entire department or group of employees.
A change in the earnings per hour of tonnage workers does not of
necessity indicate a change in tonnage or piece rates. A change
in methods or machinery, a speeding up, or more steady work result­
ing from a greater volume of business, may increase the hourly earn­
ings or, on the other hand, changes in methods, a slowing down in
speed, or a lull in business may reduce hourly earnings. Varying
intervals while on duty waiting for work may also affect hourly
earnings.
The reports from the plants in most instances showed wages of
each individual employee, but, in some cases, particularly in the
sheet and tin mills, reports gave the aggregate wages of two or more
persons in an occupation instead of wages of each individual. In
such plants the classification of wages per hour is made of averages
of aggregate wages of the employees, instead of wages of each indi­
vidual, and hence the classification in the tables of this report for
the department as a whole is to some extent a combination of such
averages and of individual earnings.
The full-time weekly earnings are the earnings per week of em­
ployees working full time, or the earnings on broken time reduced to
equivalent earnings for a full week. In considering changes in full­
time earnings per week notice should also be taken of changes in
full-time hours of labor per week. A reduction in the hours of a
pieceworker may reduce his earnings in a week and leave his earnings
per hour unchanged, while a reduction of hours for a time worker
will, if his weekly rate remains the same, increase his rate per hour.
METHOD OF COMPUTING AVERAGES.

The averages of full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour,
and full-time weekly earnings are computed by adding the data for
each individual employee and dividing the total by the number of
employees.
It will be observed that the average full-time weekly earnings gen­
erally is not exactly the same as the result that would be obtained by
multiplying the average rate per hour by the average hours per week,
owing to the fact that the hourly rates for individual employees are
based on varying hours per week, which has the effect of changing




W AGES A N D H OU RS

OF L A B O R — SC O PE A N D

M ETH OD.

the relative weighting of the wages of the several employees.
hypothetical illustration shows the difference.
Full-time
hours per
week.

Employees.

1
1
1
1
Total.................4
Average...........................

Rates of
wages per
week.

21
A

Rates of
wages per
hour.

48
54
54
60

$15.00
14.00
16.00
12.00

$0,313
.259
.296
.200

216
54

57.00
14.25

1.068
.267

The product of $0,267 multiplied by 54 is $14.42, while the average
earnings per week are $14.25.
REASON FOR TAKING 1913 AS BASE YEAR.

Relative full-time hours of labor, relative wages per hour, and rela­
tive full-time weekly earnings are briefly described on pages 6 and 7.
It will be observed that in the tables of relative numbers the data
for the latest year available, 1913 in this report, are taken as the base
or 100 per cent. Relative or index numbers are most frequently used
to compare the latest year with preceding years, as 1912 with 1913,
1911 with 1913, etc., and a comparison with 100 conveys a clearer
idea than a comparison of any two numbers, neither of which is 100.
For example, the ratio 96.4:100 is more readily grasped than the
equal ratio 137.3:142.4.
Another and more important reason for taking the last year, 1913,
as the base, or 100 per cent, is that the data for 1913 are greater in
amount and better in quality than for any preceding year. Thus,
for blast furnaces data were obtained from 20 plants for 1907 and
from 36 plants for 1913. While the average for 20 plants might pos­
sibly have been a fairly acceptable base, the average of nearly twice as
many plants recently canvassed becomes more nearly representative
of the industry, and thus a more satisfactory base. Starting with
1913 and computing the index back year by year to 1907 the weak­
ness, if any, in the data of earlier years can not manifest itself in the
relative numbers except in the earlier years. But if the average for
1907 were taken as a base, any weakness beginning in the index of
the earlier years would be continued down through the later years,
though the basic data for such later years were entirely satisfactory.
METHOD OF COMPUTING RELATIVE NUMBERS.

The method of computing the relative numbers is best explained
by an illustration. The full-time weekly earnings in 1911, 1912, and
1913 of stockers in the blast-furnace department is taken as an
example.




22

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

Full-time weekly earnings.............................................................
Relative full-time weekly earnings computed therefrom............
Full-time weekly earnings in identical establishments covering
the full 3 years.............................................................................
Relative full-time weekly earnings computed therefrom............

32
34

32

Year.
1911

1912

$13.40
....... 88*5*

$13.61
$13.46
89.9

$i4.*98
100.0

coco

Number
of
identical
plants.

$13.61
90.6

$15.03
100.0

1913

Data are available for this occupation from 1907 to 1913, but the
figures for 1911 to 1913 only are used, being sufficient to illustrate the
method of computing the relative numbers.
The average for 1913 is taken as the base (100), then $13.46
divided by $14.98 equals 89.9 (89.853), the relative for 1912. The
ratio of 1911 to 1912 is $13.40 divided by $13.61. The relative for
1912 just determined, 89.9 (89.853), multiplied by $13.40 divided by
$13.61 equals 88.5 (88.466), the relative for 1911. In this report the
relative number is published to one decimal place.
This method of computing relative numbers is used because of the
change that was made in the number of establishments to get a wider
representation in the later years. In computing a series of relative
numbers, account must be taken of changes in plants from year to
year, as some discontinue operations or cease to be representative
and new plants come into operation.
Thirty-two plants furnished data for the entire 3-year period
shown above. In addition, two other plants furnished data for 1912
and 1913. The earnings in these two plants were a little lower than
in the others, making the average in 1912 $13.46 in the 34 plants, as
against $13.61 in 32 plants. With a varying number of plants, such
differences must be expected.
The average earnings in 1913 for the 34 plants was $14.98. In the
32 plants, running through the full 3-year period, the average earn­
ings in 1913 were $15.03. Thus the averages for 34 plants show an
increase in earnings from $13.46 in 1912 to $14.98 in 1913, while the
averages for 32 plants show an increase from $13.61 in 1912 to $15.03
in 1913. Relatives have been computed on the data of the 32 plants
and are presented in the table simply to illustrate the difference shown
by relatives based on different amounts of data. The relatives based
on the greatest amount of available data, being more nearly repre­
sentative, are presented in the several tables of relative numbers in
the report.
A word of caution is given as to the use of relative numbers. The
per cent of increase or decrease from one year to another is not the
difference between the relative numbers for the two years. Thus, in




W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A BO R -----SC O PE A N D M E T H O D .

23

the table above, the relative full-time weekly earnings of stockers
increased from 88.5 in 1911 to 89.9 in 1912, a difference of 1.4 in the
relatives. This difference, 1.4, is 1.6 per cent of the relative 88.5.
Thus the increase in earnings per full week from 1911 to 1912 was 1.6
per cent.
The above illustration shows the method of computing the relative
numbers for an occupation. Precisely the same method was used in
computing the relative numbers for each department as a whole.
For example, for each year the full-time weekly earnings of each
employee of all occupations covered were added and the sum divided
by the total employees covered, giving the average full-time weekly
earnings of all employees in the department. From these averages
(unpublished) the relative full-time weekly earnings for the industry
were computed by the method illustrated above. This explanation
applies equally to relative full-time hours of labor and to relative
rates of wages per hour.

DESCRIPTION OF DEPARTMENTS AND OF OCCUPATIONS.
Descriptions of the functions and operations of the several depart­
ments of the iron and steel industry covered by this report and of
the various occupations in each department are omitted from the
present report, but may be found in Bulletin No. 151 of this Bureau,
as may also figures for each geographical division for years preceding
1913.

PREVIOUS REPORTS.
Wages in the iron and steel industry have entered into several
reports published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, among such
reports being the Sixth Annual, the Nineteenth Annual, and Bulletins
Nos. 59, 65, 71, 77, and 151.
Two Senate documents contain reports of investigations made by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics treating in part of wages in the iron
and steel industry, namely:
Report on Strike at Bethlehem Steel Works. Senate Document
No. 521, Sixty-first Congress, second session.
Report on Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry
in the United States. (4 vols.) Senate Document No. 110, Sixtysecond Congress, first session.
The last-named document is a very comprehensive study of the
wages, hours of labor, working conditions, etc., in the industry in
the year 1910. It covered all occupations in the industry and practi­
cally all plants in operation in the United States. The wage data of
this report were based mostly on a half-month pay roll, in most
instances in the month of May.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The resources of the Bureau of Labor Statistics would not warrant
such a large and expensive study to be made each year. This present
report contains representative data only, as before stated, but such
data cover not only 1910, but all the years from 1907 to 1913, inclu­
sive, in three departments and from 1910 to 1913 in six departments.




BLAST FURNACES.

SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to this department of the iron and steel
industry are given with figures for other departments in the intro­
ductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explanation of the scope
of the investigation and of the methods employed is given on pages
15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in blast
furnaces was from 8.3 per cent to 21.8 per cent higher than in any
one of the six years preceding, and, despite the fact that the average
full-time hours were 2.9 per cent lower than at the beginning of the
seven-year period, this very marked increase in rates of wages was so
reflected in full-time weekly earnings that the average earnings of
such employees in 1913 were from 9.5 per cent to 19.2 per cent
higher than in any one of the six years preceding.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of
the blast-furnace industry appearing in this report are summarized
in the table following. Data are presented for each year from 1907
to 1913, inclusive, two reports being given for 1910, for 1911, and for
1912, owing to changes in the number of plants from year to year.
Figures for identical plants are grouped together. The data for 1913
represent 6,589 employees, in the 16 occupations covered, and were
obtained from 36 plants having a total of 114 stacks in blast.
Referring to the first occupation presented, laborers, direct com­
parison can be made of data from 20 identical plants from 1907 to
1910, for 34 identical plants for 1910 and 1911, for 35 identical plants
for 1911 and 1912, and for another group of 35 identical plants for
1912 and 1913. The first fine shows that in 1907 the 20 blast-furnace
plants which furnished information employed 957 laborers and that
the average hours of work of these laborers, when working full time,
was 75.8 hours per week. For 11.1 per cent of the 957 laborers the
full-time hours of work per week were 60 and under; for 36.6 per cent,
over 60 and under 72; for 0.1 per cent, 72; for 5.4 per cent, over 72
and under 84; and for 46.8, or nearly one-half, 84. The average rate
of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the year considered (1907)
was $0,146. Of the total number 3.7 per cent earned under 12 cents
per hour, 28.6 per cent received 12 and under 14 cents per hour, 39.8
per cent received 14 and under 16 cents per hour, and 27.9 per cent
received 16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average earnings for
a full week’s work was $11.13. The other lines of the table are read
in the same manner.
25



26

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 20
identical plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers
was $11.13 in 1907. In the next two years there was a drop to $10.24
and $10.17, respectively, and in 1910 an advance to $11.18. While
the average full-time weekly earnings in 1910 in 20 plants was $11.18,
the average in 34 plants for the same year was $11.23. In the 34
plants there was a decrease from $11.23 per week in 1910 to $11.13
in 1911. The difference between $11.23 and $11.13 measures the
change from 1910 to 1911. It would not be a proper comparison,
however, to state that earnings decreased only from $11.18 in 1910
to $11.13 in 1911, because of the change in plants and the difference
known to exist in the averages for 1910 in the two groups of plants.
In 35 plants there was an increase from $11.14 in 1911 to $11.15 in
1912, and in the second group of 35 plants an increase from $11.15
in 1912 to $12.43 in 1913. The other items of this table should be
studied with like care.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 of the
several occupations it is seen that the lowest earnings are found in the
occupation of laborers, the average being $12.43. Several other
occupations receive but little more. The highest earnings in any
occupation of this department are found in the occupation of blowers,
the average full-time weekly earnings in this occupation being $26.84
in 1913.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of time
Over
Qver
of
Year. em­
72
60
60
wages
ploy­ hours and and
per
per
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 and 84 hour.
un­
der. der
der
72
84

Laborers:
20 plants............... 1907
1908
1909
1910
34 plants..............

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

11.1
19.8
13.5
17.6

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
age
full­
time
12 14 16
Un­ and and and 18 week­
ly
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
12 der der der and earn­
ings.
cts. 14 16 18 over.
cts. cts. cts.

36.6 0.1 5.4 46.8 $0,146 3.7 28.6 39.8 27.9
37.9
15.2 27.2 .140 24.7 10.3 41.1 24.0
49.9 **2*0 7.0 27.6 .138 23.6 25.9 24.4 26.0
36.8 2.5 5.0 38.0 .152 4.2 21.8 21.1 52.9 i.......

$11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

1910
1911

1,423
935

74.7 18.9 28.4
73.3 21.1 30.8

1.8 20.9 29.9
3.0 14.3 30.8

.150 3.1 23.3 32.7 40.8j....... 11.23
.151 4.1 25.7 24.0 46.3!....... 11.13

35 plants.............. 1911
1912

937
961

73.3 21.0 30.7
73.1 20.0 31.4

3.0 14.3 30.9
8.4 9.6 30.6

.151 4.1 25.6 24.1 46.2....... 11.14
.152 3.2 24.7 23.6 48.4j 0.1 11.15

35 plants..............

1912
1913

1,049
1,273

73.1 19.7 30.3 10.4
72.5 22.1 34.4 9.8

8.9 30.7
4.2 129.5

.152 3.3 23.0 26.3 47.3
.1 11.15
.171 .8 14.1 17.0119.61 48.4 12.43
i Including one-tenth of 1 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.




27

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Bottom fillers:
7 plants......... ......

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Over
Year. em­ time
Over
14 16 18
of
60 60
72
wages Un­ and and and 20
ploy­ hours and and
cts.
per
per der
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 and 84 hour. 14 un­ un­ un­ and
un­
der der der
der. der
der
cts. 16 18 20 over.
72
84
cts. cts. cts.

$13.40
12.59
11.61
13.41

1907
1908
1909
1910

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0 .......
84.0
::::: :::::
84.0

14 plants......... - -,

1910
1911

672
391

84.0
100.0
84.0 ....... ....... ....... ....... 100.0

12.77
.152 26.2 47.6 14.3 11.9
.148 35.0 39.9 8.7 16.4 ....... 12.46

15 plants..............

1911
1912

417
468

84.0
82.2 ....... ....... ii.7

100.0
85.3

12.50
.149 32.9 41.7 10.1 15.3
.152 27.6 44.7 11.5 16.2 ....... 12.53

14 plants..............

1912
1913

423
461

82.0
81.6

83.7
80.3

12.63
.153 30.5 33.6 18.0 18.0
21.3 *i6.*9 13.74
.167 20.6 41.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2 "6*8
82.9
.3

1.5
10.3 88.2
8.2 ....... 9.8 82.0
12.6 77.9
8.7
5.6 87.4
6.7

.173 5.4 24.4 45.0 9.2 16.0 14.46
9.8 12.88
.156 22.4 33.5 34.3
5.5 12.34
.150 34.4 19.7 40.3
.166 11.8 11.5 62.7 ii.*8 2.2 13.78

32 plants..............

1910
1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

7.1
9.7 *io.*3

4.1 88.6
1.8 78.2

.163 11.6 19.9 58.1 8.7
.158 22.8 21.2'45.7 9.7

1.7 13.56
.6 12.84

32 plants..............

1911
1912

333
397

81.3
9.9 10.5
75.2 *23*i 11.1 9.1

1.8 77.8
.3 56.4

.158 23.1 22.2 44.1 9.9
.164 10.8 28.5 37.3 15.6

.6 12.82
7.8 .12.20

33 plants.............. 1912
1913
Keepers’ helpers:
20 plants............... 1907
1908
1909
1910

356
380

77.3 14.6 10.1 11.8
79.9 1.3 12.4 15.3

.3 63.2
6.8 64.2

.162 12.4 22.8 44.4 18.5 2.0 12.49
.179 9.2 12.1 12.6 35.5 30.5 14.27

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100.0
....... ....... 100.0
100.0
100.0

.165 23.1 7.5 35.1 18.8 15.6 13.89
.160 28.3 3.9 39.4 21.5 6.8 13.41
.155 32.0 9.1 35.4 20.1 3.4 13.04
.169 15.7 13.7 30.9 31.6 8.2 14.22

34 plants............... 1910
1911

877
734

84.0
100.0
83.1 ....... ....... **7.6 ....... 92.4

.168 16.3 17.0 30.7 27.8
.167 20.7 13.1 26.7 31.9

35 plants............... 1911
1912

742
846

83.1
7.5
92.5
81.0 **4.3 ....... 14.9 ....... 80.9

.167 20.5 12.9 26.7 32.3 7.5 13.84
.170 16.3 16.3 22.7 33.0 11.7 13.74

1912
1913

870
902

80.2
82.2

.173 14.5 16.1 22.5 32.1 14.8 13.75
.186 8.4 13.7 12.2 8.6 57.0 15.30

1907
1908
1909
1910

Cinder men:
20 plants..............

100.0 $0,160 35.5 10.9 30.4 23.2
100.0 .150 40.2 17.5 21.6 20.6
100.0 .138 68.8
17.0 14.2
100.0 .160 32.6 i8.*7 30.0 18.7

Aver­
age
frill
lulltime
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

16.3
19.7

.2

:::::

115
79
135
134

14.0
78.4
....... 15.1 ....... 84.9
84.0
100.0
84.0 ....... ....... ....... ....... 100.0
84.0
100.0
84.0 ....... ....... . . . . . ....... 100.0

13.35
.159 8.7 29.6 61.7
.152 i2.7 45.6 41.8 . . . . ....... 12.80
12.53
.149 35.5 30.4 34.1
.163 6.0 29.1 50.0 14.9 ....... 13.69

19 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
100.0
82.6
*ii.*6
88.4
79.6 *io.*5 ....... 12.5 ....... 77.0

13.88
.165 5.0 23.7 64.0 7.2
.168 4.8 15.6 72.8 6.8
13.89
.173 4.1 5.2 74.3 5.8 *i0.*5 13.67

23 plants.............. 1912
1913
Pig-machine men:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

359
342

79.6 10.0
13.6
76.3
82.6
....... 11.7 ....... 88.3

.172 4.5 5.6 73.3 6.7 10.0 13.64
.190 4.7 1.2 8.2 41.8 44.2 15.69

193 84.0
100.0
157 83.9
....... **i.*9 98.1
152 83.9
2.0 98.0
182 83.8 ’ ” .*5 ‘ **.*5
98.9

.167 13.0 15.5 57.0 3.1 11.4 14.03
.163 11.5 8.3 68.8 7.6 3.8 13.69
.162 15.1 7.2 64.5 9.2 3.9 13.57
.170 7.1 14.8 50.5 24.2 3.3 14.27

36 plants..............
Larry men’s helpers:
10 plants..............

7.6

8.2 14.13
7.6 13.83

16 plants............... 1910
1911

291
259

83.9
82.4

.3
.4

1911
1912
1913

267
275
290

82.4
81.9
81.8

.4
.4
.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

824 81.4
473 79.1
737 80.9
904 81.0

17 plants..............
Stockers:
18 plants..............




.3

99.3
*i2*7 ....... 86.9

.169 5.8 15.1 57.0 19.9
.169 11.2 13.1 53.3 17.8

12.4
17.1
17.2

87.3
82.5
82.4

.169 10.9 12.7 51.7 19.5 5.2 13.98
.171 6.5 8.4 63.3 18.2 3.6 13.97
.192 2.8 3.4 12.1 38.6 43.1 15.69

76.6
58.4
60.0
65.8

.170 13.5 15.4 53.3 1.2 16.6 13.83
.157 19.2 25.8 40.4 6.1 8.5 12.43
.158 27.6118.1 38.8 6.5 9.1 12.75
.166 22.01 9.0 43.9 18.3 6.9 13.43

1.7 9.0
.8 26.0
9.6
•7.7 *‘ i.*8

12.7
14.8
30.4
24.6

2.1 14.14
4.6 13.90

28

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A BO R S T A T IS T IC S .

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF THE PRIN ­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Stockers—Concluded.
32 plants.............. 1910 1,445
1911
898
32 plants.............. 1911
1912

904
1,045

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
Over
Over
of
time 60
72
60
hours and and
wages
per un­ un­ 72 and 84 per
un­
week. der. der
hour.
der
72
84

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
age
Un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and 20
un­ cts.
der and
20 over.
cts.

2.1 15.4 63.5 $0,164 18.9 20.3 38.1 15.3
6.6 15.8 62.0 .167 15.6 17.7 42.3 16.9

79.9
79.8

0.9 18.2
3.6 11.9

79.7
78.7

4.1 11.8 6.5 15.7 61.8
3.7 10.7 13.0 23.3 49.3

34 plants.............. 1912 1,069 78.8 3.5 10.5 12.9 22.8 50.2
1913 1,187 78.9 4.2 8.5 13.6 23.3 50.5
Top fillers:
66 84.0
100.0
8 plants................ 1907
1908
44 84.0
100.0
.......
: : : : : 100.0
1909
50 84.0 : : : : :
100.0
1910
48 84.0

.168 14.5 17.6 43.7 16.8
.173 9.8 14.8 46.6 20.8

time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

7.3 $13.17
7.5 13.36
7.4 13.40
8.0 13.61

.171 12.8 15.2 44.0 20.3 7.9 13.46
.190 9.6 6.5 8.2 32.3 43.5 14.98
.177 24.3 12.1 9.1 15.2
.168 40.9
13.6 18.2
.161 44.0 20.0
12.0
.181 8.3 33.3 8.3

39.4
27.3
24.0
50.0

14.86
14.15
13.56
15.18

13 plants.............. 1910
1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

4.2
7.1

.......

95.8
92.9

.169 2.8 26.1 54.2
16.9 13.85
.170 19.1 23.8 33.3 *2*4 21.4 13.67

14 plants.............. 1911
1912

92
96

82.2
80.0

6.5
6.3

i.8.8

93.5
75.0

.171 17.4 21.7 30.4 10.9 19.5 13.84
.176 12.5 31.3 14.6 16.7 25.1 13.90

14 plants.............. 1912
1913

96
98

80.0
80.3

6.3
6.1

18.8
16.3

75.0
77.6

.175 16.7 27.1 14.6 16.7 25.1 13.81
.191 8.1 18.4 14.3 22.4 36.7 15.19
Un­
der
16
cts.

Blowing engineer's as­
sistants:
11 plants.............. 1907
1908
1909
1910

67 84.0
51 84.0
.......
74 84.0 : : : : : : : : : :
:::::
66 84.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

18 plants.............. 1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
100.0
83.2
**6*6 ....... 93.4
80.4 ‘ *8:3 ....... 10.2
81.5

18 plants.............. 1912
1913
Iron handlers and
loaders:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

106
94

80.8
83.2

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6 : : : : :
73.0

18 plants.............. 1910
1911

305
300

19 plants.............. 1911
1912
19 plants.............. 1912
1913
Keepers:
20 plants.............. 1907
1908
1909
1910

16 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and 30
un­ cents
der and
*30 over.
cts.

.203 9.0 26.9 49.3 14.9
.199 15.6 23.5 45.1 15.7
.191 16.2 40.5 29.7 13.5 : : : : :
.208 9.1 21.2 54.5 15.2

17.02
16.72
16.08
17.48

.207 8.5 21.3 59.6 10.6
17.38
.205 8.8 23.1 63.7 4.4 ....... 17.06
.211 7.4 18.5 66.7 7.4
16.85

6.6
6.4

84.9
93.6

.213 3.8 18.9 69.8 7.5
17.13
.225 4.3 6.4 66.0 19.1 ‘ ■
4*3 18.67

60.1
5.9
59.5
8.6
57.0 : : : : : 7.4
10.2
59.3

34.0
31.9
35.5
30.5

.193 17.7 51.3 25.1
.190 32.5 31.3 24.5 *3.‘ i
.177 31.0 40.9 20.7 7.4
.195 20.3 45.2 18.6 15.8

5.9 14.20
8.6 13.95
13.05
14.24

74.2
58.7
72.7 **i*3 63.0 .......

5.9 35.4
6.0 29.7

.194 18.4 49.5 17.7 11.8
.195 18.0 42.7 25.0 7.3

2.6 14.36
7.0 14.11

308
359

73.0
72.2

5.8 31.5
5.0 27.3

.195 17.5 44.1 24.4 7.1
.195 19.5 48.7 18.9 5.0

6.8 14.17
7.8 14.04

406
446

73.1 5.9 48.8
72.5 10.0 47.3

4.4 32.0
4.0 29.4

.206 16.2 44.1 19.7 5.2 14.8 15.11
.220 5.1 36.8 39.5 .9 17.7 16.07

146
96
141
142

84.0
100.0
84.0 ....... ....... ....... ....... 100.0
84.0
100.0
84.0
100.0

.218 12.3 6.9 64.4 16.4
18.34
.210 14.6 6.3 75.0 4.2 ....... 17.68
.205 17.0 5.6 74.5 2.8
17.26
18.43
.219 7.7 12.7 75.4 4.2

34 plants.............. 1910
1911

201
182

84.0
100.0
82.7 ....... ....... ‘ i i ‘ 6 ....... 89.0

.215 9.5 20.4 67.2 3.0
18.09
.217 9.9 17.6 70.3 2.2 ....... 17.95

35 plants.............. 1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6 “ 8*3

10.9
89.1
17.6 ....... 74.1

.217 9.8 17.4 70.7 2.2
.223 6.5 19.0 63.4 11.1

36 plants.............. 1912
1913

218
224

79.6
81.9

17.4
74.3
17.9 ....... 82.1

.223 6.4 19.7 62.8 11.0
17.59
.234 3.6 19.7 29.5147.3 ....... 19.13




8.5

1.3 61.4
7.8 49.9 *io.*o

8.3

8.9
9.2

17.95
17.61

29

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----B L A S T F U R N A C E S .

AVER AG E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF W AG ES
PER H O U R AN D AVER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF T H E PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913-BLAST FURNACES—Concluded.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Larry men:
11 plants.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Over
16 20 25
of
of Un­ and and and 30
Year. em­ time 60 Over
72
60
wages
hours
ploy­ per and and 72 and 84 per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­
and
16
ees. week. un­ un­
hour. cts. der der der over.
der
20 25 30
der. der
84
72
cts. cts. cts.

100.0 $0,195 18.2 24.2 42.4 15.2
100.0 .184 25.6 23.3 51.2
100.0 .186 26.7 50.4 23.0
100.0 .202 5.3 35.6 45.0 14.1 .......

Avertime
week­
ly
eam-

$16.41
15.48
15.64
16.97

1907
1908
1909
1910

132
86
135
149

84.0 ....... ....... ....... .......
84.0
84.0
84.0 ....... ....... ....... .......

21 plants.

1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
....... 100.0
90.6
: : : : : ’ *9*4
82.9
70.9
13.9
78.1 i5.*2

.196 4.3 51.5 35.1 9.1 ....... 16.47
.194 5.0 49.3 37.4 8.4
15.99
15.48
.200 4.2 37.1 49.8 8.9

23 plants...

1912
1913

241
234

71.4
13.7
78.2 14.9
....... 14.5 ....... 85.5
82.3

15.46
.199 5.0 36.5 49.8 8.7
.215 5.2 9.4 70.1 15.4 . . . . . 17.60

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
64
94
97

19 plants.

1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

100.0
84.0
: : : : : **i.*6 : : : : : 98.4
83.8
77.9
8.8
79.2 *i3.*2

.197 8.0 39.2 48.0 4.8 ....... 16.56
16.60
.198 6.5 29.0 56.5 8.1
16.14
.206 5.9 32.3 39.7 22.1

20 plants..

1912
1913

138
150

79.3 13.0 .......
82.9

8.7
78.3
9.3 ....... 90.7

.206 5.8 31.8 40.6 21.7
16.19
.217 5.3 13.3 73.3 8.0 ....... 17.95

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0 ....... .......
84.0
84.0
84.0

....... 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.192 14.3 58.5 18.6 8.6
16.10
15.52
.185 18.7 41.7 39.6
15.22
.181 22.1 47.1 30.7
----16.55
.197 10.9 31.5 57.5

34 plants..

1910
1911

200
178

100.0
84.0
82.7 ....... ....... 11.2 ....... 88.8

16.21
.193 14.0 34.0 52.0
.190 15.8 34.9 49.4 . . . . ....... 15.69

35 plants.

1911
1912

180
212

82.7
....... 11.1 ....... 88.9
73.6
17.9
79.5 **8*5

15.68
.190 15.5 35.5 48.9 . . . .
....... 15.42
.195 13.2 28.4 58.5

36 plants.

1912
1913

214
213

79.5
81.8

73.8
8.4 ....... 17.8
18.3 ....... 81.7

.195 14.0 28.0 57.9
....... 15.38
17.24
.211 7.5 15.9 76.5 ___

Skip operators:
11 plants...

Stove tenders:
20 plants..

....... 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.0 .......
84.0
84.0
84.0

.193 11.6 32.6 53.5
.184 18.8 34.4 43.8
.183 8.5 72.4 17.0
.196 8.2 40.2 49.5

2.3
3.1
2.1 : : : : :
2.1

20 30 40
Un­ and and and
der un­ un­ un­
20 der der der
cts. 30 40 50
cts. cts. cts.
Blowing engineers:
20 plants........

34 plants.........
35 plants........
35 plants.........
Blowers:
18 plants.........

32 plants.........
33 plants.........
34 plants.........




1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

100
85
103
112
153
135
137
142
142
148

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0 .......
84.0
83.0 .......
82.9
80.6 4.2
80.6 4.2
81.6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1911
1912
1912
1913

78
68
86
90
131
121
123
132
139
147

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0 ....... ....... ....... .......
83.5 2.3 .......
.......
‘ *9.'i
82.9
8.9 .......
82.9
80.2 **6.8
15.9
15.8
80.3 6.5
82.0
....... 17.0 .......

....... ....... .......
8.1 .......
9.5 .......
18.3
....... 18.3
20.3 .......

.......

.......

100.0 .242 20.0 77.0 3.0
100.0 . .235 16.5 83.5
100.0 .230 21.4 78.7
100.0 .245 14.3 78.6 7.1 . . . .
100.0 .243 20.3 74.5 5.2
91.9 .244 19.3 74.8 5.9 ___
90.5 .244 19.0 75.2 5.8 . . . .
77.5 .249 22.5 66.2 11.3
77.5 .249 22.5 66.2 11.3
79.7 .263 17.6 55.4 25,7 'l.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.7
90.9
91.1
77.3
77.7
83.0

16.19
15.49
15.40
16.46

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

.......
.......
.......
.......

41.0 52.6 6.4
.300
61.7 38.2
.283
61.7 38.4
.286
.307 ___ 48.9 48.9 2.2
.296 .8 55.0 42.0 2.3 .......
.306 1.7 47.1 41.3 9.9
.305 1.6 48.0 40.7 9.8 .......
.313 1.5 44.7 40.2 13.6
.315 1.4 43.8 40.3 14.4
.329 1.4;31.3 54.4 10.2 '*2*7

20.30
19.77
19.35
20.59
20.39
20.20
20.15
19.93
19.93
21.37
25.17
23.74
24.04
25.80
24.74
25.24
25.21
24.84
25.01
26.84

30

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

Owing to changes in the number of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the overlap­
ping year in two groups of plants, it is difficult to make a comparison
of the actual data over a period of several years which will give an
accurate measure of the changes throughout the period. To aid in
making such a comparison, relative or index numbers have been com­
puted from the averages of the preceding table for full-time hours per
week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for
each occupation from 1907 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear
in the table following. These relative or index numbers are simply
percentages for which the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100
per cent. The relative for each year is the per cent that the average
for that year is of the average for 1913. For example, the relative
full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 89.8 as compared
with 100 in 1913; that is, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in
1907 were 89.8 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupa­
tion in 1913. The method of computing relative numbers is explained
on pages 21 to 23.
This table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1913 as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in
1913 were 11.4 per cent higher than in 1907, 23.9 per cent higher
than in 1908, 20.8 per cent higher than in 1909, 14.7 per cent higher
than in 1910, 13.0 per cent higher than in 1911, and 11.2 per cent
higher than in 1912.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1908 were 10.1 per cent
lower than in 1907,2.6 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 5.3 per cent
higher in 1910 than in 1909, 1.5 per cent higher in 1911 than in 1910,
1.6 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911, and 11.2 per cent higher in
1913 than in 1912. The other items and occupations of the table
can be studied in like manner. The per cent of increase or decrease
is computed from the relative numbers.




31

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

RE LATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y E A R S , B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BLAST FUR­
NACES.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1907..................................
1908.................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Bottom fillers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Top fillers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Larry men:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Larry men’s helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Skip operators:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Blowers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Weekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
tive
Each
Each
tive
Each
rate 1913 as speci­
speci­
speci­
full­
1913 as fied
of
time 1913 as fied
fied
com­
com­
com­
year
year weekly pared
year
wages pared
pared
per
earn­
as
as
as
with
with
with
hour.
com­
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
each pared
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­ with
speci­ with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

101.8
98.9
101.1
101.3
101.1
99.9
100.0

—1.8
+1.1
-l.i
-1 .3
-1 .1
+ .1

102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
100.5
100.0

—2.6
-2 .6
-2 .6
-2 .6
-2 .6
- .5

103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
102.4
99.6
100.0

—3.3
-3 .3
-3 .3
-3 .3
-2 .3
+ .4

102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
100.9
95.0
100.0

—2.2
- 2 .2
-2 .2
-2 .2
- .9
+5.3

101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
100.0
96.4
100.0

—1.7
- 1 .7
- 1 .7
-1 .7
0)
+3.7

101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.2
95.7
100.0

-1 .5
- 1 .5
-1 .5
- 1 .5
-1 .2
+4.5

102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
101.2
97.9
100.0

-2 .0
- 2 .0
- 2 .0
- 2 .0
- 1 .2
+2.1

- 2 .8
+2.2
+ .2
- .2
- 1 .2
+ .1

87.9
81.2
81.7
85.8
87.4
90.0
100.0

+13.8
+23.2
+22.4
+ 16.6
+ 14.4
+11.1

n)
(i)
(i)
0)
-2 .1
— .5

92.2
86.5
79.6
92.2
89.8
91.6
100.0

+ 8.5
+15.6
+25.6
+ 8.5
+11.4
+ 9.2

b)
- 1 .0
- 2 .7
4- .4

86.5
82.1
78.7
88.5
89.0
91.6
100.0

+15.6
+21.8
+27.1
+13.0
+12.4
+ 9.2

0)
fa
0)
-1 .3
-5 .8
+5.3

87.6
82.6
83.5
90.7
89.8
92.6
100.0

+14.2
+21.1
+19.8
+10.3
+11.4
+ 8.0

(l)
fi)
(i)
-1 .7
-3 .6
+3.7

84.2
80.5
78.9
86.3
87.9
90.5
100.0

+18.8
+24.2
+26.7
+15.9
+13.8
+10.5

0)
0)

89.4
85.2
84.8
90.8
91.2
94.9
100.0

+11.9
+ 17.4
+ 17.9
+10.1
+ 9.6
+ 5.4

h
0)

88.2
83.2
84.1
90.2
93.3
95.7
100.0

+13.4
+20.2
+18.9
+10.9
+ 7.2
+ 4.5

- .3
- 5 .4
+4.5

- .8
-3 .3
+2.1

i No change.

- 7.6
+ .6
+ 5.0
+ 1.9
+ 3.0
+11.1

89.8
80.7
82.8
87.2
88.5
89.9
100.0

+11.4
+23.9
+20.8
+14.7
+13.0
+11.2

- 6.2
- 8.0
+15.8
- 2.6
+ 2.0
+ 9.2

93.9
88.2
81.4
94.0
91.7
91.9
100.0

+ 6.5
+13.4
+22.9
+ 6.4
+ 9.1
+ 8.8

- 5.1
- 4.1
+12.5
+ .6
+ 2.9
+ 9.2

89.8
85.5
81.9
91.7
90.5
90.9
100.0

+11.4
+17.0
+22.1
+ 9.1
+10.5
+10.0

+
+
+
+

5.7
1.1
8.6
1.0
3.1
8.0

90.4
85.3
86.1
93.5
90 7
87.8
100.0

+10.6
+17.2
+16.1
+ 7.0
+10.3
+13.9

- 4.4
- 2.0
+ 9.4
+ 1.9
+ 3.0
+10.5

86.1
82.5
80.8
88.3
88.3
86.9
100.0

+16.1
+21.2
+23.8
+ 13.3
+13.3
+15.1

+
+
+
+

4.7
.5
7.1
.4
4.1
5.4

91.0
87.1
86.6
92.5
92.8
90.2
100.0

+ 9.9
+14.8
+15.5
+ 8.1
+ 7.8
+10.9

+
+
+
+
+

5.7
1.1
7.3
3.4
2.6
4.5

90.4
85.3
86.4
92.7
94.6
93.2
100.0

+10.6
+17.2
+15.7
+ 7.9
+ 5.7
+ 7.3

-1 0 .1
+ 2.6
+ 5.3
+ 1.5
+ 1.6
+11.2
- 6.1
- 7.7
+15.5
- 2.4
+ •2
+ 8.8
- 4.8
- 4.2
+12.0
- 1.3
+ .4
+10.0
- 5.6
+ .9
+ 8.6
- 3.0
- 3.2
+13.9
- 4.2
- 2.1
+ 9.3
0)
- 1.6
+15.1
- 4.3
- .6
+ 6.8
+ .3
- 2.8
+10.9
+
+
+
+

5.6
1.3
7.3
2.0
1.5
7.3

32

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PE R HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BLAST FUR­
NACES—Continued.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.
Per cent of in­
crease (4-)
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Blowing engineers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Blowing engineers’ assistants:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Stove tenders:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Keepers:
190 7
190 8
.*
..............
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Keepers’ helpers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Iron handlers and loaders:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Pig-machine men:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
pared
speci­ with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

-2 .7
-2 .7
-2 .7
-2 .7
-1 .6
+1.2

91.3
88.6
86.7
92.4
92.8
94.7
100.0

+ 9.5
+12.9
+15.3
+ 8.2
+ 7.8
+ 5.6

101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
100.5
97.1
100.0

-1 .5
-1 .5
-1 .5
-1 .5
- .5
+3.0

90.6
88.9
85.3
92.9
92.0
94.7
100.0

+10.4
+12.5
+17.2
+ 7.6
+ 8.7
+ 5.6

102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
101.1
97.2
100.0

-2 .6
-2 .6
-2 .6
- 2 .6
-1 .1
+2.9

89.1
85.9
84.0
91.5
90.0
92.4
100.0

+12.2
+16.4
+19.0
+ 9.3
+11.1
+ 8.2

102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
101.0
97.2
100.0

-2 .5
-2 .5
-2 .5
-2 .5
-1 .0
+2.9

91.5
88.1
86.0
91.9
92.7
95.3
100.0

+ 9.3
+13.5
+16.3
+ 8.8
+ 7.9
+ 4.9

101.2
101.2
101.2
101.2
100.1
97.6
100.0

-1 .2
- 1 .2
- 1 .2
- 1 .2
- .1
+2.5

89.7
87.0
84.3
91.9
91.4
93.0
100.0

+11.5
+14.9
+18.6
+ 8.8
+ 9.4
+ 7.5

104.3
104.0
104.9
104.0
101.9
100.8
100.0

- 4 .1
- 3 .8
- 4 .7
- 3 .8
- 1 .9

92.2
90.8
84.6
93.2
93.6
93.6
100.0

+ 8.5
+10.1
+18.2
+ 7.3
+ 6.8
+ 6.8

102.8
102.7
102.7
102.6
100.7
100.1
100.0

- 2 .7
- 2 .6
- 2 .6
- 2 .5
- .7
- .1

-3 .4
+3.0

- .3
+ .9
- .9
-2 .0
-1 .1
- .8
-

.1

-w . ,
-1 .9
- .6
- .1

84.4
83.9
88.0
88.0
89.1
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
full­
1913 as speci­ time 1913 as speci­
fied
fied
com­
year weekly com­
year
pared
earn- pared
as
as
with
with
com­
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­ with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

102.8
102.8
102.8
102.8
101.6
98.8
100.0

$)
b
-1 .0

Weekly earnings.

+15.6
+18.5
+19.2
+13.6
+13.6
+12.2

-3 .0
-2 .1
+ 6.6
+ .4
+ 2.0
+ 5.6

93.8
91.4
89.4
95.2
94.3
93.3
100.0

+ 6.6
+ 9.4
+11.9
+ 5.0
+ 6.0
+ 7.2

- 1.9
-4 .0
+ 8.9
- 1.0
+ 2.9
+ 5.6

92.1
90.5
87.1
94.6
92.9
91.8
100.0

+ 8.6
+10.5
+14.8
+ 5.7
+ 7.6
+ 8.9

- 3.6
-2 .2
+ 8.9
- 1.6
+ 2.7
+ 8.2

91.2
87.9
86.2
93.7
90.7
89.2
100.0

+ 9.6
+13.8
+16.0
+ 6.7
+10.3
+12.1

-3 .7
-2 .4
+ 6.9
+ •9
+ 2.8
+ 4.9

94.0
90.6
88.5
94.5
93.7
91.9
100.0

+ 6.4
+10.4
+13.0
+ 5.8
+ 6.7
+ 8.8

- 3.0
-3 .1
+ 9.0
.5
+ 1.8
+ 7.5

90.3
87.2
84.8
92.5
90.5
89.9
100.0

+10.7
+14.7
+17.9
+ 8.1
+10.5
+11.2

-1.5
-6.8
+ 10.2
+ .4
0)
+ 6.8

96.3
94.6
88.5
96.6
94.9
94.0
100.0

+ 3.8
+ 5.7
+13.0
+ 3.5
+ 5.4
+ 6.4

- 2.4
.6
+ 4.9
0)
+ 1.3
+12.2

89.1
87.0
86.2
90.6
89.1
89.0
100.0

+12.2
+14.9
+16.0
+10.4
+ 12.2
+ 12.4

+
+

2.6
2.2
6.5
.9
1.1
7.2

+
+

1.7
3.8
8.6
1.8
1.2
8.9

- 3.6
- 1.9
+ 8.7
- 3.2
- 1.7
+12.1
+
+

3.6
2.3
6.8
.8
1.9
8.8

- 3.4
- 2.8
+ 9.1
- 2.2
- .7
+11.2
+
+

1.8
6.4
9.2
1.8
.9
6.4

- 2.4
.9
+ 5.1
- 1.7
- .1
+12.4

33

WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BLAST FUR­
NACES—Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Cinder men:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912................... ..............
1913..................................
Laborers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
speci­
rate
1913 as fied
of
com­
year
wages
pared
per
as
with
com­
hour.
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
earn­
as
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

107.6
106.3
105.7
106.7
104.6
96.7
100.0

-7 .1
-5 .9
- 5 .4
—6.3
—4.4
+ 3.4

106.1
101.9
102.2
103.0
101.1
100.8
100.0

- 5 .7
- 1 .9
-2 .2
-2 .9
—1.1
- .8

- 1 .2
— .6
+ .9
- 2 .0
- 7 .6
+ 3.4

93.7
84.5
81.3
89.9
87.2
90.5
100.0

+ 6.7
+18.3
+23.0
+11.2
+14.7
+10.5

—4.0
-j- •3
+ .8
- 1 .8
— .3
— .8

84.3
80.8
79.6
87.7
88.3
88.9
100.0

+18.6
+23.8
+25.6
+14.0
+13.3
+12.5

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
in -

— 9.8
— 3.8
+10.6
— 3.0
+ 3.8
+10.5

101.9
90.8
87.0
97.1
92.0
87.5
100.0

— 1.9
+10.1
+14.9
+ 3.0
+ 8.7
+14.3

— 4.2
— 1.5
+10.2
+ .7
+ .7
+12.5

90.0
82.8
82.3
90.4
89.6
89.7
100.0

+11.1
+20.8
+21.5
+10.6
+11.6
+11.5

—10.9
— 4.2
+11.6
— 5.3
— 4.9
+14.3
— 8.0
— .6
+ 9.8
— .9
+ .1
+11.5

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the blast-furnace department as a whole, as determined by a com­
bination of the data for the several principal productive occupations
which are covered in this section of the report. The method of com­
puting the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under “ weekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole in
1907 were 89.8 as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1907 were 89.8 p * cent of such earnings
ea
in 1913. The relative dropped to 84.6 in 1908 and to 83.9 in 1909,
advanced to 90.5 in 1910, to 91.3 in 1911, dropped to 90.8 in 1912,
and, showing the marked increase in rates, in 1913, the base year, ad­
vanced to 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1913
were 11.4 per cent higher than in 1907, 18.2 per cent higher than
in 1908,19.2 per cent higher than in 1909,10.5 per cent higher than
in 1910, 9.5 per cent higher than in 1911, and 10.1 per cent higher
than in 1912.
83021°— B l . 168— 15- 3
ul
-




34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per cent
of increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as
compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full­
time weekly earnings in 1908 were 5.8 per cent lower than in 1907,
in 1909 0.8 per cent lower than in. 1908, in 1910 7.9 per cent higher
than in 1909, in 1911 0.9 per cent higher than in 1910, in 1912 0.5
per cent lower than in 1911, and in 1913 10.1 per cent higher than
in 1912. The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours
per week and rates of wages per hour can be read in like manner.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EA R S, A LL OCCUPATIONS—BLAST FURNACES.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

Year.

1907.
1908.
1909.
1910
1911
1912
1913

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

103.0
101.5
102.4
102.5
101.5
99.0
100.0

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

-2 .9
-1 .5
-2 .3
- 2 .4
- 1 .5
+ 1.0

Weekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
tive
Each
tive
full­
rate 1913 as speci­
speci­
speci­
time 1913 as fied
fied
fied
of
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
wages pared
year
as
as
eamper
as
with
with
com­
com­
com­
hour.
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

- 1 .5
+ .9
+ .1
- 1 .0
- 2 .5
+1.0

87.1
83.1
82.1
88.6
90.2
92.3
100.0

+14.8
+20.3
+21.8
+12.9
+ 10.9
+ 8.3

- 4 .6
- 1 .2
+7.9
+1.8
+2.3
+8.3

89.8
84.6
83.9
90.5
91.3
90.8
100.0

+11.4
+18.2
+ 19.2
+ 10.5
+ 9.5
+ 10.1

- 5.8
- .8
+ 7.9
+ .9
- .5
+10.1

In considering weekly earnings attention should be given to the
hours per week and wages per hour and their effect on the weekly
earnings. A reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings
and an increase in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase weekly
earnings. Between 1907 and 1913 it will be observed that the
hours were reduced 2.9 per cent and wages per hour were increased
14.8 per cent, each tending to offset the other in weekly earnings.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered. That is, the change in the relative number
of employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is
obvious that an increase in the relative number of employees in the
lower-paid occupations, or a decrease in the relative number of
those in the higher-paid ones would lower the average rate and
earnings for all occupations, just as an increase in the relative number
of employees in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the
relative number in the lower-paid ones would increase the average.




35

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BLAST FURNACES.

FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in blast-furnace plants whose customary working time
per week was six days or turns, or seven, are shown in the following
table. The figures are presented for each district and for the four
districts combined.
A blast furnace is continuously in operation, but a marked differ­
ence is seen in the working days per week of employees in the few years
between 1907 and 1913; seven days was the regular working time of
97.2 per cent of the employees in 1907, while in 1913 the number
working seven days per week had been reduced to 79.8 per cent.
This reduction was due to the fact that during recent years several
establishments have carried into effect a provision to lay off
employees one day in seven, thus making the working time for each
individual six days, while the plant continues in operation seven
days.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PE R W EE K , B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose
customary working time
per week was—
District, and number

Year.

Number
of em­
ployees.
6 days.

Eastern:
2 plants.

320
235

1907
1908
1909
1910

346

1910
1911
1912

779
684

1912
1913

6 days
and 7
days
alter­
nately.

7 days.

Per cent of employees whose
customary working time per
week was—

6 days.

6 days
and 7
days
alter­
nately.

287
192
317
346

10.3
18.3
3.4

79
118
135

1,357
659
547

5.5
15.1
19.7

0.3
.3

94.5
84.6
80.0

660
743

134
178

524
563

20.3
24.0

.3

79.4
75.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,731
1,161
1,683
1,613

74
87
66
103

1,657
1,074
1,617
1,510

4.3
7.5
3.9
6.4

95.7
92.5
96.1
93.6

9 plants.................

1910
1911

2,302
2,135

111
127

2,191
2,008

4.8
5.9

95.2
94.1

9 plants.................

1911
1912

2,127
2,396

127
101

2,000
2.295

6.0
4.2

94.0
95.8

9 plants.................

1912
1913

2,415
2,469

101
58

2,314
2,411

4.2
2.3

95.8
97.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

1,310
947
1,163
1,622

14
27
44
95

1.296
920
1,119
1,527

1.1
2.9
3.8
5.9

98.9
97.1
96.2
94.1

1910
1911

2,103
1,302

116
337

1,987
965

5.5
25.9

94.5
74.1

6 plants

6 plants
Pittsburgh:
6 plants

Great Lakes and Mid­
dle West:
6 plants.................

9 plants.




89.7
81.7
96.6
100.0

36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

NUM BER AND PER CENT OF EM PLO YEES IN EACH DISTRICT W O R K IN G EACH SPECI­
FIE D NUM BER OF D A Y S PER W E E K , B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES—
Concluded.

Number of employees whose
customary working time
per week was—
District, and number
of plants.

Year.

Number
of em­
ployees.
6 days.

Great Lakes and Mid­
dle West—Concluded.
10 plants.................

6 days
and 7
days
alter­
nately.

7 days.

Per cent of employees whose
customary working time per
week was—

6 days.

6 days
and 7
days
alter­
nately.

7 days.

1911
1912

1,387
1,648

343
568

1,044
1,080

24.7
34.5

75.3
65.5

1912
1913

1,722
1,932

607

1,115
1,267

35.2
34.4

64.8
65.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

917
685
930
800

8
3

917
685
922
797

.4

10 plants.

1910
1911

1,209
1,052

37
2

1,172
1,050

3.1
.2

96.9
99.8

10 plants.

1911
1912

1,043
1,245

2
267

1,041
978

.2
21.4

99.8
78.6

11 plants.

1912
1913

1,304
1,445

265
431

1,039
1,014

20.3
29.8

79.7
70.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

4,278
3,028
4,104
4,381

121
157
129
201

4,157
2,871
3,975
4,180

2.8
5.2
3.1
4.6

97.2
94.8
96.9
95.4

1910
1911

7,050
5,268

343
584

6,707
4,682

4.9
11.1

35 plants.

1911
1912

5,336
5,973

590
1,071

4,744
4,900

11.1
17.9

36 plants.

1912
1913

6,101

1,107
1,332

4,992
5,255

18.1
20.2

10 plants.
Southern:
6 plants.,

Total:
20 plants.

34 plants.

100.0
100.0
99.1

C
1)

95.1
88.9
88.9
82.0

8

81.8
79.8

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In addition to the text tables in the summary, four general tables
are presented for the blast-furnace department, as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907
to 1913.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and
1913.
Table III.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1913.
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each
year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 26 to 29.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

37

The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended ex­
planation see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year, back
to 1907, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in Tables
II and IV, and descriptions of the occupations which appear in the
tables of this report, were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this Bureau
but have been omitted from the present report.




38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — A V E R A G E F U LL-TIM E W E E K L Y E AR N IN G S AND A V E R A G E
AN D CLASSIFIED R ATE S OF W AGES PER H O U R IN T H E U N ITE D
STATES, B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1913— BLAST FURNACES.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.)
NUMBER.

Aver­
Num­ age
ber full­
Occupation, and
of
Year. em­ time
number of
hours
plants.
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Stockers:
18 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

824
473
737
904

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
10 12 14 16 18
time
20 25 30 40
week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un un­
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
20 25 30 40 50
ings. 9
10 12 14 16 18
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

81.4 $0.170 $13.83 .
79.1 .157 12.43
80.9 .158 12.75
81.0 .166 13.43.

439
191

.164 13.17 .
.167 13.36.

10
29
48
165

113
40
67
62

551

221
152

105
27

40

397

24

32 plants___ 1910
1911

1,445
898

79.9
79.8

32 plants___ 1911
1912

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

.168 13.40 ,
.173 13.61,

395
487

152
217

27
37

40
20

27

1912
1913

1,069
1,187

78.8
78.9

.171 13.46
.190 14.98 ,

470
97

217
383

37
446

20
62

27
8

1907
1908
1909
1910

293
194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.160
.150
.138
.160

14 plants.,

1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

.152 12.77
.148 12.46

80
64

15 plants.

1911
1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

.149 12.50
.152 12.53

64
76

14 plants.

1912
1913

423
461

82.0
81.6

.153 12.63
.167 13.74

1907
1908
1909
1910

66
44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.177
.168
.161
.181

13 plants.

1910
1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

.169 13.85
.170 13.67

14 plants.

1911
1912

92
96

82.2
80.0

.171 13.84
.176 13.90

14 plants.

1912
1913

96
98

80.0
80.3

.175 13.81
.191 15.19

12

1907
1908
1909
1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.195
.184
.186
.202

20
4
1 6 ....

21 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

.196 16.47
.194 15.99
.200 15.48

23 plants___ 1912
1913

241
234

78.2
82.3

.199 15.46
.215 17.60

1907
1908
1909
1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.159
.152
.149
.163

1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

. 165 13.88
.168 13.89
.173 13.67

34 plants...
Bottom fillers:
7 plants___

Top fillers:
8 plants..

Larry men:
11 plants.

L arry m en’ s
helpers:
10 plants...

19 plants...




13.40 ,
12.59
11.61
13.41

68
40
40
50

18

76

46

13.35
12.80
12.53
13.69

38
12

12
18

6
6

18
30

6
6

16
12
68
29

56
44
31
67

20

49
30
42

24

6
6

16
22
16

18
12

10
16

16.41
15.48
15.64
16.97

26
12
12
24

2

14

78

10
8
6

14.86
14.15
13.56
15.18

76
98

81
76
118

21
17
21

42
18

120
164

21
36

20
20
20 .
20
36

21

39

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­ Aver
age
ber fi3lOccupation, and
of
Year em­ time
number of
plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week

L arry m en ’ s
helpers—Con.
23 plants___ 1912
1913
Skip operators:
11 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910
19 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

359
342
86
64
94
97

Aver
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

time 8
week-• and
un­
iy
earn­ der
ings. 9
cts.

9 10
andI and
un­ un­
der der
10 12
cts. cts.

79.6 $0,172 $13.64
82.6 .190 15.691
84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.193
.184
.183
.196

12 14 16
and[ andLand
un­ un­ un­
der der der
14 16 18
cts. cts. cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

16
16

263
28

24
143

10
6
8
8

24
16
28
31

4
6
40
8

46
28
16
48

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

5

36
151

6

16.19
15.49
15.40
16.46

20
4

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

2
2
2
2

125 84.0
124 83.8
136 79.2

.197 16.56
.198 16.60
.206 16.14

10
8
8

35
34
38

14
2
6

60
70
54

6
10
30

8
8

38
6

6
14

56
no

30
12

10
12
20
11

22
30
33
33

41
26
33
44

2

45 55
33 50

3
12
12
18

20 plan v?___ 1912
1913
Blowers:
18 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

138
150

79.3
82.9

.206 16.19
.217 17.95

78
68
86
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.300
.283
.286
.307

32 plants___ 1910
1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

.296 24.74
.306 25.24

2

27
24

33 plants___ 1911
1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

.305 25.21
.313 24.84

2
2

24
21

35
38

50
53

34 plants___ 1912
1913
Blowing e n g i ­
neers:
20 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

139
147

80.3
82.0

.315 25.01
.329 26.84

2

2

23
22

38
24

56
20
80 U9

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.242
.235
.230
.245

20.30
19.77
19.35
20.59

2
4
4
2

6
4
6
6

12
6
12
8

12
30
42
42

65
41
39
46

8

34 plants___ 1910
1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

.243 20.39
.244 20.20

2
2

14
10

15
14

45
40

69
61

8
8

35 plants___ 1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

.244 20.15
.249 19.93

2
2

10
10

14
20

42
31

61
63

8
16

35 plants___ 1912
1913
Blowing e n g i ­
neers’ assist­
ants:
11 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

142
148

80.6
81.6

.249 19.93
.263 21.37

2
2

10

20
24

31
31

63
51

16
38

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.203
.199
.191
.208

2

18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

.207 17.38
.205 17.06
.211 16.85

18 plants___ 1912
1913
Stove tenders:
20 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

106
94

80.8
83.2

.213 17.13
.225 18.67

34 plants___ 1910
1911

25.17
23.74
24.04
25.80

17.02
16.72
16.08
17.48

140 84.0
96 84.0
140 84.0
146 84.0

.192
.185
.181
.197

200
178

.193 16.21
.190 15.69

84.0
82.7

16.10
15.52
15.22
16.55

1

2
2
4
4

*4
2

16
12
26
12

33
23
22
36

10
8
10
10

6
6
4

3
2
4

17
19
16

56
58
72

10
4
s

4
4
2
2

4
4
2
2
2
2
4

2
6

4
4

16
2

74
62

s
18

4
8
12
4

16
8
17
12

9
4
14
18

73
36
52
28

26
38
43
84

12

6
6

22
22

32
22

36 104
40 88]
1Including 4 employees earning 50 and under G cents per hour.
O




3

4

2

40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S — C o n tin u e d .
NUMBER—Continued.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
time
of
number of Year. em­ time of week­
wages
plants.
ploy* hours per ly
per
week. hour. eara-

Stove tenders—
Concluded.
35 plants.... 1911
1912
36 plants__ 1912
1913

Kee]

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
8

and
un­
der
9
cts.

10 12 14 16
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
10 12 14 16 18
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

9
and
un­
der

18
and
un­
der

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20

and
un­
der
20 25
cts. cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

212

180 82.7 $0,190 $15.68
79.5 .195 15.42

6
6

22
22

24
30

40 88
30 124

214 79.5 .195 15.38
213 81.8 .211 17.24

8
6

22
10

30
29

30 124
5 163

18
8

8
6

11

4

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

24
4
4

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

2

94
72
105
16 107

34 plants__ 1910
1911

201

84.0 .215 18.09
182 82.7 .217 17.95

19
18

4
4

37 135
28 128

6

1911
1912

184 82.7 .217 17.95
216 79.6 .223 17.61

18
14

4

12

28 130
29 137

4
24

36 plants__ 1912
1913
Keepers’ help­
ers:
20 plants__ 1907
1908
1909
1910

218 79.6 .223 17.59
224 81.9 .234 19.13

14

12
12

31 137 24
32 66 106

34 plants...

1910
1911

877 84.0 .168 14.13
734 83.1 .167 13.83

38 105 149 269 244
60 92 96 196 234

72
56

35 plants...

1911
1912

742 83.1 .167 13.84
846 81.0 .170 13.74

60 92 96 198 240
62 76 138 192 279

56
99

36 plants...

1912
1913

870 80.2 .173 13.75
902 82.2 .186 15.30

40 86 140 196 279 129
40 36 124 110 78 514

Iron handlers
and loaders:
9 plants.__ 1907
1908
1909
1910

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.218 18.34
.210 17.68
.205 17.26
.219 18.43

616 84.0 .165
409 84.0 .160
84.0 .155
608 84.0

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0

.193
.190
.177
.195

13.89
13.41
13.04

14.22

14.20
13.95 ......
13.05
14.24

6
10

14

8

48
48
90
38

94 46
16
54
57 83

68
101

10 26
3 23 27
28 47
17 19

2

4

216 116
161 88

4

96
28

188 192

6

50

211

120

20

86

18

86
68

13

51
40
50
33

5 14
18
28

22

45

6

12

g

18 plants__ 1910
1911

305 74.2 .194 14.36
300 72.7 .195 14.11

24 32 129
21 33 98

30

54
75

36
22

21

19 plants__ 1911
1912

308 73.0 .195 14.17
359 72.2 .195 14.04

21
11

33 98
59 115

38
60

75

22

21

68

19 plants__ 1912
1913
Pig-machine
men:
9 plants..
1907
1908
1909
1910

406 73.1 .206 15.11
446 72.5
16.07

11
1

22

55 119
128

60 80
36 176

21

14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27

25
18
23
13

30 110
13 108
11 98
27 92

20i
6

2

14
44

14.14
13.90

17 44 166
29 34 138

58
46

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

.167
.163
.162
.170

16 plants__ 1910
1911

291 83.9

17 plants__ 1911
1912
1913

13.98
267 82.4
275 81.9 .171 13.97
290 81.8 .192 15.69




6
12

e
6

6
12

4
29 34 138 52 1
1 23 174 50 10
8
8 10
35 112 125 .

18 28
60
4 79

IS

41

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S — C o n tin u e d .
NUMBER—Concluded.
Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
time 8
10 12 14 16
25 30 40
of
18 20
of
Year. em­ time
number of
hours wages week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
plants.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ploy­ per per
ly
ees. week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50
ings. 9
cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts.
Cinder men:
20 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

262 83.6 $0,173 $14.46
245 82.6 .156 12.88
380 82.2 .150 12.34
357 82.9 .166 13.78

32 plants.

1910
1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

.163 13.56
.158 12.84

155

32 plants.

1911
1912

333
397

81.3
75.2

.158 12.82
.164 12.20

147
148

33 plants.

1912
1913

356
380

77.3
79.9

.162 12.49
.179 14.27

1907
1908
1909
1910

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

.146
.140
.138
.152

34 plants.

1910
1911

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

.150 11.23
.151 11.13

35 plants.,

1911
1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

.151 11.14
.152 11.15 ,

35 plants.,

1912
1913

1,049
1,273

73.1
72.5

.152 11.15,
.171 12.43.

Laborers:
20 plants.

11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

64

118
84
153
224

14
14

158
48

35
173
175
38

267
172
197
477

66
135

7
116

1
465

152

581
433
433
465

31

496
250

PER CENT.
Stockers:
18 plants..

53.3 1.2 13.7
40.4 6.1 8.5
38.8 6.5 9.1
43.9 18.3 6.9

2.9

824
473
737
904

32 plants...

1910
1911

1,445
898

79.9
79.8

.164 13.17
.167 13.36

3.0 15.9 20.3 38.1 15.3
6.1 9.5 17.7 42.3 16.9

7.3
3.0

4.5

32 plants...

1911
1912

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

.168 13.40 .......
.173 13.61

5.1 9.4 17.6 43.7 16.8
4.7 5.1 14.8 46.6 20.8

3.0
3.5

4.4
1.9 *2.6

34 plants_
_

1912
1913

1,069
1,187

78.8
78.9

.171 13.46
.190 14.98

7.8 5.0 15.2 44.0 20.3 3.5
4.5 5.1 6.5 8.2 32.3 37.6

Bottom fillers:
7 plants___

81.4 $0,170 $13.83
79.1 .157 12.43i ’ 0. 6 *4.2
80.9 .158 12.75i .4 2.2
81.0 .166 13.43

3.3 10.2 15.4
6.6 7.8 25.8
8.4 16.6 18.1
3.9 18.1 9.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

12.3 23.2 10.9
13.40 .......
. . . . 9.3 30.9 17.5
12.59
21.3 47.5
11.61
32.6 18.7
13.41

30.4
21.6
17.0
30.0

1.9 2.5
5.2 .7 .......

23.2
20.6
14.2
18.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

293 84.0
194 84.0
282 84.0
267 84.0

.160
.150
.138
.160

14 plants..

1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

.152 12.77
.148 12.46

26.2 47.6 14.3 11.9
35.0 39.9 8.7 16.4

15 plants..

1911
1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

.149 12.50
.152 12.53

41.7 10.1 15.3
44.7 11.5 16.2

14 plants..

1912
1913

423
461

82.0
81.6

.153 12.63
.167 13.74

33.6 18.0 18.0
41.2
21.3 16.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

66
44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.177
.168
.161
.181

1 op fillers:
8 plants...




12.1 9.1 15.2 39.4
6. 1 :
14.86
13.6 18.2 27.3
9.1!
14.15
20.0
13.56 ....... . . . . 12. o:
12.0 24.0
8.3 33.3 8.3
50.0 .......
15.18

.......

42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S — C o n tin u e d .
PER CENT—Continued.
Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
AverNum­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
ber full­ rate &
Occupation, and
time 8
9 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30
of
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and 40
Year. em­ time
number of
and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ploy­ hours wages ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50
9
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
Top fillers—Con,
13 plants___ 1910
1911

142
84

14 plants___ 1911
1912
14 plants___ 1912
1913
Larry men:
11 plants_
_ 1907
1908
1909
1910

82.8 $0,169 $13.85
82.0 .170 13.67

2.8 26.1 54.2
2.4 16.7 23.8 33.3

92
96

82.2
80.0

.171 13.84
.176 13.90

2.2 15.2 21.7 30.4 10.9 13.0
2.1 10.4 31.3 14.6 16.7 18.8

6.5 .......
6.3

96
98

80.0
80.3

.175 13.81
.191 15.19

4.2 12.5 27.1 14.6 16.7 18.8
2.0 6.1 18.4 14.3 22.4 30.6

6.3
6.1

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.195
.184
.186
.202

21 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

.196 16.47
.194 15.99
.200 15.48

.9 1.7 1.7 30.3 21.2 35.1 * 9.1
1.0 1.0 3.0 34.5 14.8 37.4 8.4
1.7 2.5 19.4 17.7 49.8 8.9

23 plants___ 1912
1913
L a rry m en ’ s
helpers:
10 plants.... 1907
1908
1909
1910

241
234

78.2
82.3

.199 15.46
.215 17.60

2.5 2.5 19.1 17.4 49.8 8.7
2.6 2.6 1.7 7.7 70.1 15.4

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.159
.152
.149
.163

19 plants..

1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

.165 13.88
.168 13.89
.173 13.67

23 plants...

1912
1913

359
342

79.6
82.6

.172 13.64
.190 15.69

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
64
94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.193
.184
.183
.196

19 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

.197 16.56
.198 16.60
.206 16.14

8.0 28.0 11.2 48.0 4.8
6.5 27.4 1.6 56.5 8.1
5.9 27.9 4.4 39.7 22.1

138 79.3
150 82.9

.206 16.19
.217 17.95

5.8 27.5
5.3 4.0

Skip operators:
11 plants...

20 plants...
Blowers:
18 plants...

1912
1913

16.41
15.48
15.64
16.97

13.35
12.80
12.53
13.69

15.2 3.0 12.1
7.0 18.6
9.3
4.4 3.0 1 .*3
9
1.3 1.3 2.7 ’ 16.”i

7.0 1.7 29.6
45.6
12.7
7.4 28. i 30.4
29.1
6.0

12.7
2.4 14.3

12.1
14.0
50.4
19.5

4.2
7.1

42.4 15.2
51.2
23.0
45.0 14.1

.......

61.7
41.8
34.1
50.0 14.9

4.3 .7 23.7 64.0
.7 4.1 15.6 72.8
4.1 5.2 74.3

7.2
6.8
5.8 10.5

4.5 5.6 73.3 6.7 10.0
4.7 1.2 8.2 41.8 44.2

16.19
15.49
15.40
16.46

11.6
9.4 9.4
8.5
8.2

27.9 4.7 53.5
25.0 9.4 43.8
29.8 42.6 17.0
32.0 8.2 49.5

2.3
3.1
2.1
2.1

.....

4.3 40.6 21.7
9.3 73.3 8.0
28.2 52.6
44.1 38.2
38.4 38.4
36.7 48.9

6.4

20.6 34.4 42.0
"i.*7 ....... 19.8 27.3 41.3

2.3
9.9

12.8
17.6
23.3
12.2

25.17
23.74
24.04
25.80

1907
1908
1909
1910

78
68
86
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.300
.283
.286
.307

1910
1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

.296 24.74
.306 25.24 .......

33 plants...

1911
1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

.305 25.21
.313 24.84

1.6
1.5

19.5 28.5 40.7 9.8
15.9 28.8 40.2 13.6

34 plants...

1912
1913

139
147

80.3
82.0

.315 25.01
.329 26.84

1.4

16.5 27.3 40.3 14.4
i.4 15.0 16.3 54.4 112.9

32 plants...

Blowing engi­
neers:
20 plants...

.......

....

.8

2.0 6.0 12.0
100 84.0 .242 20.30
1907
4.7 4.7 7.1
85 84.0 .235 19.77
1908
3.9 5.8 11.7
1909
103 84.0 .230 19.35
1.8 5.4 7.1
112 84.0 .245 20.59
1910
i Including 2.7 per cent earning 50 and under 60 cents per hour.




12.0
35.3
40.8
37.5

65.0 3.0
48.2
37.9
41.1 7.1

2.2

43

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S — C o n tin u e d .
PER CENT—Continued.
Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­ Aver­
Num­ Aver­ age age
age
fifllber full­ rate
Occupation, and
25
18 20
time 8
9 10 12 14 16
40
of
Year. em­ time
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
number of
plants.
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ploy­ hours wages ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der der
ings.
10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50
cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts.
Blowing engi­
neers—Con.
34 plants___ 1910
1911

153 84.0 $0,243 $20.39
135 83.0 .244 20.20

9.2 9.8 29.4 45.1
7.4 10.4 29.6 45.2

35 plants___ 1911
1912

137 82.9
142 80.6

.244 20.15
.249 19.93

7.3 10.2 30.7 44.5 5.8
7.0 14.1 21.8 44.4 11.3

35 plants___ 1912
1913
Blowing engi­
neers’ assist­
ants:
11 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

142 80.6
148 81.6

.249 19.93
.263 21.37

7.0 14.1 21.8 44.4 11.3
16.2 20.9 34.5 25.7

3.0 23.9
23.5
5.4 35.1
3.0 18.2

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.203
.199
.191
.208

18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

.207 17.38
.205 17.06
.211 16.85

3.2 18.1
10.6
2.2 20.9 63.7 4.4
3.7 14.8 66.7 7.4

18 plants___ 1912
1913
Stove tenders:
20 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

106
94

80.8
83.2

.213 17.13
.225 18.67

3.8 15.1
7.5
4.3 2.1 66.0 19.1 4.3

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.192
.185
.181
.197

34 plants___ 1910
1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

.193 16.21
.190 15.69

16.0 18.0 52.0
12.4 22.5 49.4

35 plants___ 1911
1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

.190 15.68
.195 15.42

13.3 22.2 48.9
14.2 14.2 58.5

36 plants___ 1912
1913
Keepers:
20 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

214
213

79.5
81.8

.195 15.38
.211 17.24

14.0 14.0 57.9
13.6 2.3 76.5

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.218
.210
.205
.219

18.34
17.68
17.26
18.43

12.3
8.3
9.9
7.7

34 plants___ 1910
1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

.215 18.09
.217 17.95

9.5
9.9

2.0 18.4 67.2
2.2 15.4 70.3

35 plants___ 1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

.217 17.95
.223 17.61

9.8
6.5

2.2 15.2 70.7 2.2
5.6 13.4 63.4 11.1

36 plants___ 1912
1913
Keepers’ help­
ers:
20 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

218
224

79.6
81.9

.223 17.59
.234 19.13

6.4
3.6

5.5 14.2
11.0
5.4 14.3 29.5 47.3

616
409
596
608

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

.165
.160
.155
.169

34 plants___ 1910
1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

.168 14.13
.167 13.83

4.3 12.0 17.0 30.7 27.8
8.2 12.5 13.1 26.7 31.9

35 plants___ 1911
1912

742
846

83.1
81.0

.167 13.84
.170 13.74

8.1 12.4 12.9 26.7 32.3 7.5
7.3 9.0 16.3 22.7 33.0 11.7

36 plants___ 1912
1913

870
902

80.2
82.2

.173 13.75
.186 15.30

4.6 9.916.1 22.5 32.1 14.8
4.4 4.013.7 12.2 8.6J 57.0




17.02
16.72
16.08
17.48

16.10
15.52
15.22
16.55

13.89
13.41
13.04
14.22

6.4
4.2
10.0
12.3

2.9
2.7

7.8 15.3 7.5
11.7 16.6 3.9
15.1 16.9 9.1
6.3 9.4 13.7

52.1
37.5
37.1
19.2

49.3
45.1
29.7
54.5

14.9
15.7
13.5
15.2

18.6
39.6
30.7
57.5

5.5 1.4 64.4 16.4
6.3
75.0 4.2
2.8 *2*8 74.5 2.8
1.4 11.3 75.4 4.2

35.1
39.4
35.4
30.9

18. 15.6
21.5
20.1 3.4
31.6 8.2
8.2
7.6

3.0
2.2

1.4

44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S — C o n c lu d e d .
PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and
of
Year. em­ time
number of
plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Iron handlers
and loaders:
9 plants___

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time 8
9 10 12 14 16 18
20 25 30 40
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
per
der
der der
hour. earn­ der 10 der der 16 18 der der der der der
ings. 9
20 25 30 40 50
12 14
cts. cts.
cts. cts.
cts.
cts. cts. cts.

4.9 12.8
1.8 14.1 16.6
11.6 19.4
9.6 10.7

42.4
27.6
35.5
38.4

25.1
24.5 3.1 8.6
20.7 7.4
18.6 15.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.2 $0,193 $14.20
73.0 .190 13.95
73.6 .177 13.05
73.0 .195 14.24

1910
1911

305
300

74.2
72.7

.194 14.36
.195 14.11

7.9 10.5 42.3 7.2 17.7 11.8
7.0 11.0 32.7 10.0 25.0 7.3

19 plants___ 1911
1912

308

73.0
72.2

.195 14.17
.195 14.04

6.8 10.7 31.8 12.3 24.4
3.1 16.4 32.0 16.7 18.9

7.1
5.0

19 plants___ 1912
1913
P ig -m a c h in e
men:
9 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

406
446

73.1
72.5

.206 15.11
.220 16.07

2.7 13.5 29.3 14.8 19.7
.2 4.9 28.7 8.1 39.5

5.2 14.8
.9 17.7

193
157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9

.167
.163
.162
.170

16 plants.... 1910
1911

291
259

17 plants_
_

1911
1912
1913

18 plants...

57.0 3.1 10.4
68.8 7.6 3.8
64.5 9.2 3.9
50.5 24.2 3.3

14.03
13.69
13.57
14.27

13.0 15.5
11.5 8.3
15.1 7.2
7.1 14.8

83.9
82.4

14.14
13.90

5.8 15.1 57.0 19.9
11.2 13.1 53.3 17.8

267
275
290

82.4
81.9
81.8

13.98
.171 13.97
.192 15.69

1907
1908
1909
1910

262
245
380
357

82.6
82.2
82.9

.173
.156
.150
.166

14.46
12.88
12.34
13.78

0.8
.5

32 plants.

1910
1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

.163 13.56
.158 12.84

.4

32 plants.

1911
1912

333

81.3
75.2

.158 12.
.164 12.20

33 plants___ 1912
1913

356

77.3
79.9

.162 12.49
.179 14.27

1907
1908
1909
1910

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.

.146
.140
.138
.152

34 plants..

1910
1911

1,423

74.7
73.3

.150 11.23
.151 11.13

3.1
4.1

35 plants.

1911
1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

.151 11.14
.152 11.15

4.125.624.1 46.2
3.224.723.6 48.4

35 plants.

1912
1913

1,049
1,273

73.1
72.5

.152 11.15
.171 12.43

.1
3.3 23.026.3 47.3
.814.1 17.0 19.6 36.5 11.9

Cinder men:
20 plants.

Laborers:
20 plants..




11.13
10.24
10.17
11.18

1.0

2.1
4.6

10.9 12.7 51.7 19.5 5.2
6.5 8.4 63.3 18.2 3.6
3.4 12.1 38.6 43.1

2.2

8.7
9.7

.3

1.7
.3

1. 820. .722.2 44.1 9.9
1
1.5 8.828.5 37.3 15.6
.6

45.0 9.2 16.0
9.8
34.3
5.5
40.3
62.7 11.8

.3
7.8

.3

4.624.4
13.9 33.5
27.6 19.7
8.7 11.5

2 3 8.9 19.9 58.1
1.820.4 21.2 45.7

3.9 7.922.8 44.4 18.5 2.0
3.7 5.5 12.1 12.6 35.5 30.5
1
3. 728. .639.8
24.1 10.3 41.1
23.1 25.924.4
4. 2 21,.821.1
3 32.
724,

27.9
24.0
26.0
52.9
40.8
46.3

5.9

45

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BLAST FURNACES.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES.

T a b le

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle West.” ]
STOCKERS.

Year and
district.

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
G .L .an dM .W .
Southern..........

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

5
8
10
'to 11

81
617
224
147

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Av­ Av­ Average erage e f
fS
full­ rate time 8
25 30 40
18 20
9
10 12 14 16
time
of
hours wages week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
ly un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
per per
der
week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der 50
25
10 12 14 16 18 20
30 40
9
ings.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

68.8 $0,172 $11.81
80.6 .180 14.58
77.6 .169 13.12
78.6 .130 10.20

T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh..
G. L.anaM . W .
Southern..........

34 1,069

78.8

.171 13.46

102
681
238
166

68.8
81.4
77.6
76.5

.187
.202
.191
.137

12.79
16.50
14.81
10.33

T o ta l....

34 1,187

78.9

.190 14.98

5
8
10
11 '

14

8
323
139

18
181
18

83

39
29
57
37

83

53 162

470

9
30

14
10
13

20

7
20

217

37

20

27

10
359
71
6

14
44
4

8

446

62

8

10

46
7

53

51

24

14
34 **237
27 136
22
10

53

61

77

97

383

44

90
8
44

14
62

30
46

85

76

76

BOTTOM FILLERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM . W .
Southern..........

3
2
4
5

134
44
116
129

84.0 $0,142 $11.94
84.0 .186 15.61
84.0 .178 14.93
77.6 .131 10.25

Total___
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM . W .
Southern..........

14

423

82.0

.153 12.63

3
2
4
5

118
42
134
167

84.0
84.0
84.0
77.5

.158
.205
.193
.144

Total-----

14

461

81.6

.167 13.74

129 142
118

13.27
17.24
16.22
11.19

95

10
88

95 190

32
46

98

72

78

TOP FILLERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
Southern..........
T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
Southern..........

3
16 84.0 $0,154 $12.96
1
6 84.0 .217 18.23
G .L .andM .W .
30 78.4 .218 16.62
3
44 79.1 .147 11.61
7
14

96

80.0

16 84.0
3
1
6 84.0
G .L .andM .W .
30 78.4
3
46 79.8
7

Total-----

14

98

80.3

.175 13.81
.179
.238
.238
.159

8

8

4

12

18

6

12
4

4

12

26

14

16

8

6
12

6

18

6

6
24

6

30

6

8

14.99
19.99
18.21
12.66

2

6

18

6

14

.191 15.19

2

6

18

14

22

LARRY MEN.
1919.
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh___
G. L.anaM. W.
Southern...

142
65
241

Total..




78.2

15.46

10
130

T otal..
1913.
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh___
G. L.anaM. W,
Southern.......

78.0 10.194 $15.17
76.9 .197 15.02
78.6 .221 17.29
84.0 .160 13.40

79.2
84.0
78.5
84.0

234 82.3

28

23

21
10
42

120

21

.201 16.01
.214 17.96
18.63
.168 14.08

4
124
36

30

.215 17.60

18 164

46

46

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

LARRY MEN’S HELPERS.

Av­
erage
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Av­
Av­ erage
erage full­
rate time 8
9
10 12 14 16
18 20
25 30 40
of
wages week­ and and and and and and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
per earn­
hour. ings. der der der der der der der der der der der
9
25
10 12 14 16 18 20
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
!
1

Year and
district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..........

3
8
6
6

10
248
75
26

79.2 $0,166 $13.19
79.9 .178 14.13
76.8 .168 12.90
84.0 .134 11.26

T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM . W .
Southern..........

23

359

79.6

.172 13.64

3
8
6
6

14
230
70
28

80.6
84.0
77.8
84.0

.171
.197
.190
.142

Total___

23

342

82.6

.190 15.69

13.85
16.55
14.75
11.89

4
20

36

16

6
1 192
4
71
10

16

20j 263

24

36

8
88
47

142
9

4

2

16 . . . .

14
12

16

28

143

151

6
20

6

2
24
30

26
4

4

SKIP OPERATORS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L .andM .W .
Southern..........

3
8
5
4

8
76
34
20

78.0 $0,186 $14.60
77.4 .217 16.53
81.2 .214 17.36
84.0 .161 13.52

8

12

T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM . W .
Southern..........

20

138

79.3

.206 16.19

8

38

6

56

30

3
8
5
4

10
80
38
22

79.2
84.0
80.8
84.0

.196
.227
.228
.170

15.70
19.04
18.39
14.26

4

2

8

2

12

4
72
34

8
4

T o ta l....

20

150

82.9

.217 17.95

8

6

14

110

12

11

1
19
26
10

1
8
9
2

56

20

BLOWERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L .andM .W .
Southern..........

1

81.8 $0,252 $20.41
79.0 .332 25.85
80.0 .353 28.06
81.9 .274 22.46

6
8
9
11

16
50
39
34

T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L .andM .W .
Southern..........

34

139

80.3

.315 25.01

6
8
9
11

17
46
50
34

81.9
84.0
80.2
81.9

.254
.351
.366
.283

T o ta l....

34

147

82.0

.329 26.84

2

12

3
23
4
8

2

23

38

f

20.61
29.47
29.05
23.16

10

t
1

4
2
1
5 35
6
8 32 UO
7 11
2

2

12

2

22

24

80 119

2
38
22
1

6
10

BLOWING ENGINEERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........

82.5 $0,192 $15.84
80.3 .278 22.12
80.0 .267 21.25
81.2 .195 15.83

6
9
10
10

16
46
54
26

T o ta l....
.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W .
Southern..........

35

142

80.6

.249 19.93

6
9
10
10

16
44
60
28

82.5
84.0
79.6
81.4

.195
.289
.287
.208

T o ta l....

35

148

81.6

.263 21.37




16.12
24.25
22.73
16.92

-

8

6

2

2

14

2
22
7

2

10

20

31

63

16

16
15

14
24

10

2
30
18
1

2

24

31

51

38

2

___1
........
2
2i.......

14

i Including 4 employees earning 50 and under 60 cents per hour.

47

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

I I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

BLOWING ENGINEERS' ASSISTANTS.

Year and
district.

Av­ Av­
Num­ erage erage
Num­ ber full­ rate
of
of
ber of em­ time
plants. ploy­ hours wages
per per
ees. week. hour.

1912.
■Rastfim _____
Pittsburgh . . . .
G. L. and M. W.
Southern . . . . .

3
8
4
3

Total___
1913.
Eastern. . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W.
Southern.. . . . . .

18

Total___

18

3
8
4
3

Av­
erage
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
8
and
un­
der
9
cts.

9
and
un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12 14
and and
un­ un­
der der
14 16
cts. cts.

6 80.0 $0,177 $14.17
69 80.3 .222 17.73
17 80.5 .219 17.47
14 84.0 .179 15.07
106

80.8

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

4

4

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2
66
6

16

74

8

2
40
12
8

18

2

4

2

62

18

20
10

72
52
124

4

6 80.0
58 84.0
16 81.0
14 84.0

.181
.234
.238
.188

14.49
19.68
19.10
15.79

4

94

.225 18.67

4

4

6

14

83.2

4

STOVE TENDERS.
1913.
Eastern . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh.. . . .
G. L.andM. W .
Southern.........

81.6 $0,166 $13.56
78.5 .207 16.15
78.8 .209 16.41
82.1 .155 12.73

8

16

2
14

79.5

.195 15.38

8

22

30

30

21
86
67
39

81.7
84.0
78.6
82.5

.173
.223
.229
.174

14.18
18.71
17.97
14.38

18

3

6

10

11

213

81.8

.211 17.24

6

10

6
9
10
11

20
92
64
38

Total___
1913.
Eastern ..........
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..........

36

214

6
9
10
11

Total......

36

2

86
65
12

29

5

163

8

11

1
74
62

18
6

137

24

KEEPERS.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM . W.
Southern..........

Rl.J*n.l79 $14.54
78.5 .248 19.25
79.1 .231 18.24
82.1 .170 14.02

14

4

20

218

79.6

.223 17.59

14

12

31

6
9
10
11

22
86
74
42

81.8
84.0
79.1
82.3

.193
.259
.247
.180

15.76
21.73
19.56
14.82

8

36

224

81.9

.234 19.13

6
9
10
11

20
92
68
38

Total..*..
19 13.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .
Southern..........

36

T o t a l....

14

8

12

18

54
4

8

12

32

66

24

80
4
56

16
146
34

82
197

90
39

279

129

34
44

258
256

78

514

KEEPERS’ HELPERS.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM . W .
Southern..........

6
9
10
11

120 82.8 $0,148 $12.21
318 78.2 .191 14.78
274 80.3 .186 14.89
158 82.0 .132 10.88

40

62

.173 13.75

40

86 140

196

60

70

Total___
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .
Southern..........

36

870

6
9
10
11

130 82.9
292 84.0
300 80.4
180 81.7

.162
.207
.204
.140

13.44
17.42
16.35
11.45

40

36

64

40

Total___

36

902

.186 15.30

40

36 124

110




80.2

82.2

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

3
5

6
10

4

.213 17.13

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

86
20
106

4

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

I I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES—Concluded.

T a b le

IRON HANDLERS AND LOADERS.

Year and
district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .an dM .W .
Southern..........

Av­ Av­
erage erage
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Av-

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

10
9
time 8
week­ and and and
un­ un­ un­
ly
earn­ der der der
10 12
ings. 9
cts. cts. cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

4
2
3
10

62
32
108
204

79.3 $0,213 $16.58
77.1 .231 17.69
77.0 .247 19.14
68.5 .178 12.13

11

12
43

19

406

73.1

.206 15.11

11

55

.259
.261
.263
.181

19.37
20.40
20.19
12.41

1

22

.220 16.07

1

22

Total___
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .
Southern.. . . . . .

4
2
3
10

58
29
128
231

77.2
78.8
76.2
68.4

T o ta l....

19

446

72.5

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

26
12
10
6 *28
77
20

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

12
18
50

17
153
85
20
17

T o ta l...,

275

81.9

.171 13.97

72.0
84.0
79.7
84.0

.156
.196
.199
.151

81.8

.192 15.69

17

60

1

108

9
27

12
18
76
70

3

26
10
43

128

36

176

4

50

10

35

112

125

69
89

50
14
2

7

158

66

7

61
74

75
39
2
116

10

10

CINDER MEN.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W .
Southern.

6
7
10
10

26
119
143
68

81.6 $0,147 $11.99
73.1 .176 12.82
79.1 .169 13.30
79.0 .132 10.41

2....

14

28

33
22

T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
Southern..........

33

356

77.3

.162 12.49

2....

14

28

81

6
7
10
10

28 82.0
136 81.0
136 79.1
80 78.6

.154
.193
.192
.143

12.59
15.60
15.14
11.14

14

T o ta l....

33

380

.179 14.27

14

79.9

26

18

10

21

28

23
15

21

46

48

135

28
4

65
82
61
68

6
225
265

1

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..........

6
9
9
11

100
311
326
312

68.6 $0,144 $9.82
76.7 .163 12.54
72.3 .166 11.98
71.8 .130 9.33

35 209

T o ta l....
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..........

35 1,049

73.1

.152 11.15

35 241 276

496

1

157
365
431
320

68.6
77.8
72.6
68.1

.151 10.32
.188 14.68
.189 13.68
.136 9.22

137
10 179

80

20
126
53
51

154
311

85
67

Total___

35 1,273

72.5

.171 12.43

10 179 217

250

465

152




6
9
9
11

3

174

18

8

6
10
44

21

8
113
53

11.25
16.49
15.82
12.72

18

80

20

72.0 $0,157 $11.27
84.0 .173 14.52
79.5 .176 14.00
84.0 .142 11.89

18
158
94
20

Total___
1913.
Eastern.......... .
Pittsburgh----G.L.andM . W.
Southern........ .

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

60

119

PIG-MACHINE MEN.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh----G.L.andM .W .
Southern........ .

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

79

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

49

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

I I I ___ AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BLAST FURNACES.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Occupation, and number
of plants.

Stockers:
18 plants............

Year.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
AverNum­ age full­
Over
Over
ber of time
Over
56
48
emhours
60
72
and
per
and under
60
72
and
and
84
week. under
under
under
60
56
72
84

1907
1908
1909
1910

824
473
737
904

81.4
79.1
80.9
81.0

1910
1911

1,445

79.9
79.8

32 plants............

1911
1912

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

34 plants............

1912
1913

1,069
1,187

78.8
78.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

194
282
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

293
194
282
267

14 plants............

1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

672
391

15 plants............

1911
1912

417

84.0

417

14 plants............

1912
1913

423
461

82.0
81.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

66
44
50
48

13 plants............

1910
1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

136
78

14 plants............

1911
1912

92
96

80.0

14 plants............

1912
1913

96

80.0
80.3

72
76

1907
1908
1909
1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

132
86
135
149

21 plants............

1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

23 plants............

1912
1913

241
234

78.2
82.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

115
79
135
134

19 plants............

1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

278
260
264

23 plants............

1912
1913

359
342

79.6
82.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
64
94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

32 plants............

Bottom fillers:
7 plants..............

Top fillers:
8 plants............

Larry men:
11 plants............

Larry men’s helpers:
10 plants............

Skip operators:
11 plants............

8 3 0 2 1 °— B u ll. 1 6 8 - 1 5 -




74
123
71
70
12

107

631
276
442
595

222
142

16

105
70
224
222

917
557

107
112

59
136

142
244

559
515

112
101

26

138
161

244
277

537
599

91

18

19

354
370

72

231
184
168
172
200

36

40

274
302
86
64
94
97

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S —
C o n tin u e d .
NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number
of plants.

Skip operators—Concluded.
19 plants.......................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ age full­
Over
Over
Over
Year. ber of time
56
em­
60
48
hours
72
and
and
ployees
and under
60
72
per
and
84
under
week. under
under
60
72
56
84

1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

18

2
12

125
122
106

1912
1913

138
150

79.3

18

12
14

108

1907
1908
1909
1910

78
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

32 plants.

1910
1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

33 plants.

1911
1912

123
132

80.2

34 plants.

1912
1913

139
147

80.3
82.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

100
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants.

1910
1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

35 plants.

1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

35 plants.

1912
1913

142
148

80.6
81.6

20 plants.
Blowers:
18 plants.

Blow: w _
20 plants

Blowing engineers’ assist­
ants:
11 plants......................

78
90
3

11

128
110

9

11
21

112
102

9

22
25

108
122
100
103
112

11

153
124

6

13
26

124
110

6

26
30

110
118

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

1912
1913

106
94

80.8
83.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

35 plants.

1911
1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

36 plants.

1912
1913

214
213

79.5
81.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

67
51
74
66

18 plants.

18 plants...
Stove tenders:
20 plants...

34 plants.

34 plants.




9
9

6
11
7
6

94
85
90
140
96
140
146

20

200
158

18

20
38

160
156

18

38
39

158
174
146
96
141
142

20
18

201
162

20
38

164
160

51

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES,

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S —
C o n tin u e d .
NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation, ar.d number
of plants.

Keepers—Concluded.
36 plants....................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ age full­
Over
Over
time
56
Year. ber of hours Over
em­
72
48
60
and
ployees. per
84
and under
and
72
and
60
under
week. under
under
56
84
72

1912
1913

218
224

79.6
81.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants....................

1910
1911

877
734

84.0
83.1

56

877
678

35 plants....................

1911
1912

742
846

83.1
81.0

56
126

684

36 plants....................

1912
1913

870
902

80.2
82.2

122
136

682
766

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.2
73.0
73.6
73.0

122
97
138
105

52
86
54

18 plants....................

1910
1911

300

74.2
72.7

179

108
89

19 plants....................

1911
1912

308
359

73.0
72.2

189
179

36

19 plants....................

1912
1913

406
446

73.1
72.5

198
211

41

1907
1908
1909
1910

157
152
182

84.0
83.9
83.9
83.8

193
154
149
180

16 plants....................

1910
1911

291
259

82.4

225

17 plants....................

1911
1912
1913

267
275
290

82.4
81.9
81.8

233
227

1907
1908
1909
1910

245
380
357

32 plants....................

1910
1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

32 plants....................

1911
1912

333
397

81.3
75.2

24

44

33 plants....................

1912
1913

356
380

77.3
79.9

14
5

36
47

1907
1908
1909
1910

957
718
757
902

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

106
142
102
159

350
272
378

1910
1911

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

197

35 plants....................

1911
1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

197
192

288
302

35 plants....................

1912
1913

1,049
1,273

73.1
72.5

207
279

318
438

Keepers’ helpers:
20 plants.....................

Iron handlers and loaders:
9 plants......................

Pig-machine men:
9 plants......................

Cinder men:
20 plants....................

Laborers:
20 plants....................

34 plants....................

18

616
409
596

66

10

83.6
82.6
82.2

97
130
131

27
24
48
20
20
6

427
265
259
224

1
26

225
244

52
109
53
45

42

231
201
296
312

6
1

35

448
195
209
343

404

426
28

1 Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.




162
184

40

134
134
92

109
125

290
294
322
1375

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S —
C o n tin u e d .
PER CENT.

Occupation, and number
of plants.

Stockers:
18 plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ age full­
Over
Over
Over
Year. ber of time
56
em­
72
hours
60
48
and
and
72
ployees. per
and under
60
and
84
week. under
under
under
60
84
72
56

1907
1908
1909
1910

824
473
737
904

81.4
79.1
80.9
81.0

32 plants..

1910
1911

1.445
898

79.9
79.8

32 plants..

1911
1912

904
1,045

79.7
78.7

34 plants..

1912
1913

1,069
1,187

78.8
78.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

293
194
382
267

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

14 plants.

1910
1911

672
391

84.0
84.0

100.0
100.0

15 plants.

1911
1912

417
468

84.0
82.2

14.7

100.0
85.3

14 plants.

1912
1913

423
461

82.0
81.6

16.3
19.7

83.7
80.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

66
44
50
48

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

13 plants..

1910
1911

142
84

82.8
82.0

4.2
7.1

14 plants.

1911
1912

92
96

82.2
80.0

6.5
6.3

18.8

93.5
75.0

1912
1913

96
98

80.0
80.3

6.3
6.1

18.8
16.3

75.0
77.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

132
86
135
149

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911
1912

231
203
237

84.0
82.9
78.1

1912
1913

241
234

78.2
82.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

115
79
135
134

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911
1912

278
294
343

84.0
82.6
79.6

1912
1913

359
342

79.6
82.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
64
94
97

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

Bottom fillers:
7 plants...

Top fillers:
8 plants..

14 plants.
Larry men:
11 plants.

21 plants.

23 plants.
Larry men’s helpers:
10 plants............

19 plants.

23 plants_
_
Skip operators:
11 plants_
_




1.7
.8

9.0
26.0
9.6
7.7

1.3

.8
2.3

18.2
11.9

.1

1.3
1.1

2.8
2.5

.1
.1

1.0
1.2

2.4
2.9

0.1
.1

1.8

12.7
14.8
30.4
24.6

76.6
58.4
60.0
65.8

2.1
6.6

15.4
15.8

63.5
62.0

11.8
10.7

6.5
13.0

15.7
23.3

61.8
49.3

10.5
8.5

12.9
13.6

22.8
23.3

50.2
50.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
95.8
92.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

15.2

9.4
13.9

100.0
90.6
70.9

14.9

13.7
14.5

71.4
85.5
100.6
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.5

11.6
12.5

100.0
88.4
77.0

10.0

13.6
11.7

76.3
88.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

53

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S —
C o n tin u e d .
PER <

Occupation, and number
of plants.

Skip operators—Concluded.
19 plants.......................

nployees whose full-time hours per week \
Aver­
Num­ age full­
Over
Over
Over
time
Year. ber of
56
72
em­
hours
48
60
and
72
and
84
and under
and
ployees. per
60
week. under
under
under
60
84
56
72

1910
1911
1912

125
124
136

84.0
83.8
79.2

1912
1913

138
150

79.3
82.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

78
68
86
90

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

32 plants

1910
1911

131
121

83.5
82.9

33 plants

1911
1912

123
132

82.9
80.2

34 plants

1912
1913

139
147

80.3
82.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

100
85
103
112

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

153
135

84.0
83.0

35 plants.........

1911
1912

137
142

82.9
80.6

4.2

35 plants.........

1912
1913

142
148

80.6
81.6

4.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

67
51
74
66

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911
1912

94
91
108

84.0
83.2
80.4

1912
1913

106
94

80.8
83.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

140
96
140
146

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

200
178

84.0
82.7

1911
1912

180
212

82.7
79.5

1912
1913

214
213

79.5
81.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

146
96
141
142

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

1910
1911

201
182

84.0
82.7

1911
1912

184
216

82.7
79.6

20 plants.......................
Blowers:
18 plants.......................

Blowing
20 plants

34 plants.........

Blowing engineers1
ants:
11 plants.........

18 plants..........

18 plants..........
Stove tenders:
20 plants.........

34 plants
35 plants
36 plants
Keepers:
20 plants

34 plants.
35 plants.




13.2

1.6
8.8

100.0
98.4
77.9

13.0

8.7
9.3

78.3
90.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.3

6.8
6.5

9.i

97.7
90.9

8.9
15.9

91.1
77.3

15.8
17.0

77.7
83.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.1

100.0
91.9

9.5
18.3

90.5
77.5

18.3
20.3

77.5
79.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.3

6.6
10.2

100.0
93.4
81.5

8.5

6.6
6.4

84.9
93.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

11.2
8.5
8.4

100.0
88.8

11.1
17.9

88.9
73.6

17.8
18.3

73.8
81.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

11.0
8.3

100.0
89.0

10.9
17.6

89.1
74.1

54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
I N T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— BLAST FURNACES—
C o n c lu d e d .
PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number
of plants.

Keepers—Concluded.
36 plants...............

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ age full­
Over
Over
Over
Year. ber of time
56
48
72
em­
hours
60
and
and under
72
and
84
ployees. per
and
under
week. under
under
60
56
84
72

8.3

1912
1913

218
224

79.6
81.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

616
409
596

84.0
84.0
84.0
84.0

34 plants.

1910
1911

877
734

84.

35 plants.

1911
1912

742
846

81.

36 plants.

1912
1913

870
902

80.
82.

1907
1908
1909
1910

203
163
242
177

73.
73.
73.
73.

18 plants.

1910
1911

305
300

74.
72.

19 plants.

1911
1912

308
359

73.
72.

19 plants.

1912
1913

406
446

73.
72.

1907
1908
1909
1910

193
157
152
182

84.
83.

16 plants..

1910
1911

291
259

83.9
82.4

12.7

99.3
86.9

17 plants..

1911
1912
1913

267
275
290

82.4
81.9
81.8

12.4
17.1
17.2

87.3
82.5
82.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

262
245
380
357

83.6
82.6
82.2
82.9

32 plants..

1910
1911

482
339

82.9
81.3

32 plants..

1911
1912

397

81.3
75.2

1912
1913

356
380

77.3
79.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

957
718
757
902

34 plants.

1910
1911

35 plants.
35 plants.

Keepers’ helpers:
20 plants....... .

Iron handlers and loaders:
9 plants.......................

Pig-machine men:
9 plants..........

Cinder men:
20 plants..

17.4
17.9

74.3
82.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.6

100.0
92.4

4.3

7.5
14.9

92.5
80.9

7.6

14.0
15.1

78.4
84.9

60.1
59.5
57.0
59.3

34.0
31.9
35.5
30.5

1.3

58.7
63.0

5.9
6.0

35.4
29.7

1.3
7.8

61.4
49.9

10.0

5.8
5.0

31.5
27.3

5.9
7.8

48.8
47.3

8.9
9.2

4.4
4.0

32.0
29.4

1.9
2.0

2.2

7.4
10.2

100.0
98.1
98.0
98.9

5.9

10.3
9.8
12.6
5.6

88.2
82.0
77.9
87.4

7.1
9.7 - 10.3

4.1
1.8

88.6
78.2

1.5
8.2
8.7
6.7
.2

6.0

9.9
11.1

10.5
9.1

1.8
.3

77.8
56.4

10.7

3.9
1.3

10.1
12.4

11.8
15.3

6.8

63.2
64.2

75.8
72.8
73.0
73.6

11.1
19.8
13.5
17.6

36.6
37.9
49.9
36.8

2.0
2.5

5.4
15.2
7.0
5.0

46.8
27.2
27.6
38.0

1,423
935

74.7
73.3

18.9
21.1

28.4

1.8
3.0

20.9
14.3

29.9
30.8

1911
1912

937
961

73.3
73.1

21.0
20.0

30.7
31.4

3.0
8.4

14.3
9.6

30.9
30.6

1912
1913

33 plants..
Laborers:
20 plants..

17.1

1,049
1,273

73.1
72.5

19.7
21.9

30.3
34.4

10.4
9.8

8.9
4.2

30.7
129.5

i Including one-tenth of 1 per cent w
hose full-tim hours per w w 91.
e
eek ere




55

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOE— BLAST FURNACES.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES.

T a b le

STOCKERS.

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num- Aver­
age
full­
Num­ of
Over
Over
ber of em­ time Over
56
48
60
72
plants. ploy­ hours and
and
72
60
84
and
and
per under under
ees. week.
under
under
60
56
72
84

68.8
80.6
77.6
78.6

1

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.......................................

34 1,069

78.8

1

5
8
10
11

102
681
238
166

68.8
81.4
77.6
76.5

34 1,187

78.9

1

23
14
33
42

22
26
73
17

244

11
324
114
88

11

26

112

138

244

537

26
4
4

20
8
26
47

21
3
88
49

277

21
388
120
70

34

101

161

277

599

1

Total..................................

14
8
4

14

81
617
?,?A
147

5
8
10
11

11

14

BOTTOM FILLERS.
1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.......................................

3
2
4
5

134
44
116
129

84.0
84.0
84.0
77.6

69

134
44
116
60

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.......................................

14

423

82.0

69

354

3
2
4
5

118
42
134
167

84.0
84.0
84.0
77.5

91

118
42
134
76

Total..................................

14

461

81.6

91

370

18

16
6
24
26

TOP FILLERS.
1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.......................................

3
1
3
7

16
6
30
44

84.0
84.0
78.4
79.1

6

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

14

96

80.0

6

3
1
3
7

16
6
30
46

84.0
84.0
78.4
79.8

6

Total..................................

14

98

80.3

6

18

72

16

16
6
24
30

16

76

4
29

4
106
36
26

33

172

4

LARRY MEN.
1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

3
8
6
6

8
142
65
26

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.......................................

23
3
8
6
6

Total..................................

23




78.0
76.9
78.6
84.0

36

241

78.2

36

10
130
66
28

79.2
84.0
78.5
84.0

30

6
130
36
28

234

82.3

34

200

56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES—
Continued.

T able

LARRY MEN’S HELPERS.

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh............................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Num­ of
Over
Over
time Over
56
ber of
48
72
60
and
plants. em­ hours and
60
and
72
and
84
ploy­ per
under
under
under
ees. week. under
60
84
56
72

3
8
6
6

10
248
75
26

79.2
79.9
76.8
84.0

36

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

23

359

79.6

36

3
8
6
6

14
230
70
28

80.6
84.0
77.8
84.0

Total..................................

23

342

82.6

45

4

6
212
30
26

49

274

4
36

10
230
34
28

40

302

4
8

4
58
26
20

12

108

4
10

6
80
28
22

14

136

SKIP OPERATORS.
1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

3
8
5
4

8
76
34
20

78.0
77.4
81.2
84.0

18

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

20

138

79.3

18

3
8
5
4

10
80
38
22

79.2
84.0
80.8
84.0

Total..................................

20

150

82.9

BLOWERS.
1912.
JEastem........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

6
8
9
11

16
50
39
34

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

34
6
8
9
11

Total..................................

34

*

81.8
79.0
80.0
81.9

9

139

80.3

9

17
46
50
34

81.9
84.0
80.2
81.9

147

82.0

3
13
6

13
41
26
28

22

108

3
i6
6

14
46
34
28

25

122

2
18
6

14
40
36
20

26

110

2

BLOWING ENGINEERS.
1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

6
9
10
10

16
46
54
26

82.5
80.3
80.0
81.2

6

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

35

142

80.6

6

6
9
10
10

16
44
60
28

82.5
84.0
79.6
81.4

22
6

14
44
38
22

Total..................................

35

148

81.6

30

118




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLAST FURNACES.

57

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLAST FURNACES—
Continued.

T a b le

BLOWING ENGINEERS’ ASSISTANTS.

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num- Aver­
age
full­ Over
Num­ of
Over
Over
ber of em­ time
56
48
6072
plants. ploy­ hours and
and
60
and
72
and
84
per
under
ees. week. under under
under
60
56
72
84

2

3
8
4
3

6
69
17
14

80.0
80.3
80.5
84.0

9

5

4
60
12
14

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern................................... ....
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

18

106

80.8

9

7

3
8
4
3

6
58
16
14

90

80.0
84.0
81.0
84.0

2
4

4
58
12
14

Total..................................

18

94

83.2

6

88

4
28
6

16
74
36
32

38

158

4

STOVE TENDERS.
1913.
Eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

6
9
10
11

20
92
64
38

81.6
78.5
78.8
82.1

18

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

36
6
9
10
11

214

79.5

18

21
86
67
39

81.7
84.0
78.6
82.5

30
5

17
86
37
34

Total..................................

36

213

81.8

39

174

4
28
6

16
74
40
32

38

162

4

KEEPERS.
1913.
Eastern...............
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......... .

6
9
10
11

20
92
68
38

81.6
78.5
79.1
82.1

18

18

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern.......... .
Pittsburgh............... ...................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

218

79.6

6
9
10
11

22
86
74
42

81.8
84.0
79.1
82.3

30
6

18
86
44
36

Total..................................

36

224

81.9

40

184

12
84
26

108
252
190
132

122

682

12
90
34

118
292
210
146

136

766

KEEPERS’ HELPERS.
1913.
Eastern............ .........................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern .............................. .

6
9
10
11

120
318
274
158

82.8
78.2
80.3
82.0

66

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern ...................................

36

870

80.2

66

6
9
10
11

130 82.9
292 84.0
300 80.4
180 81.7

T otal.................................

36

902




82.2

58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I V . — A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
I N E A C H Y E A R , B Y D I S T R I C T S , 1912 A N D 1913— B L A S T F U R N A C E S —
C o n c lu d e d .
IRON HANDLERS AND LOADERS.

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh.......... ........................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num- Averper full­
Num­ Of
Over
Over
Over
ber of em­ time
56
48
60
72
and
plants. ploy­ hours and
60
and
72
and
84
per under under
ees. week.'
under
under
60
56
72
84

4
2
3
10

62 79.3
32 77.1
108 77.0
204 68.5

19

406

73.1

4
2
3
10

58
29
128
231

77.2
78.8
76.2
68.4

10

Great
Middle Wftst...
Southern......................................
Total..................................

19

446

72.5

10

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern.............................. .

4

16
18

198

36

18

130
40
10
57
24

18

131

36

24

46
10
54
20

18

20

54
128

1

8

34

71
132

41

35

211

41

PIG-MACHINE MEN.
1912.

1
17 72.0
7
153 84.0
7
85 79.5
Great Lakes and Middle West...
2
20 84.0

17
1

30

153
54
20
227

Total..................................
1913.
Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

275

81.9

1

47

1
7
7
2

18
158
94
20

72.0
84.0
79.7
84.0

1

32

158
61
20

Total..................................

17

290

81.8

1

50

239

18

CINDER; MEN
1912.
Eastern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total........... ......................
1913.
Eastern . . .
................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total

................. ........

1

6
7
10
10

26
119
143
68

81.6
73.1
79.1
79.0

38

33

356

77.3

38

6
7
10
10

28
136
136
80

82.0
81.0
79.1
78.6

33

380

79.9

9
1
4

28
7

4
1
25
12

1

21
71
88
45

14

36

42

1

225

1
4

22
17
8

4
1
34
19

1
24
1

23
89
83
49

5

47

58

26

244

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern....... ............................ .
Pittsburgh................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern........ .

100
311
326
312

68.6
76.7
72.3
71.8

38
25
113
31

37
81
11
189

27
• 74
8

11
23
13
46

14
155
115
38

Total.............................
1913.
Eastern..................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern.....................................

35 1,049

73.1

207

318

109

93

322

6
9
9
11

157
365
431
320

68.6
77.8
72.6
68.1

2

70
13
105
91

43
108
105
182

34
62
29

14
5
35

30
205
*122
18

Total..................................

35 1,273

72.5

2

279

438

125

54

1375




6
9
9
11

* Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.

B E SSE M E R CONVER TER S.

SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the Bessemer converting department
are given with figures for other departments of the iron and steel
industry in the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An
explanation of the scope of the investigation and of the methods
employed is given on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in the
Bessemer converting department was from 11.4 per cent to 28.2 per
cent higher than in any one of the six years preceding, and despite
the fact that the average full-time hours per week were 2.8 per cent
lower than at the beginning of the seven-year period, this very
marked increase in rates of wages was so reflected in full-time weekly
earnings that the average earnings in 1913 were from 10.9 per cent
to 26.4 per cent higher than in any one of the six years preceding.
The most significant facts concerning the several occupations of
the Bessemer converting department appearing in this report are
summarized in the table following. Data are presented for the
years 1907 to 1913, inclusive, the figures for each group of years
being for identical plants. The data for 1913 represent 1,661 Besse­
mer converter employees in the 19 occupations covered, and were
obtained from 10 plants, having 26 converters in operation.
Referring to the first occupation presented, laborers, direct com­
parison can be made of data for 9 identical plants from 1907 to
1910, for 10 from 1910 to 1912, and for another group of 10 identical
plants for 1912 and 1913. The first line of the table is analyzed as
follows: In 1907 the 9 Bessemer plants from which reports were
obtained employed 801 laborers, whose average full-time hours of
work were 78 per week. For 3.2 per cent of the 801 laborers the
full-time hours per week were over 48 and under 72; for 21.5 per
cent, 72; for 33.2 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 42.1 per
cent, 84 hours. The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of
laborers in the year considered (1907) was $0,155. Of the total
number 71.3 per cent received 14 and under 16 cents per hour, and
28.7 per cent, 16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average full-




59

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

time weekly earnings were $12.12. The other lines of the table may
be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table it is seen that in 9 identical
plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers was $12.12
in 1907. In the next two years there were drops to $11.80 and $11.62,
respectively, and in 1910 an advance to $12.69. In the 10 identical
plants reporting for 1910, 1911, and 1912 the average for 1910 was
also $12.69. There was a decrease to $12.39 in 1911 and an increase
to $12.64 in 1912. Despite the fact that the two reports for 1910
are the same, it would not be an accurate comparison to state that
earnings increased from $12.12 in 1907 to $12.64 in 1912, because
one more plant is included in the 1912 average than in that for 1907.
In the second group of 10 plants the full-time weekly earnings were
$12.68 in 1912 and $14.38 in 1913. The other items in the table
should be studied with like care.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 of the
several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of
laborers, which was $14.38. The averages of 14 of the 19 occupa­
tions reported for this department, however, were from 40 per cent
to nearly 200 per cent higher, the highest being that of vessel men,
which was $41.09 in 1913.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­
age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
Over
12 14 16 18 20
Over
of
em­ time
ber of plants.
72
hours 48 48
wages and and and and and
ploy­ per and and
and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. der der der der der
der. der
14 16 18 20 25
der
72
84
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
Laborers:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

3.2
13.6
6.1
4.6

21.5
30.8
25.0
32.4

33.2 42.1 $0,155
71.3 28.7
21.9 33.6 .155
76.9 23.1
39.2 29.6 .151 i6.*3 54.8 28.9
20.3 1 42.6 .163
27.3 72.7

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$12.12
11.80
11.62
12.69

10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

4.6 35.0 19.6 240.8
8.8 42.7 36.3 12.3
7.5 38.7 27.8 26.0

.163
26.0 74.0
12.69
.166
17.7 82.3
12.39
.167 ---- 7.8 92.2 . . . . ....... 12.64

10 plants..............

1912
1913

620
681

75.8
75.1 .......

7.7 38.4 26.5 27.4
6.8 39.6 33.3 20.3

.167
.192




12.68
6.8 93.2
19.8 52*0 *28.2 14.38

i Including 7.2 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.
* Including 6.9 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.

61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

A V E R A G E AN D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AN D R ATES OF W AGES
PER H O U R ,A N D A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF TH E PRIN ­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
16 20 30
Over
of
ber of plants.
em­ hours 48 Over
72
48
wages Un­ and and and 40
ploy- per and and
per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
72 and 84 hour. 16 der der
un­
week. un­ un­
der ana
der. der
cts. 20 30 40 over.
der
cts. cts. cts.
72
84
Bottom makers’ help­
ers:
9 plants................

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1907
1908
1909
1910

27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

26.7 46.7 26.7
25.9 66.7 7.4
27.6 51.7 20.7
86.7 6.7

26.7 46.7 13.3 13.3 $18.82
$0,257
.204
14.75
37.0 33.3 14.8
.234 6.9 34.5 V7 Q13.
*6.9 17.08
17.38
6.7
36.7 5o! 0 13.3

1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

88.2
64.5
32.3 61.3

5.9
3.2

1912
1913

39
40

72.4
73.1

30.8 59.0 10.3
30.0 45.0 20.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

9 plants.............

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

9 plants.............

1912
1913

113

10 plants..

10 plants..
Cinderpitmen:
8 plants...

Ladle liners’ helpers:
9 plants.............

10 plants.

Stockers:
9 plants.

.224
.255

17.10
16.88
6.5 17.18

48.735.9 5.1 5.1 16.19
25.050.0 15.0 10.0 18.59

67.6 7.1 17.6 54.1 11.8
9.7 25.8 54.8 9.7
69.
41.4 34.5
67.2 24.1

9.4

.211
.199
.204

61.2 22.3 7.1
87.1
9.7
75.8 17.2 6.9

13.69
13.55
13.27

21.2
67.3 23.9

2.0
1.8

.200

76.7 17.2 6.1
10.6 76.1 8.0

13.23
5.3 15.56

46.5 30.3
42.5 31.9

15.4 28.2 51.3 5.1
19.4 35.5 38.7
6.5
15.4 28.2 46.2 io.'3
16.2 2.7 64.9 10.8 *5*4

1910
1911
1912
1913

68.7 15.4 2.6
69.1 8.8 44.1
8.8 44.1
>9.8 8.8 44.1

350

38.350.0 11.8
.234 3.238.8 38.7 19.4
35.5 45.2 6.5

45.8 13.6 5.1
.206
.173 57.7 33.8 8.5
.178 37. 051..1 5.4 6.5
.213 10.1 58.2 24.1 7.6

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

371
260

6.5

67.9 20.3 37.3 32.2 3.4
65.9
16.9 39.4 14.1
68.4
25.0 32.6 10.9 8.7
67.3 7.6 19.0 50.6 12.7 10.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

1907
1908
1909
1910

5.9

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

66.7 10.3
47.1
41.2 *5.9
29.4 17.6

5.1

5.1 13.32
11.27
11.88
13.77

.255 10.3 30.8 38.5 7.7 12.8
.209 22.6 32.335.5 6.5 3.2
12.
.230 10.3 38.4 38.4
13.5
37.8 48.6
.239

16.65
13.79
15.26
15.83

41.1 46.2
41.2 38.3
41.238.3
23.5 55.8

15.73
15.75
15.43
17.36

.236
.233
.228
.255

12.8
11.8
8.8
14.7

46.1 12.4 7.3 22.4 11.9
57.7 10.7 10.4 9.6 11.5
42.9 7.5 12.4 22.6 14.7
32.6 16.0 19.4 5.7 26.3

.246 17. 027.. 7 27. 02:
r
11.8 6.5 14.27
.275 14.3 21.2 26.2 23.1 15.4 14.93
.264 26.7 19.5 11.6 20.3 21.8 15.31
2.9 37.5 25.4 19.7 14.6 16.04

10 plants.

1910
1911
1912

352
241

64.9 32.4 16.5 19.3 5.7 26.1
61.7 46.1 7.0 23.7 10.8 12.4
62.0 45.9 14.9 7.8 17.9 13.4

2.837.2 25.9 19.6 14.5 16.03
.233 5.039.8 40.3 10.0 5.0 13.60
37.7 13.5 20.5 28.3 17.66
.312

10 plants..

1912
1913

280
337

62.1 44.6 16.3 8.2 15.0 15.7
62.5 22.8 30.6 27.3 13.4 5.9

.331

41.1 12.1 19.6 27.2 17.38
25.8 27.3 10.7 36.3 19.05

Un­
der
20
cts.

Cupola tappers:
8 plants____

9 plants.




8.0 18.0 12.0 8.0
4.7 30.2 4.7 4.7
11.6 18.6 14.0
12.5 14.3 8.9
26.8 4.9 9.8

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9

1911
1912
1913

60.4 53.3
33.3 4.4
60.6 56.3 4.2 10.4 20.8
59.5 30.4 31.9 23.2 14.5

54.0
55.8
55.8
64.3
58.5

8.9
8.3

20 30 40
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
30 40 50
cts. cts. cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

12.0 34.052.0
23.3 62.8 11.6
46.5 7.0 44.2
34.0 32.1 26.8
34.2 63.4

.314
.369
.393

40.0 57.8
18.36
41.7 2.1 54.2
20.94
31.9 11.6 39.1 17.4 22.25

22.16
19.67
19.74
5.4 20.30
18.19

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR,AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and num­
Year. of time
ber of plants.
em­
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Ingot strippers:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
age
rate
Over
Over
of Un­ 20 30 40 50
72
48 48
wages der and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
and and 72 and 84 per
20
un­
un­ un­
hour. cts. der der der der
30 40 50 60
der
der. der
cts. cts. cts. cts.
72
84

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

31.0
21.4
21.4
10.3

13.8
21.4
14.3
20.7

20.7
21.4
21.4
27.6

20.7 13.8 $0,310 ___ 62.1 17.2 13.8 6.9 $19.60
35.7 ....... .238 14.3 78.6 7.1 ___ ....... 16.34
21.4 21.4 .264
78.6 21.4
18.17
69.0
31.0 ....... 19.85
20.7 20.7 .307

31
27
28
28

68.1 9.7
70.4
68.8 ‘ io.*7
69.9

19.4
33.3
25.0
28.5

32.3
44.4
28.6
21.4

19.4 19.4
22.2
35.7
50.0

.303
71.0
29.0
19.69
.282 14.8 66.6
18.5
19.26
.320 ___ 71.5 *7.*i ___ 21.4 20.90
.334 . . . . 57.1 14.3 28.6
22.81

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

16.7
75.0
17.9
76.9
76.7
14.0
26.1 *52.*2 8.7

8.3
5.1
9.3 .......
4.3 8.7

.347 8.4 16 6 56.3 6.3 12.5 18.02
.196 74.4 20.5 5.1
10.57
.271 14.1 60.5 11.6 ___ *i4.*6 14.26
.326 17.4 10.8 58.7 . . . . 13.0 17.07

9 plants................ 1910
1911
1912

52
37
44

57.0 23.1 46.2 19.2 3.8 7.7
64.2 32.4
62.2 5.4 .......
59.5 54.5
31.8 13.6

.314 15.4 21.2 51.9
11.5 16.96
.282 24.3 43.2 16.2 i.6.*2
17.36
.324 18.2 27.2 36.4 4.5 13.6 18.03

10 plants.............. 1912
1913
Stopper makers:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

52
61

61.5 46.2 11.5 26.9 15.4
59.5 54.1 9.8 23.0 13.1

.301 26.9 26.9 30.8 3.8 11.5 17.23
.360 6.6 29.5 21.3 27.9 14.8 20.28

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

20.0
22.2
44.4
9.1

40.0 30.0 10.0
44.4 11.1 22.2
22.2 11.1 22.2
18.2
72.7

12
10
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.6

8.3
20.0
30.0
20.0

75.0
60.0
50.0 .......
80.0 .......

10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912
1913

Mold cappers:
8 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912
1913

16.7
20.0
20.0
.......

30.0
.316 10.0 60.0
23.01
.223 33.3 55.5 ii.'i
16.10
22.2 44.4 22.2 i i ‘ i ....... 19.22
.270
.263 9.1 63.7 27.3 — ....... 19.33
.260 8.3 66.7 25.0
.273 20.0 40.0 40.0
.272 20.0 50.0 20.0 io.'o ........
.302
60.0 30.0 10.0 . . . . .
25
Un­ and
der un­
25 der
cts. 40
ctc.

Bottom makers:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910
10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912
1913

Cupola melters:
7 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

19.14
19.53
18.91
21.25

60
cts.
and
over.

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4 .......
73.1 .......
73.5 .......

23.5
11.8 ; ; ; ; ;
18.8
11.8 11.8

.386
64.7 23.5
11.8
.283 47* i 29.4 23.5
.351 6.3 56.3 12.5 25.*0
.355 11.8 64.7 23.5 ---- .......

28.10
20.45
25.57
25.92

19
19
20
20

73.4
78.9 10.5 10.5
71.8 ....... 21.1 78.9
72.5 ....... 20.0 70.0 ‘ io.'o
73.8 ....... 20.0 50.0 20.0 ’ io.'o

.346 10.5 68.4 21.1
.337 10.5 68.4 10.5 io.*5
.345 10.0 70.0 10.0 10.0
.384 20.0 40.0 30.0
io.'o

25.28
24.18
24.96
28.05

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

13.3 U3.3
13.3 13.3
13.3 13.3
12.5 12.5
13.3 13.3

.509 6.7 26.7
33.3 33.3 31.67
.350 13.3 53.3 20*0 13.3
22.20
.419 20.0 13.3 33.3 33.3
26.09
.447 6.3 43.8
31.3 18.8 25.85
.390 6.7 40.0 40.0 13.3 . . . . . 24.45

40.0
40.0
40.0
37.5
40.0

11.8
23.5
12.5
.......

13.3
13.3
13.3
18.8
13.3

64.7
64.7
68.8
76.5

20.0
20.0
20.0
18.8
20.0

8 plants................ 1911
1912
1913
Xiaulu lirinrc*
lU
Xuio*
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

17
18
19

65.2 35.3 11.8 29.4 11.8 11.8
61.6 50.0 11.1 16.7 11.1 11.1
62.4 31.6 26.3 21.1 10.5 10.5

.386 5.9 47.1 35.3 11.8
24.62
.409 5.6 44.4 22.2 27.8
23.82
.477 . . . . 31.6 10.5 42.1 *i5.*8 28.23

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

.454 9.5 38.1 19.0 9.5 23.8
.30633.3 42.9 14.3 9.5
*ii*3
.392 23.8 23.8 38.1
.383117.4 39.1 21.7 2i.*7 .......

10 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

25
24
24

66.8 24.0 4.0 56.0 8.0 8.0
68.3 12.5 20.9 66.7
.....
68.9 12.5 20.9 58.3 " *8.3 .......




28.6 14.3 47.6
28.6 23.8 38.1
28.6 14.3 47.6
26.1 4.3 52.2

9.5
*9.5
9.5
8.7 ’ *8*7

28.95
19.78
25.22
25.20

.378 16.0 44.0 20.0 20.0
25.05
.342 25.033.4 25.0 16.7
22.85
.369 16.750.0 20.8 12.5 ....... 24.95

1Including 6.7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

63

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, IN EACH OF THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
Over
of
25 40 50
em­ hours 48 Over
ber of plants.
72
48
wages Un­ and and and 60
ploy­ per and and
and 84 per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. 25 der der der and
der
der. der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
72
84
cts. cts. cts.
Ladle liners—Contd.
10 plants..............

1912
1913
Regulators, first:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910
10 plants............... 1910
1911
1912
10 plants............... 1912
1913
Regulators, second:
6 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

22
22

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

68.6 13.6 22.7 54.5 9.1 ....... 10.384 9.1 54.5 22.7 13.6 ....... $25.84
68.7 13.6 22.7 45.5 18.2 ....... .418 9.1 27.3 31.8 31.8 ....... 28.22

26 62.3 46.2 7.7
25 64.7 36.0 16.0
25 64.8 36.0 8.0
29 61.4 20.7 31.0

30.8 7.7 7.7
32.0 8.0 8.0
40.0 8.0 8.0
34.5 ....... 13.8

.437 7.7 42.3 34.6
15.4
.266 56.0 28.0 16.0 . . . . .......
.344 32.0 36.0 8.0 24*0
.414 6.9 37.9 34.5 13.8 * 6.9

27.28
17.78
22.97
25.60

12.9
31 62.1 19.4 29.0 38.7
24 66.8 25.0 16.7 50.0 ....... 8.3
25 64.7 36.0 16.0 32.0 8.0 8.0

.408 6.5 41.9 32.3 12.9 6.5 25.45
.377 16.6 37.5 37.5 8.3 ....... 24.79
.411 8.0 36.0 40.0 16.0 ....... 26.24

24
24

.399 8.3 45.8 37.5 8.3
27.16
.451 . . . . 25.0 37.5 29.2 **8.3 30.28

68.5 25.0
67.6 25.0

8.3 25.0 33.3 8.3
8.3 33.3 33.3 . . . . .

18 65.3 33.3 11.1 33.3 22.2 . . . . .
14 73.5 ....... 28.6 42.9 28.6 . . . . .
14 73.8
14.3 57.1 28.6
18 66.7 33.3 ....... 44.4 ....... *22.2

.427 ___ 11.1 77.8 11.1
.269 57.1 35.7 7.1 ___
.365 7.1 50.0 42.9
.403 . . . . 38.9 50.0 ii.i

1910
1911
1912

22 67.5 27.3 9.1 45.5
18.2
21 65.0 28.6 19.0 52.4
.....
23 63.5 39.1 17.4 26.1 i7.4 .......

.378 9.1 40.9 40.9 9.1
25.52
....... 21.41
.333 19.1 47.7 33.3
.367 . . . . 82.6 . . . . 17.4 ....... 23.36

9 plants................ 1912
1913

24 67.0 25.0 16.7 33.3 25.0
24 67.0 25.0 16.7 33.3 25.0 .......

.381
66.7 25.0 8.3
25.63
.411 ie.*7 25.0 37.5 12.5 ‘ *8*3 27.56

47 57.0
45 59.5
45 59.6
49 55.3

19.1 8.5 17.0 4.3
20.0 17.8 17.8 4.4
20.0 17.8 17.8 4.4
30.6 8.2 ....... 12.2

.566
14.9 25.5 12.8 46.8 31.84
.376 26.6 28.9 26.7 13.3 4.4 21.65
.484 4.4 22.2 37.8 17.8 17.8 28.24
.524 . . . . 16.3 51.0 4.1 28.5 28.86

8 plants................

Vessel men’s helpers:
9 plants................

1907
1908
1909
1910

51.1
40.0
40.0
49.0

.......
.......
.......
.......

27.81
19.64
26.80
26.96

10 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

53
51
53

56.5 45.3 28.3 15.1
11.3
57.6 47.1 17.6 23.5 **7.8 3.9
55.9 56.6 17.0 7.5 15.1 3.8

.506 3.8 18.9 47.2 3.8 26.4 28.22
.421 11.7 27.4 27.5 27.5 5.9 23.48
.470 . . . . 37.8 20.8 24.5 16.9 25.47

10 plants............... 1912
1913

53
53

56.5 45.3 28.3 7.5 15.1
56.0 45.3 35.8 11.3 7.5

.467
.528

3.8

37.8 26.4 18.9 16.9 25.70
17.0 34.0 17.0 32.1 28.87
40 50 60
Un­ and and and 70
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
40 der der der and
cts. 50 60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts.

Blowers:
9 plants................

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

10 plants............... 1911
1912
1913
Steel powers:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

20 65.4 30.0 10.0 •50.0 10.0 . . . . .
19 68.8 15.8 10.5 63.2 10.5 .......
19 68.8 15.8 10.5 63.2 10.5
20 69.8 15.0 ....... 60.0 15.0 io.o
18 71.9 ....... 11.1 88.9 ....... .......
20 72.0
10.0 90.0
21 69.1 14.3 9.5 66.7 9.5 .......
23 63.2 26.1 21.7 43.5 8.7 .......
29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

72.4 ....... 13.8 13.8 . . . . .
64.3 . . . . . 21.4 14.3 . . . . .
64.3 ....... 21.4 14.3 .. .
70.0 10.0 6.7 ....... 13.3

.619 20.0 20.0 ___ 15.0
.466 36.8 42.1 io*5
.486 21.1 47.4 21.1
.536 10.0 45.0 20.0 ih'.o
.498 11.1 55.6 22.2

45.0
10.5
10.5
10.0
11.1

39.55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.84

.493 10.0 60.0 20.0
10.0 35.48
.529
57.1 23.8 *9*5 9.5 36.36
.600
34.8 21.7 21.7 21.7 37.33
.693 6.9 17.2 10.3 13.8 51.7
.439 46.5 3.6 32.1 17.9
.576 39.2
17.9 *42*9
.630 6.7 23.*320*0 10.0 40.0

36.39
24.25
31.61
32.94

10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912

32
30
32

55.6 65.6 9.4 12.5
12.5
55.1 70.0
30.0 ....... . . . . .
54.7 75.0 ....... 12.5 12.5 .......

.617 6.3 28.1 18.8 9.4 37.5 32.74
.535 23.4 10.0 26.7 30.0 10.0 27.91
.578 6.3 34.4 31.3 3.1 25.0 30.57

10 plants..............

1912
1913

34
34

55.7 70.6
17.6 11.8
55.7 70.6 ....... 17.6 11.8 .......

.570 5.9 38.2 29.4 2.9 23.5 30.65
.633 17.6 2.9 32.4 8.8 38.2 33.94




64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVER AG E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PE R W E E K AN D RATES OF W AGES
PER H OUR, AND A V ER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARN IN G S, IN EACH OF THE PRIN­
CIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Concluded.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
ber of plants.
em­ hours
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
age
rate
Over
Over
40 50 60
of Un­ and and and 70
48 48
72
and and 72 and 84 wages der un­ un­ un­ cts.
per 40
un­
un­ un­
and
hour. cts. der der der over.
der
der. der
50 60 70
84
72
cts. cts. cts.

Stopper setters:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910
10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912
1913

Vessel men:
9 plants................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

86.7 ....... 8.9 4.4 ....... $0,630 26.6 15.6 13.3 13.3
75.0 ....... 20.0 5.0 . . . . . .343 67.5 17.5
5.0
70.6 ....... 23.5 5.9 ....... .552 35.4 5.9 ii.*7 8.8
73.0 16.2 5.4 ....... 5.4 .589 29.7 16.2 8.1 13.5

39
39
42
43

52.6
55.3
51.7
51.6

69.2 15.4 10.3
5.1
69.2 . . . . . 30.8 . . . . . .......
85.7 ....... 9.5 4.8 .......
86.0 ....... 9.3 4.7 .......

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

52.2
40.9
40.9
50.0

13.0 8.7 17.4 8.7
13.6 18.2 18.2 9.1
13.6 18.2 18.2 9.1
25.0 8.3 ....... 16.7

.793 8.7
8.7 21.7 60.9 44.58
.528 40.9 *9.*i
31.8 18.2 31.27
.630 18.2 22.7 *9.‘ i 13.6 36.4 37.19
.708 8.3 8.3
50.0 33.3 38.88

.577 33.3 15.4
.498 43.6 17.9
.496 33.3 35.7
.558 18.6 27.9

7.7 12.8
7.7
7.1 *9*5
4.7 20.9

31.1 $31.79
10.0 18.50
35.3 29.36
32.4 30.08
30.8
30.8
14.3
27.9

29.81
26.08
25.36
28.37

10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912

26
25
26

15.4
57.8 46.2 23.1 15.4
59.1 48.0 12.0 24.0 *8.0 8.0
57.3 57.7 11.5 7.7 15.4 7.7

.685 7.7 15.4
46.2 30.8 38.18
.580 24.0 8.0 i6.‘ o 24.0 28.0 32.45
.703 7.7 19.2 15.4 11.5 46.2 38.32

10 plants..............

1912
1913

26
26

58.3 34.6 34.6 7.7 15.4 7.7
57.4 34.6 34.6 15.4 15.4 .......

.688 7.7 19.2 15.4 11.5 46.2 38.60
.744 . . . . 15.4 7.7 30.8 46.2 41.09

Owing to changes in the number of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the overlap­
ping year in two groups, it is difficult to make a comparison of the
actual data over a period of several years which will give an accurate
measure of the changes throughout the period. To aid in making
such a comparison, relative or index numbers have been computed
from the averages of the preceding table, for full-time hours per
week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for
each occupation from 1907 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear
in the table following. These relative or index numbers are simply
percentages for which the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100
per cent. The relative for each year is the per cent that the average
for that year is of the average for 1913. For example, the rela­
tive full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 73.7, as com­
pared with 100 in 1913; that is, the full-time weekly earnings of
stockers in 1907 were 73.7 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in
this occupation in 1913. The method of computing relative numbers
is explained on pages 21 to 23.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase or
decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full­
time weekly earnings in 1913 as compared with each specified year pre­
ceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1913 were
35.7 per cent higher than in 1907, 29.7 per cent higher than in 1908,
26.6 per cent higher than in 1909, 20.8 per cent higher than in 1910,
42.2 per cent higher than in 1911, and 9.6 per cent higher than in 1912.



W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF

65

LABOR— BE SSEM E R CO N VERTERS.

In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1908 were 4.6 per cent
higher than in 1907, 2.5 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 4.8
per cent higher in 1910 than in 1909, 15.1 per cent lower in 1911
than in 1910, 29.7 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911, and 9.6 per
cent higher in 1913 than in 1912. The other occupations and items
of the table can be studied in like manner. The percentages of
increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers,
R E LATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BESSEMER
CONVERTERS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Stockers:
190 7
190 8
1 9 0 9 ..........
191 0
191 1
191................ 2
191 3
Cupola melters:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Cupola tappers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
.
191 0
191 1
191 2
1913..............
Blowers:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Regulators, first:
190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
pared
speci­ with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

100.2
93.4
101.9
104.0
98.9
99.4
100.0

-0 .2
+ 7.1
- 1.9
- 3.8
+ 1.1
+ .6

105.9
105.1
105.1
98.5
104.5
98.7
100.0

+
+

103.6
101.5
105.3
100.8
101.5
101.8
100.0

- 3.5
-1 .5
- 5.0
- .8
- 1.5
- 1.8

103.6
109.0
109.0
110.6
113.9
109.3
100.0

- 3.5
- 8.3
- 8.3
- 9.6
-1 2 .2
-8 .5

98.7
102.5
102.6
97.3
104.6
101.3
100.0

+
+
-

5.6
4.9
4.9
1.5
4.3
1.3

1.3
2.4
2.5
2.8
4.4
1.3

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

72.9
81.5
78.2
78.8
69.0
92.4
100.0

+37.2
+22.7
+27.9
+26.9
+44.9
+ 8.2

C)
1
- 6.3
+ 6.1
-5 .6
+ 1.3

105.6
72.6
86.9
92.7
80.9
85.7
100.0

- 5.3
+37.7
+15.1
+ 7.9
+23.6
+16.7

-2 .0
+ 3.7
- 4.3
+ .7
+ .3
- 1.8

95.2
84.2
85.4
91.0
79.9
93.9
100.0

+ 5.0
+18.8
+17.1
+ 9.9
+25.2
+ 6.5

+ 3.0
-4 .0
-8 .5

/i .

102.1
76.9
80.2
88.4
82.2
88.2
100.0

-2 .1
+30.0
+24.7
+13.1
+21.7
+13.4

+ 3.9
+ •1
- 5.2
+ 7.5
-3 .2
- 1.3

92.7
56.4
73.0
87.8
81.2
88.5
100.0

+ 7.9
+77.3
+37.0
+13.9
+23.2
+13.0

i No change.
8 3 0 2 1 °— B u ll. 168— 1 5 -




1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

+ 9.1
+ 2.1
- 4.9
+ .5
+ .6

+ 5.2

Weekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
speci­
full­
fied
time 1913 as
year weekly com­
earn­ pared
as
with
com­
ings.
each
pared
speci­
with
fied
year
year.
pre-

+11.8
- 4.0
+ .8
-1 2 .4
+33.9
+ 8.2

73.7
77.2
79.0
82.8
70.3
91.2
100.0

+35.7
+29.7
+26.6
+20.8
+42.2
+ 9.6

-3 1.3
+19.7
+ 6.7
-1 2.7
+ 5.9
+16.7

113.0
79.2
93.1
92.2
87.2
84.4
100.0

-1 1 .5
+26.3
+ 7.4
+ 8.5
+14.7
+18.5

-1 1 .6
+ 1.4
+ 6.6
-1 2 .2
+17.5
+ 6.5

100.5
89.2
89.5
92.1
82.5
94.1
100.0

- .5
+12.1
+11.7
+ 8.6
+21.2
+ 6.3

-2 4.7
+ 4.3
+10.2
- 7.0
+ 7.3
+13.4

104.9
85.9
88.3
98.1
95.0
97.4
100.0

- 4.7
+16.4
+13.3
+ 1.9
+ 5.3
+ 2.7

-3 9 .2
+29.4
+20.3
- 7.5
+ 9.0
+13.0

92.7
60.4
78.1
87.0
84.7
89.7
100.0

+ 7.9
+65.6
+28.0
+14.9
+18.1
+11.5

Each
speci­
fied
year
as
comwith
year
pre­
ceding.

+ 4.6
+ 2.5
+ 4.8
-15.1
+29.7
+ 9.6
-2 9.9
+17.6
- 1.0
- 5.4
- 3.2
+18.5
-1 1.2
+ .3
+ 2.9
-1 0 .4
+14.1
+ 6.3
-is : 1
+ 2.8
+11.1
- 3.2
+ 2.5
+ 2.7
-3 4 .8
+29.3
+11.4
- 2.6
+ 5.9
+11.5

66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BESSEMER
CONVERTERS—Continued.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Regulators, second:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Vessel men:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910.............................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913 ..............................
Vessel men’s helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913 ..............................
Cinder pitmen:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910.................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Bottom makers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Bottom makers’ helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Ladle liners:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

104.1
117.1
117.6
106.3
102.4
100.0
100.0

— 3.9
-1 4 .6
-1 5 .0
- 5.9
- 2.3
C)
1

105.9
110.6
110.8
102.5
104.8
101.6
100.0

-

5.6
9.6
9.7
2.4
4.6
1.6

105.1
109.7
109.9
102.0
104.0
100.9
100.0

—
-

4.9
8.8
9.0
2.0
3.8
.9

102.7
99.7
103.5
101.8
105.1
101.2
100.0

—
+
-

2.6
-3
3.4
1.8
4.9
1.2

99.3
98.0
98.9
99.5
97.3
98.2
100.0

+ .7
+ 2.0
+ 1.1
+ •5
+ 2.8
— 1.8
f-

100.7
98.9
100.1
99.9
99.0
99.0
100.0

- .7
+ 1.1
.1
+ •1
+ 1.0
+ 1.0

95.1
95.8
95.1
96.8
99.0
99.9
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

5.2
4.4
5.2
3.3
1.0
.1

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
Each
tive
tive
full­
speci­
speci­
rate 1913 as speci­
time 1913 as fied
fied
of
fied
com­
com­
year
wages pared
year weekly pared
year
per
earn­
as
as
as
with
with
com­
com­
hour.
ings.
com­
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

+12.5
+ •4
- 9.6
- 3.7
- 2.3
C)
1

101.2
63.7
86.5
95.5
84.1
92.7
100.0

— 1.2
+57.0
+15.6
+ 4.7
+18.9
+ 7.9

+ 4.4
+ .2
- 7.5
+ 2.2
- 3.1
— 1.6

100.9
67.2
80.2
90.1
76.3
92.5
100.0

- .9
+48.8
+24.7
+11.0
+31.1
+ 8.1

+ 4.4
+ •2
- 7.2
+ 2.0
- 3.0
— .9

102.9
68.3
88.0
95.2
79.2
88.4
100.0

— 2.8
+46.4
+13.6
+ 5.0
+26.3
+13.1

- 2.9
+ 3.8
- 1.6
+ 3.2
- 3.7
— 1.2

84.1
70.6
72.6
86.9
82.0
84.0
100.0

+18.9
+41.6
+37.7
+ 15.1
+22.0
+ 19.0

- 1.3
+ .9
+ .6
- 2.2
+ .9
+ 1.8

98.0
71.8
89.1
90.1
87.8
89.8
100.0

+ 2.0
+39.3
+12.2
+ 11.0
+13.9
+11.4

- 1.8
+ 1.2
- .2
- .9
(l)
+ 1.0

93.3
74.0
84.9
86.7
86.4
87.8
100.0

+ 7.2
+35.1
+17.8
+15.3
+15.7
+13.9

+ .7
- .7
+ 1.8
+ 2.3
+ .9
+ .1

111.6
75.2
96.3
94.1
85.1
91.9
100.0

—10.4
+33.0 ’ -32*6*
+ 3.8 +28.1
+ 6.3 - 2.3
+17.5 - 9.6
+ 8.8 + 8.0
+ 8.8

i No change.

-37.1
+35.8
+10.4
-1 1.9
+10.2
+ 7.9

104.8
74.0
101.0
101.6
85.2
93.0
100.0

— 4.6
+35.1
- 1.0
- 1.6
+17.4
+ 7.5

-3 3 .4
+19.3
+12.3
-1 5.3
+21.2
+ 8.1

107.3
75.3
89.5
93.6
79.5
93.9
100.0

- 6.8
+32.8 *'-29*8
+11.7
+18.9
+ 6.8
+ 4.6
+25.8
-15.1
+ 6.5
+18.1
+ 6.5

-3 3.6
+28.8
+ 8.2
-1 6.8
+11.6
+13.1

108.8
74.0
96.5
98.6
82.1
89.0
100.0

— 8.1
+35.1
+ 3.6
+ 1.4
+21.8
+12.4

-16.1
+ 2.8
+19.7
- 5.6
+ 2.4
+19.0

84.8
71.8
75.7
87.7
86.8
85.0
100.0

+17.9
+39.3
+32.1
+14.0
+15.2
+17.6

-26.7
+24.1
+ 1.1
- 2.6
+ 2.3
+11.4

97.7
71.1
88.9
90.1
86.2
89.0
100.0

+ 2.4
+40.6
+12.5
+11.0
+16.0
+12.4

-20.7
+14.7
+ 2.1
- .3
+ 1.6
+13.9

93.9
73.6
85.2
86.7
85.6
87.1
100.0

+ 6.5
+35.9
+17.4
+15.3
+16.8
+14.8

105.6
72.2
92.0
91.9
83.9
91.6
100.0

+ 5.3
+38.5
+ 8.7
+ 8.8
+19.2
+ 9.2

-2 9 .4
+36.5
+ .6
-16.1
+ 9.2
+ 7.5

*—32.0
+30.4
+ 2.2
-1 6.7
+ 8.4
+12.4
-1 5.3
+ 5.4
+15.9
- 1.0
- 2.1
+17.6
-2 7.2
+25.0
+ 1.3
- 4.3
+ 3.2
+12.4
-2 1.6
+15.8
+ 1.8
- 1.3
+ 1.8
+14.8
-3 1.6
+27.4
- .1
- 8.7
+ 9.2
+ 9.2

67

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PE R CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BESSEMER
CONVERTERS—Concluded.
4

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Ladle liners’ helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Stopper makers:
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910................ ..................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Stopper setters:
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
19,12..................................
1913..................................
Steel pourers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Mold cappers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Ingot strippers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Laborers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
tive
Each
tive
rate 1913 as speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as speci­
fied
fied
of
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
wages pared
year
pared
per
earn­
as
as
as
with
with
with
com­
com­
hour.
com­
ings.
each
each
each pared
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
speci­
with
with
with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

98.0
97.0
98.4
98.4
99.0
99.7
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

2.0
3.1
1.6
1.6
1.0
.3

103.0
103.1
101.3
103.4
102.0
100.3
100.0

—
-

2.9
3.0
1.3
3.3
2.0
.3

101.9
107.5
109.7
101.9
107.2
100.2
100.0

—
-

1.9
7.0
8.8
1.9
6.7
.2

103.3
107.1
107.2
101.6
100.7
100.0
100.0

— 3.2
- 6.6
- 6.7
- 1.6
- .7
0)

98.1
96.7
97.2
99.0
111.5
103.4
100.0

+ 1.9
+ 3.4
+ 2.9
+ 1.0
-1 0.3
- 3.3

96.7
98.1
100.7
97.4
100.7
98.4
100.0

+
+
+
+

3.4
1.9
.7
2.7
.7
1.6

103.6
101.2
102.1
103.7
99.5
100.9
100.0

+
-

3.5
1.2
2.1
3.6
.5
.9

- 1.0
+ 1.4
(*)
+ .6
+ .7
+ .3

98.7
80.9
89.1
92.5
91.4
89.4
100.0

+ 1.3
+23.6
+12.2
+ 8.1
+ 9.4
+11.9

-1 8.0
+10.1
+ 3.8
- 1.2
- 2.2
+11.9

95.3
78.9
87.3
90.6
90.7
88.9
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

4.9
26.7
14.5
10.4
10.3
12.5

+
+
—

.1
1.7
2.1
1.4
1.7
.3

103.4
73.0
88.4
86.1
90.4
90.1
100.0

— 3.3
+37.0 ’ -29*4*
+13.1 +21.1
+16.1 - 2.6
+10.6 + 5.0
+11.0 - .3
+11.0

107.2
75.0
89.6
90.1
91.9
89.0
100.0

_
+
+
+
+
+

6.7
33.3
11.6
11.0
8.8
12.4

+
+
+
—

5.5
2.0
7.1
5.2
6.5
.2

110.6
60.2
96.9
103.4
89.3
88.9
100.0

— 9.6
+66.1
+ 3.2
- 3.3
+12.0
+12.5

-4 5.6
+61.0
+ 6.7
-1 3.6
- .4
+12.5

111.0
64.6
102.6
105.1
91.9
89.4
100.0

— 9.9
+ 54.8
- 2.5
- 4.9
+ 8.8
+ 11.9

+ 3.7
+ .1
- 5.2
- .9
.7
(x)

105.7
67.0
87.9
96.1
83.3
90.0
100.0

— 5.4
+49.3
+13.8
+ 4.1
+20.0
+11.1

—36.6
+31.2
+ 9.3
-13.3
+ 8.0
+11.1

106 8
7L2
92.8
96.7
82.4
90.3
100.0

— 64
+ 4 4
0*.
+ 7.8
+ 3.4
+ 21.4
+ 10.7

- 1.4
+ •5
+ 1.9
+12.6
- 7.3
— 3.3

86.2
48.7
67.4
81.0
72.8
83.6
100.0

+ 16.0
+105.3
+ 48.4
+ 23.5
+ 37.4
+ 19.6

-4 3.5
+38.4
+20.2
-10.1
+14.8
+19.6

84 4
49.5
66.8
79.9
81.8
85.0
100.0

+ 18.5
+102.0 **—4i.*4
+ 49.7
+34.9
+ 25.2
+19.6
+ 22.2
+ 2.4
+ 17.6
+ 3.9
+17.6

+
+
+

1.4
2.7
3.3
3.4
2.3
1.6

91.6
70.3
78.0
90.7
84.4
95.8
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

9.2
42.2
28.2
10.3
18.5
4.4

-2 3.3
+11.0
+16.3
- 6.9
+13.5
+ 4.4

85 2
71.1
79.0
86.3
84.4
91.6
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

17.4
4 *. 6
0
26.6
15.9
18.5
9.2

+
+
+
—

2.3
.9
1.6
4.1
1.4
.9

80.7
80.7
78.6
84.9
86.5
87.0
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

23.9
23.9
27.2
17.8
15.6
14.9

C
1)
- 2.6
+ 8.0
+ 1.9
+ •6
+14.9

84.5
82.3
81.1
88.5
86.4
88.2
100.0

+
+
+
+
+
+

18.3
2 .*5
1
23.3
13.0
15.7
13.4

i No change.

-1 7.2
+10.6
+ 3.8
+ .1
- 2.0
+12.5
-3 0.0
+19.5
+ .6
+ 2.0
- 3.2
+12.4
-4 1.8
+58.8
+ 2.4
-1 2.6
- 2.7
+11.9
—33.3
+30.3
+ 4.2
-1 4.8
+ 9.6
+10.7

-1 6.5
+11.1
+ 9.2
- 2.2
+ 8.5
+ 9.2
- 2.6
- 1.5
+ 9.1
- 2.4
+ 2.1
-1 3.4

68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU

OF

LABOR STATISTICS.

A similar tabic of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the Bessemer converting department as a whole, as determined by
a combination of the data for the several principal productive occupa­
tions which are covered in this section of the rejjort. The method
of computing the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under “ weekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole in
1907 were 86.4 as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1907 were 86.4 per cent of those in 1913.
The relative dropped to 79.1 in 1908, advanced to 84.1 in 1909, and
to 88 in 1910, dropped in 1911 to 83.9, and advanced in 1912 to 90.2.
In 1913, the base year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1913 were
15.7 per cent higher than in 1907, 26.4 per cent higher than in 1908,
18.9 per cent higher than in 1909, 13.6 per cent higher than in 1910,
19.2 per cent higher than in 1911, and 10.9 per cent higher than in
1912.
The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full-time
weekly earnings in 1908 were 8.4 per cent lower than in 1907; in 1909,
6.3 per cent higher than in 1908; in 1910, 4.6 per cent higher than in
1909; in 1911, 4.7 per cent lower than in 1910; in 1912, 7.5 per cent
higher than in 1911; and in 1913, 10.9 per cent higher than in 1912.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and relative rates of wages per hour can be studied in like manner.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER H OU R, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEA R S, A LL OCCUPATIONS—BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (-}-)
or decrease ( —)
in Year.

1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

102.9
98.7
102.6
103.4
101.0
100.7
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
rate
speci­
1913 as
fied
of
com­
year
wages
pared
per
as
with
hour.
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

Weekly earnings.

- 2 .8
+1.3
- 2 .5
-3 .3
- 1 .0
- .7

-4 .1
+4.0
+ »8
- 2 .3
- .3
- .7

78.0
81.3
84.9
81.2
89.8
100.0

+19.2
+28.2
+23.0
+17.8
+23.2
+ 11.4

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
speci­
speci­
full­
time 1913 as
fied
fied
com­
year weekly pared
year
earn­
as
as
with
ings.
com­
com­
each
pared
pared
speci­
with
with
fied
year
year
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

- 7.0
+ 4.2
+ 4.4
- 4.4
+10.6
+11.4

86.4
79.1
84.1
88.0
83.9
90.2
100.0

+15.7
+26.4
+18.9
+13.6
+19.2
+ 10.9

- 8.4
+ 6.3
+ 4.6
- 4.7
+ 7.5
+10.9

W AGES AN D

HOURS

OF

LA BO R -----B E S S E M E R

CON VERTERS.

69

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Between 1907
and 1913 it will be observed that hours were reduced 2.8 per cent
and wages per hour increased 19.2 per cent, each tending to offset
the other in weekly earnings.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered that is, the change in the relative number
of employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is
obvious that an increase in the relative number of employees in the
lower-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those
in the higher-paid ones would lower the average rate and earnings
for all occupations, just as an increase in the relative number of
employees in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative
number in the lower-paid ones would increase the average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in Bessemer converting plants whose customary working
time per week was 6 days or turns, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in the following table. The figures are presented for each
of the two districts for which these plants are reported and for the
two combined. The employees given under the headings “ 5 days,
6 days, and 7 days in rotation,” “ 6 days, 6 days, and 7 days in rota­
tion,” and “ 6 days, 7 days, and 7 days in rotation” are engaged in
occupations for which the plant employs 3 shifts instead of the cus­
tomary 2 to complete the 24 hours of a day. The heading “ 6 days, 6
days, and 7 days in rotation,” for example, indicates that each week
one-third of the employees reported work 7 turns instead of the cus­
tomary 6, the plant being shut down during the time of 2 shifts on 1
day each week.




70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EE K , B Y YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CON­
VERTERS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose custom­
ary working time per week was—
Num­
6
ber of
District, and
Year. em­
days
number of
and 7
ploy­
plants.
6
ees. days. days
alter­
nate­
ly-

Pittsburgh:
6 plants.

5
days,
6
days,
and 7
days
in
rota­
tion.

days,
6
days,
and 7
days
in
rota­
tion.

Per cent of employees whose custom­
ary working time per week was—

5
6
days, days,
days
7
6
6
and 7 days, days,
days, 7
and 7 days. days. days and 7 and 7
alter­ days days
days
in
nate­ in
in
rota­
ly. rota­ rota­
tion. tion.
tion.

days,
7
days, 7
and 7 days.
rota­
tion.

1907 1,325
1908 896
1909 992
1910 1,246

999
727
778
825

273
127
170
325

75.4
81.1
78.4
66.2

4.0
4.7
4.4
1.4

1910 1,248
1911 950
1912 1,019

827
765
824

325
146
148

66.3
80.5

1.4
3.8
4.3

0.3
.3

12

159
153

77.4
75.7

5.2
4.4

1.2
5.9

0.9
1.0

15.3
13.0

177
71
142
44

18
18
18
18

151
94
125
231

17.1
31.1
17.5
24.3

41.0
25.1
39.4
10.9

4.2
6.4
5.0
4.5

2.8
4.2
3.3
3.0

35.0
33.2
34.7
57.3

35.9
68.1

10.0
11.2

3.7
4.6

2.5
3.1

47.9
13.0

11.0
35.8

4.5
4.1

3.0
2.7

12.8
15.9

6 plants... 1912 1,037
1913 1,176
Great L a k e s
and Middle
West:
432
3 plants... 1907
1908 238
1909 360
1910 403

20.6
14.2
17.1
26.1
26.0
15.4
14.5

4 plants..

1910
1911

482
392

173
267

48
44

18
18

231
51

4 plants..

1911
1912

400
441

275
183

44
158

18
18

51
70

4 plants... 1912
1913

457
485

225
325

136
114

120
120

76
26

49.2
67.0

29.8
23.5

2 4.4
2 4.1

1,757 1,073
815
1,179
841
1,352
923
1,649

113
186
62

18
18
18
18

424
221
295
556

61.1
69.1
62.2
56.0

13.1
9.6
13.8

1.0
1.5
1.3
1.1

.7
1.0
.9
.7

24.1
18.7
21.8
33.7

1910 1,730 1,000
1S11 1,342 1,032

66
80

18
21

556
197

57.8
76.9

6.0

1.0
1.6

.7

32.1
14.7

1911 1,350 1,040
1912 1,460 1,007

80
202

21
21

197
218

77.0
69.0

5.9
13.8

1.6
1.4

.8

14.6
14.9

1912 1,494 1,028
1913 1,661 1,215

190
166

i 32

235
179

68.8
73.1

12.7
10.0

32.1
3 5.4

.7

15.7
10.8

Total:
9 plants..

10 plants.
10 plants.
10 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

12

4.7
4.5

16.6
5.4

1 Including 8 employees who worked 7 days every fourth week.
2 Including 1.8 per cent who worked 7 days every fourth week.
3 Including 0.5 per cent who worked 7 days every fourth week.

In addition to the text tables in the summary, four general tables
are presented for the Bessemer converting department, as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907 to
1913.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and
1913.




W ages a n d h o u r s o f la b o r — b essem er c o n v e r te r s .

71

Table III.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1913.
Table IV.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in each
year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 60 to 64.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers, follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended
explanation, see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year, back
to 1907, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in Tables II
and IV, and descriptions of the occupations which appear in the tables
of this report, were given in Bulletin 151 of this Bureau, but have
been omitted from the present report.




72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
N U M BER .

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

Aver­
Num­ Aver- Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
time
of
Year, em- time
of
number of
wages week­
plants.
ploy- hours per
ly
per
earn­
week. hour. ings.

Stockers:
9 plants.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
i
un­
der
16
cts.

18
:
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

6
i5
16

46
20
19
32

54
48
12
57

81
60
54
69

24
16
49
51

.......

10
12

115
81
80

16
15
21

34
58
23

57
39
13

69
24
55

51
12
40

36

86
4

29
83

21
69

13
23

55
36

40
74

36
36

1
2
3
1
1

1
3
2
2

3
5
2
•5
4

3
5
6

5
2
5
5
2

1
1

2
2
4

6
6
2

6
4
2

2
5
8

2
7
2
2

6
8
13
17
12

17
27
3
18
26

26
5
19
15

3

2
2
2

16
18
20

26
1
8

26
27

12

4
7
4
2
2

4
8
9
9
10

3
2
4
4 *'*3
4

9
2
2
2
2

2

12
12
8

4
5
5

2
2
5

11
2
4
11

9
4
2
10

6
4

13
9
9

10
9
10

4
2
4

11

9
9

2
7

1910
1911
1912

352
241

64.9
61.7
62.0

.233
.312

10 plants—

1912
1913

337

62.1
62.5

.306
.331

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15 65.2
15 64.7
15 64.7
16 60.6
15 64.3

.509
.350
.419
.447
.390

1911
1912
1913

17
18
19

65.2
61.6
62.4

.386
.409
.477

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50
43
43
56

59.3
61.5
58.
59.3

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

r
[
)
)
)
[

I.......
) .......

►
►
1.......

1911
1912
1913

60.4
60.6
59.5

.314

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

65.4
68.

.619

10 plants___ 1911
1912
1913
Regulators, first:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

72.0
69.1
63.2

.493
.529
.600

64.7
64.8
61.4

.437
.266
.344
.414

62.1
66.8
64.7

.408
.377
.411

5
9
4

10 plants_
_

1912
1913

68.5
67.6

.399
.451

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

.427
.269
.365
.403

1
4
0
6

67.5
65.0
63.5

.378
.333
.367

2
1
6

67.0
67.0

.381
.411

3
►
6
1

l
l

6
8

1907
1908
1909
1910

i
l

3
3
7
D

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

1
1
1

*
3
}

9 plants.
Blowers:
9 plants.

Regulators, sec­
ond:
6 plants___

8 plants.

1910
1911
1912

9 plants.

1912
1913




71.9

22
21
23

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
over.
70 <
cts.

97
55
37
115

10 plants.

Cupola tappers:
8 plants—

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

63
21
49
10

371
260

8 plants.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

*16
22

62.5 $0,246$]
58.3 .275
.264 15.31
.63.
350 64.9 .266 16.04

1907
1908
1909
1910

Cupola melters:
7 plants—

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

[
)
) ....... . . . . ....... . . . .
1

2
2
2

9

3
6
2

5
5

2
2
2

2

2
6

24
9

12
2
3

3

J

2
1

2
3
e>
7

14
1
6
i
S

I
5
1
L
e
5

7
>
S
1
2t

c)
;r
(\
<
)

2

2

I
5

1)
C
(>

2

>
2

3
1

(>

2
I

*2
5
4

2
!
]

£
i

i
4

i Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

5
I

i

3

[

>
*1
3
1

1
1

W AGES A N D H OU RS

OF

73

L A BO R -----B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

T a b l e I , — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — C o n tin u e d .
NUMBER—Continued.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
time
Year. of time
of week­
number of
em­
plants.
ploy­ hours wages ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Vessel men:
9 plants.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

58.5 $0,793 $44.58
61.1 .528 31.27
61.2 .630 37.19
56.6 .708 38.88

10 plants...

1910
1911
1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

.685 38.18
.580 32.45
.703 38.32

10 plants—

1912
1913

26
26

58.3
57.4

.688 38.60
.744 41.09

1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

.566
.376
.484
.524

10 plants—

1910
1911
1912

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

.506 28.22
.421 23.48
.470 25.47

10 plants...

1912
1913

53
53

56.5
56.0

.467 25.70
.528 28.87

1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

.206
.173
.178
.213

13.32
11.27
11.88
13.77

36
5 36
8 26
8

10
8
19
6

44
16
28
40

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

.211 13.69
.199 13.55
.204 13.27

8
2

12
14
13

40
40
53

15

1912
1913

99
113

68.1
67.3

.200 13.23
.238 15.56

23
2

53
10

17
66

20

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

.386
.283
.351
.355

28.10
20.45
25.57
25.92

6
1
2

5
5
9
3

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Bottom makers’
helpers:
9 plants—
1907
1908
1909
1910

19
19
20
20

73.4
71.8
72.5
73.8

.346
.337
.345
.384

25.28
24.18
24.96
28.05

2
2
2
4

5
6
3

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

.257
.204
.234
.239

18.82
14.75
17.08
17.38

8
8
10
11

12
9
U
11

2

1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

.235 17.10
.234 16.88
.238 17.18

1
2

2
2
2

11
10
9

10 plants___ 1912
1913
Ladle liners:
9 plants..
1907
1908
1909
1910

39
40

72.4
73.1

.224 16.19
.255 18.59

2

10
2

9
8

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

.454
.306
.392
.383

2

1

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

.378 25.05
.342 22.85
.369 24.95

9 plants___

9 plants___
Bottom makers:
9 plants----

10 plants...

2

31.84
21.65
28.24
28.86

28.95
19.78
25.22
25.20

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2
2 .....
5
2

5
7
3
12

14
4
8
8

2
4
2

4
2
5

4
4

12
6
3

8
7
12

5
4

4
2

3
8

12
12

2

2

14

2
2

2

11
2

2
6
4
2

5
7
6
6

12
12
17
25

6
6
8
2

17
2
5
8

5

2
4

2
5
3

8
9
17

25
14
11

2
14
13

8
1
5

6
2
4

3

1

17
9

14
18

10
9

5
8

4
9

12
6

6

6

4

5
4 **i5
4

3
6

6
6
6
6
6

15

6
9
6

6

8

4
4
2
4

4

8
7
U
8

4
2
2
6

2
2

2

4

4
4
4
4

13
9
6

4
3
8

4
6
2

2

6
15

8
5

2
6

2
4

2
4
5
4

3
6
2
2

5
3
3
7

4
3
8
5

2
2

4
4
4

2
4

9
4
12

5
6
5

5
4
3

1 Including' 2 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents per hour.




50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2

23
22
22
24

Cinder pitmen:
idert
8 plants —
pis

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2
9
4
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

Vessel
men’s
helpers:
9 plants___

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

2

2

4

2
2

5

3

.

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S I F I E D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N I T E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — C o n tin u ed .
NUMBER—Continued.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
time
Year. of time
number of
of
em­ hours wages week­
plants.
ploy­ per per
ly
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Ladle liners -Con
10 plants— 1912
1913
Ladle
liners’
helpers:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
1
12
and
un­
der
14
! cts.
!

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

22
22

68.6 $0,384 $25.84
68.7 .418 28.22

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

.255
.209
.230
.239

16.65
13.79
15.26
15.83

4
7
4

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Stopper makers:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

39
34
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6
69.8

.236
.233
.228
.255

15.73
15.75
15.43
17.36

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

.316
.223
.270
.263

23.01
16.10
19.22
19.33

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Stopper setters:
9 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

12
10
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.6

.200
.273
.272
.302

19.14
19.53
18.91
21.25

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

.630
.343
.552
.589

31.79
18.50
29.36
30.08

1910
1911
1912
1913

39
39
42
43

52.6
55.3
51.7
51.6

.577
.498
.490
.558

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

.693
.439
.570
.630

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

.617 32.74
.535 27.91
.578 30.57

10 plants___ 1912
1913

34
34

55.7
55.7

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

.347
.196
.271
.320

1910
1911
1912

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

.314 16.96
.282 17.36
.324 18.03

4
1

1912
1913

52
61

61.5
59.5

.301 17.23
.360 20.28

5

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

.310
.238
.264
.307

19.60
16.34
18.17
19.85

31 68.1
27 70.4
28 68.8
28 69.9

.303
.282
.320
.334

19.69
19.26
20.90
22.81

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

.570 30.65
.633 33.94

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

10 plants----

Steel pourers:
9 plants...

Mold cappers:
8 plants...

9 plants.

10 plants...
Ingot strippers:
9 plants___

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913




25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2
2

2

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

12
4

5
7

8
6
8
12

4
4
7
2

11
10
13
15

4
1
2
3

2
2

12
10
10

4
4
4
8

15
11
9
18

3
2
4
1

1
2
2

1

1
1

1
1
1
1

3
4
3
5

3
1
1
2

1
2
3

1

1
1
2

6
3
4
4

2
1
1
2

3
4
2
3

10

2
4

1
4
4

11
5
4
11

7
7
2
6

29.81
20.08
25.36
28.37

5

3

13
9
14
8

6
7
15
12

30.39
24.25
31.61
32.94

4

2
5
2
2

4
9

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

3
7

1
1

18.02
10.57
14.26
17.07

6

2
2
2

3

3
2

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2

2
6
2
1
2

2
20
2
4

4
*8 5
2 26
4 2

4
3
3

27
2
5
27

1
3
5

2

3

2

5
4
3
5
3
1

5
1

6

6
2
3
5

14
4
12
12

3
5
3
3 *4
2
9

12
12
6
12

5
3

3
9

15
4
5
5 '\ 2
3
12

7

6

9
3
11

6
8
10

3
9
1

12
3
8

13
1

10
11

1
3

8
13

3

6
6
6

4
8
8

8
6
6

3
10
6

27
6
16

6
2

6

9
4

8
12

6
6

16
13

2
17

6
9

12
12
12
8

6
10
10
12

5
2
6

4

2

4

4

10
8
8

12
10
12
16

9
5
2
4 ” "8

6

9

6

75

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — C o n tin u e d .
NUMBER—Concluded.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
of
Year. em­ time
of time
number of
hours wages week­
plants.
ploy- per per
ly
hour. earn­
ings.

Laborers:
9 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748
786
593
626

77.
74.6
75.7

.163 12.69
.166 12.39
.167 12.64

1912
1913

681

75.8
75.1

.167 12.
.192 14.38

12 14 16 18 20 25
and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der
14 16 18 20 25 30
cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

78.0 $0,155 $12.12
76.2 .155 11.80
76.
.151 11.62
78.1 .163 12.69

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

10 plants—

and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

230
163
544
488
577
42

578
135 354 192

PER CENT.
Stockers:
9 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
260
266
350

62.5 $0,246 $14.27
17.0 26.1 1.6 12.4 14.6
58.3 .275 14.93 i6.2 8.1 21.2
7.7 18.5
63.6 .264 15.31
18.4 13.9 5*6 7.1 4.5
64.9 .266 16.04
2. 32.9 4. 9.1 16.3

10 plants.

1910
1911
1912

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

.266 16.03
.233 13.60
.312 17.66

10 plants...

1912
1913

280
337

62.1
62.5

.306 17.38
.331 19.05

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

.509
.350
.419
.447
.390

1911
1912
1913

17
18
19

65.2
61.6
62.4

.386 24.62
.409 23.82
.477 28.23

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

.379
.335
.340
.362
.318

1911
1912
1913

45 60.4
48 60.6
69 ' 59.5

.314 18.36
.369 20.94
.393 22.25

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

.619
.466
.486
.536
.498

10 plants___ 1911
1912
1913
R e g u la to r s ,
first:
9 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

20
21
23

72.0
69.1
63.2

.493 35.48
.529 36.36
.600 37.33

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

.437
.266
.344
.414

Cupola melters:
7 plants___

8 plants.
Cupola tappers:
8 plants___

9 plants .
Blowers:
9 plants.




39.55
32.41
33.29
37.00
35.84

27.28
17.78
22.97
25.60

9.2
3.4

2.8 32.7 4.5 9.7 16.2 19.6 14.5
5.0 33.6 6.2 24.1 16.2 10.0 5.0
4.9 20.5 14.9 13.4
29.9 7.8
30.7 10.4 7.5
1.2 24.6 20.5

31.67
22.20
26.09
25.85
24.45

22.16
19.67
19.74
20.30
18.19

21.8 6.5
23.1 6.2
20.3 18.4
19.7 14.6

4. 19.6 14.3 12.9
6.8 10.7 22.0 10.7

i. 7 6.7 20.0
13.3 20.0 33.3 20.0
13.3 33.3
20.0
6.3 ii*5 31.3
6.7 13.3 26.7 ’40.*0

33.3 13.3 20.0
13.3
33.3
31.3 18.8
13.3

5.9 11.8 35.3 35.3 11.
5.6 11.1 33.3 22.2 27.
21.1 10.5 10.5 42.1
2.0
2.3
2.3

12.0
4.7 18.6
16.3 30.2
30.4
29.3

34.0
62.8
7.0
32.1
63.4

52.0
11.6
44.2
26.8

5.4

35.6 57.8
37.5 2.1 54.2
29.0 11.6 39.1 17.4
20.0
36.8
21.1
10.0
11.1

20.0
42.1
47.4
45.0
55.6

15.0
10.5
21.1
20.0 15.0
22.2

45.0
10.5
10.5
10.0
11.1

10.0 60.0 20.0
10.0
1.5 9.5
57.1 23.
34.8 21.7 21.7 21.7

7.7
15.4
42.3 34.6
8.0 36.0 12.0 20.0 8.0 16.0
8.0
24.0 20.0 16.0 8.0 24.0
37.9 34.5 13.8 6.9J
i Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

76

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S A N D A V E R A G E
A N D C L A S S IF IE D R A T E S O F W A G E S P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 T O 1913— B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S — C o n tin u e d .
PER CENT—Continued.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation, and
time
of
Year. em- ' time
of
number of
hours wages week­
plants.
ly
ploy- per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

R e g u la to r s ,
first—Con.
10 plants—

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912

31
24
25

62.1 $0,408 $25.45
66.8 .377 24.79
64.7 .411 26.24

1912
1913

24
24

68.5
67.6

.399 27.16
.451 30.28

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

.427
.269
.365
.403

8 plants-----

1910
1911
1912

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

.378 25.52
.333 21.41
.367 23.36

9 plants-----

1912
1913

24
24

67.0
67.0

.381 25.63
.411 27.56

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

.793
.528
.630
.708

10 plants—

1910
1911
1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

.685 38.18
. 580 32.45
.703 38.32

46.2 30.8
7.7 15.4
8.0 16.0 8.0 16.0 24.0 28.0
7. 19.2 15.4 11.5 46.2

10 plants_
_

1912
1913

26
26

58.3
57.4

.688 38.60
.744 41.09

7.7 19.2 15.4 11.5 46.2
15.4 7.7 30.8 46.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

.566
.376
.484
.524

1910
1911
1912

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

.506 28.22
.421 23.48
.470 25.47

1912
1913

53
53

56.5
56.0

.467 25.70
.528 28.87

1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

.206
.173
. 178
.213

13.32
11.27
11.88
13.77

30.5 8.5 37.3 3.4 10.2
7.0 50.7 11.3 22.5
8.5
8. 28.3 20.7 30.4
1.6
19.0
10.1 7. 6 50.

5.1

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

.211 13.69
.199 13.55
.204 13.27

9.4 14.1 47.1 4.7 17.6
3.2 22. 64.5
14.
1.9 i7.2

7.1
9.7

9 plants.
1912
1913
Bottom makers:
9 plants..
1907
1908
1909
1910

99
113

68.1
67.3

.200 13.23
.238 15.56

23.2 53.5 17.2
;.s 58.4 17.7
1.

6.1
8.0

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

.386
.283
.351
.355

28.10
20.45
25.57
25.92

1910
1911
1912
1913

19
19
20
20

73.4
71.8
72.5
73.8

.346
.337
.345
.384

25.28
24.18
24.96
28.05

10 plants.
R e g u la to r s ,
second:
6 plants-----

Vessel men:
9 plants-----

V e s s e l m en ’s
helpers:
9 plants___

10 plants .

10 plants—
Cinder pitmen:
8 plants___

9 plants.

10 plants___




41. 32.3 12.9 6.5
37.5 37.5 8.3
36.0 40.0 16.0

3.3

25.0

45.8 37.5 8.3
37. 29.2 8.3

11.1 77.8 11.1
35.7 21.4 14.3 21.4 7.1
7.1 7.1 42.9 42.9
38.9 50.0 11.1

27.81
19.64
26.80
26.96

9.1 31.8 40.9 9.1
4.8 42.9 33.3
26.1 56.5
17.4

14.3

16.7

25.0 41.7 25.0
25.0 37.5 12.5 8.3

44.58
31.27
37.19
38.88

8.7
40.9 9.1
18.2 22.7
8.3 8.3

31 84
21.65
28.24
28.86

4.3 10.6
2.2 24.4 13.3 15.6
4.4 8.9 13.3
4.1 12.2
3.9

8.7 21.7
31.8
9.1 13.
50.0

60.9
18.2
36.4
33.3

25.5 12.8 !6.2 10.6
26.7 13.3 4.4
37.8 17.8 11.1 6.7
51.0 4.1 16.3 12.2

3. 15.1 47.2 3. 15.1 11.3
9. 17.6 27.5 27.5 2.0 3.9
5.7 32.1 20.8 24.5 9.4 7.5
5.7 32.1 26.4 18.9 9.4 7.5
17.0 34.0 17.0 15.1 17.0

11.

5.1

6.5
7.6

5.3

29.4 35.3 23.5
35.3 29.4
23.5
6.3 56.3
12.5 25.0
11.8 17. 47.1 23.5
10.5 26.3 42.1 21.1
10.5 31.6
10.5 10.5
10.0 15.0 55.0 10.0 10.0
20.0
40.0 30.0
1.
00

77

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.
PER CENT—Continued.
Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

Aver­ Aver­ age
Num­ age age full­
ber of full­ rate time 12 14 16
Occupation, and
Year. em­ time
number of
of Xr
eek- and and and
plants.
ploy­ hours wages
iy un­ un­ un­
ees. per
am- der der der
week.
ings. 14 16 18
cts. cts. cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

Bottom makers’
helpers:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

30
27
29
30

73.5 $0.2571;18.82.......
72.2 .204 14.75.114.8
8
73.1 .234 17.0
6.9
72.9 .239 17.38.......

26. 40.0
i.6 33.3
34.5 37.9
36.7 i.7

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

.235 17.10'.
.234 16. i
.238 17 .18....

1912
1913

39
40

72.4
73.1

.224 16.19
.255 18.59

Ladle liners:
9 p lan ts..... 1907
1908
1909
1910

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

.454
.306
.392
.383

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

.378 25.05
.342 22.85
.369 24.95

10 plants.*.. 1912
1913
Ladle l i n e r s ’
helpers:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

22
22

68.6
68.7

.384 25.84
.418 28.22

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

.255
.209
.230
.239

16.65
13.79
15.26
15.83

10.3 20.5 10.
10.3
3.2
22. 19.4 12. 932.
5.1
10.3 20.5 17. 933.
32.4 5.440.5 8.1

3.2
7.7
13.5

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Stopper makers:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

39
34
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6
69.8

.236
.233
.228
.255

15.73
15.75
15.43
17.36

30.8 10.338.5 7.7
29.4 11.8 32.4 5.9
29.4 11.8 26.5 11.
2.
23.5 52.

12.8
2.9 11.
5.9 8.
5.9 14.7

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

.316
.223
.270
.263

23.01
16.10
19.22
19.33

10.0 30.0
11.1 11.1 11.1 44.4
11.1 11.1 33.3
9.1 45.5

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Stopper setters:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

12
10
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.6

.260
.273
.272
.302

19.14
19.53
18.91
21.25

8.3 50.0
10.0 10.0 30.0
20.0 40.0
40.0

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

.630
.343
.552
.589

31.79
18.50
29.36
30.

2.2 24.4 15.6 13.3 13.3 31.1
15.025.0 5.0 10.0 12.5 17.5
5.0 10.0
11. 11. 11.8 5.9 14*7
35.3
29.7 16.2 8.1 13.5 32.4

39
39
42
43

52.6
55.3
51.7
51.6

.577
.498
.496
.558

29.81
26.08
25.36
28.37

29i
28:
28i
30l

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

.693
.439 24.25
.576 31.61
.630 32.94

10 plants----

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Steel pourers:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

7.4

32! 55.6» .617 32.74
301 55.1 .535 27.91
32! 54.7p .578 30.57

10 plants___ 1912
1913

34t 55.7'
34: 55.7

.570 30.65 .......
.633 33.94

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

6.7 13.3 13.3
14.8
13. *6*9
13.3

5. 12.4 38.2 11. 11.
6.5 32.3 1.0 9.7 19.4
6.5 29.0 19.4 25.
6.5

6.5

5.1 25. 23.1 15.4 20.5 5.1 5.1
5.0 20.0 37.5 12.5 15.0 10.0
5 14.3 23. 19.0
4.8 19.0 28.6 14.3 14.3
23.8 9.5 14.3 38.1
17.4 8.7 30.4 21.7

28.95
19.78
25.22
25.20

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

9.5
9.5

14.3
*4*8

16.0 8.0 36.0 20.0
8.3 16.7 16.7 16.7 25.0 16.7
50.0 20.8 12.5
16.7
54.5 22.7 13.6
18.2 31.8 31.8

9.1
9.1

12.8

30.0
30.0
11.1 11.1
11.1 22.2 11.1
18.2 27.3
16.7
10.0
10.0
20.0

25.0
40.0
20.0 10.0
30.0 10.0

33.3
7.7 23.1
33.3
18.

14.3 17.9 14.3
7.1 32.1

10.0

7.7.
5.1

6.3
6.7
6.3

15.4
17.
35.7
27.9

7.7 12.
7.7
7.1
4.7 20.9

30.8
30.8
14.3
27.9

17.2 10.3 13.8 51.7
3.6 32.1 17.9
17. 42*9
23*3 20.*0 10.0 40.0

28. 18.8 9.4 37.5
6.7 10. 26.7 50.0 10.0
34.4 31.3 3.1 25.0

5 .9 ....... 38.2 29.4 2.9 23.5
17.6 2.9 32.4 8.8 38.2
i Including 7.4 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents per hour.




78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ age age full­
ber of full­ rate time
Occupation, and
Year. em- time
number of
of
ploy- hours wages week­
plants.
ly
per per earnweek hour.

Mold cappers:
_
8 plants_

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

4.2 4.2
8.3 8.3 56.3 6.3 12.5
2.6 51.3 20*5 12.8 7.7 5.1
4.7 4.7 60.5
11.6 ....... 14.0 ....
8.7 8.7 4.3 '*6*5 58.7
13.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

54.5 $0,347 $18.02
53.7 .196 10.57
54.0 .271 14.26
55.0 .326 17.07

1910
1911
1912

57.0
64.2
59.5

.314 16.96 .......
.282 17.36
.324 18.03

7.7 7.7 15.4 5.8 51.9
11.5 .... .......
2.7 21.6 16.2 27.0 16.2 *i6.2
18.2 13.6 13.6 36.4 4.5 13.6

10 plants___ 1912
1913

61.5
59.5

.301 17.23
20.28

9.6 17.3 15.4 11.5 30.8 3.8 11.5
6.6 19.7 9.8 21.3 27.9 14.8

29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

.310
.238
.264
.307

31
27
28
28

68.1
70.4
68.8
69.9

19.
.282 19.26
.320 20.90
.334 22.81

801
425
564
7-18

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

.155
.155
.151
.163

77.8
74.6
75.7

.163 12.69
.166 12.39
.167 12.64

75.8
75.1

.16' 12.68
.192 14.38

9 plants.

Ingot strippers:
9 plants___

1907
1908
1909
1910

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Laborers:
9 plants.
1907
1908
1909
1910
10 plants...

1910
1911
1912

10 plants...

1912
1913




620
681

4.7

41.4
14.3 42.9
42.9
27.6

19.60
16.34
18.17
19.85

20.7 17.2 13.8
35.7 7.1
35.7 21.4
41.4
31.0

6.9

32.3 38.7
29.0
14.8 29.6 37.0
18.5
28.6 42.9 7.1
21.4
57.1 14.3 *28.6

12.12
71.3
11.80
76.9
11.62 *i6.*3 54.8
12.69
27.3

28.7
23.1
28.9
72.7

26.0 74.0
17.7 82.3
7.8 92.2
6.8 93.2
19.8 52.0 28.2

i

W AGES AN D

H O U R S OF

79

LABOE— B E SSE M E R C O N V E R TE R S.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

T a b le

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle West.” ]
STO CKERS.

Year and
district.

Num­ Av­ Av­
Num­ ber erage erage
full­ rate
ber
of
time
of
em­ hours wages
of
plants. ploy­ per per
ees. week. hour.

Av­
erage
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

6
4

231
49

59.4 $0.332 $18.20
74.5 .183 13.50

54
32

26
3

9
12

13

53
2

40

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

36

T otal., i.

10

280

62.1

.306 17.38

86

29

21

13

55

40

36

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .

6
4

279
58

60.2
73.8

.356 19.81
.210 15.43

4

65
18

49
20

7
16

36

74

36

12

Total___

10

337

62.5

.331 U 05

4

83

69

23

36

74

36

12

2

2
4

4

5

2

6

4

5

CUPOLA M E LTE R S .

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

5
3

13
5

57.2 $0.442 $23.88
73.2 .323 23.64

1
1

T o ta l....

8

18

61.6

.409 23.82

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

5
3

13
6

57.5
73.0

.535 29.44
.351 25.60

2
2

2

2

T o ta l....

8

19

62.4

.477 28.23

4

2

2

8

3

8

3

CUPOLA TA PPERS.

1912.

Pittsburgh___

5
4

33
15

53.7 $0,423 $21.83
75.6 .251 18.98

1

2

6
12

1

26

G. L. and M. W.

1

2

18

1

26

Total___

9

48

60.6

.369 20.94

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

5
4

53
16

54.8
75.4

.426 22.54
.283 21.30

2

10
10

4
4

27

12

Total___

9

69

59.5

.393 22.25

2

20

8

27

12

BLO W E R S.

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

6
4

13
8

66.4 $0,530 $34.96
73.5 .527 38.63

6
6

5

2.....

Total-----

10

21

69.1

.529 36.36

12

5

2

2

6
4

15
8

57.7 .622 35.41
73.5 L..558 M. W.
G. and 40.92

2
6

5

5

3
2

10

23

63.2

8

5

5

5

1913.
Pittsburgh. ___
T o ta l....




.600 37.33

80

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U K E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

II,— AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS— Continued.

T a b le

REGULATORS, FIRST.

Year and
district.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
ber
of
of
em­ time
of
plants. ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.

!
i Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­ 1
age
full­
time 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60
week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40 50 60 70 over.
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M.W.

6
4

14
10

62.6 $0,428 $27.05
76.8 .360 27.31

2

6
5

6
3

2

2

11

9

2

9

3
4

2

9

7

2

Total___

10

24

68.5

.399 27.16

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

6
4

14
10

62.7
74.4

.493 31.23
.393 28.95

6

Total___

10

24

67.6

.451 30.28

6

REGULATORS, SECOND.
1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M .W.

6
3

14
10

61.7 $0,391 $24.47
74.4 .369 27.26

2
4

8
2

2
4

2

6

10

6

2

6

4
5

2
1

2

6

9

3

2

Total___

9

24

67.0

.381 25.63

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

6
3

14
10

61.6
74.4

.437 27.49
.376 27.66

4

Total___

9

24

67.0

.411 27.56

4

VESSEL MEN.
1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .

6
4

T o ta l....

10

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
T o ta l....

17
9

52.5 $0,735 $38.21
69.3 .599 39.35

26 58.3

.688 38.60

2

5
5

3

9
3

4

3

12

2

2

6
2

9
3

4

6
4

17
9

52.5 .780 40.36
G. .675 M. W.
66.7 L. and 42.46

4

10

26

57.4

4

2

8

12

13
4

7
7

8
2

3
2

3
1

17

14

10

5

4

.744 41.09
VESSEL MEN’S HELPERS.

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
T o ta l....
1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W.
Total___




6
4

34
19

51.7 $0,472 $24.06
65.1 L. and 28.64
G. .457 M.W.

10

53

56.5

.467 25.70

6
34
4 • 19

51.6
63.8

.531 27.23
.523 31.80

3
6

16
2

3
6

6
2

6
3

56.0

.528 28.87

9

18

9

8

9

10

53

3

3

W AGES A N D H OU RS

81

OF L A B O R — B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T E R S .

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—Continued.

T a b le

CINDER PITMEN.

Year and
district.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
age
Num­ ber full­ rate full­
ber
of
time
of week­
em­ time
of
plants. ploy­ hours wages ly
per
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

5
4

66
33

64.6 $0,213 $13.31
75.1 .175 13 08

23

45
8

15
2

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

6
6

T o ta l....

9

99

68.1

.200 13.23

23

53

17

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M .W.

5
4

77
36

64.0
74.3

.246 15.16
.222 16.41

2

10

50
16

14
6

7
2

6

T o ta l....

9

113

67.3

.238 15.56

2

10

66

20

9

6

12 71.8 $0,385 $27.61
8 73.5 .287 21.00

2

8
3

2

3

2

3

11

2

2

BOTTOM MAKERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM .W .

6
4

Total......

10

20

72.5

.345 24.96

2

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M.W.

6
4

12
8

73.9
73.5

.416 30.42
.335 24.51

2
2

4
4

4
2

2

Total___

10

20

73.8

.384 28.05

4

8

6

2

BOTTOM MAKERS* HELPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M .W .

6
4

26
13

71.7 $0,234 $16.77
73.8 .204 15.04

2

6
4

6
3

2
4

6
2

2

2

2

10

9

6

8

2

2

8

8
7

2
3

6

2
2

8

15

5

6

4

Total___

10

39

72.4

.224 16.19

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM . W .

6
4

26
14

72.8
73.7

.258 18.74
.250 18.31

2

T o ta l....

10

40

73.1

.255 18.59

2

LADLE LINERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M .W .

6
4

12
10

71.8 $0,365 $26.16
64.8 .407 25.45

2

8
4

4
1

3

68.6

.384 25.84

2

12

5

3

2

2
2

6
1

2
5

2

4

7

7

Total___

10

22

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M .W .

6
4

12
10

71.9
64.8

.404 29.04
.434 27.22

2

Total___

10

22

68.7

.418 28.22

2

83021°— Bull, 168— 15------ 6




82

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS— Continued.

T able

L A D L E LIN ER S* H E L P E R S .

Year and
district.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
of
emplants. ploy-

1912.

34

19.6

.228 15.43

71.
64.8

10

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16 18 i 20 25 30
and and and and and
un­
un­ un­ un­
der
der der der
18
25 30
40
cts.
cts. cts. cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

.243 17.46
.282 17.13

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L. and M. W .
Total___

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

71.6 $0.214 $15.29
64.
15.77

Pittsburgh.......
G.L .andM .W .
Total___

Aver- Aver­
age age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

10

10

.255 17.36

34

STOPPER M AK ER S.

1912.

70.0 $0,263 $17.84
20.52
72.0

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM .W .
Total___

10

70.!

.272 18.91

69.7

10

.280 19.31

70.1

.302 21.25

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. and M .W.
T o ta l....

72.0 .336 24.16
10

10

STO PPER SETTERS.

1912.

47.9 $0.459 $21.99
61.0
33.79

Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .
Total___

10

42

11
3

12
3!.

43

T o ta l....

.496 25.36

15

47.9
61.0

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

51.7

.534 25.61
.617 35.48

10.
2

51.6

.558 28.37

12

STEEL PO U RER S.

1912.

47.9 $0.649 $31.09
64.5 .482 30.16

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .
Total___
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
T o ta l....




10

55.7

.570 30.65

47.
64.5

10

1913.

34

.737 35.27
.517 32.44

34 55.7

.633 33.94

10

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

83

II.— AVERAGE FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS— Concluded.

T a b le

MOLD CAPPERS.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber
Year and dis­
emof
trict.
plants. ploy-

1913.
Pittsburgh.. . . .
G .L.andM .W .
T o ta l....

Average
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

53.! $0,355 $18.10
73J .215 15.84

10

61.5

17.23
.406 20.64
19.55
.360 20.28

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

16

59.5

52

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

16

52.6
73.8

10

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
Total___

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

17
12

17

INGOT STRIPPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .

6
4

16
12

63.4 $0,374 $22.42
76.0 .248 18.86

8

8
4

2

6

8

12

2

6

8
8

4

16

4

Total___

10

28

68.8

.320 20.90

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .

6
4

16
12

66.0
75.0

.364 23.23
.296 22.24

T o ta l....

10

28

69.9

.334 22.81

1
!

LABORERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
T o ta l....

426
194
10

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .
Total___




75.2 $0,168 $12.64
77.1 .166 12.77

1 .6
28

26
16

400 .
178 .

620 75.8

.167

474
207

75.5
74.1

.192 14.52
.190 14.05

257 133 .
97 59 .

75.1

.192 14.38

135 354 192 .

578 .

8
8

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

84

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CON­
VERTERS.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.!
NUMBER.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Stockers:
9 plants..

10 plants..

_
10 plants_
Cupola melters:
7 plants......

8 plants..
Cupola tappers:
8 plants......

9 plants..
Blowers:
9 plants..

10 plants..
Regulators, first:
9 plants..........

10 plants..

10 plants..
Regulators, second:
6 plants.............

8 plants..

9 plants.




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber fullof
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
72
60
and
72
84
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
and
per un­
under
ees. week. der. under 60
under
56
72
84

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
200
266
350

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

171
150
114
114

1910
1911
1912

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

114
111
123

31

1912
1913

280
337

62.1
62.5

125
77

6
72

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15 65.2
15 64.7
15 64.7
16 60.6
15 64.3

6
6
6
6
6

1911
1912
1913

17
18
19

65.2
61.6
62.4

6
9
6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

27
24
24.
36
24

1911
1912
1913

45
48
69

60.4
60.6
59.5

24
27
21

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

6
3
3
3

1911
1912
1913

20
21
23

72.0
69.1
63.2

3
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

12
9
9
6

1910
1911
1912

31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

6
6
9

1912
1913

24
24

68.5
67.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

6

1910
1911
1912

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

1912
1913

24
24

67.0
67.0

4
31

18
24
16

28
4
25

27
27
33
68

83
25
60
20

44
30
39
92

68
57
21

20
26
48

92
30
36

20

2
2

18
29

23
92

42
45

44
20

2

3
3
3
3
3

2
2
2
2
2

i2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2

5
3
4

2
2
2

2
2
2

9
13
5
7
11

6
2
8
8
2

15
5
16

2
10
10

2

10
12
12
12
16

2
2
2
3

2
2
2

18
14
10

2
2

2
4
2

18

18

4
2

3

27
2
2

2
2
2
3

15
20

8
8
10
10

2
2
2

2
4
2
2
2

3

9
9

4
4

12
12
8

2

6
6

2
2

6
8

8
8

6

2
4
2

6
6
8
8

2
4
4

10
11
6

4

6
6

4
4

8
8

6
6

4
2
6
5
4
4
4

2

2
2
2
4
4
2
2

4
4
4

6
6
9

'

1Including 1 employee whose full-time hours per week were 91.

2

4
4

W AGES A N D H OU RS

OF

L A B O R -----B E S S E M E R

CON VERTERS.

85

III.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913— BESSEMER CON­

T a b le

VERTERS— Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Vessel men:
9 plants....................

NUMBER—Continued.
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
48
60
and
72
84
and
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
per un­ under
under
under
ees. week. der.
60
84
72
56

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

12
9
9
12

3
3
3
6

10 plants..................

1910
1911
1912

26
25
26

57.8
59.1
57.3

12
12
15

6
3
3

10 plants.................

1912
1913

26
26

58.3
57.4

9
9

9
9

1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

24
18
18
24

9
9
9
15

10 plants..................

1910
1911
1912

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

24
24
30

15
9
9

10 plants..................

1912
1913

53
53

56.5
56.0

24
24

15
15

1907
1908
1909
1910

118
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

24
21
21
6

9 plants....................

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

6
6
21

9 plants....................

1912
1913

99
113

68.1
67.3

21
27

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

2
4
2

1910
1911
1912
1913

19
19
20
20

73.4
71.8
72.5
73.8

4
4
4

1907
1908
1909
1910

30
27
29
30

73.5
72.2
73.1
72.9

8
7
8

10 plants..................

1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

10
10

10 plants..................

1912
1913

39
40

72.4
73.1

12
12

1907
1908
1909
1910

21
21
21
23

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

6
6
6
6

1
1
1
1

10 plants..................

1910
1911
1912

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

6
3
3

1
1
1

4
4

10 plants.......... .

1912
1913

22
22

68.6
68.7

3
3

1
1

4
4

Vessel men’s helpers:
9 plants....................

Cinder pitmen:
8 plants....................

Bottom makers:
9 plants....................

10 plants..................

Bot om makers’ helpers:
9 plants....................

Ladle liners:
9 plants....................




4
44
12
23

15
15

16

2
4
2

B U L L E T IN

86

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

III.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913— BESSEMER CON­

T a b le

VERTERS— C o n tin u e d .

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Ladle liners’ helpers:
9 plants................

NUMBER—Continued.
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
and
72 and
and
ploy­ hours un­ and under 60
84
per
under
ees. week. der. under 60
under
72
56
84

1
1
1
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

6
6
6
6

1910
1911
1912
1913

39
34
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6
69.8

6
3
3
3

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
9
9
11

72.8
72.9
71.6
73.1

2
2
2
1

1910
1911
1912
1913

12
10
10
10

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.6

1
2
3
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

45
40
34
37

51.5
54.3
55.4
51.5

39
30
24
27

1910
1911
1912
1913

39
39
42
43

52.6
55.3
51.7
51.6

27
27
36
37

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

21
18
18
21

10 plants..

1910
1911
1912

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

21
21
24

10 plants..

1912
1913

34
34

55.7
55.7

24
24

1907
1908
1909
1910

48
39
43
46

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

36
30
33
12

9 plants..

1910
1911
1912

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

12
12
24

10 plants_
_

1912
1913

52
61

61.5
59.5

24
33

6
6

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

9
6
6
3

4
6
4

1910
1911
1912
1913

31
27
28
28

68.1
70.4
68.8
69.9

3

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

10 plants..

Stopper makers:
9 plants........

10 plants..

Stopper setters:
9 plants........

10 plants..

Steel pourers:
9 plants__

Mold cappers:
8 plants...

Ingot strippers:
9 plants......

10 plants..

Laborers:
9 plants..




3

I

1
1
1
1

10
10
10

14
14
14

2

1

6
6

3
3

24
24

6
6
3
3
6

12

6
4
2
4
24
3
22

22
34
20
13 1

1 Including 54 employees whose full-time hours per week were 85.

10
12
8
6
172
131
141
242

266
221
152

337
143
167
1319

W AGES AN D

H O U R S OF

L A B O R -----B E S S E M E R

CONVERTERS.

87

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CON­

T able

VERTERS— Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Laborers—Concluded.
10 plants................

NUMBER—Concluded.
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
48
60
and
hours and
84
and
72
and
ploy- per un­ and under 60
under
under
under
week. der.
56
72
84

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

275
253
242

154
215
174

1321
73
103

1912
1913

10 plants

1910
1911
1912

620
681

75.8
75.1

238
270

164
227

170
138

7.3
10.4
12.4
19.4

22.4
9.6
22.6
5.7

11.9
11.5
14.7
26.3

PER CENT.
Stockers:
9 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

371
260
266
350

62.5
58.3
63.6
64.9

46.1
57.7 *i.5
42.9
32.6 '*8*9*

1910
1911
1912

352
241
268

64.9
61.7
62.0

32.4
46.1
45.9

8.8

1912
1913

280
337

62.1
62.5

44.6
22.8

2.1
21.4

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15
15
15
16
15

65.2
64.7
64.7
60.6
64.3

40.0
40.0
40.0
37.5
40.0

1911
1912
1913

17
18
19

65.2
61.6
62.4

35.3
50.0
31.6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50
43
43
56
41

60.5
59.3
61.5
58.9
59.3

54.0
55.8
55.8
64.3
58.5

1911
1912
1913

45
48
69

60.4
60.6
59.5

53.3
56.3
30.4

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

20
19
19
20
18

65.4
68.8
68.8
69.8
71.9

30.0
15.8
15.8
15.0

1911
1912
1913

20
21
23

72.0
69.1
63.2

14.3
26.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

26
25
25
29

62.3
64.7
64.8
61.4

46.2
36.0
36.0
20.7

10 plants.

1910
1911
1912

31
24
25

62.1
66.8
64.7

19.4
25.0
36.0

10 plants.

1912
1913

24
24

68.5
67.6

25.0
25.0

10 plants.

10 plants
Cupola melters:
7 plants___

8 plants..
Cupola tappers:
8 plants........

9 plants..
Blowers:
9 plants..

10 plants.
Regulators, first:
9 plants........

4.9
9.2
6.0

7.5
**7.T

1.5

**6.*2’
7.5

7.7
.8
.7

6.7

19.3
23.7
7.8

5.7
10.8
17.9

26.1
12.4
13.4

7.1

.7
.6

6.4
8.6

8.2
27.3

15.0
13.4

15.7
5.9

13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3

20.0
20.0
20.0
18.8
20.0

13.3
13.3
13.3
12.5
13.3

513.3
13.3
13.3
12.5
13.3

11.8
11.1
10.5

29.4
16.7
21.1

11.8
11.1
10.5

11.8
11.1
10.5

11.6
12.5
26.8

12.0
4.7
18.6
14.3
4.9

8.0
4.7
14.0
8.9
9.8

33.3
10.4
23.2

4.4
20.8
14.5

11.1

50.0
63.2
63.2
60.0
88.9

10.0
10.5
10.5
15.0

10.0
9.5
8.7

90.0
66.7
43.5

7.7
16.0
8.0

30.8
32.0
40.0
34.5

16.7
16.0

38.7
50.0
32.0

8.3
8.3

25.0
33.3

18.8

15.8

8.0
4.7

4.2
5.8

26.1

10.0
10.5
10.5

13.0

31.0
29.0

.........

1 Including 54 employees whose full-time hours per week were 85.
2 Including 6.7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.




10.0

9.5
8.7
7.7
8.0
8.0

7.7
8.0
8.0
13.8
12.9
8.3
8.0

33.3
33.3

BULLETIN

88

of t h e

bureau

op l a b o r

s t a t is t ic s .

HI.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS— Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Regulators, second:
6 plants.............

8 plants.

9 plants.
Vessel men:
9 plants.

10 plants.

10 plants.............
Vessel men’s helpers:
9 plants..............

10 plants.

10 plants...
Cinder pitmen:
8 plants___

9 plants.

9 plants____
Bottom makers:
9 plants____

10 plants.

Bottom makers’ helpers:
9 plants.....................

10 plants.

10plants.




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
72
and
84
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
per un­ under
under
ees. week. der.
under
60
72
56
84

. 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
14
14
18

65.3
73.5
73.8
66.7

33.3

1910
1911
1912

22
21
23

67.5
65.0
63.5

1912
1913

24
24

1907
1908
1909
1910

23
22
22
24

14.3

33.3
42.9
57.1
44.4

27.3
28.6
39.1

9.1
19.0
17.4

45.5
52.4
26.1

17.4

67.0
67.0

25.0
25.0

16.7
16.7

33.3
33.3

25.0
25.0

58.5
61.1
61.2
56.6

52.2
40.9
40.9
50.0

13.0
13.6
13.6
25.0

8.7
18.2
18.2
8.3

17.4
18.2
18.2

1910
1911
1912

26 57.8
25 59.1
26 57.3

46.2
48.0
57.7

23.1
12.0
11.5

15.4
24.0
7.7

8.0
15.4

15.4
8.0
7.7

1912
1913

26
26

58.3
57.4

34.6
34.6

34.6
34.6

7.7
15.4

15.4
15.4

7.7

. 1907
1908
1909
1910

47
45
45
49

57.0
59.5
59.6
55.3

51.1
40.0
40.0
49.0

19.1
20.0
20.0
30.6

8.5
17.8
17.8
8.2

17.0
17.8
17.8

4.3
4.4
4.4
12.2

. 1910
1911
1912

53
51
53

56.5
57.6
55.9

45.3
47.1
56.6

28.3
17.6
17.0

15.1
23.5
7.5

7.8
15.1

11.3
3.9
3.8

1912
1913

53
53

56.5
56.0

45.3
45.3

28.3
28.3

7.5

7.5
11.3

15.1
7.5

3.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

il8
71
92
79

67.9
65.9
68.4
67.3

20.3
29.6
22.8
7.6

37.3
16.9
25.0

32.2
39.4
32.6
50.6

3.4
14.1
10.9
12.7

1910
1911
1912

85
62
87

67.6
69.8
67.2

7.1
9.7
24.1

25.8

54.1
54.8
41.4

11.8
9.7
34.5

9.4

. 1912
1913

99
113

68.1
67.3

21.2
23.9

46.5
42.5

30.3
31.9

2.0
1.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

17
17
16
17

73.4
72.4
73.1
73.5

11.8
23.5
12.5

64.7
64.7
68.8
76.5

23.5
11.8
18.8
11.8

11.8

1910
1911
1912
1913

19
19
20
20

73.4
71.8
72.5
73.8

21.1
20.0
20.0

78.9
78.9
70.0
50.0

10.5

10.5

10.0
20.0

10.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

30
27
29
30

73 *
>
72.2
73.1
72.9

26.7
25.9
27.6

46.7
66.7
51.7
86.7

26.7
7.4
20.7
6.7

6.7

1910
1911
1912

34
31
31

72.8
72.2
72.2

32.3
32.3

88.2
5.9
64.5
61.3 ‘ *6 5
.*

1912
1913

39
40

72.4
73.1

30.8
30.0

59.0
45.0

33.3

19.0
17.6

22.2
28.6
28.6
22.2
18.2

10.3
20.0

8.7
9.1
9.1
16.7

8.7
10.1

5.9
3.2

5.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

89

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CON­
VERTERS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Ladle liners:

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
48
60
and
hours and
72
and
84
and
ploy­ per un­ and under 60
under
ees. week. der. under
under
60
84
72
56

1907
1908
1909
1910

9.5
19.0
9.5

25
24
24

66.8
68.3
68.9

24.0
12.5
12.5

4.0
4.2
4.2

22
22

68.6
68.7

13.6
13.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

39
31
39
37

68.2
67.5
68.5
68.5

39
34
34
34

68.7
69.1
69.6
69.8

1907
1908
1909
1910
.........................

4.8
4.8
4.8
4.3

1910
1911
1912
1913

10 plants

28.6
28.6
28.6
26.1

1912
1913

Stopper makers:

65.1
65.6
65.1
66.3

1910
1911
1912

Ladle liners’ helpers:

21
21
21
23

10
9
9
11

1910
1911
1912
1913

12
10
10
10

Stopper setters:
9 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

47.6
38.1
47.6
52.2

9.5
8.7

*8.7

56.0
66.7
58.3

8.0

8.0

16.7
16.7

8.3

4.5
4.5

18.2
18.2

54.5
45.5

9.1
18.2

15.4
19.4
15.4
16.2 ........ ........

2.6
3.2
2.6
2.7

25.6
32.3
25.6

51.3
38.7
46.2
64.9

5.1
6.5
10.3
10.8 ‘ **5*4

15.4
8.8
8.8
8.8

2.6
2.9
2.9
2.9

66.7
47.1
41.2
29.4

10.3

41.2
41.2
41.2

72.8
72.9 ......... .........
71.6
73.1

40.0
20.0
44.4
22.2
22.2 ’22.2* 22.2
72.7
9.1

30.0
11.1
11.1

73; 0
72.0
70.8
70.6

8.3
20.0
30.0
10.0
86.7
75.0
70.6
73.0

8.9
20.0
23.5
16.2 ......... ......... ......... 5.4
15.4

39
39
42
43

52.6
55.3
51.7
51.6

69.2
69.2
85.7
86.0

29
28
28
30

55.4
57.4
57.5
54.5

72.4
64.3
64.3
70.0

10 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

32
30
32

55.6
55.1
54.7

65.6
70.0
7> 0
*

10 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Mold cappers:
8 plants..................- ................ 1907
1908
1909
1910

34
34

55.7
55.7

48
39
43
46

9 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912
10 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Ingot strippers:
9 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

10.0

10.3
30.8
9.5
9.3
13.8
21.4
21.4
......... 6.7

9.4

9.5

5.1

5.9
17.6

75.0
60.0
50.0
80.0

45 51.5
40 54.3
34 55.4
37 51.5

10 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912
1913
Steel pourers:
9 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910




10.0

9.5

10.0
2?. 2
22.2
18.2
16.7
20.0
20.0

4.4
5.0
5.9

5.4
5.1

4.8
4.7
13.8
14.3
14.3

13.3
12.5

12.5
30.0
12.5

12.5

70.6
70.6

17.6
17.6

11.8
11.8

54.5
53.7
54.0
55.0

75.0
76.9
76.7
26.1

16.7
17.9
14.0
8.7

8.3
5.1
9.3
4.3

52
37
44

57.0
64.2
59.5

23.1
32.4
54.5

19.2
62.2
31.8

3.8
5.4
13.6

52
61

61.5
59.5

46.2
54.1

11.5
9.8

26.9
23.0

15.4
13.1

29
28
28
29

67.4
68.4
70.2
67.9

31.0
21.4
21.4
10.3

13.8
21.4
14.3

20.7
21.4
21.4
27.6

20.7
13.8
35.7
21.4 '"21*4
20.7 20.7

52.2
46.2

20.7

8.7
7.7

90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I , — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BESSEMER CON­
VERTERS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Ingot strippers—Concluded.
10 plants........................

Laborers:
9 plants..........................

10 plants........................

10 plants........................




Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

Aver-

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—

time 48 Over 56
48
hours and
and
per un­ and under
under 60
week. der.
56

1910
1911
1912
1913

31
27
28
28

68.1
70.4
68.8
69.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

801
425
564
748

78.0
76.2
76.9
78.1

1910
1911
1912

786
593
626

77.8
74.6
75.7

1912
1913

620
681

75.8
75.1

9.7

io.Y

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

22.2
14.3
7.1

32.3
44.4
28.6
21.4

19.4
22.2
35.7
50.0

0.5
5.6
.5
2.9

2.7
8.0
3.5
1.7

21.5
30.8
25.0
32.4

33.2
42.1
21.9
33.6
39.2
29.6
20.3 142.6

2.9
4.6
2.7

1.7
4.2
4.6

35.0
42.7
38.7

19.6 2 40.8
36.3
12.3
27.8 26.0

2.7
1.2

4.8
5.6

38.4
39.6

26.5
33.3

19.4
11.1
10.7
21.4

2.1

0.2

1 Including 7.2 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.
2 Including 6.9 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 85.

84

19.4

27.4
20.3

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — B E S S E M E R

91

CON VERTERS.

T a b l e I V . — AVERAGE AND

CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK IN
EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS.
STOCKERS.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

Num­ AverNum­ ber SR.
of
ber of em­ time
48 Over 56
plants. ploy­ hours and
48
per un­ and and
ees. week.
under
der. under 60
56

.

6
4

231
49

59.4
74.5

125

Total...................................

10

280

62.1

125

6

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

6
4

279
58

60.2
73.8

77

72

Total...................................

10

337

62.5

77

60

6

20

Oyer
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

84

18

4
19

14
28

44

18

23

42

44

29

62
30

19
26

20

29

92

45

20

3

2

3

2

4

2

4

2

5

10

2

5

10

**, *2
20

2

2
72

2

CUPOLA MELTERS.

Total..............................
1913.
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .
Total..............................

C lO
O

1912.
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

5
3

57.2
73.2

9

8

18

61.6

9

5
3

13
6

57.5
73.0

6

8

19

62.4

6

2
2
3
3

2

2
2

2
2
2

CUPOLA TAPPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
4

33
15

53.7
75.6

27

Total...................................

9

48

60.6

27

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

5
4

53
16

54.8
75.4

21

18

4

10
6

10

Total...................................

9

69

59.5

21

18

4

16

10

2

BLOWERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

6
4

13
8

66.4
73.5

3

2

8
6

2

Total...................................

10

21

69.1

3

2

14

2

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .

6
4

15 57.7
8 73.5

6

3

2

4
6

2

Total...................................

10

63.2

6

3

2

10

2




23

4
4

92

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK IN
EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—
Continued.

T a b le

REGULATORS, FIRST.

Year and district.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Num­ of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
Over
Over
plants. ploy­ hours and
48
72
60
and
per un­ and under 60
and
72
and
84
ees. week.
under
under
der. under 60
56
72
84

1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

6
4

14
10

62.6
76.8

6

2

2
4

4
4

2

Total...................................

10

24

68.5

6

2

6

8

2

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

6
4

14
10

62.7
74.4

6

2

2
6

4
4

Total.......... ........................

10

24

67.6

6

2

8

8

4

2
6

2
4

REGULATORS, SECOND.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
6
14 61.7
6
3
10 74.4
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total...................................

9

24

67.0

6

4

8

6

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

6
3

14
10

61.6
74.4

6

4

2
6

2
4

Total...................................

9

24

67.0

6

4

8

6

6
9

4

4
4

2

4

8

2

6

4

6

4

VESSEL MEN.
1912.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Total.......... ........................

17
9

Total................................

10

26

58.3

17

10

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

52.5
69.3

52.5
66.7

26

57.4

VESSEL MEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

6
4

34
19

51.7
65.1

24

Total...................................

10

53

56.5

24

15

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

6
4

34
19

51.6
63.8

24

6
9

4

Total...................................

10

53

56.0

24

is

4




W AGES A N D H O U RS

OF

93

LABOR— B E SSEM ER CO N VERTERS.

IV . AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K IN
—
EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS—
Continued.

T a b le

CINDER PITMEN.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ AverNum­ ber &
ber of of time 48 Over 56
48
plants. em- hours and
and
pioy- per
un­ and
week. der. under under
56

1913.
P ittsburgh............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

33

60

Over
60
and
under
72

21
64.0
74.3
113

Total................................

Over
72
and
under
84

84

.64.6
75.1

Total................................
1913.
Pittsburgh................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.

72

48

27

30

36

27

67.3

46

BO TTO M M AKERS.

1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

6
4

12
8

71.8
73.5

4

8
6

2

. . . . ........................

10

20

72.5

4

14

2

1913.
Pittsburgh.............. ....................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

12
8

73.9
73.5

4

4
6

2
2

2

Total.......... ........................

10

20

73.8

4

10

4

2

Total

B O TT O M M A K E R S ’ H ELP ER S.

1912.

6
4

26
13

71.7
73.8

12

14

Great Lakes and Middle W est...

9

4

Total...................................

10

39

72.4

12

23

4

19 13.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

26
14

72.8
73.7

12

8
10

4
4

2

Total...................................

10

40

73.1

12

18

8

2

4

8
4

2

4

12

2

4

6
4

2
2

4

10

4

Pittsburgh...................................

L A D L E LIN ERS.

1912.
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total..............................
1913.
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

Total..........................




6
4

12
10

71.8
64.8

3

1

10

22

68.6

3

1

6
4

12
10

71.9
64.8

3

i

10

22

68.7

3

1

94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

IV.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K IN
EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— BESSEMER CONVERTERS—
Continued.

T a b le

LADLE LINERS’ HELPERS.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
plants. ploy- hours and
48
per un­ and and
week. der. under under
60
56

1912.

Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total...................................

Over
60
and
under
72

71.6
64.8
34

Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
10

>9.6

14

72

Over
72
and
under
84

84

14

71.8
64.8

10

1913.

Total...................................

60

14

34

14

14

10

STOPPER MAKERS.
1912.

6
4

6
4

70.0
72.0

3

1
4

2

10

10

70.8

3

5

2

Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

6
4

6
4

69.7
72.0

1

1

4
4

Total...................................

10

10

70.6

1

1

8

Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total.................................

1913.

STOPPER SETTERS.
1912.

6
4

30
12

47.9
61.0

30
6

4

2

10

42

51.7

36

4

2

Pittsburgh...................... .............
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

31
12

47.9
61.0

31
6

4

2

Total...................................

10

43

51.6

37

4

2

Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total

...............................

1913.

STEEL POURERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

* 6
4

18
16

47.9
64.5

18
6

6

4

Total...................................

10

34

55.7

24

6

4

.........................
Pittsburgh
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

18
16

47.9
64.5

18
6

6

4

Total...................................

10

34

55.7

24

6

4

1913.




95

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BESSEMER CONVERTERS.

I V ___ AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK IN
EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BESSEMER CONVERTERS—
Concluded.

T a b le

MOLD CAPPERS.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Num­ of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
and and
ees. week. un­ under under
der.
60
56

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

32
20

53.8
73.8

24

Total...................................

10

52

61.5

24 . . . .

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

41
20

52.6
73.8

Total...................................

10

61

59.5

60

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

6

2
12

8

6

14

8

33

6

2
12

8

33

6

14

84

8

f.......

INGOT STRIPPERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh.............................. .....
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

16
12

63.4
76.0

3

3

4

6
2

10

Total...................................

10

28

68.8

3

3

4

8

10

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

16
12

66.0
75.0

6

2

2
4

6
8

Total...................................

10

28

69.9

6

2

6

14

LABORERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

426
194

75.2
77.1

1

13
4

30

155
83

125
39

102
68

Total...................................

10

620

75.8

1

17

30

238

164

170

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
4

474
207

75.5
74.1

5
3

38

123
147

194
33

114
24

Total...................................

10

681

75.1

8

38

270

227

138







OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the open-hearth furnace department
of the iron and steel industry are given with figures for other depart­
ments in the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explana­
tion of the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed
is given on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in openhearth furnaces was from 8.8 per cent to 13.4 per cent higher than in
any one of the three years preceding, and, as the average full-time
hours per week in 1913 were also higher, the average full-time weekly
earnings in 1913 were from over 10 per cent to nearly 17 per cent
higher than in any one of the three years preceding.
The most significant facts concerning the several open-hearth occu­
pations which are covered in this section of the report are summar­
ized in the table following. Data are presented for the years 1910,
1911, 1912, and 1913, figures for identical plants being grouped to­
gether. The data for 1913 represents 3,498 open-hearth furnace em­
ployees in the 15 occupations covered, and were obtamed from 17
plants, having 182 furnaces in operation.
Referring to the first occupation presented, door operators, direct
comparison can be made of data for 15 identical plants from 1910 to
1912, inclusive, and for another group of 15 plants for 1912 and 1913.
The first line of the table is analyzed as follows: In 1910 the 15
open-hearth furnaces for which reports were obtained employed 165
door operators, whose average full-time hours of work were 75.9 per
week. For 12.1 per cent of the 165 door operators the full-time
hours per week were over 60 and under 72; for 38.2 per cent, 72;
for 21.8 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 27.9 per cent, 84.
The average rate of wages or earnings per hour of door operators in
the year considered (1910) was $0,101. Of the total number 51.5
per cent received under 10 cents per hour; 31.5 per cent, 10 and
under 12 cents; 8.5 per cent, 12 and under 14 cents; and 8.5 per
cent, 14 and under 16 cents per hour. The other lines of the table
may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 15 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of the door operators were
$7.72 in both 1910 and 1912, decreasing to $7.53 in 1911, while in the
83021°—Bull. 168—15------7
97




98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

second group of 15 plants the average was $7.68 in 1912 and $8.68 in
1913. Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 of
the several occupations, it is seen that with the exception of door
operators, who are usually boys, the lowest average was that of la­
borers, which was $14.24, and the highest that of melters’ helpers,
first, which was $33.89.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Num­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employ­
whose full-time hours
ees whose earnings
per week were—
per hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
Over
Over
time
of
7 8 10 12 14
72
wages and and and and and
hours 60
60
per and and 72 and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­
week. un­ un­
hour. der der der der der
8 10 12 14 16
der. der
der
84
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.
72

Door operators:
15 plants.............. 1910
1911
1912

165
160
157

75.9
12.1 38.2 21.8 27.9 $0,101 6.1 45.4 31.5 8.5
75.5
21.3 23.8 31.3 23.8 .100 6.3 40.0 38.8 15.0
76.0 ....... 20.4 28.0 21.0 30.6 .102 6.4 32.5 44.6 16.6

15 plants............... 1912
1913

155
160

76.4
76.9

20.6 24.5 21.3 33.5
20.0 18.8 27.5 33.8

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

8.5 $7.72
7.53
7.72

.100 6.5 35.4 45.2 12.9
j32.6 30.0 25.0 *ii*5
.112

7.68
8.68

12 16 18 20
and and and and 25
un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der der and
16 18 20 25 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts.
Laborers:
17 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

1,038
806
897

74.5 9.7 20.4 13.2 35.2 21.6
73.2 11.1 23.8 14.5 37.0 13.5
74.4 12.1 12.8 14.6 43.7 16.8

.157 44.7 55.4
.161 34.1 63.5 *2*4
.103 22.1 75.4 2.6

11.69
11.78
12.10

17 plants............... 1912
1913
Melters’ helpers, third:
17 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

948
1,109

74.7 11.1 13.2 16.8 38.5 20.5
76.2 8.3 5.5 25.3 30.9 30.0

.164 21.7 70.3 8.1
.187 6.0 29.1 19.3 45*6

12.21
14.24

393
394
414

76.5 ....... 7.6 35.9 29.5 27.0
73.9
19.8 36.5 36.0 7.6
75.4
6.8 30.4 46.4 16.4

.196 3.6 38.4 16.8 41.2
14.97
.185 21.1 21.6 23.9 33.2 **‘ .*3 13.67
.199 17.6 13.5 15.2 44.9 8.7 15.01

16 plants............... 1912
1913
Stockers:
17 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

390
416

75.8
77.6

2.1 28.2 50.3 19.5
1.0 26.0 39.9 33.2

.200 18.7 13.3 11.0 47.7 9.2 15.17
.217 4.8 7.5 13.9 53.1 20.7 16.86

448
419
403

13.4 23.9 34.4 28.3
76.8
74.4 **3.*i 26.0 24.3 27.7 18.9
76.6 ....... 6.5 30.3 38.5 24.8

.177 32.8 18.5 17.0 31.7
13.69
.172 37.7 24.6 33.9 3.8
12.73
.176 31.3 39.5 6.9 17.9 **4*5 13.49

17 plants............... 1912
1913
Switchmen:
14 plants............... 1910
1911

413
417

77.0
77.8

7.3 24.7 40.0 28.1
7.7 21.6 40.0 30.7

.176 31.5 37.5 13.1 13.6
.197 1.4 29.3 29.5 32.1

109
113

77.3
74.5

6.4 22.0 44.0 27.5
36.3 19.5 35.4 8.8

.185 11.0 32.1 31.2 25.7
14.29
.187 5.3 25.7 46.0 23.0 ....... 13.90

15 plants............... 1911
1912

117
112

74.4
74.6

38.5 18.8 34.2
16.1 28.6 46.4

8.5
8.9

.186 6.8 24.8 44.4 23.9
13.85
.198 5.4 17:9 41.1 28.6 **7.'i 14.75

J5 p lan ts............ 1912

118 75.2
1913
117

15.3 18.6 55.9 10.2
49.6 14,5
76.8
15,4 20.5

. 199 5.1 15.3 44.1 28.8 6.8 14.92
.230 1.7 6.8 3.4 56.4 31.6 17. as




4.4 13.51
7.7 15.30

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

99

A V E R A G E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AND R ATES OF W AGES
PER H O U R , AND A VER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—O PEN -H EA R TH FU RN AC ES—Continued.

Per cent of employ­
Per cent of employees
ees whose earnings
whose full-time hours
per week were—
per hour were—
AverNum­ Aver­
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
20 25 30
Over
Over
time
of
em­ hours
ber of plants.
Un­ and and and 40
72
60
ploy- per and and
and 84 per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
72 un­
hour. 20 der der der and
week. un­ un­
der
cts. 25 30 40 over.
der. der
84
72
cts. cts. cts.
Charging-machine op­
erators:
17 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

73
72
72

76.8
74.7
75.5

8.2 34.2 27.4 30.1 $0,294 5.5 2.7 47.9 35.6
25.0 25.0 33.3 16.7 .287 11.2 13. 36.1 30.6
13.9
25.0 22.2 .312 5.6 2. 22.2 1.4

Avertime
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

8.2 $22.52
8.3 21.37
23.56

17 plants............... 1912
1913
Engineers,locomotive:
14 plants............... 1910
1911

72
76

75.8
78.0

13.9 36.1 25.0 25.0
13.2 15.8 31.6 39.5

.312 5.6 2. 19.4 72.2
23.67
.335
5.3 26.3 55.3 13.2 26.12

107
110

77.3
74.4

5.6 23.4 44.9 26.2
35.5 20.0 36.4 8.2

.244
.248

48.1 36.4 5.
40.' 51.8 1.8

18.92
18.40

15 plants............... 1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

37.7 19.3 35.1
14.4 19.8 57.7

7.9
8.1

.247
.261

39.5 51.8 1.8
23.4 51.4 18.0

18.32
19.61

15 plants.............. 1912
1913
Ingot strippers:
15 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

117
114

75.8
76.8

13.7 10.3 66.7 9.4
14.0 14.9 50.9 20.2

.262

22.2 53.8 17.1
12.3
0 48.2

19.86
22.50

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

6.5 21.7 30.4 17.4 23.9
5.9 7.8 62.7 19.6 3.9
69.4 20.4 4.1
6.1

.275
.256
.281

41.3 21.7 21.7
13.7 21.6 19.6
40. 12.2 32.7

6.5 19.88
5.9 18.06
6.1 20.00

15 plants............... 1912
1913
Ladle cranemen:
16 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

55
61

72.9
74.5

5.5
4.9

69.1 18.2 7.3
45.9 29.5 19.7

.278
.296

47.3 14.5 29.1
4.9 55.7 i.2

5.5 19.99
9.8 21.85

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

8.9 27.8 31.1 32.2
24.4 33.7 23.3 18.6
10.0 32.2 31.1 26.7

.294
.287
.317

22.2 21.1 43.3
16.3 ► 27.9
.5
7.8
85.6

6.7 22.76
8.1 21.32
24.22

17 plants............... 1912
1913
Melters’ helpers, sec­
ond:
17 plants...,......... 1910
1911
191fi

90

76.0
77.2

10.2 33.0 31.8 25.0
17.8 44.4 28.9

.317
.341

83.0
1.0

24.14
26.34

335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

8.3 38.1 22.4 31.3
35.2 21.2 20.9 22.7
19.6 37.2 14.4 28.8

.272
.263
.274

24.8 40.4 29.5
31.9 38.8 21.8
20.7 44.4 28.5

20.87
19.62
20.77

17 plants............... 1912
1913

345
360

76.1
76.7

19.7 34.5 14.5 31.3
19.4 29.4 13.9 37.2

.275 5.7 18.6 47.0 28.7
.292 1.1 21.7 30.0 46.7

20.98
22.36

1910
1911
1912

76.5
74.0
75.9

55.0 15.0 30.0
21.1 26.3 42.1 10.5
19.0 28.6 33.3 19.0

.217 35.0 35.0 15.0 15.0
.215 36.9 36.: 10.5 15.8
19.1 42.1 28.6 9.5

16.49
15.78
16.86

9 plants................ 1912
1913
Stock cranemen:
13 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

79.3
79.2

15.4

.228 26.8 34. i 30.8 7.7
.257 28.6 14.3 28.6 28.6

18.00
20.34

14.7 66.7 18.7
.207 24.2 75.7
.235 12.2 48.5 9*4

17.60
15.61
18.29

.228 22.3 44.4 33.3
.239 7.5 66.3 23.8 2.5

18.02
19.01

Mold cappers:
8 plants................

14 plants............... 1912
1913

7.7 26.9 50.0
10.7 50.0 39.3

78.8
75.6
77.7
72

1.3 2.7 16.0 40.0 40.0
1.4 22.9 10.0 42.9 22.9
18.2 51.5 30.3

78.9
79.6

11.1 47.2 41.7
10.0 47.5 42.5

20 30 40 50
and and and and
un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der
30 40 50 60
cts. cts.
cts.
Melters’ helpers, first:
17 plants..............

17 plants.,




1910
1911
1912

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

1912
1913

345
364

76.8 .......
77.1.......

7.0 22.0
31.1
17.2 21.3 48.5 13.0
2.3 23.6 55.0 19.0
2.3 20.9 55.4 21.4
2.7 16.5 54.9 25.8

.416 3.5 36.4 49.6 10.6
.400 10.1 39.9 42.3 7.7
.417 6.1 30.3 50.4 13.3

and
un­
der
70
cts.

32.27
30.12
31.89

.417 5.5 31.6 49.613.3 . . . . 31.99
.440 2.5 27.7 42.3 26.4 1.1 33.89

100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVE R A G E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AND R ATES OF W AG E S
PER H O U R , AND A VER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARN IN G S IN EACH OF T H E
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—O PEN-H EARTH FURNACES—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation, and num­
of
Year. em­
ber of plants.
ploy-

Steel pourers:
14 plants...

15 plants....
Stopper setters:
10 plants....

8 plants......

Per cent of <
»i
Per cent of employ­
whose full-time" hours
ees whose earnings
per week were—
per hour were—
Aver­
Average
full­
rate
20 30 40 50 60
Over
Over
time
of
| 72
hours
and and and and and
60
per and and 72 and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­
un­ un­
hour. der der der der der
der
der. der
30 40 50 60 70
84
72
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Aver­

age

full­
time
week­

ly

1910
1911
1912

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

10.6 48. 17.0 23.4 $0,308 51.0 40.4 8.5
22.7 27.3 40.
9.1 .304 45.4 50.0 4.5
21.7 30.4 30.4 17.4 .313 39.1 52.2 8.7

$23.05
22.32
23.52

1912
1913

50
52

76.5
77.6

20.0 24.0 28.0 28.0
19.2 46.2 30.

.321 28.0 64.0 8.0
.352 19.2 61.5 19.2

24.57
27.26

1910
1911
1912

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

36.7 56.7 6.7
27. ( 20. 51.7
20.7 72.4 *6*9

.313 46.7 33.3 13.3 6.7
.313 44. 37.9 10.3
44. 27.6 27.6

23.63
23.11
24.92

1912
1913

26
26

76.0
76.7

15.4 76.9
15.4 84.6

.326 46.2 30. 23.1
.363 30. 46.2 15.4 7.7

24.80
27.78

7.7

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the four
years which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout
the period, relative or index numbers have been computed from
the averages of the preceding table for full-time hours per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupa­
tion from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table
following. These relative or index numbers are simply percentages
for which the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent.
The relative for each year is the per cent which the average for that
year is of the average for 1913. For example, the relative full-time
weekly earnings of stockers in 1910 were 89.6 as compared with 100
in 1913; that is, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1910
were 89. 6 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupa­
tion in 1913. The method of computing relative numbers is explained
on pages 21 to 23.
The table following also shows for each occupation the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1913 as compared with each
specified year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings of
stockers in 1913 were 11.6 per cent higher than in 1910, 20 per cent
higher than in 1911, and 13.3 per cent higher than in 1912.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus,
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1911 were 7 per cent lower
than in 1910; in 1912, 6 per cent higher than in 1911, and in 1913,
13.3 per cent higher than in 1912. The other occupations and items




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

101

of the table can be studied in like manner. The per cent of in­
crease and decrease is computed from the relative numbers.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—OPEN-HEARTH
FURNACES.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Stockers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Stock cranemen:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Charging-machine operators:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Door operators:
191 0
191 1
1 9 1 2 .............................
1913................................
Melters’ helpers, first:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Melters’ helpers, second:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Melters’ helpers, third:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Stopper setters:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Steel pourers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Mold cappers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

96.1
99.0
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
Each
tive
Each
Each
tive
speci­
rate 1913 as speci­
full­ 1913 as speci­
1913 as fied
of
fied
fied
time
com­
com­
com­
year wages pared
year weekly pared
year
pared
as
per
as
as
eamwith
with
with
com­
hour.
comcom­
each
each
each
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­ with
speci­
with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

+0.8
+4.1
+1.0

100.5
96.4
99.1
100.0

- .5
+3.7
+ .9

98.9
96.1
97.2
100.0

+1.1
+4.1
+2.9

98.7
99.3
100.0

Weekly earnings.

+ .8
+1.3
+ .7

101.2
98.0
99.6
100.0

- 1 .2
+2.0
+ .4

100.3
97.5
99.2
100.0

- .3
+2.6
+ .8

99.1
95.7
97.7
100.0

+ .9
+4.5
+2.4

99.6
96.1
99.1
100.0

+ .4
+4.1
+ .9

98.6
96.5
98.6
100.0

+1.4
+3.6
+ 1.4

100.9
97.6
100.1
100.0

+2.5
- .1

-3 .1
+3.0
+1.0

89.8
87.3
89.3
100.0

.+11.4
+14.5
+12.0

- 4 .1
+2.8
+ .9

90.5
84.0
95.4
100.0

+10.5
+19.0
+ 4.8

- 2 .8
+1.1
+2.9

87.8
85.7
93.1
100.0

+13.9
+16.7
+ 7.4

- .5
+ .6
+ .7

88.4
87.5
89.3
100.0

+13.1
+14.3
+12.0

-3 .2
+1.6
+ .4

94.5
90.9
94.8
100.0

+ 5.8
+10.0
+ 5.5

- 2 .8
+1.7
+ .8

93.5
90.4
94.2
100.0

+ 7.0
+10.6
+ 6.2

- 3 .4
+2.1
+2.4

90.8
85.7
92.2
100.0

+10.1
+16.7
+ 8.5

- 3 .5
+3.1
+ .9

85.4
85.4
89.8
100.0

+17.1
+17.1
+11.4

- 2 .1
+2.2
+ 1.4

91.2
100.0

- 3 .3
+2.6
- .1

86.3
85.5
88.7
100.0

i No change.

+11.5
+12 9
+ 9.6
+15.9
+17.0
+12.7

- 2.8
+ 2.3
+12.0

89.6
83.3
88.3
100.0

+11.6
+20.0
+13.3

- 7.2
+13.6
+ 4.8

91.2
80.9
94.8
100.0

+ 9.6
+23.6
+ 5.5

- 2.4
+ 8.6
+ 7.4

86.6
82.2
90.6
100.0

+15.5
+21.7
+10.4

- 1.0
+ 2.1
+12.0

88.5
86.3
88.5
100.0

+13.0
+15.9
+13.0

+ 4.3
+ 5.5

95.5
89.2
94.4
100.0

+ 4.7
+12.1
+ 5.9

- 3.3
+ 4.2
+ 6.2

94.3
88.6
93.8
100.0

+ 6.0
+12.9
+ 6.6

- 5.6
+ 7.6
+ 8.5

89.7
81.9
90.0
100.0

+11.5
+22.1
+11.1

0)
+ 5.2
+11.4

84.7
82.8
89.3
100.0

+18.1
+20.8
+12.0

- 1.2
+ 2.9
+ 9.6

88.3
85.5
90.1
100.0

+13.3
+17.0
+11.0

+ 3.7
+12.7

86.6
82.8
88.5
100.0

+15.5
+20.8
+13.0

- 7.0
+ 6.0
+13.3
-1 1 .3
+17.2
+ 5.5
- 5.1
+10.2
+10.4
- 2.5
+ 2.5
+13.0

+ 5.8
+ 5.9
-* 6 .0
+ 5.9
+ 6.6
- 8.7
+ 9.9
+11.1
- 2.2
+ 7.9
+12.0
- 3.2
+ 5.4
+11.0

- 4.4
+ 6.9
+13.0

102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

R ELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PE R W EEK, RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR, AND F U L L ­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PE R CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—OPEN-HEARTH
FURNACES—Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Ladle cranemen:
1910.................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913.............. , ..................
Ingot strippers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Engineers, locomotive:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Switchmen:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Laborers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Each Rela­
tive
1913 as speci­
rate
fied
com­
of
year
pared
wages
as
with
per
com­ hour.
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Each Rela­
Each
tive
1913 as speci­
full­ 1913 as speci­
fied
fied
com­
time
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
as
as
with
earn­
with
com­
com­
each
ings.
each pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

99.7
96.4
98.4
100.0

+0.3
+3.7
+1.6

99.6
97.2
97.9
100.0

+ .4
+2.9
+2.1

101.3
97.5
98.7
100.0

—1.3
+2.6
+1.3

101.3
97.7
97.9
100.0

—1.3
+2.4
+2.1

98.2
96.4
98.0
100.0

+1.8
+3.7
+2.0

—3.3
+2.0
+1.6

86.2
84.2
93.0
100.0

+16.0
+18.8
+ 7.5

—2.4
+ .7
+2.1

91.9
85.6
93.9
100.0

+ 8.8
+16.8
+ 6.5

—3.8
+ 1.2
+1.3

83.3
84.6
89.4
100.0

+20.0
+18.2
+11.9

—3.6
+ .2
+2.1

80.4
81.3
86.5
100.0

+24.4
+23.0
+15.6

—1.8
+1.7
+2.0

84.5
86.6
87.7
100.0

+18.3
+15.5
+14.0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) •
or decrease ( —)
in -

— 2.3
+10.5
+ 7.5

86.1
80.7
91.6
100.0

+16.1
+23.9
+ 9.2

— 6.9
+ 9.7
+ 6.5

90.9
82.6
91.5
100.0

+10.0
+21.1
+ 9.3

+ 1.6
+ 5.7
+11.9

84.8
82.5
88.3
100.0

+17.9
+21.2
+13.3

+ 1.1
+ 6.4
+15.6

81.7
79.5
84.6
100.0

+22.4
+25.8
+18.2

+ 2.5
+ 1.3
+14.0

82.8
83.5
85.7
100.0

+20.8
+ 19.8
+16.7

- 6.3
+13.5
+ 9.2
- 9.1
+10.8
+ 9.3
- 2.7
+ 7.0
+13.3
- 2.7
+ 6.4
+18.2

+ 2.6
+16.7

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the open-hearth furnace department as a whole, as determined by
a combination of the data for the several principal productive occu­
pations which are covered in this section of the report. The method
of computing the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under “ weekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the open-hearth department
as a whole in 1910 were 88.2 as compared with 100 in 1913. In other
words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 88.2 per cent of
such earnings in 1913. The relative dropped to 85.6 in 1911, advanced
to 90.8 in 1912 and to 100 in 1913, the base year.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1913
were 13.4 per cent higher than in 1910, 16.8 per cent higher than in
1911, and 10.1 per cent higher than in 1912.
The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings in each year as




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOlt— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

103

compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full­
time weekly earnings in 1911 were 2.9 per cent lower than in 1910; in
1912, 6.1 per cent higher than in 1911; and in 1913, 10.1 per cent
higher than in 1912. The relative numbers and percentages for full­
time hours per week and rates of wages per hour can be read in like
manner.
R ELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, A LL OCCUPATIONS—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

99.4
96.9
98.6
100.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

+0.6
+3.2
+1.4

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Rela­
tive
rate
of

Each
speci­
fied
year
as
com­
pared
with
year
pre­
ceding.

per
hour.

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

- 2 .5
+1.8
+1.4

88.2
88.2
91.9
100.0

+13.4
+13.4
+ 8.8

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Each
Each
tive
speci­
full­ 1913 as speci­
fied
fied
time
com­
year
year weekly pared
as
as
earn­
with
com­
com­
ings.
each
pared
pared
speci­
with
with
fied
year
year
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

■S.
+8.8

88.2
85.6
90.8
100.0

+13.4
+16.8
+10.1

- 2.9
+ 6.1
+10.1

i No change.

In considering earnings it should be remembered that a reduction
of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings just as an increase in wages
per hour, of course, tends to increase them.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered— that is, the change in the relative number
of employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is
obvious that an increase in the relative number of employees in the
lower-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those
in the higher-paid ones would tend to lower the average rate and
earnings for all occupations, just as an increase in the relative num­
ber of employees in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the
relative number in the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the'
average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in open-hearth plants whose customary working time per
week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations thereof/
*
are shown in the following table. The heading “ 5 days and 6 days




104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

alternately,” for example, indicates that the plants were running 6
days and 5 nights each week, being shut down for one day and a half
each week, and that the employees reported under this heading
work 6 turns one week and 5 turns the next.
The figures are presented for each district and for the four districts
combined.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EE K , B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

NUMBER.
Employees whose customary working time per week

District, and number of
plants.

Eastern:
4 plants.............................

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees.

5 days
5 days 6 days
ana
and
and
6 days 6 days. 7 days 7 days
alter­
alter­ alter­
nately.
nately. nately.

207

1910
1911

252
274

16

6 days,
6 days,
and
7 days
in rota­
tion.

6 days,
7 days,
and
7 days 7 days.
in rota­
tion.

24

4 plants.............................

1911
1912

477
480

282
311

4 plants.............................

4912
1913

471
490

296
301

1910
1911
1912

1,491
1,432
1,428

1912
1913

1,452
1,571

225
121

873
879

1910
1911
1912

975
941
1,020

340
461
517

63
263
204

1912
1913

1,073
1,171

477
3422

182
168

1910
1911
1912

292
223
254

188
100

1912
1913

250

86
126

1910
1911

3,341
3,065

207
115

1,123
1,393

17 plants...........................

1911
1912

3,073
3,182

115
55

1,401
1,151

17 plants...........................

1912
1913

3,246
3,498

84

Pittsburgh:
5 plants.............................

5 plants.............................
Great Lakes and Middle West:
6 plants.............................

6 plants.............................
Southern:
2 plants.............................

2 plants.............................
Total:
17 plants............................




32

343
558
225

1,084
3 970

86
26
28
32

94

837
636
881

311
171
319
120
160

3
250

331
461
572
217
414
566

15

104
65

72
924

1,071
539

1,179

539
794

32
1,151
1,137

1Worked 7 days every fourth week.
2Including 47 employees who worked 6 days every fourth week.
8Including 6 employees who worked 7 days every sixth week.
4Including 60 employees who worked 7 days every fourth wee)

120
4 75

9
*56

927
1,198

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOB— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

105

NUM BER AND PER CENT OF EM PLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W O R K IN G EACH SPECI­
FIED NUM BER OF D A Y S PER W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1913— O PE N -H EA R T H FURN ACE S—Concluded.
PER CENT.

Employees whose customary working time per week

District, and number of
plants.

Eastern:
4 plants.............................

Year.

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy-

5 days
5 days 6 days
and
and
and
6 days 6 days. 7 days 7 days
alter­
alter­ alter­
nately.
nately. nately.

35.5
17.7

1910
1911

43.2
58.4

2.7

6 days, 6 days,
6 days, 7 days,
and 7 days.
and
7 days 7 da^
in rota­
tion.
tion.

4.1
5.5

14.4
18.3

4 plants.............................

1911
1912

477
480

17.4
11.5

59.1
64.8

5.5
5.4

18.0
18.3

4 plants.............................

1912
1913

471
490

11.7
12.7

62.8
61.4

5.5
5.7

20.0
20.2

1910
1911
1912

1,491
1,432
1,428

2.2

23.0
39.0
15.8

1912
1913

1,452
1,571

1910
1911
1912

Pittsburgh:
5 plants.............................

56.1
44.4
61.7

15.5
7.7

60.1
56.0

1 1.4
13.8

975
941
1,020

34.9
49.0
50.7

6.5
27.9
20.0

1912
1913

1.073
1,171

44.5
3 36.0

17.0
14.3

1910
1911
1912

292
223
254

64.4
44.8

1912
1913

250
266

34.4
47.4

1910
1911

3,341
3,065

6.2
3.8

33.6
45.4

.5
1.0

27.7
32.1

17 plants............................

1911
1912

3.073
3,182

3.7
1.7

45.6
36.2

1.0

32.0
37.1

17 plants............................

1912
1913

3,246
3,498

1.7
1.8

33.4
4 27.7

20.9
11.9
22.3

0.2
.2

5 plants.............................
Great Lakes and Middle West
6 plants.............................

6 plants.............................
Southern:
2 plants.............................

2 plants.............................
Total:
17 plants............................

2.2

0.2
2 3.2

58.7
23.1
29.3
38.6
48.3

1.3

35.6
29.1
34.6

26.0
26.8
2.4
2.3

28.0
23.3

35.5
32.5

22.8
29.3

35.2
27.1
32.1
17.6

.1

17.5
25.0
1.6
6 2.1

.3
6 1.6

34.2

1Worked 7 days every fourth week.
2 Including 3 per cent who worked 6 days every fourth week.
3Including 5 per cent who worked 7 days every sixth week.
4Including 0.2 per cent who worked 7 days every sixth week.
5Including 1.7 per cent who worked 7 days every fourth week.
6Including 1.3 per cent who worked 6 days every fourth week.

In addition to the text tables in the summary, four general tables
are presented for the open-hearth furnace department, as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1913.
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and
1913.
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in
the United States, by years, 1910 to 1913.
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in
each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.



106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 98 to 100.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers, follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are iden­
tical units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations
in each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended ex­
planation, see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year,
back to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in
Tables II and IV, and descriptions of the occupations which appear
in the tables of this report, were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this
Bureau, but have been omitted from the present report.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

107

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age Aver­ age
age full­
ber of full­ rate of time
Year. em­ time wages week­
ploy­ hours per
ly
ees. per hour. earn­
week.
ings.

Stockers:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

76
142
28

142
16
72

54
123

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

56
134

448
419
403

76.8 $0,177 $13.69
74.4 .172 12.73
76.6 .176 13.49

17 plants___ 1912
1913
Stock cranemen:
13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

413
417

77.0
77.8

.176 13.51
.197 15.30

75
70
66

78.8
75.6
77.7

.223 17.60
.207 15.61
.235 18.29

50
53
32

14 plants___ 1912
1913
Charging - m a chine o p e r ­
ators:
17 plants.... 1910
1911
1912

72
80

78.9
79.6

.228 18.02
.239 19.01

32
53

73
72
72

76.8
74.7
75.5

.294 22.52
.287 21.37
.312 23.56

1912
1913

72
76

75.8
78.0

.312 23.67
.335 26.12

1910
1911
1912

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

.101
.100
.102

7.72
7.53
7.72

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Melters* helpers,
first:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

155
160

76.4
76.9

.100
.112

7.68
8.68

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

.416 32.27
.400 30.12
.417 31.89

124
135
105

17 plants.... 1912
1913
Melters’ helpers,
second:
17 plants.... 1910
1911
1912

345
364

76.8
77.1

.417 31.99
.440 33.89

109
101

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

.272 20.87
.263 19.62
.274 20.77

84
107
72

137
130
154

100
73

162
108

99
168

74

12

17 plants...
Door operators:
15 plants...

10

18

24
19

14

52

20

17 plants___ 1912
1913
Melters’ helpers,
third:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

345
360

76.1
76.7

.275 20.98
.292 22.36

64
78

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

.196 14.97
.185 13.67
.199 15.01

162
131
186

1912
1913

390
416

75.8
77.6

Stopper setters:
10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

.200 15.17
.217 16.86

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

.313 23.63
.313 23.11
.329 24.92

26
26

76.0
76.7

.326 24.80
.363 27.78

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

.308 23.05
.304 22.32
.313 23.52

50
52

76.5
77.6

.321 24.57
.352 27.26

16 plants_
_

1912
8 plants.
1913
Steel pourers:
14 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

15 plants__ 1912
1913

20

186
221
14
9
5

1Including 4 employees earning 60 and under 70 cents per hour.




40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVE R AG E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S AN D AVE R AG E
AN D CLASSIFIED RATES OF W AGES P E R H O U R IN TH E U N ITE D
STATES, B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1913— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Num­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Mold cappers:
8 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age age age
full­
full­ rate of time
time wages week­
hours per
ly
per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.

Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

40
38
42

76.5 $0,217 $16.49
74.0
315 15.78
75.9
323 16.86

52
56

79.3
79.2

m
m

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

294 22.76
m 21.32
317 24.22

17 plants___ 1912
1913
Ingot strippers:
15 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

88
90

76.0
77.2

317 24.14
341 26.34

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

375 19.88
256 18.06
281 20.00

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Engineers, loco­
motive:
14 plants___ 1910
1911

55
61

72.9
74.5

278 19.99
296 21.85

2

107
110

77.3
74.4

.244 18.92
.248 18.40

15 plants___ 1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Switchmen:
14 plants___ 1910
1911

117
114

15 plants___ 1911
1912

9 plants____ 1912
1913
Ladle cranemen:
16 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

8
12
6
6

6
8

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2
2

14
14
18

6
4
12

2
8

18
8

16
16

4
16

2
6

20
14
.7

19
34

39
24
77

6
7

6

7
8

2
6

73
72

4

16

19
7
20

10
11
6

10
10
16

3
2

2

26
3

8
34

16
16 *6

8
4

2
2

52
45

39
57

6
2

.247 18.32
.261 19.61

4
4

4
4

45
26

59
57

2
20

75.8
76.8

.262 19.86
.293 22.50

4
2

4
2

26
14

63
41

20
55

109
113

77.3
74.5

.185 14.29
.187 13.90

12
6

35
29

34
52

28
26

117
112

74.4
74.6

.186 13.85
.198 14.75

8
6

29
20

52
46

28
32

8

6
2

18
8

52
4

34
66

8
37

19
23

6
5

2

*

2
4
4

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Laborers:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

118
117

75.2
76.8

.199 14.92
.230 17.63

1,038
806
897

74.5
73.2
74.4

.157 11.69
.161 11.78
.163 12.10

204 259 575
140 135 512
118 80 676

17 plants___ 1912
1913

948
1,109

74.7
76.2

.164 12.21
.187 14.24

120
11

85 666
55 323

77
214

506

PER CENT.
Stockers:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
17 plants___ 1912
1913
Stock cranemen:
13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
14 plants___ 1912
1913




50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

6
6
4

18.00
20.34

6

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

448i 76.8 $0,177 $13.69
419i 74.4 .172 12.73 . . . . .
403! 76.6 .176 13.49

5.8 27.0 18.5 17.0 31.7
.7 37.0 24.6 33.9 3.8
1.5 29.8 39.5 6.9 17.9

4.5

413! 77.0
417' 77.8

2.4 29.1 37.5 13.1 13.6
1.4
29.3 29.5 32.1

4.4
7.7

.176 13.51
.197 15.30 .......

75i 78.8! .223 17.60 .......
70I 75.6i .207 15.61
66i 77.7' .235i 18.29 .

6.7 8.0 66.7 18.7
7.1 17.1 75.7
6.1 6.1 48.5 39.4

72! 78.91 .228! 18.02
801 79.6i .239i 19.01

5.6 16.7 44.4 33.3
7.5 66.3 23.8

2.S

1
3
3

W AGES AN D

HOURS

OF L A B O R — O P E N -H E A R T H

FURNACES.

109

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ age age full­
ber of full­
time
10 12 14 16 18 20
25
30 40 50
Year. em­ time rate of week­ Un­ and and and and and and and and and and
ploy­ hours wages
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
per
ly
ees. per hour. earn­ 10 der der der der der der der der der der
week.
ings. cts. 12 14 16 18 20
25
30
40 50 60
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

C harging-m achine opera­
tors:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

73
72
72

76.8 $0,294 $22.52
74.7 .287 21.37
75.5 .312 23.56

72
76

75.8
78.0

.312 23.67
.335 26.12

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

.101
.100
.102

7.72 51.5 31.5 8.5 8.5
7.53 46.3 38.8 15.0
7.72 38.9 44.6 16.6

155
160

76.4
76.9

.100
.112

7.68 41.9 45.2 12.9
8.68 32.6 30.0 25.0 12.5

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

.416 32.27
.400 30.12
.417 31.89

1912
1913

345
364

76.8
77.1

.417 31.99
.440 33.89

1910
1911
1912

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

.272 20.87
.263 19.62
.274 20.77

1912
1913

345
360

76.1
76.7

.275 20.98
.292 22.36

1910
1911
1912

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

.196 14.97
.185 13.67
.199 15.01

3.6 38.4 16.8 41.2
6.1 15.0 21.6 23.9 33.2
4.8 12.8 13.5 15.2 44.9

1912
1913

390
416

75.8
77.6

.200 15.17
.217 16.86

5.1 13.6 13.3 11.0 47.7 9.2
4.8 7.5 13.9 53.1 17.8

1910
1911
1912

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

.313 23.63
.313 23.11
.329 24.92

1912
1913

26
26

76.0
76.7

.326 24.80
.363 27.78

1910
1911
1912

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

.308 23.05
.304 22.32
.313 23.52

10.6 40.4 40.4 8.5
IS 6 31.8 50.0 4.5
13.0 26.1 52.2 8.7

1912
1913

50
52

76.5
77.6

.321 24.57
.352 27.26

12.0 16.0 64.0 8.0
7.7 11.5 61.5 19.2

1910
1911
1912

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

.217 16.49
.215 15.78
.223 16.86

20.0 15.0
35.0 15.0 15.0
31.6
*5.3 36.8 10.5 15.8
14.3
4.8 42.9 28.6 9.5

9 plants.
1912
1913
Ladle cranemen:
16 plants.... 1910
1911
1912

52
56

79.3
79.2

.228 18.00
.257 20.34

11.5 11.5 3.8 34.6 30.8 7.7
14.3 14.3 14.3 28.6 28.6

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

.294 22.76
.287 21.32
.317 24.22

1912
1913

88
90

76.0
77.2

.317 24.14
.341 26.34

17 plants.... 1912
1913
Door operators:
15 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
15 plants— 1912
1913
Melters’ helpers,
first:
17 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
17 plants—
Melters’ helpers,
second:
17 plants—

17 plants....
Melters7helpers,
third:
17 plants...

16 plants...
Stopper setters:
10 plants...

8 plants.. .
Steel pourers:
14 plants..

15 plants..
Mold cappers:
8 plants...

17 plants...

5.6

5.5 2.7 47.9 35.6 8.2
5.6 13.9 36.1 30.6 8.3
5.6 2.8 22.2 69.4
5.6

2.8 19.4 72.2
5.3 26.3 55.3 13.2

1.8
1.2

3.5 36.4 49.6 10.6
8.3 39.9 42.3 7.7
4.9 30.3 50.4 13.3

.6

4.9 31.6 49.6 13.3
2.5 27.7 42.3 127.5

1.2
2.0

5.3 24.8 40.4 29.5
6.3 31.9 38.8 21.8
4.3 20.7 44.4 28.5

1.4

4.3 18.6 47.0 28.7
1.1 21.7 30.0 46.7

.3
8.7
2.9

33.3 13.3
46.7
31.0 i3.8 37.9!l0.3
17.2 27.6 27.6 27.6

6.7
6.9

7.7 38.5 30. J 23. 1
30.8 46.2 15.4 *7*7

6.7
5.8

22.2 21.1 43.3 6.7
2.3 16.3 39.5 27.9 8.1
6.7 7.8
85.6
6.8

8.0
8.9

1 Including 1.1 per cent earning 60 and under 70 cents per hour.




.6

2.3 83.0
6.7 80.0 4.4

110

BULLETIN O f THE BUREAU 01’ LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation,
and number
of plants.

Ingot strippers:
15 plants...

Num­
ber of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages
per hour.
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age fifllfull­
30 40
10 12 14 16 18 20 25
time rate of time
hours wages week­ Un­ and and and and and and and and and
per
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly
per
10
week. hour. earn­ cts. der der der der der der der der der
30 40 50
ings.
12 14 16 18 20 25
cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

41.3 21.7 21.7
31.4 13.7 21.6 19.
40. 12.2 32.7

1910
1911
1912

46
51
49

73.7 $0,275 $19.88
71.9 .256 18.06
72.4 .281 20.00

15 plants___ 1912
1913

55
61

72.9
74.5

.278 19.99
.296 21.85

1910
1911

107
110

77.3
74.4

.244 18.92
.248 18.40

15 plants.... 1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

.247 18.32
.261 19.61

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Switchmen:
14 plants___ 1910
1911

117
114

75.8
76.8

.262 19.86
.293 22.50

109
113

77.3
74.5

.185 14.29
.187 13.90

11.032.1 31.2 25.7
5.3 25.7 46.0 23.0

15 plants___ 1911
1912

117
112

74.4
74.6

.186 13.85
.198 14.75

6.8 24.8 44.4 23.9
5.417.9 41.1 28.6

1912
1913

118
117

75.2
76.8

.199 14.92
.230 17.63

5.1 15.3 44.1 28.8 6.8
1.7 6.8 3.4 56.4 31.6

1910
1911
1912

1,038
806
897

74.5
73.2
74.4

.157 11.69
.161 11.78
.163 12.10

19.7 25.0 55.4
17.4 16.7 63.5
13.2 8.9 75.4

1912
1913

948
1,109

74.7
76.2

.164 12.21
.187 14.24

12.7 9.0 70.3 8.1
1.0 5.0 i.l 19.3 45.6

Engineers, loco­
motive:
14 plants—

15 plants...
Laborers:
17 plants...

17 plants...




4.3

3.6

3.3

47.3 14.5 29.1
4. 55.7 26.2

1.9 48.6 36.4
1.8 40.9 51.8
3.5

5.6
1.

3.5 39.5 51.8 1.8
3.6 23.4 51.4 18.0
3.4 22.2 53.8 17.1
1.8 12.3 36.0 48.2

2.4
2.6

7.1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

ill

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

T a b le

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle West.” ]
STOCKERS.
Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Num­
time
Year and dis­ ber of of
of week­
em­ time
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages
ly
per earn­
per
ees. week. hour.
ings.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........

4
5
6
2

94
177
118
24

17

413

77.0

4
5
6
2

98
167
124
28

73.8
78.8
79.7
76.7

.171
.212
.202
.172

Total......

17

417

77.8

Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

74.0 $0.149 $11.02
78.0 .186 14.45
77.9 .188 14.64
77.0 .140 10.74

Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W.
Southern..........

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

.197 15.30

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

4

68
34

6

18

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
20
and and
un­ un­
der . der
25
30
cts. cts.

22
73
60

30
24

30
26

10 120 155

54

56

18

12.61
16.65
16.10
13.16

68
14
28
12

30
81
12

40
84
10

32

122

123

134

32

4

4
8

20
8
4

6
18

12

32

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

10
8

.176 13.51

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

24

6 ....
6

STOCK CRANEMEN.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
.......
Southern..........

8 78.0 $0,179 $13.89
3
34 78.2 .218 16.99
5
G. L. and M. W.
26 80.3 .261 21.01
5
4 78.0 .200 15.60
1

Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..........

14

72

78.9

.228 18.02

3
5
5
1

8
38
30
4

78.0
79.2
80.8
78.0

.194
.241
.246
.252

15.12
19.06
19.90
19.66

6

2
29
22

Total......

14

80

79.6

.239 19.01

6

73.8 $0,226 $16.52
77.1 .319 24.64
76.0 .354 26.98
74.0 .306 22.63

4

4

4

7
8
4

2

53

19

2

2

8
6

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W .
Southern..........
Total

4
5
6
2

14
•28
24
6

17

72

75.8

.312 23.67

4
5
6
2

14
30
26
6

73.8
79.6
79.4
74.0

.267
.321
.384
.351

17

76

78.0

.335 26.12

Total...
19 1 3 .
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh___
G. L.andM . W.
Southern.......

Total..

18
25
20
2

8
32
22
8

20

76.4

.100

7.68

65

70

20

26 74.6
60 75.2
64 78.6
10 82.8

.104
.103
.123
.119

7.75
7.74
9.74
9.90

18
28 ’ *32
4 16
2

24
8

20

.112

8.68

52

40

20

26
57
62
10

15

155

3
4
6
2
16




160

76.9

48

$

14

52

6
12
2

4
18
14
6

10

20

74.6 $0,093 $6.84
75.6 .099 7.45
76.8 .104 8.04
82.8 .108 8.96

3
4
6
2

2
4

19.52
25.40
30.54
25.95

DOOR OPERATORS.
19 13.
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh...
G.L.andM .W .
Southern.......

22
24
6

42

10

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

MELTERS* HELPERS, FIRST.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
ber full­ rate
Year and dis­ Num­ of
ber of em­ time
of
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages
per
per
ees. week. hour.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M .W .
Southern..

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

74.8 $0,324 $24.15
76.5 .429 32.78
76.9 .436 33.47
82.9 .449 37.15

2

76.8

.417 31.99

2

74.4
76.2
78.7
82.9

.348
.465
.442
.499

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

15
2

4
5
6
2

52
153
118
22

Total ,
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M .W .
Southern..........

17

345

4
5
6
2

60
160
122
22

25.79
35.38
34.56
41.35

3
6

Total......

17

364

77.1

.440 33.89

9

17

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

35
40
28
6

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

99
58
14

12
32
2

109 171

46

55
20
24
2

2
80 154
66 32
14
6

101 154 1100

MELTERS' HELPERS, SECOND.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
Southern..........
Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. and M. W.
S outhern.......
Total

52 72.9 $0,213 $15.52
4
5
154 75.7 .294 22.26
L.andM. .284 21.84
6 G.117 76.9 W .
2
22 82.4 .247 20.42

5

5

15

26
8
18
12

6
87
59
10

59
40

17

345

76.1

.275 20.98

15

64

162

99

4
5
6
2

58
160
120
22

72.8
75.7
78.8
82.4

.231
.317
.291
.284

16.82
23.92
22. 76
23.39

2
2

44
12
20
2

12
30
54
12

114
46
8

2

17

360

76.7

.292 22.36

4

78

108

168

2

15
28

93
77
16

12
24

186

36

80
119
22

44
30

12

221

74

12

8
2

.8

2
2
2

10

8

6

10
2

2
2

12

4

MELTERS' HELPERS, THIRD.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..........
Total

3
5
6
2

33
180
129
48

74.1 $0,154 $11.39
75.3 .204 15.34
76.5 .217 16.64
76.8 .169 13.15

20

6

6

16

390

75.8

.200 15.17

20

53

52

43

3
5
6
2

31
184
149
52

75.0
77.9
79.4
72.7

.170
.226
.227
.186

12.82
17.56
17.99
13.53

21

10
48

20

10

16

416

77.6

.217 16.86

20

31

15
32

18
28

58

STOPPER SETTERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Southern..........
Total
1913.
Pittsburgh
G.L.andM . W .
Southern..........
Total




4
2
2

18
4
4

76.5 $0,321 $24.63
75.0 .338 25.50
75.0 .338 24.90

2

8

26

76.0

.326 24.80

2

4
2
2

18
4
4

77.5
75.0
75.0

.354 27.44
.364 27.45
.401 29.62

6

8j

26

76.7

.363 27.78

8

1Including 4 employees earning 60 and under 70 cents per hour.

2

2
2

113

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Continued.

T a b le

STEE L P O U R E R S.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age fiillNum­ ber full­ rate time
Year and dis­ ber of of time
of
trict.
plants. em­ hours wages week­
ploy­ per per
ly
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.
19 12.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W .
Southern..........
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W .
Southern..........
Total

Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W.
Southern.. . . . . .
Total

Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

3
5
5
2

6
22
16
6

73.8 $0,295 $21.38
76*8 .326 25.08
78.0 .334 26.13
74.0 .297 21.76

2
2

15

50

76.5

.321 24.57

3
5
5
2

6
24
16
6

73.8
78.1
79.5
74.0

.331
.348
.366
.349

24.24
27.13
29.21
25.62

15

521 77.fi

.352 27.26
M OLD

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W .
Southern . . . . .

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

4
4

4
12
12
4

4

6

8

32

4

4

2
2
2

2
2
14
4
12 4
41

4

6

32

2

4
14

10
6

4

2

18

16

4

6
2

2
14

10
6

8

8

16

16

7
2

2
36
27
8

7

2

73

4
2

2
38
24
8

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

4
4

2

i

10

CAPPERS.

1
4
3
1

6
20
20
6

84.0 $0,170 $14.28
76.1 .260 19.75
81.6 .239 19.49
78.0 .140 10.92

6
6

9

52

79.3

.228 18.00

6

1
4
3
1

6
20
22
8

84.0
76.7
80.7
78.0

.190
.274
.289
.179

15.96
20.89
23.34
13.96

8

9

56

79.2

.257 20.34

8

6'

6
2

LA D L E C R A N E M E N .

19 12.
Eastern ..........
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W .
Southern . . . .
Total......
19 13.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh..
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........
Total

4
5
6
2

15
36
29
8

73.5 $0,219 $16.12
76.1 .327 24.92
77.8 .348 27.04
73.5 .342 25.12

6

17

88

76.0

.317 24.14

6

4
5
6
2

14
38
30
8

74.1
78.2
78.4
73.5

.259
.338
.370
.386

19.21
26.37
29.08
28.35

8

17

90

77.2

.341 26.34

8

6

72

14
6
4
2

4
4

10 . . . .
4
2

3

26

8

16

3

1
2

18
6
8
2

11
3
2

5
1

3

34

16

6

IN G O T S T R IP P E R S .

1 9 12.
Eastern
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W .
Southern..........
Total......
19 13.
Eastern..........
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. ana M. W.
Southern. . . . . .
Total

2
5
6
2

16
23
12
4

72.9 $0.221 $16.04
70.5 .324 22.44
77.0 .263 20.16
75.0 .285 21.20

2

15

55

72.9

.278 19.99

2

2
5
6
2

20
23
14
4

72.7
73.3
78.9
75.0

.244
.342
.287
.322

17.69
24.70
22.53
23.90

2

15

61

74.5

.296 21.85

2

83021°— Bull. 168— 15------ 8




114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES—Concluded.

T a b le

ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
time
Year and dis­ Num­ of time
of week­
ber of em­
trict.
plants. ploy­ hours wages
ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

1912.
Eastern .......
Pittsburgh
G. L.andM. W .
Southern. . . . . .

4
4
5
2

18
56
22
21

Total......

15

117

75.8

4
4
5
2

18
56
22
18

73.3
77.8
79.6
74.0

.231
.312
.275
.319

Total ...

15

114

76.8

Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
12
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14 16
and and
un­ un­
der der
16 18
cts. cts.

.262 19.86

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh..
G. L. andM. W .
Southern .......

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

4

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

4

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

8
2
12
4

2
46
2
13

8
8
4

4 . 4

26

63

20

16.85
24.23
21.87
23.51

2

10
4

4
22
10
5

34
8
13

.293 22.50

2

2

14

41

55

8
4

4
40
8

14
10
10

4
4

52

34

8

4

10
36
16
4

18
6
13

8

4

66

37

70

73.3 $0,207 $15.08
75.4 .279 21.02
77.5 .262 20.31
77.1 .265 20.38

2

SWITCHMEN.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh . . . .
G. L. andM. W .
Southern . . . . .
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........
Total

73.3 $0,165 $11.99
75.2 .195 14.66
77.5 .212 16.43
74.4 .225 16.62

6

75.2

.199 14.92

6

18
58
22
19

73.3
77.5
79.6
74.5

.190
.234
.234
.252

13.86
18.12
18.61
18.60

2

117

76.8

.230 17.63

2

4
4
5
2

18
58
22
20

15

118

4
4
5
2
15

6
18
8

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W .
Southern.. . . . . .

4
5
6
2

113
436
354
45

61.3 $0,152 $9.27
75.8 .165 12.46
77.5 .170 13.13
76.0 .132 9.93

34
53
33

22 50
41 342
10 274
12

T ota l.....

17

948

74.7

.164 12.21

120

85 666

77

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........

4
5
6
2

10.49
14.90
14.84
10.93

11

41
161
101
24 20

41
82
91

292
21*

.187 14.24

11

55 323

214

506

Total




113 63.1
535 78.5
406 77.3
55 73.5

17 1,109

76.2

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

.168
.190
.193
.150

31

7

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

115

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—OPEN-HEARTH
FURNACES.

T a b le

(The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Num­
ber
of
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em­
ploy-

Stockers:
17 plants........................

17 plants........................
Stock cranemen:
13 plants........................

14 plants........................
Charging-machine operators:
17 plants........................

17 plants........................
Door operators:
15 plants........................

15 plants........................
Melters’ helpers, first:
17 plants........................

17 plants........................
Melters’ helpers, second:
17 plants........................

17 plants........................
Melters’ helpers, third:
17 plants........................

16 plants........................
Stopper setters:
10 plants........................

8 plants..........................
Steel pourers:
14 plants........................

15 plants........................




Aver-

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—

time 48 Over 56
48
hours and and and
under
per un­
under 60
week. der.
56

60

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

60
109
26

107
102
122

154
116
155

127
79
100

30

102
90

165
167

116
128

84

1910
1911
1912

448 76.8
419 74.4
403 76.6

1912
1913

413
417

77.0
77.8

1910
1911
1912

75
70

78.8
75.6
77.7

12
7
12

30
30
34

30
16
20

1912
1913

78.9
79.6

8
8

34
38

30
34

1910
1911
1912

76.8
74.7
75.5

25
18
28

20
24
18

22
12
16

1912
1913

75.8
78.0

26
12

18
24

18
30

13

1910
1911
1912

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

63
38
44

36
50
33

46
38
48

1912
1913

155
160

76.4
76.9

38
30

33
44

52
54

1910
1911
1912

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

75
72
82

136
164
191

106
44
66

1912
1913

345
364

76.8
77.1

10

72
60

191
200

74
94

1910
1911
1912

335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

28
118
68

129
71
129

76
70
50

106
76
100

1912
1913

345
360

76.1
76.7

70

119
106

50
50

108
134

1910
1911
1912

393
394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

141
144
126

116
142
192

106
30
68

1912
1913

390
416

75.8
77.6

110
108

196
166

76
138

1910
1911
1912

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

11
6
6

17
15
21

2

1912
1913

76.0
76.7

4
4

1910
1911
1912

75.3
73.7
75.3

23
12
14

8
18
14

11
4
8

1912
1913

76.5
77.6

12
10

14
24

14
16

2

2
20
22 .........

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913— OPEN-HEARTH

T a b le

FURNACES—Continued.
NUMBER—Concluded.

Num­
ber
of
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. employ-

Mold cappers:
8 plants................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Average
full­
Over 56
Over
Over
time
48
60
72
hours and
and
and under 60
and
72
and
84
per un­
under
under
week. der. under
56
72
84

1910
1911
1912

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

22
10
12

6
16
14

12
4
8

1912
1913

52
56

79.3
79.2

4
6

14
28

26
22

1910
1911
1912

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

25
29
29

28
20
28

29
16
24

1912
1913

88
90

76.0
77.2

29
16

28
40

22
26

1910
1911
1912

46
51
49

73.7
71.9
72.4

14
32
34

8
10
10

11
2
2

1912
1913

55
61

72.9
74.5

38
28

10
18

4
12

1910
1911

107
110

77.3
74.4

39

25
22

48
40

28
9

15 plants..............

1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

43
16

22
22

40
64

9
9

15 plants..............

1912
1913

117
114

75.8
76.8

16
16

12
17

78
58

11
23

1910
1911

109
113

77.3
74.5

7
41

24
22

48
40

30
10

15 plants..............

1911
1912

117
112

74.4
74.6

45
18

22
32

40
52

10
10

15 plants..............

1912
1913

118
117

75.2
76.8

18
18

22
17

66
58

12
24

1910 1,038
806
1911
1912 897

74.5
73.2
74.4

212
192
115

137
117
131

365
298
392

224
109
151

1912 948
1913 1,109

74.7
76.2

125
61

159
281

365
343

194
333

13.4
26.0
6.5

23.9
24.3
30.3

34.4
27.7
38.5

28.3
18.9
24.8

7.3
7.7

24.7
21.6

40.0
40.0

28.1
30.7

2.7
22.9

16.0
10.0
18.2

40.0
42.9
51.5

40.0
22.9
30.3

11.1
10.0

47.2
47.5

41.7
42.5

9 plants................
Ladle cranemen:
16 plants..............

17 plants..............
Ingot strippers:
15 plants..............

15 plants..............
Engineers, locomotive:
14 plants..............

Switchmen:
14 plants..............

Laborers:
17 plants..............

17 plants..............

21

PER CENT.
Stockers:
17 plants....

17 plants....
Stock cranemen:
13 plants_
_

14 plants....




1910
1911
1912

448
419
403

76.8
74.4
76.6

1912
1913

413
417

77.0
77.8

1910
1911
1912

75
70
66

78.8
75.6
77.7

1912
1913

72
80

78.9
79.6

3.1

1.3
1.4

WAGES AND HOUBS OP LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

117

T a b l e I I I ___ A V E R A G E A N D C L A S S I F I E D F U L L -T I M E H O U R S P E R W E E K
IN T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , B Y Y E A R S , 1910 TO 1913— OPEN-HEARTH

FURNACES—Continued.
PER CENT—Continued.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Average
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em- time 48 Over 56
48
72
60
hours and
and
and
and under 60
72
and
84
per un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
72
56
84
Charging-machine operators:
17 plants............................

Door operators:
15 plants___

15 plants..
Melters’ helpers, first:
17 plants................

17 plants..
Melters' helpers, second:
17 plants.............. —

17 plants..
Melters’ helpers, third:
17 plants..................

16 plants..
Stopper setters:
10 plants......

8 plants....
Steel pourers:
14 plants...

15 plants...
Mold cappers:
8 plants_
_

9 plants..
Ladle cranemen:
16 plants........

17 plants___
Ingot strippers:
15 plants___

15 plants..




73
72
72

76.8
74.7
75.5

8.2
25.0
13.9

34.2
25.0
38.9

27.4
33.3
25.0

30.1
16.7
22.2

1912
1913

72
76

75.8
78.0

13.9
13.2

36.1
15.8

25.0
31.6

25.0
39.5

1910
1911
1912

165
160
157

75.9
75.5
76.0

12.1
21.3
20.4

38.2
23.8
28.0

21.8
31.3
21.0

27.9
23.8
30.6

1912
1913

155
160

76.4
76.9

20.6
20.0

24.5
18.8

21.3
27.5

33.5
33.8

1910
1911
1912

341
338
347

77.7
75.3
76.5

7.0
17.2
2.3

22.0
21.3
23.6

39.9
48.5
55.0

31.1
13.0
19.0

1912
1913

345
364

76.8
77.1

2.3
2.7

20.9
16.5

55.4
54.9

21.4
25.8

1910
1911
1912

339
335
347

76.6
74.5
75.8

8.3
35.2
19.6

38.1
21.2
37.2

22.4
20.9
14.4

31.3
22.7
28.8

1912
1913

345
360

76.1
76.7

19.7
19.4

34.5
29.4

14.5
13.9

31.3
37.2

1910
1911
1912

394
414

76.5
73.9
75.4

7.6
19.8
6.8

35.9
36.5
30.4

29.5
36.0
46.4

27.0
7.6
16.4

1912

390

1913

17 plants..

1910
1911
1912

4 16

75.8
77.6

2.1
1.0

28.2
26.0

50.3
39.9

19.5
33.2

1910
1911
1912

30
29
29

76.2
73.5
75.8

27.6

36.7
20.7
20.7

56.7
6.7
51.7
72.4 *'*6*9

1912
1913

26
26

76.0
76.7

15.4
15.4

76.9
84.6

7.7

1910
1911
1912

47
44
46

75.3
73.7
75.3

10.6
22.7
21.7

48.9
27.3
30.4

17.0
40.9
30.4

23.4
9.1
17.4

1912
1913

50
52

76.5
77.6

20.0
3.8

24.0
19.2

28.0
46.2

28.0
30.8

1910
1911
1912

40
38
42

76.5
74.0
75.9

21.1
19.0

55.0
26.3
28.6

15.0
42.1
33.3

30.0
10.5
19.0

1912
1913

52
56

79.3
79.2

15.4

7.7
10.7

26.9,
50.0

50.0
39.3

1910
1911
1912

90
86
90

77.2
74.6
76.2

8.9
24.4
10.0

27.8
33.7
32.2

31.1
23.3
31.1

32.2
18.6
26.7

1912
1913

76.0
77.2

10.2
8.9

33.0
17.8

31.8
44.4

25.0
28.9

1910
1911
1912

73.7
71.9
72.4

21.7
7.8

30.4
62.7
69.4

17.4
19.6
20.4

23.9
3.9
4.1

1912
1913

72.9
74.5

69.1
45.9

18.2
29.5

7.3
19.7

6.5
5.9 ......... .........
6.1
5.5
4.9

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—OPEN-HEARTH
FURNACES—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
of
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em­
ploy-

Engineers, locomotive:
14 plants...............

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
60
72
and
84
per un­ under under
under
under
week. der.
56
72
84

1910
1911

107
110

77.3
74.4

5.6
35.5

23.4
20.0

44.9
36.4

26.2
8.2

15 plants...............

1911
1912

114
111

74.3
75.2

37.7
14.4

19.3
19.8

35.1
57.7

7.9
8.1

15 plants...............

1912
1913

117
114

75.8
76.8

13.7
14.0

10.3
14.9

66.7
50.9

9.4
20.2

1910
1911

109
113

77.3
74.5

6.4

22.0
19.5

44.0
35.4

27.5
8.8

15 plants...............

1911
1912

117
112

74.4
74.6

38.5
16.1

18.8
28.6

34.2
46.4

8.5

15 plants..............

1912
1913

118 75.2
117 76.8

15.3
15.4

18.6
14.5

55.9
49.6

10.2
20.5

1910
1911
1912

806

74.5
73.2
74.4

2.8
4.3
5.7

0.8

6.1
6.8
5.8

20.4
23.8
12.8

13.2
14.5
14.6

35.2
37.0
43.7

21.6
13.5
16.8

1912 948
1913 1,109

74.7
76.2

5.4
3.2

.4
1.2

5.3
3.9

13.2
5.5

16.8
25.3

38.5
30.9

20.5
30.0

Switchmen:
14 plants...............

Laborers:
17 plants..............

17 plants.............




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

119

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEsK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FUR­
NACES.

T a b le

STOCKERS.

Num­
Num­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

4
5
6
2

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
Over
Over
time 48
72
48
60
and
and
hours and and and
un­
72
84
60
per un­ un­ der
un­
un­
week. der. der
der
der
60
72
84
56

94 74.0
177 78.0
118 77.9
24 77.0

30

48
10

17

413

77.0

30

4
5
6
2

98
167
124
28

73.8
78.8
79.7
76.7

32

Total...................................

17

417

77.8

32

133
24
8

20
44
46
6

102

165

116

32
12

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................

44

133
24
10

20
34
68
6

90

167

128

46

STOCK CRANEMEN.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

3
5
5
1

8
34
26
4

78.0
78.2
80.3
78.0

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .
Southern......................................

14

72

78.9

3
5
5
1

8
38
30
4

78.0
79.2
80.8
78.0

Total...................................

14

80

79.6

4
4
8
*

22
8
4
34

4

4
12
14
30
4
12
18

4

26
8
4

8

38

8
14
4

12
4
2

26

18

8
4

18
4
2

12

24

30

“ ‘ 30’

17
14
2

10
16
18
8

38

33

52

22

28
14
2

10
8
28
8

30

44

54

34

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

4
5
6
2

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

17

Total...................................

17

*

14 73.8
28 77.1
24 76.0
6 74.0
72

75.8

10

10

4
8
6
18

V
?
4
5
6
2

14 73.8
30 79.6
26 79.4
6 74.0

10

76

10

78.0

4
12
14

DOOR OPERATORS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .
Southern..................................... .

3
4
6
2

26
57
62
10

74.6
75.6
76.8
82.8

8
24

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern............. ...........................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

15

155

76.4

32

3
4
6
2

26 74.6
60 75.2
64 78.6
10 82.8

8
24

Total..............................

15

160 76.9

32




8

8

120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

X V.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— OPEN-HEARTH FUR­

T a b le

NACES— C o n tin u e d .

MELTERS* HELPERS, FIRST.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .
Southern.......................................

Aver­
Num­ age
Num­ ber of full­
ber of em­ time 48
plants. ploy­ hours and
ees. per un­
week. der.

4
5
6
2

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

17

Total...................................

17

4
5
6
2

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der
der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

52 74.8
153 76.5
118 76.9
22 82.9

8

345

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

14

84

58

20
141
24
6

10
12
36
16

8

72

191

74

60 74.4
160 76.2*
122 78.7
22 82.9

10

18
42

22
148
24
6

10
12
56
16

364

10

60

200

94

20
24
6

10
46
36
16

50

108

20
24
6

10
52
56
16

50

134

69
26

166
24
6

10
14
36
16

110

196

76

76.8

77.1

MELTERS* HELPERS, SECOND.
1912.

4
5
6
2

52
154
117
22

72.9
75.7
76.9
82.4

28
40

14
48
57

Total............................ .....
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................

17

345

76.1

68

119

4
5
6
2

58 72.8
160 75.7
120 78.8
22 82.4

30
40

18
48
40

Total...................................

17

360 76.7

70

106

Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................

•

MELTERS* HELPERS,, THIRD.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

3
5
6
2

33
180
129
48

74.1
75.3
76.5
76.8

8

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

16

390

75.8

8

3
5
6
2

31
184
149
52

75.0
77.9
79.4
72.7

4

Total...................................

16

416 77.6

4

15

17

10
48
80

45
46

136
24
6

108

166

138

STOPPER SETTERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................

4
2
2

18
4
4

76.5
75.0
75.0

16
2
2

2

2
2

2

Total...................................
1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................

8

26

76.0

4

20

4
2
2

18 77.5
4 75.0
4 75.0

2
2

18
2
2

Total...................................

8

26

4

22




76.7

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.

121

I V .—A V E R A G E AN D CLASSIFIED FU LL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K
IN EACH Y E A R , B Y DISTRICTS. 1912 AN D 1913— OPEN-HEARTH FUR­

T a b le

NACES—Continued.

Year and district.

1912.

STEEL POURERS.

Num­
Num­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
Over 56
Over
Over
full­
48
72
60
time 48
and
and
and
hours and and un­
72
84
60
un­
un­
per un­ un­ der
der
week. der. der
der
60
56
72
84

3
5
5
2

6
92
16
6

73.8
76.8
78.0
74.0

2
8

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern .......................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern............ .........................

15

50

76.5

10

3
5
5
2

6
24
16
6

73.8
78.1
79.5
74.0

2

Total...................................

15

52

77.6

2

Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

2
6
4

8
4
2

12

14

2

2
6
6
14
2
6
8

4
4

18
4
2

10

24

16

8

6
4
16

MOLD CAPPERS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est,..
Southern.......................................

1
4
3
1

6
20
20
6

84.0
76.1
81.6
78.0

8

8

Total........ .........................
1913.
Eastern. .....................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

9

52

79.3

1
4
3
1

6
20
22
8

84.0
76.7
80.7
78.0

Total...................................

9

56

79.2

4

6
4

14

26
6

20
6

8

16

28

22

73.5
76.1
77.8
73.5

18

4
8
10

76.0

28

22

6

LADLE CRANEMEN.
1912.
Eastern......................................
Pittsburgh.................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.
Southern...................................
Total................................
1913.
Eastern......................................
Pittsburgh................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.
Southern...................................

17

Total................................

17

14

90

77.2

4
8
14

74.1
78.2
78.4
73.5
16

40

38

26

10

INGOT STRIPPERS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .
Southern.......................................

72.9
70.5
77.0
75.0

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

15

Total...............................

15




55

72.9
72.7
73.3
78.9
75.0

74.5

12

122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—OPEN-HEARTH FUR­
NACES—Concluded

T a b le

ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1912.

Aver­
Num­ age
Num­ ber of full­
ber of em­ time 48
plants. ploy­ hours and
ees. per
un­
week. der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der
der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

4
4
5
2

18
56
22
21

73.3
75.4
77.5
77.1

15

117

75.8

16

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. ..
Southern.......................................

4
4
5
2

18
56
22
18

73.3
77.8
79.6
74.0

14
2

Total...................................

15

114

76.8

16

1913.

84

4

14
2

Total...................................

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

8
4

54
8
16

6
1

12

78

11

4
13

46
8
4

4
8
10
1

17

58

23

8
14

54
8
4

6
2

22

66

12

4
13

46
8
4

4
8
10
2

18

17

58

24

SWITCHMEN.

1912.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

4
4
5
2

18 73.3
58 75.2
22 77.5
20 74.4

14
4

Total....................... ..........

15

118 75.2

18

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

4
4
5
2

18 73.3
58 77.5
22 79.6
19 74.5

14
4

Total...................................

15

1913.

117

76.8

4

LABORERS.

1912.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................

4
5
6
2

113 61.3
436 75.8
354 77.5
45 76.0

51

Total...................................

17

948 74.7
113
535
406
55

17 1,109

1913.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Southern......................................
Total...................................




4
5
6
2

4

25
10
3
12

25
75
25

2
25
130
2

10
309
38
8

13
158
23

51

4

50

125

159

365

194

63.1
78.5
77.3
73.5

35

10
3

10
5
8
20

41
3
17

2
103
172
4

15
284
36
8

137
173
23

76.2

35

13

43

61

281

343

333

BLOOMING MILLS.
SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the blooming-mill department of the
iron and steel industry are given with figures for other departments
in the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explanation of
the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given
on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of employees in the principal occupations in blooming mills was
from 11.7 per cent to 19.2 per cent higher than in any one of the
three years preceding, and despite the fact that the average full-time
hours per week were 1 per cent lower than at the beginning of the
four-year period this very marked increase in rates of wages was so
reflected in full-time earnings per week that the average earnings in
1913 were 17.9 per cent higher than in 1910, 16.6 per cent higher than
in 1911, and 11.4 per cent higher than in 1912.
The most significant facts concerning the several blooming-mill
occupations which are covered in this section of the report are sum­
marized in the table following. Data are presented for the years
1910, 1911, 1912, and 1913, the figures set opposite each group of
years being for i#fentical plants. The data for 1913 represent 998
blooming-mill employees in the 12 occupations covered, and were
obtained from 19 plants having 22 blooming mills in operation.
Referring to the first occupation presented, laborers, direct com­
parison can be made of data for 19 identical plants for 1910 to 1912,
inclusive, and for a second group of 19 plants for 1912 and 1913.
The first line of the table is read as follows: In 1910, the 19 blooming
mills from which reports were obtained employed 449 laborers whose
average full-time hours of work were 74.1 per week. For 16.2 per
cent of the 449 laborers the full-time hours per week were over 48
and under 72; for 53.9 per cent, 72 per week; for 5.6 per cent, over
72 and under 84; and for 24.3 per cent, 84 hours per week. The
average rate of wages or earnings per hour of laborers in the year
considered (1910) was $0,162. Of the total number, 10 per cent
received 12 and under 14 cents per hour; 13.4 per cent, 14 and under
16 cents; and 76.6 per cent, 16 and under 18 cents per hour. The
average full-time weekly earnings were $11.97. The other lines of
the table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 19 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers were $11.97 in 1910.
123



124

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

In 1911 there was an advance to $12.02, and in 1912 a further advance
to $12.13. In the second group of 19 plants the full-time weekly
earnings were $12.08 in 1912 and $13.53 in 1913. Comparing the
average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 of the several occupations,
it is seen that the lowest average was that of laborers, which was
$13.53, and the highest that of rollers, which was $45.11.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
of
12 14 16 18 20
Over
Over
em­
ber of plants.
48 48
72
wages and and and and and
ploy­ hours and and
and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
per
ees. week. un­ un­ 72 un­
hour. der der der der der
der. der
der
14 16 18 20 25
72
84
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Laborers:
19 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

449
363
396

16.2 53.9 5.6 24.3 10.162 10.0 13.4 76.6
74.1
$11.97
73.7 ....... 14.4 59.0 8.8 17.9 .163 12.4 8.| 79.3 . . . . ....... 12.02
14.1 56.6 11.1 18.2 .164 10.4
73.8
88.9
12.13

19 plants............... 1912
1913

344
352

16.2 50.0 12.8 20.9
74.0
73.4 ....... 19.9 54.0 11.6 14.5

.163 11.9 1.5 86.6
.184 2.6 9.7 17.6 54*5 i O *
12
and
un­
der
16
cts.

Bottom makers’ help­
ers:
12 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

30
and 40
un­ cts.
der and
40 over.
cts.

70.3
12.8 78.7
19.5 65.2 *i0.*9
70.3
70.4 ........ 19.5 60.9 15.2

8.5
4.3
4.3

.251 8.5 17.0 48.9 25.5
.243 8.7 15.2 54.4 21.7
.257 4.3 13.0 56.6 26.1 ........

17.23
16.83
17.84

4.0
7.3

.257 4.0 12.0 60.0 24.0
.276
21.8 36.4 41.8

17.95
19.33

50
55

70.6
70.8

12.0 60.0 24.0
10.9 56.4 25.5

100
96
93

70.9
69.5
70.1

3.0 17.0 56.0 10.0 14.0
3.1 24.0 58.3 12.5 2.1
24.8 62.4 10.8 2.2

1912
1913

99
1D
1

70.2
23.2 64.6 10.1
70.5 ....... 20.8 55.4 23.8

2.0

.218 14.0 35.0 42.0 9.0
15.15
.217 13.5 26.0 57.3 3.1 ....... 14.90
.237 1.1 31.2 49.4 18.3
16.44
.230 3.0 33.3 48.5 15.2
15.93
.259 1.0 25.8 47.5 24.8 **i.o 18.07
16
and
un­
der
20
cts.

Bottom makers:
16 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9 ........

13.3 80.0
16.4 67.3 " i'.i
15.5 69.0 8.6

15 plants.............. 1912
1913

56
60

71.4
71.4 ........

14.3 64.3 10.7 10.7
16.7 60.0 13.3 10.0




20
and
un­
der
30
cts.

47
46
46

13 plants............... 1912
1913
Shearmen’s helpers:
18 plants............... 1910
1911
1912
18 plants..............

16
and
un­
der
20
cts.

12.08
13.53

6.7
7.3
6.9

20
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and 50
un­ cts.
der and
50 over.
cts.

.335 3.3 40.0 26.7 26.7
.331 3.6 23.6 47.3 25.5
.347 3.4 25.8 36.2 34.5

3.3 23.26
23.24
24.44

.346 3.6 30.4 30.4 35.7
24.50
.384
133.3 15.0 45.0 **6*7 27.28

125

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

AV ER AG E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF W AG ES
PER H OUR, AND AVER AG E FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF T H E
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age
age
ber full­
rate
of time
Occupation, and num­ Year
Over
Over
of
16 20 30 40
em­ hours
ber of plants.
72
48
and and and and 50
ploy- per and and
72 and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­
week. un­ un­
hour. der der der der and
der
der. der
20 30 40 50 over.
84
72
cts. cts. cts. cts.
Heaters’ helpers:
11 plants___

11 plants_
_
Shearmen:
19 plants___

19 plants___
Table men:
13 plants___

12 plants___

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1910
1911
1912

73.4
73.5
73.5

20.6 35.3 26.5 17.6 $0,344
20. 35.3 17.6 26.5 .363
20.6 35.3 17. 26.5 .354

44.2 23.517.6 8.8 $24.62
29.4 32.420.6 11.8 26.71
23.5 i. 5 44.1 ----- 25.58

1912
1913

67.9
67.2

38.0 32.0 12.0 18.0
36.5 38.5 15.4

16.0 50.0 30.0
27.0 30.821.2

1910
1911
1912

70.0
69.4
69.5

.352
.390

23.63
26.01

6.3 14.6 58.3 12.5
6.5 19.5 60.9 8.7
6.5 19.5 60.9 8.7

8.3
4.3
4.3

6.3 20.85
50.0 43.8
.303
20.96
.306 8.7 30.4 50.0 10.9
32.6 45.7 17.4 *4*3
.328

1912
1913

5.8 17.3 65.4 7.7
5.8 17.3 57.7 19.2

3.8

.319 3.8 32.7 44.2 15.4 3.8 21.93
30. 36.5 21.2 11.5 24.80
.363

1910
1911
1912

8.3 19.4 55.
5.6 11.1
34.2 48. 11.4 5.7
34.2 48.6 11.4 5.7

.271 16.7 55. 19.4
.254 22.8 51.4 25.7
.285 14.3 45.8 31.4 8.6

8.3 18.03
17.05
19.00

36.4 45.5 12.1
32.3 54.8 12.9

12.1 45.4 33.3 9.1
.316 6.5 38.8:32.3 12.9

19.24
9.7 20.95

68.5
68.0

1912
1913

6.1

20
and
un­
der
30
cts.
Manipulators:

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912
19 plants...
Pit cranemen:
18 plants...

19 plants...
Roll engineers:
18 plants...

19 plants...

68.4 11.5 19.3 55.8 5.8
67.9 6.3 29.2 50.0 10.4
66.6 12.8
46.8 10.

7.7
4.2
4.3

.350

.5
23.1
.6 27.1 27.1
27.7 29.8 23.4

5.8 24.21
23.26
10.6 24.94

1912
1913

12.2 24.4 49.0 10.2
11.8 27.5 47.1 13.7

4.1

26.5
4
7
.432 15.7 37.3 21.6

10.2 24.92
17.7 27.60

69.6
68.8
68.7

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913

95

29.3 50.5
33. 49.5
37.2 46.4

4.0 16.2
6.3 10.5
6.2 10.3

.315 >.4 34.3 52.2
.309 41.1 54.7 4.2
35.0 50.5 14.4

21.41
21.01
22.33

71.6
71.4

25.2 47.4 16. 10.5
20.2 54.5 20.2 5.1

.319 42.1 43.2 14.7
.373 10.1 45.5 44.4

22.63
26.48

11.9 40.5 35.7 4.8
10.0 57.5 17.5 15.0
58.5 4.9 31.7

70.9 7.1 16.6 45.2 16.7 14.3
70.9 7.5 20.0 37.5 20.0 15.0
69.2 14.6 19.5 31.7 19.5 14.6

.428

1912
1913

68.4 13.0 21.7 23.9 32.6
68.0 13.0 21.7 28.3

.437 4.3 52.2 4.3 28.3 10.9 28.79
37.0 17.4 15.2 30.4 32.04
.491

8.7
4.3

30 40
and and
un­ un­
der der
40 50
cts. cts.
Heaters:
19 plants..

19 plants..

27.12
26.66
28.65

1910
1911
1912

73.4
73.3
73.0

1910
1911
1912
1912
1913




55
53

9.8 60.
7.8 21.6
16.3 51.0 12.2 20.4
15.1 58.5 7.5 18.9

72.9....... 14.6 60.0 7.3 18.2
73.2'....... 15.1 50.9 15.1 18.9

.521
.512
.556

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

.4 45.1 13.7 3.9 37.88
34.7 44.9 4.1 8.2 37.50
26.4 43.4 15.1 15.1 40.42

.552 . . . . U 41.8 14.5 14.5 40.14
.6 0 4 .... 22.6 34.0 18.9 24.5 44.18

126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
Aver­
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
age
full­
full­
rate
time
30 40 50 60
time
of
Over
Over
72
wages and and and and 70 week­
hours 48 48
ly
per and and 72 and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ cts. earn­
un­
week. un­ un­
hour. der der der der and ings.
40 50 60 70 over.
der. der
der
cts. cts. cts. cts.
72
84

Rollers:
18 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

46
41
42

6.5 $0,605
67.6 13.0 17.4 63.0
34.8 23.9 23.9 17.4 $40.00
.585
66.6 7.3 29.2 58.5 *4.9 . . . . .
26.8 31.7 29.3 12.2 38.49
65.0 14.3 28.6 52.4 4.8 ....... .652 . . . . 16.7 31.0 16.7 35.7 41.41

19 plants............... 1912
1913

46
46

65.9 13.0 26.0 52.2 8.7
66.2 13.0 26.0 47.8 13.0 .......

.632 4.3 19.6 28.3 15.2 32.6 40.53
.703 4.3 8.7 23.9 19.6 43.5 45.11

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the four
years, which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout
the period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of the preceding table for full-time hours per week, rates
of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupation
from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table follow­
ing. These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for
which the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The
relative for each year is the per cent which the average for that year
is of the average for 1913. For example, the relative full-time weekly
earnings of pit cranemen in 1910 were 81.9, as compared with 100 in
1913; that is, the full-time weekly earnings of pit cranemen in 1910
were 81.9 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation
in 1913. The method of computing relative numbers is explained on
pages 21 to 23.
The table following also shows for each occupation the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per
hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1913, as compared with each
specified year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of pit
cranemen in 1913 were 22.1 per cent higher than in 1910, 24.4 per cent
higher than in 1911, and 17 per cent higher than in 1912.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the
full-time weekly earnings of pit cranemen in 1911 were 1.8 per cent
lower than in 1910, 6.3 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911, and 17
per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912. The other occupations and
items of the table ean be studied in like manner. The percentages of
increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

127

R E LATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PE R HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE, IN SPECIFIED YEA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BLOOMING
MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Occupation and year.

Pit cranemen:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Heaters:
1910... .
1911... .
191 2
191 3
Heater’s helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Bottom makers:
1910............................
1911... .
191 2
191 3
Bottom makers’ helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Roll engineers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Rollers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Manipulators:
191 0
191 1
191 2
1913............................
Table men:
191 0
191 1
191 2
1913............................
Shearmen:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Shearmen’s helpers:
191 0
191 1
1912... .
1913............................
Laborers:
1910...........................
1911...........................
191 2
191 3




Relar
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

- 1 .2
- .1
- .3

82.1
80.6
85.5
100.0

+21.8
+24.1
+17.0

+ .4

- .1
- .4
+ .4

85.6
84.2
91.4
100.0

+16.8
+18.8
+ 9.4

100.9
101.0
101.0
100.0

- .9
-1 .0
- 1 .0

+ .1
-1 .0

87.7
92.6
90.3
100.0

+14.0
+ 8.0
+10.7

99.4
99.9
100.0
100.0

+ .6
+ .1
C
1)

+ .5
+ .1
0)

87.0
85.9
90.1
100.0

+14.9
+16.4
+11.0

f .l
+ .3

90.9
88.0
93.1
100.0

+10.0
+13.6
+ 7.4

81.5
80.1
89.0
100.0

+22.7
+24.8
+12.4

- 1 .4
- 2 .5
+ .5

83.4
80.7
89.9
100.0

+19.9
+23.9
+11.2

-1 .9
- .5

84.1
80.6
89.8
100.0

+18.9
+24.1
+11.4
+14.5
+22.2
+ 8.9

—> 7
1.

87.3
81.8
91.8
100.0
81.2
82.0
87.9
100.0

+23.2
+22.0
+13.8

81.7
81.3
88.8
100.0

+22.4
+23.0
+12.6

87.5
88.0
88.6
100.0

+14.3
+13.6
+12.9

101.6
100.4
100.3
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.6
100.0

99.7
100.0

-1 .6
- .4

-

.1

+ .4
+ .4
+ .3

103.1
103.1
100.6
100.0

-3 .0
- 3 .0

1«3.5
102.0
99.5
100.0

- 3 .4
- 2 .0
+ .5

103.2
102.4
100.5
100.0

-3 .1
-2 .3
- .5

101.6
100.7
100.7
100.0

-1 .6
- .7
- .7

101.0
100.1
100.3
100.0

-1 .0
- .1
- .3

100.7
98.7
99.6
100.0

- .7
+1.3
+ .4

101.2
100.7
100.8
100.0

-1 .2
- .7

- 2 .4

+ .2

-2 .0
+ .9
+ .4
- .5
+ .1

i No change.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Each
Each
tive
speci­
full­ 1913 as speci­
fied
fied
time
year weekly com­
year
pared
as
as
with
with
com­
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

Each
speci­
fied
year
as
com­
pared
with
year
pre­
ceding.

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

1913 as
com-

- 1.8
+ 6.1
+17.0

81.9
80.4
85.5
100.0

+22.1
+24.4
+17.0

- 1.6
+ 8.6
+ 9.4

85.1
84.3
90.9
100.0

+17.5
+18.6
+10.0

+ 5.6
- 2.5
+10.7

87.4
94.9
90.8
100.0

+14.4
+ 5.4
+10.1

- 1.3
+ 4.9
+11.0

85.5
85.4
89.8
100.0

+17.0
+17.1
+11.4

- 3.2
+ 5.8
+ 7.4

89.7
87.6
92.9
100.0

+11.5
+14.2
+ 7.6

- 1.7
+11.1
+12.4

85.1
83.6
89.9
100.0

+17.5
+19.6
+11.2

-3 .2
+11.4
+11.2

86.8
83.5
89.8
100.0

+15.2
+19.8
+11.4

- 4.2
+11.4
+11.4

87.6
84.2
90.3
100.0

+14.2
+18.8
+10.7

- 6.3
+12.2
+ 8.9

87.1
82.4
91.8
100.0

+14.8
+21.4
+ 8.9

+ 1.0
+ 7.2
+13.8

82.3
82.8
88.4
100.0

+21.5
+20.8
+13.1

- .5
+ 9.2
+12.6

81.2
79.9
88.2
100.0

+23.2
+25.2
+13.4

+ .6
+ •7
+12.9

88.1
88.5
89.3
100.0

+13.5
+13.0
+12.0

- 1.8
+ 6.3
+17.0

+ 7.8
+10.0
+ 8.6
- 4.3
+10.1
- .1
+ 5.2
+11.4
- 2.3
+ 6.1
+ 7.6
- 1.8
+ 7.5
+11.2

+ 7.5
+11.4
- 3.9
+ 7.2
+10.7
- 5.4
+11.4
+ 8.9
+ .6
+ 6.8
+13.1
- 1.6
+10.4
+13.4
+ .5
+ .9
+12.0

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the blooming-mill department as a whole, as determined by a
combination of the data for the several principal productive occupa­
tions which are covered in this section of the report. The method
of computing the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under “ weekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole
in 1910 were 84.8 as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words,
the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 84.8 per cent of such earn­
ings in 1913. The relative increased to 85.8 in 1911, to 89.8 in 1912,
and to 100 in 1913, the base year.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1912 were
17.9 per cent higher than in 1910, 16.6 per cent higher than in 1911,
and 11.4 per cent higher than in 1912.
The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus the full-time
weekly earnings in 1911 were 1.2 per cent higher than in 1910, in 1912,
4.7 per cent higher than in 1911, and in 1913, 11.4 per cent higher
than in 1912. The relative numbers and percentages for full-time
hours per week and rates of wages per hour can be read in like manner.
RELA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE OR
DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, A LL OCCUPATIONS—BLOOMING MILLS.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Year.

1910
1911
1912
1913

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

101.0
100.4
100.4
100.0

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
comyear
as
with
com­
each pared
speci­ with
fied
year
year.
pre-

- 1 .0
- .4
- .4

-0 .6
(l)
- .4

Weekly earnings.

Rela­
tive
rate
of

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

per
hour.

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
earn­
as
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­
speci­ with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

83.9
84.8
89.5
100.0

+19.2
+17.9
+11.7

84.8
+ 1.1
+ 5.5
+11.7

89.8

10
0 .0

+17.9
+16.6
+11.4

+ 1.2
+ 4.7
+11.4

i No change.

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a re­
duction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings for the department must be
considered; that is, the change in the relative number of employees




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BLOOMING MILLS.

129

in the several occupations from year to year. It is obvious that an
increase in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid occu­
pations or a decrease in the relative number of those in the higherpaid ones would tend to lower the average rate and earnings for all
occupations, just as an increase in the relative number of employees
in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number
in the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in blooming-mill plants whose customary working time
per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations
thereof, are shown in the following table. The heading “ 5 days and
6 days alternately” indicates that the plants were running 6 days
and 5 nights each week, being shut down for one day and a half
each week, and that the employees reported under this heading
worked 6 days one week and 5 nights the next. The heading “ 6 days
and 7 days alternately” indicates that the plants were not in opera­
tion half a day in each week, the employees reported working 6 turns
one week and 7 turns the next week.
The figures are presented for each district and for the four districts
combined.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913— BLOOMING MILLS.

83021°— Bull. 168— 15------ 9




130

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PE R W E E K , B Y Y EA R S, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—
Concluded.
Number of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—
Num­
5
ber
days
District, and num­ Year. of
and
em­
ber of plants.
6
ploy­
5
6
ees. days. d a p days.
ternateiy.
Southern:
2 plants..........

1910
1911
1912

86
75
72

76
2 plants.......... 1912
1913
89
Total:
19 plants......... 1910 1,064
1911
948
1912 988
1 9 plants......... 1912
*
1913

975
998

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week
was—

6
6
5
6
6
days
days days,
days days,
6
and
and days,
and days,
6
7
7
5
6
7
7
d a p and days. days. days days. d a p and days.
7
7
aldays
days
terterter- in
in
natenate- rota­
nate- rota­
iy.
iy* tion.
iy- tion.

1
1

61
49
55

12
12

25
13
4

1.3
1.4

70.9
65.3 16.0
76.4 16.7

29.1
17.3
5.6

1
1

57
69

14
14

4
5

1.8
1.1

75.0 18.4
77.5 15.7

5.3
5.6

186
149
161

.1
.1

6.6
5.5
4.7

65.6 10.3
63.5 15.2
64.0 15.0

17.5
15.7
16.3

165
120

.1
.1

4.9
5.0

60.7 9.9
63.6 12.0

1
1

70
52
46

698
602
632

no
144
148

1
1

48
50

592
635

97
120

72
72

7.4
7.2

16.9
12.0

In addition to the text tables in the summary, four general tables
are presented for the blooming-mill department, as follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1913.
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the
United States, by years, 1910 to 1913.
Table IV .—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each
year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are sum­
marized in the text table on pages 124 to 126.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers, follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended explana­
tion see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year,
back to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in
Tables II and IV, and descriptions of the occupations which appear
in the tables of this report, were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this
Bureau, but have been omitted from the present report.



131

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOB— BLOOMING MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Pit cranemen:
18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time
of
hours wages week­
ly
per per earn­
week. hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

99
95
97

69.6 $0,315 $21.41
68.8 .309 ?1.01
68.7 .328 32.33

21
9
7

22
30
27

34
52
49

22
4
14

19 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters:
19 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

95
99

71.6
71.4

.319 32.63
.373 36.48

13
7

27
3

41
45

14
44

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

.521 37.88
.512 37.50
.556 40.42

4
4

15
17
14

23
22
23

7
2
8

2
4
8

19 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters’ helpers:
11 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

55
53

72.9
73.2

.552 40.14
.604 44.18

16
12

23
18

8
10

8
13

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

.344 34.62
.363 26.71
.354 35.58

2
2
2

4
4
5

11
6
3

8
11
9

6
7
15

3

50
52

67.9
67.2

.352 23.63
.390 26.01

2

5
3

3
11

25
16

15
11

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

.335 23.26
.331 23.24
.347 24.44

2
2
2

10
6
10

14
7
5

16
26
21

16
14
20

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Bottom makers’
helpers:
12 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

56
60

71.4
71.4

.346 24.50
.384 27.28

2

10
6

7
14

17
9

20
27

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

.251 17.23
.243 16.83
.257 17.84

4
4
2

8
7
6

15
9
9

8
16
17

12
10
12

13 plants___ 1912
1913
Roll engineers:
18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

50
55

70.6
70.8

.257 17.95
.276 19.33

2

6
2 *'io

9
3

21
17

12
23

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

.392 27.12
.385 26.66
.428 28.65

5
4

17
23
24

15
7
2

2
6
13

3

19 plants___ 1912
1913
Rollers:
18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

46
46

68.4
68.0

.437 28.79
.491 32.04

2

24
17

2
8

13
7

5
11

3

46
41
42

67.6
66.6
65.0

.605 40.00
.585 38.49
.652 41.41

16
11
7

11
13
13

11
12
7

8
5
15

19 plants___ 1912
1913
Manipulators:
19 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

46
46

65.9
66.2

.632 40.53
.703 45.11

2
2

9
4

13
11

9

15
20

52
48
47

68.4
67.9
66.6

.365 24.21
.350 23.26
.390 24.94

4
5
3

16
14
10

15
13
14

12
13
11

2
3
4

3

19 plants___ 1912
1913

49
51

66.8
66.5

.388 24.92
.432 27.60

3
3

10
5

16
19

11
11

4
4

5
6

Table men:
13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

.271 18.03
.254 17.05
.2R5; 19.00

6
6 *2
4
1

10
9
8

10
9
8

7
9
11

3

12 plants___ 1912
1913

33
31

68.5
68.0

.290 19.24
.316 20.95

4
2

7
10

8
2

11
10

3
4

11 plants___ 1912
1913
Bottom makers:
16 plants___ 1910
1911
1912




4

11
2

4

3

3

2

5
3

132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913-BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. emplants.
ploy-

Shearmen:
19 plants..

Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time
of
hours wages week­
ly
per per earn­
week. hour ings.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

70.0 $0,303 $20.85
69.4 .306 20.96
69.5 .328

1910
1911
1912

69.8
69.6

19 plants___ 1912
1913
S h e a r m e n ’;
helpers:
18 plants...

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

.319 21.93
24.80

11

1910
1911
1912

100
96

70.9
69.5
70.1

.218 15.15
.217 14.90
.237 16.44

14
12
1

18
17
20

18 plants___ 1912
1913

101

70.2
70.5

.230 15.93
.259 18.07

3
1

24
12

1910
1911
1912

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

.162 11.97
.163 12.02
.164 12.13

60
30
3

344
288
352

1912
1913

344
352

74.0
73.4

.163 12.
.184 13.53

5
34

11

Laborers:
19 plants. .

19 plants...

17

20

62 192

55 .

PER CENT.
Pit cranemen:
18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

69.6 $0,315 $21.41
68.8 .309 21.01
68.7 .328 22.33

21.2 22.2 34.3 22.2
9.5 31.6 54.7 4.2
7.2 27.8 50.5 14.4

19 plants___ 1912
1913

95
99

71.6
71.4

.319 22.63
.373 26.48

13.7 28.4 43.2 14.7
7.1 3.0 45.5 44.4

1910
1911
1912

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

.521 37.88
.512 37.50
.556 40.42

7.8 29.4 45.1 13.7 3.9
8.2 34.7 44.9 4.1 8.2
26.4 43.4 15.1 15.1

19 plants.... 1912
1913
Heaters’ help­
ers:
11 plants.... 1910
1911
1912

55
53

72.9
73.2

.552 40.14
.604 44.18

29.1 41.8 14.5 14.5
22.6 34.0 18.9 24.5

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

.344 24.62
.363 26.71
.354 25.58

1912
1913

50
52

67.9
67.2

.352 23.63
.390 26.01

4.0 10.0 6.0 50.0 30.0
5.8 21.2 30.8 21.2 21.2

1910
1911
1912

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

.335 23.26
.331 23.24
.347 24.44

3.3 16.7 23.3 26.7 26.7
3.610.9 12.7 47.3 25.5
3.4 17.2 8.6 36.2 34.5

15 plants___ 1912
1913
Bottom makers’
helpers:
12 plants... 1910
1911
1912

56
60

71.4
71.4

.346 24.50 .......
.384 27.28

3.6 17.9 12.5 30.4 35.7
10.0 23.3 15.0 45.0

47
46
46

70.3
70.3
70.4

.251 17.23
.243 16.83
.257 17.84

8.5 17.0
8.7 15.2
4.3 13.0

1912
1913

50
55

70.6
70.8

4.0 12.0
18.0 42.0 24.0
3.6 i8.*2 5.5 30.9 41.8

1910
1911
1912

42 70.9
40 70.9
41 69.2

.257 17.95
.276 19.33
.392 27.12►
.385 26.66
.428 28.65

1912
1913

46
46

68.4
68.0

.437 28.79\
. 491i 32.04I ..

Heaters:
.19 plants_
_

11 plants—
Bottom makers:
16 plants...

13 plants...
Roll engineers:
18 plants...

19 plants___




5.9 11.8 32.4 23.5 17.6
5.9 11.8 17.6 32.4 20.6
5.9 14.7 8.8 26.5 44.1

*.:*.:

i
1

i

. . . J .......

8.8
11.8

3.3

6.7

31.9 17.0 25.5
19.6 34.8 21.7
19.6 37.0 26.1

11.9 40.5 35.7 4.8 7.1
10.0 57.5 17.5 15.0
58.5 4.9 31.7 4.9
4.3 52.2 4.3 28.3 10.9
37.0 17.41 15.2123.9 **6.5

133

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — B L O O M IN G M I L L S .

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy-

Rollers:
18 plants...

1910
1911
1912

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
of
time
hours wages week­
ly
per per earn­
week, hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts,

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts,

34
23.9 23.9 17.4
6.8 31.7 29.3 12.2
16.7 31.0 16.7 35.7

67. $0,605 $40.00
66.
.585 38.49
.652 41.41
65.

19 plants----- 1912
1913

65.9
66.2

40.53
.703 45.11

1910
1911
1912

68.4
67.9
66.6

.365 24.21
.350 23.26
24.94

1912
1913

66.5

24.92
.432 27.60

1910
1911
1912

69.3
68.7
68.7

.271 18.03
.254 17.05
.285 19.00

16.7
17.1
11.4

27.8 27. 19.4 .
8 .3 .
25.7 25.7 25.7.
22.9 22.9 31.4 8.6 .

1912
1913

.290 19.24
.316 20.95

12.1.
6.5 .

.21.2 24.2 33.3 9.1 .32.3 6.5 32.3 12.9 9.7 .

1910
1911
1912

20.85
.306 20.96
.328 22.39

22.9 27.1 43.8
8.7 15.2 15.2 50.0 10.9
15.2 17.4 45.7 17.4

19 plants___ 1912
1913
S h ea rm en ’ s
helpers:
18 plants----- 1910
1911
1912

69.6

.319 21.93
24.80

3.8 17.3 15.4 44.2 15.4 3.8 .
21.2
36.5 21.2 11.5.

100 70.9
96 69.5
93 70.1

.218 15.15
.217 14; 90
.237 16.44

Manipulators:
19 plants----

19 plants—
Table men:
13 plants—

12 plants...
Shearmen:
19 plants...

18 plants...
Laborers:
19 plants...

19 plants—

4.3 19J 28.3 15.2 32.6
4.3 8.7 23.9 19.6 43.5
7.7 30. 28.8 23.1
. 10.4 29.2 27.1 27.1
6.4 21.3 29.8 23.4
5.9

14.0 18.0 17.0 26.0 16.0 9.0 .
1.0 12.5 17.7 8.3 30.2 27.1 3.1 .
1.1 21.5 9.7 29.0 20.4 18.3.
3.0 24.2 9.1 29.3 19.2 15.2.
1.0 11.9 13.9 19.8 27.7 24.8 1.0.

1912
1913

101

70.2
70.5

.230 15.93
.259 18.07

1910
1911
1912

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

.162 11.97 10.0 13.4 76.6.
.163 12.02 12.4 8.3 79.3 .
.164 12.13 10.4

1912
1913

344
352

74.0
73.4

.163 12.08 11.9 1.5
.184 13.53 2.6




20.4 32.7 22.4
37.3 21.6

3.8
6.3
8.5 10. (
8.2 10.2.
7.8 11.8 5.9

6 .3 .
4. 3

134

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLOOMING MILLS.

T a b le

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle W est/'!
PIT CRANEMEN.

Year and
district.

1912.
Eastern............
.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern..........

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ age age full­
Num­ ber of full­ rate time
ber of em­ time
of
plants. ploy­ hours wages week­
ly
ees. per per earn­
week. hour. ings.

14
3
8
46
Pittsburgh
6
29
2
6

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

68.7 $0,283 $19.25
69.3 .331 22.75
76.1 .304 22.98
74.0 .380 27.96

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

6
6
1

4
9
14

2
23
14
2

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over
cts.

2
8
4

Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L .andM .W .
Southern..........

19

95

71.6

.319 22.63

13

27

41

14

3
8
6
2

14
46
31
8

68.7
69.7
74.7
73.5

.326
.378
.368
.440

21.94
26.21
27.46
32.15

4
2
1

1
2

6
25
12
2

4
18
16
6

Total......

19

99

71.4

.373 26.48

7

3

45

44

HEATERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern..........

3
8
6
2

6
21
24
4

75.4 $0,541 $40.15
69.5 .612 42.70
74.5 .497 36.82
78.0 .584 46.61

2
4
9
1

2
7
13
1

2
5
1

Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L .andM .W .
Southern..........

19

55

72.9

.552 40.14

16

23

8

8

3
8
6
2

6
21
22
4

75.4
69.6
75.3
78.0

.605
.661
.536
.681

2
2
7
1

6
11
1

2
6
2

2
7
2
2

Total......

19

53

73.2

.604 44.18

12

18

10

13

44.88
46.25
40.11
54.58

!
I
---- i........

5
1
2

HEATERS’ HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern..........

3
5
2
1

14
29
5
2

75.9 $0,372 $28.21
61.0 .353 21.21
84.0 .240 20.16
72.0 .490 35.28

2

1
4

3

8
16
1

6
7

T otal....,
19 13.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .
Southern..........

11

50

67.9

.352 23.63

2

5

3

25

15

3
5
2
1

14
31
5
2

75.9
61.7
74.4
72.0

.397
.393
.282
.564

30.02
24.05
21.05
40.61

3

6
1
4

15
1

Total......

11

52

67.2

.390 26.01

3

11

2

4
7

4
5

16

11

11

4
3

9
5
3

19
1

7

17

20

4
2
8

5

21
6

4

27

4

2

BOTTOM MAKERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Southern..........
Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..........
T otal....




2

1
7
5
2

2
32
17
5

65.5 $0,227 $14.87
70.2 .401 28.06
73.4 .273 19.90
74.4 .288 21.19

15

56

71.4

.346 24.50

1
7
5
2

4
32
18
6

65.5
69.8
74.7
74.0

.297
.440
.318
.338

19.45
30.72
23.76
24.78

4
2

15

60

71.4

.384 27.28

6

2
2
=

■
■
■

6
2
10

=

=

14

'" 'I
9

=

=

135

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

BOTTOM MAKERS' HELPERS.

Year and
district.

1912.
Pittsburgh. ...
G.L.andM W.
Southern..........

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
Num­ age age full­
Num­ ber of full­ rate time
ber of em­ time
of week­
plants. ploy­ hours wages
ly
ees. per per earn­
week. hour. ings.

7
4
2

34
11
5

13
50
Total......
1913.
34
Pittsburgh.......
7
G. L. and M. W .
4
15
Southern..........
2
6
Total

13

55

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

68.9 $0,281 $19.17
74.2 .212 15.64
74.4 .200 14.75

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

2
2

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

2
4

70.6

.257 17.95

68.9
73.6
74.0

.302 20.64
.234 17.11
.238 17.47

2

70.8

.276 19.33

2

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

3
3
3

17
4

9

21
13

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

12

2
8 *3

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

19
4

6....

10

3

.....

17

12

23

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Southern..........
Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
Southern___
Total..

6
24
13
3

4
10.

46

68.4 '.437 28.79

24

24
13
3

19

69.3 $0,385 $26.43
62.6 .485 28.94
77.1 .367 28.18
76.0 .455 34.92

62.
75.2
76.0

.415
.540
.431
.513

68.0

.491 32.04

19

13

28.19
31.92
32.35
39.36
17

ROLLERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Southern..........

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3 $0,493 $33.42
60.5 .705 41.52
73.0 .548 39.99
72.0 .683 49.18

2

Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern..........

19

46

65.9

.632 40.53

2

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
60.5
73.9
72.0

.499
.792
.616
.777

33.75
46.37
45.52
55.92

2

Total......

19

46

66.2

.703 45.11

4
4
1
9
2

4
2
7

6
1

12
1
2

13

7

15

2
4
3

2

5
5
1

2

4

11

9

15
3
2
20

MANIPULATORS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .
Southern,.........
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .
Southern..........
Total

3
8
6
2

6
24
16
3

69.3 $0,343 $23.48
60.5 .457 26.51
74.4 .299 22.23
72.0 .408 29.35

3

2
2
5
1

2
7
7

2
6
1
2

4

5

19

49

66.8

.388 24.92

3

10

16

11

4

5

3
8
6
2

8
24
16
3

68.3
60.5
73.6
72.0

.360
.512
.347
.446

24.25
29.46
25.64
32.14

2
3

3

4
9
5
1

6
5

19

51

66.5

.432 27.60

3

19

11




5

2
6

3

6

3

2
4

136

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

TABLE MEN.

Year and
district.

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern..........

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Num­ of
time
ber of em­ time
of
plants. ploy­ hours wages week­
ly
per
ees. per hour. earn­
week.
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

2
5
3
2

6
16
7
4

68.5 $0,312 $21.21
63.8 .338 20.91
77.3 .201 15.62
72.0 .221 15.88

2 ....
2

Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .
Southern..........

12

33

68.5

.290 19.24

4 ....

2
5
3
2

4
16
7
4

71.1
63.8
73.9
72.0

.270
.385
.221
.249

Total......

12

31

68.0

.316 20.95

18.91
24.22
16.38
17.93

2
5

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2
4

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

4
7

3

2
8

11

3

2

2
6

4

3

10

2i

7
2
1
7

2

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

10

4

3

2

SHEARMEN.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern.........

3
8
6
2

6
28
13
5

69.3 $0,325 $22.72
67.1 .318 20.71
74.8 .303 22.65
72.0 .360 25.95

2

6
3

1
2
4
1

5
12
4
2

4
2
2

2

Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM. W .
Southern..........

19

52

69.8

.319 21.93

2

9

8

23

8

2

3
8
6
2

6
28
13
5

69.3
67.3
73.9
72.0

.382
.358
.352
.396

26.19
23.24
26.12
28.50

i

8
3

2
2
1

2
4
3
2

5
1

Total......

19

52

69.6

.363 24.80

1

11

5

11 -

6

41
9
|
4,
2
19

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM. W .
Southern..........
Total......
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM. W .
Southern..........
Total__

2
8
6
2

10
53
28
8

66.4 $0,235 $15.74
68.3 .242 16.27
74.7 .217 16.12
72.0 .185 13.29

18

99

70.2

.230 15.93

2
8
6
2

10
55
28
8

66.4
68.7
75.2
72.0

.261
.275
.243
.203

18

101

70.5

1
2
6

4
15
6
4

4
15

3

1
12
10
1

3

24

9

29

19

15

17.26
18.69
18.14
14.58

11
2
1

4
8
4
4

4
18
6

2
17
6

1

1

10
2

.259 18.07

1

12

14

20

28

25

1

12
33 **7i
17 121

4
43
8

62 192

55

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Southern..........

3
8
6
2

23
143
150
28

64.8 $0.141 $9.05
73.3 .169 12.40
76.1 .167 12.70
73.7 .131 9.65

28

Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
Southern..........

19

344

74.0

.163 12.08

41

3
8
6
2

22
147
146
37

65.7
73.8
74.0
73.6

.163
.192
.191
.140

10.65
14.20
14.10
10.30

9

28

Total......

19

352

73.4

.184 13.53

9

34




12
1

5

6
142
150

5

298

6

9
6

137

W A G E S A N D H O U R S O F L A B O R — B L O O M IN G M I L L S .

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Pit cranemen:

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
48 Over 56
Year. em­ time
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
and
84
per un­ under
ees. week. der.
under
under
60
56
72
84

18
18
18

11
14
18

50
47
45

4
6
6

16
10
10

95
99

71.6
71.4

6
6

18
14

45
54

16
20

10
5

1910
1911
1912

51
49
53

73.4
73.3
73.0

3
3
3

1
1

2
4
4

31
25
31

4
6
4

11
10
10

55
53

72.9
73.2

3
3

1
1

4
4

33
27

4
8

10
10

1910
1911
1912

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

3
3
3

4
4
4

12
12
12

9
6
6

6
9
9

1912
1913
Bottom makers:

69.6
68.8
68.7

1912
1913
Heaters' helpers:

99
95
97

1912
1913
Heaters:
19 plants__ ________________

1910
1911
1912

50
52

67.9
67.2

15
15

4
4

16
20

6
8

9
5

1910
1911
1912

60
55
58

70.5
70.8
70.9

6
6
6

2
3
3

48
37
40

5
5

4
4
4

56 71.4
60 71.4

6
6

2
4

36
36

6
8

6
6

47 70.3
46 70.3
46 70.4

6
6
6

3
3

37
30
28

5
7

4
2
2

70.6
70.8

6
6

30
31

12
14

2
4

15 plants................................. 1912
1913
Bottom makers’ helpers:
12 plants*.................................

1910
1911
1912

13 plants................................... 1912
1913
Roll engineers:
18 plants..... ............................. 1910
1911
1912

50
55

19 plants................................... 1912
1913
Rollers:
18 plants................................... 1910
1911
1912
19 plants................................... 1912
1913
Manipulators:
19 plants................................... 1910
1911
1912
19 plants................................... 1912
1913
Table men:
13 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

42 70.9
40 70.9
41 69.2

3
3
6

3
3
3

4
5
5

19
15
13

7
8
8

6
6
6

46
46

68.4
68.0

6
6

6
6

4
4

11
13

15
15

4
2

46
41
42

67.6
66.6
65.0

6
3
6

3
6
6

5
6
6

29
24
22

2
2

46 65.9
46 66.2

6
6

6
6

6
6

24
22

4
6

52 68.4
48 67.9
47 66.6

6
3
6

3
6
6

7
8
6

29
24
22

3
5
5

4
2
2

49
51

66.8
66.5

6
6

6
6

6
8

24
24

5
7

2

36
35
35

69.3
68.7
68.7

3

3
6
6

4
6
0

20
17
17

2
4
4

4
2
2

33
31

68.5
68.0

6
6

6
4

15
17

4
4

2

3

12 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Shearmen:
19 plants................................... 1910
1911
1912

48 70.0
46 69.4
46 69.5

3
3
3

3
i
3
3 ....................

4
6
6

28
28
28

6
4
4

4
2
2

19 plants................................... 1912
1913

52 69.8
52 69.6

3
3

3 '

6
6

34
30

4
10

2




1

138

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Shearmen’ s helpers
18 plants..........

18 plants..........
Laborers:
19 plants..........

19 plants..........

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
hours and
and
and
72
ploy- per un­ and under 60
and
84
under 60
under
under
week. der.
56
72
84

1910
1911
1912

100 70.9
96 69.5
93 70.1

1912
1913

101

70.2
70.5

1910
1911
1912

449
363
396

74.1
73.7
73.8

214
224

109
65
72

1912
1913

344
352

74.0
73.4

172
190

72
51

14
2
2

PER CENT.
Pit cranemen:
18 plants..................

19 plants..................
Heaters:
19 plants..................

19 plants..................
Heaters’ helpers:
11 plants..................

11 plants..................
Bottom makers:
16 plants..................

15 plants..................
Bottom makers’ helpers:
12 plants..................

13 plants..................
Roll engineers:
18 plants..................

19 plants..................
Rollers:
18 plants......... . —

19 plants..................




11.1
14.7
18.6

50.5
49.5
46.4

4.0
6.3
6.2

16.2
10.5
10.3

18.9
14.1

47.4
54.5

16.8
20.2

10.5
5.1

51
49
53

69.6
18.2
68.8
18.9
68.7 ......... 18.6 .........
71.6
6.3
71.4 ......... 6.1 ......... .........
73.4
5.9
73.3 ....... ; 6.1
2.0
73.0 ......... 5.7
1.9

3.9
8.2
7.5

60.8
51.0
58.5

7.8
12.2
7.5

21.6
20.4
18.9

1912
1913

55
53

72.9
73.2

5.5
5.7

7.3
7.5

60.0
50.9

7.3
15.1

18.2
18.9

1910
1911
1912

34
34
34

73.4
73.5
73.5

8.8
8.8
8.8

11.8
11.8
11.8

35.3
35.3
35.3

26.5
17.6
17.6

17.6
26.5
26.5

1912
1913

50
52

67.9
67.2

30.0
2a 8

8.0
7.7

32.0
38.5

12.0
15.4

18.0
9.6

1910
1911
1912

60
55
58

70.5
10.0
70.8
10.9
70.9 ......... 10.3

3.3
5.5
5.2

80.0
67.3
69.0

9.1
8.6

6.7
7.3
6.9

1912
1913

56
60

71.4
10.7
71.4 ......... 10.0 ......... .........

3.6
6.7

64.3
60.0

10.7
13.3

10.7
10.0

1910
1911
1912

47
46
46

70.3
12.8
70.3 ......... 33.0
70.4 ......... 13.0

6.5
6.5

78.7
65.2
60.9

10.9
15.2

8.5
4.3
4.3

1912
1913

50
55

70.6
70.8

60.0
56.4

24.0
25.5

4.0
7.3

1910
1911
1912

42
40
41

70.9
70.9
69.2

7.1
7.5
14.6

7.1
7.5
7.3

9.5
12.5
12.2

45.2
37.5
31.7

16.7
20.0
19.5

14.3
15.0
14.6

1912
1913

46
46

68.4
68.0

13.0
13.0

13.0
13.0

8.7
8.7

23.9
28.3

32.6
32.6

8.7
4.3

1910
1911
1912

46
41
42

67.6
66.6
65.0

13.0
7.3
14.3

6.5
14.6
14.3

10.9
14.6
14.3

63.0
58.5
52.4

4.9
4.8

1912
1913

46
46

65.9
66.2

13.0
13.0

13.0
13.0

52.2
47.8

8.7
13.0

1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

1912
1913

95
99

1910
1911
1912

1.8
4.9

12.0
10.9

6.5

139

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB— BLOOMING MILLS.
T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—
Concluded.
PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of

Manipulators:
19 plants..........

19 plants..........
Table men:
13 plants..........

12 plants..........
Shearmen:
19 plants..........

19 plants..........
Shearmen’s helpers:
18 plants..........

18 plants..........
Laborers:
19 plants..........

19 plants........




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
1
Over
of
Over
48 Over 56
Year. em­ time
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
and
84
per un­ under
ees. week. der.
under
under
60
56
84
72

1910
1911
1912

52
48
47

68.4
67.9
66.6

11.5
6.3
12.8

5.8
12.5
12.8

13.5
......... 16.7
......... 12.8

55.8
50.0
46.8

5.8
10.4
10.6

7.7
4.2
4.3

1912
1913

49
51

66.8
66.5

12.2
11.8

12.2
11.8

12.2
......... 15.7

49.0
47.1

10.2
13.7

4.1

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

8.3
69.3
68.7
68.7 ........

8.3
17.1
17.1

11.1
17.1
......... 17.1

55.6
48.6
48.6

5.6
11.4
H.4

11.1
5.7
5.7

1912
1913

33
31

68.5
68.0

18.2
19.4

18.2
......... 12.9

45.5
54.8

12.1
12.9

6.1

1910
1911
1912

48
46
46

70.0
69.4
69.5

6.3
6.5
6.5

6.3
6.5
6.5

8.3
13.0
13.0

58.3
60.9
60.9

12.5
8.7
8.7

8.3
4.3
4.3

1912
1913

52
52

69.8
69.6

5.8
5.8

5.8
5.8

11.5
......... 11.5

65.4
57.7

7.7
19.2

3.8

1910
1911
1912

100
96
93

70.9
3.0
69.5
3.1
70.1 .........

9.0
9.4
9.7

8.0
14.6
15.1

56.0
58.3
62.4

10.0
12.5
10.8

14.0
2.1
2.2

1912
1913

99
101

70.2
70.5

9.1
8.9

......... 14.1
11.9

64.6
55.4

10.1
23.8

2.0

1910
1911
1912

449
363
396

74.1
73.7 . . . . . .
73.8 .........

.7
1.1
1.5

2.4
3.9
3.0

13.1
9.4
9.6

53.9
59.0
56.6

5.6
8.8
11.1

24.3
17.9
18.2

1912
1913

344
352

74.0
73.4 .........

1.7
1.1

3.5
2.6

11.0
16.2

50.0
54.0

12.8
11.6

20.9
14.5

140

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLOOMING MILLS.

T abi#e

PIT CRANEMEN.

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

Num­
Num­ ber of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time 48 Over 56
Over
Over
72
hours and
48
60
and
per
and under 60
and
72
and
84
un­
week. der. under 60
under
under
72
84
56

3
8
6
2

14
46
29
6

68.7
69.3
76.1
74.0

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West__
Southern.......................................

19

95

71.6

6

18

3
8
6
2

14
46
31
8

68.7
69.7
74.7
73.5

6

10
4

Total...................................

19

99

71.4

6

14

3

2
2

10
8

6

22
19
4

4
10
2

10

45 .

16

10

26
22
6

4
10
4
2

5

54

20

5

2
2

2

HEATERS.
1912.
Eastern................... .
Pittsburgh
........................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
8
6
2

6
21
24
4

75.4
69.5
74.5
78.0

Total............ .
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .
Southern.......................................

19

55

72.9

3
8
6
2

6
21
22
4

75.4
69.6
75.3
78.0

Total...................................

19

53

73.2

1
3

1

4
2
2

3
1
3

1

4

14
19

5
3

33

4

10

12
15

2
4
2

2

27

8

5
3
10

HEATERS' HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern........................... .
Pittsburgh
. .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................

3
5
2
1

14
29
5
2

75.9
61.0
84.0
72.0

15

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern
.....................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern
..
............... .

11

50

67.9

15

3
5
2
1

14
31
5
2

75.9
61.7
74.4
72.0

15

Total...................................

11

•52

67.2

15

4

14

6

4
5

2
4

16

4
14
4
2
4

6
6
2

9
4
1

20

8

5

18
15
3

4

4
2

36

6

6

20
12
4

2
4
2

4
2

36

8

6

BOTTOM MAKERS.
1912.
Eastern
.......................
Pittsburgh
...............
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .
Southern.......................................
Total

................................
1913.
Eastern..
.
.........
Pittsburgh
.................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .........................
Southern
Total

................................




1
7
5
2

2
32
17
5

65.5
70.2
73.4
74.4

6

15

56

71.4

6

1
7
5
2

4
32
18
6

65.5
69.8
74.7
74.0

6

15

60

71.4

6

2

2

2

4

4

141

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOR— BLOOMING MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

BOTTOM MAKERS' HELPERS.

Year and district.

1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West__
Southern.......................................

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
time 48 Over 56
Over
48
72
60
hours and
and
and
72
and
84
per un­ and under 60
week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

7
4
2

34
11
5

68.9
74.2
74.4

6

18
9
3

10

Total...................................
1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

13

50

70.6

6

30

12

7
4
2

34
15
6

68.9
73.6
74.0

6

18
13

10
4

2
2

Total...................................

13

55

70.8

6

31

14

4

4
6
1

2
8
3
2

4

11

15

4

4
8
1

2
8
3
2

2

1

15

2

10
11
3

2

24

4

2

2
2

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1912.
Eastern . ............
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
62.6
77.1
76.0

6

6

4

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern . . .......... .
Pittsburgh................................ .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern................................ .

19

46

68.4

6

6

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
62.8
75.2
76.0

6

6

Total...................................

19

46

68.0

6

6

4

4
4

ROLLERS.
1912.
Eastern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern
.
.................

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
60.5
73.0
72.0

6

6

4
2

..................
1913.
Eastern
..............
Pittsburgh
. ............
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern ...................... .

19

46

65.9

6

6

6

3
8
6
2

6
24
13
3

69.3
60.5
73.9
72.0

6

6

4
2

Total...................................

19

46

66.2

6

6

6

6

4
2

Total

2

2
10
9
3

4

22

6

MANIPULATORS.
1912.
Eastern .......................... ............
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern
. ..................

3
8
6
2

6
24
16
3

69.3
60.5
74.4
72.0

6

............ ...............

19

49

66.8

6

6

6

1913.
Eastern ...................................
Pittsburgh ................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

3
8
6
2

8
24
16
3

68.3
60.5
73.6
72.0

6

6

6
2

Total...................................

19

51

66.5

6

Total




6

8

2
10
11
3

3

2

24

5

2

2
10
11
3

5

24

7

142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BLOOMING MILLS—
Concluded.

T a b le

TABLE MEN.

Year and district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

1912.
Eastern
..................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West__
Southern.......................................
Total...................................
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .
Southern.......................................
Total................................... .

Number of
Aver­
age
Over
full­
48
time 48
hours and and
per un­ un­
week. der. der
56

employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
56
and
un­
der
60

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

2
5
3
2

6
16
7
4

68.5
63.8
77.3
72.0

6

4
2

12

33

68.5

2
5
3
2
12

6

6

4 71.1
16 63.8
7 73.9
4 72.0

6

2
2

31

6

4

68.0

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

2
8
3
4
15

2

2

4

2

2

8
5
4

2

17

4

20
9
5

2

2

34

4

2

SHEARMEN.
1912.
Eastern ............................. .
Pittsburgh ..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

3
8
6
2

6
28
13
5

69.3
67.1
74.8
72.0

3

3

4
2

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern
. ...............................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern
.............................

19

52

69.8

3

3

6

Total...................................

19

3
8
6
2

6 69.3
28 67.3
13 73.9
5 72.0

3

3

4
2

69.6

3

3

6

52

16
9
5

2

2
4
4

30

10

38
18
8

8

2

64

10

2

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern
. .................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern ........................... .

2
8
6
2

10
53
28
8

66.4
68.3
74.7
72.0

9

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern
....................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern......................................

18

99

70.2

9

14

2
8
6
2

10
55
28
8

66.4
68.7
75.2
72.0

9

8
4

Total...................................

18

101

70.5

9

12

8
6

34
14
8

2

2
8
14

56

24

71
80
21

2
19
17
6

2
21
48
1

172

44

72

68
93
29

2
22
11
6

2
22
25
2

190

41

51

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern
......................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .
Southern.......................................

3
8
6
2

23
143
150
28

64.8
73.3
76.1
73.7

6

Total...................................
1913.
Eastern
...............................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Southern.......................................

19

344

74.0

3
8
6
2

22
147
146
37

Total .................................

19

352




5
3
4

8
29
1

6

12

38

65.7
73.8
74.0
73.6

4

5
4

9
35
13

73.4

4

9

57

PLATE MILLS.
SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the plate-mill department of the iron
and steel industry are given with figures for other departments in
the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explanation of the
scope of the investigation and the methods employed is given on
pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in plate
mills was from 9.2 per cent to 16.8 per cent higher than in any
one of the three years preceding, and as the average full-time hours
per week were also higher, the average full-time weekly earnings in
1913 were 14 per cent higher than in 1910, 18.3 per cent higher than
in 1911, and 9.8 per cent higher than in 1912.
The most significant facts concerning the several plate-mill occu­
pations which are covered in this section of the report are summar­
ized in the table following. Data are presented for the years 1910,
1911, 1912, and 1913, figures for identical plants being grouped to­
gether. The data for 1913 represents 1,256 plate-mill employees in
the 16 occupations covered, and were obtained from 11 plants having
18 mills in operation.
Referring to the first occupation, laborers, direct comparison can
be made of data for 11 identical plants for 1910 to 1912, inclusive,
and for a second group of 11 plants for 1912 and 1913.
The first line of the table is read as follows: In 1910 the 11 plate
mills for which reports were obtained employed 355 laborers whose
average full-time hours of work were 66.8 per week. For 25.1 per
cent of the 355 laborers the full-time hours per week were 60 and
under; for 58 per cent, over 60 and under 72; for 9.9 per cent, 72;
for 0.6 per cent, over 72 and under 84; and for 6.5 per cent the
working hours were 84 per week. The average rate of wages or
earnings per hour of laborers in the year considered (1910) was
$0,159. Of the total number, 17.7 per cent received 12 and under
14 cents per hour; 10.1 per cent, 14 and under 16 cents; 71.3 per
cent, 16 and under 18 cents; and 0.8 per cent, 18 and under 20 cents
per hour. The average full-time weekly earnings were $10.68. The
other lines of the table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 11 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers were $10.68 in 1910.
In 1911 there was a drop to $10.51, and in 1912 an increase to $11.04.
In the second group of 11 plants the average was $11,17 in 1912 and
143



144

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

$12.62 in 1913. Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings
for 1913 in the several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average
was that of laborers, which was $12.62, while with but two excep­
tions the average full-time weekly earnings for the remaining 15
occupations were from 50 to over 350 per cent higher, the highest
being the average for rollers, sheared-plate mills, which was $49.21,
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PE R HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Occupation, and
number of
plants.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
AverNum­
ber
a t
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
72
hours 60 60
ploy­ per and and
72 and 84
ees. week. un­ un­
un­
der. der
der
72
84

Laborers:
11 plants.............. 1910
1911
1912
11 plants..............

1912
1913

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver
hour were—
Aver­
age
age
full­
rateof 12 14 16 18
time
wages and and and and
20 week
per un­
iy
cts.
hour. der un­ un­ un­ and earn­
der der der
ings.
14 16 18 20 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts.

355
274
287

66.8 25.1 58.0 9.9
66.2 25.5 51.8 18.2
68.3 25.4 44.9 16.7

0.6 6.5 $0,159 17.7 10.1 71.3 0.8 . . . . . $10.68
....... 10.51
3.3 1.1 .158 23.7 9.5 66.8
7.0 15.9 .160 26.1 7.3 65.2 i.*4 ....... 11.04

339
349

68.9 21.5 36.3 31.0
69.3 22.3 35.5 32.4

5.9 25.4
3.2 36.6

.161 22.1 9.4 65.5 2.9
11.17
24.9 23.2 19.8 *32.*i 12.62
.181
16 20 30
Un­ and and and 40
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
16 der der der and
cts. 20 30 40 ova:.
cts. cts. cts.

Heaters’ helpers:
10 plants..............

1910
1911
1912

111
108
101

69.5
66.7 27.9
67.3 *3.7 65.7 29.6
67.5 3.0 64.4 29.7

5.4
.9
3.0 .......

.243 9.0 29.7 45.0 5.4 10.8 16.98
.227 10.2 30.5 48.2 4.6 6.5 15.31
.247 . . . . 29.7 56.4 6.9 6.9 16.71

10 plants.............. 1912
1913
Roll hands, other,
sheared-plate mills:
6 plants................ 1910
1911
1912

113
107

68.7 2.7 61.1 24.8 8.0 3.5
68.7 . . . . . 64.5 23.4 12.1 .......

.243
33.6 54.0 6.2 6.2 16.74
.252 ___ 31.8 44.8 13.1 10.3 17.50

14
14
14

68.0
68.9
68.9

71.4 28.6
42.9 57.1
42.9 57.1

.263
42.9 14.3 42.9
17.71
.242 ii.*3 14.3 57.1
*i4.*3 16.64
.279 14.3 14.3 35.7j|2i.*4 14.3 19.16

6 plants................ 1912
1913

16
16

69.3
69.3

37.5 62.5
37.5 62.5

.269 12.5 18.8 37.618.8 12.5 18.54
.280
25.0 31.331.3 12.5 19.31

Shearmen's helpers:
11 plants..............

1910
1911
1912

11 plants.............. 1912
1913
Table men. shearedplate mills:
9 plants................ 1910
1911
1912

460 68.4
429 68.4
432 68.6

1.5 56.7 41.7 .......
3.7 40.6 55.7 . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 39.4 58.1 .......

.215 9.7 47.4 28.5 13.9
.206 13.8 52.7 27.3 6.1
.223 4.1 56.3 20.2 18.1

.4 14.71
.2 14.20
1.4 15.42

392
393

2.3 42.3 55.4
1.5 42.5 56.0 . . . . . . . . . .

.226 3.6 52.8 23.7 18.4
.253 6.3116.5 49.9 22.6

1.5 15.59
4.6 17.47

73
72
69

68.3
68.4

68.5 31.5
68.3
68.1
58.3 41.7
68.3 ....... 56.5 43.5

.262 8.2 24.7 37.0 27.4 2.7 17.88
.246 4.2|41.7 29.2 16.7 8.3 16.81
....... .279 ...J30.4 34.7 17.4 17.4 19.07
j
9 plants................ 1912
72 68.5
52.8 47.2 .......
.276 ....*27.8 38.9 16.7 16.7 18.90
1913
75 68.6
50.7 49.3
.310 ....'16 .0 38.7 21.3 24.0 21.35
1Including 5.2 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including 2.7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
3 Including 2.9 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91,




145

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

AVER AG E AN D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AN D RATES OF W A G E S
PE R H O UR , AND AVER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF TH E
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—Continued.

Occupation, and
number of
plants.

Charging-crane and
c h a r ging-machine
operators:
9 plants...............

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
AverNum­ age
ber of full­
Over
Over
Year. em- time
72
ploy- hours 60 60
and
and
per and
72 un­ 84
week. un­ un­
der
der. der
72
84

1910
1911
1912

71.6
69.4
69.1

34.1 56.1
7.7 33.3 56.4
7.9 34.2 57.9

10 plants............. 1912
1913
Manipulators,shearedplate mills:
9 plants............... 1910
1911
1912

69.6
70.3

4.8 33.3 33.3 28.6
31.8 40.9 27.3

68.4
68.1
68.1

1912
1913

9 plants...............
Roll engineers:
11 plants.............

11 plants.............
Roll hands, other,
universal mills, 48inch:
2 plants................

3 plants.
Screw men, side rolls,
universal mills, 48inch:
4 plants..

Shearmen:
11 plants..

11 plants..

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate of
time
20 30 40
wages Un­ and and and 50 week*
per der
iy
cts.
hour. 20 un­ un­ un­ and
der der der
cts. 30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts.

10.303
65.8 19.5 14.6
.283 12.8 43.5 38.5 2.6
10.5
.315 10.5 36.8

$21.85
2.6 19.70
5.2 21.85

33.4 42.9 9.5
31.8 27.3 27.3

4.8 21.98
4.6 24.24

69.2 30.8
57.1 42.9
57.1 42.9

53.9 15.4 30.8
.318
.300 10.7 46.4 25.0 17.9
.341 14.3 42.9 7.1 28.6

21.64
20.44
7.1 23.24

68.3
68.4

53.3 46.7
51.6 48.4

.334 13.3 46.7 6.7 26.7 6.7 22.85
.361 6.5 41.9 3.2 35.5 12.9 24.74

1910
1911
1912

71.5
70.8
71.5

27.8 61.1 11.1
5.7 34.3 37.1 17.1
5.7 34.3 34.3 17.1

1912
1913

72.5
72.8

5.4 32.4 27.0 21.6 13.5
30.6 22.2 13.9

1910
1911
1912

70.0
72.0
72.0

1912
1913

72.0

28

33.3

20.0

2.6

.315
.343

.300 11.2 44.5 33.3 5.6
54.3 28.6 8.6
.290
54.3 28.6 8.6

5.6 21.45
20.55
20.78

.287
.309

56.7 27.0 8.1
44.4 41.7 5.6

20.93
22.63

>7
.
100.0
100.0

.299
.299

33.3 i.7
50.0 50.0
50.0 50.0

20.93
21.55
20.74

80.0
100.0

.277

60.0 40.0
66.7 1.3

19.41
20.74

40.0 40.0 20.0
.314
44.4 44.4 11.1
.296
55.6
.271 44.4
25.0 i2.*5 12.5
.294 50.0

21.77
19.80
18.12
20.56

1910
1911
1912
1913

60.0 40.0
10 69.2
66.3 22.2 44.4 33.3
66.3 22.2 44.4 33.3
50.0 50.0
68.6

1910
1911
1912

70

5.7
8.6

1912
1913

32.9 32.9 10.0 22.8 25.69
37.8 31.8 10.6 18.1 24.45
36.8 27.9 11.8 23.5 26.61

67.5
68.0
68.2

2.9 64.3 32.9
6.1 42.4 51.5
5.9 39.7 54.4

.378
.356

68.3
68.

7.2 37.7 55.1
2.8 37.7 59.4

37.6 0.4 8.7 23.1 26.48
.384
.413 2.9 15.9 0.4 23.2 27.5 28.63
30 40
Un­ and and
der un­ un­
30 der der
cts. 40 50
cts. cts.

Heaters:
11 plants............... 1910
1911
1912
11 plants............... 1912
1913
R o l le r s , sh earedplate mills:
9 plants............... 1910
1911
1912
9 plants............... 1912
1913

.508
.468
.513

14.3 21.4 35.7 21.4 36.35
27.3 20.0 38.2 9.1 32.46
17.0 11.3 45.3 20.8 35.78

71.0

3.6 36.4 32.7
37.0 35.2

.513
.557

16.4 12.7 45.5 20.0 36.02
11.1 31.5 20.4 37.0 39.93

68.4
68.1
68.5

71.4 28.6
3.6 53.6 42.9
4.0 48.0 48.0

.712 21.4
.607 21.4
.729 4.0

71.0
69.1
69.4

39.3 53.6
5.4 38.2 54.5
5.7 35.8 52.8

5.7

48.1 51.9
68.7 ...
68 .5 ... .. 50.0 5 0 .0 ........

83021°— Bull, 168— 15------ 10




50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

7.1
1.8

14.3 7.1 50.0 48.18
14.3 10.7 46.4 41.46
24.0 8.0 56.0 50.03

.711 3.7 7.4 29.6 7.4 51.8 48.93
.71811.5 7.715.4 7.7 57.7 49.21

146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A VER AG E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF W AG ES
PER H OUR, AND AVE R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF TH E
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

Occupation, and
number of
plants.

R o l l e r s , universal
mills. 48-inch:
4 plants...............

Screw men, main
rolls, u n i v e r s a l
mills, 48-inch:
4

Screw men, shearedplate mills:
9 plants...............

9 plants..

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
AverAver­
Num­
age
ber of
rateof
30 40 50
Over
Over
Year. em- time
72
pi°y- hours 60 60
per Un­ and and and 60
per and and 72 and 84 hour. der un­ un­ un­ cts.
30 der der der and
un­
week. un­ un­
der. der
der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
72
84
cts. cts. cts.

50.0
57.1
50.0
66.7

$0,636
25.0
.584
28.6
3
.581
.672 33.3

Avertime
week*
ly
earn-

75.0 $44.22
71.5 40.31
66.7 39.78
66.7 47.81

1910
1911
1912
1913

69.5
50.0
68.4 14.3
67.8 16.7 33.3
33.3

1910
1911
1912
1913

50.0 50.0
28.6 28.6 42.9
42.9
66.6 28.6
71.4
70.1

.470
25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 32.75
.421 14.3 14.3 57.1 14.3
28.23
57.1 14.3
.407 28.6
27.38
42.9
.460 28.6
28.6 32.66

1910
1911
1912

68.6
68.6
68.8

64.3 35.7
3.6 46.4 50.0
3.7 44.4 51.9

.421 14.3 35.7 21.4 14.3 14.3 28.75
.393 25.0 35.7 14.3 17.9 7.1 26.95
.446 18.5 33.3 11.1 14.8 22.2 30.67

69.0
69.0

3.4 41.4 55.2
44.8 55.2

.435 24.1 31.0 10.3 13.: 20.6 30.00
41.4 33.36
44.8 6.9

1912
1913

29

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the four
years which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout
the period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of the preceding table for full-time hours per week, rates
of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupation
from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table
following. These relative or index numbers are simply percentages
for which the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent.
The relative for each year is the per cent which the average for that
year is of the average for 1913. For example, the relative full-time
weekly earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators
in 1910 were 90.7 as compared with 100 in 1913; that is, full-time
weekly earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators
in 1910 were 90.7 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this
occupation in 1913. The method of computing relative numbers is
explained on pages 21 to 23. This table also shows for each occupa­
tion the per cent of increase or decrease in full-time hours per week,
rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings in 1913, as
compared with each specified year preceding. Thus, the full-time
weekly earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine operators
in 1913 were 10.3 per cent higher than in either 1910 or 1912, and
22.2 per cent higher than in 1911.




147

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in each
year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the
full-time weekly earnings of charging-crane and charging-machine
operators in 1912 were 9.8 per cent lower than in 1910; in 1912, 10.9
per cent'higher than in 1911, and in 1913, 10.3 per cent higher than in
1912. The other occupations and items of the table can be studied
in like manner. The percentages of increase and decrease are com­
puted from the relative numbers.
R ELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER H OUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—PLATE MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Charging-crane and chargingmachine operators:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Heaters:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Heaters’ helpers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912.................................
1913..................................
Roll engineers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Rollers, sheared-plate mills:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Screw men, sheared-plate
mills:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Manipulators, sheared-plate
mills:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Table men, sheared-plate
mills:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Weekly earnings.
Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—
in -

Rela­
Rela­
Each
tive
Each
tive
Each
rate 1913 as speci­
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
of
fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
com­
wages pared
year
year weekly pared
year
pared
per
as
as
as
earn­
with
with
with
hour.
com­
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­
speci­ with
speci­ with
with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

102.6
99.4
99.0
100.0

—2.5
+ .6
+1.0

100.7
98.0
98.5
100.0

— .7
+2.0
+ 1.5

103.0
99.7
100.0
100.0

—2.9
+ .3
0)

99.6
98.6
99.6
100.0

+ .4
+1.4
+ .4

100.1
99.7
100.3
100.0

- .1
+ .3
— .3

99.7
99.7
100.0
100.0

+ .3
+ .3
0)

100.3
99.9
99.9
100.0

- .3
+ .1
+ .1

99.9
99.6
99.9
100.0

+ .1
+ .4
+ .1

—3.1
- .4
+1.0.

88.3
82.5
91.8
100.0

+13.3
+21.2
+ 8.9

—2.7
+ .5
+ 1.5

91.2
84.0
92.1
100.0

+ 9.6
+19.0
+ 8.6

—3.2
+ .3
0)

94.9
88.6
96.4
100.0

+ 5.4
+12.9
+ 3.7

—1.0
+1.0
+ .4

96.4
93.2
92.9
100.0

+ 3.7
+ 7.3
+ 7.6

— .4
+ .6
- .3

96.7
82.5
99.0
100.0

+ 3.4
+21.2
+ 1.0

0)
+ -3
0)

85.2
79.5
90.2
100.0

+17.4
+25.8
+10.9

86.3
81.4
92.5
100.0

+15.9
+22.9
+ 8.1

83.6
78.5
89.0
100.0

+19.6
+27.4
+12.4

— .4

— .3
+ .3
+ .1

i No change,

— 6.6
+11.3
+ 8.9

90.7
81.8
90.7
100.0

+10.3
+22.2
+10.3

— 7.9
+ 9.6
+ 8.6

91.6
81.8
90.2
100.0

+ 9.2
+22.2
+10.9

— 6.6
+ 8.8
+ 3.7

97.2
87.6
95.7
100.0

+ 2.9
+14.2
+ 4.5

- 3.3
- .3
+ 7.6

95.5
91.5
92.5
100.0

+ 4.7
+ 9.3 "11*42
+ 8.1
+ 11
+ 8.1

—ii. 7
+20.0
+ 1.0

95.8
82.4
99.4
100.0

+ 4.4
+21.4
+ .6

- 6.7
+13.5
+10.9

84.3
79.0
89.9
100.0

+18.6
+26.6
+11.2

- 5.7
+13.6
+ 8.1

86.0
81.2
92.4
100.0

+16.3
+23.2
+ 8.2

- 6.1
+13.4
+12.4

83.0
78.0
88.5
100.0

+20.5
+28.2 *’ -*6*6
+13.5
+13.0
+13.0

- 9.8
+10.9
+10.3
—10.7
+10.3
+10.9
- 9.9
+ 9.2
+ 4.5

-1 4 .0
+20.6
+ .6

- 6.3
+13.8
+11.2

- 5.6
+13.8
+ 8.2

148

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

R ELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF W AGES P E R HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PE R CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—PLATE MILLS—
Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Each Rela­
tive
1913 as speci­
rate
fied
com­
of
year
pared
wages
as
with
per
com­
each
hour.
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Each Rela­
Each
tive
full­ 1913 as speci­
1913 as speci­
fied
fied
time
com­
year weekly com­
year
pared
pared
as
as
with
earn­
with
com­
com­
each
each
pared ings.
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

Roll hands, other, shearedplate mills:
98.7
+1.3
1910..................................
100.0
1911..................................+1.3
0)
1912................................. 100.0
0)
0)
1913.................................. 100.0
14
Rollers, universal mills, 48inch:
1910..................................
99.6
+ .4
1911........................... ......
98.0
+2.0
—1.6
97.1
1912..................................
+3.0
— .9
1913.................................. 100.0
+3.0
Screw men, main rolls, uni­
versal mills, 48-inch:
1910..................................
99.1
+ .9
-4 .1
95.0
+5.3
1911..................................
1912..................................
95.0
+5.3
0)
1913.................................. 100.0
+5.3
Screw men, side rolls, uni­
versal mills, 48-inch:
— .9
1910.................................. 100.9
96.6
+3.5
- 4 /3
1911..................................
1912..................................
96.6
+3.5
0)
1913..
..................
+3.5
100.0
Roll hands, other, universal
mills, 48-inch:
1910..................................
94.0
+6.4
+3.4
+2.9
1911..................................
96.7
+3.4
1912..................................
96.7
0)
+3.4
1913.................................. 100.0
Shearmen:
1910 .
......................
98.3
+1.7
1911..................................
+1.0
99.0
+ .7
99.3
+ .3
1912..................................
+ .7
1913.................................. 100.0
+ .7
Shearmen’s helpers:
1910..
..................
99.6
+ .4
1911..................................
99.6
+ .4
0)
+ .3
99.9
1912..................................
+ .1
1913 .
...................... 100.0
+ .1
Laborers:
1910..
......................
97.2
+2.9
96.4
- .8
+3.7
1911..................................
99.4
+3.1
1912..................................
+ .6
1913.................................. 100.0
+ .6

90.6
83.3
96.1
100.0

+10.4
+20.0
+ 4.1

94.6
86.9
86.5
100.0

+ 5.7
+15.1
+15.6

102.2
91.5
88.5
100.0

- 2.2
+ 9.3
+13.0

106.8
100.7
92.2
100.0

— 6.4
- .7
+ 8.5

99.9
99.9
96.2
100.0

+ .1
+ .1
+ 4.0

91.1
85.8
93.0
100.0

+ 9.8
+16.6
+ 7.5

86.1
82.5
89.3
100.0

+16.1
+21.2
+12.0

88.4
87.8
89.0
100.0

+13.1
+13.9
+12.4

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

— 8.1
+15.4
+ 4.1

88.7
83.4
96.0
100.0

+12.7
+19.9
+ 4.2

— 8.1
— .5
+15.6

92.5
84.3
83.2
100.0

+ 8.1
+18.6
+20.2

-1 0 .5
— 3.3
+13.0

100.3
86.4
83.8
100.0

- .3
+15.7
+19.3

- 5.7
- 8.4
+ 8.5

105.9
96.3
88.1
100.0

- 5.6
+ 3.8
+13.5

0)
- 3.7
+ 4.0

94.4
97.2
93.6
100.0

+ 5.9
+ 2.9
+ 6.8

- 5.8
+ 8.4
+ 7.5

89.3
85.0
92.5
100.0

+12.0
+17.6
+ 8.1

- 4.2
+ 8.2
+12.0

85.1
82.2
89.2
100.0

+17.5
+21.7
+12.1

- .7
+ 1.4
+12.4

85.6
84.3
88.5
100.0

+16.8
+18.6
+13.0

— 6.0
+15.1
+ 4.2

— 8.9
— 1.3
+20.2

-1 3 .9
— 3.0
+19.3

- 9.1
- 8.5
+13.5

+ 3.0
- 3.7
+ 6.8
- 4.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.1
- 3.4
+ 8.5
+12.1
- 1.5
+ 5.0
+13.0

1No change.

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the plate-mill department as a whole, as determined by a combi­
nation of the data for the several principal productive occupations
which are covered in this section of the report. The method of com­
puting the figures of this table is explained on page 23,




149

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF LA BO R -----P L A T E M I L L S .

From the table following, under 1 weekly earnings,” it is seen that
1
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole
in 1910 were 87.7 as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 87.7 per cent of such earnings
in 1913. The relative decreased to 84.5 in 1911, advanced to 91.1 in
1912, and in 1913, the base year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that the full-time weekly earnings in 1913
were 14 per cent higher than in 1910, 18.3 per cent higher than in
1911, and 9.8 per cent higher than in 1912. The third column under
“ weekly earnings” shows the per cent of increase or decrease in full­
time weekly earnings each year as compared with the year immedi­
ately preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings in 1911 were
3.6 per cent lower than in 1910, 7.8 per cent higher in 1912 than in
1911, and 9.8 per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and rates of wages per hour can be read in like manner,
R E LATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EARS, A LL OCCUPATIONS—PLATE MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Year.

1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

99.3
98.7
99.6
100.0

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( - f )
or decrease ( —)

Rela­
Rela­
Each
Each
tive
tive
Each
speci­
full­
rate 1913 as speci­
speci­
1913 as fied
of
fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
com­
wages pared
year
year weekly pared
year
pared
per
as
as
as
earn­
with
with
with
com­
hour.
com­
com­
ings.
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­ with
speci­ with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.
+0.7
+1.3
+ .4

-0 .6
+ .9
+ .4

88.8
85.6
91.6
100.0

+12.6
+16.8
+ 9.2

- 3.6
+ 7.0
+ 9.2

87.7
84.5
91.1
100.0

+14.0
+18.3
+ 9.8

- 3.6
+ 7.8
+ 9.8

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings for the department must be con­
sidered; that is the change in the relative number of employees in the
several occupations from year to year. It is obvious that an increase
in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid occupations or
a decrease in the relative number of those in the higher-paid ones
would tend to lower the average rate and earnings for all occupations,
just as an increase in the relative number of employees in the higherpaid occupations or a decrease in the relative number in the lowerpaid ones would tend to increase the average.



150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in plate-mill plants whose customary working time per
week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in the following table.
The heading “ 5 and 6 days alternately’’ indicates that the plants
were running 6 days and 5 nights each week, being shut down for one
day and a half each week, and that the employees reported under this
heading worked 6 days one week and 5 nights the next. The heading
“ 6 and 7 days alternately” indicates that the plants were not in oper­
ation half a day in each week, the employees reported working 6 turns
one week and 7 the next week. The figures are presented for each of
the three districts for which reports from plate mills were obtained
and for the three districts combined.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W ORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week

District, and num­ Year.
ber of plants.

Eastern:
2 p la n ts......

2 plants.........
Pittsburgh:
5 plants.........

5 plants.........
Great Lakes and
Middle West:
4 plants.........

4 plants.........
Total:
11 plants.......

11 plants.......




Num­
ber
of
em­
ploy-

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary working time per week

6
5
6
days days,
days
days
7
and days,
and
and
7
6
7
5
5
and
7
6
days.
days. days
days. days. days days. days
7
alaldays
ter- in
terterternatenate- rota­
nateiy. tion.
iyiy.
iy.
5
days
and
6
dajrs

days,
7
days,
and
7
7
days.
days
in
rota­
tion.

1910
1911
1912

343
343
330

253
75
84

24.5
78.1
74.2

73.8
21.9
25.5

” *.*3

1912
1913

333
339

45

72.7
84.7

25.8
13.3

1.5
2.1

1910
1911
1912

709
621
631

665
492
477

1.3 10.0
11.7

93.8
79.2
75.6

11.2
11.7

75.6
73.4

172
121
125

32.4
9.2 38.1
8.7 36.0

61.9
50.6
51.7

97
142

8.7 41.6
38.2

44.3
57.0

1910 1,330
1911 1.203
1912 1.203

1,090

13.1
2.5 35.0
1.7 33.7

82.0
57.2
57.0

1912 1,248
1913 1,256

709
677

1.5 32.9
36.6

56.8
53.9

526
490

1912
1913
1910
1911
1912

278
239
242

1912
1913

219
249

19

22

78

95

1.7

0.S

5.4
9.2
12.7
12.4
11.7

3.3

5.8
2.1
.4
2.4

1.8
1.6
4.5
5.2

.5

7.6
7.1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

151

In addition to the text tables in the summary, four general tables
are presented for the plate-mill department, as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1913.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
Table III.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in the
United States, by years, 1910 to 1913.
Table IV.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in each
year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are sum­
marized in the text table on pages 144 to 146.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended expla­
nation see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year, back
to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in Tables II
and IV, and descriptions of the occupations which appear in the tables
of this report, were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this Bureau, but have
been omitted from the present report.




152

BULLETIN OF THE

BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS.

T a b le

(The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
N U M B ER .

AverNum­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
ber full­ rate £5t
Occupation,
time
of
of week­
and number of Year. em­ time
plants.
ploy­ hours wages ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Charging - crane
and chargingmachine oper­
ators:

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1910
1911
1912

41
39
38

71.6 $0,303 $21.85
69.4 .283 19.70
69.1 .315 21.85

5
4

11
10
7

42
44

69.6
7ft 3

.315 21.98
.343 24.24

4
4

7
6

7
8

1910
1911
1912

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

.508 36.35
.468 32.46
.513 35.78

4
3
3

11 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters’ helpers:
10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

55
54

69.9
71.0

.513 36.02
.557 39.93

3

111
108
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

.243 16.98
.227 15.31
.247 16.71

10 plants___ 1912
1913

113
107

68.7
68.7

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

11 plants___ 1912
1913
Rollers, s&earedplate mills:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

40 50 60
and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der and
50 60 70 over.
cts.
cts.

16
7
7

1912
1913

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

10 plants.
Heaters:
11 plants.

15

11
19
17
14

14
16
16

22
33
38

.243 16.74
.252 17.50

11
20

27
14

42
35

19
13

71.5
70.8
71.5

.300 21.45
.290 20.55
.289 20.78

2
3
3

2

2
3
3

14
16
16

37
36

72.5
72.8

.287 20.93
.309 22.63

3
1

3
3

18
13

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

.712 48.18
.607 41.46
.729 50.03

1912
1913

27
26

68.7
68.5

.711 48.93
.718 49.21

1910
1911
1912

28 68.6
28 68.6
27 68.8

.421 28.75
.393 26.95
.446 30.67

1912
9 plants.
1913
M anipulators,
sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

29
29

69.0
69.0

.435 30.00
.482 33.36

26
28
28

68.4
68.1
68.1

.318 21.64
.300 20.44
.341 23.24

1
1

2
3

8
9
4

6
4
8

1912
1913

30
31

68.3
68.4

.334 22.85
.361 24.74

1
2

3

6
8

8
5

73
72
69

68.3
68.1
68.3

.262 17.88
.246 16.81
.279 19.07

12
8

18
18
13

19
12
21

8
9
3

72
75

68.5
68.6

.276 18.90
.310 21.35

7
10

13
2

25
20

3
9

12

28
19
19

B oll engineers:
11 plants_
_

9 plants.
S crew m en,
sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants-----

9 plants.

T a b le m en ,
sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

9 plants.




1912
1913

10
11

2

6

1

2

4
3

12
7
12

1
3

1
1

6
1

12
11

4
6
4
6
2

13

12

16

10

16

153

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — P L A T E M I L L S .

AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T a b le I . —

NUMBER—Concluded.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ time
hours
ploy- per
week.

R oll hands,
other, shearedplate mills:
6 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

11 plants.

1 plants.
1

2

2
2

*’ *5
2

2
3
3

3

2
2

3
2

3
4

3
1

3
5

2
2

.636
.584 40.31
.581 39.78
.672 47.81

.470 32.75
.421
.407
.460

70.1

69.2
66.3
66.3
68.6

2
2

1

4
4

.299 21.55

72.0
67.5
68.0
68.2

4
4

2
2

2
1

4
4
5
2

2
3
1
2

2
4
4
3

1
1
26.61
2

1

2
1

2
2

9
9
8

14
16
17

23
21
19

7
7
8

8
9
9

4
3
7

7
5

19
6

21
21

6
16

9
10

7
7

31
45
4

145 73 76
48 178 55
98 145 69

55
62
18

64
26
78

2
1
6

1912
1913

392 68.3
68.4

.226
.253

10
10

4
15

84 123 71
30 35 162

22
34

72
89

6
18

1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

.159
.158
.160

63
65
75

36
26
21

253
183
187

.161
.181

75

32
87

222
81




4

4
2
2

14
14
14

68.9
69.3

1

1

.215
.206
.223

339
349

1

2
1

68.4
68.4
68.6

1912
1913

4
2
3
2

2

1
3

.413
460
429
432

2
1
1

2
2
2

.277 19.41
.378
.356

6

2
2

.314 21.77
.296
.271

70.0
72.0
72.0

70

4
2

2

69.5
66.6

11 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

Laborers:
11 plants.

2
2

69.5
68.4
67.8

1912
1913

11 plants... 1912
1913
Shearmen’s help­
ers:
11 plants___ 1910
1911
1$12

$0,263 $17.71
.242 16.64
.279
.269 18.54
.280 19.31

68.9

6 plants....... 1912
1913
Rollers, univer­
sal mills, 48inch:
4 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Screw men,
mai n r o l l s ,
universal
mills, 48-inch:
1910
4
1911
1912
1913
Screw men, side
rolls, univer­
sal mills, 48inch:
4 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
R o l l hands,
other, univer­
sal mills, 48inch:
2 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
3 plants.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
40 50 60
30
rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
40 50
60 70 over.
hour. ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

3
4
10
69 100

12

2

154

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT.

Occupation,
and number of
plants.

Charging-crane
and chargingmachine oper­
ators:
9 plants.......

10 plants___
Heaters:
11 plants...

11 plants...
Heaters’ help­
ers:
10 plants...

10 plants___
Roll engineers:
11 plants...

11 plants...
Rollers, shearedplate mills:
9 plants—

9 plants.
Screw
me n,
sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants___

9 plants.
Manipulators,
sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants.

9 plants.
Table
men,
sheared-plate
mills:
9 plants.

9 plants.




Num­ Aver­
ber age
full­
of
rear. em­ time
hours
ploy­ per
ees. week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver-

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

fX
'
time 12
week­ and
un­
ly
earn­ der
14
ings. cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

26. 39.0 19.5 14.6
12.8 25. 17.9 38.5 2.
10.5 18.4 18.4
10.5

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912

41
39
38

71.6 10.303 $21.85
69.4 .283 19.70.
69.1 .31f 21.85.

1912
1913

42
44

69.6
70.3

.315 21.98.
.343 24.24 .

1910
1911
1912

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

.508 36.35
.468 32.46
.513 35.78

7.1 14.3 21.4 35.7 14.3
5.5 27.3 20.0 38.2 7.3
5.7 17.0 11.3 45.3 17.0

1912
1913

55
54

69.9
71.0

.513 36.02
.557 39.93

5.5 16.4 12.7 45.5 16.4 3.6
11.1 31.5 20.4 14.8 22.2

1910
1911
1912

111
108
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

.243 16.98
.227 15.31
.247 16.71

1912
1913

113
107

68.7
68.7

.243 16.74
.252 17.50

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

.300 21.45
.290 20.55
.289 20.78

5.6 5.6 5.6 38.9 33.3
8.6
8.6 45.7 28.6
8.6 45.7 28.6
8.6

5.6
8.6
8.6

1912
1913

37
36

72.5
72.8

.287 20.93
.309 22.63

8.1
8.1 48.6 27.0
2.8 5.6 8.3 36.1 41.7

8.1
5.6

1910
1911
1912

28
28
25

68.4
68.1
68.5

.712 48.18
.607 41.46
.729 50.03

1912
1913

27
26

68.7
68.5

1910
1911
1912

28
28
27

1912
1913

16.7 16.7 42.9 9.5
13.6 18.2 27.3 27.3

9.0 17.1 12.6 19.8 25.2
10.2 15.7 14.8 30.6 17.
13.9 15.8 37.6 18.8

2.6
2.
2.4 2.4
2.3 2.3
7.1
1.8
3.8

5.4 10.8
4.6 6.5
6.9 6.9

9.7 23.9 37.2 16.8 6.2 6.2
18.713.1 32.7 12.1 13.1 10.3

21.4

5.6

21.4
4.0

7.1 14.3 7.1 7.1 42.9
7.1 14.3 10.7 21.4 25.0
8.0 24.0 8.0 8.0 48.0

.711 48.93
.718 49.21

3.7
11.5

7.4 29.6
7.7 15.4

68.6
68.6
68.8

.421 28.75
.393 26.95
.446 30.67

14.3 35.7 21.4 14.3 14.3
21.4 35.7 14.3 17.9 7.1
14.8 33. 11.1 14.8 18.5 *3*7

29
29

69.0
69.0

.435 30.00
.482 33.36

3.4 20.7 31.0 10.3 13.8 17.2 3.4
44.8
27.6 13.8

1910
1911
1912

26
28
28

68.4
68.1
68.1

.318 21.64
.300 20.44
.341 23.24

30.8 23.1 15.4 30.
3.6 7.1 32.1 14.3 25.0 17.9
3.6 10.7 14.3 28.6 7.1 28.6

1912
1913

30
31

68.3
68.4

.334 22.85
.361 24.74

3.3 10.0 20.0 26.7
25.8 16.1
6.5

191(1►
1911
1912!

73
72
69

68.3
68.1
68.3

.262 17.88
.246 16.81
.27S 19.07

1912)
1913!

72
75

68.5
68. €

.276i 18.90
.316> 21.351

2.7

7.4 7.4 44.4
7.7 15.4 42.3

7.1

6.7 26.7 6.7
3.2 35.5 12.9

24.7 >0 11.0 27.4 2.7
.
16.7 25.0 16.7 12.5 16.7 8.3
11.6 18.8 30.4 4.3 17.4 14.5

2.9

18.134.7 4.2 16.7 13.9
13.3 2.7 26.7 12.0 21.3 21.3

2 .8 .
2.71.

155

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOE— PLATE MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ time
plants.
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Roll hands, oth­
er, shearedplate mills:
6 plants.......

6 plants.
Boilers,
uni­
versal mills,
48-inch:
4 plants.......

Screw m e n ,
main
rolls,
universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants.......

Screw m e n ,
side rolls, uni­
versal mills,
48-inch:
4 plants.......

Roll hands, oth­
er, universal
mills, 48-inch:
2

3 plants.......
Shearmen:
11 plants_
_

11 plants—
Shearmen’ s
helpers:
11 plants_
_

11 plants...
Laborers:
11 plants...

11 plants.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
rate time
of week­
wages
ly
per
hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912

14
14
14

68.0 $0,263 $17.71
68.9 .242 16.64
68.9 .279 19.16

28.6 14.3
14.3 42.9
35.'7 21.4
14.3 14.3
14.3 ....... . . . . .......
14.3
ii.3 14.3 21.4 2L4 14.3

1912
1913

16
16

69.3
69.3

.269 18.54
.280 19.31

12.5

1910
1911
1912
1913

8
7
6
6

69.5
68.4
67.8
69.8

.636
.584
.581
.672

44.22
40.31
39.78
47.81

1910
1911
1912
1913

8
7
7
7

69.5
66.6
66.6
70.1

.470
.421
.407
.460

32.75
28.23
27.38
32.66

1910
1911
1912
1913

10
9
9
8

69.2
66.3
66.3
68.6

.314
.296
.271
.294

21.77
19.80
18.12
20.56

1910
1911
1912

6
4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

.299 20.93
.299 21.55
.288 20.74

33.3 66.7
50.0 50.0
50.0 50.0

1912
1913

5
6

69.6
72.0

.277 19.41
.288 20.74

20.0 40.0 40.0
50.0 16.7 33.3

1910
1911
1912

70
66
68

67.5
68.0
68.2,

.378 25.69
.356 24.45
.386 26.61

1912
1913

69
69

68.3
68.8

.384 26.48
.413 28.63 .......

1910
1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

.215 14.71
.206 14.20
.223 15.42

3.0 6.7 31.5 15.9 16.5 12.0 13.9
3.3 10.5 11.2 41.5 12.8 14.5 6.1
3.2 .9 22.7 33.6 16.0 4.2 18.1

.4
.2
1.4

1912
1913

392
393

68.3
68.4

.226 15.59
.253 17.47

2.6 1.0 21.4 31.4 18.1
2.5 3.8 7.6 8.9 41.2

1.5
4.6

1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

.159 10.68 17.7 10.1 71.3 .8
.158 10.51 23.7 9.5 66.8
.160 11.04 26.1 7.3 65.2 1.4

1912
1913

339
349

68.9
69.3

.161 11.17 22.1 9.4 65.5 2.9
.181 12.62
24.9 23.2 19.8 28.7
!




18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 12.5
*i2.*5 12.5 25.0 6.3 31.3 12.5

25.0
28.6

25.0
42.9
16.7
33.3

33.3
33.3

28.6
28.6

44.4
50.0

50.0
28.6
50.0
33.3

25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0
14.3 14.3 57.1 14.3
57.1 14.3
14.3 14.3
42.9

40.0 20.0
44.4 11.1
55.6
25.0 12.5 12.5

40.0
44.4

1.4 12.9 20.0 32.9 10.0 11.4 5.7
1.5 13.6 24.2 31.8 10.6 13.6 4.5
11.8 25.0 27.9 11.8 13.2 10.3

5.7

10.1 27.5 30.4 8.7 13.0 10.1
....... 2.9 7.2 8.7 30.4 23.2 14.5 10.1 ‘ *2*9

5.6 18.4
8.7 22.6

3.4

!
1

156

B U L L E T IN

OP T H E B U R E AU

OP L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—PLATE MILLS.

T a b le

[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle West.” ]
CHARGING-CRANE AND CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

Year and
district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.and M .W.

2
4
4

8
24
10

66.2 $0,240 $15.85
71.5 .313 22.53
67.9 .378 25.55

4

Total.......

10

42

69.6

.315 21.98

4

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .

2
4
4

8
24
12

66.2
71.5
70.5

.246 16.30
.361 26.00
.373 26.01

4

10

44

70.3

.343 24.24

4

Total

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

6

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

** i

2
4
1

12
6

4
1

1

7

7

18

4

1

1

6

2
12

8
4

1

1

8

12

12

1

1

9

6
1

16
9

9

6
6

HEATERS.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.___
G.L.andM . W.

2
5
4

18
26
11

67.0 $0,365 $24.47
71.8 .579 41.68
69.9 .599 41.54

3

Total......

11

55

69.9

.513 36.02

3

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

2
5
4

18
25
11

67.0
73.2
72.6

Total......

11

54

71.0

2

9

7

25

9

2

.426 28.78
.621 45.82
.625 44.77

6

8
6
3

4
5
2

6
2

8
4

.557 39.93

6

17

11

8

12

HEATERS' HELPERS.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

65.6 $0,211 $13.84
72.6 .238 17.51
65.9 .382 24.98

8
3

J
15

24
16
2

6
9
4

7

68.7

.243 16.74

11

27

42

19

7

7

2
5
3

50 65.7
43 71.9
14 69.3

.203 13.35
.270 19.75
.375 25.44

16
4

6
8

24
11

4
4
5

12
2

4
7

10

107 68.7

.252 17.50

20

14

35

13

14

11

3 ___

3

4
8
6

8
2

2
1

3

18

10

3

2
5
3

50
50
13

.

10

113

1913.
Eastern
....
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .

Total

Total

..

7

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
G. L.andM. W .
Total
1913.
Eastern
Pittsburgh
G.L.andM . W .
Total




2
5
4

10
18
9

65.6 $0,230 $15.11
77.2 .310 23.77
70.7 .306 21.71

11

37

72.5

.287 20.93

3

2
5
4

10
17
9

65.6
76.8
73.3

.257 16.85
.335 25.64
.318 23.35

1

2

3

2
7
4

2
8
5

2

11

36

72.8

.309 22.63

1

2

3

13

15

2

------

157

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROLLERS, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.

Year and
district.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Num­ of
ber of em­ time
of time
plants. ploy­ hours wages week­
ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2
5
2

9
14
4

65.4 $0,421 $27.55
71.1 .752 53.49
67.6 1.224 81.12

1

9

27

68.7

.711 48.93

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W.

2
5
2

9
13
4

Total......

9

26

68.5

Total

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

6
2

2

2

8
4

1

2

8

2

2

12

65.4 .428 28.07
71.0 .709 50.45
67.6 1.398 92.78

3

2

2
2

2

2
2

.718 49.21

3

2

4

2

4

2
2

4
1

1

4

5

1

4
4

2
2

8

4

7
4
11

SCREW MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM. W.

2
5
2

9
16
4

65.6 $0,349 $22.88
71.2 .428 30.50
67.6 .656 44.00

1

2
4

6
3

1
2

9

29

69.0

.435 30.00

1

6

9

3

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .

2
5
2

9
14
6

65.6
71.1
69.1

.374 24.51
.466 33.23
.682 46.93

2

7
6

2

Total......

9

29

69.0

.482 33.36

2

13

2

2

6
2

2

Total

MANIPULATORS, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W.
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Total

2
5
2

8
16
6

65.6 $0,256 $16.77
70.4 .319 22.63
66.2 .480 31.52

1

9

30

68.3

.334 22.85

1

2
5
2

8
15
8

65.6
70.3
67.6

.281 18.44
.335 23.82
.488 32.79

9

31

68.4

.361 24.74

2
1

6

6
2

6

8

2

8

2

4
4

2
3

1

2

1
4
6

2
2

2

8

5

1

11

4

6
6

6
4

2

3

TABLE MEN, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W.

2
5
2

26
34
12

65.7 $0,210 $13.77
70.9 .272 19.33
67.6 .430 28.79

2
5

8
5

13
12

3

Total.......

9

72

68.5

.276 18.90

7

13

25

3

12

10

2

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .

2
5
2

26
30
19

65.7
70.7
69.2

.233 15.29
.295 20.99
.439 30.21

6
4

2

6
14

9

3
4
9

8
8

2

9

75

68.6

.310 21.35

10

20

9

16

16

2

Total




2

158

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T able

ROLL HANDS. OTHER, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.
Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
Num­ age age age
ber full­ rate full­
Num­ of
time
ber of em­ time of
plants. ploy­ hours wages week­
ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Year and
district.

1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

1
4
1

2
12
2

65.3 $0.181 $11.81
70.9 .248 17.72
63.3 .477 30.17

2

2
1

3

3

6

16

69.3

.269 18.54

2

3

3

3

3

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .

1
4
1

2
. 12
2

65.3
70.9
63.3

.180 11.75
.261 18.63
.490 30.96

2

4

1

16

69.3

.280 19.31

2

4

1

5

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

5

6

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

3

..

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Total

Total,...

2
2

2
2
2

2

ROLLERS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .

1
1
2

2
2
2

65.3 $0,290 $18.92
72.0 .744 53.53
66.0 .708 46.90

2

....... !........I........
....... 1. . 1
i *"
....... 1
........
2
1

.581 39.78

4

6

67.8

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M.W.

1
1
2

2
2
2

65.3 .261 17.03
72.0 1.078 77.62
72.0 .678 48.78

4

6

69.8

.672 47.81

2

2
1

1

3

2

Total......

1

Total

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

SCREW MEN, MAIN ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.__
G.L.and M.W.

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3 $0,242 $15.79
72.0 .488 35.14
64.0 .463 29.94

2

4

7

66.6

.407 27.38

2

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
G.L.and M.W.

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3
72.0
72.0

.227 14.81
.704 50.69
.452 32.54

2

Total......

4

7

70.1

.460 32.66

2

T o ta l...

2
2

1

4

1

3
3

SCREW MEN, SIDE ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M.W.
Total
1913.
Eastern
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M.W.
Total




1
1
2

4
2
3

65.3 $0,194 $12.66
72.0 .345 24.84
64.0 .324 20.91

4

4

9

66.3

.271 18.12

4

1
1
2

4
2
2

65.3
72.0
72.0

.181 11.81
.497 35.75
.318 22.86

4

4

8

68. C .294

2
3
5

2
i

1

1
:

4
1

2
!

1

1

1

1

159

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.

Year and
district.

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M.W.
Total
1913.
Pittsburgh
G.L.and M.W.
Total

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age full­
Num­ ber fuil- rate time
of
ber of em­ time of
plants. ploy­ hours wages week­
ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

1
2

2
3

72.0 $0,264 $19.01
68.0 .286 19.68

1

3

5

69.6

.277 19.41

1

1
2

2
4

72.0
72.0

.365 26.28
.250 17.96

3

6

72.0

.288 20.74

3

1

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

2

4

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1

3

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

2
2
2

2

=====

2
-------

SHEARMEN.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M.W.
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G.L.and M.W.
Total

2
5
4

16
36
17

65.9 $0,273 $17.94
70.3 .466 32.78
66.2 .315 21.19

3

10
3
6

2
11
8

6

9

7

11

69

68.3

.384 26.48

7

19

21

6

9

7

2
5
4

16
36
17

65.9
70.9
66.9

.298 19.63
.485 34.37
.368 24.94

2

5

2
2
2

3
9
9

4
6
6

10

7

2

11

69

68.8

.413 28.63

2

5

6

21

16

10

7

2

20 28
76 41
27 2

21
1

66
6

6
6

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L .andM .W .
Total
1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
Total

2
5
4

81
223
88

65.4 $0,182 $11.94
70.8 .253 17.95
64.8 .198 12.99

10

4

11

392

68.3

.226 15.59

10

4

2
81 65.3
. 5
220 70.9
4
92 65.2
G .L .andM .W .

.200 13.09
.275 19.62
.248 16.20

10

.253 17.47

10

11

393

68.4

19
13
52

84 123

71

22

72

15

21
9

1
34

12
65
85

18
15
1

4
85

15

30

35 162

34

89

12
6
18

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.......
G .L.andM .W .

2
5
4

88
219
32

62.6 $0,133 $8.35
70.9 .172 12.22
72.4 .162 11.73

75

Total......

11

339

68.9

.161 11.17

75

1913.
Eastern ..........
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M.W.

2
5
4

94
211
44

62.8
71.5
72.3

Total......

11

349

69.3




13
14
5

195
27

10

32

222

10

.151 9.48
.193 13.82
.188 13.54

84

10
68
3

35
34

96
4

12

3

.181 12.62

87

81

69 100

12

i

160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

NUMBER.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Charging-crane and charging-ma­
chine operators:
9 plants..................................

10 plants.
Heaters:
11 plants.

11 p la n ts....
Heaters’ helpers:
10 p la n ts....

10 plants..,
Roll engineers:
11 plants..,

11 plants'.
Rollers, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants............................

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy.
ees.

Aver-

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—

48 Over 56
time
48
hours and and and
per un­ under under
week. der.
60
56

Over
60
and
under
72

71.6
69.4
69.1

1912
1913

42
44

70.3

1910
1911
1912

56
55
53

71.0
69.1
69.4

1912
1913

55
54

69.9
71.0

A
tJ
15

1910
1911
1912

111
108
101

69.5
67.3
67.5

3

1912
1913

113
107

68.7
68.7

9
13

4

1910
1911
1912

36
35
35

71.5
70.8
71.5

4
6
6

2
3

1912
1913

37

72.5
72.8

8
8

5
5

1912
1913
1910
1911
1912

68.6
68.6
68.8

1912
1913
Manipulators, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants.................................. . 1910
1911
1912

69.0
69.0

1912
1913

68.3
68.4

1910
1911
1912

68.3
68.1
68.3

1912
1913

68.5
68.6

1910
1911
1912

68.0
68.9
68.9

1912
1913

69.3

1910
1911
1912
1913

69.5
68.4
67.8
69.8

6
1

68.7
68.5

9 plants.
Table men, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants.................................

9 plants.
Roll hands, other, sheared-plate
mills:

6 plants.
Rollers, universal mills, 48-inch:
4 plants..................................




84

41
39
38

68.4
68.1
68.5

9 plants.

Over
72
and
under
84

1910
1911
1912

1910
1911
1912

Screw men, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants................................

72

68.4
68.1
68.1

1
0

161

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— PLATE MILLS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Screw men, main rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 p la n ts.................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
ploy- hours and and under 60 and 72 and 84
per un­
under
under
week. der. under . 60
56
72
84

69.5
66.6
66.6
70.1

Screw men, side rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Roll hands, other, universal mills,
48-inch:
2 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912

2
2

4
2
2
2

4
3
3
5

69.2
66.3
66.3

1910
1911
1912
1913

2
2

6
4
4
4

4
3
3
4

2

4
4
4

70.0
72.0
72.0

1912
1913

11 plants.............

69.6
72.0

1

1910
1911
1912

3 plants..
Shearmen:
11 plants.

67.5
68.0
68.2

2
4
4

45
28
27

23
34
37

5
1

26
26

38
41

7
16
11

201
174
170

192
239
251

9
4

106
107

217
220

68.3

4
6

1910
1911
1912

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

393

68.3
68.4

355
274
287

66.8
66.2
68.3

89
70
73

200
142
129

35
50
48

2
9
20

23
3
1 17

1912
1913

11 plants.

69

1910
1911
1912

11 plants.
Laborers:
11 plants.

1912
1913

1912
1913

Shearmen’s helpers:
11 plants.............

349

68.9

73
78

123
121

105
113

20
11

2 18
*23

5.1
5.3

34.1
33.3
34.2

56.1
56.4
57.9

4.8

33.3
31.8

33.3
40.9

27.3

3.6
3.8

39.3
38.2
35.8

53.6
54.5
52.8

5.7
27.3
27.8

1

2

PER CENT.
Charging-crane and charging-machine operators:
9 plants....................................

71.0
69.1
69.4

55
54

69.9
71.0

3.6

36.4
37.0

32.7
35.2

1910
1911
1912

111 69.5
108 67.3
101 67.5

3.7
3.0

66.7
65.7
64.4

27.9
29.6
29.7

3.0

1912
1913

10 plants..

56
55
53

1912
1913

11 plants.......

42 69.6
44 70.3

1910
1911
1912

Heaters’ helpers:
10 plants.......

41
39
38

1912
1913

10 plants..
Heaters:
11 plants..

1910
1911
1912

113 68.7
107 68.7

2.7

61.1
64.5

24.8
23.4

8.0
12.1

71.6
69.4
69.1

2.6
2.6

1.8
1.9

* Including 15 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including 9 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.
3 Including 10 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91,

83021°— Bull, 168— 15------ 11




9.8
2.6

7.1
1.8

5.4
.9
3.5

162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913— PLATE MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roll engineers:
11 plants_
_

Employees whose full-time hours per week wereNum­ Aver­
age
ber
full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
ploy­ hours and and and
and
60
72
and
84
per un­
ees. week. der. under under
under
under
60
56
72
84

Screw men, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants..................................

9 plants..
Manipulators, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants....................................

9 plants..
Tablemen, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants.................................

9 plants..
Roll hands, other, sheared-plate
mills:
6 plants...................................

6 plants..
Rollers, universal mills, 48-inch:
4 plants...................................

Scre v men, main rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants...................................

Scre v men, side rolls, universal
mills, 48-inch:
4 plants...................................

R oil hands, other, universal mills,
4S-inch:
2 plants...................................

3 plants..




71.5
70.8
71.5

5.7
5.7

27.8
34.3
34.3

61.1
37.1
34.3

11.1
17.1
17.1

5.7
8.6

1912
1913

72.5
72.8

5.4

32.4
33.3

27.0
30.6

21.6
22.2

13.5
13.9

1910
1911
1912

08.4
68.1
68.5

71.4
53.6
48.0

28.6
42.9
48.0

1912
1913

11 plants..
Rollers, sheared-plate mills:
9 plants............................

1910
1911
1912

68.7
68.5

48.1
50.0

51.9
50.0

1910
1911
1912

68.6
68.6

3.6
3.7

64.3
46.4
44.4

35.7
50.0
51.9

1912
1913

69.0
69.0

3.4

41.4
44.8

55.2
55.2

1910
1911
1912

68.4
68.1
68.1

69.2
57.1
57.1

30.8
42.9
42.9

1912
1913

68.3
68.4

53.3
51.6

46.7 .......
48.4

.........

1910
1911
1912

68.3
68.1
68.3

68.5
58.3
56.5

31.5
41.7
43.5

1912
1913

68.5
68.6

52.8
50.7

47.2
49.3

1910
1911
1912

68.0
68.9

71.4
42.9
42.9

28.6
57.1
57.1

1912
1913

69.3
69.3

37.5
37.5

62.5
62.5

1910
1911
1912
1913

69.5
68.4
67.8
69.8

14.3
16.7

50.0
28.6
33.3
33.3

50.0
57.1
50.0
66.7

1910
1911
1912
1913

66.6
70.1

28.6
28.6

50.0
28.6
28.6
28.6

50.0
42.9
42.9
71.4

22.2
22.2

60.0
44.4
44.4
50.0

40.0
33.3
33.3
50.0

33.3

66.7
100.0
100.0

3.6
4.0

9.5

9.2

1910
1911
1912
1913

66.3
68.6

1910
1911
1912

70.0
72.0
72.0

1912
1913

69.6
72.0

20.0

80.0
100,0

163

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—PLATE MILLS—
Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Shearmen:
11 plants...........

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
48 Over 56
48
72
60
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
and
84
72
per un­
ees. week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1910
1911
1912

11 plants............

69
69

68.3
68.8

460
429
432

68.4
68.4
68.6

1912
1913

11 plants...........
Laborers:
11 plants............

1912
1913
1910
1911
1912

11 plants............
Shearmen’s helpers:
11 plants...........

70 67.5
66 68.0
68 68.2

392
393

68.3
68.4

1910
1911
1912

355
274
287

1912
1913

339
349

2.9
0.1
5.9

64.3
42.4
39.7

32.9
51.5
54.4

7.2
1.4

37.7
37.7

55.1
59.4

1.5
3.7
2.5

56.7
40.6
39.4

41.7
55.7
58.1

2.3
1.0

42.3
42.5

55.4
56.0

66.8
66.2
68.3

25.1
25.5
25.4

58.0
51.8
44.9

9.9
18.2
16.7

0.6
3.3
7.0

6* 5
i.i
15.9

68.9
69.3

21.5
22.3

36.3
35.5

31.0
32.4

5.9
3.2

25.4
36.6

1.4

.5

* Including 5.2 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
2 Including 2.7 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.
» Including 2.9 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 91.




164

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—A V E R A G E A N D CLASSIFIED FU LL-TIM E H OU RS P E R W E E K
IN EACH Y E A R , B Y DISTRICTS, 1912 AN D 1913— PLATE MILLS.

T a b le

CHARGING-CRANE AND CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

Year and district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
time
48 Over 56
60
72
48
hours and
and
72
and
and
84
per un­ and under 60
under
under
week. der. under 60
84
56
72

1912.
Eastern.....................................!
Pittsburgh . .
............
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
4
4

8
24
10

2

8
4
2

8
6

12

67.9

Total...................................

10

42

69.6

2

14

14

12

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
4
4

8
24
12

66.2
71.5
70.5

8
4
2

8
10

12

Total...................................

10

44

70.3

14

18

12

4
10
4

12
3

GG.2

HEATERS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

18
26
11

67.0
71.8
69.9

2

14
4
2

Total...................................

11

55

69.9

2

20

18

15

14
4
2

4
9
6

i2
3

:o

19

15

1913.
Eastern.........................................
2
18 67.0
5
Pittsburgh....................................
25 73.2
4
Great Lakes and 11 72.6 est...
Middle W
Total...................................

11

54

71.0

HEATERS' HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
3

50
50
13

65.6
72.6
65.9

3

50
12
7

28

6
3

4

Total...................................

10

113

68.7

3

69

28

9

4

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
3

50
43
14

65.7
71.9
69.3

50
12
7

21
4

10
3

T o ta l..................................

10

107

68.7

69

25

13

4
6

8

4
1

10

8

5

3
8

8

1
4

11

8

5

I

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

2
10 65.6
18 77.2
5
4
9 70.7
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
2

19
2
12

Total...................................

11

37

72.5

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

19
17
9

65.6
76.8
73.3

10
2

11

36

72.8

12

Total




.........................

165

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- PLATE MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

R O L L E R S , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M I L L S .

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Year and district.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
time 48 Over 56
Over
60
72
hours and
48
and
72
per un­ and under 60
and
and
84
week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
2

9
14
4

65.4
71.1
67.6

9
2
2

12
2

Total...................................

9

27

68.7

13

14

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh................... ...............
Great Lakes and Middle W esr...

2
5
2

9
13
4

65.4
71.0
67.6

9
2
2

11
2

Total...................................

9

26

68.5

13

13

12

16

SCREW

M E N , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M I L L S .

1912.
Eastern....................................... .
Pittsburgh.................................. .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

65.6
71.2
67.6
29

Total.
1913.

Eastern___
Pittsburgh.................................. .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

69.0
65.6
71.1
69.1

Total..................................

29

>9.0

13

M A N IP U L A T O R S , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M I L L S .

1912.
Eastern....................................
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

16
30

Total.

65.6
70.3
67.6

31

1913.
Eastern....................................
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

18.3

15

Total.

65.6
70.4
66.2

18.4

16

14

16

15

T A B L E M E N , S H E A R E D -P L A T E M IL L S .

1912.
Eastern...............................
Pittsburgh..........................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total.
1913.
Eastern.......................................
Pittsburgh..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est..
Total..............................




2
5
2

26
34
12

65.7
70.9
67.6

26
6
6

28
6

9

72

68.5

38

34

2
5
2

26
30
19

65.7
70.7
69.2

26
6
6

24
13

9

75

68.6

38

37

166

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK
IN EACH YEAR, B Y DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913— PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, SHEARED-PLATE MILLS.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Year and district.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time 48 Over 56
Over
Over
60
hours and
48
72
and
and under 60
per
and
72
and
84
un­
week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

4

1
1

2
1
2
2

Total...................................

C

1G 69.3

2
2
2
6

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

4
1

1

2
1
2
2

65.3
70.9
63.3

2
2
2

1
0

Total...................................

0

16

69.3

6

1
0

65.3
70.9
63.3

1
0
1
0

ROLLERS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
1
2

2 65.3
2 72.0
2 66.0

1

Total...................................

4

6

67.8

1

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
1
2

2
2
2

65.3
72.0
72.0

2

Total...................................

4

6

69.8

2

2
2
1
2

3

2
2
4

SCREW MEN, MAIN ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.........................................
.........................
Pittsburgh..
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2

1
1
2

2 65.3
2 72.0
3 64.0

2

4

7 66.6

2

Eastern. . . .
...................
Pittsburgh.
.........»........
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
1
2

2
2
3

65.3
72.0
72.0

2

Total...................................

4

7

70.1

2

Total

................................
1913.

2
1
2

3

2
3
5

SCREW MEN, SIDE ROLLS, UNIVERSAL MILLS, 48-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh..
......................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
1
2

4 65.3
2 72.0
3 64.0

2

Total...................................

4

9

66.3

2

Eastern.
...............
Pittsburgh
. . .
Great Lakes and Middie W est...

1
1
2

4
2
2

65.3
72.0
72.0

4

Total............. ....................

4

8

6S.6

4

1913.




4
2
1
4

3

2
2
4

167

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — P L A T E M I L L S .

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913-PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

ROLL HANDS, OTHER, UNIVERSAL MUXS, 48-INCH.

Year and district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time 48 Over 56
Over
Over
72
48
60
hours and
and
84
and
and under 60
and
72
per
un­
under
week. der. under 60
under
84
72
56

1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2

2
3

72.0
68.0

1

2
2

Total...................................

3

5

69.6

1

4

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2

2
4

72.0
72.0

2
4

Total...................................

3

6

72.0

6

SHEARMEN.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

Total...................................

11

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

Total...................................

11

16 65.9
36 70.3
17 66.2

1
3
1

14
4
8

1
29
8

68.3

5

26

38

1

14
4
8

1
31
9

1

26

41

69

16 65.9
36 70.9
17 66.9

1

69

1

68.8

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

81
223
88

65.4
70.8
64.8

4
4
1

76
32
58

1
187
29

Total...................................

11

392

68.3

9

1G
6

217

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

81
220
92

65.3
70.9
65.2

2

4

77
32
58

iso
34

Total...................................

11

393

68.4

2

4

167

220

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.

2
5
4

88
219
32

62.6
70.9
72.4

70
1
2

9
112
2

4
78
23

18
2

5
no
3

Total..................................

11

339

68.9

73

123

105

20

118

1913.
Eastern........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.

2
5
4

94
211
44

62.8
71.5
72.3

8
102
14

4
85
24

0
2

7
213
3

Total........, .........................

11

349

69.3

.........
75
____ 1 2
1
1
.........i 78
1

124

113

11

223

1Including 9 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.
*Including 10 employees whose full-time hours per week were 91.







STANDARD RAIL MILLS.
SUMMARY,
Summary figures relating to the standard-rail-mill department of
the iron and steel industry are given, with figures for other depart­
ments, in the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explana­
tion of the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed
is given on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings p^r
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in stand­
ard rail mills was approximately 12 per cent higher than in any of
the three years preceding! The average full-time hours per week in
1913 were 4.1 per cent lower than in 1910 and slightly higher than
in 1911 and 1912. The average full-time weekly earnings in 1913
were 9.5 per cent higher than in 1910, 12.9 per cent higher than in
1911, and 11.9 per cent higher than in 1912.
The most significant facts concerning the several standard-rail-mill
occupations which are covered in this section of the report are sum­
marized in the table following. Data are presented for the years
1910, 1911, 1912, and 1913, figures for identical plants being grouped
together. The data for 1913 represents 1,427 standard-rail-mill em­
ployees in the 21 occupations covered and were obtained from 7
plants.
Referring to the first occupation, cold-saw men’s helpers, direct
comparison can be made for 3 identical plants in 1910 and 1911, for
4 identical plants in 1911 and 1912, and for 7 identical plants in
1912 and 1913. The first line of the table is read as follows: In 1910
the 3 standard rail mills from which reports were obtained employed
30 cold-saw men’s helpers, whose average full-time hours of work
were 76 per week. For 66.7 per cent of these 30 cold-saw men’s
helpers the full-time hours per week were 72 and for the remaining
one-third the working hours were 84 per week. The average rate of
wages or earnings per hour of cold-saw men’s helpers in the year
considered (1910) was $0,171. All of these 30 employees received
16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly earn­
ings were $12.98. The other lines of the table may be read in the
same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 3 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of cold-saw men’s helpers were
$12.98 in 1910, and in 1911 in the same 3 plants the average dropped
to $12.40; in 4 plants in 1911 the average was $12.38, while in 1912




169

170

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

there was an increase to $12.45; and in 7 plants the average full­
time weekly earnings were $13.56 in 1912 and $15.10 in 1913. Com­
paring the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 in the several
occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of laborers,
which was $13.61. Several other occupations received but little
more. The highest earnings in any occupation of this department
are found in the occupation of rollers, the average full-time weekly
earnings in this occupation in 1913 being $50.18.

In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
A VERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF W AGES
PER HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RA IL MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Cold-saw men’s help­
ers:
3 plants...........

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
Num­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Year. em­ time
16
18 20
Over
of
wages Un- and and and 25
hours
72
ploy- per Un­ and
un­ cts.
per
der un­ 72 and 84 hour. der un­ un­ der and
week. 60 der
16 der der
un­
25
cts. 18 20
der
72
cts. cts. cts.
84

Avertime
week
iy
earn­
ings.

1910
1911

76.0
72.0

66.7
100.0

33.3 $0.171
.172

100.0
100.0

$12.98
12.40

4 plants......... —

1911
1912

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

.172
.173

100.0
100.0

12.38
12.45

7 plants..............

1912
1913

73.3
73.5

81.5
79.2

14.8
16.7

.183
.204

7.4 7.4 13.56
85.2
25.0 20.8 37.5 16.7 15.10

1910
1911

74.1
72.1

82.4
70.4

17.6

.209
.197

11.8 41.2 29.4 17.6 15.61
22.2 33.3 44.4
14.24

7 plants..............

1911
1912

72.1
72.1

74.2
77.1 22.9

.195
.201

25.8 35.5 38.7
25.7 34.3 34.3

14.06
5.7 14.51

7 plants..............

1912
1913

72.1
72.1

77.1 22.9
77.8 22.2

.195
.213

31.4 34.3 34.3
27.8 72.2

14.07
15.36

.176 13.6 36.4 18.2 31.8
.175 23.3 41.9 4.7 30.2

12.95
12.60

8.5 27.7
6.3 16.7

12.65
8.3 12.98

Hotbed lever men:
6 plants..............

Hotbed men:
6 plants..............

35

1910
1911

73.6
72.0

i. 4
100.0

1911
1912

72.0
72.2

100.0
95.8

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

1910
1911

72.4
72.1

96.9
13.6

.165 28.1 62.5 9.4
.168 15.3 74.6 10.2

11.92
12.14

7 plants..............

1911
1912

72.1
72.1

87.9 12.1
89.0 11.0

.168 19.7 71.2 9.1
4.1 82.2 13.7

12.10
12.20

7 plants..............

1912
1913

72.1
72.1

85.5 14.5
86.4 13.

.170 5.5 76.4 18.2
54.2 45.8
.201

12.24
14.52

7 plants..............
7 plants..............
Hot-saw men's help­
ers:
6 plants..............

Laborers:
6 plants..............
7 plants..............
7 plants..............




13.6

.176 21.3 42.6
.180 16.7 52.1

4.2

.181 15.2 52.2 6.5 17.4 8.7 13.01
37.5 37.5 12.5 15.01
.209 12.5
3.1

1910
1911

501
370

76.0
71.9

13.4 41.
44.9
20.5 58.9 11.9 8.6

1911
1912

417

71.9
71.9

19.9 60.2 11.5
20.1 57.1 16.3

1912
1913

327

70.2
70.5

20.5 78.6
17.2 82/0)

12.31
12.12

90.3
95.0

.8

23.4 76.6
10.0 90.0

12.12
12.07

.169 5.2 94.8
13.8 49.1 37.1
.193

11.88
13.61

171

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

A V E R A G E AN D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AN D R A T ES OF W AG ES
PER HOUR AND AVE R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF TH E
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 to 1913—STANDAR D R AIL MILLS—Continued.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Charging-machine op­
erators:
3 plants..............

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings p e r
per week were—
hour wero—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Over
Year. em­ time
of
14 20
25
30
60
72
and and and and 40
ploy- hours Un­ and
per der un­ 72 and 84 per un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
week. 60 der
un­
hour. der der der der and
der
20 25
30
40 over.
84
cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

14
14

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

1910
1911

114

72.1
70.0

24.5 53.5
21. 78.0

6 plants..............

1911
1912

91

70.2
70.3

7 plants..............

1912
1913

113
103

2 plants..............

$0,234 36.4 27.3
36.
.232 36.4 27.3 36.4
.244 36.4
45.5 'is.'2
.284
.321

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

$16.87
16.72
17.55

71.4 28.6
100.0

20.43
23.12

.231 28.9 21.1 50.0
.240 40.2 12.2 32.9 14.1

16.78
16.88

19.8 80.2
18.2 81.8

.233 46.2 11.0
.221 39.4 48.5

13.2
12.1

16.44
15.60

70.2
70.0

19.5 80.5
17.5 82.5

.224 39.9 42.5 7.1 10.6
.267 2. 29.1 48.5 19.4

15.79
18.76

1910
1911

74.7
69.1

33.3 11.1
55.6
44.4 33.3 22.2

.191
.194

11.1

14.21
13.43

6 plants..............

1911
1912

69.3

42.1 30.8 21.1
42.1 Jto. 8 21.1

.194 o'. 8
.196 &f 7
.

6 plants..............

1912
1913

71.8
72.3

36.4 27.3 18.2 18.2
34.8 26.1 17.4 21.7

.213
.233

.220 18.4 47.4 34.2
.221 48.8 26.8 24.4

Chippers:
5 plants..............

Cold-saw men:
5 plants..............

Drillers and punchers
5 plants..............

21.

5.3

5.3

13.43
13.60

9.1 13.6
78.3 17.4 4.3

15.50
17.04

1910
1911

152
123

76.7
70.5

13.2 34.2
17.1 82.9

6 plants..............

1911
1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

84.2
83.4

.218 52.6 24.8 22.6
.206 61.4 37.2

1.4

15.35
14.51

7 plants..............

1912
1913

203
179

70.5
70.5

16.7 83.3
12.8 87.2

.214 56.7 34.5 7.
.249 1.1 55. 36.3

1.©
6.7

15.05
17.45

1910
1911

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

.289
.258

36.8 10,5 52.6
50.0 35.7 14.3

20.79
18.56

7 plants..............

1911
1912

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

56.3 31.3 12.5
.251
.25' 16.7 27.8 44.4 11.1

18.10
18.52

7 plants...............

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

.260 15.0 25.0 40.0 20.0
30.0 25.0 45.0
.283

18.69
20.36

75.5
70.4

13.2 44.1
18. 81.3

Hot-saw men:
6 plants..............

Inspectors:
5 plants..............

1910
1911

48

52.6

5.6

42.6

.225 44.1 44.1
.233 29.1 56.3

16.78
15.59

2.9
4.2

7.4
8.3

1.5 16.77
2.1 16.29

7 plants..............

1911
1912

70.9
71.0

13.2 86.8
11.8 88.2

.230 20.6 60.3 11.8
27.6 56.6 9.2

5.
2.6

1.5 16.25
3.9 16.12

7 plants..............

1912
1913

70.9
70.5

12.2 87.8
16.4 83.6

55.4 9.5
47.9 39.7

2.7
8.2

4.1 16.17
4.1 18.11

1910
1911
1912
1913

71.3
72.0
72.0
72.0

50.0 50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.264
.304
.345

45.8
50.0
25.0 70.8
4.2 45.8 45.
4.8
95.7

19.95
18.98
21.87
24.87

1910
1911

77.4
76.2

47.6 14.3 38.1
48.6 32.4 18.9

.310

38.1 23. 14.3 23.8 24.30
43.2 27.0 24.3 5.4 21.67

7 plants..............

1911
1912

75.8
74.1

41.9 41.9 16.3
58.3 37.5 4.2

.277
.304

46.5 27.9 20.9
27.1 39.6 25.0

7 plants.............

1912
1913

75.2
74.9

43.8 43.812.5
C £ 25.0 12.5
2.

.307
. 323

37.5 25.0 25.0 12.5 22.95
50.0 37.5 12.5 24.16

Reheaters’ helpers:
3 plants..............

Roll engineers:
6 plants..............




4.7 21.14
8.3 22.44

172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A V E R A G E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W EEI£ AN D R A TE S OF W AG ES
PER HOUR AND A V E R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARN IN G S IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD R AIL MILLS—Concluded.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Straighteners’ helpers:

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings p e r Aver
Aver­
Aver­
hour were—
per week were—
Num­ age
age
age
ber full­
full­
rate 14 20
Over
25
30
of
time
of and and and and 40 ’week­
Year. em­ time
60
72
ploy­ hours Un­ and 72 • and 84 wages un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per der der der der
per
un­
ees. week. der un­
and earnhour. 20 25
60 der
der
40 over.
30
72
cts. cts. cts. cts.
84
1910
1911

139
116

72.1
69.8

16.5 66.2
18.1 81.9

17.3 $0,205 52.5 30.2
.205 69.8 12.1

0.7 16.5
18.1

14.04

1911
1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

17.5 82.5
16.4 83.6

.205 67.5 15.0
.212 67.2 13.4

17.5
3.0 11.9

14. O
b
4.5 14.51

1912
1913

146
131

70.2
70.0

15.1 84.9
16.8 83.2

.211 61.6 20.5
.253 26.0 54.2

2.7 11.0 4.1 14.54
3.1
16.8 17.28

1910
1911

26
26

72.0
72.0

1911
1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

96.3
96.0

5 plants.... ......... . 1912
1913

30
30

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

Table men:

100.0
100.0 ....... . . . .

....

3.7

*4*0

.279 23.1
.264 23.1

38.5 38.5
7.7 46.2 23.1

20.06
19.00

.262 22.2 11.1 44.4 22.2
.287 16.0 12.0 20.0 52. C

18.97
20.77

.324 13.3 6.7 16.7 43.3 20.0 23.32
.354
16.7
70.0 13.3 25.47
Un­
der
30
cts.

Guide setters:
5 plants................

1910
1911

20
17

66.8 15.0 15.0 70.0
65.8 17.6 17.6 64.7 .......

7 plants................ 1911
1912

27
30

4 plants................ 1912
1913
Reheaters:
4 plants................ 1910
1911
1912

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

.440 10.0 25.0 20.0 45.0
.373 17.7 41.2 35.3 5.9

29.26
24.31

66.8 11.1 25.9 40.7 22.2
67.3 10.0 23.3 46.7 20.0 i l l!

.336 37.0 37.0 22.2
.346 40.0 30.0 26.7

3.7
3.3

22.20
23.14

17
17

68.3 17.6
69.2 17.6

.340 41.2 41.2 11.8
.384 11.8 47.1 41.2

5.9

22.61
26.20

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

91.3 8.7
100.0
100.0 .......

.429 4.3
95.7
.421 4.3 43."5 52.2
.410 47.8 4.3 4.3 43.5

31.00
30.28
29.50

3 plants................ 1912
1913
Rollers:
5 plants................ 1910
1911

13
13

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

.531 7.7
.586

12
12

72.3
72.3

83.3 16.7
83.3 16.7

.624
.614

6 plants................ 1911
1912
1913
Rollers’ helpers:
1 plant.................. 1910
1911

14
14
14

72.2
72.2
72.6

85.7 14.3
85.7 14.3
78.6 21.4

.591
.646
.690

3
1

72.0
72.0

2 plants................ 1911
1912
1913
Straighteners, g a g
press:
5 plants................ 1910
1911

3
6
' 6

72.7
72.6
73.3

106
90

20.8
59.0 62.3 5.7 11.3
56.3 62.2 6.7 31.1 .......

.564
.534

49.1 11.3 39.7 32.41
1.5.6 30.0
54.4 30.12

6 plants............... 1911
1912

94
98

56.9 59.6 6.4 34.0
57.6 57.1 6.1 36.7 .......

.526
.530 . . . .

19.1 28.7
24.5 18.4

7 plants................ 1912
1913
Table lever men:
6 plants................ 1910
1911
1912

110
101

59.1 50.9 5.5 43.6
59.2 50.5 5.9 43.6 .......

.514
.576

32.7 16.4
51.0 30.45
35.6 i.7.8 46.5 34.06

6 plants.. . . . . . . . .




1912
1913

74
69
74

47.1 35.3
47.1 35.3

....

65.5 32.4
64.0 34.8
64.5 32.4

gf 67.1 22.5
8 > 67.1 22.5
C

....

100.0
100.0

.561
.458

59.5
65.2
67.6
75.0
75.0

33.3 66.7 45.09
8.3 25.0 66.6 44.40
21.4 21.4 57.1
7.1 7.1 85.7
100.0
100.0

40.39
32.98

.284 66.7
33.3
.304 66.7
33 S
.323 66.7 *33*3

33.3 66.7
33.3 66.7
50.0 50.0

....

7.7 7.7 76.9
38.23
7.7 15.4
76.9 42.23

20.56
21.98
23.61

100.0

52.1 29.91
57.1 30.79

8.1

.454 5.4 43.2 27.0
24.3 28.25
.422 21.7 30.4 18.8 23.2 5.8 26.08
.427 25.7 17.6 16.2 37.8 2.7 26.82

2.5
2.5

.302
8 16 a 15 0 27.5 2.5
. 41G28.8 26.3 12,5 17.5 15.0

..........

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

173

Owing to changes in the number of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the overlap­
ping year in two groups of plants, it is difficult to make a comparison
of the actual data for the various years which will give an accurate
measure of the changes throughout the period.
To aid in making such a comparison, relative or index numbers have
been computed from the averages, of the preceding table for full-time
hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time weekly earn­
ings, for each occupation from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures
appear in the table following. These relative or index numbers are
simply percentages for which the data for 1913 are taken as the base,
or 100 per cent. The relative for each year is the per cent which
the average for that year is of the average for 1913. For example,
the relative full-time weekly earnings of charging-machine operators
in 1910 were 84.8 as compared with 100 in 1913; that is, the full-time
weekly earnings of charging-machine operators in 1910 were 84.8 per
cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1913.
The method of computing relative numbers is explained on pages
21 to 23.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1913 as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time .weekly earnings of chargingmachine operators in 1913 were 17.9 per cent higher than in 1910,
19 per cent higher than in 1911, and 13.1 per cent higher than in
1912.
In other columns of this table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of charging-machine operators in 1911
were 0.9 per cent lower than, in 1910, 5.2 per cent higher in 1912 than
in 1911, and 13.1 per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912. The other
occupations and items of the table may be studied in like manner.
The percentages of increase and decrease are computed from the
relative numbers.




174

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RELATIVE FTJLL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL
TIME W E E K LY EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—STANDARD
R A IL MILLS.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Charging-machine operators:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913 ................................
Reheaters:
1910 ................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913 ................................
Reheaters’ helpers:
1910
............................
1911..................................
1912 ................................
1913 ..............................
Roll engineers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Rollers:
1910 . .
...............
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Rollers’ helpers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
..................................
Table lever men:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913 ..............................
Table men:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
Guide setters:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
Hot-saw men:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912............ .....................
Hot-saw men’s helpers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912........................... .
1913......... . .....................




Relar
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Rela­
Each
tive
Each
tive
Each
speci­
rate 1913 as speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
of
fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
wages com­
year
year weekly com­
year
pared
pared
as
per
as
earn­ pared
as
with
with
with
com­
hour.
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
each
pared
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
speci­
with
with
with
fied
fied
fied
year
year
year
year.
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
ceding.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0)
(l)
(1
)

100.3
100.0
100.0
100.0

- 0.3
(l)
(!)

99.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+ 1.0
i1)
0)

104.3
102.7
100.4
100.0

— 4.1
— 2.6
— .4

99.4
99.4
99.4
100.0

+
+
+

C
1)
(0
0)

84.8
84.1
88.5
100.0

+17.9
+18.9
+13.0

- 0.3
C
1)
C)
1

94.8
93.0
90.6
100.0

+ 5.5
+ 7.5
+ 10.4

+ 1.0
C)
1
(l)

81.2
76.5
88.1
100.0

+23.2
+30.7
+13.5

— 1.5
- 2.2
- .4

95.2
86.6
95.0
100.0

+ 5.0
+ 15.5
+ 5.3

0)
0)

.6

87.0
85.7
93.6
100.0

+14.9
+16.7
+ 6.8

99.2 + .8
99.2 + .8
99.0 + 1.0
100.0
1913

- 0).2
+ 1.0

107.7
87.9
94.1
100.0

— 7.1
+13.8
+ 6.3

101.6
99.2
100.0
100.0

— 2.4
+ .8
C)
1

100.2
93.1
94.2
100.0

- .2
+ 7.4
+ 6.2

88.3
99.9 + .1
83.6
99.9 + .1
(V)
100.0
91.5
+ .1
(*)
100.0
100.0
1913..................................
0)

+13.3
+19.6
+ 9.3

99.5 + .5
101.4
98.0 + 2.0 — 1.5
86.0
88.5
98.7 + 1.3 + .7
100.0
100.0
+ 1.3
1913..................................

- 1.4
+16.3
+13.0

100.0
100.5
P)
100.0
89.7
C)
1
C
1
(i)
100.0
91.9
0)
100.0
100.0
1913..................................
0)

— .5
+11.5
+ 8.8

100.4
100.0
100.0
100.0

+21.1
+ 18.9
+ 18.2

.6
.6
.6

— 1.6
+ .8
C)
1

-

.4
(*)
0)

+

82.6
— .4
84.1
84.6
0)
100.0
0)
i N q change.

— 0.8
+ 5.2
+13.0

84.8
84.0
88.4
100.0

+17.9
+19.0
+13.1

— 1.9
— 2.6
+10.4

95.1
92.9
90.5
100.0

+ 5.2
+ 7.6
+10.5

— 5.8
+15.2
+13.5

80.2
76.3
87.9
100.0

+24.7
+31.1
+13.8

— 9.0
+ 9.7
+ 5.3

100.3
89.5
95.0
100.0

— .3
+11.7
+ 5.3

-1 .5
+ 9.2
+ 6.8

86.4
85.0
93.0
100.0

+15.7
+17.6
+ 7.5

—18.4
+ 7.1
+ 6.3

106.6
87.1
93.1
100.0

— 6.2
+14.8
+ 7.4

- 7.1
+ 1.2
+ 6.2

98.1
90.6
93.1
100.0

+ 1.9
+ 10.4
+ 7.4

- 'y '
+ 9.4
+ 9.3

88.3
83.6
91.6
100.0

+13.3
+19.6
+ 9.2

—15.2
+ 2.9
+13.0

99.6
82.8
86.3
100.0

+ .4
+20.8
+15.9

-10.7
+ 2.5
+ 8.8

100.5
89.7
91.8
100.0

— .5
+11.5
+ 8.9

+ 1.8
+ .6
+18.2

82.1
83.6
84.3
109.0

+21.8
+19.6
+18.6

- 0.9
+ 5.2
+13.1
- 2.3
- 2.6
+10.5
— 4.9
+15.2
+13.8
-1 0 .8
+ 6.1
+ 5.3
— 1.6
+ 9.4
+ 7.5
—18.3
+ 6.9
+ 7.4
— 7.6
+ 2.8
+ 7.4
— 5.3
+ 9.6
+ 9.2
—16.9
+ 4.2
+15.9
—10.7
+ 2.3
+ 8.9
+ 1.8
+ .8
+18,6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

175

RELA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—STANDARD
R A IL MILLS—Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Occupation and year.

Hotbed lever men:
1910................<.........
1911...........................
191 2
191 3
Hotbed men:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Straighteners, gag press:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Straighteners’ helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Chippers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Drillers and punchers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Cold-saw men:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Cold-saw men’s helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Inspectors:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Laborers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

102.8
100.0
100.0
100.0

-2 .7
(*)
0)

101.9
99.7
100.0
100.0

-1 .9
+ .3
C
1)

103.3
98.6
99.8
100.0

-3 .2
+ 1.4
+ .2

103.4
100.1
100.3
100.0

-3 .3
- .1
- .3

103.1
100.1
100.3
100.0

-3 .0
- .1
- .3

108.9
100.1
100.0
100.0

-8 .2
- .1
(*)

107.4
99.3
99.3
100.0

-6 .9
+ .7
+ -7

105.3
99.7
99.7
100.0

-5 .0
+ .3
+ .3

107.7
100.4
100.6
100.0

-7 .1
- .4

105.3
99.6
99.6
100.0

- 5 .0
+ .4
+ .4

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
Each
tive
full­ 1913 as speci­
1913 as speci­
fied
fied
com­
time
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
as
as
eamwith
with
com­
com­
each
each
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

-2 .7
0)
C)
1

94.2
88.8
91.5
100.0

+ 6.2
+12.6
+ 9.3

-2 .2
+ .3
0)

85.2
84.7
86.6
100.0

+17.4
+ 18.1
+15.5

- 4 .5
+1.2
+ .2

93.5
88.6
89.2
100.4

+ 7.0
+12.9
+12.1

80.6
80.6
83.4
100.0

+24.1
+24.1
+19.9

- 2 .9
+ .2
- .3

85.1
88.5
83.9
100.0

+17.5
+13.0
+19.2

-8 .1
- .1
(>)

90.5
90.9
85.9
100.0

+10.5
+10.0
+16.4

-7 .5
(1 ).
+ .7

89.1
90.5
91.4
100.0

+12.2
+10.5
+ 9.4

-5 .3
(1 )o
+ .3

88.7
89.2
89.7
100.0

+12.7
+12.1
+11.5

-6 .8
+ .2
- .6

86.5
89.5
88.8
100.0

+15.6
+11.7
+12.6

- 5 .4
O
+ .4

85.0
88.1
87.6
100.0

+17.6
+13.5
+14.2

-3 .2
+ .2

Weekly earnings.

-5 .7
+ 3.0
+ 9.3

97.7
88.8
91.6
100.0

+ 2.4
+12.6
+ 9.2

- .6
+ 2.2
+15.5

86.8
84.5
86.7
100.0

+15.2
+18.3
+15.3

- 5.2
+ •7
+12.1

93.4
86.8
89.4
100.0

+ 7.1
+ 15.2
+11.9

0)
+ 3.5
+19.9

84.4
81.5
84.1
100.0

+18.5
+22.7
+18.9

+ 4.0
- 5.2
+19.2

88.2
88.7
84.2
100.0

+13.4
+12.7
+18.8

+ .4
- 5.5
+16.4

98.2
91.2
86.2
100.0

+ 1.8
+ 9.6
+16.0

+ 1.6
+ 1.0
+ 9.4

95.0
89.8
91.0
100.0

+ 5.3
+11.4
+ 9.9

+ .6
+ .6
+11.5

93.5
89.3
89.8
100.0

+ 7.0
+12.0
+11.4

+ 3.5
- .8
+12.6

92.7
90.0
89.3
100.0

+ 7.9
+11.1
+12.0

+ 3.6
- .6
+14.2

89.0
87.6
87.3
100.0

+12.4
+14.2
+14.5

- 9.1
+ 3.2
+ 9.2
- 2.6
+ 2.6
+15.3
- 7.1
+ 3.0
+11.9
- 3.4
+ 3.2
+18.9
+ .6
- 5.1
+18.8
- 7.1
-5 .5
+16.0
- 5.5
+ 1.3
+ 9.9
- 4.5
+ »6
+11.4
- 2.9
- .8
+12.0
- 1.6
- .3
+14.5

1 No change.

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the standard-rail-mill department as a whole, as determined by a
combination of the data for the several principal productive occupa


176

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tions which are covered in this section of this report. The method
of computing the figures is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under the heading “ weekly earnings,” it
is seen that the relative full-time weeldy earnings of the department
as a whole in 1910 were 91.3, as compared with 100 in 1913. In
other words, the full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 91.3 per cent
of such earnings in 1913. The relative decreased to 88.6 in 1911,
advanced in 1912 to 89.4, and in 1913, the base year, the relative
was 100.
The next column shows that the full-time weekly earnings in 1913
were 9.5 per cent higher than in 1910, 12.9 per cent higher than in
1911, and 11.9 per cent higher than in 1912. The third column,
under “ weekly earnings,” shows the per cent of increase or decrease
in full-time weekly earnings each year as compared with the year
immediately preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings in 1911
were 3 per cent lower than in 1910, 0.9 per cent higher in 1912 than
in 1911, and 11.9 per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and rates of. wages per hour can be read in like manner.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EAKNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEA R S, A LL OCCUPATIONS—STANDARD R A IL MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in—
Year.

1910
1911
1912
1913

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

104.3
99.7
99.9
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
rate
1913 as speci­
fied
of
com­
year
wages
pared
per
as
with
hour.
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.
-4 .1
+ .3
+ .1

- 4 .4
+ .2
+ .1

Weekly earnings.

88.9
89.2
89.6
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
fied
time 1913 as fied
year weekly com­
year
as
earn­ pared
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­ with
speciwith
fied
'fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

1913 as
com-

+12.5
+12.1
+11.6

+ 0.3
+ •4
+11.6

91.3
88.6
89.4
100.0

+ 9.5
+12.9
+11.9

- 3.0
+ .9
+11.9

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce earnings, just as an increase in
wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Between 1910
and 1913 it will be observed that hours per week were reduced 4.1
per cent and wages per hour were increased 12.5 per cent, each tending
to offset the other in weekly earnings.
Still another influence on average weekly earnings for the depart­
ment must be considered; that is, the change in the relative number of




177

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

employees in the several occupations from year to year. It is obvious
that an increase in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid
occupations or a decrease in the relative number of those in the higherpaid ones would tend to lower the average rate and earnings for all
occupations, just as an increase in the relative number of employees
in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number
in the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in standard rail mills, whose customary working time per
week was 6 days or turns, or 7 days, or variations thereof, are shown
in the following table. The heading “ 6 days and 7 days alternately”
indicates that the plants were not in operation half a day in each week;
the employees reported working 6 turns one week and 7 turns the next
week. The figures are presented for each of the two districts for
which standard-rail-mill data were obtained, and for the two districts
combined.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING EACH SPECI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EE K , B Y Y EA R S, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number
of employees
whoso customary work­
ing time per week was—
District, and number of
plants.

Pittsburgh:
2 plants

Year.

Per cent of employees
whose customary work­
ing time per week was—

Num­
ber of
days,
em­
6 days 6 days,
ploy­
and 6
ees. 6 days. 7 days and 7 days. 6 days.
alter­ 7 days
nately. in rota­
tion.

6 days
ana
7 days
alter­
nately.

6 days,
6days,
and
7 days 7 days.
in rota­
tion.

1910
1911

374
348

312
332

10

62
6

83.4
95.4

2.9

16.6
1.7

1911
1912

447
431

430
412

10
12

7
7

96.2
95.6

2.2
2.8

1.6
1.6

1912
1913

495
507

467
473

8
13

20
21

94.3
93.3

1.6
2.6

4.0
4.1

1910
1911

1,161
904

727
792

8
52

27
27

399
33

62.6
87.6

.7
5.8

2.3
3.0

34.4
3.7

4 plants...........................

1911
1912

908
1,026

796
900

52
76

27
27

33
23

87.7
87.7

5.7
7.4

3.0
2.6

3.6
2.2

4 plants.

1912
1913

940
920

926
904

6
6

3

8
7

98.5
98.3

.6
.7

.3

.9
.8

1910
1911

1,535
1,252

1,039
1,124

8
62

27
27

461
39

67.7
89.8

.5
5.0

1.8
2.2

30.0
3.1

7 plants...........................

1911
1912

1,355
1,457

1,226
1,312

62
88

27
27

40
30

90.5
90.0

4.6
6.0

2.0
1.9

3.0
2.1

7 plants

1912
1913

1,435
1,427

1,393
1,377

14
19

3

28
28

97.1
96.5

1.0
1.3

.2

2.0
2.0

3 plants

...............

3 plants
Great Lakes and Middle
West:
4 plants...........................

...............

Total:
6 plants...........................

..........

83021°—Bull. 168—15------12




178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In addition to the text tables in the summary, four general tables
are presented for the standard-rail-mill department, as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and classi­
fied rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1910 to
1913.
Table II.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
Table III.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in the
United States, by years, 1910 to 1^13.
Table IV.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in each
year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 170 to 172.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers, follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended expla­
nation see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year,
back to 1910, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in
Tables II and IV, and descriptions of the occupations which appear
in the tables of this report, were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this
Bureau, but have been omitted from the present report.




179

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR----STANDARD RAIL M ILLS.

I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years arc for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

C h a r g i ng-machine opera­
tors:

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time
of week­
hours wages
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0 $0,234 $16.8:
72.0 .232 16.72
72.0 .244 17.58

1912
1913

14
14

72.0
72.0

1910
1911
1912

23
23
23

1912
1913

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

Un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

8
8
8

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

6
6

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
160
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

8
8
10

4

.284 20.43
.321 23.12

10

4
14

72.2
72.0
72.0

.429 31.00
.421 30.28
.410 29.50

1
1
11

13
13

72.0
72.0

.531 38.23
.586 42.23

1

1910
1911
1912
1913

24
24
24
23

71.3
72.0
72.0
72.0

.280
.264
.304
.345

Roll engineers:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

42
37

77.4
76.2

7 p la n ts___ 1911
1912

43
48

7 plants....... 1912
1913

Reheaters:
4 plants. . .

R eh e a te rs'
helpers:
3 plants......

22
121
1i 10

1
1

11 *
2

11
6
1
1

17
M

.310 24.30
.282 21.67

16
16

10
10

6
9

75.8
74.1

.277 21.14
.304 22.44

20
13

12
19

9
12

2
4

32
32

75.2
74.9

.307 22.95
.323 24.16

12

8
16

8
12

4

1910
1911

12
12

72.3
72.3

.624 45.09
.614 44.40

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Rollers’ helpers:
1 plant......... 1910
1911

14
14
14

72.2
72.2
72.6

.591 42.67
.646 46.65
.690 50.18

3
1

72.0
72.0

.561 40.39
.458 32.98

2 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Table lever men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

3
6
6

72.7
72.6
73.3

.284 20.56
.304 21.98
.323 23.61

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

.454 28.25
.422 26.08
.427 26.82

6 plants____ 1912
1913
Table men:
4 plants....... 1910
1911

80
80

67.1
67.1

26
26

5 plants....... 1911
1912

10

10
2

Rollers:
5 p la n ts__

19.95
18.98
21.87
24.87

1
1
1

10
1

12
11
22

4

1

4
3

8
7

1

3
1

3
1

7
9
10

1
3
4

6

1
2

4

3

i
2

4

2

2
5
6

2
10
13

32
21
13

20
13
12

16
28

12
4
2

.392 26.52
.416 27.51

11
12

20
11

13
21

12
10

22
14

2
12

72.0
72.0

.279 20.06
.264 19.00

6
6* 2

10
12

10
6

27
25

72.4
72.5

.262 18.97
.287 20.77

6
4

3
3

12
5

6
13

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Guide setters:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

30
30

72.0
72.0

.324 23.32
.354 25.47

4

2
5

5

13
21

6
4

20
17

66.8
65.8

.440 29.26
.373 24.31

1
1

1
1

1

5
7

4
6

9
1

7 plants....... 1911
1912

27
30

66.8
67.3

.336 22.20
.346 23.14

1
1

5
5

4
6

10
9

6
8

1
1

4 plants....... 1912
1913

17 68.3
17 69.2

.340 22.61
.384 26.20

2

5
2

7
8

2
7

1




180

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Continued.

1

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­
rate time
of week­
time
hours wages
ly
per per earnweek. hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
14 16 18 20
Un­ and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­
14 der der der der
cts. 16 18 20 25
cts. cts. cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Hot-saw men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

19
14

72.0 $0,289 $20.79
72.0 . 258 18.56

7 plants....... 1911
1912

16
18

72.0
72.0

.251 18.1C
.257 18.52

2

1

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hot-saw men’s
helpers:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

20
20

72.0
72.0

.260 18.69
.283 20.36

2

1

64
59

72.4
72.1

.165 11.92
.168 12.14

18
9

40
44

6
6

7 plants....... 1911
1912

66
73

72.1
72.1

.168 12.10
.169 12.20

13

47
60

6
10

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hotbed
lever
men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

55
59

72.1
72.1

.170 12.24
.201 14.52

42

10
32

27

34
27

74.1
72.1

.209 15.64
.197 14.21

4
6

14
9

10
12

6

7 plants....... 1911
1912

31
35

72.1
72.1

.195 14.06
.201 14.51

8
9

U
12

12
12

2

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hotbed men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

35
36

72.1
72.1

.195 14.07
.213 15.36

11

12
10

12
26

44
43

73.6
72.0

.176 12.95
.175 12.60

6
6

4

16
18

8
2

14
13

7 plants....... 1911
1912

47
48

72.0
72.2

.176 12.65
.180 12.98

6
•6

4
2

20
25

4
3

13
8

4

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Straighteners,
gag press:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

46
48

72.0
72.0

.181 13.01
.209 15.01

6
6

1

24

3
18

8
18

4
2

106
90

59.0
56.3

.564 32.41
.534 30.12

14

52
27

6 plants....... 1911
1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

.526 29.91
.530 30.79

18
24

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Straighteners*
helpers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

no
101

59.1
59.2

.514 30.45
.576 34.06

36

139
116

72.1
69.8

.205 14.55
.205 14.04

6 plants....... 1911
1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

.205 14.05
.212 14.51

63
90
90

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

7
7

3
3

1

2
5

10
2

9
5

5
8

2
2

5
6

8
5

4
9

42
14

72
63

1

4
6

27
18

49
50

6

18
36

50
18 41

6
6

18

18
18

4

21
16

6

4
4

16

*34

30
71

6
22

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Clippers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

146
131

70.2
70.0

.211 14.54
.253 17.28

114
82

72.1
70.0

.231 16.78
.240 16.88

21 12 24
1 32 10

57
27

12

6 plants....... 1911
1912

91
99

70.2
70.3

.233 16.44
.221 15.60

10
3

32
36

10
48

27

12
12

7 plants....... 1912
1913

113
103

70.2
70.0

.224 15.79
.267 18.761

9

36
3

48
30

8
50

12
20




36
49

23
21

12

181

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Num
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy*

Drillers a n d
punchers:
5 plants___

Cold-saw men:
5 plants___

1910
1911

152
123

1911
1912
7 plants.

133 70.
145 70.5

1912
1913

203
179

70.5
70.5

.191
.194

1910
1911

1912
1913

71.8
72.3

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

72
33

52
30

56
87

33
54

30
16
65

1

1

15
16

2

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

1

17
18

1

\.......

17
**is

2
4

4
18

4
8

’ 4
4

.213

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2
12

i .......

.194
.196

1911
1912

6 plants.

1

56

2 113 70
2
100

76.7 $0,220
70.5 .221

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

28
4

1

.214
.249

74.7

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

IS
and
un­
der
20
cts.

14
2

Un­
der
14
cts.

.218
.206

6 plants.

Cold-saw men’s
helpers:
3 plants___

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time of week­
hours wages
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

26 30
10 27

2
2

5
4

1
1

4

10 41
19 43

8
7

4
2

1
3

7
29

2
6

3
2

1
3
1

30
31

1910
1911

.171
.172

4 plants.

1911
1912

.172
.173

36
29

7 plants.

1912
1913

.183
.204

46
12 *io

1910
1911

.225
.233

Inspectors:
5 plants.
7 plants.
7 plants..
Laborers:

7 plants.
7 plants.

1911
1912

.......

.230 16.25
.228 16.12

76

2

.229 16.17
.258 18.11

1910
1911
1911
1912

327
377

384
333

37
21

345
396

417

1912
1913

117
37

12.12!

501
370

2

.163 12.31
12.12

1912
1913

.169 11.8
.193 13.61 .
1

19

17 310
52i

41
35

1

185 140

PER CENT.

Charging - m a chine opera­
tors:
3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0 $0,234
72.0 .232
72.0 .244

36.4
36.4
36.4

27.3
36.4
27.3 '36*4
45.5 18.2

2 plants....... 1912
1913
Reheaters:
4 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

14
14

72.0
72.0

.284
.321

71.4 28.6
100.0

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

.421
.410 29.50

4.3
95.7
4.3 *43*5 52.2
47.8 4.3 4.3 43.5

3 plants....... 1912
1913

13
13

72.0
72.0

.531 38.23
.586 42.23




7.7

7.7 7.7 76.9
7.7 15.4
76.9

182

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time
of
hours wages week­
ly
per per earn­
week. hour. ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

Un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Reheaters’ help­
ers:
3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Roll engineers:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

24
24
24
23

71.3 $0,230 $19.95
72.0 .264 18.98
72.0 .304 21.87
72.0 .345 24.87

42
37

77.4
76.2

.310 24.30
.282 21.67

38.1 23.8 14.3 23.8
43.2 27.0 24.3 5.4

7 plants....... 1911
1912

43
48

75.8
74.1

.277 21.14
.304 22.44

46.5 27.9 20.9
27.1 39.6 25.0

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Rollers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

32
32

75.2
74.9

.307 22.95
.323 24.16

37.5 25.0 25.0 12.5
50.0. 37.5
12.5

12
12

72.3
72.3

.624 45.09
.614 44.40

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Rollers’ helpers:
1 plant........ 1910
1911

14
14
14

72.2
72.2
72.6

.591 42.67
.646 46.65
.690 50.18

3
1

72.0
72.0

.561
.458 32.98

2 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Table lever men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

3
6
0

72.7 .284 20.56
72. f> .304 21.98
73.3 .323 23.61

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

4.2 45.8
50.0
4.2 25.0 70.8
4.2 4.2 45.8 45.8
4.3
95.7

4.7
8.3

33.3 fifi 7
8.3 25.0 58.3

100.0
66.7
66.7

*66.*7 33.3

100.0

33.3
33.3

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

.454 28.25
.422 26.08
.427 26.82

2.7 2.7 43.2 27.0
16.2
___ ....... ___ 7.2 14.5 30.4 18.8 *23*2 5.8
8.1 17.6 17.6 16.2 37.8 2.7

6 plants....... 1912
1913
Table men:
4 plants....... 1910
1911

80
80

67.1
67.1

.392 25.62
.416 27.51

13.8 25.0 16.3 15.0 27.5 2.5
15.0 13.8 26.3 12.5 17.5 15.0

26
26

72.0
72.0

.279 20.06
.264 19.00

23.1
38.5 38.5
23.1 *7*7 46.2 23.1

5 plants....... 1911
1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

.262 18.97
.287 20.77

22.2 11.1 44.4 22.2
16.0 12.0 20.0 £2.0

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Guide setters:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

30
30

72.0
72.0

.324 23.32
.354 25.47

13.3 6.7 16.7 43.3 20.0
16.7
70.0 13.3

20
17

66.8
65.8

.440 29.26
.373 24.31

5.0 5.0
25.0 20.0 45.0
5.9 5.9 ’ *5*9 41.2 35.3 5.9

7 plants....... 1911
1912

27
30

66.8
67.3

.336 22.20
.346 23.14

3.7 18.5 14.8 37.0 22.2
3.3 16.7 20.0 30.0 26.7

3.7
3.3

4 plants....... 1912
1913

17
17

68.3
69.2

.340 22.61
.384 26.20

11.8 29.4 41.2 11.8
11.8 47.1 41.2

5.9

1910
1911

19
14

72.0
72.0

.289 20.79
.258 18.56

36.8 10.5 52.6
50.0 35.7 14.3

7 plants....... 1911
1912

16
18

72.0
72.0

.251 18.10
.257 18.52

56.3 31.3 12.5
11.1 5.6 27.8 44.4 11.1

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hot-saw men’s
helpers:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

20
20

72.0
72.0

.260 18.69
.283 20.36

10.0 5.0 25.0 40.0 20.0
30.0 25.0 45.0

64
59

72.4
72.1

.165 11.92
.168 12.14

7 plants....... 1911
1912

66
73

72.1
72.1

.168 12.10
.169 12.20

Hot-saw men:
6 plants,. .




8.3

21.4 21. J 50.0 7.1
3 21.4
7.1 7.1
71.4 28.6

28.1 62.5 9.4
15.3 74.6 10.2
4.1

19.7 71.2 9.1
88.2 13.7

8.1

183

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD BAIL M ILLS.
T a b le I . — A V E R A G E

FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNIN G S AN D A V E R A G E
A N D CLASSIFIED RATES OF W AGES P E R H O U R IN T H E U N IT E D
STATES, B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1913— STANDARD RAIL MILLS— Continued.
PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time of week­
hours wages
ly
per pef
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning e ich classiSe 1rat 3of wag.?.s per hour.

Un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

10
anl
un­
der
,18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
anl
un­
der
30
cts.

Hot-saw men’s
helpers—Con.
7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hotbed l e v e r
men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

55
59

72.1 $0.170 $12.24
72.1 .201 14.52

34
27

74.1
72.1

.209 15.64
.197 14.21

31
35

72.1
72.1

.195 14.08
.201 14.51

25.8 35.5 38.7
25.7 34.3 34.3

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hotbed men:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

35
36

72.1
72.1

.195 14.07
.213 1.5.36

73.6
72.0

.176 12.95 13.6
36.4 18.2 31.8
.175 12.60 14.0 9.3 41.9 4.7,30.2

7 plants....... 1911
1912

47
48

72.0
72.2

.176 12.65 12.8 8.5 42.6 8.5 27.7
.180 12.98 12.5 4.2 52.1 6.316.7

46
48

72.0
72.0

.181 13.01 13.0 2.2 52.2 6.5^17.4
aT.sa7.i5
.209 15.01 12.5

8.7
4.2

106
90

59.0
56.3

.564 32.41
.534 30.12

6 plants....... 1911
1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

.528 29.91
.530 30.79

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Straighteners’
helpers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

110
101

59.1
59.2

.514 30.45
.576 34.06

139
116

72.1
69.8

6 plants....... 1911
1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

7 plants....... 191?
1913
Chippers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

146
131

70.2
70.0

114
82

72.1
70.0

6 plants....... 1911
1912-

91
99

70.2
70.3

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Drillers a n d
punchers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

113
103

70.2
70.0

3ft. 2
.7 51.8
54.3 15.512.1
1
.205 14.05
52.5 1R 0 15 ft
.212 14.51
67.2
13.4
!
2ft.
.211 14.54
61.6
.253 17.28 ....... . . . .
26.054.2
I
18.4 10.5 21.1
.231 16.78
.240 16.88
1.2 39.012.2
1
.233 16.44
11.0 35.211.0
.221. 15.60
3.0 36.4 48.5
1
.224 15.79
8.0 31.942.5
2.9 29.1
.267 18.76

152
123

76.7
70.5

.220 16.78
.221 15.59

6 plants....... 1911
1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

.218 15.35
.206 14.51

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Cold-saw men:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

203
179

70.5
70.5

.214 15.05
.249 17.45

18
18

74.7
69.1

.191 14.21
.194 13.43

6 plants....... 1911
1912

19 69.3
19 69.3

.194 13.43
.196 13.60

6 plants....... 1912
1913

22
23

.213 15.50
.233 17.04

C
O
and 70
un­ cts.
der nn.l
70 over.
cts

8.3

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Straighteners,
gag press:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

31.4 34.3 34.3
27.8.72.2

44
43

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

11.8 41.2 29.4 17.6
22.2 33.3 44.4

7 plants....... 1911
1912

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.




71.8
72.3

5.5

76.4 18.2
54.2 45.8

5.'/

. . . . . ....... ....... —

8.3
49.1 11.3 34. ft 5.7
i54.4 .......
15.6 30.0
!
52.1
19.1 28.7
24.5 18.4
51.0 *’ o.*i
|
145. a 5.5
32.7 16.4
35.6 17.8 4ft. 6 5.9

.205 14.55
.205 14.04

47.4
18.4
3.3 45.5 26.8
!
10.5 42.1 24.8
1.4 60.037.2
1
.
1.0 i»R 7 34. R
55.9
1.1
1
5.6 83.311.1
5.6
88.9
|
5.3
89.5’
94.71
|
77.3
78.3

16.5
18.1
17 5
3.0 11.9 4.5
2.7 11 0 4.1
3.1
16.8! ....... . . . . .......
50.0
1
32.9 14.0
|
29.7 13.2
i
|
12.11
7.1 10.6
48.5 19.4

|
!

34.2
24.4
22.6
1.4
7.9
36.3

1.0
6.7

5.6
5.3
5.3
9.1 13.6
17.4 4.3 . ..J

-

184

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age age age
full­ rate full­
of time
time
hours wages week­
ly
per per earnweek. hour.
ifigs.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

Un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Cold-saw men’s
helpers:
3 plants....... 1910
1911

30
31

76.0 $0.171 $12.98
72.0 .172 12.40

4 plants....... 1911
1912

36
29

72.0
72.0

.172 12.38
.173 12.45

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Inspectors:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

54
48

73.3
73.5

.183 13.56
.204 15.10

7.4 7.4
20A 37.5 16.7

68
48

75.5
70.4

.225 16.77
.233 16.29

38.2 44.1
20.8 56.3

2.9
4.2

7.4
8.3

1.5
2.1

7 plants....... 1911
1912

68
76

70.9
71.0

.230 16.25
.228 16.12

14.7 60.3 11.8
25.0 56. G 9.2

5.9
2.6

1.5
3.9

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Laborers:
6 plants....... 1910
1911

74
73

70.9
70.5

.229 16.17
.258 18.11

.25.7 55.4 9.5
47.9 39.7

2.7
8.2

4.1
2.7

501
370

76.0
71.9

.163 12.31
.169 12.12

7 plants....... 1911
1912

382
417

71.9
71.9

.1G9 12.12
.168 12.07

7 plants....... 1912
1913

327
377

70.2
70.5

.169 11.88
.193 13.61




23.4
10.0
90.

5.2

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

185

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL M ILLS.

I I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

T a b le

[The abbreviation u G. L. and M. Y l.” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle West.” ]
CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

Year and
district.

1912.

Aver­
Num­ Aver- Aver­ age
age full­
ber
rate time
Num­ of
ber of em­ time
of week­
plants. ploy­ hours wages
ly
per per earn­
ees. week. hour.
ings.

G. L. and M. W.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

4
6

72.0

.284 23.43

10

72.0
72.0

.329 23.69
.311 22.36

72.0

.321 23.12

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

8
6

14

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

4

8
6

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

4

14

8
6
14

1
1
2

1913.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

72.0 $0,290 $20.88
72.0 .276 19.84

1
1
2

G. L.andM. W .

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

REHEATERS.

1912.

Pittsburgh
G .L .andM .W .

1
2

2
11

72.0 $0,399 $28 7S
72.0 .555 39.96

1
1

1

1

1

1

10

3

13 * 72.0

.531 38.23

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

1
2

2
11

72.0
72.0

.482 34.70
.605 43 59

1

Total.......

3

13

72.0

.586 42.23

1

T o ta l___

1913.

10

2
10
2

10

REHEATERS’ HELPERS.

1912.

Pittsburgh___
G. L.andM .W .

1
2

12
12

72.0 $0,328 $23.62
72.0 .280 23.13 .......

T o ta l___

3

21

72.0

.304 21.87

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W .

1
2

12
11

72.0
72.0

. 354 25.49
.336 24.19 .......|....

1

12
10

Total.......

3

23

72.0

.345 24.87

1

22

1913.

1

1

6
5

6
5

1

1

11

11

1
ROLL ENGINEERS.

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

4

14
18

77.6 $0,253 $19.65
73.3 .349 25.53

8
4

0
2

8

4

T o ta l....

7

32

75.2

.307 22 95

12

8

8

4

3
4

14
18

77.0
73.3

.276 21.35
.360 26 3
-1

12
4

2
10

4

7

32

74.9

.323 24.16

16

12

4

1913.

Pittsburgh..
G. L.andM. W.
Total




!
i

186

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROLLERS.

Year and
district.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
of
ber of em­ time
of
plants.
hours wages
ploy­ per per
ees. week. hour.

1912.

3
3

g
6

6

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total......

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total

1913.

Avera t
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un®
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

72.0 $0,609 $43.86
72.5 .695 50.37

1

1

5
4

1
2

14

72.2

.616 46.65

1

1

9

3

3
3

8
6

72.8
72.5

.688 50.18
.693 50.19

6
4

2
2

6

i4

72.6

.690 50.18

10

4

ROLLERS' HELPERS.

1912.

1
1

4
2

72.9'*0. 224 $16.34
72.0 .462 33.26

4

2

6

72.6

.304 21.98

4

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

1
1

4
2

74.0
72.0

.286 21.16
.396 23.51

4

Total......

2

6

73.3

.323 23.61

4

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total

1913.

2
2

2
2

TABLE LEVER MEN.

2
4

16
64

73.5 $0,277 $20.26
65.5 .421 26.96

Total......

6

80

67.1

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

2
4

16
64

Total......

6

80

1913.

4
7

7
13

0
0

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W.

12

22

2

.392 25.62

11

20

13

12

22

2

73.5
65.5

.343 25.07
.434 28.12

2
10

3
8

9
12

2
8

14

12

67.1

.416 27.51

12

11

21

10

14

12

2

5

5
8

TABLE MEN.

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

2
3

12
18

72.0 $0.291 $20.92
72.0 .346 24.92

4

Total___

5

30

72.0

.324 23.32

4

2
3

12
18

72.0
72.0

.354 25.52
.353 25.44

5

30

72.0

.354 25.47

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total




----

----

2
1
4
!
5
1

5

|
61

13
11
10

4

21

41
1

187

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF LA BO R -----S T A N D A R D R A IL M I L L S .

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

GUIDE SETTERS.

Year and
district.

1913.

Pittsburgh..
G. L.andM .W .
Total.

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total

Aver­ Aver­
Num­ Aver­ age age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Num­ of
time
ber of em­ time
of week­
plants. ploy­ hours wages
ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20

and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50

and
un­
der
60
cts.

2
2

12
5

72.5 $0,302 $21.89
58.2 .432 24.35

2

5

5
2

2

1

4

17

68.3

.340 22.61

2

5

7

2

1

2
2

12

73.8
58.2

.368 27.14
.421 23 9^

2

4
a

4

17

69.2

.384 26.20

2

6
2
1
8j

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

7

HOT-SAW MEN.

1913.

3
4

6
14

72.0 $0,211 $15.16
72.0 .281 2). 20

2

7

23

72.0

.260 18.69

2

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .

3
4

6
14

72.0
72.0

Total......

7

20

72.0

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM .W .
Total

1913.

1

|

3
2!
i
5i

8

4

8

4'.......

.268 19.26
.289 2). 83

2
4j

3
2

11
8

.283 20.36

ej

5

9

1

HOT-SAW MEN’ S HELPERS.

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

3
4

20
35

72.2 $0.169 $12.21
72.0 .170 12.26

3

13
29

4
6

Total......

7

55

72.1

.170 12.24

3

42

10

3
4

22
37

72.2
72.0

.214 15.44
.194 13.97

4
28

7

59

72.1

.201 14.52

32j 27

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Total

18
9
...J ...
i

HOTBED LEVER MEN.

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.anaM. W.

3
4

16
19

72.3 $0.191 $13. sJ
72.0 .198 14. 281

Total......

7

35

72.1

.195 14.07j

3
4

16
20

7

36

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Total




4

3
9

6
6

11

12

12

72.3
72.0

.218 15. 74!
.209 15.05'....... ... J ____

6
4

10
16

72.1

.213 15.361

10

26

------

188

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS,

I I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EAM lNGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

H OTBED M EN.

Year and
district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

1912.

1
1
! Number of employees earning each classified rate of
i
!
wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
18 20 25 30 40
50 60
12 14
time
of
hours wages week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­ der der der der der der der der der der and
ings. 14 16 18 20 25 30 40
50 60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1J
6

3
4

16
30

72.0 $0,185 $13.30
72.0 .178 12.85 ” Ve

1

10
14

1
2

4
4

4

7

46

72.0

.181 13.01

16

1

24

3

8

4

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.

3
4

18
30

72.0
72.0

.218 15.67
.203 14.62

6

2
16

14
4

2

Total......

7

48

72.0

.209 15.01

6

18

18

2

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Total,. .

1913.

4
4

S T R A IG H T E N E R S , G A G P R E S S .

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

3
4

40
70

Total......

7

110

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total

57.6 $0.388 $22.86
60.0 .586 34.79

36

59.1

.514 30.45

36

3
4

40
61

57.6
60.2

|
.464 26.70
. 650 38.88 ....... I....

7

101

59.2

.576 34.06

18

4
46

6

18

50

6

36

41

6

36

1
!

4
14
18

41

6

STR AIG H TEN ER S* H E L P E R S .

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.
Total

1913.

3
4

41
105

72.0 $0.195 $14.05
69.5 .218 14.73

25
65

12
18

4

7

146

70.2

.211 14.54

90

30

4

38 72.0
9
.5 69.2

.221 15.91
. 265 17.79

34

32
39

4

70.0! . 253 17.28
1

34

71

4

16

6

16

6
=

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.and M.W.

3
4

Total......

7

131

22
22
1

C H IP P ER S .

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W.
Total

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G. L.and M. W.
Total




72.oto.218 $15.67
69.4 .227 15.84

1
8

18
18

8
40

8

70.2

.224 15.79

9

36

48

8

12

35
68

72.0
69.0

.271 19.51
.265 18.38

1
2

8
22

18
32

8
12

103

70.0

.267 18.76

3

30

50

20

3
4

35
78

7

113

3
4
7

1 Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

12

----- -------

189

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

I I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

DRILLERS AND PUNCHERS.

Year and
district.

1912.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Num­
time
of
ber of em­ time of
plants. ploy­ hours wages week­
ly
per
ees. per hour. earn­
week.
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

36
77

26
44

16

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

Pittsburgh.......
O. L. and M. W.

3
4

78
125

72.0 $0,222 $16.00
69.5 .208 14.46

Total......

7

203

70.5

.214 15.05

2 113

70

16

78
101

72.0
69.4

.250 18.02
.247 17.01

2 ....

42
58

36
29

12

7

179

70.5

.249 17.45

2 ....

100

65

12

5
12

2

2
1

17 . . . .

2

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

3
4

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

31

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W.
Total

2

....

2

COLD-SAW MEN.

1912.

Pittsburgh____
G. L.andM. W.

3
3

9
13

79.6 $0,232 $18.68
66.5 .199 13.30

6

22

71.8

.213 15.50

Pittsburgh.......
G. L. andM. W.

3
3

10
13

80.0
66.5

.244 19.68
.225 15.01

6
12

4

Total......

6

23

72.3

.233 17.04

18

4

Total

1913.

1
1
!

1

COLD-SAW MEN’S HELPERS.

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM . W.
Total

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM. W .
Total

3
4

29
25

75.3 $0,199 $15.22
71.0 .164 11.63

21 ___
25

4

4

7

54

73.3

.183 13.56

46 . . . .

4

4

3
4

26
22

75.7
70.9

.220 16.84
.184 13.03

12

2
8

16
2

8

7

48

73.5

.204 15.10

12

10

18

8

----- ------

INSPECTORS.

1912.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L.andM. W.

3
4

22
52

72.0 $0,214 $15.39
70.5 .235 16.50

2

2
17

13
28

5
2

2

3

Total......

7

74

70.9

.229 16.17

2

19

41

7

2

3

3
4

19
54

72.0
70.0

.247 17.75
.262 18.24

12
23

4
25

3
3

2

1

7

73

70.5

.258 18.11

35

29

6

2

1

1913.

Pittsburgh.......
G.L .andM .W .
Total




190

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS^-Concluded.

T a b le

LABORERS.

Year and
district.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
of
ber of em­ time
of
hours
plants.
ploy­ per wages
per
ees. week. hour.

1912.
Pittsburgh.......
G. L.andM. W.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
‘wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

! 18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

3
4

95
232

70.9 $0.168 $11.91
70.0 .169 11.87

17

Total

7

327

70.2

.169 11.88

17

310

3
4

113
264

71.3
70.2

.191 13.64
.194 13.60

30 18
22 167

7

377

70.5

.193 13.61

J 52 185 140

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

78
232

1913.
Pittsburgh.......
G.L. andM. W.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

Total......




==
65
75

191

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL

T a b le

MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver
ber
Over
of
Over
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
72
60
and
84
ploy- per un­
under.under
under
under
week der.
60
72
84
56
Charging-machine operators:
3 plants.............................

1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

22
22
22

1912
1913

14
14

72.0
72.0

14
14

1910
1911
1912

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

21
23
23

1912
1913

13
13

72.0
72.0

13
13

1910
1911
1912
1913

24
24
24
23

71.3
72.0
72.0
72.0

1910
1911

42
37

77.4
76.2

20
18

e
12

16
7

7 plants.

1911
1912

43
48

75.8
74.1

18
28

18
18

7
2

7 plants.

1912
1913

32
32

75.2
74.9

14
20

14
8

4
4

1910
1911

12
12

72.3
72.3

10
10

2
2

1911
1912
1913

14
14
14

72.2
72.2
72.6

12
12
11

2
2
3

1910
1911

3
1

72.0
72.0

3
1

1911
1912
1913

3
6
6

72.7
72.6
73.3

1
* 2
3

2 plants.
Reheaters:
4 plants.

3 plants.............
Reheaters ’ helpers:
3 plants.............

Roll engineers:
6 plants___

Rollers:
5 plants.
6 plants.
Rollers' helpers:
1 plant___ _
2 plants.
Tablu lever men;
6 plants........-

6 plants.
Table men.
4 plants.
5 plants.

Guide setters:
5 plants.. .

7 plants.




12

2

12
24
24
23

2
4
3

1910
1911
1912

-74 65.5
69 64.0
74 64.5

24
24
24

44
45
50

6

1912
1913

80
80

67.1
67.1

18
18

60
60

2
2

1910
1911

26
26

72.0
72.0

26
26

1911
1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

26
24

1912
1913

30
30

72.0
72.0

30
30

1910
1911

20
17

66.8
65.8

3
3

3
3

1911
1912

27
30

66.8
67.3

3
3

6
6

1912
1913 *

17 68.3
17 69.2 1

3
3

1
1

14
11
1
1

11
14

6
6

g
8

6
6

192

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL

T a b le

MILLS—Continued.
NUMBER—Continued.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ A.verae:e
ber full­
Over
Over
i Over 56
of
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em­ time 48
72
48
60
and
and
and
and
84
ploy­ hours un­ and under 60
72
per
under
under
under
ees. week. der.
60
56
72
84
Hot-saw men:
6 plants...................

1910
1911

72.0
72.0

19
14

7 plants...................

1911
1912

72.0
72.0

16
18

7 plants...................

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

20
20

1910
1911

72.4
72.1

62
51

8

7 plants...................

1911
1912

72.1
72.1

58
65

8
8

7 plants...................

1912
1913

47
51

8
8

Hot-saw men’s helpers:
6 plants...................

Hotbed lever men:
6 plants...................

55

72.1
72.1

j

1910
1911

74.1
72.1

28
19

8

7 plants...................

1911
1912

72.1
72.1

23
27

8
8

7 plants...................

1912
1913

72.1
72.1

27
28

8
8

1910
1911

73.6
72.0

38
43

7 plants...................

1911
1912

72.0
72.2

47
46

7 plants....................

1912
1913

72.0
72.0

2

46
48

Hotbed men:
6 plants...................

Straighteners, gag press:
5 plants...................

1910
1911

106
90

59.0
56.3

66
56

6

6 plants...................

1911
1912

94

56.9
57.6

56
56

6
6

1912
1913

110
101

59.1
59.2

56
51

6
6

139
116

72.1

23
21

92
95

6 plants...................

1911
1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

21
22

1912
1913

146
131

70.2
70.0

22
22

124
109

1910
1911

114
82

72.1
70.0

12
2

16
16

61
64

70.2
70.3

2
2

16
16

73
81

20
4

91
85

21

52
102

21
24

112
121

34
4

169
156

22

99
112

7 plants....................

2

48
44

1910
1911

6

32
36

7 plants....................

6

Straighteners’ helpers:
5 plants....................

ippers:
5 plants....................
6 plants....................

1911
1912

7 plants....................

1912
1913

113
103

70.2
70.0

2
14

1910
1911

152
123

76.7
70.5

20

6 plants....................

1911
1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

7 plants,,,..............

1912
1913

203
179

70.5
70.5

Drillers and punchers:
5 plants..................




19

6

12
28

24

25

80

193

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL
MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Num­
ber
of
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. employ-

Cold-saw men:
5 plants......

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Average
full­
Over
Over
time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
hours and and and
and
72
60
and
84
un­
per
under under
under
under
der.
60
72
56
84

1910
1911

18
18

74.7
69.1

6 plants..

1911
1912

19
19

6 plants..

1912
1913

6

*
8

2
6

4

69.3
69.3

8
8

7
7

4
4

22
23

71.8
72.3

8
8

6
6

4
4

1910
1911

30
31

76.0
72.0

20
31

4 plants..

1911
1912

- 36
29

72.0
72.0

36
29

7 plants..

1912
1913

54
48

73.3
73.5

2
2

1910
1911

68
48

75.5
70.4

9
3

7 plants..

1911
1912

68
76

70.9
71.0

7 plants..

1912
1913

74
73

1910
1911

7 plants..
1 plants..

Cold-saw men’s helpers:
3 plants.....................

Inspectors:
5 plants..

Laborers:
6 plants..

10

4
5
10

44
38

8
8

6

30
39

29

3
3

6
6

59
67

70.9
70.5

3
5

6
7

65
61

501
370

76.0
71.9

45
20

22
56

209
218

44

225
32

1911
1912

382
417

71.9
71.9

20
30

56
54

230
238

44
68

32
27

1912
1913

327
377

70.2
70.5

21
28

46
37

257
309

3
3

PER CENT.
Charging-machine operators:
3 plants...........................

1910
1911
1912

22
22
22

72.0
72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

14
14

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

23
23
23

72.2
72.0
72.0

91.3
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

13
13

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

24
24
24
23

71.3
72.0
72.0
72.0

1910
1911

42
37

77.4
76.2

47.6
48.6

14.3
32.4

38.1
18.9

7 plants............................

1911
1912

43
48

75.8
74.1

41.9
58.3

41.9
37.5

16.3
4.2

7 plants............................

1912
1913

32
32

75.2
74.9

43.8
62.5

43.8
25.0

12.5
12.5

2 plants..
Reheaters:
4 plants..

3 plants...........
Reheaters’ helpers:
3 plants...........

Roll engineers:
6 plants-----

83021°—Bull. 168—15------13



50.0

____

8.7

50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

194

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

H I . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL
MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
and
72
and
ploy­ hours un­ and under 60
and
per
ees. week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84
Rollers:
5 plants..

1910
1911

12
12

72.3
72.3

83.3
83.3

16.7
16.7

1911
1912
1913

14
14
14

72.2
72.2
72.6

85.7
85.7
78.6

14.3
14.3
21.4

1910
1911

3
1

72.0
72.0

1911
1912
1913

3
6
6

72.7
72.6
73.3

33.3
50.0

66.7
66.7
50.0

1910
1911
1912

74
69
74

65.5
64.0
64.5

32.4
34.8
32.4

1912
1913

80
80

67.1
67.1

22.5
22.5

1910
1911

26
26

72.0
72.0

5 plants..

1911
1912

27
25

72.4
72.5

5 plants..

1912
1913

30
30

72.0
72.0

1910
1911

20
17

66.8
65.8

15.0
17.6

15.0
17.6

7 plants..

1911
1912

27
30

66.8
67.3

11.1
10.0

22.2
20.0

4 plants..

1912
1913

17 68.3
17 69.2

17.6
17.6

1910
1911

19
14

72.0
72.0

100.0

7 plants.

1911
1912

16
18

72.0
72.0

100.0

7 plants.

1912
1913

20
20

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

1910
1911

64
59

72.4
72.1

96.9
86.4

13.6

7 plants.

1911
1912

66
73

72.1
72.1

87.9
89.0

12.1
11.0

7 plants.

1912
1913

55
59

72.1
72.1

85.5
86.4

14.5
13.6

1910
1911

34
27

74.1
72.1

82.4
70.4

29.6

7 plants.

1911
1912

31
35

72.1
72.1

74.2
77.1

25.8
22.9

7 plants.

1912
1913

35
36

72.1
72.1

77.1
77.8

22.9
22.2

6 plants..
Rollers’ helpers:
1 plant.........
2 plants.
Table lever men:
6 plants..........

6 plants..
Table men:
4 plants..

Guide setters:
5 plants...

Ilot-saw men:
6 plants_
_

Ilot-saw men’s helpers:
6 plants...................

Hotbed lever men:
6 plants............




59.5
65.2
67.6
......

8.1

75.0
......... ......... 75.0

2.5
2.5

96.0

3.7
4.0

70.0
64.7
3.7
3.3

40.7
46.7

22.2
20.0

47.1
47.1

35.3
35.3

3.1

17.6

195

WAGES AMD HOURS OF LABOR— STANDARD RAIL M ILLS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL
MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber i X
Over 56
Over
of
Over
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em­ time 48
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
and
84
per un­
ees. week. der. imder 60
under
under
56
72
84
Hotbed men:

1910
1911

44
43

73.6
72.0

86.4
100.0

1911
1912

47
48

72.0
72.2

100.0
95.8

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Straighteners, gag press:
1910
1911

40
48

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

106
90

59.0
56.3

62.3
62.2

1911
1912

94
98

56.9
57.6

59.6
57.1

6.4
6.1

34.0
36.7

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913

110
101

59.1
59.2

50.9
50.5

5.5
5.9

43.6
43.6

1910
1911

139
116

72.1
69.8

16.5
18.1

66.2
81.9

6 plants....... ............................ 1911
1912

120
134

69.9
70.0

17.5
16.4

82.5
83.6

7 plants
........................... 1912
1913
Chippers:
5 plants.................................... 1910
1911

146
131

70.2
70.0

15.1
16.8

84.9
83.2

114
82

72.1
70.0

10.5
2.4

14.0
19.5

53.5
78.0

................................ 1911
1912

91
99

70.2
70.3

2.2
2.0

17.6
16.2

80.2
81.8

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Drillers and punchers:
5 plants
........................... 1910
1911

113
103

70.2
70.0

1.8
13.6

17.7
3.9

80.5
82.5

152
123

76.7
70.5

13.2
17.1

34.2
82.9

........................... 1911
1912

133
145

70.6
70.5

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Cold-saw men:
5 plants.................................... 1910
1911

203
179

70.5
70.5

10.6

18
18

74.7
69.1

33.3

6 plants......... .. r r , ____________

Straighteners’ helpers:

6 plants

6 plants

6 plants

........................... 1911
1912

'
6.7

5.7

13.6

4.2

11.3
31.1

20.8

* 17.3

21.9

52.6

15.8. 84.2
16.6 83.4
16.7
2.2

83.3
87.2

44.4

11.1
33.3

22.2

19 69.3
19 69.3

42.1
42.1

36.8
36.8

21.1
21.1

36.4
34.8

27.3
26.1

18.2
17.4

6 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Cold-saw men’s helpers:
3 plants.................................... 1910
1911

22
23

71.8
72.3

30
31

76.0
72.0

66.7
100.0

1911
1912

36
29

72.0
72.0

100.0
100.0

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913

54
48

73.3
73.5

3.7
4.2

........................... 1910
1911

68
48

75.5
70.4

13.2
6.3

........................... 1911
1912

68
76

70.9
71.0

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913

74
73

70.9
70.5

55.6

4 plants

Inspectors:
5 plants
7 plants

. ...........................




18.2
21.7
33.3

81.5
79.2

14.8
16.7

44.1
81.3

42.6

12.5

4.4
3.9

8.8
7.9

86.8
88.2

4.1
6.8

8.1
9.6

87.8
83.6

196

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—STANDARD RAIL
MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.
Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
of
Over
Over
Occupation, and number of plants. Year. em- time 48 Over 56
48
72
60
hours and and and
and
and
ploy- per un­
under 60 under 72 under 84
under 60
week. der.
72
56
84
Laborers:
6 plants.

1910
1911

501
370

76.0
71.9

9.0
5.4

4.4
15.1

41.7
58.9

11.9

44.9
8.6

7 plants

1911
1912

382
417

71.9
71.9

5.2
7.2

14.7
12.9

60.2
57.1

11.5
16.3

8.4
6.5

7 plants

1912
1913

327
377

70.2
70.5

6.4
7.4

14.1

78.6
82.0




.9
.8

197

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

T a b le

CHARGING-MACHINE OPERATORS.

Year and district.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber
em­
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time 48 Over
Over
Over
56
48
60
72
hours and
and
and
72
84
per un­ and under 60
and
week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1912.
1
8 72.0
Pittsburgh....................................
1
Great Lakes and Middle 6 72.0.
West..

8
6

Total...................................

2

14

72.0

14

1913.
Pittsburgh. . . . ...........................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .

1
1

8
6

72.0
72.0

8
6

T o ta l..................................

2

14

72.0

14

REHEATERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .

1
2

2
11

72.0
72.0

2
11

Total......................... .........

3

13

72.0

13

1913.
Pittsburgh..................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

1
2

2
11

72.0
72.0

2
11

Total...................................

3

13

72.0

13

REHEATERS’ HELPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2

12
12

72.0
72.0

12
12

Total...................................

3

24

72.0

24

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

1
2

12
11

72.0
72.0

12
11

Total...................................

3

23

72.0

23

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. ..

3
4

14
18

77.6
73.3

14

10
4

4

Total...................................

7

32

75.2

14

14

4

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

3
4

14 77.0
18 73.3

6
14

4
4

4

Total...................................

7

32

20

8

4




74.9

198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

ROLLERS.

Year and district.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants. ploy­
ees.

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

3
3

Total...................................

6

14

1913.
Pittsburgh.....................- ........
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
3

Total...................................

6

8
6

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
time 48 Over 56
48
72
hours and
60
and
per un­ and under 60
and
72
and
84
week. der. under
under
under
60
56
72
84

8
4

2

72.2

12

2

8
6

72.8
72.5

7
4

1
2

14

72.6

11

3

72.0
72.5

ROLLERS* HELPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

1
1

4
2

72.9
72.0

2

Total...................................

2

6

72.6

2

4

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

1
1

4
2

74.0
72.0

1
2

3

Total...................................

2

6

73.3

3

3

4

TABLE LEVER MEN.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .

2
4

16 73.5
64 65.5

18

14
46

2

Total...................................

6

80

67.1

18

60

2

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

2
4

16 73.5
64 65.5

18

14
46

2

Total...................................

6

80

18

60

2

67.1

TABLE MEN.
1912.
2
12 72.0
Pittsburgh....................................
3
Great Lakes and Middle18 72.0
West...

12
18

Total...................................

5

30

72.0

30

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

2
3

12
18

72.0
72.0

12
18

Total...................................

5

30

72.0

30




199

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — S T A N D A R D R A IL M I L L S .

I V . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

GUIDE SETTERS.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
ber
of
time 48
em­
of
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .

2
2

12 72.5
5 58.2

3

6
2

6

Total....................... ...........

4

17

68.3

3

8

6

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est. . .

2
2

12
5

73.8
58.2

3

6
2

6

Total...................................

4

17

69.2

3

8

6

HOT-SAW MEN.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .

3
4

6
14

72.0
72.0

6
14

Total...................................

7

20

72.0

20

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

3
4

6
14

72.0
72.0

6
14

7

20

72.0

20

Total

....................

HOT-SAW MEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh
....... ...... . . . .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

20
35

72.2
72.0

12
35

8

T o ta l.................................

7

55

72.1

47

8

Pittsburgh
..............
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

3
4

22
37

72.2
72.0

14
37

8

Total ..................................

7

59

72.1

51

8

1913.

HOTBED LEVER MEN.
1912.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

16
19

72.3
72.0

8
19

8

.■
....... .....................

7

35

72.1

27

8

1913.
Pittsburgh..................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

16
20

72.3
72.0

8
20

8

Total...................................

7

36

72.1

28

8

Total




84

200

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

HOTBED MEN.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
ber
of
time 48
em­
of
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­
un­ der
der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...

3
4

16
30

72.0
72.0

16
30

Total...................................

7

46

72.0

46

1913.
Pittsburgh .....................- ........
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

18
30

72.0
72.0

18
30

Total...................................

7

48

72.0

48

STRAIGHTENERS, GAG PRESS.
1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

Total...................................

7

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

40
61

Total...................................

7

101

57.6
60.0

24
32

6

16
32

110 59.1

56

6

48

57.6
60.2

24
27

6

16
28

59.2

51

6

44

40
70

STRAIGHTENERS’ HELPERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

41
105

72.0
69.5

22

41
83

Total...................................

7

146

70.2

22

124

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
4

36
95

72.0
69.2

22

36
73

Total...................................

7

131

70.0

22

109

CHIPPERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh
...........................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

35
78

72.0
69.4

2

20

35
56

Total...................................

7

113

70.2

2

20

91

Pittsburgh
...............
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
4

35
68

72.0
69.0

14

4

35
50

T o ta l.................................

7

103

70.0

14

4

85

1913.




Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

201

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- STANDARD RAIL MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—
Continued.

T a b le

DRILLERS AND PUNCHERS.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
ber
of
time 48 Over 56
of
em­
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
ees. week. un­ under under
der.
60
56

60

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
78 72.0
3
4
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
125 69.5
Total...................................

7

203

Total...................................

7

179

70.5

72

34
34

4

78
78

19

4

84

169

19

Over
72
and
under
84

78
91

156

70.5

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
3
78 72.0
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
4
101 69.4

Over
60
and
under
72

COLD-SAW MEN.
1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
3

9
13

79.6
66.5

8

1
5

4

4

Total...................................

6

22

71.8

8

6

4

4

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

3
3

10
13

80.0
6S.5

1
5

4

5

8

Total...................................

6

23

72.3

8

6

4

5

COLD-SAW MEN’S HELPERS.
1913.
Pittsburgh
. .
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
4

29
25

75.3
71.0

2

21
23

8

Total..................................

7

54

73.3

2

44

8

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

26
22

75.7
70.9

2

18
20

8

Total...................................

7

48

73.5

2

38

8

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total...................................
1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W e st...

Total...............................




it C
S O

INSPECTORS.

22
52

72.0
70.5

3

6

22
43

7

74

70.9

3

6

65

3
4

19
54

72.0
70.0

5

7

19
42

7

73

70.5

5

7

61

202

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I Y .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—STANDARD RAIL MILLS—
Concluded.

T a b le

LABORERS.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
ber
of
time 48 Over 56
em­
of
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
ees. week. un­ under under
der.
60
56

60

Over
60
and
under
72

72

Over
72
and
under
84

84

1913.
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

95
232

70.9
70.0

11
10

46

82
175

2
1

Total...................................

7

327

70.2

21

46

257

3

1913.
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
4

113
264

71.3
70.2

9
19

37

102
207

2
1

Total............. ....................

7

377

70.5

28

37

309

3




BAR MILLS.
SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the bar-mill department are given
with figures for other departments of the iron and steel industry in
the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explanation of
the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given
on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages or earnings per
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in bar
mills was from 7.8 per cent to 21.7 per cent higher than in any one of
the six years preceding and, despite the fact that the average full­
time hours were 1.6 per cent lower than at the beginning of the
seven-year period, this very marked increase in rates of wages was so
reflected in full-time earnings per week that the average earnings in
1913 were from 6.6 per cent to 20.5 per cent higher than in any one
of the six years preceding.
The most significant facts concerning the several bar-mill occupa­
tions which are covered in this section of the report are summarized
in the table following. Data are presented for each year from 1907
to 1913, inclusive, the figures for identical plants being grouped to­
gether. The data for 1913 represents 4,320 bar-mill employees in
the 18 occupations covered, and were obtained from 26 plants, for 64
separate mills of various sizes from 8 to 18 inches, inclusive.
The bar mills considered in this report are with few exceptions
hand-operated mills— the exceptions being certain mills using a
combination of continuous rolls and rolls in which the material is
handled by men.
Referring to the first occupation, laborers, direct comparison can
be made of data for 10 identical plants from 1907 to 1910, 15 for 1910
and 1911, 17 for 1911 and 1912, and 21 for 1912 and 1913. The first
line of the table shows that in 1907 the 10 bar mills for which reports
were obtained employed 296 laborers whose average full-time hours
of work were 68.3 per week. For 17.5 per cent of the 296 laborers the
full-time hours per week were over 48 and not more than 60; for
47.3 per cent, over 60 and under 72; for 25 per cent, 72 hours; and
for 10.1 per cent, over 72 hours. The average rate of wages or
earnings per hour of laborers in the year considered (1907) was
$0,153. Of the total number, 9.1 per cent received under 14 cents
per hour; 58.4 per cent, 14 and under 16 cents; and 32.4 per cent,
16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly




203

204

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

earnings were $10.44. The other lines of the table may be read in
the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 10
identical plants the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers
were $10.44 in 1907, $9.93 in 1908, $10.17 in 1909, and $10.81 in
1910. While the average full-time weekly earnings in 1910 in 10
plants were $10.81, in 15 plants in the same year the average was
$10.86. In the 15 plants there was a decrease from $10.86 in 1910
to $10.59 in 1911. The difference between $10.86 and $10.59
measures the change from 1910 to 1911. It would not be a proper
comparison, however, to state that earnings decreased from $10.81
in 1910 to $10.59 in 1911 because of the change in the number of
plants and the difference known to exist in the averages for 1910 for
the two groups of plants. In 17 plants there was an increase from
$10.40 in 1911 to $10.52 in 1912, and in 21 plants an increase from
$10.38 in 1912 to $11.51 in 1913. The other items of the table should
be studied with like care.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 of the
several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of
laborers, which was $11.51. The averages for 4 other occupations
were only slightly higher, but the averages for the remaining 13
occupations were from 30 per cent to over 400 per cent higher, the
highest being that of rollers, which was $60.71.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Num­
ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Laborers:
10 plants..............

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours 48
per and
week. un­
der.

Per cent of employ­
ees whose earnings
per hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
Over Over
time
14 16 18 20
of
48
60
wages Un­ and and and and week­
and and
ly
Over per der un­ un­ un­ un­
in­
72 72
hour. 14 der der der der earn­
clud­ un­
der
cts. 16 18 20 25 ings.
ing
cts. cts. cts. cts.
60 72

1907
1908
1909
1910

296
227
324
424

17.5
68.3
64.8
42.3
67.8 ....... 24.1
67.2 ....... 30.2

15 plants..............

1910
1911

511
355

67.8
31.0 25.0 35.8
66.0 : : : : : 29.2 49.3 19.7

8.2
1.7

.160 10.0 13.7 76.3
.160 12.4 7.3 80.3

10.86
10.59

17 plants..............

1911
1912

390
424

65.5
65.9

35.4 44.9 18.2
30.2 48.1 19.8

1.5
1.9

.159 11.3 15.6 73.1
.159 10.4 12.7 76.9

10.40
10.52

21 plants..............

1912
1913

536
705

65.0
64.3

37.4 42.7 18.3
45.7 44.0 3.5

1.5
6.8

.160 14.4 11.2 71.8 2.6
.178 1.1 7.4148.733.6




47.3 25.0 10.1 SO 153 9.1 58.4 32.4
.
$10.44
47.6 7.9 2.2 .153 17.2 39.6 43.2
9.93
42.3 27.2 6.5 .150 15.4 56.2 28.4
10.17
26.7 41.5 1.7 .161 9.4 7.3 83.3 . . . . ....... 10.81

10.38
9.2 11.51

205

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

AVER AG E AN D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K A N D R ATES OF W AGES
PER HOUR AND A VER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

Per cent of employ­
ees whose earnings
per hour were—
AverAverage
full­
rate
Over Over
time
16 20 25
of
48 60
week­
wages Un­ and and and 30
and and
ly
un­
per
cts.
in­
72 Over hour. der der un­ un­ and earn­
72
16
der der
clud­ un­
der
cts. 20 25 30 over. ings.
ing 72
cts. cts. cts.
60

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Average
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
ber of plants.
em­
48
ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Bundlers:
5 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

41
41
41
41

75.6 24.4
66.9
75.6 24.4
66.9
....... 100.0
66.8
100.0 .......
67.1 .......

6 plants..............

1910
1911

77
81

66.1
63.5

100.0
*44.4 55.6

7 plants..............

1911
1912

131
132

62.0
62.0

7 plants..............

1912
1913

129 61.6
136 61.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

14.4 68.3 15.4 1.9
104 65.5
1
102 65.6 ....... 14.7 65.7 19.6
13.0 74.8 7.5 * 4.7
107 65.9
12.7 78.2 9.1 .......
110 66.3

18 plants.............

1910
1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

6.7 14.5 59.2 19.6
6.8 14.6 59.9 18.6 .......

.192 13.4 59.2 14.0 13.4
.185 21.5 52.6 21.5 3.4

12.40
12.02

19 plants.............

1911
1912

185
182

64.8
65.0

6.5 16.2 59.5 17.8
.184 22.7 52.5 20.5 3.2
4.9 15.9 61.0 18.1 .......: .192 12.6 57.7 15.4 13.2

1.1 11.90
1.1 12.45

19 plants.............

1912
1913

181
185

64.3
63.7

6.6 24.9 48.6 19.9
32.0 59.5 8.6

.199 12.2 49.7 22.1 14.9
.224 .5 42.7 35.1 12.4

1.1 12.72
9.1 14.17

1907
1908
1909
1910

302
299
286
302

.189 41.8 26.2 19.9 5.6
.174 47.8 33.8 11.7 4.3
.180 42.7 30.0 18.9 3.1
.208 19.9 40.7 19.2 11.9

6.6
2.3
5.2
8.3

25 plants...........

1910
1911

500
434

43.0 18.5
34.8 20.7 .......
53.8 4.9 . . . . .
54.0 6.6 .......
62.9 11.4 30.2 43.2 11.8 3.4
62.0 12.4 30.2 47.7 9.7 .......

.200 26.0 39.6 16.6 11.4
.18929.5 42.4 15.0 6.2

6.4 12.46
6.9 11.69

26 plants...........

1911
1912

450
461

61.9 12.0 30.4 48.2 9.3
61.7 11.7 31.6 45.3 11.3 .......

.18831.1 41.8 14.4 6.0
.192 21.5 43.2 21.9 8.2

6.6 11.61
5.2 11.80

26 plants...........

1912
1913

455
467

61.5 11.9 35.4 42.6 10.1
60.9 2.6 42.5 49.9 5.1 .......

.192 19.5 46.3 21.8 7.5
.221 8.9 34.1 36.0 13.1

4.8 11.73
7.9 13.43

1907
1908
1909
1910

58
56
56
58

53.4 8.6 37.9
72.3
....... 50.0 17.9 32.2
71.4
71.5 ....... ....... 53.6 10.7 35.7
71.7 ....... ....... 55.2 6.9 38.0

15.5 56.9 27.6
.226
.221
17.8 62.5 19.6
.217 *7.*i 21.4 53.6 17.9
.230
13.8 62.1 24.1 .......

22 plants...........

1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

72.0
70.4
70.0

3.0 40.4 26.3 30.3
3.2 56.8 13.7 26.3
5.1 52.6 12.4 29.9

.229
14.1 59.6 26.3
16.46
16.07
.228 ___ 14.7 62.1 23.2
.229
13.4 64.9 21.6 ....... 16.05

20 plants...........

1912
1913

93
97

70.1
70.5 .......

5.4 52.7 12.9 29.1
8.3 40.2 9.3 42.3

.228
.249

1907
1908
1909
1910

201
172
185
215

16.4 62.2 20.4 1.0
65.9
66.2 ....... 19.8 58.7 16.9 4.7
67.3 ....... 20.6 59.5 4.3 15.7
65.3
23.2 65.1 11.6 .......

.174 48.7 30.4 13.9
.16854.0 30.8 12.2
.169 55.2 26.5 14.6
.184 31.2 38.1 22.3

23 plants..

1910
1911
1912

355
359
358

64.7 12.7 15.2 44.5 21.7 5.9
63.8 13.4 18.1 50.4 18.1 .. .
63.9 13.4 18.8 46.4 18.2 3.4

.18727.0 38.9 24.5 5.6
.178 28.4 49.6 15.9 5.0
.184 17.9 47.5 26.3 7.3

22 plants..

1912
1913

337
316

63.4 15.1 20.2 46.9 14.2
62.8 ....... 34.2 61.4 1.3

.183 18.4 49.2 23.7 8.0
.6 11.52
.214 11.434.4 35.8 7.0 11.4 13.30

Chargers and helpers:
12 plants.........

Hotbed men:
15 plants.............

Roll engineers:
13 plants...........

Shearmen’s helpers:
15 plants...........




63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

$0,202
56.1 39.0 2.4 2.4 $13.53
11.68
.174 34.2 56.1 7.3 2.4
12.42
.186 9.8 75.6 14.6
.213 4.9 26.9 63.4 *4.9 ....... 14.23
13.69
12.28

65.6 34.4
65.2 34.8

.197
.193

.8 36.6 61.1 1.5
80.3 18.2 1.5

12.20
11.94

70.6 29.5
72.0 27.9 ....... .......

4.0
4.0
4.2
5.0

.207 2.6 42.9 51.9 2.6
.193 1.2 59.3 37.0 2.5

.194
79.9 18.6 1.6
.228 . . . . 1.5 88.2 8.8

11.96
1.5 14.05

34.4
40.5
37.1
34.5

3.6
3.2

.173 48.1 36.5
.161 59.8 35.3
.161 62.7 29.9
.181 21.8 61.9

9.6 4.8 1.0
4.9 ___
7.5
9.1 *7*3 .......

11.34
10.56
10.60
11.87

11.98
10.93
11.00
13.02

16.29
15.76
15.52
16.52

16.02
14.0 65.6 20.4
4.1 30.9 58.8 "6*2 17.56
6.0
1.7
2.7
7.4

1.0
1.2
1.1
.9

11.46
11.07
11.32
12.00

3.9 12.02
1.2 11.28
1.1 11.74

206

BULLETIN

OF

THE BUREAU

OF

LABOR STATISTICS.

AVER AG E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K A N D RATES OF W AGES
PER HOUR AN D A V ER AG E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

Per cent of employ­
ees whose earnings
per hour were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
time
16 20 25
of
and and and 30 week­
ly
un­ un­ un­ cts.
Over per
der der der and earn­
72 hour.
20 25 30 over. ings.
cts. cts. cts.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Num­ Average
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
ember of plants.
hours 48
pioy- per and
un­
der.

Stockers:
8 plants..

Over Over
48 60
and and
in­ un­
clud­ der
ing 72
60

17.2
8.
20.0 65.6 14.4
18.2 78.4 3.4
17.2 79.3 3.4

64.4
64.1
64.2
64.3

4.3 $0,178 8.7:67.7 23.7
.167 28.962.2
.168 19.8:46.6 11.4 2.3
.190 8.059.8 32.2

$11.43
10.72
10.79
12.17

1907
1908
1909
1910

87

13 plants.

1910
1911

170
164

59.0 15.9 28.8 50.6
59.6 16.5 37.2 42.7

4.7
3.7

.250 4.1 30.6 30.0 13. 21.8 14.24
.230 3.6|36.6 26.8 11.6 21.3 13.41

15 plants.

1911
1912

211
217

60.9 12. 40.4 34.1 12.8
60.9 12.4 43. 30.9 12.

.217 2.8!48. 22.7 i.O 16. 12.94
17.1 17.1 13.79
.231 3.2.36.4

17 plants.

1912
1913

60.9 12.6 40.4 34.0 13.0
51.8 45.1 3.1
60.6

.232 3.234. 26.5 18.1 17.2 13.88
.253 1.3126.5 26.5 21.2 24.3 15.12
20 30 40
Un-and and and 50
der un un­ un­ cts.
20 der der der and
cts. 30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts.

Drag downs:
11 plants..

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

18.6 60.5 18.6
24. 52.4 23.2
24.1 69.9 3.6
22.5
3.4

2.3
2.4
4.5

.271 26.8 38.4 23.3 7.0
.246 40.3 34.218.3
.250 32.5 41.0:21.7
29.134.8|27.0

4.7 17.31
7.3 15.58
15.93
4.5 18.19

19 plants..

1910
1911

132
123

65.1
04.9

21.2 56.8 18.
22. 00.3 20.3

3.0
1.6

25.8 46.3 22.0
18.8 62.6 12.2

3.0 17.44
3.3 16.88

20 plants..

1911
1912

12:
130

64.7
64.3

23.6 55.1 19.7
25.4 53.8 19.2

1.
1.5

.26218.0 63.7 11.8
.253 27.7,44.6 21.5

3.1 16.78
16.12

20 plants..

1912
1913

121
124

63.8
63.1

36.3 44.6 17.4
36.3 54.8 7.3

1.7
1.6

.251 24.9 52.0 19
.281 11.3 51. 28.2

15.81
17.57

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
64

65.9
66.
66.21
66.1

26.1
23.8
22.2
20.3

_
17 plants_

1910
1911

19 plants_
_
21 plants_
_

Finishers:
10 plants..

Heaters’ helpers
14 plants_
_

24 plants_
_
25 plants....
24 plants_
_




47 26.2
49.2 27.0
68.3 9.5
75.0 4.7

.309 9.2 47.7 18.5 20.0
.279 11.260.3 19.0 9.5
.300 8.0 49.2 27.0 15.9
.329 4.734.4 .1 15.6

20.45
18.53
19.8$
6.3 21.$)

111
110

64.0 13.5 16.2 55.0 15.3
63.4 13.6 22.8 45. 18.2

.323 4.5 42.3 32.4 14.4
.309 6.3 41.8 36.4 12.7

6.3 20.48
2.7 19.50

1911
1912

121
126

62.8 12.4 26.4 44.6 16.5
62.5 11.
43. 15.9

.313
.319

38.8 34.7 16.5
46.8 27.0 11.9

2.5 19.60
7.2! 19.92

1912
1913

137
134

62.0 10.9 37.9 38.0 13.1
61. ___ 50.1! 42.5 7.5

.328
.363

41.631.4 10.9 9.5 20.29
27.636. 14.2 16.4 22.36

1907
1908
1909
1910

167
153
151

65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

1910
1911

64, 15.6
56.2 20.
74.2 1.3
74.7 1.8

3.6
2.6
4.0
4.8

.246 44.4 34.813.8
.22754.3 28.8 12.4
.23446.4 39.1 10.6
.262 24.7 51.8 10.8

2.4
1.3
1.3
6.0

281

62.6 16.3 I8. 3; 52.2 10.5
62.5 17.1 16. lj 53.4 10.7

2.8
2.

.273^20.0 46.825.1
.262 22.0 50.5,20.3

4.4 16.77
3.6 16.05

1911
1912

319

62.7 16.4 15.4! 55.3 10.2
62.2 14.1 24.8| 50.5 9.4

2.7
1.3

.259 23.2 50.1'19.8
.200 23.2:49.9 20.1

3.4 15.94
1. 16.01

1912
1913

318
324

61.9 14.2 31.1 47.2
62.0
.9 44.4i50.3

1.3
1.2

.25125.850.9 20. 2 .5 ____ 15.41
.6 16.77
.273l16.7>53.123.8 5.9

1
2.0
2.0
1,

14.4!
18.3;
18.5'
16.8j

6.3
3.1

15.77
14.50
14.87
16.70

2 07

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----B A R M I L L S .

A V E R A G E A N D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K AN D R A TE S OF W AG ES
PER HOUR AN D AVER AG E FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

Average
ber full­
Occupation, and num­ Year. of time
em­
ber of plants.
48
ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Hook ups:
12 plants..

Per cent of employ­
ees whose earnings
per hour were—
AverAverage
full­
rate
Over Over
time
of
20 30 40
48
week­
60
wages Un­ and and and 50
and and
ly
per
in­
72 Over hour. der un­ un­ un­ cts. earn­
72
20 der der der and
clud­ un­
der
cts. 30 40 50 over. ings.
ing 72
cts. cts. cts.
60

1907
1908
1909
1910

92
84
82
93

20 plants..

1910
1911

174
144

63.2 15.5 17.2 42.5 24.7
63.4 14.6 16.8 43.8 25.0 .......

.272 26.4 37.4 25.9 9.2
.251 37.5 28.5 31.2 1.4

21 plants..

1911
1912

154
167

63.0 13.6 19.4 43.5 23.4
62.2 12.6 25.8 40.7 21.0 .......

.25037.031.1 29.2 1.3 1.3 15.66
. 249 34.2j44.3 16.8 4.8 ....... 15.56

22 plants..

1912
1913

177
175

61.9 11.9 32.2 36.2 19.8
61.4 1.7 42.2 42.9 13.1 .......

.254 32.2 42.9 20.3 4.5
15.74
.300 5.2 40.6 40.0 14.3 ....... 18.27

1907
1908
1909
1910

97
94
94
95

18 plants..

1910
1911
1912

180
177
176

62.8 21.7 13.9 44.4 20.0
62.5 22.0 15.2 42.4 20.3 .......
62.7 20.5 15.4 43.8 20.5 .......

.295 28.3 25.5 28.3 12.2
.273 28.7 41.2 18.6 8.5
.287 23.9 41.4 23.3 6.2

5.5 18.35
2.8 16.97
5.1 17.97

18 plants..

1912
1913

170
168

62.2 21.2 17.1 42.9 18.8
61.8 3.6 38.2 47.6 10.7 ....... ;

.284 23.7 42.9 24.1 4.1
.320 20.3 20.8 40.5 8.9

5.3 17.56
9.5 19.71

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
92
93
97

64.8
30.9 51.1 18.1
65.1 ....... 33.7 45.7 20.7
65.3 ....... 33.4 59.1 3.2 **4*3
32.0 61.9 6.2 .......
65.0

.249 40.5 34.1 21.3
.216 52.2,40.2 6.5
.225 49.5:38.7 9.7 *i.’ i
.247 42.2 33.0 20.6 3.1

4.2
1.1
1.1
1.0

25 plants.

1910
1911
1912

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

9,6 30.1 46.2 10.3 3.8
9.9 34.4 45.0 10.6 .. .
9.7 36.3 40.9 11.7 1.3

.264 35.9 35.9 19.9 5.8
.254 45.1 31.8 13.2 6.6
.254 40.2 36.3 16.2 3.9

2.5 16.40
3.3 15.55
3.2 15.59

24 plants.

1912
1913

156
159

62.4 9.6 34.7 42.9 11.5
62.0 ....... 44.1 52.2 2.5

.251 40.4 37.8 14.7 3.8
.287 14.5 55.4 13.2 11:9

3.2 15.40
5.0 17.54

1907
1908
1909
1910

175 59.5 22.3 28.5
174 59.7 22.4 28.7
174 59.7 22.4 28.7
180 59.7 21.7 29.9

21 plants.

1910
1911

22 plants.
20 plants.

Roll hands, other:
9 plants...........

Shearmen:
15 plants..

Stranders:
13 plants.

63.9 9.8 <12.0
65.3 3.6 .21.5
65.7 3.7 14.6
65.6 ....... 17.3

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

6.2
6.4
6.4
6.3

8.3
8.5
8.5
8.5

52.2
41.7
57.3
63.4

40.2
40.4
70.2
70.5

$0,268 18.4 59.8 19.6 2.2
26.1
$17.30
33.3 ....... .225 39.4 41.6 19.0 ___
14.70
24.4 ....... .241 21.9 61.0 17.1
15.82
19.4 ....... .303 14.0:28.0 38.7 i.7.2 *2.'2 20.06

45.4
44.7 .......
14.9 .......
14.7 .......

1.3
1.3

.278 37.1 20.6 33.0
.255 36.2 39.3 11.7
.266 37.2 37.2 14.9
.315 21.0j25.2 35.8

4.1 5.2
8.5 4.3
5.3 5.4
7.4 10.5

18.53
16.97
17.65
21.06

16.20
14.10
14.72
16.11

34.3 14.9
31.6 17.2 .......
42.0 6.9
41.7 6.7

.334 6.8 37.1 34.3 8.0 13.7 19.45
....... 16.25
.277 12.0 48.3 39.7
.297 5.2 51.7 36.2 '6*9
17.34
.344 7.7 36.1 35.6 8.9 ii.7 20.06

272
254

60.6 17.6 30.2 39.7 12.5
59.9 18.9 32.3 35.4 13.4 .......

.301 13.6 46.7 26.1 5.9 7.7 17.85
.268 25.6 43.7 20.1 10.6 ....... 15.83

1911
1912

262
266

59.8 18.3 34.3 34.4 13.0
59.6 18.0 36.5 32.7 12.8 .......

.272 24.8 42.4 19.5 13.4
16.03
.283 22.7 44.7 18.0 6.4 **8.3 16.62

1912
1913

252
246

59.2 19.0 42.8 27.0 11.1
58.7 15.9 45.1 34.1 4.9

.284 22.2 46.4 15.9 6.7 8.7 16.56
.328 9.3 39.8 27.2 10.6 13.0 19.07

Un­
der
30
cts.

Catchers:
11 plants..

1.1 17.13
1.4 15.81

1907
1908
1909
1910




69
70
70
73!

62.5
62. o;
61.9 .......
62.0' .......

43.4
45.7
45.7
42.4

36.2 20.3
34.3 20.0
54.3 .......
57.5 . . . . . . . . . .

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

.442 8.7 40.6 18.8 26.1
.381 21.5 44.3 15.7 14.3
.400 12.8 52.9 14.3 14.3
.452 6.9 27.4 38.4 21.9

5.8
4.3
5.7
5.5

27.68
23.57
24.93
28.17

208

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A V ER AG E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K A N D R ATES OF W AGES
PER HOUR AND A V E R A G E FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Concluded.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—

ber
Occupation, and num­ Year. of
em­
ber of plants.
ploy­
ees.

Catchers—Concluded.
20 plants.............

Per cent of employ­
ees whose earnings
per hour were—
AverAverAverage
age
full­
full­
rate
Over Over
time
time
of
30 40 50
48 60
week­
hours 48 and
wages Un­ and and and 60
ly
Over per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
per and in­ and
week. un­ clud­ un­ 72 72 hour. 30 der der der and earn­
ings.
der. ing der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
cts. cts. cts.
60 72

1910
1911
1912

115
111
110

60.2 13.0 40.0 40.0
59.9 13.5 38.7 40.5
59.7 13.6 39.1 40.0

7.0
$0,419 17.4 27.8 33.0 18.3
7.2 . . . . . .392 18.0 49.5 18.0 10.8
7.3 ....... .399 22.8 33.6 29.1 5.5

1912
1913

108
110

59.4 13.9 44.5 36.1
59.4 ....... 58.2 40.0

5.6
1.8 .......

1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5 13.5 25.0 44.0 17.5
62.5 9.9 27.7 40.1 22.3 .......
62.4 9.9 27.6 56.8 5.8 .......
62.3 9.7 27.7 56.4 6.2 .......

.434 17.4 36.5 22.2 15.1 8.7
.343 34.3 31.4 31.0 3.3 .......
.368 23.1 45.7 21.8 9.5
.407 21.7 28.0 27.6 20.2 2.3

25 plants.............

1910
.1911

425
395

61.0 17.2 27.1 46.4
60.6 18.2 26.5 45.6

9.4
9.6 .......

.402 21.4 29.9 30.1 17.2
.376 22.2 44.1 20.5 12.2

1.4 24.51
1.0 22.65

26 plants.............

1911
1912

403
408

60.5 17.9 27.1 45.7
60.2 17.6 28.4 44.9

9.4
9.1 .......

.377 21.9 43.7 21.6 11.9
.389 23.5 29.9 28.9 14.7

1.0 22.68
2.9 23.36

26 plants.............

1912
1913

405
407

59.9 17.8 34.9 39.8
59.8 6.1 47.7 42.5

7.7
3.7 .......

.393 24.2 28.1 27.9 16.8
.436 13.0 23.8 35.6 22.4

3.0 23.42
5.2 26.00

20 plants.............
Roughers:
15 plants.............

.415 15.8 34.3 35.2 5.6 9.3 24.81
.462 12.7 19.1 32.7 25.5 10.0 27.67

40
Un­ and
der un­
40 der
cts. 50
cts.
Heaters:
15 plants.

3.5 $25.45
3.6 23.70
9.1 23.92

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

26.28
21.35
22.72
25.21

60
and 70
un­ Cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1907
1908
1909
1910

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

70.2 9.9
60.7 15.2
69.6 4.5
72.5 7.0

1.7
1.8
3.6
4.2

.508 29.0 14.9 35.5 10.7 9.9
.467 30.4 31.3 22.3 9.8 6.3
.488 18.8 30.4 35.7 9.8 5.4
.502 24.6 25.4 31.0 8.5 10.6

25 plants.

1910
1911

217
180

62.9 8.3 20.7 58.1 10.1
62.6 10.0 18.8 59.4 9.4

2.7
2.2

.507 25.4 25.3 26.3 14.3 8. a 31.73
.512 27.8 17.2 30.6 14.4 10.0 31.97

26 plants.

1911
1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

9.8 18.5 60.3
9.0 22.6 57.3

9.2
9.0

2.2
2.0

.510 27.8 18.5 29.9 14.1
.482 36.2=18.1 20.6 18.6

26 plants.

1912
1913

196
211

61.8
61.7

9.2 30.6 50.0
1.4 38.8 53.1

8.2
4.3

2.0
2.3

.499 33.618.4 20.9 18.9 8.2 30.60
.560 14.2 23.2 22.3 24.2 16.1 34.25

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
67

22 plants.

1910
1911

124
116

62.4 12.1 29.0 46.8 12.1
62.0 12.9 29.3 42.2 15.5

.928 2.4 6.5 6.5 17.7 66.9 58.21
.882 .91 7.8 10.3 18.1 62.9 55.26

23 plants.

1911
1912

120
124

62.0 12.5 30.0 42.5 15.0
61.7 12.1 33.0 40.3 14.5 .......

.873 .8 9.2 10.0 17.5 62.5 54.65
.860 1.6 4.0 12.9 16.9 64.5 53.63

24 plants.

1912
1913

128
130

61.6 11.7 35.2 37.5 15.6
61.5 2.3 47.7 36.9 13.1 .......

.863 2.4 3.9 12.5 18.0 63.3 53.60
.989 2.3 2.3 6.2 8.5 80.8 60.71

Rollers:
13 plants.




2.5
2.7
2.7
2.1

65.5
65.7 .......
65.5 .......
65.2 .......

15.8
19.7
19.7
14.1

33.8
31.7
31.7
28.4

43.1
44.4
52.4
61.2

18.5 4.6 1.013
7.7 20.0
19.0 4.8 .878 *4.8 *i.‘ 6 7.9 22.2
15.9
.917 1.6 7.9 7.9 11.1
10.4 ....... 1.010 1.5 6.0 3.0 19.4

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

9.8 31.87
6.5 29.84

72.3
63.5
71.4
70.1

66.88
57.88
60.40
66.23

209

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BAR MILLS.

EARNINGS OF ROLLING CREWS, BY SIZE OF MILLS.

In order to compare the earnings of the various members of the
rolling crews in the mills of different sizes, the following table, show­
ing simply the average earnings per hour in 1913, has been prepared.
Although the exertion increases with the size of the mill, skill and
experience are such large factors that the increase in wages in any
one of the occupations is by no means proportionate to the increase
in the size of the mill and the weight of the product. In the case of
rollers, it will be noticed that there is no connection between the size
of the mill and the average earnings per hour. Whatever difference
does exist is due entirely to the skill and experience of the particular
roller and to the custom of the individual establishment in which he
is employed.
AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR OF MEMBERS OF ROLLING CREWS, 1913—BAR MILLS.
Size of mills.
Occupation.
8-inch.

Rollers........................
Rougliers...................
Catchers....................
Stranders...................
Finishers....................
Hook ups...................
Roll hands, other___

9-inch.

10-inch.

$1,070
.391
.400
.302
.354

$0,932
.484
.619
.293
.293

$1,132
.413
.484
.392
.427

.284

.275

.387

12-inch. 13,14, and 16-inch.
15 inch.
$0,961
.447
.416
.319
.363
.323
.304

$0,676
.386
.461
.255
.345
.263
.335

$0,998
.435
.499
.523
.410
.329
.408

18-inch.

$0,975
.500
.463
A ll
.281
.344

Total,
all sizes.

$0,989
.436
.462
.328
.363
.300
.320

Owing to changes in the number of plants reported from year to
year, and the consequent differences in the averages for the overlapping
year in two groups of plants, it is difficult to make a comparison of the
actual data over a period of several years which will give an accurate
measure of the changes throughout the period.
To aid in making such a comparison relative or index numbers
have been computed from the averages of the preceding table
for full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and full-time
weekly earnings, for each occupation from 1907 to 1913, inclusive, and
are presented in the following table.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The relative
for each year is the per cent that the average for that year is of the
average for 1913. For example, the relative full-time weekly earnings
of stockers in 1907 were 85.9 as compared with 100 in 1913; that is,
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in 1907 were 85.9 per cent
of the full-time weekly earnings of this occupation in 1913. The
method of computing relative numbers is explained on pages 21 to 23.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase or
decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnings in 1913 as compared with each specified
83021°—Bull. 168—15------14



210

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

year preceding. Thus, the full-time weekly earnings of stockers in
1913 were 16.4 per cent higher than in 1907, 24.1 per cent higher than
in 1908, 23.3 per cent higher than in 1909, 9.3 per cent higher than in
1910, 16.1 per cent higher than in 1911, and 8.9 per cent higher than
in 1912.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus,
the full-time weekly earnings of stockers were 6.2 per cent lower in
1908 than in 1907, 0.6 per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 12.8 per
cent higher in 1910 than in 1909, 5.9 per cent lower in 1911 than in
1910, 6.6 per cent higher in 1912 than in 1911, and 8.9 per cent higher
in 1913 than in 1912. The other occupations and items of the table
can be studied in like manner. The percentages of increase and
decrease are computed from the relative numbers.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF W AGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W EE K LY EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—BAR MILLS.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Stockers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Heaters:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Heaters' helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909....... .........................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Chargers and helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
speci­
rate
1913 as fied
of
com­
year
wages
pared
per
as
with
com­
hour.
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as
time 1913 as fied
fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
earn­
as
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

99.6
99.2
99.3
99.5
100.5
100.5
100.0

+ 0.4
+ .8
+ .7
+ .5
- .5
- .5

100.7
100.7
100.8
101.1
100.6
100.2
100.0

- .7
- .7
- .8
- 1 .1
- .6
- .2

101.0
100.6
100.5
100.8
100.6
99.8
100.0

—1.0
- .6
- .5
- .8
- .6
+ .2

99.7
99.9
100.3
100.9
100.6
100.9
100.0

+
+
-

.3
.1
.3
.9
.6
.9

-0 .4
+ .1
+ •2
+1.0
0)
- .5

87.7
82.3
82.8
93.6
86.1
91.7
100.0

+14.0
+21.5
+20.8
+ 6.8
+16.1
+ 9.1

0)
+ •1
+ .3
- .5
- .4
— .2

94.5
86.9
90.8
93.4
94.3
89.1
100.0

+ 5.8
+15.1
+10.1
+ 7.1
+ 6.0
+12.2

+
+

.4
.1
.3
.2
.8
.2

89.6
82.7
85.2
95.4
91.6
91.9
100.0

+11.6
+20.9
+17.4
+ 4.8
+ 9.2
+ 8.8

+
+
+
+
-

.2
.4
.6
.3
.3
.9

84.5
78.6
78.6
88.4
85.1
88.8
100.0

+18.3
+27.2
+27.2
+13.1
+17.5
+12.6

i No change.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

- 6.2
+ .6
+13.0
- 8.0
+ 6.5
+ 9.1

85.9
80.6
81.1
91.5
86.1
91.8
100.0

+16.4
+24.1
+23.3
+ 9.3
+16.1
+ 8.9

- 8.0
+ 4.5
+ 2.9
+ 1.0
- 5.5
+12.2

96.1
88.1
92.3
94.7
95.4
89.3
100.0

+ 4.1
+13.5
+ 8.3
+ 5.6
+ 4.8
+12.0

- 7.7
+ 3.0
+12.0
- 4.0
+ •3
+ 8.8

90.3
83.0
85.1
95.6
91.5
91.9
100.0

+10.7
+20.5
+17.5
+ 4.6
+ 9.3
+ 8.8

84.6
78.7
79.0
88.5
85.8
89.8
100.0

+18.2
+27.1
+26.6
+13.0
+16.6
+11.4

-

7.0
0)
+12.5
- 3.7
+ 4.3
+12.6

- 6.2
+ .6
+12.8
- 5.9
+ 6.6
+ 8.9
- 8.3
+ 4.8
+ 2.6
+ .7
- 6.4
+12.0
- 8.1
+ 2.5
+12.3
- 4.3
+ .4
+ 8.8
- 7.0
+ .4
+12.0
- 3.1
+ 4.7
+11.4

211

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BAR MILLS.

RELA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EE K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—B A R MILLS—
Continued.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in—

Occupation and year.

Relar
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in—

Each Rela­
tive
1913 as speci­
rate
fied
com­
of
year
pared
wages
as
per
with
com­
each
hour.
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Each Rela­
Each
tive
1913 as speci­
full­ 1913 as speci­
fied
fied
com­
com­
time
year weekly pared
year
pared
as'
as
with
earn­
with
com­
com­
each
ings.
each
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

Drag downs:
—2.6
1907.................................. 102.7
.................................. 101.9
1908
- 1 .9
- 0 .8
-2 .0
1909.................................. 102.0
+ .1
-2 .0
1910.................................. 102.0
—
1}.3
1911.................................. 101.7
—1.7
1912......... ........................ 101.1
-1 .1
- .6
- 1 .1
1913.................................. 100.0
Roll engineers:
—3.0
1907................................. 103.1
- 1 .8
- 1 .3
.................................. 101.8
1908
- 2 .0
1909.................................. 102.0
+ .2
- 2 .2
1910.................................. 102.3
+ .3
- 2 .2
1911.................................. 100.0
0)
1912..................................
99.4
- .6
+ .6
1913.................................. 100.0
+ .6
Rollers:
—1.8
1907.................................. 101.8
- 2 .1
+ .3
1908.................................. 102.1
- .3
- 1 .8
1909.................................. 101.8
— .5
- 1 .3
1910.................................. 101.3
1911.................................. 100.6
— .6
— .7
1912.................................. 100.2
- .2
- .4
1913.................................. 100.0
— .2
Roughers:
1907.................................. 100.0
0)
+1.7
1908.................................. 101.7
—1.7
- .2
—1.5
1909.................................. 101.5
- .2
1910.................................. 101.3
—1.3
— .7
1911.................................. 100.7
— .6
- .2
— .5
1912.................................. 100.2
1913.................................. 100.0
— .2
Catchers:
1907.................................. 101.7
—1.7
— .8
- .9
1908.................................. 100.8
— .1
- .7
1909.................................. 100.7
- .8
1910.................................. 100.8
+ .1
- .5
- .3
1911.................................. 100.3
1912.................................. 100.0
- .3
0)
1913.................................. 100.0
0)
Stranders:
-2 .0
1907.................................. 102.0
102.4
-2 .3
1908..................................+ -4
-2 .3
1909.................................. 102.4
0)
1910.................................. 102.4
-2 .3
0)
- 1 .2
-1 .2
1911.................................. 101.2
- .3
1912.................................. 100.9
— .9
- .9
1913.................................. 100.0
Finishers:
1907.................................. 101.4
- 1 .4
- 2 .2
+ .8
1908.................................. 102.2
- 1 .9
- .3
1909.................................. 101.9
- .1
- 1 .8
1910.................................. 101.8
- 1 .0
1911.................................. 100.8
- .8
- .5
1912.................................. 100.3
- .3
- .3
1913.................................. 100.0




90.0
81.7
83.0
95.0
92.5
89.3
100.0

+11.1
+22.4
+20.5
+ 5.3
+ 8.1
+12.0

90.0
88.0
86.4
91.6
91.2
91.6
100.0

+11.1
+13.6
+15.7
+ 9.2
+ 9.6
+ 9.2

93.5
81.0
84.6
93.2
88.6
87.3
100.0

+ 7.0
+23.5
+18.2
+ 7.3
+12.9
+14.5

99.6
78.7
84.4
93.4
87.4
90.1
100.0

+ .4
+27.1
+18.5
+ 7.1
+14.4
+11.0

92.2
79.5
83.5
94.3
88.3
89.8
100.0

+ 8.5
+25.8
+19.8
+ 6.0
+13.3
+11.4

90.7
75.3
80.7
93.5
83.2
86.6
100.0

+10.3
+32.8
+23.9
+ 7.0
+20.2
+15.5

87.0
78.6
84.5
92.7
88.7
90.4
100.0

+14.9
+27.2
+18.3
+ 7.9
+12.7
+10.6

i No change.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

- 9.2
+ 1.6
+14.5
— 2.6
- 3.5
+12.0

92.1
82.9
84.7
96.8
93.7
90.0
100.0

+ 8.6
+20.6
+18.1
+ 3.3
+ 6.7
+11.1

- 2.2
— 1.8
+ 6.0
- .4
+ .4
+ 9.2

91.7
88.7
87.4
93.0
91.3
91.2
100.0

+ 9.1
+12.7
+14.4
+ 7.5
+ 9.5
+ 9.6

—13.4
+ 4.4
+10.2
— 4.9
- 1.5
+14.5

95.7
82.8
86.4
94.8
90.0
88.3
100.0

+ 4.5
+20.8
+15.7
+ 5.5
+11.1
+13.3

-2 L 0
+ 7.2
+10.7
— 6.4
+ 3.1
+11.0

98.7
80.1
85.3
94.6
87.5
90.1
100.0

+ 1.3
+24.8
+17.2
+ 5.7
+ 14.3
+11.0

—13.8
+ 5.0
+12.9
- 6.4
+ 1.7
+11.4

93.7
79.8
84.4
95.4
91.2
89.7
100.0

+ 6.7
+25.3
+18.5
+ 4.8
+ 9.6
+11.5

-1 7.0
+ 7.2
+15.9
-1 1.0
+ 4.1
+15.5

91.6
76.5
81.6
94.4
83.8
86.8
100.0

+ 9.2
+30.7
+22.5
+ 5.9
+19.3
+15.2

- 9.7
+ 7.5
+ 9.7
- 4.3
+ 1.9
+10.6

88.0
79.7
85.4
93.8
89.3
90.7
100.0

+13.6
+25.5
+17.1
+ 6.6
+12.0
+10.3

—10.0
+ 2.2
+14.3
— 3.2
— 3.9
+11.1
—
—
+
—
—
+

3.3
1.5
6.4
1.8
.1
9.6

-1 3 .5
+ 4.3
+ 9.7
— 5.1
— 1.9
+13.3
—18.8
+ 6.5
+10.9
— 7.5
+ 3.0
+11.0
—14.8
+ 5.8
+13.0
— 4.4
— 1.6
+11.5
—16.5
+ 6.7
+ 15.7
-1 1 .2
+ 3.6
+15.2
— 9.4
+ 7.2
+ 9.8
— 4.8
+ 1.6
+10.3

212

BULLETIN' OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RE LATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PE R CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—B AR MILLS—
Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Hook ups:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Roll hands, other:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913................................
Hotbed men:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Shearmen:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Shearmen’s helpers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909................................ .
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Bundlers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Laborers:
1907..................................
1908..................................
1909..................................
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
rate
speci­
1913 as fied
of
com­
wages
year
pared
per
as
with
hour.
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
full­
speci­
speci­
1913 as fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
earn­
as
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each pared
pared
speci­
speci­
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

99.1
101.3
101.9
101.8
102.1
100.8
100.0

+0.9
-1 .3
- 1 .9
- 1 .8
-2 .1
- .8

101.0
101.3
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.6
100.0

—1.0
-1 .3
- 1 .0
- .8
- .3
- .6

102.8
102.6
102.8
102.8
101.3
101.0
100.0

—2.7
- 2 .5
- 2 .7
-2 .7
-1 .3
- 1 .0

101.8
102.3
102.6
102.1
100.8
100.6
100.0

—1.8
-2 .2
- 2 .5
-2 .1
- .8
- .6

103.2
103.6
105.3
102.2
100.8
101.0
100.0

—3.1
- 3 .5
-5 .0
-2 .2
- .8
- 1 .0

104. ,1
104.1
104.0
104.4
100.3
100.3
100.0

-3 .9
-3 .9
- 3 .8
- 4 .2
- .3
- .3

104.9
99.5
104.1
103.2
100.5
101.1
100.0

—4.7
+ .5
- 3 .9
-3 .1
- .5
- 1 .1

+2.2
+ .6
- .1
+ .3
-1 .3
— .8

81.5
68.4
73.3
92.1
85.0
84.7
100.0

+22.7
+46.2
+36.4
+ 8.6
+17.6
+18.1

+
—
+
—

.3
.3
.2
.5
.3
.6

80.5
73.8
77.0
91.2
84.4
88.8
100.0

+24.2
+35.5
+29.9
+ 9.6
+ 18.5
+12.6

- .2
+ .2
0)
- 1 .5
- .3
—1.0

81.8
75.3
77.9
90.0
85.1
86.9
100.0

+22.2
+32.8
+28.4
+ 11.1
+17.5
+15.1

+ .5
+ .3
- .5
- 1 .3
- .2
— .6

91.6
79.5
82.8
90.9
87.5
87.5
100.0

+ 9.2
+25.8
+20.8
+ 10.0
+ 14.3
+ 14.3

+ .4
+1.6
- 2 .9
- 1 .4
+ .2
- 1 .0

82.2
79.4
79.8
86.9
82.7
85.5
100.0

+21.7
+25.9
+25.3
+15.1
+20.9
+17.0

0)
- .1
+ •4
- 3 .9
0)
- .3

88.3
76.1
81.3
93.2
86.9
85.1
100.0

+13. Z
+31.4
+23.0
+ 7.3
+15.1
+17.5

-5 .1
+4.6
- .9
- 2 .6
+ .6
- 1 .1

85.4
85.4
83.7
89.9
89.9
89.9
100.0

+17.1
+ 17.1
+19.5
+11.2
+11.2
+11.2

1No change.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

-1 6.1
+ 7.2
+25.6
- 7.7
.4
+18.1

81.0
68.8
74.1
93.9
86.7
86.2
100.0

+23.5
+45.3
+35.0
+ 6.5
+15.3
+16.0

- 8.3
+ 4.3
+18.4
- 7.5
+ 5.2
+12.6

80.0
73.3
76.2
91.0
84.1
89.1
100.0

+25.0
+36.4
+31.2
+ 9.9
+18.9
+12.2

- 7.9
+ 3.5
+15.5
- 5.4
+ 2.1
+15.1

84.3
76.9
77.4
91.6
85.9
87.3
100.0

+18.6
+30.0
+29.2
+ 9.2
+ 16.4
+14.5

-1 3.2
+ 4.2
+ 9.8
- 3.7
0)
+14.3

92.9
80.8
84.4
92.4
87.6
87.8
100.0

+ 7.6
+23.8
+18.5
+ 8.2
+ 14.2
+ 13.9

- 3.4
+ .5
+ 8.9
- 4.8
+ 3.4
+17.0

84.7
81.8
83.7
88.7
83.2
86.6
100.0

+18.1
+22.2
+19.5
+12.7
+20.2
+15.5

-1 3 .8
+ 6.8
+14.6
- 6.8
- 2.1
+17.5

92.2
79.6
84.6
97.0
87.0
85.1
100.0

+ 8.5
+25.6
+18.2
+ 3.1
+14.9
+17.5

0)
- 2.0
+ 7.4
?)
O)
+ 11.2

88.3
84.0
86.0
91.4
89.2
90.2
100.0

+13.3
+ 19.0
+ 16.3
+ 9.4
+12.1
+10.9

-1 5.1
+ 7.7
+26.7
- 7.7
- .6
+16.0
- 8.4
+ 4.0
+19.4
- 7.6
+ 5.9
+12.2
- 8.8
+ .7
+18.3
- 6.2
+ 1.6
+14.5
-13.0
+ 4.5
+ 9.5
- 5.2
+ .2
+13.9
- 3.4
+ 2.3
+ 6.0
- 6.2
+ 4.1
+15.5
-1 3 .7
+ 6.3
+14.7
-1 0.3
- 2.2
+17.5
- 4.9
+ 2.4
+ 6.3
- 2.4
+ 1.1
+10.9

233

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----B A R M I L L S .

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the bar-mill department as a whole, as determined by a combina­
tion of the data for the several principal productive occupations
which are covered by this section of the report. The method of
computing the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under “ weekly earnings,” it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the industry as a whole in
1907 were 92.4, as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1907 were 92.4 per cent of those in 1913.
The relative dropped to 83.0 in 1908, advanced to 84.8 in 1909, and
to 93.8 in 1910, dropped to 89.3 in 1911, and advanced to 90.2 in 1912.
In 1913, the base year, the relative was 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1913 were
8.2 per cent higher than in 1907, 20.5 per cent higher than in 1908,
17.9 per cent higher than in 1909, 6.6 per cent higher than in 1910,
12 per cent higher than in 1911, and 10.9 per cent higher than in 1912.
The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per cent of
increase or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as com­
pared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full-time
weekly earnings were 10.2 per cent lower in 1908 than in 1907, 2.2
per cent higher in 1909 than in 1908, 10.6 per cent higher in 1910 than
in 1909, 4.8 per cent lower in 1911 than in 1910, 1 per cent higher in
1912 than in 1911, and 10.9 per cent higher in 1913 than in 1912.
The relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week
and rates of wages per hour may be read in like manner.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1907 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, A L L OCCUPATIONS—BAR MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in—
Year.

1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

101.6
101.1
102.1
101.8
100.5
100.3
100.0

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

-1 .6
-1 .1
-2 .1
-1 .8
- .5
- .3

Each
speci­
fied
year
as
com-

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in—

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

per
hour.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as
fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
year weekly com­
year
pared
as
earn­ pared
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

91.5
82.2
83.8
92.8
89.0
89.9
100.0

+ 9.3
+21.7
+19.3
+ 7.8
+12.4
+11.2

Rela­
tive
rate
of

with
year
pre­
ceding.

- 0 .5
+1.0
- .3
-1 .3
- .2
- .3

Weekly earnings.

-1 0 .2
+ 1.9
+10.7
-4 .1
+ 1.0
+11.2

92.4
83.0
84.8
93.8
89.3
90.2
100.0

+ 8.2
+20.5
+17.9
+ 6.6
+12.0
+10.9

-1 0 .2
+ 2.2
+10.6
- 4.8
+ 1.0
+10.9

214

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In considering weekly earnings, it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase
in wages, of course, tends to increase them. Between 1907 and 1913
it will be observed that hours were reduced 1.6 per cent, and that
wages per hour were increased 9.3 per cent, each tending to offset the
other in weekly earnings. Still another influence on average weekly
earnings for the department must be considered; that is, the change
in the relative number of employees in the several occupations from
year to year. It is obvious that an increase in the relative number
of employees in the lower-paid occupations or a decrease in the rela­
tive number of those in the higher-paid ones would tend to lower the
average rate and earnings for all occupations, just as an increase in
the relative number of employees in the higher-paid occupations or
a decrease in the relative number in the lower-paid ones would tend
to increase the average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in bar-mill plants whose customary working time per
week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in the following table. The figures are presented for each
of the three districts for which bar mills are reported, and for the three
combined. The employees given under the heading “ 5 days, 5 days,
and 6 days in rotation” and “ 5 days, 6 days, and 6 days in rotation”
are engaged in occupations for which the plant employs three shifts
instead of the customary two to complete the 24 hours of the day.
For example, every week one-third or two-thirds of the employees
reported under these headings worked 6 turns instead of the cus­
tomary 5 per week.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT WORKING EACH
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS PER W EEK, B Y YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—B A R MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.
Employees whose customary working time per week was—

District, and number of
plants.

Eastern:
3 plants.

8 plants.




Num~
ber
5
of
days
Year. em­
and 6
5
ploy- days. days
alter­
nate­
ly.

5
days,
5
days,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
days,

5
days
and 7
days,
and 6 days. days
alter­
days
in
nate­
rota­
lytion.

1907
1908
1909
1910

313
355
357
380

1
1
1
11

242
290
290

70
64
66
103

1910
1911

890
794

157

323
453

406
340

1

6
days, days,
days
7
and 7 days, days,
7
days and 7 and 7 days.
alter­ days days
in
nate­ in
ly- rota­ rota­
tion. tion.

215

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EM PLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W O R K IN G EACH
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF D A Y S PER W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—
Continued.
NUMBER—Concluded.

Employees whose customary working time per week

District, and number of
plants.

Num­
ber
5
days
of
Year. em­
5 and 6
ploy­ days. days
alter­
ees.
nate­

ly*

Eastern—Concluded
8 plants..............

5
6
5
5
days, days,
days, days,
days days
7
6
and 7 and 7 days, days,
days, days,
7
and 6 and 6 days. days days and 7 and 7 days.
alter­ alter­ days days
days days
in
nate­ nate­ in
in
in
rota­ rota­
ly.
ly. rota­ rota­
tion. tion.
tion. tion.

831
887

455
551

375
322

1912 946
1913 1,083

588
684

344
353

1,215
1,060
1,1C3
1,311

561
455
465
675

521
479
579
552

10 plants....................... 1910 2,185
1911 1,999

676
730

1,403
1.167

806

1,188
1.167

10 plants...................... 1912
1913 2,309
Great Lakes and Middle
West:
6 plants......................... 1907 850
1908 801
1909 795
1910

37 967
121 1,146

1,120
590

421
335
346
223

64
48
48
49

336
385
356
571

9
9
11
12

7 plants.

1910 1,017
1911 914

227
347

49 651
45 1496

76

8 plants.

1911 997
1912 1,006

429
421

45 1 497
45 1502

8 plants.

1912
1913

975
928

420
358

1907
1908
1909
1910

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560

1,224
1,080
1,101
1,164

64 927
48 928
48 1,001
49 1,226

26
15
40
16

25 plants

1910 4,092
1911 3,707

175 1,226
38 1,530

49 2,460
45 *2,003

105

26 plants

1911 3,924
1912 4,050

1,690
1,858

45 1
2,060
45 U,991

26 plants

1912 4,114
1913 4,320

55 1,975
172 2,188

2 53 1,918
49 1,412

1911
1912

8 plants.............
Pittsburgh:
6 plants..............

1907
1908
1909
1910

10 plants......................

Total:
15 plants

1911 2,096
1912 2,157

37

17
29
4
25

342

253
49

6
15

15
36

10
352

15
24

PER CENT.
Eastern:
3 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

313
355
357
380

0.3
.3
.3
2.9

77.3
81.7
81.2
70.0

22.4
18.0
18.5
27.1

8 plants.

1910
1911

890
794

17.6
.1

36.3
57.1

45.6
42.8

8 plants.

1911
1912

831
887

.1
1.6

54.8
62.1

45.1
36.3

1 Including 10 employees who worked 7 days every fifth week.
2 Including 8 employees who worked 5 days every fourth week.




0.4

216

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

NUM BER AND PER CENT OF EM PLOYEES IN EACH DISTRICT W O RK IN G EACH
SPECIFIED NUMBER OF D A Y S PER W E E K , B Y Y E A R S , 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—
Concluded.
PER CENT—Concluded.

Employees whose customary working time per week was—

District, and number of
plants.

Num­
5
ber
days
of
Year. em­
and 6
5
ploy- days. days
alter­
nate­
ly-

Eastern—Concluded.
8 plants......................... 1912
1913
Pittsburgh:
6 plants......................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

5
days,
5
iys,
and 6
days
in
rota­
tion.

5
6
days,
5
days,
6
6
days days
days,
and 7 and 7 days,
and 6 days. days days and 7 and 7 days.
alter­ alter­ days
days
in
nate­ nate­ in
rota­
ly.
ly. rota­ rota­
tion.
tion. tion.

946
1,083

1.5
4.2

62.2
63.2

1,215
1,060
1,163
1,311

2.6
5.5
2.2
1.3

46.2
42.9
40.0
51.5

3.5
4.0
3.6
3.4

42.9
45.2
49.8
42.1

1910 2,185
1911 1,999

.8
1.7

30.9
36.5

2.1
2.1

64.2
58.4

1911 2,096
1912 2,157

1.6
1.7

38.5
41.1

2.0
1.9

56.7
54.1

10 plants....................... 1912 2,193
1913 2,309
Great Lakes and Middle
West:
6 plants......................... 1907 850
1908. 801
795
1909
1910 869

1.7
5.2

44.1
49.6

1.9
1.8

51.1
25.6

1.2
1.5
.5

49.5
41.8
43.5
25.7

10 plants.......................
10 plants.......................

7 plants........................

36.4
32.6
0.7
.4
.3

2.8
1.5
1.5
1.1

1.4
2.5
.3
1.1

1.2
.3

14.8

39.5
48.1
44.8
65.7

.7
3.0
.9

1.1
1.1
1.4
1.4

1910 1,017 . . . . . . 22.3
38.0
1911 914

4.8 64.0
4.9 154.3

1.1

7.5
.7

4.5 249.8
4.5 249.9

1.0
2-2

3 5.4
5.3

46.6
50.6

2.3
1.7

39.0
41.9
43.2
47.9

1.6
1.0
1.8

7.5
6.0
6.0
5.6

8 plants....................... . 1911 997
1912 1,006

.4
.4

43.0
41.8

1912
1913

975
928

.4
.5

43.1
38.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

2,378
2,216
2,315
2,560

1.8
3.2
1.3
1.1

51.5
48.7
47.6
45.5

1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8

2.7
2.2
2.1
1.9

25 plants......................

1910 4,092
1911 3,707

4.3
1.0

30.0
41.3

1.1
1.2

1.2 60.1
1.2 *54.0

26 plants......................

1911 3,924
1912 4,050

1.0
1.4

43.1
45.9

1.1
1.0

1.1 452.5
1.1 549.2

26 plants....................

1912 4,114
1913 4,320

1.3
4.0

48.0
50.6

1.0 |' 1.3
1.1
1.0

8 plants.......................
Total:
15 plants......................

.4
.4

1.0
1.1

1.6
1.1
.7
1.7
2.6
.2

.7

46.6
32.7

.4
.2
8.2

.4

1 Including 1.1 per cent who worked 7 days every fifth week.
2 Including 1 per cent who worked 7 days every fifth week.
3 Including 0.8 per cent who worked 5 days every fourth week.
4 Including 0.3 per cent who worked 7 days every fifth week.
5 Including 0.2 per cent who worked 7 days every fifth week.
6 Including 0.2 per cent who worked 5 days every fourth week.

In addition to the text tables in the summary7four general tables
are presented for the bar-mill department as follows:
Table I.— Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in the United States, by years, 1907 to
1913.
Table II.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour in each year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.




W A G E S A H t) H O tTR S OF L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

217

Table III.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in the
United States, by years, 1907 to 1913.
Table IV.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in each
year, by districts, 1912 and 1913.
In Tables I and III, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are sum­
marized in the text table on pages 204 to 208.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I to IV,
inclusive, and in the table of relative numbers follows that of the
processes of manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended expla­
nation see page 17.
Figures for each geographical division for each preceding year back
to 1907, corresponding to those given for 1912 and 1913 in Tables II
and IV of this report, and descriptions of the occupations which
appear in the tables of this report, were published in Bulletin No.
151 of this Bureau, but have been omitted from the present report.




218

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 1.—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

Stockers:
s plarito....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90
88
87

13 plants___ 1910
1911

170
164

59.0
59.6

, 250 14.24
,230 13.41

15 plants___ 1911
1912

211
217

60.9
60.9

17 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

215
226

60.9
60.6

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

25 plants___ 1910
1911

217
180

62.9
62.6

184
199

62.7
62.4

.510 31.87
.482 29.84

26 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters’ helpers:
14 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

196
211

61.8
61.7
65.3
65.1
65.0
65.2

.246
.227
.234
.262

15.77
14.50
14.87
16.70

14

10
14
6
10

24 plants___ 1910
1911

295
281

62.6
62.5

.273 16.77
.262 16.05

2

25 plants___ 1911
1912

293
319

62.7
62.2

24 plants___ 1912
1913
Chargers and
helpers:
12 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

318
324

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

.499 30.60
.560 34.25

167
153
151
166

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

.507 31.73
.512 31.97

26 plants___ 1911
1912

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

6
12
32
5

51
34
23
28

12
22
18
24

22
8
10
28

2

2
2

5
4

28
32

24
28

51
44

23
19

16
35

m 12.94
?31 13.79

2
2

4
5

65
64

38
15

48
57

19
37

35
37

?32 13.88
.253 15.12

2
3

5

56
1

19
59

57
60

39
48

37
43

12

1
4

10
19
4
11

25
14
13
24

18
35
34
36

43
25
40
44

13
11
11
12

12
7
6
15

16
13

39
37

55
31

57
55

31
26

19
18

13
23

38
45

34
36

55
41

26
37

18
13

1

23
3

43
26

36
49

41
47

37
51

16
34

28 36
33 36
19 31
21 10

28
29
32
60

30
15
27
26

23
19
16
18

8
2
5
2
4 .....
11

2
2

15
13

21
25

21
24

89
97

49
45

74
57

11
10

11
10

2

.259 15.94
.260 16.01

17
21

27
18

24 100
35 95

47
64

58
64

10
16

10
2

4

61.9
62.0

.251 15.41
.273 16.77

21
13

18
12

43 98
29 106

64
66

66
77

8
19

2

104
102
107
110

65.5
65.6
65.9
66.3

.173
.161
.161
.181

48
58
51
24

30
25
20
50

8
11
12
18

10
5
8
10

5

1

8

18 plants___ 1910
1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

.192 12.40
.185 12.02

24
38

62
69

44
24

25
38

24
6

2

19 plants___ 1911
1912

185
182

64.8
65.0

.184 11.90
.192 12.45

42
23

73
87

24
18

38
28

6
24

2
2

19 plants___ 1912
1913
Drag downs:
11 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

181
185

64.3
63.7

.199 12.72
.224 14.17

22
1

70
27

20
52

40
65

27
23

2
10

6

1

86
82
83
89

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

.271
.246
.250
.286

9
10
16
6

4
8
6
6

10
5
5
14

19
15
14
10

14
13
20
21

20
15
18
24

6

4
6

4
4

4

19 plants___ 1910
1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

.269 17.44
.262 16.88

6
6

8
8

20
5

34
42

27
35

29
15

4
4

4
4




64.4 Ift
64.1
64.2
64.3

178 $11.43
2
167 10.72 114
168 10.79 23
2
190 12.17

508
467
488
502

32.35
29.66
31.06
31.87

11.34
10.56
10.60
11.87

4

2
33
16

17.31
15.58 2 10
15.93
18.19
4‘

1Including 6 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8Including 1 employee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

21

2

219

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time
of week­
hours wages
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16 18
and and
un­ un­
der der
18 20
cts. cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

Drag downs—

Concluded.
20 plants___ 1911
1912

127
130

64.7 $0,262 $16.78
64.3 .253 16.12

plants___ 1912
1913

121
124

63.8
63.1

.251 15.81
.281 17.57

1907
1908
1909
1910

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

.226
.221
.217
.230

22 plamts___ 1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

72.0
70.4
70.0

.229 16.46
.228 16.07
.229 16.05

20 plants___ 1912
1913

93
97

70.1
70.5

.228 16.02
.249 17.56

1907
1908
1909
1910

16
16
16
15

62.5 1.089 68.27
62.6 .970 60.88
62.5 .956 60.31
62.7 1.028 64.69

12
10
11

11 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Rollers, 9-inch:
6 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

28
29
29
29

59.0 .961
58.0 .929
58.0 .887
58.1 1.070

15
15
17
21

12
11
11
12

66.7 1.038 69.72
67.7 .809 55.06
67.1 .832 56.25
67.0 .969 65.03

1910
1911
1912

24
22
23

63.2
63.5
63.1

.943 60.20
.825 53.07
.808 51.36

14
13
15

10 plants___ 1912
1913
Rollers. 10-inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

22
22

63.0
62.8

.812 51.60
.932 59.16

14
16

12
12
12
12

67.3 1.114 76.01 ,
67.3 .974 66.06
67.0 1.095 73.38
67.0 1.183 79.72

10
9
11
11

1910
1911
1912

18
18
18

65.0 1.069 70.38
63.6 .967 56.28
63.6 1.066 68.13

17
15
17

1912
7 plants.
1913
Rollers, 12-inch:
7 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18

62.1 1.068 67.18 ,
61.9 1.132 71.56

17
18

15
13
13
15

68.1
69.9
69.8
68.5

.900
.801
.864
.888

61.69
55.63
60.16
61.05 .

11

13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

27
24
26

64.4
64.9
64.3

.864 56.26
.844 54.85 .
.831 53.75

19
17
18

1912
1913

27
28

64.7
64.4

.837 54.44
.961 61.47

18
24

Roll engineers:
13 plants...

Rollers, 8-inch:
7 plants___

11 plants.

7 plants.

12 plants.




14

16.29
15.76
15.52
16.52

57.71
55.00
52.81
62.33

220

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I* — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age age age
full­ rate full­
time
of time
hours wages week­
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

Rollers, 13-inch,
14-inch, and
15-inch:
3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

7
7
7

60.6 $0,835 $48.77
60.6 .676 39.73
60.6 .709 42.11

1912
1913

9
9

63.1
62.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

7
7
7
9

63.3 .897
63.3 .868
63.3 .850
62.3 1.074

5 plants....... 1910
1911

11
8

62.6 1.007 64.13
63.9 1.081 70.85

6 plants......

1911
1912

12
12

62.8
62.4

.929 59.52
.814 51.35

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Rollers, 18-inch:
2 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

11
11

61.7
61.5

.787 48.92
.998 62.00

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.942
.684
.753
.860

1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

60.8
60.3
59.1

.669 40.08
.771 46.69
.751 44.76

1912
1913

12
13

58.7
58.8

.886 52.19
.975 57.83

R o l l e r s , a ll
sizes:
13 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
67

65.5 1.013 66.88
65.7 .878 57.88
65.5 .917 60.40
65.2 1.010 66.23

3
1
1

1
5
4

22 plants___ 1910
1911

124
116

62.4
62.0

.928 58.21
.882 55.26

3
1

8
9

23 plants___ 1911
1912

120
124

62.0
61.7

.873 54.65
.860 53.63

1

11
5

24 plants___ 1912
1913

128
130

61.6
61.5

.863 53.60
.989 60.71

2
3

5
3

16
8

1907
1908
1909
1910

44
44
44
41

61.2
61.2
61.0
61.2

.397
.373
.363
.393

24.40
22.76
22.28
24.14

7
14
6
9

22
3
28
16

8
27
9
7

7
1
9

11 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Roughers,
inch:
1907
7 plants.
1908
1909
1910

84
81
79
79

57.5
56.0
56.0
56.4

.368
.347
.336
.391

21.49
19.68
19.03
22.32

6
6
6
7

27
15
28
12!

26
43
23
24

10
13
21
14

15
4
1
19

58
54
54:
581

56.3
60.4
56.5
56.9

.564
.392
.422
.454:

29.94
23.30
23.230 .......
25.14

6

13
20
s► 12
12!
4J

12
20
16
20

8
8
17
16

4 plants.
Rollers. 16-inch:
4 plants___

5 plants..

7 plants___

Roughers,
8incn:
7 plants___




2
2
2
2
2

.637 38.91
.676 40.90
58.11
56.00
54.77
68.32

5
1
2

2

3

2
5

3
3
*2

4
4
5
6

2
2

8
6

2
6

8
6

6

5
10

1

2

4
3

2
3
3
4

2
1
1
2

1

58.06
39.66
43.79
49.92

1

2

1

2
1

2
3

5
6
5

3
2

8
11

5
5
5
2

13
14
7
13

47
40
45
47

8
12

22
21

83
73

12 21
16 21

75
80

1

1

1

1

2

3:

23
11

81
105

1
22
6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR----BAR MILLS.

221

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time of
hours wages week­
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
Un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

Roughers,
9inch—Con.
12 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

88
83
84

58.2 $0,449 $25.69
57.4 .414 23.87
57.2 .429 24.17

16
14
17

6
29
14

38
24
22

22
12
23

6
4
8

1912
1913

82
83

57.0
56.6

.433 2435
.484 27.20

15
9

14
11

22
25

23
22

8
8

1907
1908
1909
1910

33
37
37
38

64.4
65.2
65.0
64.8

.441
.323
.370
.395

6
12
9

3
15
14
12

4
8
7
6

18

7 plants___

1910
1911
1912

51
51
51

64.8
63.3
63.3

.412 26.45
.366 22.72
.399 24.69

3
6

28
29
20

12
17
18

11
2
7

7 plants___

1912
1913

53
53

61.7
61.5

.374 22.57
.413 25.17

14

20
28

12
20

7
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

62
55
54
58

64.5
64.1
67.7
67.5

.416
.301
.351
.400

6
18
9

24
22
39
34

28
4
6
24

4

14 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

89
81
85

64.6
65.3
644

.397 25.80
.361 23.35
.391 25.24

10
22
7

39
42
46

37
10
6

3
7
22

13 plants___ 1912
1913

81
84

64.4
63.8

.401 25.84
.447 28.44

7
4

46
16

6
49

22
13

22
25
11
18

11
7
24
11

3

24
10
12
6

4
14
14
14
10

8
12

2
8

16
12

12
2

11 plants...
Roughers, 10inch:
5 plants___

Roughers, 12inch:
8 plants___

Roughers, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1 plant........

5 plants.

5 plants___
Roughers, 18inch:
2 plants___

5 plants____

27.10
19.45
23.77
27.06

8
8

11

4

1907
1908
1909
1910

12 60.0
12 60.0
12 60.0
12 60.0

.289
.250
.262
.289

17.34
15.00
15.72
17.34

1910
1911
1912
1913

48
46
47
41

61.5
61.2
61.4
61.8

.379
.338
.364
.386

22.89
20.51
22.23
23.30

12
14
12
7

36
32
34
42
34

63.0
63.1
63.4
62.2
63.4

.349
.349
.347
. 390
.415

22.20
1
22.23 ..
i
22.22
24.65 ....... L ...
1
26.55 ..

42
40

62.3
61.8

.415 26.05
.381 23.63

4
11

2

12
12
12
12

Roughers, 16inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
6 plants___

29.11
21.09
23.73
25.40

1911
1912
1912
1913

32
34

61.0
61.4

.384 23.50
.435 26.85

1907
1908
1909
1910

7
8
8
8

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

.384
.348
.380
.523

1910
1911
1912




23 59.4
19 60.3
22 58.9

23.68
20.83
22.73
31.55

.414 24.92
>444 26.73
.465 27.34

8
8
8
14
8
8
14
14

4
4

6
6
6

. . . 1 ..
___1
___
6

12
14

8

2
2

6

2
1
6
” ‘ i5

5

2
12
1
1
8
11
11
5

4
4

8

22 2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Avertime
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Roughers, 18inch—Con.
7 plants....... 1912
1913
Roughers,
all
sizes:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

.434
.343
.368
.407

26.28
21.35
22.72
25.21

16
33
8
14

28
50
48
42

25 plants___ 1910
1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

.402 24.51
.376 22.65

26
14

26 plants___ 1911
1912

403
408

60.5
60.2

.377 22.68
.389 23.36

26 plants___ 1912
1913
Catchers, 8-inch:
3 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

405
407

59.9
59.8

.393 23.42
.436 26.00

18
18
18
17

56.6
56.6
56.6
56.4

.362
.350
.335
.371

20.48
19.66
18.90
20.97

2
2

1910
1911
1912
1913

26
27
25
25

.351
.319
.340
.400

19.14
17.32
18.48
21.98

3
2
1
2

Catchers, 9-inch:
2 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

54.3
54.1
54.1
54.3

12
12
12
12

58.0
58.0
58.0
58.0

.474
.455
.495
.526

27.30
25.94
28.68
30.37

4 plants.

1910
1911
1912

17
17
15

56.5
56.8
55.7

.499 28.19
.440 24.76
.508 27.86

2
4

7
3

3 plants.

1912
1913

13
13

54.3
54.9

.546 29.55
.619 33.98

2

3
2

3

9
7
7

1
3
3
10

2
3
4

3
2

10
8
8

2

2
3

2
1

12
3

2
10

1

9

7
2
4

2
9
8
4

2
8

2

6
4
6

9
15
12

9
5
5

4

6
4

12
8

5
7

2
6

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

6 plants.

31
33

58.9 $0,494 $29.04
58.6 .500 29.42

Catchers,10-inch:
1 plant......... 1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

72.0
72.0
71.5
71.5

.352
.377
.379
.456

3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

16
16
16

66.8
65.9
65.9

.383 26.24
.365 24.46
.419 28.23

2 plants....... 1912
1913
Catchers,12-inch
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18

66.4
66.4
65.6
64.1
63.9
63.7

.446
.317
.349
.411

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

28
27
29

62.5
62.1
61.7

.403 25.40
.368 22.90
.348 21.52

1912
1913

25
25

61.1
61.0

.372 22.88
.416 25.26

13
15

92
76
111
72

56
75
53
71

38
8
23
52

6

65
74

127
174

128
81

73
48

6
4

14
24
2

16
12

74
72

176
122

87
118

48
60

4
12

20
7

78
44

114
97

113
145

68
91

12
13

2
2

12
6
16
14

4
8

3
2

17
23
12
6

3

1

1

2
“ i

4

.449 30.49
.484 33.12

16
17
17
18

2
4

9 plants.




25.35
27.14
27.06
32.63

29.52
20.42
22.61
26.37

1

4
1

4
4

2
4

2
22

8

2

7
10
4
4
4
9

4
8
8
8
8
8
8

8
8
8

1
1
1

2

1

223

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Catchers,13-inch,
14-inch, and 15inch:
3 plants..
1910
1911
1912
1913
Catchers,16-inch:
4 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

7
7
7
7

Aver­ Aver­ Aver­
age
age age full­
full­ rate time
time
of week­
hours wages
ly
per per
week. hour. earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

2
5
4
2

61.7 $0,458 $27.63
61.7 .392 23.92
61.7 .407 24.70i
61.1 .461 27.58
41.02
32.46
36.02
35.32
43.23
33.001

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65.0
64.5

.636
.499
.552
.547
.664
.511

3 plants.
1912
1913
Catchers,18-inch:
2 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

7
8

64.4
64.4

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.423
.314
.346
.466

1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

58.6
59.0
58.0

.375 22.36
.369 21.99
.391 22.87

1912
7 plants.
1913
C a t c h e r s , all
sizes:
11 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14

57.5
57.3

.467 27.01
.463 26.76

1
2

69
70
70
73

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

.442
.381
.400
.452

27.68
23.57
24.93
28.17

6
2
4
1

20 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

315
111
110

60.2
59.9
59.7

.419 25.45
.392 23.70
.399 23.92

2
*3

20 plants___ 1912
1913
Stranders,8-inch:
7 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

308
110

59.4
59.4

.415 24.81
.462 27.67

*” i

56
56
56
54

62.6
62.8
62.7
62.8

.305
.267
.274
.305

2
2
3
3

4
3
4

2

.418 26.90[
.499 32.12

5 plants.

11 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

2

4
4
7

2

1
1

1

3
2
2
2
4
2

4
2
3
1

2
2

2

1
2
2
2

1

1

2

4
2
4

1
1
2

2
2
2

4
2

4
4

2
4

13
5
4

28
31
37
20

13
31
10
28

18
10
i
10
16 *4

4
2
4

7
6
6

11
11
18

32
.55
37

38
20
32

21
12
6

4
1
8

3
2

2
4

14
9

37
21

38
36

6
28

8
1

2
10

1
1
2

2
1

20
18
18
6

11
20
22
24

11
16
14
18

6

6

4

1
1

75 61.6
73 60.4
73 60.4

.275 17.00
.249 15.12
.244 14.88

14
2
14
"* 2
15

15
5
4 *ii 20
4
7 14

26
14
26

19
20
15

4
1

67
66

60.6
60.7

.236 14.53
.302 18.54

15
7

41
39
39
39

56.2
56.4
56.3
56.3

.395
.276
.287
.332

20.75
15.10
15.75
18.28

2
1

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

64
62
61

59.1
58.6
58.0

.289 16.64
.247 14.39
.235 13.44

1912
1913

57
57

57.6
56.9

.241 13.68
.293 16.33

2

7
2

14
12

26
9

9
25

*9

9
2
8
2

6
6
10
9

2

2

2
2

4

6
20
18
26

2

2

1

10
9

1
2

1

2
3
4

3
6

6
11
9

19
17
14

9
18
9

28
7
17

3

6
2

9
9

14
14

9
4

17
22

6

1 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 32 cents per hour.




60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2
1

11 plants___ 1912
1913
Stranders.
9inch:
6 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

9 plants.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

7
6

25.96
18.51
20.40
27.72

19.11
16.77
17.22
19.11

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

9

224

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age full­
40 50 60
30
full­ rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25
time
and and and and and and and and and and 70
of
hours wages week­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der der der and
per per
60 70
week. hour. earn­ 14 16 18 20 25 30
40 50
ings. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. over.

Stranders, 10inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

43
43
43
43

55.1 $0,354 $19.47
55.1 .320 17.08
55.0 .378 19.95
55.0 .444 23.09

7 plants___

1910
1911
1912

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

390 21 13
.322 17.35
.370 19.71

7 plants___

1912
1913

55
55

55.2
55.1

.372 19.39
.392 20.77

1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14
14
16

69.0
70.4
70.4
69.1

.352
.284
.293
.411

24.53
19.99
20.62
28.82

1910
1911
1912
1913

48
40
43
49

64.4
65.3
64.7
62.4

.286
.271
.309
.319

18.71
17.71
20.38
20.28

20
20
20
26
20
22
11

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.233
.201
.211
.224
.221
.217
.255

14.00
12.06
12.65
13.46
13.25
13.01
15.27

65.0
65.0 *
65.0
65.0
65.0

.361
.344
.299
.484
.480

23.47
22.36
19.44
31.46
31.20 .......

Stranders, 12inch:
3 plants___

9 plants.

Stranders, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1 plant....... . 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
Stranders, 16inch:
1 plant....... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

2
2
2
2
2

4
4

2
10

39
29
21
18

5
1

8
9
11

6
9
15

18
9
9

*2i
9

12

1
2

15
2

9
12

9
18

9
9

12
12

3
12
4
4

2
2
10
2

8

6
15
5
2

8
4

3

4
1

4
16
14

2
2
2

24
6
6
21

4
2
8
13

2
2
2
2 *"*8
4
6

8
16
16
8
16
16
3

10
10

57.0
57.0

1 plant..

1912
1913

8
8

55.0
55.0

175
174
174
180

59.5
59.7
59.7
59.7

.334
.277
.297
.344

3
1

2
3
4
4

4
2
4
2

6
13

21 plants...

1910
1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

.301 17.85> 14
.268 15.83I 14

4
6

11
12

22 plants...

1911
1912

262
266

59.8
59.6

.272 16.03!
.283 16.625

14
17

6
6

20 plants...

1912
1913

252
246

59.2
58.7

.284 16.56i
.328 19.071

17
7

2

1907
1908
1909
1910

14
14
14
13

64.5
64.8
64.7
65.1

.298
.277
.290
.309




\
19.43
1
18.03
18.77
20.19)

1

10
12

2
2
2
2

.431 23.71
.523 28.77

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
1

8

.424 24.28
.405 22.86

Finishers,
8inch:
6 plants._
_

10

8

2

1911
1912

19.45
16.25►
17.34I
20.06

21
21

8

2 plants.

Stranders, all
sizes:
13 plants_
_

12

2

10
8
8
8

37
44
42
*8 20

28
40
48
45

60
69
63
64

12
16

21

18
43

74
68

53
43

71
51

16
27

21

12
16

43
31

68
61

43
58

51
48

35
17

22

16
3

31
13

65
52

52
46

40
67

17
26

22
32

2
2
?

4
4
2
2

2
3
2
4

4
3
6
5

1
2
2
2

1

1 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

14

15

9

225

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Finishers,
inch—Con.
9 plants..

Aver
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
weekiy
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
amd
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2
2
3

7
9
9

11
10
9

2
1
1

1
1

3
4

9
4

15
12

1
5

1
4

1

4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

2
2

2
1 **i
1
1
2
1

6
6
4

9
7
9
13

1
5
6
5

5
2
2
3

2
4

2
4
5
6

4
2
5
2

2

2
2
5

4
2
4

2
3
1

2
1
2

3
1

6
5

1
2

2
2

2
2

6
4
4
4

2
2
4
4

4
1
1
2

2

6

7
5

6
2

5
5

2
1

6
5

6
10
7

2
3
9

5
2
1

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

1910
1911
1912

24
25
25

60.6 $0,303 $18.24
59.6 .302 18.01
59.6 .295 17.60

2
2
2

1912
1913

31
31

59.3
59.4

.301 17.84
.354 21.07

2

1907
1908
1909
1910

15 66.8
14 67.9
14 67.8
14 67.8

.244
.245
.254
.261

16.24
16.53
17.10
17.58

12
1
1
1

1910
1911
1912
1913

24
23
24
24

64.3
63.8
63.4
63.2

.287
.272
.282
.293

17.98
17.18
17.61
18.26

1
1
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

.396
.342
.387
.412

27.29
23.48
26.16
28.19

5 plants.

1910
1911
1912

12
12
12

69.3
68.4
68.4

.376 26.20
.329 22.72
.358 24.73

5 plants.

1912
1913

12
12

66.3
66.0

.367 24.71
.427 28.62

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
11
11
12

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

.336
.271
.297
.359

8 plants___

1910
1911

20
19

65.8
65.2

.349 22.74
.324 20.78

10 plants_
_

1911
1912
1913

22
24
24

63.7
63.0
62.8

.309 19.51
.311 19.81
.363 22.70

1907
1908
1909
1910

4
4
4
4

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.315
.275
.289
.316

18.90
16.50
17.34
18.96

4
4

1910
1911
1912
1913

15
15
15
13

64.0
64.0
64.0
63.4

.339
.316
.319
.345

21.01
19.83
19.97
21.20

6
4
4
6

6
10
8
4

1907
1908
1909
1910

g
g
8
9

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.2

.262
.242
.265
.310

16.39
15.11
16.68
19.37

4
3
6
3

6

1910
1911
1

11
11

10 plants...
Finishers,
inch:
5 plants

9-

9 plants.

Finishers,
10inch:
4 plants___

Finishers,
12inch:
4 plants___

Finishers,
13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1 plant........

4 plants.

Finishers,
16inch:
2 plants.

3 plants.

23.28
19.04
20.85
24.97

2

2
1
2

1

1

2

2
2
2

2
2

2
2

2

4
4

4
5
2

1
3
2

2

1

3
1

3
8
62.5 .324 20.34
2
9
63.5 .325 20.73
Including 1 employee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour,

83021°—Bull. 168—15------15




2

2
3

226

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
Year. em­
and number of
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Finishers, 16inch—Con.
4 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Finishers,
18inch:
1 plant........ 1907
1908
1909
1910

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

19
20
18

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

61.1 $0 363 $22.08
377 22.77
61.1
61.1
410 24.87

2 62.8
2 62.8
2 62.8
2 62.8

435
417
438
438

3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

5
5
6

61.9
60.7
58.9

11
12

58.6
58.7

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

427 25.19
414 24.47

65 65.9
63 66.4
63 66.2
64 66.1

309
279
.300
.329

27.30
26.25
27.48
27.48

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

2
8

2

308 19.15
350 21.38
336 20.02

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Finishers,
all
sizes:
10 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

11
2
10

1

i
3

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

6
4
4

4

2
1
2
2

i2
1
1
1

2

2
1
2

1
2

2
2

2
2
2

2
2

20.45
18.53
19.85
21.80

4

3
4

2
2

4
4

4
2
3

12
15
10
6

19
23
21
16

12
12
17
25

13
6
10
10

3
4

17 plants___ 1910
1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

.323 20.48
.309 19.50

1
1

4
4 ‘ ■*2

13
16

34
30

36
40

16
14

7
3

19 plants___ 1911
1912

121
126

62.8
62.5

.313 19.60
.319 19.92

1
1

4
5

4
3

16
12

31
47

42
34

20
15

3
3

6

137 62.0
134 61.8

.328 20.29
.363 22.36

1

5
2

3
5

12
4

45
33

43
49

15
19

7
17

6
5

14

21 plants___ 1912
1913
Hook ups, 12inch:
6 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

.289
.230
.241
.318

18.98
15.75
16.46
22.33

2

6

2
4

12
18
20
8

21
5
10
12

16
4
3
3

69
53
56
58

62.8
63.4
62.5
61.5

.282
.244
.269
.323

17.93
15.38
17.15
19.68

1
3
2
2

2
6
2

4
10
12

14
7
10
13

31
15
15
7

3
12
7
20

8
14
8
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.184 11.04
.163 9.77
.173 10.40
.197 11.84

4
14
6

4

1910
1911
1912
1913

50
45
51
43

64.2
64.2
63.8
63.8

.237
.225
.229
.263

14.66
14.06
14.29
16.32

7
3
10

18
18
16

8
8
15 . . . . .
8
7
27

9
9
9
6

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

26
23
27
35
25

63.9
64.4
64.7
64.1
64.4

.263
.269
.274
.326
.337

16.91
17.35
17.80
20.97
21.83

2
3

2

2
12
11
27
18

2

2
2

16
1
10
2
1

2
2

2
2

1911
1912

35
36

62.4
61.5

.308 19.43
.269 16.61

5
4 *4

8
22

18
6

2

2

5 plants____ 1912
1913

32
34

61.1
61.5

.263 16.08
.329 20.28

4

22
1

2
26>

13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Hook ups, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1 plant......... 1907
1908
1909
1910
5 plants......

Hook ups, 16inch:
5 plants......

6 plants___




4
2

2
8

14
8
16

4

5
4

4
3

1 Including 1 employee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

3

4

227

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
ber full­ rate
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ time
of
plants.
ploy­ hours wages
per per
ees. week. hour.

Hook ups, 18inch:
2 plants___

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1907
1908
1909
1910

9 62.2 $0,238 $14.83
10 61.0 .190 11.64
10 61.0 .202 12.39
9 60.8 .294 18.13

1910
1911
1912

20
21
24

60.4
60.5
59.2

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Hook ups, all
sizes:
12 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

38
40

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

3

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

3
6
6

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

i
60 |
andi 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

3

1

3
3

.227 13.85
.221 13.48
.217 12.93

2
14
2

3
4
2

4
1
4

3
3
3

2
3
7

6
6
6

59.0
58.8

.258 15.31
.281 16.60

2

2
2

•4
1

3
4

9
13

18
18

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65.7
65.6

.268
.225
.241
.303

4
1 *‘ *5
5

9
23
7
2

4
4
6
11

15
29
30
12

40
6
20
14

18
16
14
36

16

2

20 plants___ 1910
1911

174
144

63.2
63.4

.272 17.13
.251 15.81

2
14

4
7

13
10

27
33

24
25

41
16

45
45

16
2

2
2

21 plants___ 1911
1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

.250 15.66
.249 15.56

14
2

7
4

10
16

36
35

25
29

23
45

45
28

2
8

2

22 plants___ 1912
1913
R o ll h a n d s,
other, 8-inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

177
175

61.9
61.4

.254 15.74
.300 18.27

2

4
4

16
1

35 31
4 56

45
15

36
70

8
25

20
20
20
20

65.1
65.3
65.1
65.1

.250
.237
.235
.257

16.20
15.29
15.15
16.51

23
2
2

2
5
5
2

4

2

1
4

2
4
6
2

3
3
1
4

1910
1911
1912
1913

33
33
33
36

60.6
60.0
60.0
59.6

.251
.253
.248
.284

15.01
15.04
14.75
16.83

14
32
<5
<6

4
2
1

4
7 *i
5 1
6

2
3
4
1

10
8
9
4

6
8
6
15

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
18

59.7
60.4
60.3
60.3

.224
.223
.222
.234

12.91
12.95
12.90
13.64

2

6
6
6
6

2
2
2
2

1910
1911
1912
1913

35
35
36
36

56.5
56.1
56.3
57.2

.267
.242
.257
.275

14.49
13.24
14.05
15.38

2
1
1

7
6
13
9

11
5
5
9

3
2
2

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
29
29
29

70.4
70.4
70.0
70.0

.388
.327
.346
.409

27.24
22.89
24.04
28.38

5
15
2

22
5
6
17

1
3
3
4

5
4
3
2

1910
1911
1912

39
39
39

67.8
66.8
66.8

.359 24.58
.327 22.11
.351 23.69

6
16
16

17
5
4

4
6
g

2
1

1912
1913

33
33

1
4
5 14
4 2
18
1 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 1 employee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
3 Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
4 Including 3 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

4
3

5 plants.

9 plants.

R o ll hands,
other, 9-inch:
3]

5plants.

R o ll h a n d s,
other, 10-inch:
4]

7 plants.

6 plants.




66.0
66.0

17.30
14.70
15.82
20.06

.341 22.72
.387 25.95

2
2

1
2 *i

8
8
10
2

6

2
8

2
8
10
11
4 ***8

2
9
2
2
1
12
1

4
1

1
1
1

2
6
1

5

7
3r
3
3

2
2

2
2
2
2
2
1
3

1
1
1
1

2

1
2

2

2
3
2

*2

2
1

2
3

2

228

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I . — AVE R A G E FU LL-TIM E W E E K L Y EAR NIN G S AN D A V E R A G E
AND CLASSIFIED RATE S OF W AGES PER H OU R IN T H E U N ITE D
STATES, B Y Y E A R S 1907 TO 1913— BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

4
2
16
2

4
5
3
6

7
4
2

8
20
9

1
1
1

15
1
17

2

8
6

1
2

17
15

*"i

5
5
6
4

2
12
8
4
1
1
1

1
1

24
21
21
22

70.1 $0,201 $14.04
70.4 , 194 13.60
70.3
?10 14.75
302 21.27
69.9

1910
1911
1912

33
32
33

67.0
67.7
67.5

?85 19.06
?54 16.95
?98 20.25

2
2

1912
1913

28
28

67.5
67.4

784 19.20
304 20.15

2

29
28
25
19

62.1
61.7
63.4
60.0

.307
.268
.268
.335

17.94
15.81
16.17
19.38

10
10

4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
3 64.5

.331
.331
.359
.374
.398
.394

21.26
21.21
22.97
24.13
25.63
25.51

2
2
2
2
2
1

1 plant......... 1912
1913
R o ll h a n d s,
other, 18-inch:
1 plant......... 1907
1908
1909
1910

6
6

64.5
64.5

.350 22.59
.408 26.36

4

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

.237
.181
.200
.296

4 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

7
6
7

59.9
60.8
59.2

.226 13.67
.256 15.55
.235 13.91

5 plants....... 1912
1913
R o ll h a n d s,
other, all sizes:
9 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

9
10

59.3
58.9

.309 18.35
.344 20.41

97
94
94
95

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

.278
.255
.266
.315

18.53
16.97
17.65
21.06

13
2
2

2
19
5
2

26
9
11
6

8
3
17
10

18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

180
177
176

62.8
62.5
62.7

.295 18.35
.273 16.97
.287 17.97

24
24
37

10
5
2

6
31
29

7 plants

R o ll h a n d s,
other, 13-inch,
14-inch, and
15-inch:
3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
R o ll h a n d s,
other, 16-inch:
1907
2 plants
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

14
12

10
4

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2
2
2
12

2
4

1
1

1

2
2
3

7

1
1
2
2
4

14.84
11.33
12.55
18.57

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

12

R o l l h a n d s,
other 12-inch:
4 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

1
1
1

2

1

1
2
1
1
4

2
1
3

2

4
2

3
3

3

8
21
11
8

12
16
24
16

32
11
14
34

4
8
5
7

5
4
4
6

1
2

31 13
11 34
4 24

33
39
49

51
33
41

22
15
11

6
2
3

2
2
3.....
4

2
2 23
170 62.2 .284 17.56 37
41
29
50
18 plants___ 1912
168 61.8 .320 19.71 36
4 24 13 22
1913
68
1 Including 1 employee earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
3 Including 3 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

7
15

5
12




1

1

4

2
2

2
1

2

2
3

229

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
Year. emand number of
plants.
ploy-

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25
30 40 50 60
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der der der and
per
hour. earn­ 14 16 18 20 25 30
40 50
60 70 over.
ings. cts. cts. cts.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

Hotbed men:
15 plants.... 1907
1908
1909
1910

302
299

O
.
63. 3 S 1.189 111. 98
63.2 .174 10.93
63.3 .180 11.00
13.02
63.3

25 plants___ 1910
1911

500
434

62.9
62.0

.200 12.46 5 52
11.69 650

78
78

127
125

26 plants___ 1911
1912

450
461

61.9
61.7

.188 11.61 650
.192 11.80 7 57

90
42

125
130

26 plants___ 1912
1913
Shearmen:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

455
467

61.5
60.9

.192 11.73 847
.221 13.43 9 21

42
21

138
27

94
92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

.249
.216
.225
.247

16.20
14.10
14.72
16.11

2

1
1
6
9

17
24
13

25 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

.264 16.40
.254 15.55
.254 15.59

2
2
2

13
8
5

24 plants___ 1912
1913
S h e a r m e n 's
helpers:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

156
159

62.4
62.0

.251 15.40
.287 17.54

2

5

201 65.9
172 66.2
185 67.3
215 65.3

.174
.168
.169
.184

11.46
11.07
11.32
12.00

U 8 108
227 116
3 52 70
422 38

47
64
53
87

10

10

19
1022
io 19
139
1112

76
74
63
55

32

1910
1911
1912

355
359
358

64.7
63.8
63.9

2
.187 12.02 1 38
3
.178 11.28 1 45
4
.184 11.74 1 34

58
57
30

109
156
142

22 plants___ 1912
1913
Bundlers:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

337
316

63.4
62.8

4
.183 11.52 1 32
5
.214 13.30 1 14

30
22

143
21

41
41
41
41

66.9
66.8
67.1

.202
.174
.186
.213

12
4
2

10
15
13
9

23 plants—

13.53
11.68
12.42
14.23

2

13
26

2
9
1910
77 66.1 .207 13.
1
16
81 63.5 . 193' 12.28
1911
1 Including 14 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 6 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 4 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 2
employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
3Including 6 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 8 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.
* Including 6 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 6 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.
* Including 6 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 18 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.
6Including 23 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
7Including 3 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 5 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 19
employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Including 3 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 5 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 17
employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 3 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents, 3 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 2 employees
earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 5 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1 Including 7 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
0
1 Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1
1 Including 6 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents and 8 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2
1 Including 11 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
3
K Including 2 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 11 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
6 plants.

^15 including 2 employees earning 6
per hour.




and under 7 cents and 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents

230

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, B Y YEARS, 1907 TO 1913— BAR MILLS— Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy*

Bundlers—Con.
7 plants___

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

1911
1912

131
132

62.0 SO 197 $12.20
.
62.0 .193 11.94

1912
1913

129
136

61.6
61.4

.194 11.96
.228 14.05

1907
1908
1909
1910

296
227
324
424

68.3
64.8
67.
67.2

.153 10.44
.153
.150 10.17
.161 10.81

1910
1911

511
355

67.8
66.0

.160 10.
.160 10.59

1911
1912

65.5
65.

.159 10.40
.159 10.52

1912
1913

65.0
64.3

.160 10.38
.178 11.51

385
343

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

....... ....... .......

.......

285
326

21 plants...

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

390
285

17 plants...

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

92
353

15 plants...

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

7 plants.
Laborers:
10 plants...

536
705

24
101

65

PER CENT.
Stockers:

8 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90

8
8
87

64.4 $0.178 $11.43 2.2 6.5
64.1 .167 10.72 115.6 13.3
64.2 .168 10.79 2 3.4 36.4
64.3 .190 12.17 2.3 5.7

1 2.9
.2
1 2.4
.2

54.8 12.9 23.7
37.8 24.4 8.9
26.1 20.5 11.4
32.2 27.6 32.2

16.5 14.1 30.0 13.5 9.4 12.4
19.5 17.1 26.8 1 .6 21.3 ....... ....... . . . . .......
1

13 plants___ 1910
1911

170 59.0
164 59.6

.250 14.24
.230 13.41

15 plants___ 1911
1912

21
1
217

60.9
60.9

.217 12.94
.231 13.79

17 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

215
226

60.9
60.6

.232 13.88
.253 15.12

11
2
12
1
12
1
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

.508
.467
.488
.502

25 plants...

1910
1911

217
180

62.9
62.6

.507 31.73
.512 31.97

26 plants...

1911
1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

.510 31.87
.482 29.84 .......

26 plants___ 1912
1913
Heaters’helpers:
14 plants_
_ 1907
1908
1909
1910

196

61.8 .499 30.60
.5
61.7S .560: 34.25
1 |
6 16.8 2 .616.8
.0
1
65.3 .246 15.77
65.1 .227 14.50 ....... 9.2 21.6 23.519.0
65.0 .234 14.87 9.3 4.0 12.6 20.5 21.2
65.2 .262 16.70 ....... 6.0 12.7 6.036.1
I
.7 5.1 7.1 7.130.2
62.6 .273 16.77
62.5 .262 16.05 ....... 4.6 8.9 8.5 34.5
j

.9 2.3 26.0 8.826.5 18.1 17.2
.4 26.1 26.5 2 .2 19.0
1
1.3

32.35
29.66 ....... ___
31.06 ....... ___ .......
31.87

5.3

. . . . .......

8.3 20.7 14.9 35.5 10.7
.9 17.0 12.5 31.3 22.3 9.8
1
3.6 3.6 1 .6 30.4 35.7 9.8
7.7 16.9 25.4 31.0 8.5
7.4 18.0 25.3 26.3 14.3
7.2 2 .6 17.2 30.6 14.4
0
7.1 20.7 18.5 29.9 14.1

.......

.6
2.0 . . . . 1 .6 22 18.1 20 18.6
1 .6
11.7 21.9 18.4
1.4 12.3 23.2
I
18.0 13.8 4.8
9.8 12.4 3.3
0
17.9 1 .6 2.6
15.7 1 .8 6.6
0

9.9
6.3
5.4

10
.6
8.8
1 .0
0
9.8
6.5

20.9 18.9 8.2
22.3 24.2 16.1

1.2 1.2

1.3 . . .......
1.3 .......
4.8 1.2 .......

3.7
3.6

3.7 .7
3.6 . . . . .......

5.8 9.2 8.2 34.1 16.0 19.8
.259 15.94
0 0
.260 16.01 ....... 6.6 5.611.0 29.8 2 .1 2 .1
i
1
6.6 5.7 13.5 30.8 2 .1 2 .8
0 0
1912
318 61.9 .251 15.41
324 62.0! .273 16.77 ....... 4.0 3.7, 9.0 32.7 20.4 23.8
1913
1 Including 6.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

3.4
5.0

3.4

1910
1911

25 plants_
_

1911
1912




167
153
151
166

.9 1.9 30.8 18.0 22.7 9.0 16.6
.9 2.3 29.5 6.9 26.3, 17.1 17.1 ....... ....... . . . . .......

16.6 25.1
16.0 20.3

24 plants_
_

24 plants___

21
1

2.3

295
281
293
319

62.7
62.2

2.5
5.9

.6 *i.'3 .......
.6 ___

.......

231

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
ber age age
Occupation,
full­ rate
of
and number of Year. em­ time of
hours wages
plants.
ploy­ per per
ees. week. hour.

Chargers a n d
helpers:
12 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

Aver­
age
full­
time
weekiy
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

104 65.5 $0,173 $11.34 1.9 46.2 28.8 7.7
102 65.6 .161 10.56 12.9 56.9 24.5 10.8
107 65.9 .161 10.60 15.0 47.7 18.7 11.2
110 66.3 .181 11.87
21.8 45.5 16.4

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

9.6 4.8
4.9
7.5
9.1 **7.3

1.0

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

....... .......

.......

18 plants.

1910
1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

.192 12.40
.185 12.02

13.4 34.6 24.6 14.0 13.4
21.5 39.0 13.6 21.5 3.4

1.1

19 plants.

1911
1912

185
182

64.8
65.0

.184 11.90
.192 12.45

22.7 39.5 13.0 20.5 3.2
12.6 47.8 9.9 15.4 13.2

1.1
1.1

19 plants—

1912
1913

181
185

64.3
63.7

12.2 38.7 11.0 22.1 14.9
.199 12.72
.224 14.17 ....... .5 14.6 28.1 35.1 12.4

1.1
5.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
82
83
89

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

.271
.246
.250
.286

19 plants___ 19.10
1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

.269 17.44
.262 16.88

4.5
3.3 4.9

6.1 15.2 25.8 20.5 22.0
6.5 4.1 34.1 28.5 12.2

3.0 .......
3.3

3.0
3.3

20 plants----

127
130

64.7
64.3

.262 16.78
.253 16.12

3.1 4.7
1.5 15.4

6.3 3.9 34.6 29.1 11.8
3.1 7.7 23.8 20.8 21.5

3.1
....
6.2 : : : : :

3.1

121
124

63.8
63.1

.251 15.81
.281 17.57

1.7 11.6
3.2

3.3 8.3 26.4 25.6 19.8
.8 7.3 30.6 21.0 28.2

3.3 .......
.......
::::
8.9

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

.226
.221
.217
.230

22 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

72.0
70.4
70.0

.229 16.46.
.228 16.07
.229 16.05 .

4.0 10.1 59.6 26.3
6.3 8.4 62.1 23.2
5.2 8.2 64.9 21.6

20 plants___ 1912
1913
Rollers, 8-inch:
7 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

93
97

70.1
70.5

.228 16.02
.249 17.56.

5.4 8.6 65.6 20.4
4.1
30.9 ,58.8

16
16
16
15

62.5 1.089 68.27
62.6 .970 60.88........
62.5 .956 60.31
62.7 1.028 64.69 -

Drag downs:
11 plants..

1911
1912

20 plants___ 1912
1913
Roll engineers:
13 plants___ 1907
1908
1909 '
1910

11 plants...

17.31
10.5
H2.*2 12.2
15.58:
15.93
19.3
6.7
18.19

16.29
15.76
15.52.
16.52

6.9 8.6 56.9
7.1 10.7 62.5
21.4 53.6
6*9 6.9 62.1

16.3
15.9
24.1
23.6

3.2

23.3 7.0
18.3
21.7 ‘ *4*8
27.0 4.5

0.5 —
4.7
7.3

....

.......

"4*5

27.6
19.6
17.9
24.1

....... . . . . . . . . .......

6.2
6.3
6.3 i2.5
20.0

6.3 18.8
6.3 25.0
12.5
6*7 13.3

75.0
62.5
68.8
60.0

17.9 10.7 17.9 53.6
6.9 17.2 24.1 51.7
13.8 13.8 10.3 58.6
" *3.*4
17.2 6.9 72.4

1910
1911
1912
1913

28 59.0 .961
29 58.0 .929
29 58.0 .887
29 58.1 1.070

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
11
11
12

66.7 1.038 69.72
16.7 16.7 66.7
67.7 .809 55.06
9.1 18.2 18.2 54.5
. . . . .......
67.1 .832 56.25 .
27.3 54.5
....... 18.2
. . . . ___ .......
8.3
41.7 50.0
67.0 .969 65.03........

1910
1911
1912

24
22
23

63.2
63.5
63.1

.943 60.20 .
.825 53.07.
.808 51.36.

10 plants___ 1912
1913

22
22

63.0
62.8

.812 51.60
.932 59.16.

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

67.3 1.114 76.01
67.3 .974 66.06
67.0 1.095 73.38
67.0 1.183 79.72

Rollers, 9-inch:

11 plants—

Rollers, 10-inch:
5]

57.71
55.00
52.81 .
62.33.

7.1

4.7 11.6 22.1
9.8 6.1 18.3
7.2 6.0 16.9
6.7 15.7 11.2

. . . . . . . . . 3.4 .......

4.5

1 Including 1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2Including 2.4 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




4.2
9.i

4.2 33.3 58.3
9.1 18.2 59.1
17.4 17.4 65.2

4.5

27.3 9.1 63.6
9.1 13.6 72.7

8.3

16.7 83.3
25.0 75.0
91.7
*8*3 91.7

232

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I ___ AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
ber full­ rate
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ time
of
plants.
ploy­ hours wages
per per
ees. week. hour.

Rollers,10-inch—
Concluded.
7 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
7 plants....... 1912
1913
Rollers, 12-inch:
7 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wage:, per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

5.6
5.6

18 62.1 1.068 67.18
18 61.9 1.132 71.56

94.4
83.3
94.4

5.Q

65.0 $1,069 $70.38
63.6 .967 56.28
63.6 1.066 68.13

94.4
100.0

13.3 13.3
15.4 15.4
15.4 15.4
20.0

15
13
13
15

68.1
69.9
69.8
68.5

.900
.801
.864
.888

13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

27
24
26

64.4
64.9
64.3

.864 56.26
.844 54.85
.831 53.75

3.7 22.2 70.4
16.7 12.5 70.8
19.2 7.7 69.2

12 plants___ 1912
1913
Rollers, 13-inch,
14-inch, a n d
15-inch:
3 plants____ 1910
1911
1912

27
28

64.7
64.4

.837 54.44
.961 61.47

18.5 14.8 66.7
14.3 85.7

7 60.6
7 60.6
7 60.6

.835 48.77
.676 39.73
.709 42.11

4 plants___ 1912
1913
Rollers. 16-inch:
4 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

9
9

63.1
62.7

.637 38.91
.676 40.90

7 63.3 .897
7 63.3 .868
7 63.3 .850
9 62.3 1.074

61.69
55.63
60.16
61.05

7.7
6.7

28.6
28.6

73.3
61.5
69.2
73.3

71.4
57.1 14.3
28.6 42.9 28.6

22.2
22.2 33.3 22.2
22.2 22.2
55.6

58.11
56.00
54.77
68.32

42.9
42.9
28.6
11.1 22.2

57.1
57.1
71.4
66.7

9.1 18.2 72.7
25.0 75.0

5 plants....... 1910
1911

11 62.6 1.007 64.13
8 63.9 1.081 70.85

6 plants....... 1911
1912

12
12

62.8
62.4

.929 59.52
.814 51.35

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Rollers, 18-inch:
2 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

11
11

61.7
61.5

.787 48.92
.998 62.00

5 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

60.8
60.3
59.1

.669 40.08
.771 46.69
.751 44.76

7 plants....... 1912
1913
Rollers, all sizes:
13 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

12
13

58.7
58.8

.886 52.19
.975 57.83

65
63
63
67

65.5 1.013 66.88
65.7 .878 57.8S
65.5 .917 60.40
65.2 1.010 66.23

4.
1.6
1.5

1.
7.!
6.0

2.4

6.5 6.5 17.7 66.9
7.8 10.3 18.1 62.9

3 61.0
4 58.3
4 58.3
4 58.3

.942
.684
.753
.860

58.06
39.66
43.79
49.92

22 plants___ 1910
1911

124 62.4
116 62.0

.928 58.21
.882 55.26

23 plants___ 1911
1912

120
124

62.0
61.7

128 61.6
130 61.5

.863 53.60
.989 60.71




16.7 66.7
50.0 50.0
9.1

25.0
25.0
22.2

54.5 45.5
90.9
33.3 66.7
75.0
75.0

10
0 .0

22.2 . . . 55.6
25.0
75.0
11.1
33.3 55.6
8.3

.873 54.65
.860 53.63

24 plants___ 1912
1913

16.7

25.0 66.7
15.4 84.6
7. 720. .0
>
7.9 22.2
7.9 11.1
3.0 19.4

72.3
63.5
71.4
70.1

9.2 10.017.5 62.5
4.0 12.916.9 64.5
1.
2.3

3.9 12.5 18.0 63.3
2.3 6.2 8.5 80.8

233

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

R ou gh ers,
8-inch:
7 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver-

at

time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rato of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

44 61.2 $0,397 $24.40
44 61.2 .373 22.76
44 61.0 .363 22.28
41 61.2 .393 24.14

15.9 50.0 18.2 15.9
31.8 6.8 61.4
13.6 63. 20.5 2.
22.0 39.0 17.1 22.0

11 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
R ou gh ers,
9-incn:
7 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

84
81
79
79

57.5
56.0
56.0
56.4

.368
.347
.336
.391

21.49
19.68
19.03
22.32

32.1
18.5
35.4
15.2

58
54
54
58

56.3
60.4
56.5
56.9

.564
.392
.422
.454

29.94
23.30
23.20
25.14

12 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

88
83
84

58.2
57.4
57.2

.449 25.69
.414 23.87
.429 24.17

43.2 25.0 6.8
18.2
16.9 34.9 28.9 14.5 4.8
20.2 16.7 26.2 27.4 9.5

11 plants___ 1912
1913
R ou gh ers,
10-inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

82
83

57.0
56.6

.433 24.35
.484 27.20

18.3 17.1 26.8 28.0
10. 13.3 30.1 26.5 9.6

33
37
37
38

64.4
65.2
65.0
64.8

.441
.323
.370
.395

29.11
21.09
23.73
25.40

24.2
9.1 12.1 54.5
21. 16.2 40.5 21.6
32.4 37.8 18.9 10.8
23.7 31.6 15.8 28.9

7 plants___

1910
1911
1912

51
51
51

64.8
63.3
63.3

.412 26.45
.366 22.72
.399 24.69

54.9 23.5 21.6
5.9 56.9 33.3 3.9
11.8 39.2 35.3 13.7

7 plants___

1912
1913

53 61.7
53 61.5

.374 22.57
.413 25.17

26.4 37.7 22.6 13.2
52.8 37.7 9.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

62
55
54
58

64.5
64.1
67.7
67.5

.416
.301
.351
.400

1910
1911
1912

89
81
85

64.6
65.3
64.4

.397 25.80
.361 23.35
.391 25.24

13 plants___ 1912
1913
Roughers, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
1 plant........ 1907
1908
1909
1910

81
84

64.4
63.8

.401 25.84
.447 28.44

12 60.0
12 60.0
12 60.0
12 60.0

.289
.250
.262
.289

17.34
15.00
15.72
17.34

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

48
46
47
41

61.5
61.2
61.4
61.8

.379
.338
.364
.386

22.89
20.51
22.23
23.30

25.0
30.4
25.5
17.1

45.8
54.3
23.4
43.9

22.9 6.3
15.2
51.1
26.8 12.2

36 63.0
32 63.1
34 63.4
42 62.2
34 63.4

.349
.349
.347
.390
.415

22.20
22.23
22.22
24.65
26.55

22.2
25.0
23.5
33.3
23.5 11.8

66.7
31.3
35.3
14.3

11.1
43.8
41.2
33.3 19.0
29.4 35.3

Roughers, 12inch:
8 plants___

14 plants—

5 plants.

Roughers, 16inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911




27.10
19.45
23.77
27.05

2.5

11.1

31.0
53.1
29.1
30.4

11.9 17.9
16.0 4.9
26.6 1.3
17.7 24.1 1.3

5.2 22.4 20.7
37.0 37.0
16.7 22.2 29.6
20.7 6.9 34.5

9.7 38.7 45.2
20. C 32.7 40.0 7.3
16.7 72.2 11.1
58.6 41.4

4.7

13.8
37.9
14.8
31.5
27.6 10.3

6.5

11.2 43.8 41.6 3.4
27.2 51.9 12.3 8.6
8.2 54.1 7.1 25.9
8.6 56.8 7.4 27.2
4.8 19.0 58.3 15.5 2.4

9.6

234

BULLETIN- OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Roughers, 16inch—Con.
6 plants

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

19.0
35.0

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

9.5

4.8 38.1 28.6
20.0 30.0 5.0 10.0

*23.*5

37.5 6.3 12.5
41.2 35.3

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1911
1912

42
40

62.3 $0,415 $26.05
61.8 .381 23.63 .......

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Roughers, 18inch:
2 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

32
34

61.0
61.4

7
8
8
8

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

384
348
380
523

5 plants____ 1910
1911
1912

23
19
22

59.4
60.3
58.9

41.4 24.92
444 26.73
465 27.34

7 plants____ 1912
1913
Roughers, a l l
sizes:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

31
33

58.9
58.6

494 29.04
.500 29.42

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

.434
.343
.368
.407

25 plants___ 1910
1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

.402 24.51
.376 22.65

6.1 15.3 29.9 30.1 17.2 1.4
3.5 18.7 44.1 20.5 12.2 1.0

26 plants—

1911
1912

403
408

60.5
60.2

.377 22.68
.389 23.36

3.5 18.4 43.7 21.6 11.9 1.0
5.9 17.6 29.9 28.9 14.7 2.9

26 plants___ 1912
1913
Catchers, 8-inch:
3 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

405
407

59.9
59.8

.393 23.42
.436 26.00

18
18
18
17

56.6
56.6
56.6
56.4

.362
.350
.335
.371

20.48
19.66
18.90
20.97

6 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Catchers, 9-inch:
2 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

26
27
25
25

54.3
54.1
54.1
54.3

.351
.319
.340
.400

19.14
17.32
18.48
21.98

12
12
12
12

58.0 .474
58.0 .455
58.0 .495
58.0 ‘ .526

27.30
25.94
28.68
30.37

33.3

4 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

17
17
15

56.5
56.8
55.7

.499 28.19
.440 24.76
.508 27.86

11.8 41.2
26.7 20.0

13i 54.3
13; 54.9

.546 29.55
.619 33.98

15.4 23.1
15.4 23.*i

1I
C
11
C
11
C
1>
C

.352
.377
.379'
.456

3 plants....... 1912
1913
Catchers,10-inch:
1 plant......... 1907
1908
1909
1910

72.0
72.0
71.5
71.5>

.384 23.50 ....... . . . . .......
435 26.85

14.3
85.7
75.0 *25*0
75.0 12.5 12.5
100.0
26.1

6.3
13.6
3.3
5.4

1*i 66.41 .449i 30.49i
u S 66.4: .484: 33.12

11.1
20.7
19.8
16.3

51.6 41.9
36.4 45.5 6.1
36.5
31.4
45.7
28.0

22.2 15.1
31.0 3.3
21.8 9.5
27.6 20.2 2.3

8.7

4.9 19.3 28.1 27.9 16.8 3.0
....... 0.5 1.7 10.8 23.8 35.6 22.4 3.2 **2*0
11.1
66.7 22.2
11.1 i i . i 33.3 44.4
n . i 88.9
82.4 11.8
5.9

4.0

11.5 11.5
7.4 7.4
4.0 *i6.*0
4.0 8.0 8.0

65.4 11.5
85.2
48.0 28.0
24.0 40.0 16.0
33.3 66.7
66.7
*33*3 66.7
33.3 66.7
52.9 47.1
47.1

53.3
61.5

90.0 10.0
70.0 30.0
70.0 30.0
100.0

25.35
27.14
27.06
32.63

1912
1913

26.1 47.8
*io*5 *3i.*6
57.9
9.1
*68.’ 2 22.7
6.5
12.1

.......

26.28
21.35
22.72
25.21

;
ie> 66. £ .383 26.24
1
1 5 65. S .365i 24.46
6
If> 65. S .419» 28.23
1




43.8

23.68
20.83
22.73
31.55

3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
2 plants..

.......

25.0 12.5
62.5
6.3 6.3; 18.8 *i8.*8 50.0
25.0 12.5 50.0 12.5
1

11.1 11.1 66.7 11.1
16.7 5.6 16.7' 55.6 5.6

*6L5

235

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Catchers,12-inch:
5 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­
age
full­
30 40
time 12 14 16 18 20 25 and and 50 60 70
week­ and and and and and and un­ un­ and and cts.
un­ un­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ly •
der der der der der der der der
and
earn­ der 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 der over.
14
70
ings. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

16 65.6 $0,446 $29.52
17 64.1 .317 20.42
17 63.9 .349 22.61
18 63.7 .411 26.37

25.0
*4i. 2
23.5 11.8
22.2

12.5 6.3 56.3
52.9
5.9
47.1 *ii*8
**5.9
22.2 44.4 11.1

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

28
27
29

62.5
62.1
61.7

.403 25.40
.368 22.90
.348 21.52

21.4 32.1 32.1 14.3
7.4 14.8 55.6 18.5
13.8 20.7 41.4 17.2 6.9

1912
9 plants.
1913
Catchers.
13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
3 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
16Catchers,
inch:
1907
4 plants.
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

25
25

61.1
61.0

.372 22.88
.416 25.26

24.0 48.0 20.0 8.0
16.0 32.0 28.0 24.0

7
7
7
7

61.7
61.7
61.7
61.1

.458
.392
.407
.461

27.63
23.92
24.70
27.58

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65.0
64.5

.636
.499
.552
.547
.664
.511

41.02
32.46
36.02
35.32
43.23
33.00

1912
1913

7
8

64.4
64.4

.418 26.90
.499 32.12

1907
1908
19C9
1910

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

.423
.314
.346
.466

1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

58.6
59.0
58.0

.375 22.36
.369 21.99
.391 22.87

7 plants----- 1912
1913
Catchers,
all
sizes:
11 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14

57.5
57.3

.467 27.01
.463 26.76

69
70
70
73

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

.442
.381
.400
.452

3 plants----Catchers,
18inch:
2 plants-----

5 plants___

20 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

28.6
71.4
57.1
28.6

28.6 42.9
28.6
42.9
42.9 28.6

40 0 20.0
22.2 33.3
22.2
44.4
22.2
*33.3 33.3 33.3
44.4 22.2 11.1
77.8

22.2

.......

.....
____ ..........

44.4 11.1 22.2
i2.5 *25.0 25.0 12.5 25.0
11.1
44.4 22.2 22.2
7.7
14.3

30.8 30.8 15.4
14.3 28.6 28.6

8.7
40.6 18.8
2.9 *i8*6 44.3 15.7
5.7 7.1 52.9 14.3
1.4 5.5 27.4 38.4

.419 25.45 .......
.392 23.70
.399 23.92

1912
1913

108
110

59.4
59.4

.415 24.81
.462 27.67 .......

1907
1908
1909
1910

56
56
56
54

62.6
62.8
62.7
62.8

.305
.267
.274
.305

11 plants...

1910
1911
1912

75
73
73

61.6
60.4
60.4

.275 17.00 15.3 2.7
.249 15.12 15.3
.244 14.88 16.8 2.7

II plants...

1912
1913

67
66

60.6
60.7

.236 14.53 2 7.5 3.0 .6.0 10.4 20.9 38.8 13.4
.302 18.54 10.6
1.5 3.0 18.2 13.6 37.9 15.2

20 plants....

'o.*9
.9

-------

26.1
14.3 *i.*4
14.3
21.9 *5*5

15.4
14.3
5.8
2.9
5.7

1.7 6.1 9.6 27.8 33.0 18.3 3.5
2.7 5.4 9.9 49.5 18.0 10.8 .9 **2.*7
5.5 16.4 33.6 29.1 5.5 7.3 1.8
1.9 13.0 34.3 35.2 5.6 7.4
"*.*9 3.6 8.2 19.1 32.7 25.5 .9

19.11
3.6 35.7 19.6 19.6 10.7 10.7
16.77 **i.*8 *i.*8
32.1 35.7 28.6
17.22
1.8 **i.*8
32.1 39.3 25.0
19.11
3.7
11.1 44.4 33.3 7.4
6.7
20.0 34.7 25.3
5.5 is.’ i 27.4 19.2 27.4
5.5 9.6 19.2 35.6 20.5

1 Including 2.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




22.2
22.2

33.3 33.3 33.3
50.0 50.0
on 0 50.0 25.0
50.0
50.0

115 60.2
111 59.9
110 59.7

S tra n d e rs,
8-inch:
7 plants.

40.0
22.2
33.3

100.0
75.0 25.0

25.96
18.51
20.40
27.72

27.68
23.57
24.93
28.17

3.7

5.3

1.9
9.1

236

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOB STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
Year. of
and number of
em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

it r a n d e r s ,
9-inch:
6 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

41
39
39
39

56.2 $0,395 $20.75
56.4 .276 15.10
56.3 .287 15.75
56.3 .332 18.28

10 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

64
62
61

59.1
58.6
58.0

.289 16.64
.247 14.39
.235 13.44

1912
9 plants.
1913
S tra n d e rs,
10-inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

57
57

57.6
56.9

.241 13.68
.293 16.33

43
43
43
43

55.1
55.1
55.0
55.0

.354
.320
.378
.444

7 plants___

1910
1911
1912

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

.390 21.13
.322 17.35
.370 19.71

7 plants___

1912
1913

55
55

55.2
55.1

13
14
14
16

69.0
70.4
70.4
69.1

.352
.284
.293
.411

48
40
43
49

64.4
65.3
64.7
62.4

.286
.271
.309
.319

18.71
17.71
20.38
20.28

20
20
20
26
20
22
11

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.233
.201
.211
.224
.221
.217
.255

14.00
12.06
12.65
13.46
13.25
13.01
15 * 7
>

2
2
2
2
2

65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0

.361
.344
.299
.484
.480

10
10

57.0
57.0

8
8

55.0
55.0

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

14.
15.4
25.6
23.1

14.
51.3
46.2
66.7

.424 24.28
.405 22.86

1912
1 plant.
1913
Stranders, all
sizes:
13 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

23.47
22.36
19.44
31.46
31.20

1911
1912

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

24.53
19.99
20.62
28.82

1910
1911
1912
1913

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

.372 19.39
.392 20.77

1907
1908
1909
1910

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.

.431 23.71
.523 28.77

S tra n d e rs,
12-inch:
3 plants___

9 plants___

S tra n d er
1 3 -in c h , 14inch, and. 15inch:
1907
1 plant..
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
Stranders, 16inch:
1 plant.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
2 plants.




175 59.5
174 59.7
174 59.7
180 59.7

.334
.277
.297
.344

4.

22.0
23.1 5.1
20.5
5.1

5.1
2.

2.6

3.3

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

22.0 22.0

9.4 !9.7 14.1 43.8
4.8 17.7 27.4 29.0 11.3
9.8 14. 23.0 14. 27.!
10.5 15.8 24.6 15.8 29. J
3.5 15. 24.6 7.0 38.1

3.5

90.7
4.7 67.4
23.3 48. 27.9
9.3
41.9

19.47
17.08
19.95
23.09

9.3 18.6

5.3

36.8
14.0 10.5 31.6
15.8 15.8 15.8 36.
19.3 26.3 15.8 15.8 21.1

7.0
1.

27.3 16.4 16.4 16.4 21.8
3.6 21.8 32.7 16.4 21.8
15.4 61.5
14.3
71.4
12.5 62.5

23.1
85.7
28.6
25.0

8.3 50.0 8.3 12.5 20.8
40.0 15.0 5.0 37.5 2.5
23.3
32. 14.0 18.6 11.
42.9 26.5 4.1 2.0 24.5

10.0 10.0
10.0 10.0
10.0 10.0
7.7 30.1
20.0
27.3

1.1
19.45
16.25| 1.7 1.7
17.34! .6 2.3
20.06 . . . . 2.2

40.0 40. C
80.0
80.0
1.8 '30*8
1.0
72.7
27.3 ’72*7
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
20.0 80.0
100.0.
.<100. o;.

2.3 3.4 21.1
1.1 7.5 25.3
2 .3 ....2 4 .1
1.1 4.411.1

16.0
23.0
27.6
25.0

34.3 8.0 8.6 5.1
39.7 .................<....
36.2 6 .9 ........'.
35.6 8.9 11.7 . . . .

237

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy-

Stranders, a ll
sizes—Con.
21 plants...

1910
1911

272
254

22 plants.... 1911
1912

262

1912
1913

252
246

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­ Average
rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25 30
40 50 60
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and1 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­■ cts.
ly
per earn- der der der der der der der der der der and
hour.
14 16 18 20 25 30
40 50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

60.6 $0,301

; 11.5 1.5
! 21.6 2.4

4.0i 6.6 27.2 19.5 26.1 5.9
4.7 16.9 26.8 16.9 20.1 10.6

.9.6

.272
.283

; 21.5 2.3
! 2 2.7 2.3

4.6 16.4 26.0 16.4 19.5 13.4
. . . . .......
6.0 11.7 22.9 21.8 18.0 6.4 *8.3

58.7

.284
.328

>22.8
2.8

6.3 12.3 25.8 20.6 15.9 6.7 8.7 . . . .
1.2 5.3 21.1 18.7 27.2 10.6 13.0
.......

64.5
64.8
64.7
65.1

.277
.290

60.6
59.6
59.6

18.24
.302 18.01
.295 17.

8.3
8.0
8.0

10 plants___ 1912
1913
9-

59.4

.301 17.84
.354 21.07

6.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

67.9
67.8
67.8

.244
.245
.254
.261

1910
1911
1912
1913

Finishers,
10inch:
4 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

64.3
63.8
63.4
63.2

.287 17.98'' 4.2
.272 17.18,'; 4. 3'
.282 17.61 1 4.2 ---.293

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

27.29
.342 23.48
.387 26.16
.412 28.19

1910
1911
1912

69.3
68.4
68.4

.376 26.20
.329 22.72 ....... . . . .
.358 24.73

20 plants---Finishers,
8inch:
6 plants___

9 plants.

Finishers,
inch:
5 plants

9 plants.

5 plants.......

1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1912

24
25
25

14.3 28.6
14.3 28.6
14.3 14.3
15.4

.336
.271
.297
.359

8 plants....... 1910
1911

65.8
65.2

.349 22.74
20.78

1911
1912
1913

63.7
63.0
62.8

.309 19.51
.311 19.81 .......
.363 22.70

10 plants...

23.28
19.04
20.85
24.97

28.6 7.1
21.4 14.3
42.9 14.3
38.5 15.4

7.1

4.0
4.0

___ .......
33.3
13.3
35.7 ’ ii*3
35.7 14.3
14.3 .......
35.7
.......
37.5 4.2 20.8
30.4 21.7 8.7
37.5 25.0 8.3 .......
54.2 20.8 12.5

.......

20.0 20.0 40.0 20.0
40.0 40.0 20.0
50.0 50.0
60.0 20.0 20.0
16.7 16.7 33.3 16.7 16.7
8.3 8.3 16.7 16.7 16.7 25.0 8.3 . . . . .......
41.7 33.3 8.3 16.7
25.0 50.0 8.3 16.7
8.3 41.7 16.7 16.7 16.7

18.2

50.0 16.7 33.3
18.2 36.4 18.2 9.1
18.2 36.4 36.4 9.1
33.3 33.3 16.7 16.7
35.0 30.0 25.0 10.0
31.6 26.3 10.5 »26.3 5.3

9.1 27.3 27.3 9.1 22.7 4.5
8.3
....... 8.3 20.8 41.7 12.5 8.3
29.2 37.5 4.2 **8.3 12.5 : : : : :
8.3

Finishers,
13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch:
100.0
60.0 .315 18.90
1 plant......... 1907
100.0
60.0 .275 16.50
1908
17.34
100.0
60.0
1909
100.0
60.0J .316J 18.96
1910
1 Including 0.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 0.8 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
3Including 6.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




8.3
4.0
4.0

.......

9.7 29.0 48.4 3.2 3.2
6.5 12.9 12.9 38.7 16.1 12.9

8.3 '--.. 25.0
4.3 I 4.3 26.1
4.2 4.2 16.7
8.3 4.2

.367 24.71
.427 28.62

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

14.3
21.4
14.3
30.8

8.3 29.2 45.8
8.0 36.0 40.0
12.0 36.0 36.0

16.24 313.3
....... 13.3 26.7
16.53 7.1 14.”3
28.6
17.10 7.1
**7.*i *7.*i 28.6
17.58'
14.3
28.6
i 7,1 ----

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Finishers,
12inch:
4 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

«.0

.8

7.7

238

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Finishers, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch—
Concluded.
4 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
16Finishers,
inch:
1907
2 plants.
1908
1909
1910

15
15
15
13

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

•
18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

64.0 $0,339 $21.01
64.0 .316 19.83
64.0 .319 19.97
63.4 .345 21.20

40.0
26.7
26.7
46.2

40.0
20.0
66.7 *6*7
53.3 20.0
30.8 15.4 7.7

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

8
8
8
9

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.2

.262
.242
.265
.310

16.39
15.11
16.68
19.37

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

50.0 50.0
62.5 37.5
25.0 75.0
33.3 66.7
27.3 72.7
18.2 81.8

3 plants.

1910
1911

11
11

62.5
63.5

.324 20.34
.325 20.73

4 plants.

1911
1912
1913

19
20
18

61.1
61.1
61.1

.363 22.08
10.5 57.9 31.6
.377 22.77 ....... . . . . 10.0 . . . . . . . . 40.0 10.0 20.0
20.0 .......
.410 24.87
55.6 22.2 *22*2

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

.435
.417
.438
.438

3 plants.

1910
1911
1912

5
5
6

61.9
60.7
58.9

.308 19.15
.350 21.38
.336 20.02

5 plants.

1912
1913

11
12

58.6
58.7

.427 25.19
.414 24.47

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
64

65.9
66.4
66.2
66.1

.309
.279
.300
.329

17 plants___ 1910
1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

.323 20.48
.309 19.50

.9
.9 : : : :

11.7 30.6 32.4 14.4
3.6
3.6 *i.*8 14.5 27.3 36.4 12.7

6.3
2.7

19 plants___ 1911
1912

121
126

62.8
62.5

.313 19.60
.319 19.92

.8 . . . .
.8

3.3 3.3 13.2 25.6 34.7 16.5
4.0 2.4 9.5 37.3 27.0 11.9

2.5
2.4 *4*8

21 plants___ 1912
1913

137
134

62.0
61.8

.328 20.29
.363 22.36

.7

3.6 2.2 8.8 32.8 31.4 10.9 5.1 4.4
1.5 3.7 3.0 24.6 36.6 14.2 12.7 3.7

1907
1908
1909
^910

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

.289
.230
.241
.318

18.98
15.75
16.46
22.33

24.5
5.4 16.2 5.4 48.6
10.8 54.1
21.6

42.9 32.7
13.5 10.8
27.0 8.1
32.4 8.1 37.8

13 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Hook ups; 13inch, 14-mch,
and 15-inch:
1 plant......... 1907
1908
1909
1910

69
53
56
58

62.8
63.4
62.5
61.5

.282
.244
.269
.323

17.93
15.38
17.15
19.68

1.4 2.9 5.8 20.3
5.7 11.3 18.9 13.2
3.6 3.6 21.4 17.9
3.4
22.4

44.9 4.3 20.3
28.3 22.6
26.8 12.5 14.3 .......
12.1 34.5 27.6

'8
14
8
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

.184 11.04
.163 9.77
.173 10.40
.197 11.84

50.0 50.0
100.0
75.0 25.0
66.7 33.3

Finishers,
18inch:
1 plant........

Finishers,
all
sizes:
10 plants_
_

Hook ups, 12inch:
6 plants.




27.30
26.25
27.48
27.48

100.0
50.0 50.0
m o
m o!
60.0

40.0
*20*6 *40.'0 40.0
33.3 33.3 33.3

1

18.2 27.3 18.2 36.4
16.7 33.3 16.7 33.3

6.2 18.5
20.45 13.0
18.53 1.6 '3*2 "3.'2 3.2 23.8
19.85 1.6
1.6 4.8 15.9
21.80 1.6
9.4
3.1

29.2
36.5
33.3
25.0

18.5 20.0 4.6 . . . .
19.0 9.5
27.0 15.9
39.1 15.6 ” 6*3

1 Ineluding 1.5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

.......

239

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Hook ups, 13inch, 14-inch,
and 15-inch—
Concluded.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

14.0 36.0 16.0 16.0
6.7 40.0 33.3
19.6 31.4 15.7 "15.7
62.8 16.3

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

18.0
20.0
17.6
14.0

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912
1913

50
45
51
43

64.2 $0,237 $14.66
64.2 .225 14.06
63.8 .229 14.29
63.8 .263 16.32

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

26
23
27
35
25

63.9
64.4
64.7
64.1
64.4

.263
.269
.274
.326
.337

1911
1912

35
36

62.4
61.5

.308 19.43
.269 16.61

14.3
22.9 51.4
11.1 i i . i 61.1 16.7

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Hook ups, 18inch:
2 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

32
34

61.1
61.5

.263 16.08
.329 20.28

12.5 12.5 68.8 6.3
8.8 2.9 76.5 11.8

9
10
10
9

62.2
61.0
61.0
60.8

.238
.190
.202
.294

5 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

20
21
24

60.4
60.5
59.2

30.0
....
.227 13.85 10.0 15.0 20.0 15.0 10.0
.221 13.48 119.0 19.0 4.8 14.3 14.3 : : : : : 28.6 : : : : : .......
25.0
.217 12.93 8.3 8.3 16.7 12.5 29.2

7 plants____ 1912
1913
Hook ups, all
sizes:
12 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

38
40

59.0
58.8

.258 15.31
.281 16.60

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65.7
65.6

.268
.225
.241
.303

20 plants___ 1910
1911

174
144

63.2
63.4

.272 17.13 1.1 2.3
.251 15.81 2 2.8 4.9

7.5 15.5 13.8 23.6 25.9
6.9 22.9 17.4 11.1 31.2

9.2
1.4

1.1
1.4

21 plants___ 1911
1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

.250 15.66 3 2.6 4.5
.249 15.56 1.2 2.4

6.5 23.4 16.2 14.9 29.2
9.6 21.0 17.4 26.9 16.8

1.3
4.8

1.3

22 plants___ 1912
1913
R o ll hands,
other, 8-inch:
5 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

177
175

61.9
61.4

.254 15.74
.300 18.27

9.0 19.8 17.5 25.4 20.3 4.5 .......
.6 2.3 32.0 8.6 40.0 14.3

20
20
20
20

65.1
65.3
65.1
65.1

.250
.237
.235
.257

Hook ups, 16inch:

6 plfVpts., t

16.91 15.4
17.35
17.80
20.97
21.83

61.5 7.7
7.7
13.0 8*7 2i.*7 4.3 52.2
14.8 37.0 40.7
*5*7
5.7 77.1
4.0 72.0
8.0

7.7
5.7
8.0

5.7
8.0

5.7

5.7

14.83
33.3
33.3 33.3
11.64 'io.'o 30.0
60.0
....... ....... .......
60 0
30.0 *io.*6
12.39
22.2 n.i
66.7
18.13

.......

5.3 5.3 10.5 7.9 23.7 ....... 47.4
.......
45.0 *5.6
5.0 2.5 10.0 32.5

17.30 4.3
9.8 4.3 16.3 43.5 19.6 2.2
14.70 1.2 '6*0 27.4 4.8 34.5 7.1 19.0
15.82
6.1 8.5 7.3 36.6 24.4 17.1
20.06 .......
2.2 11.8 12.9 15.1 38.7 17.2

1.1 2.3
2.3

.......
2.2

16.20
10.0 20.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 35.0
15.29 a5.‘ o 25.0
20.0 15.0 15.0 10.0
15.15 10.0 25.0 **5*0 . . . . 30.0 5.0 15.0 10.0
16.51 10.0 10.0 20.0
10.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 "5*0

33 60.6 .251 15.01 512.1 12.1 12.1
6.1 30.3 18.2
9 plants....... 1910
33 60.0 .253 15.04 6 6.1 6.1 21.2 *3*0 9.1 24.2 24.2
1911
33 60.0 .248 14.75 U5.2 3.0 15.2 3.0 12.1 27.3 18.2
1912
16.7 2.8 11.1 41.7
36 59.6 .284 16.83 8 16.6
1913
1 Including 9.5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 1.4 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour,
s Including 1.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
6 Including 6.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
6 Earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* 1ncluding 9.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 8.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




7.0

6.1
6.1
3.0
8.3

3.0

*3 —
* .’6
2.8

.......

.......

.......

240

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

R o ll h a n d s,
other, 9-inch:
3 plants___

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Employees earning each classified fate of wages perhotlf.
Aver­
age full­ 12 14 16
m
30 40 50 @0
18
time and and and and 1 20 and and and and and
1
and
70
week­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
der der der der der der der der de? der and
earn­ 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 70
ings. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts* cts. cts. Cts. cts. cts. over.

44.4 11.1
i
11.1 44.4
55.6 . . . J .. ..
11.1 44.4'

33.3
33.3
33.3
33.3

ll.l
ll.l
ll.l
11.1

.267
.242
.257
.275

14.49
5.7 5.7 22.9! 5.7
13.24 **5.*7 2.9 28.6
25.7
14.05 5.6 2.8 30.6
5.6
15.38
11.1 22.’ 2 5.6

20.0
17.1
36.1
25.0

31.4 8.6
14.3 5.7
13.9
*5.6
25.0 **5.’ 6 5.6

70.4
70.4
70.0
70.0

.388
.327
.346
.409

27.24
22.89
24.04
28.38

39
39
39

67.8
66.8
66.8

.359 24.58
.327 22.11
.351 23.69

5.1
15.4 43.6 10.3
10.3
41.0 12.8 15.4
2.6 *’2*6 15.4
2.6 2.6 i2.*8 41.0 10.3 20.5

1912
1913

33
33

66.0
66.0

.341 22.72
.387 25.95

....

1907
1908
1909
1910

24
21
21
22

70.1
70.4
70.3
69.9

.201
.194
.210
.302

9 plants.

1910
1911
1912

33
32
33

67.0
67.7
67.5

.285 19.06
.254 16.95
.298 20.25

7 plants.

1912
1913

28
28

67.5
67.4

.284 19.20 .......
.304 20.15
....

29
28
25
19

62.1
61.7
63.4
60.0

.307
.268
.268
.335

17.941.......
15.81
16.17
19.38! .......

4
4
4
4
4
3

64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5
64.5

.331
.331
.359
.374
.398
.394

21.26
21.21
22.97
24.13
25.63
25.51

1912
1913

6
6

64.5
64.5

>
.350 22.59
.408 26.36

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
2
2!
2!

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

.237
.181
.200
.296

1910
1911
1912

7 59.9
'
ei 60.8
7 59.2
r

1912
1913

9> 59.3
10> 58.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
18

59.7 $0,224 $12.91
60.4 .223 12.95
60.3 .222 12.90
60.3 .234 13.64

1910
1911
1912
1913

35
35
36
36

56.5
56.1
56.3
57.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
29
29
29

7 plants.

1910
1911
1912

6 plants.

6 plants.

R o ll h an ds,
other, 10-inch:
4

R o ll h a n d s,
other, 12-inch:
4 plants___

R o ll h a n d s,
other, 13-inch,
14-inch, and 15inch:
3 plants___ 1910
1911
1912
1913
R o ll h a n d s,
other, 16-inch:
2 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1 plant.,
R o ll h a n d s,
other, 18-inch:
1 plant.......




3.4
75.9 3.4 17.2
41.4 17.2 17.2 10.3 13.8
3.4 51.7 20.7 10.3 10.3 3.4
6.9 58.6 13.8 6.9 6.9 *6.9

....
....

5.1 5.1 5.1
2.6 7.7
6.1 “ 5‘ i

3.0 3.0 15.2 42.4 12.1 12.1
12.1 6.1
54.5 9.1

58.3 16.7 16.7
14.04
9.5 23.8
13.60 ....... 57.1
76.2 14.3
14.75
9.1 27.3
21.27

9.5
54.5

6.1
3.0

6.1
9.1

8.3
9.5
9.1

21.2 24.2
*6.3 12.5 62.5
6.1 6.1 27.3

3.0 45.5
6.1 . . . . .......
3.1 3.1 12.5
3.0 51.5
....... 6.1 .......

28.6
‘ 7‘ i 21.4

3.6 60.7
7.1 53.6 ....... 10.7 . . . . .......

7.1

34.5
'35.7
40.0

17.2 6.9 41.4
*3*6 17.9 42.9
24.0 36.0
21.1 21.1 36.8
21.1
50.0 25.0 25.0
50.0 25.0 25.0
25.0
50.0 25.0
50.0
*25.0 25.0
50.0
25.0 25.0
33.3
66.7
66.7

[
14.84
;
11.33
12.55
r
18.57

r
.226 13.67
.256 15.55
l
.235 13.91

:::::

66.7

33.3

33.3

50.0 50.0
50.0 50.0
50.0 50.0
1
100. C
16.7 16.7

.309 18.35
,344 20.41 .......I ....
i

57.1 14.3 28.6
16.7 16.7 33.2
57.1 42. S
22.2
44.4 33.2
i
20. C 30. C 3Q I . . . . . 20. C ___ .......
1
! .C

241

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

4.1
8.5
5.3
7.4

5.2
4.3
4.3
6.3

___ .......
___ .......
1.1 .......
2.1 2.1

R o ll h a n d s,
other, all sizes:
9 plants....... 1907
1908
1909
1910

97
94
94
95

18 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

180
177
176

62.8
62.5
62.7

.295 18.35 12.2 5.6 3.3 17.2 7.2 18.3 28.3 12.2
.273 16.97 12.2 2.8 17.5 6.2 19.2 22.0 18.6 8.5
.287 17.97 24.0 1.1 16.5 2.3 13.6 27.8 23.3 6.2

3.3 1.1 1.1
1.1 1.7
1.7 2.3 *’ i.*i

18 plants___ 1912
1913
Hotbed men:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

170
168

62.2
61.8

.284 17.56 34.2 1.2 17.1 1.2 13.5 29.4 24.1
.320 19.71 33.6 ___ 2.4 14.3 7.7 13.1 40.5

2.9 1.2
7.1 .6

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

.189
.174
.180
.208

25 plants___ 1910
1911

500
434

62.9
62.0

.200 12.46 810.4 15.6 25.4 14.2 16.6 11.4
.189 11.69 911.5 18.0 28.8 13.6 15.0 6.2

2.2
5.5

3.8
.9

.4
.5

26 plants.... 1911
1912

450
461

61.9
61.7

.188 11.61 1011.1 20.0 27.8 14.0 14.4
.192 11.80 H12.4 9.1 28.2 15.0 21.9

6.0
8.2

5.3
5.2

.9

.4

26 plants— 1912
1913
Shearmen:
15 plants___ 1907
1908
1909
1910

455
467

61.5
60.9

.192 11.73 1210.3 9.2 30.3 16.0 21.8 7.5
3
.221 13.43 1 4.4 4.5 5.8 28.3 36.0 13.1

4.8
5.8

2.1

94
92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

.249
.216
.225
.247

25 plants___ 1910
1911
1912

156
151
154

63.3
62.5
62.4

.264 16.40
.254 15.55
.254 15.59

66.8 $0,278 $18.53 ..
2.1 26.8 8.2 8.2 12.4
67.0 .255 16.97 13.2 20.2 9.6 3.2 22.3 17.0
66.8 .266 17.65 2.1 5.3 11.7 18.1 11.7 25.5
66.7 .315 21.06 2.1 2.1 6.3 10.5 8.4 16.8

11.98 46.0 35.8
10.93 59.0 38.8
11.00 «18.2 24.5
13.02 7 7.3 12.6

15.6 10.6 19.9 5.6
21.4 12.4 11.7 4.3
18.5 11.5 18.9 3.1
28.8 11.9 19.2 11,9

33.0
11.7
14.9
35.8

4.1
8.9

1.2
1.8

6.6
2.3
.......
.....
5.2 .
.7 . . . . .......
1.3 6.3
.......
.......

16.20
1.1 18.1 21.3 21.3 12.8 21.3 ....... 2.1 2.1 .......
14.10 “2.2 1.1 26.1 22.8 23.9 16.3 6.5 ....... . . . . . 1.1 .......
14.72 ....... 6.5 14.0 29.0 21.5 17.2 9.7 1.1 ....... 1.1 .......
16.11
9.3 8.2 24.7 14.4 18.6 20.6 3.1 1.0
.......
1.3 8.3 7.1 19.2 17.3 18.6 19.9
1.3 5.3 11.3 27.2 15.2 16.6 13.2
1.3 3.2 11.0 24.7 20.1 16.2 16.2

5.8
6.6
3.9

.6
3.3
3.2

1.9
.....
.......

156 62.4 .251 15.40 1.3 3.2 10.3 25.6 22.4 15.4 14.7 3.8 3.2
24 plants___ 1912
1913
159 62.0 .287 17.54 ....... . . . . 6.3 8.2 34.6 20.8 13.2 11.9 2.5 *2.5 .......
S h e a r m e n ’s
helpers:
201 65.9 .174 11.46 1410.9 37.8 24.4 6.0 13.9 6.0 1.0
15 plants___ 1907
I
172 66.2 .168 11.07 1511.1 43.0 19.2 11.6 12.2 1.7 1.2
1908
1
185 67.3 .169 11.32 1620.1 34.1 17.3 9.2 14.6 2.7 1.1
1909
1
7
.9
215 65.3 .184 12.00 1 5.6 25.6 32.1 6.0 22.3 7.4
1910
i Including 1.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 1.7 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 1.8 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
4Including 4.6 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
e Including 2 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents, 1.3 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 0.7
per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
e Including 2.1 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents and 2.8 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
i Including 2 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents and 2 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
s Including 1.2 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents and 3.6 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
9 Including 5.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1o Including 5.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
n Including 0.7 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents, 1.1 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 4.1
per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1 Including 0.7 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents, 1.1 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 3.7
2
per cent earnmg 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
is Including 0.6per cent earning 7 and under 8 cents,0.6 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents,0.4 per cent
earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 1.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
14 Including 3.5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
is Including 4.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
1 Including 7.6 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
6
tf Including 0.9 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

83021°—Bull. 168—15------16



242

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN THE UNITED
STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Concluded. '

T able

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

S h ea rm en ’ s
helpers—Con.
_
23 plants_

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

3.9
.6
1.1

0.6

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1910
1911
1912

355
359
358

64.7 $0,187 $12.02 110 7 16.3 30.7 8.2 24.5
63.8 .178 11.28 2 12.5 15.9 43.5 6.1 15.9
63.9 .184 11.74 3 9.5 8.4 39.7 7.8 26.3

5.6
5.0
7.3

1912
1913

337
316

63.4
62.8

.183 11.52 ^9.5 8.9 42.4 6.8 23.7
.214 13.30 5 4.4 7.0 6.6 27.8 35.8

.6
8.0
.......
7.0 10.8 ’ *’ .*6

1907
1908
1909
1910

41
41
41
41

66.9
66.9
66.8
67.1

.202
.174
.186
.213

2.4
2.4

6 plants...

1910
1911

77
81

66.1
63.5

7 plants..

1911
1912

131
132

7 plants...

1912
1913

22 plants---Bundlers:
5 plants..

13.53
11.68 **4.9 29.3
12.42
9.8
14.23
4.9

24.4 31.7 39.0
36.6 19.5 7.3
31.7 43.9 14.6
22.0 4.9 63.4

2.6 11.7 31.2 51.9
1.2 19.8 39.5 37.0

.197 12.20
.193 11.94

.8 12.2 24.4 61.1
12.1 68.2 18.2

1.5
1.5

129
136

61.6
61.4

.194 11.96
.228 14.05

1.6 78.3 18.6
1.5
88.2

1.6
8.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

296
227
324
424

68.3
64.8
67.8
67.2

.153 10.44 9.1 58.4 32.4
.153 9.93 17.2 39.6 43.2
.150 10.17 15.4 56.2 28.4
.161 10.81 9.4 7.3 83.3

15 plants.,

1910
1911

511
355

67.8
66.0

.160 10.86 10.0 13.7 76.3
.160 10.59 12.4 7.3 80.3

17 plants.

1911
1912

390
424

65.5
65.9

.159 10.40 11.3 15.6
.159 10.52 10.4 12.7 76.9

21 plants.

1912
1913

536
705

65.0
64.3

.160 10.38 14.4 11.2 71.8 2.6
.178 11.51 1.1 7.4 48.7 33.6 9.2 ....... ....... ....... .......

.......

2.6
2.5

62.0
62.0

.....

4.9

.207 13.69
.193 12.28

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

Laborers:
10 plants.

2.4

1.5

.......

1 Including 1.7 per cent earning 8 and under 9 cents and 2.3 p er cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
2 Including 3.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
s Including 0.6 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents and 3.1 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
* Including 0.6 per cent earning 9 and under 10 cents and 3.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.
s Including 0.6 per cent earning 6 and under 7 cents and 0.6 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per
hour.




243

WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOE— BAR MILLS.
T a b l e I I ___ AVERAGE

FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS.
[The abbreviation “ G. L. and M. W .” stands for “ Great Lakes and Middle West.” ]
STOCKERS.

Num­
Num­ ber
Year and dis­
ber
of
em­
of
trict.
plants ploy­
ees.

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.

6
7
4

71
86
58

Aver- Aver­
age
rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per horn*.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

59.1 $0,263 $15.43
60.9 .217 12.76
63.1 .217 13.63

2

4
1

5
37 *’ ii
14 8

24
11
22

16
11
12

56

57

39

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

20
15
2

5

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

37

Total........

17

215

60.9

.232 13.88

2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.

6
7
4

86
82
58

59.2
60.3
63.1

.270 15.88
.251 14.74
.231 14.51

3

19 4
1 26 26
14 30

32
6
10

22
17
4

6
6

Total........

17

226

60.6

.253 15.12

3

1 59

48

43

12

61.2 $0,479 $29.19
61.2 .506 30.81
63.7 .516 32.21

4
14
5

17
22
4

14
10
12

18
17
6

10
8
19

2
14

23

43

36

41

37

16

19

60

HEATERS.
1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

8
10
8

65
85
46

Total........

26

196

61.8

.499 30.60

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

8
10
8

72
86
53

61.1
61.6
62.7

.520 31.57
.593 36.28
.561 34.59

1

3

14
7
5

24
14
11

10
23
14

14
16
21

10
22
2

Total........

26

211

61.7

.560 34.25

1

3

26

49

47

51

34

HEATERS’ HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

8
10
6

104
172
42

61.1 $0,242 $14.79
60.8 .262 15.65
68.4 .234 15.92

17
4

8
2
8

18
23
2

10
80
8

31
21
12

18
40
8

2
6

Total........

24

318

61.9

.251 15.41

21

18

43

98

64

66

8

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.

8
10
6

116
171
37

61.0
61.2
69.4

.246 14.99
.296 17.82
.254 17.52

11
2

12

10 38
10 60
9
8

17
36
13

27
43
7

1
18

2

Total

24

324

62.0

.273 16.77

13

12

29 106

66

77

19

2

CHARGERS AND HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .
Total........

3
9
7

61.2 $0,179 $10.90
64.4 .200 12.69
64.8 .203 13.21

4
18

10
50
10

1 4
13 22
6 14

13
14

2

64.3

.199 12.72

22

70

20

40

27

2

21 61.0
104 63.3
60 65.4

.181 10.99
.228 14.28
.232 15.09

1

8
7
7 31
12 14

6
43
16

13
10

6
4

2
4

1

185

.224 14.17

1

2?

65

23

10

6

1

15
104
62

19 ' 181

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W.

3
9
7

Total........

19




63.7

52

244

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR. BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

DRAG DOWNS.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants ploy­
ees.

1913.
Eastern___ ____
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W.

7
8
5

33
65
23

Total........

20

121

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.

7
8
5

Total........

20

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per
per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

60.9 $0,241 $14.77
66.5 .224 14.76
60.0 .339 20.24

2

14

63.8

.251 15.81

2

14

36
65
23

61.0
65.4
60.0

.257 15.68
.257 16.73
.387 22.93

4

124

63.1

.281 17.57

4

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

"io

17
15

10
16
5

2
8
14

4

10

32

31

24

4

” 9

17
21

12
11
3

6
20
9

11

9

38

26

35

11

4

4
1

1

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
cts.
and
over.

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh. .
G. L. and M. W.

6
8
6

18
53
22

66.7 $0,201 $13.43
70.4 .230 16.26
72.1 .244 17.53

5

2
4
2

9
39
13

2
10
7

8

61

19

Total

20

93

70.1

.228 16.02

5

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh____
G. L .an dM . W.

6
8
6

22
53
22

65.6
71.8
72.4

.221 14.35
.257 18.44
.258 18.63

4

14
12
4

4
39
14

2
4

Total

20

97

70.5

.249 17.56

4

30

57

6

ROLLERS: 8-INCH.
1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .

3
6
2

5
20
4

54.8 $0.724 $40.29
58.1 .964 57.36
61.5 .706 45.70

1

Total

11

29

58.0

.887 52.81

1

1913.
Eastern.
___
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
6
2

5
20
4

52.6 .887 47.28
58.9 1.118 65.59
61.5 1.059 64.82

1

2
3

11

29

58.1 1.070 62.33

1

5

Total.. . .

4

2
2 *“ i
2

3
13
1

4

4

3

17

*i
1

3
15
3

2

21

ROLLERS: 9-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh____
G .L .an d M . W.
Total..
1913.
Eastern.........
Pittsburgh...
G. L .a n d M .W .
T otal..




5
10
7
10

61.2 $0,634 $38.71
60.6 .858 52.82
67.8 .874

22

63.0

.812 51.60

2
5
3

5 61.2 .784 48.11
10 60.2 .930 57.13
7 67.8 1.042 69.95

5
6
5

10

.932 59.16

16

245

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

R O L L E R S : 1 0 -IN C H .

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants ploy­
ees.

1913.
Eastern..............

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2
5

6
12

52.3 $0,877 $45.35
67.1 1.163 78.10
Pittsburgh.........

Total........

7

18

62.1 1.068 67.18

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

2
5

6
12

51.7 .920 47.60
67.1 1.239 83.54

6
12

Total

7

18

61.9 1.132 71.56

18

6
11
1

17

R O L L E R S : 1 2 -IN C H .

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W.

4
5
3

7
13
7

61.1 $1,036 $63.46
63.2 .717 45.99
71.1 .860 61.10

5

1
3

7
7
4

Total........

12

27

64.7

.837 54.44

5

4

18

1
3

8
12
4

4

24

3

2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh
Total

4
5
3
12

8 61.0 .996 60.59
13 62.8 .989 61.78
G. 71.1 .871 .
7 L .andM . W61.90
28

64.4

.961 61.47

i
!
1

ROLLERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1912.
Eastern
..
Pittsburgh ..
G. L. and M. W.

1
2
1

2
5
2

72.0 $0,385 $27.72
57.6 .772 44.02
68.0 .549 37.33

2
3

Total

4

9

63.1

.637 38.91

2

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.

1
2
1

2
5
2

72.0
56.8
68.0

.385 27.72
.875 49.72
.4,1 32.03

2

Total . . . .

4

9

62.7

.676 40.90

2

2

2
2

5
2
1
1
2!

5

R O L L E R S : 1 6 -I N C H .

1912.
Eastern
Pittsburgh
G .L . and M .W .

2
2
1

3
4
4

5

11

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh
G. L. and M. W.

2
2
1

4
4
3

Total

5

11

Total ..




59.8 $0,673 $40.35
64.3 .915 59.85
60.5 .745 44.41

2
2
2

1
2
2

.787 48.92

6

5

61.7

61.0 .920 56.70
64.3 1.173 76.52
58.7 .869 49.71
61.5

.998 62.00

1 ....
1

4
4
2
10

1

246

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROLLERS: 18-INCH.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
ber
of
of
time
em­ hours wages
of
plants ploy­ per per
ees. week. hour.

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

7
3
2

Total........

12

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L.andM . W .

8
3
2

Total........

13

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

3

3

6
3
2

2

1

8

11

1

.886 52.19

4
3
1

2

58.1 $0,703 $40.70
57.3 1.289 74.47
62.8 .921 58.98
58.7

58.3 .794 46.36
57.3 1.277 73.80
62.8 1.248 79.74
58.8

.975 57.83

i
!
.......
1

ROLLERS: ALL SIZES.

1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

8
10
6

35
67
26

Total........

24

128

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

8
10
6

38
67
25

Total

24

130

1913.

58.6 $0,772 $44 9^
61.3 .93.3 58.11
66.2 .803 53.62

1

61.6

1

2

.863 53.60

2

4
1

4
10
2

5
9
9

24
44
13

5

16

23

81

1
2

2
5
1

2
3
6

32
57
16

11

105

58.5 .859 49.28
61.4 1.079 66.64
66.2 .947 62.19

2
1

61.5

3

3

8

.989 60.71
ROUGHERS: 8-INCH.

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh_____
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
6
2

13
54
12

55.7 $0,322 $17.96
56.5 .334 19.19
54.3 .359 19.47

6

8
14
6

2
21

3
12
6

1

Total

11

79

56.0

.336 19.03

6

28

23

21 '

1

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

3
6
2

13
54
12

53.2
57.6
54.3

.408 21.75
.379 22.26
.428 23.19

2

7

5
7

2
19
3

5
9

Total........

11

79

56.4

.391 22.32

2

7

12

24

15

9

1913.

|
1
I

6
13

1

14

19

1

14

22

23

11

25

22

ROUGHERS: 9-INCH.

1912.

58.2 $0,283 $16.45
62.0 .408 25.17
53.1 .505 26.75

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .
Total........

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .
Total..




82

57.0

.433 24.35

58.2
61.3
52.9

.440 26.89
.557 29.53

56.6

.484 27.20

17

21.39

247

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

ROUGHERS: 10-INCH.

Num­
Num­ ber
of
Year and dis­
ber
em­
trict.
of
plants ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
time of
hours wages
per per
week hour.

AverS
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

2
5

16
37

Number of employees naming each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

54.0 $0.379 $19.81
65.1 .372 23.76

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

8
6

20

4
8

4
3

14

20

12

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

7

Total........

7

53

61.7

.374 22.57

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

2
5

16
37

53.1
65.1

.400 20.91
.419 27.01

8
20

6
14

2
3

Total........

7

53

61.5

.413 25.17

28

20

5

7
31
8

6

ROUGHERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

5
5
3

27
36
18

58.4 $0,453 $26.61
65.8 .345 22.73
70.7 .436 30.93

2
5

12
10

Total........

13

81

64.4

.401 25.84

7

46

6

22

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

5
5
3

30
36
18

58.1
65.2
70.7

.443 25.92
.451 28.99
.445 31.54

4

2
6
8

15
24
10

9
4

2

Total........

13

84

63.8

.447 28.44

4

16

49

13

2

12

4
7

2
12
10
24

ROUGHERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
/

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

1
2
2

2
16
29

72.0 $0,426 $30.67
54.0 .400 21.13
64.7 .341 22.25

Total........

5

47

61.4

.364 22.23

12

11

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .an d M .W .

1
2
2

2
16
23

72.0
54.5
65.9

.407 29.30
.477 25.65
.321 21.14

7

2
16

Total

5

41

61.8

.386 23.30

7

18

• *.
4

4§ *

2
9

5

11

5

ROUGHERS: 16-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..........
Pittsburgh.........

2
10 58.9 $0,291 $17.48
2
14 64.3 .367 23.64
G. L .a n d8 .W . .528 30.77
1
M 57.8

8
6
14

2
8
4

Total........

5

32

61.0

.384 23.50

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .a n d M .W .

2
2
1

14
14
6

60.5
64.3
56.8

.346 21.14
.502 32.29
.486 27.47

8

Total

5

34

61.4

.435 26.85

8




4

12

2

6
6
2

8
4

14

12

4

248

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROUGHERS: 18-INCH.

Year and dis­
trict.

1912.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
of
em­
plants ploy­
ees.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G.L.and M .W .

4
2
1

16
9
6

57.5 $0,475 $27.22
58.8 .564 33.19
62.8 .441 27.64

2

9
1
6

5
8

Total

7

31

58.9

.494 29.04

2

16

13

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

4
2
1

18
9
6

57.2
58.8
62.8

.461 26.41
.562 33.06
.526 32.98

4

12

Total........

7

33

58.6

.500 29.42

4

1913.

2
9
6

12

15

2

ROUGHERS: ALL SIZES.
1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

8
10
8

99
193
113

57.5 $0,384 $22.09
61.1 .372 22.70
59.8 .435 25.82

8
12

29
31
18

15
81
18

24
51
38

23
18
27

12

Total........

26

405

59.9

.393 23.42

20

78

114

113

68

12

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

8
10
. 8

108
193
106

57.2
61.3
59.7

.411 23.57
.434 26.59
.466 27.41

2

7

24
13
7

18
49
30

47
65
33

17
54
20

2
3
8

8

Total........

26

407

59.8

.436 26.00

2

7

44

97

145

91

13

8

1913.

CATCHERS: 8-INCH.
1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.____
G. L .andM . W .

3
2
1

5
14
6

54.8 $0.259 $14.46
53.7 .331 17.81
54.5 .429 23.38

1 ___

1

2
2

12

Total........

6

25

54.1

.340 18.48

1

1

4

12

7

5 52.6
3
14 54.9
2
1
6 W.
G .L .an dM . 54.5

.334 17.80
.420 23.32
.410 22.32

1

1
1

1
1

3
3

7
3

.400 21.98

1

2

2

6

10

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
Total........

6

25

54.3

1
6

2
2
4

CATCHERS: 9-INCH.
1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

1
1
1

2
3
8

Total

3

13

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L .an dM . W .

1
1
1

Total........

3

1913.




63.0 $0,257 $16.19
48.0 .366 17.58
54.5 .686 37.39

2

54.3

.546 29.55

2

2
3
8

63.0
50.7
54.5

.442 27.85
.381 19.30
.753 41.01

2

2
1

13

54.9

.619 33.98

2

3

3

8
8

3

8
8

249

W A G E S A N D H O U B S OF L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAB MILLS—Continued.

T able

CATCHERS: 10-INCH.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age
Num­ ber full­ age full­
rate time
ber
Year and dis­
of
em­ time of week­
of
trict.
hours wages
plants ploy­
ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees .earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh. . .

1
1

4
14

48.8 $0,312 $15.21
71.5 .488 34.86

2

2

Total........

2

18

66.4

.449 30.49

2

2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh ____

1
1

4
14

48.8
71.5

.295 14.37
.538 38.47

3

1

Total........

2

18 66.4

.484 33.12

3

1

4
2

6
6

2
3

2

12

2

12

2

3

10

1

3

10

1

CATCHERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..............

4
12 58.9 $0,352 $20.49
Pittsburgh.........
5
13 63.2 .391 25.08

Total........

9

25

61.1

.372 22.88

6

12

5

2

1913.
Eastern............ :
Pittsburgh........

4
5

12
13

58.9
62.8

.359 20.95
.467 29.25

4

4
4

4
3

6

25

61.0

.416 25.26

4

8

7

6

2
2

3
3

Total........

9

CATCHERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..............
2 72.0 $0,375 $27.00
1
2
Pittsburgh......... 57.6 .419 23.78
5
Total

3

7

61.7

.407 24.70

4

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

1
2

2
5

72.0
56.8

.363 26.14
.500 28.15

2

Total........

3

7

61.1

.461 27.58

2

3
3

2
2

CATCHERS: 16-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

1
2

1
6

64.5 $0,452 $29.15
64.3 .412 26.52

1
6

Total........

3

7

64.4

.418 26.90

7

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........

1
2

2
6

64.5
64.3

.495 31.93
.500 32.18

2
4

2

Total........

3

•8

64.4

.499 32.12

6

2




60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

250

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

CATCHERS: 18-INCH.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants ploy­
ees.

1912.

4
2

Aver- Average age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Averfull­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
;and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1

7 56.6 $0,355 $20.18

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

4

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
:
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2
2

G. L. and M .W .

1

4
2

56.3
62.8

.637 36.34
.515 32 W

Total........

7

13

57.5

.467 27.01

1

4

4

1913.

8
4
2

56.4
56.3
62.8

.348 19.71
.651 37.04
.548 34.39

2

2

4

G. L. and M. W .

4
2
1

Total........

7

14

57.3

.463 26.76

2

Eastern..............

2

2
2

2

2
2

2

4

2

2

4

10
4

14
23

6
26
6

4
2 *8

2

2

14

37

38

6

8

2

CATCHERS: ALL SIZES.

1912.
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

g
10
2

Total........

20

108

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

8
10
2

Total........

20

1913.

33 57.8 $0,332 $19.27
59 61.3 .419 26.09
16 55.5 .568 31.50

1

59.4

. 415 24.81

1

35
59
16

57.6
61.6
55.5

.358 20.78
.487 30.26
.598 33.17

1

3
1

8
1

9
9
3

12
21
3

2
24
2

1

2

110

59.4

.462 27.67

1

4

9

21

36

28

1

10

5
3
6

20
6

8

26

9

2

STRANDERS:: 8-INCH.

1912.

7 56.1 $0,228 $12.89

1

1

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh . ..
G. L. and M .W .

3
6
2

48
12

61.0
61.5

.236 14.57
.245 15.32

15

2

3 *7

Total

11

67

60.6

.236 14.53

15

2

4

7 14

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .

3
6
2

6
48
12

53.4
61.4
61.5

.276 14.84
.295 18.29
.344 21.42

7

1

1
1

3
7
2

9

13
10

10

Total........

11

66

60.7

.302 18.54

7'___

1

2! 12
.

9ij

25

10

12
2!

9

17

1913.

1

2

STRANDERS : 9-INCH.

1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

2
4
3

13I 57.5 $0.176 $10.07
iei 66. G .207 13.58
281 52.8 .291 15.42

J
2

Total

g

57r 57.6

[
2

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

2
4
1
3

13t 57.5 .211 12.26
ie> 63.*t .230 14.62
2?1 52.81 .367 19.20

2

Total

c1

57'

5

1913.




.241 13.68

56. fi1 .293 16.33

2
4

9

6

9

14

S 17
►

s

2
101
>
2

I
4

1
I
< 14
3

4
[

2
?,(

e|

22!

(i

i Including 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

8

251

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

Table

STRANDERS: 10-INCH.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
ber
Year and dis­
of time
of
of
em­
trict.
plants ploy­ hours wages
per per
ees. week. hour.

1912.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

1

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

7
8

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
im­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2
5

8 54.0 $0,218 $11.81
47 55.4 .398 20.68

9

9

9

12

Total........

7

55

55.2

.372 19.39

1

15

9

9

9

12

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

2
5

8
47

53.1
55.4

.244 13.14
.417 22.09

2

2

4
8

18

9

12

Total........

7

55

55.1

.392 20.77

2

2

12

18

9

12

STRANDERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
E astern............

4
4
1

10
23
10

58.3 $0,273 $16.06
64.2 .216 13.63
72.0 .559 40.25

14

4
2

2
6

4
1

9

43

64.7

.309 20.38

14

6

8

5

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

4
4
1

16
23
10

56.9
62.0
72.0

.251 14.45
.274 16.54
.531 38.23

6
15

8
5

2

Total........

9

49

62.4

.319 20.28

21

13

2

G. L. and M. W .
Total.

10
10

1

2
10

1

12

STRANDERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1912.
G. L. and M .W .

1

22

60.0 $0,217 $13.01

1913.
G. L. and M. W .

1

11

60.0

6

16

.255 15.27

3

8

STRANDERS:: 16-INCH.
1912.
G. L. and M .W .

1

8

55.0 $0.431 $23.71

1913.
G. L. and M .W .

1

8

55.0

8

.523 28.77

8

STRANDERS: ALL SIZES.
1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

6
8
6

38
134
80

56.7 $0,220 $12.53
60.2 .286 16.43
58.7 .311 18.67

2
15

*2

3
7
6

10
21

16
25
24

2
35
15

5
18
17

9
8

12
10

2

16

31

65

52

40

17

22

Total........

20

252

59.2

.284 16.56

17

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

6
8
6

43
134
69

55.9
59.7
58.5

.241 13.60
.326 18.88
.387 22.83

7

3

12 13
1 32
7

12
26
8

6
31
30

20
6

14
18

Total

20

246

58.7

.328 19.07

7

3

13

46

67

26

32

52

■Including 2 employees earning 10and under 12 cents per hour.




60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

252

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

FINISHERS: 8-INCH.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
Year and dis­
em­
of
trict.
plants ploy­
ees.

1912.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

2
6
2

3
22
6

10

31

59.3

.301 17.84

2
6
2

3
22
6

55.2
58.7
64.0

31

59.4

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

.347 19.14
.377 22.32
.275 17.47

10

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

58.8 $0,296 $17.45
58.0 .310 18.17
64.0 .266 16.85

Total........

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

.354 21.07

1913.

Eastern
.......
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .
Total......

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

2

1
2

1
6
2

2
11
2

1

1

2 ....

3

9

15

1

1

2

2
2

2
2

3
7
2

5

4

2

4

4

*12

5

4

: **4

5
4

4

9

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

FINISHERS: 9-INCH.

1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

1
5
3

3
10
11

55.0 $0,300 $16.50
60.6 .279 16.47
68.2 .281 18.94

1

Total...... .

9

24

63.4

.282 17.61

1

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. ana M. W .

1
5
3

3
10
11

55.0
60.2
68.2

Total........

9

24

63.2

1913.

3
3

1

1

1

1

.300 16.50
.288 16.96
.295 19.92

1
1

1

5
8

.293 18.26

2

1

13

5

6
3
2

2
2

1
2
3

FINISHERS: 10-INCH.

1912.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

1
4

2
10

59.3 $0,314 $18.60
67.7 .377 25.93

3

2
4

1

2

Total........

5

12

66.3

.367 24.71

3

6

1

2

2
10

57.5
67.7

.396 22.77
.433 29.79

1

2
3

2

2

2

12

66.0

.......
.427 28.621

1

5

2

2

2

” *5

3
3
4

3

2

5

10

3

2

1
4
2

2
5
2

1

2

7

9

1

2

1913.

Eastern..............
1
4
.........
Pittsburgh
Total........

5

1

FINISHERS: 12-INCH.

1912.

Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

3
5
2

5
13
6

54.1 $0,229 $12.41
63.2 .301 18.77
70.0 .400 28.24

2

Total........

10

24

63.0

.311 19.81

2

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. ana M. W .

3
5
2

5
13
6

54.1
62.8
70.0

.266 14.40
.378 22.96
.412 29.05

2

Total........

10

24

62.8

.363 22.70

2 ....

1913.




2
2

1
2
1

1.......

253

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

FINISHERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber fml- rate
ber
Year and dis­
of time
of
trict.
of
em­ hours wages
plants ploy­ per per
ees. week. hour.

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

1
2
1

4
7
4

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly*
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

72.0 $0,305 $21.96
61.7 .337 19.89
60.0 .302 18.12

4

Total........

4

15

64.0

.319 19.97

4

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

1
2
1

4
7
2

72.0
59.4
60.0

.288 20.74
.378 21.61
.345 20.70

4
2

Total........

4

13

63.4

.345 21.20

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

4
4

3

8

3i '

2
2

2

1

6

4

2

1

FINISHERS: 16-INCH.
1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W .
Total... .
1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
Total........

1
2
1

2
10
8

57.5 $0,275 $15.81
64.4 .276 17.77
57.8 .528 30.77

2

2
6

2

4

20

61.1

.377 22.77

2

8

2

2 57.5
1
2
10 64.4
1
G. L. and6 .W .
M 56.8

.361 20.76
.375 24.14
.486 27.47

2
8

.410 24.87

10

4

18

61.1

4

4

4

4

2
2

4

4

4

FINISHERS: 18-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

2
2
1

4
5
2

57.0 $0,285 $16.29
58.2 .535 31.39
62.8 .438 27.48

2

2
1

2

4

Total........

5

11

58.6

.427 25.19

2

3

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W .

2
2
1

5
5
2

57.6
58.2
62.8

.288 16.63
.531 31.11
.438 27.48

2

3
1

Total

5

12

58.7

.414 24.47

2

4

2

4

2

2

4

4

FINISHERS: ALL SIZES.
1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .

5
10
6

23
77
37

Total

21

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.......
G. L. and M. W .
Total

59.2 $0,281 $16.77
61.7 .326 20.02
64.4 .362 23.06

1

137

62.0

.328 20.29

1 ....

5
10
6

24
77
33

58.6
61.5
64.9

.307 18.00
.383 23.45
.359 23.01

1
1

21

134

61.8

.363 22.36

2




5

2
1 ***6
6

8
27
10

13
24
6

7
8

7

5

3

12

45

43

15

7

6

*2
2

7
14
12

15
28
6

13
6

13
4

3
2

4

33

49

19

17

5

2
3
5

6

254

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

HOOK UPS: 12-INCH.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
Num­ ber
age age
full­ rate
ber
of
em­ time
of
of
plants ploy­ hours wages
ees. per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

5
5
3

11
32
13

57.6 $0,235 $13.70
60.6 .225 13.43
71.5 .408 29.24

2

Total........

13

56

62.5

.269 17.15

2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh ___
G. L. and M .W .

5
5
3

12
32
14

57.4
60.8
66.4

.267 15.36
.317 18.69
.384 25.63

Total

13

58

61.5

.323 19.68

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

*‘ i2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh..........
G. L. and M .W .

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

3
7

2

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

4
13
2

3

8

10

15

7

8

2

2
11

4
3

2
12
6

2
6
8

2

13

7

20

16

2

12

HOOK UPS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh __
G. L. and M .W .

1
2
2

Total........

5

12 72.0 $0.189 $13.58
17 59.31 .272 15.28
22 62.9!i .218 13.91
51 63.8 .229 14.29
|

8
4
4

4
4

10

1913.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

10

16

8

8

1
2
2

12
17
14

72.0 .224 16.15
|
57.9 .313 17.36
64. oj .236 15.20

12
8
7

7

Total........

5

43

63.8

. 263 16.32

27

8

9
9

6

3

7

6

3

2
2 *‘ *4

4
6
12

2

4

22

2

1

8
10
8

4

1
3

1

26

4

HOOK UPS: 16-INCH.
1913.
Eastern..........
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

2
2
1

6 62.2 $0.24lLl5.10
14 64.3 .264 17.00
12 56.8 .272 15.50 ....... L ...

Total

5

32

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G .L . and M .W .

2
2
1

10 63.1
14 64.3
10 56.1

.290 18.35 .......
.370 23.79
.310 17.32

Total........

5

34

.329 20.28

61.1

61.5

.263 16.08

j
____ '___ ____

....... . . . .

4
2

____ „____

HOOK UPS: 18-INCH.
1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

4
2
1

16
14
8

57.5 $0,184 $10.56
58.6 .330 19.40
62.8 .282 17.67

J
i
I

2

2

2

4

3

9

18

4

9
2
2

12
6

13

18

4

2

Total........

7

38

59.0

.258 15.31

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

4
2
1

18 57.2
14 58.6
8 62.8

.223 12.64
.326 19.19
.334 20.94

1 2
I
i

1

Total........

7

40 58.8

.281 16.60

! 2
1

1




1

4

7
2

12
6

2

2

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

255

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

T a b le I I , — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.
HOOK UPS: ALL SIZES.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
Year and dis­
of time
ber
of
.em­
trict.
of
plants ploy­ hours wages
per per
ees. week.
horn*.

1912*
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

7
8
7

45
77
55

Total........

22

177

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

7
8
7

Total........

22

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
lyearn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

4

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

62.0 $0,205 $12.74
60.6 .261 15.57
63.6 .284 18.43

2

61.9

.254 15.74

2

52
77
46

61.8
60.4
62.8

.246 15.18
.327 19.41
.314 19.83

4

1

175

61.4

.300 18.27

4

1

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40 50 60
and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ cts.
der der der and
50
60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts.

11
18
6

14
17

4
19
22

4
23
9

8

16 35

31

45

36

8

4

25
21
10

4
3
8

10
40
20

4
13
8

4

56

15

70

25

1
3

2
7

6

1

1

4

9

6

1

1

4

6
9 1 3

1

6
10

4

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: 8-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

2
6
1

5
24
4

54.3 $0,227 $12.48
59.7 .265 15.75
69.0 .167 11.52

15

1

Total

9

33

60.0

.248 14.75

15

1

1913.
Eastern..............
2
8
24
Pittsburgh.........
6
G. L. and M .W .
1
4

52.7
60.3
69.0

.297 15.80
.296 17.87
.183 12.63

59.6

.284 16.83

Total

9

36

1

1

4
5

1
2
16
4

16

1

4

15

2

7
6

3
2

2

2

13

5

2

9

6

3

1
8

2

2

2

9

9

2

2

1

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: 9-INCH.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

1
3
2

2 63.0 $0,127 $8.00
18 52.5 .289 15.07
16 59.7 .238 13.65

2

2

1

Total........

6

36

56.3

.257 14.05

1913.
Eastern............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .

1
3
2

2 63.0
18 54.3
16 59.7

.227 14.30
.300 16.17
.254 14.63

4

Total

6

36

.275 15.38

4

57.2

1

3 ....
8
11

....

2
8
8

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: 10-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh........

1
5

4
29

48.8 $0,195 $9.52
68.3 .361 24.54

1

1

2
3

14

4

4

2

2

Total........

6

33

66.0

.341 22.72

1

1

5

14

4

4

2

2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........

1
5

4
29

48.8
68.3

.190 9.26
.414 28.25

4
2

18

3

2

1

3

Total........

6

33

66.0

.387 25.95

4

2

18

3

2

1

3

i Including 3 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




256

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

Table

R O LL H A N D S, O T H E R : 12-INCH.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
Num­ ber full­ rate
ber
of
time
of
em­ hours wages
of
plants ploy­ per per
ees. week. hour.

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M .W .

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

64.5 $0,217 $14.00
62.4 .247 14.90
72.0 .330 23.76

Total.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M .W .
Total........

28

67.5

19.20

64.5
62.0
72.0

28

1913.

.210 13.55
.326 19.16
.316 22.75

67.4

.304 20.15

17

15

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh..

1
2

4
21

72.0 $0,293 $21.10
61.7 .263 15.23

10

4
2

9

Total........

3

25

63.4

.268 16.17

10

6

9

1
2

4
15

72.0
56.8

.275 19.80
.352 19.26

4

3

19

60.0

.335 19.38

4 ....

1913.

Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
Total,

4
4
4

7

4

7

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: 16-INCH.

1912.

Pittsburgh

1913.

Pittsburgh........

1

6

ift.
64.5 S

1

6

64.5

*22. .T
O

4

2
4

2

....... 1
........
j
1
i
3
____ '____

2

.408 26.36

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: 18-INCH.

1913.

Eastern
Pittsburgh
G. L.andM. W.

3
1
1

5
2
2

57.8 $0.226 $13.02
59.5 .570 33.92
62.8 .257 16.13

Total___

5

9

59.3

.309 18.35

Eastern............
Pittsburgh.
G. L. ana M .W .

3
1
1

6
2
2

57.3
59.5
62.8

.264 15.22
.563 33.50
.365 22.90

2

Total___

5

10

58.9

.344 20.41

2

1913.




4

1

2
____ ___

4

3

2

1
2
2
2

3
-1.......

and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

257

W A G E S A N D HOTJBS O F L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

Table I I __ AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.
ROLL HANDS, OTHER: ALL SIZES.
Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ rate
of
time
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
lyearn­
ings.

Year and dis­
trict.

Num­
Num­ ber
ber
of
em­
of
plants ploy­
ees.

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L.andM. W ..

6
9
3

24
110
36

59.5 $0,222 $13.41
61.7 .302 18.48
65.7 .267 17.48

2
15 "*2

2
15
12

2

2

29

12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18 20
and and
un­ un­
der der
20 25
cts. cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

11
12

7
35
8

25
16

7

5

2

2

2

23

50

41

7

5

2

2

Total

18

170

62.2

.284 17.56

17

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .an dM .W ..

6
9
3

28
104
36

58.3
61.4
65.7

.254 14.88
.352 21.59
.276 18.03

16 . . . .

4

6
6
12

8
5

7
15

7
37
24

15

12

1

3

Total.......

18

168

61.8

.320 19.71

16

4

24

13

22

68

15

12

1

3

HOTBED MEN.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L.andM. W ..

8
10
8

109
236
110

58.4 $0,180 $10.49
8
61.5 .200 12.16 2 39
64.7 .186 12.06

29
9
4

33
36
69

12
50
11

17
62
20

9
23
2

1
17
4

Total.......

26

455

61.5

.192 11.73 247

42

138

73

99

34

22

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L.andM. W ..

8
10
8

121
244
102

58.7
61.6
61.7

2
.203 11.95
.235 14.37 3 19
.209 12.96

4
17

16
5
6

59 29
23 103
50 36

11
44
6

23
4

10

Total

26

467

60.9

.221 13.43 3 21

21

27 132 168

61

27

10

,

SHEARMEN.
1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W ..

8
9
7

39
71
46

58.5 $0,207 $11.73
62.3 .285 17.42
65.7 .238 15.39

2

5

12
2
2

8
6
26

6
24
5

2
19
3

1
12
10

2
4

1
4

2

5

16

40

35

24

23

6

5

Total........

24

156

62.4

.251 15.40

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L .an dM .W ..

8
9
7

46
71
42

58.2
62.2
65.8

.230 13.14
.334 20.43
.270 17.47

8
2

11
2

17
9
29

6
24
3

1
18
2

3
9
7

4

3
1

Total

24

159

62.0

.287 17.54

10

13

55

33

21

19

4

4

i Including 3 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 3 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 5 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and
17 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Including 3 employees earning 7 and under 8 cents, 3 employees earning 8 and under 9 cents, 2 em­
ployees earning 9 and under 10 cents, and 5 employees earning IQ and under 12 cents per hour,

83021°—Bull, 166— ------17




258

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR IN EACH YEAR, BY
DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

SHEARMEN'S HELPERS.

Aver­
Num­ Aver- Aver­ age
age full­
Num­ ber
SB . rate time
Year and dis­
ber
of
time
of
em­ hours wages week­
of
trict.
plants ploy­ per per
ly
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Number of employees earning each classified rate of
wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

1912.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh........
G. L. and M. W ..

6
9
7

55
192
90

63.0 $0.150 $9.38 i 20
61.7 .196 12.03 2 12
67.1 .177 11.73

1C
14

12
57
74

7
14
2

74
6

19
8

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

r

j
L

Total........

22

337

63.4

.183 11.52 3 32

30

143

23

80

27

2

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W ..

6
9
7

49
191
76

61.4
61.4
67.2

.166 10.14
.231 14.04
.203 13.46

8
<6

20
r4

7
4
10

8
30
50

4
99
10

2
18
2

30
4

2

Total.

22

316

62.8

.214 13.30 <14

22

21

88 113

22

34

2

—

—

BUNDLERS.
1912.
Pittsburgh.........

7

129

61.6 $0.194jsil.96

2 101

1913.
Pittsburgh.........

7

136

61.4

2

.228 14.05
1

24

2

120

12

2

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern.............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. and M. W ..

5
9
7

140
283
113

58.9 $0.145 $8.49
67.1 .163 10.91
67.1 .170 11.37

53
24

47
40
12 247
1 98

14

Total

21

536

65.0

.160 10.38

77

60

385

14

5
9
7

186
395
124

58.7
66.0
67.2

.160 9.37
.182 12.03
.194 13.04

8

40
12

116 22
210 127
17 88

46
19

21

705

64.3

.178 11.51

8j 52

343 237

65

1913.
Eastern..............
Pittsburgh.........
G. L. andM. W ..
Total

1 Including 5 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 2 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 6 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.
a Including 2 employees earning 9 and under 10 cents and 11 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.
« Including 2 employees earning 6 and under 7 cents and 2 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents
per hour.




259

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

III.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913— BAR MILLS.

T a b le

[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Stockers:
8plai

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
48
56
48
60
72
and
and
ploy­ hours un­ and under 60
and
72
84
and
per
ees. week.
under
under
der. under 60
56
72
84

1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90
88
87

64.4
64.1
64.2
64.3

13 plants............

1910
1911

170
164

59.0
59.6

27
27

42
28

15 plants.............

1911
1912

211
217

60.9
60.9

27
27

17 plants.............

1912
1913

215
226

60.9
60.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

121
112
112
142

25 plants.............

1910
1911

26 plants.............
26 plants.............

8
8
8
7

65
59
69
69

8
13
3
3

13

7
20

86
70

8
6

28
32

13
4

44
59

72
67

27
28

27

34
69

8
4

45
44

73
102

28
7

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

3
3
3
3

6
14
14
16

10
6
6
4

3
2
2

85
68
78
103

12
17
5
10

2
4

2
2
2
2

217
180

62.9
62.6

18
18

25
26

4
6

16
2

126
107

22
17

4
2

2
2

1911
1912

184
199

62.7
62.4

18
18

26
12

6
31

2
2

111
114

17
18

2
2

2
2

1912
1913

196
211

61.8
61.7

18
3

28
45

30
34

2
3

98
112

16
9

2
3

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

167 65.3
153 65.1
151 65.0
166 65.2

3
3
3
3

8
16
16
16

12
8
8
8

4
4
4
4

108
86
112
124

26
32
2
3

6
4
6
4

4

24 plants.............

1910
1911

295
281

62.6
62.5

48
48

23
26

8
12

23
7

154
150

31
30

4
4
8 .........

25 plants.............

1911
1912

293
319

62.7
62.2

48
45

26
29

12
44

7
6

162
161

30
30

8
4

24 plants__ ____

1912
1913

318
324

61.9
62.0

45
3

21
63

72
76

6
5

150
163

20
10

4
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

104
102
107
110

65.5
65.6
65.9
66.3

6
6
6
6

4
4
4
4

5
5
4
4

71
67
80
86

16
20
8
10

2

18 plants.............

1910
1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

12
12

10
11

4
10

12
5

106
106

35
33

19 plants.............

1911
1912

185
182

64.8
65.0

12
9

15
17

10
6

5
6

110
111

33
33

19 plants.............

1912
1913

181
185

64.3
63.7

12

13
26

26
26

6
7

88
110

36
16

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
82
83
89

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

8
16
16
16

8
4
4
4

52
43
58
62

16
19
3
3

2
4

19 plants.............

1910
1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

20
23

4
5

75
68

25
25

4
2

20 plants.............

1911
1912

127 64.7
130 64.3

25
27

5
6

70
70

25
25

2
2

20 plants.. . . . . . .

1912
1913

121
124

24
24

20
19

54
68

21
9

2
2

Heaters:
15 plants............

Heaters’ helpers:
14 plants.............

Chargers and helpers:
12 plants.............

Drag downs:
11 plants.............




63.8
63.1

8
10
8
8

4

2

4

5

2

2

260

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roll engineers:
13 plants..................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Average
ber full­
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
48
60
hours and and and
72
and
84
60
and
ploy- per un­
under
under under
under
60
week. der.
84
56
72

31
28
30
32

5
10
6
4

18
16
18
19

4
2
2
3

4

3
3
1

40
54
51

26
13
12

23
23
27

7
2
2

4
6

1
2

49
39

12
9

25
39

2
2

3
3
3
1

2
2
2
2

6
6
7
8

1
1
1

1
1

2
4
4
2

2
2
2
2

12
9
9
9

1
1
1

3
2
2
1

7
7
8
10

2
2
1
1

1907
1908
1909
1910

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

22 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

72.0
70.4
70.0

20 plants..................................

1912
1913

70.1
70.5
62.5
62.6
62.5
62.7

3
3
3
4
6
7
7
13

Rollers. 8-inch:
7 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
11 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912
1913

Rollers. 9-inch:
6 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

59.0
58.0
58.0
58.1

6
6
6
2

66.7
67.7
67.1
67.0

1910
1911
1912

63.2
63.5
63.1

3
3
3

1
1
1

5
4
5

12
11
11

3
3
3

10 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Rollers, 10-inch:
5 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

63.0
62.8

3

1
4

5
6

10
10

3
2

2
2
2
2

4
4
5
7

2
2
3
1

2
2
2

9
6
6

3
5
5

2
2

6
6

3
3

2

6
6
8
9

7
7
5
5

1

12
12
12

7
7
7

1
3

11
11

9
8

2
2
2

2
2
2

1

2
2

4
3

1
1
1

4
4
4

11 plants..................................

67.3
67.3
67.0
67.0

2
2
2
2

7 plants............................... .

1910
1911
1912

65.0
63.6
63.6

4
5
5

7 plants...................................

1912
1913

62.1
61.9

5
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

68.1
69.9
69.8
68.5

Rollers, 12-inch:
7 plants...................................

2
2

1

13 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

64.4
64.9
64.3

3
3
3

12 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Rollers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and 15inch:
3 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

64.7
64.4

3
1

60.6
60.6
60.6

3
3
3

1912
1913

63.1
62.7

3

1907
1908
1909
1910

63.3
63.3
63.3

4 plants..................................
Rollers, 16-inch:
4 '




2.3

2
1
2

1
1

2
4

1
1

3
2
2
2

3

2
2

2 61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

III*—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Rollers, 16-inch—Concluded.
5 plants...........................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
and
84
per un­
ees. week. der. under 60
under
56
72
84

1910
1911

11
8

6 plants............................

1911
1912

12 62.8
12 62.4

5 plants............................

1912
1913

11
11

1907
1908
1909
1910

5 plants.

7 plants.......

3
2

2
1

2
2

2
2

1
2

61.7
61.5

2
2

2
2

1
1

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

2
2
2

1

1
1
1

1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

60.8
60.3 .
59.1 ,

2
2
4

1

2
1
1

1912
1913

12
13

58.7
58.8 .

5
4

2
3

1
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
67

65.5
65.7 .
65.5 ,
65.2 .

3
5
5
6

8
7
7
6

11
8
8
7

12
12
10
7

22 plants.

1910
1911

124
116

62.4
62.0

15
15

15
16

5
8

16
10

15
18

23 plants.

1911
1912

120 62.0
124 61.7

15
15

18
21

8
7

10
13

18
18

24 plants........

1912
1913

128 61.6
130 61.5

15
3

22
35

11
10

12
17

20
17

Rollers, 18-inch:

Rollers, all sizes:
13 plants___

Roughers, 8-inch:
7 plants.........

62.6
63.9

1907
1908
1909
1910

44
44
44
41

61.2
61.2
61.0 ,
61.2 .

15
15
15
15

8
8
8
5

1910
1911
1912
1913

84
81
79
79

24
57.5
24
56.0
24
56.0
56.4 .

19
25
23
47

8
11
11
17

1907
1908
1909
1910

58 56.3
54 60.4
54 56.5
58 56.9

22
12
21
22

8
8
8
8

12 plants.

1910
1911
1912

88
83
84

58.2
57.4
57.2

28
27
27

10
17
20

11 plants.........

1912
1913

82
83

57.0
56.6

27
22

17
23

1907
1908
1909
1910

33
37
37
38

64.4
65.2
65.0
64.8

3
3
3
3

7 plants.

1910
1911
1912

51 64.8
51 63.3
51 63.3

3
3
3

8
12
12

7 plants.

1912
1913

53
53

3
3

8
8

11 plants.

Roughers, 9-inch:
7 plants...........

Roughers, 10-inch:
5 plants...........




61.7
61.5

6
6

4
4
4
10

10
9
9

6
6

9
3

8
8
8
9

14
18

6
6
6
16
16

3
3 .........

262

B U L L E T IN

OP T H E B U B E A U

O P L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roughers, 12-inch:
8 plants........... .

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Average
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em- time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
and
ploy- hours and and under 60
72
84
and
per un­ under
under
under
week. der.
72
56
84

1907
1908
1909
1910

64.5
64.1
67.7
67.5

9

6
6
6

14 plants................................... 1910
1911
1912

64.6
65.3
64.4

6
6
6

16
10
16

13 plants................................... 1912
1913
Roughers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and 15-

64.4
63.8

6

15
24

1p lan t..................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

61.5
61.2
61.4
61.8

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

63.0
63.1
63.4
62.2
63.4

6 plants..........

1911
1912

62.3
61.8

5 plants..........

1912
1913

61.0
61.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

2
2
2

5 plants..

1910
1911
1912

23 59.4
19 60.3
22 58.9

8
4
10

9
12
12

7 plants..

1912
1913

31
33

5a 9
58.6

11
13

12
12

1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

23
31
31
31

111
97
138
145

25 plants_
_

1910
1911

425
395

61.0
60.6

61
68

197
180

26 plants_
_

1911
1912

403
408

60.5
60.2

72
85

184
183

26 plants—

1912
1913

405 59.9
407 59.8

78
131

161
173

5 plants..

Roughers, 16-inch:
5 plants...........

Roughers, 18-inch:
2 plants..........

Roughers, all
15 plants.

Catchers, 8-inch:
3 plants......

6 plants.......




1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
17

1910
1911
1912
1913

26 54.3
27 54.1
25 54.1
54.3

56.6
56.6
56.6
56.4

12

8
8
8

16

263

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OP L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T a b le

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Catchers, 9-inch:
2 plants....................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver-,
age
ber full­
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
72
and
84
per un­
ees. week. der. under 60
under
under
56
72
84

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

58.0
58.0
58.0
58.0

1910
1911
1912

17
17
15

56.5
56.8
55.7

3
3
3

8
8
8

3 pUmts. trr. . , . , , ___________ 1912
1913
Catchers, 10-inch:
1 plant...................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

13
13

54.3
54.9

3

8
11

10
10
10
10

72.0
72.0
71.5
71.5

4 plants....................................

4
4
4
4

8
8
8
8
2

4
6
4
2
2
10
10
10
10

3 plants....................................

1910
1911
1912

16 66.8
16 65.9
16 65.9

4
4
4

10
10
10

2 plants....................................

1912
1913

18
18

66.4
66.4

4
4

14
14

1907
1908
1909
1910

16
17
17
18

65.6
64.1
63.9
63.7

4
* 4
4

10 plants................................... 1910
1911
1912

28
27
29

62.5
62.1
61.7

3
3
3

4
5
7

1

9 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Catchers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
3 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Catchers, 16-inch:
4 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

25
25

61.1
61.0

3

6
9

2
2

7 61.7
7 61.7
7 61.7
7 61.1

3
3
3

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65.0
64.5

3 plants. . . . . ......................... 1912
1913
Catchers, 18-Inch:
1907
2 plants....................................
1908
1909
1910

7
8

64.4
64.4

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

2
2
2

1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

58.6
59.0
58.0

4
3
5

1

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Catchers, all sizes:
11 plants.................................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14

57.5
57.3

7
8

2
2

69
70
70
73

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

16
22
22
22

13
10
10
9

1

25
24
38
42

20 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

115
111
110

60.2
59.9
59.7

30
30
32

10
13
11

6

46
45
44

Catchers, 12-inch:
5 plants....................................

5 plants...................................




2

2
2
2

10
9
13
14

3

17
16
17

2
2
2

12
14

2

4
4

2

2
1

4
4
4
2

9
9
9
12
9
9
7
8

15
15
15

1

2
2
2
2
2

3
4
4
4
4
14
14
8
i
8
8 ....... *1.........

264

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of

Catchers, all sizes—Concluded.
20 plants.............................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­ of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48 and
60
72
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
84
and
per un­
under
ees. week. der. under
under
60
56
72
84

33
51

15
13

39
44

6
2

6
6
6
6

20
20
20
18

22
22
30
30

8
8

6
6
6

8
12
14

19
25
21

42
30
32

60.6
60.7

6

8
16

27
24

26
26

41
39
39
39

56.2
56.4
56.3
56.3

18
18
18
18

1910
1911
1912

64
62
61

59.1
58.6
58.0

18
18
18

3
9
12

1912
1913

57
57

57.6
56.9

18
18

9
9

1907
1908
1909
1910

43
43
43
43

55.1
55.1
55.0
55.0

21
21
21
21

7 plants.

1910
1911
1912

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

21
21
21

4
8
8

7 plants.

1912
1913

55
55

55.2
55.1

21
21

4
4

59.4
59.4

1912
1913

108
110

1907
1908
1909
1910

56
56
56
54

11 plants.

1910
1911
1912

75
73
73

61.6
60.4
60.4

11 plants.

1912
1913

67
66

1907
1908
1909
1910

10 plants.

9 plants.

15

62.6 ,
62.8
62.7
62.8

Stranders, 8-inch:
7 plants......... .

Stranders, 9-inch:
6 plants..........

Stranders, 10-inch:
5 plants...........

Stranders, 12-inch:
3 plants...........

9 plants.

. 1907
1908
1909
1910
1910
1911
1912
1913

Stranders, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
1 plant................................... .. 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
Stranders, 16-inch:
1907
1 plant..............
1908
1909
1910
1911

23
19
19
19
25
27
23

8
8
8

6
6

16
22

8
2

4
4
4
4

8
8
18
18

10
10

26
22
22

6
6
6

10

12
12

18
18
5
4
4
6

13 69.0
14 70.4
14 70.4
16 69.1
48
40
43
49

64.4
65.3
64.7
62.4

20
20
20
26
20
22
11

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

2
2
2
2
2

65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0

3
3
3

10
7
6
15

1
6
6

2

8
10
10
10

13
9
8
18

20
20
20
10

20
20
20
26
20
22
11
2
2
2
2
2

2 plants.

, 1911
1912

10
10

57.0
57.0

8
8

1 plant..

1912
1913

8
8

55.0
55.0

8
8




2
2
2

2
2

265

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Stranders, all sizes:

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time
48 Over 56
48 and
60
72
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
84
and
per un­ under
imder
under
ees. week. der.
60
56
84
72

1907
1908
1909
1910

175
174
174
180

59.5
59.7
59.7
59.7

39
39
39
39

6
6
6
6

24
24
24
22

20
20
20
26

60
55
73
75

26
30
12
12

21 plants............... ...............

1910
1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

48
48

25
36

19
26

38
20

108
90

34
34

22 plants . . . . . . .

1911
1912

262
266

59.8
59.6

48
48

44
48

26
27

20
22

90
87

34
34

1912
1913

252
246

59.2
58.7

48
39

35
52

51
48

22
11

68
84

28
12

1
2
2
2

3
2
2
1

2
1
1

5
6
9
10

3
3

________

20 plants...... .
Finishers, 8-inch:

1907
1908
1909
1910

14 64.5
14 64.8
14 64.7
13 65.1

...................... 1910
1911
1912

24
25
25

60.6
59.6
59.6

6
6
6

2
3
4

2
5
3

1
1

14
10
11

1912
10 plants..............................
1913
Finishers, 9-inch:
5 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

31
31

59.3
59.4

6

2
10

13
11

1
1

9
9

15
14
14
14

66.8
67.9
67.8
67.8

2
1
1

11
11
12
13

2
2
1
1

9 plants.................. .................. 1910
1911
1912
1913
Finishers, 10-inch:
4 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

24
23
24
24

64.3
63.8
63.4
63.2

2.
1
1
1

15
13
13
14

3
3
3
1

10
10
10
10

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

2
2
7
s

6
6
1

1910
1911
1912

12
12
12

69.3
68.4
68.4

10
8
8

2
3
3

5 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Finishers, 12-inch:
4 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12

66.3
66.0

7
7

1
1

12
11
11
12

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

5
5
7
9

6
6
4
2

12
8

4
6

8
7
9

6
6
4

4

8
8
8
4

9 plants. . . . .

5 plants...... .............................

8 plants.................................... 1910
1911
10 plants................................... 1911
1912
1913
Finishers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
1 plant...................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
4 plants ................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913




3
3
3

1
3
4
6

1
1
4
4
1
1

20 65.8
19 65.2

3
3

22
24
24

63.7
63.0
62.8

3
3

4
4
4
4

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

15 64.0
15 64.0
15 64.0
13 63.4

2
2
2
2
2

1

1

4
5
8

1
2
2

1

1
1
4
4
4
4

3
3
3

3

4
4
4
2

266

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . — AVEBAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOUBS PEB WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEABS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
ber age
of
full­
Over
Oyer
48 Over 56
Year. em­ time
60
48
72
ploy­ hours and and and
72
60
84
and
and
ees. per un­ under under
under
under
der.
week.
60
56
84
72

Finishers, 16-inch:
2 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

8
8
8
9

3 plants.................................... 1910
1911

11
11

62.5
63.5

4 plants.................................... 1911
1912
1913
Finishers, 18-Inch:
1 plant..................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

19
20
18

61.1
61.1
61.1

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

3 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912

5
5
6

61.9
60.7
58.9

5 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Finishers, all sizes:
10 plants.................................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

11
12

58.6
58.7

65
63
63
64

65.9
66.4
66.2
66.1

17 plants.................................

1910
1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

19 plants.................................

1911
1912

121 62.8
126 62.5

21 plants.................................

1912
1913

137
134

62.0
61.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

1910
1911
1912
1913

69 62.8
53 63.4
56 62.5
58 61.5

1 plant....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

8 60.0
14 60.0
8 60.0
12 60.0

5 plants..

1910
1911
1912
1913

50 64.2
45 64.2
51 63.8
43 63.8

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

26
23
27
35
25

6 plants..

1911
1912

35 62.4
36 61.5

5 plants..

1912
1913

32
34

Hook ups, 12-inch:
6 plants...................................

13 plants.................................

62.8 ,
62.8 .
62.8
62.2

Hook ups, 13-inch, 14-inch, and

Hook ups, 16-inch:
5 plants.............




63.9
64.4
64.7
64.1
64.4

61.1
61.5

15

267

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Hook ups, 18-inch:
2 plants...........

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
60
48 and
and
84
and
72
ploy­ hours and and under 60
per un­
ees. week. der. under 60
under
under
84
72
56

/BE

1

1907
1908
1909
1910

9 62.2
10 61.0
10 61.0
9 60.8

5 plants...........

1910
1911
1912

20
21
24

60.4
60.5
59.2

4
4
10

3

7 plants...........

1912
1913

38
40

59.0
58.8

12
14

12
12

1907
1908
1909
1910

92 63.9
84 65.3
82 65.7
93 65.6

2
2
2

3
2
2
2

8
14
8
12

48
35
47
59

24
28
20
18

Hook ups, all sizes:
12 plants..........

8
8
8
7

2
2
2

9
3
3

6

10
14
14
14
14

20 plants.....................

1910
1911

174
144

63.2
63.4

27
21

8
8

2
7

20
9

74
63

43
36

21 plants.....................

1911
1912

154 63.0
167 62.2

21
21

14
25

7
4

9
14

67
68

36
35

22 plants.....................

1912
1913

177
175

61.9
61.4

21
3

27
51

16
16

14
7

64
75

35
23

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
20
20
20

65.1
65.3
65.1
65.1

2
2
2
1

2
2
2
4

1
1
1
1

11
11
15
14

4
4

1910
1911
1912
1913

33
33
33
36

60.6
60.0
60.0
59.6

6
6
6

3
3
4
16

7
9
7
4

1
1
1
1

16
14
15
15

1907
1908
1909
1910

18 59.7
18 60.4
18 60.3
18 60.3

6
6
6
6

1910
1911
1912
1913

35
35
36
36

56.5
56.1
56.3
57.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
29
29
29

70.4
70.4
70.0
70.0

7 plants.......................

1910
1911
1912

39 67.8
39 66.8
39 66.8

4
6
6

6 plants.......................

1912
1913

33
33

66.0
66.0

5
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

24
21
21
22

70.1
70.4
70.3
69.9

1910
1911
1912

33 67.0
32 67.7
33 67.5

3
3
3

1912
1913

28 67.5
28 67.4

3

Roll hands, other, 8-inch:
5 plants.......................

9 plants.......................

Roll hands, other, 9-inch:
3 plants.......................

6 plants........... ...........

Roll hands, other, 10-inch:
4 plants.......................

Roll hands, other, 12-inch:
4 plants......................

7 plants..




12
12
12
12
2
2
13

2

15
15
16
15

2
2
2
1

18
18
18
6

5
5
27
28

22
22

1
2
2

32
29
29

2
2
2

2
2

24
24

2

2
2

6
5
7
8

18
16
14
14

2
1
1

11
10
11

17
18
18

3

9
11

16
14

268

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roll hands, other, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
3 plants..................................

Employees whose full-time houi
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Year. em­ time
48 Over 56
48 and
60
and
72
ploy­ hours and and under 60
per un­
under
ees. week. der. under 60
56
72

1910
1911
1912
1913

29 62.1
28 61.7
25 63.4
19 60.0

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
3 64.5

1
1
1
1
1
1

3
3
3
3
3
2

1912
1913

6
6

64.5
64.5

1
1

5
5

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

4 plants..

1910
1911
1912

7 59.9
6 60.8
7 59.2

2
1
3

1

5 plants................

1912
1913

9 59.3
10 58.9

3
4

2
2

1907
1908
1909
1910

97
94
94
95

Over
72
and
under
84

Roll hands, other, 16-inch:
2 plants..........................

1 plant.
Roll hands, other, 18-inch:
1 plant.........................

Roll hands, other, all s
9 plants................

12
12
9
9

6

2
2
2
2
2

3
4
4
4
4

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

6
6
6
6

2
2
2
1

2
2
2
4

4
4
4
3

39
38
66
67

. 1910
1911
1912

180 62.8
177 62.5
176 62.7

39
39
36

11
13
16

7
10
7

7
4
4

80
75
77

36
36

1912
1913

170 62.2
168 61.8

36
6

14
50

11
10

4
4

73
80

32
18

. 1907
1908
1909
1910

302 63.3
299 63.2
286 63.3
302 63.3

12
12
12
15

8
12
12
12

54
52
52
45

42
57
42
47

130
104
154
163

56
62
14
20

25 plants..

. 1910
1911

500 62.9
434 62.0

57
54

32
39

48
63

71
29

216
207

59
42

26 plants..

. 1911
1912

450 61.9
461 61.7

54
54

45
61

63
60

29
25

217
209

42
52

26 plants..

1912
1913

455
467

61.5
60.9

54
12

82
75

25
13

194
233

46
24

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
92
93
97

64.8
65.1
65.3
65.0

54
110
6
6
6
6

8
8
8
7

15
17
17
18

48
42
55
60

17
19
3
6

18 plants...

18 plants..
Hotbed men:
15 plants..

Shearmen:
15 plants..

25 plants..

. 1910
1911
1912

156 63.3
151 62.5
154 62.4

15
15
15

18
16
18

7
18
19

22
18
19

72
68
63

16
16
18

24 plants...........

. 1912
1913

156 62.4
159 62.0

15

19
40

19
17

16
13

67
83

18
4

1907
1908
1909
1910

201 65.9
172 66.2
185 67.3
215 65.3

8
8
8
8

4
4
4
3

21
22
26
39

125
101
110
140

41
29
8
25

Shearmen’s helpers:
15 plants............




17

84

2 69

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R -----B A R M I L L S .

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Shearmen's helpers—Concluded.
23 plants, T *r. T ____
,.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
and
84
per un­ under
ees. week. der.
under
under
60
56
72
84

1910
1911
1912

355 64.7
359 63.8
358 63.9

45
48
48

8
8
12

3
20
20

43
37
35

158
181
166

77
65
65

21

_ 1912
1913

337 63.4
316 62.8

51

14
69

20
17

34
22

158
194

48
4

12
10

1907
1908
1909
1910

41 66.9
41 66.9
41 66.8
41 67.1

31
31
41
41

10
10

1910
1911

77 66.1
81 63.5

36

77
45

7 plants.,. r________________

1911
1912

131 62.0
132 62.0

86
86

45
46

7 plants.. . T________________

1912
1913

129 61.6
136 61.4

90
97

1
1

38
38

1907
1908
1909
1910

296
227
324
424

1
2
2
9

51
94
76
119

140
108
137
113

74
24
18
88 *‘ *i3*
176

22 plants________________
Bundlers:
5 plants_____________________

plants. T ___ _____ ___________
,

Laborers:
10 plants...........

68.3
64.8
67.8
67.2

12

6
5
8
7

15 plants................................... 1910
1911

511 67.8
355 66.0

31

9
3

149
70

128
175

183
70

24
4

118
2

17 plants................................... 1911
1912

390 65.5
424 65.9

31
18

3
41

104
69

175
204

71
84

4
5

2
3

35
43

87
115

79
164

229
310

98
25

5
44

3
4

8.6
8.9
9.1
8.0

69.9
65.6
78.4
79.3

8.6
14.4
3.4
3.4

4.3

21 plants............. ................... 1912 * 536
1913
705

65.0
64.3
PER CENT.

Stockers:
8 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

93
90
88
87

64.4
64.1
64.2
64.3

1910
1911

170
164

59.0
59.6

15.9
16.5

24.7
17.1

7.9

4.1
12.2

50.6
42.7

15 plants................................. 1911
1912

211
217

60.9
60.9

12.8
12.4

13.3
14.7

6.2
1.8

20.9
27.2

34.1
30.9

12.8
12.9

1912
1913

215 60.9
226 60.6

12.6

15.8
30.5

3.7
1.8

20.9
19.5

34.0
45.1

13.0
3.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

121
112
112
142

63.9
63.9
64.0
64.2

2.5
2.7
2.7
2.1

5.0
12.5
12.5
11.3

8.3
5.4
5.4
2.8

2.5
1.8
1.8

70.2
60.7
69.6
72.5

9.9
15.2
.
4.5 " i ’ 8
2.8
7.0

1.7
1.8
1.8
1.4

25 plants.................................. 1910
1911

217 62.9
180 62.6

8.3
10.0

11.5
14.4

1.8
3.3

7.4
1.1

58.1
59.4

10.1
9.4

1.8
1.1

.9
1.1

26 plants.................................. 1911
1912

184 62.7
199 62.4

9.8
9.0

14.1
6.0

3.3
15.6

1.1
1.0

60.3
57.3

9.2
9.0

1.1
1.0

1.1
1.0

1912
1913

196 61.8
211 61.7

9.2
1.4

14.3
21.3

15.3
16.1

1.0
1.4

50.0
53.1

8.2
4.3

1.0
1.4

1.0
.9

13 plants..................................

17 plants..................................
Heaters:
15 plants..................................

26 plants..................................

8.6'
11.1
9.1
9.2

4.7
3.7 ..........

1Including 4 employees whose full-time hours per week were 84f and 2 employees whose full-time hours
per week were 9l»




270

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I I . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

Table

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Heaters’ helpers:
14 plants.............

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Year. em­ time
48 Over 56
60
48
72
and
and
72
84
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
per un­
under
ees. week. der. under 60
under
56
72
84

1.0
2.0
2.0
1.8

4.8
10.5
10.6
9.6

7.2
5.2
5.3
4.8

2.4
2.6
2.6
2.4

64.7
56.2
74.2
74.7

15.6
20.9
1.3
1.8

3.6
2.6 .........
4.0
2.4
2.4

62.6
62.5

16.3
17.1

7.8
9.3

2.7
4.3

7.8
2.5

52.2
53.4

10.5
10.7

1.4
1.4
2.8 .........

293
319

62.7
62.2

16.4
14.1

8.9
9.1

4.1
13.8

2.4
1.9

55.3
50.5

10.2
9.4

2.7
1.3 .........

1912
1913

318
324

61.9
62.0

14.2
.9

6.6
19.4

22.6
23.5

1.9
1.5

47.2
50.3

6.3
3.1

1.3
.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

104
102
107
110

65.5
65.6
65.9
66.3

5.8
5.9
5.6
5.5

3.8
3.9
3.7
3.6

4.8
4.9
3.7
3.6

68.3
65.7
74.8
78.2

15.4
19.6
7.5
9.1

1.9

18 plants.............

1910
1911

179
177

65.3
65.1

6.7
6.8

5.6
6.2

2.2
5.6

6.7
2.8

59.2
59.9

19.6
18.6 ......... .........

19 plants.............

1911
1912

185
182

64.8
65.0

6.5
4.9

8.1
9.3

5.4
3.3

2.7
3.3

59.5
61.0

17.8
18.1

19 plants.............

1912
1913

181
185

64.3
63.7

6.6

7.2
14.1

14.4
14.1

3.3
3.8

48.6
59.5

19.9
8.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

86
82
83
89

64.4
63.9
64.0
64.0

9.3
19.5
19.3
18.0

9.3
4.9
4.8
4.5

60.5
52.4
69.9
69.7

18.6
23.2
3.6
3.4

2.3

19 plants.............

1910
1911

132
123

65.1
64.9

15.2
18.7

3.0
4.1

56.8
55.3

18.9
20.3

3.0
1.6

20 plants.............

1911
1912

127
130

64.7
64.3

19.7
20.8

3.9
4.6

55.1
53.8

19.7
19.2

1.6
1.5

20 plants.............

1912
1913

121 63.8
19.8
124 63.1 ......... 19.4

16.5
15.3

44.6
54.8

17.4
7.3

1.7
1.6 .........

53.4
50.0
53.6
55.2

8.6
17.9
10.7
6.9

31.0
28.6
32.1
32.8

6.9
3.6
3.6
5.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

167 65.3
153 65.1
151 65.0
186 65.2

24 plants.............

1910
1911

295
281

25 plants.............

1911
1912

24 plants.............
Chargers and helpers:
12 plants.............

Drag downs:
11 plants.............

Roll engineers:
13 plants.............

22 plants.............

20 p lan ts...........
Rollers, 8-inch:
7 plants...............

11 plants.............

Rollers, 9-inch:
6 plants.............




3.0

1.6

.6

4.7 .........

2.4
4.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

58
56
56
58

72.3
71.4
71.5
71.7

1910
1911
1912

99
95
97

72.0
70.4
70.0

4.1 .........

3.0
3.2
1.0

40.4
56.8
52.6

26.3
13.7
12.4

23.2
24.2
27.8

7.1
2.1
2.1

1912
1913

93
97

70.1
70.5 .........

4.3
6.2 . . . . . .

1.1
2.1

52.7
40.2

12.9
9.3

26.9
40.2

2.2
2.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

16 62.5
16 62.6
16 62.5
15 62.7

18.8
18.8
18.8
6.7

12.5
12.5
12.5
13.3

37.5
37.5
43.8
53.3

6.3
6.3
6.3

6.3
6.3

1910
1911
1912
1913

28
29
29
29

21.4
7.1
24.1 13.8
24.1 13.8
44. & 6.9

7.1
6.9
6.9
6.9

42.9
31.0
31.0
31.0

.........
3.4
3.4
3.4 .........

1907
1908
1909
1910

12 66.7
11 67.7
11 67.1
12 67.0

25.0
18.2
18.2
8.3

58.3
63.6
72.7
83.3

59.0
58.0
58.0
58.1

18.8
18.8
18.8
26.7
21.4
20.7
20.7
6.9

16.7
18.2
9.1
8.3

271

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

I I I . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Rollers, 9-inch—Concluded.
11 plants..................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year em­ time
48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and .under 60
and
and
84
72
per un­
ees. week. der. under 60
under
under
72
56
84

1910
1911
1912

24
22
23

63.2
63.5
63.1

12.5
13.6
13.0

4.2
4.5
4.3

20.8
18.2
21.7

50.0
50.0
47.8

12.5
13.6
13.0

1912
1913

22
22

63.0
62.8

13.6

4.5
18.2

22.7
27.3

45.5
45.5

13.6
9.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

12
12
12
12

67.3
67.3
67.0
67.0

16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7

33.3
33.3
41.7
58.3

16.7
16.7
25.0
8.3

1910
1911
1912

18
18
18

65.0
63.6
63.6

22.2
27.8
27.8

11.1
11.1
11.1

50.0
33.3
33.3

16.7
27.8
27.8

1912
7 plants........................
1913
Rollers. 12-inch:
7 plants. . . . . . . r___ T t - r- ........ 1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18

62.1
61.9

27.8
27.8

11.1
11.1

33.3
33.3

16.7
16.7

13.3

40.0
46.2
61.5
60.0

46.7
53.8
38.5
33.3

3.8

44.4
50.0
46.2

25.9
29.2
26.9 ......... .........

3.7
10.7

40.7
39.3

33.3
28.6

28.6
28.6
28.6

28.6
28.6
28.6

11.1

22.2
22.2

44.4
33.3

10 plants..................................
Rollers. 10-inch:
5 plants....................................

7 plants.. ... T _____T
,
____

16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7

11.1
11.1

15 68.1
13 69.9
13 69.8
15 68.5

6.7

13 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

27
24
26

64.4
64.9
64.3

11.1
12.5
11.5

7.4
4.2
7.7

4.2
3.8

12 plants............................... — 1912
1913

27
28

64.7
64.4

11.1
3.6

7.4
14.3

3.7
3.6

1910
1911
1912

7
7
7

60.6
60.6
60.6

42.9
42.9
42.9

4 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Rollers, 16-inch:
4 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

9
9

63.1
62.7

33.3

7
7
7
9

63.3
63.3
63.3
62.3

28.6
28.6
28.6
33.3

14.3
14.3
14.3
11.1

57.1
57.1
57.1
55.6

5 plants....................................

1910
1911

11
8

62.6
63.9

27.3
25.0

18.2
12.5

54.5
62.5

6 plants....................................

1911
1912

12
12

62.8
62.4

16.7
16.7

16.7
16.7

8.3
16.7

58.3
50.0

5 plants.................................... 1912
1913

11
11

61.7
61.5

18.2
18.2

18.2
18.2

9.1
9.1

54.5
54.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

3
4
4
4

61.0
58.3
58.3
58.3

50.0
50.0
50.0

33.3

33.3
25.0
25.0

33.3
25.025.0
50.0

5 plants....................................

1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

60.8
60.3
59.1

22.2
25.0
44.4

12.5

22.2
12.5
11.1

55.6
50.0
44.4

7 plants....................................

1912
1913

12
13

58.7
58.8

41.7
30.8

16.7
23.1

8.3
15.4

33.3
30.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

65 65.5
63 65.7
63 65.5
67 65.2

4.6
7.9
7.9
9.0

12.3
11.1
11.1
9.0

16.9
12.7
12.7
10.4

43.1
44.4
52.4
61.2

16.7
16.7

Rollers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and 16inch:
3 plants....................................

Rollers, 18-inch:
2 plants....................................

Rollers, all sizes:
13 plants..................................




33.3

11.1

18.5
19.0
15.9
10.4

4.6
4.8

272

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U B E A U

O F L A B O E S T A T IS T IC S .

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able I I I . —

PEE CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Rollers, all sizes—Concluded.
22 plants..................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
60
48
72
and
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
84
per un­
under
ees. week. der. under 60
under
56
72
84

1910
1911

124
116

62.4
62.0

12.1
12.9

12.1
13.8

4.0
6.9

12.9
8.6

46.8
42.2

12.1
15.5

23 plants..................................

1911
1912

120
124

62.0
61.7

12.5
12.1

15.0
16.9

6.7
5.6

8.3
10.5

42.5
40.3

15.0
14.5

24 plants..................................

1912
1913

128 61.6
130 61.5

11.7
2.3

17.2
26.9

8.6
7.7

9.4
13.1

37.5
36.9

15.6
13.1

34.1
34.1
34.1
36.6

18.2
18.2
18.2
12.2

34.1
34.1
47.7
51.2

13.6
13.6

9.5
13.6
13.9
21.5

39.3
25.9
26.6
19.0

Roughers, 8-inch:
7 plants....................................

1907
1908
1909
1910

44
44
44
41

61.2
61.2
61.0
61.2

1910
1911
1912
1913

84
81
79
79

57.5
56.0
56.0
56.4

28.6
29.6
30.4

22.6
30.9
29.1
59.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

68
54
54
58

56.3
60.4
56.5
56.9

37.9
22.2
38.9
37.9

13.8
14.8
14.8
13,8

12 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

88
83
84

58.2
57.4
57.2

31.8
32.5
32.1

11.4
20.5
23.8

11 plants..................................

1912
1913

82 57.0
S3 56.6

32.9
26.5

20.7
27.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

33
37
37
38

64.4
65.2
65.0
64.8

9.1
8.1
8.1
7.9

7 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912

51
51
51

64.8
63.3
63.3

5.9
5.9
5.9

15.7
23.5
23.5

7 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Roughers, 12-inch:
8 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

53
53

61.7
61.5

5.7
5.7

15.1
15.1

62 64.5
55 64.1
54 67.7
58 67.5

14.5
16.4

11 plants..................................

Roughers, 9-inch:
7 plants....................................

Roughers, 10-inch:
5 plants....................................

7.4
7.4
6.9

34.1
36.1
33.3

11.4
10.8
10.7

7.3
7.2

28.0
34.9

11.0
3.6

24.2
21.6
21.6
23.7

10.9
11.1
10.3

48.3
55.6
38.9
4i.4

24.2
21.6
70.3
68.4

42.4
48.6

66.7
58.8
58.8

11.8
11.8
11.8

11.4

30.2
30.2

49.1
49.1

4.8

41.9
25.5
70.4
69.0

38.7
47.3
18.5
20.7

50.6
55.6
55.3

20.2
21.0
18.8

51.9
57.1

19.8
11.9

37.5
34.8
36.2
51.2

12.5
13.0
12.8
4.9

14 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

89
81
85

64.6
65.3
64.4

6.7
7.4
7.1

18.0
12.3
18.8

3.7

13 plants..................................

1912
1913

81
84

64.4
63.8

7.4

18.5
28.6

2.5
2.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

12 60.0
12 60.0
12 60.0
12 60.0

Roughers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
1 plant.....................................

5 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913




48
46
47
41

61.5
61.2
61.4
61. a

4.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
25.0
26.1
25.5
29.3

25.0
26.1
25.5
14.6

273

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roughers, 16-inch:
5 plants...........

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averag<
:e
ber full
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
60
72
48
and
and
72
and
84
ploy- hours and and under 60
per un­ under
under
under
week. der.
72
84
56

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

63.0
63.1
63.4
62.2
63.4

6 plants.

1911
1912

62.3
61.8

5 plants.

1912
1913

Roughers, 18-inch:
2 plants...........

1907
1908
1909
1910

77.8
75.0
76.5
66.7
76.5

9.5
10.0

19.0
20.0

71.4
70.0

61.0
61.4

12.5
11.8

25.0
23.5

62.5
64.7

62.0
60.5
60.5
60.5

34

22.2
25.0
23.5
33.3
23.5

14.3
25.0
25.0
25.0

85.7
75.0
75.0
75.0

5 plants.

1910
1911
1912

23
19
22

59.4
60.3
58.9

34.8
21.1
45.5

15.8

39.1
63.2
54.5

7 plants.

1912
1913

31
33

58.9
58.6

35.5
39.4

25.8
24.2

38.7
36.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

252
242
243
257

61.5
62.5
62.4
62.3

13.5

11.1
9.9

9.7

9.1
12.8
12.8
12.1

25 plants.

1910
1911

425
395

61.0

17.2
18.2

14.4
17.2

26 plants.

1911
1912

403
408

60.5
60.2

17.9
17.6

26 plants.

1912
1913

405
407

59.9
59.8

17.8
6.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

18
18
18
17

56.6
56.6
56.6
56.4

1910
1911
1912
1913

26
27
25
25

54.3
54.1
54.1
54.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

12 58.0
12 58.0
12 58.0
12 58.0

4 plants.

1910
1911
1912

17
17
15

56.5
56.8
55.7

17.6
17.6
20.0

47.1
47.1
53.3

3 plants..

1912
1913

13
13

54.3
54.9

23.1

61.5
84.6

1907
1908
1909
1910

10
10
10
10

72.0
72.0
71.5
71.5

3 plants.

1910
1911
1912

16
16
16

65.9
65.9

2 plants........

1912
1913

18
18

Roughers, all sizes:
15 plants...........

Catchers, 8-inch:
3 plants.........

6 plants.

Catchers, 9-inch:
2 plants........

Catchers, 10-inch:
1 plant...........

83021° -Bull. 168—15------18



26.1

44.0
40.1
56.8
56.4

17.5
22.3
5.8
6.2

5.2

7.5
3.0

46.4
45.6

9.4
9.6

17.9
20.8

6.2
4.7

3.0
2.9

45.7
44.9

9.4
9.1

19.3
32.2

12.6
14.0

3.0
1.5

44.4
44.4
44.4
47.1
23.1
22.2
24.0

4.8
5.0
4.9
4.7

55.6
55.6
55.6
52.9

38.5
37.0
32.0
64.0

38.5
40.7
44.0

10.9

7.7
3.7

33.3
33.3
33.3
33.3

66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7
11.8

23.5
35.3
26.7
15.4
15.4

100.0
100.0
25.0
25.0
25.0

62.5
62.5
62.5

22.2
22.2

77.8

77.8

100.0
100.0

12.5
12.5
12.5

274

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

T a b l e I I I . — AVERAGE

AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.
PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Catchers^ 12-inch:

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ age
ber full­
Over
of
Over
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
and
and
84
ploy­ hours and and under 60
72
per un­ under
ees. week. der.
under
under
60
56
72
84

1907
1908
1909
1910

16
17
17
18

65.6
64.1
63.9
63.7

1910
1911
1912

28
27
29

62.5
62.1
61.7

10.7
11.1
10.3

14.3
18.5
24.1

1912
1913
Catchers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
3 plant's.................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Catchers, 16-inch:
4 plants................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

25
25

61.1
61.0

12.0

24.0
36.0

7
7
7
7

61.7
61.7
61.7
61.1

42*9
42.9
42.9

10
9
9
12
9
9

64.5
65.0
65.0
64.6
65.0
64.5

3 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Catchers, 18-inch:
2 plants................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

12.5

62.5
52.9
76.5
77.8

25.0
23.5

3.7

60.7
59.3
58.6

7.1
7.4
6.9

8.0
8.0

48.0
56.0

8.0

23.5
23.5
22.2
7.1

42.9

28.6
10.0

7 64.4
8 64.4

57.1
57.1
57.1
28.6

90.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

33.3

3 61.0
4 58.3
4 58.3
4 58.3

50.0
50.0
50.0

5 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912

9
8
9

58.6
59.0
58.0

44.4
37.5
55.6

12.5

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Catchers, all sizes:
11 plants.................................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

13
14

57.5
57.3

53.8
57.1

15.4
14.3

69
70
70
73

62.5
62.0
61.9
62.0

23.2
31.4
31.4
30.1

18.8
14.3
14.3
12.3

1.4

36.2
34.3
54.3
57.5

20.3
20.0

5.2

40.0
40.5
40.0

7.0
7.2
7.3

66.7
50.0
50.0
50.0
22.2

33.3
50.0
44.4

......... .........

30.8
28.6

115 60.2
111 59.9
110 59.7

13.0
13.5
13.6

26.1
27.0
29.1

8.7
11.7
10.0

20 plants.................................. 1912
1913
Stranders, 8-inch:
7 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

108
110

59.4
59.4

13.9

30.6
46.4

13.9
11.8

36.1
40.0

5.6
1.8

56
56
56
54

62.6
62.8
62.7
62.8

10.7
10.7
10.7
11.1

35.7
35.7
35.7
33.3

39.3
39.3
53.6
55.6

14.3
14.3

11 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

75
73
73

61.6
60.4
60.4

8.0
8.2
8.2

10.7
16.4
19.2

25.3
34.2
28.8

56.0
41.1
43.8

11 plants__ *............................ 1912
1913

67
66

60.6
60.7

9.0

11.9
24.2

41
39
39
39

56.2
56.4
56.3
56.3

43.9
46.2
46.2
46.2

40.3
38.8
36.4 ......... 39.4 ......... ......... .........
56.1
48.7
5.1
48.7
5.1
48.7
5.1

20 plants.................................. 1910
1911
1912

Stranders, 9-inch:
6 plants...................................




1907
1908
1909
1910

......... .........

275

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — B A R M I L L S .

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able I I I . —

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Stranders, 9-inch—Concluded.
10 plants.............................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
48
60
hours
and
72
and
and
84
ploy­ per and and under 60
un­
under
under
ees. week. der. under 60
84
56
72

. 1910
1911
1912

64 59.
62 58.6
61 58.0

28.1
29.0
29.5

. 1912
1913

57
57

57.6
56.9

31.6
31.6

15.8
15.8

1907
1908
1909
1910

43
43
43
43

55.1
55.1
55.0
55.0

7 plants.

1910
1911
1912

57
57
57

57.7
56.7
56.7

7 plants.

1912
1913

55
55

55.2
55.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

13 69.0
14 70.4
14 70.4
16 69.1

1910
1911
1912
1913

48 64.4
40 65.3
43 64.7
49 62.4

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913

20 60.0
20 60.0
20 60.0
26 60.0
20 60.0
22 60.0
11 60.0

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

15.6

4.7
14.5
19.7

2 65.0
2 65.0
2 65.0
2 65.0
2 65.0

9 plants.
Stranders, 10-inch:
5 plants.............

Stranders, 12-inch:
3 plants...........

9 plants.

Stranders, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
1 plant..........................

Stranders, 16-inch:
1 plant..............

39.1
43.5
37.7

12.5
12.9
13.1

28.1
38.6

14.0
3.5

48.8
48.8
48.8 .........
48.8

9.3
18.6
9.3
18.6
9.3
41.9
9.3 ......... 41.9

23.3
23.3

36.8
36.8
36.8

7.0
14.0
14.0

45.6
38.6
38.6

10.5
10.5
10.5

38.2
38.2

7.3
7.3

10.5
10.5

......... .........

21.8
32.7
21.8 ......... 32.7 .........
38.5
28.6
28.6
37.5

6.3
7.5
7.0

20.8
17.5
14.0
30.6

2.5
14.0
12.2

4.2

27.1
22.5
18.6
36.7

.........

61.5
71.4
71.4
62.5
41.7
50.0
46.5
20.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2 plants.

1911
1912

10
10

57.0
57.0

80.0
80.0

1 plant.

1912
1913

8
8

55.0
55.0

100.0
100.0

Stranders, all sizes:
13 plants......... .

20.0
20.0

20 plants........
Finishers, 8-inch:
6 plants.........




175 59.5
174 59.7
174 59.7
180 59.7

22.3
22.4
22.4
21.7

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.3

13.7
13.8
13.8
12.2

11.4
11.5
11.5
14.4

34.3
31.6
42.0
41.7

14.9
17.2
6.9
6.7 . . . . . . .........

1910
1911

272
254

60.6
59.9

17.6
18.9

9.2
14.2

7.0
10.2

14.0
7.9

39.7
35.4

12.5
13.4

1911
1912

21 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

262 59.8
266 59.6

18.3
18.0

16.8
18.0

9.9
10.2

7.6
8.3

34.4
32.7

13.0
12.8

1912
1913

252
246

19.0
15.9

13.9
21.1

20.2
19.5

8.7
4.5

27.0
34.1

11.1
4.9

7.1
14.3
14.3
15.4

21.4
14.3
14.3
7.7

14.3
7.1
7.1

35.7
42.9
64.3
76.9

21.4
21.4

1907
1908
1909
1910

59.2
58.7

14 64.5
14 64.8
14 64.7
13 65.1

.........

276

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Finishers, 8-inch—Concluded.
9 plants*................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
and
72
84
and
per un­ under
ees. week. der.
under
under
60
56
72
84

1910
1911
1912

60.6
59.6

25.0
24.0
24.0

8.3
12.0
16.0

8.3
20.0
12.0

4.0
4.0

58.3
40.0
44.0

1912
1913

59.3
59.4

19.4

6.5
32.3

41.9
35.5

3.2
3.2

29.0
29.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

67.9
67.8
67.8

13.3
7.1
7.1

73.3
78.6
85.7
92.9

13.3
14.3
7.1
7.1

1910
1911
1912
1913

64.3
63.8
63.4
63.2

8.3
4.3
4.2
4.2

62.5
56.5
54.2
58.3

12.5
13.0
12.5
4.2

1907
1908
1909
1910

68.0
68.0
67.7
67.7

20.0
20.0
70.0
80.0

60.0
60.0
10.0

5 plants..................................

1910
1911
1912

68.4
68.4

83.3
66.7
66.7

16.7
25.0
25.0

5 plants..................................

1912
1913

66.3
66.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

69.3
70.5
70.4
69.5

8 plants................... ......... .

1910
1911

65.8
65.2

15.0
15.8

5.3

5.3

10 plants.................................

1911
1912
1913

63.7
63.0
62.8

13.6
12.5

18.2
20.8
33.3

4.5
8.3
8.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

64.0
64.0
64.0
63.4

19G7
1908
1909
1910

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.2

25.0
25.0
25.0
33.3

3 plants..................................

1910
1911

62.5
63.5

27.3
18.2

4 plants..................................

1911
1912
1913

61.1
61.1
61.1

1907
1908
1909
1910

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

1910
1911
1912

61.9
60.7
58.9

10 plants.................................
Finishers, 9-inch:
5 plants..................................

9 plants..................................

Finishers, 10-inch:
4 plants..................................

Finishers, 12-inch:
4 plants..................................

Finishers, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
1 plant....................................

4 plants..................................

Finishers, 16-inch:
2 plants..................................

Finishers, 18-inch:
1 plant....................................

3 plants..................- ..............




12.5
13.0
12.5

4.2
13.0
16.7
25.0

8.3
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

8.3
8.3
33.3
33.3

58.3
58.3

8.3 .........
8.3

41.7
45.5
63.6
75.0

50.0
54.5
36.4
16.7

5.0

60.0
42.1

20.0
31.6

4.2
4.2

36.4
29.2
37.5

27.3
25.0
16.7

30.8

53.3.
53.3
53.3
30.8

8.3
8.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
26.7
26.7
26.7
15.4

20.0
20.0
20.0
23.1

21.1
20.0
22.2

75.0
75.0
75.0
66.7
9.1

10.5
10.0
11.1

63.6
81.8
68.4
70.0
66.7

50.0

33.3

20.0

100.0
50.0
100.0
100.0

40.0
40.0
33.3

60.0
40.0
33.3

277

W AG ES A N D H O U R S OF LABO R— B AR M IL L S .

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Contd.

T a b le

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
fSS.
Over
Over 56
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48
72
48
60
hours and and and
72
60
and
and
84
ploy­ per un­
under
under
under
ees. week. der. under 60
84
56
72

Finishers, 18-inch—Concluded.
5 plants................................... 1912
1913

11
12

58.6
58.7

27.3
25.0

36.4
33.3

18.2
25.0

18.2
16.7

Finishers, all sizes:
10 plants... ______ - r________ 1907
1908
1909
1910

65
63
63
64

65.9
66.4
66.2
66.1

1.5
3.2
3.2
3.1

10.8
9.5
9.5
9.4

13.8
11.1
9.5
7.8

47.7
49.2
68.3
75.0

26.2
27.0
9.5
4.7

17 plants.. . , . T, - r- , ................. 1910
1911

111
110

64.0
63.4

13.5
13.6

2.7
7.3

4.5
8.2

9.0
7.3

55.0
45.5

15.3
18.2 .........

19 plants., t_________ _______

1911
1912

121
126

62.8
62.5

12.4
11.9

12.4
15.9

7.4
5.6

6.6
7.1

44.6
43.7

16.5
15.9 ......... .........

....... ................... 1912
1913

137
134

62.0
61.8

10.9

13.1
25.4

18.2
18.7

6.6
6.0

38.0
42.5

13.1
7.5

1907
1908
1909
1910

49
37
37
37

64.8
69.1
68.9
69.9

18.4
8.1
8.1

32.7
16.2
37.8
51.4

49.0
75.7
54.1
48.6

13 plants................ .................. 1910
1911
1912
1913
Hook ups, 13-inch, 14-inch, and
15-inch:
1 plant...................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

69
53
56
58

62.8
63.4
62.5
61.5

26.1
22.6
21.4
5.2

33.3
35.8
35.7
37.9

31.9
30.2
26.8
19.0

8
14
8
12

60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

Hook ups, 16-inch:
5 p la n t s ................................. 1907
1908
1909
1910
1911

50
45
51
43

64.2
64.2
63.8
63.8

16.0
15.6
15.7
34.9

42.0
44.4
39.2
27.9

26
23
27
35
25

63.9
64.4
64.7
64.1
64.4

6 plants.................................... 1911
1912

35
36

62.4
61.5

5 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Hook ups, 18-inch:
2 plants.................................... 1907
1908
1909
1910

32
34

21 plants

Hook ups, 12-inch:
6 plants r.................................

5 plants....................................

5.8
7.5
12.5
34.5

3.8
3.6
3.4

2.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
18.0
20.0
17.6

24.0
20.0
27.5
16.3

20.9
7.7
8.7
7.4
5.7
8.0

92.3
91.3
92.6
94.3
92.0

17.1
22.2

5.7
5.6

77.1
72.2

61.1
61.5

25.0
23.5

6.3
5.9

68.8
70.6

9 62.2
10 61.0
10 61.0
9 60.8

11.1
20.0
20.0
22.2

88.9
80.0
80.0
77.8

5 plants.................................... 1910
1911
1912

20
21
24

60.4
60.5
59.2

20.0
19.0
41.7

14.3

7 plants.................................... 1912
1913
Hook ups, all sizes:
12 plants.................................. 1907
1908
1909
1910

38
40

59.0
58.8

31.6
35.0

31.6
30.0

92
84
82
93

63.9
65.3
65.7
65.6

9.8
3.6
3.7

2.4
2.4
2.2

3.3
2.4
2.4
2.2

8.7
16.7
9.8
12.9

52.2
41.7
57.3
63.4

26.1
33.3 ......... .........
24.4
19.4

174
144

63.2
63.4

15.5
14.6

4.6
5.6

1.1
4.9

11.5
6.3

42.5
43.8

24.7
25.0 .........

20 plants..................................




1910
1911

30.0

50.0
66.7
58.3
36.8
35.0

278

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U E E A U

OP L A B O E S T A T IS T IC S .

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAB MILLS—Contd.

T a b l e T T T .—

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Hook ups, all sizes—Concluded,
21 plants.............................

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
time
48
56
72
48
60
hours and and and
60
72
and
84
and
per un­ under under
under
under
week. der.
60
84
72
56

1911
1912

154
167

63.0
62.2

13.6
12.6

9.1
15.0

4.5
2.4

5.8
8.4

43.5
40.7

23.4
21.0 ......... .........

1912
1913

177
175

61.9
61.4

11.9
1.7

15.3
29.1

9.0
9.1

7.9
4.0

36.2
42.9

19.8
13.1 ......... .........

1907
1908
1909
1910

20
20
20
20

65.1
65.3
65.1
65.1

10.0
10.0
10.0
5.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
20.0

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

55.0
55.0
75.0
70.0

20.0
20.0

1910
1911
1912
1913

33
33
33
36

60.6
60.0
60.0
59.6

18.2
18.2
18.2

9.1
9.1
12.1
44.4

21.2
27.3
21.2
11.1

3.0
3.0
3.0
2.8

48.5
42.4
45.5
41.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

18 59.7
18 60.4
18 60.3
18 60.3

33.3
33.3
33.3
33.3

1910
1911
1912
1913

35
35
36
36

56.5
56.1
56.3
57.2

51.4
51.4
50.0
16.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

29
29
29
29

7 plants.

1910
1911
1912

6 plants.

22 plants..................i .........
Roll hands, other, 8-inch:
5 plants...............................

9 plants.

Roll hands, other, 9-inch:
3 plants.......................

6 plants.

66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7

Roll hands, other, 12-inch:
4 plants.........................

7 plants..
Roll hands, other, 13-inch, 14inch, and 15-inch:
3 plants...................................

Roll hands, other, 16-inch:
2 plants..........................

1 plant.
Roll hands, other, 18-inch:
1 plant...........................




42.9
42.9
44.4
41.7

70.4
70.4
70.0
70.0

6.9
6.9
6.9
3.4

17.2
17.2
93.1
96.6

75.9
75.9

39
39
39

67.8
10.3
66.8
15.4
66.8 : : : : : : 15.4

2.6
5.1
5.1

82.1
74.4
74.4

5.1
5.1
5.1

1912
1913

33
33

66.0
66.0

6.1
6.1

72.7
72.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

24
21
21
22

70.1
70.4
70.3
69.9

1910
1911
1912

Roll hands, other, 10-inch:
4 plants........................

5.7

33 67.0
32 67.7
33 67.5

9.1
9.4
9.1

1912
1913

28 67.5
28 67.4

10.7

1910
1911
1912
1913

29 62.1
28 61.7
25 63.4
19 60.0

41.4
42.9
36.0

1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
4 64.5
3 64.5

25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
33.3

75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
66.7

1912
1913

6
6

64.5
64.5

16.7
16.7

83.3
83.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

2
2
2
2

62.8
62.8
62.8
62.8

5.7
5.6
36.1 j 5.6

15.2
15.2

6.1
6.1

25.0
23.8
33.3
36.4

75.0
76.2
66.7
63.6

6.1
3.1
3.0

33.3
31.3
33.3

51.5
56.3
54.5

10.7

32.1
39.3

57.1
50.0

31.6

58.6
57.1
64.0
21.1

47.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

279

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS— Contd.

T able

PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roll hands, other, 18-inch—Con,
4 plants...............................

5 plants...............................
Roll hands, other, all sizes:
9 plants...............................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
48
60
and
84
and
72
and
ploy­ hours and and under 60
per un­
under
ees. week. der. under 60
under
84
72
56

1910
1911
1912

7 59.9
6 60.8
7 59.2

28.6
16.7
42.9

16.7

1912
1913

9 59.3
10 58.9

33.3
40.0

22.2
20.0

1907
1908
1909
1910

97
94
94
95

28.6

42.9
66.7
57.1
44.4
40.0

66.8
67.0
66.8
66.7

6.2
6.4
6.4
6.3

2.1
2.1
2.1
1.1

2.1
2.1
2.1
4.2

4.1
4.3
4.3
3.2

40.2
40.4
70.2
70.5

45.4
44.7 .........
14.9 .........
14.7 .........

18 plants.

1910
1911
1912

180 62.8
177 62.5
176 62.7

21.7
22.0
20.5

6.1
7.3
9.1

3.9
5.6
4.0

3.9
2.3
2.3

44.4
42.4
43.8

20.0
20.3 .........
20.5 .........

18 plants.

1912
1913

170 62.2
168 61.8

21.2
3.6

8.2
29.8

6.5
6.0

2.4
2.4

42.9
47.6

18.8
10.7

1907
1908
1909
1910

302
299
286
302

63.3
63.2
63.3
63.3

4.0
4.0
4.2
5.0

2.6
4.0
4.2
4.0

17.9
17.4
18.2
14.9

13.9
19.1
14.7
15.6

43.0
34.8
53.8
54.0

18.5
20.7
4.9
6.6

25 plants.

1910
1911

500
434

62.9
62.0

11.4
12.4

6.4
9.0

9.6
14.5

14.2
6.7

43.2
47.7

11.8
9.7

26 plants.

1911
1912

450
461

61.9
61.7

12.0
11.7

10.0
13.2

14.0
13.0

6.4
5.4

48.2
45.3

9.3
11.3 .........

26 plants.

1912
1913

455 61.5
467 60.9

11.9
2.6

11.9
23.6

18.0
16.1

5.5
2.8

42.6
49.9

10.1
5.1 .........

64.8
65.1
65.3 .........
65.0

6.4
6.5
6.5
6.2

8.5
8.7
8.6
7.2

16.0
18.5
18.3
18.6

51.1
45.7
59.1
61.9

18.1
20.7
3.2
6.2 .........

11.5
10.6
11.7

4.5
11.9
12.3

14.1
11.9
12.3

46.2
45.0
40.9

10.3
10.6
11.7 " i . Y

62.4
9.6 12.2
62.0 ......... 25.2

12.2
10.7

10.3
8.2

42.9
52.2

11.5
2.5

1.3
1.3
1.0
4.7
15.7

Hotbed men:
15 plants.

Shearmen:
15 plants.

1907
1908
1909
1910

94
92
93
97

25 plants..........

1910
1911
1912

156 63.3
151 62.5
154 62.4

24 plants..........

1912
1913

156
159

1907
1908
1909
1910

201 65.9
172 66.2 .........
185 67.3 . . . . . .
215 65.3

4.0
4.7
4.3
3.7

2.0
2.3
2.2
1.4

10.4
12.8
14.1
18.1

62.2
58.7
59.5
65.1

20.4
16.9
4.3
11.6

1910
1911
1912

355
359
358

64.7
63.8
63.9

12.7
13.4
13.4

2.3
2.2
3.4

.8
5.6
5.6

12.1
10.3
9.8

44.5
50.4
46.4

21.7
5.9
18.1
18.2 ” 3*4*

1912
1913

337
316

63.4
62.8

15.1

4.2
21.8

5.9
5.4

10.1
7.0

46.9
61.4

14.2
1.3

1907
1908
1909
1910

41
41
41
41

66.9
66.9
66.8
67.1

75.6
75.6
100.0
100.0

24.4
24.4

1910
1911

77
81

66.1
63.5

44.4

100.0
55.6
34.4
34.8

Shearmen’s helpers:
15 plants..........

22 plants.
Bundlers:
5 plants.

6 plants.

9.6
9.9
9.7

7 plants

1911
1912

131 62.0
132 62.0

65.6
65.2

7 plants.

1912
1913

129 61.6
136 61.4

69.8
71.3




.8
.7

29.5
27.9

3.6
3.2

280

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I I I .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN THE UNITED STATES, BY YEARS, 1907 TO 1913—BAR MILLS—Concld.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Laborers:
10 plants..................................

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
Over
of
48 Over 56
Year. em­ time
48
72
60
and
and
and
and
84
72
ploy­ hours un­ and under 60
per
under
under
ees. week. der. under 60
84
72
56

1907
1908
1909
1910

0.3
.9
.6
2.1

296 68.3
227 64.8
324 67.8
424 67.2

17.2
41.4
23.5
28.1

47.3
47.6
42.3
26.7

25.0
7.9
27.2
41.5

8.1
4.0

2.0
2.2
2.5
1.7

15 plants................................... 1910
1911

511
355

67.8
66.0 .........

8.7

1.8
.8

29.2
19.7

25.0
49.3

35.8
19.7

4.7
1.1

13.5
.6

17 plants.................................. 1911
1912

390
424

65.5
65.9 .........

7.9
4.2

.8
9.7

26.7
16.3

44.9
48.1

18.2
19.8

1.0
1.2

.5
.7

21 plants................................... 1912
1913

536 65.0
705 64.3 .........

6.5
6.1

16.2
16.3

14.7
23.3

42.7
44.0

18.3
3.5

.9
6.2

.6
.6

i Including 0.8 per cent whose full-time hours per week were 84|, and 0.4 per cent whose full-time hours
per week were 91.




281

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.
T able

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS.
STOCKERS.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

Num­
Num­ ber
of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

6
74

Total..... .............................

71 59.1
86 63.9
58 63.1
215

17

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

6
7
4

Aver­
age
full­
time 48 Over 56
48
hours and and and
per un­
un­
week. der. un­ der
der
60
56

60.9

226

72

27

22
2
10

4
4

35
10

6
22
45

27

34

8

45

73

4

38
6

14
43
45

3

69

4

44

102

84

28

30
29
10

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

4
21
3

7

86 59.2
82 63.3
58 63.1

Total...................................

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

63.6

4

HEATERS.
1912.
Eastern . . . . ..... ............................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

8
10
8

. 65
85
46

61.2
61.2
63.7

18

15
1
12

10
18
2

2

36
40
22

4
6
6

2

Total..................................

26

196

61.8

18

28

30

2

98

16

2

1913.
Eastern
...................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

8
10
•
8

72
86
53

61.1
61.6
62.7

15
16
14

14
18
2

2
1

37
46
29

4

3

Total............... ...................

26

211

61.7

3

45

34

3

112

2
4

40
74
36

8
12

5
I
9 !
1

3
3

2
2

2
2

HEATERS” HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern
......................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

8
10
6

104
172
42

61.1
60.8
68.4

45

Total...................................

24

318

61.9

1913.
Eastern
......................
Pittsburgh ........................ .
Great Lakes and Middle West...

8
10
6

116
171
37

Total.................... ...............

24

324

18
3

36
36

45

21

72

6

150

23

61.0
61.2
69.4

3

18
45

43
33

3

44
88
31

8

2

62.0

3

5

163

10

2
4

10
36
42

30
6

6

88

36

5
2

12
58
40

8
8

7

110

16

63

76

2

CHARGERS AND HELPERS.
1912.
15 61.2
3
Eastern . ___________ ________
104 64.4
9
Pittsburgh...................................
7
Great Lakes and Middle62 64.8
West...
Total...................................

19

1913.
Eastern .......................... .........
Pittsburgh ..................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
9
7

Total...................................

19




181

12

3

26

10
12

13

26

21 61.0
104 63.3
63 65.4

4
12
10

26

185 63.7

26

26

64.3

2
2
4

2
2
2

2

282

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MQXS—Continued.

T able

DRAG DOWNS.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
un­
ees. week. un­ un­ der
der. der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

1912.
Eastern
......................
...............
Pittsburgh
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

7
8
5

33
65
23

60.9
66.5
60.0

13
1
10

4
16

10
34
10

6
12
3

2

Total...................................

20

121

63.8

24

20

54

21

2

1913.
Eastern .....................................
Pittsburgh
................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

7
8
5

36
65
23

61.0
65.4
60.0

13
1
10

3
16

12
46
10

6

Total...................- ..............

20

124

63.1

24

19

2

68

9

84

2

2

2

3

ROLL ENGINEERS.
1912.
Eastern ....................................
Pittsburgh......... .........................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

6
8
6

18
53
22

66.7
70.4
72.1

4

1

4
33
12

7
4
1

2
16
7

2

Total...................................

20

93

70.1

4

1

49

12

25

2

1913.
Eastern
......................
Pittsburgh................. .................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
8
6

22
53
22

65.6
71.8
72.4

6

2

4
23
12

8
1

2
30
7

2

Total...................................

20

97

70.5

6

2

39

9

39

2

2

7
2

1

2

9

1

2

7
2

1

2

9

1

ROLLERS: 8-INCH.
1912.
Eastern
. .........................
Pittsburgh . ...........................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
6
2

5
23
4

54.8
58.1
61.5

6

Total...................................

11

29

58.0

1913.
Eastern
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pittsburgh
................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

3
6
2

Total...................................

11

2
4
1

1

6

7

4

5 52.6
20 58.9
4 61.5

4
8
1

1

2

29

2

13

2

58.1

3

1

ROLLERS: 9-INCH.
1912.
Eastern
.. ..............................
Pittsburgh.. ..............................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Total

. . ....................
1913.

Flastprn
Pittsburgh
.. .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total




2
5
3

5 61.2
10 60.6
7 67.8

3

1

3
1
1

2
3
5

2
1

10

22 63.0

3

1

5

10

3

2
5
3

5 61.2
10 60.2
7 67.8

4

3
2
1

2
3
5

1
1

62.8

4

6

10

2

10

22

283

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

ROLLERS: 10-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
Over 56
of
ber of em­ time 48
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
un­
per
ees. week. un­ un­ der
der. der
60
56

Year and district.

1912.

it
5

52.3
67.1

4
1

2

7

18

62.1

5

2

2
5

6 51.7
12 67.1

4
1

18

5

2

60

72

2

7

1913.

6
12

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

61.9

2

6

3

2

6

3

2

6

3

2

6

3

1

5
4
2

4
5

ROLLERS: 12-INCH.
1913.

4
5
3

7
13
7

61.1
63.2
71.1

1
1

1

3

Great Lakes and Middle West...
Total............... ...................

12

27

64.7

3

2

1

1

11

9

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

4
5
3

8
13
7

61.0
62.8
71.1

1

1
3

1

1
2

5
4
2

3
5

Total...................................

12

28

64.4

1

4

1

3

11

8

ROLLERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1913.
Eastern ....................................
Pittsburgh ........................... .
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Total.................................
1913.
Eastern
............ ......................
Pittsburgh... .............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total...................................

1
1

2
5
2

72.0
57.6
68.0

3

4

9

63.1

3

1
1

2
5
2

72.0
56.8
68.0

3

1

4

9

62.7

3

1

2

1

1
3
2

1

6

1

2
3
1

1

a

2
2 1

2
2
1

Total...................................

5

1913.
Eastern ......................................
Pittsburgh ..................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

2
2
1

Total...................................

5




3 59.8
4 64.3
4 60.5

2

61.7

2

11

4 61.0
4 64.3
3 58.7
11

61.5

2

2
2

2
2

4
2
1

2

ROLLERS: 16-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.......................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
2

2

3

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

284

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

ROLLERS: 18-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
ees. week. un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

4
2
1

7
3
2

58.1
57.3
62.8

4
1

12 58.7

5

Total...................................

7

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

4
2
1

8
3
2

58.3
57.3
62.8

3
1

Total...................................

7

13

58.8

4

2

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

3
1

1

2

1

4

1
2

1

3

1

1

3

2

4

ROLLERS: ALL SIZES.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

8
10
6

Total...................................

24

128

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

8
10
6

Total...................................

24

15

11
8
3

8
2
1

3
7
2

11
23
14

2
12
6

61.6

15

22

11

12

48

20

38
67
25

58.5
61.4
66.2

3

12
20
3

7
2
1

5
10
2

12
23
13

2
9
6

130

61.5

3

35

10

17

48

17

35 58.6
67 61.3
26 66.2

ROUGHERS: 8-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

3
6
2

Total...................................

11

1913.
Eastern..................... ...................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. ..

3
6
2

Total...................................

11

13 55.7
54 56.5
12 54.3

24

4
7
12

9
2

21

79

24

23

11

21

13 53.2
54 57.6
12 54.3

10
25
12

3
14

15

79

47

17

15

6

6
9
8

6
3
9

56.0

56.4

ROUGHERS: 9-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.. .

2
5
4

15 58.2
27 62.0
40 53.1

6
21

8

Total...................................

11

82 57.0

27

17

6

23

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
5
4

15 58.2
27 61.3
41 52.9

22

9
6
8

6

6
15
8

3

Total...................................

11

83

22

23

6

29

3




56.6

9

84

285

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS.

I Y .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

ROUGHERS: 10-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
un­
per
ees. week. un­ un­ der
der. der
60
56

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh...................................

2
5

16 54.0
37 65.1

3

Total...................................

7

53

61.7

3

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

2
5

16 53.1
37 65.1

3

Total...................................

7

53

61.5

3

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

8

8
8
16

26

8

8
8

26

8

16

26

2

12
22
8

6
10

15

2

42

16

30 58.1
36 65.2
18 70.7

18
6

2

12
28
8

10

84

24

2

48

84

26

8

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

10

ROUGHERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

5
5
3

Total...................................

13

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

5
5
3

Total...................................

13

27 58.4
36 65.8
18 70.7

6

64.4

6

81

63.8

15

ROUGHERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

1
2
2

2 72.0
16 54.0
29 64.7

12

Total............... ...................

5

47

12

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

1
2
2

2 72.0
16 54.5
23 65.9

12

Total...................................

5

41

12

61.4

61.8

2
4

12

17

12

17

6

4
17

6

21

ROUGHERS:: 16-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

2
2
1

10 58.9
14 64.3
8 57.8

4

Total...................................

5

32

61.0

4

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

2
2
1

14 60.5
14 64.3
6 56.8

4

Total...................................

5

34

4




61.4

8

2
14
4

8

20

8

6
14
2

8

22

6
2

2

-

286

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V ___ AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

RO U G H E RS: 18-INCH.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
un­
per
ees. week. un­ un­ der
der. der
60
56

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

4
1

16 57.5
9 58.8
6 62.8

10
1

7

31

58.9

11

8

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

4

12
1

8

1

18 57.2
9 58.8
6 62.8

Total...................................

7

33

13

8

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

8

Total...................................

60

6
6
12
6
6

58.6

12

ROUGHERS: ALL SIZES.

1913.

Eastern..... ..................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

8
10
8

99
193
113

57.5
61.1
59.8

51
21

46
8
24

25
26

Total...................................

26

405

59.9

72

78

51

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

8
10
8

108 57.2
193 61.3
106 59.7

3
22

57
50
24

19
38

Total...................................

26

407

25

131

57

1913.

59.8

12

28
92
43

12

161

31

6

30
102
41

13

6

173 | 15

CATCHERS: 8-INCH.

1913.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

3
2
1

5 54.8
14 53.7
6 54.5

6

Total...................................

6

25 54.1

6

3
2
1

5 52.6
14 54.9
6 54.5

6

25

1913.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...
Total...................................

2
6

3
8
11 !

4
6
6

1
8

16

54.3

8

9

CATCHERS: 9-INCH.

1912.

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. . .

1
1
1

2 63.0
3 48.0
8 54.5

3

Total...................................

3

13 54.3

3

Eastern.......................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
1
1

2 63.0
3 50.7
8 54.5

3
8

Total...................................

3

13 54.9

11

1913.




2
8
8

2
2

2

2
16
13 .........I.........

2

287

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I V . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

CATCHERS: 10-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
un­
ees. week. un­ un­ der
der. der
60
56

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

1
1

4
14

48.8
71.5

4

Total...................................

2

18

66.4

4

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

1
1

4
14

48.8
71.5

4

Total...................................

2

18 66.4

60

4

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

14
14

14
14

CATCHERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
Eastern .......................................
Pittsburgh....................................

4
5

12 58.9
13 63.2

3

Total...................................

9

25

3

1913.
Eastern.....................i..................
Pittsburgh....................................

4
5

Total...................................

9

6

2

6
6

2

6

2

12

2

12 58.9
13 62.8

6
3

2

6
8

25

9

2

14

61.1

61.0

CATCHERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh................. . ................

1
2

2
5

72.0
57.6

3

2
2

Total...................................

3

7 61.7

3

4

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

1
2

2
5

72.0
56.8

3

2

Total...................... ............

3

7

61.1

3

.2

CATCHERS: 16-INCH.
1912.
Eastern......... ..............................
1
1 64.5
2
6
Pittsburgh.................................... 64.3

1
6

Total...................................

3

7

64.4

7

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

1
2

2
6

64.5
64.3

2
6

Total...................................

3

8

64.4

8




2
2

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

288

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

IV .-A V E R A G E AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T able

CATCHERS: 18-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num- Aver­
age
full­
Num­ of
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
un­
ees. week. un­ un­ der
der. der
60
56

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West. ..

4
2
1

Total...................................

7

13

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

4
2
1

Total...................................

7

7 56.6
4 56.3
2 62.8

5
2

2

57.5

7

2

8
4
2

56.4
56.3
62.8

6
2

2

14

57.3

8

2

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

84

2
2
4
2
2
4

CATCHERS: ALL SIZES.
1913.
Eastern................ .....................
Pittsburgh................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.
Total...............................

57.8
61.3
55.5

12

59.4

20

15
15 | 33

15

1913.
Eastern.....................................
Pittsburgh................................
Great Lakes and Middle West.

57.6
61.6
55.5

Total.............................. .

39

9.4
STRANDERS: 8-INCH.

1913.
Eastern....................................
Pittsburgh..............................
Great Lakes and Middle West

3
6
2

Total..............................

11

1913.
Eastern....................................
Pittsburgh...............................
Great Lakes and Middle West

3
6
2

Total..............................

11

2

7 56.1
48 61.0
12 61.5

6

67

6

5
22

6

20
6

8

27

6 53.4
48 61.4
12 61.5

4
6
6

2
22

60.7

16

24

26

6

4
4
8

6
2

6

16

8

6

4
10
8

2

6

22

2

‘ 66

60.6

26

20
6

STRANDERS: 9-INCH.
1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

9

2
4
3

13 57.5
16 66.0
28 52.8

18

9

57

57.6

18

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....... ............................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
4
3

13 57.5
16 63.8
28 52.8

18

Total...............................

9

57

18

Total............... .......... .




56.9

9
9

9

.

=====

289

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

STRANDERS: 10-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time
48
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

2
5

8
47

54.0
55.4

Total...................................

7

55

2
5
7

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Total...................................

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

4

4
8

18

55.2 . 21

4

12

18

8
47

53.1
55.4

4

4
8

18

55

55.1

4

12

18

6

4
4

6

6

8

72

21

21
21

STRANDERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
4
10 58.3
4
Pittsburgh.................................... 64.2
23
10 72.0
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
1

6
3
3

10
10

Total...................................

9

43

64.7

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

20

4
4
1

16
23
10

56.9
62.0
72.0

12
3

6

4
14

Total...................................

9

49

62.4

15

6

18

10

22

8
46
14

16
12

22

68

28

11

8
62
14

12

11

84

12

10

STRANDERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
1913.
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1

22

60.0

22

1913.
Great Lakes and Middle West...

1

11

60.0

11

STRANDERS: 16-INCH.
1912.
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1

8

55.0

8

1913.
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1

8

55.0

8

STRANDERS:. ALL SIZES.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .
Total................................
1913.
Eastern......................................
Pittsburgh................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total.............................. .

6
8
6

38
134
80

56.7
60.2
58.7

30
18

14

20

252

59.2

48

35

51

6
8
6

43
134
69

55.9
59.7
58.5

21
18

29
9
14

6
42

20

83021°— Bull. 168— 15—




246

19

58.7

21

39

52

9
42

48

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

290

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

FINISHERS: 8-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Aver­
Num­ age
Num­ ber of full­
ber of em­ time 48
plants. ploy­ hours and
ees. per un­
week. der.

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
6
2

3
22
6

58.8
58.0
64.0

6

Total...................................

10

31

59.3

6

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh...................................
Great Lakes and Middle West...

2
6
2

3
22
6

Total...................................

10

31

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der der
60
56

60

Ovar
60
ard
un­
der
72

3
10

1

13

1

2
6
2

1
10

1

5
4

59.4

10

11

1

84

9

55.2
58.7
64.0

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

5
4

2

72

9

2

FINISHERS: 9-INCH.
1912.
1
Eastern.........................................
3 55.0
Pittsburgh....................................
5
10 60.6
11 68.2
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
3

3

3
1

1

3
10

2
1

3

4

1

13

3

24

63.4

1913.
1
3
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
5
10
11
3
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

55.0
60.2
68.2

3
3

2

1

4
10

1

24

63.2

6

2

1

14

1

2
2

7

1

4

7

1

Total...................................

Total...................................

9

9

FINISHERS: 10-INCH.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

1
4

2
10

Total...................................

5

12

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................

1
4

2
10

Total...................................

5

12

59.3
67.7 .........I.........
1
66.3
I
57.5
!
67.7 .........I.........
i
66.0
.........1
.........
1

2
2

7

1

4

7

1

FINISHERS: 12-INCH.
1912.
Eastern
...............
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
5
2

5
13
6

54.1
63.2
70.0

3

Total...................................

10

24

63.0

3

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh...........
...............
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
5
2

5
13
6

Total...................................

10




5

2

1

3
4

4
2

5I
1
I

2

1

7

6

54.1
62.8
70.0

5
3

2

1

5
4

2
2

24 |62.8

8

2

1

9

4

1

291

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

FINISHERS: 13-INCH, 14-INCH, AND 15-INCH.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1912.

Eastern .......................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total..................................

1913.

Eastern.......................................
Pittsburgh........
.....
. .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total..

..............

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time
48
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der der
60
56

1
2
1

4
7
4

72.0
61.7
60.0

3

4

15

64.0

3

1
2
1

4
7
2

72.0
59.4
60.0

3

4

13

63.4

3

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

4
4
4
4

8

2

4 I
j

2

41

4

4

FINISHERS: 16-INCH.
1912.

2

Eastern ..................•
....................
Pittsburgh.....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2
1

2
10
8

57.5
64.4
57.8

4

Total...................................

4

20

61.1

4

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh.....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2
1

2
10
6

57.5
64.4
56.8

4

Total...................................

4

18

61.1

4

1913.

10
4
2

14

2
10
2
2

12

FINISHERS: 18-INCH.
1912.

Eastern .......................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
2
1

4
5
2

57.0
58.2
62.8

2
1

4

Total...................................

5

11

58.6

3

4

Eastern........................... •
............
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
2
1

5
5
2

57.6
58.2
62.8

2
1

4

Total...................................

5

12

58.7

3

4

3

2

1913.

2
2
2

2

3
2

FINISHERS: ALL SIZES.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
10
6

23
77
37

59.2
61.7
64.4

15

10
2
6

7
18

2
3
4

28
24

4
11
3

Total...................................

21

137

62.0

15

18

25

9

52

18

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
10
6

24
77
33

58.6
61.5
64.9

12
16
6

5
20

3
3
2

35
22

4
3
3

Total...................................

21

134

61.8

34

25

8

57

10

1913.




Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

292

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

H O O K U PS: 12-INCH.

Year and district.

NumNum­ uer
Of
ber of em­
plants. ploy­
ees.

Number of
Avere
full­
Over
time
48
48
hours and and
per un­ un­
week. der.
der
56

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
5
3

11
32
13

57.6
60.6
71.5

12

Total...................................

13

56

62.5

12

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
5
3

12
32
14

57.4
60.8
66.4

13

58

61.5

3

56
and
un­
der
60

3

Total...................................

employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

HOOK

1912.

60

4
14
2

4
11

7

2

20

15

8
12

2

4
18

20

2

22

11

Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2
2

12
17
22

72.0
59.3
62.9

Total...................................

5

51

63.8

9

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
2
2

12
17
14

72.0
57.9
64.0

9

Total...................................

5

43

63.8

9

14

8

7

8
7

7

15

U P S : : 1 6 -IN C H .

2
2
1

6
14
12

62.2
64.3
56.8

8

Total...................................

5

32

61.1

8

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
2
1

10
14
10

63.1
64.3
56.1

8

Total...................................

5

34

61.5

8

2

4
14
4

2

22

2

8
14
2

2

24

U P S :: 1 8 -IN C H .

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

4
2
1

16
14
8

57.5
58.6
62.8

10
2

Total...................................

7

38

59.0

12

12

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

4
2
1

18
14
8

57.2
58.6
62.8

12
2

12

Total................................. .

7

40

58.8

14

12




8

14

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh. . . . .
..................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

11

1 5 -IN C H

9

HOOK

72

2

7

U P S : 1 3 -IN C H , 1 4 -I N C H , A N D

HOOK

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

12

6
8
14
6
8
14

12
8
20
12

12

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

293

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- BAR MILLS.

I V . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS— Continued.

T able

H O O K U PS: ALL SIZES.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1913.

Num- Aver­
age
Num­ o f
full­
ber of em­ time 48
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­
un­ der
der
60
56

Eastern.............. .........................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

7
8
7

45
77
55

62.0
60.6
63.6

21

17
2
8

2
14

Total...................................

22

177

61.9

21

27

16

Eastern .....................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

7
8
7

52
77
46

61.8
60.4
62.8

3

20
23
8'

2
14

Total...................................

22

175

61.4

3

51

16

1913.

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

14

14
28
22
64

35

18
40
17

12

7
7

75

84

12
12
11

14

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

23

11

R O L L H A N D S , O T H E R : 8 -I N C H .

1913.

Eastern
..................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

2
6
1

5
24
4

54.3
59.7
69.0

6

2
2

3
4

1

11
4

T o ta l..................................

9

33

60.0

6

4

7

1

15

2
6
1

8
24
4

52.7
60.3
69.0

8
8

4

1

11
4

9

36

59.6

16

4

1

15

1913.

Eastern
..................................
Pittsburgh
............ ....... . . .
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total

.. ........................

R O L L H A N D S , O T H E R : 9 -IN C H .

1913.

63.0
52.5
59.7

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total...................................

36

1913.

56.3

18

36

13

57.2

13

ROLL H AN DS, O TH E R :

1912.

16

63.0
54.3
59.7

Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est.. .
Total...................................

* 12
6

15

1 0 -IN C H .

Eastern___
Pittsburgh..

4
29

48.8
68.3

24

Total.

33

66.0

24

Eastern----Pittsburgh..

48.8
68.3

24

Total.

66.0

1913.




i

2 94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROLL H AN D S, O T H E R :

1 2 -IN C H .

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time
48
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­ un­
der
der
60
56

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

60

1
5
1

4
10
14

64.5
62.4
72.0

3

4
5

3

9

7

28

67.5

1913.
Eastern
................................
Pittsburgh
......................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

1
5
1

4
10
14

64.5
62.0
72.0

3

Total...................................

28

67.4

3

11

2
14

4
7

7

72

...............

Total

ROLL H AN DS, O T H E R :

1912.

16

14

1 3 -IN C H , 1 4 -IN C H , A N D

14

1 5 -IN C H .

...............
. .. .........

1
2

4
21

72.0
61.7

9

4
12

Total...................................

3

25

63.4

9

16

1913.
Eastern .....................................
Pittsburgh
...........................

1
2

4
15

72.0
56.8

9

6

Total...................................

3

19

60.0

9

6

Eastern
Pittsburgh

ROLL H AN DS, O TH E R :

1 6 -IN C H .

1912.
Pittsburgh..............

1

6 64.5 .............................

1

5

1913.
Pittsburgh..............

1

6

1

5

64.5 ..............................

R O L L H A N D S , O T H E R : 1 8 -IN C H .

1912.
Eastern
............................
Pittsburgh
.......................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
1
1

5
2
2

57.8
59.5
62.8

3

2

2

.......................

5

9

59.3

3

1913.
Eastern
...................................
Pittsburgh
.......................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

3
1
1

6
2
2

57.3
59.5
62.8

5

10

58.9

4

2

4

Total

Total

.........................




2

2

4
2
2

2

4

4
4

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

295

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— BAR MILLS.

I V ___ AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

ROLL HANDS, OTHER: ALL SIZES.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber fullof
ber of em­ time 48 Over 56
48
plants. ploy­ hours and and and
per
ees. week. un­ un­ un­
der. der der
60
56

Year and district.

1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
9
3

24
110
36

59.5
61.7
65.7

30
6

Total...................................

18

170

62.2

36

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
9
3

28
104
36

58.3
61.4
65.7

6

Total...................................

18

168

61.8

6

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

72

9
5

3
8

4

8
49
16

4
14
14

14

11

4

73

32

16
34

10

4

8
56
16

14

50

10

4

80

18

38
2
14

36
46
25

29
118
47

6
16
24

25

194

46

32
142
59

12

13

4

HOTBED MEN.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

8
10
8

109
236
110

58.4
61.5
64.7

54

Total...................................

26

455

61.5

54

54

82

1913.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

8
10
8

121
244
102

58.7
61.6
61.7

12

48
44
18

29
46

Total...................................

26

467

60.9

12

110

75

13

233

24

12

SHEARMEN.
1912.
Eastern.........................................
Pittsburgh....................................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

39
71
46

58.5
62.3
65.7

15

12
1
6

9
10

7
1
8

9
36
22

2
8
8

2

24

156

62.4

15

19

19

16

67

18

2

1913.
Eastern
.......... ......................
..........................
Pittsburgh
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

8
9
7

46
71
42

58.2
62.2
65.8

18
16
6

7
10

7
1
5

12
44
27

2

2

Total...................................

24

159

62.0

40

17

13

83

4

2

12
22

33
99
26

26
22

12

Total................................

8
9
7

2

SHEARMEN’S HELPERS.
1912.
Eastern
.........................
Pittsburgh
.
.....
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

6
9
7

55
192
90

63.0
61.7
67.1

51

4
2
8

6
14

Total ..................................

22

337

63.4

51

14

20

34

158

48

12

6
9
7

49
191
76

61.4
61.4
67.2

8
53
8

3
14

12
10

26
124
44

4

10

22

316

62.8

69

17

22

194

4

10

1913.

Eastern
.. . . . . . . . .
P ittsburjrh
Great Lakes and Middle W est...
Total




.......

84

296

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I V .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
IN EACH YEAR, BY DISTRICTS, 1912 AND 1913—BAR MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

BUNDLERS.
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—

Year and district.

Num­ Aver­
age
Num­ ber full­
of
ber of em­ time
48
plants. ploy­ hours and
per
ees. week. un­
der.

Over 56
48
and and
un­
un­ der
der
60
56

60

Over
60
and
un­
der
72

72

Over
72
and
un­
der
84

84

1912.
Pittsburgh....................................

7

129

61.6

90

1

38

1913.
Pittsburgh......... ........................

7

136

61.4

97

1

38

38
48
1

52
24
3

15
128
86

77
21

5

1
2

LABORERS.
1912.
Eastern
.. ...........................
Pittsburgh
. . ...........
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
9
7

140
283
113

58.9
67.1
67.1

35

Total...................................

21

536

65.0

35

87

79

229

98

5

3

1913.
Eastern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
Pittsburgh
......................
Great Lakes and Middle W est...

5
9
7

186
395
124

58.7
66.0
67.2

43

68
42
5

55
107
2

20
199
91

6
19

39
5

2
2

Total...................................

21

705

64.3

43

115

164

310

25

44

4




SHEET MILLSSUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the sheet-mill department of the iron
and steel industry are given with figures for other departments in
the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explanation of
the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given
on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average rate of wages, or earnings, per
hour of employees in the principal productive occupations in sheet
mills was 16.8 per cent higher than in 1910; 7 per cent higher than
in 1911; and 3.7 per cent higher than in 1912. The average full­
time hours of work in 1913 were 0.9 per cent lower than in 1910, and
0.2 per cent and 0.4 per cent higher than in 1911 and-1912, respec­
tively. The average full-time weekly earnings in 1913 were 16.3
per cent higher than in 1910, 7.1 per cent higher than in 1911, and
4.1 per cent higher than in 1912.
The most significant facts concerning the several sheet-mill occu­
pations which are covered in this section of the report are summar­
ized in the table following. Data are presented for the years 1910,
1911, 1912, and 1913, figures for identical plants being grouped
together. The data for 1913 represents 2,487 sheet-mill employees
in the 14 occupations covered and were obtained from 8 plants hav­
ing 76 hot mills in operation. The sheet mills for which the data
in this report were secured are such as roll ordinary commercial
black sheets, gauges 12 to 30, and do not include mills which roll
extra heavy sheets or thin plates. Some sheet mills occasionally
roll black plates for tinning and when so utilized are classified in
this report as tin-plate mills.
Referring to the first occupation, laborers, comparison can be made
of data for 9 identical plants from 1910 to 1912, inclusive, and 8
identical plants for 1912 and 1913. The first line of the table is
read as follows: In 1910 the 9 sheet mills from which reports were
obtained employed 347 laborers whose average full-time hours of
work were 63.1 per week. For 4.1 per cent of the 347 laborers, the
full-time hours per week were over 48 and under 60; for 64.3 per
cent, 60 hours; for 12.7 per cent, over 60 and under 72; and for 19.1
per cent, 72 hours and over. The average rate of wages or earnings
per hour of laborers in the year considered (1910) was $0,164, Of
the total number 21.3 per cent earned 14 and under 16 cents per
hour, and 78.7, 16 and under 18 cents per hour. The average full-




297

298

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

time weekly earnings were $10.35. The other lines of the table may
be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in 9 plants
the average full-time weekly earnings of laborers were $10.35 in
1910. In 1911 there was an advance to $10.54, and in 1912 a further
advance to $10.72. In the 8 plants reported for 1912 and 1913 the
average full-time weekly earnings were $10.76 and $12.39, respec­
tively. Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913
of the several occupations it is seen that the lowest average was
that of shearmen’s helpers which was $11.93 and the highest that
of rollers which was $62.08.
In this table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W EE K LY EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913— SHEET MILLS.
(The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Laborers:
9 plants.

8 plants.
Picklers:
4 plants.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber full­
rate
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
of
48
60
48
72 wages
ploy- hours and and
and and per
per
week. un­ un­ 60 un­ over. hour.
der. der
der
60
72

1910
1911
1912

347
361
354

1912
1913

238
260

1910
1911

50
49

63.1

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
A.verhour were—
14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

time
ano 25 week­
ly
un­ cts. earn­
der and ings.
25 over.
cts.

4.1 64.3 12.7 19.1 $0.164 21.3 78.7
4.7 52.9 24.9 17.4 .166 18.3 81.7
3.7 54.2 25.7 16.4 .169 .6 99.4

$10.35
10.54
10.72

5.4 55.0 15.1 24.4
7.7 41.5 18.4 32.3

.191

i.l
13.1 83.1

10.76
12.39

90.0
89.8

.181
.172

56.0 28.0 16.0
77.6 8.2 14.3

12.75
12.35

70.8
71.

10.0
10.2

5 plants.

1911
1912

71.2
8.6 15.5 75.9
71 ....... ......... 12.8 15.4 71.8

.177
.186

65.5 6.9 27.
51.3 15.4 33.3

12.54
13.23

4 plants.

1912
1913

72.4
70.0

.183
.202

18.221.2
56.7 ...2 0 .0

13.17
14.06

84.9
15.1
16.7 ....... 83.3

25
40
Un­ and and and 50
der un­ un­ un­ cts.
25 der der der and
30 40 50 over.
cts. cts. cts.
Openers:
7 plants........... .

6 plants.............
Shearmen’s helpers:
6 plants.............

5 plants...........




1910
1911
1912

138
167
180

46.0 85.5
14.5
45.2 89.2 ......... . . . . 10.8
45.8 86.7
13.3 . . . . .

.274
.275

87.7 3.6
85. 1.
38.9 12.2

12.57
12.35
13.04

1912
1913

170
168

46.0 85.9
. . . . 14.1 .......
45.4 88.1 .........
11.9

.274 38.8 41.2 12.9
.279 L0 82.1 11.9

2.4 12.43
12.56

1910
1911
1912

62
83
77

46.4 83.9
44.9 90.4 - - ---45.1 89.6

16.1
9.6 : : : : :
10.4

.26141.9 53.2 1.6 3.2
11.99
.30831.3 33.7 21.7 1.2 12.0 13.59
.290] 26.0 41.6 19.5 13.0
12.88

1912
1913

67
70

45.5 88.1
45.3 88.6 .........

11.9
11.41.......

.267|29.8 47.8 22.4.
,26754.2 15.7 28.6 1.4

11.97
11.93

2 99

W AG E S A N D H O U R S OF LABO R— S H E E T M IL L S .

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED PULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR, AND AVER AG E FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913— SHEET MILLS—Continued.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
of
Year. em­ time
ploy­ hours
per
ees. week.

Doublers:
9 plants................

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
whose earnings per
per week were—
hour were—
Aver­
age
rate
Over
of
30 40 50
Over
48
60
72 wages Un­ and and and 60
and 60 and and per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
un­ over. hour. 30 der der der and
un­
der
der
cts. 40 50 60 over.
60
72
cts. cts. cts.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

1910
1911
1912

210
252

) .............
) .............
) .............

1912
1913

216
222

) .............
) .............

.423 1.8 20.8 70. 6.5
.450 .517.6 64.4 16.

18.06
1.4 19.21

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

) .............
) .............
) .............

.387 10.537.6 51.9
.418 5.9 42.7 .3 18.0
.429 2.825.3 60. 11.2

16.53
17.83
18.30

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

) .............
) .............

.439 3.215.1 68.9 12.8
.462 .914.6 .3 23.3

18.75
19.72

1912
1913

115
139

42.7
42.7

) .............
) .............

Sheet heaters’ helpers:
8 plants...... . ........ 1910
1911
1912

174
215

42.7
42.7
42.7

) .............
1.............
1.............

1912
1913

178
178

42.7
42.7

I .............
►
.............

8 plants................
Matchers:
9 plants................

8 plants.,.............
Rollers' helpers or
finishers:
6 plants................

7 plants................

$0,372 10.550.0 39.5
.401 4.0 47.6 40.1
.412 1.630.5 62.

....... .......

.474 ---- 48.7
29.6 21.7 20.21
.517 ___!43.2 5.0 23.0 28.7 22.05
.377 5.2 56.3 36.2 2.3
.436 ....3 3 .5 41.9 23.7 1.0
....3 2 .7 47.1 19.2 1.0
I
.439 ....3 8 .2 38.2 22.
1.1
.511 ...JJ5.2 33.7 34.8 16.3

Un­
der
40
cts.
Catchers:
9 plants..

8 plants...
Pair heaters:
9 plants...

8 plants..
Roughers:
9 plants..

8 plants..

$15.86
17.10
17.58

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

16.07
18.59
18.71
18.74
21.81

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1910
1911
1912

215
258
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

1910
1911
1912

210
255

42.7
42.7
42.7

.466 20.4 29.5 49.0 1.0
.502 15.7|38.4 27.1 17.6
.517 5.6 22.5 57.8 14.1

1912
1913

£19
219

42.7
42.7

.532
.558

1910
1911
1912

215
255
252

42. 7100.
42.7
42.7

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

1910
1911
1912

215
259
252

1912
1913

.544 8.8 18.
34.4....... 23.19
.587 4.712.8 44. 17.8, 20.2 25.03
.603
19.015.5 51.6 12.3 25.71

.

.617
.652

.

....... .......

.5

17.i 58.6 14.0 26.33
14.! 51.4 28.4 27.84

11.9 65. 16.0
7.3 58.4 26.9

19.89
1*2 21.42
22.06
22.69
23.79

.558 6.0 15. 39.1 39.1
23.82
.603
5.5 56.5 17. 20.4 25.71
.616
16.7 16.7 51.2 15.5 26.29
.633

5.4 18. < 58.1 17. 26.99
1.4 15. J 50.0 32.9 28.40

42.7
42.7
42.7

1.242
1.380
1.416

1.9 2.3 3.7 92.1 52.98
.4 99.6 58.89
100.0 60.41

222
222

42.7
42.7

1.437
1.455

100.0 61.31
100.0 62.08

1910
1911
1912

85
104
105

46.0 85.1
44.
44.9

6 plants.................. 1912
I 1913

95
93

Rollers:
9 plants..

8 plants..
Shearmen:
7 plants..




45.1
45.2

....

J

::::

14.1 .......
9.6
9.5|

.689 12.9 7.115.310. 54.1 30.79
.722 7.7 5.828.8 8.7 49.0 32.86
.768 3.0 5.7 5.7 8. 77.1 34.67

10.5'
10.8,

.757 3.3 6.3 6.3 9.5 74.7 34.42
.801 3.3 1.1 6.5 23.7 65.6 36.34

300

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PE R HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—SHEET MILLS—Concluded.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
time
Over
Over
60
hours 48
48
per and and
and 72
60 un­ and
week. un­ un­
der over.
der. der
72
60

Sheet heaters:
9 plants................. 1910
1911
1912

215
259
253

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0 .........

1912
1913

223
223

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

8 plants................

....

....... .......

Per cen tof employees
whose earnmgs per
Aver­
hour were—
Aver­
age
age
full­
rate
time
of
40 50 60
wages Un­ and and and 70 week­
ly
per der un­ un­ un­ cts. earn­
hour. 40 der der der and ings.
cts. 50 60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts.

$0,883
.911
.949 . . . .
.989
.998

....

4.2 11.2 84.7 $37.68
14.7 85.3 38.88
.4 14.2 85.4 40.51
.4 2.7 96.9 42.21
4.5 95.5 42.60

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the four years
which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout the
period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the
averages of the preceding table for full-time hours per week, rates of
wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupation
from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table fol­
lowing.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for
which the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The
relative for each year is the per cent which the average for that year
is of the average for 1913. For example, the relative full-time
weekly earnings of pair heaters in 1910 were 86, as compared with
100 in 1913; that is, the full-time weekly earnings of pair heaters in
1910 were 86 per cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occu­
pation in 1913. The method of computing relative numbers is
explained on pages 21 to 23.
The table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and
full-time weekly earnmgs in 1913, as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of pair heaters
in 1913 were 16.3 per cent higher than in 1910, 8 per cent higher than
in 1911, and 4.8 per cent higher than in 1912.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of pair heaters in 1911 were 7.7 per cent
higher than in 1910, in 1912, 3 per cent higher than in 1911, and in
1913, 4.8 per cent higher than in 1912. The other occupations and
items of the table can be studied in like manner. The percentages
of increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers.




301

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SHEET MILLS.

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER H OU R, AND FU LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—SHEET MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Pair heaters:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913
......................
Rollers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913
.............................
Rollers’ helpers or finishers:
1912
......................
1913
...............
Roughers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Catchers:
1910
.............................
1911..................................
1912...............................
1913
...................
Matchers:
1910
....................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913
..........
Doublers:
1910
..............
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913
.........................
Sheet heaters:
1910 .
....................
1911........................ .........
1912..................................
1913..................................
Sheet heaters’ helpers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Shearmen:
1910..
....................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Shearmen’s helpers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913................................
Openers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................




Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
speci­
rate
1913 as fied
of
com­
year
wages
pared
per
as
with
hour.
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

1913 as
com­
pared
with
each
speci­
fied
year.

0)
(*)
O)

85.9
92.6
95.3
100.0

+16.4
+ 8.0
+ 4.9

0)
0)
0)

86.6
96.3
98.8
100.0

+15.5
+ 3.8
+ 1.2

91.7
100.0

+ 9.1

0)
0)
C
1
O)

86.1
93.0
95.0
100.0

+16.1
+ 7.5
+ 5.3

85.4
92.1
94.6
100.0

+17.1
+ 8.6
+ 5.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0)
A
(A

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0)
0)
(A

100.0
100.0

0)
0)
0)
C)
1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(i)
I1
)
0)

0)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

m
(l)

(i)
O)

85.7
92.6
95.0
100.0

+16.7
+ 8.0
+ 5.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

C)
1
(1)

(1)
(1)
c1
)

84.9
91.5
94.0
100.0

+17.8
+ 9.3
+ 6.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

O)
0)
0)

(i)
(1)
(1)

92.2
95.1
99.1
100.0

+ 8.5
+ 5.2
+ .9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(1)
(i)
(1)

(1)
O)
0)

73.8
85.3
85.9
100.0

+35.5
+17.2
+16.4

102.2
99.8
99.8
100.0

- 2 .2
+ .2
+ .2

- 2 .2
0)
+ .2

84.8
88.8
94.5
100.0

+17.9
+12.6
+ 5.8

103.3
100.0
100.4
100.0

-

- 3 .2
+ .4
- .4

90.0
106.2
100.0
100.0

+11.1
- 5,8
0)

-1 .8
+1.3
-1 .3

93.1
93.4
98.2
100.0

+ 7.4
+ 7.1
+ 1.8

0)

-3 .2
0)
.4

- 1 .8
C)
1
-1 .3

i No change.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
time 1913 as fied
fied
com­
year weekly pared
year
earn­
as
as
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
pared
pared
speci­
with
with
fied
year
year
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

+ 7.8
+ 2.9
+ 4.9

86.0
92.6
95.4
100.6

+16.3
+ 8.0
+ 4.8

+11.2
+ 2.6
+ 1.2

86.6
96.3
98.8
100.0

+15.5
+ 3.8
+ 1.2

91.7
100.0

+ 9.1

+ 9.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.8
100.0
101.3
100.0

Weekly earnings.

+ 8.0
+ 2.2
+ 5.3

86.1
92.9
95.0
100.0

+16.1
+ 7.6
+ 5.3

+ 7.8
+ 2.7
+ 5.7

85.3
92.1
94.6
100.0

+17.2
+ 8.6
+ 5.7

+ 8.1
+ 2.6
+ 5.3

85.9
92.6
95.1
100.0

+ 16.4
+ 8.0
+ 5.2

+ 7.8
+ 2.7
+ 6.4

84.8
91.4
94.0
100.0

+17.9
+ 9.4
+ 6.4

+ 3.1
+ 4.2
+ .9

92.2
95.1
99.1
100.0

+ 8.5
+ 5.2
+ .9

+15.6
+ -7
+16.4

73.8
85.4
85.9
100.0

+35.5
+17.1
+16.4

+ 4.7
+ 6.4
+ 5.8

84.1
89.8
94.7
100.0

+18.9
+11.4
+ 5.6

+18.0
- 5.8
0)

93.4
105.9
100.3
100.0

+ 7.1
- 5.6
- .3

+ .3
+ 5.1
+ 1.8

95.4
93.7
99.0
100.0

+ 4.8
+ 6.7
+ 1.0

+ 7.7
+ 3.0
+ 4.8
+11.2
+ 2.6
+ 1.2
+ 9.1
+ 7.9
+ 2.3
+ 5.3
+ 8.0
+ 2.7
+ 5.7
+ 7.8
+ 2.7
+ 5.2
+ 7.8
+ 2.8
+ 6.4
+ 3.1
+ 4.2
+ .9
+15.7
+ .6
+16.4
+ 6.8
+ 5.5
+ 5.6
+13.4
- 5.3
.3
- 1.8
+ 5.7
+ 1.0

302

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RELA TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W EE K , RATES OF WAGES P E R HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH P E R CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—SHEET MILLS—
Concluded.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in Occupation and year.

Picklers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................
Laborers:
1910..................................
1911..................................
1912..................................
1913..................................

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
speci­
rate
1913 as fied
of
com­
year
wages
pared
per
as
with
hour.
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as
fied
time 1913 as
fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
earn­
as
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

101.3
102.7
103.4
100.4

—1.3
-2 .6
-3 .3

97.5
98.3
98.2
100.0

+2.6
+1.7
+ 1.8

+1.4
+ .7
-3 .3

90.7
86.2
90.6
100.0

+10.3
+16.0
+10.4

+ -8
+ .1
+ 1.8

85.4
86.4
88.0
100.0

+17.1
+15.7
+ 13.6

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease ( —)
in -

— 5.0
+ 5.1
+10.4

91.7
88.8
93.7
100.0

+ 9.1
+12.6
+ 6.7

+ 1.2
+ 1.9
+ 13.6

83.8
85.4
86.8
100.0

+19.3
+17.1
+15.2

— 3.2
+ 5.5
+ 6.7
+ 1.9
+ 1.6
+15.2

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the sheet-mill department as a whole, as determined by a com­
bination of the data for the several principal productive occupations
which are covered by this section of the report. The method of
computing the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From the table following, under “ weekly earnings/’ it is seen that
the relative full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole
in 1910 were 86, as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words, the
full-time weekly earnings in 1910 were 86 per cent of such earnings
in 1913. The relative increased to 93.4 in 1911, and to 96.1 in 1912.
In 1913, the base year, the relative is 100.
The next column shows that full-time weekly earnings in 1913
were 16.3 per cent higher than in 1910, 7.1 per cent higher than in
1911, and 4.1 per cent higher than in 1912. The third column under
‘ ‘ weekly earnings ” shows the per cent of increase or decrease in
full-time weekly earnings each year as compared with the year
immediately preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings in 1911
were 8.6 per cent higher than in 1910, in 1912, 2.9 per cent higher
than in 1911, and in 1913, 4.1 per cent higher than in 1912. The
relative numbers and percentages for full-time hours per week and
rates of wages per hour can be read in like manner.




3 03

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- SHEET MILLS.

R E L A TIV E FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF W AG ES PER H O U R , A ND FU LL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TO GETH ER W IT H PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y E A R S , A L L OCCUPATIONS—SHEET MILLS.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in Year.

1910,
1911,
1912,
1913,

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

100.9
99.8
99.6
100.0

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.
- 0 .9
+ .2
+ .4

-1 .1
- .2
+ .4

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

85.6
93.5
96.4
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
tive
Each
Each
speci­
speci­
full­
1913 as fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared year
pared
earn­
as
as
with
with
com­
com­
ings.
each
each
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
+16.8
+ 7.0
+ 3.7

+9.2
+3.1
+3.7

86.0
93.4
96.1
100.0

+16.3
+ 7.1
+ 4.1

+8.6
+2.9
+4.1

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a re­
duction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase in
wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings for the department must be
considered; that is,, the change in the relative number of employees
in the several occupations from year to year. It is obvious that an
increase in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid occu­
pations or a decrease in the relative number of those in the higherpaid ones would tend to lower the average rate and earnings for all
occupations, just as an increase in the relative number of employees
in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number
in the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in sheet-mill plants whose customary working time per
week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations thereof,
are shown in the following table. It will be noticed that the custom­
ary working time of over 80 per cent of the employees in this depart­
ment was “ 5 days, 5 days, and 6 days in rotation.” In all of the
plants covered, the hot-mill employees were divided into three groups
each working 8 hours per turn, five turns per week, Monday to Friday,
inclusive, with one crew working an extra turn Saturday morning.
Each crew advances one turn each week, thus giving each crew the
extra Saturday turn every third week.
All of the sheet-mill plants from which reports were obtained are
in the Pittsburgh district.




304

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES W ORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF
DAYS PER W EE K , B Y YEA R S, 1910 TO 1913—SHEET MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
Number of employees whose cus­
tomary workmg time per week
was—
Num­
ber
5
of
days
Number of plants. Year. em­
and
ploy­
5
6
ees. days. days
alter­
nate­
ly-

Per cent of employees whose cus­
tomary workmg time per week
was—

5
5
days,
6
5 days,
6
days
days
6
days
days,
and
and days,
and
5
and
and
6
7
7
6
6
7
7
6
days. days days. days. days 6
days. days days.
alter­
days
alter­ days
alter­
in
nate­
nate­ in
nate­
rota­
ly. rota­
ly.
ly.
tion.
tion.

Nine plants........... 1910 2,346
1911 2,772

2
2

46 1,907
40 2,326

380
391

Nine plants..........

1911 2,781
1912 2,716

2
2

40 2,326
46 2,281

400
370

Eight plants......... 1912 2,439
1913 2,487

2
2

46 2,126
42 2,159

248
276

11
13

0.1
.1

2.0
1.4

81.3
83.9

16.2
14.1

4

13
13

.1
.1

1.4
1.7

83.6
84.0

14.4
13.6

0.1

4

13
8

.1
.1

i.9
1.7

87.2
86.8

10.2
11.1

.2

0.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.3

In addition to the text tables in the summary two general tables
are presented for the sheet-mill department, as follows:
Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and clas­
sified rates of wages per hour, by years, 1910 to 1913.
Table II.—Average and classified full-time hours per week, by
years, 1910 to 1913.
In Tables I and II, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 298 to 300.
The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I and II,
and in the table of relative numbers, follows that of the processes of
manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended expla­
nation see page 17.
Descriptions of the occupations which appear in the tables of this
report were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this Bureau but have been
omitted from the present report.




305

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SHEET MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—SHEET MILLS.

T able

[All the plants reported are in the Pittsburgh district. The figures for each group of years are for identical
plants.]
NU M BER.

Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Aver­ age
age age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation
time
of
of week­
and number of Year. em­ time
ploy­ hours wages ly
per per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

Pair heaters:
9 plants.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

3

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7 $0,466 $19.89
42.7 .502 21.42
42.7 .517 22.06

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

1910
1911
1912

215
259
.252
222
222
115
139

42.7
42.7

.474 20.21
.517 22.05

215
255
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

.558 23.82
.603 25.71
.616 26.29

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

.633 26.99
.666 28.40

1910
1911
1912

215
258
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

.544 23.19
.587 25.03
.603 25.71

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

.617 26.33
.652 27.84

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7
42.7
42.7

.387 16.53
.418 17.83
.429 18.30

4
5
3

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

.439 18.75
.462 19.72

1910
1911
1912

210
252
246

42.7
42.7
42.7

1912
1913

216
222

1910
1911
1912

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

42.7 1.437 61.31
42.7 1.455 62.08

1912
1913
Roughers:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

42.7 1.242 52.9S
42.7 1.380 58.89
42.7 1.416 60.41

1912
1913

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

8 plants___
Rollers:
9 plants—

8 plants.
Rollers' helpers
or finishers:
6 plants___

8 plants.
Catchers:
9 plants.

8 plants.
Matchers:
9 plants.

8 plants.
Doublers:
9 plants.

8 plants...
Sheet heaters:
9 plants...

8 plants.
Sheet heaters'
helpers:
8 plants___

7 plants.
Shearmen:
7 plants.

6 plants.

37
34
12

62
98
56

103
69
144

2
45
35

12
11

26
16

144
128

35
59

5

4

.532 22.69
.558 23.79

3
6
2
2

'

5

8
1

198
258
252

3

222
222
56
60
13

7
34
14
42
12
3

25
18

22

84 84
144 45 ***52
42 129
39
42 129
35 111

39
73

82 74
115 46 " ’ 52
39 130 31

17
12
4

40
33
48

4
1

18
11

18
10
4

79
109
63

109
85
151

46
28

3

4
2

33
.32

151
132

28
51

.372 15.86
.401 17.10
.412 17.58

6

16
10
3

105
120
75

83
101
153

21
14

42.7
42.7

.423 18.06
.450 19.21

1

3
1

45
39

153
143

14
36

215
259
253

42.7
42.7
42.7

.883 37.68
.911 38.88
.949 40.51

9

1912
1913

223
223

42.7
42.7

.989 42.21
.998 42.60.

1910
1911
1912

174
215
208

42.7
42.7
42.7

.377 16.07
.436 18.59
.439 18.71

1912
1913

178
178

42.7
42.7

1910
1911
1912

85 .46.0
104 44.9
105 44.9

1912
1913

95
93

45.1
45.2

1

39 130
33 114

31
63

2

3
24
38
36

182
221
216

1

6
10

216
213

1

1

98
72
68

63
90
98

4
51
40

1
2

.439 18.74
.511 21.81

68
27

68
60

40
62

2
20

9

.689 30.79
.722 32.86
.768 34.67

1

3
1

11
5
1

6
6
6

13
30
6

9
9
9

46
51
81

.757 34.42
.801 36.34 .

1
1

1
1

1
1

6
1

6
6

9
22

71
61

83021°— Bull. 168— 15------ 20




2

34
32

9

3 06

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—SHEET MILLS—Continued.

T a b le

NUMBER—Concluded.

Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age Aver­ age
age
ber full­ rate full­
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ time of time
week­
hours
plants.
ploy­ per wages ly
per
ees. week. hour. earn­
ings.

S h ea rm en ’ s
helpers:
6 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

62
83
77

46.4 $n m $11.99
44.9
308 13.59
45.1
?90 12.88

12

26
26
8

33
28
32

1
18
15

67
70

45.5
45.3

?67 11.97
?67 11.93

12
12

8
26

32
11

15
20

1

138
167
180

46.0
45.2
45.8

?74 12.57
9,75 12.35
?89 13.04

2
8

58

121
143
70

5
3
22

10
1
8

17
14

170
168

46.0
45.4

?74 12.43
?79 12.56

8
3

58
7

70
138

22
20

8

4

50
49

70.8
71.8

181 12.75
172 12.35

28
38

14
4

8
7

1911
1912

58
39

71.2
71.7

177 12.54
186 13.23

38
20

4
6

16
13

4 plants....... 1912
1913
Laborers:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

33
30

72.4
70.0

.183 13.17
.202 14.06

20
17

6

7
6

347
361
354

63.1
63.6
63.5

.164 10.35
.166 10.54
.169 10.72

74
66
2

8 plants....... 1912
1913

238
260

63.8
65.0

.168 10.76
.191 12.39

2

236
34 216

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

10

5 plants,.___ 1912
1913
Openers:
7 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
fi plants.
1912
1913
Picklers:
4 plants....... 1910
1911
Rplants.

2

2
1
10

10

1

7

273
295
352

PER CENT.
Pair heaters:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7 $0,466 $19.89
42.7 .502 21.42
42.7 .517 22.03

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

1910
1911
1912

215
259
252

42.7 1.242 52.98
42.7 1.380 58.89
42.7 1.416 60.41

1912
1913

222
222

42.7 1.437 61.31
42.7 1.455 62.08

100.0
100.0

1912
1913
Roughers:
9 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

115
139

42.7
42.7

.474 20.21
.517 22.05

48.7
29.6 21.7
43.2 **5.0 23.0 12.9 *i5.8

215
255
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

.558 23.82
.603 25.71
.616 26.29

8 plants....... 1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

.633 26.99
.666 28.40

1910
1911
1912

215
258
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

.544 23.19
.587 25.03
.603 25.71

8 plants. . . . 1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

.617 26.33
.652 27.84

8 plants. .
Rollers:
9 plants.

8 plants
Rollers’ helpers
or finishers:
6 plants

Catchers:
9 plants. . .




1.4

.532 22.69
.558 23.79

1.4 17.6 29.5 49.0 1.0
2.4 13.3 38.4 27.1 17.6 "i.*2
.8 4.8 22.5 57.8 14.1
.9

5.5 11.9 65.8 16.0
5.0 7.3 58.4 26.9
1.9

2.3

2.3 3.7 92.1
.4 99.6
100.0

6.0 15.8 39.1 39.1
5.5 56.5 17.6 *20*4
16.7 16.7 51.2 15.5

I
;

5.4 18.9 58.1 17.6
1.4 15.8 50.0 32.9
.9

7.9 18.6 38.1 34.4
4.7 12.8 44.6 17.8 20.2
1.6 19.0 15.5 51.6 12.3
1.8
.5

8.1 17.6 58.6 14.0
5.0 14.9 51.4 28.4

307

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SHEET MILLS.

I . —AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—SHEET MILLS— Concluded.

T able

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. emplants.
ploy-

Matchers:
9 plants.

8 plants.
Doublers:
9 plants.

8 plants...
Sheet heaters:
9 plants...

8 plants.
Sheet heaters’
helpers:
8 plants___

7 plants.
Shearmen:
7 plants.

6 plants___
S h e a r m e n ’s
helpers:
6 plants___

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40 50 60
of week and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un- cts.
iy der der der der der der der der der ,der and
per
hour. eam- 14 16 18 20 25 30
40
50 60 70 over.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

!7
42.7 $0.38' $16. <
]
42.7 .418
)
42.7 .429

1.9
2.0
1.2

8.6 37.6 51.9
3.9 42.7 33.3 18.0
1.6 25.3 60.6 11.2

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

.439
.462

I

1.4

1.8 15.1 68.9 12.8
.9 14.6 60.3 23.3 0.9

1910
1911
1912

210
252
246

42.7
42.7
42.7

.372
.401
.412

)
I

2.9

7.6 50.0 39.5
4.0 47.6 40.1
1.2 30.5 62.2

1912
1913

216
222

42.7
42.7

.423
.450

[

1910
1911
1912

215
259

42.7
42.7
42.7

1912
1913

223
223

42.7
42.7

)

1910
1911
1912

174
215
208

42.7
42.7
42.7

7
.377
.436 18. J )
.439

5.2 56.3 36.2 2.3
33.5 41.9 23.7 .5
32.7 47.1 19.2 1.0

.5

1912
1913

178
178

42.7
42.7

\
.511

38.2 38.2 22.5 1.1
15.2 33.7 34.8 11.2

5.i

1910
1911
1912

85
104
105

46.0
44.9
44.

1912
1913

95

.911
.949

.4
.4

1.4 20.8 70.8 6.5
.5 17.6 64.4 16.2

I
I

.4 2.7 96.9
4.5 95.5

r

1.0

12.9
2.9 4.8
1.0 1.0

1.1
1.1

1.1
1.1

45.1
45.2

.757
.801

►

1.......
1.......

1910
1911
1912

77

46.4
44.
45.1

.261
.308
.290

1912
1913

67
70

45.5
45.3

.267
.267 11. £

1910
1911
1912

138
167
180

46.0
45.2
45.8

.274
.275

1912
1913

170
168

46.0
45.4

.274
.279

1910
1911

50
49

70.8
71.

.181
.172

56.0 28.0 16.0
77.6 8.2 14.3

5 plants.

1911
1912

58
39

71.2
71.7

.177
.186

65.5 6.9 27.6
51.3 15.4 33.3

4 plants.

1912
1913

33
30

72.4
70.0

.183
.202

60.6 18.2 21.2
20.0 23.3
56.7

1910
1911
1912

347
361
354

63.1
63.6
63.5

.164
.166 10.54
.169

8 plants....... 1912
1913

238
2C0

65.0

.168
.191 12.39

5 plants.
Openers:
7 plants.

6 plants.
Picklers:
4 plants.

Laborers:
9 plants.




1.1
1.1

7.1 15.3 10.6 54.1
5.8 28.8 8.7 49.0
5.7 5.7 8.6 77.1
6.3
1.1

6.3 9.5 74.7
6.5 23.7 65.6

41.9 53.2 1.6 3.2
31.3 33.7 21.7 1.2 12.0
15.6 10.4 41.6 19.5 13.0
17.9 11.9 47.8 22.4
17.1 37.1 15.7 28.6

r 1.4

1.4

4.2 11.2 84.7
14.7 85.3
.4 14.2 85.4

)
.722
.768

8.3
5.7

1.4

1.2
4.4

87.7 3.6
85.6 1.8
32.2 38.9 12.2

7.2
.6 10.2
4.4 7.8

4.7
1.8

34.1 41.2 12.9
4.2 82.1 11.9

4.7

21.3 78.7
18.3 81.7
.6 99.4
.8 99.1
13.1 83.1 3.8
1

2.4

.6 .......

308
T a b le

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

II.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—SHEET MILLS.

[All the plants reported are in the Pittsburgh district. The figures for each group of years are for identical
plants.]
NUM BER.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Pair heaters:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Rollers:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Rollers7helpers or finishers;
6 plants........................
Roughers:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Catchers:
9 plants........................

8 plants................ .
Matchers:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Doublers:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Sheet heaters:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Sheet heaters’ helpers:
8 plants........................

7 plants........................
Shearmen:
7 plants........................

6 plants.....................




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over 56
of
Over
Over
Year. em­ time
48
48
60
72
and
ploy hours and and under 60
72
and
and
84
per under. under
ees. week.
under
under
60
56
72
84

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7
42.7
42.7

210
255
249

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

219
219

1910
1911
1912

215
259
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

215
259
252

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

222
222

1912
1913

115
139

42.7
42.7

115
139

1910
1911
1912

215
255
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

215
255
252

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

222
222

1910
1911
1912

215
258
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

215
258
252

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7
42.7
42.7

210
255
249

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

219
219

1910
1911
1912

210
252
246

42.7
42.7
42.7

210
252
246

1912
1913

216
222

42.7
42.7

216
222

1910
1911
1912

215
259
253

42.7
42.7
42.7

215
259
253

1912
1913

223
223

42.7
42.7

223
223

1910
1911
1912

174
215
208

42.7
42.7
42.7

174
215
208

1912
1913

178
178

42.7
42.7

178
178

1910
1911
1912

85
104
105

46.0
44.9
44.9

73
94
95

12
10
10

1912
1913

93

45.1
45.2

85
83

10
10

«

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— SHEET MILLS,
T able

3 09

I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—SHEET MILLS— Continued.
NUMBER—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Shearmen’s helpers
6 plants...........

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
Over
Over
time
48
72
48
60
hours and and and
84
72
60
and
and
per under. under under
under
under
week.
60
56
84
72

1910
1911
1912

62
83
77

46.4
44.9
45.1

1912
1913

67
70

45.5
45.3

62

1910
1911
1912

138
167
180

46.0
45.2
45.8

118
149
156

1912
1913

170
168

46.0
45.4

146
148

1910
1911

50
49

70.8
71.8

5
5

5 plants...........

1911
1912

58
39

71.2
71.7

5
5

4 plants........

1912
1913

33
30

72.4
70.0

5
5

1910
1911
1912

347
361
354

63.1
63.6
63.5

223
191
192

1912
1913

238
260

63.8
65.0

131
108

5 plants...........
Openers:
7 plants...........

6 plants...........
Picklers:
4 plants...........

Laborers:
9 plants...........

8 plants...........

10

PER CENT.
Pair heaters:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Rollers:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Rollers’ helpers or finishers
6 plants........................
Roughers:
9 plants........................

8 plants........................
Catchers:
9 plants............ ...........

8 plants........................
Matchers:
9 plants........................

8 plants.....................




1910
1911
1912

210
255
249

42.7
42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

219
219

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

215
259
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1912
1913

115
139

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

215
255
252

42.7
42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

215 42.7
258 42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

222
222

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

210 42.7
255 42.7
249 42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

219
219

100.0
100.0

42.7
42.7

310
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR. STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—SHEET MILLS— Concluded.
PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Doublers:
9 plants................

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy-

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over 56
Over
Over
time
48
60
72
48
hours and and and
60
and
72
and
84
per under. under under
under
under
week.
84
56
72

1910
1911
1912

210
252
246

42.7
42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

216
222

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

215
259
253

42.7
42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

223
223

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

174
215
208

42.7
42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

1912
1913

178
178

42.7
42.7

100.0
100.0

1910
1911
1912

85
104
105

46.0
44.9
44.9

85.9
90.4
90.5

14.1
9.6
9.5

1912
1913

95
93

45.1
45.2

89.5
89.2

10.5
10.8

1910
1911
1912

62
83
77

46.4
44.9
45.1

83.9
90.4

16.1
9.6
10.4

1912
1913

67
70

45.5
45.3

18.1

11.9
11.4

1910
1911
1912

138
167
180

46.0
45.2
45.8

85.5
89.2
86.7

14.5
10.8
13.3

1912
1913

170
168

46.0
45.4

85.9
88.1

14.1
11.9

1910
1911

50
49

70.8
71.8

10.0
10.2

5 plants................

1911
1912

58
39

71.2
71.7

8.6
12.8

4 plants................

1912
1913

33
30

72.4
70.0

15.1
16.7

1910
1911
1912

347
361
354

63.1
63.6
63.5

1912
1913

238
260

63.8
65.0

8 plants................
Sheet heaters:
9 plants................

8 plants................
Sheet heaters’ helpers:
8 plants................

7 plants................
Shearmen:
7 plants................

6 plants................
Shearmen’s helpers:
6 plants................

5 plants................
Openers:
7 plants................

6 plants................
Picklers:
4 plants................

Laborers:
9 plants................

8 plants................




0.6
1.1

90.0
81.6

8.2

69.0
56.4

6.9
15.4

66.7
83.3

15.5
15.4

18.2

3.5
3.6
3.1

64.3
52.9
54.2

12.7
24.9
25.7

15.9
15.5
15.3

4.6
7.7

55.0
41.5

15.1
18.4

22.7
32.3

2.6
1.9
1.1
1.7

TIN-PLATE MILLS.
SUMMARY.
Summary figures relating to the tin-plate-mill department of the
iron and steel industry are given with figures for other departments
in the introductory summary on pages 5 to 15. An explanation of
the scope of the investigation and of the methods employed is given
on pages 15 to 23.
Briefly stated, in 1913 the average full-time weekly earnings of
employees in the principal productive occupations in tin-plate mills
were 17.6 per cent higher than in 1910, 5.4 per cent higher than in
1911, and 3.8 per cent higher than in 1912. The average full-time
hours of labor per week in 1913 were the same as in 1910, 0.2 per cent
higher than in 1911, and 0.4 per cent higher than in 1912. The
average rate of wages or earnings per hour in 1913 was 17.6 per cent
higher than in 1910, 5.3 per cent higher than in 1911, and 3.7 per cent
higher than in 1912.
The most significant facts concerning the several tin-plate-mill occu­
pations which are covered in this section of the report are summarized
in the table following. Data are presented for the years 1910, 1911,
1912, and 1913, figures from identical plants being grouped together.
The data for 1913 represents 2,778 tin-plate-mill employees in the 19
occupations covered, and were obtained from 6 plants, having 75 hot
mills in operation.
Referring to the first occupation— assorters, female— comparison
can be made of data for four identical plants in 1910 and 1911, and
for five identical plants in 1911, 1912, and 1913. The first line of
the table is read as follows: In 1910, four tin-plate mills from which
reports were obtained employed 101 assorters, female, whose aver­
age full-time hours of work were 49.7 per week. For 45.5 per cent
the full-time hours per week were 48 and under; for 7.9 per cent,
over 48 and under 56; and for 46.5 per cent, 56 and under 60. The
average rate of wages or earnings per hour in the year considered
(1910) was $0,128. Of the total number 92.1 per cent earned under
14 cents per hour, and the remaining 7.9 per cent 14 and under 16
cents per hour. The average full-time weekly earnings were $6.41.
The other lines of the table may be read in the same manner.
Referring to the last column of the table, it is seen that in four
plants the average full-time weekly earnings of assorters, female,
were $6.41. In 1911 for the same four plants the average had in­
creased to $6.97. In 1911 in five plants the average full-time




311

312

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

weekly earnings were $7.03, increasing in 1912 to $7.39 and in 1913
to $8.37.
Comparing the average full-time weekly earnings for 1913 for the
several occupations, it is seen that the lowest average was that of
assorters, female, which was $8.37, and the highest that of rollers,
which was $47.76.
In thi table occupations are grouped according to the wages paid,
beginning with the lowest-paid group, and the occupations in each
group are presented in alphabetical order.
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS P E R W E E K AND RATES OF W AGES
PE R HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­

ploy*

Assorters, female:
4 plants............. 1910
1911
5 plants............. 1911
1912
1913
Branners:
2 plants............. 1910
1911
1912
1913
Laborers:
4 plants............. 1910
1911
5 plants...........

1911
1912

6 plants............. 1912
1913
Shearmen’s helpers:
2 plants............. 1910
1911
1912

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
rate
full­
Over 56
of
time
wages
hours 48 48 and
per and and un­ 60 Over per
60 hour.
week. un­ un­ der
der. der
56

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Aver­
hour were—
age
full­
time
14
16 18
Un­ and and and 20 week­
ly
der un­ un­ un­ cts. earn­
14 der der der and ings.
cts. 16
18 20 over.
cts. cts. cts.

101
112

49.7 45.5
50.2 41.1

7.9 46.5
8.0 50.9

$0.128 92.1
.138 92.0

7.9
2.7

120
127
120

50.7 38.3
51.4 37.0
51.5 35.0

7.5 54.2
3.9 i.l
5.0 60.0

.138 92.5
.145 .3
.163

2.5




5.0 7.03
3.1
7.39
2.5 *i.*7 8.37
11.52
11.50
11.51
13.20

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.170
.170
.170
.195

100.0
100.0
100.0

191
201

60.6
60.4

52.9 24.1 23.0
4.5 39.3 36.3 19.9

.165
.163

27.2 72.8
30.8 66.2

9.97
9.84

239

61.0
61.3

3.8 33.2 37. 25.2
.4 34.7 40.6 24.2

.164
.169

26.1 71.4
4.2 95.

10.01
10.37

276

61.6
61.1

30.1 42.8 27.3
33.2 33.5 33.2

.167
.190

24.1

80.0 20.0
25.8 74.2
75.

.118 80.0 20.0
.118 96.8 3.2
.123 75.9 17.2

57.6 14.3 20.0
58.7 21.1

62.9 2.9
60.5 18.4

61.8
59.7
58.8

1911
1912

2
2

1910
1911

174
179

1911
1912
1913

191
193
190

100.0

9.1 90.9
2.5 13.0 84.5

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

10.32
11.63
7.31
7.02
7.18

6.9

.136 62.9 14.3
.165 31.6 28.9 18.4

Un­
der
20
cts.

6 plants........

26.8
86.7

67.8
67.7
67.7
67.7

1913

Doublers’ helpers:
5 plants........

$6.41
6.97

12
20
16
17

3 plants............. 1912

Assorters, male:
1 plant.........

5.4

2.9 11.4
21.0

7.71
9.51

and 40
un­ cts.
der and
40 over.
cts.

.275

100.0
50.0 50.0

14.44
15.13

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

.324
.353

34.5 65.5
100.0

13.82
15.05

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42. 7100.
1.0

.351
.370

55.0
55.0

100.0
100.0

14.97
100.0
1.0 87.0 11.9 15.81
47.9 52.1 16.77

313

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PE R HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS—Continued.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Openers, male:
3 plants...........

Num­
ber
of
Year em­
ploy­
ees.

Per cent of employees
Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
whose full-time hours
hour were—
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
rate
full­
Over 56
20
25 30
of
time
wages: Un­ and and and 40
hours 48 48 and[
per and and un­ 60 Over’ per der un­ un­ un­ cts.
60 hour. 20 der der der and
week un­ un­ der
cts. 25
30 40 over.
der. der 60
cts. cts. cts.
56

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Risers:
2 plants...........
3 plant.*?. . .

r

Screw boys:
5 plants...........
6 plants............

57.5
57.3

16.0 84.0 .......
25.0 75.0 .......

84
89

57.3
57.5

22.6 77.4
15.7 84.3

1912
1913

93
97

56.9
57.7

4 3 15.1 80.6
16.5 75.3 " *8.2

1910
1911

13
17

45.5 76 9 23.1
44.1 88 2 11.8

.244
.231

69.2 30.8
100.0 .......

11.08
10.22

1911
1912
1913

5 plants ..........

94
76

1911
1912

Openers, female:
2 plants............

1910
1911

15
18
11

42.7 100 0
42.7 100.0
60.0

100.0 .......
.230
.209 38.9 33.3 27.8
.198 45.5 54.5

9.81
8.93
11.89

1910
1911

34
39

44.1 88 2 11.8
45.0 84.6 5.1 io:3

.262
.279

50.0 29.4 20.6
46.2 15.4 38.5

11.51
12.51

1911
1912
1913

42
30
34

50.0 14.3 35.7
.275
.239 13.3 53.3 23.3 10.0
23.5 58.8 17.6
.279

12.30
11.98
12.59

1910
1911

174
186

44.8 85 7 4.8 9.5
50.1 40.0 60.0
45.1 100.0
....... .......
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

.308 1.7 14.9 16.7 66.7
3.2 18.8 77.4
.342

13.15
0.5 14.61

1911
1912
1913

198
221
218

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0 .......
42.7 100.0

.345
.352 ---.373

$0.221 20.2 79.8
.262
25. C 75.0 .......

$12.72
15.02

22.6 77.4
39.3 60.7

15.24
17.12

1.1 39.8 59.1
2.1 16,5 75.3

16.86
17.89

.266
.298
.296
.310 *6*2

100.0

:::::

Un­
der
30
cts.
Catchers:
5 plants............. 1910
1911

3.0 17.7 78.8
.5 14.72
.5 19.0 38.9 41.6 15.03
.5 16.5 36.7 46.3 15.91
30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and 60
un­ cts.
der and
60 over.
cts.

174
186

42.7 100. c
42.7 100.0

.427 19.5 22.4 4.6 53.4
.481 3.3 31.7 11.3 53.8

18.23
20.52

6 plants............. 1911
1912
1913
Heaters’ helpers:
4 plants............. 1910
1911

198
239
238

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

.487 3.0 29.8 10.6 56.6
.'403 5.8 33.1 54.0 5.4
.427 2.1 32.4 55.0 6.7

20.79
i.7 17.20
3.8 18.23

165
154

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0 .......

5 plants............. 1911
1912
1913
Roughers: *
5 plants............ 1910
1911

166
109
103

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

174
184

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

196
216
214

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

224
262

42.9 98.2
43.0 97.7

1.8
.8 *i.*5 ....... .......

.402 16.0 37.9 43.3
.439 .8 26.3 68.7

1.3
2.7

1.3 17.27
1.5 13.92

1911
1912
1913

283
294
296

43.0 97.9
43.4 93.9
42.9 100.0

.7 1.4
6.1

.429 .7 31.8 63.6 2.5
.444 2.0 38.8 24.1 33.3
.456 .3 9.5 83.8 5.1

1.4 18.48
1.7 19.28
1.4 19.57

6 plants............
Tinners:
4 plants............
5 plants............




.348
100.0
.438 . . . . 59.7

.......
----

----

.......

.......

___

1.3 38.9

55.4 8.4
.436
75.2 10.1
.396
.425 * ’ 57.3 19.4
.425
34.5 56.9
43.5
.506
.507
.513
.553

14.84
18.71

36.1
14.7
23.3

18.60
16.92
18.15

8.6
56.5

18.14
21.60

40.8 59.1
21.63
.5 38.4 59.3 1.9 21.89
35.0 19.6 45.4 23.59

314

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K AND RATES OF WAGES
PER HOUR AND AVERAGE FULL-TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS IN EACH OF TILE
PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

Occupation, and
number of plants.

Num­
ber
of
Year. em­
ploy­
ees.

Doublers:
5 plants............. 1910
1911

Per cent of employees
whose full-time hours
per week were—
Aver­
Aver­
age
age
rate
full­
time
Over 56
of
hours 48
wages
48
per and and and 60 Over per
un­
week. un­ un­ der
60 hour.
der. der 60
56

Per cent of employees
whose earnings per
Averhour were—

Un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

IUlltime
60
week­
and 70
ly
un­ cts. earn­
der and ings.
70 over.
cts.

174
193

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0 .......

6 plants............. 1911
1912
1913
Heaters:
5 plants............. 1910
1911

205
247
251

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0 .......
42.7 100.0

.706
.677 ___
.699 ___

174
203

42.7 100.0 .......
42.7 100.0 .......

.648 6.9 13.2 19.0 7.5 53.4 27.63
.709 . . . .
10.8 60.6 28.6 30.24

6 plants............. 1911
1912
1913
Redippers:
1 plant.............. 1910
1911
1912
1913
Rollers:
5 plants............. 1910
1911

215
314
312

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0 .......

.714
.675
.679

14
17
10
13

46.2 71.4 28.6
47.2 70.6 5.9
55.0
100.0
46.6 ioo.’ o

.570 ___ 14.3 50.0 35.7 . . . . .
.619
5.9 35.3 52.9 5.9
.592
10.0 30.0 60.0
.622 *7 7 7.7 15.4 46.2 23.1
.*

174
189

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

6 plants............. 1911
1912
1913
Shearmen:
5 plants............. 1910
1911

201
229
231

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

6 plants............

1911
1912
1913

$0,632 5.8 13.8 16.7 13.2 50.6 $26.97
.698
2.6 13.5 41.5 42.5 29.80

1.025 . . . .
1.103
1.109
1.097
: 1.119

2.4 12.7 39.0 45.9 30.13
5.7 26.7 11.3 56.3 28.90
4.0 10.0 25.5 60.6 29.81

.......

.6

10.2 57.2 32.6 30.47
23.6 57.6 18.8 28.78
9.3 61.9 28.8 28.99

.6

26.56
29.32
32.58
29.00

2.9 96.0 43.73
.5 99.5 47.05
.5 99.5 47.33
100.0 46. £2
100.0 47.76

58
61

52.7 53.4 12.1
53.1 50.8 11.5

34.5
37.7

.497 24.1 20.7 55.2
.548 6.6 41.0 3.3 49.2

65
72
73

52.8 53.8 10.8
51.8 59.7 9.7
51.9 58.9 9.6

35.4
30. G
31.5

28.72
.555 6.2 38.5 3.1 52.3
.573 16.7 25.0 15.3 4.2 38.*9 29.00
.606 11.0 28.8 2.7 16.4 41.1 30.66

25.68
28.50

To aid in making a comparison of the actual data for the four years
which will give an accurate measure of the changes throughout the
period, relative or index numbers have been computed from the aver­
ages of the preceding table for full-time hours per week, rates of
wages per hour, and full-time weekly earnings, for each occupation
from 1910 to 1913, inclusive. Such figures appear in the table
following.
These relative or index numbers are simply percentages for which
the data for 1913 are taken as the base, or 100 per cent. The rela­
tive for each year is the per cent which the average for that year is
of the average for 1913. For example, the relative full-time weekly
earnings of rollers in 1910 were 92.1 as compared with 100 in 1913;
that is, the full-time weekly earnings of rollers in 1910 were 92.1 per
cent of the full-time weekly earnings in this occupation in 1913.
The method of computing the relative numbers is explained on
pages 21 to 23.
This table also shows for each occupation the per cent of increase
or decrease in full-time hours per week, rates of wages per hour, and



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.

315

full-time weekly earnings in 1913 as compared with each specified
year preceding. Thus the full-time weekly earnings of rollers in 1913
were 8.6 per cent higher than in 1910, 0.9 per cent higher than in
1911, and 2 per cent higher than in 1912.
In other columns of the table is shown the per cent of change in
each year as compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus
the full-time weekly earnings of rollers in 1911 were 7.6 per cent
higher than in 1910, in 1912, 1.1 per cent lower than in 1911, and
in 1913, 2 per cent higher than in 1912. The other occupations
and items of the table can be studied in like manner. The percent­
ages of increase and decrease are computed from the relative numbers.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EA R S, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS—TIN-PLATE
MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in Occupation and year.

Rollers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Roughers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Catchers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Screw boys:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Doublers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Doublers’ helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Heaters:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3




Weekly earnings.

Rela­
tive
rate
of

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

per
hour.

Relar
Each
tive
Each
full­
speci­
speci­
1913 as
time 1913 as fied
fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
as
as
earn­
with
with
com­
com­
ings.
each
each
pared
pared
speci­ with
speci­ with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

92.1
99.1
98.0
100.0

+ 8.6
+ •9
+ 2.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

77.0
91.7
92.8
100.0

+29.9
+ 9.1
+ 7.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.2
114.1
94.4
100.0

- 1.2
-1 2 .4
+ 5.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

83.3
92.5
94.4
100.0

+20.0
+ 8.1
+ 5.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

91.4
101.0
96.9
100.0

+ 9.4
- 1.0
+ 3.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

82.0
89.3
94.1
100.0

+22.0
+12.0
+ 6.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

96.1
105.2
99.4
100.0

+ 4.1
- 4.9
+ .6

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
pared
speci­
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

i No change.

+ 7.6
-1 .1
+ 2.0

92.1
99.1
98.0
100.0

+ 8.6
+ •9
+ 2.0

+19.1
+ 1.2
+ 7.8

77.0
91.7
92.8
100.0

+29.9
+ 9.1
+ 7.8

+12.7
-1 7 .3
+ 5.9

101.3
114.0
94.3
100.0

- 1.3
-1 2 .3
+ 6.0

+11.0
+ 2.1
+ 5.9

83.3
92.5
94.5
100.0

+20.0
+ 8.1
+ 5.8

+10.5
-4 .1
+ 3.2

91.5
101.1
96.9
100.0

+ 9.3
-1 .1
+ 3.2

+ 8.9
+ 5.4
+ 6.3

94.3
100.0

+ 9.5
- 5.5'
+ .6

96.0
105.1
99.3
100.0

+22.0
+12.0
+ 6.0
+ 4.2
- 4.9
+ .7

+ 7.6
- 1.1
+ 2.0
+19.1
+ 1.2
+ 7.8
+12.5
-1 7.3
+ 6.0
+11.0
+ 2.2
+ 5.8
+10.5
- 4.2
+ 3.2
+ 8.9
+ 5.6
+ 6.0

+ 9.5
- 5.5
+ .7

316

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W EEK, RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED YEARS, B Y PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS — TIN-PLATE
MILLS—Concluded.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease (—)
in -

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in—
Occupation and year.

Heaters’ helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Shearmen:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Shearmen’s helpers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Openers, male:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Openers, female:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Tinners:
191 0
191 1
191 2
1913...................
Redippers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Risers:
191 0
191 1
191 2
1913...................
Branners:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Assorters, male.2
Assorters, female:
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
Laborers:
191 0
191..................... 1
191..................... 2
191..................... 3

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

+22.7
-2 .5
+ 7.3

+ 0.7
-1 .9
+ .2

83.1
91.6
94.6
100.0

+20.3
+ 9.2
+ 5.7

- 3.4
- 1.5
+ 1.9

79.1
79.1
82.4
100.0

+26.4
+26.4
+21.4

- .3
+ .3
+ 1.4

71.9
85.2
95.5
100.0

+39.1
+ 17.4
+ 4.7

- 3.0
0)
+40.4

122.7
116.2
105.6
100.0

-1 8 .5
-1 3 .9
- 5.3

+ .2
+ 1.0
- 1.2

86.1
94.1
97.4
100.0

+ 16.1
+ 6.3
+ 2.7

+ 2.2
+16.5
-1 5.3

91.6
99.5
95.2
100.0

+ 9.2
+ .5
+ 5.0

+ 2.1
+11.9
-1 0 .0

92.6
98.6
85.7
100.0

+ 8.0
+ 1.4
+16.7

I f

101.0
101.7
99.8
100.0

- 1.0
-1 .7
+ -2

103.1
99.6
98.1
100.0

- 3.0
+ •4
+ 1.9

98.6
98.3
98.6
100.0

+ 1.4
+ 1.7
+ 1.4

73.4
71.2
71.2
100.0

+36.2
+40.4
+40.4

100.0
100.2
101.2
100.0

-

99.1
101.3
118.0
100.0

+ .9
- 1.3
-1 5 .3

97.3
99.3
111.1
100.0

+ 2.8
+ •7
-1 0 .0

100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0

-

97.5
98.4
99.8
100.0

+ 2.6
+ 1.6
+ .2

100.7
100.3
100.8
100.0

-

1.2

87.2
87.2
87.2
100..0

+14.7
+14.7
+ 14.7

+ .9
+ 1.4
+ .2

78.5
84.7
89.0
100.0

+27.4
+18.1
+12.4

+

86.3
85.3
87.9
100.0

+15.9
+17.2
+13.8

.1
b)

.7
.3

.4
.5

Per cent of in­
crease ( + )
or decrease (—)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
as
as
earn­
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.

81.5
102.6
93.2
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Weekly earnings.

+25.9
- 9.2
+ 7.3

81.3
102.5
93.2
100.0

+23.0
- 2.4
+ 7.3

+ 10.2
+ 3.3
+ 5.7

84.4
93.7
94.6
100.0

+18.5
+ 6.7
+ 5.7

0)
+ 4.2
+21.4

82.5
79.3
81.1
100.0

+21.2
+26.1
+23.3

+ 18.5
+ 12.1
+ 4.7

71.0
83.9
94.2
100.0

+40.8
+ 19.2
+ 6.2

- 5.3
-9 .1
- 5.3

89.4
82.5
75.1
100.0

+11.9
+21.2
+33.2

+ 9.3
+ 3.5
+ 2.7

86.2
94.4
98.5
100.0

+16.0
+ 5.9
+ 1.5

+ 8.6
- 4.3
+ 5.0

91.6
101.1
112.3
100.0

+ 9.2
-1 .1
-1 1 .0

+ 6.5
-1 3.1
+16.7

97.7
95.2
100.0

+14.7

8

87.3
87.1
87.2
100.0

+14.5
+14.8
+14.7

+ 7.9
+ 5.1
+12.4

77.2
84.0
88.3
100.0

+29.5
+19.0
+13.3

- 1.2
+ 3.0
+13.8

86.8
85.7
88.7
100.0

+15.2
+16.7
+12.7

+11.2
+ 2.4
+ 5.0

+26.1
- 9.1
+ 7.3
+11.0
+ 1.0
+ 5.7
- 3.9
+ 2.3
+23.3
+ 18.2
+12.3
+ 6.2
- 7.7
- 9.0
+33.2
+ 9.5
+ 4.3
+ 1.5
+10.4
+ 11.1
-1 1 .0
+ 8.7
- 2.6
+ 5.0
.2
+ •1
+14.7

+ 8.8
+ 5.1
+13.3
- 1.3
+ 3.5
+12.7

1No change.
2 None employed in 1913 by establishments reporting. Hence no relatives could be computed for
1910,1911, and 1912.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.

3 17

A similar table of relative numbers and percentages is next shown
for the tin-plate-mill department as a whole, as determined by a com­
bination of the data for the several principal productive occupations
which are covered by this section of the report. The method of
computing the figures of this table is explained on page 23.
From this table, under 1 weekly earnings,” it is seen that the relative
1
full-time weekly earnings of the department as a whole in 1910 were
85 as compared with 100 in 1913. In other words, the full-time
weekly earnings in 1910 were 85 per cent of such earnings in
1913. The relative increased to 94.9 in 1911, to 96.3 in 1912, and in
1913, the base year, the relative is 100. The next column shows that
full-time weekly earnings in 1913 were 17.6 per cent higher than in
1910, 5.4 per cent higher than in 1911, and 3.8 per cent higher than
in 1912. The third column under “ weekly earnings” shows the per
cent of increase* or decrease in full-time weekly earnings each year as
compared with the year immediately preceding. Thus, the full-time
weekly earnings in 1911 were 11.6 per cent higher than in 1910;
in 1912, 1.5 per cent higher than in 1911; and in 1913, 3.8 per cent
higher than in 1912. The relative numbers and percentages for
full-time hours per week and rates of wages per hour can be read in
like manner.
RELATIVE FULL-TIME HOURS PER W E E K , RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, AND FULL­
TIME W EE K LY EARNINGS, 1910 TO 1913, TOGETHER W ITH PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN SPECIFIED Y EARS, A LL OCCUPATIONS—TIN-PLATE MILLS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)

Year.

1910
1911
1912
1913

Rela­
tive
full­
time
hours
per
week.

100.0
99.8
99.6
100.0

Each
1913 as speci­
fied
com­
year
pared
as
with
com­
each
speci­ pared
with
fied
year
year.
pre­
ceding.

•S.
+ .4

- 0 .2
- .2
+ .4

Weekly earnings.

Per cent of in­
crease (+ )
or decrease ( —)
Rela­
tive
rate
of
per
hour.

85.0
95.0
96.4
100.0

Per cent of in­
crease (-f)
or decrease ( —)
in -

Rela­
Each
tive
Each
speci­
full­
speci­
1913 as fied
time 1913 as fied
com­
com­
year weekly pared
year
pared
as
earn­
as
with
with
com­
ings.
com­
each
each
speci­ pared
speci­ pared
with
with
fied
fied
year
year
year.
year.
pre­
pre­
ceding.
ceding.
+17.6
+ 5.3
+ 3.7

+11.8
+ 1.5
+ 3.7

85.0
94.9
96.3
100.0

+17.6
+ 5.4
+ 3.8

+11.6
+ 1.5
+ 3.8

i No change.

In considering weekly earnings it should be remembered that a
reduction of hours tends to reduce weekly earnings, just as an increase
in wages per hour, of course, tends to increase them. Still another
influence on average weekly earnings for the department must be con­
sidered; that is, the change in the relative number of employees in




318

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the several occupations from year to year. It is obvious that an
increase in the relative number of employees in the lower-paid occu­
pations or a decrease in the relative number of those in the higherpaid ones would tend to lower the average rate and earnings for all
occupations, just as an increase in the relative number of employees
in the higher-paid occupations or a decrease in the relative number
in the lower-paid ones would tend to increase the average.
FULL-TIME WORKING DAYS PER WEEK.

The number and per cent of employees in the principal productive
occupations in tin-plate-mill plants whose customary working time
per week was 5 days or turns, or 6 days, or 7 days, or variations
thereof, are shown in the following table. It will be noticed that the
customary working time of nearly 80 per cent of the employees in
this department was u5 days, 5 days, and 6 days in rotation.” In
all of the plants covered the regular turn employees were divided
into three crews, each working 8 hours per turn, 5 turns per week,
Monday to Friday, inclusive, with one crew working an extra turn
Saturday morning. Each crew advances one turn each week, thus
giving each crew the extra Saturday turn every third week.
All of the tin-plate-mill plants from which reports were obtained
are in the Pittsburgh district.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES WORKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF
DAYS PER W EE K , B Y Y E A R S, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS.
[The figures for each group of years are for identical plants.]
NUMBER.
Employees whose customary working time per week was—

Number of plants.

Em­
Year. ploy­
ees.

5
5 days 5 days, 6 days,
6 days
days,
and 5 days, and 6
and
and 6
5 days. 6 days days in days in 6 days. 7 days 7 days.
alter­
alter­
rota­
rota­
nately. tion.
nately.
tion.

Five plants................................ 1910
1911

2,149
2,310

2
2

12
11

1,702
1,839

433
457

Six plants.................................. 1911
1912

2,487
2,694

2

11
41

1,959
2,128

514
525

Six plants ................................ 1912
1913

2,739
2,778

48
16

2,132
2,095

54

552
611

1
1
7
2

PER CENT.
Five p lants.............................. 1910
1911

2,149
2,310

0.1
.1

0.6
.5

79.2
79.6

20.1
19.8

Six plants.................................

1911
1912

2,487
2,694

.1

.4
1.5

78.8
79.0

20.7
19.5

Six plants.................................

1912
1913

2,739
2.778

1.8
.6

77.8
75.4




i Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

1.9

20.2
22.0

0)
0)
0.3
0.1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.

319

In addition to the text tables in the summary, two general tables
are presented for the tin-plate-mill department, as follows:

Table I.—Average full-time weekly earnings and average and
classified rates of wages per hour, by years, 1910 to 1913.
Table II.— Average and classified full-time hours per week, by
years, 1910 to 1913.
In Tables I and II, in addition to actual data, percentages com­
puted therefrom are given. The data from these two tables are
summarized in the text table on pages 312 to 314.

The order in which the occupations are given in Tables I and II,
and in the table of relative numbers, follows that of the processes of
manufacture.
“ Identical plants,” as used in the tables of this report, are identical
units of identical establishments, reporting the same occupations in
each of two or more consecutive years. For a more extended expla­
nation see page 17.
Descriptions of the occupations which appear in the tables of this
report were given in Bulletin No. 151 of this Bureau, but have been
omitted from the present report.




320

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS.

T able I . —

[AH the plants reported are in the Pittsburgh district. The figures for each group of years are for identi­
cal plants.]
NUMBER.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.

Rollers:
5 plants....... 1910.
1911

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
rate
of
wages
per
hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

1

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

1

174
189

42.7 $1,025 $43.73
42.7 1.103 47.05

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Roughers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

201
229
231

42.7 1.109 47.33
42.7 1.097 46.82
42.7 1.119 47.76

174
184

42.7
42.7

.425 18.14
.506 21.60

60

99 15
80 104

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Catchers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

196
216
214

42.7
42.7
42.7

.507 21.63
.513 21.89
.553 23.59

1

80 116
83 128
75 42

174
186

42.7
42.7

.427 18.23
.481 20.52

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Screw boys:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

198
239
238

42.7
42.7
42.7

.487 20.79
.403 17.20
.427 18.23

174
186

42.7
42.7

.308 13.15
.342 14.61

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Doublers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

198
221
218

42.7
42.7
42.7

174
193

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Doublers’ help­
ers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911
6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Heaters:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Heaters’ helpers:
4 plants....... 1910
1911
5 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Shearmen:
5 p lants.... 1910
1911
6 plants......




1911
1912
1913

167
188

1

1

5
1

200
229
231

4
96

1

4
8

1

9
2

22
4

39
59

8 93
21 100

2
6

4
8
5

59
79
77

21 112
129 13
131 16

26
6

29
35

116
144

1

.345 14.72
.352 15.03
.373 15.91

6
1
1

35
42
36

156
86
80

1
92
101

42.7
42.7

.632 26.97
.698 29.80

1

1

8

24
5

29
26

23
80

88
82

205
247
251

42.7
42.7
42.7

.706 30.13
.677 28.90
.699 29.81

5
14
10

26
66
25

80
28
64

94
139
152

174
179

42.7
42.7

.324 13.82
.353 15.05

60

114
179

191
193
190

42.7
42.7
42.7

.351 14.97
.370 15.81
.393 16.77

2

191
168
91

23
99

174
203

42.7
42.7

.648 27.63
.709 30.24

1

10

23

33 13
22 123

93
58

215
314
312

42.7
42.7
42.7

.714 30.47
.675 28.78
.679 28.99

22 123
74 181
29 193

70
59
90

165
154

42.7
42.7

.348 14.84
.438 18.71

165
92

2

60

14
11
20

60
16
24

1

2

2

1

166
109
103

42.7
42.7
42.7

.436 18.60
.396 16.92
.425 18.15

92
82
59

58
61

52.7
53.1

.497 25.68
.548 28.50

14
4

12
25

32
2

30

65 52.8
72 51.8
73 51.9

.555 28.72
.573 29.00
.606 30.66

4
12
8

25
18
21

2
11
2

34
3
12

.......!........

28
30

321

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.

I .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Continued.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­
plants.
ploy­
ees.
““ "*
S h e a r m e n ’s
helpers:
2 plants... . 1910
1911
1912

Aver- Aver­
age
S
rate
time
of
hours wages
per per
week. hour.

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

25
31
29

61.8 $0,118 $7.31 i 20
59.7 .118 7.02 2 30
58.8 .123 7.18 3 22

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

5
1
5

3
7

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

2

5
11

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

i
1

4
.7

19

75
19

57

.266 15.24
.298 17.12

19

65
35

54

56.9
57.7

.296 16.86
.310 17.89

1
2

37
16

55
73

13
17

45.5
44.1

.244 11.08
.231 10.22

9
17

4

15
18
11

42.7
42.7
60.0

.230 9.81
.209 8.93
.198 11.89

15
6
6

5

224
262

42.9
43.0

.402 17.27
.439 18.92

5 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Redippers:
1 plant......... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Risers:
2 plants....... 1910
1911

283
294
296

43.0
43.4
42.9

.429 18.48
.444 19.28
.456 19.57

14
17
10
13

46.2
47.2
55.0
46.6

.570
.619
.592
.622

34
39

44.1
45.0

.262 11.51
.279 12.51

3 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Branners:
2 plants....... 1910
1911
1912
1913
Assorters, male:
1 plant.____ 1911
1912
Assorters,
fe­
male:
4 plants....... 1910
1911

42
30
34

44.8
50.1
45.1

.275 12.30
.239 11.98
.279 12.59

12
20
16
17

67.8
67.7
67.7
67.7

.170
.170
.170
.195

2
2

55.0
55.0

.263 14.44
.275 15.13

101
112

49.7
50.2

.128
.138

.

3 plants....... 1912
1913
Openers, male:
3 plants....... 1910
1911

35
38

57.6
58.7

.136
.165

94
76

57.5
57.3

.221 12.72
.262 15.02

4 plants....... 1911
1912

84
89

57.3
57.5

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Openers, female:
2 plants....... 1910
1911

93
97

1 plant......... 1911
1912
1913
Tinners:
4 plants....... 1910
1911

5 plants....... 1911
1912
1913

120 50.7
127 51.4
120 51.5

7.71 3 22
9.51
12

2

4

7
%

3

3

1

33
2
2
6
1

26.56
29.32
32.58
29.00

.138
.145
.163

7.03 ®111
7.39
88
8.37 «10

3
4

7
90 180
114
71 98
28 248 15

4
5
4

1
17
18
4

11.52
11.50
11.51
13.20

6.41 4 93
6.97 5 103

3
7

85
69

10
6
6
7
20

15
3
6

2
1

6
4
3
2
1 Including 13 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 14 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 10 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
4 Including 17 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Including 5 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
6 Including 4 employees earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

83021°— Bull. 1 6 8 -1 5 -




-21

|

1

6
34
104

5
9
6
6

i
!-: •
f

17

3
1
1

7
6
3
2

!

12
20
16

8
3

2
1
1
1

7
15

21
16
8

97
180

j

1

1
3

.

322

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I . — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 T O
1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS— Continued.

T able

NUMBER—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. emplants.
ploy-

Laborers:
4 plants

1910
1911

5 plants

1912
1913

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver­ Average
rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25
30 40 50 60
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly
per
der der der der der der der der der der and
hour. earn­ 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 over.
ings. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts.

$0,165 $9.97
.163 9.84

133.

61.0
61.3

.164 10.01
.169 10.37

1701
.

61.6
61.1

.167 10.32
.190 11.63:
i
I

191
201

1911
1912

6 plants

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

276
322

25

251 .
42 272
i

PER CEN T.

Rollers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

174
189

42.7 $1,025 $43.73
42.7 1.103 47.05

0.6 0.6 2.9 96.0
.5 99.5

201
229
231

42.7 1.109 47.33
42.7 1.097 46.82
42.7 1.119 47.76

.5 99.5
100.0
100.0

174
184

42.7
42.7

.425 18.14
.506 21.60

196
216
214

42.7
42.7
42.7

.507 21.63
.513 21.89
.553 23.59

174
186

42.7
42.7

.427 18.23 ....... ---.481 20.52

198
239
238

42.7
42.7
42.7

.487 20.79
.403 17.20
.427 18.23

174
186

42.7
42.7

.308 13.15
.342 14.61

1911
1912
1913

198
221
218

42.7
42.7
42.7

.345 14.72
.352 15.03
.373 15.91

Doublers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

174
193

42.7
42.7

.632 26.97
.698 29.80

205
247
251

42.7
42.7
42.7

.706 30.13
.677 28.90
.699 29.81

174
179

42.7
42.7

.324 13.82
.353 15.05

191
193
190

42.7
42.7
42.7

.351 14.97
.370 15.81
.393 16.77

174
203

42.7
42.7

.648 27.63
.709 30.24

215
314
312

42.7
42.7
42.7

.714 30.47
.675 28.78
.679 28.99

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Roughers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911
6 plants. ..

1911
1912
1913

Catchers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911
6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Screw boys:
5 plants___ 1910
1911
6 plants. . . .

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Doublers' help­
ers:
5 plants....... 1910
1911
6 plants___

1911
1912
1913

Heaters:
5 plants....... 1910
1911
6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913




34.5 56.9 8.6
43.5 56.5
40.8 59.1
.5 38.4159.3 1.9
35.0:19.6 44.9
0.6 1.1

.5

5.2 12.6 22.4 4.6 53.4
1.1 2.2 31.7 11.3 53.8
1.0
2.5

2.0 29.8 10.6^56.6
3.3 33.1 54.0 5.4 i.7 . . . . .
2.1 32.4 55.0 6.7 3.4

.6 1.1 14.9 16.7 66.7
3.2 18.8 77.4

.5

3.0 17.7 78.8
.5
.5 19.0 38.9 41.6
.5 16.5 36.7 46.3
.6

.6

4.6 13.8 16.7 13.2 50.6
2.6 13.5 41.5 42.5
2.4 12.7 39.0 45.9
5.7 26.7 11.3 56.3
4.0 10.0 25.5 60.6

34.5 65.5
100.0
100.0
1.0 87.0 11.9
47.9 52.1
. . . . ....... . . . .

.6

.6

5.7 13.2 19.0 7.5 53.4
1ft. Kfift fi 28.6

10.2^57.2 32.6
....... . . . . ....... ....... ....... ....... 23.6 57.6 18.8
9.361.9 28.8

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R — T I N -P L A T E

323

M IL L S .

AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS—Continued.

T able I . —

PER CENT—
-Continued.

Num­ Aver­ Aver­
age age
ber fuU- rate
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. em­ time of
plants.
ploy­ hours wages
per per
ees. week. hour.

Heaters’ help­
ers:
4 plants-----

Aver­
age
full­
time
week­
ly
earn­
ings.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
12
and
un­
der
14
cts.

14
and
un­
der
16
cts.

16
and
un­
der
18
cts.

18
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and 70
un­ cts.
der and
70 over.
cts.

1.3 38.9

i
i

.436 18.60
.396 16.92
.425 18.15

55.4 8.4 36.1
75.2 10.1 14.7
57.3 19.4 23.3

1
1
i

52.7
53.1

.497 25.68
.548 28.50

24.1 20.7 55.2
6.6 41.0 3.3 49.2

65
72
73

52.8
51.8
51.9

.555 28.72
.573 29.00
.606 30.66

6.2 38.5 3.1 52.3
16.7 25.0 15.3 4.2 *38*9
11.0 28.8 2.7 16.4 41.1

25
31
29

61.8
59.7
58.8

.118
.118
.123

7.31 180.0 20.0
7.02 296.8 3.2
7.18 875.9 17.2

3 plants....... 1912
1913
Openers, male:
3 plants....... 1910
1911

35
38

57.6
58.7

.136
.165

7.71 462.9 14.3 8.6 2.9 11.4
18.4
9.51 31.6 28.9 18.4

94
76

57.5
57.3

.221 12.72
.262 15.02

4 plants....... 1911
1912

84
89

57.3
57.5

.266 15.24
.298 17.12

5 plants....... 1912
1913
Openers,
female:
2 plants....... 1910
1911

93
97

56.9
57.7

.296 16.86
.310 17.89

13
17

45.5
44.1

.244 11.08
.231 10.22

1911
1912
1913

15
18
11

42.7
42.7
60.0

.230 9.81
.209 8.93 38.9
.198 11.89

Tinners:
4 plants....... 1910
1911

224
262

42.9
43.0

.402 17.27
.439 18.92

5 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Redippers:
1 plant........ 1910
1911
1912
1913
Risers:
2 plants....... 1910
1911

283
294
296

43.0
43.4
42.9

.429 18.48
.444 19.28
.456 19.57

14
17
10
13

46.2
47.2
55.0
46.6

.570
.619
.592
.622

34
39

44.1
45.0

.262 11.51
.279 12.51

50.0 29.4 20.6
46.2 15.4 38.5

3 plants....... 1911
1912
1913

42
30
34

44.8
50.1
45.1

.275 12.30
.239 11.98
.279 12.59

50.0 14.3 35.7
13.3 53.3 23.3 10.0
23.5 58.8 17.6

1911
1912
1913

12
20
16
17

67. S
67.7
67.7
67.7

.170
.170
.170
.195

1910
1911

165
154

42.7 $0,348 $14.84
42.7 .438 18,71

5 plants....... 1911
1912
1913

166
109
103

42.7
42.7
42.7

Shearmen:
5 plants....... 1910
1911

58
61

6 plants....... 1911
1912
1913
Shearmen’ s
helpers:
2 plants....... 1910
1911
1912

1 plant........

Branners:
2 plants...... 1910

100.0
59.7

6.9
2.6

20.2 79.8
25.0 75.0
22.6 77.4
39.3 60.7
2.1 4.1

1.1 39.8 59.1
2.1 16.5 75.3
69.2 30.8
100.0

100.0
33.3 27.8
18.2 27.3 54.5
1.3 14.7 37.9 43.3 1.3 1.3
.8 26.3 68.7 2.7 1.5
---- ....... . . . .

. 7 31.8 63.6 2.5 1.4 .......
2.0 38.8 24.1 33.3 1.7
.3 9.5 83.8 5.1 1.4

14.3 50.0 35.7
26.56
29.32
5.9 35.3 62.9 5.9
10.0 30.0 60.0
32.58 ....... . . . . ....... . . . . ....... .......
**7.7 7.7 15.4 46.2 23.1
29.00

11.52
11.50
11.51
13.20

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

....... ....... . . . . . . . . .......

1 Including 52.0 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
2 Including 45.2 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
8 Including 34.5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
<Including 28.6 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.




|

324

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUEEAU

OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S .

I — AVERAGE FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS AND AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED RATES OF WAGES PER HOUR, BY YEARS, 1910 TO
1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS—Concluded.

T a b le

PER CENT—Concluded.

Num­
ber
Occupation,
of
and number of Year. emplants.
ploy-

Assorters,
male:
1 plant.......
Assorters,
female:
4 plants._
_

Average
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour.
Aver- Aver­
age
full­
rate time 12 14 16 18 20 25
30
40 50
of week­ and and and and and and and and and and 70
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ cts.
ly der der der der der der der der der der and
per
40 50
hour. earn­ 14 16 18 20 25 30
70
ings. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. 60 cts, over.

55.0 $0,263 $14.44
55.0 .275 15.13

1911
1912

100.0
50.0 50.0

1910
1911

101
112

49.7
50.2

.128

6.41 ‘ 92.1
6.97 292.0

5.4

1911
1912
1913

120
127
120

50.7
51.4
51.5

.138
.145
.163

7.03 392.5 2.5
7.39 69.3
26.8
8.37 48.3
86.7

'i.*7

1910
1911

191
201

60.6
60.4

.165
.163

9.97
9.84

5 plants___

1911
1912

238

61.0
61.3

.164 10.01
10.37

6 plants....

1912
1913

276
322

61.6
61.1

.167 10.32
.190 11.63

5 plants___
Laborers:
_
4 plants._




5.0

27.2 72.8
3.0 30.8 66.2
2.5

71.4
95.8
90.9
13.0 84.5

i Including 16.8 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 4.5 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
* Including 4.2 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.
4 Including 3.3 per cent earning 10 and under 12 cents per hour.

325

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.
T

able

I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS.
NUMBER.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Rollers:
5 plants............
6 plants............
Roughers:
5 plants............
6 plants............
Catchers:
5 plants............
6 plants............
Screw boys:
5 plants............
6 plants............
Doublers:
5 plants............
6 plants............
Doublers’ helpers:
5 plants............
6 plants...........
Heaters:
5 plants........... .
6 plants...........
^Heaters’ helpers:
4 plants...........
5 plants...........
Shearmen:
5 plants...........
6 plants...........
Shearmen’s helpers
2 plants...........

3 plants...........




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Averber
Over
of
Over
48 Over 56
Year. em­ time
18 and
60
72
hours and
72
and
and
84
ploy* per un­ and under 60
under 60
under
under
week. der.
»6
72
84

1910
1911

174 42.7
42.7

174
189

1911
1912
1913

201
229
231

42.7
42.7
42.7

201
229
231‘

1910
1911

174
184

42.7
42.7

174
184

1911
1912
1913

196
216
214

42.7
42.7
42.7

196
216
214

1910
1911

174
186

42.7
42.7

174
186

1911
1912
1913

198 42.7
239 42.7
238 42.7

239
238

1910
1911

174
186

42.7
42.7

174
186

1911
1912
1913

198 42.7
221 42.7
218 42.7

198
221
218

1910
1911

174
193

42.7
42.7

174
193

1911
1912
1913

205
247
251

42.7
42.7
42.7

205
247
251

1910
1911

174
179

42.7
42.7

174
179

1911
1912
1913

191
193
190

42.7
42.7
42.7

191
193
190

1910
1911

174
203

42.7
42.7

174

1911
1912
1913

215
314
312

42.7
42.7
42.7

215
314
312

1910
1911

165
154

42.7
42.7

165
154

1911
1912
1913

166 42.7
109 42.7
103 42.7

166
109
103

1910
1911

58
61

52.7
53.1

31
31

1911
1912
1913

65
72
73

52.8
51.8
51.9

35
43

1910
1911
1912

25
31
29

61.8
59.7
58.8

1912
1913

35
38

57.6
58.7

7

20
23

7
7
7

23
22
23
8

7
7

20
23
22
22
23

5

7

1

326
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS— Continued.
NUMBER—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Openers, male:
3 plants-----

Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
AverNum­
ber
Over
Over
of
Year. em- time
48 Over 56
48
72
60
hours and
and
pi°y- per un­ and under 60 and 72 and 84
under
under
under
week. der.
60
56
72
84

57.5
57.3

1910
1911

15
19

79
57

19
14

65
75
75
73

4 plants.

1911
1912

84

57.3
57.5

5 plants.

1912
1913

93
97

56.9
57.7

4

14
16

1910
1911

13
17

45.5
44.1

10
15

3
2

1911
1912
1913

15
18
11

42.7
42.7
60.0

15
18

1910
1911

224
262

42.9
43.0

220
256

4
2

4

1911
1912
1913

277
276
296

2
18

4

294
296

43.0
43.4
42.9

1910
1911
1912
1913

14
17
10
13

46.2
47.2
55.0
46.6

10
12

4
1
10

4

1910
1911

34
39

44.1
45.0

30
33

4
. 2

4

1911
1912
1913

42
30
34

44.8
50.1
45.1

36
12
34

2
18

4

1910
1911
1912
1913

12
20
16
17

67.8
67.7
67.7
67.7

1911
1912

2
2

55.0
55.0

1910
1911

101
112

49.7
50.2

46
46

8
9

47
57

1911
1912
1913

120 50.7
127 51.4
120 51.5

46
47
42

9
5
6

65
75
72

1910
1911

191
201

10.4

9

101
79

46
73

44
38

2

5 plants.

1911
1912

238

61.0
61.3

9
1

79
83

90
97

58
56

2
1

1

6 plants.

1912
1913

276
322

61.6
61.1

83
107

118
108

70
103

1
1

3
3

Openers, female:
2 plants.........
1 plant.
Tinners:
4
5 plants.
Redippers:
1 plant.

Risers:
2 plants.
3 plants.
Branners:
2 plants.

Assorters, male:
1 plant.........
Assorters, female:
4 plants.........
o plants.
Laborers:
4 plants.

i3

6 plants....................................




11

12
20
16
17
2
2

PER CENT.
Rollers:
5 plants....................................

8

1910
1911

174
189

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

201
229
231

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— TIN-PLATE MILLS.
T

able

327

I I . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK,
BY YEARS, 1910 TO 1913—TIN-PLATE MILLS— Continued.
PER CENT—Continued.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Roughers:
5 plants..

Employees whose full-time hours per week wereNum­ Average
ber full­
of
Over
Over
Year. em- time
48 Over 56
48
60
72
and
72
84
ploy- hours and and under 60
and
and
per un­
under
under
week. der. under 60
72
56
84

1910
1911

174
184

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

196
216
214

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

174
186

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

198
239
238

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

174
186

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

198
221
218

0 .0
42.7 1 0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

174
193

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

205
247
251

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

174
179

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

191
193
190

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

174
203

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

215
314
312

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

165
154

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1911
1912
1913

166
109
103

42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0
42.7 100.0

1910
1911

58
61

52.7
53.1

53.4
50.8

12.1
11.5

1911
1912
1913

65
72
73

52.8
51.8
51.9

53.8
59.7
58.9

10.8
9.7
9.6

1910
1911
1912

25
31
29

61.8
59.7
58.8

1912
1913

35
38

57.6
58.7

1910
1911

94
76

57.5
57.3

16.0
25.0

84.0
75.0

4 plants..

1911
1912

84
89

57.3
57.5

22.6
15.7

77.4
84.3

5 plants..

1912
1913

93
97

56.9
57.7

15.1
16.5

80.6
75.3

6 plants..
Catchers:
5 plants..
6 plants..
Screw boys:
5 plants..
6 plants..
Doublers:
5 plants..
6 plants..
Doublers’ helpers:
5 plants...........
6 plants..
Heaters:
5 plants..
6 plants..
Heaters’ helpers:
4 plants........
5 plants..
Shearmen:
5 plants..
6 plants..
Shearmen’s helpers:
2 plants.............

3 plants..
Openers, male:
3 plants......




24.1
14.3
21.1

4.3

34.5
37.7 ......... ......... ......... ........
35.4
30.6
31.5
25.8

20.0

80.0
74.2
75.9
62.9
60.5

8.2

20.0

18.4

2.9

328
T a b le

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

I I . — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER AVEEK,
B Y YEARS, 1910 TO 1913— TIN-PLATE MILLS— Concluded.
PER CENT—Concluded.

Occupation, and number of
plants.

Openers, female:
2 plants.........
1 plant.
Tinners:
4 plants.
5 plants.
Redippers:
1 plant.

Risers:
2 plants..
3 plants..
Branners:
2 plants.

Assorters, male:
1 plant............
Assorters, female:
4 plants...........
5 plants...........
Laborers:




Employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Num­ Aver­
age
ber full­
Over
Over
of
Year. em­ time 48 Over 56
72
60
48
and
84
and
ploy- hours and and under 60
and
per un­ under;
under
under
60
week. der.
72
84
56

1910
1911

13
17

1911
1912
1913

15 42.7 100.0
18 42.7 100.0
11 60.0

45.5
44.1

76.9
88.2

23.1
11.8

100.0

1910
1911

224 42.9
262 43.0

98.2
97.7

1.8

1911
1912
1913

283 43.0 97.9
294 43.4 93.9
296 42.9 100.0

.7
6.1

1.4

1910
1911
1912
1913

14 46.2 71.4 28.6
17 47.2 70.6
5.9
10 55.0
100.0
13 46.6 100*o'

23.5

1910
1911

34
39

88.2
84.6

11.8
5.1

10.3

1911
1912
1913

42 44.8 85.7
30 50.1 40.0
34 45.1 100.0

4.8
60.0

9.5

1910
1911
1912
1913

12
20
16
17

67.8
67.7
67.7
67.7

1911
1912

2
2

55.0
55.0

44.1
45.0

1.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1910
1911

101 49.7
112 50.2

45.5
41.1

7.9
8.0

46.5
50.9

1911
1912
1913

120
127
120

50.7
51.4
51.5

38.3
37.0
35.0

7.5
3.9
5.0

54.2
59.1
60.0

1910
1911

191
201

60.6
60.4

*4*5

52.9
39.3

24.1
36.3

23.0
18.9

1911
1912

238 61.0
239 61.3

3.8
.4

33.2
34.7

37.8
40.6

24.4
23.4

0.4

1912
1913

276
322

30.1
33.2

42.8
33.5

25.4
32.0

1.1

61.6
61.1

1.0

0.4