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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. N. DOAK, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
CHARLES E* BALDWIN, Acting Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED ST A T E S)
BUREAU OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S )
WA GE S AND

*

H O U R S OF L A B O R

*

*

fcT
C7 0
NO. 0 1 0

SERIES

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
IN GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS
AND MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR
GARAGES: 1931

FEBRUARY, 1933

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1933

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. -




-

Price 10 cents




CONTENTS
Page

Introduction___________________________________________________________
Part 1.— Gasoline-filling stations, 1931:
Average days, hours, and earnings—
By occupation________________________________________________
By city----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Classified earnings per hour, 1931__________________________________
Regular full-time hours per week, 1931_____________________________
Changes in hours__________________________ _______________________
Changes in wage rates_____________________________________________
Overtime and work on Sunday and holidays_______________________
Bonus systems__________________________1_________________________
Supplementary information—
Vacations with pay___________________________________________
Sick leave with pay___________________________________________
Group insurance______________________________________________
Employees under bond________________________________________
Preference for married or single men___________________________
Years of service_______________________________________________
Lunch periods________________________________________________
Age of employees_____________________________________________
Retirement and pension systems______________________________
Uniforms_____________________________________________________
Laundering of uniforms_______________________________________
Drivers’ permits______________________________________________
Time for checking stock and cash_____________________________
Adjustments for losses by evaporation and in selling___________
Scope and method_________________________________________________
Occupations in filling stations______________________________________
General tables_____________________________________________________
T able A.— Average number of days on which employees worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week,
average earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked,
1931, by occupation and city________________________________
T able B.— Average and classified earnings per hour in five
specified occupations, 1931, by city__________________________
T able C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in five
specified occupations, 1931, by city__________________________
Part 2.— Motor-vehicle repair garages, 1931:
Average days, hours, and earnings—
By occupation________________________________________________
By city_______________________________________________________
Classified earnings per hour, 1931__________________________________
Classified full-time hours per week, 1931___________________________
Changes in hours per week________________________________________
Changes in wage rates_____________________________________________
Overtime and work on Sunday and holidays________________________
Bonus systems____________________________________________________
Supplementary information—
Vacations with pay___________________________________________
Sick leave with pay___________________________________________
Group insurance______________________________________________
Employees under bond________________________________________
Preference for married or single men___________________________
Years of service_______________________________________________
Lunch periods________________________________________________
Age of employees_____________________________________________
Retirement and pension systems______________________________




m

1
5
7
8
10
13
13
14
15
17
17
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
22
23
23

23
29
35
43
45
46
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
55
56
56
56
56
56

2.— M oto r-v e h icle repair garages, 1931— Continued.
Supplementary information— Continued.
Uniforms_____________________________________________________
Laundering of uniforms_______________________________________
Drivers’ permits______________________________________________
Scope and method_________________________________________________
Occupations in repair garages______________________________________
General tables_____________________________________________________
T a b l e A.— Average number of days on which employees worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week,
average earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked,
1931, by occupation and city________________________________
T a b l e B.— A verage and classified earnings per hour in six
specified occupations, 1931, by city__________________________
T a b l e C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in
six specified occupations, 1931, by city______________________
Appendixes:
A p p e n d ix A . — Filling station terms of occupations, with definitions
and classification by Bureau of Labor Statistics__________________
A p p e n d ix B.— Motor-vehicle repair garage terms of occupations,
with definitions and classification by Bureau of Labor Statistics__

Part




Page
56
56
57
57
58
58

59
70
78
85
87

BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
n o . 878

WASHINGTON

F e b r u a r y , 1933

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN GASOLINE FILLING STA­
TIONS AND MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES: 1931
Because of the unusual hours of operation and working conditions
and the large number of persons employed in gasoline filling stations
and in motor vehicle repair garages in the United States, a study was
made in 1931 of hours of labor, earnings, and working conditions of
employees in these industrial units, the results of which are presented
in this bulletin.
Filling stations and repair garages are in operation in all cities,
towns, and villages, and along the public highways throughout the
country. They have increased in number and in persons employed,
from year to year, with the tremendous increase in the number of
registered passenger cars and motor trucks up to the time of the
depression.
The principal business of a filling station is the selling of gasoline
and lubricating oil, and that of the garages covered in this study is
the general repair of motor vehicles. In both filling stations and the
garages, washing and greasing of cars and the sale of auto accessories
and supplies are frequently carried on as incidental to the main busi­
ness, while filling stations sometimes do tire service and make minor
adjustments or repair of cars and a considerable number of garages
also store cars and sell gasoline and oil in addition to their main
business.
The motor-vehicle industry, according the Census of Manufactures,
employed an average of 75,721 wage earners in 1909; 127,092 in 1914;
343,115 in 1919; 426,110 in 1925; 447,448 in 1929; and 287,225 in
1931. Registered cars, as reported in Facts and Figures of the
Automobile Industry, by the National Automobile Chamber of Com­
merce, increased from 312,000 in 1909 to 1,711,339 in 1914, to
7,565,446 in 1919, to 19,937,274 in 1925, and to 26,501,443 in 1929,
and decreased to 25,814,103 in 1931.
In addition to information on hours and earnings of wage earners,
as given in the regular reports by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for
major industries, this bulletin also gives supplementary information
as to labor conditions on other subjects, such as vacations with pay;
sick leave with pay; group insurance of employees by companies,
based on years of service; bonding of employees to secure companies
from loss or damage of property; preference for married or single
men as employees; and other conditions. The supplementary infor­
mation is found in but few, if any, of the major industries.




1

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— 1931

The basic figures for the report were obtained by agents of the
bureau directly from the pay rolls of 736 gasoline filling stations
and 344 motor-vehicle repair stations, and were for a representative
pay period in April, May, June, or July, 1931.
The 736 filling stations covered w
^ere located in 2 cities in each of
8 States and in 1 city in each of 26 States and in the District of
Columbia, the number of stations ranging by cities, from 9 to 20. The
344 motor-vehicle repair garages included 8 garages in each of 2 cities in
each of 8 States and in 1 city in each of 26 States and in the District
of Columbia. Some of the gasoline stations were privately owned and
operated; some belonged to small companies with a group of stations
in one city; and others were those of large refining companies
operating stations in practically all of the United States. The
stations of 239 different companies are represented in the report.
The wage figures and supplementary information in part 1 of this
bulletin are for employees in gasoline filling stations (pp. 5 to 40),
and in part 2 for employees in motor-vehicle repair garages (pp. 43
to 84).







PART 1
G a s o l in e F il l in g S t a t io n s

3




Part 1.—GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS, 1931
Filling-station employees earned an average of 39.3 cents per hour
and $23.39 in a representative week during the months of April to
July in 1931, as shown by a study made by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics covering 2,960 employees of 736 filling stations in 43 repre­
sentative cities. These employees worked, on an average, 6.5 days
during the week (counting as a day each whole or part day worked).
The full-time hours per week for the employees covered in this study
averaged 60, while the time actually worked averaged 59.5 hours, or
99.2 per cent of full time. The weekly earnings, at full time, averaged
$23.5S.
The study included filling-station employees in 2 cities in each of 8
States and in 1 city in each of 26 States and in the District of Columbia.
(See Table 2, p. 7.) In 1 city data were obtained for 9 filling stations;
in each of 4 cities, 14 stations; in each of 2 cities, 15 stations; in each
of 11 cities, 16 stations; in 1 city, 17 stations; in each of 16 cities, 18
stations; and in each of 8 cities, 20 stations. A greater number of
stations and employees was covered in large than in small cities.
Data were obtained as to the individual hours of labor and earnings
of employees for a representative pay-roll period (one week, nine
days, a half month, or one month) during April, May, June, or July,
1931; the average hours and earnings, therefore, are as of those
months. The wage figures for the stations with a pay period of more
than one week were recomputed so that averages for all employees
covered in the study could be shown on a uniform basis of one week.
The principal business of a filling station is the selling of gasoline
and lubricating oil. Tire service, the washing and greasing of cars,
the sale of accessories and supplies, and the minor adjustment or
repair of cars are generally incidental. In selecting stations for
inclusion in the report, an effort was made to include only typical
filling stations in each city. Some of the 736 stations included were
privately owned and operated; some belonged to small companies
with a group of stations in one city; and others were those of large
refining companies operating stations in practically all of the large
cities in the United States. In this report the stations of 239 different
companies are represented.

Average Days, Hours, and Earnings
By Occupation
The summary data for the industry are given in Table 1, as are also
averages for eight of the most important occupations and for a group,
designated as “ other employees,” which includes those occupations
having employees too few in number to warrant separate tabulation.
The averages in this and other tables in this report are for males only,
as only 8 females were employed at the 736 stations included in the
study. There were 198 Negroes employed mostly by stations in cities




5

6

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

in Southern States, who worked principally as car washers, greasers,
or tire men. Operators and operators’ helpers were the most important
occupations, in point of numbers employed, forming approximately
75 per cent of the total number of employees in all occupations in the
industry. For average days, hours, and earnings of the employees in
each occupation and city, see Table A (pp. 23 to 28).
The fewest days (5.3) in one week were worked by relief men and the
greatest number of days (6.9) by porters.
Average full-time hours per week in the various occupations ranged
from 48.3 for relief men to 67.9 for tire men, while hours actually
worked ranged from 46.6 for relief men to 67.8 for tire men.
The figures in the column headed “ Per cent of full time worked in
week” show that car washers worked a smaller per cent of average
full-time hours per week (92.5) than the employees in any other occu­
pation in the table. Average hours in excess of full time are shown for
porters and for operators. Although some employees in these occupa­
tions worked only part time, others worked overtime, and the overtime
more than counterbalanced the time lost.
Average earnings per hour ranged from 19.3 cents for porters to
63.1 cents for managers; the range in full-time earnings per week was
from $12.56 to $36.16, and in actual earnings in one week from $12.65
to $36.09, for the same occupations.
In addition to earnings at regular basic wage rates, employees at a
few stations had other earnings or income, or were given certain
advantages or privileges, but data as to the amounts involved were not
of record. These amounts, however, were probably small and so
would not have affected the averages materially. It was reported at
one station that extra money was received for tire-patching jobs.
Employees of another station could have three meals a day without
expense to them at a hotel owned by the employing company. The
operator at a third station obtained his living quarters at the nominal
rental of $10 per month. At other stations employees could buy
gasoline and oil for their own use at a discount.
T able

1.— Average days, hours, and earnings of filling-station employees in 1931,
by occupation

Occupation

Car washers__________________
____________________
Managers___________________
Operators....................................
Operators’ helpers____________
Porters______________________
Relief men_____ _____________
Tire men____________________
Other employees_______ ____
Total.............................. .




Num­
ber
of
sta­
tions

Num­
ber of
em­
ploy­
ees

Aver­
Aver­
age
days on age
which
full­
em­
time
ployees hours
per
worked
in i
week
week

Hours actually
worked in 1
week
Aver­
age
num­
ber

Per
cent of
full
time

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in 1
week

84
151
164
280
Greasers
60
68
683 1,182
475 1,039
72
55
52
51
35
56
28
60

6.5
6.4
6.4
6.6
6.4
6.9
5.3
6.6
6.4

66.9
59.9
57.3
61.0
57.7
65.1
48.3
67.9
60.0

61.9
59.6
57.2
61.3
57.2
65.7
46.6
67.8
58.5

92.5
99.5
99.8
100.5
99.1
100.9
96.5
99.9
97.5

$0,248
.393
.631
.441
.362
.193
.409
.300
.404

$16.59
23.54
36.16
26.90
20.89
12.56
19.75
20.37
24.24

$15.36
23.41
36.09
27.01
20.71
12.65
19.07
20.36
23.65

736

6.5

60.0

59.5

99.2

.393

23.58

23.39

2,960

AVERAGE DAYS, HOURS, AND EARNINGS

7

By City
Table 2 shows, for each of 43 cities, the average days, hours, and
earnings of the 2,960 employees included in the study.
The number of stations covered ranged from 9 in Burlington, Yt.,
to 20 each in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland,
Detroit, St. Louis, and New York. The number of employees ranged
from 23 in Burlington to 151 in Chicago.
Average full-time hours per week ranged, by cities, from a low of
51.8 to a high of 72.7, the average for all cities combined being 60
per week.
#Average hours actually worked in one week ranged in the various
cities from 51.3 to 72.7, while the average for all cities combined was
59.5. The per cent of full time actually worked in one week ranged
from 94.0 to 101.9. #In 14 cities the percentage of full time worked
was over 100, showing that there was considerable overtime work
in this industry.
Average earnings per hour ranged by cities from 22.6 to 60.3 cents,
while the average for all cities combined was 39.3 cents.
Average full-time earnings per week ranged by cities from $15.82
to $32.92 and for all cities combined averaged $23.58, while average
actual earnings ranged from $15.82 to $30.94, with a general average
of $23.39.
T a b l e 2 . — Average

days, hours, and earnings of filling-station employees in 1931,
by city

City

Altoona, Pa.................................. .........
Philadelphia, Pa_..................................
Altoona and Philadelphia______
Atlanta, Ga.......................................... .
Austin, Tex__________ ___________
Houston, Tex........................................
Austin and Houston....................
Baltimore, M d.......................................
Birmingham, Ala...................................
Boston, Mass............................ ............
Holyoke, Mass.......................................
Boston and Holyoke....................
Burlington, V t.......................................
Charleston, S. C.....................................
Charlotte, N. C.....................................
Chicago, 111.............................................
Danville, HI............................................
Chicago and Danville..................
Cleveland, Ohio................. ...................
Hamilton, Ohio......................................
Cleveland and Hamilton.............
Des Moines, Iowa..^................. ..........
Detroit, M ich.__...................................
Hartford, Conn......................................
Huntington, W. Va...............................
Indianapolis, Ind...................................
Jacksonville, Fla....................................




Num­ Num­
ber ber of
em­
of
sta­ ploy­
tions ees

16
20
36
18
16
18
34
20
18
20
14
34
9
16
16
20
16
36
20
16
36
18
20
18
16
18
18

69
95
164
100
53
85
138
123
67
94
41
135
23
58
57
151
50
201
96
47
143
49
114
68
42
62
78

Aver­
age
days on
which
em­
ployees
worked
in 1
week
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.7
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.2
6.9
6.5
6.7
6.6
6.3
6.6
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.4
6.5
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.3
6.3
6.6
6.6
7.0

Hours actu­
Aver­ ally worked Aver­ Aver­
age
age
in 1 week
fuUage
full­
earn­ time
time
ings earn­
hours Aver­ Per
per
per
age
cent hour ings
per
week num­ of full
week
ber
time
53.7
53.9
53.8
64.6
62.3
57.3
59.2
56.4
64.4
55.3
59.9
56.7
65.1
62.4
68.4
54.6
63.7
56.9
57.9
56.6
57.5
63.2
57.8
53.0
64.2
60.2
72.7

53.5
53.2
53.3
60.7
62.7
57.3
59.4
56.4
64.4
55.2
60.8
56.9
64.9
62.4
67.5
51.3
63.2
54.2
57.2
56.6
57.0
63.3
57.7
53.1
63.7
60.7
72.7

99.6 $0,388 $20.84
98.7
.418 22.53
99.1
.405 21.79
94.0
.285 18.41
100.6
.335 20.87
100.0
.351 20.11
100.3
.345 20.42
100.0
.438 24.70
100.0
.284 18.29
99.8
.491 27.15
101.5
.457 27.37
100.4
.480 27.22
99.7
.315 20.51
100.0
.354 22.09
98.7
.296 20.25
.603 32.92
94.0
99.2
.392 24.97
95.3
.542 30.84
98.8
.470 27.21
100.0
.413 23.38
99.1
.451 25.93
100.2
.371 23.45
99.8
.469 27.11
100.2
.494 26.18
99.2
.319 20.48
.412 24.80
100.8
100.0
.254 18.47

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in 1
week
$20.74
22.27
21.63
17.30
21.02
20.11
20.47
24.70
18.29
27.11
27.77
27.31
20.45
22.09
20.01
30.94
24.75
29.40
26.91
23.38
25.74
23.47
27.07
26.25
20.30
25.01
18.47

8

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

T a b l e 2 . — Average

days, hours, and earnings of filling-station employees in 1981,
6?/ city— Continued

Num­ Num­
ber ber of
em­
of
sta­ ploy­
tions ees

City

Jnplin, M n ..
St-, Tonis, Mn

_

.. _

JnpliT) and St-, TiOiiis

16
20

38
72

Aver­
age
days on
which
em­
ployees
worked
in 1
week

Hours actu­
Aver­ ally worked Aver­ Aver­
age
age
in 1 week
full­
age
full­
earn­ time
time
ings earn­
hours Aver­ Per
per
per
age
cent hour ings
per
week num­ of full
week
ber
time

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in i
week

100.5 $0,303 $19.42
.396 24.75
99.7

$19.54
24.65

6.9 . 64.1
62.5
6.8

64.4
62.3

36

no

6.8

63.1

63.0

99.8

.363

22.91

22.88

fifty, Trans _
_ ._
Lincoln, Nebr. _ ________________
Little Rock, Ark____ _______________
Louisville, K y______________________
Manchester, N. H __________________
Memphis, Tenn____________________
Meridian, Miss_____________________

18
14
16
18
14
18
16

51
50
77
66
37
71
66

6.5
6.8
6.8
5.8
6.6
6.7
6.8

60.5
64.0
61.7
57.0
56.7
67.0
70.0

60.0
65.2
62.1
56.4
56.3
66.8
70.0

99.2
101.9
100.6
98.9
99.3
99.7
100.0

.371
.329
.337
.332
.405
.304
.226

22.45
21.06
20.79
18.92
22.96
20.37
15.82

22.26
21.48
20.92
18.75
22.80
20.32
15.82

Milwaukee, Wis____________________
Superior, Wis_______________________

15
16

59
28

6.5
6.4

61.1
68.0

60.7
66.6

99.3
97.9

.399
.365

24.38
24.82

24.20
24.31

Milwaukee and Superior_______

31

87

6.4

63.3

62.6

98.9

.387

24.50

24.24

Minneapolis, Minn_________________
New Orleans, La____________________

18
18

49
68

6.2
6.9

58.8
60.9

59.5
60.9

101.2
100.0

.380
.348

22.34
21.19

22.63
21.19

New York, N. Y .............. ....................
Rochester, N. Y ____________________

20
18

92
73

5.9
6.1

59.9
52.0

59.8
52.3

99.8
100.6

.503
.484

30.13
25.17

30.05
25.31

New York and Rochester______

38

165

6.0

56.4

56.5

100.2

.495

27.92

27.96

Oklahoma City, Okla_______________
Portland, Me_______________________
Providence, R. I__-_________________
Richmond, Va______________________
Trenton, N. J______________________
Washington, D. O__________________

18
15
18
14
18
17

66
53
73
71
63
115

6.5
6.9
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3

65.7
58.4
64.3
62.8
51.8
60.6

65.8
58.7
54.4
62.5
52.8
57.8

100.2
100.5
100.2
99.5
101.9
95.4

.352
.432
.443
.354
.439
.449

23.13
25.23
24.05
22.23
22.74
27.21

23.19
25.35
24.08
22.15
23.19
25.94

736 2,960

6.5

60.0

59.5

99.2

.393

23.58

23.39

Total.

Classified Earnings per Hour, 1931
Average and classified earnings per hour are presented in Table 3
for the employees in each of the eight important occupations in the
industry, for the group of “ other employees/’ and for all occupations
combined. Average earnings per hour were computed for each em­
ployee by dividing the amount earned in one week by the number of
hours actually worked in that week. For a distribution, by number,
of the employees in each of five of the more important occupations in
each city, see Table B (pp. 29 to 34).
Each occupation group except that of the managers had a small
number of employees earning an average of less than 10 cents per
hour. Only three occupation groups (managers, operators, and
operators’ helpers) included any employees earning as much as 80
cents per hour. Among the managers, none earned less than 35
cents per hour, while 14 per cent earned an average of 80 cents or
more per hour. At the other end of the scale were the porters, 8
per cent of whom earned less than 10 cents per hour and none of whom
earned as much as 45 cents per hour.
Fourteen per cent of all the employees covered earned, on the aver­
age, less than 25 cents per hour and only about 8 per cent earned an
average of 60 cents per hour or more.




9

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR, 1931
T able

3.— Average and classified hourly earnings of filling-station employees in
1931, by occupation
Per cent of employees whose average earnings per hour were—

Num­ Num­
ber
ber
of
Occupation
of
em­
sta­ ploy­
tions ees

Car washers.
Greasers____
Managers___
Operators___
O perators’
helpers___
Porters_____
Relief men__
Tire men___
O th e r e m ­
ployees___

age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Un­
der
10
cts.

10
and
un­
der
15
cts.

15
and
un­
der
20
cts.

20
and
un­
der
25
cts.

25
and
un­
der
30
cts.

30
and
un­
der
35
cts.

35
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
45
cts.

45
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
55
cts.

55
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
65
cts.

65
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
and
un­
der
75
cts.

75
and
un­
der
80
cts.

80
cts.
and
over

8
15
1
19

1
16
12
15

1
9
12
13

1
8
24
7

6
7
4

1
12
5

12
2

4
1

114
1

14
1
8
5

9

7

4

2

1

(2
)

17
5

12
4

6
7

2
2

4

6

84
151
164 280
60
68
683 1,182

Cts.
24.8
39.3
63.1
44.1

1
1

13
3

14
6

24
3

12
7

13
11

(2
)

(2
)

1

2

5

11

12
11
1
15

475 1,039
72
55
51
52
35
56

36.2
19.3
40.9
30.0

(2
)
8
2
4

1
10
2
9

5
28
4
16

7
38
4
18

13
8
6
2

21
3
13
14

17
4
15
14

3

7

10

15

2

20

3

13

10

3

7

2

3

1

2

5

6

8

14

15

15

12

9

6

3

3

1 (2
)

60

40.4

Total— 736 2,960

39.3

28

00

2
1

1 Includes 6 per cent earning 85 and under 90 cents and 1 per cent earning 90 cents and over.
2 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Table 4 shows for the employees covered in the study, the number
and per cent in each classified group of average earnings per hour.
At one end of the scale are three employees earning 5 but less than 6
cents and at the other extreme one employee earning $1 and under
$1.10 per hour. The greatest number of employees were in the
groups receiving from 25 cents to 65 cents an hour.
T able

4.— Number and per cent of filling-station employees in each classified group
of earnings per hour, 1981
Employees
in all occu­
pations

Classified earnings per hour

Classified earnings per hour
Num­
ber

5 and under 6 cents___________
6 and under 7 cents________________
7 and under 8 cents_______ _________
8 and under 9 cents________________
9 and under 10 cents_______________
10 and under 11 cents_____________
11 and under 12 cents______________
12 and under 13 cents____________
13 and under 14 cents______________
14 and under 15 cents______________
15 and under 16 cents______________
16 and under 17 cents______ ________
17 and under 18 cents______________
18 and under 19 cents______________
19 and under 20 cents-_____________
20 and under 21 cents______________
21 and under 22 cents_________ ____ _
22 and under 23 cents............. ............
23 and under 24 cents........ ..................
24 and under 25 cents.______________
25 and under 273^ cents.......................
27H and under 30 cents.......................
30 and under 32^ cents.......................

* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




Employees
in all occu­
pations

3
2
2
6
5
5
9
12
9
17
13
31
40
37
23
62
33
29
34
29
103
148
209

Per
cent
(0
0)
m
/n
0)
(1
)
(1
)

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
5
7

Num­ Per
ber
cent
32^ and under 35 cents_ ____ ___
_
35 and under 37J^ cents____________
37^ and under 40 cents___________
40 and under 423^ cents____________
42^£ and under 45 cents________
45 and under 47J^ cents_ _____
_
47^6 and under 50 cents_ _____ _
_
50 and under 55 cents __ _ ____
55 and under 60 cents_______ ______
60 and under 65 cents..................... .
65 and under 70 cents____ _ __ _
70 and under 75 cents____ ____ ____
75 and under 80 cents_____________
80 and under 85 cents_____________
85 and under 90 cents____ ____ ___
90 and under 95 cents...... ......... ........
95 cents and under $1...... ..................
$1 and under $1.10___ ______ ______

203
197
235
264
168
201
141
275
165
100
77
42
10
12
5
2
1
1

T o ta l................. .................... 2,960
Average earnings per hour............... $0,393

7
7
8
9
6
7
5
9
6
3
3
1
0)
I1
)
v
l)
m
M

10

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

Regular Full-Time Hours per Week, 1931
The regular full-time hours per week of filling-station employees
are not the same as the regular hours of operation of the establish­
ment at which they are employed. A filling station could be, and
many stations are, in operation 24 hours a day 7 days a week, and
thus the regular hours of operation would be 168 hours per week. It
was found m the bureau’s study that the employees usually worked
in two or more shifts, each employee having his own specified time of
beginning and quitting work on each day of the week. No employee
was supposed to work any but his own regular shift except in case of
emergency.
The study showed that there is no uniformity in the regular daily
or weekly hours of operation or of work in the stations in the different
cities or even in the same city. Stations were generally in operation
seven days each week, but the hours per day varied to a considerable
extent with the location in the city of the individual station. A few
stations did not conform to their schedule of regular hours, but
remained open each night as long as there was profitable business.
Others, located where there was much night traffic, were in operation
24 hours each day.
The full-time hours of labor, shown in Table 5 and in the preceding
tables, are the regular scheduled shifts of employees, neither overtime
nor time for meals being included.
Average full-time hours per week in each occupation were computed
by dividing the total of the full-time hours of all employees in the
occupation by the number of employees therein. In this computation
no account was taken of overtime or part time.
The table shows for the employees in each occupation, and for the
employees in all occupations combined, average full-time hours per
week, also the per cent that the employees in each classified-hours
group formed of the total for all groups. For a distribution, by num­
ber, of the employees of the more important occupations in each
city see Table C (pp. 35 to 40).
The full-time hours of 3 per cent of the employees in all occupations
were less than 40 per week; those of 10 per cent were 48 per week;
those of 7 per cent were 54 per week; those of 17 per cent were 56 per
week; those of 6 per cent were 70 per week; and those of 2 per cent
were 84 hours per week. Of the porters only 16 per cent had a full­
time week of 54 hours or less, 18 per cent had one of 70 hours, and
10 per cent one of 84 hours. Of the relief men, 23 per cent had a full­
time week of less than 40 hours and 25 per cent a 48-hour week.
Among the managers the largest groups were those having a full-time
week of 54 or 56 hours (31 and 26 per cent, respectively). Among
the operators, the occupation most important numerically, 21 per cent
had a 56-hour week and 12 per cent a full-time week of over 56 but
less than 60 hours.
The study revealed that 58 per cent of the 2,960 employees covered
in this report had a nominal 7-day week; 6 per cent worked 7 days one
week and 6 days the next; 32 per cent worked a 6-day week; 3 per cent
had a nominal week of less than 6 days; and 1 per cent had a 7-day
week with 1, 2, or 3 days off each month or every third or fourth
Sunday off. Part of those on a schedule of less than 6 days per week




11

REGULAR FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK

alternated, working 5 days for two weeks and 4 days the third week,
or 4 days one week and 3 days the next week, or 3 days one week and
2 days the next week.
T a b l e 5 . — Average

Occupation

and classified full-time hours per week of filling-station employees
in 1981, by occupation
Per cent of employees whose full-time
hours per week were—
Average
Num­ Num­ full­
ber of
ber of emtime
Over
Over
sta­
40
48
54
tions ploy- hours Under and
and
and
40
under 48 under 64 under 56
48
54
56

Car washers..........
Greasers................
Managers..............
Operators..............
O perator helpers.
Porters..................
Relief men............
Tire men...............
Other employees..

84
164
60
683
475
55
51
35

Total...........

736

151
280

66.9

3
12
26
21
16
15
4
5

68

1,182
1,039
72
52
56
60
2,S

(,)6
3
23

(9

60.0

10

17

Per cent of employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Occupation

Over
56
and
under

Over
and
under

Over
63
and
under

Over

66

66

and
under
70

70

Over
70
and
under
84

Car washers............
Greasers................. .
Managers................
Operators................
Operators* helpers..
Porters....................
Relief men............. .
Tire men............... .
Other employees...
Total-

84

Over
84

10

10

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Chart I shows the daily operating schedules of the men at four
representative filling stations. The variations indicated by the four
are fairly representative of the operating schedules of the men em­
ployed at the stations covered by the study.
Example 1 shows the daily schedule of hours of the men at a 5-man
station. Lines A, B, C, D, and E each represent a man and his
hours per day. A and D alternate, beginning at 6 a. m. one day and
at 3 p. m. the next day. A or D goes to work at 6 a. m., B at 7 a. m.,
and C at 9 a. m. Three are on duty from 9 to 11 a. m. A or D
takes an hour off each day for lunch from 11 a. m. to 12 noon, C an
hour from 12 noon to 1 p. in., and B an hour from 1 to 2 p. m. Three
are on duty from 2 to 3 p. m., when the day for A ends and the day
for D begins. The day for B and C ends at 6 p. m. when E, the
night man, begins work. D and E work until 11 p. m. when the day
for D ends. E is on duty alone from 11 p. m. to 6 a. m., when the
schedule for the day begins.
Example 3 shows the daily schedule of hours of the men at a 6-man
station which opens for business at 6.30 in the morning and is in



12

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

continuous operation until 11 p. m. A is on duty from 6.30 a. m. to
6.30|p. m. or 12 hours; B from 7 a. m. to 7 p. m. or 12 hours; C from
7.30 a. m. to 6 p. m. or 10% hours; D from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m., or 12

C h artl

operaf/ng schedules of employees /rj 4- stations
A M.
/

?

i

4

j

'

P .M .

1

b

7

hr

S

£xa, T7p! ? /

10 // tz

/r

iI 3r

4

r 6

7'

8

S?

tO / /

/2

R
?
q
bt

7L
(0 / r//e . /C1

-sh f/ s

/? c/)c

V {
i

f?
Jf
Q

7
£ xa 0 pt e Z

?s

W /6

p
§
r

p

f

? Z ev< ?ry otA e r <Jay
>

*
«{

T

,

f
L
V)# 'ter. lah y

.

X

, f an*' B eha

IV /

£xa rnp> ? 3.

k ; f a, J J

ey *rV of/ e r i fa.y

f
f
B

c
D
£
f

Exa •npte ? .

ff
jf

f
1
1

{

f
f

{

G
f
6
H
I
«r

)
C>

L
V
V
P
<0

(?)
(’>&(fen fAtt,"9 s/tif ts
WerA'a.trrif - tiift

<

P
a
R
s
T
a

rc
C
.£>6t/ £■ c/ tnye■ wit
rS
*<?,AZ$,*irtJ \ « rer*V 0 ‘tier
r
res yr,> A ,U * . very< o f her <« >
’/
*• t

V

r

hours; and E and F are on duty from 1 to 11 p. m. or 10 hours. Four
men are on duty from 8 a. m. to 1 p. m.; six from 1 to 6 p. m.; five
from 6 to 6.30 p. m.; four from 6.30 to 7 p. m.: three from 7 to 8 p. m.;
and two from 8 to 11 p. m.




CHANGES IN WAGE RATES

13

Changes in Honrs
Only 11 of the 736 gasoline filling stations covered in the study
made changes in regular hours between January 1,1930, and the period
of the study in 1931. It was found that hours were increased at five
and reduced^at six stations.
Increases in hours in 1930 were from 68% to 72 per week for all
employees at one station; and in 1931 were from 78 to 84 per week
for car washers at one station, and from 10 to 14 per day for operators
and from 10 to 11 for car washers at another station. Due to reported
lack of business, two stations reduced their force in 1931 and increased
the hours of those left from 8 to 16 per day.
Reductions in hours in 1931 were from 56 to 48 per week for all
employees at two stations and from 10 to 8 per day at another station.
At one station in 1930 the hours of operators were reduced from 10
to 8 per day and at another station the hours of relief men were
reduced from 14% to 13 per day and of all other employees from 13%
to 12 per day. One station reduced the hours of all employees from
11% to 11 per day, but the year of change was not reported.

Changes in Wage Rates
Table 6 shows for each of the 112 filling stations in which changes
in wage rates were made between January 1, 1930, and the period of
the 1931 study, the year (except for 6 stations) in which the change
was made, the employees affected, and the amount or per cent of in­
crease or decrease.
Part of the employees of 31 stations were changed from a salary
to a commission basis, or vice versa, without any material change
in earnings, while 593 stations made no change in the rates of any
employees.
Rates were increased in 29 and reduced in 83 stations. In 1930
rates were increased in 3 and reduced in 11 stations, and in 1931
rates were increased in 26 and reduced in 66 stations. The year in
which change was made was not reported for six stations.
T able

6*— Changes in wage rates in 112 gasoline filling stations between January 1,
1930, and the period of the study in 1931

Number of
stations in
which
changes
were made
in 1930

Employees affected by the change

Increase
or
decrease

1931

152750°—33------ 2



t i
1I
1i

1t
11
( I
1<
I I
1t
o o c

l i !

All________________________________ Increase__
....... do____
....... do.......
" " 'T
....... do____
2 25 per cent___________________ __
_ d o ___
4 50 per cent____ ____________________ ....... do____
3 9 per cent of helpers.................... ......... ....... do____
1
50 per cent of helpers................. ........... ....... d o .....
1
50 per cent of operators......................... ....... do.......
1 Operators_____________ ____ ________ ____do___
1
------do-----4 Managers__________________________ ____do____
1 Relief men............................................. ....... d o.___
6
1

1

Amount or per cent of change

Approximately 10 per cent.
10 per cent.
Approximately 3 cents per hour.
$5 per month.
Do.
10 per cent.
$5 per week.
Part 12^ per cent; others 14^ per cent.
$5 per week.
$2.50 per week.
$3 per week.
Do.
$5 to $8 per week.

14

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

T able

6.— Changes in wage rates in 112 gasoline filling stations between January 1,
1980, and the period of the study in 1981— Continued

Number of
stations in
which
changes
were made
in—
1930

Employees affected by the change

Increase
or
decrease

Amount or per cent of change

1931
4
1
15
1
0)
(2
)
(3
)
3
1

5 per cent.
8 per cent.
10 per cent.
15 per cent.
Do.
20 per cent.
25 per cent.
$10 per month.
$2 per week.
Part $65 per month; others from salary
of $130 per month to $20 per week.
10 per cent.
-do..
Those earning $1,200 or less per year...
10 per cent of $1,200 and 15 per cent of
_do_.
Those earning more than $1,200 per
any amount over $1,200.
year.
All except car washers, polishers, and ....... do____ 10 per cent.
porters.
$10 per month.
_do_.
All except part-time night men............
From a salary of $100 per month to $2
_do_.
All except operators..........................
per day.
From a salary of $100 per month to $3
.do..
_do_.
per day and later to $2 per day.
$15 per month.
-do..
Operators.............................................
$10 per month.
.do..
All others except janitors and truck
drivers.
10 per cent.
-do..
Those earning more than $75 per month
_do_.
Do.
fWhite employees..... ...........................
12 per cent.
-do..
\Colored employees____ ____ _______
$10 per month.
_do..
(Those earning $95 or more per month
$5 per month.
-do..
\Those earning less than $95 per month.
No change in basic rates but commis­
_do_.
37H per cent------------- ----------------sion was reduced 25 per cent.
$10 per month.
25 per cent of operators.................
-do..
Average of 11 per cent.
75 pei cent........................... ..........
-do..
25 per cent.
Operators.......................................
_do..
$2.50 per week.
-do..
Do.
-d o H elpers.............................. .........
$3.93 per week.
[Car washers..... .............................
.do..
$50 per month.
-do..
[Operators.....................................
7H cents per hour.
-do_.
$20 per month.
-do_.
Managers........................... ...........
$3 per week.
P 0 per cent of colored car washers..
5
-do..
$2 per week.
-do..
l
------ do............................................
AH
....... do.
....... do.
....... do.
....... do.
....... do.
------ do.
------ do.
....... do.
....... do.

Decrease.
____do___
____do___
____do—
____do—
____do—
____do___
____do___
____do___
____ do___

{
{

1 Three stations but year not reported.
2 One station but year not reported.

3 Two stations but year not reported.

Overtime and Work on Sunday and Holidays
Overtime is any time worked by an employee before or after his
regular established time of beginning and quitting work on each day
of the week (including Sunday and holidays if his schedule provides
for work on those days), or any time worked during his regular time
for meals. Work on Sunday or on holidays is overtime only when
done by an employee whose schedule does not provide for work on
those days. Any time worked in excess of the regular working time is
overtime regardless of the rate of pay for each hour of such extra work.
In part of the stations covered in the study overtime was worked
during the one week for which figures are shown in this report. It was
not enough, however, to counterbalance the lost time, as hours actually
worked in the week were 99.2 per cent of full time. (See Table 1.)
Only 8 of the 736 stations covered in the study had provision for
the payment of a higher rate for overtime and for extra work on
Sunday and holidays than for regular working time. The higher rate



15

BONUS SYSTEMS

in each of these stations applied to all employees and was two times
the regular rate in one station^ one and one-half times in six stations;
and one and one-fourth times in one station.
The rate for overtime and extra work in three stations was 30 cents
per hour, or approximately the average rate per hour of the employees
m those stations, and in one station was 45 cents per hour or slightly
above the average per hour of its employees.
In 26 stations each employee who worked overtime or extra on
Sunday and holidays was given an hour off duty for each hour so
worked.^
Overtime and extra work on Sunday and holidays was paid for at
the same rate as for regular working time in 558 stations and was not
paid for in 126 stations. In 14 stations operators were not paid for
overtime and extra work, but other employees were paid for such
work at the same rate as for regular working time.

Bonus Systems
A bonus system as applied to this report is any plan which provides
an opportunity for compensation in addition to earnings at basic rates
of pay per hour, day, week, or any other unit of time, or in addition
to commission on sales.
Of the 736 stations from which information was collected only 47
reported such systems in operation. In each of three stations there
were two bonus systems in operation—one based on length of service
and the other based on efficiency. One station had two systems—
one based on length of service and the other on attendance. In each
of 43 stations one bonus system was in operation, based on efficiency
in 32 stations, on sales contests in 5 stations, on monthly sales quotas
in four stations, and on length of service in company in two stations.
Profit-sharing plans which were reported for five stations are not con­
sidered as bonus systems.
Table 7 shows for each of the 47 stations that had bonus systems in
operation at the time of the study the basis or kind of bonus, the
employees eligible to earn bonus payments, the amount of bonus, and
when earned.
T a b l e 7 . — Bonus
Num­
ber of
sta­
tions

Kind of
bonus

Employees
who may
earn bonus

systems of 47 gasoline filling stations, 1931

Amount of bonus

Oil sales con­ Any one sell­ $10 to individual with high­
ing gaso­
est record for month.
test.
line and
oil.
'29 Efficiency.
All................ Equal division among em­
ployees of the difference
between a set labor cost of
2 cents per gallon and the
actual labor cost when the
latter is less than the for­
mer.
fService......... T h o s e in $5 for each year of service. -.
service 1
y e a r or
13
more.
.Efficiency... All............... $10 per month to each of the
5 bonus-earning stations
divided equally among
employees.
1

Bonus earned

When sale of oil by an individual in a
month in proportion to sale of gaso­
line is higher than that of any other
employee.
When labor cost of selling gasoline in
pay period is less than 2 cents per
gallon.

By service of 1 year or more.

When the operation of a station in a
month in order of efficiency is 1, 2, 3,
4, or 5 of all of the stations of the com­
pany.

i Stations of a company that had many other stations in operation in various localities at the time of the
study.




16

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE PILLING STATIONS
T able

Num­
ber of
sta­
tions

7.— Bonus systems of 47 gasoline filling stations, 1931— Continued

Kind of
bonus

Service____

Attendance.

Service....... .

___ do..........
Profit shar­
ing.
.— .do_____
Sales

con-

21

Employees
who may
earn bonus

Amount of bonus

Bonus earned

T h o s e in $5 for each year of continuous By service of 1 year or more.
service.
service 1
y e a r or
more.
All............... 10 per cent of weekly earn­ By reporting at stations 5 minutes be­
fore starting time and remaining 5
ings.
minutes after quitting time on each
day of the week.
T h o s e in 4 per cent of earnings in 6 By service of 6 months or more preced­
service 6
months to 1 year.
ing annual bonus payment.
months or
more.
___ do.......... 10 per cent of earnings in 6
Do.
months to 1 year.
Operator___ 10 per cent of net yearly When station in 1 year earns net profit.
profit.
1 per cent of gross profit on When station in month earns gross
20
Manager___
oil sales each month.
profit on oil sales.
20 per cent of net yearly When station in year earns net profit.
profits.
All in all sta- Bonus varies from month to When the percentage increase of sales
month. For month cov­
tio n s of
of a station in a month over sales in
company.
preceding month, in regular order, is
ered by study bonuses
were $100 to station No. 1
1, 2, or 3 of those of all stations of the
company.
in order of percentage in­
crease of sales over those
in preceding month, $50
to station No. 2, and $25
to station No. 3. Bonus
of each station was divid­
ed equally among its em-

t i r e sac,
tubes,

and greas­
ing and
s e r v ice

All in all sta­ For month covered by study
tions in
bonuses were $25 to sta­
each dis­
tion with highest record
trict.
and $10 to station with
next highest record in each
of 3 districts, divided
equally among its em­
ployees.

When the percentage increase of sales of
a station in a month over sales in
preceding month is highest or next
highest of those of all stations in dis­
trict 1, 2, or 3. The stations of the
company are divided into 3 districts.
A bonus is earned by 2 stations in
each district.

All in sta­
tion.

Sales con­
test of oil,
grease,

When the percentage of sales of a sta­
tion on the winning team over its
quota is higher than that of any
other station of that team. The
stations of the company are divided
into 2 competing teams. A sales
qouta is set for each station.
When the percentage of sales of a sta­
tion on the losing team over its quota
is higher than that of any other sta­
tion on that team.
When the percentage of cars washed in
a station over its quota for month is
higher than that of any other station
on either team.
When the i>ercentage of sales of his sta­
tion over its quota is higher than that
of any other station on either team
during a period of 7 months.
When the percentage of sales of his
team over its quota is higher than
that of the other team during 7
months.
When sales of station are equal to or
exceed the quota for month.

$36 divided equally among
the employees of station
with highest record in
winning team for month.

—do___

$24 divided equally among
employees of station with
highest record in losing
team for month.
Sales bonus . Carwashers. $5 to car washer of station
having highest number of
washing jobs in relation to
quota for month.
Managers.— $100 to manager of station
with highest record for
7 months.

1
4
13

Supervisors
or
cap­
tains of
. teams.
..— do.......... All in each
station.
E fficie n cy
and cour­
tesy.

AD..

$150 to supervisor or captain
of team with highest rec­
ord for 7 months.
$500 each month distributed
among employees of vari­
ous stations.
$100 each month distributed
among 13 selected em­
ployees of various sta­
tions.

When employee, for any month, is one
of the 13 highest ranking men from
the standpoint of efficiency and cour­
tesy to customers.

1 Stations of a company that had many other stations in operation in various localities at the time of the
study.
3 A station of a company that had approximately 20 stations in operation in various localities in the
State in which this station was located.




WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

17

Supplementary Information
The study of gasoline filling stations was made primarily for the
purpose of the collection and publication of information covering
wages and hours of labor of employees in such stations. However,
in making the study supplementary information on other subjects
was also secured. A brief statement covering each subject is pre­
sented below.
Vacations with Pay
All of the employees in 293 stations and part of those in 58 stations
were given a vacation annually with pay. Table 8 shows that the
length of service necessary to get the vacation was indefinite and at
the discretion of company officials for 52 stations, and that for 299
stations it ranged from 2 months for the station with the shortest
to 5 years for stations requiring the longest period of service. The
length of the vacation was not definitely established for 5 stations,
and for others ranged from 2 to 14 days.
Vacation with pay in 851 gasoline filling stations, 1981

T a b l e 8 .—
Number of stations in
which vacations with
pay were given to—

Length of service required to get vacation with
pay

Length of annual vacation

Part of
All
employees employees
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials.
___ do................................. .................... ...............
___ do.
.— .d o .—
___ do___
___ do___
2 months.
6 months.
----- do----do—
_do_.
9 months.
1 year--------- do___
----- do___
—-d o —
.d o .—
.do—
— ..d o —
2 years___
5 years___
f6 months.
.1 year___
F months.
6
.1 year----f6 months.
1 year----_ d o—
_
[2 years_
_
1 year----1 years.—
5
k -d o ....
llO years. _

19
59
5

2 or 3 days.
7 days.
Not definitely established.
14 days.
7 to 14 days.
4 hours per week.
7 days.
3 to 7 days.
7 days.
10 days.
14 days.
7 days.
2 days.
6 days.
7 days.
7 to 10 days.
8 days.
10 days.
14 days.
10 days.
7 days.
5 days.
14 days.
6 days.
12 days.
7 days.
14 days.
7 days.
10 days.
7 days.
14 days.
7 days.
14 days.

58

Sick Leave with Pay
Inquiry concerning this subject revealed that there was provision
for sick leave with pay in 387 of the 736 stations covered in this report.
Table 9 shows for the gasoline filling stations in which there was
provision for sick leave with pay, the length of service required therefor,
and the period of time allowed for sick leave at full pay or at half pay.



18

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS
T a b l e 9 . — Sick

leave with pay in 887 gasoline filling stations, 1981

Num­
ber of Length of service required to get sick leave with
sta­
pay
tions
4
1
1
1
8
1
5
1
4
l 27
5
3
3
10
3
2 35
37
2
2
3
3
7
3
21
4
11
3
1
2
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
1
6
3
1

11

21

1
3
44
67

Time of leave at—
Full pay

1 month_______________________________________ 2 days________ ________
2 months______________________________________ 3 days__________ _____
____ do__________ _______ _
3 months . . .
, . .
____ do________________
6 months .
1 year
_
_ ___ ______ _ _ ____ ___ .d o __________________
Indefinite and at; discretion of company officials. ____do__________________
7 days__________________
1 month _ ___________________ _________ _
2 months................................. ................... . . . . . . ____ do__________________
6 rnonths____ ___ ____ ___ ____ ____ __________ ____ do__________________
1 year_ _ ____________________ ____ ___________ ____ do________________
Indefinite and at discretion nf company officios
____do__________________
1 year_ ________________________________________ 10 days_________________
3 mrvnths,,,
14 days_________________
ft mnnths, .
____ do__________________
____ d o -_ ................................................................. .
1 year_________________________________________ 14 days_____________ ____
Indefinite and a . disnrAtinn nf company officials . ____ do__________________
>
6 months______________________________________ 18 days_________________
____do_________________________________________ 14 to 21 days____________
_
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials_ ____ do__________________
6 months______________________________________ 21 days_________________
1 year__ ______________________________________ ____do__________________
_ 24 days_________________
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials_
__ do_________________________________________ 1 month maximum r
_______________
1 year_________________________________________ 1 month 8
__ d o ________________________________________ ____ do__________________
____ do__________________
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials
__ d o _________________________________________ 35 days_________________
. . . d o ........................................................................ 36 days (3 per month)____
1 year_________________________________________
__ d o ________________________________________
3 months______________________________________ 2 months *______________
1 year_________________________________________ ____ do_________ _________
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials
___ d o __________________
____do_- ______________________________________ 75 days *__ ___________
1 year_____________________________________ ___ 3 months maximum______
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials_
_ 18 weeks______________ _
(Under 1 year__________________________________ 2 weeks_________________
\l year_________________________________________ 1 month............... ..............
/Indefinite and at discretion of company officials_ 2 weeks for single men.......
_
\___ do_________________________________________ 1 month for married m en„
1 year_________________________________________
(1 y e a r_________________________ •
______________ 4 weeks_________________
2 years________________________________________ ____ do___________ _______
3 years_______________________________________ ____ do__________________
4 years________________________________________ ....... do.................................
5 years________________________________________ 8 weeks.________________
16 years________________________________________ ____ do__________________
7 years___________1____________________________ ____ do__________________
8 years________________________________________ ....... do.................................
9 y ears_______________________________________ 12 weeks._______________
10 years_______________________________________ ....... do.................................
(1 year_________________________________________
2 years________________________________________
3 years________________________________________
4 years________________________________________
5 years________________________________________
\6 years________________________________________
7 years________________________________________
8 years._______________________________________
9 years. ______________________________________
,10 years_______________________________________
)
Not reported__________________________________ (8 .......................................
__ d o ________________________________________ 14 to 21 days.9___________
....... do.......................................................................... Not reported____________
....... do.......................................................................... “ Reasonable time.”

Half pay

14 days.

6 months.

6 to 8 weeks.
6 weeks to 1 year.
1 month.*

6 weeks.®
2 weeks.
7 weeks.
12 weeks.
17 weeks.
18 weeks.
23 weeks.
28 weeks.
33 weeks.
34 weeks.
40 weeks.
6 weeks.
11 weeks.
16 weeks.
21 weeks.
26 weeks.
31 weeks.
36 weeks.
41 weeks.
46 weeks.
52 weeks.7
(8
).
Not reported.

1 Including 2 stations in which operators' helpers only were entitled to leave with pay.
2 Including 12 stations in which operators in charge of stations were entitled to leave with pay.
3 If sickness exceeds 1 month, additional time allowed depends on employee’s service of from 1 to 5 years.
4 For all except smallpox or typhoid fever.
8 For all except diseases preventable by inoculation.
6 And an additional 6 weeks for each year of service to a maximum of 52 weeks.
i And 26 additional weeks for permanent disability.
8 As recommended by branch manager.
» To salaried employees only.




SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

19

Group Insurance
Employees of 414 stations were reported as insured and of 287
stations as not insured. There was no report as to insurance of the
employees in 35 stations.
The insurance premiums for the employees in 244 stations were
paid by the companies, in 28 stations by the employees, and in 101
stations were paid jointly by employers and employees. There was
no report as to who paid the premiums in 41 stations. Where the
premiums were paid jointly by the employers and the employees such
payments were shared equally by employees and employers in part of
the stations, while in others the ratio varied.
Two examples of insurance are given below:
Example 1.—An employee after one year of service is insured for
$1,000. The insurance is increased $250 at the end of each succeeding
year to a maximum of $2,500. The premium is paid by the company.
The employee may after one year of service take an additional $1,000
of insurance at a cost of 60 events per month to him and 5 cents per
month to the company. This type of insurance was in effect in 76
stations.
Example 2.—This type of insurance applied to the employees of the
18 stations of one comapny. The insurance was based on years of
service in the company and on amount of full-time pay. The amount
of insurance was either a minimum of $500 or a maximum of $2,000,
or a sum equal to 3 months' full pay for service of 1 and under 2
years, to 5 months’ pay for service of 2 and under 3 years, to 7 months’
pay for service of 3 and under 4 years, to 9 months’ pay for service of
4 and under 5 years, or to 12 months' full-time pay for service of 5
years or more.
Employees Under Bond
To bond means to furnish security through a bonding company for
compensation for loss or damage of property. All employees in 247
gasoline filling stations and part of the employees in 78 were bonded.
The employees in 170 stations were not bonded and no report on this
subject was obtained from 241 stations.
In the 78 stations in which security covered only a part of the em­
ployees those bonded were managers in 2 stations; operators in 19
stations; all employees except porters in 13; all working on commission
in 1; and not reported for 43 stations.
The bond premiums were paid by the companies in 313 stations, by
employees in 3, and shared equally by companies and employees in 3,
while in 3 stations the company paid the premiums for the operators
and the operators paid them for their helpers. There was no report
as to who paid the premiums in three stations.
Preference for Married or Single Men
Only 223 of the 736 gasoline filling stations reported preference for
married or single men. The preferences were for married men as
operators and managers in 5 stations and for all occupations in 115
stations; for married men as operators and managers and for single
men as operators' helpers in 6 stations; and for single men as operators'
helpers in 3 stations and for all occupations in 22 stations. Prior to




20

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

the current economic conditions and unemployment there was no
preference in 72 stations, but in the hiring of new employees married
men are now given preference.
Years of Service
A study of the average years of service reported for the employees
of 425 gasoline filling stations, revealed that for the employees in 44
stations the average was less than 1 year; for 76 was 1 year and under 2
years; for 186 (including 72 stations of a large company that reported
average service of 2 years), was 2 and under 3 years; for 62 was 3
and under 4 years; for 27 was 4 and under 5 years; for 14 was 5
and under 6 years; for 12 was 6 and under 7 years; for 3 was 7 years
and the average for the employees of 1 station was 12 years. Years
of service were not reported for the employees of 311 stations.
Lunch Periods
Information on this subject was obtained from 562 of the 736 gaso­
line filling stations covered in this report. Employees in each of 159
stations have a regular lunch period each day, the length of and time
for the lunch period varying in different stations. In 39 stations the
lunch period is “ staggered,” each employee of a station having lunch
at different hours of the day on different days. As there is no definite
provision for a lunch period in 325 stations, employees in these sta­
tions eat between jobs, having lunch brought to the station or eating
at nearby restaurants when business permits. Part of the employees
in 39 stations have a regular lunch period each day and others eat
between jobs. There was no report on this subject from 174 stations.
Age of Employees
Based on the age reported for each of the employees in 699 of the
736 gasoline filling stations, 58.9 per cent of the employees in the
industry were over 25 and 41.1 per cent under 25 years of age.
Retirement and Pension Systems
In answer to inquiry on this subject 134 stations were reported as
having such systems and 363 as not having them.
Uniforms
It was reported that certain articles of clothing called uniforms were
worn by all or a part of the employees in 545 of the gasoline filling
stations. The uniforms ranged in the different stations from overalls
or coveralls to complete outfits consisting of cap, blouse, breeches,
puttees, knickers, jacket, coat, and raincoat.
There was also a wide range in the cost of uniforms in the different
stations. The yearly cost of uniforms per man ranged from less than
$5 in 5 stations to over $35 in 18 stations. The cost in 125 stations
fell within the group of $12.50 and under $15, and in 48 stations fell
within the group of $10 and under $12.50.
Uniforms were paid for by employees in 219 stations, by companies
in 196 stations, and in 110 stations the cost was shared equally by




SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

21

employers and employees. Laundered uniforms were rented in 16
stations, the rental being paid by companies in 15 stations and by
employees in 1 station. There was no report as to who paid for
uniforms in four stations.
Laundering of Uniforms
Information as to the cost of laundering articles of uniforms was
obtained from 608 of the 736 gasoline filling stations studied* The
cost was paid by companies in 262 stations, by employees in 336 sta­
tions, shared equally by companies and employees in 9 stations, and
in 1 station the cost of laundering the pitman’s uniform was paid by
the company and of those of all other employees was paid by em­
ployees.
The average weeldy cost of laundering per man ranged from a low of
less than 25 cents to a high of $1 and over.
Drivers’ Permits
All employees in 79 gasoline filling stations were required by the
companies to have drivers’ permits, while in 626 stations they were
not required to hold such permits. There was no report on tins sub­
ject from 31 stations.
Drivers’ permits for employees in the 79 stations in which they were
required were paid for by employees in 40 stations, by companies in
11 stations, and in 28 stations there was no report as to who paid for
them.
Time for Checking Stock and Cash
The stock and cash at each gasoline filling station are in charge of
one or more men as long as they are on duty. When such men are
relieved by men on another shift, an inventory of stock is usually
made and the cash counted before men of the new shift assume charge
of the stock and cash.
The time consumed in making an inventory of the stock and in
counting the cash was on company time in 303 stations; on employ­
ees’ time in 97, and was partly on company time and partly on em­
ployees’ time in 3 stations. There was no report on this subject from
333 stations.
The average time required in checking stock and counting cash, as
reported by 262 stations, was less than 15 minutes in 48 stations, 15
and under 30 minutes in 131 stations, 30 and under 45 minutes in 72
stations, 45 minutes and under 1 hour in 4 stations, and 1 hour or
more in 7 stations.
Adjustments for Losses by Evaporation and in Selling
Gasoline, oil, and grease are measured when put in filling stations
as stock. The amounts measured to the manager or operator are
frequently more than the amounts accounted for when sales and
quantity on hand are checked, although, at times, there will be an
excess on hand, due to change in temperature and expansion. The
shrinkage or expansion of gasoline due to changes in temperature is
taken into consideration in some stations when gasoline is measured.
Evaporation and selling losses, usually due to carelessness of em­



22

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

ployees or defective equipment, are the most frequent causes of
shortages, however.
Information concerning the responsibility of employees in case of
shortages was reported by 664 of the 736 filling stations studied,
employees being held responsible in 340 and not responsible in 324
stations. In 80 of the 340 stations it was reported that adjustments
would be made if the losses were due to faulty or defective equipment
or to causes which were no fault of the employees.
Allowances for shrinkage or other loss of gasoline were made in
many of the 324 stations in which employees were not held responsible
for losses. Examples of the allowances are a shrinkage of 1, % or %
per cent; of 1 per cent in summer and % per cent in winter; or of %
per cent in summer and % per cent in winter.

Scope and Method
The basic wage figures which were used in compiling the various
wage tables in this report for filling stations were obtained by agents
of the bureau from the pay rolls and other records of 736 stations.
Information on other related subjects were obtained from answers by
companies to inquiries on such subjects.
The wage figures were collected from the pay rolls for a representa­
tive pay period in April, May, June, or July, 1931. The length of
the pay period was 1 week in 288 stations, 9 days in 1, one-half month
in 354, and 1 month in 93 stations. The figures for a period of more
than one week were reduced to a 1-week basis.
In computing average days on which employees worked in one week
for the employees in an occupation or for the employees in all occupa­
tions in the stations covered in the study, each full day or part of a
day in the week that an employee did any work was counted as a day,
and the total of such days was divided by the number of employees
in an occupation or in all occupations.
Average full-time hours per week for the employees in an occupa­
tion or in all occupations were computed by dividing their aggregate
full-time hours per week by the number of such employees. The full­
time hours per week of each employee were used in arriving at the
average, even though some may have worked more or less than full
time on account of overtime, sickness, disability, or other cause.
Average hours actually worked in one week for the employees in
an occupation were computed by dividing the total of their hours
actually worked in the week by the number of such employees.
Average earnings per hour for the employees in an occupation were
computed by dividing their aggregate earnings in one week by the
aggregate number of hours that were actually worked by such employ­
ees in the week.
Average full-time earnings per week for the employees in an occu­
pation were computed by multiplying the earnings per hour for the
employees in the occupation by their average full-time hours per week.
Average actual earnings in one week for the employees in an occu­
pation or in all occupations were computed by dividing their total
aggregate earnings in the week by the number of such employees.




23

GENERAL TABLES

Occupations in Filling Stations
The occupations as published in the tables in this bulletin are as
follows: Car washers, greasers, managers, operators, operators’ helpers,
porters, relief men, tire men, and the group of “ other employees.”
Each of the occupations found in gasoline filling stations, including
those in the group of “ other employees,” is defined in Appendix A
(pp. 85 and 86).

General Tables
In addition to the tables already given in this bulletin, three general
tables are presented as follows:
T a b l e A —Average number of days on which employees worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, 1931, by occupa­
tion and city.
The arrangement of this table makes easy the comparison of aver­
ages for one city with those for another. The averages, by city, are
presented for each occupation separately and, at the end of the table,
for all occupations combined.
“ Average full-time hours per week” and the “Average hours actu­
ally worked in one week” are presented in adjacent columns. This
makes easy comparison of the average hours that would have been
worked in the week had all employees in the occupation worked no more
nor less than full time, with the average hours that were actually worked
in the week for which data are shown. The figures in the column
following these two columns shows for the employees covered in each
occupation in each city the per cent of full-time actually worked in
the week.
T a b l e B.—Average and classified earnings per hour in five specified
occupations, 1931, by city.
T a b l e C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in five
specified occupations, 1931, by city.
A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city

T able

Occupation and city

Car washers:
Atlanta, Ga...........................
Austin, Tex...........................
Baltimore, M d ......................
Birmingham, Ala..................
Charleston, S. C....................
Charlotte, N. C .....................
Chicago, HI............................
Danville, 111...........................
Des Moines, Iowa.................
Detroit, M ich........................
Holyoke, Mass......................
Houston, Tex........................
Jacksonville, Fla...................
Joplin, M o.............................
Kansas City, Kans................
* Data included in total.




Aver­
age
Num­ dayson
Num­ ber of which
ber of em­ employ­
sta­
ees
tions ploy­ worked
ees
in 1
week

1
3
2
2
7
7
2
3
2
3
1
3
3
2
2

0)
3
11
2
9
11
16
3
2
8
C)
1
3
5
2
2

0)
7.0
5.6
7.0
6.8
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.5
6.0
0)
6.0
7.0
6.5
7.0

Aver­ Aver­
Per
Aver­
age
cent
age
age
full­
hours of full earn­
time actually time
ings
hours worked worked per
in 1
per
in
hour
week
week
week

0
69.0
51.3
80.0
62.2
71.0
77.4
63.3
59.0
61.5
(0
64.0
81.2
62.5
64.0

0)
69.0
51.3
80.0
62.2
71.6
49.5
55.6
59.0
61.5
0)
64.0
81.2
67.5
64.0

0)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.8
64.0
87.8
100.0
100.0
0)
100.0
100.0
108.0
100.0

C)
1
$0.186
.319
.157
.203
.165
.389
.335
.196
.274
Q)
.237
.148
.267
.267

Aver­
age
Aver­
full­
age
time actual
earn­
earn­
ings ings in
per
1 week
week

(9
$12.83
16.36
12.56
12.63
11.72
30.11
21.21
11.56
16.85
0)
15.17
12.02
16.69
17.09

0)
$12.83
16.36
12.56
12.63
11.79
19.24
18.64
11.56
16.85
0)
15.17
12.02
18.05
17.09

24

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city— Continued

T able

Occupation and city

Oar washers—Continued.
Little Rock, Ark__________
T-nnisvillft, TCy
M^Tnphis, Term
Meridian, Miss
Milwaukee, Wis___________
Minneapolis, MiTTn

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
sta­ em­
tions ploy­
ees

Aver­
age
dayson
which
employ­
ees
worked
in 1
week

6
1
1
6
2
1
2
2
2
1
9
1
5
2

7
(l)
(l)
7
3
0
2
4
2
0
15

6.9
0)
(i)
6.9
6.7
0
7.0
6.8
6.0

(,)5
4

84

Aver­ Aver­
Per
Aver­
cent
age
age
age
full­
hours of full earn­
actually time
time
ings
hours worked worked per
per
in
in 1
hour
week
week
week

64.6

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings in
1 week

<?.o
7.0

0)
71.6
71.3
0
63.0
63.8
57.0
0
67.1
0
.
64.7
78.8

68.9
0
0
71.6
68 3
0
63.0
63.8
57.0
0
65.8
0
64.7
74.3

106.7
0
0
100.0
95.8
0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0
98.1
0
100.0
94.3

$0.190
0
0
.145
.248
0
.227
.280
.364
0
.257
0
.274
.338

$12.27
0
(l)
10.38
17.68
0
14.30
17.86
20.75
0
17.24
0
17.73
26.63

$13.09
0
0)
10.38
16.92
0
14.30
17.86
20.75
0
16.91
0
17.73
25.13

151

6.5

66.9

61.9

92.5

.248

16.59

15.36

2
2
1
10
Baltimore, M d ____________
10
Birmingham, Ala__________
7
Boston, M a s s ..___________
5
Charleston, S. C ___________
7
Charlotte, N. C ___________
12
Chicago, 111_______________
7
Cleveland, Ohio___________
2
Danville, 111_______________
5
Des Moines, I o w a ._______
3
___________ Mich
Detroit,
3
Hamilton, Ohio___________
3
Hartford, Conn________ ___
2
Holyoke, Mass __________
6
Houston, Tex_____________
3
Indianapolis, Ind__________
6
Jacksonville, Fla__________
1
Joplin, M o ________________
2
Transas City, Kans_______
3
Lincoln, Nebr_____________
6
Little Rock, Ark__________
1
Louisville, Ky ___________
Manchester, N. H 3
________
5
Memphis, Tenn___________
4
Meridian, Miss____________
3
Milwaukee, Wis___________
2
Minneapolis, Minn________
2
New Orleans. La__________
1
Oklahoma City, Okla______
3
Philadelphia, Pa___________
Portland, M e______________
2
8
Providence, R. I ___________
7
Richmond, V a ____________
2
Rochester, N. Y ___________
2
St. Louis, M o _____________
1
Tienton, N. J........................
10
Washington, D. C _________

2
2
0
19
14
12
8
7
39
21
2
5
9
4
3
2
7
5
7

W3
7
5
7
2
2
0
8
3
10
9
3
5
0)
25

6.0
7.0
0
6.2
7.0
5.9
6.1
6.4
6.4
6.8
6.0
7.0
6.2
6.3
6.0
6.5
6.6
6.4
7.0
0
6.3
6.8
6.2
0
6.0
6.1
6.8
6.9
6.5
7.0
0
6.0
7.0
6.0
6.1
6.0
7.0
0
6.3

48.0
71.5
0
59.9
67.7
54.5
60.4
70.4
52.0
59.1
64.0
63.5
61.5
59.3
50.0
53.3
59.4
59.3
77.5
0
71.3
64.5
56.7
0
54.0
57.4
72.2
67.1
59.3
56.0
0
64.0
54.3
54.0
60.2
52.3
64.8
0
60.7

48.0
71.5
0
59.9
67.7
53.8
60.4
69.9
51.0
61.1
61.7
63.1
62.0
60.2
50.0
53.3
59.4
60.2
77.5
0
71.3
64.7
56.7
0
54.0
57.4
72.3
67.1
59.3
56.0
0
57.4
54.3
54.1
59.0
52.3
64.8
0
59.3

100.0
100.0
0
100.0
100.0
98.7
100.0
99.3
98.1
103.4
96.4
99.4
100.8
101.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.5
100.0
0
100.0
100.3
100.0
0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
0
89.7
100.0
100.2
98.0
100.0
100.0
0
97.7

.399
.215
0
.425
.156
.485
.385
.175
.577
.482
.398
.315
.425
.348
.493
.382
.265
.399
.198
0
.343
.341
.349
0
.438
.366
.176
.353
.385
.417
0
.334
.460
.488
.407
.510
.311
0
.448

19.15
15.37
0
25.46
10.56
26.43
23.25
12.32
30.00
28.49
25.47
20.00
26.14
20.64
24.65
20.36
15.74
23.66
15.35
0)
24.46
21.99
19.79
0
23.65
21.01
12.71
23.69
22.83
23.35
0
21.38
24.98
26.35
24.50
26.67
20 15
0
27.19

19.15
15.37
0
25.46
10.56
26.06
23.25
12.20
29.42
29.42
24.56
19.86
26.36
20.97
24.65
20.36
15.74
24.03
15.35
0)
24.46
22.09
19.79
0
23.65
21.01
12.73
23.69
22.83
23.35
0
19.17
24.98
26.38
24.01
26.67
20.15
0
26.60

Total______________ _____

164

280

6.4

59.9

59.6

99.5

.393

23.54

23.41

Managers:
Altoona, Pa_______________
Atlanta, Ga_______________
Baltimore, M d ____________
Boston, Mass_____________
Charlotte, N. C ___________
Chicago, 111............................

4
1
5
4
1
10

4
(05
4
0
17

6.0
0
6.0
6.0
(0
6.7

52.0
0
58.8
54.0
0
56.0

50.5
0
58.8
54.0
0
56.0

97.1
0
100.0
100.0
0
100.0

.558
0
.587
.543
0
.702

29.02
0)
34.52
29.32
0
39.31

28.19
0
34.52
29.32
0
39.31

Oklahoma Oity, Okla______
Portland, M a
__ _
Richmond, Va ..
Rochester, N. Y ___________

T o ta l__________________
Greasers:

i Bata included in total.




(,)3
6
9

%

25

GENERAL TABLES

,— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per houry and per cent
of full time worked, 1981 y by occupation and city— C o n t in u e d

T a b le A

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Per
age
Aver­
Num­ days on age
age
cent
Num­ ber of which
age
of full earn­
full­
hours
ber of em­ employ­ time actually time
sta­ ploy­
hours worked worked ings
ees
per
tions ees worked per
in
in 1
hour
week
week
week
in 1
week

Managers—Continued.
Cleveland, Ohio___________
Danville, HI......... ...............
Detroit, M ich................... .
Hartford, Conn____________
Indianapolis, Tnd
Little Bock, Ark.............. .
Manchester, N, H ..........
Milwaukee, Wis............. ......
Oklahoma City, O k la..........
Philadelphia, Pa
Providence, R. I ___________
Richmond, Va........ ..............
Rochester, N. Y ....................
St.TTiOrjis, M o.
Washington, D. O

2
8
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
3
4
1
6
1
3

?,
4
?,
?,
?,
3
(l)
(i)
(l)
3
4
0)
6

(,)s

M
(v
6.0
6.0
0)
6.0
0)
7.0

Total_________ __________

60

68

Operators:
Altoona., Pft__
Atlanta, Ga__________ ____
Austin, Tex__________ ____
Baltimore, M d____________
Birmingham, Ala..... .............
Boston, Mass_____________
Burlington, Vt__...................
Charleston, S. C....................
Charlotte, N. C......... ..........
Chicago, 111............................
Cleveland, Ohio___________
Danville, 111_______________
Des Moines, Iowa_________
Detroit, Mich_____________
Hamilton, Ohio___________
Hartford, Conn____________
Holyoke, Mass...... ................
Houston, Tex_____________
Huntington, W. Va________
Indianapolis, Ind__________
Jacksonville, Fla___________
Joplin, M o ..____ __________
Kansas City, Kans________
Lincoln, Nebr_____________
Little Rock, Ark__________
Louisville, K y_______ ____ _
Manchester, N. H _________
Memphis, Tenn___________
Meridian, Miss____________
Milwaukee, Wis___________
Minneapolis, Minn_____ __
New Orleans, La__________
New York, N. Y . ......... ........
Oklahoma City, Okla______
Philadelphia, Pa___________
Portland, M e______________
Providence, R. I —.................
Richmond, Va____________
Rochester, N. Y ....................
St. Louis, M o_____________
Superior, Wis_____________
Trenton, N. J.......................
Washington, D. C_________

16
18
12
20
18
20
5
13
14
20
19
16
18
19
16
18
10
18
15
18
15
16
17
14
15
17
10
17
10
15
17
17
20
17
20
13
15
11
17
20
16
17
14

Total...................................
Operators’ helpers:
Altoona, Pa_______________
Atlanta, Ga_______________
Austin, Tex............................

1Data included in total.




Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings in
1 week

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
C)
1
0)
0)
100.0
100.0
0)
100.0
0)
100.0

$0,685
.703
.795
.491
.890
.664
0)
0)
<
*)
.500
.550
0)
.590
0)
.750

$41.10
43.94
49.77
26.51
52.96
39.84
0)

1

54.0
0)
58.5
0)
58.3

60.0
62.5
62.6
54.0
59.5
60.0
(i)
0)
(i)
54.0
54.0
0)
58.5
0
58.3

0)
27.00
29.70
0
34.52
0)
43.73

$41.10
43.94
49.77
26.51
52.96
39.84
0)
0)
0)
27.00
29.70
0)
34.52
C)
1
43.73

6.4

57.3

57.2

99.8

.631

36.16

36.09

35
?,5
17
49
30
39
8
18
21
49
44
27
18
36
38
30
17
33
27
32
27
19
22
14
23
34
20
30
13
19
18
25
45
20
44
24
27
22
37
23
17
34
32

6.3
7.0
6.9
6.5
6.9
6.8
6.1
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.1
7.0
6.5
6.8
6.5
6.8
6.5
7.0
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.7
5.9
7.0
6.6
6.9
6.7
6.8
6.8
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.6
6.3
7.0
6.9
6.4
6.7

55.4
68.4
64.5
56.8
61.6
55.9
67.1
61.8
67.4
51.0
59.3
66.3
75.2
56.0
58.4
53.9
58.7
55.2
73.4
60.8
67.4
70.7
69.9
65.0
59.0
57.7
59.1
64.5
66.0
62.4
70.4
59.8
61.0
70.9
55.0
59.0
57.6
64.1
56.0
68.1
86.5
54.8
59.3

55.5
68.6
64.5
57.0
61.6
56.1
67.1
61.8
68.2
51.0
58.5
66.1
75.2
56.0
58.3
54.6
60.9
55.2
73.2
61.6
67.4
70.7
68.7
67.8
59.0
58.3
59.2
64.5
66.0
62.1
74.5
59.8
61.3
70.9
55.0
59.8
58.2
64.9
56.7
68.4
85.6
56.2
58.5

100.2
100.3
100.0
100.4
100.0
100.4
100.0
100.0
101.2
100.0
98.7
99.7
100.0
100.0
99.8
101.3
103.7
100.0
99.7
101.3
100.0
100.0
98.3
104.3
100.0
101.0
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.5
105.8
100.0
100.5
100.0
100.0
101.4
101.0
101.2
101.3
100.4
99.0
102.6
98.7

.403
.361
.391
.461
.394
.524
.337
.504
.397
.658
.505
.372
.418
.517
.425
.524
.466
.442
.304
.442
.371
.346
.425
.368
.405
.356
.412
.368
.357
.483
.389
.427
.543
.416
.446
.448
.469
.402
.483
.438
.373
.455
.524

22.33
24.69
25.22
26.18
24.27
29.29
22.61
31.15
26.76
33.56
29.95
24.66
31.43
28.95
24.82
28.24
27.35
24.40
22. 31
26.87
25.01
24. 46
29.71
23.92
23.90
20. 54
24.35
23.74
23.56
30.14
27 39
25.53
33.12
29.49
24.53
26.43
27.01
25.77
27.05
29.83
32.26
24.93
31.07

22.39
24.79
25.22
26.24
24.27
29.42
22.61
31.15
27.09
33.56
29.54
24.61
31.43
28 95
24.81
28.61
28.41
24.40
22.27
27.20
25.01
24.46
29.17
24.98
23.90
20.75
24.37
23.74
23.56
29.98
29.01
25.53
33.29
29.49
24.53
26.75
27.25
26.12
27.41
29.99
31.90
25.58
30.67

683 1,182

6.6

61.0

61.3

100.5

.441

26.90

27.01

6.3
6.8
6.8

51. 5
63.9
60.2

51.1
63.9
61.0

99.2
100.0
101.3

.340
.255
.328

17.51
16.29
19.75

17.39
16.29
20.03

8
12
12

26
29
31

7.0
6.3
7.0
6.0
7.0
7.0

60.0
62.5
62.6
54.0
59.5
60.0
0)
h)

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

(4
54.0

26

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hourf and per cent
of full time worked, 1981 y by occupation and city— C o n t in u e d

T able

Occupation and city

Operators’ helpers—Continued.
Baltimore, M d ____________
Birmingham, Ala_ _
Boston, Mass_____________
Burlington, V t......... _
Charleston, S. C ....................
Charlotte, N. C.....................
Chicago, 111_______________
Cleveland, Ohio....................
Danville, 111..........................
Des Moines, Iowa_________
Detroit, Mich_____________

Aver­
Per
Aver­ Aver­
age
Aver­
Num­ dayson age
cent
age
Num­ ber of which
age
full­
hours
ber of em­ employ­ time actually of full earn­
time
ings
sta­ ploy­ ees
tions ees worked hours worked worked per
in
per
in i
hour
week
week
week
in 1
week

11
10
17
7
12
12
9
12
6
12
15
4
14
8
13
8
11
8
13
13
13
9
10
7
8
11
11
14
17
17
12
11
9
15
8
7
16
10
10
13

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

99.5 $0,440 $24.90
100.0
.290
17.52
99.8
.456
25.08
98.7
.287
17.94
100.0
.341
21.18
94.1
.303
20.42
100.4
.619
31.07
95.4
.380
21.58
101.7
.317
16.64
100.7
.352
20.70
.494
99.6
27.17
99.0
.351
14.39
99.2
.459
24.05
.414
99.7
24.80
.312
100.0
18.03
.353
96.6
16.38
100.3
.331
19.53
.211
100.0
17.11
100.0
.247
13.98
100.0
.309
15.88
101.6
.315
19.85
99.9
.285
19.18
.312
16.94
96.1
97.4
.378
20.37
97.7
.331
21.91
100.0
.228
15.32
99.0
.368
21.23
96.9
.387
19.89
100.2
.322
19.61
99.1
.465
27.25
100.3
.332
21.08
99.6
.393
19.81
99.8
.418
24.16
100.0
.385
19.83
98.7
.364
19.91
99.6
.483
24.15
99.0
.395
24.02
94.9
.337
13.28
100.4
.420
20.12
92.0
.396
23.80

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings in
1 week

31
16
36
12
15
17
17
27
6
19
36
5
30
16
39
14
22
23
16
22
27
24
28
13
21
23
25
24
34
43
33
34
25
31
15
16
36
11
27
44

6.3
7.0
6.6
6.2
6.7
6.2
6.3
6.3
7.0
6.8
6.6
5.8
6.2
6.7
6.9
6.1
6.9
7.0
6.9
6.3
6.9
7.0
5.4
6.2
6.8
6.7
6.1
6.0
6.9
5.9
6.4
6.2
7.0
6.2
5.4
6.5
6.9
5.5
5.9
6.0

56.6
60.4
55.0
62.5
62.1
67.4
50.2
56.8
52.5
58.8
55.0
41.0
52.4
59.9
57.8
46.4
59.0
81.1
56.6
51.4
63.0
67.3
54.3
53.9
66.2
67.2
57.7
51.4
60.9
58.6
63.5
50.4
57.8
51.5
54.7
50.0
60.8
39.4
47.9
60.1

56.3
60.4
54.9
61.7
62.1
63.4
50.4
54.2
53.4
59.2
54.8
40.6
52.0
59.7
57.8
44.8
59.2
81.1
56.6
51.4
64.0
67.2
52.2
52.5
64.7
67.2
57.1
49.8
61.0
58.1
63.7
50.2
57.7
51.5
54.0
49.8
60.2
37.4
48.1
55.3

475 1,039

6.4

57.7

57.2

99.1

.362

20.89

20.71

Porters:
7.0
Atlanta, Qa_______________
10
19
1 0
Austin, Tex_______________
0
6.3
2
3
Baltimore, M d ____________
1 0
Birmingham, Ala__________
0
___________ Charleston, S. C7.0
3
3
Chinago, Til______ . ,
1 0
(9
1
1 0
Danville, 111_______________
1 0
Des Moines, Iowa_________
(1
)
2
2
6.5
Detroit, M ich_____________
Houston, Tex______________
2
2
6.0
14
7.0
Jacksonville, Fla___________
11
1 0
Lincoln, Nebr_____________
0
Little Rock, Ark__________
2
2
7.0
3
6
Memphis, Tenn___________
7.0
Meridian, Miss____________
2
2
7.0
5
5
7.0
New Orleans, La__________
Oklahoma City, Okla__.......
3
3
7.0
Richmond, Va_____________
2
3
6.7
2
2
Rochester, N. Y ___________
6.0

62.4
0
65.7
0
76.5
0
0
0
54.0
57.0
63.5
0
56.0
80.5
78.8
67.2
71.6
68.7
39.0

63.4
0
65.7
0
76.5
(i)
0)
55.1
57.0
63.5
0
56.0
84.0
78.8
67.2
71.6
68.7
39.0

101.6
0
100.0
0
100.0
(i)
(i)
0
102.0
100.0
100.0
0
100.0
104.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.209
0
.311
0
.152
0
0
0
.284
.262
.193
0
.251
.103
.160
.181
.220
.186
.138

13.04
0
20.43
0
11.63
(i)
0
0
15.34
14.93
12.26
14.06
8.27
12.61
12.16
15.75
12.78
5.38

13.25
0
20.43
0
11.63
0
0
0
15.65
14.93
12.26
0
14.06
8.67
12.61
12.16
15.75
12.78
5.38

6.9

65.1

65.7

100.9

.193

12.56

12.65

Relief men:
Altoona, Pa_______________
2
2
6.0
1 0
Atlanta, Ga_______________
0
...................... Baltimore, M d 5.0
5
5

60.0
0
42.2

0

60.0

100.0
100.0

.370
0
.437

22.20

42.2

Hamilton, Ohio________....
Hartford, Conn _

Holyoke, Mass____________
Houston, Tex_____________
Huntington, W, Va_

Indianapolis, Tnd . . .........

Jacksonville, Fla__________
Joplin, M o________________
Kansas City, Elans________
Lincoln, Nebr_____________
Little Rock, Ark___________
Louisville, K y _____________
Manchester, N. H __________
Memphis, Tenn___________
Meridian, Miss____________
Milwaukee, Wis _________
Minneapolis, Minn________
New Orleans, La___________
New York, N. Y .................
Oklahoma City, Okla______
Philadelphia, Pa___________
Portland, M e______________
Providence, R. I___________
Richmond, Va_____________
Rochester, N. Y ___________
St. Louis, M o_____________
Superior, Wis_____________
Trenton, N. J_____________
Washington, D. C.................
Total___________________

Total___________________

i Data included in total.




55

72

0

0)

0

18.44

$24.75
17.52
25.03
17.72
21.18
19.21
31.17
20.59
16.90
20.81
27.04
14.26
23.86
24.75
18.03
15.82
19.59
17.11
13.98
15.88
20.16
19.15
16.28
19.86
21.40
15.32
21.03
19.28
19.64
27.01
21.14
19.75
24.13
19.83
19.66
24.09
23.75
12.59
20.17
21.91

22.20

0

18.44

27

GENEBAL TABLES

A#— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation and city— Continued

T able

Relief men—Continued.
Boston, Mass.........................
Chicago, HI............................
Cleveland, Ohio.....................
Des Moines, Iowa.................
Hartford, Conn......................
Indianapolis, Ind............ ......
Kansas City, Kans............ ...
Lincoln, Nebr............... ........
Louisville, K y.......................
Meridian, Miss......................
Milwaukee, Wis....................
Minneapolis, Minn...............
New York, N. Y ...................
Oklahoma City, Okla_.........
Philadelphia, Pa...................
Providence, R. I ._ .............. .
Rochester, N. Y ............ ........
St. Louis, M o........................

2
6
2
3
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
4
2
3
1
7
2

Total...................................
Tire men:
Birmingham, Ala............. .
Burlington, V t ____ _______
Charleston, S. C....................
Danville, 111...........................
Detroit, M ich............ ...........
Hartford, Conn___________
Holyoke, Mass......................
Houston, Tex.........................
Huntington, W. Va________
Jacksonville, Fla___________
Little Rock, Ark____ ______
Meridian, Miss.................... .
Milwaukee, Wis___________
Minneapolis, Minn________
Richmond, Va.................. .
Trenton, N. J ........................
Washington, D. C_________
Total................................ .
Other employees:
Atlanta, Ga...........................
Chicago, 111............................
Danville, 111................. .........
Des Moines, Iowa.................
Detroit, M ich......................
Hartford, Conn......................
Holyoke, Mass......................
Lincoln, Nebr............... ........
Little Rock, Ark...................
Memphis, Tenn.....................
Meridian, Miss.......... ..........
Milwaukee, Wis....... ............ ;
Oklahoma City, Okla______ ;
Philadelphia, Pa................... ;
Richmond, Va__...................
Washington, D. C.................

3
6
2
3

Per
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
cent
age
age
age
hours of fuH earn­
full­
time actually time
hours worked worked ings
per
in 1
in
per
hour
week
week
week

94.6
79.0
100.0
100.0
0
0
100.0

84.3

84.3

100.0

0
18.25

$23.33
26.01
13.74
14.73
0
0
18.25

9.69

9.69

0
26.81
24.61
23.71
0
14.36
7.00

26.33
24.61
23.71
0
14.36
7.00

7
2

60.8
53.5
49.3
0
33.4
19.5

59.8
53.5
49.3
0
33.4
19.5

98.4
100.0
100.0
0
100.0
100.0

51

52

5.3

48.3

46.6

96.5

.409

19.75

19.07

4
2
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
4
5
1
1
2
1
3

4
3
5
5
8

78.0
69.9
60.8
64.6
62.8
0
(l)
0
73.5
59.0
74.2
0
0
71.5
0
0

78.0
71.9
60.8
64.6
62.3
0)
(1}
0
0
73.5
59.0
74.1
0
0
71.5
0
0

100.0
102.9
100.0
100.0
99.2
0
0
0
0
100.0
100.0
99.9
0
0
100.0
0
0

.126
.355
.222
.361
.413
0

2
4
10
0)
0
2
0
0)

7.0
7.0
6.4
6.6
6.0
0
0
0
0
7.0
6.5
7.0
0
0
6.5
0
0)

0
0
.197
.289
.170
0
0
.229
0
0

9.83
24.81
13.50
23.32
25.94
0
0
0
0
14.48
17.05
12.61
0
0
16.37
0
0

9.83
25.49
13.50
23.32
25.73
0
0
0
0
14.48
17.05
12.56
0
0
16.37
0
0

35

56

6.6

67.9

67.8

99.9

.300

20.37

20.36

0
13
0
0
0
5
0
3
2
2
0
4
J
b

0
5.8
6.0
0
6.0
0
0
0
6.6
0
6.6
6.0
6.0
0
6.5
6.8

0
56.5
61.5
0
62.3
0
0
0
57.9
0
67.8
52.3
60.0
0
67.1
56.4

0
62.8
61.5
0
62.3
0
0
0
57.9
0)
68.0
52.3
60.0
0
67.9
54.5

0
111.2
100.0
0
100.0
0
0
0
100.0
0
100.3
100.0
100.0
0
101.2
96.6

0
.546
.538
0
.446
0
0
0
.398
0
.338
.330
.150
0
.470
.317

0
30.85
33.09
0
27.79
0
0
0)
23.04
0
22.92
17.26
9.00
0
31.54
17.88

0
34.30
33.09
0
27.79
0
0
0
23.04
0
22.95
17.26
9.00
0)
31.88
17.30

1
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
3
2
2
1i
2i
2

53.0
37.9
28.8
40.7
0
0
36.8

$24.64
32.93
13.74
14.73

6.0
6.0
6.0
0
4.6
2.0

0
0

56.0
48.0
28.8
40.7
0
0
36.8

Aver­
Aver­
age
full­
age
time actual
earn­
earn­
ings ings in
1 week
per
week

$0,440
.686
.477
.362
0
0
.496
0
0
.115
0
0
.441
.460
.481
0)
.430
.359

5.7
5.7
3.5
6.3
0
0
4.0

8
8 8 8
8 8 8 8 8
2

33

Occupation and city

Aver­
age
Num­ days on
Num­ ber of which
ber of em­ employ­
sta­
ees
tions ploy­ worked
ees
in 1
week

3

4
2
3

0

0
0
0
0

0

6
2

6.7

8 8
8

Total— ............................. j

28

60

6.4

60.0

58.5

97.5

.404

24.24

23.65

All occupations:
Altoona, Pa...........................
Atlanta, Ga........................
Austin, Tex...........................
Baltimore, M d ......................
Birmingham, Ala..................
Boston, Mass.........................
Burlington, V t.......................

16
18
16
20
18
20
9

69
100
53
123
67
94
23

6.3
6.7
6.8
6.2
6.9
6.5
6.3

53.7 •
64.6
62.3
56.4
64.4
55.3
65.1

53.5
60.7
62.7
56.4
64.4
55.2
64.9

99.6
94.0
100.6
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.7

.388
.285
.335
.438
.284
.491
.315

20.84
18.41
20.87
24.70
18.29
27.15
20.51

20.74
17.30
21.02
24.70
18.29
27.11
20.45

1 Data included in total




28

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city— Continued

T able

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
Aver­
Num­ days on age
cent
age
Num­ ber of which
age
full­
hours
ber of em­ employ­ time actually of full earn­
time
sta­ ploy­
hours worked worked ings
ees
tions
per
in
in 1
ees worked per
hour
week
week
week
in 1
week

All occupations—Continued.
16
58
Charleston, S. C___________
6.6
16
___________ Charlotte, N. C 6.5
57
Chicago, Til __
_
_ _
6.4
20
151
ClevftlfiTid, Ohio
__ _
20
96
6.5
Danvillft, Til _
16
50
6.7
18
Des Moines, Iowa_________
49
6.8
20
114
6.3
Detroit, M ich............... .....
16
47
6.8
Hamilton, Ohio____________
18
68
6.3
Hartford, Conn____________
14
41
Holyoke, Mass____________
6.7
18
85
Houston, Tex._____ _______
6.7
Huntington, W. Va________
16
42
6.6
18
62
Indianapolis, Ind__________
6.6
18
78
Jacksonville, Fla___________
7.0
16
38
Joplin, M o______ __________
6.9
Kansas City, Kans....... ........
18
6.5
51
14
Lincoln, Nebr_____________
50
6.8
16
77
6.8
Little Rock, Ark__________
18
Louisville, K y _____________
66
5.8
14
Manchester, N. H _________
37
6.6
18
Memphis, Tenn___________
71
6.7
16
66*
6.8
Meridian, Miss.................. .
Milwaukee, Wis___________
15
59
6.5
18
49
6.2
Minneapolis, Minn________
New Orleans, La__________
18
68
6.9
20
92
New York, N. Y .._ ....... ......
5.9
18
66
Oklahoma City, Okla______
6.5
20
95
Philadelphia, Pa___________
6.3
15
53
Portland, Me______________
6.9
Providence, R. I ___________
18
73
6.4
14
6.3
Richmond, Va____________
71
18
73
Rochester, N. Y ___________
6.1
72
20
6.8
St. Louis, M o _____________
28
6.4
Superior, Wis_____________
16
Trenton, N. J _____________
18
63
6.2
17
115
6.3
Washington, D. C..... ...........
Total...................................




736 2,960

6.5

62.4
68.4
54.6
57.9
63.7
63.2
57.8
56.6
53.0
59.9
57.3
64.2
60.2
72.7
64.1
60.5
64.0
61.7
57.0
56.7
67.0
70.0
61.1
58.8
60.9
59.9
65.7
53.9
58.4
54.3
62.8
52.0
62.5
68.0
51.8
6.06

62.4
67.5
51.3
57.2
63.2
63.3
57.7
56.6
53.1
60.8
57.3
63.7
60.7
72.7
64.4
60.0
65.2
62.1
56.4
56.3
66.8
70.0
60.7
59.5
60.9
59.8
65.8
53.2
58.7
54.4
62.5
52.3
62.3
66.6
52.8
57.8

60.0

59.5

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

100.0 $0,354 $22.09
20.25
98.7
.296
32.92
94.0
.603
27.21
98.8
.470
99.2
.392
24.97
.371
100.2
23.45
99.8
.469
27.11
23.38
100.0
.413
.494
26.18
100.2
101.5
.457
27.37
.351
20.11
100.0
99.2
.319
20.48
100.8
.412
24.80
.254
18.47
100.0
100.5
.303
19.42
99.2
.371
22.45
.329
21.06
101.9
100.6
20.79
.337
98.9
.332
18.92
99.3
.405
22.96
.304
99.7
20.37
15.82
100.0
.226
.399
24.38
99.3
22.34
101.2
.380
21.19
.348
100.0
99.8
.503
30.13
100.2
.352
23.13
98.7
.418
22.53
.432
25.23
100.5
100.2
.443
24.05
.354
99.5
22.23
.484
25.17
100.6
99.7
24.75
.396
24.82
97.9
.365
22.74
101.9
.439
95.4
27.21
.449
99.2

.393

23.58

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings in
1 week

$22.09
20.01
30.94
26.91
24.75
23.47
27.07
23.38
26.25
27.77
20.11
20.30
25.01
18.47
19.54
22.26
21.48
20.92
18.75
22.80
20.32
15.82
24.20
22.63
21.19
30.05
23.19
22.27
25.35
24.08
22.15
25.31
24.65
24.31
23.19
25.94
23.39

T a b le

152750'

Occupation and city

B.— Average and classified earnings per hour in five specified occupations, 1981, by city
Number of employees whose average earnings per hour were—
Aver­
Num­
age
Num­ ber of earn­
10
15
25
20
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
ber of
90
stations employ­ ings Under and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and cents
ees
per
10 under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
and
hour cents 15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
75
70
80
85
90
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents over

Car washers:
Atlanta, Qa...............
Austin, Tex............
Baltimore, M d..........
Birmingham, Ala___
Charleston, S. C........
Charlotte, N. C.........
Chicago, HI................
Danville, I1L.............
Des Moines, Iowa___
Detroit, Mich___.......
Holyoke, Mass..........
Houston, Tex.............
Jacksonville, Fla____
Joplin, M o................
Kansas City, Kans___
Little Rock, Ark.......
Louisville, Ky............
Memphis, Tenn.........
Meridian, Miss..........
Milwaukee, Wis____
Minneapolis, Minn__
New Orleans, La.......
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa........
Portland, Me.............
Richmond, Va...........
Rochester, N. Y ........
»St. Louis, Mo............
Washington, D. C___
Total.............. .......
1 Data included in total.




03

* (1)
$0,186
.319
.157
9
.203
11 .165
16
.389
.335
.196
.274

2

11
2

(,)3
5

2
2

7

8,

2

1
1
1

1
3

4

0

1

.280
.364

.248

4

20

2

5

11

1
1
0

1
2
i

1
1

3
4

1
2

1
1

0
1

4

151

9

1

2
0

4

015 0
.257
05 0
.274
84

1

1

%

4
2

7
3

4

0

0
1

1

.148
.267
.267.
.190
01

a,
.248

1
1

1

0
.237

3

C)I
1

1
1
5

0
1

21

1

1
2
1

36

2
0

18

0

1
1

3

2

3
3

1

19

18

0

12

0)

2

1

2

T a b l e B . — Average

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
Num­ Num­ earn­
45
25
35
75
50
40
30
85
80
70
65
60
55
20
15
10
ber of ber of
90
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
stations employ­ ings Under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under and cents
ees
10
per
under and
65
55
50
45
35
40
25
85
75
80
70
60
30
hour cents 15
20
90
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents over

1
0)

1
4

4

11

1

3

6

4

1

9
2

2

2
6
1
2

3

1

1

2

1

2

3
1

1

2

2
<0
1
3

1

1

1

2

2
3
1

1

2
1
1
2
2

i
1
4

1

4

1

1
2

4
1
1

2
5
3
1

1
2

(,)!

3
2

1
4

1
2

16

2

1
1

13
3

1

1

2
1

1

STATIONS

(9

7
7

1

FILLING

1
2
2

1

2

1

5

1

1
1
1

3
5
3
1

1

2
1

HOURS— GASOLINE




AD
N

Greasers:
2 $0,399
Altoona, Pa__ ________
___
2
.215
Atlanta, Ga___________________
2
2
1
Aflrtin, Tex
........
0)
Baltimore, M d ________________
19
10
%
■Rirminghftm, Ala ...............
.156
14
2
10
Boston, Mass__________________
.485
7
12
.385
Charleston, S. 0 _______ _______
5
1
8
.175
7
7
Charlotte, N. C _______________
Ohiftftgn, Til
.577
39
12
21
.482
7
Cleveland, Ohio_______________
Danville, tii _________________
2
.398
2
.315
Dos Moines, I o w a .__ _ _ _
5
5
1
.425
3
9
Detroit, M ich_________________
4
.348
3
Hamilton, Ohio________________
.493
3
Hartford, Conn___ - ........
3
.382
2
2
Holyoke, M ass...______________
.265
6
7
Houston, T e x ____ ,, . ____ _
.399
Indianapolis, 3 .. ,,5
Ind
______
.198
6
7
Jacksonville, Fla___________ ____
Joplin, M o ____________________
1
0)
TTffngfta City, Tfnns____________
(,)3
.343
2
.341
6
3
Lincoln, N e b r ________________
9
.349
6
Little Rock, Ark______________
1
Louisville, K y _________________
0)
.438
(1>3
Manchester, N. H _____________
3
7
.366
5
_______________
Memphis, Tenn
4
5
.176
Meridian, Miss________________
7
3
.353
_______________
Milwaukee, Wis
2
2
.385
Minneapolis, Minn. ~
2
2
.417
Hew Orleans, L a______________
Oklahoma City, Okla__________
1
3
(0 8
Philadelphia, Pa...........................
%
.460
3
2
Portland, M e _ _____________
8
.488
Providence, R. I_______________
10
7
9
.407
Richmond, Va
. . . __________
2
.510
3
Rochester, N. Y ______________
5
.311
St. Louis, M o ...............................
2

WAGES

Occupation and city

and classified earnings per hour in five specified occupations, 1981, by city— Continued

2
1

Trenton, N. J .........
Washington, D. C_.
Total..
Managers:
Altoona, P a-_—
Atlanta, Qa___
Baltimore, M d .

Operators:
Altoona, Pa.............
Atlanta, Qa.............
Austin, Tex.............
Baltimore, M d........
Birmingham, Ala_
_
Boston, Mass...........
Burlington, V t.........
Charleston, S. C___
Charlotte, N. C .......
Chicago, 1 1
1 ..............
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Danville, HI.............
Des Moines, Iowa—
Detroit, Mich_____
Hamilton, Ohio.......
Hartford, Conn........
Holyoke, Mass.........
Houston, Tex...........
Huntington, W. Va.
Indianapolis, Ind___

1Data included in total.




(0
.448

164

280

.393

4

.558
(0
.587
.543

4
1
5
4
1
10
2
3
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
3
4
1
6
1
3

(9
0)

5
4

17
2
4
2
2
2
3

(9
0)
(9

3
4

2
4

8

18

8

1

4

21

32

32

<
9

3

8

5

1

1

42

44

26

23

18

4

<
9
1

(9

1
1

.500
.550

68
35
25
17
49
30
39
8
18
21
49
44
27
18
36
38
30
17
33
27
32

.403
.361
.391
.461
.394
.524
.337
.504
.397
.658
.505
.372
.418
.517
.425
.524
.466
.442
.304
.442

1

.631

16
18
12
20
18
20
5
13
14
20
19
16
18
19
16
18
10
18
15
18

1

1
1
1

1
8

1

l

3

(9

.750

2

1

10
5
4
1
4

1

4
1
1

2
2

3
1

1
7
3
1
2

1

1

2
1
1

2
2

2
1
1

i

2
2

1
2
7

3
5
7
5

1

2

1

1
1

1

1

2

(i)

1
2
(l)
1

1
1

1

1

1

1

5

1
1

1

(9

60

3

1

(9
(9

(9
.590
(9

3

3

(9

.702
.685
.703
.795
.491
.890
.664
0)
(i)

(9
6
(9

4

1

8

8

16

4
9
10
16
11

9
2
1
8
4
7
2
1
2
1
7
6
5
1
16
2
2
4
2
9

5
2

3
3
1
7
1
11

1

1

5

4

2

2
2
5
1
3
4
1
4
6
3
4
7
8

9
4
10
5
2
12
4
1
9
5
4
2
4

2
4
3
13
2
1
9
6
5
3
1

4

1

3
1
4
1
2
4
1
6
9
2
5

5

8

8

1
2
2
3

1

1

1
1
4

3

1

TABLES

Total..

0)
25

GENERAL

Charlotte, N . cTIIIIII
Chicago, 111...................
Cleveland, Ohio...........
Danville, 111.................
Detroit, M ich..............
Hartford, Conn______
Indianapolis, Ind.........
Little Rock, Ark.........
Manchester, N. H.......
Milwaukee, Wis...........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa..........
Providence, R. I..........
Richmond, Va.............
Rochester, N. Y ...........
St. Louis, M o ...............
Washington, D . C____

1
10

1

4
2
22
1

1
3
1
5
1
4

4

14
1

1
2

1

1

2
1

1
2

1

1

1
1
1
1

1

CO

T a b l e B . — Average

AD
N

27
19
22
14
23
34
20
30
13
19
18
25
45
20
44
24
27
22
37
23
17
34
32

$0,371
.346
.425
.368
.405
.356
.412
.368
.357
.483
.389
.427
.543
.416
.446
.448
.469
.402
.483
.438
.373
.455
.524

683

1,182

.441

Operators’ helpers:
Altoona, Pa
- ___ ___
Atlanta, Ga
_________ Austin, Tex.
_____________
Baltimore, M d
____________
Birmingham, A la _____________
Boston, Mass
- ___
Burlington, Vt
- _____
Charleston, S. C
- ________
Charlotte, N. C
_______
Chicago, HI....................................

8
12
12
11
10
17
7
12
12
9

26
29
31
31
16
36
12
15
17
17

.340
.255
.328
.440
.290
.456
.287
.341
.303
.619




1
2
1

3
2

1
4
1
6

2

1

1

1
4
2

2
2

2

1

1

2

3

1

1

13

1
2
1
4
1
7
4

1

1

1

1
1
1

7
3
6
9
7
11
2
4
2
2
6
8

3
2
1
1
5
7
6
3
12
7
6
3
11
5
1
7
5

2
2
3
7
2
2
4
2
8
4
9
3
5
2
5
4
4
2
6
154

10
5
5
4
5
9
8
7
4
6

2
2
4
1
2

1
1

1
2

1

1
7

1
6

1
1
1
1
3

1

2
3

1
2
3

2
2

1
1

1
1

1

78

53

54

26

6

5

1

1

1

6

1
1
1
1
1
3
3
7
2

4
1
2
2

26

58

126

175

221

178

2
10
4
2
2

2

4
2

11

18
5
11
1
2
1
3
1

5
4

7
2
2
6

8

2

1

11

4
1
2

5

1
3

3

1
1
2
2

5
2
8
4
6
10
2

5
1
1
4
2
1
4
5
2

1
1

4
11
1

1
2
2

4
6
2
5
4
5
2
3
2
1
3
1
1

4
3
4

2
2
4

3
3
6
1
5

3

14
3
3

1

1

1

2

4
3

1

2

1

3

STATIONS

Total____________ ____ ______

1

FILLING

15
16
17
14
15
17
10
17
10
15
17
17
20
17
20
13
15
11
17
20
16
17
14

HOURS— GASOLINE

Operators—Continued.
Jacksonville, J^ia
Joplin, M o. . „ . _
Kansas City, Kans
Lin(V)ln, N«br
Tattle Roc)r, Arlr
Louisville, K y _______ _______ _
Manchester, N. H
Memphis, Tenn__
Meridian, Miss____
Milwaukee. Wis_ ____ _
Minneapolis, Minn __ ____ _
New Orleans, La__ ______
New York, N. Y .....................
Oklahoma City, Okla
Philadelphia, Pa____ ________
Portland, M e _______
Providence, R. I—___________
Richmond, Va
Rochester, N. Y ___________
St. Louis, M o ___ ____________
Superior, Wis
_ ____
Trenton, N. J __________
Washington, D. C___________

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour were—
Aver­
Num­
age
Num­
85
75
80
55
60
65
70
45
50
35
40
30
25
20
10
15
90
ber of ber of earn­
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
stations employ­ ings Under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under cents
ees
10
per
and
90 over
85
80
70
65
75
50
55
60
45
35
40
25
20
30
hour cents 15
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

WAGES

Occupation and city

and classified earnings per hour in five specified occupations, 1931, by city— Continued

All occupations:
Altoona, Pa...........
Atlanta, Ga...........
Austin, Tex...........
Baltimore, Md___
Birmingham, Ala__
Boston, Mass____
Burlington, Vt___
Charleston, S. C__.
Charlotte, N. C ...
Chicago, 111______
Cleveland, Ohio...
Danville, 111..........
Des Moines, Iowa.
Detroit, Mich.......




27
6
19
36
5
30
16
39
14
22
23
16
22
27
24
28
13
21
23
25
24
34
43
33
34
25
31
15
16
36
11
27
44

.380
.317
.352
.494
.351
.459
.414
.312
.353
.331
.211
.247
.309
.315
.285
.312
.378
.331
.228
.368
.387
.322
.465
.332
.393
.418
.385
.364
.483
.395
.337
.420
.396

475

1,039

.362

16
18
16
20
18
20
9
16
16
20
20
16
18
20

69
100
53
123
67
94
23
58
57
151
96
50
49
114

.388
.285
.335
.438
.284
.491
.315
.354
.296
.603
.470
.392
.371
.469

1
2
1
1
3
1

12
2
1
2
2

4
4
7
8
6

8
1
1
5
1
2
1
2
2
1
3
3
6
8
16
2
2
5
3

2
3
9
1
1
2
24
3
10

1

3
2

1

1

3

2
3
12
2
2
3
13
1
3
6
10
4
8
2
3
5
3
1
14
2
6
13

6

57

72

135

217

2

4
16
3

29
4
1

5
18
4
4
3

12
8
22
12
15
2
4
3
5
1
3
13
14
4

3
1

6
1

8
2
6
1

14
1

4

1
4
3

2
1

1

5
1

2

4
1
9
1

1
7
1
6
6

1
1

5

4
15
9
2
4
5

6
3
8
2
8
5
3
11

3
1
3
3
5
2
2
9
6
1
1
8
5
2
9
2
4
1
8
7
5
4
9
15
5
7
2
1
3
5
8
6

7

3

4

3
5
1
3
4
3

1
4

9

4

6
2

4
3

7

1
1

8
1

1
1

1
1

2
1
2
1
4
6
5
6
4
16
7
6
2
3
7

1

1

1

3

2
4

1
1

10
1

12

6
4
1
2

1
3
3

1
7
1

2
3
2

2
7

8
5

5
7
1
1
5

175

146

90

72

37

16
14
15
35
11
4
3
2
5
6
8
8
6
17

17
4
3
21
4
21
5
9
2
15
20
8
12
7

6
4

6

21
4
32

3
4
1
12
1
15

6
1
13

11
6
1
19
6
2
16

2
5
12
26
2
1
18

1
21
7
2
1
14

2

1

1

2

1

18

8

3

2

1
1
4
2
3

3

2

TABLES

Total-

12
6
12
15
4
14
8
13
8
11
8
13
13
13
9
10
7
8
11
11
14
17
17
12
11
9
15
8
7
16
10
10
13

GENERAL

Cleveland, Ohio...........
Danville, 111.................
Des Moines, Iowa........
Detroit, M ich..............
Hamilton, Ohio...........
Hartford, Conn............
Holyoke, Mass.............
Houston, Tex...............
Huntington, W. V a ...
Indianapolis, Ind.........
Jacksonville, Fla..........
Joplin, M o ................ .
Kansas City, Kans___
Lincoln, Nebr..............
Little Rock, Ark..........
Louisville, K y..............
Manchester, N. H .......
Memphis, Tenn...........
Meridian, Miss............
Milwaukee, Wis...........
Minneapolis, Minn___
New Orleans, La.........
New York, N. Y _____
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa..........
Portland, Me................
Providence, R. I ..........
Richmond, V a.............
Rochester, N. Y ......... .
St. Louis, M o ...............
Superior, Wis...............
Trenton, N. J...............
Washington, D. C____

2

4

1
1
24
1
1
13

2

1

39
1

25
1

1
3

I

1
3
1
1
2

2
1
2

2
1
CO
03

T a b l e B . — Average

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
stations employ-

AD
N

2,960

1

7

1

3

18
2
1
4
4
4

10
2
4
22
10
8
12

1
1
1

2

4

6
12
2

2
22
3
4

4
1

1
8
9
1

10

2
7

2

1

9
1
1
2
1
1

52

144

187

1

,
18

1

1

5

4
1
5
33
10
17
4
8
8
20
9
8
5
16
3
9
14
11
5
9
9
5
6
10
5
23
6
11
20

U
8
3
7
16
15
6
3
18
10
13
19
4
9
1
9
9
6
10
12
23
9
9
7
5
9
6
14
11

17
5
7
7
3
12
11
5
5
8
5
10
12
7
5
12
6
14
9
10
30
14
18
6
7
10
2
9
18

251

412

432

432

3
2
2
5
9
5
8
3
7
15
22
3
8
9
7
3
18
7
4
1
4
10
1
6
4

5
13
4
4

6
13
9
1

17
5
5

5
2
2
4
1
4

2
1

1

1
5
2
5

2

1

4
1

1

1

1

3
1

1

5
3
2
4
10
7
17
4
14
16
16
8
21
6
1
15
21

4
2
7
7
2
5
5
2
21
5
12
6
9
4
13
11
5
3
17

342

275

1

1
1
1

1
1

1

3

1
3

1

1
7

1
6

1
1
2
3
5

2

4
5

1
2
6

2
3

1
1

1
1

2

1

165

100

77

42

10

12

5

2
1
1
13
3
2
1
5
6
12
4

1

1
3

1

1

1
1

1

4

STATIONS

736

1

1
2
6
1

FILLING




$0,413
.494
.457
.351
.319
.412
.254
.303
.371
.329
.337
.331
.405
.304
.226
.399
.380
49
.348
.503
.352
.418
95
.432
53
73
.443
71 • .354
.484
73
72
.396
28
.365
63
.439
.449
115

HOURS— GASOLINE

All occupations—C ontinued
Hamilton, O h io..........
Hartford, Conn...............
Holyoke, Mass................
Houston, Tex..................
Huntington, W. Va____
Indianapolis, Ind______
Jacksonville, Fla.............
Joplin, M o_______ _____
Kansas City, Kans.........
Lincoln, Nebr___............
Little Rock, Ark.............
Louisvillle, K y .._ ..........
Manchester, N. H ..........
Memphis, Tenn_______
Meridian, Miss...............
Milwaukee, Wis..............
Minneapolis, Minn........
New Orleans, La_______
New York, N. Y__.........
Oklahoma City, Okla___
Philadelphia, Pa__.........
Portland, M e..................
Providence, R. I .............
Richmond, V a.............. .
Rochester, N. Y ..............
St. Louis, M o..................
Superior, Wis__..............
Trenton, N. J..................
Washington, D. C..........
Total............ ................

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
80
85
75
70
55
60
35
40
45
50
65
30
25
20
earn­
10
15
90
ings Under and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and cents
under under and
per
10 under under under under under under under under under under under under under under
85
65
75
80
90 over
55
60
70
35
40
45
50
30
25
20
hour cents 15
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

WAGES

Occupation and city

and classified earnings per hour in five specified occupations, 1981, by city—Continued

T a b le

Occupationand city

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in five specified occupations, 1981, by city
Aver­
Num­ Num­ agefull­
time
ber of ber of hours Un­ 40
em­
stations ployees per
and
der under
40

Number of employees whose full-time hours per week were—

48

sers:
Altoona, Pa.....................
Atlanta, Ga.....................
Austin, T ex ._.._
Baltimore, M d .............. .

1Data included in total.




54

54

Over

54

and
under

56

56

and
under

Over
60

60

56

69.0
51.3
80.0
62.2
71.0
77.4
63.3
59.0
61.5
0)
64.0
81.2
62.5
64.0
64.6

(9

1

1

2

1

1

67.1

2

19

48.0
71.5

(9

Over
84

1
1

1

7
14

1

1
1

1

3

(9
2

2

4

10

5

1
9

2

12

6

15

1
12

1
8

1

4

(9

1

1

12

1
1

1

3
3

4

2

2

5

<9
3

84

1

1
1

1

0)

1

64.7
78.8

2

2

3

1

1

(9

2

1

1

(9

84

1

(9

(9

70

and
under
84

70

1
2

2

1

63.0
63.8
57.0

li

Over
70

6

<
*)

(9

(9

2

1

71.3

0)

66

and
under

1

1

3

2

66

66

1

9

Over

63

and
under

(9
1

8
71.6
(9

Over
63

63

(9

(9

60

and
under

TABLES

Total....... ...................

48

and
under

GENERAL

.Car washers:
Atlanta, Ga.....................
Austin, Tex.___V---___
Baltimore, M d_— ___
Birmingham, Ala...........
Charleston, S. C_______
Charlotte, N . C _ ___
Chicago, HI.....................
Danville, 111- . . , - ——_
_
Des Moines, Iowa— _
_
Detroit, M ich................
Holyoke, M ass,,— ___
Houston, Tex. — _____
Jacksonville, Fla___ ____
Joplin, M o........— ~
____
Kansas City, Kans.........
Little Rock, Ark___ :___
Louisville, Ky__ ______
_
Memphis, Tenn___....... .
Meridian, M iss„__-___
Milwaukee, Wisr_— _
_
Minneapolis, M 1 1
n.1 ....... .
New Orleans. La______
Oklahoma City, O kla...
Philadelphia, P a ............
Portland, M e ..:.............
Richmond, Va........ .......
Rochester, N. Y — _
_
St. Louis, M o................ .
Washington, D. C_____

Over

Over
48

1

5

1
11

38

1
3
8

4

1
1

(9

2

3

CO
Oi

T a b le

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in five specified occupations, 1931, by city— Continued
Number of employees whose full-time hours per week were—

21

2

5
9
4
3
2
7
5
7
6

9

(9

(9
164

251
280

Over
56
and
under
60

7

11
1
16

56

1
16

14

60

Over
60
and
under
63

3

1
2
1

1

1
4
3

1

3

1
1

1

1

1
1

5

1

2

1

2

2

l

1
1
2

1

1

3

3

(9

1

1
1
1

2

1
4
2

2

(9

3
2

2
4
2

6

23

1

1

(9
25

2
46

5

1
2

l

1

1
11
12

34

14

2
4

25

5

2
7

9

11

7
20

3
14

Over
84

2

2

(9

60.7
59.9

84

3

3

3
6

(9

64.0
54.3
54.0
60.2
52.3
64.8

Over
70
and
under
84

5

1
1

70

4

(9
4

Over
66
and
under
70

1
1

(9

71.3
64.5
56.7
0)
54.0
57.4
72.2
67.1
59.3
56.0

66

1

1
3
1

1

Over
63
and
under
66

4

1
7
1

63

STATIONS

(9

Over
54
and
under
56

FILLING

W3

67.7
54.5
60.4
70.4
52.0
59.1
640
63.5
61.5
59.3
50.0
53.3
59.4
59.3
77.5

54

HOURS— GASOLINE




14
12
8
7
39

Over
48
and
under
54

AD
N

Greasers—Continued.
Birmingham, Ala..........
Boston, Mass..... ...........
Charleston, S. C ............
Charlotte, N. C .............
Chicago, 111....................
Cleveland, Ohio............
Danville, 111--................
Des Moines, Iowa_____
Detroit, M ich____ ____
Hamilton, Ohio_______
Hartford, Conn_______
Holyoke, Mass..............
Houston, Tex.......... ......
Indianapolis, Ind__.......
Jacksonville, F la._.......
Joplin, M o.....................
Kansas City, Kans.......
Lincoln, Nebr................
Little Rock, Ark______
Louisville, K y „ ............
Manchester, N. H .........
Memphis, Tenn............
Meridian, Miss..............
Milwaukee, Wis............
Minneapolis, Minn-----New Orleans, La...........
Oklahoma City, Okla—
.
Philadelphia, Pa______
Portland, Me—..............
Providence, R. I ............
Richmond, Va_..............
Rochester, N. Y ............
St. Louis, M o____ ____
Trenton, N. J................
Washington, D. C.........
Total...........................

48

WAGES

Occupation and city

Aver­
Num­ Num­ agefull­
40
time
ber of ber of hours Un­ and
em­
der under
stations ployees
per
40
48
week

29

6

4
1
5
4
1
10
2
3
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
3
4
1
6

1
3

4
0)
0)

5
4
17
2
4
2
2
2
3

0)
(0

3
4

(9

6

0)

3

52.0
0)

58.8
54.0

0)

56.0
60.0
62.5
62.6
54.0
59.5
60.0

(n
(i
(i)

54.0
54.0
(l)
58.5
0)

58.3

60

68

57.3

Operators:
Altoona, Pa___________________
Atlanta, Ga........ ........... ..............
Austin, Tex.................. ................
Baltimore, M d .............. ..............
Birmingham, Ala__....... ..............
Boston, Mass............... ........ ........
Burlington, Vt..............................
Charleston, S. C...........................
Charlotte, N. C............. ......... .
Chicago, 111...................................
Cleveland, Ohio-.............. ...........
Danville, 111...................................
Des Moines, Iowa................ ........
Detroit, M ich.............. ................
Hamilton, Ohio.............................
Hartford, Conn,............................
Holyoke, Mass..............................
Houston, Tex................................
Huntington, W. Va_....................
Indianapolis, Ind.........................
Jacksonville, Fla..........................
Joplin, M o.....................................
Kansas City, Kans......................
Lincoln, Nebr...............................
Little Rock, Ark..........................

16
18
12
20
18
20
5
13
14
20
19
16
18
13
16
18
10
18
15
18
15
16
17
14
15

35
25
17
49
30
39
8
18
21
49
44
27
18
36
38
30
17
33
27
32
27
19
22
14
23

55.4
68.4
64.5
56.8
61.6
55.9
67.1
61.8
67.4
51.0
59.3
66.3
75.2
56.0
58.4
53.9
58.7
55.2
73.4
60.8
67.4
70.7
69.9
65.0
59.0

1Data included in total.




TABLES

Total..........._..............................

GENERAL

Managers:
Altoona, Pa_..................................
Atlanta, Ga...................................
Baltimore, M d..............................
Boston, Mass................................
Charlotte, N. C............................
Chicago, 111....................................
Cleveland, Ohio............................
Danville, 111...................................
Detroit, M ich...............................
Hartford, Conn............................
Indianapolis, Ind..........................
Little Rock, Ark.................. ........
Manchester, N. H ........................
Milwaukee, Wis______ _________
Oklahoma City, Okla..... .............
Philadelphia, Pa__........................
Providence, R. I...........................
Richmond, Va..............................
Rochester, N. Y .......................... .
St. Louis, M o...............................
Washington, D. C__.....................

T a b le

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in five specified occupations, 1981, by city— Continued
Number of employees whose full-time hours per week were—

Total........................
Operators’ helpers:
Altoona, Pa................
Atlanta, Ga................
Austin, Tex...... ..........
Baltimore, M d ...........
Birmingham, Ala.......
Boston, Mass..............
Burlington, V t...........
Charleston, S. C.........
Charlotte, N. C _____
Chicago, 111.................
Cleveland, Ohio.........
Danville. Ill................
Des Moines, Iowa___
Detroit, M ich.............
Hamilton, Ohio.........




5

57.
59.
64.

66.

1
1

6
7
1
1
1

61.0
51.
63.
60.
56.
60.
55.
62.
62.
67.
50.
56.
52.
58.
55.
41.

56

5

6

1
2
2
2
1
2

60

6
8
2

1
3

4

3
3
11

5
6
9

3
8

6

4
6
8

2
1
2
1
2

1
2
14

1
11
5

5

8
1

9

108

93

52

42

244

3
2
1
1

11
1
1
6
1

15
6

5
6
19
2

1
1

15
3

1

1
18
2

63

Over
63
and
under
66

2
3

12
3
11

2

8
2
8

5
7

1

2

4
5
1
2
3
1
3
5
4
1
1

4

3
1
141

32

36

1
2

3
1

13

6
2

3
1
1
2

2
3
5

Over
66
and
under
70

70

4

2
1

3
10

5

Over
70
and
under
84

1
2

28

5

1
2
17

22

1
2
3
1
1
2

84

Over
84

3
1

1

1

1
1
6

2

3
1
4

1

2

2
11

43

67

111

25

45

1
2
2

1

1

2

4

1
4

2
1
9
4

2

6
9

4
2

2
2

4
1
1
1

5
2
1
1

v 1

4

7
4

1

3
2

8
87

1

1
1

4

1

66

3

4

3
1

1

Over
60
and
under
63

1

2
1
2
10

18

1
1
1
1

Over
56
and
under
60

11
7
7

6

8

86.5
54.8
1,182

2

1

Over
54
and
under
56

1

1

1

54

8

1

62.
70.
59.
61.
70.
55. 0
59. 0
57. 6
64.
56. 0

Over
48
and
under
54

1

1

2
4
1

1
4

2

1

A D HOURS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N

Operators—Continued.
Louisville, Ky_...........
Manchester, N. H___
Memphis, Tenn.........
Meridian. Miss...........
Milwaukee, Wis.........
Minneapolis, M i n n New Orleans, La........
New York, N. Y ........
Oklahoma City, Okla
Philadelphia, Pa........
Portland, Me..............
Providence, R. I ........
Richmond, Va............
Rochester, N. Y .........
St. Louis, M o.............
Superior, Wis.............
Trenton, N. J.............
Washington, D. C___

48

WAGES

Occupation and city

Aver­
Num­ Num­ agefull­
ber of
time
40
ber of
em­
hours Un­ and
stations ployees
der under
per
40
48

30
16
39
14
22
23
16
22
27
24
28
13
21
23
25
24
34
43
33
34
25
31
15
16
36
11
27
44

52.4
59.9
57.8
46.4
59.0
81.1
56.6
51.4
63.0
67.3
54.3
53.9
66.2
67.2
57.7
51.4
60.9
58.6
63.5
50.4
57.8
51.5
54.7
50.0
60.8
39.4
47.9
60.1

1
2

1

2
2

1

4
8
1

1
2
1

Total........................

475

1,039

57.7

66

A ll occupations:
Altoona, Pa................
Atlanta, Ga................
Austin, Texas_______
Baltimore, M d ...........
Birmingham, Ala____
Boston, Mass..............
Burlington, V t...........
"Charleston, S. C------Charlotte, N. C ..........
Chicago, 111....... ..........
Cleveland, Ohio_____
Danville, 111................
Des Moines, Iowa___
Detroit, M ich.............
Hamilton, Ohio.........
Hartford, Conn..........
Hoi joke, Mass...........
Houston, Tex_______
Huntington, W. Va—
Indianapolis, Ind.......
Jacksonville, Fla........

16
18
16
20
18
20
9
16
16
20
20
16
18
20
16
18
14
18
16
18
18

69
100
53
123
67
94
23
58
57
151
96
50
49
114
47
68
41
85
42
62
78

53.7
64.6
62.3
56.4
64.4
55.3
65.1
62.4
68.4
54.6
57.9
63.7
63.2
57.8
56.6
53.0
59.9
57.3
64.2
60.2
72.7




2

1
1
2

25

1
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
6
1
2
2
2
2
2
2

5
3
1
2
1

1

1
3
12

6
9
1
4
10
3

3

9

12
3

5
7
1
5

4
9
2
12

4

1

5

1

40

7

27
1

1
5
18

3
2
7
2
5

14
18

1
5

3
3

4

1
1
15
1
2
2

2
1

17
26
36
13
2
16
59
3
3
31
17
18
1
26
21
10

1

2

2
2
1
2
7
3
12
5
1
2
10
1
2
1
2
2

1
1

1

16
2

2
2

5
2
5
8
1
14
9
2
6
2
22

4

2
3
2
1

12

1
1

65

52

81

23

3
6

26
13
1

10
8
8
13
19

8

4
4
1
5
2
8

6
5
2
6

9
1
1
7
1
1
3

1
10
2
2
3
7

1
11

6
9
2
1

1

2
2

1

7
1

3
4

4

1

4

1

2

4

1
6

1
6
12
1
1

1

1
59

5

2

41

53

67

6

7
3
2

3
12
2
5
15

22

1
5

4
2

1

12

10

15

6
4
2
1
3

2

1

4

8
1
14
2
6

1
1
2
2

1
88

5
5

24
1
14
12

11

169

29

6

2
7

15

11
11

4

2

2

2

1
2

9

61

23

5

4

26

1
1
1

2

5

142

1

3
2
6
2

2

1

7
2

17

1
74
6

2

9

1
4
11
1
3

3
2
1

24

1
1

2

2

5

7
1
2

9

1

3
1

4
3
3

5
1
13
5

1

5
9

10

2
1
2
7

12

8

9
12

2
33
2
9

13
6
2
1

1
3

4
3
2
10
8
4
1
2
4
5
8
17

3
7
29
14
3

16

9

4

1
1

TABLES

14
8
13
8
11
8
13
13
13
9
10
7
8
11
11
14
17
17
12
11
9
15
8
7
16
10
10
13

GENERAL

Hartford, Conn_____
Holyoke, Mass...........
Houston, Tex..............
Huntington, W. Va_Indianapolis, Ind.......
Jacksonville, Fla........
Joplin, M o..................
Kansas City, Kans__
Lincoln, Nebr........... Little Rock, Ark........
Louisville, K y ............
Manchester, N. H ___
Memphis, Tenn.........
Meridian, Miss..........
Milwaukee, Wis.........
Minneapolis, Minn—
K ew Orleans, La.......
N ew York, N. Y ........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa........
Portland, M e..............
Providence, R. I ........
•Richmond, Va............
Rochester, N. Y .........
(St. Louis, M o.............
^Superior, Wis.............
'Trenton, N. J.............
Washington, D. C___

6
1
2
6

6
1
1
1
4

1

2
2
22

2
2
22

1

2
5
1
7
2

CO
CO

T a b le

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in five specified occupations, 1981, by city— Continued
Number of employees whose full-time hours per week were—

Total.............................




38
51
50
77

66

37
71

66

59
49
68
92

66

95
53
73
71
73
72
28
63
115
736

2,960

64.1
60.5
64.0
61.7
57.0
56.7
67.0
70.0
61.1
58.8
60.9
59.9
65.7
53.9
58.4
54.3
62.8
52.0
62.5
68.0

51.8
60.6
60.0

4
9
1

1
2
1

2
2
8

4
2

90

3
x

35
1
7
4
1

302

56

2
I

8
1
5
14

3

6

2
22
22
8
10

4

32
25

Over
54
and
under
56

1
1

11

4
3
9
2
7
1
3

54

1

15

2

Over
48
and
under
54

6
7
10
4
5
10
20
2
5
158

3
9
25

1
7
12
12
1
16
1
9
10
8
199

1
2
15

24
59

3
4
21
8
11
1
2
23
491

Over
56
and
under
60

2
3
4
16
12
10
6
1
8
8
2
12
15
22
7
5
22
3
1
271

60

1
2
7

Over
60
and
under
63

1
8

1
6
11
2

2
6

22
21
3

8
5
8

2
2
2

2

1
1
148

4
1
119

63

1
3
1
12
3
16
10
2
4
13
2
5
6
6
1
3

Over
63
and
under
66

66

Over
66
and
under
70

3
4
7

6
2
4
4
3

4
2
10

5
6
12

3
4

1

1

7
6

5
3
12
1
1
25
117

6

7
1
1

8

8

188

93

3
126

70

2
13
7
7
1
3
12
2
2
11
2
5
2
2
4

Over
70
and
under
84

84

7
10
7
8

1

24
29
5
3
3
10
9

7
4
3
1

1
1
16

Over
84

5
2
4
1
4
1
5

2

1

2

2
12

8

12
2
1
3

3

165

283

69

2

57

HOURS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

All occupations—Continued.
Joplin, M o......................
Kansas City, Kans....... .
Lincoln, Nebr___........... .
Little Rock, Ark_______
Louisville, K y.................
Manchester, N. H -------Memphis, Tenn..............
Meridian, Miss.............. .
Milwaukee, W is----------Minneapolis, Minn____
New Orleans, La---------New York, N. Y _______
Oklahoma City, Okla.—
Philadelphia, Pa_______
Portland, Me------- -------Providence, R . I----------Richmond, Va_________
Rochester, N. Y _______
St. Louis, M o...... ...........
Superior, Wis..............—
Trenton, N. J.................
Washington, D. C_____

48

WAGES A D
N

Occupation and city

Aver­
Num­ Num­ agefull­
time
ber of
40
ber of
Un­
em­
stations ployees hours der and
per
under
40
48




PART 2
M otor -Y e h ic l e R e p a ir G a r a g e s

41




Part 2.—MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES
Employees in motor-vehicle repair garages in the United States
earned an average of 57.9 cents per hour and $29.56 in a representa­
tive week in 1931. They worked an average of 5.8 days (counting
as a day each whole or part day worked) ana 51 hours in the week,
and their full-time hours averaged 53.4. The average hours actually
worked were 95.5 per cent of the average full-time hours in the week,
thus showing 4.5 per cent of short time. With average earnings per
hour the same as was earned in the 51 hours, earnings for a full-time
week would have averaged $30.92, or $1.36 more than was actually
earned. These data are for males only; in the garages covered in the
study only 6 females were employed.
The summary figures quoted above are the results of a study by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1931 of days, hours, and earnings of
6,059 employees of 344 garages in 43 representative cities in 34 States
and the District of Columbia. The study inducted employees of 8
garages in each of 2 cities in each of 8 States, and in 1 city in each of
26 States and in the District of Columbia. The basic wage figures
used in compiling this report were collected by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics directly from the pay rolls of these garages for a pay period
in April, May, June; or July, 1931.
The principal busmess of the garages covered in this study is the
general repair of motor vehicles. In a considerable number of gar­
ages washing, greasing, and storing of cars, and sale of gasoline, oil,
and auto supplies is also carried on, but this is incidental to the main
business.

Average Days, Hours, and Earnings
By Occupation
Table 1 shows average days, hours, and earnings for each of the
important occupations found in the garages studied and for the
group of “ other employees,” which includes a number of occupations
each having employees too few in number to warrant separate tabula­
tion. For similar figures for employees covered in each occupation
in each city, see Table A (pp. 59 to 69).
It will be observed that averages are shown for each of two or more
occupations separately, and then for a combination of such occupa­
tions, i. e., averages are shown separately for “ battery men” and for
“ radiator men” and then for both occupations combined. Battery
men were employed in 46 garages; battery men and radiator men in
6; and radiator men in 9; the number of garages for both occupations,
however, is 49. Table 1 is the only one in which figures are shown
separately for these occupations. In other tables, figures are given
for the combination to avoid publishing data for a single garage and
thus possibly revealing its identity.
Janitors, service men, and the group of “ other employees” worked
an average of 6.1 days in one week, which was higher, and wood-body
workers worked an average of 5.3 days, which was lower, than the
average for any other occupation in the table.




43

44

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

Average full-time hours per week ranged by occupations from 49.8
for machinists to 58.5 for the group of “ other employees '' and average
hours actually worked in one week ranged from 43 for wood body
workers to 58.8 for “ other employees.” Janitors worked an average of
57.7 horns in the week. The per cent of full time worked ranged, by
occupations, from 83.8 for wood body workers to 102.1 for inspectors.
Part of the inspectors worked overtime in the week covered in the
report.
Average earnings per hour ranged by occupations, from 34.7 cents
for mechanics' helpers to 86.7 cents for blacksmiths; full-time earnings
per week from $18.46 for mechanics' helpers to $45.50 for diagnos­
ticians; and average actual earnings in the week ranged from $17.63
for mechanics' helpers to $44.93 for diagnosticians.
T able

1*— Average days, hours, and earnings in repair garages, 1931, by occupa­
tion

Occupation

Auto mechanics, generaL .....................
Auto mechanics, specialized1________

Aver­
age
Num­ Num­ dayson
ber which
ber
of employ­
of
ees
ga­ em­
rages ploy­ worked
ees
in 1
week
343 2,668
82
47

Hours,
Aver­
Aver­
actually
Aver­ age
worked in
age
age
full­
full­
1 week
earn­ time
time
ings earn­
hours Aver­ Per
per
ings
per
age
per
week num­ cent of hour
full
week
ber
time

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in i
week

5.8
5.8

52.9
52.7

49.2
48.8

93.0 $0,638 $33.75
92.6
.685 36.10

$31.35
33.46

Battery men____________ ___________
Radiator men___.............. . . ......... ........
Battery and radiator men______

46
9
49

51
11
62

6.0
5.8
6.0

55.7
53.4
55.3

55.1
48.2
53.9

98.9
90.3
97.5

.531
.567
.536

29.58
30.28
29.64

29.25
27.29
28.90

Blacksmiths________________________
Machinists_________________________
Welders.................................................
Blacksmiths, machinists, and
welders_____________________

14
24
4

15
31
5

5.7
5.9
5.8

50.6
49.8
52.4

45.7
47.5
48.9

90.3
95.4
93.3

.867
.788
.793

43.87
39.24
41.55

39.60
37.46
38.77

33

51

5.9

50.3

47.1

93.6

.811

40.79

38.22

Body workers, metal________________
Body workers, wood________________
Body workers, metal and wood_______
Upholsterers________________________
Body workers and upholsterers „

80
29
35
38
122

124
42
44
61
271

5.7
5.3
5.7
5.5
5.6

51.9
51.3
52.7
50.8
51.7

48.2
43.0
48.8
44.2
46.6

92.9
83.8
92.6
87.0
90.1

.763
.789
.665
.786
.755

39.60
40.48
35.05
39.93
39.03

36.79
33.90
32.44
34.73
35.17

Car washers________________________
Polishers.................................................
Car washers and polishers______

227
27
230

389
58
447

5.9
5.8
5.9

54.8
51.6
54.4

53.3
48.7
52.7

97.3
94.4
96.9

.381
.452
.390

20.88
23 32
21.22

20.32
22.05
20.54

Chasers____________________________
Foremen, working__________________
Greasers____________________________
Helpers, mechanics’ _________________

61
172
144
145

105
228
200
273

6.0
6.0
5.8
5.8

54.8
53.2
53.3
53.2

55.6
53.6
50.9
50.8

101.5
100.8
95.5
95.5

.373
.798
.440
.347

20.44
42.45
23.45
18.46

20.72
42.81
22.41
17.63

Inspectors__________________________
Diagnosticians........................................
Inspectors and diagnosticians___

78
40
105

171
62
233

6.0
6.0
6.0

52.3
53.4
52.6

53.4
52.7
53.2

102.1
98.7
101.1

.737
.852
.768

38.55
45.50
40.40

39.35
44.93
40.84

Painters____________________________

115

217

5.6 2 52.1

48.4 293.3

.682 235.53

33.05

Porters_____________________________
Janitors...................................................
Porters and janitors___ ________

128
68
180

253
97
350

6.0
6.1
6.0

54.4
57.1
55.1

53.8
57.7
54 9

98.9
101.1
99.6

.363
.390
.371

19.75
22.27
20.44

19.54
22.49
20.36

Service man
_ _ __4 _ ______
Stock clerks_____________ ____ ______
Stock keepers_______________________
Other employees____________________
All occupations..____ __________

59
130
142 292
199
208
242
115
344 6,059

6.1
6.0
6.0
6.1
5.8

55.4
52.3
53.5
58.5
53.4

54.3
52.6
53.3
58.8
51.0

98.0
100.6
99.6
100.5
95.5

.660
.458
.658
.434
.579

36.56
23.95
35.20
25.39
30.92

35 86
24.13
35.08
25.53
29.56

1Includes brake men, carburetor men, ignition men, and trouble shooters.
2 Not including 1 employee whose full-time hours were not reported.




45

AVERAGE BAYS, HOURS, AND EARNINGS

By City
Table 2 shows average days, hours, and earnings in one week for the
employees covered in each of the 43 cities. The same number (8) of
garages were covered in each city, but the number of employees
ranged from 38 in Danville, 111., to 430 in Boston, Mass.
Average days worked in one week ranged in the various cities from
5.4 to 6.2.
Average full-time hours per week ranged from 49.5 to 61.2 and
average hours actually worked in one week ranged from 45.4 to 57.3.
The per cent of full time actually worked in one week ranged from
85.8 to 101.0. The percentage of full time worked was 100 or more
in each of 4 cities.
Average earnings per hour ranged in the various cities from 32.7 to
73.2 cents, full-time earnings per week from $19.39 to $38.36, and
average actual earnings in one week ranged from $18.72 to $35.35.
T able

2.— Average days, hours, and earnings in repair garages, 1981, by city

City

Aver­
age
Num­ days on
Num­ ber which
of
ber
em­
em­ ployees
of
ga­ ploy­ worked
rages ees
in 1
week

Altoona, Pa.— ............... .............
Philadelphia, Pa_.............. .........

8
8

76
161

6.0
5.9

Altoona and Philadelphia_

16

237

Atlanta, Ga.__.............................

8

136

Austin, Tex------------ ---------------Houston, Tex---------------- ---------

8
8

Hours
actually
Aver­
Aver­ worked in
age
age
Aver- full­
1 week
fuUearn- time
time
ings earn­
hours Aver­
per
Per
per
hour ings
age
per
week num­ cent of
full
week
ber
time
98.9 $0.552 $29.53
.618 31.39
100.0

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in 1
week

53.5
50.8

52.9
50.8

6.0

51.7

51.4

99.4

.596

30.81

30.65

5.9

51.1

50.2

98.2

.551

28.16

27.65

85
127

5.9
5.9

54.0
50.8

53.1
49.6

98.3
97.6

.510
.552

27.54
28.04

27.05
27.39

$29.18
31.39

Austin and Houston..........

16

212

5.9

52.1

51.0

97.9

.534

27.82

27.25

Baltimore, M d .............................
Birmingham, Ala........................

8
8

260
139

5.8
5.9

54.0
57.2

52.9
55.2

98.0
96.5

.546
.482

29.48
27.57

28.86
26.58

Boston, M ass...................- .........
Holyoke, M ass....................... .

8
8

430
57

5.6
5.9

51.2
50.4

48.4
49.9

94.5
99.0

.607
.581

31.08
29.28

29.39
29.02

Boston and Holyoke..........

16

487

5.6

51.1

48.6

95.1

.604

30.86

29.34

Burlington, Vt__.........................
Charleston, S. C ..........................
Charlotte, N. C___......................

8
8
8

81
96
101

5.8
5.9
5.9

54.1
53.8
57.0

53.1
53.1
55.7

98.2
98.7
97.7

.544
.465
.485

29.43
25.02
27.65

28.87
24.71
27.05

Chicago, 111...................................
Danville, B1..................................

8
8

293
38

5.8
6.1

52.4
55.9

48.3
52.4

92.2
93.7

.732
.540

38.36
30.19

35.35
28.30

Chicago and Danville.......

16

331

5.8

52.8

48.8

92.4

.708

37.38

34.54

Cleveland, Ohio...........................
Hamilton, O h io ..........................

8
8

203
86

5.8
5.9

52.9
56.0

45.4
54.0

85.8
96.4

.648
.555

34.28
31.08

29.43
29.98

Cleveland and Hamilton...

16

289

5.8

53.8

48.0

89.2

.617

33.19

29.59

Des Moines, Iowa........................
Detroit, M ich...............................
Hartford, Conn............................
Huntington, W . Va_ ...................
Indianapolis, Ind.................... .....
Jacksonville, F la_..................... -

8
8
8
8
8
8

95
104
211
77
160
95

6.1
5.7
5.9
6.1
5.8
5.9

57.7
54.2
52.4
57.5
53.7
54v2

52.2
49.9
51.3
56.8
48.5
53.0

90.5
92.1
97.9
98.8
90.3
97.8

.570
.681
.646
.482
.552
.508

32.89
36.91
33.85
27.72
29.64
27.53

29.77
33.94
33.10
27.34
26.79
26.92

152750°—33-------- 1




46

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

T able

2.— Average days, hours, and earnings in repair garages, 1981, by city—
Continued

Num­ Num­
ber ber
of
of
em­
ga­ ploy­
rages ees

City

Joplin, M o__ ______________________
St. Louis, M o______________________

8
8

73
168

Aver­
age
days on
which
em­
ployees
worked
in 1
week

Hours
actually
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ worked in
age
age
Aver- full­
age
1 week
earn- time actual
full­
ings earn­ earn­
time
per
hours Aver­ Per
ings
in i
per
hour ings
age
per
week num­ cent of
week
week
full
ber
time

6.2
61.2
5.9 149.9

56.4
92.2 $0,428 $26.19
.659 132.88
48.3 197.2

$24.17
31.85

Joplin and St. Louis_________ _

16

241

6.0 i 53.4

50.8 195.3

.582 131.03

29.53

TTp.'psfls City, TTfl.ns_________________
Lincoln, N ebr_____________________
Little Rock, Ark____________________
Louisville, K y______________________
Manchester, N. H __________________
Memphis, Tenn _ _ _______________
Meridian, M is s .___________________

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

76
70
163
122
76
98
58

6.1
5.9
5.8
5.8
6.0
5.4
5.9

57.1
54.8
53.9
56.7
53.5
54.1
59.3

55.3
53.3
52.1
52.4
53.6
46.4
57.3

96.8
97.3
96.7
92.4
100.2
85.8
96.6

.493
.507
.476
.483
.531
.520
.327

28.15
27.78
25.66
27.39
28.41
28.13
19.39

27.26
27.01
24.79
25.35
28.48
24.13
18.72

Milwaukee, Wis__________________ _
Superior, Wis______________________

8
8

104
58

6.0
6.0

54.3
56.1

48.7
54.4

89.7
97.0

.604
.570

32.80
31.98

29.41
31.03

Milwaukee and Superior_______

16

162

6.0

54.9

50.7

92.3

.591

32.45

29.99

Minneapolis, Minn_________________
New Orleans, La___________________

8
8

173
112

5.9
5.9

55.1
49.5

50.5
48.0

91.7
97.0

.631
.497

34.77
24.60

31.85
23.85

New York, N. Y ..................................
Rochester, N. Y ____________________

8
8

358
158

5.8
5.8

49.7
51.0

50.2
49.8

101.0
97.6

.697
.663

34.64
33.81

34.97
33.02

New York and Rochester______

16

516

5.8

50.1

50.1

100.0

.687

34.42

34.42

Oklahoma City, Okla_______________
Portland, Me ____________________
Providence, R. I ____________________
Richmond, Va______________________
Trenton, N. J______________________
Washington, D. C __________________

8
8
8
8
8
8

116
186
187
142
100
350

5.9
5.9
5.8
6.0
5.8
5.9

54.5
54.7
52.3
53.3
53.6
54.3

50.4
52.7
51.1
53.3
51.9
51.1

92.5
96.3
97.7
100.0
96.8
94.1

.598
.535
.599
.575
.584
.593

32.59
29.26
31.33
30.65
31.30
32.20

30.19
28.20
30.61
30.65
30.33
30.32

344 6,059

5.8

53.4

51.0

95.5

.579

30.92

29.56

Grand total___________________

i Not including one employee whose full-time hours were not reported.

Classified Earnings per Hour, 1931
Average and classified earnings per hour are shown in Table 3 for
the employees in each of the important occupations or occupational
groups, for the group of “ other employees,” and for the employees
in all occupations in the garages covered in the study. For a distribu­
tion, by number, of employees in each of six of the more important
occupations in each city, see Table B (pp. 70 to 77).
Average earnings per hour were computed for each employee by
dividing the amount earned in one week by the number of hours
actually worked in that week.
The average of 37.1 cents per hour for porters and janitors is less
and of 81.1 cents for blacksmiths, machinists, and welders is more
than the average for any occupation or other occupational group in
the table.
Of the porters and janitors, 2 per cent earned, on an average, less
than 15 cents per hour, 50 per cent earned less than 35 cents per hour,
and only 1 per cent earned as much as 70 and under 80 cents per hour.
Only 2 per cent of the group of blacksmiths, machinists, and welders
earned an average as low as 45 and under 50 cents per hour, and 36
per cent earned an average of 90 cents or more per hour.



47

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR
T a b l e 3*—

Average and classified earnings per hour in repair garages, 1931, by
occupation
Per cent of employees whose average
earnings per hour were—
Aver­
Num­ Num­ age
ber of ber of earn­
ings
em­
ga­
15
20
25
30
35
Un­ and and and and and
rages ploy­ per
hour der 15 under under under under under
ees
cents 20
25
30
35
40
cents cents cents cents cents

Occupation

2

343
47
49
33
122
230
61
172
144
145
105
115
180
59
142
199
115

Total.................................................. .

2,668 $0,638
82 .685
62 .536
.811
51
.755
271
447
.390
105 .373
228 .798
200 .440
273 .347
233
.768
217 .682
350 .371
130 .660
292 .458
208 .658
242 .434

0)

344

Auto mechanics, general_________________
Auto mechanics, specialized2_____________
Battery and radiator men................... .........
Blacksmiths, machinists, and welders_____
Body workers and upholsterers___________
Car washers and polishers________________
Chasers_________________________________
Foremen, working_______________________
Greasers________________________________
Helpers, mechanics’ ................... ........... ........
Inspectors and diagnosticians....... ...............
Painters_____ ____ __ ____ ________ ____
Porters and janitors______________________
Service men_____________________________
Stock clerks_____________________________
Stock keepers___________________________
Other employees________ ________—...........

6,059

C)
1

.579

1

0)

1
2
2

10

2
1
3
1
12
10

(*)

1

1
1

5
3

8
11

1
13
17

0)
16
9

1
3

5
6

6
9

8
15

18
16
0)
1
21
4
8
3
9
6

1

3
2
2

1

3

1
1
10

2
17
2
10
1
12

1

2

5

2

7

(9
0)

13
22
3
10
2
10
4
15
5

Per cent of employees whose average earnings per hour were—

Occupation

60
40
45
50
70
90
80
$1
and and and and and and cents and $1.10 $1.20
and
under under under under under under and under under and
45
70
50
60
80
90 under
over
cents cents cents cents cents cents $1 $1.10 $1.20
4
4
6

Auto mechanics, general______________
Auto mechanics, specialized2
__________
Battery and radiator men_____________
Blacksmiths, machinists, and welders
Body workers and upholsterers........ ......
Car washers and polishers_____ _______
Chasers_____________________________
Foremen, working____________________
Greasers_____________________________
Helpers, mechanics’____________ ______
Inspectors and diagnosticians__________
Painters_____________________________
Porters and janitors__________________
Service mfen.............................. ................
Stock clerks__________ _______________
Stock keepers________________________
Other employees_____________________

2
13
24
0)
12
10
1
5
11
1
14
2
8

T ota l...............................................

6

7
5
6
2
4
8
9
1
13
7
®4
12
1
14
6
7

22
13
31
4
13
15
12
5
7
7
7
16
14
10
24
15
14

28
21
29
22
13
5
4
21
4
4
20
20
3
27
11
28
7

19
28
8
16
24
2
1
26
3
1
32
21
1
29
2
21
5

7

17

19

15

10
16
3
22
19
1

3
2
18
9
1

1

2
4
14
9

4
2

3
0

(0

1
2

(9

21
3
1
21
12

13
5

6
3

3
1

4
1

8
6

6
7

2
2

1
1

17
2
9
5

2

2

2

4
2

3
1

9

3

2

0)

1
1

2
1

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
2 Includes brake men, carburetor men, ignition men, and trouble shooters.

Table 4 shows the number and per cent of the 6,059 employees
covered in this report classified according to individual average
earnings per hour.
One employee, or less than 1 per cent of the 6,059 employees covered
in the study, earned an average of 5 and under 6 cents per hour, 1
earned an average of $1.80 and under $1.90, and 660 or 11 per cent
earned an average of 60 and under 65 cents per hour.




48

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

T a b le

4.— Number and per cent of garage employees in all occupations at each
classified group of earnings per hour, 1931
Employees in
all occupations

Classified earnings per hour

Classified earnings per hour
Num­
ber

5 and under 6 cents.......
9 and under 10 cents—
10 and under 11 cents...
11 and under 12 cents...
12 and under 13 cents...
13 and under 14 cents...
14 and under 15 cents...
15 and under 16 cents...
16 and under 17 cents...
17 and under 18 cents...
18 and under 19 cents...
19 and under 20 cents...
20 and under 21 cents...
21 and under 22 cents...
22 and under 23 cents...
23 and under 24 cents...
24 and under 25 cents...
25 and under 27H cents.
27H and under 30 cents.
30 and under 32^ cents.
32^ and under 35 cents.
35 and under 37M cents.
37H and under 40 cents.
40 and under 42^ cents.
42H and under 45 cents.

Employees in
all occupations

1
2
3
4
4
2

10

14
19
12
24
14
17
22
52
32
27
97
186
163
179
208
120

262

102

Per
cent

Num­
ber
45 and under 47M cents..
47H and under 50 cents.
50 and under 55 cents—
55 and under 60 cents....
60 and under 65 cents....
65 and under 70 cents.._
_
70 and under 75 cents_
75 and under 80 cents_
_
80 and under 85 cents.. .
85 and under 90 cents_
_
90 and under 95 cents_
_
95 cents and under $1_
_
$1 and under $1.10_____
$1.10 and under $1.20___
$1.20 and under $1.30___
$1.30 and under $1.40___
$1.40 and under $1.50___
$1.50 and under $1.60___
$1.60 and under $1.70___
$1.70 and under $1.80___
$1.80 and under $1.90___
Total..

Per
cent
5
2
8
9
11
8
9
6
5
3
2
1
2
1
1

307
100

501
516
660
504
528
386
316
209
148
62
146
51
32
5
3
4
3
1
1

0)
<*)
0)

8

(9

6,059

Average earnings per hour................$0.579

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Classified Full-Time Hours Per Week, 1931
Full-time hours per week are the employee’s prescribed hours on
duty each week under normal conditions and take no account of lost
time or overtime.
Table 5 shows the average and classified full-time hours per week
for the employees in each of the occupations or occupational groups
and for all occupations combined in the garages covered in the study.
The average full-time hours per week ranged from a low of 50.3 for
blacksmiths, machinists, and welders to 58.5 for the group of “ other
-employees.” The hours of 12 per cent of the blacksmiths, machinists,
and welders were under 46% per week, those of 4 per cent were over
60 per week, and those of 32 per cent were 48 or less per week. The
hours of service men averaged 55.4 per week, 1 per cent had a full­
time week of less than 46%hours, 6 per cent of over 70 hours, and 14
per cent of 48 hours or less. For a distribution, by number, of the
employees covered in each of the more important occupations in each
city, see Table C (pp. 78 to 84).
This table shows that 40 per cent of these garage employees had a
full-time week of 54 hours, 8 per cent of 48 hours, 40 per cent of less
than 54 hours, and 20 per cent of over 54 hours. The hours of 2 per
cent were over 70 per week.




49

CHANGES IN HOURS PER WEEK

T a b l e 5 . — Average and classified full-time hours per week of garage employees, 19319

by occupation
Per cent of employees whose average full­
time hours per week were—
Aver­
Num­ Num­ age
ber full­
ber
Over
Over
Over
of
of
50
48
em­ time
46H
ga­ ploy­ hours Un­
and 48 and 50 and 51
per der 46}4 un­
rages ees
un­
un­
week 46^
der
der
der
51
50
48

Occupation

Auto mechanics, general..Auto mechanics, specialised l . .
Battery and
Tnfin_
Blacksmiths, machinists, and welders----■Rody workArs fvnd npholstftrp.rs
Car washers and polishers
Chasers _ __ _______________________
Foremen, working.....
................
Greasers._____________________________
Helpers, mfiohantos, 1
_ ....
Tnspftntnrs anri diagnosticians
_ _
Painters
_
_
_
_
_
Porters and janitors.
Service men ,_ ....
Stock clerks___________________________
Stock keepers_________________________
Other employees_______________________
T otal...

-

53.4

2
2
5
2
4
2
1
2
2
3
4
2
1
2
5
3
2

2

4

9
16
5
8
10
8
8
8
8
11
8
8
5
6
8
8
4

12
8
3
7
3
5
2
7
9
4
7
2
2
3

9
22
3
20
20
10
22
11
10
6
9
13
11
8
14
5
10

2

52.9
2
6
1
1
52.7
55.3
50.3 ~'l2" "16"
1
5
51.7
1
54.4
3
2
2
54.8
53.2
2
2
2
4
53.3
1
4
53.2
3
5
52.6
52.1
3
3
2 (2
55.1
)
1
5
55.4
1
52.3
3
2
53.5 (2
)
4
58.5
5

344 6,058

-

343 2,668
47
82
49
62
33
51
122 271
230 447
61
105
1.72 228
144 200
145
273
105 233
1.15 216
1.80 350
59
130
142 292
199 208
115 242

4
7

8

4

10

2
1

7
1
1

6
4
10
8
4
5
5
5
4
8
7
10
3
11
10
5
3

2

6

2
2
1
1
3
2
1

Per cent of employees whose average full-time hours per
week were—
Over
51
and
un­
der
54

Occupation

Auto mechanics, general________________
Auto mechanics, specialized1___________ _
Battery and radiator men______________
Blacksmiths, machinists, and welders----Body workers and upholsterers_________
Car washers and polishers______________
Chasers_________ ____ ____ ____________
Foremen, working_____________________
Greasers______________________________
Helpers, mechanics’ _____________ ____ _
Inspectors and diagnosticians___________
Painters______________________________
Porters and janitors____________________
Service men___________________________
Stock clerks___________________________
Stock keepers__________________________
Other employees_______________________
Total....... ........... ......... ....................

2
4
3
2
3
1

54

2
1
1
3
2
1
1
2
2
1

42
22
40
18
30
40
29
48
44
45
35
32
44
28
36
52
22

2

40

Over
54
and
un­
der
57
2
1
2

Over
Over
Over
60
63
57
and 60 and 63 and 70 Over
57 un­
un­
un­
70
der
der
der
60
70
63

i
3
1
(2
)
2

6
2
10
6
9
8
4
9
10
8
6
10
8
12
4
6
8

1

7

1
1
(2
)
2
1
(2
)

1
5

4
4
15

(2
)
2
4

1
1

1
4
5

(2
)
3
1
2
3

3
5
7
3
5
4
3
4
7
3
4
6
6

1
2
1
1
(2
)
(2
)

1
(2
)
2

1
1
2
2
4

1

4

1

1

2

2
1
2
2
1
2

1
1
1
1
1

3
(2
)
1
1
(2
)
3

(2
)
2
5
2
2
2
4

1
2
2

(2
)

1

4
8

1

1
1
(2
)

2
3

5
6

2

18

<)
2

2

1 Includes brake me a, carburetor men, ignition men, and trouble shooters.
2 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

Changes in Hours per Week
Table 6 shows that, between January 1, 1930, and the period of the
1931 study, full-time hours per week of all or a specified part of the
employees in 12 garages were changed, the hours having been increased
in 3 and reduced in 9. In 332 of the 344 garages covered in the study,
no change of hours was madfe.




50

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

T a b l e 6 .— Changes in hours per week in 12 repair garages between January 1,

1980, and period of 1981 study
Hours per week—

Num­
ber of
ga­
rages
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Year of
change

Employees whose hours were changed

All.
____ do_________________________________________________ ___ _
....... do________ ________________________ ____ _________________
____ do_________________________________________ _____________
____ do_______ _____ ___________ ______ _______________________
____do___________________________ ______________ ______ _____
....... do__________________________ ____ _______________________
{janitors!*. . 1 . .._________ _______ ________ ___________ ________
All except service men___________ ____ ______ ____ _
Mechanics and greasers___ ______ _____________________________
All except porters_______________________ ____ _______ _______ _
All except watchmen and night car washers____________________

1930
1931
1931
0)
1930
1931
1931
1930
1930
1930
1931
1930
1930

Before
change

After
change

48
54
51
(2
)
54
54
57
49M
73H
WA
50
54
51

54
57
54
(2
)
48
48
54
mb
70
49
44
49^
48

1 Not reported.
2 Reduced 12^ per cent but hours not reported.

Changes in Wage Rates
Table 7 shows for each of the 83 garages in which changes in wage
rates were made between January 1,1930, and the period of the study
in 1931, the employees whose rates were affected, the amount or per
cent of increase or decrease, and the year (except for 8 garages) in
which such changes were made. There was no change in rates in 261
of the 344 garages covered in this report.
Rates of all or of a specified part of the employees in 5 garages
were increased and in 78 were reduced.
T a b l e 7*— Changes in wage rates in 88 repair garages between January 1, 1980

and the period of the 1981 study
Num­
ber of

Employees affected by the change

Increase or
decrease

rages
A l l .........................................................
Those at hourly rates.............................
General auto mechanics.........................
'50 per cent of general auto mechanics...
k do— ............................. ...................
—
General auto mechanics, greasers, help­
ers, and porters.
All............................................................
— Ild o IIII"’ ’ " " ” ” ” " " ” ” ” ” ” - "
___ do.................... ..................................
----- do.......................................... - .........

!IZZIdoI IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
___ do___________________ _________
----- do-------------- ------------------------------,d o ......................................................

___ do...................................

* Year not reported.




Increase..
...d o ____
— do____
...d o ____
— do____
— do____

Amount or per cent of change i n 1930

1931
15 per cent.
5 cents per hour.

10 per cent.

Decrease. 5 per cent..
— do____ ___ do____
— do____
...d o ____
...d o ____
10 per cent___
...d o ____
...d o ____ .......do.............
— do........
...d o ____
10 per cent *—
...d o ........ 11.1 per cent
— do........ 15 per cent___
— d o.„__.
— d o -r —
— do____
25 per cent1
.
— do........
...d o ____
5 to 10 cents per hourr
...d o ........ 10 cents per hour____
...d o ........ $2 to $5 per weejt *___
...d o ........
...d o ........

$5 per week.
$10 per week.
$3 per week.
10 per cent.
5 per cent.
5 to 10 per cent.
7 per cent.
8 per cent.
10 per cent.

15 per cent.
20 per cent.
10 to 25 per cent.

$6 per week.
$10 per veefe,

51

OVERTIME AND WORK ON SUNDAY AND HOLIDAYS

T a b l e 7. — Changes in wage rates in 88 repair garages between January 1, 1980,
and the period of the 1981 study— C on tin u ed
Num­
ber of
ga­
rages

Employees affected by the change

Increase or
decrease

Amount or per cent of change in—

10 per cent__________
fThose
1 \Those on productive work____________ . Decrease..
on nonproductive work...............- —do..........
2 All except general auto mechanics______ __ do_____
1
...d o _____ 20 per cent__________
1 All except general auto mechanics, body __ do_____
workers, car washers, greasers, polish­
ers, and part of service men.
1 Those in shop and stock room_________ __ do_____
1 ....... do..... ................................................... __ do_____
1 Those at hourly rates or 89.3 per cent of __ do_____
all.
1 Those at hourly rates or 80 per cent of all. __ do_____
1 Those at hourly rates or 33H per cent of __ do_____
all.
1 75 per cent of general auto mechanics___ . . do.......... 12^ per cent_______
1 33H per cent of general auto mechanics— — do..........
1 General auto mechanics_______________ __ do_____

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1

1931

1930

10 per cent.
Do.
10 per cent
Do.
10 to 15 per cent.
2)4. cents per hour.
5 cents per hour.
Do.

Do.
Bonus of 10 per
cent of annual
earnings reduced
to 5 per cent.
_
....... do........................................................ __ do_ _
$5 per week.
_
All.............................. .............................. __ do_ _
$2 per week.
Working foremen_____________________ — do_____
$2.50 per week.
— do_____
$10 per week.
___ do_______________________ _____
...d o .......... $5 per week__________ $2.50 per week.
General auto mechanics____________ .. ...d o ..........
5 cents per hour.
10 cents per hour.
Painters, upholsterers, and wood body ...d o ..........
workers.
Stock keepers______________ _____ ____ __ do_____ $11.67 per week1_____
All except car washers and general auto __ do_____
10 to 15 per cent.
mechanics.
Metal body workers........ ........................ __ do_____ 10 per cent1
_________
Those in shop________________________ ___do_____
12 per cent.
(■Inspectors, diagnosticians, and janitors.. ___do_____ $25 per month_______
\Painters_____________________________ Increase
$10 per month.
Car washers and porters.......................... Decrease
$5 per week.
Courtesy men, janitors, stock keepers, __ do_____ 10 per cent...................
stock clerks, and flat-rate men who
earned more than 70 cents per hour.
All except stock keepers, porters, errand __ do_____
10 per cent.
boys, painters, and inspectors.
/General auto mechanics__________ ____ __ do_____ 5 per cent___________
All others_____ ____ ____________ _____ — do_____ 10 per cent__________
General auto mechanics and greasers___ __ do_____ 7 per cent1
__________
All others____________________________ __ do_____ 10 per cent
_______
[General auto mechanics_______________ __ do_____
5 cents per hour.
■Janitors, stock keepers, stock clerks, and __ do_____
10 per cent.
part of inspectors.
General auto mechanics and stock keep- __ do_____
5 cents per hour.
' ers.
Working foremen_____________________ __ do_____
$10 per week.
___ do........................................................ __ do_____
$55 per month.
Service men__________________________ __ do_____
$35 per month.
General auto mechanics............ .............. __ do_____
10 cents per hour.
Mechanics, inspectors, ignition men, ...d o ........ .
Pay for idle time
painters, upholsterers, and metal body
in excess of 1workers.
hour per day dis­
continued.
Not specified______ __________________ __ d o .. ..
10 per cent.

* Year not reported.

Overtime and Work on Sunday and Holidays
Only 37 of the 344 garages covered in the study had provision for the
payment of a higher rate for overtime and for extra work on Sunday
and holidays than for regular working time. Table 8 shows for each
of these garages the higher rate and the employees entitled thereto.




52

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

T a b l e 8 . — Pay for

Num­
ber of

overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays, in repair garages;
employees entitled, and ratey 1981
Times regular rate for—

Employees entitled to higher rate for overtime
and extra work

Overtime

All.
.do..

IX-

.do..

1K -

_do_.

IK -

-do..

-do..

All except janitors and part of working foremen..
All except stock keepers and car washers_______
All except inspectors, stock clerks, stock keepers,
watchmen, and janitors.
Those at hourly rates, or 12 per cent of all...........
Those at hourly rates, or 36 per cent of all..........
Those at hourly rates, or 67 per cent of all—.......
Those at hourly rates, or 71 per cent of all—.......
Those at hourly rates, or 84 per cent of all..........
General auto mechanics.................................... ...
do.
_do_
General auto mechanics and porters___________
General auto mechanics and mechanics" helpers..
General auto mechanics, mechanics' helpers,
greasers, and part of inspectors.
General auto mechanics, blacksmiths, welders,
body workers, upholsterers, and painters.
General auto mechanics, battery men, car wash­
ers, elevator operators, and mechanics’ helpers.
General auto mechanics, inspectors, ignition
men, painters, body workers, and upholsterers.
General auto mechanics, ignition men, car wash­
ers, polishers, upholsterers, working foremen,
and part of inspectors.
General auto mechanics and body workers..........
Body workers........................................................
Inspectors and working foremen..........................
/ General auto mechanics and mechanics' helpers.
\Tiremen, metal body workers, and greasers.......
/Working foremen................................ .................
\General auto mechanics......... .............................

1, and in addition, com­
pany pays for each
man’s supper on any
evening worked.
1K 1K 1K IK -

Work on Sunday
and holidays
1K.
1 for first 9 hours,
then IKNo work done on
Sunday; rate for
holidays not re­
ported.
No work done on
Sunday or holi­
days.
1, and in addition
each employee
receives $1 for
each day or part
of day worked.

2.
IK.
IKl.
IK.
IK.
Not reported.
IK.

IK 1K 2
1K 1K lK -

IK
2.
IK.

1K-------------- - ..............

IK.

1 for first hour, then 1H~

IK-

1K...................................

IK.

1K -

2 for work on Sun­
day; holiday rate
not reported.
IK.
IKIMo.
IKIK.
From IK to 2H.

IK.

1K......................
IK -....................

lHo.___ _____

1H ......................
IK ................. —
From IK to2H_

Bonus Systems
Table 9 shows for each of the 10 garages that had bonus systems in
operation at the time of the study in 1931, the kind or basis of the
bonus, the employees entitled to it, the amount of the bonus, and when
or how it could be earned. In 334 of the garages included in this
report bonus systems were not in operation.
Bonuses were based on time saved in two garages, on production in
two, on service in three, on efficiency in two, and on service and
attendance in one garage, two systems being in operation in this
garage.




53

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
T able

Num­
ber of Kind of bonus
ga-

9*— Bonus systems of 10 repair garages in 1931

Employees entitled

Timesaving. General auto mechan­
ics, greasers, and car
washers.
....... do.......... General auto mechan­
ics.
Production
General auto mechan­
ics, ignition men,
car washers, and
greasers.
-----do------- General auto mechan­
ics.

{

Service.......

A ll..

Attendance

.do..

Service..

-do..

.do____

....... do...

General auto mechan­
ics.
Service men and stock
keepers.

Efficiency. ~ General auto mechan-do..

-do..

Amount of bonus

Bonus earned

40 cents for each hour saved.. When job is completed in less
than time allotted to it.
30 cents for each hour saved.
10 per cent of the excess of
receipts in one week over
double the earnings at
basic rate in the week.
Difference between labor
cost of job, and 40 per cent
of charge to customer for
labor.
$5 annually for each year of
continuous service.
10 per cent of weekly earn­
ings.

$5 annually for each yea* of
service to a maximum of
$25 for service of 5 years or
more.
5 per cent of earnings for
service any part of year
immediately before pay­
ment of bonus.
10 per cent of earnings for
service any part of year
immediately before pay­
ment of bonus.
$2 per month.........................
$5 per month—.

Do.
When, in one week, receipts
for work of an employee
exceed double his earnings
at basic rate.
When labor cost of job is less
than 40 per cent of charge
to customer for labor.
When in service one or more
years continuously.
When employee reports for
duty 5 minutes before
starting time, and remains
5 minutes after quitting
time on each day of the
week.
When in service one or more
years.
When in service any time
preceding date of bonus
payment in year.
Do.

When efficiency of employee
is 100 per cent during the
month.
When, during the month,
there is no complaint en­
tered against work of
employee.

Supplementary Information
In making the study of wages and hours of labor, supplementary
information as to labor conditions on other subjects was also obtained
from the garages covered in the report. A brief statement covering
each subject follows.
Vacations with Pay
Table 10 shows that there was provision for vacation with pay for
all of the employees in 31 garages, and for part of the employees in
77 garages; that the length of service required to get the vacation was
indefinite and at the discretion of company officials for 32 garages,
was 1 month for 1 garage, 6 months for 7, 1 year for 64, 2 years for 3
garages, and 5 years for 1 garage; that the annual vacation ranged
by garages from 1 to 14 days or 2 days for each year of service. There
was no provision for vacation with pay in 236 of the 344 garages
included in the study.




54

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES
T able

Number of ga­
rages in which
vacations with
pay were given
to—

10.— Vacations with pay in 108 repair garages, 1981

Length of service required to get vaca­
tion with pay

Length of annual vacation

AU Part of
em­
em­
ployees ployees
6 months...................................................
1 year__.....................................................
6 months...................................................
1 year............................ ..........................
Indefinite and at discretion of company
officials.
2 years.......................................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company
officials.
1 year........................................................
.do.
2 years.......................................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company
officials.
1 year__......... ...........................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company
do..
/I year.,
.do..
Indefinite and at discretion of company
officials if less than 1 year.
J year.........................................................
L
f5 years...................................................... .
\10 years......................................................
1 year- ..................................................... .

3 days.
6 days.
7 days.

Do.
Do.
Do.

10 days.

Do.

14 days.

Do.
Do.

7 to 14 days.
7 days for mechanics.
14 days for salaried employees.
14 days for foremen.
7 days for all other salaried employees.
7 days.

14 days.
7 da^ s.
14 days.
7 days for mechanics and salaried em­
ployees.*
14 days for mechanics and salaried em.2 years..
plo> ees.i
1 month.................................................... 1 day for each month of service.
,1 year.—....... ........................................... 14 days.
Indefinite and at discretion of company 7 days for salaried employees.
officials if less than 1 year.
14 days for salaried employees.
1 day, for mechanics, for each year of service.
1 year......................................................... days for each year of service.
2

{
31

77

iid o i:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

i At one-half of regular rates of pay.

Sick Leave with Pay
Information obtained on this subject revealed that there was pro­
vision for yearly sick leave with pay in 104 of the 344 garages included
in the study. "There was no such provision in 131 and no report on
this subject from 109 garages.
Table 11 shows that there was provision for sick leave with pay for
all employees in 47 garages and for part of the employees in 57
garages; that the length of service necessary to get leave with pay was
indefinite and at the discretion of company officials for 58 garages,
and for 46 garages ranged from a low of 1 day to a high of 2 years,
and that the time allowed ranged, by garages, from 2 days to 12. weeks.
In the 57 garages where only part of the employees were entitled: to
sick leave with pay, the specified part usually consisted of such em­
ployees as stock keepers, stock clerks, working foremen, service men,
inspectors, diagnosticians and, in a number of cases, included all
employees excent mechanics.




55

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
T able

Number of ga­
rages in which
sick-leave pay
was granted
to—
All
em-

11.— Sick have with pay in 104 repair garages, 1981

Length of service required to get sick leave with pay

Time allowed

Part of
em­
ployees
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials..
1 day...................... ................................................
1 year................ .....................................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials..
.do...................................................................... .
1 year_
1 month...................................................................
6 months.................................................................
1 year__...................................................................
2 years.....................................................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials..
1 y ear-....................................................................
1 day90 days....................................................................
8 months.................................................................
1 >ear._..................................................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials..
2 years............................ ............ ..........................
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials..
30 days....................................................................
1 year......................................................................
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials.
.......do......................................................................
6 months................ ................................................
1 y e a r ...............................................- ...................
1 day90 days............................................... ....................
6 months............................. ...................................
1 year__....... - ........................... — ........................
Indefinite and at discretion of company officials..

2 days.
3 days.
2 or 3 days.
Do.
4 days.
5 days.
7 days.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
12 days.
14 days.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
15 days.
21 days.
30 days.
Do.
Do.
60 days.
12 weeks.
Not definitely established.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.

57

Group Insurance
Employees of 107 repair garages were reported as insured and of
231 as not insured. Six garages did not report as to insurance.
The insurance premiums were reported as paid by the employees
in 14 garages, by the companies in 21, and shared by the companies
and employees in 67 garages. There was no report as to who paid
the premiums in five garages. Premiums were shared equally by
companies and employees in 5 of the 67 garages, and in the other 62
there was great variation in the proportion paid by each, the com­
panies having paid more in some of the garages and the employees
more in others.
Employees Under Bond
To bond means to furnish security through bonding companies for
loss or damage of property by employees. Information on this sub­
ject revealed that all of the employees of 10 repair garages were
bonded; that a certain part of the employees in 33 garages were
bonded; and that the employees in 171 garages were not bonded.
There was no report on this subject from 130 garages.
The bond premiums were paid by the companies in 41 of the 43
garages in which employees were bonded. There was no report as
to who paid the premiums in the other two garages.




56

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

Preference for Married or Single Men
Married men were reported as preferred in 106 repair garages,
while in 238 garages there was no preference.
Years of Service
Information as to the average length of service of employees was
procured from 216 of the 344 repair garages covered in this report.
The average length of service of the employees in 19 garages was
under 1 year; in 37 was 1 and under 2 years; in 38 was 2 and under 3;
in 43 was 3 and under 4; in 18 was 4 and under 5; in 33 was 5 and under
6; in 9 was 6 and under 7; in 5 was 7 and under 8; in 6 was 8 and under
9; in 1 was 9 and under 10; in 6 was 10 and under 11; and in 1 garage
was 12 and under 13 years.
Lunch Periods
Information on this subject was obtained from 261 of the 344 ga­
rages studied. It was reported that in 233 repair garages all employees
had a regular lunch period each day. The length of the lunch period
and hour of the day varied in the different garages. In 20 garages
the lunch period was “ staggered,” which means that each employee
of a garage had lunch at different hours of the day on different days.
There was no definite provision for a lunch period in eight garages;
the employees ate lunch between jobs whenever convenient. There
was no report on this subject from 83 garages.
Age of Employees
Information obtained as regards age revealed that 83.3 per cent of
the employees covered in the study were over 25 and 16.7 per cent
were under 25 years of age.
Retirement and Pension Systems
There was no provision in any of the 344 repair garages studied
for retiring employees with compensation.
Uniforms
According to the information on this subject uniforms were pur­
chased by the companies for all or part of their employees in 42
garages, and rented by the companies for all or part in 15 garages.
It is the general practice for employees to supply their own uniforms.
The so-called uniforms were generally overalls and coveralls, and
ranged in cost from $1.35 to $6.50 per unit or garment. The pre­
vailing cost ranged from $2 to $4.
Laundering of Uniforms
The cost of laundering uniforms was reported as paid by companies
in 62 repair garages, by employees in 101, and as shared by companies
and employees in 22 garages, the shares being equal in a majority of
the garages.




SCOPE AND METHOD

57

The average cost per man of laundering per week was under 25
cents in 13 garages; 25 and under 50 cents in 47; 50 and under 75
cents in 54; 75 cents and under $1 in 9 and $1 or over in 6 garages.
Drivers’ Permits
All employees in 130 and part of the employees in 4 garages were
required by the companies to have drivers' permits; in 202 garages
the employees were not required to hold such permits; and there was
no report on this subject from 8 garages. Permits were paid for by
the employees*in 73 garages; by the companies in 3 garages; and by
the company and employees in 1 garage. There was no expense for
permits in 9 garages as they were issued free of charge in the localities
where these garages were in operation. There was no report as to
the expense of permits in 48 garages.

Scope and Method
The basic wage figures which were used in compiling the various
wage tables in this report for repair garages were obtained by agents
of the bureau directly from the pay rolls and other records of the 344
garages included in the study. Information on the other related
subjects was procured from answers to inquiries made thereon.
The wage figures were collected from the pay rolls for a representa­
tive pay period in April, May, June, or July, 1931.
The length of the pay period was one week in 316 garages, 10 days
in 2, 2 weeks in 1, one-half month in 24, and 1 month in 1. The
figures for a pay period of more than one week were reduced to a
1-week basis.
Average days worked in one week for the employees in any occupa­
tion or in all occupations were computed by dividing the aggregate
number of days on which the employees worked in the week by the
number of employees in the occupation or in all occupations. In
computing the average each full day or part of a day that an employee
did any work in the week was counted as a day.
^Average full-time hours per week for the employeesin an occupa­
tion were computed by dividing the aggregate full-time hours per
week for all employees in the occupation by the number of employees
in the occupation. The full-time hours per week of each employee
were used in arriving at the average, even though part may have
worked more than full time during the week on account of overtime,
or less than full time on account of sickness, disability, or other cause.
Average hours actually worked in one week for the employees in
an occupation were computed by dividing the total of the hours
actually worked in the week by the number of such employees.
Average earnings per hour for employees in an occupation were
computed by dividing the aggregate earnings of the employees in the
occupation by the aggregate number of hours actually worked by
such employees in the week.
Average full-time earnings per week for the employees in an occupa­
tion were computed by multiplying the average earnings per hour for
the occupation by the average full-time hours per week for the em­
ployees in the occupation.




58

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

Average actual earnings in one week for the employees in an occu­
pation were computed by dividing the total of the earnings made by
them in the week by the number of such employees.
The above methods of computing averages for the employees in an
occupation or in all occupations were also used in computing averages
for the employees covered in each city and in all cities combined.

Occupations in Repair Garages
The occupations as published in the tables of this bulletin (see
Table 3) are as follows: Auto mechanics, general; auto mechanics,
specialized; battery and radiator men; blacksmiths, machinists, and
welders; body workers and upholsterers; car washers and polishers;
chasers; foremen, working; helpers, mechanics*; inspectors and diag­
nosticians; painters; greasers; porters and janitors; service men;
stock clerks; stock keepers; and other employees. Each of them,
including those in the group of “ other employees” is defined in the
Appendix B (pp. 87 to 89).

General Tables
In addition to the summary and other tables already shown in this
bulletin for repair garages, three general tables are presented as follows:
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which employees worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, 1931, by occupa­
tion and city.
The arrangement of this table makes easy the comparison of aver­
ages for one city with those for another. The averages, by city, are
presented for each occupation separately and, at the end of the table,
for all occupations combined.
“ Average full-time hours per week” and the “ average hours actu­
ally worked in one week,” are presented in adjacent columns. This
makes easy the comparison of the average hours that would have been
worked in the week had all employees in the occupations worked no
more nor less than full time with the average hours that were actually
worked in the week. The figures in the column next to the right of
these two columns show for the employees covered in each occupation
in each city the per cent of full time actually worked in the week.
T a b l e B . —Average and classified earnings per hour in six specified
occupations, 1931, by city.
T a b l e C . —Average and classified full-time hours per week, in six
specified occupations, 1931, by city,




59

GENERAL TABLES

A .— Average number of days on which employees worked^ average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city

T able

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
Aver­ age Aver­
age
age
days on
age
full­
cent
age
Num­ Num­ which
hours
full­
time actual
ber of ber of em­
time actually of full earn­ earn­ earn­
ings
em­ ployees hours worked time
ga­
ings
per
rages ployees worked per
in 1 worked hour ings
in 1
in week
per
week
week
in 1
week week
week

Occupation and city

Auto mechanics, general:
Altoona, Pa________________
7
8
Atlanta, Ga________________
Austin, Tex________________
8
8
Baltimore, M d_____________
Birmingham, Ala
__
8
8
Boston, Mass_______________
Burlington, V t_____________
8
nhftrlMtfom S. C
.
8
8
Charlotte, N. C ____________
8
Chicago, ill________________
8
Cleveland, Ohio____________
8
Danville, 111________________
8
De.s Moines, T^wa... Detroit, Mich______________
8
8
TTRTnlltarij Ohio....
TTprtfnrd, florin
8
8
Holyoke/ Mass_____________
8
Houston, Tex______________
8
Huntington, W. V a --............
Indianapolis, Tnd___
8
8
Jacksonville, Fla_-_________
Joplin, Mn.
8
Kansas City, Kans_________
8
8
Lincoln. Nebr______________
8
Little Rock, Ark.....................
Louisville, K y______________
8
Manchester, N. H __________
8
8
Memphis, Tenn____________
Meridian, Miss_____________
8
Milwaukee, Wis____________
8
Minneapolis, Minn_________
8
8
New Orleans, La___________
8
New York, N. Y .....................
8
Oklahoma City, Okla.............
Philadelphia, Pa
________
8
8
______________ Portland,
Providence, R. I____________
8
8
Richmond, Va_____________
8
Rochester, N. Y ____________
8
St. Louis, M o______________
8
Superior, Wis______________
Trenton, N. J______________
8
Washington, D. C__________
8
Total____________________
Auto mechanics, specialized: 2
Altoona, Pa________________
Atlanta, Ga________________
Baltimore, M d _____________
Boston, Mass______________
Charlotte, N. C ____________
Chicago, 111_______________—
Cleveland, Ohio____________
Des Moines, Iowa__________
Detroit, Mich______________
Hertford, Conn
. _
Houston, Tex______________
Indianapolis, Ind___________
Joplin, M o_________________
Kansas City, Kans_________
Lincoln, Nebr______________
Memphis, Tenn____________
Meridian, Miss_____________
Milwaukee, Wis__________ _
Minneapolis, Minn
New Orleans, La___________
New York, N. Y .....................
Philadelphia, Pa___________
Portland, Me...........................
i Data included in.total




343
1
1
3
5
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
1

97.6 $0,622 $33.28 $32.44
.661 33.58
32.14
95.7
.588 31.75
95.9
30.49
.623 32.71
96.8
31.65
.540 30.89
95.3
29.42
90.6
.657 33.51
30.36
.554 29.92
28.64
95.7
.521 28.19
27.50
97.6
.547 31.18
31.21
100.2
.766 39.30
86.0
33.76
.718 38.20
30.01
78.6
.611 34.64
90.5
31.35
.636 35.11
78.8
27.63
.748 40.17
84.0
33.75
.611 33.73
95.7
32.26
.704 36.54
35.11
96.1
.606 30.00
98.6
29.60
.660 33.33
96.2
32.08
.610 33.79
94.8
32.03
.577 30.35
91.3
27.69
.552 29.81
95.6
28.53
.555 33.80
80.6
27.26
.594 32.79
94.9
31.10
.543 29.32
97.8
28.64
.537 28.94
96.7
27.96
.581 32.48
88.7
28.83
100.2
.590 31.33
31.43
78.4
.688 36.88 ’ 28.93
.392 23.40
97.8
22.90
.633 32.73
85.7
28.06
84.2
.725 39.80
33.52
.557 27.35
93.5
25.54
99.8
.716 34.73
34.70
.697 37.99
85.5
32.47
.679 34.02
98.6
33.53
.574 31.63
94.4
29.84
.638 33.30
32.35
97.1
.607 32.29
100.0
32.29
.682 34.85
98.6
34.37
.713 35.72
97.2
34.74
.587 33.22
95.2
31.66
96.0
.690 36.23
34.76
91.0
.686 36.43
33.10

29
56
33
105
48
180
45
48
49
105
99
25
37
52
44
96
28
51
32
65
50
25
37
44
65
56
43
34
26
54
92
50
159
53
68
Me
100
100
63
60
77
31
41
113

6.0
5.9
5.8
5.7
6.0
5.3
5.7
5.9
6.0
5.6
5.7
6.1
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.9
6.0
5.9
6.0
5.8
5.9
6.0
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.6
6.0
5.0
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
6.0
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.7
5.7

53.5
50.8
54.0
52.5
57.2
51.0
54.0
54.1
57.0
51.3
53.2
56.7
55.2
53.7
55.2
51.9
49.5
50.5
55.4
52.6
54.0
60.9
55.2
54.0
53.9
55.9
53.1
53.6
59.7
51.7
54.9
49.1
48.5
54.5
50.1
55.1
52.2
53.2
51.1
50.1
56.6
52.5
53.1

52.2
48.6
51.8
50.8
54.5
46.2
51.7
52.8
57.1
44.1
41.8
51.3
43.5
45.1
52.8
49.9
48.8
48.6
52.5
48.0
51.6
49.1
52.4
52.8
52.1
49.6
53.2
42.0
58.4
44.3
46.2
45.9
48.4
46.6
49.4
52.0
50.7
53.2
50.4
48.7
53.9
50.4
48.3

2,668

5.8

52.9

49.2

93.0

.638

33.75

31.35

0
0
47.8
44.3
0
0
0
0
39.3
0
«

0
0
97.6
87.2

0
0
.716
.648
0
0
0
0
.790

0
0
35.08
32.92

0
(i)
34.19
28.71
M
0
0
31.01

(l)
(i)

0
0)
0
0
5.5
49.0
5.6
50.8
0
0)
0
0
0
0
0
0
6.0
52.3
m
m
m
0
0)
0
0
/n
m
0
(1)
0)
0
3
5.3
54.0
0
0
0 )2
6.0
51.8
(i)
0
0
0
0
0
9
48.4
5.9
3
6.0
49.7
0
0
0
3 Includesbrake men, carburetor men,
6
16
(l)
h)
(i)
0
3
0
(i)

0
i1
)
0
75.1

0)
0

41.32
0
m
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
36.8
68.1
.647 34.94
23.78
0
0
0
0
0
100.0 1.013 52.47
51.8
52.47
(i)
0
0)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
99.4
.930 45.01
44.75
48.1
.753 37.42
48.3
97.2
36.36
0
0
0
0
0
ignition i»en, and trouble shooters..

60

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOK-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

A.—Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city—Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­
Per
Aver­ age Averdays on age
age
Num­ Num- which
cent
age
full­
hours of full earn­ full­ actual
ber of ber of em­
time
time
em­ ployees hours actually time
gaings earn­ eamployees worked per worked worked per
ings
in 1 in week
in l
hour
per
in 1
week
week
week week
week

Auto mechanics, specialized—Con.
Providence, R. I .....................
Rochester, N. Y ......................
St. Louis, M o..........................
Superior, Wis.................. .......
Trenton, N. J.........................
Washington, D. C..................
TotalBattery and radiator men:
Altoona, Pa..................
Atlanta, Ga..................
Austin, Tex..................
Baltimore, M d ............
Birmingham, Ala........
Boston, Mass......... —
Burlington, V t.............
Charleston, S. C..........
Charlotte, N. C ...........
Chicago, HI..................
Cleveland, Ohio...........
Des Moines, Iowa.......
Hamilton, Ohio...........
Hartford, Conn............
Houston, Tex...... ........
Huntington, W. V a.._
Joplin, M o...................
Lincoln, Nebr..............
Little Rock, Ark.........
Louisville, K y .............
Manchester, N. H .......
Memphis, Tenn...........
Meridian, Miss............
New Orleans. L a.........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa..........
Portland, M e...............
Richmond, Va.............
Rochester, N. Y ..........
St. Louis, M o..............
Superior, Wis...............
Trenton, N. J..............
Washington, D. C .......
TotalBlacksmiths, machinists, and
welders:
Atlanta, Ga................... ........
Baltimore, M d ...................... .
Birmingham, Ala.................. .
Boston, Mass......................... .
Chicago, HI............................
Cleveland, Ohio....................
Des Moines, Iowa.................
Detroit, M ich--------- ----------Hartford, Conn......................
Indianapolis, Ind...................
Memphis, Tenn................. .
Minneapolis, Minn...............
New York, N. Y ...................
Oklahoma City, Okla. _.......
Providence, R. I ....................
Richmond, Va.......................
Rochester, N. Y ....................
St. Louis, M o........................
Superior, Wis.........................
Washington, D . C .................
Total...................................

i Data included in total.




0
0

a

0
47

82

6.0
0
0
6.0
0
5.8

49.5
0
0
53.3
0.
57.1

8
54.2

5.8

52.7

48.8

48.9

0)
50.3

8.8 $0,659 $32.62

$32.21

101.7
0

.6 8 8

8 37.24
8
36.67

88.1

0
.634

0
36.20

0
31.91

92.6

.685

36.10

33.46

(l)
0
31.61
28.39
0
O
')
6.0

13.2

30.72

52.5

28.07
0
(0
28.88
23.33
0

8

i
i

8

28.77
33.43
30.35
0)

I.,
6.0

49

55.3

53.9

97.5

.536

29.64

(0
0
0
6.0
5.9
6.0

0
0
32.53
45.59
35.20

8
8
6.0

0

8

37.46
43.73
36.98

6.0
6.0
0
0

2
7

0
33

51

8
6.0

5.9
0)
5.7
5.9

28.90

8

50.3

47.1

i3.6

.811

40.79

40.68
34.10
0
44.01
38.22

61

GENERAL TABLES

A.—Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981 y by occupation and city—Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

Body workers and upholsterers:
Altoona, Pa------- ---------------Atlanta, Ga...........................
Austin, Tex...........................
Baltimore, M d ............ ..........
Birmingham, Ala.......... - ........
Boston, M ass......................—
Charleston, S. C .....................
Charlotte, N. C ................—
Chicago, 111................. ............
Cleveland, Ohio............... —
Des Moines, Iowa...................
Detroit, M ich......... - ........—
Hamilton, Ohio------------------Hartford, Conn.......................
Houston, Tex__....................—
Huntington, W. Va..............
Indianapolis, Ind.......- .........
Jacksonville, F la ...................
Joplin, M o ...........- ................Kansas City, Kans................
Lincoln, Nebr...................... .
Little Rock, Ark.............. ......
Louisville, K y....................—
Memphis, Tenn-----------------Minneapolis, Minn........ ........
New Orleans, La....... ............
New York, N. Y ....................
Oklahoma City, Okla.............
Philadelphia, Pa.....................
Portland, M e..........................
Providence, R. I.....................
Richmond, Va........................
Rochester, N. Y — - ...............
St. Louis, M o........................ Superior, Wis..........................
Trenton, N. J......................
Washington, D . C ..................

Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­
Per
Aver­ age Aver­
days on age
age
age
Num­ Num­ which
cent
age
full­
hours of full earn­ full­ actual
ber of ber of em­
time
time actually time
earn­
em­
ga­
ings earn­
ings
rages ployees ployees hours worked worked per
ings
in 1
worked per
in 1
per
week
week in week hour week week
in 1
week

2
6
2
5
4
5
1
2
8
4
4
2
1
6
2
2
6
2
4
2
2
5
2
2
2
4
6
4
1
3
3
3
4
2
1
2
6

2
10
2
14
10
28

6.0
5.7
5.5
5.8
5.5
5.4

54.0
52.8
54.0
52.0
57.0
50.4

51.1
49.2
49.5
49.9
51.2
42.4

(9

(9

(9

(9

57.0
50.0
50.5
53.3
50.7

57.0
43.2
41.6
51.8
38.3

(9

(9

(9

<9

2
34
12
4
3

8
3
2
20
4
7
2
3
6
6
5
2
10
18
6

(9

3
6
4
9
5

(9

2
11

6.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
4.3

6.0
6.0
6.0
5.4
6.0
6.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
5.7
3.8
6.0
6.0
5.9
6.0

(9

6.0
5.8
6.0
5.3
4.6

(9

5.0
5.5

52.5
48.8
54.0
52.8
54.0
54.9
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
55.5
49.0
49.3
53.0

51.6
48.9
62.8
39.4
54.0
44.5
49.5
54.6
55.0
49.8
29.6
56.2
48.7
50.2
53.0

(9

(9

94.6 $0.762 $41.15
93.2
.646 34.11
91.7
.606 32.72
96.0
.655 34.06
89.8
.774 44.12
84.1
.763 38.51

(9

100.0
86.4
82.4
97.2
75.5

(9

98.3
100.2
116.3
74.6
100.0
81.1
91.7
101.1
101.9
92.2
54.8
101.3
99.4
101.8
100.0

(9

104.1
97.0
100.0
87.2
73.6

(9

(9

(9

(9

98.1
90.1

.710
.846

36.78
44.58

36.05
40.18

.755

39.03

35.17

.319 16.65
.333 16.92
.332 17.93
.334 20.41
.247 14.20
.507 25.50
.431 23.06
.227 12.14
.205 11.69
.550 29.65
.504 26.46
.340 19.38
.332 20.32
.466 24.98
.324 17.92
.527 28.56
.449 22.90
.373 18.91
.300 16.86
.423 23.22
.277 15.07
.246 17.54
.369 21.62
.326 17.60
.270 14.53
.273 15.92
.444 23.31
.282 15.06

16.80
16.92
17.93
20.22
12.88
26.91
23.41
12.14
9.60
26.18
24.25
19.50
19.36
27.48
18.03
27.95
23.94
17.98
16.99
19.47
15.07
17.20
21.11
16.41
12.92
16.21
22.83
15.14

51.8
52.7

50.8
47.5

271

5.6

51.7

46.6

90.1

4
5
5
6
5
7
6
6
6
5
5
3
6
4
5
8
3
6
7
6
6
3
4
3
8
4
6
5

5
8
7
17
12
33
6
12
12
13
12
3
9
5
6
20
3
23
9
11
8
5
7
5
18
7
8
5

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.6
5.8
6.0
6.0
4.9
6.0
5.9
6.0
6.2
6.2
6.2
5.9
6.0
5.8
6.1
5.8
6.0
6.6
6.1
5.6
5.3
6.3
5.9
6.0

52.2
50.8
54.0
61.1
57.5
50.3
53.5
53.5
57.0
53.9
52.5
57.0
61.2
53.6
55.3
54.2
51.0
50.7
56.2
54.9
54.4
71.3
58.6
54.0
53.8
58.3
52.5
53.4

52.7
50.8
54.0
60.5
52.1
53.0
54.3
53.5
46.9
47.6
48.1
57.3
58.3
59.0
55.7
53.1
53.3
48.2
56.6
46.0
54.4
70.0
57.1
50.4
47.8
59.3
51.4
53.7

101.0
100.0
100.0
99.0
90.6
105.4
101.5
100.0
82.3
88.3
91.6
100.5
95.3
110.1
100.7
98.0
104.5
95.1
100.7
83.8
100.0
98.2
97.4
93.3
88.8
101.7
97.9
100.6

(9

32.76
45.88
30.63
42.78
39.15

(9

37.84
30.12
37.65
30.86
34.56
24.70
35.16
30.98
30.12
27.28
17.43
41.70
31.39
46.93
36.62

(9

122




(9

.585
.905
.578
.866
.870

<9

38.48
30.06
32.40
41.40
34.56
30.41
38.34
30.62
29.59
29.54
31.75
41.18
31.61
46.10
36.62

(9

26.11
40.71
31.89
36.47
38.32

58.3
49.2
53.0
43.1
33.1

Total................... - ...............

152750°—33------ 5

(9

.733
.616
.600
.784
.640.
.554
.710
.567
.548
.547
.588
.742
.645
.935
.691

(9

26.11
47.05
38.68
37.58
50.75

56.0
50.7
53.0
49.4
45.0

Car washers and polishers:
Altoona, Pa.............................
Atlanta, Ga.............................
Austin, Tex...................... .
Baltimore, M d ........................
Birmingham, Ala....................
Boston, Mass...........................
Burlington, V t........................
Charleston, S. C.....................
Charlotte, N. C ......................
Chicago, 111..............................
Cleveland, Ohio......................
Danville, 111.............................
Des Moines, Iowa...................
Detroit, M ich..........................
Hamilton, Ohio.......................
Hartford, Conn.......................
Holyoke, Mass........................
Houston, Tex..........................
Huntington, W. Va................
Indianapolis, Ind....................
Jacksonville, Fla.....................
Joplin, M o ...............................
Kansas City, Kans.................
Lincoln, Nebr.........................
Little Rock, Ark.....................
Louisville, K y .........................
Manchester, N. H ...................
Memphis, Tenn......................
1 Data included in total.

(9

.458
.941
.766
.705
1.001

$38.94
31.80
30.00
32.70
39.58
32.37

(9

34.09
44.56
30.63
37.30
28.80

(9

62

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

A.—Average number of days on which employees worked,, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city—Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ age Aver­
Per
age
age
age
Num­ Num­ days on full­
age
cent
full­
hours
ber of ber of which . time actually of full earn­ time actual
emem­
ga­
ings earn­ earn­
timeings
rages ployees ployees hours worked worked per
ings
in 1
worked per
in i
per
week
in 1
week in week hour week week
week

Car washers and polishers—Con.
Meridian, Miss.......... ..........
Milwaukee, Wis---------------Minneapolis, Minn-----------New Orleans, La.............. .
New York, N. Y .._ .............
Oklahoma City, Okla______
Philadelphia, Pa---------------Portland, Me........................
Providence, R. I .................. .
Richmond, Va—
............ .......
Rochester, N. Y ............... .
St. Louis, M o........................
Superior, Wis_.................. .
Trenton, N. J........................
Washington, D. C.............
Total...............................

7
8
8
8
12
7
11
13
11
13
11
6
3
17
23

Total.................................
Foremen, working:
Altoona, Pa...... ...................
Atlanta, Ga........................
Austin, Tex..........................
Baltimore, M d .....................
Birmingham, Ala............—
Boston, Mass.......................
Burlington, V t.....................
Charleston, S. C..... .............
Charlotte, N. C ...................
Chicago, 111______________
Cleveland, Ohio...................
Danville, 111.........................
Des Moines, Iowa................
Detroit, M ich......................
Hamilton, Ohio....................
Hartford, Conn....................
Holyoke, Mass.....................
Houston, Tex............. .........

*Data included in total.




58.3
56.9
55.9
49.9
50.2
55.6
47.9
54.2
53.0
52.2
50.2
52.1
56.0
57.6
57.9

58.3
47.8
56.5
49.9
57.9
53.6
48.5
55.3
50.8
51.5
44.3
52.1
56.0
54.6
53.5

447

5.9

54.4

52.7

3
4
2
25
3
5
12

230

Chasers:
Atlanta, Ga...........................
Baltimore, M d ......................
Birmingham, Ala._...............
Boston, Mass.—............... .
Charlotte, N. C ................... .
Chicago, 111— ...................
Cleveland, Ohio................. .
Des Moines, Iowa-------------Detroit, M ich.......................
Hartford, Conn................... .
Huntington, W. Va----------Indianapolis, Ind...............
Jacksonville, Fla____ _____ _
Joplin, M o....... .............. —
Lincoln, Nebr....................
Little Rock, Ark........... .......
Memphis, T e n n „............... .
Milwaukee, Wis................
Minneapolis, Minn________
New Orleans, La.................
New York, N. Y .............. .
Oklahoma City, Okla--------Portland, Me....................... .
Providence, R. I .............
Richmond, Va.....................
Rochester, N. Y ...............
St. Louis, M o.......................
Washington, D. C..........

6.0
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.1
5.7
5.8
5.7
6.0
6.0
5.9
6.0

52.3
51.8
57.0
50.0
56.0
52.0
53.3
0
55.5
52.0
0
0
54.0
0
0
0
52.5
71.8
54.4
0
0
0
0
52.0
54.0

6

6.0
6.0
6.0
5.8
6.0
6.0
6.0
0
6.5
6.0
0
0
6.0
0
0
0
6.0
6.6
6.0
0
0
0
0
6.0
6.0
0)
0)
6.2

105
4
3
6
2
7
5
6
9
5
16

0

2
3

0
0

3

0
0
0

2
5
8

0)
0
0
0
0
0
61

0
0

2
2

6
3
5
4
8
4

100.0 $0,161
84.0
.497
101.1
.456
100.0
.283
115.3
.552
96.4
.332
101.3
.455
102.0
.469
95.8
.502
98.7
.318
88.2
.701
.332
100.0
100.0
.352
.397
94.8
92.4
.375

$9.31
28.28
25.49
14.12
27.71
18.46
21.79
25.42
26.61
16.60
35.19
17.30
19.71
22.87
21.71

$9.39
23.76
25.74
14.12
31.94
17.77
22.03
25.95
25.51
16.38
31.03
17.30
19.71
21.68
20.06

96.9

.390

21.22

20.54

0
54.5

52.3
53.0
57.0
52.0
56.0
53.9
53.6
0
60.3
52.0
0
0
54.0
0
0
0
52.5
70.9
54.3
0
0
0
0
52.0
54.0
0)
0
54.8

100.0
102.3
100.0
104.0
100.0
103.7
100.6
0
108.6
100.0
0
0
100.0
0
0
0
100.0
98.7
99.8
0
0
0
0
100.0
100.0
0
0
100.6

.303
.390
.300
.424
.250
.485
.455
0
.313
.465
0)
0
.263
0
0
0
.267
.342
.319
0
0
0
0
.439
.560
0
0
.280

15.85
20.20
17.10
21.20
14.00
25.22
24.25
0)
17.37
24.18
0
0
14.20
0
0
0
14.02
24.56
17.35
0
0
0
0
22.83
30.24
0
0
15.26

15.85
20.65
17.10
22.06
14.00
26.14
24.38
0
18.83
24.18
0
0
14.20
0
0
0
14.02
24.27
17.31
0
0
0
0
22.83
30.24
0
0
15.38

6.0

54.8

55.6

101.5

.373

20.44

20.72

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.1
0
0
6.3
6.0
6.0
6.3
6.0
6.0

53.3
49.0
54.0
49.0
57.0
51.3
53.5
54.3
56.9
51.0
0)
0
55.8
53.3
55.8
51.0
49.5
52,9

53.3
49.0
54.0
49.0
58.0
51.7
54.0
54.3
57.7
53.5
0
0
56.0
54.0
57.2
56.4
49.5
52,9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.8
100.8
100.9
100.0
101.4
104.9
0)
0
100.4
101.3
102.5
110.6
100.0
100.0

.825
.867
.790
.816
.759
.681
.872
.677
.653
.905
0)
0
.685
.916
.836
.901
.919
.802

43.97
42.48
42.66
39.98
43.26
34.94
46.65
36.76
37.16
46.16
0
0
38.22
48.82
46.65
45.95
45.49
42.43

43.97
42.48
42.66
39.98
44.04
35.22
47.08
36.76
37.66
48.47
0
0
38.36
49.49
47.84
50.83
45.49
42.43

63

GENERAL TABLES

A.— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city—Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

Foremen, working—Continued.
Hiint.ingt.on, W. Va
Indianapolis, Tnd
Janksrynvillfi, "Fla
_
Joplin, Mo .
TTftnsac City, TTans

Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver- Aver­
Per
Aver­ age Aver­
age
age
days on
full­
cent
age
Num­ Num­ which
hours of full earn­ time actual
ber of ber of
em­
time actually time
earn­ earn­
em­ ployees
ings
ga­
ings
ings
rages ployees worked hours worked worked per
in 1
in i
per
per
week
week in week hour week week
in 1
week

6
6
5
4
3
3
4
3
2
2
4
3
7
9
Little Rock, Ark.....................
5
3
Louisville, K y_______ ____ _
5
5
Manchester, N. H __________
Memphis, Tenn ...........
2
2
2
2
Meridian, Miss____ ________
4
4
Milwaukee, Wis __________
6
10
Minneapolis, M in n ________
4
2
New Orleans, La_____ ______
5
10
New York, N. Y ___________
Oklahoma Hit.y, Okla
4
6
5
3
Philadelphia, Pa___ _______
1
Portland, M e.................. ........
(0
1
Providence, R. I ____________
0
Richmond, Va
5
8
Rochester, N. Y ____________
5
10
St. Louis, M o______________
5
5
Superior, Wis__ ___________
3
3
Trenton, N. J_ ___________
6
Washington, D. C__________
9
172
228
Total...................... ..............
Greasers:
2
2
Altoona, Pa________________
3
7
Atlanta, Ga______________ _
3
4
Austin, Tex _______________
g
5
Baltimore, M d _____________
3
7
Birmingham, Ala____ ______
8
18
Boston, Mass ____________
3
3
Burlington, Vt ___________
5
5
Charleston, 8, C____________
5
6
Charlotte, N. C____________
5
8
Chicago, HI________________
5
6
Cleveland, Ohio____________
5
5
Des Moines, Iowa__________
2
4
Detroit, M ich______________
2
2
Hamilton, Ohio ___________
5
6
Hartford, Conn ___________
1
Holyoke, Mass___________ 0
6
8
Houston, T e x _____________
Huntington, W. Va_________
3
4
Indianapolis, Tnd___________
2
2
4
4
Jacksonville, Fla___________
Joplin, M o_______________ 3
5
Kansas City, Kans_________
3
4
Little Rock, Ark..... ...............
6
10
2
3
Louisville, K y ____ ________
2
2
Manchester, N. H __________
5
5
Memphis, Tenn____________
3
3
Meridian, M is s ____________
2
2
Milwaukee, Wis __________
Minneapolis, Minn_________
6
12
3
4
New Orleans, La___________
3
4
New York, N. Y _____ ______
4
5
Oklahoma City, Okla.............
3
4
Philadelphia, Pa.....................
Portland, M e.......... ...............
4
4
3
3
Providence, R. I .....................
2
2
Richmond, Va_____________
3
Rochester, N. Y .....................
6
2
4
St. Louis, M o..........................
1
Superior, Wis______________
0)
4
4
Trenton, N. J__................ ......
3
3
Washington, D. C ..................
Total.....................................
144
200

i Bata included in total.




6.2
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.4
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.2
6.0
0)
0
6.0
6.0
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.1
6.0

56.1
50.8
55.0
55.5
54.0
54.0
54.0
57.1
54.0
54.0
57.0
56.6
55.4
51.0
50.4
55.4
52.1
0)
0
53.1
49.7
48.0
53.8
53.7
54.9
53.2

56.6
50.8
55.0
60.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
57.1
54.0
54.0
57.0
55.5
55.8
51.0
50.1
55.4
52.1
0
0
53.1
7
50.9
45.8
53.8
53.7
55.1
53.6

100.9 $0,697 $39.10
100.0
.826 41.96
100.0
.636 34.98
108.1
.658 36.52
.694 37.48
100.0
100.0
.670 36.18
100.0
.743 40.12
100.0
.699 39.91
100.0
.761 41.09
100.0
.855 46.17
100.0
.592 33.74
98.1
.783 44.32
100.7
.730 40.44
100.0
.650 33.15
S9.4
.953 48.03
100.0
.750 41.55
100.0
.896 46.68
0
0
0
0
0
0)
100.0
9
102.4
.913 45.38
95.4
.913 43.82
100.0
.790 42.50
100.0
.854 45.86
100.4
.857 47.05
100.8
.798 42.45

6.0
6.0
6.0
5.6
6.0
4.4
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.4
6.0
4.0
5.8
0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.4
6.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.7
6.5
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.3
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
0
5.5
6.0
5.8

54.0
49.1
54.0
52.5
56.6
50.8
56.0
53.4
55.6
51.6
52.8
62.2
51.5
55.5
53.0
0
50.3
55.5
54.0
55.5
63.9
54.0
54.0
58.0
51.0
53.4
60.0
58.5
55.1
48.5
48.8
55.6
49.1
54.0
51.3
52.0
49.7
45.9
0
52.5
54.0
53.3

54.0
49.1
53.8
50.6
56.6
38.7
57.7
53.4
55.6
50.5
52.4
64.5
38.4
30.5
50.1
0
51.4
58.4
48.5
55.5
64.6
54.0
49.1
56.2
53.5
51.7
45.0
39.5
55.9
47.4
48.6
54.7
49.1
55.8
53.8
52.0
49.6
48.8
0
47.3
51.5
50.9

100.0
100.0
99.6
96.4
100.0
76.2
103.0
100.0
100.0
97.9
99.2
103.7
74.6
55.0
94.5
0
102.2
105.2
89.8
100.0
101.1
100.0
90.9
96.9
104.9
96.8
75.0
67.5
101.5
97.7
99.6
98.4
100.0
103.3
104.9
100.0
99.8
106.3
0
90.1
95.4
95.5

.404 21.82
.372 18.27
.355 19.17
.436 22.89
.303 17.15
.658 33.43
.341 19.10
.275 14.69
.245 13.62
.656 33.85
.730 38.54
.426 26.50
.825 42.49
.439 24.36
.562 29.79
0
0
.371 18.66
.365 20.26
.560 30.24
.323 17.93
.302 19.30
.257 13.88
.327 17.66
.391 22.68
.335 17.09
.298 15.91
.163
9.78
.278 16.26
.431 23.75
.312 15.13
.779 38.02
.382 21.24
.542 26.61
.376 20.30
.556 28.52
.393 20.44
.746 37.08
.453 20.79
0
0
.364 19.11
.384 20.74
.440 23.45

$39.45
41.96
34.98
89.48
37.48
36.18
40.12
39.91
41.09
46.17
33.74
43.47
40.69
33.15
47.70
41.55
46.68
(0
0
44.50
46.48
41.80
42.50
45.86
47.25
42.81
21.82
18.27
19.06
22.05
17.15
25.47
19.64
14.69
13.62
33.11
38.24
27.45
31.65
13.38
28.17
0)
19.03
21.32
27.18
17.93
19.51
13.88
16.03
21.96
17.93
15.37
7.33
11.00
24.08
14.78
37.86
20.91
26.61
21.01
29.93
20.44
37.03
22.07
0
17.20
19.79
22.41

.838

44.50

64

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

A.— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation and city—Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­
Per
Aver­ age
days on age
age
cent
Num­ Num­ which
age
full­
full­
hours of full earn­ time
ber of ber of em­
time
em­ ployees hours actually time
ga­
worked worked ings earn­
ings
per
rages ployees worked per
in 1
per
week
in 1
week in week hour week
week

Helpers, mechanics’ :
Altoona, Pa__________
Atlanta, Ga_____ ____
Austin, Tex____ _____
Baltimore, M d_______
Birmingham, Ala____
Boston, Mass________
Burlington, V t......... . .
Charleston, S. C..........
Charlotte, N. C ...........
Chicago, 111__________
Cleveland, Ohio.........
Danville, DL-_............
Des Moines, Iowa-----Hamilton, Ohio--------Hartford, Conn---------Holyoke, Mass---------Houston, Tex________
Huntington, W. Va___
Indianapolis, Ind_____
Jacksonville, Fla..........
Joplin, M o------ --------Kansas City, Kans----Lincoln, Nebr_______
Little Rock, Ark.........
Louisville, K y_______
Manchester, N. H -----Memphis, Tenn______
Meridian, Miss.......... .
Milwaukee, Wis_____
Minneapolis, Minn___
New Orleans, La.........
New York, N. Y .........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa..........
Portland, M e..............
Providence, R. I ..........
Richmond, Va........___
Rochester, N. Y ______
St. Louis, M o..............
Superior, Wis........... .
Trenton, N. J..............
Washington, D. C.......
Total..
Inspectors and diagnosticians:
Altoona, Pa_____________
Atlanta, Ga................... .
Baltimore, M d ......... .........
Birmingham, Ala________
Boston, Mass___________
Burlington, V t_____ ____ _
Charleston, S. C _________
Charlotte, N. C ................ .
Chicago, 111........ ............
Cleveland, Ohio...............
Des Moines, Iowa_______
Detroit, M ich.................
Hartford, Conn.................
Houston, Tex.....................
Jacksonville, Fla________
Joplin, M o........................ .
Kansas City, K a n s ..........
Little Rock, A r k ..............
Memphis, Tenn.................
Meridian, Miss..................
Milwaukee, Wis...............
Minneapolis, Minn....... .
New Orleans, La.............. .
i Data included in total.




6
9
10
8
5
4
2

(9

0)
14
4
5
3
4
8
6
4
3
2

(9

6.0
5.8
6.0
5.4
6.0
6.0
6.0

(9
(9

5.8
5.8
5.8
6.0
6.0
5.6
5.5
5.8
6.0
6.0

(9

51.0
50.6
54.0
51.0
55.8
49.1
55.5

51.0
49.2
54.0
48.3
54.2
52.9
57.2

100.0 $0,317 $16.17
97.2
.430 21.76
100.0
.284 15.34
94.7
.334 17.03
97.1
.208 11.61
107.7
.401 19.69
103.1
.289 16.04

47.8
51.6
53.8
54.0
51.4
48.3
46.8
48.8
56.3
49.0

92.8
93.0
96.4
100.0
92.6
93.2
94.5
96.1
102.4
88.3

.548
.453
.365
.321
.283
.322
.337
.338
.276
.341

28.22
25.14
20.37
17.33
15.71
16.68
16.68
17.17
15.18
18.93

26.17
23.39
19.60
17.33
14.52
15.57
15.76
16.50
15.57
16.70

58.6
53.0
54.0
52.1
52.1
54.6
46.9
59.6
36.9
53.3
51.5
47.1
53.3
47.8
52.1
48.3
50.0
52.6
44.4
63.0
.50.1
48.3

94.1
98.1
100.0
96.5
93.7
102.4
86.9
99.8
69.6
100.8
101.2
96.7
90.0
89.7
96.8
97.0
100.0
101.2
100.2
98.6
99.2
89.1

.333 20.75
.321 17.33
.352 19.01
.269 14.53
.289 16.07
.316 16.84
.301 16.25
.168 10.03
.399 21.15
.402 21.27
.266 13.54
.479 23.33
.289 17.11
.385 20.52
.340 18.29
.417 20.77
.340 17.00
.443 23.04
.468 20.73
.311 19.87
.353 17.83
.358 19.40

19.52
17.02
19.01
14.01
15.06
17.23
14.10
9.99
14.71
21.44
13.71
22.55
15.40
18.38
17.69
20.14
17.00
23.29
20.79
19.58
17.71
17.28

(9

(9
(9

(9

(9

51.5
55.5
55.8
54.0
55.5
51.8
49.5
50.8
55.0
55.5

(9
(9

(9

(9
(9

(9

(9
<
9

(9

$16.17
21.17
15.34
16.13
11.27
21.20
16.50

(9
(9

(9

7
3
3
9
9
3
6
16
9
5
4
10
5
5
29

5.8
5.9
6.0
5.9
5.7
6.0
5.5
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.7
6.1
5.7
6.0
6.0
5.7
6.2
5.8
5.7

273

5.8

53.2

50.8

95.5

.347

18.46

17.63

5
5
10

6.0

53.1
53.0
54.6

53.1
53.0
55.0

100.0
100.0
100.7

.804
.840
.738

42.69
44.52
40.29

42.69
44.52
40.62

52.8

102.9

.701

35.96

.792

42.77

42.77

.864

46.66

(9

©
47.12

.783
.775
.744
.786
.766

42.28
39.91
39.88
40.24
42.51

4
8
2
7
17
4

6

145

0)19
(9
2
(9

12

0) 4

e.2

6.0

62.3
54.0
54.0
54.0
55.6
53.3
54.0
59.7
53.0
52.9
50.9
48.7
59.2
53.3
53.8
49.8
50.0
52.0
44.3
63.9
50.5
54.2

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in i
week

C
9
5.9
(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

6.0
6.1

51.3

54.0
54.0

54.0
54.5

(9

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

(9

(9

2
15
8
2

87

a
6.0

8

3

6.0

a
V)
54.0

(9
(9

6
5

54.0
51.5
53.6
51.2
55.5
54.0
53.0

54.0
59.3
54.6
51.2
55.5

100.0
(1 „
>
100.9

(9

100.0
115.1
101.9
100.0
100.0

8

(9

(9

(9
(9

(9

(9

8

(9
(9

37.03

(9

42.28
45.94
40.58
40.24
42.51

8

100.0
100.0

.681- 36.77
.744 39.43

36.77
39.43

52.1
55.0

101.6
101.1

.706
.776

36.75
42.70

(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

51.3
54.4

(9

53.0

(9

6.0
6.0

(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

(9

36.22
42.21

(9

0)

(9

65

GENERAL TABLES

A.—Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation and city—Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

AverAver­
age
Aver- Aver­
Aver­ age Aver­
Per
days on
age
age
full­
Num­ Num­ which
age
cent
hours of full earn­ time actual
ber of ber of em­
time actually time
earn­
emga­
ployees hours worked worked ings earn­ ings
ings
rages
per
in 1
worked per
in 1
per
week in week hour week week
week
in 1
week

Inspectors and diagnosticians—
Continued.
New York, N. Y.
Oklahoma City, Okla..
Philadelphia, Pa..........
Portland, Me___ ____
Providence, R. I..........
Richmond, Va.............
Rochester, N. Y ...........
St. Louis, M o..............
Superior, Wis...............
Trenton, N. J..............
Washington, D. C.......
Total..

20
4
10
15
12
(0
6
10

(9

6
29

Total..

6.2
6.0

54.1
54.2

(9

(9

52.2
51.0
53.1
53.8
49.4

105.0 $0,830 $41.25
42.02
100.0
34.39
107.9
.653 35.13
100.0
.701 36.10
95.9

50.8

106.6
98.6

.720
.806

(9

(9

(9

35.93
41.51

38.33
40.99

(9

(9

54.1
53.4

100.0
98.5

.792
.849

4P85
46.02

42.85
45.34

(9

<
9

233

6.0

52.6

53.2

101.1

.768

40.40

40.84

6.0
6.0
6.0
5.7
5.2
5.9

53.0
51.2
54.0
53.8
57.6
50.4

53.0
50.3
54.0
51.1
54.4
50.5

100.0
98.2

.506
.605
.505
.650
.432
.747

26.82
30.98
27.27
34.97
24.88
37.65

26.82
30.47
27.27
33.22
23.52
37.74

86.6

.421
.623
.849
.663

22.73
35.51
42.53
34.14

22.75
32.39
40.92
29.53

57.7
45.0

91.1
115.4
86.9

.813
.820
.705

43.09
41.00
36.52

57.5
43.9
54.0
52.3
54.5
40.3

103.6
84.9
100.0
99.6
100.9
72.0

.523
.682
.724
.587
.394
.490

60.6

112.2

.665

(9

19
16

(9

2
2
11

(9
(9

(9
a
(9
(9

(9

6.0
5.5
5.5
5.6

(9

54.0
57.0
50.1
51.5

8
5.0

<9
(9

8
6.0

(9
(9

6.0
5.4

5.7
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.5

(9

5.7

8
5.8

53.0
50.0
51.8
55.5
51.7
54.0
52.5
54.0
56.0

(9
54.0
(9
<
9

(9

54.0
52.0
48.2
44.6

8
48.3
(9
(9

<
9
(9
(9

52.1
46.6
47.1
52.7
51.9
51.5
43.4
52.0
43.8
38.0
42.4
45.5

6.0
5.8
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.8
6.0
5.3
5.1
4.5
5.2

115

217

55.5
52.0
49.4
53.5
51.9
53.3
53.6
52.0
50.8
244.8
50.3
52.2

5.6

2 52.1

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

52.5
50.3
54.0
54.2
57.5
56.8
53.3
54.0

52.5
50.3
54.0
54.8
57.5
57.0
57.3
54.0

100.0

95.0
94.4
100.2

(9

100.0

91.2
96.2

(9
(9

(9
<
9

(9

8
93.9

(9

(9
(9

(9
(9

(9
(9
(9

(9

8

<
9
(9

29.03
35.26
39.10
30.82
21.28
27.44

(9

35.91

(9

<
9

8

39.25
47.28
31.75

(9
(9

30.07
29.94
39.10
30.68
21.46
19.73

(9

40.30

<
9
(9

.641 35.58
.590 30.68
.861 42.53
.578 30.92
.608 31.56
.672 35.82
.975 52.26
.593 30.84
.643 32.66
1.028 247.04
.600 30.18
.763 39.83

33.38
27.50
40.51
30.46
31.56
34.58
42.35
30.84
28.19
39.08
25.41
34.75

235.53

33.05

21.21
15.69
16.09
18.81
14.20
26.98
20.00
12.85

21.21
15.69
16.09
19.03
14.20
27.12
21.55
12.85

48.4

1 Data included in total.
2Not including 1 employee whose full-time hours were not reported.




(9

$43.31
42.02
37.09
35.13
34.68

2
9
10
16

105

Painters:
Altoona, Pa.................
Atlanta, Ga..................
Austin, Tex..................
Baltimore, M d.............
Birmingham,Ala.........
Boston, Mass...............
Burlington, V t.............
Charleston, S. C..........
Charlotte, N. C...........
Chicago, HI..................
Cleveland, Ohio...........
Danville, 111.................
Des Moines, Iowa.......
Detroit, M ich________
Hamilton, Ohio...........
Hartford, Conn............
Holyoke, Mass............
Houston, Tex________
Huntington, W. V a ...
Indianapolis, Ind.........
Jacksonville, Fla..........
Joplin, M o...................
Little Rock, Ark_____
Louisville, K y .............
Manchester, N. H .......
Memphis, Tenn...........
Meridian, Miss............
Milwaukee, Wis..........
Minneapolis, Minn___
New Orleans, La.........
New York, N. Y .........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa..........
Portland, Me...............
Providence, R. I ..........
Richmond, Va.............
Rochester, N. Y ...........
St. Louis, M o..............
Trenton, N. J..............
Washington, D. C.......

Porters and janitors:
Altoona, Pa........... .
Atlanta, Ga........... .
Austin, Tex........... .
Baltimore, M d ____
Birmingham, Ala...
Boston, Mass_____
Burlington, V t____
Charleston, S. C— .

6.0
6.1

49.7
51.0
49.2
53.8
51.5
0)
49.9
51.5

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.7

89.6
95.3
98.5
100.0
96.6
81.0
100.0
86.2

2 92.0
84.3
87.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

101.1
100.0
100.4
107.5
100.0

.404
.312
.298
.347
.247
.475
.376

66

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

A.— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation and city— Continued

T a b le

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
Aver­ age Aver­
age
age
age
days on
full­
cent
age
Num­ Num­ which
full­
hours of full earn­ time actual
ber of ber of em­
earn­
time actually time
ings earn­ ings
em­ ployees
ga­
ings
rages ployees worked hours worked worked per
in 1
in 1
per
per
week in week hour week week
week
in 1
week

Porters and janitors—Continued.
4
5
6.0
Charlotte, N. C ____________
11
5
6.2
Chicago, 111....................... ......
nievAlfwd, Ohio
3
12
6.0
1
Danville, 111............... .............
0
0
3
2
__________ Des Moines, Iowa 6.0
5
11
Detroit, M i c h _____________
6.1
HHTniltmi, Ohio
4
4
5.8
6
10
6.2
Hartford, Conn........................
4
4
Holvoke, Mass_____________
5.3
4
10
6.0
Houston, Tex
__
HimtiTigton, W. V a____ _ .
3
6
5.8
Tndianapnlis, Tnrl
6
16
6.0
5
6
6.0
Jacksonville, Fla___________
3
5
Joplin, M o_________________
6.0
Kansas City, Trans _
3
6
7.0
2
2
Lincoln, Nebr
6.0
Tiittlft R opIt, Ark
7
15
5.9
3
7
Louisville, K y
6.6
1
Manchester, N. T
T
o
0
Memphis, Tenn
.._
6
12
5.3
3
3
Meridian, Miss .... ....
6.0
3
3
6.0
Milwaukee, W is ___________
4
6
Minneapolis, Minn_________
6.5
5
4
6.0
New Orleans, La_________ _
7
21
6.0
New York, N. Y ___________
6
8
Oklahoma City, Okla_______
6.0
9
4
6.1
Philadelphia, Pa
....... ........
7
6
Portland, M e_______________
5.7
11
5
6.0
Providence, R. I ___________
3
5
Richmond, Va . __________
6.0
9
5
5.7
Rochester, N. Y ____________
4
9
6.2
St. Louis, M o____________ .
4
4
Trenton, N. J - ___________
6.3
8
19
6.2
Washington, D. C _________

99.3 $0,275
.481
100.0
98.4
.442
0
0
.475
100.0
.453
108.7
96.0
.376
101.1
.464
100.0
.395
101.2
.290
97.3
.300
99.2
.362
100.0
.269
100.0
.240
100.0
.325
100.0
.383
97.8
.280
102.9
.279
0
0
86.9
.235
94.7
. 168
97.3
.468
100.0
.409
100.0
.322
100.5
.499
100.9
.326
100.0
.412
92.9
.413
100.4
.418
100.0
.306
95.9
.509
100.0
.380
104.3
.361
98.2
.354

$15.18 $15.06
27.90
27.90
24.53
24.15
0
0
25.65
25.65
26.41
28.75
21.36
20.50
25.10
25.40
21.13
21.13
15.05
15.20
16.65
16.18
19.15
19.03
14.66
14.66
13.82
13.82
22.00
22.00
20.68
20.68
15.12
14.81
17.10
17.61
0
0
12.69
11.03
9.74
9.25
27.24
26.52
23.80
23.80
16.68
16.68
27.40
27.56
17.60
17.78
23.48
23.48
22.67
21.07
21.86
21.93
15.97
15.97
26.11
25.04
21.81
21.81
21.08
21.98
19.65
19.30

55.2
58.0
55.5
0
54.0
58.3
56.8
54.1
53.5
51.9
55.5
52.9
54.5
57.6
67.7
54.0
54.0
61.3
0
54.0
58.0
58.2
58.2
51.8
54.9
54.0
57.0
54.9
52.3
52.2
51.3
57.4
58.4
55.5

54.8
58.0
54.6
0
54.0
63.4
54.5
54.7
53.5
52.5
54.0
52.5
54.5
57.6
67.7
54.0
52.8
63.1
0
46.9
54.9
56.6
58.2
51.8
55.2
54.5
57.0
51.0
52.5
52.2
49.2
57.4
60.9
54.5

6.0

55.1

54.9

99.6

.371

20.44

20.36

Service men:
1
Atlanta, Ga________________
0
0
3
_____________ Austin, Tex_5
6.0
3
11
6.0
Baltimore, M d____________
2
3
Birmingham, Ala___________
6.0
1
Boston, Mass______________
0)
0
1
Charlotte, N. C ____________
0
0
2
9
5.9
Chicago, 111________________
3
9
5.6
Cleveland, Ohio____________
3
7
6.1
Des Moines, Iowa__________
4
6
6.0
Detroit, M ich______________
1
Hamilton, Ohio__....... - ____
0
0
3
___________ Indianapolis,7Ind 6.0
2
TTq/nsas City, Kans_________
2
6.5
2
6.0
Lincoln, Nebr______________
2
4
a
6.3
Louisville, K y______________
2
2
6.0
Memphis, Tenn____________
2
5
6.6
Milwaukee, Wis____________
6.2
3
Minneapolis, Minn_________
5
1
New Orleans, La___________
0
o
11
3
6.0
New York, N. Y ...........r____
12
6.0
5
Richmond, Va_____________
1
Rochester, N. Y ____________
0)
0
1
St. Louis, M o______________
0
0
1
Superior, Wis______________
0
0
1
Trenton, N. J ______________
0
0
4
10
6.3
Washington, D. C__________

0
54.0
51.6
57.0
0
0
56.7
50.7
72.1
57.0
0)
51.4
69.0
72.5
55.8
54.0
64.8
58.0
0
49.6
54.4
0
0
0
0
53.6

0
54.5
51.6
57.0
0
0
53.2
45.4
67.6
56.3
0
51.4
64.0
72.5
56.3
46.1
61.6
57.6
0
49.5
54.7
0
0
0
0
54.6

0
100.9
100.0
100.0
0
0
93.8
89.5
93.8
98.8
0
100.0
92.8
100.0
100.9
85.4
95.1
99.3
0
99.8
100.6
0
0
0
0
101.9

0
.627
.783
.623
0
0
.700
.762
.430
.761
0
.683
.418
.382
.556
.519
.658
.742
0
.877
.685
(i)
0
0
0
.669

0
33.86
40.40
35.51
0
0
39.69
38.63
31.00
43.38
0
35.11
28.84
27.70
31.02
28.03
42.64
43.04
0
43.50
37.26
0
0
0
0
35.86

0
34.14
40.40
35.51
0
0
37.20
34.57
29.03
42.86
0
35.11
26.75
27.70
31.29
23.94
40.53
42.78
0
43.40
37.46
0
0
0
0
36.47

55.4

54.3

98.0

.660 56.56

35.86

Total........................... - ........

Total....................................

1Data included in total.




180

59

350

130

6.1

67

GENERAL TABLES

A ,— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city— Continued

T able

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
Aver­ age Aver­
age
age
days on
age
full­
age
cent
Num­ Num­ which
hours of full earn­ time actual
full­
ber of ber of
earn
em­
time actually time
ings earn­
em­ ployees
ga­
ing
ings
rages ployees worked hours worked worked per
in 1 in week hour
in 1
per
per
week
week
in 1
week
week
week

Stock clerks:
2
Altoona, Pa___
2
________________ Atlanta,
Austin, Tex________________
2
6
Baltimore, M d _____________
Birmingham, A1a_
3
Boston, Mass______ ____ _ .
7
Burlington, V t_______ _
3
3
Charleston, S. 0 ___ ________
2
Charlotte, N. C____________
4
Chicago, t i l . .
- ClevftlftTid, Ohio
2
1
Des Moines, Iowa__________
Detroit, M ich____________ 4
7
Hartford, Conti
- 1
4
Houston, T ex.. .
...............
1
Huntington, W, Va__ .
Tnriiflnqpolis, Tnd
2
JflY
>lrsnnvilla, Fin.
_ . ...
4
Joplin, Mo ____ .
4
Kansas City, ■ T s . _.
R an
2
1
Lincoln, Nebr______________
5
Little R ockjA rk___________
1
Louisville, K y _____________
2
Manchester, N. H __________
Memphis, Tenn____________
3
Meridian, Miss_____________
2
4
Milwaukee, Wis____________
2
Minneapolis, Minn_________
3
New Orleans, La___________
7
New York, N. Y ___________
5
Oklahoma City, Okla____ _
4
Philadelphia, Pa__________
6
Portland, M e______________
6
Providence, R. I ___________
4
Richmond, Va_____________
3
Rochester, N. Y ___________
3
St. Louis, M o______________
2
Superior, Wis______________
5
Trenton, N. J__________ ___
Washington, D. C__________
s

2
Ga 2
2
15
3
37
3
3
3
7
5
0
6
11
0
5
0
2
5
5
2
0
5
0
2
3
2
4
6
6
31
7
21
11
10
7
10
c
2
5
28

6.0
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
0
6.2
6.0
0
6.0
0
6.5
6.0
6.6
6.5
0
6.0
0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.2
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.8
6.0
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.0
6.0
5.9

52.5
54.5
54.0
51.0
58.0
50.4
53.0
40.0
56.0
51.4
55.6
0
54.3
51.8
0
50.9
0
55.7
54.3
63.1
59.0
0
54.0
0
51.0
54.0
60.0
55.1
55.2
49.3
49.6
53.1
50.6
54.5
52.5
55.6
49.7
50.2
53.5
52.8
53.8

52.5
60.5
54.0
52.0
58.0
50.2
52.3
40.0
56.0
51.1
54.5
0
60.2
53.0
0
50.9
0
56.3
54.3
65.4
61.0
0
54.0
0
51.0
54.0
55.4
53.9
55.2
49.3
49.6
53.1
51.1
53.1
57.1
55.6
50.6
51.2
53.5
52.8
52.9

100.0 $0.337 $17.69 $17.69
111.0
.413 22.51
25.00
100.0
.447 24.14
24.14
102.0
.377 19.23
19.58
100.0
.484 28.07
28.07
.493 24.85
99.6
24.72
.366 19.40
98.7
19.17
.292 11.68
100.0
11.68
.522 29.23
100.0
29.23
99.4
.544 27.96
27.81
.574 31.91
98.0
31.30
0
(0
0
0
.550 29.87
110.9
33.09
.478 24.76
102.3
25.29
0
0
0
0
.463 23.57
100.0
23.57
0
0
0
0
.480 26.74
101.1
27.00
.442 24.00
100.0
24.00
.265 16.72
103.6
17.32
.369 21.77
103.4
22.50
0
0
0
(0
.375 20.25
100.0
20.25
0
0
0
0
100.0
.353 18.00
18.00
100.0
.346 18.68
18.68
92.3
.280 16.80
15.53
97.8
.503 27.72
27.09
100.0
.449 24.78
24.78
100.0
.393 19.37
19.37
.514 25.49
100.0
25.49
100.0
.472 25.06
25.06
101.0
.549 27. 78
28.04
97.4
.375 20.44
19.94
108.8
.429 22.52
24.48
100.0
.434 24.13
24.13
101.8
.593 29.47
29.98
102.0
.416 20.88
21.27
100.0
.636 34.03
34.03
.384 20.28
100.0
20.28
98.3
.408 21.95
21.56

Total____________________

142

292

6.0

52.3

52.6

100.6

.458

23.95

24.13

Stock keepers:
Altoona, Pa________________
Atlanta, Ga________________
Austin, Tex________________
Baltimore, M d_____________
Birmingham, Ala__________
_
Boston, Mass_ ___________
Burlington, V t_____________
Charleston, S. C ____________
Charlotte, N. C ____________
Chicago, 111________________
Cleveland, Ohio____________
Danville, 111____ __________
Des Moines, Iowa________ _
Detroit, Mich______________
Hamilton, Ohio____________
Hartford, Conn............. .
..
Holyoke, Mass_______ ______
Houston, Tex___ ___ _______
Huntington, W. Va_________
Indianapolis, Ind___________
Jacksonville, Fla______ _____
Joplin, M o.............- ........... .

7
5
6
6
4
6
6
6
4
3
1
1
4
2
3
7
4
6
3
3
6
3

7
5
6
7
4
6
6
6
4
a

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.2
0
0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.7
6.3
6.0
6.3

54.0
52.2
54.0
53.1
57.8
50.9
53.5
53.5
57.0
54.5
0
0
54.0
54.0
54.0
52.3
49.5
51.7
54.0
54.6
54.3
61.3

54.0
52.2
54.0
53.1
57.8
51.0
54.0
53.5
57.0
55.5
0
0)
54.0
54.3
54.0
54.0
51.2
51.7
42.0
54.3
54.3
60.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.9
100.0
100.0
101.8
0
0)
100.0
100.6
100.0
103.3
103.4
100.0
77.8
99.5
100.0
98.2

.625
.592
.626
.811
.720
.834
.664
.614
.681
.630
0)
0
.702
.500
.538
.750
.571
.679
.467
.539
.686
.506

33.75
30.90
33.80
43.06
41.62
42.45
35.52
32.85
38.82
34.34
0
0
37.91
31.86
29.05
39.23
28.26
35.10
25.22
29.43
37.25
31.02

33.75
30.90
33.80
43.06
41.62
42.50
35.83
32.85
38.82
34.97
0)
0
37.91
32.00
29.05
40.52
29.22
35.10
19.61
29.25
37.25
30.42

1Data included in total.




0)
(,)4
2
3
7
4
6
3
4
6
3

68

WAGES AND HOURS— MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

A.— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1931, by occupation and city— Continued

T able

Occupation and city

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
Per
Aver­
age
age
cent
Num­ Num­ lays on full­
age
hours
which
ber of ber of em­
ictually of full earn­
time i
ings
em­ ployees hours worked time
ga­
worked
rages |
ployees worked per
in 1 in week per
hour
week
week
in 1
week

Stock keepers—Continued.
Transas City, TCa^s
2
2
3
______________ Lincoln, Nebr
3
7
7
Little Rock, Ark____________
Ky_
2
2
7
7
Manchester,
H
5
5
Memphis, Tenn____________
3
Meridian, Miss_____________
3
Milwankeft, Wis
4
4
Minneapolis, Minn
4
4
5
5
New Orleans, La___________
New York, N. Y .....................
8
10
3
3
Oklahoma City, 01rlft_ ........
6
6
Philadelphia, Pa................ —
Portland, M p,.. .
8
8
6
6
Providence, R. I____________
7
7
Richmond, Va
4
4
Rochester, N. Y..
2
2
St. Louis, M o..........................
Superior, Wis______________
2
2
Trenton, N. J______________
7
7
Washington, T), O
_
8
10
Total____________________

199

208

Other employees:
3
5
Altoona, Pa__ _____________
3
4
Atlanta, Ga_- _____________
6
24
Baltimore, M d_____________
Birmingham, Ala
7
2
11
Boston, Mass_______________
5
3
Burlington, Vt_____________
2
1
Charleston, S. C____________
0)
____ ____ ___ Charlotte, N. C
4
5
8
21
Chicago, 111............... - .............
7
3
Cleveland, Ohio____________
1
Danville, 111-_______________
(9
Des Moines, Iowa__________
3
4
1
Detroit, Mich______________
(0
____________ Hamilton, Ohio
2
5
Hartford, Conn,___ __ ____
3
8
1
Holyoke, Mass_____________
(9
___ ___________ Houston, Tex
2
2
1
Huntington, W. Va. _ _____
(9
Indianapolis, Ind___________
5
14
1
Joplin, M o_________________
(0
1
Kansas City, Kans_________
(9
1
Lincoln, Nebr______________
(9
4
6
Little Rock, Ark___________
2
3
Louisville, K y „ __________
2
Manchester, N. H __________
2
Memphis, Tenn____________
3
4
1
Meridian, Miss_____________
(9
2
2
Milwaukee, Wis_. ________
1
Minneapolis, Minn.................
(0
1
New Orleans, La__ _________
6
22
New York, N. Y ___________
1
Oklahoma City, Okla_______
(0
6
8
Philadelphia, P a _ ~ ...............
8
5
Providence, R. I.....................
4
6
Richmond, Va_____________
5
Rochester, N. Y ____________
9
St. Louis, M o ....................... .
5
9
1
Superior, “
Wis_______ ____
(9
1
Trenton, N. J................. .......
(9
24
Washington, D. C__............
6
Total________ ___________ .

i Data included in total.




115

242

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full­ actual
time earn­
earn­ ings
ings
in 1
' per
week
week

96.6 |0.680 $40.12 $38.75
28.24
100.0
.523 28.24
37.96
100.0
.703 37.96
26.38
100.0
.451 26.38
100.0
26.53
.495 26.53
37.42
100.0
.693 37.42
94.7
21.40
.390 22.62
100.0
40.94
.743 40.94
100.0
35.71
.654 35. 71
100.0
28.63
.557 28.63
100.0
37.67
.775 37.67
100.0
36.97
.711 36.97
100.0
40.30
.798 40.30
100.0
32.37
.595 32.37
100.0
.704 36.26
36.26
100.0
32.34
.600 32.34
100.0
37.16
.723 37.16
100.0
.438 22.78
22.78
96.6
26.92
.499 27.89
100.0
.689 36.24
36.24
99.3
41.84
.766 42.21

6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.2

59.0
54.0
54.0
58.5
53.6
54.0
58.0
55.1
54.6
51.4
48.6
52.0
50.5
54.4
51.5
53.9
51.4
52.0
55.9
52.6
55.1

57.0
54.0
54.0
58.5
53.6
54.0
54.9
55.1
54.6
51.4
48.6
52.0
50.5
54.4
51.5
53.9
51.4
52.0
54.0
52.6
54.7

6.0

53.5

53.3

99.6

.658

35.20

35.08

6.2
6. 5
6.1
6.0
6.1
6.0
(9
6.2
6.0
5.1
(9
6.3
(9
6.2
6.1
(9
6.0
(9
6.2
(9
(9
(9
5.3
6.3
6.5
6.3
(9
6.5
(9
(9
6.0
(9
6.1
6.3
6.3
5.6
6.1
(9
(9
6.3

59.0
52.8
63.8
56.6
58.0
58.0
(9
63.6
61.1
51.9
(9
69.0
(9
60.0
53.6
(9
48.8
(9
61.6
(9
(9
(9
52.5
66.0
69.0
61.5
(9
43.9
(9
(9
55.6
(9
55.0
59.6
54.3
51.9
58.9
(9
(9
57.0

59.0
57.8
62.2
58.8
59.1
58.0
(9
63.6
58.8
46.8
(9
69.3
(9
59.0
60.3
(9
48.8
(9
60.9
(9
(9
(9
52.5
66.0
69.0
61.5
(9
46.3
(9
(9
58.2
(9
57.2
58.9
57.3
55.1
57.8
(9
(9
57.2

100.0
109.5
97.5
103.9
101.9
100.0
(9
100.0
96.2
90.2
(9
100.4
(9
98.3
112.5
(9
100.0
(9
98.9
(9
(9
(9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(9
105.5
(9
(9
104.7
(9
104.0
98.8
105.5
106.2
98.1
(9
(9
100.4

.304
.447
.339
.352
.405
.437
(9
.618
.497
.431
(9
.801
(9
.555
.555
(9
.530
(9
.366
(9
9
(9
.559
.407
.246
.498
(9
.357
(9
(9
.428
(9
.435
.332
.674
.454
.430
(9
(9
.435

17.94
23.60
21.63
19.92
23.49
25.35
(9
39.30
30.37
22.37
(9
55.27
(9
33.30
29.75
(9
25.86
(9
22.55
(9
(9
(9
29.35
26.86
16.97
30.63
(9
15.67
8
23.80
(9
23.93
19.79
36.60
23.56
25.33
(9
(9
24.80

17.94
25.79
21.08
20.73
23.94
25.35
(9
39.30
29.22
20.17
(9
55.48
(9
32.75
33.48
(9
25.86
(9
22.28
(9
(9
(9
29.35
26.86
16.97
30.63
(9
16.52
(9
(9
24.93
(9
24.87
19.52
38.67
24.99
24.88
(9
(9
24.88

6.1

58.5

58.8

100.5

.434

25.39

25.53

69

GENERAL TABLES

A .— Average number of days on which employees worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1981, by occupation and city— Continued

T able

Occupation and city

All occupations:
Altoona, P a ..._____________
Atlanta, G a._........................
Austin, T e x .................... ......
Baltimore, Md...... ................
Birmingham, Ala............. ......
Boston, Mass..........................
Burlington, V t._____ _______
Charleston, S. C ._ ...............
Charlotte, N. C .__............ .
Chicago, 111..... .............. .........
Cleveland, Ohio................... .
Danville, 1
11________________
Des Moines, Iowa— ....... ......
Detroit, M ich______________
Hamilton, Ohio____ ________
Hartford, Conn_____________
Holyoke, Mass_____________
Houston, Tex______________
Huntington, W. Va_________
Indianapolis, Ind___________
Jacksonville, Fla___________
Joplin, M o_________________
Kansas City, Kans_________
Lincoln, Nebr....... — .........
Little Rock, Ark.....................
Louisville, K y........................
Manchester, N. H .......... ........
Memphis, Tenn......................
Meridian, M iss............... ......
Milwaukee, Wis.......... ...........
Minneapolis, Minn_________
New Orleans, La____ _______
New York, N. Y ___________
Oklahoma City, Okla_______
Philadelphia, Pa___________
Portland, M e______________
Providence, R. I ___________
Richmond, Va_____________
Rochester, N. Y ____________
St. Louis, M o______________
Superior, Wis______________
Trenton, N. J_________ ____
Washington, D. C__________
Total____________________

Aver­
age
days on
Num­ Num­ which
ber of ber of
em­
ga­
em­
rages ployees ployees
worked
in 1
week

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

76
136
85
260
139
430
81
96
101
293
203
38
95
104
86
211
57
127
77
160
95
73
76
70
163
122
76
98
58
104
173
112
358
116
161
186
187
142
158
168
58
100
350

6.0
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.6
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.8
6.1
6.1
5.7
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.9
6.1
5.8
5.9
6.2
6.1
5.9
5.8
5.8
6.0
5.4
5.9
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.8
6.0
5.8
5.9
6.0
5.8
5.9

53.5
51.1
54.0
54.0
57.2
51.2
54.1
53.8
57.0
52.4
52.9
55.9
57.7
54.2
56.0
52.4
50.4
50.8
57.5
53.7
54.2
61.2
57.1
54.8
53.9
56.7
53.5
54.1
59.3
54.3
55.1
49.5
49.7
54.5
50.8
54.7
52.3
53.3
51.0
2 49.9
56.1
53.6
54.3

52.9
50.2
53.1
52.9
55.2
48.4
53.1
53.1
55.7
48.3
45.4
52.4
52.2
49.9
54.0
51.3
49.9
49.6
56.8
48.5
53.0
56.4
55.3
53.3
52.1
52.4
53.6
46.4
57.3
48.7
50.5
48.0
50.2
50.4
50.8
52.7
51.1
53.3
49.8
48.3
54.4
51.9
51.1

344

6,059

5.8

53.4

51.0

1 Data included in total.
2 Not including 1 man whose full-time hours were not reported.




Aver­
Aver­ age
age
full­
earn­ time
ings earn­
per
ings
hour
per
week

Aver­
age
actual
earn­
ings
in i
week

98.9 $0.552 $29.53
98.2
.551 28.16
98.3
.510 27.54
98.0
.546 29.48
96.5
.482 27.57
94.5
.607 31.08
98.2
.544 29.43
98.7
.465 25.02
97.7
.485 27.65
92.2
.732 38.36
85.8
.648 34.28
93.7
.540 30.19
90.5
.570 32.89
92.1
.681 36.91
96.4
.555 31.08
97.9
.646 33.85
99.0
.581 29.28
97.6
.552 28.04
98.8
.482 27.72
90.3
.552 29.64
97.8
.508 27.53
92.2
.428 26.19
96.8
.493 28.15
97.3
.507 27.78
96.7
.476 25.66
92.4
.483 27.39
100.2
.531 28.41
85.8
.520 28.13
96.6
.327 19.39
.604 32.80
89.7
91.7
.631 34.77
97.0
.497 24.60
101.0
.697 34.64
92.5
.598 32.59
.618 31.39
100.0
96.3
.535 29.26
97.7
.599 31.33
.575 30.65
100.0
97.6
.663 33.81
2 97.2
.659 232.88
97.0
.570 31.98
.584 31.30
96.8
94.1
.593 32.20

$29.18
27.65
27.05
28.86
26.58
29.39
28.87
24.71
27.05
35.35
29.43
28.30
29.77
33.94
29.98
33.10
29.02
27.39
27.34
26.79
26.92
24.17
27.26
27.01
24.79
25.35
28.48
24.13
18.72
29.41
31.85
23.85
34.97
30.19
31.39
28.20
30.61
30.65
33.02
31.85
31.03
30.33
30.32

.579

29.56

Aver­ Aver­
Per
age
age
cent
full­
hours of full
time actually time
hours worked worked
per
in 1
week week in week

95.5

30.92

T a b le

105
99
25
37
52
44
96
28
51
32
65
50
25
37
44
65
56
43
34
26
54
92
50
159
53
68
100

$0,622
.661
.588
.623
.540
.657
.554
.521
.547
.766
.718
.611
.636
.748
.611
.704
.606
.660
.610
.577
.552
.555
.594
.543
.537
.581
.590

1

1
2
1

1
1
1

3
3
4

1
1
1
6
13
1
2
3

3

2

2

1
4
5
1
2

1

2

2
3
3

1
1

1

2
1
1
1
1

.633
.725
.557
.716
.697
.679
.574

1
1
1
1
3

1
1
1
3

70
80
90
45
50
60
35
40
$1.10
$1
and cents and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
under under under under under under and under under
under
90
under $1.10 $1.20
50
60
70
80
45
40
cents cents cents cents cents cents
cents
$1

1

1

1
2
2

1
3
1
2
1
2
1
5

1
2
2
1
1
1
3
4
2
5
2
1

2
1
5
7
2
4

3
1
1
12
5
2
2
3

1
5
3
6
6
15
2
5
4
3
1
4
2
3
2
2
5
3
1
3
9
17
4
14
3
1
4
2
4
2
2
18

18
14
7
24
13
27
14
17
19
9
2
5
7
7
11
13
4
14
12
19
10
7
6
19
26
14
14
5
5
13
12
10
20
11
19
40

6
11
10
44
8
47
18
7
5
17
11
11
6
15
25
30
11
19
9
30
16
11
15
14
10
21
8
11
2
27
19
2
38
16
15
31

1
11
6
16
4
43
4
1
4
31
44
7
8
10
5
28
5
9
9
3
5

$1.20
and
over

1
9
1
7
4
20

1
3
1
1

1

7

5

2

4
2
29
17

2
4
10

8
2

3
2

2

12

2
3

2

2
1

3
2

6

1

14
3
4
1
2
1

1
1

9
2
12
3
16

1
18
1
33
7
12
2

1

1

3
1

11
16
15
37
3
14
5

1
1

2
1
1
10
1
11
8

8

1

1

5
2
3

1

1
2

1

H O U RS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




56
33
105
48
180
45

of employees whose average earnings per hour were—

AND

Auto mechanics, general:
Altoona, Pa_______ ____
Atlanta, Ga................ ........
Austin, Tex_____________
Baltimore, M d ____ ______
Birmingham, Ala________
Boston, Mass..... ......... ......
Burlington, V t___________
Charleston, S. C _________
Charlotte, N. C __________
Chicago, 111______________
Cleveland, Ohio_________
Danville, Ill________ _____
Des Moines, Iowa________
Detroit, M ich____ _______
Hamilton, Ohio..................
Hartford, Conn__________
Holyoke, Mass___________
Houston, Tex...... ...........
Huntington, W. Va______
Indianapolis, Ind________
Jacksonville, F la ............ .
Joplin, M o________ ____
Kansas City, Kans_______
Lincoln, Nebr................... .
Little Rock, Ark_________
Louisville, K y ___________
Manchester, N. H _______
Memphis, Tenn____ ____ _
Meridian, M iss..................
Milwaukee, Wis-------------Minneapolis, Minn---------New Orleans, La................
New York, N . Y ------------Oklahoma City, Okla........
Philadelphia, Pa................
Portland, M e......................

Number
AverNum­ Num- age
ber of
25
15
20
30
ber of em- earn­
and
and
and
and
gaploy- ings Under under under under under
per
15
20
25
30
35
hour cents
cents cents cents cents

O

WAGES

Occupation and city

B .— Average and classified earnings per hour in six specified occupations, 1981, by city

Providence, R. I - ..
Richmond, Va____
Rochester, N. Y _
_
St. Louis, M o........ .
Superior, W is........ .
Trenton, N . J_____
Washington, D. C_
Total................... .

100

63
60
77
31
41
113

aData included in total.




14
10
28

0

2
34

12

0

4
3

8
3

2

20
4
7

6

6
5
2

10
18
6

4
3
6
4
9
5

1

3

2
1
6

1

.762
.646
.606
.655
.774
.763
0
.458
.941
.766
.705
1.001

1

2

10

19

40

57

98

1
1
1

3
9
2
1
2
2

14
15
21
8
8
6
17

52
14
18
22
3
14
27

17
10
8
15
13
14
42

7
3
2
11
2
4
15

175

576

746

516

255

1

2
3

4
1
1

1
3
1
4
2
14

0

1

1
2
1

1

1

1

.616
.600
.784
.640
.554
.710
.567
.548
.547
.588
.742
.645
.935
.691
.794
.585
.905
.578

1
1
1

1
3
2

1
1
2

2
1

1
4
1
1

1
1

1
2
2

1

.870
0
.710
.846
.755

1
1
2
6

1
1

.8 6 6

271

3

2
1
1

0)

1

3

6

10

34

2
87

2
1

19

17

3
50

1
2

1

0

4
1
6
2
1

1
1
1
4
4
2
1

8
5
1
0

12

1

1

36

2
1

3

1

4

6

1
3

3

1

1
1
1

1
i
2

7

2

2
3

2

3
1

1
2
3

2
2

2
2

1
2
3

1
3
2
9

2
4

1

3

1
3
9

1

1
2

1

1
2
2
2

1

4

1
1

%

2
11

0

122

1

1
5

TA B LE S

Total..........................

2
10
2

1

1
4

4

1

51

25

24

1

2

64

9

GENERAL

B ody workers and upholsterers:
Altoona, Pa____ ___________
Atlanta, Ga____ _____ _____
Austin, Tex........................ .
Baltimore, M d ______ ______
Birmingham, Ala....... ...........
Boston, Mass_____ ____ ___
Charleston, S. C___________
Charlotte, N. C .....................
Chicago, 111___________ ____
Cleveland, Ohio....... .............
Des Moines, Iowa....... ..........
Detroit, M ich_____________
Hamilton, Ohio........ .............
Hartford, Conn____________
Houston, Tex_____ ________
Huntington, W. Va-----------Indianapolis, Ind__________
Jacksonville, F la .._________
Joplin, M o .............................
Kansas City, Kans------------Lincoln, Nebr------- -----------Little Rock, Ark___________
Louisville, K y ........................
Memphis, T e n n ...................
Minneapolis, M inn...............
New Orleans, L a------ --------New York, N. Y ...................
Oklahoma City, O k la ..........
Philadelphia, Pa___________
Portland, M e ......... ............ .
Providence, R. I ___________
Richmond, Va_____________
Rochester, N . Y .....................
St. Louis, M o ........................
Superior, Wis.........................
Trenton, N. J.........................
Washington, D. C .................

.713
.587

.638

343

3

.638
.607

6

T a b le

B .- —Average

and classified earnings per hour in six specified occupations, 1931 y by city— Continued

to

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour were—

M ip h

TTomilton V llU— —--- —
JQcUliJItUil) OViin
/X
T T o r tfn fH

f ! o n ti

T aIvaIta IVTftss
T
JlUutlllgtvu^
Jinnlis
Ifq cv q

AT
^

TTftric

T .i n p n ln N f t n r
T .i t t l a P a a It

Arlr

T

iMIIOTTlllA K V
TVyTonr«VioctAr ”
NT TT
^Patiti

IVTariH
iftTi lUTicc
M ilw f tlllr A A W j c
M i n t i A f t n n l i s TVTinn
M ow

O r lA f t n s

Ta

V aw Ynrk

Y

A l r l o h n m a f l t t v O lr lf t
P h ila H ft ln liift p ft

Portland M a
P 17iH T A R T
l*A A IP
V ft

Rochester. N. Y ...........................




5
5

4
7
6
5
4
4
6
8
7
6
6

1
3

i
1

3
1
3
7

2
5

j

7
5

2
2

2

1

1
1

3
5
4
1

11
3
1
2

11
5

1

1
2

1

3
3
2
1
2
1

1
2
1
2
1

2

1
2
1
1
2

5

1
4

1
1
2

2

4
1

1
1

3

2
1

1
6
1

1
5
11
4

2
1
3

1

1
1

2

1

1
1

2

1
2
2
1
3
1
2

3
5

2
1
5
2
1

1
2
1

2
1
1
4
1
1

15
1

3

1

1
3

2

2
2

2

2

1

11
1
3

2

1

1

3

2

1

1

1

1
1
1
1

2

2
1

3

1

1

1

1
1
1

2

3

1
1

2
1

4

5

2

1
3

4
4
4

1
1
2

1

i

3

2

i

4
3
1
1

1
2
2

l

GARAGES

TVTattin h i c

6
5
5
3
6
4
5
g
3
6
7
6
g
3
4
3
g
4

2

REPAIR

T T n n stn n T ftY
T T iin t i n at. A n W • V fa - - - — . . . . . . . .
»»
V t
TnHm n
TnH
T a n lr c /v n v illA T?lft
T A n li n
A
P ,it,V

Q

5 $0.319
g
.333
7
.332
.334
17
12
.247
33
.507
431
6
.227
12
.205
12
13
.550
.504
12
3
.340
.332
9
5
.466
6
.324
!527
20
3
.449
.373
23
.300
9
11
.423
.277
8
5
.246
7
.369
5
.326
.270
18
7
.273
.444
8
5
.282
7
.161
.497
8
g
.456
283
8
! 552
12
7
.332
11
.455
13
.469
11
.502
13
.318
11
.701

H O URS— MOTOR-VEHICLE

Pharlpqt.nn S fl
Dhftflftttfi N C
Chicago Til
Cleveland Ohio
TtftnvillA Til
T ) p q MntnAQ Towa

4
5
5
6
5
7
6

$1.20
and
over

AND

Car washers and polishers:

Aver­
Num­ Num­ age
80
90
70
45
50
60
35
40
30
20
25
15
ber of ber of earn­
$1.10
$1
em­
and cents and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
ga­
and
ploy­ ings Under under under under under under under under under under under under and
per
15
rages
under under
ees
under $1.10 $1.20
80
90
60
70
45
50
40
35
30
20
25
hour cents
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
$1
cents cents cents

WAGES

Occupation and city

1
1

1

1

1




447

814

4
5
3
4
8
6
4
3
2

0)

4
8
2
7
17
4
6

7
3

145

273

.317
.430
.284
.334
.208
.401
.289
(l)
(*)
.548
.453
.365
.321

3

24

37

2
57

2
4
6
72

1
3
4
3
1

1

2

1

1

3
1
2
11
52

1
2
1

1

1

1

C)
1

1

2

2
1

2
4

3

2
2

1

1
6
2

2

1
1
1
17

2
1

2
1

8

3

1

2
1

4

3

5

3

1

1

1

1

1

22

2
24

4
2

i
1
6
41

3
4
2
2
1
2
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
44

1
1

1

1

1
(l)

1

1

1
1

8

1

3
1
1
2
2
4
2
2

1

2
1

3

2

1
3

5
1
69
1

1

1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1

3
1
35

0)

0)

1

1
3
2
57

3

1

1
.337
.338
.276
.341
0)
.333
.321
.352
.269
.289
.316
.301
.168
.399
.402
.266
.479
.289
.385
.340
.417
.340
.443
.468
.311
.353
.358
.347

1

1

3
1
2

TABLES

1Data included in total.

230

.332
.352
.397
.375
.390

GENERAL

St. Louis, M o ..................
Superior, Wis...................
Trenton, N. J ..................
Washington, D . O...........
Total.............................
Helpers, mechanics’ :
Altoona, Pa.....................
Atlanta, Ga.....................
Austin, Tex.....................
Baltimore, M d ..............
Birmingham, Ala............
Boston, Mass__................
Burlington, V t..............
Charleston, S. C............ .
Charlotte, N. C ...............
Chicago, 111......................
Cleveland, Ohio..........
Danville, 111..................
Des Moines. Io w a .........
Hamilton, Ohio........ ......
Hartford, Conn________
Holyoke, Mass......... ......
Houston, Tex............. .
Huntington, W. V a........
Indianapolis, Ind............
Jacksonville, Fla_______
Joplin, M o____ ________
Kansas City, Kans_____
Lincoln, N e b r ............ .
Little Rock, Ark. ..........
Louisville, Ky___.............
Manchester, N. H ______
Memphis, Tenn________
Meridian, Miss________
Milwaukee, Wis_______
Minneapolis, M inn_____
New Orleans, La.............
New York, N. Y _______
Oklahoma City, Okla__Philadelphia, Pa_. .........
Portland, Me...............
Providence, R. I .............
Richmond, Va.................
Rochester, N . Y ..............
St. Louis, M o ..................
Superior, Wis..................
Trenton, N. J_................
Washington, D . C...........
Total.............. ..............

4
1
1

1

2
1
1
3
2
2
4
1
2
1

8
59

2
1

1

1
1
1
4
27

1

1
1
1

2

1

1
1
5

2

1
1

4
18

1
1
18

1
11

1

2
1
3

4

2

co

T a b le

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour were—
AverNum­ Num­ age
60
70
80
90
15
25
35
40
45
50
20
30
ber of ber of earn$1.10 $1.20
em$1
cents and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
Under and
and
and
and
ployper
15 under under under under under under under under under under under and under under and
under $1.10 $1.20 over
70
90
25
30
35
45
50
60
80
40
20
hour cents
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
$1

(9
19
(9
2
(9
12
(9

4
2
15

8

(9
(9
.792
(9
.864
(9

1

.701

(9

l

(9

.783
.775
.744
.786
.766

4

1

(9

1
1
3

1

8

3

1

1

1

2

(9
5
(9

(9

20
4
10
15
12
(0
6
10
(9
6
29

.830
.824
.699
.653
.701

.792
.849

1

233

.768

1

4

4
4
4

9
2
4
3
4

4
1
1
3
2

1

1
6

3

(9

1

1
3

1
1

(9

2

.720
.806

1
1
1

3

1

1

1

3
3
2
1

2
2

2

17

46

(9

1

1
2

l

1
5
1

(9

2

GARAGES

.706
.776

1
8
3
2

3
3

(9
(9

8

2

3
1
1
1

2
1

2
1

.681
.744

(9

2

2
2

1

(9

6
5

(9

105

1

2

REPAIR

(0

2

1804
.840
.738

1

(9
1

2

8

l
9

1
4

1
3

1
1

l

74

49

19

15

4

3

(9

H O URS— MOTOR-VEHICLE




5
5
10

AND

Inspectors and diagnosticians:
Altoona, Pa____ ________
Atlanta, Ga_____________
Baltimore, M d__....... .......
Birmingham, Ala________
Boston, Mass____ ____ _
Burlington, V t__________
Charleston, S. C_________
Charlotte, N. C ........... .....
Chicago, 111_____________
Cleveland, Ohio____ _____
Des Moines, Iow a.......... .
Detroit, M ich___________
Hartford, Conn..... ........ ...
Houston, Tex........... .........
Jacksonville, Fla________
Joplin, M o _______ ____ ...
Kansas City, Kans______
Little Rock, Ark........... .
Memphis, Tenn......... .......
Meridian, Miss..................
Milwaukee, Wis_________
Minneapolis, Minn______
New Orleans, La..............
New York, N. Y .............. .
Oklahoma City, Okla____
Philadelphia, Pa...............
Portland, Me.....................
Providence, R . I________
Richmond, Va............. —
Rochester, N . Y ................
St. Louis, M o........... .........
Superior, Wis............... —
Trenton, N . J.............. .
Washington, D. C............
TotaL.

-4

Average and classified earnings per hour in six specified occupations, 1931, by city— Continued

WAGES

Occupation and city

B .—

0
0)

0)
(0

(0
T f
(0

10

46

0)

TABLES

Total.............................

0)

GENERAL

Painters:
Altoona, Pa.....................
Atlanta, Ga.....................
Austin, Tex.....................
Baltimore, M d ................
Birmingham, Ala............
Boston, Mass...................
Burlington, V t................
Charleston, S. C_______
Charlotte, N. C ..............
Chicago, HI..... ................
Cleveland, Ohio..............
Danville, 111................ .
Des Moines, Iowa______
Detroit, M ich____ _____
Hamilton, Ohio________
Hartford, Conn________
Holyoke, Mass_________
Houston, Tex________
Huntington, W . Va____
Indianapolis, I n d „ .........
Jacksonville, Fla.............
Joplin, M o.......................
Little Rock, Ark_______
Louisville, K y_________
Manchester, N. H ______
Memphis, Tenn_........ .
Meridian, Miss________
Milwaukee, Wis....... ......
Minneapolis, M inn_____
New Orleans, La_______
New York, N. Y _______
Oklahoma City, Okla_._
Philadelphia, Pa_______
Portland, Me...................
Providence, R . I _______
Richmond, V a.......... ......
Rochester, N . Y ________
St. Louis, M o__________
Trenton, N . J........... ......
Washington, D . C...........

25

1 Data included in total,




•<1
Oi

T a b le

B . — Average

AA
/I*
Lincoln, Nobr-------------------------T.lffl/l "D />lr A|
A
ilr
MiaJU L C yMi •H - —-----——^dTiphAStAf ^
lV L U otvi x ix--T /T rnrV iQ
V^ h
Meridian, Miss-----------------------‘M’ilnfQiilroA ^Vic
Minneapolis, Minn - ________
\Tonr H TiQ Tj
rlAQ
Q
New York, N Y
..............
rtlrlahnma P,it,v Olrlft
Philadelphia, P a . . . .....................




g
8
8
8
8
8
8
g
g
8
8
g
8
8
8
g
g
g
8
8
8
8
8
8
g
g
g
g
g
8
8
8
8
g
8

76 $0,552
136
.551
.510
85
.546
260
.482
139
430
.607
.544
81
.465
96
.485
101
.732
293
203
.648
.540
38
.570
95
104
.681
.555
86
.646
211
.581
57
.552
127
.482
77
.552
160
508
95
! 428
73
493
76
.'507
70
.476
163
122
^483
76
.531
.520
98
58
.327
104
.604
173
.631
112
.497
358
.697
116
.598
161
.618

1
1

6

1
3

1
6
5

3
1

6
7
1
5

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
g

1
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
3
2
4
14
1
5
i

2
3
7
11
3
3
11
11
1
1
2
4
3
3
2
1
1
6
7
5
2
15
3
2
8
5
2
2
3
2
I

2
14
11
17
20
4
5
s
6
3
5
2
6
2
2
1
6
9
6
5
7
4
3
22
16
5
10
1
4
12
9
8
4

20
11
25
11
3
3
7
10
6
2
2
5
1
5
2
16
12
10
11
5
5
4
14
11
4
9
7
2
8
7
3
11
3

6
4
3
9
5
11
4
5
6
11
6
1
8
4
5
8
6
9
7
11
7
11
9
2
6
7
3
5
5
3
12
13
9
3
8

8
4
7
15
11
59
8
3
3
8
21
1
3
2
8
2
3
12
1
11
9
7
6
1
7
i
3
4
4
10
6
15
13
6
7

4
8
5
13
7
44
4
6
4
6
13
3
9
4
4
16
6
5
3
9
4
1
5
14
23
8
19
3
2
16
5
22
7
10

22
21
11
37
22
71
19
21
26
34
23
5
17
17
16
41
6
21
15
26
14
11
6
24
34
26
19
9
8
18
20
15
61
19
43

11
24
17
66
22
80
23
13
10
36
19
13
12
20
31
49
14
24
14
49
21
17
22
17
18
29
9
16
4
36
32
12
55
24
31

6
17
11
34
7
84
6
7
9
53
63
8
13
20
9
47
5
21
11
17
10
3
10
2
12
16
6
23
24
30
17
66
15
25

5
12
2
23
12
39
3
6
5
66
31

2
4
3
4
2
15
2

$1.20
and
over

3
5
2

1

12

1
3

2
29
11

1
24
3

7
4

9
1

8
17
2
23
8
5
1
9
4

4
7
2
10
2
1

1
7
1
3
1
3
1
2

2
1

3
2

5
1
4
5
1
5
20
3
57
10
20

3

3
2

2
1

2
1
1
3

1

1

1
2

1
2
10
4
23
9
2

9

3

24
2
3

8
1

1
1
1
6
2
2

H O U BS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Birmingham, Ala
Boston, Mass___
. . . ____
Burlington, Vt
viiciriwtuu) o. v ..* ----------------- nhflflnttft N C
T j
Chicago, HI
-- ___ ______
_________
Cleveland, Ohio _
r>arivillA Til
Des Moines, Iowa
__
Detroit, Mich
TTa.mil fcrv Ohio
n
Hartford Conn
Holyoke M&ss
Houston Tex
k nnfinflffAti W \7q
J
T
Tndiimsinnlis Ind

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour wereNum­ Aver­
Num­ ber of age
90
70
80
50
60
40
45
30
35
25
20
15
ber of em­ earn­
$1.10
$1
and cents and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
ings Under and
ga­
and
15 under under under under under under under under under under under and under under
per
rages ploy­
ees
under $1.10 $1.20
80
90
70
50
60
35
40
45
25
30
20
hour cents
$1
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

AND

All occupations:

o>
WAGES

Occupation and city

and classified earnings per hour in six specified occupations, 1981, by city— Continued

mmx

Portland, M e____
Providence, R. I__,
Richmond, Va......
Rochester, N. Y ...
St. Louis, M o.......
Superior, Wis........
Trenton, N. J.......
Washington, D. C

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

186
187
142
158
168
58
100
350

Total__________

344

6,059

.579

26

150

12
10
12
4
3
5
10
31

16
13
10
5
9
1
6
36

8
4
11
7
11
2
8
24

26
9
16
8
11
5
4
16

57
27
19
39
16
11
14
36

44
66
28
34
29
5
19
49

10
26
24
14
26
16
20
71

5
17
7
17
17
8
6
36

1
3
4
10
16

1
3
8
13

1
1
5
4

5
11

2
11

1
3

2

283

342

328

364

407

1,017

1,164

914

525

210

146

52

48

2
4
5

GENERAL
TABLES




6
8
2
1
2
3
4
18

.535
.599
.575 .
.663
.659
.570
.584
.593 .

T a b le

68
100
100

53.5
50.8
54.0
52.5
57.2
51.0
54.0
54.1
57.0
51.3
53.2
56.7
55.2
53.7
55.2
51.9
49.5
50.5
55.4
52.6
54.0
60.9
55.2
54.0
53.9
55.9
53.1
53.6
59.7
51.7
54.9
49.1
48.5
54.5
50.1
55.1
52.2

Un­
der
46H

Over
46^
46K and
under
48

2

48

4
13

Over
48
and
under
50

18

51

46

21

93

17
7

Over
51
and
under
54

7

4
26

21

31

50

Over
50
and
under
51

14
6
4

31

25

26
2
2
6

3
3

10
33
18
22
1

6
1
2

6

4

8
g
4

17

1

1
1
3
1

1

4
14
62

10

5
4
12

4
23

38
23
12

6

9

28

8
1

8
9

31

30

8

54

13
16
33
21
4
29
22
41
23
26
4
7
29
31
28
63
4
17
20
21
39
4
33
44
62
16
34
30
3
15
64
4
15
29
19
85
44

Over
54
and
under
57

57

Over
57
and
under
60

60

Over
60
and
under
63

63

Over
63
and
under
70

70

Over
70

5
3
1

15
1

40

3

1

10
9
4
2

4
2

1

II
8

12

15

8

9
14
2

12
7

1

7

2
2
2

3
1

1
1

1

1

1

11
4
6
7

19

1
1

14

1

8

2
1

2
1

1

3

1

1

4

2

21
3

10
4
7

2
3

H O U RS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




29
56
33
105
48
180
45
48
49
105
99
25
37
52
44
96
28
51
32
65
50
25
37
44
65
56
43
34
26
54
92
50
159
53

Number of employees whose average full-time hours per week were—

AND

Auto mechanics, general:
Altoona, Pa.................
Atlanta, Ga.................
Austin, Tex____ ____ _
Baltimore, M d______
Birmingham, Ala____
Boston, Mass_______
Burlington, V t______
Charleston, S. C .........
Charlotte, N. C......... .
Chicago, Ul___............
Cleveland, Ohio_____
Danville, 111............... .
Des Moines, Iowa___
Detroit, M ich.............
Hamilton, O hio........ .
Hartford, Conn_____
Holyoke, Mass.......... .
Houston, Tex_______
Huntington, W. Va__.
Indianapolis, Ind-----Jacksonville, Fla____
Joplin, M o__________
Kansas City, Kans.__.
Lincoln, Nebr___.......
Little Rock, Ark____
Louisville, K y_______
Manchester, N. H ----Memphis, Tenn------Meridian, Miss______
Milwaukee, Wis_____
Minneapolis, Minn__.
New Orleans, La____
New York, N. Y ____
Oklahoma City, Okla
Philadelphia, Pa.......
Portland, M e----------Providence, R. I ........

Aver­
Num- age
Num­ ber
full­
ber
time
of ga- of em­ hours
ployper
week

00
WAGES

Occupation and city

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in six specified occupations, 1981, by city

Richmond, Va.......
Rochester, N. Y _
_
St. Louis, M o ........
Superior, Wis_.......
Trenton, N. J.........
Washington, D. C .
Total-

1Data included in total.




53.2
51.1
50 1
56.6
52.5
53.1

29

343

2,668

52.9

43

2
6
2
5
4
5
1
2
8
4
4
2
1
6
2
2
6
2
4
2
2
5
2
2
2
4
6
4
1
3
3
3
4
2
1
2
6

2
10
2
14
10
28
0)
2
34
12
4
3
0)
8
3
2
20
4
7
2
3
6
6
5
2
10
18
6
(0
3
6
4
9
5
(0
2
11

54.0
52.8
54.0
52.0
57.0
50.4
(*)
57.0
50.0
50.5
53.3
50.7
(9
52.5
48.8
54.0
52.8
54.0
54.9
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
54.0
55.5
49.0
49.3
53.0
(9
56.0
50.7
53.0
49.4
45.0
(9
51.8
52.7

122

271

51.7

1

2
23

6

3

7

14
17

2

4

11

3
9

19
147

55

11
246

2

102

239

24

49

173

29
25
10
21
14
35

60 1,126

4
25

1

11

2

5

(0
6

8
8

3
1

2

5

2
2
4

2

3

4

1

7
6
1

2

2
3
6
6
5
1
1
3
5

4
0)

3

2

5

2

0

1
3

13

11

1
28

23

53

34

2

2
1

9

161

6

11

8

4

22

10
107

11

14

33

2
10
1
1

7
1

2

1

1

1

2

1

4
1

2

2
1
3
2

5
1

3

1
42

1

6

1
1

2
5

7
3

1
4
3
1

0

2
2
3

4

2
4
2
4

2
4

14

TABLES

Total.

63
60
77
31
41
113

GENERAL

Body workers and upholsterers:
Altoona, Pa_._......................
Atlanta, Ga...........................
Austin, Tex...........................
Baltimore, Md_......... ...........
Birmingham, A l a ...............
Boston, Mass........................
Charleston, S. C ____ ____
Charlotte, N. C ______ ____
Chicago, 111...........................
Cleveland, Ohio___________
Des Moines, Iowa_________
Detroit, M ich______ ______
Hamilton, Ohio___________
Hartford, Conn___............ .
Houston, Tex........ ................
Huntington, W. Va..............
Indianapolis, Ind...... ...........
Jacksonville, F la............. .
Joplin, M o............................
Kansas City, Kans...............
Lincoln, N e b r ......................
Little Rock, Ark...................
Louisville, K y .......................
Memphis, Tenn_..................
Minneapolis, M inn________
New Orleans, La__............ .
New York, N. Y __________
Oklahoma City, Okla______
Philadelphia, Pa......... .........
Portland, M e........................
Providence, R. I ...................
Richmond, V a.......................
Rochester, N. Y ....................
St. Louis, M o....... ...... ..........
Superior, W is..................... .
Trenton, N. J...................... .
Washington, D. C .................

8
8
8
8
8
8

1
4

81

25

8

1
<1
O'

T a b le

52.2
50.8
54.0
61.1
57.5
50.3
53.5
53.5
57.0
53.9
52.5
57.0
61.2
53.6
55.3
54.2
51.0
50.7
56.2
54.9
54.4
71.3
58.6
54.0
53.8
58.3
52.5
53.4
58.3
56.9
55.9
49.9
50.2
55.6
47.9
54.2
53.0
52.2
50.2

46H

Over
46H
and
under
48

48

1
2

Over
48
and
under
50

50

Over
50
and
under
51

51

Over
51
and
under
54

1
2

1

2

3

26

1
1
2

6

6

1

1

3

1
5
1
10

1
3

1

1
3

1

1

1
1

2
1

1

1
6

2

2

3

2
2
1

1

4

6
1
4
5
2

4

1

Over
54
and
under
57

3
3
7
4

1

2
1

54

57

60

Over
60
and
under
63

1

63

Over
63
and
under
70

70

Over
70

6

1

11

3
3
10
5
4

1
4

3

1

2

3
1

1
2

1
6
3
2
13
1
9
5
3
7
5
5
17
2
5
4
2
2
5
1
2
2
3
11
3
6
4

Over
57
and
under
60

1

2

1
1

3
2
1
1

1
1

1

2

2
2

1

1
1
1

2

2
5

1

2

GARAGES

5
8
7
17
12
33
6
12
12
13
12
3
9
5
6
20
3
23
9
11
8
5
7
5
18
7
8
5
7
8
8
8
12
7
11
13
11
13
11

Un­
der
46K

2

3
1
1

1

REPAIR




4
5
5
6
5
7
6
6
6
5
5
3
6
4
5
8
3
6
7
6
6
3
4
3
8
4
6
5
4
7
6
5
4
4
6
8
7
6
6

Number of employees whose average full-time hours per week were—

A T HOUBS— MOTOR-VEHICLE
SD

Car washers and polishers:
Altoona, Pa.................
Atlanta, Ga..................
Austin, Tex.................
Baltimore, M d_______
Birmingham, Ala........
Boston, Mass..............
Burlington, Y t............
Charleston, S. C ..........
Charlotte, N. C ______
Chicago, 111........... ......
Cleveland, Ohio_____
Danville, 111.................
Des Moines, Iowa____
Detroit, M ich..............
Hamilton, Ohio...........
Hartford, Conn......... .
Holyoke, Mass..........
Houston, Tex..............
Huntington, W. Va.__
Indianapolis, Ind........
Jacksonville, Fla.........
Joplin, M o....... ...........
Kansas City, Kans___
Lincoln, Nebr..............
Little Rock, Ark....... .
Louisville, K y .............
Manchester, N. H ___
Memphis, Tenn..........
Meridian, Miss...........
Milwaukee, Wis..........
Minneapolis, M in n ...
New Orleans, La.........
New York, N. Y .........
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Philadelphia, Pa.........
Portland, M e..............
Providence, R. I .........
Richmond, Va............
Rochester, N. Y _____

Aver­
age
Num­ Num­ full­
ber
ber
time
of ga­ of em­ hours
rages ploy­
ees
per
week

WAGES

Occupation and city

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in six specified occupations, 1981, by city— Continued

1




6
3
17
23
447

52.1
56.0
57.6
57.9
54.4

4
3
5
5
5
2
2
1
1

6
9
10
8
5
4
2

3

51.0
50.6
54.0
51.0
55.8
49.1
55.5

6

3
5
2
3
4
5
3
2
2
1
2
3
2
3
7
2
5
6
2
3
5
4
2
2
7
4
3
2
4
2
4
7
145

1

1
4

1
13

7

35

1

12

46

2
3
8

14
4
5
3
4
8
6
4
3
2

<9

4
8
2
7
17
4
6
7
3
3
9
9
3
6
16
9
5
4
10
5
5

29
273

51.5
55.5
55.8
54.0
55.5
51.8
49.5
50.8
55.0
55.5
0)
62.3
54.0
54.0
54.0
55.6
53.3
54.0
59.7
53.0
52.9
50.9
48.7
59.2
53.3
53.8
49.8
50.0
52.0
44.3
63.9
50.5
54.2
53.2

6

6

2
3

I

3
4

10
2
2

1

3

1

1
2

7

21

1

3

2
1
1

3
4
1

2

1
4

4
1

1

1

2

2
1

2
2
9

2

1
2

4
2
2

3

7

8

30

6

17

2

21

1
1

3

1
1
1

1

1

2

3

124

2

3

2

8

4

1

1

2
1

1
2

11

1
1

1
5
15
1
1
2

1

16

3

0)

6
1
3
3

8
2
7
11
3
6
2
2
1
4

1

2

1

(9
(9

(9

1

7

j
, !

3

5
1
1
2
1

1

3

9
14

.

2

1
2

j

1

1
5
4
37

2

2

2

(i)
(i)

(l)
(l)

24

2
3
4
180

TA B L E S

1Data included in total.

4
3
7
6
230

GENERAL

St. Louis, M o................. .
Superior, Wis.................. .
Trenton, N. J............
Washington, D. C ______
Total________________
Helpers, mechanics’:
Altoona, Pa__...................
Atlanta, Ga._...................
Austin, Tex......................
Baltimore, M d.................
Birmingham, Ala........... .
Boston, Mass...... ........... .
Burlington, V t.................
Charleston, S. C _______
Charlotte, N. C ..............
Chicago, 111...... ................
Cleveland, Ohio________
Danville, 111_________ ...
Des Moines, Iowa______
Hamilton, Ohio________
Hartford, Conn...... ........ .
Holyoke, Mass.............
Houston, Tex...................
Huntington, W. Va.........
Indianapolis, Ind_______
Jacksonville, Fla_______
Joplin, M o ..................... .
Kansas City, Kans_____
Lincoln, Nebr................. .
Little Rock, Ark—......... .
Louisville, K y .................
Manchester, N . H ...........
Memphis, Tenn..............
Meridian, Miss................
Milwaukee, Wis_______
Minneapolis, M inn.........
New Orleans, La_______
New York, N. Y .„_....... .
Oklahoma City, Okla___
Philadelphia, Pa..............
Portland, M e_____ _____
Providence, R. I _______
Richmond, Va.__....... .
Rochester, N. Y ________
St. Louis, M o...................
Superior, Wis..................
Trenton, N. J..................
Washington, D. C ______
Total..............................

3

1
9
21

2
1
2

12

2

1

1
5

3

00

T a b le

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in six specified occupations, 1931, by city— Continued

A

5
5
10
0

19

0
0
0

2
12
4
2
15
8
2

Superior, W is--------------------Trenton, N. J--------------------Washington, D. C ..................

5
3
1
4
6

(,)«
29

Total.....................................

105

233

52.6

x.T~—

\T

V

Oklahoma City, Okla---------Philadelphia, Pa......... ...........
Portland, M e-------------------- Providence, R. I ----------------Richmond, V a-------------------Rochester, N. Y ------------------




3

0

5

20
4
10
15
12
10

Over
46M
and
under
48

48

Over
48
and
under
50

50

Over
50
and
under
51

Over
51
and
under
54

51

1

53.1
53.0
54.6
0
51.3
0
54.0
0
54.0
0
54.0
51.5
53.6
51.2
55.5
0
54.0
53.0
0
51.3
54.4
0
49.7
51.0
49.2
53.8
51.5
0
49.9
51.5
0
54.1
54.2

%

46H

2

1

54

0)

1

0

60

3

Over
60
and
under
63

Over
63
and
under
70

63

70

Over
70

1
1
0

2
1

1

5
4
1
9
3
1

1
4
2

Over
57
and
under
60

4

5

4
0

4

57

3
1
2

1

2
10

Over
54
and
under
57

1
I

1
1
0

0

7
2

1
3
4

1

0

2

1

2

5
2

1

1

2

I
2

6

5

0

1

2
1
6

3

10

19

16

20

7

17

7

0)

1

1

3
3

0

3

2

7
11

4
2
2
14
1

5
4

1
4

2
1

1

1
3

1

82

1

1

3
13

4

7

___

1
7

2

10

1
1= .. .

H O URS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Birmingham, Ala---------------Boston, Mass---------------------Burlington, V t-------------------Charleston, t> c --------- -------.
nrA
_ _i
X c
T
Charlotte, jn. P ------------------Chicago, 111— _
-------------------Cleveland, Ohio-----------------Des Moines, Iowa--------------Detroit, Mich..........................
Hartford, Conn......................
T1
P
Joplin, M o------------------------Kansas City, Kans.................
Little Rock, Ark----------------Memphis, Tenn-----------------Meridian, Miss------------------Milwaukee, W is-----------------Minneapolis, M inn------------New Orleans, La-----------------

4
4
4
1
6
1
2
1
5
1
2
2
7
3
2
1
1
4
2
1
3
3
j
6
2
5
6
5

Un­
der
46H

AND

Inspectors and diagnosticians:
Altoona, Pa------------- ----------Atlanta, Ga—................. ........

Number of employees whose average full-time hours per week were—

WAGES

Occupation and city

Aver­
age
Num­ Num­ full­
ber
ber of em­ time
of ga­ ploy­ hours
rages
per
ees
week

All occupations:
Altoona, Pa...........
Atlanta, Ga...........
Austin, Tex...........
Baltimore, M d___
Birmingham, Ala.
Boston, Mass........

1Data included in total.




2
2
19
16
0)
0
2
2
11
0
0
2
9
3
2
6
6
0
3
0
0
6
2
15
8
5
4
5
2
11
6
2
13

53.0
51.2
54.0
53.8
57.6
50.4
0
54.0
57.0
50.1
51.5
0
0
53.0
50.0
51.8
0
0
55.5
51.7
54.0
52.5
54.0
56.0
0
54.0
0
0
55.5
52.0
49.4
53.5
51.9
53.3
53.6
52.0
50.8
44.8
50.3
52.2

115

216

52.1

8
8
8
8
8
8

76
136
85
260
139
430

53.5
51.1
54.0
54.0
57.2
51.2

3
3
2
9
10
16
0

1

1
1
.

2

1
.

11

2
2
2
4

1

0
2

5
7

8

7

1

2
1
3

0
0

1

1

2

1

9

3

4

1
1

1

1
1
7

0
0
1

2

1
1

2

3

1

6
4
0

1

5
2

4

6

2
1
7

7

2
1
1

4
17

20

28

6

11
33

39

9

7

4

3

69

17

1

36
36
85
61
14
67

63

34

250

28

1

.21

5

39

1

1
4

22

37

3

5
2
3
2
1
3

1

2

5

2

3
3
1

8
3

1

0

0
2

1
3

38

TABLES

Total-

2
3
2
5
3
6
1
2
2
8
5
1
1
2
2
5
1
1
2
5
2
2
6
4
1
2
1
1
3
2
4
4
2
4
2
2
4
3
2
5

GENERAL

Painters:
Altoona, Pa.................
Atlanta, Ga............ .....
Austin, Tex..................
Baltimore, M d _______
Birmingham, A la____
Boston, Mass________
Burlington, V t_______
Charleston, S. C .........
Charlotte, N. C ______
Chicago, 111__________
Cleveland, Ohio..........
Danville, 111__________
Des Moines, Iowa____
Detroit, M ich..............
Hamilton, Ohio______
Hartford, Conn...........
Holyoke, Mass............
Houston, Tex..............
Huntington, W . Va_
_
Indianapolis, Ind_____
Jacksonville, Fla_____
Joplin, M o...................
Little Rock, Ark.........
Louisville, K y _______
Manchester, N. H ____
Memphis, Tenn........ .
Meridian, Miss______
Milwaukee, W is ........
Minneapolis, M inn___
New Orleans, La.........
New York, N. Y _____
Oklahoma City, Okla..
Philadelphia, Pa....... .
Portland, M e ________
Providence, R. I ......... .
Richmond, V a_______
Rochester, N . Y ______
St. Louis, M o.............. .
Trenton, N. J.............. .
Washington, D. C ____

9

2

1
1
1

9
12
114

38
1
1

5
10
1

1
13

3

5

00

CO

T a b le

C.— Average and classified full-time hours per week in six specified occupations, 1931, by city -Continued




6,058

53.4

101

293
203
38
95
104
86

344

48

50

Over
50
and
under
51

2

20
97

3

1
1

23

1
1
1

67
33
48
1

2

25

1

50

105

375

121 2,398

1
45

74

8
1
11

1

II

2
2
16
9
1
2

11
21
10
3

36
4

7
1
5

1
1

9
8

7

2
1
1

94

28

16

21

12

11

1
58
1
1
7

6
41

112

247

15

76
59
24

20

15

21

17
13

41

37

4

12

9
146

509

255

96
63

14

58
33
42
23

51
621

54

21

2
58

Over
51
and
under
54

41
81
48
86
12
12
67
54
40
135
9
47
44
39
74
8
60
67
156
44
59
89
10
22
101
16
35
68
48
160
76
66
52
15
36
27
95

12
9

10
1

51

3
4
9
21

Over
54
and
under
57

1
2
1
1

12
2

57

5
8
4

Over
57
and
under
60

18
4

Over
60
and
under
63

18
1
29
30
9

2

1
1

2

2
4
2
6
3
1

70

2

13

1
1

10

7

4

1
17

21
28
5

1
4

44
8
4

2

1
1
8
8
5

I§

20
36

2
6
1
28

73

419

78

1
20

1

1
1
2
3

2

266

36

18
2
1

1
6

3

1

1

2

4
4

1
1

10
2
3
2
2
4
8

1

29

Over
70

2
2
13
3

7

1

3
25
1
8

1

Over
63
and
under
70

2

21

2

63

8

4
5
2
1

1

18
18

22
24
14
16

60

8
4
1
1
1
I
1
3
1

3

7

2

3

3
4

4
3
1

14

4
2
1
29

1
1

4
7
2
2
1

52

99

25

121

3

H O URS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total.

211
57
127
77
160
95
73
76
70
163
122
76
98
58
104
173
112
358
116
161
186
187
142
158
167
58
100
350

54.1
53.8
57.0
52.4
52.9
55.9
57.7
54.2
56.0
52.4
50.4
50.8
57.5
53.7
54.2
61.2
57.1
54.8
53.9
56.7
53.5
54.1
59.3
54.3
55.1
49.5
49.7
54.5
50.8
54.7
52.3
53.3
51.0
49.9
56.1
53.6
54.3

81
96

Un­
der
46H

Over
48
and
under
50

AND

All occupations—Continued
Burlington, Vt_................
Charleston, S. C ..............
Charlotte, N. C___:.........
Chicago, 111................ ......
Cleveland, O h io.............
Danville, III.....................
Des Moines, Iowa--------Detroit, M ich__________
Hamilton, O h io...........
Hartford, Conn------------Holyoke, Mass___............
Houston. Tex---------------Huntington, W. Va------Indianapolis, Ind----------Jacksonville, Fla-----------Joplin, M o____ _________
Kansas City, Kans_____
Lincoln, Nebr--------------Little Rock, Ark_______
Louisville, K y __________
Manchester, N. H , -------Memphis, Tenn-----------Meridian, Miss_________
Milwaukee, Wis..............
Minneapolis, M inn_____
New Orleans, La_______
New York, N. Y ----------Oklahoma City, Okla----Philadelphia, Pa________
Portland, M e...................
Providence, R. I ..............
Richmond, Va.................
Rochester, N. Y ...............
St. Louis, M o......... ..........
Superior, Wis...................
Trenton, N. J.............. .
Washington, D. C ...........

Number of employees whose average full-time hours per week were—
Over
46H
46K and
under
48

WAGES

Occupation and city

Aver­
age
Num­ Num­ fuUber
ber of em­ time
of ga- ploy- hours
per
week

Appendixes
A p p e n d i x A . —Filling

Station Terms of Occupations, with Definitions
and Classification by Bureau of Labor Statistics

Filling station term

Air and water boy___
Automobile mechanic.
Automobile washer_
_
Battery man................

Brake man...................
Car greaser...................
Car washer..................

Car-washing inspector.
Cleaner, cushions.........
Cleaner, floors.............
Cleaner, upholstery_
_
Cushion cleaner.........
Extra man....... ..........
Foreman, car washers.
Foreman, greasers____
Generator man..
Greaser..............

Definition

Adjusts air pressure in automobile tires and puts
water in radiators.
Makes adjustments and minor repairs on automo­
biles and trucks.
(See Car washer).......................................................... .
Tests battery to determine its condition, removes it
from automobile when discharged, replaces it with
a fully charged one, and charges or repairs displaced
battery when necessary.
Tests, adjusts, relines, and repairs brakes, depending
upon their condition.
(See Greaser).................................................................
Uses water under high pressure with a brush or cham­
ois to wash and rub dirt loose from outside of auto­
mobile; also generally uses a brush, broom, or vacu­
um to clean inside of car.
(See Inspector, car washing).........................................
(See Cleaner, upholstery)..........................................
(See Porter).......... ........................................................
Uses a small vacuum cleaner to remove dust and dirt
from cushions and other upholstered parts of auto­
mobiles.
(See Cleaner, upholstery) _ ............ .............................
(See Utility man)..........................................................
Supervises the car washers and assists them in the
washing and polishing of cars.
Supervises the greasers and assists them in the greas­
ing of automobile chassis and the changing of motor

(See Ignition man)........................................................
Oils and greases automobiles, which are usually
placed on a lift or over a pit, and changes motor oil.
Also known as a pitman.
(See Operator’s helper)..................................................
Helper, operator’s-.
Makes adjustments and repairs on automobile igni­
Ignition man..........
tion systems, starters, generators, or any other
electrical equipment.
Inspector, car-washing. Inspects the washing and polishing of automobiles in
order to insure thorough work.
Manager, mechanical Manages and supervises mechanical servicing and
service.
repairing of automobiles.
Manager, personnel_
_ Directs the personnel of an individual station, meets
all customers, if possible, and endeavors to build up
business by promoting good will. The manager is
not responsible for the station’s stock supply.
Mechanic, automobiles. (See Automobile mechanic)..........................................
Mechanic, pump and Does any mechanical work necessary to keep gasoline
tank equipment.
pumps, tanks, and other equipment in good condi­
tion.
Mechanical s e r v i c e (See Manager, mechanical service)...............................
manager.
Operator....................... Is in charge of the station. Maintains records of work
done, of stocks of gasoline, oil, and of other supplies
on hand, received, and sold, and makes reports of
same. Is also usually responsible for maintenance
of normal stocks of gasoline, oil, etc.
Operator’s helper..
Pumps gasoline into tank of car, checks oil in crank
case, fills radiator with water, and often cleans
windshield, headlight lenses, license plates, and
tail-light lens. In some cases he also adjusts a
mechanism on the pump which registers the
amount of gasoline drawn, the license-plate num­
ber, and State where registered.
Personnel manager..
(See Manager, personnel)...........................................




Classified by bureau
under—
Other employees.
Do.
Car washers.
Other employees.

Do.
Greasers.
Car washers.

Other employees.
Do.
Porters.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Greasers.
Operators’ helpers.
Other employees.
Do.
Do.

Other employees.
Do.
Do.
Operators.

Operators’ helpers.

Managers,

85

86

WAGES AND HOURS— GASOLINE FILLING STATIONS

Filling station term

Definition

Pitman______________ (See Greaser)_____ ___ ___________________________
Polisher______________ Uses special preparation or polishing material either
with a cloth and chamois by hand or an electrically
driven buffer to polish painted surface as well as
nickel or chromium parts of automobile bodies.
_______________ Keeps the premises clean, and, in addition, may ren­
Porter
der free service to customers, such as putting water
in radiator, air in tires, etc.
Pump and tank me­ (See Mechanic, pump and tank equipment)________
chanic.
R n f i n i s h i n g rnfl/n
TTses a mallet and other hand tools to remove dents,
etc., from fenders or similar metal parts; emery or
sandpaper to rub down scars, scratches, or other
defects which require repainting; a spray gun or
hand brush to refinish the defective spots with vari­
ous coats, rubbing each as required, and matching
the final colors with the original finish, so that the
repaired spot is indiscernible.
■Relief man.........______ Is usually employed to work in the place of employees
on 7-day shifts, so that such employees may have
one day off duty each week, or, he may be used en­
tirely to relieve workers in emergencies.
Service driver________ Goes after cars which are to be washed, greased, or
serviced; usually drives the car from patron’s resi­
dence to filling station and returns it to customer
after necessary servicing has been done.
Service manager_____ (See Manager, mechanical service)_________________
Tank and pump me­ (See Mechanic, pump and tank equipment)________
chanic.
Tireman_____________ Removes casing and inner tube from rim, tests inner
tube in water to determine location of leak, and
repairs same; places casing on spreader, examines
for rim cuts or other defects; removes nails, pebbles,
etc., from cuts in casing tread, reassembles tube,
casing, and rim, inflates to proper air pressure, and
replaces on automobile; or may put on new casings
or put in new tubes, instead of repairing old ones.
Trouble shooter_______ Auto mechanic, skilled usually in ignition and car­
buretor work, who responds to emergency calls from
motorists experiencing motor trouble or stalled on
the road, to make such minor repair or adjustment
as maybe necessary to get them on their way again.
Upholstery cleaner _ _ (See Cleaner, upholstery)_________________________
Utility man__________ Waits on customers, or fills in on work wherever help
is needed.
Vacuum-cleaner oper­ (See Cleaner, upholstery)...................... ......................
ator.
Washer, automobiles—. (See Car washer')_________________________________
Water boy___________ (See Air and water boy)_________ ____ ____________




Classified by bureau
under—
Greasers.
Other employees.

Porters.
Other employees.
Do

Relief men.

Other employees.

Do.
Do.
Tiremen.

Other employees.

Do.
Do.
Do.
Car washers.
Other employees.

B.—Motor-Vehicle Repair Garage Terms of Occupations,
with Definitions and Classification by Bureau of Labor Statistics

A p p e n d ix

Motor-vehicle repair
garage term

Definition

Workman usually employed under supervision of
skilled auto mechanics to learn duties of the trade,
sometimes under contract to serve a specifiednumber of years.
Assembler, new ears_„. Attaches batteries, fenders, bumpers, and other acces­
sories to new cars received from factory.
Auto mechanic, general. Skilled workman who makes general repairs on auto­
mobiles, trucks, and tractors.
Automobile washer___ (See Car washer).......................................................... .
Apprentice, auto me­
chanic.

Battery man................. Tests battery to determine its condition, removes it
from automobile when discharged, replaces it with
a fully charged one, and charges or repairs displaced
battery when necessary.
Forges light and medium-sized forgings on an anvil in
Blacksmith................
servicing and repairing automobiles.
Body worker, metal. __
using a wooden or padded mallet with other hand
tools to straighten or remove dents from such parts
as fenders, hoods, etc.; or replaces them with new
parts where necessary; also prepares surface of re­
paired parts for painter by performing such metal
finishing operations as may be necessary.
Body worker, metal In small shops both types of work are usually per­
formed by the same mechanic. (For details, see
and wood.
Body worker, metal, and Body worker, wood.)
_ Repairs defective parts of wooden frames of automo­
Body worker, wood_
bile bodies or replaces them with new parts.
Brake man__________ Tests, adjusts, relines, and repairs brakes depending
upon their condition.
Car greaser.
(See Greaser).................................................................
Uses water under high pressure with a brush or
Car washer.
chamois to wash and rub dirt loose from outside of
car; also generally uses a brush, broom, or vacuum
to clean inside of car.
Carbureter man—
Adjusts, cleans, and repairs carbureters and their
fittings.
Caretaker............
Takes care of garage premises after regular business
hours, performing the duties of a watchman; also
waits on incidental customers who request storage or
minor service during the night.
Carpenter, building..
Makes minor repairs and alterations on building and
assists in installation or rearrangement of equip­
ment.
Chaser____________
Drives customer’s car to vacant storage space and
delivers it to customer when called for.
Courtesy man...........
Meets each customer, if possible, as cars are brought
in for service, takes orders for work to be done, and
endeavors to build up business by promoting good
will.
(See Tool-room man)............................ .......................
Crib man_______
Curtain repairer..
(See Upholsterer)...... ....................................................
Cushion repairer.
Diagnostician___

Dispatcher..
Doorman...
Driver, service parts...




-do.
Diagnoses causes of faulty functioning of mechanical
parts where ordinary inspection fails to determine
the cause. Diagnosis is sometimes necessary even
after work specified by inspector has been finished.
Diagnostician often does additional necessary work.
Directs movements of car repairs through the shop
and keeps a record of the progress of each repair job.
car number, and gives stub to customer^checks
this information as the car is taken out.
Drives a truck or motor cycle to pick up from other
garages or sources purchased parts needed for im­
mediate use in repairing automobiles or to deliver
rom fstock room parts needed by other garages.

Classified by bureau
u n d e rOther employees.

Do.
Auto mechanics, general.
Car washers and polish­
ers.
Battery and radiator
men.
Blacksmiths, machinists,
and welders.
Body workers and up­
holsterers.

Do.
Do.
Auto mechanics, special­
ized.
Greasers.
Car washers and pol­
ishers.
Auto mechanics, special­
ized.
Other employees.

Do.
Chasers.
Other employees.

Do.
Body workers and up­
holsterers.
Do.
Inspectors and diagnos­
ticians.

Other employees.
Do.
Do.

87

88

WAGES AND HOUliS---- MOTOR-VEHICLE REPAIR GARAGES

Classified by bureau
under-—
Elevator operator....... .

Operates an elevator used for hoisting or lowering pas­
sengers or automobiles from one floor to another.
Carries messages or packages from place to place and
does various odd jobs in the shop or office.
Estimator..................... Inspects cars brought in for service by customers and
computes cost of service.
Fit-up man................... (See Assembler, new cars).............................................
Foremen, working____ Skilled workman who performs duties of a supervi­
sory nature and in addition does some shopwork
when necessary.
Gas-pump operator—
Pumps gasoline into tank of car, checks oil in crank
case, fills radiator with water if necessary, and often
cleans windshield, headlight lenses, license plates,
and tail-light lens.
Generator man............ . (See Ignition man).........................................................
Errand boy................. .

Glazier.......... .............. .

Cuts, fits, and installs glass in automobile windows
and windshields.
Greaser........................ . Oils and greases automobiles which are usually placed
on a lift or over a pit, and changes motor oil. (Some­
times known as a pitman.)
Helper, mechanic’s___ Semiskilled workman who assists the various skilled
mechanics in their work.
Ignition man_________ Does specialized work on ignition systems, starting
motors, generators, and automobile wiring.
Inspector_____ ______ _ Examines defective cars, specifies kind of repairs to
be made by the mechanic, and may give estimates
of job costs; also inspects repair job when it is com­
pleted.
Janitor.......... . .............. Sweeps garage floors and keeps premises clean......... .
Keeper, stock________ (See Stock keeper).................................................. ......
Machinist..................... Operates lathes, drill presses, or any other machine
tools necessary in the repair of metal parts of auto­
mobiles.
Maintenance man, (See Carpenter, building).......................................... .
building.
Manager, service-------- (See Service manager)................................ ................ .
Mechanic, auto, gen­ (See Auto mechanic, general)--------------------------------eral.
Mechanic’s helper____ (See Helper, mechanic’s)--------------------------------------Metal worker, body— (See Body worker, metal)__________ ______________

Other employees
Do.
Do.
Do.
Foremen, working.
Other employees.

Auto mechanics, special­
ized.
Other employees.
Greasers.
Helpers, mechanics’.
Auto mechanics, special­
ized.
Inspectors and diagnos­
ticians.
Porters and janitors.
Stock keepers.
Blacksmiths, machinists,
and welders.
Other employees.
Do.
Auto mechanics, general.
Helpers, mechanics'.
Body workers and up­
holsterers.
Other employees.

Makes up requisitions for supplies from stock room as
requested by mechanics and customers and keeps a
record of supplies issued.
Uses either hand brush or spray gun to paint, touch Painters.
Painter.
up, or repair the finish of automobiles and trucks.
(See Greaser)........................................................... ...... Greasers.
Pitman..
Uses special preparation or polishing material either Car washers and polish­
Polisher..
ers.
with a clotn and chamois by hand or an electrically
driven buffer to polish painted surface as well as
nickel or chromium F>arts of automobile bodies.
Cleans up after repair jobs and does any incidental Porters and janitors.
Porter..
work around garage which does not require skill.
Pump operator_______ (See Gas-pump operator)............................................. Other employees.
Do.
Makes arrangements with other garages or shops for
Purchaser for service.
special work to be sublet to them.
Radiator man............... Repairs and tests radiators......................................... Battery and radiator
men.
(See Painter)........................................................ ........ Painters.
Refinisher..
Removes old paint by applying paint remover and Helpers, mechanics'.
Sander.......
later scraping the old paint off with a blunt knife,
prepares surface for repainting by sanding, filing, or
grinding, and sands the various new coats of paint
as may be necessary.
Inspects, tests, and makes minor mechanical adjust­ Service men.
Service man..
ments and repairs, often, almost entirely, at the curb
where patrons with minor difficulties stop.
Supervises repair work done by mechanics to insure Other employees.
Service manager..
satisfactory service to customer.
Do.
Fills, packs, and ships out-of-town orders for auto
Shipper................
parts and accessories.
Assists stock keeper by helping wait on trade, run­ Stock clerks.
Stock clerk..........
ning errands for emergency purchases, and distrib­
uting or storing stock and supplies.
Has charge of stock room, maintains records of mate­ Stock keepers.
Stock keeper.
rials received and given out on orders, and usually
does the buying.
Order clerk..




TERMS OF OCCUPATIONS AND DEFINITIONS

Sweeper...
Tire men..

Tool-room man. ........
Touch-up man............
Towman and wrecker.
Trouble shooter..........

Upholsterer.............. .
Utility man...............
Washer, automobiles.
Watchman................
Welder.......................
Woodworker, body..
Working foreman___
W recker-.................

89

(See Janitor)................................................................. . Porters and janitors.
Removes casing and inner tube from rim, tests inner Other employees.
tube in water to determine location of leak and re­
pairs same; places casing on spreader, examines for
rim cuts, or other defects; removes nails, pebbles,
etc., from cuts in casing tread; reassembles tube,
casing and rim, inflates to proper air pressure, and
replaces on automobile; or may put on new casings
or put in new tubes, instead of repairing old ones.
Has charge of shop tools, keeps them in order, and
Do.
issues them to the various workmen as needed.
(See Painter).................................................................. Painters.
Tows wrecked or disabled machines to the shop, and Other employees.
wrecks cast-off machines, salvaging the parts of
value.
An auto mechanic, skilled usually in ignition and Auto mechanics, special­
ized.
carburetor work, who responds to emergency calls
from motorists experiencing motor trouble or whose
cars are stalled on the road, to make such minor re­
pairs or adjustments as may be necessary to get
them on their way again.
Repairs seats, sides, backs, tops, curtain, or other up­ Body workers and up­
holstery.
holsterers.
Semiskilled workman who assists the more skilled Other employees.
employees and fills in on work wherever needed.
(See Car washer).......................................................... . Car washers and polish­
ers.
Polices the premises in and around the garage at spe­ Other employees.
cified intervals, when it is not open for business, to
guard against fire, burglary, etc.
Operates acetylene or electric welding equipment to Blacksmiths, machinists,
repair demaged parts of automobiles.
and welders.
(See Body worker, wood)............................................. Body workers and up­
holsterers.
(See Foreman, working)............................................... Foremen, working.
(See Towman and wrecker)......................................... Other employees.







LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the
bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed.
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulletins
published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*) are
out of print.
Conciliation and arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York. [1913.]
*No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements. [1913.]
No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
♦No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
[1914.1
*No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite-coal industry. [1916.1
*No. 198. Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry. [1916.]
No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.]
No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.]
No. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
No. 287. National War Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921.]
♦No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
No. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. [1923.]
No. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.]
No. 468. Trade agreements, 1927.
No. 481. Joint industrial control in the book and job printing industry. [1928.]
Cooperation.
No. 313.
No. 314.
No. 437.
No. 531.

Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
Cooperative credit societies (credit unions) in America and in foreign countries.
Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricultural).
Consumers’, credit, and productive cooperative societies, 1929.

[1922.]

Employment and unemployment.
♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the United States. [1913.]
♦No. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y . [1915.]
♦No. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries. [1915.1
♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
♦No. 196. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, held in Minneapolis, Minn., January
19 and 20,1916.
♦No. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass.,
held May 10,1916.
♦No. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.]
♦No. 227. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,1917.
♦No. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. [1918.]
♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
♦No. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., M ay 9-11,1918.
♦No. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. [1922.]
No. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925.
No. 542. Report of the Advisory Committee on Employment Statistics. [1931.]
No. 544. Unemployment-benefit plans in the United States and unemployment insurance in foreign
countries. [1931.]
No. 553. Fluctuations in employment in Ohio, 1914 to 1929.
No. 555. Social and economic character of unemployment in Philadelphia, April, 1930.
No. 574. Technological changes and employment in the United States Postal Service. [1932.]
Foreign labor laws.
♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries.
No. 494. Labor legislation of Uruguay. [1929.]
No. 510. Labor legislation of Argentina. [1930.]
No. 529. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin American countries. [1930.]
No. 549. Labor legislation of Venezuela. [1931.]
No. 554. Labor legislation of Paraguay. [1931.]
No. 559. Labor legislation of Ecuador. [1931.]
No. 569. Labor legislation of Mexico. [1932.]
Housing.
*No. 158.
No. 263.
No. 295.
No. 545.

Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries.
Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.]
Building operations in representative cities, 1920.
Building permits in principal cities of the United States in [1921 to) 1930.

[1914.]

[1914.]

Industrial accidents and hygiene.
♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain-enameled sanitary ware factories.
[1912.]
No. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade. [1913.]




(I)

Industrial accidents and hygiene—Continued.
*No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection. [1913.]
*No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.J
*No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
*No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
*No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting of
buildings. [1916.]
*No. 201. Report of the committee on statistics and compensation insurance costs of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [1916.]
No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.]
*No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. [1917.]
No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.1
No. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
"‘No. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts). [1918.]
*No. 234. The safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
No. 236. Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.]
*No. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munitions Workers*
Committee. [1919.]
*No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.]
No. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
No. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
No. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.]
*No. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.]
*No. 291. Carbon monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
No. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
No. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919.
No. 306. Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be looked for in hazard­
ous occupations. [1922.]
No. 392. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus.
[1926.]
No. 427. Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925.
No, 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Washington. D. C.,
July 14-16, 1926.
No. 460. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.]
No. 466. Settlement for accidents to American seamen. [1928.]
No. 488. Deaths from lead poisoning, 1925-1927.
No. 490. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States to the end of 1927.
No. 507. Causes of death, by occupation. [1930.]
Industrial relations and labor conditions.
No. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
*No. 340. Chinese migrations with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
*No. 349. Industrial relations in the West Coast lumber industry. [1923.]
*No. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.]
No. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
No. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
No. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924.
No. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States.
No. 534. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930.

[1925.]

Labor laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
*No. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
No. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
No. 285. Minimum wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921.]
No. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
No. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.]
No. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
No. 370. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. [1925.]
No. 408. Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.]
No. 548. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1929-1930.
No. 552. Labor legislation, 1930.
Proceedings of annual conventions of the Association of Governmental Officials in Industry of the United
States and Canada. (Name changed in 1928 from Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the
United States and Canada.)
♦No. 266. Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
No. 307. Eighth, New Orleans, La., May 2-6,1921.
*No. 323. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26,1922.
,"No. 352. Tenth, Richmond, Va., May 1-4,1923.
*No. 389. Eleventh, Chicago, 111., May 19-23,1924.
*No. 411. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
*No. 429. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10,1926.
*No. 455. Fourteenth, Paterson, N. J., May 31 to June 3,1927.
*No. 480. Fifteenth, New Orleans, La., May 21-24,1928.
No. 508. Sixteenth, Toronto, Canada, June 4-7, 1929.
No. 530. Seventeenth, Louisville, Ky., May 20-23,1930.
No. 563. Eighteenth, Boston, Mass., May 18-22,1931.
Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and
Commissions.
No. 210. Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28,1916.
No. 248. Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25,1917.
No. 264. Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24-27,1918.
*No. 273. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26,1919.
No. 281. Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24,1920.
No. 304. Eighth, Chicago, 111., September 19-23, 1921.




(H)

Proceedings of annnal meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and
Commissions—Continued.
No. 333. Ninth, Baltimore. Md., October 9-13.1922
*No. 359. Tenth, St. Paul, Minn., September 24r-26,1923.
No. 385. Eleventh, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28,1924.
No. 395. Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
No. 406. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20,1925.
No. 432. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17,1926.
♦No. 456. Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29, 1927.
No. 485. Fifteenth, Paterson, N. J., September 11-14,1928.
No. 511. Sixteenth, Buffalo, N. Y ., October 8-11, 1929.
No. 536. Seventeenth, Wilmington, Del., September 22-26, 1930.
No. 564. Eighteenth, Richmond, Va.. October 5-8,1931.
No. 577. Nineteenth, Columbus, Ohio, September 26-29, 1932. (In press.)
Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Public Employment Services.
No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20,1913; second, Indianapolis, September 24 and 25,1914.
third, Detroit, July 1 and 2,1915.
*No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N. Y ., July 20 and 21,1916.
No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N. Y ., September 7-9,1921.
No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D. C., September 11-13,1922.
No. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N . Y ., September 15-17,1925.
No. 478. Fifteenth, Detroit, Mich., October 25-28,1927.
*No. 501. Sixteenth, Cleveland, Ohio, September 18-21,1928.
No. 538. Seventeenth, Philadelphia, Pa.. September 24-27,1929, and eighteenth, Toronto, Canada,
September 9-12,1930.
Productivity of labor.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. fl924.]
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry
11926.]
*No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. 11927.]
No. 474. Productivity of labor in merchant blast furnaces [1928.]
No. 475. Productivity of labor in newspaper printing. 11929.]
No. 550. Cargo handling and longshore labor conditions. [1932.1
No. 574. Technological changes and employment in the United States Postal Service. [1932.
Retail prices and cost of living.
*No. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
*No. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.]
*No. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.1
*No. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.]
No. 357. Cost of living in the United States. [1924.]
No. 369. The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.]
No. 495. Retail prices, 1890 to 1928.
Safety codes.
♦No. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
No. 350. Rules governing the approval of headlighting devices for motor vehicles.
*No. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders
No. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations.
♦No. 382. Code of lighting school buildings.
No. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
•No. 430. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
No. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calenders.
No. 451. Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping.
No. 463. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus—first revision.
No. 509. Textile safety code.
No. 512. Code for identification of gas-mask canisters.
No. 519. Safety code for woodworking plants, as revised 1930.
No. 527. Safety code for use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels, as revised 1930.
No. 556. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places. (Revision of 1930.)
No. 562. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.
Vocational and workers’ education.
*No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment [1915.]
*No. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.]
*No. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. 11917.]
No. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States [1920.]
No. 459. Apprenticeship in building construction. [1928.]
Wages and hours of labor.
♦No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and
waist industry of New York City. [1914.]
*No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. [1914.]
No. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
*No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.
*No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
•No. 204. Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.]
♦No. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915; With a glossary of
occupations.
♦No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.

152750°—83------ 7




(in)

Wages and hours of labor—Continued.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry.
[1926.]
♦No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and 1924.
No. 484. Wages and hours of labor of common street laborers, 1928.
No. 499. History of wages in the United States from colonial times to 1928.
No. 502. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1928.
No. 504. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1907 to 1928.
No. 514. Pennsylvania Railroad wage data. From report of Joint Fact Finding Committee in wage
negotiations in 1927.
No. 516. Hours and earnings in bituminous-coal mining, 1929.
No. 523. Wages and hours in the manufacture of airplanes and aircraft engines, 1929.
No. 525. Wages and hours of labor in the Portland cement industry, 1929.
No. 532. Wages and hours of labor in the cigarette manufacturing industry, 1930.
No. 533. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930.
No. 534. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930.
No. 537. Wages and hours of labor in the dyeing and finishing of textiles, 1930.
No. 539. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930.
No. 546. Wages and hours in rayon and other synthetic textile manufacturing, 1930.
No. 547. Wages and hours in cane-sugar refining industry, 1930.
No. 551. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1910 to 1930.
No. 557. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1930.
No. 560. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1930.
No. 566. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1931.
No. 567. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1931.
No. 568. Wages and hours of labor in the manufacture of silk and rayon goods, 1931.
No. 570. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1931.
No. 571. Wages and hours of labor in the furniture industry, 1910 to 1931.
No. 573. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mining, 1924 and 1931.
No. 575. Wages and hours of labor in air transportation, 1931.
No. 576. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1931.
Welfare work.
♦No. 123. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.]
No. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories. [1917.]
*No. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States.
No. 458. Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926.
Wholesale prices.
*No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries.
*No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July, 1927.
No. 572. Wholesale prices, 1931.
*

[1919.]

[1921.]

Women and children in industry.
*No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
•No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.1
♦No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
•No. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
•No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
•No. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments
and garment factories. [1914.]
•No. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. [1915.]
•No. 175. Summary of the report on conditions of woman and child wage earners in the United States.
[1915.]
•No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.]
♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. 1.1915.]
♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. [1916].
No. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.]
No. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]
•No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children. [1917.]
•No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. [1917.]
No. 253. Women in the lead industries. [1919.]
No. 467. Minimum wage legislation in various countries. [1928.]
No. 558. Labor conditions of women and children in Japan. [1931.]
Workmen’s insurance and compensation (including laws relating thereto).
•No. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
•No. 102. British nationai insurance act, 1911.
No. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law in Switzerland. [1912.]
No. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.]
♦No. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.]
•No. 212. Proceeding of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association of
Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D. C., December 5-9,1916.
♦No. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and 1918.
No. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration. [1922.]
No. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921.
♦No. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925.
No. 477. Public-service retirement systems, United States and Europe. [1929.]
No. 496. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of January 1,1929.
(With text of legislation enacted in 1927 and 1928.)
No. 529. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin American countries. [1930.




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Miscellaneous series.
*No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to M ay
1,1915.
No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. 11916.]
No. 242 Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
No. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. [1919.]
No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D. C. ]1921.]
No. 339. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. [1922.]
No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. 11923.]
No. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems. [1923.] ,
No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.]
No. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
No. 386. Cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countires. [1926.]
No. 461. Labor organizations in Chile. [1928.]
♦No. 465. Beneficial activities of American trade-unions. [1928.]
No. 479. Activities and functions of a State department of labor. [1928.
No. 483. Conditions in the shoe industry in Haverhill, Mass., 1928.
♦No. 489. Care of aged persons in the United States. [1929.]
No. 505. Directory of homes for the aged in the United States. [1929.]
No. 506. Handbook of American trade-unions: 1929 edition.
No. 518. Personnel research agencies: 1930 edition.
No. 541. Handbook of labor statistics: 1931 edition.
No. 558. Labor conditions of women and children in Japan. [1931]
No. 561. Public old-age pensions and insurance in the United States and in foreign countries. [1932.]
No. 565. Park recreation areas in the United States, 1930.




(V)


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