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UNITED STATES N. DOAK, Secretary OF LABOR
DEPARTMENT
W.
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES!
Ttf C |-1
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ • • • • JJOe O O 1
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR SERI.ES

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
IN THE BOOT AND SHOE
INDUSTRY
1910 TO 1930

FEBRUARY, 1932

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1932
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents* Washington, D. C.

- Price 20 cents

CONTENTS
Hours and earnings for the industry and each occupation, 1910 to 1930—
Average hours and earnings, 1928 and 1930, by sex and State__________
Average and classified earnings per hour, 1913 to 1930, by occupation
and sex__________________________________________________________
Classified earnings per hour for males, females, and both sexes_________
Regular or customary hours per week and day______ _________________
Changes in full-time hours and wage rates since September 1, 1928____
Overtime and Sunday and holiday work, 1930_______________________ 35
Bonus systems, 1930_______________________________________________
Index numbers of employment and pay rolls, 1923 to 1930_____________
Importance of the industry__________________________________________
Scope and method__________________________________________________
Occupations in the industry_________________________________________
General tables_____________________________________________________
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which employees worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, 1930, by
department, occupation, sex, and State________________________
T a b l e B.—Average and classified earnings per hour in 14 specified
occupations, 1930, by department, sex, and State_______________
T a b l e C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 speci­
fied occupations, 1930, by department, sex, and State_______ _____

zn

Page

1
19

21
28
29
35
36
38
38
41
43
44
45
72
82

BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

FEBRUARY, 1932

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY
1910 TO 1930

The 1930 figures in this report are the results of a study by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of wages and hours of labor of 55,158
wage earners of 161 representative factories in the boot and shoe
industry in the United States.
Summaries of average full-time hours per week, earnings per hour,
and full-time earnings per week are presented m Table 1 for the
industry and for each of the important occupations in the industry
for each of the years from 1910 to 1930 in which studies have been
made by the bureau. The averages at the beginning of the table are
for the industry, followed by averages for each of the important occu­
pations in the industry and also for the group of “other employees”
which includes employees in all occupations other than those in the
important occupations. Index numbers of these averages, with the
1913 average as the base, or 100 per cent, are given in the table for the
industry and for each occupation for which 1913 data are available.
HOURS AND EARNINGS FOR THE INDUSTRY AND EACH OCCUPATION,
1910 TO 1930

In 1930 the industry average of full-time hours per week, at 48.9,
was 0.2 hour per week, or 0.4 per cent less than in 1928; of average
earnings per hour, at 51.0 cents, was 2 cents per hour, or 3.8 per cent
less than in 1928; and of full-time earnings per week, at $24.94, was
$1.08, or 4.2 per cent less than in 1928.
Average full-time hours per week of males in 1930 in the various
occupations in the industry ranged from 44.7 for folders, to 50.4 for
stampers, linings and uppers, and of females ranged from 48.4 for
table workers, to 49.9 for closers-on, and cutters, vamp, and whole
shoe, machine.
Average earnings per hour of males in 1930 ranged in the different
occupations from 35.2 cents for stampers, linings, and uppers, to
$1,058 for turn sewers, and of females ranged from 30 cents for shoe
cleaners, to 50.6 cents for cutters, vamp, and whole shoe, machine.
Average full-time earnings per week of males in 1930 in the various
occupations ranged from $17.74 for stampers, linings, and uppers, to
$50.78 for turn sewers, and of females from $14.70 for shoe cleaners, to
$25.25 for cutters, vamp, and whole shoe, machine. In only 1 of the
29 occupations for which figures are shown for males and females

1

2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

separately, was the 1930 average full-time earnings per week of females
more than the average of males. The occupation is stampers, linings,
and uppers, and the difference was 90 cents per week. In each of the
other 28 occupations the average for males was more than the average
for females, and the difference by occupations ranged from $2.84 for
sole cementers to $27.45 for folders.
The industry averages in Table 1 for each of the years from 1910 to
1914 are for the wage earners in the selected occupations only and are
directly comparable one year with another over that period. Those
for the even years from 1914 to 1930 are for wage earners in all
occupations in the industry, including those in the selected occupa­
tions and the group of other employees at the end of the table, and are
also comparable one year with another but should not be compared
with the averages of wage earners in the selected occupations for any
of the years from 1910 to 1914. Two sets of averages are shown in the
table for 1914—one for the 18,567 wage earners in the selected occu­
pations in 91 establishments and the other for the 49,376 wage
earners in all occupations in the same 91 establishments. The average
earnings of the wage earners in the selected occupations were 31.4
cents per hour and $17.11 per full-time week, and of those in all
occupations were 24.3 cents per hour and $13.26 per full-time week.
The index numbers are for the purpose of furnishing comparable
data, one year with another from 1910 to 1930. The index numbers for
any year from 1910 to 1914 for selected occupations is the per cent
that the average for the year is of the 1913 average. The index for
any year from 1914 to 1930 for all occupations was computed by in­
creasing or decreasing the 1914 index for selected occupations in pro­
portion to the increase or decrease in the average for each succeeding
year as compared with the 1914 average for wage earners in all occu­
pations.
Average full-time hours per week decreased from year to year from
an index of 102.7 in 1910 to 88.2 in 1920, increased to 88.4 in 1922 to
88.9 in 1924 and 1926, to 89.2 in 1928, and then decreased to an
index of 88.8 in 1930.
Average earnings per hour increased from an index of 92.0 in 1910 to
93.9 in 1911, decreased to 92.6 in 1912, and then increased from year
to year to 232.0 in 1920, dropped to 207.9 in 1922, and again in­
creased from year to year to 220.3 in 1928, and then dropped to 212.0
in 1930.
Average full-time earnings per week increased from an index of 94.1
in 1910 to 95.8 in 1911, decreased to 93.2 in 1912, increased from year
to year to 203.7 in 1920, decreased to 184.7 in 1922, and again in­
creased from year to*year to 196.6 in 1928, and then dropped to 188.5
in 1930. Full-time earnings per week did not increase nor decrease
in the same proportion as average earnings per hour because of the
change from year to year in average full-time hours per week.

T able

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1930,
department, occupation, sex, and year
T H E IND USTRY

Occupation and sex

Num ­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Selected occupations only...................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
U914
All occupations________ __________ 11914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

60
81
81
88
91
91
136
143
117
104
106
154
157
161

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers
10,581
15,028
19,405
19,911
18,567
49,376
60,692
58,321
51,247
47,361
45,460
52,697
48,658
55,158

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

FuUtime
earn­
ings
per
week

56.5 $0,286 $16.07 102*7 92.0 94.1
56.3 .292 16.37 102.4 93.9 95.8
55.5 .288 15.91 100.9 92.6 93.2
55.0 .311 17.08 100.0 100.0 100.0
54.6 .314 17.11 99.3 101.0 100.2
54.7 .243 13.26
54.6 .259 14.11 99.1 107.5 106.6
52.3 .336 17.54 94.9 139.7 132.5
48.6 .559 26.97 88.2 232.0 203.7
48.7 .501 24.45 88.4 207.9 184.7
49.0 .516 25.28 88.9 214.1 190.9
49.0 .528 25.87 88.9 219.1 195.4
49.1 .530 26.02 89.2 220.3 196.6
48.9 .510 24.94 88.8 212.0 188.5

C U TTIN G D EPA RTM EN T
Gutters, vamp and whole shoe,
hand:
48 1,650 56.3 $0,319 $17.86 103.3 90.9 93.8
Male________ ___ -........................ 1910
64 2,066 56.2 .313 17.50 103.1 89.2 91.9
1911
1912
71 1,995 55.0 .322 17.58 100.9 91.7 92.3
1913
71 1,987 54.5 .351 19.05 100.0 100.0 100.0
1914
75 1,812 54.0 .366 19.66 99.1 104.3 103.2
1916 113 2,355 53.9 .375 20.12 98.9 106.8 105.6
1918 114 2,319 52.0 .484 25.06 95.4 137.9 131.5
91 2,050 47.8 .829 40.29 87.7 236.2 211.5
1920
1922
84 1,915 48.3 .787 38.11 88.6 224.2 200.1
1924
88 2,009 48.4 .838 40.56 88.8 238.7 212.9
1926 108 2,129 48.9 .808 39.51 89.7 230.2 207.4
1928 110 1,777 48.6 .824 40.05 89.2 234.8 210.2
1930 127 2,226 48.7 .796 38.77 89.4 226.8 203.5
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, ma­
chine:
17
235 57.8 .301 17.23 104.5 93.2 97.0
M ale—________________ ______ 1910
1911
270 57.0 .313 17.69 103.1 96.9 99.5
20
1912
33
490 55.8 .313 17.36 100.9 96.9 97.7
1913
33
549 55.3 .323 17.77 100.0 100.0 100.0
1914
40
642 55.3 .325 17.93 100.0 100.6 100.9
1916
67 1,059 54.9 .331 18.07 99.3 102.5 101.7
1918
66 1,202 52.2 .444 23.04 94.4 137.5 129.7
1920
56
942 48.9 .806 37.94 88.4 249.5 213.5
1922
48
867 49.2 .647 31.99 89.0 200.3 180.0
1924
54
777 49.9 .687 34.28 90.2 212.7 192.9
1926
54
782 49.4 .658 32.51 89.3 203.7 182.9
1928
59
882 48.7 .669 32.58 88.0 207.1 183.3
1930
58
958 49.4 .663 32.75 89.3 205.3 184.3
IQ
1920
Female..
73 53.8 .393 21.69
8
1922
62 52.5 .433 23.51
1924
4
45 53.2 .310 16.49
1926
15
58 49.9 .501 25.00
1928
10
43 50.3 .471 23.69
8
1930
30 49.9 .506 25.25
Cutters, trimmings, hand (including
dinkers and blockers):
87
884 48.0 .452 22.27
M ale_________________________ 1920
1922
79
747 48.2 .460 22.02
1924
85
736 48.8 .485 23.67
1926
95
837 49.3 .516 25.44
1928 101
733 48.9 .530 25.92
1930 101
671 48.9 .509 24.89
12 sets of averages are shown for this year—one for selected occupations and the other for all occupations
in the industry. The 1910 to 1914 averages for selected occupations are comparable one year with another,
as are those for all occupations one year with another from 1914 to 193Q.

4
T a ble

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
1.—Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
CU TTIN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Cutters, trimmings, hand—Contd.
Female. . .. .................... . . 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Cutters, trimmings, machine:
M ale.................................................... 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female ......... -..................... .
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Skivers, upper:
M a le..______ __________ . . . . . . . 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female............................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Cutters, linings, hand:
M ale_____________________ ____ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female___. . . . . . . __ ____ . . . . . . . . 1926
1928
Cutters, linings, machine:
M ale_______ _________ . . . . . . . . . 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female___. . . . . __________ . . . . . . 1928
1930

11
7
6
9
6
10
37
30
42
47
50
50
12
7
10
18
9
21
12
28
32
32
29
32
23
29
31
29
37
34
36
49
60
67
67
77
113
121
105
94
89
113
110
121
58
66
73
85
91
101
6
3
48
42
48
54
54
57
4
6

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Av0age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

38
42
29
26
19
22
163
116
187
173
259
225
66
37
47
74
36
87
74
136
156
134
116
124
96
87
77
100
96
98
104
338
374
371
439
446
591
697
611
539
474
552
541
664
233
229
285
373
338
466
42
6
111
98
133
197
179
350
7
21

50.1
48.0
52.1
49.2
49.7
49.0
49.1
50.3
50.3
49.8
49.9
50.3
50.7
49.8
49.9
49.0
49.4
49.0
54.7
54.8
54.7
54.5
54.4
54.6
50.9
48.1
47.6
48.0
48.4
48.1
48.3
57.0
57.0
55.0
54.6
54.1
54.0
51.7
48.7
48.6
49.0
48.9
49.1
48.8
47.8
48.0
48.4
49.1
48.7
48.6
48.9
49.7
49.2
49.6
49.2
49.0
49.2
49.2
49.7
49.7

$0,284
.299
.348
.404
.363
.405
.425
.398
.400
.439
.436
.467
.273
.323
.280
.378
.372
.411
.288
.292
.282
.299
.299
.311
.423
.596
.595
.619
.668
.653
.651
.175
.176
.193
.209
.209
.209
.267
.434
.430
.472
.486
.458
.447
.665
.684
.585
.642
.649
.630
.307
.416
.561
.552
.577
.523
.566
.481
.334
.394

$13.98
14.82
18.13
19.88
18.04
19.85
21.20
20.05
20.12
21.86
21.76
23.49
13.77
16.20
13.97
18.52
18.38
20.14
15.80
15.98
15.41
16.23
16.13
16.93
21.55
28.58
28.48
29.71
32.33
31.41
31.44
9.94
9.97
10.58
11.38
11.30
11.26
14.73
21.47
20.84
23.12
23.77
22.49
21.81
32.88
32.82
28.31
31.52
31.61
30.62
15.01
20.68
27.82
27.58
28.39
25.63
27.85
23.67
16.60
19.58

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

100.4
100.6
100.4
100.0
99.8
100.2
93.4
88.3
87.3
88.1
88.8
88.3
88.6
104.4
104.4
100.7
100.0
99.1
98.9
94.7
89.2
89.0
89.7
89.6
89.9
89.4

96.3 97.4
97.7 98.5
94.3 94.9
100.0 100.0
100.0 99.4
104.0 104.3
141.5 132.8
199.3 176.1
199.0 175.5
207.0 183.1
223.4 199.2
218.4 193.5
217.7 193.7
83.7 87.3
84.2 87.6
92.3 93.0
100.0 100.0
100.0 99.3
100.0 98.9
127.8 129.4
207.7 188.7
205.7 183.1
225.8 203.2
232.5 208.9
219.1 197.6
213.9 191.7

!

*

T able

fcOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
5
1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1930, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
SOLE LEATHER DEPARTMENT

Occupation and sex

Num ­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Cutters, outsole:
M ale________________ ________ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Cutters, insole:
M ale._______ ____________ ____ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Bounders, outsole or insole:
Male_____—__________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female___-__________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
Channelers, outsole or insole:
Male_________________________ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Cutters, top and heel lifts, machine:
Male___ ______________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Heel builders, hand:
M a l e ...............__. . . . . . . . . . . 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
FA tnftlA ,......................... .
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

31
36
42
42
47
64
76
60
52
53
70
60
48

143
146
177
196
225
345
416
331
264
269
273
285
293

56.6 $0,274 $15.44 102.2 90.4 92.5
56.6 .278 15.70 102.2 91.7 94.1
56.2 .281 15.75 101.4 92.7 94.4
55.4 .303 16.69 100.0 100.0 100.0
55.0 .302 16.64 99.3 99.7 99.7
54.7 .307 16.74 98.7 101.3 100.3
52.1 .405 21.02 94.0 133.7 125.9
48.4 .716 34.79 87.4 236.3 208.4
48.5 .706 34.09 87.5 233.0 204.3
48.4 .731 35.38 87.4 241.3 212.0
48.6 .716 34.80 87.7 236.3 208.5
49.3 .716 35.30 89.0 236.3 211.5
48.6 .744 36.16 87.7 245.5 216.7

40
43
38
43
54
49
73
76
80
103
89
96
8
4
3
2
44
57
72
75
77
107
122
108
89
88
100
93
98
47
43
33
32
33
25
15
15
14
10
11
8
8
9
7
8
5
9

184
193
298
217
349
353
161
158
153
182
166
187
12
5
5
4
138
157
200
196
213
255
268
240
198
207
199
193
198
232
364
265
106
131
211
58
49
21
18
32
29
60
34
20
19
23
44

48.4
48.3
48.4
48.8
49.2
49.0
48.8
48.9
49.1
49.1
49.8
49.3
48.5
48.8
49.1
52.5
56.3
56.3
55.9
55.4
55.2
55.0
52.5
48.8
49.3
49.1
48.9
49.5
49.3
49.0
48.5
4a 3
48.5
48.4
48.8
50.1
50.4
50.1
49.8
51.6
48.3
46.8
48.0
48.6
50.0
52.0
48.8

.694
.680
.709
.640
.644
.608
.576
.563
.591
.629
.627
.622
.411
.268
.443
.592
.296
.289
.298
.333
.331
.340
.430
.696
.649
.669
.709
.681
.686
.513
.537
.512
.515
.517
.554
.568
.495
.506
.483
.388
.541
.415
.429
.477
.500
.403
.424

33.55
32.77
34.32
31.23
31.68
29.79
28.21
27.48
29.02
30.88
31.22
3a 66
19.90
13.04
21.75
31.08
16.61
16.21
16.62
18.42
18.24
18.69
22.42
34.23
32.02
32.85
34.67
33.71
33.82
24.95
25.99
24.73
24.98
25.02
27.04
28.44
24.74
24.35
24.05
20.02
26.13
19.40
20.46
23.18
25.00
2a 96
2a 69

101.6
101.6
100.9
100.0
99.6
99.3
94.8
88.1
89.0
88.6
88.3
89.4
89.0

88.9 90.2
86.8 88.0
89.5 90.2
100.0 100.0
99.4 99.0
102.1 101.5
129.1 121.7
209.0 185.8
194.9 173.8
200.9 178.3
212.9 188.2
204.5 183.0
206.0 183.6

6
T a ble

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
SOLE LEATHER DEPARTMENT—Continued

Occupation and sex

Aver­
Num ­ Num­ age
ber of ber of fuUYear estab­
time
lish­ earn­ hours
ments ers per
week

Heel builders, machine (including
compresi
“dale-.
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Fem ale..
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

90
119
70
47
97
66

90
214
157
93
124
138

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
FuUtime
hours
per
week

49.2 $0,470 523.19
48.9 .497 24.29
48.6 .516 25.08
48.7 .527 25.66
48.7 .498 24.25
60.0 .483 24.15
47.3 .407 19.38
48.3 .411 19.85
48.2 .442 21.30
48.2 .466 22.46
48.1 .453 21.79
48.8 .418 20.40

F IT T IN G O R ST IT C H IN G D EPA R TM EN T
Stampers, linings or uppers (including
markers):
1920
Male-------------------------—
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female.
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Cementers and doublers, hand and
machine (including reinforcers,
pasters, and fitters):
Male_________________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female.
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Folders, hand and machine:
1922
M ale_________________
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female.
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Perforators:
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

12
11
15
15
7
18
91
90
92
121
123
129

19
14
28
34
15
32
281
426
444
670
570
728

14
8
12
18
5
21
107
89
95
118
124
130
5
6
10
11
10
74
71
93
121
119
130
16
28
16
12
18
18

21
29
24
42
9
58
1,133
913
1,031
1,426
1,318
1,636
20
38
61
51
70
769
826
840
1,002
928
1,208
22
60
42
30
34
41

48.1 $0,424 $20.59
49.4 .411 20.36
49.6 .407 20.19
49.2 .434 21.35
48.0 .621 29.81
50.4 .352 17.74
48.0 .393 19.02
48.6 .369 17.87
46.6 .380 17.71
48.8 .386 18.84
48.9 .400 19.56
48.8 .382 18.64
47.5
48.2
47.8
50.8
46.2
47.7
48.6
48.5
49.1
49.3
49.3
48.9
47.8
47.3
45.0
45.4
44.7
48.4
48.4
48.7
48.7
48.8
48.6
48.5
49.0
48.4
48.2
48.3
47.8

.453
.528
.585
.374
.636
.537
.353
.337
.328
.340
.330
.335
.715
.709
.957
.808
1.036
.419
.413
.420
.453
.416
.388
.510
.482
.512
.614
.648
.616

21.78
25.45
27.96
19.00
29.38
25.61
17.29
16.36
16.10
16.76 .
16.27
16.38
33.42
33.54
43.07
36.68
46.31
20.43
19.86
20.45
22.06
20.30
18.86
24.44
23.68
24.78
29.59
31.30
29.44

Earn­
ings
per
hour

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

T able

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
7
1.—Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1930, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
F IT T IN G O R ST IT C H IN G DEPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

erforators—Continued.
Female. . . . . . . . ____

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Tip stitchers:
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Closers or seamers:
Male ___________ . . . . . . . . . . . ___ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
Fem ale,._. . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Seam rubbers, hand and machine:
Male.................................................. 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Lining makers (including lining closers
and side and top facing stitchers):
1930
M a le ...___________________
Female_______________________ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Closers-on:
Female_______________________ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

82
84
90
102
96
99
36
79
79
83
124
125
106
92
86
84
69
58
10
8
5
7
8
97
92
98
119
117
122

218
422
295
372
269
272
134
335
337
348
442
437
355
362
284
327
260
300
19
12
11
21
16
441
409
383
413
379
398

48.2 $0,434 $21.19
48.3 .444 21.43
49.4 .430 21.24
49.5 .441 21.83
49.4 .424 20.95
49.1 .430 21.11
55.8 .205 11.38 102.0 93.6
54.9 .208 11.36 100.4 95.0
54.7 .219 11.94 100.0 100.0
54.2 .219 11.87 99.1 100.0
54.0 .231 12.45 98.7 105.5
51.8 .288 14.86 94.7 131.5
48.7 .447 21.77 89.0 204.1
48.6 .424 20.68 88.8 193.6
48.9 .475 23.23 89.4 216.9
48.7 .480 23.38 89.0 219.2
48.8 .440 21.47 89.2 200.9
48.7 .432 21.04 89.0 197.3
47.6 .628 30.72
48.2 .487 22.88
48.4 .496 24.00
47.9 .633 30.32
47.8 .624 29.83
48.8 .396 19.48
49.1 .370 18.23
49.3 .397 19.57
49.3 .403 19.87
49.5 .407 20.15
49.0 .404 19.80

16
18
15
14
13
11
69
49
53
62
50
75

28
26
20
21
20
18
157
99
88
100
106
159

48.7
47.6
48.4
48.1
48.0
47.4
49.1
48.5
47.8
48.9
49.3
49.4

6
53
72
80
80
84
126
132
112
97
100
124
129
137
49
65
74
74
77

12
585
721
764
854
852
1,004
1,138
1,149
1,055
1,012
1,170
1,046
1,075
262
350
344
349
347

.404
.348
.407
.481
.408
.409
.304
.302
.323
.341
.346
.333

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

95.3
95.1
100.0
99.4
104.3
124.5
182.3
173.2
194.6
195.8
179.8
176.2

19.23
16.48
19.70
23.14
19.58
19.39
15.21
14.79
15.44
16.67
17.06
16.45

47.5 .716 34.01
56.5 .164 9.19
56.5 .166 9.28
55.0 .170 9.31
54.6 .190 10.38
54.1 .189 10.21
53.9 .198 10.69
51.5 .241 12.35
48.6 .378 18.40
48.8 .362 17.71
49.3 .369 18.19
49.3 .413 20.36
49.2 .398 19.58
48.8 .395 19.28
57.1 .178 10.13
56.9 .180 10.18
55.0 .186 10.17
54.4 .194 10.53
53.9 .193 10.42

103.5
103.5
100.7
100.0
99.1
98.7
94.3
89.0
89.4
90.3
90.3
90.1
89.4
105.0
104.6
101.1
100.0
99.1

86.3
87.4
89.5
100.0
99.5
104.2
126.8
198.9
190.5
194.2
217.4
209.5
207.9
91.8
92.8
95.8
100.0
99.5

88.5
89.4
89.7
100.0
98.4
103.0
119.0
177.3
170.6
175.2
196.1
188.6
185.7
96.2
96.7
96.6
100.0
99.0

8
T able

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
1 .— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980,
department, occupation, sea;, and year—Continued

by

F IT T IN G OR ST IT C H IN G DEPA RTM EN T-—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Closers-on—Continued.
Female............................................... 1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Top stitchers (including undertrim­
mers and barber trimmers):
M a le..._______________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female............................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Binders (including top banders):
M ale___ _____________________ 1930
Female_______________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Buttonhole makers:
Female............................................... 1911
1912
1913
1914
1936
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Button fasteners:
Female.............................................. 1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

83
90
47
35
22
13
3
25

360
351
133
129
63
27
7
57

16
19
21
27
30
32
53
73
82
82
86
128
135
112
ICO
97
121
124
132
11
36
49
65
88
92
105
33
74
74
80
113
82
46
47
44
65
57
34
26
72
72
66
94
64
33
44
38
49
30
50

57
64
78
90
132
113
721
911
1,033
1,070
1,076
1,427
1,364
1,187
1,195
1,184
1,469
1,399
1,648
38
141
257
361
461
534
615
108
468
517
506
466
140
70
83
66
no
81
42
55
205
232
198
195
102
44
76
68
80
48
117

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

53.6 $0,204 $10.95 98.5
52.0 .237 12.28 95.6
49.4 .358 17.98 90.8
50.2 .394 19. as 92.3
49.5 .415 20.55 91.0
50.3 .336 16.90 92.5
49.1 .382 18.76 90.3
49.9 .366 18.26 91.7

105.2
122.2
184.5
203.1
213.9
173.2
196.9
188.7

104.0
116.6
170.8
188.8
195.2
160.5
178.2
173.4

103.1
104.2
100.5
100.0
99.3
98.9
94.5
88.8
89.4
90.3
90.3
90.5
89.9

89.5
92.4
94.3
300.0
101.0
104.8
135.7
213.3
206.2
220.0
231.4
214.8
199.5

93.2
95.5
94.2
100.0
100.1
103.5
127. a
191.3
184.5
198.5
208.9
194.2
179.3

102.9
100.7
100.0
98.5
98.4
95.4
90.1
90.7
90.1
89.8
89.9
90.3
102.9
100.9
100.0
98.0
98.2
96.2
88.3
89.8
90.1
91.2
90.9
88.9

90.7
92.8
100.0
102.1
111.9
135.1
201.5
190.2
195.9
228.9
206.7
201.0
78.9
88.9
100.0
99.0
106.0
115.6
194.0
169.8
166.8
195.5
176.9
167.8

92.7
93.1
100.0
100.9
109.9
128.5
183.8
171.7
176.7
205.7
186.1
181.8
81.1
89.3
100.0
96.5
103.4
110.1
169.5
150.8
149.8
177.6
160.1
148.0

48.0
48.1
47.9
47.1
47.9
47.2
56.3
56.9.
54.9
54.6
54.2
54.0
51.6
48.5
48.8
49.3
49.3
49.4
49.1
46.9
50.3
49.3
49.1
49.2
49.2
48.9
56.3
55.1
54.7
53.9
53.8
52.2
49.3
49.6
49.3
49.1
49.2
49.4
56.4
55.3
54.8
53.7
53.8
52.7
48.4
49.2
49.4
50.0
49.8
48.7

.639
.657
.675
.773
.830
.787
.188
.194
.198
.210
.212
.220
.285
.448
.433
.462
.486
.451
.419
.895
.455
.485
.478
.560
.492
.439
.176
.180
.194
.198
.217
.262
.391
.369
.380
.444
.401
.390
.157
.177
.199
.197
.211
.230
.386
.338
.332
.389
.352
.334

30.74
31.59
32.33
36.41
39.76
37.15
10.69
10.95
10.81
11.47
11.48
11.87
14.57
21.94
21.16
22.77
23.96
22.28
20.57
41.98
23.03
23.75
23.47
27.55
24.21
21.47
9.83
9.87
10.60
10.70
11.65
13.62
19.48
18.20
18.73
21.80
19.73
19.27
8.88
9.78
10.95
10.57
11.32
12.06
18.56
16.51
16.40
19.45
17.53
16.27

T a ble

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
9
1 .— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1930, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
FITTING OR STITCHING DEPARTMENT—Continued

Occupation and sex

Eyeleters (including hookers):
Male......................................

Female..

Vampers:
M ale..

Female__

Barrers (including tackers):
Female______________
Tongue stitchers:
Female........
Fancy stitchers:
Male..............
Female..

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1926
1928
1930
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928

31
31
33
>39
36
46
92
92
71
69
66
62
71
33
51
66
66

65
82
83
55
52
49
63
54
64
71
79
79
85
121
132
111
98
99
123
119
125

63
62
68
65
78
16
20
32
43
75
86
112
124
133

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

75
73
68
74
59
79
223
232
160
119
128
110
135
343
483
554
534
624
573
400
357
304
294
270
347
1,124
1,088
1,072
1,116
1,383
1,477
1,313
1,142
1,053
1,170
1,022
1,164
138
110
106
96
57
194
205
159
223
203
267
46
135
165
179
764
1,467
2,398
2,534
3,265

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

48.4
48.3
49.2
49.0
48.8
48.7
51.7
48.7
49.2
49.1
48.7
49.7
49.4
55.5
55.5
55.0
54.8
54.6
54.6
51.5
47.9
47.8
48.2
48.2
48.2
48.2
56.9
56.5
55.1
54.7
54.1
53.9
51.7
48.8
49.0
49.4
49.1
49.3
49.1
48.5
48.7
49.1
49.5
49.5
49.5
48.8
48.7
49.0
48.8
49.0
49.0
47.4
47.2
46.7
47.7
48.6
49.1
49.4
49.4
49.1

$0,582
.514
.578
.557
.588
.503
.442
.415
.444
.473
.435
.408
.293
.315
.306
.320
.312
.333
.442
.700
.628
.707
.741
.727
.672
.230
.243
.254
.312
.506
.480
.519
.531
.505
.465

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week
$28.08
24.64
28.44
27.29
28.69
24.50
13.64
21.61
20.26
21.80
23.04
21.62
20.16
16.24
17.42
16.76
17.47
17.04
18.14
22.73
33.85
30.09
34.08
35.72
35.04
32.39
13.46
13.46

12.68

.246 13.45

.393
.395
.343
.362
.413
.401
.386
.371
,763
.778
.834
.459
.444
.451
.452
.423
.400

13.14
13.66
16.11
25.09
23.54
25.64
26.07
24.90
22.83
19.21
17.93
19.30
19.26
19.45
19.55
16.95
17.75
20.24
19.57
18.91
18.18
36.17
36.72
38.95
22.50
21.54
22.14
22.33
20.90
19.64

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
earn­
ings
per

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

101.3
101.3
100.4
100.0
99.6
99.6
94.0
87.4
87.2

93.0
99.7
95.9
100.0
97.5
103.8
130.1
193.8
172.2
195.1
204.5
200.6
210.0 185.4
96.7 100.1
96.7 100.1
93.5 94.3
100.0 100.0
98.8 97.7
103.3 101.6
126.8 119.8
205.7 186.5
195.1 175.0
211.0 190.6
215.9 193.8
205.3 185.1
189.0 169.7

91.6
98.4
95.6
100.0
97.5
104.1
138.1
218.8
196.3
88.0 220.9
88.0 231.6
88.0 227.2
88.0

104.0
103.3
100.7
100.0
98.9
98.5
94.5
89.2
89.6
90.3
89.8
90.1

10
T able

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
1. —Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sea;, and year—Continued
FITTING OR STITCHING D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Backstay stitchers (including back
strappers) .
1910
Female
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Table workers:
Female_______________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Lacare^before lasting):
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
Female___-___________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
-

49
67
78
78
82
126
124
98
83
67
86
77
82
47
86
80
98
88
113
9
8
7
7
6
86
71
67
72
83
87

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Index numbers
Aver­
(1913=100.0)
age
full­
time
Fidlearn­ FuU- Earn­ time
time
ings hours ings earn­
per
per ings
week
hour

307
392
426
389
432
675
660
428
402
267
337
279
317
332
797
700
893
672
972
14
12
13
10
6
193
142
124
112
128
152

56.6
56.5
55.1
54.7
54.3
54.0
51.9
48.7
48.8
49.2
48.8
49.1
49.1
47.3
48.7
48.6
48.4
48.3
48.4
48.1
47.8
48.0
48.6
49.7
48.5
48.5
49.3
48.9
49.3
49.1

$0,177
.185
.187
.195
.197
.213
.261
.417
.378
.413
.433
.419
.393
.327
.285
.302
.303
.318
.314
.441
.325
.430
.356
.428
.348
.367
.399
.386
.373
.355

$9.95
10.42
10.31
10.62
10.68
11.47
13.49
20.52
18.47
20.32
21.13
20.57
19.30
15.78
13.85
14.68
14.67
15.36
15.20
21.48
14.39
20.64
17.30
21.27
16.94
17.86
19.67
18.88
18.39
17.43

$0,456
.426
.455
.491
.477
.465
.274
.238
.272
.279
.291
.398
.638
.567
.554
.596
.577
.568
.500
.434
.399
.422
.501
.452

$22.05
20.78
21.98
24.16
23.52
22.79
15.14
13.21
15.01
15.37
16.02
20.85
31.49
27.94
27.31
29.26
28.27
27.83
24.20
21.35
19.95
20.93
25.00
22.33

103.5
103.3
100.7
100.0
99.3
98.7
94.9
89.0
89.2
89.9
89.2
89.8
89.8

90.8
94.9
95.9
100.0
101.0
109.2
133.8
213.8
193.8
211.8
222.1
214.9
201.5

100.0
100.7
100.0
99.8
99.3
94.9
87.7
88.4
89.0
88.6
88.4
88.4

100.7 100.9
87.5 88.0
100.0 100.0
102.6 102.4
107.0 106.7
146.3 138.9
234.6 209.8
208.5 186.1
203.7 1181.9
219.1 194.9
212.1 188.3
208.8 185.4

93.7
98.1
97.1
100.0
100.6
108.0
127.0
193.2
173.9
191.3
199.0
193.7
181.7

LA STIN G D EPA R TM EN T
Last pickers or sorters (including
last casers):
Male................................................... 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Assemblers, for pulling-over machine:
M ale................................................... 1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female..
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

72
81
85
106
105
112
17
50
54
64
97
102
88
70
81
113
116
125
23
15
8
9
10
9

271
238
262
291
245
308
218
542
597
708
801
726
691
593
421
541
537
624
77
58
33
36
26
32

48.3
48.8
48.3
49.2
49.3
49.0
55.4
55.8
55.4
55.3
55.0
52.6
48.6
49.0
49.3
49.1
49.0
49.0
48.5
49.0
50.0
49.6
49.9
49.4

11
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
Table 1.—Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 19S0t by
department, occupation, sexy and year—Continued
LA STIN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num ­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Pullers-over, band:
Male................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Pullers-over, machine:
Male................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Side lasters, hand:
Male................................................... 1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Side lasters, machine:
Male................................................... 1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Bed-machine operators:
Male................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Hand-method lasting machine opera­
tors:
Male___ ------------------------ -— — 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914

36
46
62
62
49
46
36
26
16
14
11
13
9
31
43
60
60
71
116
124
101
91
92
121
120
130
20
20
40
43
42
31
40
38
31
23
16
16
46
67
61
66
64
93
104
117
36
64
66
66
70
93
104
93
86
92
121
117
130
33
39
39
41
41

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Full­
Earn­ time
ings earn­
per ings
hour
week

784
897
1,036
937
749
643
344
211
97
60
47
32
23
261
328
402
421
443
640
612
662
664
467
676
637
603
224
237
368
394
446
362
388
287
128
148
166
167
291
292
322
338
402
616
660
736
613
793
1,127
1,220
1,173
1,336
1,303
1,252
1,167
1,082
1,279
1,207
1,478

66.4
66.3
66.3
66.3
54.9
64.8
51.7
47.0
46.7
49.8
47.6
48.4
49.3
57.4
56.1
55.8
56.4
55.5
55.0
52.6
48.8
48.9
49.3
49.2
49.2
49.1
54.2
54.0
54.1
51.9
48.2
47.8
48.1
47.8
48.2
49.3
56.1
54.3
54.9
52.2
48.9
49.3
49.5
49.5
49.3
49.0
66.4
56.1
65.6
55.2
55.1
56.0
52.1
48.7
48.9
49.1
49.1
49,2
49.1

$0,291
.312
.316
.333
.350
.347
.478
.803
.813
.704
.828
.710
.683
.320
.325
.312
.351
.356
.377
.512
.837
.732
.737
.766
.740
.715
.303
.308
.325
.440
.708
.614
.690
.740
.690
.637
.323
.343
.339
.468
.772
.620
.617
.675
.661
.663
.311
.321
.300
.330
.321
.349
.500
.789
.668
.692
.700
.682
.657

$16.38
17.50
17.41
18.37
19.21
18.99
24.62
38.17
38.29
34.71
39.33
34.36
33.67
18.37
18.18
17.39
19.42
19.66
20.70
26.77
41.08
36.06
36.34
37.69
36.41
36.11
16.40
16.59
17.57
22.74
35.35
29.28
33.19
35.37
33.26
31.40
18.23
18.54
18.63
24.35
37.68
30.79
30.54
33.41
32.59
32.49
17.50
17.96
16.67
18.21
17.68
19.13
25.98
38.61
32.78
33.98
34.37
33.56
32.26

102.0
101.8
100.0
100.0
99.3
99.1
93.5
85.0
84.4
89.2
85.9
87.6
89.2
103.6
101.3
100.7
100.0
100.2
99.3
94.9
88.1
88.3
89.0
88.8
88.8
88.6
100.0
99.6
99.8
95.8
88.9
88.2
88.7
88.2
88.9
91.0
100.0
96.8
97.9
93.0
87.2
87.9
88.2
88.2
87.9
87.3
102.2
101.6
100.7
100.0
99.8
99.6
94.4
88.2
88.6
88.9
88.9
89.1
. 88.9

87.4
93.7
94.9
100.0
105.1
104.2
143.5
241.1
244.1
211.4
248.6
213.2
205.1
91.2
92.6
88.9
100.0
101.4
107.4
145.9
238.6
208.5
210.0
218.2
210.8
203.7
100.0
101.7
107.8
146.2
233.7
202.6
227.7
244.2
227.7
210.2
100.0
106.2
105.0
144.9
239.0
192.0
191.0
209.0
204.6
205.3
94.2
97.3
90.9
100.0
97.3
105.8
151.5
239.1
202.4
209.7
212.1
206.7
199.1

89.2
95.8
94.8
100.0
104.6
103.4
134.0
207.8
208.4
188.9
214.1
187.0
183.3
94.6
93.6
89.5
100.0
101.2
106.6
137.8
211.5
186.7
187.1
194.1
187.5
18a 8
100.0
101.2
107.1
138.7
215.5
178.5
202.4
215.7
202.8
191.5
100.0
101.7
101.6
133.6
206.7
168.9
167.5
183.3
178.8
178.2
96.1
98.6
91.5
100.0
97.1
105.1
142.7
212.0
180.0
186.6
188.7
184.2
177.2

325 57.4
477 57.0
478 55.8
449 55.3
466 55.5

.306
.316
.324
.357
.348

17.49
17.96
18.03
19.72
19.26

103.8
103.1
100.9
100.0
100.4

85.1
88.5
90.8
100.0
97.6

88.7
91.1
91.4
100.0
97.6

12
T a b le

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
1.— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980t by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
LA STIN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Hand-method lasting machine opera­
tors—Continued.
M ale.................................................... 1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Turn lasters, hand (including first
and second lasters):
M ale_________________________ 1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Turn lasters, machine:
M ale________________ _____ ___ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
Turn sewers:
M ale____ _____________________ 1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Tack pullers, hand and machine:
Male_______-_______-_____-___ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female____— ___ -___ -________ 1920
1922
1924
1926

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

99.6
95.7
88.4
89.2
87.7
88.4
85.4
89.3

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

66
59
30
27
12
14
9
19

556
411
213
178
97
68
101
74

55.1 $0,361 $19.82
52.9 .479 25.22
48.9 .795 39.06
49.3 .735 36.38
48.5 .694 33.66
48.9 .700 34.23
47.2 .856 40.40
49.4 .673 33.25

101.0
134.2
222.7
205.9
194.4
196.1
239.8
188.5

100.5
127.9
m i
184.5
170.7
173.6
204.9
168.6

28
28
31
42
35
33
30
31
35
31
24
10
7
7
5
3
29
25
30
25
30
28
28
15
70
62
79
98
95
103
7
5
2
3

452
524
689
974
752
666
571
496
726
706
789
102
31
26
86
50
81
67
71
55
63
66
66
38
425
348
331
321
284
315
21
23
7
8

55.6 .275 15.25 101.0 88.7
55.0 .310 17.00 100.0 100.0
54.4 .324 17.56 98.9 104.5
54.9 .365 20.07 99.8 117.7
53.8 .453 24.34 97.8 146.1
47.1 .880 42.49 85.6 283.9
48.5 .732 35.76 88.2 236.1
48.2 .790 38.08 87.6 254.8
47.7 .870 41.50 86.7 280.6
47.9 .831 39.80 87.1 268.1
46.5 .780 36.27 84.5 251.6
48.6 .756 37.35
48.1 .630 30.50
48.5 .604 29.29
48.3 .835 40.33
52.0 .575 29.90
54.4 .442 24.00
53.7 .500 26.75
49.1 .926 46.26
49.8 .801 40.14
49.3 .819 40.38
48.9 .857 41.91
49.6 .873 43.30
48.0 1.058 50.78
47.5 .459 22.12
48.6 .423 20.61
48.9 .436 21.32
49.3 .462 22.78
49.2 .448 22.04
49.0 .415 20.34
49.0 .349 16.84
48.9 .299 14.57
50.0 .375 18.75 ............I............
i
49.0 .298 14.60

89.7
100.0
103.3
118,1
143.2
249.9
210.4
224.0
244.1
234.1
213.4

B O TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T
Goodyear welters (including inseam ers) :
M ale_____________ ____________ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

45
60
70
70
74
89
93
80
74
76
92
86
92

275
392
466
472
439
467
469
415
375
336
358
328
377

56.2 $0.437 $24.49 101.6 87.2
56.0 .452 25.21 101.3 90.2
55.8 .445 25.75 100.9 88.8
55.3 .501 27.60 100.0 100.0
55.2 .503 27.68 99.8 100.4
54.9 .520 28.50 99.3 103.8
53.3 .620 32.29 94.6 123.8
48.6 .974 47.81 87.9 194.4
48.4 .889 43.30 87.5 177.4
48.7 .929 45.24 88.1 185.4
48.7 .938 45.68 88.1 187.2
49.1 .890 43.61 88.8 177.6
49.0 .820 40.18 88.6 163.7

88.7
91.3
89.7
100.0
100.3
103.3
117.0
173.2
156.9
163.9
165.5
158.0
145.6

T a b le

13
BOOT AND SHOE INDCTSTBY, 1910 TO 1930
1 .— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT—Continued

Occupation and sex

Welt beaters and slashers:
Male________________
Bottom fillers, hand and machine:
Male_________ -_____________

Num ­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

Sole cementers, hand and machine
(including bottom cementers):
Male..............— -— --------------- 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female..
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Sole layers, hand and machine:
1920
Male____________________
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Bough rounders:
1910
M ale_______
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Channel openers and channel closers
(including channel layers, channel
turners, channel cementers, and lip
turners):
M ale___ . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . . _____ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female..
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

66555°—32------2

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

70
63
61
80
63
72
69
69
66
82
81
95

156
107
107
147
118
152
131
125
126
158
139
198
134
143
110
145
110
176
30
10
14
9
9
51
249
238
247
284
237
280
165
221
273
265
252
296
285
240
228
212
241
226
278

48.8
48.8
49.0
48.9
49.1
49.2
48.9
50.3
50.7
48.4
50.8
49.1
48.6
4a 5
49.2
49.1
49.0
49.2
56.7
56.3
55.9
55.2
55.1
54.9
52.4
48.7
48.7
48.7
48.8
48.7
49.1

87
73
75
90
92
98
17
14
4
20
16
28

280
255
243
303
287
336
44
29
10
68
43
65

49.0 .488 23.75
49.2 .443 21.76
48.9 .480 23.47
49.4 .508 25.10
49.4 .512 25.29
48.9 .506 24.74
49.8 .338 17.66
50.0 .380 19.64
50.8 .253 12.85
48.9 .444 21.71
4& 8 .417 20.35
48.9 .417 20.39

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

102.7
102.0
101.3
100.0
99.8
99.5
94.9

81.7
87.7
87.5

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

48.6 $0,588 $28.85
48.9 .531 25.98
48.8 .533 25.26
48.8 .569 27.77
49.9 .508 25.35
49.1 .524 25.73
48.7 .568 27.20
48.7 .500 24.45
49.1 .511 25.09
49.2 .507 24.94
49.3 .512 25.24
49.3 .445 21.94

70
68
59
70
61
76
20
8
9
6
5
17
77
79
79
98
113
114
44
60
69
69
73
91
97
82
75
76
91
84
88

Index numbers
(1913*100.0)

.425
.408
.432
.456
.425
.425
.336
.343
.373
.317
.342
.368
.697
.644
.600
.636
.656
.594
.406
.436
.435
.497
.503
.491
.593
.928
.818
.846
.825
.815
.751

20.85
20.11
21.17
22.30
20.87
20.91
16.33
17.41
18.91
15.34
17.37
18.07
33.87
31.23
29.52
31.23
32.14
29.22
22.85
24.44
24.21
27.37
27.64
26.89
31.99
45.68
40.00
41.20
40.26
39.69
36.87

83.5
89.3
88.5
100.0 100.0
101.2
101.0
98.8 98.2
119.3 116.9
88.2 186.7
166.9
88.2 164.6 146.1
88.2 170.2 150.5
88.4 166.0 147.1
88.2 164.0 145.0
88.9 151.1 134.7

14

WAGES AND HOTJRS OF LABOR
Table 1.—Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 19S0, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
B O TTO M IN G DEPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

FuUtime
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

45
61
70
70
74
97
105
86
77
79
98
89
100
28
30
32
32
39
61
62
45
39
34
51
50
54

366
529
627
642
594
656
680
599
543
505
517
461
576
95
129
131
136
147
210
203
158
138
104
159
138
151

56.3
55.9
55.9
55.2
55.1
54.8
52.4
48.6
48.6
48.8
48.9
48.9
49.1
57.1
56.5
56.1
55.6
55.7
55.2
52.9
49.4
50.2
50.3
50.1
49.4
49.6

$0,374
.387
.376
.399
.410
.437
.527
.818
.755
.773
.776
.766
.727
.290
.296
.286
.319
.338
.349
.449
.711
.659
.644
.687
.755
.684

$20.97
21.56
20.96
21.96
22.57
23.87
27.47
40.07
36.67
37.72
37.95
37.46
35.70
16.46
16.63
16.00
17.70
18.77
19.51
23.56
35.53
33.88
32.39
34.42
37.30
33.93

102.0
101.3
101.3
100.0
99.8
99.3
94.9
88.0
88.0
88.4
88.6
88.6
88.9
102.7
101.6
100.9
100.0
100.2
99.3
95.1
88.8
90.3
90.5
90.1
88.8
89.2

93.7
97.0
94.2
100.0
102.8
109.5
132.1
205.0
189.2
193.7
194.5
192.0
182.2
90.9
92.8
89.7
100.0
106.0
109.4
140.8
222.9
206.6
201.9
215.4
236.7
214.4

95.5
98.2
95.4
100.0
102.8
108.7
125.1
182.5
167.0
171.8
172.8
170.6
162.6
93.0
94.0
90.4
100.0
106.0
110.2
133.1
200.7
191.4
183.0
194.5
210.7
191.7

63
45
48
55
55
68
36
75
75
94
96
97
119
122
124
31
67
72
84
130
137
111
98
98
102
92
99
18
33
27
38
73
80
87

156
108
91
111
117
168
102
268
289
323
318
315
345
318
390
115
254
291
324
440
419
382
348
290
319
248
262
248
533
245
403
713
798
891

49.0
48.7
49.1
48.8
49.1
49.1
55.8
55.9
55.2
48.9
49.0
49.1
49.4
49.3
49.1
55.8
56.2
55.3
55.3
55.0
52.8
48.7
48.9
49.3
49.1
49.0
49.2
54.1
47.4
47.9
48.1
48.8
49.4
48.4

.558
.498
.558
.528
.533
.491
.297
.286
.304
.650
.580
.597
.655
.648
.586
.403
.378
.424
.402
.430
.502
.832
.759
.768
.729
.764
.689
.477
.899
.706
.690
.823
.829
.746

27.16
24.45
27.40
25.77
26.17
24.11
16.49
15.90
16.74
32.09
28.43
29.31
32.36
31.95
28.77
22.52
2L17
23.32
22.18
23.59
26.37
40.73
37.15
37.86
35.79
37.44
33.90
25.61
42.92
33.54
33.19
40.16
40.95
36.11

101.1
101.3
100.0
88.6
88.8
88.9
89.5
89.3
88.9
100.9
101.6
100.0
100.0
99.5
95.5
88.1
88.4
89.2
88.8
88.6
89.0

97.7
94.1
100.0
213.8
190.8
196.4
215.5
213.2
192.8
95.0
89.2
100.0
94.8
101.4
118.4
196.2
179.0
181.1
171.9
180.2
162.5

98.5
95.0
100.0
191.7
169.8
175.1
193.3
190.9
171.9
96.6
90.8
100.0
95.1
101.2
113.1
174.7
159.3
162.3
153.5
160.5
145.4

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Goodyear stitchers*
M ale................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
M cKay sewers:
Male................................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Stitch separators (including stitch
wheelers):
Male................................................... 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Levelers:
M ale................................................... 1911
1912
1913
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Heelers, leather:
M ale................................................... 1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Heelers, wood:
Male................................................... 1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

______1............

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

T able

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
15
1.—Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
BOTTOM ING DEPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

55
189
71
246
252
81
81
277
85
277
121
367
128
350
103
284
94
246
96
213
103
234
94
198
232
101
35
76
75
163
75
171
82
173
111
232
113
218
195
100
80
161
79
131
124
78
72
116
132
68
55
573
71
765
81
827
81
838
85
886
129 1,081
138 1,015
112
828
789
100
102
686
808
127
131
754
895
140
79
153
68
96
32
26
30
58
31
39
39
60

56.6
56.5
56.0
55.4
55.2
54.9
52.6
48.8
48.9
49.1
49.2
49.3
49.2
56.1
55.9
55.4
55.3
54.8
52.9
48.8
49.2
48.9
49.1
48.8
48.2
56.4
56.5
55.9
55.4
55.1
54.9
12.5
48.7
48.9
49.1
49.2
49.1
49.1
49.2
49.2
48.2
49.0
49.1
48.8

$0,410
.415
.420
.448
.433
.449
.535
.891
.853
.793
.736
.716
.670
.291
.295
.313
.303
.319
.412
.721
.587
.588
.631
.618
.586
.382
.389
.380
.410
.400
.423
.545
.904
.764
.767
.785
.764
.722
.601
.547
.563
.582
.618
.550

$23.03
23.32
23.39
24.74
23.88
24.55
27.99
44.26
38.04
38.94
36.21
35.30
32.96
16.23
16.36
17.27
16.71
17.50
21.70
35.38
29.05
28.75
30.98
30.16
28.25
21.44
21.73
21.15
22.66
22.01
23.16
28.44
44.19
37.36
37.66
38.62
37.51
35.45
29.57
26.95
27.14
28.52
30.34
26.84

Num ­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Heel trimmers or shavers:
M ale_________________________ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Heel breasters:
Male_________________________ 1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Edge trimmers:
M a le ......__. . . . . . _______. . . . . . 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Sluggers:
M ale_________________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

Fufltime
earn­
ings
per
week

102.2
102.0
101.0
100.0
99.6
99.1
94.9
88.1
88.3
88.6
88.8
89.0
88.8
101.3
100.9
100.0
99.8
98.9
95.5
88.1
88.8
88.3
88.6
88.1
87.0
101.8
102.0
100.9
100.0
99.5
99.1
948
87.9
88.3
88.6
88.8
88.6
88.6

91.5
92.6
93.8
100.0
96.7
100.2
119.4
198.9
190.4
177.0
164.3
159.8
149.6
93.0
94.2
100.0
96.8
101.9
131.6
230.4
187.5
187.9
201.6
197.4
187.2
93.2
94.9
92.7
100.0
97.6
103.2
132.9
220.5
186.3
187.1
191.5
186.3
176.1

93.1
94.3
94.5
100.0
96.5
99.2
113.1
178.9
153.8
157.4
146.4
142.7
133.2
94.0
94.7
100.0
96.8
101.3
125.7
204.9
168.2
166.5
179.4
174.6
163.6
94.6
95.9
93.3
100.0
97.1
102.2
125.5
195.0
164.9
166.2
170.4
165.5
156.4

55.8 $0,294 $16.37 100.9 92.5
56.0 .289 16.09 101.3 90.9
55.3 .318 17.52 100.0 100.0
55.3 .309 17.05 100.0 97.2
54.9 .327 17.92 99.3 102.8
52.7 .424 22.20 95.3 133.3
48.8 .726 35.69 88.2 228.3
49.0 .630 30.95 88.6 198.1
49.4 .614 30.33 89.3 193.1
49.4 .640 31.62 89.3 201.3
49.5 .651 32.22 89.5 204.7
49.1 .620 30.44 88.8 195.0
48.8 .695 33.92

93.4
91.8
100.0
97.3
102.3
126.7
203.7
176.7
173.1
180.5
183.9
173.7

F IN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T
Buffers (including bottom scourers):
36
174
M ale__. . . . . _____. . . __________ 1911
1912
72
338
72
1913
358
1914
81
396
535
1916 129
1918 129
476
449
1920 111
1922
98
408
1924
99
361
434
1926 124
1928 122
356
364
1930 126
Naumkeag operators:!
122
Male................................................... 1930
71
1 Included with “ other employees" in previous years.

16
T able

•WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
1 .— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
FINISHING DEPARTMENT—Continued
Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Occupation and sex

Edge setters:
M ale........

Heel scourers ,
ond scourers):
M ale..

and sec-

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

54
68
78
77
86
131
138
112
99
102
129
133
140

560
722
789
826
872
966
924
845
779
681
765
738
794

56.3 $0,378 $20.94 101.8 90.8
56.3 .380 21.29 101.8 92.5
55.8 .379 21.05 100.9 92.2
55.3 .411 22.70 100.0 100.0
55.2 .410 22.54 99.8 99.8
54.9 .414 22.62 99.3 100.7
52.7 .525 27.57 95.3 127.7
48.7 .873 42.84 88.1 212.4
48.9 .757 37.02 88.4 184.2
49.1 .756 37.12 88.8 183.9
49.1 .766 37.61 88.8 186.4
49.1 .755 37.07 88.8 183.7
49.0 .706 34.59 88.6 171.8

92.2
93.8
92.7
100.0
99.3
99.6
121.5
188.7
163.1
163.5
165.7
163.3
152.4

1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

35
78
78
84
125
129
108
97
98
104
97
101

125
342
364
372
504
470
451
421
378
342
312
352

548
56.0
55.4
55.3
55.0
52.7
48.7
48.9
49.2
49.2
49.1
49.2

.291
.289
.314
.310
.346
.438
.726
.607
.621
.623
.589
.567

16.12 98.9 92.7
16.09 101.1 92.0
17.35 100.0 100.0
17.10 99.8 98.7
18.94 99.3 110.2
22.92 95.1 139.5
35.38 87.9 231.2
29.79 88.3 193.3
30.55 88.8 197.8
30.65 88.8 198.4
28.92 88.6 187.6
27.90 88.8 180.6

92.9
92.7
100.0
98.6
109.2
132.1
203.9
171.7
176.1
176.7
166.7
160.8

33
74
75
84
127
128
109
92
91
104
91
104
5

106
254
280
283
367
325
304
300
265
275
236
308
14

55.6
56.1
55.5
55.5
55.2
52.8
48.7
48.9
50.0
49.3
49.3
49.3
49.6

.306
.292
.317
.322
.325
.433
.704
.584
.584
.607
.581
.527
.341

16.97
16.31
17.54
17.86
17.84
22.66
34.50
28.75
29.20
29.93
28.64
25.98
16.91

96.5
92.1
100.0
101.6
102.5
136.6
222.1
184.2
184.2
191.5
183.3
166.2

96.8
93.0
100.0
101.8
101.7
129.2
196.7
163.9
166.5
170.6
163.3
148.1

104
123
2
13
86
80
80
88
78
69
17
10
12
18
13
22
34
36
38
39
42
47

309
491
2
60
300
298
303
248
189
175
36
24
38
46
36
42
109
150
115
116
131
153

48.9
48.8
48.0
49.5
48.4
48.9
49.2
49.2
49.4
48.9
49.6
50.5
50.4
50.1
49.5
49.1
48.1
49.0
48.8
48.3
48.3
48.7

.632
.576
.553
.375
.474
.431
.498
.450
.454
.436
.350
.324
.445
.416
.336
.342
.488
.431
.416
.526
.493
,441

30.90
28.11
26.54
18.56
22.96
21.10
24.50
22.14
22.43
21.32
16.62
16.42
22.43
20.84
16.63
16.79
23.10
21.15
20.30
25.41
23.81
21.48

Heel burnishers (including stoners,
expediters, and heel slickers):
M ale.................................................. 1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female............................................... 1930
Bottom finishers (including bottom
slickers):
Male................................................... 1928
1930
Female..
1928
1930
Brushers:
M ale.
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female..
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Shoe cleaners:
M ale........
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

100.2
101.1
100.0
100.0
99.5
95.1
87.7
88.1
90.1
88.8
88.8
88.8

T able

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
17
1,—Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

28
33
38
29
26
47
97
88
91
112
119
127
44
63
73
73
80
124
125
98
90
93
114
118
125
8
11
13
13
18
15
31
37
35
31
43
36
42

175
193
169
66
77
145
266
233
228
275
226
276
832
1,006
1,143
1,110
1,204
1,652
1,387
1,106
970
948
1,088
1,072
1,210
74
85
108
110
107
144
211
296
228
184
302
239
280

48.8
48.1
48.9
48.6
49.0
49.0
48.9
49.0
49.7
49.5
49.2
49.2
55.9
56.0
55.8
55.3
55.3
54.9
52.3
48.3
48.6
48.8
49.2
49.2
49.1
57.8
58.1
54.4
54.6
52.1
53.1
53.3
49.7
49.3
48.8
49.0
49.3
48.6

$0.331
.325
.342
.338
.334
.300
.524
.460
.471
.494
.510
.501
.259
.267
.266
.282
.279
.291
.403
.677
.577
.624
.611
.624
.563
.143
.145
.153
.158
.175
.188
.232
.403
.396
.431
.419
.386
.380

$16.09
15.79
16.72
16.43
16.37
14.70
25.34
22.74
23.41
24.45
25.09
24.65
14.42
14.84
14.76
15.54
15.38
15.94
20.98
33.03
28.12
30.45
30.06
30.70
27.64
8.19
8.32
8.32
8.56
9.06
9.93
12.25
19.95
19.51
21.03
20.53
19.03
18.47

101.1
101.3
100.9
100.0
100.0
99.3
94.6
87.3
87.9
88.2
89.0
89.0
88.8
105.9
106.4
99.6
100.0
95.4
97.3
97.6
91.0
90.3
89.4
89.7
90.3
89.0

91.8
94.7
94.3
100.0
98.9
103.2
142.9
240.1
204.6
221.3
216.7
221.3
199.6
90.5
91.8
96.8
100.0
110.8
119.0
146.8
255.1
250.6
272.8
265.2
244.3
240.5

92.8
95.5
95.0
100.0
99.0
102.6
135.0
212.5
181.0
195.9
193.4
197.6
177.9
95.7
97.2
97.2
100.0
105.8
116.0
143.1
233.1
227.9
245.7
239.8
222.3
215.8

57
49
48
53
48
50
87
79
77
110
120
123
11
14
18
22
16
78
73
62
81
77
88

169
126
102
128
134
142
711
668
624
925
832
863
16
18
39
49
24
253
288
225
317
290
392

48.1
48.3
48.9
48.2
48.5
48.2
47.7
48.2
48.8
49.0
49.4
49.2
47.6
48.6
48.8
49.0
48.5
48.5
49.0
49.4
49.1
49.3
48.9

.505
.462
.511
.594
.569
.606
392
.377
.403
.388
.377
.383
.391
.395
.413
.428
.487
.367
.339
.366
.377
.375
.355

24.37
22.30
24.99
28.63
27.60
29.21
18.69
18.18
19.67
19.01
18.62
18.84
18.47
19.04
20.15
20.97
23.62
17.81
17.35
18.08
18.51
18.49
17.36

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Shoe cleaners—Continued.
Female_______________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Last pullers, hand and machine:
Male_______ . _________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Treers, hand and machine:
Male_____________________ ____ 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female............................................... 1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
3922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Repairers (not cobblers) (including
tip fixers and scourers):
M ale................................................... 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Female_____. ________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Dressers:
M ale..______ ___ _____________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
Female_______________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

18
T a ble

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
1 .— Average hours and earnings, with index numbers, 1910 to 1980, by
department, occupation, sex, and year—Continued
FINISHING DEPARTMENT—Continued

Occupation and sex

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Sock liners (including heel-lining,
heel-pad, and heel-pin pasters):
M ale_________________________ 1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
Female..
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Lacers (before packing):
1920
M ale________ _____
1922
1924
1926
1928
Female..
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
Packers:
1920
M ale.
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
, 1920
Female..
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

14
11
17
17
12
11
95
90
84
115
116
124
9
4
7
10
7
89
82
71
86
90
95
' 38
17
17
34
18
26
100
90
92
112
125
132

Aver­
age

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

30
21
37
30
23
18
321
279
225
350
305
363
11
7
16
21
10
304
235
201
194
204
214
96
43
37
110
31
71
503
397
332
387
379
457

48.8
48.5
49.7
50.1
49.7
48.4
48.7
49.0
49.0
48.9
49.0
48.8
48.5
47.9
48.4
48.7
48.2
48.7
48.9
49.1
48.9
49.2
49.3
49.2
50.0
48.9
49.4
49.6
48.8
48.3
48.2
48.7
48.7
48.7
48.8

$0,381
.378
.307
.380
.433
.463
.374
.355
.390
.378
.389
.374
.444
.281
.344
.351
.378
.323
.304
.368
.326
.320
.331
.470
.477
.458
.433
.443
.441
.353
.351
.360
.377
.388
.379

$18.70
18.25
15.26
19.04
21.52
22.41
18.13
17.36
19.11
18.48
19.06
18.25
20.70
13.71
16.65
17.09
18.22
15.64
14.81
18.07
15.94
15.74
16.32
24.02
23.75
22.40
21.39
21.97
21.52
17.10
16.97
17.53
18.36
18.90
18.50

$0,224
.243
.327
.518
.461
.481
.501
.513
.500
.168
.178
.226
.361
.334
.350
.335
.361
.351

$12.29
13.3o
17.17
25.22
22.58
23.47
24.55
25.14
24.40
9.05
9.62
11.67
17.73
16.39
17.15
16.35
17.76
17.16

full­
time

earn­
ings
per
week

ALL D EPA RTM EN TS
Other employees:
M ale...............

Female..

1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

91
135
143
117
104
105
154
156
162
134
142
116
101
103
132
141
151

20,887
24,010
23,324
10,445
10,133
9,262
9,764
9,070
9.073
12,347
14,851
16,007
6,964
5.074
5,363
6,212
5,155
5,032

55.0
55.0
52.7
48.7
49.0
48.8
49.0
49.0
48.8
54.0
53.8
51.8
48.6
48.8
49.0
48.8
49.2
48.9

Index numbers
(1913=100.0)
Full­
time
hours
per
week

Earn­
ings
per
hour

Full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
19
AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS, 1928 AND 1930, BY SEX AND STATE

Table 2 shows for each sex and for both sexes combined average
full-time hours per week, average earnings per hour, and average full­
time earnings per week for the wage earners covered in each State in
1928 and in 1930.
The purpose of this table is to make easy the comparison of the
1930 averages for any State with those for 1928, and also the averages
for any one State in either year with the averages for any other State.
Average earnings per hour of males were more in 3 and less in 10
States in 1930 than in 1928; of females were more in 5 and less in 8
States in 1930 than in 1928; and of both sexes combined were more in
3 and less in 10 States in 1930 than in 1928.
Average full-time hours per week of males in the various States in
the table ranged in 1930 from 45.9 for the State with the lowest to
52.9 for the one with the highest average, and in 1928 from 46.8 to
53.1; of females ranged from 46.5 to 53.1 in 1930 and from 47.6 to
53.2 in 1928; and of males and females combined; or the industry,
ranged from 46.1 to 53.0 in 1930 and from 47.1 to 53.1 in 1928. The
averages of males in all States combined were 48.8 in 1930 and 49.0
in 1928, and of females were 48.9 in 1930 and 49.2 in 1928, thus
showing slightly shorter hours for each sex in 1930 than in 1928.
Average earnings per hour of males in the different States included
in the table ranged in 1930 from 43.4 to 71.1 cents and in 1928 from
50.6 to 72.3 cents; of females ranged from 26.8 to 48.3 cents in 1930
and from 28.8 to 47.3 cents in 1928; and of both sexes combined or
the industry ranged from 35.3 to 62.8 cents in 1930 and from 41.4
to 62.6 cents in 1928. The averages of males in all States were
60.4 cents in 1930 and 62.5 cents in 1928, and of females in all States
were 38.2 cents in 1930 and 39.7 cents in 1928, or slightly less in 1930
for each sex than in 1928.
Average full-time earnings per week of males ranged by States from
$22.74 to $32.63 in 1930 and from $25.04 to $34.78 m 1928; of females
ranged from $13.78 to $22.46 in 1930 and from $14.08 to $22.66 in
1928; and of males and females combined ranged from $18.46 to $28.95
in 1930 and from $20.70 to $30.11 in 1928. The averages of males in
all States were $29.48 in 1930 and $30.63 in 1928, and of females in
all States were $18.68 in 1930 and $19.53 in 1928.

20
T able

WAGES and h o u r s op la bo r
2 .— Average hours and earnings, 1928 and 1980, by sex and State

Sex and State

Num ber of Num ber of Average full­ Average earn­ Average full­
establish­ wage earners time hours ings per hour time earnings
ments
per week
per week
1928 1930 1928

MALES
Illinois________________ ____
Kentucky i__________ ___ __
M aine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia___ _ __
Massachusetts____ _______
M ichigan.,
Minnesota
_ . _
____
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey____ -___________
New York_________________
Ohio_______________________
Pennsylvania_______________
Tennessee1__ ______________
Wisconsin_____________ -___
Total..................................
FEMALES
Illinois_____________________
K entucky1__ __________ ___
M aine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia__ ___
Massachusetts______________
Michigan___ Minnesota_________________
M issouri.._________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey__________ -_____
New Y o rk ..__
Ohio..............................................
Pennsylvania_______________
Tennessee1_________________
Wisconsin________ _________
Total_________________
MALES AND FEMALES
Illinois........................................
K entucky1_________________
M aine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia______
Massachusetts______________
Michigan.
M innesota___. . . . . . ________
M issouri________ _________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey_________________
New York_________________
Ohio..............................................
Pennsylvania. . . ____________
Tennessee1_____ ___________
W isconsin..._______________
Total_. . . . . . . ___ _____

1930

1928

1930

1928

1930

1928

1930

9
6
8
50
4
4
11
10
4
21
7
12
11
157

6
3
7
7
56
4
4
11
9
3
19
7
12
4
9
161

2,071
1,428
1,033
7,096
198
300
3,506
1,761
467
5,388
1,877
1,813
" 1,374"
28,312

1,808
386
1,277
946
8, 725
346
347
3,730
1,718
327
6,210
1,677
1,873
503
1,676
31,549

49.5
53.1
49.0
48.1
49.6
50.1
49.6
49.2
46.8
47.9
49.9
50.0
"49.4"
49.0

48.8 $0,613 $0.624
52.4
.434
62.9 ".’516" .511
48.8 .511 .490
48.2 .723 .671
49.6 .558 .554
50.0 .506 .498
49.0 .549 .548
49.0 .575 .505
45.9 .657 .711
47.6 .670 .666
48.2 .607 .590
51.1 .542 .512
51.8
.440
49.7 .597 .602
48.8 .625 .604

$30.34
27.40"
25.04
34.78
27.68
25.35
27.23
28.29
30.75
32.09
30.29
27.10
29. 49’
30.63

$30.45
22.74
27.03
23.91
32.34
27.48
24.90
26.85
24.75
32.63
31.70
28.44
26.16
22.79
29.92
29.48

9
6
8
40
4
4
10
10
4
20
7
10
11
144

6
3
7
7
48
4
4
11
9
3
19
7
11
4
9
152

2,052
“ I,‘U9~
604
4,673
130
254
2,450
1,311
266
3,556
1,574
1,181
""i,"i7<T
20,346

1,785
379
1,130
605
6,197
257
285
2,824
1,437
189
3,864
1,597
1,146
456
1,458
23,609

50.1
53.2
48.9
47.9
49.6
50.0
49.8
49.3
47.6
48.5
49.8
49.7
‘"48.Y
49.2

49.1
52.2
53.1
48.8
47.9
49.6
49.9
49.2
49.1
46.5
48.4
48.0
50.0
51.4
49.1
48.9

.367
".375"
.288
.473
.325
.303
.336
.393
.439
.430
.355
.343
” ."412"
.397

18.39
19.95
14.08
22.66
16.12
15.15
16.73
19,37
20.90
20.86
17.68
17.05
20.06~
19. 53

18.46
14.25
19.12
15.18
21.36
15.77
16.02
15.79
17.14
22.46
19.89
17.33
16. 55
13.78
20.08
18.68

9
6
8
50
4
4
11
10
4
21
7
12
11
157

6
3
7
7
56
4
4
U
9
3
19
7
12
4
9
161

4,123
"’2,‘547'
1,637
11,769
328
554
5,956
3,072
733
8,944
3,451
2,994
2,550
48,658

3,593
765
2,407
1,551
14,922
603
632
6,554
3,155
516
10,074
3,274
3,019
959
3,134
55,158

49.8
53.1
48.9
48.1
49.6
50.0
49.7
49.2
47.1
48.1
49.8
49.9
"49. 1"
49.1

49.0 .491 .499 24.45
52.3
.353
53.0 *".’455" .442 24.16"
48.8 .428 .418 20.93
48.1 .626 .579 30.11
49.6 .469 .456 23.26
49.9 .414 .422 20.70
49.1 .462 .451 22.96
49.0 .498 .437 24.50
46.1 .579 .628 27.27
47.9 .575 .569 27,66
48.1 .489 .477 24.35
50.7 .465 .443 23.20
.359
51.6
49.4 “M i r .513 ‘25.24”
48.9 .530 .510 26.02

24.45
18.46
23.43
20.40
27.85
22.62
21.06
22.14
21.41
28.95
27.26
22.94
22.46
18.52
25.34
24.94

>No data for this State prior to 1930.

.376
.273
.360
.311
.446
.318
.321
.321
.349
.483
.411
.361
.331
.268
.409
.382

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
21
AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR, 1913 TO 1930, BY
OCCUPATION AND SEX

Average and classified earnings per hour are presented in Table 3
for the wage earners in each of 14 important occupations of the
industry for each of the specified years from 1913 to 1930 for which
data are available. The 1930 figures in the table are for 9,356 males
in 13, and for 7,362 females in 8 of the 14 occupations. There were
no males in 1 and no females in 6 of the 14 occupations. The males
in these occupations are 30 per cent of the males in all occupations;
the females are 31 per cent of the females; and the males and females
together are 30.3 per cent of the total number of wage earners included
in the study of the industry in 1930.
The 14 occupations were selected from the various departments
to illustrate the variation in the trend and spread of average earnings
per hour of males and of females in all occupations in the industry.
For a like distribution, by number, of the wage earners in each of
these occupations in each State in 1930, see Table B, page 72.
In 1913 the 1,987 cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand, male—the
first occupation in the table—earned an average of 35.1 cents per hour
and 95 per cent of them earned less than 50 cents per hour. Average
earnings per hour in this occupation increased to 82.9 cents in 1920
when approximately 7 per cent earned less than 50 cents per hour.
The average for the 2,226 males in this occupation in 1930 was 79.6
cents, when about 9 per cent of them earned less than 50 cents per
hour, 11 per cent earned 50 and under 60 cents, 13 per cent earned
60 and under 70 cents, 15 per pent earned 70 and under 80 cents, 22
per cent earned 80 and under 90 cents, 12 per cent earned 90 cents
and under $1.00, 13 per cent earned $1.00 and under $1.20, 4 per cent
earned $1.20 and under $1.40, and 1 per cent earned $1.40 and over
per hour.

T able 3.—Average and classified earnings per hour in H specified occupations, 1913 to 1980, by department, sex, and year
CUTTING DEPARTMENT

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
P

FITTING AND STITCHING DEPARTMENT

. . . . .

4
2
2
0)

0)

6
4
4
8
4

P>
0)
0)

2
9
3
2

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 T 1930
O

Cementers and doublers, hand and machine
(including reinforcers, pasters, and fitters):
M ale____________________________________ 1920
14
5
5
21 $0,453
19 14
5
1922
8
29 .528
17
7
7 10
3
3
12
24 .585
8
4
4 13 13
1924
42 .374
9
5
1926
18
2
2
11 11 11
9 .636 .
1928
5
’ 22"
1930
21
58 .537 .
14 21
3
7
3
1
1
1 0)
Female.
1920
107 1,133 .353
9
4
1922
913 .337
9
4
89
2
0)
1
1924
95 1,031 .328 - 0)
3
6
1926
118 1,426 .340
9
3 0) 0) 0) 0)
0) (1)
1 0) (0
2
1928
124 1,318 .330
7
3
2
1930
130 1,636 .335
6
3
1 (9 0)
Lining makers (including lining closers and side
and top facing stitchers):
Female__________________ _________. . . ___ 1913
21
854 .190
80
21
1914
84
852 .189
19
1916
126 1,004 .198
(4)1
1918
12
132 1,138 .241
4
1
1920
10
112 1,149 . 378 1922
8
4
2 0 1 0) 0)
97 1,055 .362 .
1924
2
9
5
1
100 1,012 .369 1 0) 0)
13
6
4
1
1 0)
1926
124 1,170 .413 13
7
2
1
1
1928
129 1,046 .398
24 13
6
2
1 0) 0)
1930
137 1,075 .395
Top stitchers (including undertrimmers and
barber trimmers):
M ale____________________________________ 1920
18 25
4
16
57 .639 .
9
14 13
1922
19
64 .657 5 11
6
3
18 18 17 12
1924
21
78 .675 .
4
6
17 13 11
1926
27
90 .773 .
6 10 11
14
1928
9 13
132 .830 .
30
8 10 20
12 22 12 19 12
1930
32
113 .787 .
9
Female..
82 1,070 .210
1913
23
24
1914
86 1,076 .212
(4)
22
1916
128 1,427 .220
(4)2
1918
135 1,364 .285
11
112 1,187 .448 .
1
1
1 (0
1920
19 0)
10
4
1922
1
14
2
100 1,195 .433 0)
1
2
7
3
1924
97 1,184 .462 0)
2
17
9
5
3
1
1
1926
121 1,469 .486 .
2
1 P)
20 10
6
124 1,399 .451
1928
2
4
15 11
1
1
ro»
1930
132 1,648 .419 0)
2
3
1
1 0)
14
7
>Less than 1 per cent.
1 Grouped under “ 70 cents and over” in previous reports.
* Grouped under “ 60 cents and over,’’ in previous reports.
4 Less than 1 per cent, and grouped under “ 50 cents and over” in previous reports.

W
0)
0)

to

CO

Table 3*—Average and classified earnings per hour in 14 specified occupations, 1918 to 1980, by department, sex, and 2/ear—Continued

KJ

FITTING AND STITCHING DEPARTMENT—Continued

Occupation and sex

Female.

1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

65
82
83
55
52
49
63
54
64
79
85
121
132
111
98
99
123
119
125

Num­
ber of
wage
earners

554
534
624
573
400
357
304
294
270
347
072
116
383
477
313
142
053
170
022
164

Per cent of employees whose earnings per hour were—

Aver­
age
12
earn­ Un­ and
ings der un­
per
12
hour cents der
16
cents

16
and
un­
der
20
cents

20
and
un­
der
25
cents

2
2
1

6
6
5
1

12
17
13
2
W1

). 320
1
.312
.333
.442
.700
.628
.707
.741
.727
.672
1
.246
2
.243
2
.254
.312 0)
.506
.480
.519
.531
.505 0)
.465

0)
C
1)
18
20
15
8
1
0)
0) 0)
0) 0)
1 0)
1
<*)
8
9
6
3

25
and
un­
der
30
cents

30
and
un­
der
40
cents

21
20
16
6
1
2
2
1 0)2
31 22
27 22
27 24
18 19
3
6
4
8
3
9
1
2
1
6
4
9

41
37
44
28
4
11
4
3
4
6
17
19
22
35
17
22
18
16
21
26

17 *1
14 22
16 2 5
34 1 19
10 14
15 18
10 17
12 18
10 14
12 18
3 (4)
2 (*)
3
14 0) 3
21 22
21 20
21 18
29 21
24 21
24 17

25
32
31
29
9
14

8 (<)
6 22
10 22
26 15
12 15
18 16

40
and
un­
der
50
cents

50
and
un­
der
60
cents

60
and
un­
der
70
cents

70
and
un­
der
80
cents

80
and
un­
der
90
cents

90
cents
and
un­
der
$1

$i
and
un­
der
$1.20

7
22
21
18
19
22
19

32
21
11
20
19
24
20

13
9
10
7
8
9

8
6
8
6
4
5

7
4
6
9
9
7

1
16
13
15
16
14
11

8
6
9
9
8
6

5
17
26

32
18
10

1
1
3
1
1
3
2
2
5
1
2
2
1 0)
3
1 «
0)

$1.20
and $1.40
un­ and
der over
$1.40

1
1
3
4
3
2

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

1
2
1
3
2

0)
0)
0)

0)

LASTING D EPA R TM EN T
Assemblers for pulling-over machine:
M ale___________ _

1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922

54
64
97
102
88
70

597 $0,272
708 .279
801 .291
726 .398
691 .638
593 .567

4
4
4

o
l)

12
11
10
4
0)

1

28

22
19
9
2
2

22
21
23
11
3
3

12
6

5
3

4
2

2 (0
1

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
F

Vampers:
M ale..

Num­
ber of
Year estab­
lish­
ments

Fem ale..

T urn 1asters, hand (including first and second
lasters):
M ale........................................................................ 1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

81
113
116
125
23
15
8
9
10
9
65
70
93
104
93
86
92
121
117
130

1,220
1,173
1,336
1,3"
1,252
1,167
1,082
1,279
1,207
1,478

28
31
42
35
33
30
31
35
31
24

524
689
974
752
666
571
496
726
706
789

421
541
537
624
77
58
33
36
26

i Less than 1 per cent.
* Grouped under “ 50 cents and over” in previous reports.

.554
.596
.577
.568 (0
.500
.434
.399
.422
.501
.452
.330
.321 (0
.349 0)
.500
.789
.668
.692
.700
.682
.657
.310
.324
.365
.453
.880
.732
.790
.870
.831
.780

(0

2
4

2
1
1
1
1
3
15
6
8

4
2
4
4
12
15
3
13
25
24
19
4
(i)
m
I1)
1
(1)

13
10
14
10
21
45
21
36
12
34
45
45
43
14
2
4
3
3
3
5

24
21
20
24
18
24
15
36
42
22
14
12
20
30
5
13
10
10
12
13

17
21
18
20
16
16
15
8
19
13
23
23
26
32
10
18
18
16
18
22

20
18
17
15
13
5
9
11
4
16

11
12
11
10
14
2
6
4

12
15
26
26
24
22
23

»6
20
16
17
21
19
19

19
9
14
13
11
8

13
7
7
7
7
5

12
5
4
4
5
4

3
1
1
1
1
1

12 27
15 22
10 20
3
5
1
0)
0) (0
(1)
1

48
35
33
26
1
4
2
1
1
2

6 22
17 2 4
24 2 12
31 22
4 12
11 13
10 13
5
9
6 13
6 12

8
11
14
13
11
15
13

»3
16
13
15
15
17
21

12
17
10
13
16
19

11
10
13
13
13
13

18
9
13
21
15
10

10
5
7
8
3
2

3 10
1
4 11
2
1
9
1
(‘) <0
(l)
(0
(’)
0) (1)
0)

1
0)

(l)
(0
(0

(9
0)

1
2

4
4
2
1

6
9
7
8
4
3
3

1
3
5
4

3
2 0) 1
2
1
3
1
8

3

* Grouped under “ 70 cents and over” in previous reports.
4 Less than 1 per cent, and grouped under “ 50 cents and over,” in previous reports.

0)
(0
0)
0)

1

7
3
3
3
2
1

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTBY, 1910 T 1930
O

Bed-machine operators:
M ale...........................

1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

td
Or

to

Table 3.—Average and classified earnings per hour in H specified occupations, 1913 to 1980, by department, sex, and year—Continued

a>

BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT

Occupation and sex

Edge trimmers:
Male----------

1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928

642 $0,399
594 .410
656 .437
.527
.818
.755
505 .773
517 .776
461 .766
100
576 .727
.400
85
129 1,081 .423 0)
138 1,015 .545 (i)
112
828 .904
.764
100
102
.767
.785
127
754 .764
131
140
895 .722
70
74
97
105
86
77
79

Per cent of employees whose earnings per hour were—
16
and
un­
der
20
cents
(i)

20

and
un­
der
25
cents

1
1

6

4
4

1

1

25
and
un­
der
30
cents

30
and
un­
der
40
cents

40
and
un­
der
50
cents

50
and
un­
der
60
cents

60
and
un­
der
70
cents

14
13
8
4

38
35
28
14
0)
2

23
27
33
24
3
5
9
5
5
7
28
30
21
3
5
7
5
7

2 19
220
>27
29
9
16

2
1

3

2

1
(0

5
4
1

1

0)
0)

80
and
un­
der
90
cents

90
cents
and
un­
der

21
21
20

18
16
15
18
20
14

15
10
13
12
9

3 14
14
19
15
18
18
19

16
16
15
17
16
16

15
12
9

20

0)

0)
0
(i))

70
and
un­
der
80
cents

12

9

2

0) 1
0)
1

37
32
16

1
2
1
1
2

3

10

12
11
10

15
* 17
224
24
6
15
16
12
13
16

13 8 14
16 22
19
17 18

20
20

24

22
11

15
18
18
18
17

FINISHING DEPARTMENT
Edge setters:
Male........

1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924

77
86
131
138
112
99
102

826 $0,411
872 .410
966 .414
924 .525
845 .873
779 .757
681 .756

2 19
215
3 21
26 26

0)
(0

0)

6
12

12

3 11
16
15
22 17

$1

10

12
12

9

$1

and
un­
der
$1.20

$1.20
and $1.40
un­ and
der over
$1.40

14

3

11
6

9

3
1 (*)
1 M

22
10
10
12
10

9
2
5
3
3

8
12

7

2
2

2

1
2
1
1

4
3
0)

1
1
1

WAGES AND HOtTRS OS’ LABOlt

Goodyear stitchers:
Male_________

Num­ Num ­ Aver­
age
12
ber of
Year estab­ ber of earn­ Un­ and
ings der un­
lish­
per 12
ments
hour cents der
16
cents

Treers, hand and machine:
Male________________

Repairers (not cobblers) (including tip fixers and
scourers):
Male___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _______

Female..

* Less than 1 per cent.

129
133
140
73
80
124
125
98
90
93
114
118
125
13
18
15
31
37
35
30
43
36
42

765
738
794
1,110
1,204
1,652
1,387
1,106
970
948
1,088
1,072
1,210
110
107
144
211
296
228
184
302
239
280

.766
.755
.708
.282
.279
.291
.403
.677
.577
.624
.611
.624
.563
.158
.175
.188
.232
.403
.396
.431
.419
.386
.380

1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

57
49
48
53
48
50
87
79
77
no
120
123

169
126
102
128
134
142
711
668
624
925
832
863

.505
.462
.511
.594
.569
.606
.392
.377
.403
.388
.377
.383

0)

.
.

W.1
0)

14
14
8
3

22
18
20
4
0)
1
0) 1
1
2
8
21
33
30
6
4
5
3
5
5

0)
25
25
29
11
1
2
1
1
2
4
4
7
11
19
11
12
3
7
11
17

2
1
4
32
32
32
33
4
11
9
7
8
10
2
1
1
11
35
34
28
35
43
39

1
3
3
1
2
6
7
9
9
8
10

4
6
7
1
4
3
14
16
15
11
15
14

22
23
18
8
10
5
31
31
32
34
32
32

(0
4
5

10
13
7
2

8
I

48 25
24 33
27 19
9 25
.
1
0)
1
1
3 (>)
(0
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

* Grouped under “ 50 cents and over” in previous reports.

19
18
22

21
19
17

17
15
13

11
11
6

8
9
7

3
19
18
22
23
23
19

*1
19
11
15
16
14
12

14
6
7
9
8
6

7
4
5
3
3
2

1
5
1
1 0)
3
1
1 (0
2
i
3
1

4 (l)
26 13
37
8
42 15
35 16
24 11
28
7

4
3
4
4
1
2

2
1
1
1
2
1

19
25
20
20
19
22
29
36
25
19
17
21

8
5
5
1
8
2
6
6
20
26
9
3
5
20 12
17 11
5
4
1 0) 0)
2 (0
2
2 (l)
1 0)
3
2
2 0)

1
1
1
2
2
7

1

1

4
2
5

1

6
9
10
5
5
6
29
12
19
15
19
17
23

12
15
18
il
s2
>2
16
17
24
21
21
21
21

36
32
21
27
24
24
16
8
17
19
17
15

3
1
2
1
2 (0

2
1

0)
(0
0)
0)

0)

* Grouped under “ 70 cents and over” in previous reports.

i
0)

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 T 1930
O

Female..

1926
1928
1930
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930
1913
1914
1916
1918
1920
1922
1924
1926
1928
1930

to

28

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR FOR MALES, FEMALES, AND BOTH
SEXES

Table 4 shows the number and per cent of males and females sepa­
rately, and of both sexes combined, at each classified group of average
earnings per hour.
The largest number of males in any one of the classified groups of
average earnings per hour is 2,944, or 9 per cent of the 31,549 males
included in the study in 1930. This number and per cent is in the
group of 50 and unaer 55 cents per hour. The largest number of
females in any group is 1,917, or 8 per cent of the 23,609 females
included in the study. This number and per cent is in the group of
30 and under 32 K cents per hour. Approximately 17 per cent of the
55,158 males and females for which classified earnings are shown in
the table earned less than 30 cents per hour, and 11 per cent earned
an average of 80 cents or more per hour.
T able 4.—Classification of males and females separately, and of both sexes com•
bined, in all occupations, by average earnings per hour, 19SO
Classified earnings per hour

Number of employees in all
occupations
Male

Under 5 cents____________________
5 and under 6 cents_______________
6 and under 7 cents_______________
7 and under 8 cents_______________
8 and under 9 cents_______________
9 and under 10 cents____ _________
10 and under 11 cents_____________
11 and under 12 cents_____________
12 and under 13 cents_____________
13 and under 14 cents_____________
14 and under 15 cents_____________
15 and under 16 cents_____________
16 and under 17 cents____________ 17 and under 18 cents_____________
18 and under 19 cents_____________
19 and under 20 cents_____________
20 and under 21 cents_____________
21 and under 22 cents_____________
22 and under 23 cents_____________
23 and under 24 cents_____________
24 and under 25 cents_____________
25 and under 27H cents___________
27^6 and under 30 cents___________
30 and under 32^ cents___________
32J4 and under 35 cents___________
35 and under 37H cents___________
37J^ and under 40 cents___________
40 and under 42H cents___________
42^6 and under 45 cents___________
45 and under 47H cents___________
47)£ and under 50 cents___________
50 and under 55 cents_____________
65 and under 60 cents_____ ____ ___
60 and under 65 cents____ ____ ____
65 and under 70 cents_____________
70 and under 75 cents_____________
75 and under 80 cents_____________
80 and under 85 cents_____________
85 and under 90 cents_____________
90 and under 95 cents_____________
95 and under 100 cents____________
100 and under 110 cents___________
110 and undet 120 cents___________
*Less than 1 per cent.

1
1
1
3
5
4
6
11
10
13
30
35
73
35
94
54
166
88
162
99
197
647
592
942
804
951
1,071
1,309
1,130
1,316
1,245
2,944
2.585
2,578
2,245
2,111
1,915
1,430
1,307
861
641
887
455

Female
4
3
9
7
14
17
16
35
60
61
102
96
185
173
304
273
523
309
545
374
572
1,799
1,626
1,917
1,656
1,691
1,655
1,659
1,188
1,184
960
1,717
1,051
708
442
289
160
87
48
31
21
27
6

Total
5
4
10
10
19
21
22
46
70
74
132
131
258
208
398
327
689
397
707
473
769
2,446
2,218
2,859
2,460
2,642
2,726
2,968
2,318
2,500
2,205
4,661
3,636
3,286
2,687
2,400
2,075
1,517
1,355
892
662
914
461

Per cent of employees in all
occupations
Male
(i)
(i)
m
(l)
(1)
(*)
0)
(l)
(1)
0)
(1)

(1)

(l)
(1)
u 1
® 1
1
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
9
8
8
7
7
6
5
4
3
2
3
1

Female
(*)
0)
(i)
(l)
C
1)
0)
W
0)
(i)
(i)
(i)
C 1
1)
w
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
8
7
8
7
7
7
7
5
5
4
7
4
3
2
1
1
\i)
vv
(iS
v)
(1)

Total
(J)
(l)
m
m
(I)
0
(J)
m
M
)j\
m
m

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
5
4
5
5
5
4
5
4
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
2
2
1
2
1

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
29
T a b l e 4.—Classification of males and females separately, and of both sexes com­
bined, in all occupations, by average earnings per hour, 1930—Continued
Classified earnings per hour

Number of employees in all
occupations
Male

120 and under 130 cents.....................
130 and under 140 cents___________
140 and under 150 cents___________
150 and under 160 cents _________
160 and under 170 cents _________
170 and under 180 cents___________
190 and under 200 cents___________
200 and under 225 cents___________
225 and under 250 cents___________
Total______________________

252
130
55
26
14
8
3
4
3
31,549

Total

Female
1
3
1
23,609

253
133
55
26
14
9
3
4
3
55,158 |

Per cent of employees in all
occupations
Male
1
0)
(*)
0)
(i)
(i)
ll)
1
(i)
100

Female

Total

(9
C
1)

(i)
(i)
(i)
(9
(1)

(l)
100

(1)
(1)

100

i Less than 1 per cent.

REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER WEEK AND DAY

The regular or customary full-time hours per week of a factory are
the hours of operation when it is working its recognized standard of
fall time as established by the regular time of beginning work in the
morning and of closing in the afternoon, less the regular time off duty
for lunch or dinner, with no overtime and no time off duty for any
cause.
Table 5 shows average full-time hours per week and the per cent of
wage earners in each of 14 representative occupations in the industry
at each classified group of full-time hours per week for each of the
specified years, from 1910 to 1930, for which data are available. For
a similar distribution, by number, of the wage earners in each of these
occupations in each State in 1930, see Table C, page 82.
Average full-time hours per week of cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
hand, male, decreased from 56.3 in 1910, when the full-time hours of
64 per cent of the 1,650 covered in that year were over 54 per week, to
an average of 47.8 in 1920, when the full-time hours of only 1 per
cent were over 54 per week. Averages increased to 48.9 in 1926 and
decreased to 48.6 in 1928 and again increased to 48.7 in 1930, when
the full-time hours of 5 per cent of the 2,226 males covered in that
year were 44 per week; 1 per cent were 45; 2 per cent were over 45
and under 48; 55 per cent were 48; 27 per cent were over 48 and under
51; 2 per cent were 51 and under 54; 5 per cent were 54; 1 per cent
were over 54 and under 57; and the hours of less than 1 per cent were
60 per week. The variations of the averages and percentage dis­
tribution of the wage earners in this occupation are fairly representa­
tive of those in other occupations in the industry.
66555°—32------3

30

WAGES AND HOTJRS OP LABOR
T able 5 .—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occupa­
tions, 1910 to 1980, by department, sex, and year
CUTTING DEPARTMENT

Occupation, sex, and year

Cutters, vamp and whole
shoe, hand:
Male......................... 19101911..
1912..
1913..
1914..
1916191819201922..
1924..
192619281930..
Skivers, upper:
.1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1916.
1918.
1920.
1922.
1924.
1926.
1928.
1930.
Female.
.1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1916.
1918.
1920.
1922.
1924.
1926.
1928.
1930.

Num ­ Num ­
ber of ber of
lish- wage
ments earners

48
64
71
71
75
113
114
91
84
88
108
110
127
12
28
32
32
29
32
23
29
31
29
37
34
36
49
60
67
67
77
113
121
105
94
89
113
110
121

1,650
2,066
1,995
1,987
1,812
2,355
2,319
2,050
1,915
2,009
2,129
1,777
2,226
74
136
156
134
116
124
96
87
77
100
104
338
374
371
439
446
591
697
611
539
474
552
541
664

Per cent of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
time
Over
Over 51,
Over
48,
44,
54,
45,
hours
per 44 un­ 45 un­ 48 un­ un­ 54 un­
60
der
der
der
der 54
week
der
48
45
51
57
56.3
56.2
55.0
54.5
54.0
53.9
52.0
47.8
48.3
48.4
48.9
48.6
48.7
54.7
54.8
54.7
54.5
54.4
54.6
50.9
48.1
47.6
48.0
48.4
48.1
48.3
57.0
57.0
55.0
54.6
54.1
54.0
51.7
48.7
48.6
49.0
48.9
49.1
48.8

2 16
7
4
6
7
5

8
7
15
13
16

3

8

1
12
12
20
18
2 52
6 1 56 14
57 19
6
4
66 20
1 0 57 24
2 0 62 20
1 2 55 27

9
5
8

79
65
2 57
39 22
66
55

3
C1) 1 58
4
*6
3 2 4
61
3
1
61
32
1
57
3!
1 0) 53
2 1 (l) 4 2 50

74
8
13
22
11
14
20
0
2
3
6
6
49
20
22
20
32
35
35

21
17
11
3
3
3

U

8
8
11
18
16
16
1
1
02
2
2

0)

6
8
9
9
11
IIII
___
"5"
1
9
7
7
7
14
14
13
01
7
1
2
2

....

....

30
25
3

m

F IT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T
Cementers and doublers,
hand and machine (includ­
ing reinforcers, pasters, and
fitters):
Male..........................1920..
1922..
1924..
1926..
19281930..
Female.
.19201922..
192419261928-

21
14
29
8
12
24
42
18
9
5
21
58
107 1,133
89 913
95 1,031
118 1,426
124 1,318
130 1,636
* Less than 1 per cent,
including 1 per cent under 44,

47.5
48.2
47.8
50.8
46.2
47.7
48.6
48.5
49.1
49.3
49.3
48.9

14

0
2
0
* Including less than 1 per centunder 44,

0

0

T able

31
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
5.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occupa­
tions, 1910 to 1980, by department, sex, and year—Continued
FIT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Per cent of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
Num ­ Num- age
ber of ber of full­
Over
Over
Over
Over 51,
time
Occupation, sex, and year estab54,
44,
48,
45,
lishhours
per 44 un- 45 un­ 48 un­ un­ 54 un­
der
der
week
<ter
der
der 54
48
51
45
57
Lining makers (including
lining closers and side and
top facing stitchers):
Female......................1910..
1911..
1912..
1913..
1914..
191619181920..
19221924..
1926..
1928..
1930..
Top stitchers (including
undertrimmers and barber
trimmers):
Male......................... 19201922..
192419261928..
1930.1910..
Female.
1911..
1912..
1913..
1914..
1916..
1918..
1920..
19221924..
1926..
19281930Vampers:
.1910..
M ale..
1911..
1912..
1913..
1914..
1916..
1918..
1920..
1922..
1924..
1926..
1928..
Female.

.1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1916.
1918.
1920.
1922.
1924.
1926.
1928.
1930.

53
72
80
80
84
126
132
112
97
100
124
129
137

128
135
112
100
97
121
124
132
51

66
66

65
82
83
55
52
49
63
54
64
53
71
79
79
85
121
132
111
98
99
123
119
125

585
721
764
854
852
1,004
1,138
1,149
1,055
1,012
1,170
1,046
1,075

56.5
56.5
55.0
54.6
54.1
53.9
51.5
48.6 26
48.8 2 1
49.3 34
3
49.3
49.2 3
48.8 4 (l)

57
64
78
90
132
113
721
911
1,033
1,070
1,076
1,427
1,364
1,187
1,195
1,184
1,469
1,399
1,648
263
343
483
554
534
624
573
400
357
304
294
270
347
863
1,124
1,088
1,072
1,116
1,383
1,477
1,313
1,142
1,053
1,170
1,022
1,164

48.0
48.1
47.9
47.1
47.9
47.2
56.3
56.9
54.9
54.6
54.2
54.0
51.6
48.5
48.8
49.3
49.3
49.4
49.1
55.5
55.5
55.0
54.8
54.6
54.6
51.5
47.9
47.8
48.2
48.2
48.2
48.2
56.9
56.5
55.1
54.7
54.1
53.9
51.7
48.8
49.0
49.4
49.1
49.3
49.1

i Less than 1 per cent.
* Including 1 per cent under 44.

2
6
13
30
15
32

»7
32
2
32
2
1

5
5
7
11
7
6

26
32
1
82
2
1

0
3
6 1 58
59
4
1 0 59
1 1 49
49
1
4 2 53
8

7
1 5
3
1
1
4

5

7
8
1

3
3
6
9
56
21
24
21
29
34
29

96 2
70 8
74 10
59 11
63 21
5 35 26
0)
3
2
5
6
5 49
1 56 18
57 23
24
0)1 54 33
51
48 35
3 48 37

2
82
70
1 79
1 69
79
1 76

4
5 1 1 51
56
1 4
3
50
1 0) 52
1
46
4 2 44

3
2
1
3
62
4
9
9
12
7
14
2
2
1
1
7
8
49
25
29
30
37
40
41

15
11
5
6
16
12
10
1
2
3
2
6
3

~2~

9
7
8
9
14
14
13
1
1
4
3
5
3
18
6
12
13
17
14
16
"I
3
2
0)
5
4
6
7
16
18
11
1
2
4
1
4
3

13
19
51
55
51
56
28
7
8
12
15
7
5

23
17
4

0)

8
3
2
15
20
55
54
53
58
29
9
9
13
10
9
5
25
40
45
41
37
39
12
3
3
4
4
3
3
14
17
53
58
51
54
30
9
7
12
7
7
4

8 Including less than 1 per cent under 44.

28
20
3

(l)
11

8
4

1
1
1
1

27
23
4

32

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
Table 5*—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occupa­
tions, 1910 to 1980, by department, sex, and 2/ear—Continued
LASTING D EPA RTM EN T

Num ­
ber of
Occupation, sex, and year estab­ ber of
lish­ wage
ments earners
Assemblers for pulling-over
machine:
1911—
Male1912191319141916—
1918192019221924—
19261928—
1930Female _____ 1020 „
19221924—
192619281930Bed-machine operators:
M a le .....
_____
19111912191319141916191819201922..
1924192619281930T um lasters, hand (including
first and second lasters):
Male
19121913—
1914—
19161918..
1920—
1922..
1924..
1926..
19281930..
........................................

.

..........................................

17
50
54
64
97
102
88
70
81
113
116
125
23
15
8
9
10
9
35
54
65
65
70
93
104
93
86
92
121
117
130

218
542
597
708
801
726
691
593
421
541
537
624
77
58
33
36
26
32
513
793
1,127
1,220
1,173
1,336
1,303
1,252
1,167
1,082
1,279
1,207
1,478

28
28
31
42
35
33
30
31
35
31
24

452
524
689
974
752
666
571
496
736
706
789

Per cent of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
fulltime
Over
Over
Over 51,
Over 57,
48,
44,
hours
45,
54,
per 44 un­ 45 un­ 48 un­ un­ 54 un­ un­ 60
der der
der
der
week
der der
48
45
51 54
57 60
55.4
55.8
55.4
55.3
55.0
1
52.6
1
48.6 9 i
3
49.0 1
1
49.3 2 !
1
49.1 3 1
49.0 7 i
0)
49.0 3
3
48.5
23
5
39.0
1
50.0
49.6
i
49.9
1
49.4
1
56.4
56.1
55.6
55.2
55.1
55.0 ___1.........
52.1
3
48.7 * 5
48.9 3 2 3
2
49.1 3
49.1 3
0)
1
49.2 3
3
49.1 2

5
0) 60
61
52
0) 49
50
48
55
74
52
3 25
15
38

. . . . .

!
i

55.6
55.0
54.4
54.9
53.8
47.1
48.5
48.2
47.7
47.9
46.5

*5
2
7
*15
11
40

25
14
5
2
1
1

2
0) 67
60
59
0 53
51
l 48

2 49
57
67
65
66
2 48

6
2
6
4
38
20
23
30
39
32
36
6
5
18
67
77
56

5
5
7
9
12
(i)
<»)
2
1
4
2
4
5
30

43 32
32 18
41 27
27 33
34 34
24 12
9
12 0)1
11 2
6 1
5 2
4 1
4 6
2 9
6

23 3
24 16
19 5
24 3
15 4
9 0)

-----------

1

0)

6
3
3
9
10
15
2 15
51 14
14
18
21 3
35 1
34 4
37 3

33 15 30 19
33 25 23 15
40 19 22 11
41 29 16 3
30 38 14 3
31 37 12 4
15 10 7 (>)
10 1
12 1
11 1
6 1
6 2
5 1
0)

24
27
16
14
22
2
2
1
1
0)

12 16 28 20
23 17 28 5
10 49 8 5
16 44 17 1
10 42 9
9
8
” s"
1
1

12
7
18
10
18
16
17
21
8

B O TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T
Goodyear stitchers:
M a le

1 6 24 26 24
1910.. 45 366 56.3
1911— 61 529 55.9
5 35 25 21
1912.. 70 627 55.9
6 37 20 20
9 42 29 19
1913— 70 642 55.2
12 32 39 14
1914— 74 594 55.1
2 ! 15 35 33 12
1916— 97 656 54.8
49
15 13 9
1918.. 105 680 52.4
3
68 15 i M 9 1
1920— 86 599 48.6 24
1922.. 77 543 48.6 3 2 3 0) 67 15 r " 9
62 22
2
10
1924- 79 505 48.8 4
58 33
3 2
1926— 98 517 48.9 3
0) 0) 57 31 It
1
5 2
1928- 89 461 48.9 3
3 2 51 33 1 3 4 2
1930- 100 576 49.1 2
1
Edge trimmers:
1 i 10 20 24 24
Male.
1910— 55 573 56.4
7 29 26 23
1911— 71 765 56.5
1912.. 81 827 55.9
1 6 34 21 26
* Less than 1 per cent.
* Including 1 per cent under 44.
* Including 2 per cent under 44.
........................................

........................................

0

19
14
17
2
2
3

0)
21
15
12

T able

feOOT ANt> SHOE INDUSTRY, i910 TO 1936
5. —Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occupa­
tions, 1910 to 1980, by department, sex, and year—Continued
B O TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

whose
Aver­ Per cent of wage earners were— full-time hours per
week
Num­ Num ­ age
ber of ber of full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
Occupation, sex, and year
54,
45,
44,
48,
lishhours 44 un­ 45 un­ 48 un­
54 un­
60
per
ments
der
der
der
der
week
57
51
45
Edge trimmers—Continued.
4
81
55.4
Male_____________1913.
2
85
1914.
55.1
1916. 129 1,081 54.9
3
1918. 138 1,015 52.5
1920. 112 828 48.7
1922_ 100 789 48.9
1924. 102
49.1
49.2
1926. 127
1928. 131 754 49.1
49.1
1930. 140

0)

0)

0)

FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T
Edge setters:
54
Male____________ 1910..
1911..
68
1912..
78
77
1913..
1914..
86
1916.. 131
1918. 138
1920.. 112
1922.
99
1924. 102
1926. 129
1928.. 133
1930.. 140
Treers, hand and machine:
44
Male____________ 1910.,
1911.
63
1912..
73
1913.
73
1914.
80
1916. 124
1918.
125
1920.
98
1922.
90
1924..
93
1926.. 114
1928.. 118
1930.. 125
Female_____ _____1910..
8
1911..
11
1912..
13
1913..
13
1914..
18
1916.
15
1918..
31
1920..
37
1922„
35
1924..
31
1926.. 43
1928..
36
1930.. 42
Repairers (not cobblers) (in­
cluding tip fixers and
scourers):
57
Male— . . . — . . . __1920..
1922.. 49
1924.. 48
1926_ 53
1928.. 48
1930.. 50
87
F e m a le .........__1920..
1922.. 79
1924.. 77
1926..
1928.. 120
1930.. 123
l Less than 1 per cent.

110

560
722
789
826
872
966
924
845
779
681
765
738
794
1,006
1,143
1,110
1,204
1,652
1,387
1,106
970
948
1,088
1,072
1,210
74
85
108
110
107
144
211
184
302
239
126
102
128
134
142
711
668
624
925
832

56.3
56.3
55.8
55.3
55.2
54.9
52.7
48.7
48.9
49.1
49.1
49.1
49.0
55.9
56.0
55.8
55.3
55.3
54.9
52.3
48.3
48.6
48.8
49.2
49.2
49.1
57.8
58.1
54.4
54.6
52.1
53.1
53.3
49.7
49.3
48.8
49.0
49.3
48.6
48.1
48.3
48.9
48.2
48.5
48.2
47.7
48.2
48.8
49.0
49.4
49.2

18
17
13
3
3
3

0)

0)

0)

17
15
14
4
3
2

0)

0)
27
12

0)

44

10

0)
8 Including less than 1 per cent under 44.

0)

34

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Table 6 shows by States the regular full-time hours per week and
per day of each of the 161 factories covered in the 1930 study.
Hours per week ranged from 44 in the 7 factories with the shortest
to 60 in 1 factory with the longest hours. Hours per week of 65
factories, or 40.4 per cent of the total number included in the table
were 48, and of 42, or 26.1 per cent, were 50 per week.
Hours per day, Monday to Friday, ranged from 8 in the 7 factories
with the shortest to 10 in 9 with the longest day, and on Saturday in
the 152 in which there was provision for work on that day ranged
from 4 to 10. Hours on Saturday were less than on other days in
151 factories, the same in 1, and the 5-day week was in effect in 9
factories, there being no work on Saturday. The hours, Monday
to Friday, in the 9 factories in which the 5-day week was in operation
were 9 per day, or 45 per week, in 7, 9% per day, or 47% per week,
in 1, and 91% per day, or 48% per week, in 1.
0
T a b le

6.

—Number of establishments in each State working each specified full­
time hours per week and per day, 1980
Full-time hours
per day

44 hours______
45 hours______
46% hours____
47 hours _____
47J4 hours____
47% hours ___
48 h o u rs______
48H hours____
49 hours______
49H hours ___
49% hours ___
50 hours______
50H hours ___
51 hours _____
51% hours____
S2H h o u rs____
52H hours -i._
53 hours _____
53^ hours ___
64 hours............. (
I
65 hours______
60 hours _____
Total

8

9

m
m
9H
$%
m
mo
m
8%
8^
8i^ o
m
91<M
$o

9
9
9
9
9
9H
9
9H
9H
9
m
10
m
10
10

4
0
4H
4H
0
4M2
4H
4H
m

5

5H
4%

4
0
4
4H
4%
5
5H
5H

Illinois
Kentucky
Maine
Maryland and
1 Virginia
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
New H a m p ­
shire
New Jersey
| New York
Ohio
| Pennsylvania
Tennessee
| Wisconsin
Total establish­
ments

Full-time hours
per week
Mon­
day to Satur­
Friday day

Number of establishments in

2

4
1
1

1

6

3

3

1
2

1
2

10

1

1

5

10

1

1

1

4
5H
5
6

3

1
2
1

7

4

4

11

4

2

I
!
1j
1i l
i
___i___
L
|
9 3 19
. . .

7 56

1
1

1

3

U

5

8
6

3

1
2
1
1

35
2
16

2
2
1
1
1

2
1
1

1

6n
4

4

1

1

1

1

4

7

1

7
7

3

1

1
11

1

1

1

3 16

1

5

1

7
1
42

2

4

3
3

3

2

3
! 1
j 1
! i
1 5
2 < 8

12

4

9

1
1

1

.

7

2
1 1
1 1
] 1

1

i 161

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
35
CHANGES IN FULL-TIME HOURS AND WAGE RATES SINCE SEPTEM­
BER 1, 1928

Only 4 of the 161 shoe factories reported changes in regular full­
time hours per week between September 1, 1928, and the period of
the 1930 study. In 3 of the 4 the regular working time was changed
from a 6-day and 50-hour week to a 5-day and 45-hour week. In the
other factory the hours were reduced from 52K to 50 per week.
Changes in wage rates between September 1, 1928, and the period
of the 1930 study were reported by only 11 of the 161 factories.
Rates were increased 5 per cent to the treers and stitchers of one
factory and 10 per cent to all wage earners of another factory. Kates
were reduced in 9 factories, ranging from 5 per cent to the pieceworkers
of one factory to 12.5 per cent to all wage earners except packers and
lasters of another factory. For details see Table 7.
T a b le

7.—Changes in wage rates between September 1, 1928, and the period of the
1930 study
Wage earners whose rates were changed

All. except packers and lasters__________ . _____________________________
Ml..................................................................................................................................
All pieceworkers, except wood-heel coverers and wood-heel finishers_______
Pieceworkers____________ — ___________ -____________________________
All..................................................................................................................................
Pieceworkers________________________________________________________
Treers and st'tchers__________________________________________________

Num ­ Per cent of change
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments Decrease Increase
1
5
1
1
1
1
1

12.5
10
10
10
5

OVERTIME AND SUNDAY AND HOLIDAY WORK, 1930

10
5

Any time worked in excess of the regular full-time hours per day
or per week of a factory is overtime regardless of the rate of pay for
such time. Work on Sunday and on holidays is extra time only
when performed by workers whose regular hours per day and week do
not provide for work on those days.
Only 7 of the 161 shoe factories covered in the 1930 study of the
industry provided for the payment of overtime at a higher rate than
for regular working time. The rate in these factories, as shown in
Table 8, was one and one-half times the rate for regular working
time and applied to all wage earners in 2 factories; to time workers
only in 2; to female time workers in 1; to packing-room workers in 1;
and to all females in 1. During the pay period for which figures are
shown in the table there was overtime in 4 and no overtime in 3 of the
7 factories in which there was provision for the payment of a higher
rate for overtime than for regular working time. There was over­
time in 101 other factories, and such time was paid for at the same rate
as for regular working time, and there was no overtime in 53 factories.
There was provision by 9 factories for the payment of a higher rate
for extra work on Sunday and holidays than for regular working time
on other days. The rate for such extra work was one and one-half
times the regular rate in 8 factories and two times the regular rate in
1 factory. There was no extra work on Sunday and holidays in any
of these 9 factories nor in 148 in which the same rate would have
been paid for such extra work as for regular working time. There

36

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

was extra work on Sunday and holidays in only 4 of the 161 factories,
and it was paid for at the same rate as for regular working time.
Table 8 shows the number of factories that provided For the pay­
ment of a higher rate for overtime and for extra work on Sunday and
holidays, the wage earners entitled to receive the higher rate, and the
rate for such work.
T able 8.—Number of establishments, wage earners entitled, and times regular rate for
overtime and work on Sunday and holidays, 1980
Times regular rate

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish,
merits

Wage earners entitled
All...................................
___ do............................ .
Time workers--...........
___ do.............................
Female time workers..
Packing-room workers
Female...........................

tot—
Work on
Over­ Sunday
time and holi­
days
m

1
IK
1*
1;
1V2
IK

BONUS SYSTEMS, 1930

A bonus is an arrangement by which the earnings of certain em­
ployees may be increased under certain conditions, such as the saving
of leather from a specified quantity by having more or less usable
leather left after cutting the set standard number of pieces from the
quantity, service of one or more months or years, efficiency, produc­
tion, etc.
Bonus systems were in operation in 17 of the 161 factories covered
in 1930. In 9 of the 17 factories there was a “leather-saving” bonus,
and 3 of the 9 had one or two other bonuses in operation at the time
of the study. One of the 3 had a production and leather-saving
bonus, an efficiency bonus, and a production bonus; 1 a leathersaving bonus, and a bonus based on earnings; and 1 had a leathersaving bonus and an efficiency bonus.
Table 9 shows the kind of bonus, the wage earners entitled, amount
of bonus, and the condition necessary to get each bonus:
T able 9. —Bonus systems of 17 establishments in the boot and shoe industry, 1980
Num ­
ber of
Amount of bonus
Conditions
estab­ Kind of bonus Wage earners entitled
lish­
ments
Leather saving. Cutters____ . . . . . . . . _ 10 per cent of piece rate or of Saving some leather from
earnings.
a quantity designated
for a specified number
of pairs.
2 to 10 par cent of earnings, Quantityof leather saved.
__do___. . . . _
varying with amount of
leather saved.
Do.
____do____ __ All employees in cut­ 1 cent for each square foot
ting department.
of leather saved.
Do.
____do____. . . . . Cutters____________ _ 2 to 20 per cent of earnings,
varying with amount of
leather saved.
10 to 20 per cent of earnings,
do
Do.
........do________
varying with amount of
leather saved.
(Cutters, hand___. . . . . 13 cents for each square foot
Do.
saved.
------d o ...,,-----{Cutters, machine____ 9 cents for each square foot
Do.
saved.
. . —

—

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

37
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1010 TO 1930
T able 9 .—Bonus systems of 17 establishments in the boot and shoe industry, 1930—
Continued
Num­
ber of
estab­ Kind of bonus Wage earners entitled
Amount of bonus
Conditions
lish­
ments
Varies—maximum of $3 per Cut more than 1,600
Production and Outsole cutters..
week; minimum and other pairs per week, with a
leather saving
saving in quantity of
details not reported.
leather.
Elimination of damage or
waste in cutting by
efficiency of:
67 per cent.
$1.60 per week____________
-do..
Efficiency..
68 per cent.
$1.75 per week_________ ...
69 per cent.
$2.00 per week____________
.$2.25 per week.........................
70 per cent and over.
25 cents for each 100 pounds Production in excess of
Heel-lift cutters.
.Production..
set standard.
of entire production.
Do.
Varies—maximum of $3 per
Insole sorters___
week; minimum and other
details not reported.
[Trimming cutters.
5 to 10 per cent of earnings, Quantityofleather saved.
varying with amount of
[Leather saving.
leather saved.
[Kid and calf leather 5 to 20 per cent of earnings,
Do.
varying with amount of
cutters.
leather saved.
.Earnings..
Assemblers for pullers- 12 to 20 per cent of earnings, Earn $30 or more per
over, machine, jpull- varying with excess over week at piece rates.
ers-over, machine; $30 per week.
sidelasters,machine;
bed-machine opera­
tors, and Goodyear
welters, or in-seam[Leather saving. Cutters__________ 1 cent for each square foot of Quantityofleather saved.
leather saved.
{Efficiency____ Goodyear stitchers. $1 per week____ ____ ______ Soles spoiled in week not
to exceed an average of
1 per day.
Time saving.. Cutters...............—
All time saved at regular rate Complete job in less than
allotted time.
Do.
____do________ Sole fitters, casers, and ----- do___________________
sorters.
Hourly rate increased 1 per Production in excess of
cent for each per cent of set standard.
production in excess of set
All......................
Production..
standard.
Penalty.—Hourly rate de­ Pentdty.—P r o d u c tio n
creased 1 per cent for each less than set standard.
per cent of production less
. than set standard.
4 cents for each £air over set Production in excess of
Cutters........ ....
j ___do_______
standard.
set standard.
Varies with years of service In service 1 year or more.
[Service______ All......................
and annual earnings of
firm.
33 cents for each 100 pairs cut Production of set stand­
Production and Outsole cutters.
in excess of set standard ard or more, and have
efficiency.
with an efficiency of 7 pairs not more than 7 cut­
or less of cut-overs; also overs per 1,000 pairs of
2 cents extra per hour for soles. A cut-over is a
production of set standard' sole or pair that must
3 cents extra per hour for be recut.
0.1 to 2 per cent in excess;
4 cents extra per hour for
2.1 to 4 per cent in excess;
and 5 cents extra per hour
for production of 4.1 per
cent or more in excess of
set standard.
'5 per cent of earnings............. In service 6 months and
under 1 year.
6 per cent of earnings............. In service 1 and under
2 years.
7 per cent of earnings............. In service 2 and under
Service..
All.,
3 years.
8 per cent of earnings............ In service 3 and under
4 years.
9 per cent of earnings______ In service 4 and under
5 years.
10 per cent of earnings........... In service 5 years and
over.
35 cents for each 500 pairs Perfect inspection of 500
Tack inspectors..
Efficiency..
inspected.
pairs.

{

38

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
INDEX NUMBERS OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAY ROLLS, 1923 TO 1930

Index numbers of employment and of pay rolls in the boot and
shoe industry are presented in Table 10 by months and years from
January, 1923, to December, 1930, inclusive. The numbers were
computed from the number of employees and amount of pay rolls
for each month and year over this period, with the 1926 averages the
base or 100 per cent. The indexes in the table are as published by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics in monthly reports on “Trend of
employment.”
During the period, January, 1923, to December, 1930, monthly
employment was highest in February and March, 1923, with an index
of 116.4, and lowest in December, 1930, with an index of 73.1; and
pay rolls were highest in March, 1923, with an index of 129.2, and
lowest in November, 1930, with an index of 47.2. By years, employ­
ment was highest in 1923 with an index of 111.1, and lowest in 1930
with an index of 85.0; and pay rolls were highest in 1923 with an index
of 117.0, and lowest in 1930 with an index of 70.1.
T a b le

10.—Index numbers of employment and of pay rolls, January, 1928, to
December, 1930, by month and year
[Average for 1926=100.0]

Month

Employment

Pay-roll totals

1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930

January................ 115.4 107.7 105.0 100.6 101.2
F ebruary............ 116.4 108.2 107.0 102.7 101.4
M arch................... 116.4 108.8 107.0 100.9 101.3
April...................... 113.9 102.7 102.4 95.3 96.2
M a y .................... 111.6 98.1 100.1 93.9 94.3
June...................... 107.9 92.3 94.8 94.2 93.8
July....................... 105.7 93.2 99.0 98.3 98.0
August.................. 110.6 98.9 105.0 103.3 102.0
September............ 110.2 102.2 107.0 104.9 102.2
October................. 109.2 103.6 106.4 104.4 99.6
November—........ 108.8 102.6 102.3 102.2 92.4
December............. 107.3 101.0 98.3 99.4 90.0
Average— 111.1 101.6 102.9 100.0 97.7

94.3
96.2
95.6
90.4
87.3
87.6
92.6
94.8
95.1
93.6
87.8
87.3
91.9

91.0
93.5
92.2
89.8
89.3
88.1
93.8
97.8
99.2
98.7
93.3
88.3
92.9

90.4 124.6 111.5 106.4 98.5 98.4
91.8 126.2 112.5 111.6 104.1 105.7
90.9 129.2 111.7 112.0 102.5 103.3
89.1 124.6 100.6 102.2 90.8 95.8
85.6 121.4 95.4 100.5 87.1 92.6
83.3 115.2 89.8 93.9 93.8 93.5
86.0 106.9 90.4 100.2 100.7 100.9
87.0 113.7 103.7 112.7 109.7 110.4
85.4 113.1 109.8 107.1 109.2 107.5
82.0 111.1 109.0 107.1 108.3 98.1
75.2 106.8 97.4 96.0 99.5 81.9
73.1 110.8 101.2 93.9 96.4 82.5
85.0 117.0 102.8 103.6 100.0 97.6

IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY

90.4 86.9
97.4 91.0
95.6 88.1
80.2 83.7
76.3 83.6
82.0 85.2
90.6 94.6
98.0 102.4
97.0 101.6
92.4 95.5
74.5 77.2
81.3 77.9
88.0 89.0

80.3
81.3
80.8
76.8
69.6
67.8
74.2
75.5
71.4
64.0
47.2
51.9
70.1

The importance of the boot and shoe industry in number of estab­
lishments, average number of wage earners, amount of wages, cost
of materials, value of products, and in value added by manufacture,
as reported by the United States Bureau of Census, is shown in Table
11 for the United States as a whole in each of the specified years from
1899 to 1929, and in 1927 only for each State except one for which
1930 wage figures are presented in this report. The table also shows
the average per wage earner of yearly earnings, cost of materials,
value of products, and of value added by manufacture; the per cent
that wages were of the value added by manufacture; and the average
yearly production per wage earner of pairs of boots, shoes, and
slippers.
Annual wages per wage earner for the United States as a whole
ranged, by years, from $412.05 in 1899 to $1,116.90 in 1921. Average
yearly wages per wage earner in 1927 ranged by States from $697.27
to $1,450.51.

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930

39

The per cent wages was of the value added by manufacture for the
United States ranged, by years, from 47.9 in 1919 to 64.7 in 1899.
In 1927 the per cent ranged by States from 34.6 to 61.2.
The average number of pairs of boots, shoes, and slippers produced
per wage earner in the United States ranged from 1,528 in 1914 to
1,807 in 1927. In 1927 production in the States for which figures
were available ranged from 1,567 to 2,354 pairs per wage earner.

T able

11.— Number of establishments, wage earners, amount of wages, cost of materials, value of products, value added by manufacture, and ^
number of pairs of shoes produced, 1899 to 1929
[From United States Census of Manufactures]

United States:
1899.......................
1904.......................
1909.......................
1914_......................
1919.......................
19211.....................
1923 i.....................
1925 i._ .................
1927 i.....................
19291.....................

1,599
1,316
1,343
1,355
1,449
1,505
1,606
1,460
1,357
1,329

141,830
149,924
185,116
191,555
211,049
183,502
225,216
206,992
203,110
202,191

469
318
68
57
48
63
107
63
44
6
16
5
11
17
10
55

55,986
35,828
24,277
14,038
12,993
12,114
11,429
11,029
9,740
2,322
2, 198
1,772
1,724
1,389
941
5,330

Average Amount
number paid to wage
of wage
earners
earners

Cost of
materials

Value of
products

Number of
Value added pairs of boots,
by manufac­ andshoes,
slippers
ture
produced

$58,440,883 $168,632,654 $258,969,580 $90,336,926
69,059,680 197,363,495 320,107,458 122,743,963
92,359,152 277,467,743 442,630,726 165,162,983
105,695,404 310,356,586 501,760,458 191,403,872
210,734,610 715,269,315 1,155,041,436 439,772,121
204,954,095 478,432,445 867,475,896 389,043,451
250,345,922 527,456,868 1,000,078,022 472,621,154
225,787,981 481,631,964 925,383,422 443,751,458
225,090,242 494,553,016 944,714,463 450,161,447
218,342,882 510,248,131 953,304,130 443,055,999

217,965,419
242,110,035
285,017,181
292,666,468
331,224,628
286,771,101
351,114,273
323,553, 055
367,067,065
363,168,013

Per
Value
Average Cost of Value of added
cent
yearly materials products by manu­ wages
earnings
facture are of
per wage per wage per wage per wage value
earner
earner
earner
earner added

Average
produc­
tion of
boots,
shoes, and
slippers
per wage
earner in
year

$412.05 $1,188.98 $1,825.92
460.63 1,316.42 2,135.13
498.93 1,498.89 2,391.10
551.78 1,620.20 2,619.41
998.51 3,389.12 5,472.86
1,116.90 2,607.23 4,727.34
1, 111. 58 2,342.01 4,440.53
1,090.81 2,326.82 4,470.63
1,108.22 2,434.90 4,651.25
1,079.88 2,523.59 4,714.87

$636.94
818.71
892.21
999.21
2,083.75
2,120.10
2,098.53
2,143.81
2,216.34
2,191.27

64.7
56.3
55.9
55.2
47.9
52.7
53.0
50.9
50.0
49.3

1,537
1,615
1,540
1,528
1,569
1,563
1,559
1,563
1,807
1,796

2,149.71
2,651.93
3,125.71
2,537.64
2,056.72
2,477.11
1,895.08
2,872.50
1,979.90
1,689.00
2,084.82
2,878.26
2,301.92
2,305.13
3,051.42
2,754.03

2,092.72
2,677.32
2,517.43
2,564.82
2,044.66
1,638.22
1,918.04
2,324.25
1,784.27
1,548.99
1,462.44
2,021.26
1,649.55
2,544.40
2,061.84
1,856.99

55.7
54.2
37.4
37.3
52.8
61.2
51.3
44.5
52.0
45.0
59.2
34.6
56.5
46.1
48.9
47.9

1,567
2; 354
1,971
1,924
* 1,112
1,835
1,604
1,657
1,615
(«)
(3)
(»)
0
ft
(»)
41,985

1927

Massachusetts...........
New York...................
Missouri......................
Illin o is.......................
Ohio.............................
New Hampshire........
Pennsylvania.............
Wisconsin...................
M aine.........................
Kentucky_________
M aryland_________
Tennessee..............—
Minnesota..................
New Jersey.................
Michigan....................
All other States.........

65,282,193
51,968,958
22,874,378
13,421,467
14,015,745
12,151,051
11,241,946
11,404,101
9,044,294
1,619,057
1,903,045
1,239,122
1,606,789
1,628,845
949,157
4,740,094

120,353,570
95,013,224
75,882,807
35,623,407
26,722,986
30,007,751
21,658,894
31,680,823
19,284,256
3,921,851
4,582,444
5,100,283
3,968,514
3,201,822
2,871,389
14,678,995

237,516,655 117,163,085 87,731,093
190,936,330 95,923,106 84,330,812
136,998,386 61,115,579 47,851,535
71,628,288 36,004,881 27,014,832
53,289,298 26,566,312 * 14,449,148
49,853,099 19,845,348 22,233,149
43,580,217 21,921,323 18,330,784
57,315,001 25,634,178 18,273,797
36,663,037 17,378,781 15,733,693
hi
3,596,755
7,518,606
7,796,894
3,214,450
v)
3,581,668
8,681,951
y)
(3)
2,843,828
6,812,342
3,534,176
6,735,998
0
4,811,584
1,940,195
(»)
9,897,782 131,118,222
24,576,777

1 D ata for establishments with products less than $5,000 in value not included.
* Exclusive of stitch-downs, carried to “ all other States/’

1,166.04
1,450.51
942.22
956.08
1,078.72
1,003.06
983.63
1,034.01
928.57
697.27
865.81
699.28
932.01
1,172.67
1,008.67
889.32

4,242.43
5,329.25
5,643.13
5,102.46
4,101.39
4,115.33
3,813.13
5,196.75
3,764.17
3,237.99
3,547.27
4,899.52
3,951.47
4,849.53
5,113.27
4,611.03

1Included with all other States.
<Including stitch-downs manufactured in the State of Ohio.

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
F

State and year

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
SCOPE AND METHOD

41

The data used in this report were for all employees (except execu­
tives, office clerks, foremen, power-house workers, and those engaged
in maintenance or construction of factory buildings) and were taken
directly from the pay rolls or other records of representative shoe
factories by agents of the bureau. The factories were engaged wholly
or mainly in the manufacture of men's, women's, or children’s shoes
by the welt, McKay, or turn process. Data were not collected from
any factory in which 50 per cent or more of the products were slip­
pers, pegged or nailed shoes.
Of the 161 boot and shoe factories included in the 1930 study, 67
produced women's shoes only; 22 produced men's only; 6 produced
men's and women's; 11 produced men's and boys'; 6 produced men's,
women's, and children's or boys'; 2 produced men's, boys', youths',
and children's or little gents'; 2 produced men's, boys', and youths'
or little gents'; 1 produced men's and children's; 1 produced boys'
and children's; 3 produced women's and children's; 4 produced
women's and misses' or girls'; 5 produced women's, misses' and chil­
dren's; 4 produced girls', misses', and children's; 3 produced misses' and
children's; 2 produced girls' only; 1 produced children's only; and 1
produced girls' and misses'; 19 cut insoles or outsoles only; and 1 cut
and stitched uppers for other factories of a company.
The welt process of fastening soles to shoes was used by 57 fac­
tories; McKay by 38; welt and McKay by 12; welt and turn by 13;
welt and stitch-down by 3; welt, McKay, and stitch-down by 1; welt,
McKay, and turn by 1; welt, turn, and Littleway by 1; welt and loose
nail by 1; welt and composition by 3; welt, McKay, and composition
by 2; welt, turn, and composition by 1; composition by 2; turn by 4;
turn and McKay by 1; turn and the stitch-down process was used by
1 factory. The other 20 establishments included in the report did
not make shoes; 19 cut soles and 1 cut and stitched uppers.
A large number of shoe factories do not cut soles and other soleleather parts. The soles and parts used in such factories are pur­
chased from companies that specialize in the cutting and sale of
them. To get and show representative figures for occupations in the
sole-leather department and also for the industry as a whole it was,
therefore, necessary to collect wages and hours of labor from a repre­
sentative number of the companies that specialize in soles and soleleather parts. In making the 1930 study it was found that each of
a few large companies had a central cutting department or plant in
which sole-leather parts were prepared for all of the factories of each
company. The factories were in different localities and for some
companies in more than one State. A representative number of the
factories and part of the cutting plant of each company was included
in the study of the industry.
A few large and completely equipped factories are represented in
this report by only a part of the total number of wage earners in
them, as the inclusion of all would have tended to overweight and
possibly impair the representative character of the averages for
States in winch such large factories are located.
Practically all of the factories in the industry pay employees every
week. Data for those with a pay period of more than one week were
so taken as to make it possible to show wage figures for the wage earn­
ers in them for one week.

42

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

Data were taken from ail except a very few factories for a pay
period in January, February, or March, 1930. The averages in the
report are, therefore, representative of wage conditions in those
months.
A very large per cent of the wage earners in the industry are piece­
workers. In factories where the time actually worked by piecework­
ers was not of record arrangements were made by agents of the
bureau with the officials of such factories for a day-by-day record to
be kept of all time actually worked by each employee who did any
piecework during a representative pay-roll period. No separation
has been made in the tabulation of data for pieceworkers and timeworkers.
Average earnings per hour of wage earners in each occupation, as
presented in this report, were computed by dividing the total earn­
ings in one week of wage earners in the occupation by the total hours
worked in the week by them.
Average full-time hours per week of wage earners in each occupation
were computed by dividing the total full-time hours per week of all
wage earners in the occupation by the total number of,wage earners
in the occupation.
Average full-time earnings per week of wage earners in each occu­
pation were computed by multiplying the average earnings per hour
of wage earners in the occupation by the average full-time hours per
week. This assumes that the earnings for full time would have been
at the same average rate per hour as was earned in the time actually
worked in one week.
Full-time hours and earnings per week, as presented in the tables
of this report, do not in any way indicate the amount of employment,
or of unemployment or of actual earnings per week in any of the years
for which data are shown. In computing average full-time hours,
each employee was credited with his regular full-time hours per week
regardless of the number of hours actually worked by him in the week
covered by this study. Some employees in an occupation may have
worked more than full time during the pay period taken, due to over­
time, and others may have worked less than full time, because of sick­
ness, injury, or entering or leaving the service during the week for
other causes.
In selecting factories from which to obtain wage data the bureau
endeavored to represent all States in which the manufacture of boots
and shoes is of material importance in number of wage earners as
reported by the United States Bureau of Census.
Table 12 shows by States the number of wage earners in the in­
dustry according to the 1927 census and the number of factories and
of wage earners included in the 1930 report. The number of wage
earners in the shoe factories in the 16 States, based on the 1927 Census
of Manufactures is 97.4 per cent of all wage earners in the industry
in the United States. The 55,158 included in the 1930 study of the
industry, based on the 1927 census is 27.9 per cent of the total num­
ber employed in the 16 States, and 27.2 per cent of the total number
in the United States.

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
43
T able 13.—Number of wage earners in the boot and shoe industry in the
United States according to 1927 Census of Manufactures, and number of estab­
lishments and wage earners for which data are shown for 1930, by State

State

Massachusetts____________________
New York___________ ____ ______
Missouri_________________________
Illinois___________ _______________
Ohio____________________________
New Hampshire__________________
Pennsylvania........ ................................
W isconsin__ _ _ „ir T ... . , ..
Maine___________________________
Kentucky________________________
M aryland and Virginia____________
Tennessee________________________
Minnesota__ _____________________
New Jersey_____________________
Michigan_______________________
All other States_______ ___________
Total..............................................

E stab lish m en ts a n d
wage earners for which
data are
Number of the Bureaushown by
wage earners Statistics for of Labor
1930
reported by
United States
Census Bu­
reau 19271 Number of Number
establish­ of wage
ments
earners
55,986
35,828
24,277
14,038
12,993
12,114
11,429
11,029
9,740
2,322
a 2,198
1,772
1,724
1,389
941
5,330
203,110

56
19
11
6
7
9
12
9
7
3
7
4
4
3
4

14,922
10,074
6,554
3,593
3,274
3,155
3,019
3,163
2,407
765
1,551
959
632
516
603

161

55,187

i Not including wage earners in establishments each of which had annual production valued at less than
$5,000.
3 Maryland only, the figures for Virginia being included with “ All other States” by the census.

OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY

The occupations for which data are presented in this bulletin are
arranged below in order of manufacture and are defined in Bulletin
No. 232.

Cutting department:
Fitting or stitching department—Con.
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
Closers or seamers.
hand.
Seam rubbers, hand and machine.
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
Lining makers (including lining
machine.
closers and side and top facing
Cutters, trimmings, hand (in­
stitchers).
Closers-on.
cluding dinkers and blockers).
Cutters, trimmings, machine.
Top-stitchers (including underSkivers, upper.
trimmers and barber trimmers).
Cutters, linings, hand.
Binders (including top banders).
Cutters, linings, machine.
Buttonhole makers.
Sole-leather department:
Button fasteners.
Cutters, outsole.
Eyeleters (including hookers).
Cutters, insole.
Vampers.
Barrers (including tackers).
Rounders, outsole or insole.
Channelers, outsole or insole.
Tongue stitchers.
Fancy stitchers.
Cutters, top and heel lifts, machine.
Heel builders, hand.
Backstay stitchers (including back
strappers).
Heel builders, machine (including
Table workers.
compressors).
Lacers (before lasting).
Fitting or stitching department:
Stampers, linings or uppers (in­ Lasting department:
cluding markers).
Last pickers or sorters (including
last casers).
Cementers and doublers, hand and
machine (including reinforcers,
Assemblers, for pulling-over ma­
pasters, and fitters).
chine.
Folders, hand and machine.
Pullers-over, hand.
Pullers-over, machine.
Perforators.
Side lasters, hand.
Tip stitchers.

44

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
Lasting department—Continued.
Bottoming department—Continued.
Side lasters, machine.
Heelers, wood.
Bed-machine operators.
Heel trimmers or shavers.
Hand-method lasting machine
Heel breasters.
operators.
Edge trimmers.
Turn lasters, hand (including first
Sluggers.
and second lasters).
Finishing department:
Turn lasters, machine.
Buffers (including bottom scour­
Turn sewers.
ers).
Tack pullers, hand and machine.
Naumkeag operators.
Bottoming department:
Edge setters.
Goodyear welters (including inHeel scourers (including first and
seamers).
second scourers).
Welt beaters and slashers.
Heel burnishers (including stoners,
Bottom fillers, hand and machine.
expediters, and heel slickers).
Sole cementers, hand and machine
Bottom finishers (including bottom
(including bottom cementers).
slickers).
Sole layers, hand and machine.
Brushers.
Rough rounders.
Shoe cleaners.
Channel openers and channel clos­
Last pullers, hand and machine.
ers (including channel layers,
Treers, hand and machine.
channel turners, channel cement­
Repairers (not cobblers) (including
ers, and lip turners).
tip fixers and scourers).
Goodyear stitchers.
Dressers.
McKay sewers.
Sock liners (including heel-lining,
Stitch separators (including stitch
heel-pad, and heel-pin pasters).
wheelers).
Lacers (before packing).
Levelers.
Packers.
Heelers, leather.

All wage earners employed in occupations not listed above are
tabulated as “other employees.”
GENERAL TABLES

In addition to the text tables already shown three general tables
are presented as follows:
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked,
average full-time and actual hours and earnings per week, average
earnings per hour, and per cent of full time worked, 1930, by depart­
ment, occupation, sex, and State. The table shows for each occupa­
tion and State all of the various averages that were computed from
the wage figures collected in 1930.
Average full-time hours per week and average hours actually worked
in one week are presented in parallel columns for the purpose of
making easy the comparison of the hours that would have been worked
in one week had all wage earners in the occupation worked no more
nor less than full time with the average hours that were actually
worked in the week. One shows the full-time hours per week under
normal conditions, and the other shows the hours that were actually
worked in one week.
On page 71, the table shows that the 31,549 males in the 161
factories worked on an average of 5.4 days in one week; that their
average full-time hours per week were 48.8; that they actually worked an
average of 42.7 hours in the week, or 87.5 per cent of full time; that
they earned an average of 60.4 cents per hour and $25.79 in the week;
and that had they worked full time at the same average per hour as
was earned in the 42.7 hours, they would have earned an average
of $29.48 in the week. It will be observed that like figures are shown
for males in each of the 15 States or group of two States included

45

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930

in the report; also for the 23,609 females of 152 factories and 55,158
males and females in all occupations in the 161 factories covered in
the study.
Tables B and C are distribution tables and limited to 14 specified
occupations.
T a b l e B.—Average and classified earnings per hour in 14 specified
occupations, 1930, by department, sex, and State.
T a b l e C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14
specified occupations, 1930, by department, sex, and State.
A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average fuUrtime
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State

T able

CUTTING DEPARTMENT

Occupation, sex, and State

Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
hand, male:
Illinois_______________ ____
Kentucky_________________
Maine............................. ...........
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota-................................
Missouri.....................................
New Hampshire___________
New Jersey-...............................
New York..................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania............................
WisconsinTotal..
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
machine, male:
Illinois_____________ ______
Kentucky..................................
Maine........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan__________________
Minnesota.................................
Missouri__________________
New Hampshire___________
New Jersey________________
New York..................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania............................
WisconsinTotal.
Cutters, vamp and whole shoe,
machine, female:
Illinois____________________
Michigan__________________
Missouri__________________
Tennessee_____________ ____
Totalt Data included in total.

66555°—32------i

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
Num­ days on
ber of which
wage
earn­
ers worked
in week

Aver­
age
fail­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ amount
time actually
earn­ earned
ings in
per
week week

109
34
129
63
820
11
9
157
88
21
444
124
103
18
96
127 2,226

5.0
6.8
6.7
4.7
5.3
5.2
5.0
5.5
5.3
5.5
5.6
4*2
5.5
5.2
5.7
5.3

48.3
61.0
52.8
48.8
48.3
60.0
49.2
48.6
49.4
45.6
47.6
49.6
60.1
54.2
48.6
48.7

41.8
48.0
49.8
38.9
40.3
45.6
39.8
45.5
39.4
39.3
44.3
29.6
43.4
44.3
47.2
42.0

86.5
94.1
94.3
79.7
83.4
91.2
80.9
93.6
79.8
86.2
93.1
59.6
86.6
81.7
97.1
86.2

$0,866
.555
.602
.638
.869
.641
.581
.777
.649
.831
.894
.780
.616
.515
.716
.796

$41.83
28.31
31.79
31.13
41.49
27.05
28.69
37.76
32.06
37.89
42.55
27.91
34.80
38.77

$36.21
29.94
24.86
34.63
24.66
23.13
35.36
25.66
39.56
23.09
26.75
22.79
33.81
3.46

0)24
14
111
24
25
125
97
0)
160
66
48
37
128

(9
6.0

5.2

5.4
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.0
5.5
(9
5.2
4.2
5.9
5.7
4.9
5.2

49.0
0)
53.4
49.6
48.0
49.2
60.5
60.0
48.8
0)
48.8
45.0
53.5
50.7
50.7
49.4

39.5
0)
53.0
42.4
38.0
43.6
43.8
43.7
39.4
0)
44.4
35.5
52.3
48.7
42.1
42.5

80.6
99.3
85.5
79.2
88.6
86.7
87.4
80.7
91.0
78.9
97.8
96.1
83.0
86.0

.797
(0
.586
.637
.801
.691
.605
.544
.621
<9
.729
.663
.541
.508
.713

39.05
C1)
31.29
31.60
38.45
29.08
30.55
27.20
30.30
0)
35.68
29.39
28.94
26.76
36.15
32.75

31.49
8 .0 !
26.96
30.44
25.79
26.63
23.77
24.45
(9
32.34
23.14
28.33
24.76
30.00
28.19

5.1
5.3

50.0
49.2

66.6
93.1

.549 27.45
.467 22.98

18.26
21.36

70.9

.606 25.25

30

4.8

I

49.9

35.4

1

17.92

46

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sex, and &£a£e—Contd.
CU TTIN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Cutters, trimmings, hand (includ­
ing dinkers and blockers), male:
Illinois
3
Kentucky.________________
3
M aine,, _
_.
6
3
M aryland and Virginia______
Massachusetts______________ 39
2
Minnesota..
'Missouri
-- , - __T 4
New Hampshire,
5
New York_________________
15
5
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania__ _ _ ____
8
2
Tennessee
Wisconsin__ _______________
6
Total........................................ 101
Cutters, trimmings, hand (includ­
ing dinkers and blockers), fe­
male:
Illinois______. . . . . . ________
2
1
Maine_______ -__ -________
2
Massachusetts_____________
M ichigan... ____ _
1
1
Minnesota_________________
New York_________________
2
1
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................ 10
Cutters, trimmings, machine,
male:
Illinois____________________
3
1
K entucky.________________
Maine_____________________
4
Maryland and Virginia...........
3
Massachusetts_____________
8
I
Michigan , ______
Minnesota_________________
2
Missouri___________________
3
3
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
2
New York_________________
6
Ohio............................................
3
Pennsylvania______ ________
5
1
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
5
Total. -..........
50
Cutters, * trimmings, machine,
IatyiaIa
I6uloI0«
Illinois______________ ______
2
Massachusetts_____________
7
Michigan____ . . . __________
2
Missouri________ __________
3
New York_________________
2
2
Ohio............................................
1
Pennsylvania___ _ „. „ -______
1
Tennessee_________________
1
Wisconsin_________________
21
Total______. . . ___________

i Data included in total.

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

18
6
61
15
261
4
41
26
133
30
28
8
40
671

5.1
6.0
5.6
5.3
5.2
4.8
5.2
5.6
5.6
4.4
5.5
4.6
5.8
5.3

49.4
54.7
53.5
48.9
48.2
49.1
48.9
48.8
47.0
49.3
50.4
55.0
48.4
48.9

5
0 5
0
04
0
22

5.2
0
5.6
(l)
0)
5.3
0
5.3

20
0 11
10
20
09
27
16
3
40
11
16
0)
36
225
8
17
7
20
0)
0)
0
87

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

38.9
55.2
47.8
43.9
38.4
34.4
43.3
42.1
43.0
32.4
42.2
37.4
45.8
41.2 |

78.7 $0,353 $17.44
100.9 .217 11.87
89.3 .363 19.42
89.8 .469 22.93
79.7 .560 26.99
70.1 .497 24.40
88.5 .390 19.07
86.3 .395 19.28
91.5 .609 28.62
65.7 .436 21.49
83.7 .495 24.95
68.0 .396 21.78
94.6 .532 25.75
84.3 .509 24.89

$13.73
11.97
17.35
20.59
21.51
17.08
16.85
16.65
26.22
14.11
20.88
14.83
24.37
20.99

48.4
0
48.0
0
(1)
47.7
0
49.0

39.7
0
45.0
0
0
41.9
0
40.7

82.0
93.8

5.9
0
5.5
5.4
5.5
05.7
5.6
4.6
5.7
5.3
4.2
5.7
0
5.3
5.4

49.1
0
54.1
50.4
48.2
0
51.1
49.7
51.3
46.8
48.8
47.7
53.1
0
51.9
50.3

5.3
5.0
5.3
5.0
6.0
3.8
0
0 %
0
4.8

48.3
48.0
50.0
48.3
49.4
49.8
0
(i)
0
49.0

Aver- Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
time actually time
hours worked hours
per
in actually
week week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

83.1

.480
0
.409
0)
0
.533
0
.405

23.23
0
19.63
0
0
25.42
0
19.85

19.06
0)
18.38
(i)
(i)
22 32
0
16.49

49.7
0
47.6
46.8
37.4
0
46.7
47.0
33.0
41.8
45.9
30.3
50.6
0
44.5
44.2

101.2
88.0
92.9
77.6
91.4
94.6
64.3
89.3
94.1
63.5
95.3
85.7
87.9

.489
0
.411
.340
.619
0)
.340
.445
.555
.653
.542
.454
.345
0
.463
.467

24.01
0
22.24
17.14
29.84
0
17.37
22.12
28.47
30.56
26.45
21.66
18.32
0)
24.03
23.49

24.28
0
19.57
15.91
23.13
0
15.87
20.90
18.32
27.29
24.85
13.79
17.47
0
20.57
20.62

42.6
39.4
43.9
41.9
36.4
25.4
0
0
0
37.5

88.2
82.1
87.8
86.7
73.7
51.0

.427
.541
.277
.414
.424
.453
0
0
0
.411

20.62
25.97
13.85
20.00
20.95
22.56
0
0
(i)
20.14

18.19
21.32
12.16
17.33
15.42
11.50
0
0
0
15.43

87.8

76.5

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
47
T a b l e A,— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sex%and State— Contd.
C U TTIN G D E P ARTM EN T—-Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Skivers, upper, male:
Maine......................................
Maryland and Virginia___
Massachusetts.......................
Michigan.............................. .
New Hampshire____ ____ _
New York............................. .
Pennsylvania.........................
Tennessee...............................
Wisconsin............................. .
Total....................................
8kivers, uppers, female:
Illinois-..................................
Kentucky...............................
Maine......................................
Maryland and Virginia.......
Massachusetts.......................
Michigan................................
Minnesota..............................
Missouri................................ .
New Hampshire.................. .
New Jersey........................... .
New York..............................
Ohio........................................
Pennsylvania........................
Tennessee...............................
Wisconsin...............................
Total....................................
Cutters, linings, hand, male:
Illinois................................. .
Kentucky_______________
Maine....................................
Maryland and Virginia.......
Massachusetts.......................
Michigan__________ _____
Minnesota..............................
Missouri..................—...........
New Hampshire....................
New Jersey.............................
New York..............................
Ohio.........................................
Pennsylvania.........................
Wisconsin...............................
Total________ _________
Cutters, linings, machine, male:
Illinois.....................................
Kentucky...............................
Maine.....................................
M aryland and Virginia___
Massachusetts.......................
Michigan................................
Minnesota.............. ...............
Missouri..................................
New Hampshire....................
New York..............................
Ohio.........................................
Pennsylvania.........................
Tennessee...............................
Wisconsin...............................
Total__________________

*Data included in total.

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

100.6
83.2
85.6
98.2
108.7
83.4
95.4
91.3

$0,344
.306
.690
0
.375
.944
.441
0)
.415
.651

$17.88
15.15
33.12
0
18.86
42.10
3.37
0
20.96
31.44

$17.96
12.60
28.40
0
18.54
45.73
19.46
0
20.00
28.73

43.2
49.3
48.6
33.6
38.3
42.8
46.2
45.5
35.9
0
42.9
32.8
43.1
45.0
43.6
40.8

89.1
95.2
93.1
68.9
80.0
86.5
92.6
92.1
73.7
88.8
68.3
85.9
87.0
89.2
83.6

.482
.309
.483
.371
.551
.316
.318
.409
.378
0
.493
.360
.386
.292
.408
.447

23.38
16.01
25.21
18.10
26.39
15.64
15.87
20.20
18.41
0
23.81
17.28
19.38
15.10
19.95
21.81

20.80
15.23
23.46
12.36
21.11
13.53
14.69
18.59
13.54
0
21.12
11.83
16.60
13.14
17.78
18.22

47.0
46.0
47.8
38.2
39.3
47.4
40.1
39.6
41.9
40.6
42.8
28.2
43.8
46.7
40.7

95.5
91.1
91.6
79.3
81.7
94.8
81.3
82.3
83.3
92.3
89.2
56.4
89.0
95.3
83.7

.625
.322
.510
.476
.685
.522
.482
.739
.503
.748
.655
.621
.610
.514
.630

30.75
16.26
26.62
22.94
32.95
26.10
23.76
35.55
25.30
32.91
31.44
31.05
30.01
25.19
30.62

29.39
14.81
24.36
18.16
26.90
24.74
19.32
29.27
21.09
30.36
28.06
17.54
26.71
23.98
25.62

47.1 96.5
0 ______
54.5 100.9
56.7 112.3
40.1 83.5
41.8 83.9
0)
48.1 97.4
40.4 82.3
43.8 89.4
44.5 97.6
48.6 94.6
44.3 87.2
42.6 85.2
44.7 90.9

.520
0)
.566
.552
.648
.448
0
.432
.342
.609
.463
.422
.284
.504
.481

25.38
0
30.56
27.88
31.10
22.31
0
21.34
16.79
29.84
21.11
21.69
14.43
25.20
23.67

24.51
0
30.87
31.27
25.97
18.69
0
20.77
13.80
26.66
20.60
20.50
12.58
21.48
21.50

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

3
3
16
1
2
6
2
1
2
36

4
5
51
(1)«
2
20
3
0 11
104

6.0 52.0
5.0 49.5
5.1 48.0
0
0
6.0 50.3
6.0 44.6
5.3 53.0
0
0
5.7 50.5
5.4 48.3

52.3
41.2
41.1
0
49.4
48.5
44.2
0
48.2
44.1

5
3
7
5
36
4
4
8
7
1
15
7
8
4
7
121

45
15
22
15
161
10
11
56
47
<9
101
65
39
18
55
664

5.1 48.5
5.5 51.8
5.7 52.2
4.5 48.8
5.2 47.9
4.9 49.5
5.4 49.9
5.5 49.4
5.2 48.7
05.4 48.3
0
4.5 48.0
5.5 50.2
5.7 51.7
5.4 48.9
5.2 48.8

3
2
7
3
39
2
3
4
4
2
18
3
5
6
101

5
11
30
15
210
4
4
17
17
13
82
27
11
20
466

5.4 49.2
5.4 50.5
5.6 52.2
4.7 48.2
5.1 48.1
5.5 50.0
5.0 49.3
4.9 48.1
5.1 50.3
5.9 44.0
5.4 48.0
4.1 50.0
5.5 49.2
5.8 49.0
5.2 48.6

4
1
2
2
8
4
1
7
6
5
4
5
4
4
57

35
0
3
2
39
10
0
81
41
59
17
11
18
21
350

0)
6.0

5.5

6.0
5.1
5.0
0
5.6
5.5
5.1
5.0
5.5
5.1
5.0
5.3

48.8
0
54.0
50.5
48.0
49.8
0
49.4
49.1
49.0
45.6
51.4
50.8
50.0
49.2

48

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
T a b l e A.— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State— C o n td .
C U TTIN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued
Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Occupation, sex, and State

Cutters, linings, machine, female:
Illinois.........................................
Minnesota. .. , - Missouri__________________
Tennessee...................................
Total........................................

3
1
1
1
6

Aver­
age
Num­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week
(i)12
0)
»
21

5.3
(X)
0)
(0
4.9

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week
49.3
(i)
(i
w
49.7

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

83.4 $0,451 $22.23
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
78.7 .394 19.58

$18.56
(0
0)
0)
15.39

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked
41.1
0)
(i)
0)
39.1

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

SO LE-LEA TH ER D EPA RTM EN T
Cutters, outsole, male:
Illinois.........................................
M aryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................
New York...................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania____—.................
Wisconsin..................................
Total........................................
Cutters, insole, male:
Illinois.........................................
M aine........................................Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts............................
Michigan....... . rMinnesota..................................
Missouri......................................
New Ham pshire.......................
New York...................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Wisconsin...................................
Total........................................
Bounders, outsole and insole,
male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky...................................
M aine................................. ........
Maryland and Virginia............
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota__________ _______
Missouri................ ....................
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey.................................
New York..................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Tennessee...................................
Wisconsin...................................
Total........................................
Channelers, outsole and insole,
male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky...................................
Maine..........................................
M aryland and Virginia______
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
M innesota..................................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................
i D ata included in total.

3
1
19
2
2
3
1
4
3
7
3
48
3
3
2
18
1
2
3
4
5
1
5
2
49

80
40
19
0)
101
13
353

5.1
0)
5.8
3.6
5.2
5.9
0)
4.2
4.9
5.9
5.4
5.5
4.8
6.0
6.0
5.6
0)
6.0
5.8
5.0
4.9
0)
5.8
5.2
5.5

48.9
0)
48.4
50.0
48.9
48.0
0)
47.9
47.9
50.6
50.3
48.6
48.5
53.0
50.2
48.0
0)
51.4
48.0
48.1
48.6
0)
50.7
50.8
49.0

43.8 89.6
0) ______
47.7 98.6
28.8 57.6
45.5 93.0
47.1 98.1
0)
35.0 73.1
36.5 76.2
49.6 98.0
44.7 88.9
44.6 91.8
40.8 84.1
51.6 97.4
51.8 103.2
44.9 93.5
0)
51.4 100.0
45.7 95.2
42.5 88.4
41.1 84.6
0)
48.4 95.5
42.3 83.3
45.4 92.7

$0,711
0)
.752
.808
.551
.829
0)
.771
.642
.616
.633
.744
.694
>?90
.620
.623
0)
.448
.754
.636
.732
0)
.471
.571
.608

5
16
4
3
11
6
4
3
28
42
9
2
3
5
4
12
17
7
3
5
16
32
13
5
7
5
4
2
4
6
96 | 187

5.4
5.8
5.9
4.3
5.4
5.6
5.8
5.7
4.9
5.8
6.8
4.6
5.1
5.5
5.5
5.4

49.4
53.9
52.5
48.6
48.5
50.0
50.1
49.7
48.9
45.7
48.2
48.4
52.7
50.0
50.7
49.3

39.4 79.8
53.5 99.3
49.1 93.5
34.0 70.0
41.4 85.4
47.9 95.8
46.8 93.4
48.8 98.2
37.3 76.3
47.6 104.2
44.9 93.2
33.9 70.0
42.1 80.0
46.5 93.0
45.5 89.7
42.9 ^87.0

.527
.634
.534
.461
.744
.535
.400
.565
.595
.622
.739
.630
.468
.454
.470
.622

26.03
34.17
28.04
22.40
36.08
26. 75
20.04
28.08
29.10
28.43
35.62
30.49
24.66
22.70
23.83
30.66

20.77
33.90
26.23
15.65
30.82
25.61
18.72
27.60
22.20
29.58
33.17
21.37
19.71
21.10
21.37
26.65

4
2
5
4
30
4
3
5
7

5.5
5.8
5.7
5.0
5.5
4.8
5.7
5.6
5.0

48.6
50.7
52.8
49.0
48.6
49.5
50.0
49.8
48.8

42.3
52.1
48.3
42.1
39.7
42.1
46.0
46.5
32.3

.813
.511
.510
.600
.858
.531
.502
.687
.660

39.51
25.91
26.93
29.40
41. >0
26.28
25.10
34.21
32.21

34.39
26.64
24.64
25.25
34.05
22.34
23.08
31.95
21.34

14
0)78
5
5
73
0)
45
12
25
23
293
12
4
3
68

13
6
10
5
53
10
3
9
14

87.0
102.8
91.5
85.9
81.7
85.1
92.0
93.4
66.2

$34.77 $31.16
0)
0)
36.40 35.90
40.40 23.26
26.94 25.08
39.79 39.01
0)
36.93 0)
26.98
30.75 23.46
31.17 30.57
31.84 28.29
36.16 33.16
33.66 28.34
20.67 20.11
*1.12 32.13
29.90 28.01
0)
0)
23.01 23.01
36.19 34.48
30.59 27.03
35.58 30.11
0)
0)
23.88 22.80
29.01 24.17
29.79 27.57

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
49
T a b l e A . —Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
SO LE-LEA TH ER DEPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Channelers, outsole and insole,
male—C ontinued.
New Jersey____ __________
New Y o rk _____ ________ _
Ohio .........................................
Pennsylvania____
Tennessee________ ____
Wisconsin......... .
Total........................................
Cutters, top and heel lifts, ma­
chine, male:
Illinois
_ __ _ _ __
Massachusetts_____________
Missouri
-New TRampshirp. ,
__
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pftnnsylvania
Wisconsin - .
T o ta l.____.r Heel builders, hand, male:
Illinois____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Missouri______ - ___________
New Jersey —_-___ _______
Pennsylvania______________
Wisconsin___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total.................. ................. ...
Heel builders, hand, female:
Illinois____________________
Massachusetts_____________
New York_________________
Pennsylvania_____________
Total.,
Heel builders, machine (including
compressors), male:
Illinois____________________
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan,,. - . ^ .
M innesota_______________ _
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire _________
New Jersey________ ________
New York ................ .. . . __
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Wisconsin_________________
Total_______________ ____
Heel builders, machine (including
compressors) female:
Illinois____________________
Massachusetts_____________
Minnesota_________________
Missouri______ ____________
New Hampshire____________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Wisconsin_________________
Total____________________

*Data included in total.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
Num ­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ amount
time actually
earn­ earned
ings in
per
week week
$33.74 $33.74
34.40 32.47
27.81 22.80
28.71 24.75
22.65 21.54
32.23 29.89
33.82 29.22

3
12
5
6
2
6
98

5
28
18
8
5
11
198

6.0
5.9
5.1
5.4
5.6
5.6
5.5

47.4
48.8
47.7
52.1
50.0
51.0
49.3

47.4
46.1
39.1
44.9
47.6
47.3
42.6

100.0
94.5
82.0
86.2
95.2
92.7
86.4

$0,712
.705
.583
.551
.453
.632
.686

2
6
3
1
1
5
2
4
1
25

12
23
112
0
08
8
23
0
211

4.8
5.6
4.8
0)
0
5.6
4.6
6.0
0
5.0

49.0
48.0
48.0
0)
0)
48.0
50.0
53.5
0
48.8

41.7
44.8
38.1
0)
(i)
37.9
26.7
52.3
0
40.6

85.1
93.3
79.4

.524
.500
.604
0
0
.489
.475
.432
0
.554

1
1
3
1
1
1
8

0
0 20
0
0)
0
29

0)
05.9
0
0
0
5.9

0
0
48.0
0)
0)
0
48.3

0)
0
46.9
0)
0
0
47.2

1
6
1
1
9

0 28
0)
0
44

05.1
0)
0
5.0

0
48.0
0)
0
48.8

0
40.5
0
0
40.7

84.4

2
6
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
5
3
26

5
7
02
11
0
0
6
12
10
66

5.6
5.6
0
6.0
5.5
(l)
/n
03.7
5.8
5.4
5.2

48.9
48.0
0
50.3
48.0
0
50.0
53.8
51.4
50.0

47.1
44.7
0)
50.3
45.3
0)
0)
0
25.3
52.4
45.1
43.8

3
3
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
16

9
8
(I)4S
0)
0 5
0
0
138

5.7
5.1
05.4
0)
0
5.0
0)
0
4.9

48.3
48.0
0)
48.0
0
0
50.0
0)
0
48.8

46.8 96.9
31.6 65.8
0 "Y i.'6 ‘
43.7
0
0
29.6 " *59. 2"
0
0
40.4 82.8

n\

25.68
24.00
28.99
0
0
23.47
23.75
23.11
0
27.04

21.88
22.39
23.04
0
0
18.54
12.69
22.59
0
22.52

0
0
0
0
.562 26.98
0)
0
0
0
0
0
.541 26.13

0
0
26.35
0
0
0
25.53

83.4

0
0
.458 21.98
(0
0)
0
0
.424 20.69

(i)
18.52
0
0
17.26

96.3
93.1
100.0
94.4

.442
.499
0
.488
.572

50.6
97.4
87.7
87.6

.448
.408
.456
.483

21.61
23.95
0
24.53
27.46
(!)
0)
0
22.40
21.95
23.44
24.15

20.81
22.30
0
24.53
25.88
0)
0
0
11.36
21.38
20.59
21.16

.409
.504
0
.439
0
0)
.351
0
0
.418

19.75
24.19
0
21.07
0
0
17.55
0
0
20.40

19.11
15.94
0
19.16
0
0
10.40
0
0
16.87

79.0
53.4
97.8
83.2
97.7
97.7

n\
n\

50

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
T a b l e A.— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked%1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
FIT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T

Occupation, sex, and State
Stampers, linings or uppers (in­
cluding markers), male:
Kentucky_________________
Massachusetts
- - _____
New York_________________
Pennsylvania............................
Tennessee..
___
Wisconsin__ - ______ Total____________________
Stampers, linings or uppers (in­
cluding markers), female:
Illinois
- - ______
Kentucky_________________
Mai™*..
____
Maryland and Virginia .
Massachusetts__
Michigan - __
Minnftsot.a
__ _____
Missouri
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio______________________
Pennsylvania _ .____________
Tennessee_________________
W isconsin_______ _________
Total........................................
Cementers and doublers, hand
and machine (including rein­
forcers, pasters, and fitters),
male:
Illinois_____________ _______
Kentucky_________________
‘M'ftina____________ ________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Minnesota ____-__________
Missouri..........................-____
New Hampshire.......................
New York_________________
Ohio................................. .........
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin______ -_________
Total........................................
Cementers and doublers, hand
and machine (including reinforcers, pasters, and fitters),
female:
Illinois.........................................
K entucky.._______________
Maine_________ _____ ______
M aryland and Virginia_____
M assachusetts..____________
M ichigan.,. - - - ...............
M innesota.________________
Missouri__________________
New Hampshire______ *.____
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio............ ...............................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total___. . . . . . __ . . . . . . . __

*Data included in total.

Aver­
age
full­
time
earnings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
,actually
' earned
in
week

0)
0)
53.3
36.9
42.0
46.0
0)
41.3
44.4

(l)
(*)
(i)
(i)
105.5 $0,231 $11.67
77.8 .452 21.42
89.7 .421 19. 70
94.7 .319 15.50
0)
0)
77.9 .353 18.71
88.1 .352 17.74

0)
(i)
$12.30
16.68
17.68
14.68
(9
14.56
15.63

44.3
48.9
47.1
38.6
39.1
41.3
39.7
43.9
40.4
40.9
44.1
35.0
40.8
49.2
42.4
41.5

90.6 .373 18.24
94.6 .271 14.01
89.9 .349 18.29
79.3 .311 15.15
81.6 .423 20.26
83.8 .263 12.97
79.1 .303 15.21
89.8 .375 18.34
83.0 .319 15.54
93.0 .426 18.74
91.3 .432 20.87
72.0 .356 17.30
83.1 .320 15.71
94.8 .284 14.74
86.9 . 383 18.69
85.0 .382 18.64

16.50
13.22
16.43
12.00
16.54
10.86
12.02
16.45
12.91
17.42
19.07
12.49
13.04
13.96
16.24
15.83

(!)
P)
.249
.475
0)
.348
0)
.711
0)
.502
0)
.352
.537

(l)
(l)
(i)
12.57
23.51
1#0
(l)
32.00
0)
24.60
0)
17.60
25.61

M
0)
11.07
21.45
0)
16.08
(9
33.97
(9
24.28
(9
11.96
24.93

.300
. 283
.305
.217
.381
.219
.251
.315
.291
0)
.375
.330
.281
.229
.330
.335

14.85
14.63
16.17
10.61
18.25
10.84
12.37
15.40
14.35
(9
18.11
15.91
13.99
11.91
16.14
16.38

13.60
14.60
13.74
7.75
15.59
8.90
9.47
14.14
10.98
(»)
15.79
11.10
12.20
10.42
14.29
13.96

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

1
1
2
5
3
3
1
2
18

(i)
0) 3
5
5
5
0)10
32

0)
(i)
6.0
4.4
5.8
5.8
0)
5.3
5.5

0)
(i)
50.5
47.4
46.8
48.6
0)
53.0
50.4

5
2
7
4
40
4
4
g
s
2
17
7
8
4
9
129

50
8
43
15
206
7
12
64
54
5
109
53
42
8
52
728

5.4 48.9
6.0 51.7
5.6 52.4
4.6 48.7
5.3 47.9
4.7 49.3
4.9 50.2
5.4 48.9
5.5 48.7
6.0 44.0
5.6 48.3
4.8 48.6
5.6 49.1
5.9 51.9
5.3 48.8
5.4 48.8

1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
2
21

(l)
0)
(1)

(l)
0)
(i)
5.4
6.0
0)
5.5
0)
5.9
0)
5.8
0)
4.0
5.8

0)
0)
(i)
50.5
49.5
0)
50.0
0)
45.0
(0
49.0
0)
50.0
47.7

(*)
0)
0)
44.4 87.9
45.1 91.1
<9
46.2 ' 92.Y
0)
47.8 106.2
0)
48.3 98.6
0)
34.0 68.0
46.5 97.5

5 103
5.5
29
5.8
3
7
94
5.6
5
4.3
61
42 422
5.4
3
10
4.6
3
4.8
12
8 165
5.4
8
94
5.3
1 0)
18 290 (l)
5.4
7 119
4.7
7 113
5.5
4
27
5.5
9
83
5.4
130 1. fiSfi i an

49.5
51.7
53.0
48.9
47.9
49.5
49.3
48.9
49.3
0)
48.3
48.2
49.8
52.0
48.9
48.9

45.4 91.7
51.5 99.6
45.0 84.9
35.7 73.0
40.9 85.4
40.6 82.0
37.8 76.7
44.9 91.8
37.8 76.7
0)
42.1 ” 87.2"
33.7 69.9
43.4 87.1
45.5 87.5
43.3 88.5
41.7 85.3

5
8
W2
C)
24
0) 6
W2
58

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

51
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and /State—Contd.
F IT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued
Occupation, sex, and State

Folders, hand and machine, male:
Maryland and Virginia. .
Missouri.......... .........................
New York______ __________
PAnnsyivaTiia*.
. ...
Total........................................
Folders, hand and machine,
female:
Illinois_______. . . . ________
Kentucky. . . . . . . ___________
Maine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia____
M a s s a c h u s e tts ..________
Michigan ,
_. __
M innesota.. . . . . _______ ___
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire___________
New Jersey________________
New York—_______________
Ohio....................... ....................
Pennsylvania___ r „
Tennesseft^..
Wisconsin_________________
Total________ __________
Perforators, male:
Illinois_______. . . . . . _______
Maine________________ ____
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
New Jersey________________
New York____ . ___________
Pennsylvania,r, , r T _ , r ..
Tennessee...................................
Total........................................
Perforators, female:
Illinois____________ ________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota____________ ____
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York________ _________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin________ ______
Total........................................
T ip stitchers, female:
Illinois.........................................
Maine_____________________
Massachusetts_____________
M ichigan... _______________
Minnesota______ __________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin...................................
Total____________________

i Data included in total.

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments
2
1
6
1
10

Aver­
age
Num ­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ amount
time actually
earn­ earned
ings
in
per
week week

2
0 64
0
70

6.0
05.7
0
5.7

50.5
0
44.3
0
44.7

50.5
0
47.1
0
47.2

100.0 $0,414 $20.93
0
0
106.3 1.095 48.51
0
0
105.6 1.036 46.31

$20.93
0
51.54
0
48.83

5 100
3
21
7
38
4
29
43 410
2
6
11
4
8 102
64
8
2
5
18 229
82
7
43
8
3
17
51
8
130 1,208
1
2 (,)3
3
7
3
4
1 0
6
23
1 0
1 0
41
18
4
16
2
3
5
13
4
12
26
75
4
2
4
2
8
26
6
23
2
3
14
26
5
21
8
21
4
8
7
17
99 272
27
3
2
7
63
16
2
6
7
3
41
2
5
22
2
9
6
26
4
27
15
3
3
14
7
36
58 300

5.8
5.6
5.7
4.3
5.5
5.7
4.9
5.3
5.3
6.0
5.6
4.8
5.2
5.1
5.3
5.4

49.2
51.3
53.3
48.5
47.8
50.0
49.4
48.7
48.8
44.0
48.4
48.6
49.5
51.5
48.7
48.6

47.4
51.8
46.8
36.7
40.2
48.3
38.5
42.7
37.9
43.1
43.9
36.3
39.3
44.6
42.1
41.8

96.3 .358 17.61
101.0 .241 12.36
87.8 .362 19.29
75.7 .280 13.58
84.1 .440 21.03
96.6 .264 13.20
77.9 .357 17.64
87.7 .345 16.80
77.7 .326 15.91
98.0 .422 18.57
90.7 .404 19.55
74.7 .352 17.11
79.4 .315 15.59
86.6 .278 14.32
86.4 .449 21.87
86.0 .388 18.86

16.97
12.47
16.91
10.27
17.67
12.77
13.73
14.75
12.34
18.18
17.72
12.77
12.38
12.40
18.91
16.20

(0
27.93
19.02
29.28
(0
32.90
0
(0
29.44
24.50
10.44
23.12
17.42
25.01
15.20
15.68
18.05
20.00
23.31
24.11
17.06
17.31
15.10
22.88
21.11

0
30.37
16.88
28.04
0
32.48
0
0
28.45
21.23
10.98
17.72
15.45
19.41
13.22
12.52
16.56
13.45
22.29
20.54
13.08
15.42
12.66
19.59
17.36
28.43
19.84
19.94
15.62
13.16
14.57
13.72
19.75
19.80
16.52
15.86
14.78
20.78
18.60

0
6.3
5.4
6.0
05.7
0
0
5.7
5.1
6.0
4.8
5.5
5.1
4.8
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.7
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.0
5.4
5.2
5.8
5.6
5.2
4.8
5.0
5.6
5.2
5.9
5.2
5.1
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.4

0
52.7 0
57.3
48.9 43.4
48.0 46.0
0
46.8 0
46.2
0) . 0
0)
(0
47.8 46.2
48.8 42.3
53.0 55.7
53.4 40.9
49.2 43.7
48.0 37.3
50.0 44.0
49.0 39.1
49.6 45.5
48.9 32.9
46.8 44.8
48.6 41.4
47.8 36.7
51.2 45.6
51.9 43.6
49.2 42.1
49.1 40.3
48.3 47.7
50.0 44.8
48.0 40.0
50.0 42.6
49.6 40.5
50.0 46.8
48.7 35.9
44.0 38.0
44.1 41.0
46.9 41.6
50.3 44.6
52.1 46.8
49.3 46.8
48.7 43.0

108.7
88.8
95.8
98.7
96.7
86.7
105.1
76.6
88.8
77.7
88.0
79.8
91.7
67.3
95.7
85.2
76.8
89.1
84.0
85.6
82.1
98.8
89.6
83.3
85.2
81.7
93.6
73.7
86.4
93.0
88.7
88.7
89.8
94.9
88.3

0
.530
.389
.610
0
.703
0
0
.616
.502
.197
.433
.354
.521
.304
.320
.364
.409
.498
.496
.357
.338
.291
.465
.430
.596
.443
.498
.367
.325
.312
.382
.520
.483
.397
.356
.315
.444
.432

28.79
22.15
23.90
18.35
16.12
15.60
18.60
22.88
21.30
18.62
17.91
16.41
21.89
21.04

52

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and
—Contd.
FIT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G DEPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Closers or seamers, female:
Illinois________________-___
Kentucky_______________ _
M a in e .___________________
Maryland and Virginia
Massachusetts_____________
^^
M ichigan___
Minnesota______r--, ______
Missouri__________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey__________. . . ___
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee___________ __ ___
Wisconsin
^
Total........................................
Seam rubbers, hand and machine,
male:
Maine
Massachusetts_____________
New York_________________
Total........................................
Seam rubbers,[hand and machine,
female:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_____ ___________
Missouri____________ __ ___
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________ _______
New York_____ __________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee___________ . _____
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Lining makers (including lining
closers and side and top facing
stitchers), male:
Maine_____________________
Massachusetts_____________
New York_________________
Total........................................
Lining makers (including lining
closers side and top feeing
stitchers), female:
Illinois___ ____ ____________

K entucky.........________
Maine____ -_________ —__
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts____________
Michigan________________
Minnesota_____ _________

Missouri__________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________

Ohio........................................
Pennsylvania________ ___

Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin..................................

Total....................................

1Data included in total.

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

5
3
6
4
38
4
3
7
8
3
17
7
6
4
7
122

27
9
18
13
92
9
4
25
12
7
98
38
18
10
18
398

5.6 49.1
5.8 53.0
5.5 52.7
5.5 48.7
5.6 47.9
4.9 49.7
5.5 50.8
4.9 49.4
5.3 50.1
5.3 50.1
5.1 48.3
4.6 48.0
5.8 49.5
5.5 52.0
4.9 49.4
5.3 49.0

45.1
50.9
43.8
45.6
41.3
42.8
45.5
41.1
33.3
41.4
41.5
36.0
46.6
46.0
40.2
41.7

1
8
2
11

(913

(9
<9 48.0
5.5

(9
41.8

5
2
5
2
17
3
2
7
5
1
9
4
4
2
7
75

13
5
11
3
28
4
2
28
7
(921
7
8
3
18
159

5.7 49.2 46.6
5.6 52.8 50.0
5.9 52.9 49.8
4.0 48.8 32.3
5.6 47.8 41.8
4.3 49.4 37.0
3.5 49.8 28.3
5.4 49.5 45.2
4.9 49.5 34.1
(9
(9 49.0 (9
43.2
5.5
5.0 48.6 34.3
5.1 £0.4 41.8
6.0 51.7 49.5
5.6 48.8 . 44.6
5.4 49.4 43.1

1
2
3
6

(,)2
7
12

4
18

5
67
3
16
7
54
5
38
44 306
8
3
4
10
8 no
8
60
3
18
19 199
7
63
8
59
18
4
9
49
137 1,075

6.0
5.6

44.0
47.4

(9
<9 49.9
6.0

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

91.9 $0,421 $20.67
96.0 .242 12.83
83.1 .347 18.29
93.6 .262 12.76
86.2 .466 22.32
86.1 .317 15.75
89.6 .363 18.44
83.2 .314 15.51
66.5 .330 16.53
82.6 .578 28.96
85.9 .458 22.12
75.0 .378 18.14
94.1 .335 16.58
88.5 .274 14.25
81.4 .393 19.41
85.1 .404 19.80

$18.99
12.31
15.20
11.94
19.26
13.57
16.50
12.91
11.00
23.92
18.98
13.61
15.59
12.59
15.81
16.84

(9

(9

(9
16.12

94.7
94.7
94.1
66.2
87.4
74.9
56.8
91.3
68.9
88.2
70.6
82.9
95.7
91.4
87.2

.342
.241
.297
.203
.409
.273
.359
.296
.246
(9
.360
.281
.435
.250
.328
.333

16.83
12.72
15.71
9.91
19.55
13.49
17.88
14.65
12.18
(9
17.64
13.66
21.92
12.93
16.01
16.45

15.92
12.02
14.77
6.56
17.09
10.10
10.14
13.39
8.39
(9
15.57
9.63
18.15
12.37
14.65
14.37

89.0
94.1
94.5

(9
.419 20.91
.896 39.42
.716 34.01

(9

(9
18.60

19.64
12.30
15.53
17.22
22.08
14.90
17.14
14.82
15.61
23.00
20.93
18.81
16.32
14.94
23.23
19.28

17.61
12.34
12.93
13.15
17.63
13.06
13.82
12.92
11.22
21.70
18.34
12.89
13.70
12.88
19.37
15.96

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

49.3
44.1

(9

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

87.1 .386 18.53
112.0 .491 21.60
93.0 .409 19.39

6.0
6.0

44.0
47.5

44.4
41.4
44.9

5.5
6.0
5.5
4.5
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.2
5.2
5.7
5.5
4.7
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.3

49.1
53.0
53.2
49.2
47.9
50.0
49.4
49.4
49.1
45.9
48.0
47.5
49.9
51.7
48.9
48.8

44.1 89.8
53.2 100.4
44.3 83.3
37.6 76.4
38.2 79.7
43.9 87.8
39.8 80.6
43.3 87.7
35.3 71.9
43.3 94.3
42.1 87.7
32.5 68.4
41.8 83.8
44.5 86.1
40.8 83.4
40.4 82.8

.400
.232
.292
.350
.461
.298
.347
.300
.318
.501
.436
.396
.327
.289
.475
.395

24.17
18.05

37.12
32.16

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
53
T a b l b A .— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and ££ate—Contd.
F IT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

i>
i

1

Closers-on, female:
M aine. ____ _____ _______
Massachusetts_____________
Minn«snta_
...
New Hampshire....... ................
New Jersey________________
New York____— __________
Ohio______________________
Pfinnsylvam’a _ .... ...................
Tennessee........... -.....................
W is c o n sin ..........._______
Total____________________
Top stitchers (including under
trimmers and barber trimmers),
male:
TlHnnis
.
Massachusetts_____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Pennsylvania......... ...................
Wisconsin_________________
Total_____. . . ___________
Top stitchers (including undertrimmers and barber trimmers),
female:
Illinois............... ........................
K entucky...______________
Maine________________ ;____
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan—._______ . _______
Minnesota_________________
Missouri______ ____________
New Hampshire___________
New Jersey...............................
New York____________ ____
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania.._____________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total.....................................
Binders (including top banders),
male:
niinnis_________ _____ __
Massachusetts_____________
New York........... .....................
Pennsylvania______________
Total........................................
Binders (including top banders),
female:
Illinois____ _________ ______
K entucky._________ . . . . ___
Maine_________________ ___
M aryland and Virginia______
Massachusetts_____________
Minnesota__________ ______
Missouri____________ ______
New Hampshire____. . . _____
New Jersey______ . . . . . . ____
Now Y o rk .
_
Ohio...........................................

i Pat* included in total.

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
fcflltime
hours
per
week

(!)

5.0
0
5.0
0)
6.0
(9
5.5
(l)
6.0
5.2

48.0
(9
49.3
(9
49.0
(9
50.8
(9
48.7
49.9

38.2
(9
40.8
CO
48.0
(9
46.5
(9
47.6
41.6

(9 (9 (l)
79.6 $0,386 $18.48 $14.70
(9 <9 15.52
82.8 .380 18.73 (l)
(9 15.83 (0 o
(9 15.48
98.0 .323
(9 17.37 0)
<9 15.88
91.5 .342
(l)
<9 20.51
97.7 .431 20.99 (*)
83.4 .366 18.26 15.23

(*)
5
48
«38
10

0)
6.8
5.4
(9
5.9
6.0

<9
60.3
49.0
(9
44.3
48.0

98.6
81.8
107.4
102.1

(9
.604
.739
(9
.866
.805

113

5.6

47.2

(9
49.6
40.1
(9
47.6
49.0
(9

44.2

93.6

.787 37.15

5
94
3
32
7
84
5
46
43 418
4
35
4
20
8 193
8 109
9
3
14 264
7 114
8
68
4
42
9 130
132 1,648

5.6 49.5
5.8 52.0
5.6 53.3
4.2 48.3
6.4 47.9
5.0 49.6
5.3 49.2
5.0 49.4
5.3 49.3
5.7 44.9
5.3 48.8
5.0 47.7
5.5 50.3
5.6 51.1
5.4 49.0
5.3 49.1

45.8
51.0
47.7
36.2
39.7
42.9
41.0
41.5
37.9
38.6
42.3
36.6
44.5
47.5
42.6
41.5

92.5
98.1
89.5
72.9
82.9
86.5
83.3
84.0
76.9
86.0
86.7
76.7
88.5
93.0
86.9
84.5

1
3
5
2
11

0)
12
17
6
38

(9
(9 60.3
5.7

6.0 44.0
5.7 48.0
5.8 46.9

42.0
47.3
43.1
44.6

83.5
114.3
89.8
95.1

4
3
6
4
34
4
7
5
2
16
5

59
8
37
22
179
7
58
19
6
118
45

5.7 49.9
5.9 63.0
5.5 63.6
5.5 48.8
5.4 47.8
4.7 49.9
5.0 48.8
5.6 60.3
5.2 48.3
5.6 48.5
4.7 48.4

46.8
63.0
46.1
43.4
39.9
35.1
43.4
40.2
39.5
46.5
34.1

93.8
100.0
86.0
88.9
83.5
70.3
88.9
79.9
81.8
93.8
70.5

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish,
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

1
7
1
4
1
1
4
1
3
25

0)16
(,)7
0
2
O15
0) 6
57

1
3
17
1
7
2
1
32

(9

(9

(9

(9

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked
(i)

(9

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

(9

0)
29.94
29.59
0)
41.28
39.47
0)

.391
.271
.408
.351
.496
.301
.343
.352
.365
.544
.437
.405
.462
.288
.458
.419

19.35
14.09
21.75
16.95
23.76
14.93
16.88
17.39
17.99
24.43
21.33
19.32
23.24
14.72
22.44
20.57 !

17.90
13.83
19.47
12.35
19.66
12.89
14.07
14.63
13.81
20.98
18.49
14.83
20.56
13.69
19.53
17.41

.779
.981
.797
.895

(9

(9 (0
39.18 • 32.67
43.16 46.37
38.26 34.38
41.98 39.97

.282
.298
.379
.328
.542
.311
.367
.424
.799
.470
,371

14.07
15.79
20.31
16.01
25.91
15.52
17.91
21.33
38.59
22.80
17.96

(9

<9
30.38
36.21
(9
38.36
38.64

34.80

13.20
15.79
17.47
14.23
21.63
10.93
15.92
17.07
31.63
21.40
12.67

54

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and
—Contd.
F IT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Binders, female—Continued.
Pennsylvania......................
Tennessee.............................
Wisconsin...... ......................
Total..
Buttonhole makers, female:
Illinois-............................
Kentucky..........................
Maine................................
M aryland and Virginia..
Massachusetts..................
Missouri...........................
New Hampshire..............
New Jersey.......................
New York.........................
O h io -...............................
Pennsylvania................. .
Total..
Button fasteners, female:
Illinois...............................
K entucky..........................
Maine..........................—
M aryland and Virginia..
Massachusetts..................
Missouri— ......................
New Hampshire..............
New York.........................
O h io - ..............................
Pennsylvania................. .
Total..
Eyeleters (including hookers),
male:
Illinois.......................................
Kentucky.................................
M aine.......................................
M aryland and Virginia____
Massachusetts.............-..........
Michigan...................................
Minnesota................................
Missouri...................................
New Hampshire......................
New Jersey..............................
New York................................
Pennsylvania...........................
Tennessee.................................
Wisconsin.................................
Total..
Eyeleters (including hookers),
female:
Illinois.......................................
Kentucky............. ..................
Maine........................................
Maryland and Virginia..........
Massachusetts.........................
Michigan..................................
Minnesota.............. .................
M isso u ri................................
New Hampshire......................
New Jersey...............................
New York...............................
Ohio...........................................

1Pata included in total.

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

86.9 $0,459 $22.35
92.2 .335 17.22
90.4 .534 26.06
86.9 .439 21.47

$19.40
15.86
23.56
18.67

0)

0)

0)
0)

0)
20.97
17.15
13.87
19.27

0)
0)
16.70
0)
20.71
14.29
0)
0)

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
f3ltime
hours
per
week

7
3
5
105

37
7
13
615

5.6
5.4
5.5
5.4

48.7
51.4
48.8
48.9

1
1
2
1
8
5
1
1
9
2
3
34

0) 0)
0) 5 0)
5.8
0) 8 0)
5.6
5.0
7
0) 0)
0)12 0)
5.7

54.0
0)
47.8
48.9

0)
46.2
0)
41.6
42.6

85.6
87.0
87.1

0) 0)
.362 19.55
0) 0)
.498 23.80
.335 16.38

2
3
42

48.1
6.0 50.0
5.3 49.7
5.5 49.4

44.6
40.8
42.4
43.7

92.7
81.6
86.2
88.5

.436
.343
.279
.390

3
1
2
1
15
5
3
13
3
4
50

0) 5 0) 54.0
5.2 0)
0)30 0) 47.9
5.4 0)

8

5.6

50.0

15
3
33
7
13
117

5.9
6.0
5.6
5.6
5.2
5.5

48.4
50.9
48.3
48.6
48.9
48.7

47.0
0)
45.8
0)
40.0
48.9
45.3
42.5
41.0
41.8
43.2

94.0 .238 11.90
0) 0)
84.8 .366 19.76
0) 0)
83.5 .383 18.35
101.0 .301 14.57
89.0 .308 15.68
88.0 .330 15.94
84.4 .369 17.93
85.5 .347 16.97
88.7 .334 16.27

11.18
0)
16.77
0)
15.30
14.69
13.94
14.03
15.14
14.49
14.43

3
1
4
4
15
1
1
2
4
2
4
3
1
1
46

0) 5

0) 51.6
0)
5.8

5.3

48.5

0)
0) 5

0) 0)
0) 50.0
0)
5.8

44.8
0)
49.6
42.7
43.8

92.4
96.1
86.6
91.3

26.32
0)
30.99
16.05
23.73

0)
0)

0)
0)

3
2
2
1
14
3
3
6
4
1
10
5

10
3
2
0)16
6
8
12
5
0)19
7

5.5
6.0
6.0
0)
5.3
5.0
5.9
5.3
5.0
0)
5.3
5.1

4

5
27

7
2
14
4

79

0)
0)
0)
0)

5.2 49.3
5.5, 48.0

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked
42.3
47.4
44.1
42.5

0)

0)
0)

0)

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

.587
0)
.625
.376
.542

0)

0)

0)
0)
16.99

5.7
6.0
5.1
6.0

49.2
44.0
47.7
49.5

5.5

48.7

44.3

91.0

.503 24.50

22.28

48.2
51.8
50.0
0)
47.8
49.2
51.1
49.8
49.3
0)
48.9
47.8

44.4
53.3
47.5
0)
31.9
42.7
49.2
44.5
35.7
0)
38.0
39.9

92.1
102.9
95.0
66.7
86.8
96.3
89.4
72.4
77.7
83.5

.530
.286
.342
0)
.533
.365
.419
.414
.422
0)
.408
.400

23.54
15.28
16.27
0)
16.99
15.59
20.61
18.43
15.03
(1) „
15.50
15.92

0)
0)

0)
.350
.417
.907
.513
.450

28.47
0)
32.25
18.54
26.02

19.44
13.97
11.81
17.03

0)
48.5
41.4
43.5
42.7
44.0

0)
0)

97.0
84.1
98.9
89.5
88.9

0)

0)
0)

0)
17.50
20.52
39.91
24.47
22.28
0)
0)

25.55
14.81
17.10
0)
25.48
17.96
21.41
20.62
20.80
0)
19.95
19.12

17.25
39.48
21.92
19.81

0)
0)

55
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and &£a£e—Contd.
FIT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA B TM EN T-C ontinued

Occupation, sex, and State

Eyeleters, female—Continued.
Pennsylvania.............................
Tennessee...................................
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Vampers, male:
Illinois.—...................................
Maine..........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
M innesota_______________
M issouri. . _______
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey.................................
New York..................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Wisconsin...................................
Total............................. .........
Vampers, emale:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky—...............................
Maine..........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan...................................
Minnesota_________________
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire______ _____
New Jersey-...............................
New York.................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania....... .....................
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Barrers (including tackers), fe­
male:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine.........................................
M aryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey................................
New York...................................

Ohio........................................
Pennsylvania..........................
Tennessee...............................
Wisconsin...............................
Total........................................

Tongue stitchers, female:

Illinois.........................................
Kentucky_________________
Maine.........................................
M aryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri.....................................
New Hamsphire........................
New Jersey................................
* D ata included in total.

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

44.5
46.7
43.2
41.9

88.1 $0,288 $14.54
90.0 .276 14.32
87.8 .438 21.55
84.8 .408 20.16

$12.81
12.87
18.90
17.10

5.2 48.0
5.9 51.8
5.0 48.7
5.4 48.2
0)
0)
0)
0)
5.3 48.0
6.0 44.0
5.5 46.4
6.0 48.0
6.0 49.4
5.5 48.2

42.5
49.3
39.9
40.0
0)
0)
43.5
36.1
44.8
46.8
48.8
42.1

88.5
95.2
81.9
83.0

5.7
5.7
5.6
4.4
5.4
5.0
5.4
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.3
4.8
5.4
5.3
5.4
5.3

48.7
52.8
52.1
49.0
47.9
49.6
50.0
49.7
48.7
46.3
48.6
47.3
51.0
51.8
49.2
49.1

46.0
51.1
43.6
35.6
39.3
43.2
42.9
42.4
36.1
38.6
42.1
38.0
44.0
44.8
44.1
41.7

6.0

49.3

5.4
5.3

50.0
48.7

5.0
5.2
5.5

52.5
49.2
49.5

5.7

48.2

4.5
5.3
4.8
3.8
5.4
4.9
5.8

49.3
48.0
49.2
50.8
50.0
48.7
46.1

Aver­ Aver­ Per
age age cent
full­ hours of full­
time actually time
hours worked hours
per
in actually
week week worked

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

5
4

71

14
8
23
135

5.5
5.8
5.3
5.4

50.5
51.9
49.2
49.4

2
6
5
32
1
1
2
2
8
2
3
64

10
20
11
209
0)
(i)
11
4
43
18
14
347

8

5
98
3
15
5
40
5
20
36 179
4
26
4
18
8 161
8
88
3
11
17 212
7
85
7
74
4
34
9 103
125 1,164
2
1
4
1
8
3
3
1
4

8

<*)6
(915

(*) 53.3
5.5 (*>
0) 48.0
5.3 (*>

0)10
1 ft)
2
6
2
2

0) 48.5
5.3 0)
P) 50.7
5.7 0)

4
36

3
1
4
2
19
4
2
4
7

2

5
3
5

66
19
(,)13
4
60
9
6
29
18
4

0) 51.2
5.9 0)

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

90.6
82.0
96.6
97.5
98.8
87.3

.764
.605
.497
.666
0)
0)
.340
.953
.791
.870
.643
.672

36.67
31.34
24.20
32.10
0)
0)
16.32
41.93
36.70
41.76
31.76
32.39

32.50
29.81
19.85
26.63
0)
0)
14.80
34.41
35.56
40.69
31.38
28.28

94.5
96.8
83.7
72.7
82.0
87.1
85.8
85.3
74.1
83.4
86.6
80.3
86.3
86.5
89.6
84.9

.546
.397
.499
.400
.581
.361
.399
.358
.423
.655
.503
.409
.363
.309
.517
.465

26:59
20.96
26.00
19.60
27.83
17.91
19.95
17.79
20.60
30.33
24.45
19.35
18.51
16.01
25.44
22.83

25.11
20.27
21.73
14.21
22.83
15.61
17.09
15.19
15.25
25.32
21.18
15.55
15.99
13.85
22.81
19.42

49.3 100.0
V) - —
43.1 80.9
(»)
0)
41.8 87.1
46.6 93.2
38.3 78.6
0)
36.9 ” 76.T
<
l)
48.2 ""95. r
47.5 90.5
43.3 86.0
43.6 88.1

.378
0)
.348
(l)
.511
.197
.220
0)
.446
0)
.324
.256
.452
.395

18.63
0)
18.55
(l)
24.53
9.85
10.71
(0
21.63
(9
16.43
13.44
22.24
19.55

46.4

(l)
45.3

38.0
39.5
42.1
27.1
44.4
34.8
39.4

96.3 .486 23.43
(*) 0)
88.5 .316 16.18
77.1 .340 16.76
82.3 .438 21.02
85.6 .315 15.50
53.3 .247 12.55
88.8 .330 16.50
71.5 .304 14.80
85.5 .484 22.31

18.63

0)
15.00
C
1)
21.35
9.19
8.45

0)
16.42
0)
15.60
12.18
19.13
17.22

22.58
(l)
14.33
12.91
17.31
13.23
6.69
14.65
10.57
19.05

56

a g e s a Wd h o u r s o f l a b oH
n

A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average fuU-titiit
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex%and State—Contd.

T able

F IT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Tongue stitchers, female—Con.
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania.____________
T^vnnfissp.fi___
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Fancy stitchers, male:
Illinois_______ ____________
Maryland and Virginia
Massachusetts ..... ..
New York_________________
Pennsylvania ___
Total______________ _____
Fancy stitchers, female:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_____________-___
Ma^ne _____
Maryland and Virginia_____
M assachusetts..____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota________ ___ _____
Missouri__________________
New Hampshire____ -___ __
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________ __ _____
Total. ...___ _
Backstay stitchers (including
back strappers), female:
Tllinnis____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia ...
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan____________. . . . . . .
Minnesota___________. . . ___
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Table workers, female:
Illinois__________ . . . . . . . . __
Kentucky_________________
Maine,. r. ,r __ _ _
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_______. . . . . . . ___
Missouri_________. . . . . . . ___
New Hampshire____. . . . . ___
New Jersey______ ___ ______
New York_______ ___ ______
O h io.........................................

>Data included in total.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

9
4
6
4
7
78

23
19
14
13
29
267

5.1
4.6
5.6
5.2
5.5
5.3

I
3
16
9
3
32

59
86
12
165

5 200
3
65
7 226
5 125
44 965
4
22
4
39
g 399
8 195
14
2
17 513
7 242
8
91
47
4
8 122
133 3,265

Aver- Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
sss.
time actually time
hours worked hours
per
in actually
week week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

38.0
36.0
46.4
43.5
44.7
41.2

79.7 $0,423 $20.18
76.9 .321 15.02
91.2 .338 17.20
84.5 .234 12.05
90.9 .389 19.14
84.1 .371 18.18

$16.04
11.57
15.70
10.16
17.42
15.26

0)
5.7
5.7
5.9
5.7
5.8

47.7
46.8
50.9
51.5
49.2
49.0 I
1
0)
50.2
49.3
44.5
48.5
46.7

0)
47.9
42.5
47.2
46.2
45.3

95.4
86.2
106.1
95.3
97.0

0)
.722
.662
.967
.705
.834

0
36.24
32.64
43.03
34.19
38.95

0)
34.63
28.16
45.73
32.54
37.84

5.6
5.8
5.6
4.4
5.4
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.6
5.5
5.0
5.5
4.9
5.2
5.3

49.5
51.8
53.5
48.9
47.9
49.5
49.9
49.2
49.1
47.6
48.7
48.3
50.4
51.2
48.9
49.1

46.8
51.0
47.4
36.2
38.7
42.6
42.6
44.0
35.1
43.0
44.3
37.2
42.9
42.3
41.8
41.5

94.5 .357 17.67
98.5 .272 14.09
88.6 .380 20.33
74.0 .348 17.02
80.8 .473 22.66
86.1 .338 16.73
85.4 .322 16.07
89.4 .340 16.73
71.5 .359 17.63
90.3 .526 25.04
91.0 .426 20.75
77.0 .346 16.71
85.1 .391 19.71
82.6 .218 11.16
85.5 .461 22.54
84.5 .400 19.64

16.69
13.84
18.02
12.59
18.32
14.38
13.71
14.96
12.59
22.65
18.87
12.85
16.77
9.23
19.30
16.62

5
1
6
4
18
4
3
6
5
2
5
6
6
3
8
82

36
0)14
10
40
12
8
36
19
3
41
23
21
8
45
317

5.8
0)
5.6
4.7
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.6
4.9
5.3
4.7
4.6
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.2

48.7
(l)
52.3
49.4
47.9
49.4
51.0
49.7
48.6
49.7
48.0
47.6
50.7
51.9
49.2
49.1

46.9 96.3
0)
44.4 ’ 84’9~
37.9 76.7
37.2 77.7
43.2 87.4
45.6 89.4
46.5 93.6
32.6 67.1
34.9 70.2
39.6 82.5
34.3 72.1
43.0 84.8
47.6 91.7
44.1 89.6
41.6 84.7

.480
(*)
.355
.315
.463
.337
.386
.318
.320
.564
.439
.335
.339
.293
.419
.393

23.38
(*)
18.57
15.56
22.18
16.65
19.69
15.80
15.55
28.03
21.07
15.95
17.19
15.21
20.61
19.30

22.51
0)
15.75
11.93
17.19
14.59
17.59
14.81
10.45
19.69
17.39
11.48
14.57
13.98
18.45
16.34

3
2
6
1
40
3
3
6
5
3
19
6

28
8
23
0)
390
7
16
71
24
20
175
66

5.2
5.8
5.3
0)
5.3
5.4
4.3
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.7
4.8

48.6
57.4
53.0
0)
47.8
50.0
48.9
48.4
48.7
47.8
47.6
48.6

43.5 89.5
55.3 96.3
44.6 84.2
0) ” ’80."5’
38.5
45.5 91.0
34.1 69.7
44.2 91.3
38.0 78.0
42.8 89.5
43.0 90.3
37.7 77.6

.283
.144
.322
0)
.340
.241
.242
.272
.370
.294
.338
.329

13.75
8.27
17.07
0)
16.25
12.05
11.83
13.16
18.02
14.05
16.09
15.99

12.31
7.98
14.38
(0
13.08
10.98
8.26
12.03
14.05
12.59
14.53
12.42

57
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
F IT T IN G AND ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Table workeers, female—Contd.
Pennsylvania________ _____Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total____________________
Lacers (before lasting), female:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_______ _____ ____
Missouri___________ ______
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
♦ Total_______________ -___

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

47.2
48.0
42.1
41.2

95.4 $0,222 $10.99
92.3 .273 14.20
85.6 .340 16.73
85.1 .314 15.20

$10.47
13.10
14.31
12.94

43.0
0)
40.5
42.2
40.7
44.7
44.8
44.3
37.8
32.8
44.1
38.2
43.6
46.7
43.8
42.1

86.9
78.5
84.9
84.8
90.3
87.3
89.3
76.8
70.1
91.7
79.9
83.2
90.3
87.6
85.7

.304
0)
.380
.351
.404
.261
.295
.273
.278
.456
.406
.360
.375
.270
.436
.355

15.05
0)
19.61
17.44
19.39
12.92
15.13
13.54
13.68
21.34
19.53
17.21
19.65
13.96
21.80
17.43

13.10
0)
15.39
14.81
16.46
11.65
13.18
12.10
10.49
14.98
17.89
13.77
16.34
12.62
19.11
14.96

5.6 49.1
6.0 51.3
5.7 53.1
5.3 49.2
5.4 48.1
0)
0)
5.8 48.9
5.8 49.4
5.3 48.9
6.0 44.0
5.5 47.6
5.3 48.4
5.6 50.2
5.4 51.9
5.0 50.5
5.5 49.0

44.8
59.0
48.6
40.9
40.2
0)
46.2
48.7
40.4
44.0
44.5
35.1
46.3
46.0
42.0
43.5

91.2
115.0
91.5
83.1
83.6
94.5
98.6
82.6
100.0
93.5
72.5
92.2
88.6
83.2
88.8

$0,450
.383
.418
.326
:543
(9
.378
.371
.371
.602
.540
.452
.359
.406
.486
.465

$22.10
19.65
22.20
16.04
26.12
18*48
18.33
18.14
26.50
25.70
21.88
18.02
21.07
24.54
22.79

$20.19
22.55
20.33
13.35
21.85
0)
17.48
18.03
14.96
26.50
24.06
15.88
16.59
18.66
20.44
20.19

5.3 48.9
5.4 52.7
6.0 52.9
4.7 48.7
5.4 48.3
5.3 49.0
5.5 50.1
5.0 49.5
5.3 49.1
5.8 44.0
5.3 47.4
4.8 48.0
4.7 51.8
5.6 51.1
5.2 49.5
5.3 49.0

41.9
46.4
44.7
31.2
37.6
46.0
43.5
42.9
36.2
45.2
42.3
33.2
33.2
47.8
43.6
39.8

85.7
88.0
84.5
64.1
77.8
93.9
86.8
86.7
73.7
102.7
89.2
69.2
64.1
93.5
88.1
81.2

.603
.469
.578
.413
.645
.495
.550
.509
.553
.550
.622
.540
.471
.405
.527
.568

29.49
24.72
30.58
20.11
31.15
24.26
27.56
25.20
27.15
24.20
29.48
25.92
24.40
20.70
26.09
27.83

25.28
21.74
25.82
12.90
2126
22.76
23.91
21.85
20.05
24.83
26.32
17.94
15.63
19.36
22.97
22.61

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

7
2
7
113

77
5
51
972

5.8
5.8
5.0
5.4

49.5
52.0
49.2
48.4

5.1 49.5
0)
0)
4.8 51.6
4.7 49.7
5.4 48.0
5.0 49.5
5.5 51.3
5.3 49.6
5.2 49.2
5.0 46.8
5.4 48.1
5.1 47.8
5.4 52.4
5.2 51.7
5.1 50.0
5.2 49.1

5
1
4
3
23
3
2
5
7
3
12
5
4
4
6
87

16

0)

5

3
37
5
2
14
13
3
21
9
5
6
11
152

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

LA STIN G D EPA RTM EN T
Last pickers or sorters (including
last casers), male:
Illinois........................................
Kentucky...................................
Maine.........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts......... .................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota....................—..........
Missouri....................—.............
New Hampshire. _...................
New Jersey................................
New York__..............................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania. .........................
Tennessee...................................
Wisconsin............... ...................
Total..
Assemblers, for pulling-over ma­
chine, male:
Illinois.......................................
Kentucky.................................
Maine.........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts.................... ......
Michigan.................................. .
Minnesota.................................
Missouri................... ................
New Hampshire.......................
New Jersey...............................
New York..................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania--........................
Tennessee............-....................
Wisconsin................................. .
Total..

rData included in total.

5
21
2
4
5
21
7
6
30
66
1
3
7
25
7
16
2
4
64
18
7
26
7
24
4
8
14
8
112 308
5
3
7
6
39
3
4
8
6
2
15
7
7
4
9
125

54
11
20
25
180
10
6
95
19
12
72
47
26
14
33
624

58

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
LASTING D EPA RTM EN T—Continued.

Occupation, sex, and State

Assemblers, for pulling-over ma­
chine, female:
Massachusetts...........................
New Hampshire........................
New York...................................
Total..........—................. ........
Pullers-over, hand, male:
Massachusetts-..........................
New York..................................
Pennsylvania--........................
Wisconsin...................................
Total........................................
Pullers-over, machine, male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky................. .................
Maine..........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts............................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey........... .....................
New York..................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania....................-—
Tennessee...................................
Wisconsin...................................
Total........................................
Side lasters, hand, male:
M aine..-____________ ____ _
Maryland and V irginia------Massachusetts...........................
Minnesota..................................
New Jersey.................................
New York...................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin...................................
Total........................................
Side lasters, machine, male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky...................................
Maine..........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota...................................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey.................................
New York...................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania.............................
Tennessee...................................
Wisconsin...................................
Total........................................

*Data included in total.

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

3
4
2
9

3
12
17
32

5.3
5.3
5.9
5.6

48.0
48.9
50.0
49.4

39.3
40.7
49.3
45.1

81.9 $0,634 $30.43
83.2 .365 17.85
98.6 .476 23.80
91.3 .452 22.33

$24.89
14.87
23.46
20.37

1
4
1
3
9

0)
15
0)
4
23

0)
5.9
0)
5.5

0)
48.5
0)
53.8
49.3

0)
37.8
0)
50.6
39.3

77.9
94.1
79.7

(0
0)
.751 36.42
0)
0)
.607 32.66
.683 33.67

0)
28.36
0)
30.68

5
3
7
6
43
4
3
8
8
3
15
7
6
4
8
130

42
9
24
21
169
10
6
79
34
7
85
37
30
13
37
603

5.3 49.0
6.0 53.0
5.8 52.9
4.6 48.8
5.3 48.1
5.4 49.5
5.7 49.8
5.2 49.5
5.3 49.2
5.4 47.6
5.4 48.4
5.0 47.4
5.7 52.7
5.5 51.9
5.4 49.5
5.3 49.1

40.6
53.1
44.7
33.9
37.6
45.3
44.1
44.2
37.6
42.4
44.2
36.4
41.2
47.5
44.5
41.0

82.9
100.2
84.5
69.5
78.2
91.5
88.6
89.3
76.4
89.1
91.3
76.8
78.2
91.5
89.9
83.5

.790
.501
.585
.555
.819
.565
.591
.680
.592
.820
.745
.804
.544
.558
.710
.715

38.71
26.55
30.95
27.08
39.39
27.97
29.43
33.66
29.13
39. 03
36.06
38.11
28.67
28.96
35.15
35.11

32.06
26.55
26.17
18.79
30.78
25.58
26.09
30.09
22.29
34.76
32.96
29.26
22.38
26.52
31.59
29.30

1
2
7
2
1
3
1
1
5
23

0)
3
77
2
0)
22
0)
(l)
21
148

0)
6.0
5.0
5.0
0)
5.7
0)
(l)
5.8
5.4

0)
47.3 95.0
39.0 81.3
42.9 87.6
0) ___
35.5 74.9
(»)
0)
46.8 95.7
39.6 80.3

0)
.481
.637
.513
0)
.774
0)
0)
.702
.637

0)
23.95
30.96
25.14
(9
36.69
0)
0)
34.33
31.40

(*)
22.72
24.81
22.00
0)
27.50
(0
(l)
32.89
25.23

5
3
7
5
35
4
3
8
6
3
13
7
7
3
8
117

64
10
37
24
215
11
7
88
31
8
104
52
26
13
46
736

40.9
55.0
45.5
33.8
41.5
45.8
46.3
45.0
39.2
41.8
42.7
35.8
38.9
47.9
43.4
41.9

.598
.468
.627
.528
.753
.536
.525
.625
.553
.783
.705
.697
.556
.584
.612
.663

29.48
24.66
33.11
25.77
36.29
26.69
26.46
30.88
26.77
36.96
33.84
33.25
29.02
29.43
30.72
32.49

24.43
25.71
28.52
17.86
31.29
24.53
24.29
28.10
21.68
32.75
30.06
24.94
21.62
27.96
26.54
27.78

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

•

5.7

0)
49.8
48.6
49.0
C
1)
47.4
(1}
0)
48.9
49.3

5.2 49.3
6.0 52.7
5.8 52.8
4.7 48.8
5.6 48.2
5.3 49.8
5.7 50.4
5.5 49.4
5.3 48.4
5.4 47.2
5.3 48.0
4.9 47.7
5.1 52.2
5.5 50.4
5.3 50.2
5.4 49.0

83.0
104.4
86.2
69.3
86.1
92.0
91.9
91.1
81.0
88.6
89.0
75.1
74.5
95.0
86.5
85.5

26.83

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
59
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
LASTING D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Bed-machine operators, male:
Illinois .
......
Kentucky_____________ ___
M aine.......... ...........- ,
Maryland and V irginia____
________
Massachusetts
Michigan . ___Minnesota
.-*
■
MiSSOUH
r
New Hampshire
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania .......................
Tennessee ..
_____
Wisconsin_________________
Total____________________
Hand-method lasting machine
operators, male:
Maine_____________________
Massachusetts_____________
New Hampshire____________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Total____________________
T urn lasters, hand (including first
and second lasters), male:
Illinois____________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio____ __________________
Pennsylvania___ __________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Turn sewers, male:
Maine_____________________
Massachusetts________ _____
New Jersey________________
New York......... ........................
Ohio................-..........................
Pennsylvania______________
Total........................................
Tack pullers, hand and machine,
male:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine.............. .....................
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_________________
Missouri_____________ _____
New Hampshire____ ____ _
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin____________ _____
Total____________________

I P&te included in total.

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
falltiine
hours
per
week

5 127
3
17
7
63
6
45
40 397
4
21
4
16
8 ?02
8
90
2
9
16 234
7
87
8
54
4
29
8
87
130 1,478

5.4
5.7
5.8
4.7
5.4
5.2
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.8
5.4
4.9
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.4

49.0
52.6
52.7
48.7
48.2
49.8
50.4
49.6
49.1
44.0
48.4
47.7
53.1
51.7
49.3
49.1

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

43.2
50.1
47.6
31.1
40.4
44.5
47.5
45.0
37.6
45.1
43.9
37.6
39.1
46.9
45.2
42.1

88.2 $0,661 $32.39
95.2 .546 28.72
90.3 .628 33.10
63.9 .554 26.98
83.8 .723 34.85
89.4 .518 25.80
94.2 .591 29.79
90.7 .638 31.64
76.6 .540 26.51
102.5 .988 43.47
90.7 .649 31.41
78.8 .672 32.05
73.6 .557 29.58
90.7 .559 28.90
91.7 .725 35.74
85.7 .657 32.26

$28.55
27.35
29.86
17.26
29.17
23.05
28.04
28.74
20.28
44.57
28.51
25.28
21.78
26.19
32.76
27.71

80.6
86.6

0
0
.732 35.50
.508 26.16
0
0
0
0)
.673 33.25

0
28.59
22.67
0)
0
26.93

0
0)
0
.747
0
.813
0
.764
0
.780

0
35.78
0
36.50
0
36.67
0)
36.27

0
0
0
32.85
0
39.12
0
32.97
0)
35.90

0
0
46.2 96.3 .988
0
0
45.8 100.4 1.381
0
0
39.8 '"~82.T 1.001
44.8 93.3 1.058

0
47.42
0
62.97
0
48.05
50.78

0
45.64
0
63.30
0
39.81
47.39

41.3 84.5 .449 21.96
53.9 101.7 .250 13.25
47.4 89.4 .496 26.29
36.9 75.9 .253 12.30
40.3 84.0 .473 22.70
48.1 98.2 .313 15.34
47.0 93.6 .374 18.77
43.2 87.1 .347 17.21
40.0 81.8 .383 18.73
0
0
0
39.4 ~~73.~2~ .466 22.18
36.5 76.4 .373 17.83
39.2 77.2 .332 16.87
48.1 94.1 .343 17.53
42.9 86.1 .455 22.66
41.0 83.7 .415 20.34

18.54
13.47
23.51
9.31
19.04
15.03
17.59
14.98
15.34
0
18.33
13.58
13.03
16.53
19.56
17.05

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

1
12
4
1
1
19

0 52
15
0)
0)
74

0
5.5
5.7
0)
(i)
5.5

0)
48.5
51.5
0
0)
49.4

0
39.1
44.6
8
40.0

1
1
1
6
1
9
1
3
1
24

0)
i
(i)
236
0
391
0106
0)
789

0
(l)
0
0
0)
0
5.3 47.9
0
05.6 44.9
0
0
5.3 48.0
0
0
5.5 46.5

0
0
0
44.0
0
48.1
0
43.1
0
46.0

1
3
1
6
1
3
15
5
3
5
6
26
3
3
7
6
1
14
7
7
3
7
103

%
38
16
7
15
15
73
5
3
19
14
0)64
21
29
9
24
315

0
5.6
05.9
0
5.5
5.6

0
48.0
0
45.6
0
48.0
48.0

5.3 48.9
5.9 53.0
5.7 53.0
4.9 48.6
5.2 48.0
5.4 49.0
5.7 50.2
5.4 49.6
5.6 48.9
05.4 0
47.6
4.9 47.8
5.7 50.8
5.6 51.1
5.1 49.8
5.3 49.0

81.0

91.9
107.1
89.8
98.9

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

60

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
BO TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T

Occupation, sex, and State

Goodyear welters (including inseamers), male:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky...................................
Maine..........................................
M aryland and Virginia--------Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota_________________
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey__________ ______
New York_________________
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania........... .................
Tennessee........ ..........................
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Welt beaters and slashers, male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky...................................
Maine..................................... —
M aryland and Virginia............
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota-------------------------Missouri......................................
New Hampshire.......................
New Jersey................................
New York...................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania........................... .
Tennessee________ _________
Wisconsin..................................
Total........................................
Bottom fillers, hand and machine,
male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky...................................
Maine__________________ __
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts............................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey................................
New York..................................
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania......... ...................
Tennessee...................................
Wisconsin_________________
Total............. ..........................
Sole cementers, hand and machine
(including bottom cementers),
male:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky...................................
Maine..........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri......................................
New Hampshire........................

3 included in total.
Data

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

2
2
5
5
20
4
4
4
5
2
15
6
6
4
8
92
2
1
3
3
15
2
1
4
5
2
13
5
6
4
6
72

Aver­
age
Num­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

5.6
6.0
5.8
4.7
5.4
5.4
5.7
5.2
5.4
5.7
5.3
4.9
5.8
5.5
5.4
5.4

48.0
55.3
51.4
48.6
48.0
49.3
49.5
49.5
48.3
44.0
48.7
47.8
52.4
52.3
50.4
49.0

5.7

48.0

5.0
5.5
5.7
(9
5.0
5.5
5.5
5.5
4.6
5.5
5.6
4.8
5.3

18
3
9
17
90
7
10
22
21
3
84
28
20
11
34
377
6
4
3
21
3
C99
10
2
36
15
13
7
20
152

0)

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

43.3
52.3
34.1
32.7
38.2
47.9
46.1
41.6
39.8
37.3
40.2
35.0
38.8
48.4
46.0
40.1

90.2 $1.148 $55.10
94.6 .551 30.47
66.3 .955 49.09
67.3 .688 33.44
79.6 .896 43.01
97.2 .653 32.19
93.1 .611 30.24
84.0 .750 37.13
82.4 .732 35.36
84.8 1.399 61.56
82.5 .869 42.32
73.2 .782 37.38
74.0 .787 41.24
92.5 .551 28.82
91.3 .706 35.58
81.8 .820 40.18

$49.65
28.84
32.55
22.52
34.22
31.26
28.17
31.19
29.11
52.13
34.90
27.34
30.56
26.67
32.45
32.88

48.7
48.0
50.0
0
49.6
48.2
44.0
48.1
49.0
51.9
52.1
49.4
49.1

42.3
0
46.3
35.1
39.9
48.3
0
41.0
39.6
38.3
42.2
30.5
39.7
49.0
40.4
40.6

88.1
92.6
72.1
83.1
96.6
82.7*
82.2
87.0
87.7
62.2
76.5
94.0
81.8
82.7

.721
0
.526
.502
.538
.524
0
.423
.413
.937
.589
.482
.577
.340
.475
.524

34.61
(9
26.30
24.45
25.82
26.20
(9
20.98
19.91
41.23
28.33
23.62
29.95
17.71
23.47
| 25.73

(9 50.0
6.0 (9

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

30.48

(9
24.35

17.64
21.48
25.33
(9
17.31
16.36
35.85
24.82
14.71
22.93
16.68
19.22
21.27

4
2
6
5
22
3
3
7
8
3
12
7
6
4
3
95

10
3
11
11
42
5
3
10
13
6
38
18
10
8
10
198

5.7
6.0
5.7
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.0
5.3
5.8
4.6
5.4

48.4
50.7
53.4
49.2
48.2
49.0
50.2
49.6
49.0
45.4
48.9
48.2
52.3
51.9
50.2
49.3

46.2
52.7
43.7
39.3
39.3
46.5
48.5
46.8
36.6
42.5
43.1
38.9
40.0
48.3
37.4
41.7

95.5
103.9
81.8
79.9
81.5
94.9
96.6
94.4
74.7
93.6
88.1
80.7
76.5
93.0
74.5
84.6

.515
.422
.396
.409
.484
.511
.325
.406
.368
.537
.471
.444
.380
.350
.446
.445

24.93
21.40
21.15
20.12
23.33
25.04
16.32
20.14
18.03
24.38
23.03
21.40
19.87
18.17
22.39
21.94

23.77
22.23
17.31
16.05
19.03
23.77
15.76
19.01
13.46
22.81
20.32
17.27
15.21
16.92
16.69
18.56

3
2
2
3
18
2
7
6

8
3
3
8
31
5
21
17

5.4
5.7
6.0
4.8
5.5
6.0
5.2
5.6

48.3
51.8
50.0
49.6
48.4
51.5
49.1
48.4

43.7
52.0
47.2
38.6
42.5
51.4
42.8
37.2

90.5
100.4
94.4
77.8
87.8
99.8
87.2
76.9

.522
.531
.434
.353
.423
.332
.416
.404

25.21
27.51
21.70
17.51
20.47
17.10
20.43
19.55

22.81
27.59
20.45
13.61
17.97
17.04
17.82
15,0?

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
61
T a b l e A,—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
BO TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Sole cementers,hand and machine,
male—Continued.
1
New Jersey.................................
12
New York..................................
5
Ohio.............................................
6
Pennsylvania.............................
4
Tennessee...................................
5
Wisconsin— .............................
Total........................................ 76
Sole cementers, hand and machine
(including bottom cementers),
female:
1
Maine..........................................
3
Massachusetts..........................
1
Michigan....................................
2
Missouri....................................
1
New Hampshire.......................
5
New York..................................
1
Ohio............ ...............................
Wisconsin...............................
3
! 17
Total..
i
Sole layers, hand and machine,
male:
2
Illinois........................................
K entucky................................. .
1
Maine.................. ....................
6
Maryland and Virginia...........
5
Massachusetts......................... .
43
Michigan.................................. .
2
3
Minnesota________________
7
Missouri.....................................
New Hampshire.......................
7
1
New Jersey................................
New York..................................
13
Ohio........................................... i 7
Pennsylvania............................
7
Tennessee..................................
3
Wisconsin..................................
7
Total114
Rough rounders, male:
Illinois...............................
2
Kentucky.........................
2
Maine................................
2
M aryland and Virginia..
5
Massachusetts................ .
19
Michigan...........................
2
Minnesota.........................
4
5
Missouri............................
4
New Hampshire..............
2
New Jersey.......................
New York........... ............
15
Ohio...................................
6
Pennsylvania...................
8
4
Tennessee.........................
Wisconsin.........................
8
Total..
88
1 Data included in total.

66555°— 32-------5

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ amount
time actually
earn­ earned
ings
in
per
week week

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

0)34
12
10
7
16
176

0)
5.3
4.9
5.2
4.7
4.9
5.3

0)
48.5
48.3
52.3
52.1
50.1
49.2

0)
43.1
38.4
42.2
41.9
41.6
42.1

0)10
0) 8
0)
9
0)14

0)5.2
0)
5.6
0)
5.1
0)
5.3

51

5.3

0)
48.0
0)
50.0
0)
49.1
0)
49.0
49.1

0)
41.6 86.7
0)
45.1 90.2
0) ______
42.5 86.6
0) ______
42.7 87.1
42.2 85.9

0)
19.49
0)
16.25
0)
19.15
0)
17.54
18.07

0)
16.90
0)
14.65
0)
16.55
0)
15.29
15.55

7
0)17
10
96
4
3
24
16
0)45
21
12
7
13
280

5.7
0)
5.6
5.1
5.6
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.4
0)
5.2
5.0
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.4

48.0
0)
52.9
49.4
48.4
49.4
50.2
49.1
48.9
0)
48.6
48.3
52.8
51.4
50.1
49.2

43.2 90.0 .795 38.16
0)
0)
0)
43.8 82.8 .480 25.39
38.6 78.1 .488 24.11
40.0 82.6 .659 31.90
44.3 89.7 .557 27.52
44.8 89.2 .449 22.54
43.6 88.8 .488 23.96
37.5 76.7 .513 25.09
0) ______ 0)
0)
40.9 84.2 .654 31.78
37.1 76.8 .595 28.74
37.4 70.8 .522 27.56
47.6 92.6 .499 25.65
46.4 92.6 .553 27.71
41.0 83.3 .594 29.22

34.32
0)
21.05
18.81
26.36
24.65
20.13
21.26
19.20
0)
26.76
22.11
19.51
23.72
25.65
24.38

15
5
4
9
54
4
5
32
11
3
49
20
22
8
37
278

5.7
5.8
6.0
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.6
4.9
5.6
5.7
5.2
4.8
5.6
5.6
5.2
5.3

48.0
54.4
51.3
48.7
48.0
50.0
50.0
49.5
48.4
44.0
48.3
48.2
51.5
51.9
49.8
49.1

40.4
49.6
47.7
32.9
38.3
47.3
45.9
39.4
38.2
36.7
40.3
35.4
39.8
48.6
43.1
40.2

44 80
23.16
28.87
20.35
30.42
32.21
23.98
26.07
28.00
45.62
24.26
28.17
25.41
29.40
29.47
30.16

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

0) * (1)
0)
88.9 $0,463 $22.46 $19.97
79.5 .438 21.16 16.81
80.7 .353 18.46 14.89
80.4 .380 19.80 15.94
83.0 .428 21.44 17.81
85.6 .425 20.91 17.90
0)
.406
0)
.325
0)
.390
0)
.358
.368

84.2 1.109 53.23
91.2 .467 25.40
93.0 .605 31.04
67.6 .618 30.10
79.8 .794 38.11
94.6 .682 34.10
91.8 .522 26.10
79.6 .661 32.72
78.9 .734 35.53
83.4 1.244 54.74
83.4 .850 41.06
73.4 .796 38.37
77.3 .639 32.91
93.6 .605 31.40
86.5 .683 34.01
81.9 .751 36.87

62

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and /Sttate—Contd.
BO TTO M IN G D E PA B TM EN T-C ontinued

Occupation, sex, and State

Channel openers and closers (in­
cluding channel layers, channel
turners, channel cementers,
and lip turners) male:
m i p o t e r - ____ - K entucky___„r
*" - — __Maryland
Virginia __
Massachusetts.. .
.
Minnesota__ _ „ , T„ -,TirT.,
Missouri__________________
TTampshirft
New Jersey_____________ __
pp-pn syl van ia___________ __
Tennessee__Wisconsin..........Totalu....___
Channel openers and closers (in­
cluding channel layers, channel
turners, channel cementers,
and lip turners) female:
Illinois______________ ______
M flSSftchrcsfttfo*_____________
Minnesota_______ _________
M issouri-._________________
New Hampshire—. —— _____
New York____ ____________
Ohio.............................................
Wisconsin________________
Total_. . . . . __ -__________
Goodyear stitchers, male:
Illinois___ _________________
Kentucky_______ ________
Maine______ ________-_____
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____ __ _____
Michigan,..
__
Minnesota_____________ ___
Missouri_________—-_______
New TTampshirft__________
New Jersey________________
New York_______ _________
Ohio................ -.......................
Pennsylvania...____________
Tennessee____— ___ . . . ___
W isconsin.._. . . . . . ____ __
Total___ , rr, , r
,
M cKay sewers, male:
Illinois_________ __________
Kentucky_________________
M aine._______________ __
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts..______ _____
Minnesota_________________
M issouri..,.._____

New Hampshire..__....___
New York..________ ____
Ohio........................................
Pennsylvania........................
Total___________ ________

1Data included in total.

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
ays on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

5
20
4
2
,5
18
3
12
33
75
2
2
7
33
6
18
1
15 (990
6
18
3
11
4
8
G 25
98 336

5.7
5.8
5.7
4.3
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.9
05.4
5.1
5.5
5.0
5.4
5.4

48.6
52.1
53. 2
48.4
48.2
49.0
49.3
49.4
(9
48.2
48.9
49.4
51.9
49.0
48.9

43.7
51.3
47.6
30.9
39 6
44.5
45.1
41.5
(9
.42.1
37.3
42.3
43.1
43.5
41.8

5.8
5.2

49.0
48.0

5.4
5.5
4.3
5.4
5.3

33
12
13
22
125
13
9
50
44
6
115
35
33
20
46
576
18

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

3
9
1
2
4
5
2
2
28
2
2
5
5
22
4
4
5
g
3
16
g
8
4
8
100
3
1
4
2
28
1
5
3
3
2
2
54

8
22

(9 5

5
11
3
10
65

(915
2
61
31
6
7
5
3
151

0

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

89.9
98.5
89.5
63.8
82.2
90.8
91.5
84.0
87.3
76.3
85.6
83.0
88.8
85.5

$0,580
.400
.459
.284
.526
.312
.472
.366
0
.574
.456
.567
.378
.486
.506

$28.19
20.84
24.42
13.75
25.35
15.29
23.27
18.08
(9
27.67
22.30
28.01
19.62
23.81
24.74

$25.31
20.48
21.86
8.79
20.83
13.89
21.27
15.22
(9
24.15
17.02
23.96
16.28
21.11
21.14

48.4
49.3
49.6
49.2
48.9

45.8
38.5
0)
42.7
35.1
45.4
27.7
45.9
41.5

93.5
80.2
85.1"
72.5
92.1
55.8
93.3
84.9

.402
.503
(9
.378
.373
.352
.344
.396
.417

19.70
24.14
(9
18.90
18.05
17.35
17.06
19.48
20.39

5.6
5.9
5.8
4.8
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.0
5.4
5.7
5.4
4.8
5.5
5.6
5.3
5.3

48.0
53.6
51.4
48.7
48.0
49.2
50.1
49.7
48.4
46.8
48.6
47.7
52.5
51.3
49.6
49.1

42.6
51.2
44.0
32.6
39.4
47.1
45.7
41.4
36.9
44! 5
43.1
36.0
40.7
48.2
43.8
41.2

88.8
95.5
85.6
66.9
82.1
95.7
91.2
83.3
76.2
95.1
88.7
75.5
77.5
94.0
88.3
83.9

.967
.567
.674
.649
.767
.629
.605
.654
.664
.912
.755
.751
.692
.538
.739
.727

46.42
30.39
34.64
31.61
36.82
30.95
30.31
32.50
32.14
42.68
36.69
35.82
36.33
27.60
36.65
35.70

5.3
05.7
4.5
5.3
05.9
5.5
5.6
5.2
6.3
5.5

50.0
0
53.7
49.3
48.4
(9
49.5
51.6
48.1
46.0
54.7
49.6

42.0
0
48.6
38.2
37.4
0
49.2
43.0
42.5
42.4
59.5
42.8

84.0
90.5
77.5
77.3
99.4
83.3
88.4
92.2
108.8
86.3

.543
(9
.570
.516
.862
0
.605
.554
.784
.588
.449
.684

27.15
(9
30.61
25.44
41.72
(9
29.95
28.59
37.71
27.05
24.56
33.93

(9 50.0
5.4 (9

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

18.40
19.38

(9
16.15

13.08
15.97
9.52
18.16
17.29

41.17
29.04
29.67
21.12
30.25
29.62
27.61
27.12
24.52
40.60
32.52
27.04
28.18
25.94
32.38
29.99
22.81

(9
27.69

19.70
32.21

(9
29.79

23.83
33.33
24.91
26.69
29.28

63
BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and
—Contd.
B O TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State
Stitch separators (including stitch
wheelers), male:
Illinois------------ ----------------Kentucky............— ............—
Maine.........................................
M aryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts...........................
Michigan....................................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri.........-..........................
New Hampshire.......................
New Jersey................................
New York..................................
Ohio...........................................
Pennsylvania............................
Tennessee..................................
Wisconsin..................................
Total.......................................
Levelers, male:
Illinois........................................
Kentucky..................................
Maine.........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts.........................
Michigan.................................. .
Minnesota............................... .
Missouri.....................................
New Hampshire.......................
New Jersey................................
New York..................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania........................... .
Tennessee................................. .
Wisconsin________ _________
Total---------_------------------Heelers, leather, male:
Illinois........................................
Kentucky.................................
Maine.........................................
Maryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts......... ........ ........
Michigan....................................
Minnesota..................................
Missouri.....................................
New Hampshire— ..................
New Jersey................................
New York..................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania............................
Tennessee..................................
Wisconsin..................................
Total......................................
Heelers, wood, male:
Illinois.......................................
Kentucky..................................
Maine.................... ....................
M aryland and Virginia...........
Massachusetts..........................
Minnesota................................
Missouri.....................................
New Hampshire.......................
New York..................................
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania............................
Wisconsin..................................
Total___________________
1D ata Included in total.

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

0

68

14

0 2
16
16
3
27
15
6
5
23
168
24
5
28
11
103
5

124

390

0

87

29
19
309
8
90
22
250
76
47
10
891

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver- Aver­
age
amount
time actually
earn­ earned
ings
in
per
week week

43.0 88.8 $0,581
0
0)
46.0 89.7" .373
31.6 65.8 .350
41.2 85.8 .555
0
0
42.0 "85.*7" .396
48.1 97.0 .375
38.6 79.3 .361
42.7 97.0 .674
41.7 86.2 .577
31.1 63.9 .488
46.3 87.4 .465
49.1 96.3 .427
46.3 91.9 .507
42.2 85.9 .491

128.12 $24.95
0
19.13 0
17.15
16.80 11.06
26.64 22.86
0
19.40 0
16.64
18.60 18.05
17.58 13.92
29.66 28.77
27.93 24.05
23. 77 15.16
24. 65 21.53
21.78 20.94
25.55 23.48
24.11 20.73

5.3 49.3
6.0 53.0
5.5 51.8
4.7 49.0
5.6 48.3
5.2 49.5
5.4 50.3
5.6 49.4
5.8 50.0
5.5 48.3
5.6 48.4
5.0 47.5
5.6 52.3
5.8 51.9
4.8 49.4
5.5 49.1

41.7
56.5
47.3
38.2
41.4
45.6
44.0
46.4
39.9
40.3
42.5
36.9
42.2
49.6
38.4
42.3

84.6
106.6
91.3
78.0
85.7
92.1
87.5
93.9
79.8
83.4
87.8
77.7
80.7
95.6
77.7
16.2

.601
.418
.486
.501
.663
.563
.505
.511
.449
.810
.624
.613
.430
.440
.591

29.63
22.15
25.17
24. 55
32.02
27.87
25.40
25.24
22.45
39.12
30.20
29.12
22.49
22.84
29.20
28.77

25.04
23.63
22.99
19.15
27.45
25.66
22.22
23.70
17.94
32.66
26.52
22.58
18.11
21.84
22.66
24.77

5.5
5.8
5.6
5.1
5.5
5.2
5.3
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.4
4.8
5.3
5.5
5.4
5.4

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

48.4
53.9
52.5
49.1
48.0
50.0
50.0
49.9
49.2
47.4
48.2
47.5
51.8
51.7
50.2
49.2

41.9
49.1
44.3
33.9
39.4
44.9
43.2
48.0
36.3
44.6
43.2
37.1
39.9
47.5
44.3
41.5

91.1
84.4
69.0
82.1
89.8
86.4
96.2
73.8
94.1
89.6
78.1
77.0
91.9
88.2
84.3

.841
.558
.643
.463
.815
.602
.557
.601
.598
.762
.741
.725
.566
.583
.665

40.70
30.08
33.76
22.73
39.12
30.10
27.85
29.99
29.42
36.12
35.72
34.44
29.32
30.14
33.38
33.90

35.27
27.66
28.47
15.69
32.07
27.03
24.08
28.84
21.74
33.99
31.98
26.91
22.55
27.70
29.48
28.62

5.4
0
5.6
5.4
5.6
4.8
5.4
5.9
5.7
4.9
4.4
5.7
5.5

49.6
0
53.9
48.9
48.4
48.8
48.4
50.6
47.2
48.9
48.3
47.7
48.4

41.4
0
47.2
44.5
41.1
32.6
43.3
44.1
45.1
33.9
32.7
42.1
41.7

83.5
87."6
91.0
84.9
66.8
89.5
87.2
95.6
35.2
67.7
88.3
86.2

.531
0
.569
.546
.867
.684
.709
.555
.717
.757
.611
.813
.746

26.34
0)
30.67
26.70
41.96
33.38
34.32
28.08
33.84
37.02
29.51
38.78
36.11

21.97
0
26.88
24.30
35.65
22.26
30.68
24.47
32.30
25.64
19.98
34.21
31.11

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

5.4
05.8
4.3
5.5
05.5
5.8
5.3
6.0
5.2
4.3
6.0
5.6
5.5
5.4

48.4
0)
51.3
48.0
48.0
0
49.0
49.6
48.7
44.0
48.4
48.7
53.0
51.0
50.4
49.1

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

64

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sex, and
—Contd.
B O TTO M IN G D EPA R TM EN T-C .ontinued

Occupation, sex, and State

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Heel trimmers or shavers, male:
4
24
5.9 48.8
Illinois____________________
4
6.0 53.9
3
5.8 52.8
13
6
Maine ___________________
5.2 49.4
Maryland and Virginia
5
10
5.5 48.0
?4
53
M assachusetts_____________
3
5.3 49.4
4
Michigan__________________
5.7 49.9
4
Minnesota, _, ______ _____
10
5
15
5.9 50.0
Missouri _______ -________
5.4 49.1
7
14
New Hampshire......................5.7 44.0
2
3
New Jersey________________
5.7 47.6
16
36
New York_________________
4.8 48.2
4
11
Ohio___ __________________
5.4 52.2
11
7
Pennsylvania______________
5.8 52.5
4
8
5.3 50.6
7
16
Wisconsin...................................
Total...................................— 101 232 i 5.5 I 49.2
Heel breasters, male:
5.5 49.3
3
6
Illinois____________________
1
Kentucky_________________
(9
2 0) 2t (l)
5.5 52.0
Maine_____________________
r
4.4 48.5
3
Maryland and Virginia_____
5.5 48.4
21
26
Massachusetts_____________
1 C
Minnesota _______________
0)
1)
C4.4 50.0
1)
4
7
Missouri__________________
3
3
5. 3 50.2
New Hampshire
1
New Jersey________________
(l)
0)
5.7 46.5
New York ______________
14 0)57
3
8
5.1 48.0
Ohio______________________
5
5
5.0 52.4
Pennsylvania______________
3
0
5.5 51.7
Tennessee_________________
4.8 51.8
4
i
Wisconsin..................................
5.4 ! 48.2
Total........................-.............. 68 132
Edge trimmers, male:
5.4 48.8
Illinois____________________
5
56
5.8 52.2
Kentucky_________________
3
14
5.9 52.8
Maine_____________________
7
40
6
34
4.5 48.8
M aryland and Virginia_____
5.5 48.2
M assachusetts_____________
46 252
4
16
5.4 49.4
Michigan__________________
4
9
Minnesota_________________
5.4 49.6
8
5.7 49.6
96
Missouri__________________
58
8
5.5 49.1
New Ham pshire.....................
3
New Jersey____ ____ _______
9
5.3 47.8
18 151
5.4 48.4
New York_________________
4.6 47.7
7
58
Ohio................. .....................
8
41
5.5 52.3
Pennsylvania____ _________
5.6 51.4
Tennessee_________________
4
14
5.5 49.4
Wisconsin_________________
9
47
Total........................................ 140 895
5.4 49.1
Sluggers, male:
3
Illinois____________________
6
5.3 49.0
1
Kentucky________ ___
0)
3 0) 3 0)
M aine____________________
6.0 51.3
6
Massachusetts_____________
7
5.4 47.6
2
2
Michigan_________________
5.5 50.0
1 (l)
Minnesota________________
0)
0)
1 0)
Missouri__________________
0)
0)
New Hampshire____________
3
5
5.4 48.9
New Jersey________________
2
2
5.5 44.0
New York_________________
9
14
5.6 48.1
4
Ohio______________________
3
4.8 48.8
5
2
Pennsylvania_____________
6.0 49.2
1 0)
Tennessee_________________
0)
Wisconsin.
- ,.
4 0)
2
4.3 50.0
Total........................................ 39
60
5.4 48.8

*Data included in total.

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
iactually time
'worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earnings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
,actually
‘earned
in
week

45.8 93.9 :$0,776 !$37.87 $35.53
54.3 100.7 .411 22.15 22.32
44.9 85.0 .485 25.61 21.78
37.5 75.9 .539 26.63 20.23
39.4 82.1 .752 36.10 29.64
45.9 92.9 .573 28.31 26.30
46.0 92.2 .480 23.95 22.10
48.2 96.4 .562 28.10 27.32
37.1 75.6 .605 29.71 22.45
41.2 93.6 1.090 47. 96 44.87
44.7 93.9 .826 39.32 36.88
35.6 73.9 .722 34.80 25.68
40.2 77.0 .601 31. 37 24.14
48.9 93.1 .396 20.79 19. 36
45.4 89.7 .613 31.02 27.82
42.8 i 87.0 .670 32.96 28.70
44.5 90.3 .422 20.80 18.76
0)
0)
0)
0)
45.7 87.9 .359 18.67 16.41
26.7 55.1 .485 23.52 12.92
38.5 79.5 .564 27.30 21.73
C
1)
0)
C
1)
0)
39.2 78.4 .478 23.90 18.76
30.2 60.2 .442 22.19 13.33
(l)
(0
(l)
44.4 95.5 .675 31.39 0)
29.95
43.9 91.5 .697 33.46 30.63
36.6 69.8 .452 23.68 1C. 55
47.5 91.9 .318 16. 44 15.09
38.1 73.6 .460 23.83 17.52
41.7 | 86.5 .586 28.25 24.44
43.8 89.8 .749 36.55 32.79
50.0 95.8 .692 36.12 34.59
48.0' 90.9 .575 30. 36 27.58
31.2 63.9 .595 29.04 18.59
39.7 82.4 .821 39.57 32.61
47.3 95.7 .658 32.51 31.10
43.9 88.5 . 653 32.39 28.68
46.8 94.4 .611 30.31 28.61
39.1 79.6 .642 31.52 25.12
40.4 84.5 .807 38.57 32.61
41.9 86.6 .782 37.85 32.05
35.1 73.6 .718 34.25 26.19
42.8 81.8 .595 31.12 25.47
48.6 94.6 .583 29.97 28.37
45.4 91.9 .743 36.70 33. 71
41.7 84.9 . 722 35. 45 30.11
43.5 88.8 . 600 29.40 26.11
(l)
<*)
(0
(0
50.4 98.2 .413 21.19 20.83
39.0 81.9 .613 29.18 23.94
47.5 95.0 .494 24.70 23.46
(l)
0)
0)
• (9
0)
0)
(0
0)
39.7 81.2 .536 26.21 21.32
38.5 87.5 1.057 46.51 40.71
41.1 85.4 .681 32.76 27.99
36.1 74.0 566 27.62 20.45
43.3 88.0 .493 24.26 21.37
0)
(*)
0)
37.2 ' "74.4 • .378 18.90 0)
14.06
41.9 | 85.9 .550 26.84 23.07

65

BOOT AND SH OE IN D U STR Y , 1910 TO 1930

A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.

T able

FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T

Occupation, sex, and State

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Buffers (including bottom scour­
ers), male:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_________________
Missouri__________________
Ne-w Hampshire „.,, .........
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio............................................
Pennsylvania . . . .
Tennessee,
Wisconsin...............................
Total____-_______________
Naumkeag operators, male:
"Illinois
,
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________ !
Minnesota_________________
Missouri__________________ 1
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio______________________
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Edge setters, male:
Illinois__________________
K entucky_________________
Maine____________________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_________________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York____________ ____
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total____________________
Heel scourers (including first and
second scourers), male:
Illinois____________________
K entucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts____ ________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota____ ____________
M issouri__________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________

1Data included in total.

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
dayson
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

5
3
7
6
42
1
1
8
8
1
18
7
8
4
7
126

25
9
13
13
99
(!)
(i)
34
15
0 74
27
14
9
25
364

5.3 49.4
5.7 52.6
5.8 52.8
4.9 48.9
5.7 48.3
0)
0
0
0
4.7 49.4
5.7 49.4
0
0)
5.6 47.9
5.0 48.7
5.4 50.9
5.0 52.2
5.2 49.3
5.5 49.1

42.6
48.7
47.0
38.3
40.6
0
0
47.2
39.8
0
43.9
37.6
41.0
43.4
42.7
42.4

86.2 $0,612 $30.23
92.6 .496 26.09
89.0 .630 i 33.26
78.3 .594 ! 29.05
84.1 .683 32.99
0
V)
0
0
95.5 .577 28.50
80.6 .502 24.80
0
0)
91.6 .691 33.10
77.2 .598 29.12
80.6 .558 28.40
83.1 .364 19.00
86.6 .511 25.19
86.4 .620 30.44

$26.08
24.17
29.62
22.77
27.72
0)
0
27.23
20.00
0
30.35
22.50
22.89
15.82
21.84
26.29

4
I
1
3
28
l
3
5
4
2
8
5
1
1
4
71

12
0
(i)
6
42
0 3
11
5
2
14
10
0)
0 7
122

4.8
(l)
04.5
5.7
0
5.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
5.3
5.1
0
0
5.1
5.4

49.5
0
0
48.8
48.7
0
49.2
49.3
49.3
44.0
46.2
48.0
0)
(i)
48.3
48.8

38.4
0
0
33.8
40.9
0
42.0
50.7
43.4
39.0
37.9
35.8
0
0
42.0
41.1

77.6

24.21
0
(!)
23.91
42.32
0
21.70
24. 26
30.12
28.91
36.68
33.79
0)
0
34.49
33.92

18.93
0)
0
16.59
35.66
0
18.53
24.92
26.52
25.64
30.11
25.18
0)
0
30.03
28.55

5
3
7
6
45
4
4
8
8
3
19
7
8
4
9
140

60
12
32
24
237
8
5
54
34
6
157
59
44
15
47
794

5.5
5.4
5.8
4.7
5.5
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.8
5.5
4.6
5.7
5.7
5.2
5.4

48.7
52.4
52.7
48.8
48.2
49.4
49.6
49.2
49.1
45.4
48.2
48.3
52.0
51.7
50.0
49.0

43.4 89.1
45. 7 87.2
46.6 88.4
33.5 68.6
39.8 82.6
47.9 97.0
44.5 89.7
45.7 92.9
38.8 79.0
47.0 103. 5
43.3 89.8
34.3 71.0
42.3 81.3
49.1 95.0
42.9 85.8
41.6 84.9

38.02
27.82
31.88
29.91
37.69
33.10
31.10
!: 33.85
1 30.25
!
46.08
35.09
31.83
30.58
25.64
35.50
34.59

31.18
24.27
28.24
20.56
31.17
32.10
27.88
31.42
23.90
47.72
31.50
22.62
24.87
24.31
30.43
29.35

4
3
5
5
22
3
4
8
7
2
17

30
8
10
12
64
6
5
35
29
3
71

5.2
5.9
5.7
4.4
5.6
5.3
5.6
5.7
5.3
5.7
5.5

49.0
53.0
52.5
48.9
48.1
49.6
50.5
49.8
48.8
44.0
48.1

40.6
50.9
43.0
28.3
41.3
46.7
45.4
47.3
37.9
43.2
43.0

82.9 .522 25.58
96.0 .368 19. 50
81.9 .451 23.68
57.9 .503 24.60
85.9 .677 32.56
94.2 .653 32.39
89.9 .543 27.42
95.0 .451 22.46
77.7 .523 25-52
98.2 1.016 44.70
89.4 .660 31.75

21.20
18.73
19.37
14.27
27.91
30.51
24.63
21.31
19.81
43.85
28.37

.489
0
0
69.3 .490
84.0 .869
0
85.4 .441
102.8 .492
88.0 .611
88.6 .657
82.0 .794
74.6 .704
(i)
0
87.0 .714
84.2 . 69o
.719
.531
.605
.613
.782
. 670
.627
.688
.616
1.015
.728
.659
.588
.496
.710
.706

66
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
Table A .—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sea;, and >Stta2e— Contd.
FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Heel scourers, male—Continued.
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania.___ ______
Tftnnessftft
Wisconsin_____ _ _ - Total____________________
Heel burnishers, (including
stoners, expediters, and heel
slickers), male:
Illinois
Kentucky_________________
M aine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota.
. -r- .
Missouri____ ______________
New Hampshire ..................
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio___ ____ ______________
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Heel burnishers, (including
stoners, expediters, and heel
slickers), female:
Massachusetts_____________
Minnesota____________ -___
Wisconsin______________-__
Total__________ _________
Bottom finishers (including
bottom slickers), male:
Illinois____ ________________
Kentucky_________________
M a in e ____________________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
M ichigan_________________
Minnesota_________________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio_______ _______________
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total____________________
Botton finishers (including
bottom slickers), female:
Illinois____________________
M aine_____________________
Massachusetts___________
New York_________________
Ohio______________________
Wisconsin_________________

Total_____ _______

*Data included in total.

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
Num ­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week
$21.72
17.48
17.79
25.47
23.95

5
7
4
5
101

17
19
10
33
352

4.9
5.5
5.3
5.5
5.4

47.6
53.1
51.5
49.6
49.2

36.9
40.9
46.1
46.2
42.3

77.5 $0,588 $27.99
77.0 .427 22.67
89.5 .386 19.88
93.1 .551 27.33
86.0 .567 27.90

5
3
6
4
23
3
2
6
g
3
16
7
7
4
7
104

29
10
17
9
61
3
4
25
24
3
62
17
15
9
20
308

5.4 48.8
5.6 51.3
5.6 52.6
4.6 48.8
5.4 48.1
5.7 50.0
5.0 48.5
5.6 49.8
5.5 49.1
5.7 46.8
5.4 48.6
4.7 47.3
5.5 52. 5
5.0 52.2
5.1 50.2
5.4 49.3

43.0
47.3
42.6
30.0
37.2
47.9
40.1
47.2
40.3
43.2
42.6
36.0
41.1
41.3
42.1
41.1

88.1
92.2
81.0
61.5
77.3
95.8
82.7
94.8
82.1
92.3
87.7
76.1
78.3
79.1
83.9
83.4

.589
.490
.566
.504
.603
.586
.558
.454
.391
.735
.545
.529
.394
.334
.565
.527

28.74
25.14
29.77
24.60
29.00
29.30
27.06
22.61
19.20
34.40
26.49
25.02
20.69
17.43
28.36
25.98

25.31
23.16
24.15
15.11
22.43
28.11
22.36
21.45
15.79
31.71
23.22
19.02
16.20
13.79
23.76
21.66

(«)
W3 (lo 49.0
10
4.8 50.0

0)
37.4

76.3
78.8
79.8

0) (l)
.274 13.43
.349 17.45
.341 16.91

0)
10.24

93.4
90.0
94.3
68.6
78.2
94.9
88.4
98.6
77.6
88.5
86.2
69.6
83.4
94.8
88.0
84.0

.671
.449
.504
.517
.682
.415
.393
.481
.469
.620
.589
.569
.492
.395
.537
.576

32.54
23.80
26.46
25.38
32.80
20.50
19.30
23.71
22.98
29.76
28.15
27.71
25.24
20.58
26.31
28.11

30.38
21.42
24.99
17.44
25.64
19.48
17.07
23.38
17.83
26.38
24.26
19.31
21.06
19.53
23.15
23.59

80.0
68.3
97.0
60.2
90.1
87.3

0)
.315
.311
.400
.496
.356
.375

(9
17.01
14.93
20.00
24.20
17.30
18.56

(*>
13.62

1
2
2
5

14

4.9

49.6

39.4
39.6

27
6
18
9
120
8
5
33
25
17
118
43
29
7
26
491

5.5
5.5
5.8
4.7
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.9
5.0
5.2
5.4
4.7
5.8
5.7
5.2
5.3

48.5
53.0
52.5
49.1
48.1
49.4
49.1
49.3
49.0
48.0
47.8
48.7
51.3
52.1
49.0
48.8

45.3
47.7
49.5
33.7
37.6
46.9
43.4
48.6
38.0
42.5
41.2
33.9
42.8
49.4
43.1
41.0

1
0)
6.0 54.0
2 W3 0) 48.0
3
4
5.8
5.8 50.0
2 21 4.0 48.8
4
3
2 23 5.4 48.6

0)
43.2

4
3
7
5
37
4
3
7
8
3
17
7
8
4
6
123

13

60

5.5

49.5

32.8
48.5
29.4
43.8
43.2

1

13.75
13.51

10.20
19.39
14.57
15.60>
16.20*

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
67
T a b l e A.—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930y by department, occupation, sex, and /State—Contd.
FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Brushers, male:
Illinois--_____________
Kentucky........................ .
Maine................................
Maryland and Virginia..
Massachusetts..................
Michigan...........................
Minnesota........................
Missouri............................
New Hampshire..............
New Jersey.......................
New York.........................
Ohio...................................
Pennsylvania.................. .
Tennessee........................ .
Wisconsin........................ .
Total..
Brushers, female:
Illinois-.............................
Kentucky..........................
Maryland and Virginia..
Massachusetts..................
Minnesota.........................
Missouri............................
New Hampshire..............
New York.........................
Ohio...................................
Pennsylvania....................
Tennessee..........................
Wisconsin..........................
TotalShoe cleaners, male:
Maine................................
M aryland and Virginia..
Massachusetts..................
Missouri...........................
New Hampshire..............
New Jersey.......................
New York.........................
Ohio.............. ....................
Pennsylvania......... .........
Tennessee..........................
Wisconsin.........................
Total. .
Shoe cleaners, female:
Illinois-.................
Kentucky..............
Maine....................
Massachusetts___
Minnesota.............
M issouri.............
New Hampshire..
New York.............
Ohio.......................
Pennsylvania___
Tennessee..............
Wisconsin.............
T otalLast pullers, hand and machine,
male:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky..................................
Maine.........................................
Maryland and Virginia..........

1Data included in total.

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
Num ­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week

Aver­ Aver­ Per
age age cent
full­ hours of full­
time actually time
hours worked hours
in actually
per
week week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­ Aver­
age age
full­ amount
time actually
earn­ earned
ings in
per
week week

5
2
3
3
12
1
2
5
5
2
11
6
4
3
5
69

17
3
8
6
23
02
13
14
3
42
13
7
5
18
175

4.9
5.0
6.0
5.2
5.4
06.0
6.0
5.5
6.0
5.6
4.6
5.6
5.0
5.6
5.4

49.4
51.8
51.0
48.0
48.1
0
49.0
49.5
48.1
44.0
48.6
48.4
50.7
52.0
49.2
48.9

40.0 81.0 $0.351 $17.34
41.2 79.5 .348 18.03
51.9 101.8 .346 17.65
37.8 78.8 .253 12.14
38.2 79.4 .500 24.05
0 ______ 0
0
48.3 98.6 .292 14.31
48.0 97.0 .388 19.21
43.7 90.9 .326 15.68
45.0 102.3 ;427 18.79
43.0 88.5 .568 27.60
36.0 74.4 .412 19.94
41.1 81.1 .410 20.79
42.7 82.1 .305 15.86
46.7 94.9 .449 22.09
42.6 87.1 .436 21.32

3
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
2
2
1
2
22

8
0
0
2
0
8
4
0
7
2
0
5
42

5.3
0
05.5
0)
5.3
5.8
(1)„
4.9
6.0
0
6.0
5.4

48.5
0
0
48.0
0
50.0
50.8
0
45.0
51.0
0
50.0
49.1

43.6 89.9
0
0
44.5 92.7
0 ____
44.3 88.6
44.7 88.0
0 ____
41.5 92.2
51.4 100.8
0 ______
49.3 98.6
44.7 91.0

16.15
0
0
15.89
0
15.60
13.82
0
18.36
12.39
0
26.25
.342 16.79

14.52
0
0
14.75
0)
13.79
12.15
0
16.93
12.48
0)
25.88
15.28

2
1
7
5
4
1
14
6
3
2
2
47

4
0 15
11
5
0 51
41
16
3
4
153

5.3
0)
5.7
5.6
5.0
0)
5.5
3.7
5.7
6.0
5.3
5.0

52.0
0
48.3
49.3
50.6
0
47.2
49.0
48.6
53.3
53.3
48.7

80.8
42.0 ______
0
40.5 83.9
47.1 95.5
35.4 70.0
0 __ 88.8"
41.9
29.7 60.6
43.5 89.5
51.7 97.0
44.8 84.1
39.1 80.3

.414
0)
.528
.282
.364
0)
.451
.509
.409
.425
.352
.441

21.53
0
25.50
13.90
18.42
n(1L
21.29
24.94
19.88
22.65
18.76
21.48

17.38
0)
21.36
13.25
12.86
0
18.93
15.09
17.80
21.95
15.75
17.25

3
1
2
13
1
2
1
8
6
3
3
4
47

9
0 12
39
0„
7
0 17
„
28
11
5
10
145

5.1
0
4.8
4.6
0)
6.0
0)
5.2
4.6
5.4
5.8
5.6
5.0

49.1
0
54.0
47.6
0
50.0
0
47.3
48.7
48.8
52.0
49.2
49.0

41.6 84.7
0
40.2 74.4
32.7 68.7
0
49.9 _ 99.8
0
39.6 83.7
37.1 76.2
43.9 90.0
50.1 96.3
44.9 91.3
39.5 80.6

.254
0
.256
.318
0
.281
0
.328
.313
.303
.299
.318
.300

12.47
0
13.82
15.14
0
14.05
0
15.51
15.24
14.79
15.55
15.65
14.70

10.57
0
10.32
10.37
0
14.01
0
12.98
11.60
13.27
14.96
14.26
11.85

5
3
7
5

16
6
18
7

5.3
5.5
5.7
5.3

49.4
52.4
52.9
49.3

42.7
48.0
44.7
40.9

.429
.365
.435
.403

21.19
19.13
23.01
19.87

18.32
17.53
19.45
16.50

86.4
91.6
84.5
83.0

.333
0
0
.331
0
.312
.272
0
.408
.243
0
.525

$14.02
14.32
17.95
9.74
19.12
0
14.10
18.61
14.21
19.21
24.39
14.83
16.86
13.03
20.98
18.58

68

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
T a b l e A .— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1930, by department, occupation, sea?, and /State—Contd.
FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Last pullers, hand and machine,
male—Continued.
Massachusetts..........................
Michigan...................................
Minnesota.................................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New Jersey...............................
New York.................................
Ohio...........................................
Pennsylvania...........................
Tennessee..................................
Wisconsin..................................
Total......................................
Treers, hand and machine, male:
Illinois........................................
Kentucky..................................
Maine........................................
Maryland and Virginia..........
Massachusetts..........................
Michigan...................................
Minnesota.................................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New Jersey...............................
New York.................................
Ohio...........................................
Pennsylvania...........................
Tennessee.................................
Wisconsin.................................
Total.......................................
Treers, hand and machine, fe­
male:
Illinois.......................................
Kentucky..................................
Maine........................................
M aryland and Virginia..........
Massachusetts..........................
Michigan...................................
Minnesota.................................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New York.................................
Ohio...........................................
Pennsylvania...........................
Tennessee.................................
Wisconsin.................................
Total......................................
Repairers (not cobblers) (includ­
ing tip fixers and scourers),
male:
Illinois.......................................
Maine........................................
Maryland and Virginia..........
Massachusetts..........................
Michigan...................................
Missouri....................................
New Hampshire......................
New Jersey...............................
New York.................................
Ohio...........................................
Pennsylvania...........................
Tennessee.................................
Wisconsin.................................
Total.......................................

*Data included in total.

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
earn­
ers

41
2
4

Aver­ Average
days on
which time
wage
earners hours
worked1 pert
wur&eu in week weeK

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

48.3
50.0
50.0
49.5
49.5
46.8
47.8
47.8
51.2
52.1
49.2
49.2

40.8
46.3
44.5
48.6
40.3
40.2
41.8
34.0
38.9
47.1
43.6
42.3

84.5 1.549 $26.52
92.6 .469 23.45
89.0 .410 20.50
98.2 .454 22.47
81.4 .451 22.32
85.9 .855 40.01
87.4 .649 31.02
71.1 .476 22.75
76.0 .354 18.12
90.4 .356 18.55
.475 23.37
88.6
.501 24.65
8 6 .0

$22.43
21.71
18.21
22.05
18.18
34.34
27.14
16.19
13.76
16.79
20.71
21.18

78.3
94.7
95.1
83.0
83.9
96.8
95.8
98.0
89.5
88.0
90.5
75.8
85.1
91.0
92.5
87.6

.424
.470
.468
.457
.632
.564
.426
.516
.424

16.43
23.74
23.73
18.49
25.61
27.06
20.46
25.07
18.72
34.58
27.40
16.68
21.15
17.48
27.75
24.23

127

276

5.6
5.7
5.4
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.3
4.5
5.1
5.7
5.4
5.5

46
4
4
6
7
2
14
4
8
4
7
125

48
11
74
41
508
14
10
112
89
9
167
25
45
15
42
1,210

4.9
5.8
5.8
5.3
5.5
5.5
5.7
5.8
5.7
5.8
4.9
5.0
5.6
5.5
5.6
5.4

49.4
53.3
53.3
48.8
48.3
49.6
50.1
49.6
49.3
44.0
47.6
50.0
52.2
52.3
49.6
49.1

38.7
50.5
50.7
40.5
40.5
48.0
48.0
48.6
44.1
38.7
43.1
37.9
44.4
47.6
45.9
43.0 i

0)

5.5

48.8
0)

5.8
0)
5.6
4.8
6.0
5.4
5.2
5.4

48.7
0)
48.3
45.6
51.0
50.0
49.3
48. 6

43.8 89.8 .419 20.45
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
36.4 76.0 .347 16.62
0)
0)
0)
37.8 " m i ' .275 18.56
46.2 94.9 .335 16.31
0)
0)
0) "~90.3 .382 18.45
43.6
41.3 90.6 .411 18.74
51.0 100.0 .367 18.72
45.1 90.2 .280 14.00
42.4 86.0 .393 19.37
. 380 18.47
43.2

49.7
52.5
0)
48.0
0)
49.7
0)
44.0
46.8
47.2
51.3
53.8
48.4
48.2

38.7
51.3
0)
46.3
0)
49.3
0)
47.4
42.9
45.8
36.6
50.9
47.4
44.5

8
8

3
17
7
5
4

8

0)
0))
05.8 47.9
0)
0)
04.6 49.5
)

42 I 280

.441
. 476
.368
.604
.563

20.95
25.05
24.94
22.30
30.53
27.97
21.34
25.59
20.90
39.29
30.27
22. 05
24.85
19. 25
29.96
j 27.64

18.36:
0)
0)
0)
12.66:
0)
14.18.
15.48
0) •
16.65
16.96
18.72
12.60
16. 65
16.42

I

0)24
0)

0)

6

50 ! 142

4.7
5.9
(1)„
5.7
06.0
)
0)
6.0
5.8
5.3
4.4
6.0
5.8
5.6

77.9
97.7
96.5
9.2
107.7
91.7
97.0
71.3
94.6
97.9
92.3

.389
.470
0)
.556
0)
.514
0)
.743
.729
.561
.500
.304

19.33
24.68
0)
26.69
0)
25.55
0)
32.69
34.12
26.48
25.65
16.36
32.38
29.21

15.03'
24.12
0)
25.74
0)
25.34
0)
35. 22 ’
31.28
25. 71
18.28
15.48
31.72
27.01

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
69
T a b l e A.— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by, department, occupation, sex, and State—Contd.
FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Repairers (not cobblers) (includ­
ing tip fixers and scourers), fe­
male:
Illinois__________ _________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts....... ............ .......
Michigan.................. .................
Minnesota_______ _________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio............................................
..............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Dressers, female:
Illinois_____ _________ _____
Kentucky______ __________
M aine____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota____ ____________
Missouri___ _____ _________
New Hampshire.—_________
New Jersey................................
New York.......................... .......
Ohio______________________
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
Sock liners (including heel-lining,
heel-pad, and heel-pin pasters),
male:
Maryland and Virginia 4___
Massachusetts_____________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey_____________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Total........................................
Sock liners (including heel-lining,
heel-pad, and heel-pin pasters),
female:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine.......................................
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts____ _________
Michigan _____ _________
Minnesota________________
Missouri____ ___________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio...........................................
Pennsylvania____________ _
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total.................................

’D ata included in total.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

i

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

i

5
3
7
5
42
3
4
8
8
2
16
6
5
2
7
123

82
16
63
29
222
11
9
117
86
10
105
41
28
10
34
863

4.8
5.9
5.1
5.0
5.4
5.7
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.1
5.3
5.2
5.4
5.9
5.6
5.4

49.4
52.8
53.4
48.5
47.9
49.5
49.8
49.1
49.2
51.7
48.2
48.9
49.1
50.0
49.5
49.2

38.3
50.5
43.5
37.6
41.2
48.8
48.8
48.8
44.9
46.7
41.7
39.2
43.9
49.6
45.7
43.1

5
3
5
2
20
1
2
7
8
1
13
7
3
4
7
88

32
6
14
6
68

5.1
5.7
5.5
4.3
5.2
05.4
5.7
5.3
0
5.3
4.8
5.8
5.8
5.7
5.4

48.6
53.0
51.4
48.0
47.9
0
48.5
49.8
48.6
0
48.9
47.0
49.7
51.6
49.2
48.9

41.2 84.8
50.0 94.3
47.0 91.4
30.0 62.5
39.0 81.4
0)
43.5 "89." 7"
47.8 96.0
41.9 86.2
0
43.7 89^4"
39.2 83.4
48.7 98.0
49.8 96.5
47.0 95.5
43.5 89.0

0
48.5
0
0
0
46.7
0
48.4
49.3
50.9
52.9
49.3
47.9
50.0
49.1
49.7
49.0
45.7
47.7
47.6
50.1
52.1
49.3
48.8

(,)9

52
34
0 49
38
12
16
53
392

1
4
1
1
1
2
1
11

04
0
0
03
18

05.3
(i)
(i)
0
5.0
0
5.3

5
2
7
4
40
2
3
7
7
2
19
7
8
4
7
124

24
5
21
7
110
3
5
38
19
5
67
17
18
7
17
363

5.1
6.0
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.6
5.7
5.2
5.8
5.5
4.8
5.5
5.7
5.3
5.4

(0

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

77.5 $0,311 $15.36 $11.91
95.6 .384 20.28 19.42
81.5 .358 19.12 15.57
77.5 .297 14.40 11.15
86.0 .495 23.71 20.37
98.6 .360 17.82 17.59
98.0 .291 14.49 14.21
99.4 .300 14.73 14.64
91.3 .358 17.61 16.06
90.3 .258 13.34 12.04
86.5 .402 19.38 16.79
80.2 .379 18.53 14.86
89.4 .382 18.76 16.78
99.2 .297 14.85 14.73
92.3 .388 19.21 17.73
87.6 .383 18.84 16.50
.387
.321
.317
.223
.412
0
.263
.308
.313
0
.446
.364
.240
.263
.362
.355

18.81
17.01
16.29
10.70
19.73
0
12.76
15.34
15.21
0
21.81
17.11
11.93
13.57
17.81
17.36

15.93
16.03
14.92
6.69
16.08
0
11.43
14.73
13.12
0
19.49
14.29
11.68
13.10
17.01
15.45

0
41.0
0)
0
0
41.5
0
43.6

0
0
84.5" .598 29.00
0
0
0
0
0
0
88.9 .638 29.79
0
0
90.1 .463 22.41

0
24.50
0
0)
0
26.49
0
20.21

41.1
50.7
44.6
43.4
37.8
46.7
46.0
47.7
39.8
43.2
42.4
38.9
42.1
49.9
42.7
41.7

83.4
99.6
84.3
88.0
78.9
93.4
93.7
96.0
81.2
94.5
88.9
81.7
84.0
95.8
86.6
85.5

13.26
17.05
13.40
14.93
16.23
19.87
12.43
14.82
13.87
17.64
17.72
14.64
11.96
17.19
16.44
15.60

.323
.336
.300
.344
.429
.426
.270
.311
.348
.408
.418
.376
.284
.345
.385
.374

15.92
17.10
15.87
16.96
20.55
21.30
13.26
15.46
17.05
18.65
19.94
17.90
14.23
17.97
18.98
18.25

70

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
T a b l e A,—Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex,
—ContcL
FIN ISH IN G D E PA R T M E N T -C ontinued

Occupation, sex, and State

Lacers (before packing), female:
Illinois____________________
K entucky.._______________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire ............
New Jersey________________
New York...................................
Ohio______________________
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin________________
Total____________________
Packers, male:
Illinois____________________
M aine.____-__________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New York_________________
Ohio______________________
Pennsylvania..._-_________
Wisconsin_______________
Total........................................
Packers, female:
Illinois.........................................
Kentucky_________________
M aine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_________________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania_____________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total.......................................

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Aver­
age
days on
which
wage
earners
worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

4
2
4
5
V
3
7
5
3
12
7
6
3
7
9~*
1
3
2
2
1
2
2
6
3
2
2
2«
5
3
6
5
45
3
4
8
7
3
16
7
4
9
132

11
5
20
10
50
3
30
10
4
29
10
11
7
14
214

5.2
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.3
5. 3
5.9
4.9
5.8
5.5
4.9
4.8
5.6
5.5
5. 4

48.5
52.3
53.4
49.2
47.8
49.2
49. 5
49.1
46.1
48. 3
47. 5
51. 3
51.4
49.1
49.3

42.3
46.4
43.0
40. 2
39.0
47.5
48.9
37.4
44.6
43.0
41.1
39. 4
49.1
44.0
42.6

(9 8

(9
6.0

(0
53.1
49.8
48.0
(9
49.5
48.0
47.0
45. 0
54. 5
49. 5
4* S
49.4
52.6
53. 2
49.3
47.9
50.0
49.7
49 0
49 4
47.2
47.6
48.5
48.8
51.2
49.0
43.8

(9
64.1

5
6

(,)4

4
22
4
2
13
71
25
9
20
10
162
7
6
38
28
8
45
30
27
13
29
457

6.0
5.3
(1}„
6.0
5.0
5.6
5.0
5. 0
4.8
r 4
5. 2
6.0
5.3
5. 2
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.7
5.4
5.6
5.6
5.0
5.7
5.0
5.4
5.4

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver­
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

87.2
88.7
80.5
81.7
81.6
96.5
98.8
76.2
96.7
89.0
86. 5
76.8
95.5
89.6
86. 4

$0.381
.288
.235
.249
.370
.303
.293
.351
.415
.407
.348
.247
.356
. 30S
. 331

$18.48
15.06
12.55
12.25
17.69
14.91
14.50
17.23
19.13
19.66
16.53
12.67
18.30
15.12
16. 32

$16.12
13.37
10.10
10.03
14.42
14.38
14.32
13.12
18.51
17.52
14.32
9.71
17.47
13. 57
14.09

(9

(9

(9
21.56

120.7
50.0 100.4
35.1 73.1
(9 101.2
50.1
38.6 80.4
45.3 98.4
46.8 104.0
44 4 81.5
42.5 85.9
4fi 4 95 1
42.9 86.8
52.3 99 4
44.2 83.1
40.6 82.4
41.9 87. 5
46.0 92.0
44. 2 88.9
46.9 95.7
43.4 87.9
46.1 97.7
42.2 88.7
38.3 79.0
43.7 89.5
46.8 91.4
43.7 £9. 2
43.0 88.1

.336 17.84
.366 18.23
.411 19.73
(9 (9
.405 20.05
.274 13.15
.544 25.57
.478 21. 51
.358 19. 51
.491 24. 30
.441 | 21 52
.339 16.75
.344 18.09
.346 18.41
.278 13.71
.431 20.64
.270 13.50
.287 14. 26
.377 18.47
.362 17.88
.339 16.00
.418 19.90
.346 16.78
.312 15.23
.268 13.72
.366 17.93
.379 | 18.50

18.30
14.42

(9
20.28

10.58
24.68
22. 39
15.89
20.88
20.46
14. 55
17.98
15.27
11. 29
18.05
12.42
12.70
17.67
15.71
15.65
17.63
13.26
13.62
12. 55
15 99
16.31

ALL D EPA RTM EN TS
Other employees, male:
Illinois..............................
Kentucky........................ .
Maine...............................
M aryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts.................
Michigan..........................
Minnesota.............. ........
Missouri..........................
New Hampshire.............
New Jersey......................
New York........................
Ohio..................................
Pennsylvania..................
Tennessee........................
Wisconsin.........................
Total.............................
VData included m total.

6 518
3 101
7 325
7 287
56 2,372
4
f9
4
97
11 1,557
9 519
3 108
19 1,709
7 3^4
12 597
4 102
9 348
1 1 . 9 07H

5.5 48.8
5.3 52.5
5.8 53.1
4.6 48.6
5.5 48.1
5.3 49 9
5.5 50.3
5.7 48.7
5.5 . 49.0
5.6 45. 7
5.5 48.0
4.8 48.2
5.6 51.3
5.3 51.8
5.4 495
4" «;
5

44.0
47.2
49.2
34.2
43.0
46.3
45.8
46.4
42.3
43.4
44.4
37.0
46.0
47.1
44 9
44 0

90.2
89 9
92.7
70.4
89 4
92.8
91.1
95.3
86.3
95.0
92.5
76.,8
89 7
90 9
90 7
90 9,

$0. 521
.321
.454
.412
.544
.542
. 4f9
.490
.445
.596
.513
.466
.427
.391
.548
.rm

$25.42 $22. 91
16.85 15.13
24.11 22.34
20.02 14.08
26.17 23.42
27.05 25.09
23 59 21.48
23.86 22.75
21.81 18.82
27.24 25.82
24. 62 22.77
22.46 17.22
21.91 19.60
20.25 18.43
27 13 24.60
24 40 ?1.97

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
71
T a b l e A .— Average number of days on which wage earners worked, average full-time
and actual hours and earnings per week, average earnings per hour, and per cent
of full time worked, 1980, by department, occupation, sex, and /State—Contd.
ALL D EPA RTM EN TS—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Other employees, female:
__
Ulinnif?- , _ __ ...
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia
M u sfttts .
Michigan _ _... _ _
MlTuie-sftta... -Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania__________ ____
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................................
All occupations, male:
Illinois____________ —__ ___
Kentucky. _.______________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota____ ____________
Missouri___________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________________
Total........................—............
All occupations, female:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
M aryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota______ ____ ______
Missouri__________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_________ ________
Total........................................
All occupations, male and female:
Illinois____________________
Kentucky_________________
Maine_____________________
Maryland and Virginia_____
Massachusetts_____________
Michigan__________________
Minnesota_________________
M issouri...________________
New Hampshire____________
New Jersey________________
New York_________________
Ohio.............................................
Pennsylvania______________
Tennessee_________________
Wisconsin_______ _________
Total........................................

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Aver­
age
Num­ days on
ber of which
wage wage
earn­ earners
ers worked
in week

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

Aver­ Per
age cent
hours of full­
actually time
worked hours
in actually
week worked

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

Aver­
age
full­
time
earn­
ings
per
week

Aver*
age
amount
actually
earned
in
week

6 439
3
75
7 208
7 104
48 1,319
4
31
4
41
11 784
9 319
3
20
19 861
7 262
10 215
4
83
9 271
151 5,032

5.3 49.1
5.6 52.1
5.5 53.0
5.1 48.5
5.3 47.8
5.3 49.7
5.4 50.8
5.6 49.1
5.2 49.2
6.0 44.4
5.5 48.6
4.9 48.1
5.6 49.6
5.3 50.8
5.3 49.0
5.4 48.9

43.4
48.8
47.3
41.3
40.6
45.8
45.5
46.7
39.0
43.4
43.8
36.7
44.2
44.6
43.2
42.9

6 1,808
3 386
7 1,277
7 946
56 8,725
4 346
4 347
11 3,730
9 1,718
3 327
19 6,210
7 1,677
12 1,873
4 503
9 1,676
161 131,549
6 1,785
3 379
7 1,130
7 605
48 6,197
4 257
4 285
11 2,824
9 1,437
3 189
19 3,864
7 1,597
11 1,146
4 456
9 1,458
152 23,609

5.4
5.6
5.8
4.8
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.6
5.4
5.6
5.5
4.7
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.7
5.5
4.7
5.4
5.1
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.6
5.4
4.8
5.5
5.4
5.2
5.3

48.8
52.4
52.9
48.8
48.2
49.6
50.0
49.0
49.0
45.9
47.6
48.2
51.1
51.8
49.7
48.8
49.1
52.2
53.1
48.8
47.9
49.6
49.9
49.2
49.1
46.5
48.4
48.0
50.0
51.4
49.1
48.9

42.8
49.5
48.2
36.4
41.0
45.6
45.0
45.7
40.5
42.5
43.9
35.3
43.9
47.0
44.4
42.7
44.4
50.6
46.0
38.3
39.6
43.9
41.6
45.0
38.0
41.8
43.1
36.3
43.8
45.7
43.2
42.0

88.4 $0,340 $16.69 $14.78
93.7 .224 11.67 10.92
89.2 .349 18.50 16.51
85.2 .302 14.65 12.48
84.9 .415 19.84 16.87
92.2 .334 16.60 15.31
89.6 .308 15.65 14.03
95.1 .284 13.94 13.26
79.3 .345 16.97 13.45
97.7 .517 22.95 22.41
90.1 .367 17.84 16.06
76.3 .343 16.50 12.61
89.1 .308 15.28 13.63
87.8 .230 11.68 10.27
88.2 .368 18.03 15.89
87.7 .351 17. IB 15.04
87.7 .624 30.45 26.73
94.5 .434 22.74 21.46
91.1 .511 27.03 24.65
74.6 .490 23.91 17.84
85.1 .671 32.34 27.48
91.9 .554 27.48 25.25
90.0 .498 24.90 22.40
89.1 .548 26.85 25.03
82.7 .505 24.75 20.47
92.6 .711 32.63 30.26
92.2 .666 31.70 29.26
70.2 .590 28.44 20.85
85.9 .512 26.16 22.47
90.7 .440 22.79 20.68
89.3 .602 29.92 26.72
87.5 .604 29.48 25.79
90.4 .376 18.46 16.70
96.9 .273 14.25 13.80
86.6 .360 19.12 16.56
78.5 .311 15.18 11.93
82.7 .446 21.36 17.66
88.5 .318 15.77 13.95
83.4 .321 16.02 13.35
91.5 .321 15.79 14.44
77.4 .349 17.14 13.27
89.9 .483 22.46 20.22
•89.0 .411 19.89 17.71
75.6 .361 17.33 13.12
87.6 .331 16.55 14.50
88.9 .268 13.78 12.24
88.0 .409 20.08 17.66
85.9 .382 18.68 16.04

6 3,593
3 765
7 2,407
7 1,551
56 14,992
4 603
4 632
11 6,554
9 3,155
3 516
19 10,074
7 3,274
12 3,019
4 959
9 3,134
161 l55,158

5.4
5.7
5.6
4.8
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.5
4.8
5.6
5.4
5.3
5.4

49.0
52.3
53.0
48.8
48.1
49.6
49.9
49.1
49.0
46.1
47.9
48.1
50.7
51.6
49.4
48.9

43.6
50.0
47.2
37.1
40.4
44.9
43.4
45.4
39.4
42.3
43.6
35.8
43.9
46.4
43.8
42.4

89.0
95.6
89.1
76.0
84.0
90.5
87.0
92.5
80.4
91.8
91.0
74.4
86.6
89.9
88.7
86.7

.499
.353
.442
.418
.579
.456
.422
.451
.437
.628
.569
.477
.443
.359
.513
.510

24.45
18.46
23.43
20.40
27.85
22.62
21.06
22.14
21.41
28.95
27.26
22.94
22.46
18.52
25.34
24.94

21.75
17.66
20.85
15.54
23.40
20.44
18.32
20.47
17.19
26.58
24.83
17.08
19.44
16.67
22.51
21.62

T a b le

B.—Average and classified earnings per hour in 14 specified occupations, 1980, by department, sex, and State

Occupation, sex, and State

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
earn­ Un­ 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120,
ings per der under under under under under under under under under under under under under
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140
hour 12 16 20 25 cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
cents cents cents cents

8
109 $0,866
3
1
1
34 .555
3
1 12
1
129 .602
7
3
63 .638
5
6
1
820 .859
45
Massachusetts..........................................................-..........
......
11 .541 :::::: : :: : ::
2
9 .581
3
1
157 .777
4
1
5
88 .649
7
.831
3
21
3
444 .894
19
3
124 .780
7
3 15
2
103 .616
8
3
1
.515
18
3
T atin oqqaa
________
1
96 .716
8
4 = =7 62
____________ 127 2,226 .796
Total
.
-------- ----- .■
i
Skivers, upper, male:
l
i
i
4 .344
TV oinA
T
_____ i 3
l
1
1
i
5 .306
3
M aryland and V irginia_____________________ -___
51 .690 ......... .......... .......... .......... .......... 2
16
1
(9
i
2 (9 2 .375
: :: : ::
20 .944
6
.......... l
New York..............................................................................
3 .441 ::::::
2
Pennsylvania........................................................................
_____ _____
1
4
.415
2 (9 11 (9
1
1 12
2
i —
104 .651
36
T otal...................................................................................
Skivers, upper, female:
Q i
3
0
l
......
45 .482
5
7
3
2
15 .309 ::::::
3
Kentucky...............................................................................
3
1
22 .483
7

8 12
3
7
23 26
15 12
79 99
1 . ..
2
19 21
29 22
4
2
51 78
20 21
17 15
3
20 26
296 340
......— ■
.......... 1
..
------- ------- . . . . . .
7 19
4
(9 1 (9 (9 . . . . . .
......
: :: : ::
(9 5 . . . . . .
21 10
16 n
3
13
22
11
15
2
1
13
6
3
14
4
14
4
7
132

3
7
33
15
45
8
3
25
15
1
27
14
21
6
14
237r.
—

6
8 14
2 ...... ......
10

140
cents
and
over

30 20 18
7
1
1
8
3
2
1
4
6
303 106 129 31
. ..
......
30 23~ 22*
3
7
2
1
2
2
4
16
67 70 85 33
1
4
26 15 16
4
2
5
5
1
9
1
18
500 263 279 82 = = 24
r
'■ ■■
■■
■
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____
------- ------- ------Q
O O
.......... .......... ------...... ...... ...... ......
10

8

7

4

4
_____ .......... ------- .......... ..........

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
F

Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand, male:

CUTTING DEPARTMENT

5
36
4
4
8
7
1
15
7
8
4
7
121
121

15
161
10
11
56
47
(9
101
65
39
18
55
664

.371
.551
.316
.318
.409
.378
(9 .493
.360
.386
.292
.408 .
.447

50
1

(9 (9
21
13

10

10

31

70

163

162

125

23

FIT T IN G O B ST IT C H IN G D EPA R TM EN T
Cementers and doublers, hand and machine (including
reinforcers, pasters, and fitters), male:
Illinois.................................................................. .................
Kentucky.... .............................. ...........................I.............
M aine................................................................. ................. .
M aryland and V irginia....................................................
Massachusetts......................................................................
Minnesota................. ........................................................ .
Missouri........................................................... .......... ’___
New Hampshire____________________ _____
New Y ork................... .........................................................
Ohio________________________ ____ ______________
Pennsylvania................ ........................................ ______
Tennessee...........................................................................
Wisconsin_______ _____ ______________ ______
TotalCementers and doublers, hand and machine (including
reinforcers, pasters, and fitters), female:
Illinois. ...................... ..........................................................
Kentucky...........................................................................
M aine...................................................................................
M aryland and Virginia..................................................
Massachusetts....................................................................
Michigan______________________________________
M innesota_________________________________
Missouri........................................................................I__~
New Hampshire________________________________
New Jersey...................................................................
New York______ _______________________________

i Data included in total.

1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
2
21

(9
(9
(9 5
8
(9 2
(924
(9 6
(9 2

5
3
7
5
42
3
3
8
8
1
18

103
29
94
61
422
10
12
165
94
(9
290

58

(9
(9
(9
$0.249
.475
(9
.348
(9
.711
(9
.502
(9
.352

2
1
1
1

.537
.300
.283
.305
.217
.381
.219
.251
.315
.291
(9
.375

1

(9

3
3
12
2
5

1
. 2
2
3
5
6
8
1

2

14
3
6
17
18
3
3
10
13
9

26
4
18
12
37
5
3
42
12
27

3

(9

1

(9
(9i
(9
(9l

9

23 25
5 14
15 39
7
8
65 143
2
4
2
27 39
13 23
(952 ""89"

1
4
1
4
1
1
12

(9

1

(93

(9
2
7
2

2

4

2

2

1

8

12 !

2

4 ......... !

2

1

6
1
8
2
82

7
1
42

34
13

7
6

1
_____I
1
1
5
20
1

(9 (9 (9
65 35 11

2

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930

Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts_________
Michigan................... .......
Minnesota........................
Missouri. ..........................
New Hampshire..............
New Jersey......................
New York.........................
Ohio..................................
Pennsylvania_________
Tennessee..........................
Wisconsin........................
Total.................................................................................

1

(9 . (9
CO

T a b le

B.—Average and classified earnings per hour in 14 specified occupations, 1980, by department, sex, and State—Continued
FITTING OB STITCHING DEPARTMENT—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Num ber of wage earners whose earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
50, 60, 70, 80, 90, I 100, 120,
earn­ Un­ 12, 16, 20, 1 25, 30,
ings per der under under under under under under under under under under under under under
hour 12 16 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

7
7
4
9
130

119 $0,330
113 .281
27 .229
83 .330
1,636 .335

5
3
7
g
44
3
4
8
8
3
19
7
8
4
9
137

67
16
54
38
306
8
10
110
60
18
199
63
59
18
49
1,075

1
3
17
1
7

(9 5 (9
.604
48 .739
<938 (9
.866

.400
.232
.292
.350
.461
.298
.347
.300
.318
.501
.436
.396
.327
.289
.475
.395

1
3

3
2
1

7
14

26

34

122

2

3
4
2

5
2
6
5

5

13
32
6
1
238

20
21
7
28
290

50
29
4
43
508

25
11
1
8
258

1
2
1
105

2
41

10

10

10

2

4
60

31
3
14
1
5
64

3

1

3

9
6
3
4
2

11
5
9
3
7
1
1
26
8
13
11
2

19

42

97

9 13
7
2
4
13 10 10
6 10
8
19 77 94
1
3
3
4
2
3
13
29 27
13 16 14
1
3
2
20 49 52
6 27 25
11 20 11
2
7
2
2 10 15
139 280 256

1

2
5

2
2
3

(9

140
cents
and
over

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
P

Cementers and doublers, hand and machine female—Con.
Ohio ^ ...................
......................................
Pennsylvania_____________________ -___ _____
Tennessee _____ _______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wisconsin ______ _____ _____________________
T otal_________________________ ________________
Lining makers (including lining closers, and side and top
facing stitchers) female:
Illinois_________ ____ . . . __________. . . . . . . . . . . . _
K entucky
.
_
M aine
M aryland and Virginia
M assachusetts
_
Michigan
M innesota
.
Missouri
- - ........... .
New Hampshire
.
New Jersey
New York_____ . . . . . . ____ . . . . . . . . __ . . . . . . . . . __
Ohio
.............................................
Pennsylvania
_ . . . _. . . .
Tennessee
.
Wisconsin __. . . . . ______________________ _ .
T otal....................................................................................
Top stitchers (including undertrimmers and barber trim ­
mers), male:
Illinois
.
. ....... M aryland and Virginia
.
. ..... ...
Massachusetts . . . . .
_. ______
New Jersey . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New York___ _________________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

i

4
8
31

5
1

17
140

1

(91 (91
5
5

12
5

3

1

10

6

2

1
9

3

22

9

9
4

(91

9
10

2
2

2
1
6

,

6
2

(9
3

2

JData included in total.

10

32
5
3
7
5
43
4
4
8
8
3
14
7
132

0)
113

.805
0)
.787

32
84
46
418
35
20
193
109
9
254
114
68
42
130
1,648

.391
.271
.408
.351
.496
.301
.343
.352
.365
.544
.437
.405
.462
.288
.458
.419

10
20

1
1
2
2
8
2
3
64

11
209

8 11

4
43
18
14
347
15
40
20
179
26
18
161

1

2
2
2

3
1
1

1

5

9

.764
.605
.497
.666
0)
(l)
.340
.953
.791
.870
.643
.672
.546
.397
.499
.400
.581
.361
.399
.358
.423

7
3
2
2

25
8
3
5
5
9
1
16
15
14
6
5
12

31

124

1
6
4

1
4
12
5
U
20
7
3
36
18
23
9
6
9
10
173

2

1
1

4

1

2
2

2

11
6

25 10
1
8
21 33
17
6
98 118
1
17
11
4
71 45
29 32
2
65 78
40 41
19 13
16
3
35 33
472 420

6
15
2
86
1
12
8
4
44
10
11
34
233

11
1
1
46

2
2
3
22
4
1
5
1
6
1
17
111 i 42

6
1
1
22

2

13

10

13

9

1

3
3

1

1
1

19

10

3

19

2
7

1
1
8

1

2

1
4
3
47

4
6
2
45

2 (9 1
5
1
6 22

5
5
1
1
40

5
1
61

5
5
1
3
4
7
67 ! 69

2
3
6

3
2

2
7
4

4
1

1

31

16

23

6

1

9
1
2
3
2
2
3
29
9

17
4
13
6
37
5
10
29
26

18
1
7
4
51

25
1
3
29
1
3
7

10
3
31

6
1
6

1

0)

12
7
7
5
19
18
5
82
26

5
10

2
2

1

4

2
2
24

2
1

1
2
51

2

2
1
6

1
1
1

8

1 I 4 (_____ 1 1
0) 1 0) 1----- 1
----14 | 25 13 • 22

2

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 T 1930
O

Pennsylvania_____________ ______________________
W isconsin________________________________—------T o ta l-...............................................................................
Top stitchers (including undertrimmers and barber trim ­
mers), female:
Illinois________ _________________________________
Kentucky..............................................................................
M aine........................................................................ ...........
M aryland and Virginia________ ____ _____________
M assachusetts—................................................... .............
Michigan............................................................................ .
Minnesota_____________ ________________________
Missouri________________________________________
New Hampshire______________ __________________
New Jersey....................— ................................................ .
New York.............................................................................
Ohio...................................................................................... .
Pennsylvania.......... ..................... ......................................
Tennessee___________ ____ ______________________ _
Wisconsin_______________________________________
Total_____________ .1_________________________
Vampers, male:
Illinois______________ ____________________ ______
M aine....................................................................................
M aryland and Virginia.............. ..................................... .
M assachusetts.................................................................... .
M innesota..............-..................................... ......................
Missouri............................................................. .................
New Ham pshire_________________________ _______
New Jersey______ _______________ _______-...............
New York.............. ............................................................. .
Pennsylvania_______________________ ___________ _
Wisconsin..............................................................................
Total...................................................................................
Vampers, female:
Illinois...................................................................................
Kentucky............. ...............................................................
M aine-_................................................................................
M aryland and Virginia____________ _____________
M assachusetts__ _____ _________________ ________ _
Michigan_______________________ _____ _________ _
M innesota............................................................................
M issouri____________ ___________________________
New Hampshire__________________ ______________

1
2
<1
Or

T a b l e B . —Average

and classified earnings per hour in 14 specified occupations, 1980, by department, sex, and State—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Num ber of wage earners whose earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
1
I
1
1
« 1
earn­ Un­ 12, 16, 20, 1 25, 1 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 1 120, 140
under cents
ings per der under under under under under under under under under under under under1
hour 12 lfi 20 25 30 40 50 60 |[ 70 80 90 100 120 140 and
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents over

11 $0.655
3
17
212 .503
7
85 .409
7
74 .363
4
34 .309
9
103 .517
125 1,164 .465

2
3

1
2
6

8
1
13
5
2
50

2
2
5 30 63 61
4 37 28 11
5
14 22 15
9 14
4
9 14 17 26
101 298 276 201

3
29
3
4
25
133

4
8
10
70

2

3
1
17

_____
3

5

LASTING D EPA R TM EN T
Assemblers, for pulling-over machine, male:
Illinois. ....................................................... Kentucky.................................—.................
M aine--------------------------------------------M aryland and V irginia-.........-..............
M assachusetts. ............................................
Michigan_____________ ____________
M innesota........ ............ ...............................
M issouri___________________ ____ ____
New Hampshire......................................... .
New Jersey....................................................
New York.....................................................
Ohio................................................................
Pennsylvania................................................
Tennessee.......................................................
Wisconsin.................................... .................
T otal...........................................................

54 $0.603
.469
11
20 .578
25 .413
180 .645
10 .495
6 .550
65 .509
19 .553
12
.550
72 .622
47 .540
26 .471
14 .405
33 .527
624 .568

1

1

4
1
5
9

1

1

1
2
3

7
2

2
1

1

1

9

28

1
2
2
11
1
16
1
1

4

10

4
3

3
4
10
31
21
5
2
4
1
32 14
5
7
4
4
6
10
13
5 14 11
3
3 15
4
2
6
1 10 17
150 124

. . . .

29
2
1
9
3
1
18
11

1

13

26
2
2
1
14
3
4

~~2

~T
49

1

25

20

1

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
F

Vampers, females—Continued.
New Jersey
-- ___ ___
New Y o rk __ ___ ____ ____ ______________________
Ohio
.................................................................
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Wisconsin
.
....
_ _______ ___
T otal_____________________________ ______ _____

M

FITTING OB STITCHING DEPARTMENT—Continued

3
4

3
17
32

12

2

9
5
3
7
6
40
4
4

8
8
2

16

8

4

8

130
1
1
1
6
1

9
1
3
1

24

127
17
63
45
397
21
16
202
90
9
234
87
54
29
87
1,478
0)

(i)
0)
236
0)
391
0)
106
0)
789

.634
.365
.476
.452
.661
.546
.628
.554
.723
.518
.591
.638
.540
.988
. 649
.672
.557
.559
.725
. 657

1
6

3

1

--------

—

—

4

--------

11

1

1

2

4

1

2

5
7

25
3
8
13
30
9
2
24

15
3
4
5

11
2
1
2

19

1

12

26
14

8
2
6

x

0
0)
0

.747
.813
0
.764
0)
.780

5
0)
2

0)

12
10
2

1

4
5

1

20

14
4

1

5
19
16
59
2
5
64
27
52
19
26
3
6

190 323

78

16
2
12
15
1
10
99 75
8
5
3
47 43
9
18
1
63 46
25 13
3
10
3
2
23 48
341 277
0

0
6

12

7

20
0
11
0

0

g

1

3
4

16

48

0

28 29
45 54
0) 0)
13 14
0)
94 106

18
3
42

8

37

33

2

g

12
2
5

24

5
4

122

3
74

3

5

1

2
1

54

13

0
0

53
81
18

65
59
22

26
57
17

163

150

103

3

4

0

9

2
1

8
8

6
1

0

0

■■ ■ -...—
10

0

15
45

0

5

79

19

5

12

10

1

I

1

0

18

1
1

11

BOTTOM IN G DEPA R TM EN T
Goodyear stitchers, male:
Illinois....................................................................................
Kentucky__________ ________________________ ____
M aine________________________________ _________
M aryland and V irginia.._________ _______________
Massachusetts__ _____ _____ _____________________
Michigan. _________ ______ ____ __________________

*Data included in total.

2
2

5
5
22
4

33 $0.967
12
.567
13 .674
22
.649
125 .767
13 .629

1

I
1 i
1 I
I
1

1
5
3
2

4
3
3
10
3

2
6

6
7
34
6

2
5
24
2

28

1

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 T 1930
O

66555°—32-

Assemblers for pulling-over machine, female:
M assachusetts......................................................................
New Hampshire............ . ....................................................
New York................. ............ .......... ...................................
T o ta l..............................................................................
Bed-machine operators, male:
Illinois________ _____ ____ __________ ____________
Kentucky________ _____ _____________ ____ _______
M aine. ____________ ____________________________
M aryland and V irginia-..................................................
Massachusetts......................................................................
Michigan_______________________________________
Minnesota.............................................................................
Missouri................................................................................
New Hampshire..................................................................
New Jersey...........................................................................
New York........ ........... .......................................................
Ohio.......................................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................................................
Tennessee_________________________ _________ _
Wisconsin____________________________ ____ _ _
Total........................................................................
T urn lasters, hand (including first and second lasters),
male:
Illinois.................................................................................
M aine__ ___________ ___________________________
M aryland and Virginia......................................... ..........
Massachussetts. ..................................................................
New Jersey.......... ................................................................
New York.......... ..................................................................
Ohio......................................................................................
Pennsylvania......................................................................
Wisconsin.____________ ___________ _________ ____
T otal.................................................................................

19

5

1

•<1

T a b l e B .— Average and

classified earnings per hour in 14 specified occupations, 1930, by department, sex, and State—Continued

Occupation, sex, and State

Num ­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Num ber of wage earners whose earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
earn­ Un­ 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120,
ings per der under under under under under under under under under under under under under
hour 12 16 20 25 30 40 !| 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

4
5
6
3
16
6
8
4
8
100

9 $0.605
50 .654
44 .664
6 .912
115 .755
35 .751
33 .692
20 .538
46 .739
576 .727

5
s
7
6
46

56
14
40
34
252
16
9
96
58
9
151
58
41
14
47
895

4
4

8
8
3
18
7
8
4
9
140

.749
.692
.575
.595
.821
.658
.653
.611
.642
.807
.782
.718
.595
.583
.743
.722

1

8

4

1
1
=

6
3
8

10

=====

4

43

3

1
1
2
1
5

7
1
6
6
5
1
1
1
31

3

2
1
11
12
11
3
1
19
12
4

2
7
3
1
89

6
13
7
1
17
7
3
5
3
85

13
1
22
4
17
5
12
141

3
9
9
25
5
4
1
21
113

9
6
19
6
2
6
81

3
1
2
9
7
2
4
60

15
1
4
9
17
2
1
33
10
2
17
8
12
7
2
140

6
3
7
9
33
4
5
12
12
3
24
16
11
1
8
154

5
6
4
2
37
5
2
14
9
1
36
18
5
3
24
171

12
3
5
1
60
1
3
1
35
7
3
8
139

8
1
44
1

7

4
1
21
2
3
85

140
cents
and
over

1
14
3
1

1
1
1

1

36

5

2

3

2

35

8

1

8
3
11
4
1

2
1
1

1

65

14

2

WAGES AND HOURS O LABOR
F

Goodyear stitchers, male—Continued.
M innesota____________________________. . . . _______
Missouri___________ _____ __ ___ ___ ____________
New Hampshire__ _.________. ___ ________ _____
New Jersey______________________________________
New York_______________________________________
Ohio.........................................................................................
Pennsylvania____________________________________
Tennessee______ —________________________ . . . __
Wisconsin________________ ______ __ ____
Total....................................................................................
Edge trimmers, male:
Illinois.....................................................................................
Kentucky_________________________________ ___ __
M aine_________ _____ _______________________ _
M aryland and Virginia___ ____________ __________
Massachusetts___________________________ ______
Michigan____ ___________________________________
Minnesota___ ___________________________________
Missouri_______ ____________ __ _____________ ___
New Hampshire_________________________________
New Jersey_____ __________ _______________ . . . ___
New Y o rk ........................................................................
Ohio.........................................................................................
Pennsylvania..........................^
______ _____ ^ _
Tennessee.____ . . . ______ _________ ______________
W isconsin___ ........_____________. . . . . . . _. . . . . ____
Total__________________________________________

M

BOTTOMING DEPARTMENT—Continued

FIN ISH IN G D EPA R TM EN T

i Data included in total.

5
60 $0,719
3
12 .531
7
32 .605
24 .613
6
45
237 .782
4
8 .670
4
5 .627
8
54 .688
8
34 .616
3
6 1.015
19
157 .728
7
59 .659
8
44 .588
4
15 .496
9
47 .710
140
794 .706
= ■■
■■
3
48 .424
11 .470
3
74 .468
7
6
41 .457
46
508 .632
4
14 .564
4
10 .426
6
112 .516
7
89 .424
2
9 .893
14
167 .636
4
25 .441
8
45 .476
4
15 .368
7
42 .604
125 1,210 .563
3
1
1
1
5
1
3
6
1

62

0
0
0
11
0
5
40
0

.419
0
0
0
.347
0
.375
.335
<9

1

3
1
2
4
4
1
1
3
2
2
2
3

2

28

2
7
16
5
6
5
3
83

8
4
1

6
3
9
5
1

3

8

2
1

3
5
3

19

43

14
3
12
6
17
1
5
4
32
7
7
10
6
2
126

2
6
5
2
5
26 10
18
7
4
92 117 130
3
4
4
2
3
56 29 17
22 17
6
1
31 35 36
5
4
3
7 14
6
1
5
6 11 19
279 257 235

2
2
3
1
82
2
6
1
38
2
1
140

26
0

3

1

1

i
2

1

1

2

5

(0

1

9
5
4
4
17

4
2
10
11
19
1
17
8
1
30
19
20
. . . . . .

144

21
6
0)
(i) 0
0
0
1
1
4
1
3
4
1 0
i
7 il 12
8
0
0
0
0

2
1
2
i
23

i
29

1
10

2

1
2
12
4

2
18
1

5

X

1
49

59

16

3

2
1
3
49

1
1
9

1
10

1
11
1

3
6

3
3

3
71

20

17

13 10 11
1
1
1
12
1
2
53 41 39
1
4
2
1
3
7
8 19
6
8
1
33 "‘‘26" """is’
3 13
12
2
8
6
6
12 27
2
171* 134 105

8

=

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 T 1930
O

Edge setters, male:
Illinois________ ______________
Kentucky............... .......................
M aine.................................. ...........
M aryland and Virginia..............
Massachusetts_______________
Michigan............... ......................
Minnesota___________________
Missouri.........................................
New Hampshire_____________
New Jersey....................................
New York......................................
Ohio................................................
Pennsylvania................................
Tennessee.............._.....................
Wisconsin__________ ____ ____
Total...........................................
Treers, hand and machine, male:
Illinois............................................
Kentucky.......................................
M aine. _.........................................
M aryland and Virginia..............
M assachusetts...............................
Michigan......................................
M innesota......................................
Missouri.........................................
New Hampshire...........................
New Jersey....................................
New York......................................
Ohio...............................................
Pennsylvania................................
Tennessee.......................................
Wisconsin........... _ .......................
Total............................................
Treers, hand and machine, female:
Illinois.............................................
Kentucky........... ...........................
M aine.............................................
M aryland and Virginia..............
Massachusetts...............................
Michigan........................................
Minnesota___________________
Missouri.........................................
New Hampshire.......................

1
CD

T a b l e B . —Average and
CB"

---------- - ;

classified earnings per hour in H specified occupations, 1980, by department, sex, and State—Continued
.....

FINISHING DEPARTMENT—Continued

—:-----

Occupation, sex, and State

Treers, hand and machine, female—-Continued.
Wisconsin........................... .................................................
Total...................................................................................
Repairers (not cobblers) (including tip fixers and scour­
ers), male:
Illinois
It£8>ill6 anrf VirofifiiQ
TV^ofvlon/1
A/f phlKOtfQ
A/ficcrmri
VTaw TIomnoh{i»
a
\Tow TorcAv
New York
Ohio
Pcrmevlvania
AGCOA
Wisconsin................................................... ......... ................
Total...................................................................................
Repairers (not cobblers) (including tip fixers and scour­
ers), female:
Tllinnic
TTatifii aIttt
Maine...................................................................................
M aryland and Virginia.....................................................
Massachusetts
.
................
Michigan................................................................................
Minnesota.......... ...........................................- .....................

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments
7

4
2
2
5
42

Num­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose earnings per hour were—
Aver­
age
30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120,
earn­ Un­ 12, 16, 20,
ings per der under under under under under under under under under under under under under
80 90 100 120 140
hour 12 16 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 cents cents cents cents cents
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

58 $0,382
32 .411
2 .367
12 .280
35 .393
280 .380

4
4
1
12
1
2
1
2
10
4
4
3
2
50

( ,)«
( ,) 5
58
9
10
4
5
142

.389
.470
.556
0
.514
0
.743
.729
.561
.500
.304
.669
.606

5
3
7
5
42
3
4

82
16
63
29
222
11
9

.311
.384
.358
.297
.495
.360
.291

6

8

14
1
1
6
4
48 |

24
15
4
13
108

13
12
1
13
78

1

2

1
1
2
1
15

2
2

1
1
1

1
1
(,>4
(')5

0

0

1
1
1

2

12
4
1

4
1

2

3
19

1
6

2*
10

1
2
8

0
0

1
13
5
1

3
1
6
2 ..._ .
1
1

4

7

31

34

19
1
9
4
1
2

21
8
10
4
4
2

21
2
28
13
26
3
2

12
9
7
1
76
3
2

2
1
6
99
1

0

1
2
4
5
24
1
1
8

140
cents
and
over

2
4 ........J ..........

1
1
3
10

6~
1

1
9

7
7

15

7

10

6

1
1

1

_

Missouri..............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York...........
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania--Tennessee______
Wisconsin______
Total.................

117
86
10
105
41
28
10
34
863

.300
.358
.258
.402
.379
.382
.297
.388
.383

19

20
52
5 12 45
1
7
11 13 34
4
5 19
2 12
3
1
2
6
4 14
2
90 119 277

9
18
21
8
8
1
10
185

4
1
14
3
2
133

7
2
2
21

4
1
2
13

2

1

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTBT, 1910 T 1930
O

1 D ata included in total.

8
8
2
16
6
5
2
7
123

00

82
T able

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR
C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in H specified occu­
pations, 1980, by department, sex, and State
CU TTIN G D EPA RTM EN T

Num ­
ber of
Occupation, sex, and State estab­
lish­
ments
Cutters, vamp and whole
shoe, hand, male:
Tlliriois ____ _ . ..... ,
Kentucky____________
Maine
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts_______
Michigan
M innesota..., ... .
Missouri_____________
New Hampshire______
New Jersey__________
New York___________
Ohio________ ________
Pennsylvania________
Tennessee ______
Wisconsin _______
Total............................
Skivers, upper, male:
M aine.............................
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Michigan____________
New Hampshire______
New York___________
Pennsylvania________
Tennessee____________
Wisconsin___________
Total_____ _________
Skivers, upper, female:
Illinois______________
Kentucky____________
M aine_______________
M aryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts_______
M ichigan___________
Minnesota___________
Missouri_____________
New Hampshire______
New Jersey....................
New York___________
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania________
Tennessee___ ________
Wisconsin___________
Total_____ _________

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
44
45
48
50
hours
and 45 and 48 and 50 and 54 55 60
per 44 un­
un­
un­
un­
week
der
der
der
der
54
48
45
50

3 109
3
34
7 129
5
63
45 820
2
11
3
9
4 157
7
88
3
21
19 444
7 124
8 103
3
18
8
96
127 2,226
3
3
16
1
2
6
2
1
2
36

17
3
'39'
88 2
7 5
37
141 7
21 24 613
11
3
3
46
111
6 26
56
4
113
5 193 29
29 87
8
11 19 10
‘"63"
15
‘Y
17
6
17 56
29 I 46 11,224 116 490 56 107 33

48.3
51.0
52.8
48.8
48.3
50.0
49.2
48.6
49.4
45.6 17
47.6 104
49.6
50.1
54.2
48.6
48. 7 1121 !
52.0
49.5
48.0
0)
1
50.3
44.6 17
53.0
(9
50.5
48.3 17 1

5
3
7
5
36
4
4
8
7
1
15
7
8
4
7
121

4
5
51
C92
20
3
0)
11
104
45
15
22
15
161
10
11
56
47
(9
101
65
39
18
55
664

48.5
51.8
52.2
48.8
47.9 . . . .
49.5
49.9
49.4
48.7
(9 11
48.3 (9
48.0
50.2
51.7
48.9
48.8 15

92

___1____
___i____
I
" H ........

2
50
1
3
1
57
34

i 29

9
153
4
16
33
46
14
23
332

3

26

4
2
5
4
15

2
1

(9

3
1

18

4

Cementers and doublers,
hand and machine (in­
cluding reinforcers, past­
ers, and fitters), male:
Illinois______________
Kentucky........................
M aine..............................
M aryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Minnesota......................
Missouri..........................
New Hampshire............
1 D ata included in total.

1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1

(9
(9
0)

5
8
(9 2

(9

(0
0)
(9
50.5
49.5
(9
50.0

(9

(9
___ i

2

2

(9
(9

4

11
7
7
12
’16"
2 1 3
8
2 2 3
40
12 2
2 37
5 34
15 2 8
12
28
18 =210 17 20

F IT T IN G OR ST IT C H IN G D EPA R TM EN T

(9 (95
6
2

4

4

2

10

!
i

27
14
14
3

(9
1

-----

4

1

6 ....
6

1

T able

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
83
C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occu­
pations, 1980, by department, sex, and State—Continued
F IT T IN G OR ST IT C H IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

ber of
Occupation, sex, and State estab­
lish­
ments
Cementers and doublers,
h a n d a n d ma c h i n e ,
male—Continued.

3

1
2
1
2
21

ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
44
45
48
50
hours
per 44 and 45 and 48 and 50 and 54 55 60
un­
un­
un­
un­
week
der
der
der
der
48
54
45
50

45.0 18
0)
49.0
0)
0)
2
50.0
58 47.7 18
24

6

6

5

0)

Cementers and doublers,
hand and machine (in­
cluding reinforcers, past­
ers, and fitters), female:
5 103 49.5
Illinois
29 51.7
3
7
94 53.0
M aine.-..........................
5
61 48.9
Maryland and Virginia.
42 422 47.9
3
10 49.5
Michigan
3
12 49.3
Minnesota
- __
165 48.9
8
Missouri
94 49.3
8
New Hampshire - _
1
New Jersey
_____
0
0)
0)
New York
______ 18 290 48.3 31
7 119 48.2
Ohio
________
7 113 49.8
Pennsylvania________
4
27 52.0
Tennessee
9
83 48.9
Wisconsin __________
T otal........................... 130 1,636 48.9 45
Lining makers (including
lining closers and side
and top facing stitchers),
female:
5
67 49.1
Illinois_____________
3
16 53.0
Kentucky
...
7
54 53.2
Maine..............................
5
38 49.2
M aryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts________ 44 306 47.9
3
8
50.0
Michigan ________
4
10 49.4
Minnesota
__ _
8
110 49.4
Missouri _ _____
8
60 49.1
New Hampshire ____
3
18 45.9 14
New Jersey
____19 199 48.0 26
New Y o rk __________
7
63 47.5
Ohio.................................
59 49.9
8
Pennsylvania______-_
4
18 51.7
Tennessee - - ___
9
49 48.9
Wisconsin . . . . . . . ____
Total............................ 137 1,075 48.8 40
Top stitchers (including
undertrimmers and bar­
ber trimmers), male:
1
Illinois.............................
(0
3
50.3
M aryland and Virginia.
17
M assachusetts
48 49.0
1
New Jersey
___ __
0)
7 0)38 44.3 0)
35
New York
2
Pennsylvania________
10 48.0
1 0)
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . _
(*)
Total-------. . . . . . ____ 32 113 47.2 36

i Data included in total.

0)

1
0

2
20

27
3

2

42
3 44

6

32
____ L_

38

1

18
291
5
33
40

8

9

102

6

31
18
568

23

■—

<0

6

j

6

16
3
10
0)
40

6

1

1

76
15
12
23’
71
4 2 17

38
7 410
2
3 5
87
60
16 121 6
10
56
6
38
31 840 40
30

1

12

6

4

8

4
78

12

116
67
27
16
39
468
37
II’
2

22

9

21

60 92

11
11

7
43
14

8
1

2

3

2

10

2

2

10

77

4
3 59
29
9 7 12
12
25
17 280 44 55
2

3 ’2l"

1

2

4 21

6

4

6
6

3

84
T able

WAGES AND HOTTRS OF LABOR
C .— Average and classified full-time hours per week in H specified occu­
pations, 1930, by department, sex, and State—Continued
FIT T IN G O B ST IT C H IN G D E PA B T M E N T -C ontinued

ber of
Occupation, sex, and State estab­
lish­
ments
Top stitchers (including
undertrimmers and bar­
ber trimmers), female:
Illinois.............................
Kentucky-......................
Maine..............................
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts. - ...........
M ichigan.. ....................
Minnesota......................
Missouri.........................
New Hampshire—........
New Jersey.....................
New York......................
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania............... .
Tennessee.......................
Wisconsin.......................
Total............................
Vampers, male:
Illinois.............................
M aine..............................
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Minnesota________ —
Missouri.........................
New Hampshire............
New Jersey.....................
New York......................
Pennsylvania.................
Wisconsin.......................
Total............................
Vampers, female:
Illinois.............................
Kentucky.......................
M aine..............................
Maryland and Virginia.
M assachusetts...............
M ichigan.......................
Minnesota......................
Missouri..........................
New Hampshire...........
New Jersey....................
New York......................
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania.................
Tennessee.......................
Wisconsin.......................
Total............................

Assemblers, for pulling-over
machine, male:
Illinois.............................
Kentucky.......................
M aine............................
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Michigan........................
Minnesota......................
Missouri........................ .

*Data included in total.

ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
I
full­
Overi
Over
Over
Over
time
45
44
48
50
hours
and 45 and 48 and 50 and 54 55 60
per 44 un­
un­
un­
un­
week
der
der
der
der
48
45
50
54

94
5
3
32
7
84
46
5
43 418
35
4
20
4
8 193
8 109
9
3
14 254
7 114
8
68
4
42
9 130
132 1,648

49.5
52.0
53.3
48.3
47.9
49.6
49.2
49.4
49.3
44.9
48.8
47.7
50.3
51.1
49.0
49.1

2
6
5
32
1
1
2
2
8
2
3
64

10
20
11
209
0)
0)11
4
43
18
14
347

48.0
51.8
48.7
48.2

5

98
15
40
20
179
26
18
161
88
11
212
85
74
34
103
1,164

3
5
5
36

4
4
8
8
3
17
7
7
4
9
125

5
3
7
6
39
3
4
8

8
1
9

3

0)

0)
48.0
44.0 4
46.4 17
48.0
49.4
48.2 21

48.7
52.8
52.1
49.0
47.9
49.6
50.0
49.7
48.7
46.3 8
48.6 3
47.3
51.0
51.8
49.2
49.1 11

«
1 ! 3

2

46

3
4
9
i
| 6

11
9
1 1 5
5 16 1
0
l
0
11 !
26
18
9
3
262 1 6 38 ! 6 9
11
174
6
27
65
125
11
31
515

31
1

3
4

2

9
9

2

10
4
184

65

i 48 i 22
i
LASTING D EPA RTM EN T
54 48.9
11 52.7
20 52.9
25 48.7
180 48.3
10 49.0
6 50.1
95 49.5

24

70
13
17
69
15*
34 3 4 ~5
9
398
29
9 2 8 1
58
135
66
21 22
1
13 119 8 113
52
49
13
30
12 9 17
33
14 47 j........ 69
61 44 785 j 39 558 55 86
1
11 !
6
|

17
149
2
23

2
2 -----

33
3
11
19*
21
2 2 5
22
2 5 5
134
17 6
3
3 72
8 31
35 6 22
22
12
66
18 458 36 43 12
i

3
1
2
1

23
"T
1
24
6
1
72

7
. . . . .

1
2

13

1

1

1

1

T able

BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
85
C.—Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occu­
pations, 1980, by department, sex, and State—Continued
LASTING D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

ber of
Occupation, sex, and State estab­
lish­
ments
Assemblers, for pulling-over
machine, male—Contd.
New Hampshire............
New Jersey__________
New York___________
Ohio.................................
Tennessee
Wisconsin.......
Total_____ ________
Assemblers, for pulling-over
machine, female:
Massacbusftt-ts.. ...
New HftTnpshirft
New York___ ____ ___
Total............................
Bed - machine operators,
male:
Illinois______________
Kentucky___________
M aine_______________
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts_______
Michigan____________
Minnesota______ ____
Missouri_____________
New Hampshire______
New Jersey - - ___
New York_________ _
Ohio........... ....................
Pennsylvania.______
Tennessee__________
Wisconsin . . . . . . __
T otal______________
T urn lasters, hand (includ­
ing first and second last­
ers), male:
Illinois.............................
M aine_______________
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts_______
New Jersey__________
New York___________
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania___. . ___
Wisconsin___________
Total______________

Goodyear stitchers, male:
Illinois _____________
Kentucky __________
Maine
M aryland and Virginia.
M assachusetts_______
Michigan____________
M innesota_________
Missouri..........................

1Data included in total.

6
2

15
7
7
4
9
125

3
4

2

9
5
3
7
6
40
4
4
8
8
2

16
7
8

4

8

130

1

ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
45
48
44
50
hours
44 and 45 and 48 and 50 and 54 55 60
per
un­
un­
un­
un­
week
der
der
der
der
48
45
50
54

19
12
72
47
26
14
33
624

49.1
44.0 12
47.4 7
48.0
51.8
51.1
49.5
49.0 19

3
12
17
32

48.0
48.9
50.0
49.4

127
17
63
45
397
21
16
202
90
9
234
87
54
29
87
1,478

24

19
20

4
4 17
4 24
11

(i)
(l)

789 46.5

63
3

8
2

39
42

3
13

1

220

11

4

11

(9
12

315
BO TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T

13

....
....
26 9 ! 1
2
3
3

2

17
18

6

32 1
340 7
5 1
43
62
118 10
9
7
37
707 34

(9

2

21

12

49.0
52.6
52.7
48.7
48.2
49.8
50.4
49.6
49.1
44.0 9
48.4 21
47.7
53.1
51.7
49.3
49.1 | 30

3

15
15 204

3
9

(l)
(9
(l)
236 47.9
9 (l) 44.9 315
391 (9
1
(9 48.0
3 106 (9
1 (9 (9
1
1
6
1

12

42
9
I 14
10 I 299
2

(9

64

"2l"

9

40

"15" 3 40

10

2

2

2

" 16"

11

7
17

37
19
3
159
85
39

2

43
502 48 80

5

42 30
(9
106
377 46

1

2

20

4
4

20

....

i

2

(9
(9
2

6

i
2
2

5
5
22
4
4
5

33
12
13
22
125
13
9
50

48.0
53.6
51.4
48.7
48.0
49.2
50.1
49.7

33

1
__ Ij__

15

4

120

3
7

9
1
4
9
2
1 43

2

11
2 2
4
3

1

86
T a b le

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
C*— Average and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occu­
pations, 1930, by department, sex, and State—Continued
BO TTO M IN G D EPA RTM EN T—Continued

Num ­
ber of
Occupation, sex, and State estab­
lish­
ments
Goodyear stitchers, male—
Continued.
New Hampshire...........
New Jersey....................
New York......................
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania.................
Tennessee.......................
Wisconsin.......................
Total............................
Edge trimmers, male:
Illinois.............................
Kentucky.......................
M aine---------------------M aryland and Virginia.
M assachusetts-.............
Michigan........................
M innesota......................
Missouri.........................
New Hampshire...........
New Jersey....................
New York......................
Ohio............................... .
Pennsylvania...... ..........
Tennessee.......................
Wisconsin.......................
T otal.......................... .

Num ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
44
45
48
50
hours
per 44 and 45 and 48 and 50 and 54 55 60
un­
un­
un­
un­
week
der
der
der
der
54
45
48
50
48.4
46.8
48.6
47.7
52.5
51.3

16

100

44
6
115
35
33
20
46
576

49.1 11

17

140

56
14
40
34
252
16
9
96
58
9
151
58
41
14
47
895

48.8
52.2
52.8
48.8
48.2
49.4
49.6
49.6
49.1
47.8
48.4
47.7
52.3
51.4
49.4
49.1 13

22
13
291 ! 6 182 23

12

33
25

22

200
49

26
31

25
15 437

272 37 50 14

FIN ISH IN G D EPA RTM EN T
Edge setters, male:
Illinois.............................
Kentucky.......................
M aine..............................
M aryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Michigan........................
Minnesota......................
Missouri.........................
New Hampshire...........
New Jersey....................
New York......................
Ohio................................
Pennsylvania................
Tennessee.......................
Wisconsin.......................
T otal.......................... .
Treers, hand and machine,
male:
Illinois.............................
Kentucky.......................
M aine............................ .
M aryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Michigan........................
M innesota......................
Missouri.........................
New Hampshire...........
New Jersey....................
New York......................
Ohio................................

140

60
12
32
24
237
8
5
54
34
6
157
59
44
15
47
794

48.7
52.4
52.7
48.8
48.2
49.4
49.6
49.2
49.1
45.4 5
48.2 20
48.3
52.0
51.7
50.0
49.0 25

49.4
53.3
53.3
48.8
48.3
49.6
50.1
112 49.6
49.3
44.0 9
167 47.6 34
25 50.0
48
11
74
41
508
14
10

38
5

20
25

15
4 192
2
2
21
22
3 68
14
3 16
12 388
15

2

17
2

26
401
3
25
52
72

22
4
7
"il”
19 2
2 2
4 30 2
6
1 1 1
33
7 5
1
12 54
6 33
2 27 1
5
10
4
24
29 233 23 46 12

1

_____

33
3
6
"ii"
57
4 2
13 71 4
12
1 3 3
87
18 19
3 58
5 20
_____

3

1
2

T able

feOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY, 1910 TO 1930
87
Avefage and classified full-time hours per week in 14 specified occu­
pations, 1930, by department, sex, and State—Continued
FIN ISH IN G DEPA RTM EN T—Continued

Num ­
ber of
Occupation, sex, and State estab­
lish­
ments
Treers, hand and machine,
male—Continued.
Total............................
Treers, hand and machine,
female:
K entucky___________
M aine..............................
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts
New Hampshire_-___
New York___________
Ohio ............................
Pennsylvania________
Tennessee____________
Wisconsin
Total............................
Repairers (not cobblers) (in­
cluding tip fixers and
scourers), male:
Illinois______________
M aine..............................
Maryland and Virginia.
M assachusetts_______
Michigan____________
Missouri_____________
New Hampshire______
New Jersey__________
New York___________
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania________
Tennessee____________
Wisconsin___________
T otal............................
Repairers (not cobblers)
(including tip fixers and
scourers) female:
Illinois_________ _____
Kentucky____________
M aine..............................
Maryland and Virginia.
Massachusetts...............
Michigan........................
Minnesota___________
Missouri_____________
New Hampshire______
New Jersey.....................
New York___________
Ohio.................................
Pennsylvania.................
Tennessee........................
Wisconsin.......................
Total______________
____

* Data included in total.

N um ­
ber of
wage
earn­
ers

Number of wage earners whose full-time hours per
week were—
Aver­
age
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
48
45
50
44
hours
and 45 and 48 and 50 and 54 55 60
per 44 un­
un­
un­
un­
week
der
der
der
der
50
48
54
45

45 52.2
8
15 52.3
4
42 49.6
7
125 1,210 49.1 43
3
1
1
1
5
1
3
6
1
7
4
2
2
5
42

2

19

36

62 48.8
8

14
8
20
18
626 29 346

8

0)11
0) 5
40
0)58
32
2
12
35
280

0)
47.9
0)
49.5
48.7
<l)
48.3
45.6
51.0
50.0
49.3
48.6

4
4
1
12
1
2
1
2
10
4
4
3
2
50

6
8
0)24
0) 6
0) 5
58
9
10
4
5
142

49.7
52.5
0)
48.0
0)
49.7
0)
44.0 5
46.8 24
47.2
51.3
53.8
48.4
48.2 29

5
3
7
•5
42
3
4
8
8
2
16
6
5
2
7
123

82
16
63
29
222
11
9
117
86
10
105
41
28
10
34
863

49.4
52.8
53.4
48.5
47.9
49.5
49.8
49.1
49.2
51.7 1
48.2 9
48.9
49.1
50.0
49.5
49.2 10

1

10
2
26
17 0)
17
28
1
• 7
1
28 25 101

1
1

5

5
3

....

9
1 9

23
11 210
2
3
53
58
14 41
20
4
2
31 436

2

1
5

23 0)1
0)
1
5
0)
21 2 11
4
5
1
4
1
56 6 33
26

1

7
7
4
42 80 i 21

26
0)
0)
0)
2 0) 1
14”
23
4
12
27
6 104 14

1

5

1 23

5

1

2

3
3 -1

7| 6

56
9
‘T
54
3
9
3 2
64
8 20
9
39
26
4
4
10
28
259 43 58

-------

2

.....

1
2
6
14

....

2

LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the
bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed .
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulle­
tins published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*)
are out of print.
Conciliation and arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York. [1913.]
•No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements. [1913.]
No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
♦No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
• [1914.]
♦No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite-coal industry. [1916.]
♦No. 198. Collective agreements in the m en's clothing industry. [1916.]
No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.]
No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.]
No. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
No. 287. National War Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921.J
♦No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
No. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. [1923.]
No. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.]
No. 468. Trade agreements, 1927.
No. 481. Joint industrial control in the book and job printing industry. [1928.]
Cooperation.
No. 313. Consumers' cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
No. 314. Cooperative credit societies (credit unions) in America and in foreign countries. [1922.]
No. 437. Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricultural).
No. 531. Consumers', credit, and productive cooperative societies, 1929.
Employment and unemployment.
♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the United States. [1913.]
♦No. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y. [1915.]
♦No. 183. Regularity of employment in the women's ready-to-wear garment industries. [1915.]
♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
♦No. 196. Proceedings of Employment Managers' Conference held at Minneapolis, Minn., January 19
and 20,1916.
♦No. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers' Association of Boston, Mass., held
M ay 10,1916.
♦No. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.]
♦No. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers' Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,
1917.
♦No. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers' Association. [1918.]
♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
♦No. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers' Conference, Rochester, N. Y., M ay 9-11,1918.
♦No. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. [1922.]
No. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925.
No. 520. Social and economic character of unemployment in Philadelphia, April, 1929.
No. 542. Report of the Advisory Committee on Employment Statistics. [1930.]
No. 544. Unemployment-benefit plans in the United States and unemployment insurance in foreign
countries. [1931.]
Foreign labor laws.
♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries. [1914.]
No. 494. Labor legislation of Uruguay. [1929J
No. 510. Labor legislation of Argentina. [1930.]
No. 529. Workmen's compensation legislation of Latin American countries. [1930.]
No. 549. Labor legislation of Venezuela. [1931.]

ta

Housing.
*No. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries. [1914.J
No. 263. Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.J
No. 295. Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
No. 545. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to] 1930.
Industrial accidents and hygiene.
♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary war& factories..
[1912.]
No. 120. Hygiene of painters’ trade. [1913.]
•No. 127. Danger to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection. [1913.]
*No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.]
*No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
♦No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
♦No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting
of buildings. [1916.]
♦No. 201. Report of the committee on statistics and compensation insurance costs of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [1916.]
♦No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.]
*No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. [1917.]
No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.]
No. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
♦No. 231. M ortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts). [1918.]
♦No. 234. The safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
No. 236. Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.]
No. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munitions Workers'
Committee. [1919.]
♦No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.]
No. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
No. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
No. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.]
♦No. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.]
♦No. 291. Carbon monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
No. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
No. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919.
No. 306. Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be looked for in hazardous occupations. [1922.]
No. 392. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus.
[1926.]
No. 427. Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925.
No. 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Washington, D C*
July 14-16, 1926.
No. 460. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.]
No. 466. Settlement for accidents to American seamen. [1928.]
No. 488. Deaths from lead poisoning, 1925-1927.
No. 490. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States to the end of 1927
No. 507. Causes of death, by occupation. [1929.]
Industrial relations and labor conditions.
No. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
No. 340. Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
No. 349. Industrial relations in the West Coast lumber industry. [1923.]
No. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.]
No. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
No. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
No. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924.
No. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States. [1925.]
No. 534. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930.
Labor laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
No. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
No. 229. Wage payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
No. 285. Minimum wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921.]
No. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
No. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.]
No. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
No. 370. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. [1925.]
No. 408. Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.]
No. 528. Labor legislation, 1929.
No. 548, Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1929-1930.
£n]

Proceedings of annnal conventions of the Association of Governmental Officials in Industry of the United
States and Canada. (Name changed in 1928 from Association of Governmental Labor Official# of the
United States and Canada.)
♦No. 266. Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
No. 307. Eighth, New Orleans, La., May 2-6,1921.
*No. 323. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26, 1922.
*No. 352. Tenth, Richmond, Va., May 1-4, 1923.
•No. 389. Eleventh, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
*No. 411. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
•No. 429. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10,1926.
•No. 455. Fourteenth, Paterson, N. J., M ay 31 to June 3, 1927.
•No. 480. Fifteenth, New Orleans, La., M ay 21-24, 1928.
No. 508. Sixteenth, Toronto, Canada, June 4-7, 1929.
No. 530. Seventeenth, Louisville, Ky., M ay 20-23, 1930.
Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Com­
missions.
No. 210. Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28, 1916.
No. 248. Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25,1917.
No. 264. Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24-27,1918.
•No. 273. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919.
No. 281. Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24,1920.
No. 304. Eighth, Chicago, HI., September 19-23, 1921.
No. 333. Ninth, Baltimore, Md., October 9-13,1922.
•No. 359. Tenth, St. Paul, Minn., September 24-26, 1923.
No. 385. Eleventh, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
No. 395. Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
No. 406. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20,1925.
No. 432. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926.
•No. 456. Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29, 1927.
No. 485. Fifteenth, Paterson, N. J., September 11-14,1928.
No. 511. Sixteenth, Buffalo, N. Y., October 8-11, 1929.
No. 536. Seventeenth, Wilmington, Del., September 22-26,1930.
Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Public Employment Services.
No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20,1913; second, Indianapolis, September 24 and 25, 1914;
third, Detroit, July 1 and 2,1915.
•No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21,1916.
No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N. Y., September 7-9,1921.
No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D. C., September 11-13, 1922.
No. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., May 19-23,1924.
No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N. Y., September 15-17, 1925.
No. 478. Fifteenth, Detroit, Mich., October 25-28, 1927.
No. 501. Sixteenth, Cleveland, Ohio, September 18-21,1928.
No. 538. Seventeenth, Philadelphia, September 24r-27, 1929, and eighteenth, Toronto, Canada, Sep­
tember 9-12, 1930.
Producti ity of labor.
No. 236. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry.
[1926.J
•No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.]
No. 474. Productivity of labor in merchant blast furnaces. [1928.]
No. 475. Productivity of labor in newspaper printing. [1929.]
No. 550. Labor productivity in cargo handling and longshore labor conditions. (In press.)
Retail prices and cost of living.
•No. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
•No. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.]
•No. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.]
No. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.]
No. 357. Cost of living in the United States. [1924.]
No. 369. The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.)
No. 495. Retail prices, 1890 to 1928.

[m]

Safety codes.
♦No. 331. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places.
No. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
No. 350. Rules for governing the approval of headlighting devices for motor vehicles.
•No. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders.
No. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations.
No. 382. Code of lighting school buildings.
No. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
•No. 430. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
No. 433. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.
No. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calenders.
No. 451. Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping.
No. 463. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus—first revision.
No. 509. Textile safety code.
No. 512. Code for identification of gas-mask canisters.
No. 519. Safety code for woodworking plants, as revised, 1930.
No. 527. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.

Vocational and workers’ education.
•No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment. [1915.]
•No. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.]
•No. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. [1917.]
No. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States. [1920.]
No. 459. Apprenticeship in building construction. [1928.]
Wages and hours of labor.
•No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and waist
industry of New York City. [1914.]
•No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. [1914.]
No. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.
•No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
No. 204. Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.]
No. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915, with a glossary of occupa­
tions.
No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924].
No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
No. 394. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
No. 407. Labor costs of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry.
[1926.]
•No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and 1924.
No. 476. Union scales of wages and hours of labor: Supplement to Bulletin 457.
No. 484. Wages and hours of labor of common street laborers, 1928.
No. 497. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1928.
No. 498. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1910 to 1928.
No. 499. History of wages in the United States from colonial times to 1928.
No. 502. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1928.
No. 503. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1928.
No. 504. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1907 to 1928.
No. 513. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1929.
No. 514. Pennsylvania Railroad wage data. From report of Joint Fact Finding Committee in
wage negotiations in 1927.
No. 516. Hours and earnings in bituminous coal mining, 1929.
No. 522. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1929.
No. 523. Hours and earnings in the manufacture of airplanes and aircraft engines, 1929.
No. 525. Wages and hours of labor in the Portland cement industry, 1929.
No. 526. Wages and hours of labor in the furniture industry, 1910 to 1929.
No. 532. Wages and hours of labor in the cigarette manufacturing industry, 1930.
No. 533. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930.
No. 535. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1929.
No. 537. Wages and hours of labor in the dyeing and finishing of textiles, 1930.
No. 539. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930.
No. 540. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, M ay 15, 1930.
No. 546. Wages and hours in rayon and other synthetic manufacturing, 1930.
No. 547. Wages and hours in cane-sugar refining industry, 1930.
[n r]

Welfare work.
♦No. 123. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.]
No. 222. Welfare work in British munitions factories. [1917.]
*No. 260. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States. [1919.]
No. 458. Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926.
Wholesale prices.
♦No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries. [1921.]
No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July, 1927.
No. 543. Wholesale prices, 1930.
Women and children in industry.
No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
*No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.]
♦No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
No. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
♦No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
♦No. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and
garment factories. [1914.]
♦No. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. [1915.]
♦No. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in the United States.
[1915.]
♦No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.]
♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. [1915.]
♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. [1916.]
No. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.]
No. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]
♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children. [1918.]
♦No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. [1917.]
No. 253. Women in the lead industries. [1919.1
No. 467. Minimum wage legislation in various countries. [1928.]
Workmen’s Insurance and compensation (including laws relating thereto).
♦No. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
♦No. 102. British national insurance act, 1911.
No. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law in Switzerland. [1912.]
No. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.1
♦No. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.]
♦No. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association of
Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D. C., December 5-9,1916.
♦No. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and
1918.
N o. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration. [1922.]
No. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921.
No. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925.
No. 477. Public-service retirement systems, United States and Europe. [1929.]
No. 496. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of Janaury 1, 1929.
(With text of legislation enacted in 1927 and 1928.)
No. 529. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin American countries. [1930.]

66555°— 32-------7

Miscellaneous series.
*No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to May 1,
1915.
No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. 11916.]
No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
No. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. [1919.]
No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
No. 282. M utual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D. C. [1921.]
No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. [1922.]
No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
[1923.]
No. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems. [1923.]
No. 346. Hum anity in government. [1923.]
No. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
No. 386. Cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries. [1926.]
No. 461. Labor organizations in Chile. [1928.]
No. 462. Park recreation areas in the United States. [1928.]
*No. 465. Beneficial activities of American trade-unions. [1928.]
No. 479. Activities and functions of a State department of labor. [1928.1
No. 483. Conditions in the shoe industry in Haverhill, Mass., 1928.
No. 489. Care of aged persons in the United States. [1929.]
No. 505. Directory of homes for the aged in the United States. 11929.]
No. 506. Handbook of American trade-unions: 1929 edition.
No. 518. Personnel research agencies: 1930 edition.
No. 541. Handbook of labor statistics: 1931 edition.

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