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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABORCommissioner
STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART,
BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES) . . .
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS)

jU

316

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF L A B O R S E R I E S

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN ANTHRACITE
AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING




ANTHRACITE—JANUARY, 1922
BITUMINOUS—WINTER OF 1921-22

JULY, 1922

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1922




CONTENTS.
P age. 1

Introduction........................................................
1
Contract miners...............................................................................................................
2
Pick or hand miners..................................
2
Method of study................................................................................. ...................... .. 2-4
Importance of coal industry.....................................
4-6
Occupations in coal industry........................................................................................
7
Starts, days of operation, and possible earnings...................................................... 7, 8
Average and classified hourly earnings..........................................•........................... 9-14
Number off starts (days) in half month....................................................................... 14-28
Daily hours of operation..................................................................................................28-34
Tonnage or piece workers...................................................................................... 29-30
30-34
Time-workers......................
Average starts, hours, and earnings.................................. . ................ .......................34-40
Rates and earnings, days of operation, and days closed in each mine................. 40-50
Wage peak and wage reductions.................................................................................... 51-59
Definition of occupations............................................................................................... 60-63
TABLES.

Table 1.—Number of employees, average number of days of operation, net
tons mined, value of production at mines, and value per ton at mine, of
anthracite and bituminous coal mines, by years, 1914 to 1920...........................
4
Table 2.—Number of employees, average number of days of operation, net
tons mined, and value of production at mine, of coal mines in the United
States in 1920, and number of mines and employees covered by this study, by
States.............................. .............................................................................................
6
Table 3.—Number of mines, number of employees who actually mine the
coal, average number of starts (days) in half month, average and classified
days of operation during year ending October 31,1921, and estimated average
possible earnings during year in coal mines studied, by States.........................
8
Table 4.—Number and per cent of employees, in selected occupations in
anthracite and bituminous coal mines, earning each classified amount per
hour...................................................................................................... . ....................... 9-13
Table 5.—Cumulative per cent of employees, in selected occupations in anthra­
cite and bituminous coal mines, earning each classified amount per hour___ 14
Table 6.—Number and per cent of employees in representative anthracite col­
lieries in Pennsylvania making each specified number of starts (days on
which employees worked) in half month ending January 31,1922, by occupa­
tions...............................................................................................................................16-17
Table 7.—Number and per cent of employees in representative bituminous
mines making each specified number of starts (days on which employees
worked) in half-month pay-roll period in the winter of 1921-22, by occupations
and States..................................................................................................................... 18-27
Table 8.—Cumulative per cent of employees making each specified number of
starts (days on which employees worked) in half-month pay-roll period........ 28
Table 9.—Daily time schedule of contract miners and contract miners’ laborers
in representative anthracite collieries in Pennsylvania for the second half of
January, 1922............................................................................................................... 29
Table 10.—Number of coal mines having time-work employees working each
specified number of regular or customary hours per day and per week, by
occupations.....................................................................................................................31-34
Table 11.—Number of mines and employees, average number of starts (days),
and average hours and earnings in representative anthracite collieries in
Pennsylvania for second half of January, 1922, by occupations........................ 35
Table 12.—Number of mines and employees, average number of starts (days),
and average hours and earnings in representative bituminous mines, winter
of 1921-22, by occupations and States.......................................................................36-40
869—22




III

IV

CONTENTS.
Page.

13.—Days and hours of operation, tons produced per man, and daily
rates and average earnings per hour for employees in selected occupations,
for second half of January, 1922; also days of operation and days closed during
the 12 months ending October 31,1921, for each representative anthracite col­
liery in Pennsylvania covered by study........................................................... 42-43
T able 14.—Days and hours of operation, tons produced per man, tonnage rates
and average earnings per hour for employees in selected occupations; also days
of operation and days closed during the 12 months ending October 31, 1921,
for each'representative bituminous mine covered by study........................... 44-50
T able 15.—Date of pay-roll period, date of beginning of wage peak, date and
amount of reduction of wages, overtime rate, bonus, deductions from earnings,
and regular or customary hours per day, for each representative bituminous
mine, winter of 1921-22, by States................................................................ 52-59

T able




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
no

.

316

W ASHINGTON

Ju l y ,

1922

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN ANTHRACITE COAL MINING IN JANUARY, 1922,
AND IN BITUMINOUS COAL MINING IN WINTER OF 1921-22.

INTRODUCTION.

The earnings and hours of labor of coal-mine employees presented
in this bulletin were compiled from data obtained from the records
of 29 anthracite collieries in Pennsylvania for the half-month pay-roll
period ending January 31, 1922, and from the records of 192 bitu­
minous mines for a half-month pay-roll period late in 1921, and of
eight bituminous mines for a half-month pay-roll period early in 1922.
The 200 bituminous mines here covered are in 11 States; namely,
Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Utah, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
Arrangements were made to obtain data for employees of bitu­
minous mines in Kansas for a half-month pay-roll period in October
or November, 1921, but no data were obtained for any Kansas mines
because of the strike of coal-mine employees in that State, which
began October 1, 1921, and continued throughout the remainder of
that year.

All data were taken directly from the mine records by agents of
the Bureau of Labor Statistics except that for a few companies which
preferred to make the copy of the wage data for the bureau from
their records. Such companies were furnished a complete set of
instructions as to what was desired and all necessary forms or blank
schedules. The data furnished by such companies were carefully
inspected at the mines or offices of the companies by agents of the
bureau.
The pay rolls of bituminous mines are, as shown in Table 15 (pp.
52 to 59), for half months within the period beginning October 1,
1921, and ending February 15, 1922. The half-month pay rolls for
14 mines ended October 15, 1921; for 134 mines, October 31; for 40
mines, November 15; for 2 mines, November 30; for 2 mines, Decem­
ber 15; and for 8 mines, February 15, 1922. No mine was scheduled
that was not in operation at least two days per week in the pay-roll
period.

Figures are given separately for anthracite employees and for
bituminous employees by occupations and by States, with employees
who work underground grouped under “ inside work,” and those who
work on the surface grouped under “ outside work.” Approximately
78 per cent of the 21,999 anthracite and 89 per cent of the 52,748
bituminous employees covered by this report work underground.



1

2

H O U R S A N D EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

CONTRACT MINERS.
“ Contract miners” is the basic occupation of anthracite coal
mining. Employees of this occupation are paid a tonnage or other
piece rate, the unit of quantity being a ton of 2,240 pounds, a mine
car o f specified capacity, or a yard. More than half of them have one
or more helpers, generally known as “ contract miners’ laborers.”
The wages or earnings of these helpers or laborers are paid princi­
pally from the gross earnings of the contract miners, a small part of
the increase granted by the 1920 award of the United States
Anthracite Coed Commission being paid by the company.

The contract miner may, by providing work for one or more helpers
or contract miners’ laborers, increase his own net earnings. To
illustrate, the records of a company showed a contract miner as having
worked 63| hours and as having net earnings of $274.65 for the half­
month pay-roll period taken. As the earnings were unusually large,
the company was asked for an explanation. The company stated
that the nours and earnings were correct, hut that the contract miner
had two helpers or contract miners* laborers. Many contract miners
do not have helpers. The data for the 29 anthracite collieries, as
shown in Table 11 (p. 35), shows 6,209 contract miners and only
3,383 contract miners* laborers.
PICK OR HAND MINERS.

jpick (hand) miners, machine miners, and loaders are the basic
occupations in bituminous coal naming. The 200 bituminous mines
covered in this report, as shown in Table 12 (p. 30), employed during
the pay-roll periods taken 8,429 pick or hand miners, 2,371 machine
miners, and 22,560 loaders, making a total of 33,360, or 63 per cent of
all employees of the 200 mines. Employees in these three occupations,
except in a very few mines in which these employees are paid time
rates, are paid tonnage or other piece rates, as shown in Table 14
(pp. 44 to 50), the unit of quantity in practically all mines being a ton
of 2,000 pounds. They are also paid for yardage; that is, a rate per
cubic yard for stone, slate, dirt, etc., cut and moved from the mine.
The hours and earnings for yardage were included as a part of the
data concerning hours and earnings ^obtained for employees in these
occupations. The amount of yardage varies not only from mine to
mine but in the same mine, and affects the earnings of employees to
some extent and the cost of mining coal to a very considerable extent.
METHOD OF STUDY.
The main purpose of this study was to determine the average
earnings per hour of employees in each occupation. All contract
miners and the great majority of contract miners’ laborers in anthra­
cite coal mining, and all except a very few pick or hand miners,
machine miners, and loaders in bituminous coal mining are tonnage
or piece workers, and as record is very seldom kept of the hours
worked by employees in these occupations it was necessary for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, through its agents, first to arrange with
the selected coal-mining companies to keep a special record of hours
for each employee for a sample pay-roll period.



M E T H O D OF STUDY.

3

The agents were instructed to ask the companies to keep a day-byday record of time (hours) in the mine of each *tonnage or piece
worker. The companies did keep a record of time (hours) worked,
but not in all cases, as requested. Three methods of keeping a record
of time (hours) were used by the companies. One group of mines
kept a record of time in the mine, a second group kept a record of
time at the face including time for lunch, and a third group
kept a record of time at the face not including time for lunch. The
majority erf the companies no doubt kept the record of the time by the
method that seemed to them the most accurate or that was most
convenient. A few companies may have been in doubt as to what
was wanted; some preferred to furnish time at the face; some ob­
jected to reporting time other than time at the face not including
time for lunch, and some were unable to keep an accurate record of
any time other than the time at the face.
After the special record of the time of the tonnage or piece workers
had been kept by the companies for the selected half-month pay­
roll period, agents again visited the companies and made a copy of
the time and earnings of tonnage or piece workers, also of timeworkers for the selected pay-roll period, and obtained other informa­
tion concerning hours, earnings, and working conditions, including
the average time (minutes) required to travel from the shaft or other
entrance of the mine to the face or place of work in the mine and
return, and the time taken for lunch.
Owing to the fact that the recorded time of employees of all mines
was not on the same basis, as stated above, it was necessary to revise
the recorded time of employees of the mines to establish common
bases before computing average earnings per hour. Using the in­
formation relating to travel time and lunch time, the time at the face
including time for lunch and the total time in the mine have been
determined for all piece-work employees of the mines.
As many tonnage or piece workers have no stated length of time
for lunch, or eat while at work or during waits for mine cars, etc.,
their hours of work at the face exclusive of lunch time could not be
determined in many mines with any exactness, hence no averages
are shown for face time with lunch time excluded.
Time at the face, including time for lunch, means the actual hours
at the face or place of work in the mine, from the time (hour and
minute) of arrival at the face or place of work in the morning to the
time (hour and minute) of leaving the face or place of work on the
completion of the day’s work.
Time in the mine, as shown in this report, means the actual hours
in the mine from the time (hour and minute) of entrance into the
shaft or other opening of the mine in the morning to the time (hour
and minute) of exit from the shaft or other opening of the mine in
the afternoon after the completion of the day’s work, thus including
the hours worked, the average travel time inside the mine, and such
time as may be taken for lunch.
The average time of travel from the entrance to the face and
return in the 29 anthracite collieries, as shown in Table 9 (p. 29),
ranged in the different mines from 20 minutes to l \ hours, and in the
200 bituminous mines, as shown in Table 15 (p. 52 to 59), ranged
from less than 5 minutes to 2 hours.
The time averages for time-workers, that is, for employees who are
paid rates per day or hour, are for the time at the face, not including



4

H O U R S A N D EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

time for lunch; in other words, for the actual hours worked. The
time of all time-workers is always recorded on the pay rolls of the
companies.
Many bituminous mines were not in operation, and employees of
many other mines worked less than three days, during any of the half­
month pay-roll periods from October 1, 1921, to February 15, 1922,
and yet the best available production figures show' that bituminous
production was greater during the month of October, 1921, than for.
any other month from December, 1920, to March, 1922. The figures
shown in this report for 134 of the 200 bituminous mines are for half­
month pay rolls in October, 1921. For these reasons the averages,
which as before stated excluded mines unless in operation at least
two days per week during the half-month period, tend to overstate
the amount of work obtainable in bituminous coal mining during
the period covered by this report or in any month during the period
from January 1, 1920, to March, 1922.
Hourly earnings of tonnage workers may be increased or decreased
by lessened days of operation or of opportunity to work. An em­
ployee who has but two or three days’ work per week will generally
work at a speed he could not stand, and would not attempt, if he
had opportunity for full-time employment, but in a few cases it has
been stated that he lessened his regular speed, thereby decreasing
his hourly earnings.
IMPORTANCE OF COAL INDUSTRY.

Table 1, compiled from “ Coal in 1918” and from preliminary
statistics for 1919 and 1920 published by the United States Geological
Survey, indicates the importance of the industry in number of em­
ployees, iii number of tons of coal produced, in the value of the total
production, and in the value per ton at the mines in each of the years
1914 to 1920. Index numbers (percentages) based on these figures,
with the 1914 figures taken as the base, or 100 per cent, are also
shown in the table.
Table 1.—N U M B E R A N D IN D E X O F E M P L O Y E E S, A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F D A Y S O F

O P E R A T IO N , N E T TO N S M IN E D , V A L U E OF PR O D U C T IO N A T 'M IN E S , A N D V A L U E
P E R TON A T M IN E , O F A N T H R A C IT E A N D B IT U M IN O U S COAL M IN E S, B Y Y E A R S,
1914 TO 1920.
Average
number N um ber of
of d ays
net tons
m ines
Total. were in produced.
operation.

N um ber of em ployees.
Year.

Inside
work.

Outside
work.

ANTHRACITE.

1914.......................................
1915.......................................
1916.......................................
1917.......................................
1918.......................................
1919.......................................
1920......................................

0)
0)

116,705
109,989
101,671
107,829
101,040

8
43,164
44,185
45,450
46,742
44,015

1914.......................................
0)
1915.......................................
0)
1916....................................... 474,244
1917....................................... 498,185
1918:.................................... 496,252
1919....................................... 508,801
1920....................................... 529,812

86,858
104,958
119, 053
113,197
109,735

BITUMINOUS.

1 N ot available.



C1)
0)

V alue of
production
at m ines.

Value
per ton
at m ine.

179,679
176,552
159,869
154,174
147,121
154,571
145,055

245
230
253
285
293
266
271

90,821,507
88,995,061
87,578,493
99,611,811
98,826,084
88,092,201
89,598,249

$188,181,399
184,653,498
202,009,561
283,650,723
336,480,347
364,926,950
434,252,000

$2.07
2.07
2.31
2.85
3.40
4.14
4.85

583,506
557,456
561,102
603,143
615,305
621,998
639,547

195
203
230
243
249
195
220

422,703,970
442,624,426
502,519,682
551,790,563
579,385, S20
465,860,058
568,666,683

493,309,244
502,037,688
665,116,077
1,249,272,837
1,491,809,940
1,160,616,013
2,129,933,000

1.17
1.13
1.32
2.26
2.57
2.49
3.75

5

IMPORTANCE OE COAL INDUSTRY.

T able 1___N U M B E R A N D IN D E X O F E M P L O Y E E S, A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F D A Y S O F

O P E R A T IO N . N E T TO N S M IN E D , V A L U E OF PR O D U C T IO N A T M IN ES, A N D V A L U E
P E R TO N A T M IN E , O F A N T H R A C IT E A N D B IT U M IN O U S COAL M IN ES, B Y Y E A R S ,
1914 TO 1920—C oncluded.
IN D E X N U M B E R S .
[1914=100.]
N um ber of em ployees.
Year.
ANTHRACITE.

1914;....................................
1915.......................................
1916.......................................
1917 ....................................
1918.......................................
1919.......................................
1920......................................
BITUM INOUS.

1914.......................................
1915.......................................
1916.......................................
1917.......................................
1918.....................................
1919.......................................
1920.......................................

Inside
work.

Outside
work.

Average
number N um ber of
of days
net tons
m ines
Total. were in produced.
operation.

V alue of
production
at m ines.

Value
per ton
at m ine.

100
98
89
86
82
92
81

100
94
103
116
120
109
111

100
98
96
110
109
/ 97
99

100
92
107
151
179
194
231

100
100
112
138
164
200
234

100
95
96
103
105
107
110

100
104
118
125
128
100
113

100
105
119
131
142
110
135

100
102
135
253
302
235
432

100
96
113
193
220
213
321

This table shows a decrease of 34,624, or 19 per cent, in the number
of anthracite employees as between 1914 and 1920; practically the
same number of tons of production in 1914 and 1920; an increase of
26 days, or 11 per cent, in the average number of days of operation in
1920 over 1914; an increase in the total value of the coal at the
collieries from $188,181,39$ to $434,252,000, or 131 per cent; and an
increase in value per ton at the colliery from $2.07 to $4.85, or 134
per cent. This table also shows an increase of 56,041, or 10 per cent,
in the number of bituminous employees in 1920 over 1914; an increase
of 25 days, or 13 per cent, in the average number of days of operation
in 1920 over 1914; an increase in the number of tons of coal produced
from 422,703,970 in 1914 to 568,666,683 in 1920, or 35 per cent; an
increase in the total value of the coal at the mines from $493,309,244
in 1914 to $2,129,933,000 in 1920, or 332 per cent; and an increase in
the value per ton at the mines from $1.17 in 1914 to $3.75 in 1920, or
221 per cent.\
Table 2, compiled in part from a weekly report on the production
of coal issued by the United States Geological Survey, shows for each
State, in the year 1920, the number of employees in the coal industry,
the average number of days of operation, the number of net tons of
coal produced, and the value of the coal at the mines. The States are
arranged in the order of number of employees.
The last two columns of the table show for each State the number
of mines and the number of employees for which the bureau presents
information in this report. It will be observed from these two
columns that several States were not visited. It was necessary, on
account of the large and extensive coal fields of the country and the
limited force and funds of the bureau, to limit the study to a few
States. The conditions of employment in Virginia were approximate­
ly the same as in northeastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia,
which fields are included in this report. In Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,



HOURS AND EARNINGS 1 ST C O A L MINING.

6

and Oklahoma the conditions of employment and the wage basis are
similar and arrangements were made for data from mines in Kansas,
but on account of the strike in Kansas no data were obtained

for this group. The conditions of employment and the wage
basis in these four States were, however, similar to those in Illinois,
Indiana, and Ohio. The conditions of employment and thewagebasis
in Tennessee were practically the samb as those in southeastern and
western Kentucky, which are included in this report. The con­
ditions of employment and the wage basis in Maryland were similar
to those in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia. Data
were not obtained from several States because of their relative unim­
portance in the production of coal in 1920.
Data were obtained and are presented for Colorado, Wyoming, Utah,
and Washington because of their location, the size of the coal fields, and
the increased^production in recent years, and because it was deemed
necessary that thefar Western and Northwestern States be represented
in the report.
■ Sable 2 ^ -N U M B E R O f E M P L O Y E E S, A V E R A G E N U M B E R OF D A Y S OF O P E R A T IO N ,
N E T TO N S M IN E D , A N D V A L U E OF PR O D U C T IO N A T M IN ES, O F COAL M IN E S IN T H E
U N IT E D ST A T E S IN 1920, A N D N U M B E R OF M IN ES A N D E M P L O Y E E S C O V E R E D B Y
T H IS S T U D Y , B Y S T A T E S .
Coal m ines in U nited States, 1920.1*

Stale.

Average
number
Num ber of days
of em­
ployees. were in
opera-

N um ber of
net tons
produced.

115,055

271

89,598,249

$434,252,00b

173,970
102,950
87,08#
50,857
49,452
31,155
25,54b
14,010
13,711
11,905
11,353
8,984
8^838
8,244
7,77b
5,548
4,994
4,504;
4,204
3,966
3-, 738
2,950
2,154
1,110
207
148
85
5b
47
ia
639,547

244
198
218
188
182
192
247
m
255
250
234
204
233
217
264
2b7
260
252
250
m
3GB
242
281
218
24b
294
307
288
133
181

17b, 607,847
89,970,707
88,724,893
45,878,191
35,690,762
29,350,585
16,294T099
11,378,006
12,278,225
7,813,91b
6,662,428
5,926,408
5,369,565
4,849,288
9 ,63b, 271
4,065,239
3,757,093
6,005,199
4,413,866
2,103,596
3,683,440
1,615,015
1,489,783
948)625
61, 111
5b, 156
20,7 1 7
11,54b
12,777
% 753
568,666,683

§42, 630, 000
390, 046, 000
273, 509, 008
175, 081, 606
146, 576, 000
92, 867, 000
59, 410, 000
45) 446, 000
42, 829, 000
30, 794, 606
26, 778, 000.
22, 923, 000
22 23b, oob
23, 294, 000
28> 741, 000
1% 815, 00b
14, 56b, 000
19,. m r 600
13, 923, 000
9, 392, 000
000
06! 000
346, 000
724, 000
356, 00b
251, 000
93, 000
81, 000
46, @00
12, 00b
2 , 129,933,000

V alue of
production
at mines.

Coal m ines covered
b y this stu d y .3
N um ber N um ber
of
of em­
mines. ployees.

ANTHRACITE COAL.

*
P en n sylvan ia................................

29

21,999

BITUM INOUS COAL.

P en n sylvan ia.................•............
W est V irginia...............................
IBiniaiSL................................... ........
O hio...................................................
K en tuck y.......................................
I n d ia n a ........................................
A labam a..........................................
V irginia.—......................................
C olorado,.............. .........................
I o w a ... .. .; ,..................................
Tennessee........................................
K an sa s............................................
M is s m it i.......... ................................
Oklahom a,.....................................
If^ S h n gton ...................................
U t a h .............................................
M ontana..........................................
Arkansas........................................
N ew M exico...................................
T exas................................................
M ichigan—.......................... ..........
N orth D akota...............................
A la sk a .—. .................. . . . .............
Georgia.........................................
Oregon........................................
North- Carolina.............................
South D akota................................
California and Idaho-........... .. —
Total, bitum inous coal___

220

14,589
7,459
9 ,3 8
5,180
4,951
3 ,17&
3,9827
1,702

,:

689

8i6

200

52,748

1 From the June 3, 1922, w eek ly report on production of coal of th e U nited States Geological Survey,
D epartm ent of Interior.
* The- anfhraefte' data are far the last half of Jamrary, 1922. The bitum inous data are for 192mines for a
pay-roll period late in 1921 and for 8 m ines for a pay-roll period in February, 1922.



STARTS, DAYS OF OPERATION, AND POSSIBLE EARNINGS.

7

OCCUPATIONS IN COAL INDUSTRY.

The occupations for which data are presented in this bulletin are
listed below. For definitions see pages 60 to 63.
ANTHRACITE COAL.

Inside work:
Blacksmiths.
Cagers.
Car runners.
Door tenders (boys).
Drivers.
Engineers.
Laborers.
Laborers, company miners’.
Laborers, consideration miners’.
Laborers, contract miners’.
Machinists.
Masons.
Miners, company.
Miners, consideration.
Miners, contract.
Motormen.
Motor brakemen.
Pump men.
Timbermen.
Trackmen.
Other employees.
Outside work:
Ash men.
Blacksmiths.
Cagers.
Carpenters.
Car runners.
Dumpers.
Engineers.
Firemen.
Jig runners.
Laborers.

Outside work—Concluded.
Loaders.
Machinists.
Oilers.
Plate men.
Repair men.
Slaters (boys).
Timber cutters.
Trackmen.
Other employees.
BITUMINOUS COAL.

Inside ivork:
Brakemen.
Brattice men and timber men.
Capers.
Drivers.
Laborers.
Loaders.
Miners, pick.
Miners, machine.
Motormen.
Pump men.
Trackmen.
Trappers (boys).
Other employees.
Outside work:
Blacksmiths.
Carpenters.
Engineers.
Firemen.
Laborers.
Other employees.

STARTS, DAYS OF OPERATION, AND POSSIBLE EARNINGS,

Table 3 shows for each State the number of mines studied; the num­
ber of employees who actually mine the coal (in anthracite mines
these comprise contract miners, consideration miners, company
miners, and their laborers combined; in bituminous mines they com­
prise pick miners, machine miners, and loaders combined); the aver­
age number of starts (days) made in the half month studied; average
and classified number of days of operation during the 12 months
ending October 31, 1921, and an estimate of the amount that would
have been earned during the 12 months, or year, had all of these
employees worked every day of operation during the 12 months at
the average earnings for the half month covered by this study.




8

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL M IN IN G .

T able 3.—NUMBER OF MINES, NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES WHO ACTUALLY MINE
THE COAL, AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH, AVERAGE
AND CLASSIFIED DAYS OF OPERATION DURING YEAR ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1921,
AND ESTIMATED AVERAGE POSSIBLE EARNINGS DURING YEAR IN COAL MINES
STUDIED, BY STATES.
Number of— A verage number
of—
State.

Esti­
mated
average
earnings
during
year2
Days of based on
opera­ days of
tion dur­ oppor­
ing year.2 tunity
for work.

Em­
ployees
who
Mines. actual­
ly mine
the
coal.

Starts
(days)
made in
half­
month
pay-roll
period.

29 12,106

11.0

287.7

$1,893

10
8
22
12
20
25
44
4
4
47
4
200

8.6
9.7
9.3
8.2
8.7
8.8
8.9
5.4
10.5
8.5
10.1
8.9

223.0
199.9
194.3
170.4
205.1
185.0
196.9
177.7
188.4
6 193.3
226.2
6 195.7

941
1,560
1,705
1,393
1,202
1,417
1,196
1,342
1,688
5 1,301
2,211
5 1,356

Number of mines in operation1
each classified number of days
during year.2
70 100 130 160 190 220 250 280
and and and and and and arid and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der der der der der der der
100. 130. 160. 190. 220. 250. 280. 310.

ANTHRACITE.

Pennsylvania.........

1

6 22

BITUM INOUS.

Alabama......................
Colorado......................
Illinois..........................
Indiana........................
Kentucky....................
Ohio..............................
Pennsylvania..............
Utah.............................
Washington................
West Virginia.............
Wyoming....................
Totalbituminous.

2,466
1,094
6,490
2,114
3,031
3,520
9,251
483
319
4,222
370
33,360

1 2
*2
1 2 5
**i* 1
5
2 1 “ 3* 3
1 3 6 5
1
7 16
1
**i*
1 ” i"
'Y 6 12 ” 5’

5
4
9
4
4
5
12
1
1
10
2
7 15 33 42 57

31
2
4
1
4
3
1
1
1
7
1
26

31
1
3 __
2
3 “<4
2
11

2
1
8

1 Not including 1 mine which did not report.
2 12 months ending Oct. 31,1921.
s And nights.
* Including 1 mine in operation 310 days.
6 Average does not include figures for 124 employees in 1 mine for which days of operation were not re­
ported.

The average number of days of operation of the anthracite col­
lieries covered in this report was 287.7 for the year ending October 3i,
1921, as shown in the table above. In 1920 the average days of oper­
ation for all anthracite collieries in Pennsylvania as reported by the
United States Geological Survey was 271; the survey figures for
1921 are also 271. At the time of this inquiry the average earn­
ings of anthracite contract miners, consideration miners, and com­
pany miners and their laborers, taken as a collective group, were $6.58
per start, which with the 287.7 days of operation shown in the table
gives possible yearly earnings of $1,893; on the same basis with the
271 days of operation for 1920 as given by the survey the possible
yearly earnings would be $1,783.
In the bituminous mines covered the average number of days of
operation in the year ending October 31, 1921, was 195.7. The
United States Geological Survey has estimated that the bituminous
mines of the country were in operation 169 days in 1921. In the
bituminous mines covered by the inquiry the pick miners, machine
miners, and loaders as a group had average earnings of $6.93 per
start, which for the 195.7 days shown in the table gives a possible
year’s earnings of $1,356; for the 169 days in 1921, as estimated by
the survey, the possible year’s earnings at the same rate would be
$1,171.



AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED HOURLY EARNINGS.

9

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED HOURLY EARNINGS.
Table 4 shows the average earnings per hour of contract miners and
contract miners’ laborers in anthracite coal mining for Pennsylvania,
and of pick miners, machine miners, and loaders in bituminous coal
mining for each of the States for which data are presented and also
a classification of these employees according to earnings per hour.
These averages and classifications are made on two bases—one, the
time (hours) at the face, including time for lunch, and the other, the
time in the mine. The classification of these employees according to
earnings per hour is given also by percentages.




T able 4.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES, IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINES, EARNING
EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT PER HOUR.
ANTHRACITE COLLIERIES IN PENNSYLVANIA.
Number of employees whose average earnings per hour in a half%
month pay-roll period were—

Aver­
age
earn­
Occupation and State.
Em­ ings Un­
per
Mines. ploy­ hour. der
30
ees.
cts.

30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
and
un­
der
80
cts.

80
and
un­
der
90
cts.

Per cent of employees whose average earnings per hour in a
half-month pay-roll period were—

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 $1 $1.25 $1.50 $1.75
$1 $1.25 $1.50
cts.
and and and $1.75 -$2 Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and $2
and and der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­ un­ un­ un­
and
30 der der der der der der Wi­ un­ un­ un­ un­ over.
der der der
over. cts. 40 50 60 70 80 90 der der der der der'
$1.25. $1.50. $1.75. der
$1.25. $1.50. $1.75. $2.
$2.
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. $1.

90
cts.
and
un­
der
$1.

Based on time at face.
Miners, contract..............
L aborers, contract
miners7...........................

29 6,209 $1.088 15 43 87 177 357 612 832 801 1,483 871 452 211 268 0
29 3,383 .773 13 37 116 252 695 1,033 645 290 237 45 15 1 4 0

1 2 3 6 10 13 13 24
1 3 7 21 31 19 * 9 7

14 7 3 4
1 0 0 C
1)

Based on time in colliery.
Miners, contract..............
L aborers, contract
miners7...........................

29 6,209 $0.991 21 73 117 309 572 833 900 759 1,326 698 316 124 161 C 1 2 5 9 13 14 12 21 11 5
1)
29 3,383 .711 22 52 184 406 1,067 984 340 160 153 29 3 1 2 1 2 6 12 32 28 10 5 5 1 0

2
0

3
0)

BITUMINOUS COAL MINES.
Based on time at face.
Miners, hand or pick:
Alabama..............
Colorado...............
Illinois..................
Indiana.................
Kentucky.............
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania___




8
6
11
7
5
3
42

785 $0.548
564 .993
1,864 .865
542 .827
223 .825
47 .916
2,898 .767

40
1
16
4
1
1
23

100
3
43
22
7
89

211
12
99
26
25
5
242

201
28
232
55
14
1
387

104
51
228
84
28
2
472

47
61
260
91
31
6
474

30
80
222
86
35
5
412

16
78
217
69
39
12
305

18
173
360
71
32
1
349

3
49
147
22
7
4
110

1
17
35
10
3
10
30

4
2
1
4

5 14
7 0) 1
5 1 3
1 4
02 3
i 1 ’**3

28
2
5
5
11
11
9

26
5
12
10
6.
2
13

13
9
12
15
13
4
16

6
11
14
17
14
13
16

4
14
12
16
16
11
14

2
14
12
13
17
26
11

2 (i) (l)
31 9 ^ 3 1 1
19 8 2
0
13 4 2 0
14 3 1 0
2 9 21
12 4 1 0 0

'okikijs 'ivoo iii SDimsava tuny saaoH

Number of—

o

Utah..............
Washington..
West Virginia
Wyoming___
Total...........

4 167
3 243
34 972
4 124
127 8,429

1
7 8 30 38 64
1.023
1.068 2
2 1 3 38 11 30 89
1. 019 1 1 16 28 66 127 144 145 255
1 1
1.215 ....
5
8 8 54 !
. 840 89 274 646 947 1,050 1,143 1,083 957 1,466

19
65 2
119 44
38 6
583 158

12
2
25

1
4 5 18 23
1 •(I)' 1 16 5 12
14 (>) '(V)' 2 3 7 13 15 15
1 1
1
4 .... 6 6
28 1 3 ; 7 11 12 14 13 11

38
37
26
44
17

11
27
12
31
7

1
5 1 1
5 2 1
2 C (D
1)

Miners, hand or pick:
Alabama.............
Colorado..............
Illinois.................
Indiana...............
Kentucky...........
O hio..,...............
Pennsylvania...
Utah....................
Washington........
West Virginia...
Wyoming............
Total................

1
180 274 124 47 42 20 10
9 22 46 60 86 102
25
102
62 162 236 286 249 227 216
20
24 43 67 95 85 88 47
13 24 18 32 37 44 24
4
4
4 2 1 5 4 12 7
65
149 360 475 546 448 323 222
7
1 3 9 25 34 34
1 2 39 9 30 28
41
42 88 182 154 129 225 87
20
2
4 8 11 61 27
1,016 1,210 1,171 1,042 817 1,159

785 10.485
564 .896
1,864 .806
542 .779
223 .768
47 .844
2,
.695
167 .941
243 .984
972 .950
124 1.150
127 8,429 .769

1.

C 0>
1)

9
14
7
3
1
16

C
1)
C
1)
P> (l>

78

25

16

12

14

10

14

1
1 . 14
1 1 2 6
1
4 13 14 10
1 4 6 5
7 9 18 14

25
10
6
19
24
20

6 6 6 7

13

0) 0)

Based on time at face.
ners, machine:
Alabama
Colorado
Illinois.
Indiana

Kfvntnolry
Ohio.......... ..........
Pennsylvania...........
Utah
Washington2....... .
Wfist. Virginia
WvoTninp* f • ...............
J Uiuillg
Total.......................

6 146 $0.611
6 85 1.493
15 369 1. 500
8 136 1. 832
19 268 1.166
25 354 1.395
41 703 1.090
3 21 1. 745
35 271 1.379
3 18 2.142
161 2,371 1.274

1 Less than 1 per cent.
2Machine mining done by loaders.




1
2
1

6

69
2
11

62
1
3
2
23
7

3

7

82

98

1
1 12 21
5 8 22 36
2 8
34 38 27 52
14 23 17 84
60 127 100 138

4 2 5 2
1 47 42
17 15 11 8
78 147 51 19
1
29 22 31 43
1
43 36 14 11
64 83 27 33 1
1 1
89 44 31 26 0) ' *’i 2 3
6 6 2 7
17 15 15 19 36 65 38 23 36
3
3 6
9
80 128 213 199 375 398 399 195 194 0) C
1) 3 4
3
10
3
47

3

5

9

8

16

1
18
40
16
13
23
6
29
14
33
17l 17

3
20
21
21
16
18
13
29
24
17

1

3
13
14
23
5
8
4
10
8
8

1
9
5
32
4
9
4
33
i3
50
8

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED HOURLY EARNINGS,

Based on time in mine.

T able 4. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES^

Number of-—

H O U ^ ™ S 4 C AND BITUMIN0US C0AL MINES» EAR ING
edTE
■ RTTTtVTwnTTR r.OAT. MINES—Concluded.

Number of employees whose average earnings per hour in a half­
month pay-roll period were—
30
and
un­
der
40
cts.

40
and
un­
der
50
cts.

50
and
un­
der
60
cts.

60
and
un­
der
70
cts.

70
and
un­
der
80
cts.

80
and
un­
der
90
cts.

90
cts.
and
un­
der
$1.

Per cent of employees whose average earnings per hour in a
half-month pay-roll period were—

80 90
30 40 50 60 70 and cts. $1 $1.25 $1.50 $1.75
$1 $1.25 $1.50
$2
and and and $1.75 and Un­ and and and and and un­ and and and and and and
un­ un­ un­
and $2 der un­ un­ der der der der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
un­ un­ un­ un­ over. 30 der der
der der der der over.
der der der
70 80 90
cts. 40- 50 60 cts. cts. cts. der $1.25. $1.50. $1.75. $2.'
$1.25. $1.50. $1.75. der
$1.
cts. cts. cts.
$2.
Based on time in mine.

Miners, machine:
Alabama....................
Onj nrado..........................
Illinois........................
Indiana.......................
Kentucky..................
Ohio............................
Pennsylvania............
Utah...........................
West Virginia...........
Wyoming..................
T otal ..........................

146 $0.580 ....
85 1 .3 4 4 .. ..
369 1.407 ....
136 1.748..
268 1. 091....
354 1.282 2
703 .991 3
21 1.621 ....
271 1. 287 ---3 18 2.013___
101 2,371 1.180 5
6
6
15
8
19
25
41
3
35

5 68

1

3

41
25
112

2

8

..

2 .....

8 17
1 11 19

15

89 115 102 199

3
23
56
10
1
53
37
75
25
118
128
2
22 23 43
1
231 197 384
6
12

3
15
33

102

48
78
68
9
64
4
424

1
3 47
2
11
33
1
7
18 1 1
8 <‘> 1 ” 3
3
22
C
1)
9
154 114 (L 1 4
)

2
6
28
35
9
23
25
6
20

40
1
1
C1
1)
5
4

1
8
2
7
7

1
2
2
is
7
16
4

7
3
1
14
7
18
8

16
4
2
8
10
12
8

2
27
15
7
20
21
17
10
16
6
8 16
5 4 8 10

18
6
1
1
14
5
16
4

9
12
3
1
17
6
18
6

3
15
6
3
16
12
17
13

2
13
7
9
15
15
12
22

1
12
11
17
9
16
8
21

Based on time at face.
Loaders^
Alabama........
Colorado.........
Illinois............
Indiana..........
Kentucky---Ohio................
Pennsylvania.
Utah...............




8
7
17
8
20
25
41
4

1,535 $0,497 159
445 .927
4,257 1.197 *'*9
1,436 1.146 1
2,540 .752 70
3,119 .973 9
5,650 .739 100
295 .939

398
4
12
3
93
25
259

414
14
29
5
253
65
523
2

273
26
56
10
343
145
924
13

138
55
125
17
428
202
998
18

52
68
237
43
394
387
953
38

35
58
290
132
369
454
687
64

18 24 14
55 113 41
474 1,398 1,107
241 620 262
234 247 73
491 839 340
477 589 101
62 79 17

5 4 1 10
2
9
411 66 43 *(!)’
76 17 9 (!)
. 18 10 8 3
104 39 19
22 11 6 ^ 2
1 ..... 1

26
1
0)
C4
1)
1
5

27
3
C
1)
C)
10
2
9
1

2
18
28
24
18
22
10
43
24
22
18

3 1 1
20 7 2
38 8 3
15 26 24
9 3 3
16 6 5
6 4 1
5 29 14
13 7 ■ 8
50
22
14 6 5

»
2 1 0) 0) C)
25 9 2
1
33 26 10 2 (1)1
43 18 5 1 1
10 3 1 C 0) 1
1) 1
27 11 3
10 2 1) C
1)
27 6 C
0)
(l)

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

Aver­
age
earn­
Occupation and State.
Em­ ings Un­
per
Mines. ploy­ hour. der
30
ees.
cts.

fcO

698

Washington8.............
West Virginia...........
Wyoming...................
Total.......................

8 1,535 $0.464 257 440 407 227 80 52 23 8 26 9
7 445 .837 1 11 17 52 67 58 72 55 86 21
17 4,257 1.127 11 15 39 96 174 237 342 534 1,481 1,008
8 1,436 1.094 1 3 7 9 29 64 171 281 595 223
20 2,540 .704 78 129 332 377 455 436 310 179 162 54
25 3,119 .893 16 35 101 184 323 469 583 468 663 194
41 5,650 .672 156 399 749 1,047 1,043 842 601 367 '380 46
4 295 .876
3 19 26 58 68 53 57 9
1 76 .862
1 12 27 14 6 13
42 2,979 .841 2 36 150 295 399 481 495 424 537 133
3 228 1.090 .... 2 3 7 16 23 26 28 64 33
176 22,560 .836 522 1,070 1,808 2,314 2,624 2,747 2,705 2,403 4,064 1,730

1 Less than 1 per cent.
8 Also do machine mining.




.893 .......!........ 1 1 30 18 10 13
1 1
3 •
.904 2 15 102 228 319 438 430 441 714 229 49 10 2 C C 3 8 11
1)
1.158 .... 1 2 6 14 23 18 25 66 33 27 12 1 1) 0)
3 6
.902 350 810 1,409 2,025 2,315 2,663 2,555 2,528 4,702 2,217 725 169 92 2 3 6 9 10
1
Based on time in mine.
5
3
238
39
13
63
10
1
3
22
23
420

39
15
10
12

24
14
8
11

13
15
11
11

4
17
24 8 2
(!)
29 14 12 (!) 5 0)
21 10 3 1 C
1)

1
17 28 27 15 5 3 1 1 2 1 m 1)
2 (i) 3 3 12 15 13 16 12 19 5 V/ 1 C
58 24 C 0) C 2 4 6 8 13 35 24 6 1 0).
1)
1)
7 7 1)
1) 1 2 4 12 20 41 16 3 (!) (!)■
11 4 C 3 G)5 C13 15 18 17 12 7 6 2 1 M w
13 7 1 1 3 6 10 15 19 15 21 6 2 n \ (!)
7 3 3 7 13 19 18 15 11 6 7 1 C )i \ (i)
1)
1
1 6 9 20 23 18 19 3 m ^ }
1 16 36 18 8 17
4
4 1 0) 1 5 10 13 16 17 14 18 4 1 (!) (l)
2 1
1 1 3 7 10 11 12 28 14 10 J1 «
104 49 2 5 9 10 12 12 12 11 18 8 2 0) C
1)

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED HOURLY EARNINGS,

aders:
Alabama....................
Colorado.....................
Illinois........................
Indiana.......................
Kentucky..................
Ohio............................
Pennsylvania............
Utah...........................
Washington 8.............
West Virginia...........
Wyoming..................
Total.......................

1 76
42 2,979
3 228
176 22,560

$3

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

14

The percentages of Table 4 are shown in Table 5 in the form of
cumulative percentages. For instance, it will be observed in Table
5 that 33 per cent of the contract minersy laborers earned “ under
70 cents” per hour, based on time at the face including time for
lunch, while 51 per cent of them earned “under 70 cents” based on
time in the mine; that no contract miners’ laborers earned as much
as $1.75 per hour; that 4 per cent of the contract miners earned
$2 or over per hour based on time at the face including time for
lunch, and that 3 per cent earned $2 or over per hour based on time
in the mine.
T able 5.—CUMULATIVE PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES,IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN
ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINES, EARNING EACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT PER HOUR.
ANTHRACITE COLLIERIES IN PENNSYLVANIA.

Occupation.

Number of— Aver­
age
earn­
ings
Em­ per
Mines. ploy­ hour.
ees.

Per cent of employees whose average earnings per hour
in a half-month pay-roll period were—
Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­ Un­
der der der der der der der der der der der der
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. $1. $1.25. $1.50. $1.75. $2.
Based on time at face.

Miners, contract............
Laborers, contract miners’.

29 6,209 $1,088
29 3,383 .773

8

1 2 5 11 21 34 47 71 85 92 96
1 5 12 33 63 83 91 98 j 99 100 100
Based on time in mine.

Miners, contract................
Laborers, contract miners’.

29 6,209
29 3,383

.991 C 2 3 8 18 31 45 58. 79 90 »5 97
.711 1) 2 8 20 ^ 51 80 90 94 99 100 100 100
l

BITUMINOUS COAL MINES.
Based on time at face.
Loaders...............................
Miners, pick or hand........
Miners, machine.................

176 22,560 $0,902 2 5 11 20 31 42 54 65 86 96 9*9 100
127 8,429 .840 1 4 12 23 36 49 62: 78 91 97 99 100
161 2,371 1.274 C C 4 8 11 17 26 1 34 50 67 84 92
1) 1).
Based on time in mine.

Loaders...............................
Miners, pick or hand........
Miners, machine................

176 22,560 .836 2 7 15 25 37 49 61 72 90 97 99 100
127 8,429 .769 2 7 18 30 44: 58 71 80 94 99 100 100
161 2,371 1.180 C 1 5 9 14 22 32 40 56 74 89 95
1)

i Less than 1 per cent.

NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH.

Tables 6 and 7 show for each of the occupations in anthracite and
bituminous coal mining the number and per cent of employees
working each specified number of starts (days or parts oi days)
during the half-month pay-roll period covered by the study. The
actual number of starts (days of operation or days of opportunity to
work) in the half month for each mine, as shown in Tables 13 and
14 (p. 42 to 50), were as high as 14 for employees of 13 of the 29



NUMBER OF START'S (BAYS) IK HAsLF MOSTTH.

15

anthracite collieries and as low as 7 for employees of 1 colliery, and
as high as 13 for employees of 52 of the 200 bituminous mines, and
as low as 3 for employees of 1 mine.
A very large percentage of employees in a few occupations are
shown as haying made more than 14 starts during the half month.
This is because starts were made on Sundays in addition to week
days or because starts were made in more than one shift on week
days. This was especially true of ashmen, engineers, firemen, and
pumpmen, 7-day-week occupations of three 8-hour shifts per day
in which some employees in a few collieries or mines worked every
day or worked in two or more shifts on one or more days during
the half month. Employees who worked in two shifts on any day
were counted as having made two starts on that day.




16

HOURS AND EARNINGS I N COAL M IN IN G .

T able 6.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN. REPRESENTATIVE ANTHRA
(DAYS ON WHICH EMPLOYEES WORKED) IN HALF
Number
of—
Occupation.

Number of employees whose starts (days cn which they worked
in half month) were—

Em­
Mines. ploy­ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Over
16.
ees.

In side w ork.

Miners, contract..............
Laborers, contract
miners’.........................
Total..........................
Cagers...............................
Car runners......................
Door tenders (boys).......
Drivers.............................
Engineers.........................
Laborers...........................
Laborers, company miners’ ................................
Laborers, consideration
miners’ .........................
Machinists.......................
Masons..............................
Miners, company............
Miners, consideration__
Motormen.........................
Motor brakemen.............
Pump men.......................
Timbermen......................
Trackmen........................
Other employees.............
Total..........................

29
29
29
12
21
28
22
26
27
24
29
25
11
15
16
25
12
27
27
26
20
27
29
29

6,209 31 42 30 29 52 78 109 393 297 692 996 864 1252 1311 17 13
3,383 200 138 70 86 94 101 136 148 173 360 432 449 506 478 8 2
9,592 231 180 100 115 146 179 245 541 470 1052 1428 1313 1758 1789 25 15
23
3 7 2 2
2 1 3 2
136
35 27 8 3
2 11 7 9 18
2
196
1 1 2 6 7 11 31 34 43 46 8 2
2
402 2 2 1
2 8 13 16 14 82 35 97 114 7 8
1 2 2 4 2 5 5 12 50 16 43 42 4
190 2
539 4 4 5 1 7 12 12 46 14 32 87 47 114 128 12 8
1
1
1 1 10 8 9 29 30 20 29
152
1,426 18 13 11 9 8 13 26 82 35 106 203 128 332 332 59 38
774 14 15 2 9 8 15 39 30 32 85 143 61 125 133 31 21
339 9 11 8 6 7 7 9 9 6 11 23 31 63 125 10 2
1 2 2 4 2 5 9 3
31
1 1
7 5 17 18
51
2
775 9 14 13 9 10 18 27 56 61 **73 80 64 124 162 *28 20
626 2 5 1 9 1 3 7 11 7 14 24 53 141 315 22 6
1
327
2 9 9 24 44 38 70 79 23 21
310 2 4
1
1 4 10 9 31 38 47 67 71 16 4
1"i 1
1 1 6 1 9 20 100
180
161 4 3
6 23 6 20 23 9 17 21 10 8
3 3
177
2 4 4 2 3 22 13 44 57 12 12
713 1 6 4 3 2 7 6 23 23 32 86 56 92 181 51 118
7,528 67 80 ! 48 53 52 86 156 342 243 493 974 670 1459 1902 352 407

25
29
26
26
22
26
29
29
23
29
27
27
28
25
14
26
28
22
29
29

67
64
100
221
87
85
203
249
109
1,349
187
89
69
181
94
410
181
60
1,074
4,879

O utside w ork.

Ash men...........................
Blacksmiths....................
Cagers...............................
Carpenters....... _..............
Car runners......................
Dumpers..........................
Engineers...................
Firemen...........................
.Tig-runners.......................
Laborers...........................
Loaders.............................
Machinists.......................
Oilers................................
Plate men........................
Repair men......................
Slaters (boys)..................
Timber cutters................
Trackmen........................
Other employees.............
Total..........................
i Including time for lunch.




1
2

1

1

i
1

8 9 16 7
1
1
1
3
2 2 1 1
1 1 1
1
"i 6 3 5
14 22 22 20

1
1
1 3
1 1 4 3 4
1 6 13
4 5 3
1 1 1 2
2 2
2 1
1
2
1
1
10 26 20 59 '70
1 1 3 3 8
1 1 2 2
1 3 3
1
1 5 3
2 1
2
2 4 21 7 5
2 4 10 6
1 1 4 3
3 5 18 26 16
23 46 80 142jl44

1
1 8
2 13
20 40
8 9
8 15
1 8
2
14 * ’5
102 161
5 13
2 7
9
*9 36
3 2
15 61
9 20
8 4
37 97
247 508

4
1
6
8
6
5
6
10
129
20
10
6
25
8
37
22
8
74
385

3 4 12 37
11 17 4 14
12 34 11 13
21 51 24 37
17 21 6 6
10 29 4 5
10 17 24 119
5 12 42 124
20 33 10 15
194 320 104 110
37 75 8 12
7 18 8 28
11 14 10 12
30 55 8 5
10 19 9 35
84 159 5 4
37 48 7 13
6 12 8 4
126 243 129255
65ljll81 433 848

3
2
5
1
2
1
6
13
13
11
2
3
7
5
7
5
39
5
2
22
144
8
1
11
55
4
2
2
30
113

17

NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH.

CITE COLLIERIES IN'PENNSYLVANIA MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS
MONTH, ENDING JANUARY 31, 1922, BY OCCUPATIONS.
Per cent of employees whose starts (days on which they worked in half
month) were—
Average
number
of starts
o ver (days).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16.
(2) 1 (2) (2) 1 1 2 6 5 11
6 4 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 1
1
2 2 1 1 2 2 3 6 5 11
9 4 13
1
1 8 5 7
1
1 1 1 3 4 6
2 •3 4 3
V 1 (2) (2)1 1 1 (2) 1 3 3 6
'
' '2
1 1 1 (2) 1 2 2 9 3 6
1
1
1 1 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 6 2 7
2 2 (2) 1 1 2 5 4 4 11
3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3
3 6
2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 3 7 8 "" 9
1
1 2
(2) 1 (2) 1 (2) (2) 1 2 3 7
3
(2)
1 1
(2)1 .... (2)1 1 3 3 10
1
4 14 4 12
2 2
2 2
2 2 1 2
1 1 (2) (2) l 1 3 3 4
(0
1 1 1 1 1 l 2 5 3 7
l
1 l

1
2
4 3
(2) 3
(2)
V2V
5 6
i
l 1 1
2
1
*"i (2)
(2)
l
(2)1
l
1 1 1 i l 2 1 4
i l 1 2 2
i
1 1 2
1 4
1
l
1 3
1

”2

2

1
(2)1 (2) (2) 1
2
(2) (2) (2) (2)
(2) (2) (2) 1

5 2
2 6
2 7

3

(2)1
"(*y
o)

(2)1
2
1
(2)

a Less than 1 per cent.




2
2

2
3

16 14
13 13
15 14
9
13 ” 16
16 17
20 9
26 8
16 9
5 6
14 9
18 8
7 9
6 13
14 10
10 8
4 8
13 12
12 15
1 3
14 6
12 7
12 8
13 9

1
5 2 13
4 2 13
6 9 18
3 9 10
2 9 18
1 (2) 4
1
13 ” 5
*5 8 12
4 3 7
2 2 8
4
13
2 ” 5 20
1 3 2
1 4 15
3 5 11
5 13 7
1 3 9
3 5 10

20
15
18
13
26
22
24
23
21
19
23
16
19
6
33
16
23
21
22

1
11
25
13
19,

21 (2)
14 (2)
19 (2)
30 9
20 6
23 4
28 2
22 2
24 2
20 13
23 4
17 4
37 3
16 29
35
21 ” ’4
50 4
24 7
23 5
5 11
13 6
32 7
25 7
25 5

!

4
9
2
1
1
2 (2)

1
19
3
3
1
10
4
3
1
6
1
56
5
7
17
5

1
9
1
1
1
10
1
1

2
2
22

3
1
3
2

55 12
2
22
13
17
7 7
5 6
12 59
5
17 50 22
9 14
8 8 (2)
4 6
9 31
2
14 17
4 3
1
10 37
1 1
4 7
13 7
12 24
3
17
2
9

4 6 18
6 17 27 6
1 12 34 11
3 10 23 11

9 20 24
7 12 34
2 5 8
2 2 5
9 18 30
10 14 24
11 20 40
11 8 20
9 16 20
14 17 30
9 11 20
9 20 39
12 20 27
13 10 20
7 12 23
8 13 24

(2) (2)
(2) (2)
(2) (2)

Average hours
per start (day)
based on—
Time Time
at
in
face.1 mine.

11.5
9.8
10.9
12.7
12.0
12.2
12.2
11.7
11.6
13.9
11.8
11.2
11.4
14.0
12.9
11.1
12.9
12.8
12.1
15.9
10.9
13.0
13.0
12.1

6.9
7.2
7.0
9.1
8.4
9.8
8.7
8.2
8.2
8.5
8.4
8.2
7.9
8.6
8.2
8.2
7.7
9.5
9.1
8.2
8.2
8.5
9.0
8.4

15.4
13.5
12.8
12.8
12.3
12.2
15.0
15.7
13.2
12.1
12.9
13.7
13.2
12.5
13.7
12.2
12.3
12.1
13.5
13.0

8.8
8.9
9.4
8.9
8.6

9.1
8.6

8.1

9.4
8.8

8.8
9.3
9.3
8.5
8.5
8.1
8.7
8.2
9.5

7.6
7.8
7.7

18

HOURS ABU) EARHTBTGS Off GOAL MUSHEG.

=Tasle 7.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES TH REPRESENTATIVE BX!TU
T
EMPLOYEES WORKED) IN SALF-MDNTH PAY-R0LL PE R I#® ,

Occupationand
State.

Number of- Number of employees whose starts were—on which they worked in
•halfmonth) (days
Em­
Mines. ploy-

10

11 12

13

15

m Ovei
16.

Inside work.
L oaders:
101
179
377
51
A lab a m a............. .
1,535
18 54 38
16
445
C olorado...............
198
429 457 468
118
4,257
IH inois...................
71
225 566
1,436
In d ia n a .................
152
269 337
2,540
-K entucky............
174
373
350 415 324
3,119
O h io.......................
599 413 732
472
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
5,650
221
3
44
295
U ta h .......................
W ash ington 3. .,
% § S
76
391 311 . 313 381
91
W est V ir g in ia ...
2r979
9
12 23 22
14
W y o m in g ...........
228
443 634 1406 4346 1926 1338 2271 2598 2876 2550 2552!
T o ta l.............
176 22,560
M iners, p ick or
h an d :
14
A lab am a.............
785
5§
12
C olorado...............
564
336
1,864
27
Illin o is..................
542
15
In d ia n a .............
8
K en tu ck y ............
223
2
47
O h io .......................
2.
151
P en n sy lv a n ia —
28
U ta h .......................
167
W ash in gton -----4
243
78
972
38
W est V irginia . . .
W y o m in g ........... .
2
124
659 577. 727 967. 1100 1179
129 157 301
T o ta l............
127 8,429
M iners, m achine:
A lab a m a ........... ..
146
11! 34
ill 7
13 11
C olorad o..............
-85
Illin o is............. ..
369
In d ia n a ............—
136
K e n tu c k y ............
268
354
O h io ......................
703
P e n n sy lv a n ia —
U ta h ......................
32
W est V irgin ia...
271
W y o m in g ...........
423
116 211 i 249 278 250
107 92
T o ta l................
161 2,371 34
3680
Grand t o t a l4. .
3209 3815 4254 3970
200:33,360'
827 18141821i
Brakem en:
A lab am a.........
28
139
1C olorado.............
29
37;
Illin o is..................
216
I n d ia n a ................
88
3
K e n tu c k y — ...
13
143
7
O h io......................
65
74
P e n n s y lv a n ia ..
319
U ta h .......................
13
~7
W ash in gton -----13
21 43
32
41
305
6 4 11
W est V irginia—.
:2
W yo m in g...........
2
181 1,333 32 24 27 50 51 90 79 104 146 150 149 165 188
T otal.................
B rattice m en and
tim berm en:
A lab am a.............
5
19
2
C olorado..............
2
33
32
Illin o is..................
8 j 13
197
2
In d ia n a ................
4! 4
53
K en tu ck y ............
58 2
7.*
10! 18
1 In clu d in g tim e for lunch.
2 Less th an 1 per cen t.
8 Loaders also do m achine m in in g in th is State.




6

45
179
8

1$
2

6

1
394

8*i...
—

33

48

00

21
IS

31

10

7

20

1

...

IQ

98 43 35
4
8
5
3 Q

I

3
~2- 1 2
2

11

i

1

8

43 ll! 9

NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IK HALF MONTH.

19

M IN O T T 3 M IN E S M A K IN G E A C H S P E C IF I E D N U M B E R O F S T A R T S {D A Y S O N W H IC H
I N T H E W IN T E R O F 1921-22, B Y O C C U P A T IO N S A N D S T A T E S .




20
stable

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.
7.—N U M B E R

A N D P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S I N R E P R E S E N T A T I V E BITU
E M P L O Y E E S W O R K E D ) IN H A L F -M O N T H P A Y -R O L L P E R IO D ,

on w
N um ber of— N u m b er of em p loyees w hose astarts (d ays ere— h ich th e y w orked in
h lf m on th ) w
O ccupation an d
State.

Em ­
M ines. p lo y­ 1 2 3
ees.

Inside work—Con.
B ra ttice m en and
tim b e r m en—
C ontinued.
O h io........................
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
U ta h ........................
W ash in gton .........
W est V ir g in ia ...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l...................
Cagers:
A lab a m a ...............
C olorado................
I llin o is....................
I n d ia n a ..................
K e n tu c k y .,.........
O h io____.................
P en n sy lv a n ia -.. .
W ash in gton .........
W est V ir g in ia ...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l.. ...............
-D rivers:
A la b a m a ................
C olorado................
Illin o is....................
In d ia n a ..................
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io .: ....................
P e n n s y lv a n ia .. .
U ta h ........................
W ash in gton .........
W e st V ir g in ia ...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l...................
Laborers:
A labam a................
C olorado................
Illin o is....................
Indiana...................
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io ........................
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
U ta h ........................
W ash in gton .........
W est V irgin ia...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l...................
M otorm en:
A lab am a................
C olorado................
Illin o is....................
In d ia n a ..................
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io........................
P en n sy lv a n ia . . .
U ta h ........................
W ash in gton .........
W est V irg in ia ...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l...................

24
' 40
4
4
41
3
181
1
5
22
12
2
10
21
1
8
1
83

139
268
13
39
155
12
986

2
i
3

5
3
1
1

4

5

6

7

8

4
1
1

3 8 9 6 6
5 14 6 2 7
1 1
1 4
*2 1 1
2 5 12 11 10 9
1
14 13 13 19 46 51 31 38

6
13
62 1
22
1
4
3
27
35
1
2
12}
2
185 1 4 1

1

3

2

4
1

3

4
2
3
1
2

3
5
1
1
1

4
"7
6
2
11
7

9 354
7
57
20 444
11 145
20 326
21 152
42 923
3
22
4
58
40 461
4
25
181 2,967

4 4
1
1
‘ *6 5
19 11
4 21
17 10
2
14 9
1
64 65

110
17
169
72
177
90
314
16
19
307
5
183 1,296

11
34
4
11
4
30
2
7
31
1
56 81 92 135

10 6
1 1
3 9
4 3
10 10
6 9
7 34
2
13 '**9

3
1
1
2
3
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Over
16.

11 10 12
23 8 17
1
1 3
"*8 13 18
1 1
67 78 109
4
6
1
3
2

1
4
2
1
1
3
1

5
2
2
1
3

11
1
13
6
10
10
27
2
12

9
14
10
13
5
20
2
4
27
1
105

2 1 3 2 5
1 1
3 1 2 2 3 6 “ i6
1
1 3
9 2 8 4 6 5 3
1 1 4 4 7 2 5
4
4 17 18 13 10
4 3 3
1
W5 1 6 7 3 17 16

10
6
18
10
9
15
10
3
28
1
110

27
5
26
12
11
12
32
4
1
23
1
154

39
24
45
26
31
25
21
1
3
19

16
16
51
24
27
25
42
3
31
3
234 238

30
2
24
7
20
5
23
1
1
47

51
1
44
7
31
11
69
1
2
39

57
5
72
22
35
10
43
4
2
48
2
300

65
6
63
19
39
13
44
4
4
55
1
160 256 313

16 8
43 8
12 5
25 6
2 2
162 49

20
1
14
14
20
8
29
2
31

19
7
8
13
21
4
25

34
2
12
16
21
8
35

1

44 29

2

1

1
1
1 1
3; 8 3

1
29
85
6
16
47
74

10 14
10
9
"5

1 2
1 3 1
1
1

2 5
9 21
2 3
1
2 9
8 9
1
2 1

1

1
8
16
2
11
10
12

27 2 2 1
2 3 5 1
287 65 40 20

52
6
56
20
47
18
108
3
13
59
4
386

35
14
72
16
39
19
183
1
13
76
3
471

5
7
24
3
12
7
35
2
4
12
6
117

1
1“
37
4
24
16
78
1
8
51
1
222

’i
12
5
6
3
14
3
8
1
53

2
7
9
1
5
8
1

1
5
1

8
8
73
8
19
44
69
12
37
5
283

11
1
28
6
33
10
39
1
4
32 45 44
1
23 5 26 40 44 50 58 97 139j 129 173 178
10
1
16
2
8
5
14
2
39

* L ess th a n 1 p er c e n t.
6 N o t in clu d in g d a ta for 79 em p loy ees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.
7 N o t in clu d in g d a ta for 2 em p lo y ee s, sta r ts for w h om w ere n o t rep orted .



15
42
3
4
26
4
142

8 1 11 11 16 13 13 26 49
2

3 4 1 3 1 4
3
3 7 7 6
1 ’ *8 7 10 20 22
5 3 2 6 17 10
2 3 8 15 11 3
5 9 11 21 15 13
4 3 24 24 46 13
2 1 5 15 19 4
4 3 3 5 14 18 40
1
1
2
42 28 34 67 115 156 115

7 125
8 131
19 403
9 139
8 174
20 281
23 472
4
54
1
19
22 257
4
25
125 2,080

7
6
19
10
20
25
42
3
4
46
1

9

io
1

2
1

3

3
9
6
7
18
6
22
2
9
5
87

1
3
9
5
1
4
11
1
i
36

2
1
6
4
5
2
5
2
1
2
30

1
2
2
10
.3
1
1

2
1

20

3

1
3
1
1
6

21

NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH,

MINOTTS MINES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS ON WHICH
IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22, BY OCCUPATIONS AND STATES—Continued.
A verage hours
per start (d ay)
based on—
A verage
of starts
o ver (d ays). T im e T im e
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ID.
at
in
1A
face. m ine.

P er cen t of em ployees w hose starts (d ays on w hich th ey w orked in half
m on th ) were— 8
9

1

2

1

3

4

4

3

6

5

2

6

8
2

2
8
1

1
3
1

3
8
3

7
8
8

2

1

1

2

5

2

6

5

2
11
3
1

2

25

1

3 2
2
2 (2) ”
4 U4
1 1
4 2
2 1
2
4
2
1

*2
2
2
3
1
4 2
1 1
1

1
2
(2)
3
3
14
1
9
2
4
2

2

8

7

3
5
7
8
6

9

4 8
1 4 12
8 31
3 3
6 6 5
4

7

3

3
8
8
9

4

10. ol.

1

1 2 1 3 8 22 31 13 6 1 1 2 1
2
2 5 5 5 5 4 18 12 6 22 6 5
2 2 5 5 4 6 11 13 18 21 4 2 ’ i
1 4 12 7 7 9 19 17 6 4 1 1 1
1
5 9 6 2 5 6 18 16 11 9 6 3
4 7 5 5 5 4 9 9 16 17 4 3 ’ “ 4
6 6 12 3 3 8 5 11 18 19 3 (2) (2)
9 28 35 7 6 7 2
5 16 16 63
2 5 7 16 11 9 7 12 14 11 1 1 (2)
12 20 8 12 20 4
4
4 4
8
3 6 8 6 6 8 12 12 14 14 3 2 1 (2)

9.1
10.5
10.4
8.3
9.6
9.6
8 9.5
5.8
11.4
9.1
11.3
s 9.5

8.4
7 . 9 .............
8.3
7.8
8.3
7.9
8 8.3
7.7
8.0
8.1
8.0
8 8.2 !.............

15
11
13
14
14
12
16
14
22
13
16
14

10 1 1 (2)
25 12 16 5
16 5 1 2
11 2 5 3
1
12 4 6 (2)
12 5 4 3
27 5 3 2 (2)
5 9
22 7 3 2
2
16 3 2
(2)
12 24 20 ’ **4
17 4 3 1 (2)

9.7
12.1
10.4
9.7
9.4
8.6
9 10.3
9.5
10.7
9.4
12.4
9 9.9

8 .1 . . . .
8 . 0 .............
8 . 2 ______
8.1
7.1
8.0
9 8.2
7.8
8.0
8.1
8.0
9 8 .0 1.............

10
6
17
8
19
11
13
1 6
1
21
10 15 14
20
8 11 10 13 14

1
2
6 *6 6
22 7 4 1
1
1
6 7 6 3
14 3 3 1
18 3 2 11
25 5 2 1
6
42 16 11 5
17 3 (2) (2)
20 20 40
17 4 2 2 (2)

9.7
10.2
10.5
10.8
9.7
10.1
1010.0
6.8
12.8
9.8
13.8
10 10.1

8.0^
8.0 . . .
8 . 5 .............
8 . 0 ...........
8 .4 1.............
8 . 3 .............
10 8.4'. ..
7 . 8 .............
8.1 .
. a _
8.0
10 8 .4 !.............

2

4

7

6

6

4
5
9
4
2
6
3

2 ( 2)

1 3 2
6 6
1 2 4
1
2 3 3
4 8 2
6 6 4
25 19 19
5
2 2 1 6

2 (2)

2

4

1
1
1

8.0
e 8.4
7.8
8.0
8.2 ,..............
8.0 1. .. .
6 8. ll .............

3
50
50 50
2 4 2

5

2
1
5
1
1

10.3
e 10.6
7.5
12.6
9.8
12.1
6 10.4

5

3 2
2 2
1 2
3 2
3 3
4 6
1 5
3
3 *2
2

12 6 7 10
23 4 5
31 13
23
16 4 ' “ 3
1
17 17
*” s
18 5 5 3 ( 2)

10.2
11.8
10.6
10.5
8.5
8.8
7 10.3
14.0
9.7
15.5
7 10.3

3

2

11
22
23
10
17
33
16

83 17
15 38
23
8 5 6 3 6 15 34
5 5 27 9 9 9 14
25 25
25
4 7 4 4 4 7 33
9 24 27
3 9 9
50
8 17 25 8 17 8

3 8
4
3 5
7 5
4 6
3 3
3 3
9 5
7 2
6 10

3

9
9
8
8
12
8
12

2
5

6
9
i5 11
6 3 3
17

3 3
2
3 8
4 3
3 3
7 3
4 4
9
3 12
3 7

'“ 4
6
3
2

7

4

3

4

2
1
5
4
1

3

3

4

4

6

9
6
9
3
5
6
5
13
5 13

9

7

14
2
10
5
10
7
10
5
3
8

18
11
14
13
12
9
6
18
7
12

18
6
8
19
11
9
9
13
10

17
41
5
18
12
4
8

7 14 27

16
9
16
15
11
7
6
18
3
10
4 8
9 11 11
31
12
7
22
12
9

8 15
2 5
5

8 N ot in clu d in g d ata for 89 em p loyees, sta rts for w hom w ere not rep orted .
9 N ot in clu d in g data for 237 em p loy ees, starts for w h om w ere not reported.
19 N ot including data for 6 em p loy ees, starts for w hom w ere not reported.



7.7
8.9
8.4
8.6
8.2
7 8.9 .
8.0
8.4
8.0
7 8.6

8

22

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL M INING.

T able 7.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN REPRESENTATIVE BITU
EMPLOYEES WORKED) IN HALF-MONTH PAY-ROLL PERIOD,
ose
ays on
N u m b er of—i N u m b er of e m p loy ees w hh a lf starts (dw ere— w h ich th e y worked. In
m on th )
Btate.

Em­
M ines. p loy­ 1 2 3
ees.

Inside work—Con.
P u m p m en:
C olorado................
O h io___ t ...............
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
U ta h ....................
W ash in gton .........
W est V ir g in ia ...
W y o m in g .. . . . . .
T o ta l...................
T rackm en:
A lab a m a........... ....
C olorado................
In d ia n a ..................
K e n tu c k y .............;
O h io.........................
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
U ta h ........................
W a sh in g to n .. . . .
W est Virginia-..

W yom ing............

T o ta l................... 1
T rappers (b oys): ;
A lab am a................
C olorado................
Illinois..................
I n d ia n a ..................
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io ........................
P en n sy lv a n ia __
W est V ir g in ia ...
T o ta l...................
O ther em ployees:
A lab am a................
C olorado................
U liiuois....................
In d ia n a ..................
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io ........................
P en n s y lv a n ia . . .
U ta h ........................
W ash in gton .........
W est V ir g in ia ...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l...................

s
7
13
9
15
21
41
3
3
32
4
157

62 1
10
23
28
39
1
43
152 1 3 1
6
5
79 2 1 1

5
4
16
9
6
22
12
29
103
8
8
22
12
20
21
44
4
4
41

l
1

452 4 5 2

29
12,
72
41
15;
84;
36,
104
393

2
2
6
3

i

1
1
2 4
2
1 2
4
2"i

3 6

l

1

7 ; 8

2
1
1

2

2

1

4
1

1

1

i __

5

2

6

1

3>

4
2
2
4
5
1

7 21-

4 6c
7 6
O &
9 18

2
«= 7

2
g

17, 17 lli 24 43 6t
1
1

4 5

4

1

7
I

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Over
16.

9

1

l
2

5

10
58
8
38
22 301
11 108
19 159
25 111
44 287
4
20
4
17
47: 274
4
20
198 1,393

6

4 ; 5

2
1
0

4 16

7 12 1
1
1
5 4
3 2 6 2
7 3 10 3
3 2 9 3
2 14 19 15
l
1
7 3 7 7 IS 9
1
21 20 31 36 . 77 39
7 12
1
1 1
2
1 2
1
2 *"‘I

1 2 10 10
1
4 3
7 lli 24 23
4 4 O 19
4 9 7 11
2 3 9 7
12 14 10 15
2 3 2 %
2
16 31 26 35

7

11
3
43,
It
30
8
22
2
1
29

5
4
4
8

1
4
30

1
3
14
3
2

82 79

23

4

8 4
9 5 8
71 23 g 8
7 9 4 4
23 7 10 4
27 4 5 9
59 19 12 8.
1 1. 1
1
6 3 2
4b 49 13 2 1;
1 8 8
3
49 77 104 127 160 21& 257 88 58 43
1

1 l!
7 IS
1 4” 6

O 2
L 1 1
7
3 4 6: 12 11
4 9

t

4

5

2 1
3 6 17 23 31
1 2 *"*2 1 2
1 2
9 9 21 14 18 " i s 13 31
1 1 5 5 6 8 12 2
14 10 13 7 14 20 21 29
10 4
4 4 23: 17 21;
28 30 '*32 21 9 45 28 36
2 9 5 6 4 4 6
1
4 3 11 11 16 15 29 19
1
3
1 2 3
70 02 93 74 80 151 150 181

29
10
32
9
38
11
96
5
1
23
9
263

21
17
87
14
49
25
204
3
9
53
9
491

1
1
6 2
s 6 5
41 45 28
2
16 5 12
4
16 24 5
5 9 12
44 25 34 7
1 6
5 2 12
9 t 10
3
9
-13
151 144 131J 16

Outside work.
B lack sm ith s:
1 3
10
A lab am a................
18
8
14
C olorado................
I
Illinois..................
1 1 2 3 1
22
56
1 3
12
In d ia n a ..................
18
1
1 2 5
K e n tu c k y .............
18
29
1
1 2
O hio ....................
25
43
5
3
41
2 "l 1 3 5 2 3 “ *4 4
84
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
4
2
U t a h .....................
5
2 L ess th an 1 per een t.
11 N ot in clu d in g d ata for 30 e m p lo y ee s, sta rts for w h om w ere not reported.




1

1 14

5

1
2 2 9
3 3 3
0 7 11 14 17
1 1 2 3
3 3 5 2 16
i 1 1
6 3 * 'ii 15 6 10 15 17 18
8 10 4 23 19 29 . 23 33 39 41 49 45 69

4

3
3
3
7
3
9
38
2
11

7
4
42
24
30
17
40
2

i 4 1 10

144 1 2
54
376
4
105 "*i 2
283 10 9
169 10 10
791 3 4
54 1 3
32 1
219 1 ” 4
4 67
i
188 2,294 31 39

4
4
6
2
6:
11
35
3
6

3
1
1
5
2
5
1

7 2 2
1 8 1 2
6 12 10 12
4
3 4
7 5 "2 1
5 ib 3 5
9 21 3 7
2

8
2
6

4

NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH.

23

SCKOTO MINES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS ON WHICH
IN THE'WINTER OF 1921-22, BY OCCUPATIONS AND STATES—Continued.
A verage hours
per start (d ay)
A verage i based on —
num ber _________________
of starts
(d ays). T im e T im e
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Over
at
in
16.
face. m in e.

P er cen t of em p lo y ees w hose starts (d ays on w hich th ey w orked in half
m on th ) were—

2

1

4

3

6

2 2
4 ....

2
....

5

2 ....
2

2
1

7

3
4
8
1

8

9

11
" ’4
11 ”
18
7
1
17
4 9

i

5

4

1
7

11 19
10
” 22
’7 21
8 26
5 21
9 13
17
9 19

2
10
17
7
8
7
10

6
40
26
7
15
26
24
50
11 8
20 80
17 9 18
8

5
30
13
25
8
21
25
40
14

3
9
60
3

17

5

1

1

1 (2)

1
2
4
3
*5
1

1 1
2
1 i
4 1 ‘ **1
2 (2)

2 5 2 $ 17 17 19 12 14 7
3
11 8 8 11 24 13 21
1 2 7 2 "*4 8 8 14 14 24 8 3 3 ( 2)
2 4 6 4 4 6 18 10 22 6 8 4 4
1 4 4 3 6 4 7 19 19 14 4 6 3
4 5 3 2 3 8 6 7 15 24 4 5 8
2 4 7 5 5 6 6 0 16 23 7 5 3 2
10 10 15 1© 10 10 10 5 5 5
5
12 6 35 18 12
’i i
6
2 3 3 6 11 9 13 11 15 18 5 ” ’i (2)

T

1

2

.1
” '4
4
6
.(2) :

1— -

2
3

1
1
2
3

6
1
2 6
3
(2) ‘ “ ’2
1
1 2

1

8 11 19
10
4 4
14 7
8 3 3 "*S
2
1 1 1 "*i
8

1

1 (2) t

9

3

3
1
10 "12
1 s
1 1
2 3

1

8

1

3

i

5|! 4

6

8

14
3 3 48
8
8 8
1 10 io 21
4
"7
2 2 10 " i s 17 10
13
7
1 12 4 4 4
7
3 3 6 8
3 8
1
6 3 " i i 14 6
1 6 5 7 6 8 10

1
5
1
2
i

1
2
2
1
5
6
4

3

% 2
i
ii . 3!

1
4 '” 4
2 6
1 5
4 5
2
5 '” 5
4 17
1 5
3j

4

2

2
4
5
2
2
3
9
5
4
3

4 12
4
5 " ’5
6 8
5 7
2 14
1 7
9 7
7 7
1
4 i

7

15
9 12 16 19

21
8
6
22
12
8
6
10
10

7
8
8 " ii
60
13 17
14 6
14 16
12 11

16 22
2 4
3 8
11 2
r 10
i§ 12
4 6
7 11
3
13 9
3 4
7 8

20
19
9
9
13
7
15
9
3
11
13
12

2




2

4

8. Q

8.5

8.1
8.0
8.1
8.1
10.3
8.4
10.5
10.7
8.1
ii 11.0 ii 78.2.,
9.1
.9
11.5
10.0
14.9

8 .0 ...............
8 .2 ...........
8 .Q .. . . . . . .

ii 10.7

7
20
44
17
18 (2)
1
11 9
12 7
5 11
8 2
5 7
4 5
11
6 38
3 5
19 19
7 6

1
4
1
4
1

n 8.2

8.3
11.2
8.6
6.6
10. 5
9 .2
10.5
9.7
9.1

6 17 17 39 11 11
7 7 57 7 14
Hi 21 18 21 14
5 2
0 17 22
6 17!
22 11
3 7 17 17 24 1.7 " '7 3
3
2 .5
2
7 .... 12 5 12 23 7 12 14
5 7: 12 28 4 9 5;
i 3 ” i 1 4 7i 3 4
40 20
40
12 N ot in clu d in g data for 137 em ployees, starts -for w h om w ere n o t rep orted.
13 N ot including data for 9 em ployees, starts far w ham were n ot reported.

7

M
7.9
8.8
8.3

12.2
10.8

5 40 40
6 4 3 ( 2)

4
9
11
10
§
3
7
2
16
4
13
7

11.9

8.5
8.0

O. *1
8.5
8.3

10.4

58
15

15
31
23
13
17
15
31
6
28
24
13
23

10.9
14.4
13.0
12.7
12.6
14.0
13.9
12.8
19.2
14.8
13.0

8.1
8 .0
8.0
7.9
7.6
7.8
8 .2
7 .0
7 .9

10.7
12.3
11.5

8 .2 ,
8 .0 .
8 .2 .

10.8
10.1

11.1

9.6
1
2
9.1
13.6
10.6
13.3
12 10. 9
11.7
12.5
13.1

12.6
12.0

11.2

111.0
311.4

8. 0 .
8. 6 .
8.0

12 8. 4 .
7.9
8.1 .
8 .4

8. 1.

12 8.-3

8. 2 ..

9.2 ..
8 .9 ..
9 .0 .
8 .4 -.
8 .3 ..
13 8. 8 ..
8.0 ..

24

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

T able 7.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OE EMPLOYEES IN REPRESENTATIVE BITU
EMPLOYEES WORKED) IN HALF-MONTH PAY-ROLL PERIOD,

O ccupation and
S tate.

N u m b er of—

N u m b er of em ployees w hose starts (d a y s on w h ich th e y w orked in
h a lf m on th ) w ere—

Em­
M ines. p lo y ­ 1 2 3
ees.

5

4

6

ver
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 O16.

8

7

O u tsid e work—

C ontinued.
B la ck sm ith s—Con.
r W ash in gton .........
W est V ir g in ia ...
W y o m in g .............
T o ta l...................
Carpenters:
A lab am a...............
C olorado................

- Illinois..................
Indiana................
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io___ 1.............
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
U ta h ........................
W est V irgin ia. . .

W yom ing.. .

T o ta l...................
E ngineers:
Alabam a...........
' C olorado..............

Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky__

-

O h io......................
P en n sylv an ia
U ta h . .
W ashington___
W est Virginia. . .

W yoming..........

T o ta l .............
F irem en:
Alabama............
Colorado T _
Illin o is..................

Indiana
K entucky..........

O h io ..
P en n sy lv a n ia ...

1 Utah Virginia ,
Washington
West

W yom in g.
T o ta l...................
Laborers:
A lab a m a...............
C olorado................
Illin o is....................
In d ia n a ............. .
K e n tu c k y .............
O h io......................
P e n n s y lv a n ia .. .
- U ta h ......................
- W ash in gton ........
' W est V ir g in ia ...
•* W yo m in g.............
T o ta l...................

4

191

6
61 2
5
339 3 4 1

8
3
20
6
18
17
37
4
4
38
2
157

1
33
6
40
1
12
40
28 1 1
166
10
15
74
3
427 1 3

7
8
22
8
7
18
32
3
4
16
4
129

11
20
1
68
16
8
1 1 *’*i
23
71 2 2
3
14
28
5
267 2 2 1 2 l

6
5
20
5
2
8
18
1
2
9
3
79

25
l
9
87
1 1
15
9
18 2
1 1
114 1
1
9
31
9
327 3 ... 2 2 l

43
4

10 203
8 97
21 337
12 115
20 198
24 227
42 573
4 71
4 62
46 498
4 26
195 2,407

6
3
7
4
13
8
1
8

1
4
4
4
8
9
2
7

3

2

1

6

8

7

1
2

2
2 2
2 1
1
4 11
1
2

1 2
8 16 15
2
5 12 13 27 26 57 81 21
1

1

2

8

2
2
1
8

5

4
1

7

1 4
1 1
6 11
1
3 7

4
3
8

4

1

2

1

9

2 10 20 16 16 29 31

8

3
1
5
7
5
3
1
9
1
50 39 43

6 2
2
7 23
4 2
6 3
15 12
20 18
1 4
2
18 " i3
2 1
81 80

2

3

.

9

4
1

1

1
2

1

2

4

1
3
2
1
2

2

2
1

1
1
3

1

4
4
1

2

1

....

3

4

6
2
35
5
7
4
27
5
2
23
1
117

11
3
15
4
8
3
21
3
3
41
3
115

26
3
16
12
10
11
7
5
2
48

2

5 11
38
7
25
9
22
18
35
4
1
42

4

1 2
17
3
1
4
4
4
12 ” "8 13
1 1
1
3 4 10
1
46 14 53

4
37
10
7
12
13
8
3
94

1 8 1 1
1
5 12 20 i6
1 1 4 4
1
2 2 2
2 *3 4
1 2 9 21 29
1
1
1 3 8 "*7
4
8 12 37 59 67

2
6
19
3
1
3
22
8
8
5
77

i

2
3
5
1
” ’i

* 6 10 15

1

'10
8
1

5

37 26
18 1
13 27
14 16
21 18
25 22
17 42
10 8
3 3
48 62
1 ....
140 201 207 225

2 L ess th an 1 per cen t.
6 N o t including d ata for 8 em p loyees, starts for w h om w ere n ot reported.
13 N o t in clu d in g d ata for 9 em p loy ees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.
14 N o t including data for 22 em p loyees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.




4 3 5
1 1- 2
1
2 4 13 * 4 3, 7
1
2 1 4 1
3 4 11 7 *2
3 5 7 2 2 1
11 11 43 16 6 4
1
3 2 2
*2 6 3 1 1
7 12 27 1
1 1 1
34 44 122 37 17 14

1
1

1 2
2
1 2
35 24

22
11
40
16
23
25
91
11
9
99
1
348

8
30
66
7
50
47
156
13
25
68
1
471

1
13
27
7
9
12
30
3
4
7
2
115

2
5
21
3
7
5
26
1
3
4
5
82

3
2
12
3
1
10
1
1
8
41

2
1
2
2
7

5
1
3
3
12

1

1

25

NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALE MONTH.

MINORS MINES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS ON WHICH
IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22, BY OCCUPATIONS AND STATES—Continued.
P er cen t of em ployees w hose starts (d ays on w hich th ey w orked in half
m on th ) w ere—
1

2

4

3

5

6

8

7

9

5

3

2

2

2

1 (2)

2

2

2

2

4

3

6
5 5
5 3
4
1 3 8
10
13
1
3

3
1

4

3
8 17
4
3
3
1

(2)

2

2 (2)

5

A verage
num ber
of starts
Over (d ays).
10 11 12 13 14'. 15 16 16.

17 33
3 13 13 26 25
40
4 8 8 17 25

6 15 12 21 12 9
17
17 17
5
5 10
17 8
3 3 10 10 8 10
4 4 11 11 18
6 4 8 6 8 8
10
10
” i3
4 4 9 12 9 16
33
4 4 7 8 8 11
36

1
3

1

3

4

4

1 (2) (2)

1 (2)

11
7

7

1

11
1

4

4
3

4

2

2 (2)
2

1

18 36
50 5 10 20
12
25 54
*6 6
19 63
13
25 50
13 17
17 30
8 19 1.3 21 19
33 33
33
7 93
4
11 14 36 29
"*20
20 60
4 6 18 5 20 36

8 4 16 20 4 32
11
1 3 5
6 14
7 7
11 22 22 22
11
11
6
1 2 10

3
1

1

2

8
67
22
20
11
17
24
89
26
56
25

3
6
3
7
3
6
16
3
10
4

1 (2)

3 (2)
1 1
6 3
2 2
6 4
2 2
2 3
2 1

4
1
1
3
3
1
4
2
2
4
2

1 1
3 1 3 5 13 19 18 13 11 4 (2)
2 2 3 3 7 19 1 11 31 13 5 2
2 7 10 4 5 7 4 8 12 20 8 6 4
3 2 4 3 10 8 12 14 14 6 6 3 3
1
3 2 4 4 5 11 11 9 12 25 5 4 1
7 5 2 1 5 8 11 10 11 21 5 2
4 3 5 4 1 7 3 8 17 30 6 5 2
1 6 7 4 7 6 14 11 15 18 4 1
3
3 5 3 2 5 5 15 40 6 5 2
4 * 3 5 8 10 8 10 12 20 14 1 1 (2)
1 4 4 8 19 31
8 4 4 12
4
3 3 5 5 6 9 9 10 15 20 5 3 2 (2)

15 N o t in clu d in g d a ta for 24 em p loyees, starts for w hom w ere n ot reported.
16 N ot in clu d in g d a ta for 51 em p loy ees, sta rts for w h om w ere n o t reported.




8.1
8.6
8.8
13

8G
.

8.5
8.9
8.5

12.5
6 12.4
13.7
15.
15.0
15.0

8.9
5 8.5
8.4

5 13.9

5 8.7

11.9
13.8
14.0
13.1
12.6
12.4
is 14.2
15.0
15.8
14.7
15.6
15 13.9

9.1
10.4
9.4
9.0

8.2
8.1
n 12.29 H 8.5
10. 8.2
8.5
7.8
12.9
8.3
10.9
8.2
13.0
1 11.1 14 8.4
4
8.4
11.5
8.6
13.6
15.0
8.1
8.8
15.4
12.8
8.5
11.2

1

2

3

4 4
11
23 " i s
27 27
11
"l7 22
23 32
100
11
3 10 26 "*23
44
4 12 19 22

T im e
at
face.

9.7
12.3
10.3
11.5

12.2

1

2

4

14.2
10.6
14.2
!3 11.7

15
17
33
33 **io 8 18
8
33 8
28 18 "**5
25 7 7 4
30 11 4 3
30 20 20
40 20 7 7
36 1
33 33
30 9 4 3

9
15
3
13
3 3

1
*2

17 33
3
20 40
6 11 7

A verage hours
per start (d ay)
based on —

8.2

11.0
9.7

8.0
8.6
15 8.2
8.5
8.1
9.6
8.0
158.5
9.1
8.1
8.7
11.6
10.3
8.3
9.4
8.2
10.2
8.2
9.3
1610.8 16 8.0
8.8
9.9
7.8
11.1
8.1
8.4
9.6
11.
8.0
1 10.1 16 8.4
6

T im e

^6
H o u its m® u a b n o t g b m i m m i s m e l
Takle 7.—NUMBER AND PEE OENTWORKED) .INSALE-M0.NTH PAYROLL PERIOD,2
EMPLOYEES OP EMPLOYEES IN REPKE&ENT&'IWE BETS'
ays
N u m b er of— N u m b er n f em p loyees whhose starts) (dere—on w h ich th e y w orked in
a lfm o n th w

1
1

1
1

State.

E m -:
M ines. p lo y- 1 2 3
ees.

4

5

6

8

7

t o ’ 11 12 13 14 15 16 Over
16.

9

Outside work—

C oncluded.
O ther em ployees:
10 185 1 2 1 6 3
A lab a m a ...............
68
-Colorado..............
7
Jil in m s....................
21 247 3
2 2 2
12 87 3 i 3
•Indian a..................•
2 4
20 258 5 1
K e n tu c k y .............
25 160 6 3 2 3 3
•O hio........................
42 713 7 :3 4 13 30
P e n n s y lv a n ia ...
4
45
2
U ta h .......................
2 3
” *i
WashbrgtOTi__ _
4 •69 *1
44 371 1 2 % a *’*5
W est V ir g in ia ...
__ { I
4
48
W y o m in g ...........
1
1
193 2,242 27 15 17 30 50
T o ta l...................
T otal:
In sid e w ork ......... 118 200 13,379 236 210 204 382 482
200 6,009 •86 63 73 123 15Q
O u tside w o r k .. .

5

8
4
2
28
I

6 12 •27 •23
3 3 4 3
3 8 6 8 13
3 1 2 11: 5
8 11 16 38 37
9 13 14
3
7 " is 44 14 28
1 6 1 5 7
1
5
13 20 17 "29 35
6

35
24
62
14
50
28
170
1
14
91
3
498

7 9 14

9 9 6
20 37 30
6 11 22
13
7
44
3
4

1
1
2
1

17 9
15 25
89 61
6
6 17
21 18 24
12 13 11
146 230 219

17

689 54$ 726 1093 1255 1403 174Q 227SI 6od 510 370
203 187 243 36C 433 474j 783 1253 m 484 469

60
37

1

1
9

75
3
63 44 70 112 151 171 307
13

1

1

i

2 L e ssth a n 1 per cen t.
17 N ot m ohid m g -data for 75em f>loyees, starts for -whom w ere -not reported.
“ E x clu siv e of loaders, h a n d or p ick m in ers, an d m ach in e m iners.




27
7
41
6
40
26
72

1

9

1

2

27

NUMBER OB’ STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH.

MIHOUS MINES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS ON WHICH
IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22, BY OCCUPATIONS AND STATES—Concluded.
A verage hours
Per cen t of em ployees w hose starts (d ays on w hich th ey w orked in half
per start (d a y )
m on th ) were—
based on—
A verage
of starts
im
im
Over (d ays). T at e T in e
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16.
face. m ine.

11.1
12.9
12.5
12.7
11.1
11.6
w 11.9
10.1
13.3
11.5
13.7
1711.8

8 .5
8.9
8.4
8 .4
8.5
8.2
17 8.8
7.8
8.1
8.7
8.1
17 8.5

6
4

9 10 11 14 18
6 7 8 13 22

4
8

3 (2)
1
8

19 10.2
20 11.3

19 8.2
20 8.5

1

’i
2
2

2

3
2

4
3

5
4

4
3

2
1
2
2
5
4

1

2
1

2
1

2
1

3

1
8
9
12 (2)
2
25
3
16
i
1
10
2
28
6
1
23
10
1

3 3
4
1 3
3 1
3 4
2
1 " '2
2 13
4 5

1
1
1
1
1
7

”i

6 15 12 15 19 4 5
4 6 4 10 35 13 13
2 4 5 17 25 8 15
2 13 6 7 16 7 13
6 15 14 16 19 5 7
6 8 9 16 18 4 9
7 2 4 11 27 7 14
2 11 16 2 16 7 13
8 15 23 7 10
2
5 **'8 9 20 25 6 5
2 2 2 6 6 25 27
5 7 8 14 23 7 11

3
3
2
1
4
2
2
4
2
3

1 1
i
&
2 t)
4 2
1 (2)
4
*2
1
(2)
2
1 1

3
1
x
2
2
" *2
1 1”

5
7

19 N ot in clu d in g d ata for 588 em p loyees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.
29 N ot in clu d in g d a ta for 189 em p loyees, sta rts for w h om w ere not reported.




HOURS AND DARNINGS IN COAL MINING*

28

Table 8 presents cumulative percentages for the employees in the
basic occupations who made each specified number of starts in the
half month covered. “ Starts,” as here used, means the number of
days on which the employee did some work, regardless of whether he
worked the whole day or only a part thereof.
It will be observed that only 17 per cent of contract miners and
34 per cent of contract miners’ laborers in anthracite coal mining
worked on 9 days or less during the half month, while 54 per cent of
loaders, 47 per cent of pick or hand miners, and 43 per cent of ma­
chine miners in bituminous coal mining worked on 9 days or less.
As shown in Tables 13 and 14 (pp. 42 to 50), only 2 of the 29 anthra­
cite collieries for which data are presented were in operation 9
days or less, while 76 of the 200 bituminous mines were in operation
9 days or less. A few (less than 1 per cent) contract miners’ laborers,
loaders, or machine miners made over 14 starts. One per cent of
contract miners and of pick miners made over 14 starts. Six per
cent of contract miners’laborers made only 1 start.
T able 8 .—C U M U L A T IV E P E R C E N T O F E M P L O Y E E S M A K IN G E A C H S P E C IF IE D N U M ­
B E R O F S T A R T S (D A Y S O N W H IC H E M P L O Y E E S W O R K E D ) I N H A L F -M O N T H P A Y ­
R O L L P E R IO D .
P er cen t of em p loyees w h ose starts (d ays on w hich th e y w orked)
in h a lf m on th w ere—
O ccupation.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 and­ and and­ annd­ and and­ and and­ and and an d an d an d annd­ an d
un un­ un u un­ un un­ u n un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ u un­
der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der. der.

ANTHRACITE.
M iners, contract.....................................
L aborers, contract m in ers...............

BITUMINOUS.

L oaders.......................................................
M iners, p ick or h a n d ..........................
M iners, m a ch in e....................................

1 2 2 3 4 6 12 17 28
99
(0 10 12 15 17 20 24 29 34 45 44 58 78 100 100 100
6
57 71 86
100 100
1
1

3
3

1 3

6 12 18 27 33 43 54 67 79 90 100 100 100 100
5 8 13 20 27 36 47 60 74 87 99 99 100 100
4 9 13 19 23 32 43 55 65 82 99 100 100 100

1 L ess th a n 1 per cen t.

DAILY HOURS OF OPERATION.

All collieries and mines have regular hours of operation per day
and per week for their time-workers, that is, employees who are
paid rates per day or per hour, but regular hours are not closely
followed by tonnage or piece workers.
The hours of time-workers are fixed by a specified hour for actually
beginning work in the morning, for the midday lunch or dinner, and
for closing in the afternoon. The hours per day for time-workers,
therefore, do not include time fox lunch.
The hours of tonnage or piece workers are usually indefinite, due
to the fact that some employees enter the colliery or mine at an early
hour in the morning, begin work immediately on arrival at the face
of the seam of coal, and work throughout the day without taking
any time for lunch other than the time of waits for. mine cars or for
material; some may quit work at or near noon while others may
enter later in the morning, take as much or as little time for the
midday lunch as they desire, and often quit work before the regular
or customary time in the afternoon at which the mine as a whole
closes operation.



DAILY HOURS OF OPERATION,

29

TONNAGE OR PIECE WORKERS.

Table 9 shows for each anthracite colliery covered the time at which
tonnage or piece workers (contract miners and contract miners'
laborers) usually enter the shaft or other opening of the colliery in
the morning; the average round-trip time (minutes) of travel from
the shaft to the face and return; the hour employees are expected to
begin work; the usual time spent at the face or place of work per day,
including as much or as little time as may be taken for lunch; the time
(minutes) taken for lunch when specified; the hour at which em­
ployees are expected to leave the shaft or other opening of the colliery
after the completion of the day's work; and the usual time (hours) in
the mine from the time of entry into the shaft in the morning to the
time of exit from the shaft in the afternoon after the completion of
the day's work.
T a b l e 9.-—D A IL Y

T IM E S C H E D U L E O F C O N T R A C T M IN E R S A N D C O N T R A C T M IN E R S*
L A B O R E R S IN R E P R E S E N T A T I V E A N T H R A C IT E C O L L IE R IE S IN P E N N S Y L V A N IA ,
F O R T H E S E C O N D H A L F O F J A N U A R Y , 1922.

N o . of
col­
liery .

A verage
U su al
tim e
E n ter shaft travel
or other (mtim e E xp ected (hours)
shaft
ening
inutes) to begin at face (mT im e
inutes) L eave in e in or other opat—
op ening of
from
p er d ay,
of m
afternoon
m in e in
shaft to w ork. including for lunch.
m orning at— face an d
tim e for
lu n ch .
return.

1

6.00 to 7.00

30

(9

7i

(2)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

7.00 to 7.30
6.45
6.00 to 7.00
6.00
6.00 to 7.00
6.00 to 7.00
6.00 to 6.50

30
30
20
50
30
40
90

0)
(D
0)
( 3)
W
C)
0)

8*
P

(2)

8i
7*
7*
6i

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

9
10

6.30 to 7.00
6.00 to 6.50

30
60

C)
0)

7h
7

(2)
(2)

11
12

7.00 to 7.30
6.00 to 6.50

30
60

(!)
«

13

6.00 to 6.50

60

0)

7

(2)

14
15
• 16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

6.30
6.00 to 6.50
6.45
6.30
6.00 to 7.00
6.40
6.30 to 7.00
6.45
6.50
6.45
6.00 to 7.00
6.30
6.30
6.40
6.45
6.45

60
70
30
60
60
40
20
30
20
30
20
60
60
40
30
30

(!)
C1)
C)
0)
0)
(!)
w
C)
0)
(1)
m
(i)
(!)
C)
(!)
0)

7
6#
7£
8

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)

8h

(5)
(7)

8}
n
7\
7$

el
8*
8£
7i

1 On arrival at face.
2 N o regular tim e or specified num ber of m in u tes.
8 N o t later th a n 7.15 a. m .
4 N o t later th a n 7 a. m .

869°—22----- 3




30
30

45

1.00 to 3.00, or after load in g 4
to 6 m in e cars, depending on
th ick n ess of v e in ........................
3.00 to 4.00..........................................
2.45................................................
2.00 to 3.00, or after loading 5
m in e cars........................................
4.10.........................................................
1.00 to 3.00, or w h en 10 m en
desire to le a v e ..............................
1.00 to 3.00 or w h en 10 m en
desire to le a v e ..............................
U su a lly after loading 4 to 6
m in e cars, depending on
thickn ess of v e in ........................
1.00 to 3.00, or after loading 5
m in e cars........................................
U su a lly after load in g 4 to 6
m in e cars, depending on
th ick n ess of v e in ........................
3.00 to 4.00..........................................
U su a lly after loa d in g 4 to 6
m in e cars, depending on
th ick n ess of v e in ........................
U su a lly after loa d in g 4 to 6
m in e cars, depending on
thick n ess of v e in ........................
2.30.........................................................
1.00 to 3.00..........................................
2.45.........................................................
3.30.........................................................
4.00, or w h en 5 m en desire to
le a v e ..................................................
3.50.........................................................
4.10, M onday to F riday; 12 m .,
S a tu rd ay.........................................
2.45___ .................................................
2.00, M onday to F riday; 11.30
a. m ., S a tu r d a y ..........................
2.45.........................................................
N o regular tim e ...............................
2.00.........................................................
2.00.........................................................
3.50.........................................................
3.45.........................................................
2.45.........................................................

U sual
tim e
(hours)
in m in e
per day.

8
?
7J-8i
n

8
8
8
8
8
81
8
8
8
8
8
9

H
30
H
(2)
(6)
8
(2)
(2)
(8)
8
(2)
71
(2)
71
(2)
(2)
7I
30
?
(2)
8
(2)
5 M onday to F rid ay, in clu siv e, 9; Saturday, 5.
6 M onday to F rid ay, in clu siv e, 9£; Saturday, 5.
7 M onday to F riday, in clu siv e, 8; Saturday, 5.
b M onday to F rid ay, in clu siv e, 8J; Saturday, 5

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.
30
Taking all the collieries into consideration, it will be observed
that employees entered the shaft as early as 6 and as late as 7.30
a. m.; that the average time of travel from the shaft to the. face
and return was as low as 20 and as high as 90 minutes; that
employees began work “ on arrival at face,” “not later than 7 a.
m .,” or “ not later than 7.15 a. m .”; that the usual time at the
face, including time for lunch, was as low as and as high as 8J
hours per day; that only 5 collieries had a regular time or specified
number of minutes for lunch, 4 of the 5 having had 30 minutes
and one 45 minutes; that employees left the shaft or other opening
of the colliery as early as 1 p. m. and as late as 4.10 p. m. or after
loading a specified number of mine cars; and that the usual time
in the mine from the time of entrance into the shaft in the morning
to the time of exit from the shaft in the afternoon after the comple­
tion of the day’s work was as low as 7-jt and as high as 9J hours.
Like data as to the hour of entering and leaving the mine were
not collected for bituminous mines.

TIME WORKERS.

Table 10 shows for each time-work occupation the number of
mines and the regular or customary hours of operation, Monday to
Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and the total per week. In practically
all mines the rates paid were for an 8-hour day, even in tnose mines
in which employees worked more than 8 hours per day. A very
few employees were paid rates per hour rather than per day. The
time worked in excess of 8 hours was in all cases paid for at the
regular rate.
In some mines it was necessary for some of the cagers, car run­
ners, drivers, motormen, brakemen, or motor brakemen to make
one or more extra trips .per day in order to take employees from the
shaft to the face before the time of beginning work in the. morning
or from the face to the shaft in the afternoon after the completion
of the day’s work. These trips are called “man trips” because men
instead of coal are taken to and from the face on these trips. The
time of the “man trips” is not included as part of the regular or
customary hours of these occupations, because the trips were worked
by only a part of the employees in these occupations. The hours
and earnings for the “naan trips,” however, are included in the
averages for these employees.




DAILY HOURS OF OPERATION,

31

Table 10.--NUMBER OF COAL MINES HAVING TIME-WORK EMPLOYEES WORKING
NUMBER OF REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY AND PER WEEK, BY OCCU­
PATIONS.
A N T H R A C IT E (P E N N S Y L V A N I A ).

R egular or custom ary
hours—

Regular or custom ary
hours—

Num ­
ber M on­
of
m ines. day Sat­ Sun­ Per
to ur­
F ri­ day. day. w eek.
day.

O ccupation.

O ccupation.

Inside work.
10
1
1
19
1
1
23
2
2
I
20
2
22
2
2
24
2
1
18
3
1
1
1
27
2
11
2
1
I
14
22
2
1
2
22
2
1
2
25
1
1
20
1
25
2
27
2

B rattice m e n ............
C agers...........................
Car ru n n ers................
Door tenders (boys)
D riv ers.........................
E n gin eers....................
L aborers.....................
M ach in ists..................
M asons.........................
M otorm en_ _..............
M otor brak em en __
P u m p m en ..................
Tiim b erm en ................
T rack m en ...................
O ther e m p lo y ee s. . .

Outside work.
A sh m e n ......................
B la ck sm ith s..............

8
81
9
8
8J
9
8
81
9
10
8
81
8
81
9
8
81
8i
8
8
9
10
13
8
81
8
8
81
9
8
8
81
9
10
8
8*
9
10
8
8
71
8
9
8
81
8
81

IS
1
4
1
1
21
2
5
1

B la ck sm ith ................

8
51 ........
9
8 ____
9
8
51
9
10
8
51
8
51
9
8
51
. 81
8
8
8
9
10
13
8
51
8
8
8
51
9
9
8
8
51
9
10
8
51
9
10
8
8
8
71
8
9
8
51
' 8
51

8
S
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10 10
13
13 13
8
8
81 51
9
9
9
9 ; 9;

48
48
54
48
48
54
48
48
54
60
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
51
48
56
54
60
78
48
48
48
56
48
54
48
48
48
54
60
48
48
54
60
56
48
45
48
54
48
48
48
48

Outside work—Con,
C agers.........................
C arpenters................
,

Car ru n n ers.............
D u m p ers...................
E ngineers..................

N um ­
ber M on­
of
ay
m ines. dto Sat­ Sun­ Per
ur­
Fri­ day. day. w eek.
day.

18 . 8
1
81
6
9
1 12
22
2
2

18

2
2
22
2
2

19
4

8
51

9

8
81
10
8
81
8
81
10
8
8

10
8
8

9

9

8

2

Jig runners..
:
L aborers. . .
j
!
i M achinists.
!
;
O ilers...........
;

P late m e n ..

R epair m e n ...
i Slaters (b o y s ).
T im b er c u tte r s ..

56 T rackm en „...........
48 ;
63 O ther em p loy ees.
70 !
91
48 :
48
54
63

8

8

2
2

81
12
8

51
12
8
8

1

F irem en .

8
8
8
8
81
51
10
10
10
10
8
8
8 1 ' 51

27
1

17
2
3
1
26
2
1
23
2
2
22
2
1

3

21
2

1
13
1
23
2
1
25
1
2
29
2
23
2
2

1

8

9

8
8
51

10
8
81

10
8
51

8
10
8
81

8
10
8

5

2
i1 1

1 E v ery other S u nday off.
2 E v ery third S u nday off.




8
9
10

8
9
10

10

9

8
8
81
8
81

8
gl
9

9

9

9

8
81
10
8
81
8
81

9
10

;

H
9

9

'
-

8
51
10
8
51
8
51

9

10

BITUMINOUS.
Inside work . j
B rakem en:
1
A la b a m a ..____ J

12

12
8
51
10
8
51

Inside work— C on.
B rakem en—C on.
6
8
48
C olorado____ __
8
8
54
Illin o is..................
8
21
60
I n d ia n a ................
10
8
8
3 One S u nday each pay-coil period off.

54
60

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

32

T able 1 0 .—NUMBER OF COAL MINES HAVING TIME-WORK EMPLOYEES WORKING
NUMBER OF REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY AND PER WEEK, BY OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
BITUMINOUS—C on tin u ed .
R egular or custom ary
hours—
O ccupation.

Inside work—Con.
B rak em en —Con.
K e n tu c k y .........
O h io ....................
P en n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ................... .
W ash in gton —
. " W est V irgin ia..
W y o m in g .........
B ratticem en an d
tim berm en:
A lab a m a...........
C olorado...........
Illin o is................
I n d ia n a .............
K e n tu c k y .........
O h io ....................
P e n n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ...................
W a sh in g to n ...
W est V irgin ia.
W y o m in g ...,.
Cager s:
A lab a m a...........
C olorado...........
Illin o is................
In d ia n a .............
K e n tu c k y .........
O h io ....................
P e n n sy lv a n ia .
' W a sh in g to n ...
W est V irginia.
W y o m in g .........
D rivers:
A lab am a...........
C olorado............
Illin o is................
In d ia n a .............
K e n tu c k y .........
O h io....................
P en n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ....................
W a sh in g to n ...
W y o m in g .........
Laborers:
A lab a m a...........
C olorado............
P lin o is................
In d ia n a .............
K e n tu c k y .........




Num ­
ber M on­
of
a
m in es. dtoy Sat­ Sun­ P er
in F ri­ d ay. d ay. w eek.
day.

jl6
3
22
34
1
5
3
2
37
4
i

8
9
8
8
si
9
8
8
8
9
8

8
9
8
8
8J
9
8
8
8
9
8

48
54
48
48
51
54
48
48
48
54
48

6
3
7
21
11
14
3
24
36
4
4
37
3

8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8

8 ‘
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8

48
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
48

1
5
20
1
1
7
4
1
1
1
10
20
1
4
2
1

10
8
8
9
10
8
9
10
8
8
8
8
8
9
8

10
8
8
9
10
8
9
10
8
8
8
8
8
9
8

8

60
48
48
54
60
48
54
68
48
57
48
48
48
48
54
48

4
3
8
19
9
7
1
20
19
1
4
1
4

8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
Si
8
8
8

8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8*
8
8
8

48
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
51
48
48
48

6
3
7
20
11
17
3

8
9
8
8
8
8
9

8
9
8
8
8
8
9

48
54
48
48
48
48
54

4Day shift.

R egular or custom ary
hours—
O ccupation.

Num ­
ber M on­
of
ay
m in es. dto Sat­ Sun­ P er
ur­
F ri­ day. day. w eek.
d ay.

Inside work—Con.
L a b orlts—Con.
O h io....................
P en n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ....................
W ash in gton ...
W est V irginia.
W y o m in g ........
M otorm en:
A labam a...........
C olorado............
Illin o is...............
In d ia n a .............
K en tu ck y .........
O h io....................
P en n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ....................
W a sh in g to n ...
W est V irginia
W y o m in g .........
P u m p m en :
A lab a m a...........
C olorado............
Illin o is................
In d ia n a .............
K en tu ck y .........
O h io....................
P en n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ....................
W a sh in g to n ...
W estV irgin ia .
W yom in g.,
T rackm en:
A lab a m a..
C olorado...

5 Night shift.

21
8
8 ■
37
8
8
1
9
9
3
8
8
4
8
8
37
8
8
4
8
8
5
8
8
1
9
9
1 10 10
6
8
8
19
8
8
10
8
8
16
8
8
4
9 , 9
25
8
8
33
8
8
2
Si
3
9
9
2
8
8
1
9
9
4
8
8
38
8
8
4
9
9
1
8
8
5
8
8
1
8
8
1
9
9
1
9
9
1 12 12
7
8
8
5
8
8
7
8
8
1 10 10
3
8
8
4
8
8
8
X /W4 8 5410
o
1
9
9
8
8
8
1
8
8
2
9
9
2
9
9
1 10 10
9
8
8
10
8
8
2 10 10
15
8
8
18
8
8
1
9
9
3 12 12
3
8
8
3
8
8
19
8
8
5
8
8
2 10 10
1 10 10
1 12 12
3
8
8
1 10 10
7
8
8
3
9
9
8
8
8

48

DAILY HOURS OF OPERATION

33

T able 10.—NUMBER OF COAL MINES HAVING TIME-WORK EMPLOYEES WORKING
NUMBER OF REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY AND PER WEEK, BY OCCU­
PATIONS—Continued.
BITUMINOUS.—C on tin u ed .
R egular or custom ary
hours—
O ccupation.

N um ­
ber M on­
of
ay
m ines. dto Sat­ Sun­ Per
ur­
F ri­ day. d ay. w eek.
day.

Inside work—Con.
T rackm en— Con.
Illin o is..................
In d ia n a ................
K e n tu c k y ...........
O h io ......................
P e n n sy lv a n ia . .
U ta h ......................
W ash in gton —
W est V ir g in ia ..
W y o m in g ...........
Trappers (boys):
A lab am a.............
C olorado..............
Illin o is..................
K e n tu c k y ...........
O h io ......................
P en n sy lv a n ia . .
W est V irgin ia..
O ther em ployees:
A labam a..............
C olorado.............
Illin o is..................
In d ia n a ...............
K e n tu c k y ...........
O h io ......................
P en n sy lv a n ia . .
U ta h ......................
W ash in gton ___
W est V irg in ia ..
W y o m in g ...........

22
11
17
2
25
40
4
4
43
4
3
2
4
17
9
5
1
22
14
27
5
3
7
1
22
8
4
16
1
3
21
40
4
4
36
1
4

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
9




8

9

8
8
8
8
8

10
8

8
8
8
8
8
10
8

8
9
8
9
8
9
9
8
9
8
9
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
8
9
9

8
9
8
9
8
9
9
8
9
8
9
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
8
9
9

Outside work.
B lack sm ith s:
A lab a m a.............
7
3
1
C olorado..............
7
Illin o is..................
22
In d ia n a ................
10
2
K e n tu c k y ...........
14
4
O h io ......................
23
1
P en n sy lv a n ia . .
19
18
U ta h ......................
4
W ash in gton ___
4
W est V irgin ia..
34
6
W y o m in g ...........
4
Carpenters:
A lab a m a.............
5
3
C olorado..............
3
1 E v e r y other S u n d ay off.
4 D a y sh ift.

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
■8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
9
8
8
8
8

48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
54
48
48
56
8
48
/ 148
1 8 \ 156
54
48
48
48
48
48
60
48

9

R egular or custom ary
hours—
O ccupation.

Outside work—Con.
Carpenters—C on.
Illin o is..................
In d ia n a ................
K e n tu c k y ..
O h io......................
P en n sy lv a n ia . .
U ta h ......................
W ash in gton ___
W est V ir g in ia ..
W y o m in g ...........
Engineers:
A lab am a.............
C olorado..............
Illin o is..................
In d ia n a ...............
K en tu ck y ...........
O h io......................
P en n sy lv a n ia ..
U ta h ......................
W ash in gton ___
W est V ir g in ia ..

48
W y o m in g ...........
54
48
54
48 Firem en:
A lab am a........... *.
54
63
48
54
48
54
C olorado..............
48
54
48
Illin o is..................
48
48
In d ia n a ...............
54
48
K e n tu c k y ...........
48
O h io ......................
54
54
6 N igh t sh ift.

N um ­
ber M on­
of
m ines. day Sat­ Sun­ Per
to ur­
F ri­ day. day. w eek.
day.

8
8
20
4
8
8
2
9
9
8
8
16
2
9
9
8
17
8
18
8
8
15
9
9
4
8
8
4
8
8
31
8
8
2
9
9
1 10 10
2
8
8
3
8
8
2
9
9
2 10 10
3
8
8
5
9
9
8
3
8
19
8
8
1
8
8
6
8
8
4 8 ^8
1 I/ 512 512
6
8
8
1 12 12
12
8
8
3
8
8
1 10 10
2 12 12
8 8
19
8 8 8
3
9
9
2
8 8
2
9
9
4
8 8
8 8
1
2
9
9
2 10 10
1 10 10
1 12 12
8 12 12
1
8
8
2
9
9
1 10 10
1
8
8
1
8 , 8
1
9 1 9
1 10 10
V2 12 12
2
8
8
9
9
1
2 12 12
5
8
8
8
16
8
1
8
8
2 10 10
1 10 10
1 12 12
3
8
8
1
8
8
4
8
8

48
48
54
48
54
48
48
54
48
48
48
54
60
48
48
54
60
48
54
48
8
56
48
8
56
4 8 4 56
572
48
72
48
8
56
60
12
84
48
8
56
54
48
54
48
48
54
70
10
UO /1 160
170
72
12
84
8
56
63
9
10
70
48
8
56
54
60
12
84
48
54
72
48
8
56
8
56
10
70
8
68
12
84
48
48
8
56

M

HOURS AHD EARNINGS IN COAL MINING,

T a b l e lO .— N U M B E R O F C O A L M IN E S H A V IN G T IM E -W O R K E M P L O Y E E S W O R K IN G
N U M B E R O F R E G U L A R O R C U S T O M A R Y H O U R S P E R D A Y A N D P E R W E E K , B Y OCCU­
P A T IO N S —C oncluded.
BITUMINOUS—C on clu d ed .

O ccupation.

R egular or custom ary
hours—
Num ­
ber
of M on­
m in es. d a y Sat­ Sun­ Per
to ur­
F ri­ day. day. w eek.
d ay.

Outside work—Con.
F irem en —Con.
O h io ......................!
P en n sy lv a n ia .
U ta h ......................
W ash in gton — .
W est V irginia, .i
W y o m in g .......... :
L aborers:
A lab am a............. :
C olorado..............
Illin o is..................
In d ia n a ................
K e n tu c k y ...........
O h io ......................
P en n sy lv a n ia . J

1
1
1
6
10
1
2
2
2
4
3
7
3
2
6
20
1
12
17
2
24
29
7
1

R egular or cu stom ary
hours—

O ccupation.

Outside work—Con.
Laborers—Con.
10 10
U ta h ................ . J
60 i
10 10
10
W ash in gton —
70
12 12
12
84 i
W est V irgin ia..
8
8
48
8
W yo m in g ...........
8
56
8
12 12
72 O ther em ployees:
A labam a.............
8 ! 8
48
48
8
8
f 148
Colorado___ . . .
s : 8 18 \ 156
Illin o is.................
12 12
12
84
8
8
8
56
I n d ia n a ............
8
48
K en tu ck y ...........
8
9
9
54
8
8
48
O h io......................
9
9
54
8
8
48
P en n sylv an ia - 8 ■ 8 : 8
56
8
8
48
8 ■ 8
48
9
54
9
U ta h ......................
W ash in gton ___
8 • 8
48
8
W est V irg in ia ..
8
48
9
54
9
54
W yo m in g........... ;
9
9

N um ­
ber
of M on­
m in es. d a y S at­ Sun­ Per
to ur­
F ri­ day. day. w eek.
d ay.

4
4
39
4
4
7
3
7
20
1
7
5
17
3
22
1
26
3
9
1
4
4
36
3
4

8
8
8
9
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
12
8
8
8
9
.8

8
8
8
9
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
12
8
8
8
9
8

8
8
8
8
12

48
48
48
54
48
48
54
54
48
56
48
56
48
54
48
56
48
56
54
84
48
48
48
54
48

* E v er y oth er S u n d a y off.

AVERAGE STARTS, HOURS, AND EARNINGS-

Tables 11 and 12 show average starts, average hours, and average _
earnings for all occupations in the period covered. Table 11 relates
to anthracite workers and Table 12 to bituminous workers. Tonnage
workers and time workers appear in separate sections.
The average hours and tne average earnings of tonnage workers
are presented in two forms—average hours at the face, including time
for lunch, if any, and average hours in the mine.




AVERAGE HOURS, STARTS. AHD EARNIMGS,

35

T a b l e 1 1 .—N U M B E R O F M IN E S A N D E M P L O Y E E S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F S T A R T S
(D A Y S ), A N D A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S IN R E P R E S E N T A T IV E ANTHRA­
CITE C O L L IE R IE S IN P E N N S Y L V A N IA , F O R SE C O N D H A L F O F J A N U A R Y , 1922, B Y
O C C U P A T IO N S .

TONNAGE WORKERS.

N um ber of—
O ccupation.
Em­
M ines. p loy­
ees.

Inside work .
M iners, con tract.................
L a b o rers, c o n tr a c t
m in ers’................................

A ver­
age
num ­
ber
of
starts
(d a y s )
m ade
in
half­
m o n th
P o ff
ra
period.

29 6,209
29 3,3§3

A verage hours worked.
I n half­
m o n th p ay­ P er start,
roll period, based on—
based on—

A verage earnings.

Per hour,
In
based on—
T im e T im e T im e T im e mhalf­ Per
o n th start
in
in
at
at
face.1 m in e ., face.1 m ine. roil" (day). T im e T im e
in
at
period.
face.1 m ine.

11.5 79.6
9 .8 70.0

87.4
76.2

6.9
7.2

7.6 $86.60 $7.53 $1.088 • $0,991
7.8’ 54.15 5.55 .773
.711

TIME WORKERS.
A verage
num ber
of starts
(d ays)
m ad e in
M ines. E m p lo y­ mhalfees.
on th
pay-roll
period.
N um ber erf—

O ccupation.

Inside work.

B la ck sm ith s.........................
B ratticem en .........................1
Gagers......................................
Car ru n n ers...........................
D oor ten d ers (b oys).........
D rivers....................................
E n gin eers...............................
L aborers.................................
L ab orers, com p a n y
m in ers’ ..............................
L aborers, consideration
m in ers*...............................
M ach in ists.............................
...............................
M iners, com p a n y ...............
M iners, con sid eration . . .
M otorm en..............................
M otor brak em en ................ ;
P u m p m en ..............................
T im b erm en ..........................
T rack m en ..............................
O ther em p lo y ees................!

Oviside work.

A sh m en ..................................
B la c k s m ith s ....................... !
Cagers.......................................
C arpenters.............................
Car r u n n e r s ........................
D u m p ers................................
E n gin eers...............................
F irem en ..................................
Jig runners............................
L aborers.................................
L oaders..................................
M ach in ists.............................
O ilers.......................................
P la tem e n ...............................
R ep airm en ............................
Slaters (b o y s )......................
T im ber cu tters....................
T rackm en..............................
O ther em p lo y ees...............
i Inclu d in g tim e for lu n ch .



A verage hours
w orked.
In halfPer
m on th
start
pay-roll (d a y ).
period. ,

A verage earnings.
In half-'
m on th
p ay-roll
period.

Per
start
(d a y ).

12
21
28
22
26
27
24
29
25
11
15
16
25
12
27
27
26
20
27
29

23
136
196
402
190
539
152
1,426
774
339
31
51
775
626
327
310
180
161
177
713

12.7
12.0
12.2
12.2
11.7
11.6
13.9
11.8
11.2
11.4
14.0
12.9
11.1
12.9
12.8
12.1
15.9
10.9
13.0
13.0

115.5
100.6
119.3
105.4
95.2
95.5
117.7
99.3
91.7
90.0
12a 9
105.8
90.6
98.5
120.9
11A6
129.6
89.1
110.1
116.7

9.1
8.4
9 .8
8.7
8.2 '
8.2
8.5
8.4
8.2
7.9
8.6
8.2
8.2
7.7
9.5
9.1
8.2
8.2
8.5
9.0

$79. 08
66.06
72.04
62.35
32.56
55.39
76.14
60.39
57.66
58.87
82.03
71.65
63.17
87.04
78.37
64.64
81.29
60,31
74.29
69.60

$6.21
5.53
5.9 0
5.12
2.79
4.78
5.49
5.1 0
5. IS
5.16
5.85
5.54
5. 71
6.76
6.14
5 .3 3 i
5.1 2
5.52
5.71
5.37

25
29
26
26
22
26
29
29
23
29
27
27
28
25
14
26
28
22
29

67,
64
100
221
87
85
203
249
109
1,349
187
89
69
181
94
410
181
60
1,074

15.4
13.5
12.8
12.8
12.3
12.2
15.0
15.7
13.2
12.1
12.9
13.7
13.2
12.5
13.7
12.2
12.3
12.1
13.5

135.7
120.5
120.3
113.9
106.5
111.0
129.1
127.8
124.1
105.9
113.8
127.1
122.9
106.0
116.7
98.7
106.3
98.6
127.7

8.8
8.9
9.4
8.9
8.6
9.1
8 .6
8.1
9 .4
8.8
8.8
9.3
9.3
8.5
8.5
8.1
8.7
8.2
9.5

71.25
80.38
64.48
75.29
56.36
58.82
83.39
76.05
62.96
55.77
60.37
83.20
64.58
56.15
68.26
32.91
57.10
54.13
67.30

4.63
5.96
5.05
5.88
4.57
4.82
5.58
4.84
4.77
4.62
4.69
6.09
4.90
4.49
4.98
2.69
4.66
4.49
5.00

Per hour.

$0,685
.657
.604
.592
.342
.580
.647
.608
.629
.654
.678
.677
.697
.883
.648
.585
.627
.677
.675
.596
.525
.667
.536
.661
. 529
.530
.646
.595
.507
.527
.531
.655
.525
.530
.585
.333
.537
.549
.527

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING,

36

{Table 12. —NUMBER OF MINES AND EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS
(DAYS), AND AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS IN REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS
MINES, WINTER OF 1921-22, BY OCCUPATION AND STATES.
TONNAGE WORKERS.

N u m b er of—
O ccupation and S ta te.
EmM ines. p lo y ees.

A verage hours w orked.
A ver­
age
In h alf­
A verage earnings.
num ­
ber m on th p a y ­ P er start,
of roll p eriod , b a sed on—
starts b a sed on—
(d ays)
m ad e
in
P er hour
In
halfb ased on—
m onth T im e T im e T im e T im e h a lf­ P er
m on th sta rt
p ay- a t
in
at
roll face.1 m in e. face.1 m in e .
in
im
im
Prao Ii (d a y ). T at e T in e
period.
period.
face.1 m in e .

Inside work.
M iners, han d or pick:
A la b a m a .........................
C olorado.........................
I llin o is .............................
In d ia n a ...........................
K e n tu c k y ......................
O h io ..................................
P en n sy lv a n ia ...............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton ..................
W est V irgin ia..............
W y o m in g .....................
T o ta l.............................
M iners, m achine:
A lab am a.........................
Colorado..........................
Illin o is.............................
In d ia n a ...........................
K e n tu c k y .......................
O h io..................................
P en n sy lv a n ia ...............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton ..................
W est V irgin ia..............
W y o m in g .......................
T o ta l....................
Loaders:
A lab am a.........................
Colorado..........................
Illin o is.............................
In d ia n a ...........................
K e n tu c k y .......................
O h io..................................
P en n sylv an ia ...............
U ta h ................: ...............
W ash in g to n s................
W est V irginia..............
W y o m in g .......................
T o ta l.............................

785
8
6
564
11 1,864
542
7
5
223
3
47
42 2,898
167
4
3
243
34
972
4
124
127 8,429

8.8
10.2
10.3
8.0
8.7
9 .8
9.1
5.9
10.7
8.1
10.3
9 .2

66.2
81.3
80.3
55.8
64.5
79.9
72.2
41.9
90.2
55.4
85.1
71.0

74.8
90.1
86.2
59.3
69.3
86.7
79.7
45.6
97.9
59.4
89.9
77.5

7.5
8.0
7.8
7.0
7.4
8.1
8 .0
7.2
8.5
6 .8
8.3
7.7

8 .5
8 .8
8.4
7.4
8.0
8.8
8 .8
7.8
9 .2
7.3
8.7
8.4

$36.28 $4.11 $0,548 $0,485
80.69 7.90 .993
.896
69.45 6.77 .865
.806
46.19 5.75 .827
.779
53.21 6.12 .825
.768
73.18 7.46 .916
.844
55.38 6.10 .767
.695
42.92 7.33 1.023
.941
96.31 9.03 1.068
.984
56.45 6.95 1.019
.950
103.38 10.05 1.215 1.150
59.62 6.47 .840
.769

146
6
6
85
15
369
8
136
19
268
25
354
41
703
21
3
(2)
35 &
3
18
161 2,371
■
8 1,535
7
445
17 4,257
8 1,436
20 2,540
25 3,119
41 5,650
4
295
1
76
42 2,979
228
3
176 22,560

9 .5
9.3
10.0
8.8
9 .7
9 .9
9 .3
6.5
(’)
9.3
9 .8
9 .5
■
8.4
9.1
8 .9
8.3
8.6
8.7
8 .8
5.1
10.1
8 .6
10.0
8 .7

79.6
71.4
76.4
66.1
73.6
78.2
76.7
48.3
(2)
74.7
76.5
75.4

83.8
79.3
81.5
69.3
78.7
85.1
84.3
51.9
(2)
80.1
81.4
81.5

8 .8
8 .5
8.1
7.9
8 .1
8 .6
9 .0
8 .0
(*)
8 .6
8.3
8 .6

48.64
106.59
114. 68
121.06
85.83
109.12
83. 55
84.19
(2)
103. 06
163.76
96.14

69.8
69.9
70.7
61.7
63.4
65.0
68.5
38.8
85.9
60.2
79.3
66.2

74.9
77.5
75.1
64.6
67.7
70.9
75.4
41.6
89.0
64.7
84.2
71.5

8.4
7.7
7 .6
7 .5
7 .6
7.9
8 .2
7 .5
(2)
8.1
7 .8
7 .9
1■
8.3
7.7
8.0
7 .5
7.3
7 .5
7.8
7.7
8.5
7 .0
7 .9
7 .7

1 In clu d in g tim e for lu n ch .
2 M achine m in in g is done b y loaders.
8 Loaders also do m ach in e m in in g in th is S ta te.




8 .9
8.5
8 .5
7 .8
7 .8
8 .2
8.6
8.2
8.8
7 .5
8.4
8.3

"—
34.73
64.84
84.58
70.65
47.64
63.32
50.64
36.42
76.68
54.40
91.80
59.75

5.13
11.48
11.46
13.73
8.88
10.99
8.94
13.00

.611
1.493
1.500
1.832
1.166
1.395
1.090
1.745

16.65
10.10

2.142
1.274

—

t%

—

4.12 .497
7.13 .927
9.53 1.197
8.54 1.146
5.51 .752
7.29 .973
5.79 .739
7.20 .939
7.60 .893
6.33 .904
9.20 1.158
6.90 .902

—

.580
1.344
1.407
1.748
1.091
1.282
.991
1.621
(2)
1.287
2.013
1.180
.464
.837
1.127
1.094
.704
.893
.672
.876
.862
.841
1.090
.836

37

AVERAGE HOURS, STARTS. AND EARNINGS,
T

a b l e 1 2 . — N U M B E R O F M IN E S A N D E M P L O Y E E S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F S T A R T S
s (D A Y S ), A N D A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S IN R E P R E S E N T A T IV E BITUMINOUS
M IN E S , W IN T E R O F 1921-22, B Y O C C U P A T IO N A N D S T A T E S —C ontinued.

TIME WORKERS.

A verage
num ber
of starts
(d ays)
m ad e in
half­
Em­
m on th
p loyees. pay-roll
period.

N u m b er of—
O ccupation an d State.
M ines.

A verage hours
w orked.
In h alf­
m on th
pay-roll
period.

P er
start
(d ay).

A verage earnings.
In h alf­
m on th
pay-roll
period.

P er
start
(d a y ).

Per
hour.

Inside work.
B rakem en:
8
7.8
139
61.8
8.0
A lab a m a........................
$22.89
6
10.9
C olorado........................
29
87.6
8.0
83.32
20
10.4
Illin o is.............................
216
85.8
8.3
80.04
In d ia n a ..........................
10
9.6
88
76.9
8.0
72. 24
K en tu ck y ......................
19
9.2
8.2
143
75.0
49. 04
O h io.................................
22
8.9
65
71.3
8.0
66. 79
44
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
319
4 9. 5
4 8.4
81.0
65.24
U ta h .................................
3
13
5. 5
43.3
7.9
43. 08
W ash in gton ..................
3
13
12.8
103.7
8.1
93. 38
45
8.2
306
9.3
76.0
W est V irginia.............
54. 71
W y o m in g ......................
1
2 . 13.0
104.0
8.0
101. 35
181
4 8.2
T o ta l...........................
1,333
4 9.4
77.3
60.18
B ratticem en:
9
19
9.9
A lab am a........................
80.5
8.1
34.16
8.0
C olorado.........................
7
33
11.6
92.7
91.09
Illin o is.............................
21
8.0
197
10.9
87.7
82.23
In d ia n a ..........................
11
53
9.3
71.4
7.7
6.7.31
K e n tu c k y ......................»
8.2
17
58
79.0
9.8
5b. 33
O h io.................................
24
139
10.3
82.1
8.0
76.87
40
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
268 b 10.6
91.3
5 8.4
64.05
U ta h ................................
4
13
7.5
58.9
7.8
59.47
4
W ash in gton .................
101.1
8.0
39
12.6
87.20
41
155
8.2
W est V irgin ia.............
80.5
61.12
9.8
" W yo m in g ......................
12
12.1
3
8.0
96.8
95.83
T o ta l............................
181
986
&10.4
85.7
5 8.1
70.26
Cagers:
A lab am a........................
1
6
10.2
10.0
101.7
31.38
C olorado........................
91.4
5
13
11.8
7.7
90.97
Illin o is............................
22
62
10.6
94.7
8.9
88.71
In d ia n a ..........................
12
22
10.5
88.9
8.4
82.81
K en tu c k y ......................
2
4
8.5
72.9
8.6
61.14
O h io.................................
10
27
8.8
71.9
8.2
67.11
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
21
35
6 10.3
92.4
6 8.9
70.29
W ash in gton .................
2
14.0
1
112.5
8.0
77.35
W est V irgin ia .............
8
12
80.9
8.4
9.7
65.54
W y o m in g ......................
2
1
15.5
124.5
8.0
123.26
T o ta l............................
83
185 6 10.3
89.4
6 8.6
77.82
D rivers:
7
125
9.1
A lab am a........................
75.7
8.4
29.15
C olorado.........................
8
131
10.5
79.37
83.0
7.9
Illin o is............................
19
403
10.4
86.7
8.3
83.17
In d ia n a ..........................
9
8.3
139
65 2
7 .8
61.40
K e n tu c k y ......................
174
8
9 .6
80.1
8.3
57.48
O h io.................................
20
281
9 .6
75.6
7.9
70.86
23
472
7 9. 5
P e n n sy lv a n ia ..............
82.5
7 8.3
58.10
U ta h .................................
4
54
5.8
44.2
7.7
45.14
1
W ash in gton .................
19
11.4
91.1
8.0
88. 21
22
W est V irginia.............
257
9.1
73.4
8.1
58.83
4
W yo m in g ......................
25
11.3
90.2
8.0
88.68
T o ta l...........................
125
2,080
7 9.5
78.7
7 8.2
64. 84
Laborers:
354
• A lab am a........................
9
9.7
78.5
8.1
28.49
7
12.1
C olo ra d o.......................
57
96.3 . 8.0
90.98
Illin o is............................
20
444
10.4
8.2
85.1
77.33
11
145
9 .7
In d ia n a ..........................
78.7
8.1
73.72
4 N o t in clu d in g d a ta for 8 em p loyees, sta rts for w h om w ere n o t reported.
6 N ot in clu d in g d ata for 79 em ployees, starts for w h om w ere n ot reported.
6 N o t in clu d in g d ata for 2 em ployees, starts for w h om w ere n ot reported.
7 N o t in clu d in g d a ta for 89 em p loy ees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.




$2.95
7.65
7.76
7.52
5.34
7.51
4 6. 84
7.89
7.31
5.91
7.80
4 6.41

$0,370
.952
.937
.939
.654
.936
.806
.995
.901
.720
.975
.779

3.43
7.87
7.54
7.25
5.65
7.50
5 6.13
7.89
6.91
6.25
7.93
5 6.81

.424
.983
.938
.942
.693
.937
.701
1.010
.863
.759
.990
.820

3.09
7.68
8.35
7.85
7.19
7.61
6 6.82
5.53
6.78
7.95
6 7.53

.309
.995
.937
.931
.839
.933
.761
.688
.810
.990
.871

3.22
7.59
8.00
7.37
5.99
7.40
7 6.04
7.84
7.76
6.49
7.83
7 6.82

.385
.956
.960
.942
.718
.938
.704
1.021
.989
.801
.984
.824

2.94
7.53
7.45
7.59

.363
.945
.909
.937.

38

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL, MINING.

T a b l e I S . —N U M B E R O F M IN E S A N D E M P L O Y E E S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F S T A R T S
(D A Y S ), A N D A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S I N R E P R E S E N T A T IV E BITUMINOUS
M IN E S , W IN T E R O F 1921-22, B Y O C C U P A T IO N S A N D S T A T E S -C o n tin u e d .
TIME WORKERS—C o n tin u e d .
A verage A verage hours
w orked.
num ber
of sta r ts1
(days)
m ade in I n h alf­
half- i m on th
P er
EmM ines. ■ pioyees. m on th pay-roll start
pay-roll period. (d a y ).
period.
N u m b er of—

O ccupation an d State.

Inside work— C ontd.
L aborers—C oncluded.
K e n tu c k y ......................
O h io.................................
P e n n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton ..................
W est V irgin ia.............
W yo m in g ......................
T o ta l...........................
M otorm en:
A labam a........................
■ Colorado.........................
Illin o is.............................
In d ia n a ...........................
K en tu ck y ......................
O h io .................................
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irgin ia.............
W y o m in g ......................
T o ta l...........................
P u m p m en :
A lab a m a ........................
C olorado.........................
Illin o is..:..................
In d ia n a .......................... !
K e n tu c k y ......................
O h io ... J........................
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irgin ia..............
W y o m in g ......................
T o ta l...........................
Trackm en:
A la b a m a .......................
C olorado........................
Illin o is............................
I n d ia n a ......................
K en tu ck y ......................
O h io ................................
P e n n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h ..* ....___
W ash in gton .................
W e st V irginia.
W y o m in g ......................
T o ta l............................
T rappers (boys):
A lab am a........................
C olorado........................
I llin o is...........................
I n d ia n a .......................
K en tu ck y......................
O h io .................................i
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
W est V irginia.............
T o ta l...........................

20
21
42
3
4
40
4
181

«26
152
923
22
58
461
25
2,967

7
6
19
10
20
25
42
3
4
46
1
183

110
9.7
17
10.2
169
10.5
72
10.8
177
9.7
90
10.1
314
»10.0
16
6.8
19
12.8
307
9.8
5
13.8
1,296 : 9 10.1

9
7
13
9
15
21
41
3
3
32
4
157

62
10
23
28
39
43
152
6
5
79
5
452

10
8
22
11
19
25
44
4
4
47
4
198

58
38
301
108
159
111
287
20
17
274
20
1,393

5
4
16
9
6
22
12
29
103

29
12
72
41
15
84
• 36 ;
104
393

9.4
8.6
8 10.3
9.5
10.7
9.4
12.4
8 9.9

66.4
68.3
87.5
73.7
85.1
76.8
98.5 .
80.8

77.6
81.9
89.5
86.7
81.2
84.2
86.3
52.6
103.7
82.8
110.4
84.2
=====
10.9
92.5
14.4
114.6
13.0
109.0
12.7
107.8
12.6
110.9
14.0
115.7
13.9
117.1
12.8
102.2
19.2
152.0
11.9
105.3
14.8
122.2
13.0
110.2

10.4
12.2
10.8
10.3
10.5
10.7
io 11.0
9.1
11.5
10. G
14.9
ioiQ .7
8.3
11.2
8.6
6 .6
10.5
9 .2 :
10.5
9.7
9.1

7.1
8.0
8 8.2
7.8
8.0
8.1
8.0
8 8.0
8 .0
8 .0
8.5
8 .0
8.4
8.3
9 8.4
7 .8
8.1
8.5
8.0
9 8.4
8.5
8.0
8 .4
8 .5
8.8
8.3
8.4
8.0
7.9
8.8
8.3
8.5

A verage earnings.
I n h a lf­
m on th
pay-roll
period.

Per
hour.

$48.59
62. 81
56.18
71.66
59.19
47.91
96.23
56.30

$5.18
$0,731
7.33
.919
8 5.6 3
.642
7.58
.973
5.55
.695
5.08
.624
7. .79
.977
8 5. 73
* 697
= =
= =
33.31
3.42
.429
79. 73
7.79
.973
90.20
8.59
1.008
87.67
8.09
1.012
56.04
5.77
.690
79.11
7.80
.940
71.48
0 7.03
.829
: 53. 25
7.89
1.013
85.53
6.66
.825
6 .6 2
64.-68
.781
109.13
7.91
.988
68. 62
0 6.82
.815
===== ~ " ~
!= = = = =
32.70
3.01
.353
111. 66
7.75
.974
101.46
7.80
.931
102.07
8.05
.947
73.59
5.86
.663
7.62
106.27
.919
] 86.70
6.23
.740
99.17
7.73
.971
115.42
6.01
.759
73.92
6.21
. 702
120! 42
8.14
1985
80.90
6.24
.734

84.5
97.2
87.8
82.9
87.7
86.8
91.2
71.8
92.1
81.2
119.5
87.3

8.1
8.9
8.1
8.1
8.4
8.1
io g .2 :
7.9
8.0
8.2
8.0
io a 2

39.55
9L 51
82,36
77.89
62.30
81.20
68.34
72.22
85.92
63.31
118.13
72.05

3.80
7.76
7.62
7*. 58
5.94
7.57
i<>6.29
7.98
7.45
6.38
7.93
10a 77

. 468
!972
QQQ
. yoo
.939
.710
.935
.749
1.007
.933
.780
.989
.826

66.9
89.3
68.3
52.4
79.6
72.1
85.5
76.8;
72.3

8.1
8 .0
8.0
7 .9
7.6
7.8
8.2
7.9
7.9

15.44
5 a 65
34.45
,26.34
37.75
3& 96
34.44
37.24
34.09

1.87
4.54
4.02
3.98
3.58
4.02
3.29
3.84
3.75

.231
.567
.504
.503
.474
.512*
.403
.485
.472

8 N o t in clu d in g d ata for 237 em p loyees, starts for whcan w ere n ot reported.
9 N ot in clu d in g data for 6 em ployees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.
10 N o t in clu d in g d ata for 30 em ployees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.



P er
start
(d ay).

DAYS OF OPERATION AND DAYS CLOSED,
T

39

1 2 .—N U M B E R O F M IN E S A N D E M P L O Y E E S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F S T A R T S
(D A Y S ), A N D A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S IN R E P R E S E N T A T IV E B IT U M IN O U S
M IN E S , W IN T E R O F 1921-22, B Y O C C U P A T IO N S A N D S T A T E S —C ontinued.
T IM E W O R K E R S —C on tin u ed . 4

able

A verage
num ber
of starts
(d ays)
m ade in
h alf­
Em­
m on th
ployees. pay-roll
period.

N u m b er of—
O ccupation an d State.
M ines.

Inside work— C oncld.
O ther em ployees:
A lab am a........................
C olorado........................
Illin o is............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K en tu ck y ......................
O h io................................
P en n sy lv a n ia .............
U ta h ................................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irg in ia .............
W yo m in g......................
T otal............................

A verage hours
w orked.
In h alf­
m on th
pay-roll
period.

Per
start ^
(d a y ).

A verage darnings.
In half­
m on th
pay-roll
period.

Per
start
(d ay).

P er
hour.

8
8
22
12
20
21
44
4
4
41
4
188

144
54
376
105
283
169
791
54
32
219
67
2,294

10.7
12.3
11.5
10.8
10.1
9.6
n 11.1
9.1
13.6
10.6
13.3
ii 10.9

87.8
98.6
94.7
86.5
87.1
77.1
95.3
71.8
110.4
88.3
107.3
91.4

8.2
8.0
8.2
8.0
8.6
8.0
H 8 .4
7.9
8.1
8.4
8.1
U 8 .3

$38. 81
95.22
95. 93
88.42
61.86
71.00
72. 36
71.29
108. 89
72.18
107.61
75.49

$3.61
7.77
8.33
8. 21
6.14
7.39
ii 6.64
7.84
7.99
6.83
8.11
n 6. 97

$0,442
.966
1.016
1.022
.710
.921
.759
.993
.987
.818
1.003
.826

10
8
22
12
18
25
41
4
4
43
4
191

18
14
56
18
29
43
84
5
6
61
5
339

11.7
12.5
13.1
12.6
11.2
12.0
12 11.0
11.4
14.2
10.6
14.2
12 11.7

95.1
114.8
116.2
113.4
94.4
100.0
100.2
91.4
115.2
90.0
125.4
102.0

8.2
9.2
8.9
. 9.0
8.4
8.3
12 8.8
8.0
8.1
8.5
8.8
12 8.6

51.90
104.66
112.38
99.93
72.18
96.00
78. 73
92.41
95.13
76.12
126.55
87.42

4.45
8.37
8.57
7.96
6.44
8.02
12 7.16
8.11
6.72
7.17
8.91 127.47

.546
.912
.967
.881
.765
.960
.786
1.011
.828
.846
1.009
.857

8
3
20
6
18
17
37
4
4
38
2
157

33
6
40
12
40
28
166
10
15
74
3
427

9.7
12.2
12.3
10.3
11.5
11.2
is 10. 9
12.2
12.9
10.9
13.0
13 11.1

81.7
108.0
104.1
85.2
93.3
91.3
96.7
104.3
100.1
90.7
107.0
94.7

8.5
8.9
8.5
8.2
8.1
8.2
13 8.5
8.5
7.8
8.3
8.2
13 8.4

33.98
99. 07
98.14
75. 72
64.67
83. 75
67.15
107.53
81.98
69. 77
107.00
71.23

3. 52
8.14
7.99
7.33
5.64
7. 49
13 6.18
8.80
6.37
6. 41
a 23
is 6. 42

.416
.917
.943
.889
.693
.917
.694
1.029
.819
.769
1.000
.752

7
8
22
8
7
18
32
3
4
16
4
129

11
20
68
16
8
23
71
3
14
28
5
267

11.5
13.6
15.0
15.4
12.8
12.5
4 12. 4
13.7
15.9
15.0
15.0
4 13. 9

96.8
117.5
122.1
135.5
108. 2
111.3
106.6
114.7
129. 9
165.1
145.5
121.3

8.4
8.6
8.1
as
8.5
8.9
4 8. 5
8.4
8.2
11.0
9.7
4 8. 7

47.87
107.02
116. 63
121. 34
84.24
95.29
80. 35
111.30
113. 42
100.88
142.09
99.50

4.15
7.90
7.75
7.86
6.61
7.61
4 6. 50
8.14
7.12
6. 71
9.47
4 7. 21

.495
.914
.955
.895
.779
.856
.754
.971
. 873
.611
.977
.820

Outside work.
B lack sm ith s:
A labam a........................
C olorado........................
Illin o is............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K en tu ck y ......................
O h io................................
P en n sy lv a n ia .............
U ta h ................................
W ash ington.................
W est V irginia.............
W yo m in g......................
T otal...........................
Carpenters:
A labam a........................
C olorado........................
Illin o is............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K en tu ck y ......................
O h io.................................
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irginia.............
W yo m in g......................
T o ta l...........................
E ngineers:
A lab a m a........................
C olorado........................
Illin o is............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K e n tu c k y ......................
O h io.................................
P en n sy lv a n ia .............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irginia.............
W yo m in g......................
T o ta l............................

4 N ot in clu d in g data for 8 em ployees, starts for w h om were n ot reported.
11 N ot in clu d in g d a ta for 137 em ployees, starts for w hom w ere n ot reported.
la N ot in clu d in g d ata for 9 em ployees, starts for w hom w ere n o t reported,
i® N ot in clu d in g d ata for 22 em ployees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.




40
T

HOURS AND EARNINGS *N COAL MINING.

1 2 . — N U M B E R O F M IN E S A N D E M P L O Y E E S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F S T A R T S
(D A Y S ), A N D A V E R A G E H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S IN R E P R E S E N T A T IV E BITUMINOUS
M IN E S , W IN T E R O F 1921-22, B Y O C C U P A T IO N S A N D S T A T E S —C oncluded.

able

TIME WORKERS—Concluded.
A verage
num ber
o fstarts
(days)
m ade in
half­
Em­
M ines. p loyees. m on th
pay-roll
period.
N u m b er of—

O ccu p ation an d S tate.

Outside work—C oncld.
F irem en:
A lab am a........................
C olorado........................
Illin o is.............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K en tu c k y ......................
O h io.................................
P e n n s y lv a n ia .. . ___
U t a h ...’...........................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irgin ia.............
W y o m in g ......................
T o ta l...........................
Laborers:
A lab am a........................
C olorado.........................
Illin o is.............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K e n tu c k y ......................
O h io .................................
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h .................................
W a sh in g to n ...............
W est V irginia.............
W y o m in g ......................
T o ta l............................
O ther em ployees:
A lab a m a ........................
C olorado.........................
Illin o is.............................
In d ia n a ..........................
K e n tu c k y ......................
O h io...............................
P en n sy lv a n ia ..............
U ta h .................................
W ash in gton .................
W est V irgin ia.............
W y o m in g ......................
T o ta l.....................! ..

A verage hours
w orked.

A verage earnings.

I n h alfm on th
pay-roll
period.

P er
start
(d ay).

I n h a lf­
m on th
pay-roll
period.

P er
start
(d ay).

P er
hour.

6
5
20
5
2
8
18
1
2
9
3
79

25
9
87
15
9
18
114
1
9
31
9
327

11.9
13.8
14.0
13.1
12.6
12.4
14 14.2
15.0
15.8
14.7
15.6
14 13.9

108.6
143.0
112.5
122.7
108.2
111.4
113.2
128.0
128.0
141.6
124.3
117.1

9.1
10.4
8.0
9 .4
8.6
9 .0
14 8.2
8.5
8.1
9.6
8.0
14 8.5

$33.73
107.94
101.53
96.67
82.65
95. 82
82.50
112. 00
95.11
82.27
115.35
87.24

$2.83
7.83
7.25
7.40
6.58
7.70
14 6.34
7.47
6.03
5.61
7.42
14 6.48

$0,311
.755
.902
.788
.764
.860
.729
.875
.743
.581
.928
.745

10
8
21
12
20
24
42
4
4
46
4
195

203
97
337
115
198
227
573
71
62
498
26
2,407

9.1
11.6
10.3
9.4
10.2
9.3
is 10. 8
9.9
11.1
9.6
11.9
15 10.1

73.9
101.0
85.8
77.6
83.5
74.1
95.5
77.7
89.3
80.0
95.1
84.8

8.1
8.7
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.0
15 8.8
7.8
8.1
8.4
8.0
15 8.4

24.21
77. 40
73.69
65. 88
43. 82
63.24
54.03
68.11
60.19
46.16
82.69
55.06

2.66
6.64
7.13
6.98
4.29
6. 80
15 5.17
6.85
5.43
. 4.82
6.96
15 5.49

.328
.766
.859
.849
.525
.853
.566
.876
.674
.577
.870
.649

10
7
21
12
20
25
42
4
4
44
4
193

185
68
247
87
258
160
713
45
60
371
- 48
2,242

11.1
12.9
12.5
12.7
11.1
11.6
16 11. 9
10.1
13.3
11.5
13.7
16 11.8

93.7
115.2
104.5
106.7
93.7
95.1
104.9
78.5
108.4
100.5
110:5
101.3

8.5
8.9
8.4
8.4
8.5
8.2
16 8.8
7.8
8.1
8.7
8.1
16 8.5

36.85
97.53
90.15
93.16
59.46
73.94
66.26
68.68
79.77
70.70
96.73
70.02

3.32
7.56
7.24
7.32
5.38
6.36
16 5.65
6.79
5.98
6.14
7.07
16 5.96

.393
.847
.863
.873
.635
.777
.631
.875
.736
.703
.876
.691

14 N o t in clu d in g data for 24 em p loyees, starts for w h om w ere n o t reported.
15 N o t in clu d in g d ata for 51 em p loyees, starts for w h om w ere n ot reported.
16 N o t in clu d in g d ata for 75 em p loyees, starts for w h om w ere n ot reported.

RATES AND EARNINGS, DAYS OF OPERATION, AND DAYS
CLOSED IN EACH MINE.

Tables 13 and 14 show for each mine covered the rates and earnings
of the several classes of miners and loaders, days and hours of opera­
tion, and days closed.
It will be observed from these tables that some collieries do not
have consideration miners and others do not have company miners;
also that some bituminous mines do not have both pick miners and
machine miners. Some of the collieries, however, have both con­




DAYS OF OPERATION AND DAYS CLOSED.

41

sideration and company miners and some bituminous mines have
both pick (hand) and machine miners. As pick, or hand, miners
generally cut the coal and load it into mine cars, data for loaders
are not shown except for mines having machine miners. The com­
pany miner is paid a regular daily rate; the consideration miner is a
man usually employed as a contract miner, but who for a time is
receiving a guaranteed minimum rate because of the fact that a
tonnage rate would not produce earnings per day equal to the guar­
anteed rate. The pay rolls show that a few contract miners during
a small part of the pay-roll period were on a consideration or day
basis, but it was not practicable to divide their data and such employ­
ees have been considered as contract miners during the entire period
so far as time and earnings are concerned. Likewise, a few of the
consideration miners were on a contract basis during a minor part
of the pay-roll period covered, thereby causing their average earn­
ings to be higher than they would have been had they worked exclu­
sively as consideration miners.
The daily rate for consideration and company miners and their
laborers is for a day of eight hours of actual work, not including a
lunch period. In the part of the table relating to earnings per hour
are given the average earnings of consideration and company miners
and their laborers. In these figures the time at the face includes the
time (hours) worked and time taken for lunch so as to put them on
a comparable basis with the contract miners.
An effort was made to obtain the tonnage rates of contract miners
and such figures were obtained in part. It was found that tonnage
rates differed within a mine and as between the several mines because
of difference in the thickness of the coal seam or for other reasons.
In one mine there was a rate as low as 32 cents per ton and also a
rate as high as 69 cents per ton. In one mine there was a rate of
$1.58 per ton. The rates obtained at other mines fell within these
limits.
An attempt was also made to get the wage rate of the contract
miners' laborer and figures were obtained at several of the mines.
The rates of this occupation, likewise, may differ within the mine
and as between different mines. The contract miners' laborer is
paid a wage rate per shift, the term “ shift" meaning what is accepted
as a day's work, which may differ as to actual hours of labor. A
shift usually means the loading of a certain number of mine cars,
which number may vary in a mine; thus the rate of the contract
miners' laborer partakes to some extent of the nature of a car rate
or, in effect, a tonnage rate, as distinct from a strictly time rate.




42

HOUiiS AND EARNINGS IN GOAL MINING,

T able 1 3 » — D A Y S

A N D S O -U E S O F O P E R A T IO N , T O N S P R O D U C E D P E R M A N , A N D
O C C U P A T IO N S , T O R S E C O N D H A L F O F J A N U A R Y , 1922; A L SO DxVYS O F O P E R A T IO N
R E P R E S E N T A T I V E ANTHRACITE C O L L IE R Y I N P E N N S Y L V A N IA C O V E R E D R Y
ton
T im e of oper­ A verage an bs y produced
per m
contract
ation in halfm in ers, consideration
m on th p ay­
m iners, com pany m in ­
roll period.
ers, an d th eir laborers.

N um ber
of
m in e .

1 ................
2 ................
3 ...............
4 ................
5 ................
6.................
7 - , ............
8 ................
9 ............
ID..............
H ...............
12— .........
18..............
14..............

IS...........

16...........1 7 . . .........
18..............
19..............
20..............
2 1 ..........
2 2 ..............
28 ..............
24_______
25 ..............
26 ..............
2 7 ..............
28_______
29 ..............

N um ber of days during year ending O ct. 31,1921,
m in es w ere—
C losed on account of—

In
Per hour. opera­
In
tion . Trans­ L a­
D ays H onrs half- Per
porta­ bor
M ine N o
{tip p le (tip p le m on th start T im e T im e
tion
Strikes. disa­ m ar­
tim e). tim e).. ProIl“ (day). at
disa­ short­
b ility. k et.
in
age.
b ility.
face.1 m ine.
period.;
14
14
12
14
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
11
10
10
12
13
13
44
13
7
8
14
14
14
14
11
11
11
11

112
113
96
112
104
104
117
951
1 0 ll
97A
87|
66*
75
80
96
104 .
104
06
104
49
64
107
112
113
112
75
88
86£;

M-§ :

40.3
63.5
27.7
31.7
49.9
47.5
28.7
41.0
41.7
48.8
42.6
21.0
26.7
31.2
28 .4
35.0
33.8
31.6
43.0
13.4
39.3
36.9
36.5
60.6
39.9
39.3
39.4
34.3
48.0

1 LadiK llng tim e tea- ltmCh.




3.6 0.45 0.41
4.9 .63 .60
2.6 .37 .35
2.9 .45 .42
4.5 .63 .59
4.3 .57 .55
2.2 .28 .2 6
3.1 .43 .41
3.3 .42 .3 9
3.7 .53 .49
3.4 .4 6 .4 3
2.0 .24 .23
2.6 .36 .34
3.3 .46 .43
3 .0 .4 1 .3 9
3.0 .39 .35
3.2 .46 .40
2 .0 .35 .33
3.9 .58 .57
1.0 .20 .18
5.1 .91 .77
3.9 .57 .49
3.8 .41 .38
4.7 .61 .58
3.3 .39 .36
3.7 .55 .48
4 .0 .58 .48
8 .3 .54 .46
5 .2 .73 .64

291
260
300
300
298
206
308
199
298
288
291
300
253
295
290
290
291
293
296
273
277
298
279
274
287
296
298
292
293

4
28
1

1
5
1
1
4

3
0

g

4
1

14
22

* " 27
a

100
6
14
11
20
8

6
i

27
2Q

i

2
10
3

6

3

Sun-

S3*'
days, To­

an d tal.
other
causes.
69
69
,64
64
67
68
57
59
01
63
63
59
5
70
67
72
70
63
69
64
67
67
71
67
68
69
67

74
105
65
65
67
69
57
166
67
77
74
65
112
70
75
75
74
72
69
92
88
67
86
91
78
69
67
„ 70 73
66' 72

DAYS OF OPERATION AND DAYS CLOSED,

43

DAIRY RATES AND AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR FOR EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED
AND DAYS CLOSED DURING THE 12 MONTHS ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1921, FOR EACH
STUDY.
Rate per day of 8 hours.

Con­
sider­
ation
min­
ers.

Con­
sider­
ation
min­
ers'
labor­
ers.

/ $6.14 $5.66 15.62
\ 6.44 5.94
6.14 5.19 5.40
5.59
5.59
6.14 4.78 5.59
6.14 4.94 5.59
5.26 4.73 5.26
6.43
6.
6.14 5.18
6.19
5.14
5.94
5.41
5.70
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.26 4.69
5.42
5.29
5.26
5.30
6.28 5.85
5.66
6.14 /I 5.94 5.62
6.14 5.19 5.40
6.32 5.22
'4*42
5.42
5.33
5.61
4.41
5.30
5.50




Com­
pany
min-:
ers'

Average earnings per hour of—
C ontract
m iners.

Contract Considera­ C onsidera­ C om pany
m in ers'
tion m iners' m iners.
laborers. tion m iners. laborers.

T im e T im e T im e T im e T im e T im e T im e T im e T im e T im e
in
at
at
in
at
in
at : in
in
at
face.1 m ine. face.1 m ine. lace.1 m in e. face.1 m ine. face.1 m ine.

Company
miners'
laborers.
Time Time
at
face.1

$0,880 $0,812 $0,654 $0,003 $0,730 $0,077 $0,076 $0,627 $0,676 $0,628 $0,601 $0.558
1.646 1.568 .649 .62 8 .941 .903 .616 .593 .646 .022 .589 .568
5.15 1.195 1.113 .816 .762
.659 .624 .609 .577
5.15 1.367 1.266 . 953 .884
.654 .618 .609 .575
V 1.059 .98 6 .686 .641 .744 .702 .562 .531 .676 .641 .608 .576
1 1.075 1.005 .805 .752 .722 .681 .585 .552 .674 .037 .613 . 580
4.67 .86 9 .818 .702 .661 .635 .601 .541 .512 .608 .579 .539 .514
5.61 1.192 1.137 .965: .921
.745 .720 .650 .628
5.17 1.050 .983 .914 .855
.722 .687 .611 .579
1.072 .976 .773 .709 .719 .667 .610 .5 6 0
5.16 1.020 .951 .766 .717
’ ".*736 ” .’ 7oi
’.’580
4.79 .978 .923 .805 .759
.588 .556 .547 .517
4.92 1.090 1.017 .864 .806
.699 .660 .579 .548
J- 1.207 1.124 .787 .733
.719 .679 .633 .598
.961 .898 .72 5 .679.
.6 4 4 .609 .593 .561
4.95 1.013 .895 .731 .642
.638 .571 .582 .521
4.95 1.056 .917 .758 . 659
.521
.638 .570
1.023 .977 .61 # .583 .615 .589 . 548 .525
4.95 1.268 1.095 .781 .677
.640 .576 .582 .521
4.68 .706 .629 .636 .566
.644 .576 .549 .491
4.82 1.752 1.449 .723 .633 .613 .548
.643 .574 . 589 .527
.96 2 .818 .90 0 .766 .763 .66 9 .6 7 9 .59 9
5.07 .890 .818 .769 .708 .732 .679 .683 .633 .675 .627 .600 .557
4.96 1.303 1.240 .651 .626 .944 .906 .616 .593 .646 .622 .. 589 .567
.850 .771 .572 .520 .7221 .659 .598 .546
’4.' 20 | 1.162 1.004 . 818 .706
.627 .560 .547 .487
4.85
J 1.304 1.053 .865. .701
.628 .534 .574 . 489
1.008 .860 .75 6 .857
.662 .595 .616 .554
.655 .590 .530 .475
} 1.06ft .923 .682 .603
4. ’61

’.~6ii

Table 14.—DAYS AND HOURS OF OPERATION. TONS PRODUCED PER MAN, TONNAGE RATES, AND AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR FOR EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS FOR A HALF-MONTH PAY-ROLL PERIOD IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22; ALSO DAYS OF OPERATION AND DAYS
CLOSED DURING THE 12 MONTHS ENDING OCTOBER 31,1921, FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS MINE COVERED BY STUDY.

In
Per hour. oper­
* In
half­
ation.
Days Hours month Per
start
(tipple (tipple
time). time). S ' (day). Time Time
in at
mine. face.1
period.

Trans­ La­
Mine No
porta­ bor
dis­
Other
tion short­ Strikes. abil­ mar­ causes.
disa­
ity. ket.
bility. age.

Alabama:
90 66.0 7.7 0.84 1.08
101........................
10
72 34.1 4.2 .47 .53
102........................
9
53 40.4 6.7 .82 .89
103........................
7
72 34.6 4.2 .47 .53
104........................
9
54 29.3 3.6 .52 .61
105........................
9
84 54.9 7.0 .82 .93
106........................
11
107........................
90 73.9 10.3 1.05 1.14
10
88 61.3 6.4 .72 .76
108........................
11
48.5 5.4 .59 .64
109........................ (4) (5)
58.7 6.4 .75 .77
n o ..: .................. (7) <8)
Colorado:
201........................
90 62.8 6.9 .74 .87
10
202........................
13 117 64.1 ' 5.7 .67 .71
203........................
13 117 52.5 4.7 .53 .56
204........................
13 104 170.6 13.1 1.60 1.64
205........................
5
38 28.4 5.6 .73 .77 166i
206........................
13 117 69.9 6.4 .77 .82
l
1
207........................
13 117 58.2 5.2 .61 .69
!
208........................
12 108 35.7 3.5 .41 .48
Illinois:
301........................
8 64.0 62.1 8.2 .94 1.01
302........................
8 54.5 55.5 7.3 .99 1.06
.1
303........................
11 88.0 64.2 6.7 .78 .83
304........................
13 104.0 66.4 5.8 .65 .73
305........................
12 94.0 89.7 8.9 1.03 1.12
306........................
13 104.0
61.3 5.4 .63 .66
307........................
13 104.0 (2) (2) (2) (2)



12
4

3

1

5

5

4
1
30
11
10
9
2

4
1
6

2
7

10
3
4
1

165
104
158
104
182
77
97
96
75
29
104
144
68
77
134
95
52
70
136
127
89
58
129
65

A verage earnings per hour ofT onnage rate for—

M achine
m iners.

Loaders.

P ick
Ma­
im
im
or
im
chine Load­ hand T im e Tin e T at e T in e
at
m i­
ers.
m i­ face.1 m ine. face.1 m ine.
ners.
ners.

P ick
m iners.
T im e
in
m ine.

$0,050 $0,440 $0.64 $0,563 $0,458 $0,446 $0.350 $0,565 $0,440
.220
.800
1.699 1.511 .589 .523
.672 .617
.85
.270
.800
1.832 1.624 .805 .714
.72
.486 .415
(2 )
.64 ( 2)
.507 .448 .636 .582
(* )
( 2)
.60 ( 2)
.497 .455 .698 .651
(2 )
(2)
( 2)
(3
.72 .514 .486 .482 .455 .458 .432
.530
.72 .509 .472 .385 .357 .503 .466
.530
(3)
(3 )
.72 .504 .495 .483 .473 .592 .581
.530
.175
.730 1.02 1.653 1.417 .907 .777 .984 .843
/ 10. 200 \ .830 1.17
(u ) 12 1.635 !2 1.540 .956 .899
(u )
1 w. 250
.173 J 1.000 1.33 1.759 1.661 .705 .665 .918 .866
.92
1.512 1.475
jr .780 1
13.106 \ to [ 1.03 1.243 1.171 1.032 .980 C14) (14)
1 .800 |
.200
.770 1.07 1.482 1.399 .933 .878 .933 .875
.180
.850 1.37 1.400 1.243 . 9 1 9 .811 (14) ( ! 4 )
.360
.920 1.42 1.666 1.439 .829 .716 .790 .681
.150
.860 1.080 1.157 1.071 1.293 1.194 a . 0 9 5 1 . o n
.105
1.604 1.477 1.088 1.016
.865
1.087
.925 .871
.805 . 1.040 .907 .801 .739 .657 .896 .793
.165
1.398 1.292 1.235 1.139
.135
.835
1.420
.666 .616
1.370
.550 .518

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL, MINING.

State, and number of
mine.

Number of days during year ending Oct. 31,1921,
Time of
mines were—
tons produced
operation in Averageman by pick .
half-month per
miners, machine mi­
pay-roll
ners, and loaders.
Closed on account of—
period.

^
^

__________10
__________ 5
__________ 8
..
13
__________13
__________12
__________ 9
__________13
__________ 7
__________13
__________12
__________11
__________13
__________ 6
__________13
__________10
__________ 8
__________10
__________10
10
..
10
..
__________ 7
__________10
__________10
__________ 8
__________ 6
__________10
11
11

__________11
__________10
__________ 6
13
..
6
..
13
..

80.0
35.5
64.0
89.0
104.0
96.0
72.0
104.0
41.0
96.8
96.0
88.0
104.0
48.0
104.0
75.5
55.0
77.8
80.0
61.3
80.0
52.0
79.3
80.0
61.9
46.0
80.0
88.0
81.5
77.5
70.0
48.0
122.0
39.5
104.0

111.1
28.9
70.6
90.1
108.9
59.3
79.2
111.9
17.1
61.5
68.6
125.3
120.7
56.4
70.2
86.1
35.2
72.0
68.0
48.5
91.3
59.1
84.2
42.1
89.3
43.4
69.9
57.0
57.3
40.5
43. U
51.5
49.9
33.6
116.1

11.9
6.4
10.4
8.1
8.7
6.2
9.3
9.6
2.9
5.5
6.2
12.4
9.9
11.8
6.3
9.5
4.6
9.0
7.5
5.3
10.0
10.4
9.2
4.7
11.6
8.2
7.7
5.7
6.3
4.6
5.7
8.7
5.4
5.5
10.9

1.39
.79
1.19
1.09
1.08
.71
1.17
1.15
.38
.69
.73
1.45
1,13
1.29
.75
1.14
.60
1.10
.99
.84
1.32
1.33
1.19
.60
1.43
1.02
1.02
.66
.72
.57
.74
1.36
.65
.73
2.07

1.46
.87
1.24
1.16
1.15
.76
1.21
1.23
.40
.75
.79
1.52
1.20
l. 36
.79
1.29
.64
1.18
1.02
.89
1.35
1.45
1.20
.64
1.55
1.09
1.06
.75
.77
.60
.79
1.40
.68
.79
2.14

199
131
10
133
6
211
246
180
21
197
234
107
207
6
217
200
161
199
13
212
6
168
8
128
3
195
8
176
1
1
197
95
4
168
2
191
7
190
3
166
4
241
6
180
131
47
266 (2)
221 (2)
221 (2)
34
71
234 (2)
146 (2)
200

8
5
4
2
1
39

4

9
(2)
35
(2)
(2)
(2)

1 Including tim e for lu n ch .
2 N ot reported.
8 M achine runners, $4.88; m achine runners’ helpers, $3.80 per d ay of 8 hours.
4 D ay s, 11; n igh ts, 10.
6 D ay s, 88; n igh ts, 80.
« D a y s, 237; n ig h ts, 234.
7 D a y s, 13; n ig h ts, 11.
s D ay s, 104; n ig h ts, 88.
® D ays, 280; n igh ts, 276.
10 According to size of m achine.




18
2
2
13
7
4
2
5
4

7 16
14 113
6 34
3 16
11 46
26 41
12
9
11
9
27
4
10
4
34
4
3 17
2
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
12 (2)

107
136
158
91
60
92
105
55
198
83
81
106
95
90
79
106
55
64
106
58
141
116
89
83
123
18
100
124
(2)
(2)
(2)
208
23
(2)

59
62
61
61
59
59
63
65
58
64
65
59
65
59
68
60
52
58
59
52
58
58
58
58
58
62
65
52
57
58
58
52
54

p . 150
166 I\i6 .097 15.861 } ........... 1.615
16.913
234 .113
1. 288
.858
232 .110
.860
1.448
154 .125
.850 1.040 1. 902
119 .143
.828 1.040 1.237
185 .145
.825
1.300
168 .151
.859
1. 577
.870
131 .140
1.576
258
1.370
158
1.087
.900 1.150 1.317
148 .180
f15.150 15.861 } ........... 1.604
165 \i6 .097 16.913
f
204 .142
.868
1. 589
166 .153
.828
(2)
153 .125
.855 1.080 (2)
.812
197 .148
1.711
i. 080
237
.812 1.080 1.583
170 .148
.812 1.080 1.582
189 .148
168
1.080
.812
270 .148
1.956
197
1.080
.812
174 .148
1.923
175
1.080
.812
199 . 148
2. 201
.812 1.080 1.602
124 .148
.812 1.080 1.551
185 .148
234 .150
.600
.844
.750
99 .185
1.230
.710 1.000 1.000
144 .200
.895 1.490 1.663
144 .265
.480 17.530 .856
294 .070
.470 .500 1.151
131 .140
/is 1.000 } ........... 1.376
219 18.590 \2o 1.040
.600 .800 j l . 190
.140
165 \f .145
.650 .840

1. 539
1.183
1.393
1.760
1.167
1.227
1.526
1.475

1.411
.898
1.235
1.129
1.603
.998
1.369
1.288

1. 215
1.529
1.487
(2)
(2)
1.604
1. 487
1.549
1.914
1.907
2. 018
1.500
1.484
.755
1.160
.938
1.558
.837
1.104
1.290
1.161

1.048
1.472
1.200
1.112
.987
1.247
L 166
1. 002
1.005
1.155
1.367
1.073
1.087
.549
.861
.648
.568
.685
.681
.807
.927

1.343
. 824
1.188
1.053 1. 085
1.509 1.129
.940
1.327
1.211
.623
.818
.964 .902
1.399
1.132
1.052
.929 .968
1.167
.744
1.095 .783
.980 .988
.928
.982
.776
i.'uh
.674
i. 255
1.006 ( H )
1.039 1.030
.458
.811
.609 .678
.531 .640
.667 (14)
.653 (14)
.752
.897 (1 4 )

11 None; loaders do machine mining.
12 For loading and machine mining,
is Per foot.
14 No employees in this occupation during pay-roll period scheduled.
15 With breast machine.
is With short-wall machine.
1? Per hour.
,
is Block or lump coal,
is Punch machine.
2o Electric machine.

1.015
1.059
.583
.750
.832
.911
.697
.736
.966
.879
.710
.630
(H )

- .985
.636
.599
(14)
(14)
(14 )

DAYS OF OPERATION AND DAYS CLOSED.

308
309
310
311..
00
312
05
C
O 313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
Indiana:
401
402
403
404
405..
406..
407
408
409
410
411
412
Kentucky:
601___
602___
603
604
605
606..
607..
608..

C71

T able 14.—DAYS AND HOURS OF OPERATION, TONS PRODUCED PER MAN, TONNAGE RATES, AND AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR FOR EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS FOR A HALF-MONTH PAY-ROLL PERIOD IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22; ALSO DAYS OF OPERATION AND
DAYS CLOSED DURING THE 12 MONTHS ENDING OCTOBER 31,1921, FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS MINE COVERED BY STUDY—Con.

In
Per hour. oper­
In
Days Hours half­ Per
ation.
(tipple (tipple month start
Time Time
time). time).
in at
Ml' (day). mine. face.
period.

Kentucky—Contd.
609........................
610........................
611........................

9 72.0 56.5 7.8 1.17 1.23 172
4 32.0 40.4 8.9 1.24 1.33 91
12 102.3 82.0 8.5 1.08 1.17 275

612.......................
613........................
614........................
615........................
616........................
617........................
618........................
619........................
620........................
Ohio:
701........................
702........................
703........................
704........................
705........................

9
11
12
8
10
13
8
13
13

86.0
88.0
96.0
64.0
65.0
104.0
64.0
96.0
101.5

75.3
82.9
83.5
62.0
71.5
97.1
62.0
51.0
87.3

10.0
8.9
7.9
7.1
7.9
9.6
7.5
5.4
8.5

11
12
4
13
4

85.3
94.0
27.0
100.0
29.5

80.5
51.3
31.1
70.8
27.6

9.1 1.08 1.20 237
5.9 .72 .77 150
8.1 .97 1.04 112
6.4 .77 .82 175
7.4 .90 .98 210




1.25
1.04
1.10
.92
.96
1.30
.91
.70
1.04

1.36
1.15
1.12
.98
1.02
1.43
1.02
.74
1.11

Trans­ La­
Mine No
porta­ bor
Other To­
dis­
tion
Strikes. abil­ mar­ causes. tal.
disa­ short­
age.
ity. ket.
bility.
123
57 158
29

18
7

248
3
190 15 15
173 24
1
143
19
252 (2) (2)
164 20 4
128 35
200
18 4
203
18 5

18
2
(a)
v
1 11
23 10
23 8

60
66
113
142
(2>
125
132
56
54

32
16
34
13

2
4 16
4
2 8

29
95
186
82
71

2
8
18
7

Average earnings per hour of—
Tonnage rate for—

Machine
miners.

Loaders.

Pick
miners.

Pick
Ma­
or
chine Load­ hand Time Time Time Time Time Time
at
at in
at
mi­ ers. mi­ face.
face. mine.
face.
ners.
ners.

52 193 $0,060 $0,450 i7$0.500 $0.676 $0.650
1.879 1.749
59 274 .141 .617
.480 .660
54 90 .130 .520 .700 1.068 .977
.560 .740
.480 .600
54 117 .130 .520 .700 1.211 1.107
.560 .740
61 175 .141 .760
1.557 1.410
1.450 1.419
55 192 .190 .700
.856 .797
58 222 17.810 .630
.710 1.000
58 113 .170 .750 1.150
.275
52 201 .120 .550
1.1 1. Oil
.784 .735
58 237 17.810 .630
.750
.170 .799
.958 .902
54 165 .200 .830
.750
.170
1.222 1.150
54 162 .200 .790
.830
1.664 1.511
63 128 .150 .790
1.324 1.240
84 215 .140 .800
59 253 .187 .788 1.270 2. 645 2.502
52 190 .140 .800 1.116 1.255 1.186
54 155 .134 } -8 1.116 1.274 1.173
.176
>

$0,601 $0.570 $0.843 $0.803
.962 .895
.660 .604 .946 .867
.829
.964
.971
.741
.813
.699
.807
.766

760 (14)
.870
.948
.694
.762
635
.754
.717

(14)

.851

.838
1.122 1.011

.889
1.018
.758
.956

.834
.957 (14) (“)
.712 (“) (“)
.879 (14) (14)

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

State, and number of
mine.

year ending Oct. 31,. 1921,
Time of
tons produced Number of days during were—
mines
operation in Averageman by pick
per
half-month miners, machine mi­
pay-roll
ners and loaders.
Closed on account of—
period.

c*




32
16
24
16
19
14
4
12
19
11
20
4
22
8
25
10
2
4

1
10
1
4

10
21
3
12
1
16
2
5
1

53
58 151 .150
61 104 .150
18
124
58 216 .159
52 278 .140
198
52 239 .140
135
129
4
70 224 . 150
134
52 2 1 .140
7
0
114
65 197 . 140
62 167 .150
89
1
172
58 230 .172
21
56
60 166 .150
4
65 91 .150
11
114
52 192 . 140
26
6 227 . 140
6
2 5 118
145
58 203 . 190 \/
162
52 214 . 140
62 257 .140
29 45 115
62 175 .150
2
84
5 34 28
67 142 . 187
61 128 . 150
8 8 26
141
58 209 .109
1 114;
58 176 .157
2 128
58 188 .169
114
58 172 .176 \f
2 206
58 270 .143
110 58 168 / 2.149
58 213 \ K3.149
155
169
126
59 185 .169
132
58 190 .176 /\
2 135
58 195 .104
3
55 58
.103
57 1§0 (2)
122
60 156 .167
10 86
152
58 220 . 149
55 169 .130
7
105
55 55 (2)
132
58 190 .176 \f
4 102
58 165 .135
8 58
59 129 .143
30
8
58 8
58 79 .149
2 19
2 Net tons, 2,000 pounds.
2
2 Thick vein.
3
S4 Thin vein.
5
3

3
9
7
2
12
4
8
2
2
10

.886 .811
.790
.790 1. iie 1.329 1.177
1.364 1.284
.790
.800 1.116 1.624 1.539
.800 1.116 1.649 1. 514
1. 544 1.367
.790
1.201 1.123
.800
.800
1. 473 1.367
.790 1.116 1.271 1.145
.745
1. 375 1.284
1. 556 1. 431
.790
.790 1.116 1. 519 1. 406
.800
1. 626 1.427
.800
1.428 1.370
.790 \ ......... 1.373 1.301
. 865 J
.800
1.856 1.738
.800 1.116 .651 .611
.790 1.116 .999 .877
1.102 .966
.788
.790
1.706 1.486
.771 1.116 1.065 .968
.713 1.200 .682 .573
.771 1.116 1.236 1.121
.700
.720 } 1.060 1.200 1.150
.717 1 1.000 1.547 1.431
.734 1.031 1.220 1.100
23.734 | 1.116 1.037 .976
24.771
.771 ' 1.116 1.623 1.529
.700
.720 } 1.060 .997 .935
.409 .578 .947 .797
(2)
(2) 1.124 .997
.733 1.163 1.063 1.425
.771 1.116 .917 .902
1.026 .977
.771
.375 .595 1.544 1.397
(2) .973 .865
(2)
.700 | 1.060 .839 .787
.720
.450 .570 .819 .743
.717 1.000 1.625 1.508
.734 1.031 i.394 i. 270

.609
.952
.989
.896
.940
1.266
1. 205
. 972
.959
1.166
3. 015
.973
1.056
.907
.733
1.316
.829
.798
1.195
1.222
.793
.491
.605
.749
1.036
.762
.837
.806
.404
.632
.677
.879
.756
.845
.790
.687
.556
.682
1.078
.770

.556
.841 1.429 1.264
.917
. 845 (14) (U \
.883 (14) (u )
1.119
1.106
.893 (!4) (!4)
.864
1.078
.930
.900 .902 .835
.988
.869
.695
1.230 (14)
.773
.694 .736 (14)
.629
1.007
1.046
.722 .917 .829
.412 .589 .495
.554 .713 .671
.719 .929 .892
.944 1.178 1.080
.687 .669 .603
.788 .978 .920
.758 .888 .834
.436 .674 .630
.528 .779 .651
.603 .709 .631
.754 .956 .819
.736 .995 .971
.797
.694 .783 .691
.612 .678 .584
.523 .657 .618
.616 .733 .663
.980 1.197 1.099
.482 .457
.688 .854 .765

BAYS OF OPERATION AND DAYS CLOSED.

706........................
12 96.0 55.' 1 5.6 .65 .71 214
707........................
9 71.0 46.2 6.8 .79 .90 261
9 72.0 55.8 7.1 1.02 1.10 149
708........................
709........................
12 96.0 65.7 7.4 .84 . 89 87
710........................
41 32.0 27.9 7,1 . 88 .94 126
711........................
12 88.0 88.1 7.9 .92 1. 04 141
712........................
9 69.0 40.0 5.5 .88 .96 164
713........................
10 78.0 61.6 6.6 .79 .86 368
714........................
13 97.0 78.0 7.1 .84 .94 198
715........................
9 72.0 96.0 12.0 1. 33 1.44 135
716........................
13 104.0 67.4 6.0 .75 .82 199
13 104.0 90.7 &4 .95 1.03 274
717........................
12 89.0 76.3 7.5 .96 1.03 173
718........................
12 72.0 57.0 7.0 .88 .92 138
719........................
13 104. 0 89.6 7.7 .81 .86 162
720........................
18 96.0 104.0 9.5 1.24 1.32 151
721........................
10 80.0 43.5 5.6 .74 .80 108
722........................
723........................
13 104.0 113.6 10.0 1.29 1.48 190
11 80. 0 64. 8 7.0 1.05 1.24 223
724..... ...........
8 57.0 44.4 7.3 1.02 1.19 237
725........................
Pennsylvania:
4
1
32 si 28.3 217.1 2.78 21.86 156
801........................
11
802......................
91 aa 67.5 2»6.6 23.70 22.84 189
808........................
6
48 »28.1 214.7 21.60 21.65 177
804........................
72 2167.2 218.2 211.00 2U.04 193
9
2
13 104 2 107.4 2 9.8 221.26 2 1.38 95
2
2
805........................
72 2i 39.9 215.8 2.68 81.76 197
1
808........................
9
4
807........................
32 2125.3 21 6.9 21.80 si. 85 152
11
808........................
88 2i 66.9 216.6 21.79 21.84 180
5
1
809........................
40 8i 48.6 216.2 2.77 31.82 175
12
2
810........................
96 2*98,4 229.72*1.06 2 1.27 170
811........................
13 104 2 149. 5 2213.5 221.49 221.67 307
2
812........................
13 1042i 103. 5 219.0 21.96 211.12 185
813........................
12
1
92 2i 40. 3 214.9 2.70 21.72 209
12
814........................
96 21 116.1 2111.2 211. 25 211.32 145
2
815........................
13 104 2 118. 5 2 10. 6 2 1. 25 2 1.42 196
2 2 2
2 2
816........................
13 104 22 129. 5 2212.3 2 1. 35 2 1.52 310
817........................
5
40 21 49. 5 216.3 21.75 2. 8 175
1O
818........................
13 10421112.4 3110.3 211.19 211.32 200
819........................
13 10422 104.6 22 9.1 28 1.20 22 1.31 236
• 820........................
13 10422 100.8 22 8.5 2 .8 28.93 277
28
2
821........................
12
96 22 62.6 2 6.1 22.70 22.85 283
2Not reported.
14 No employees in this occupation during payroll period scheduled.
17 Per hour.
81 Gross tons, 2,240 pounds.

T able 14.—DAYS AND HOURS OF OPERATION, TONS PRODUCED PER MAN, TONNAGE RATES. AND AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR FOR EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS FOR A HALF-MONTH PAY-ROLL PERIOD IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22; ALSO DAYS OF OPERATION AND
DAYS CLOSED DURING THE 12 MONTHS ENDING OCTOBER 31,1921, FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS MINE COVERED BY STUDY—Con.

In
half­
Days Hours month Per
start
(tipple (tipple
time). time). 3 8 - (day)
period.

Pennsylvania—Con.
822___
823.
824___
825 ___
82fi
827. ..
828
829___
830
831
832
833___
834
835___
836
837 . ..
838
83Q
840
841
842___
843
844........................



5
6
13
13
9
12
13
9
13
9
12
6
13
9
6
9
6
5
13
11
13
13
13

Average earnings per hour ofTonnage rate for—

Machine
miners.

Loaders.

Pick
miners.

Per hour.

Pick
Mine No
Ma­
In Trans­ La­
dis­
Other To­ chine Load­ or Time Tim6 Time Time Time Time
oper­ porta­ bor
tion
in at in
at .in at
Time Time ation. disa­ short­ Strikes. abil­ mar­ causes. tal. mi­ ers. hand face.1 mine. face.1 mine. face.1 mine.
mi­
ners.
in at
ity. ket.
bility. age.
ners.
mine. face.

■
40 « 30.1 216.1 21.64 21.70
48 n 33.5 21 6.1 21.72 2i.78
11721123.5 2i 10.6 211.16 211.30
104 22 117.2 22 10.2 221.18 221.43
72 2i 47.7 2i 6.2 21.68 21.70
96 22 90.2 22 8.7 22 1.05 22 1. 19
1.6
104 21 54. 7 214.7 21.58 2 1
1
1.6
72 21 44.6 21 5.7 2.63 2 8
104 21 83.0 2i 7.7 21.86 21.89
1.6
72 21 40. 8 21 5.1 21.56 2 1
96 22 84.3 22 8.3 221.0022 1.09
1O
48 2i 28.7 21 5.1 21.54 2. 6
1
104 2i 55. 5 214.9 21.56 2.57
72 21 42.3 215.4 21.59 21.64
1
48 2i 22.3 2i 3. 8 2. 41 21.45
72 2i 48.1 215.3 ai. 61 21.63
48 21 36. 5 21 7.1 21.85 21.93
1.6
40 21 30. 8 216.5 2 6 21.74
104 23 105.1 22 9.9 22 1.05 221.13
88 2153.0 215.5 21.58 21.65
104 21 91.2 218.2 21.93 21.95
104 2i 77.8 2 7.8 21.87 21.91
1
10422103.0 22 11.8 22 1.28 22 1.53

218
197
216
204
176
277
197
167
153
174
274
163
202
169
158
181
173
161
281
170
206
153
140

16
2
3

1
24
7
24

2

21

1 72
110
1 88
99
131
3 6
110
3 130
154
133
3 10
144
' 105
3 135
149
126
134
• 146
2 6
1 134
101
154
1 170

58
58
58
58
58
55
58
58
58
58
54
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
55
58
58
58
54

147 SO.169 $0.771 \fSl.090 }$. 807 $0.738
1.163
168 .169 .771 1.116 1.390 1.275
f .166 .920 } 1.300 .787 .700
149 \ .177 1.010
161 .157 .713 J 1.200 1.208 .959
1.281
189 (2)
.375 .595 .846 .751
88 . 182 (2)
168 .110 .680 1.280 1.007 .966
.866 1.280 .882 .821
198 (2)
.900
212 (2)
.660 \f 1.200 1 .725 .699
.866 1.280 J .877 .796
191 (2)
.469
91 (2)
(2)
.866 1.281 .879 .787
202 (2)
25.926 25 1.340 .834 .838
163 (2)
.866 1.280 .881 .816
196 (2)
.866 1.281 .879 .801
207 (2)
184 . 170 .866 1.281 1.044 1.006
192 .186 .773 (2) .698 .646
204 .107 .866 1.280 .968 .869
f .555
84 .25$ 1 .630 | .880 .750 .695
195 (2)
.866 1.280 .872 .788
25.92625 1.340 .868 .851
159 (2)
.900
.660 \f 1.200 \ .728 .700
212 (2)
225 (2)
(2)
(2) .814 .709

SO. 611
.668
.561
.755
.618
.789
.715
.570
.660
.689
.702
.784
.616
.768
.677
.780
.614
.661
.830
.542
.537

SO. 558SO. 807 SO. 736
.615 .880 .810
.499 .752 .670
.626 .743 .614
1.014 .985
.547 .761 .666
.757 .557 .534
.662 .821 .761
.549 .643 .612
.600 .921 .837
.683 .628
.614 .826 .738
.689 .686 .673
.726 .946 .877
.560 .824 .750
.740 .818 .788
.622
.700 .758 .680
.571 .656 .609
.597 .751 .677
.811 .720 .703
.522 .593 .571
.447 .527 .437

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING,

State, and number of
mine.

Time of
tons produced Number of days during year ending Oct. 31,1921,
mines were—
operation in Averageman by pick
per
half-month
miners, machine mi­
pay-roll
ners and loaders.
Closed on account of—
period.

£»
QO




4 94
186
1 71
123
83
51
28
87

60
59
57
61
58
58
59
59

166 .125
247 .100
134 .125
186 .148
141
235 (27)
247
146

120
124
135
2 160
11 169
2 103

56
57
57
58
57
56

181 .160
191 .100
208 .100
228 284. 800
249 . 100
167 . 100
196 .162
210 .162
225 .169
248 .169
245 .169
214 . 150
128 ‘.110
131 .110
137 .150
196 .150
74 . 164
210 . 140
226 287. 400
287 287. 400
258 . 160
140 .107
217 . 145
255 .145
194 .160
168 .160
155
153
156 .077
171 .077
224 ( 2 )
141 :098
139 .098
156
91 ( 2)

126
160
3
2
2

(2) (2)
(2)

(2)
( 2)

(2)
(2\)
V
( 2)

(2)
6
7
9

9
4
3

2
2

( 2)

(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)

( 2)

8

( 2)
( 2)

1
3
3
1
1
1
1
13
63
1
3
3
5

3 (2) 8
1

(2)
m)
V
59
61
72
125
142
150
209
174
71
120
157
70
107
82
82
92
103
152
67
64
(2)
26

( 2)
( 2)

60
60
60
60
54
54
58
61
62
55
57
57
55
56
57
56
56
56
56
56
59
63
65
55
55
58
59

(u)
1.327
.661
.648
.555
(26)
(26)
1.265
1. 354
1. 776
1. 420
1. 204
1. 318
1. 324
1.618

(26)

(26)
1.696
(26)
.876
.874
1.275
1.275
( 26)
1.468
1.188
1.118

(2 )
( 2)

.591 :682
.591
.591
.378 . 555
.378 .555
1.089
.423 .462

1.240
1. 362
.650
.941
1.399

1.292
1. 420
.657
.971
1. 490
( 26)

21 Gross tons, 2,240 pounds.
' 22 Net tons, 2,000 pounds.
25 Including 6 cents per ton for pushing cars from room.
26 No record of hours kept for employees in this occupation.

1.042
.989
.868
1.020
1.240
12.862
.627
12.893
1.054

1.499 1.012
(26)
.910
1.780 .930
1.430 .916

.940 1.605
.940 (26)
.940 1.893
.940 1.630
.874
(27)
28 6.000 <u )
f 1.250
\ 1.313 /i .......
.660 .831 1.405
.560 .680 .701
.560 .680 .689
.427 .600 .600
(26)
. 455
(26)
.481
.607 .876 1. 431
.607 .876 1. 449
.647 .876 1.963
.647 .876 1. 606
.647 .876 1. 362
1. 409
.790
.565 .665 1.406
.565 .665 1. 726
.693 1.020 (26)
.693 1.020 (26)
1. 843
.691
(26)
.453
.620 ; 899
.640 .855 .893
.660 .876 1. 331
.511 .560 1. 317
(26)
.640
1. 561
.640
.660 .831 1. 259
.660 .831 1.206
.790
.790
.790
.790

1

.940
.859
.874
.812

.968
.934
.814
.904
1.168
.587
.943

.821 .776 .809 .764
.736 .690 • 868 .815
.712 .671 (14) (!4)
.789 .706 .617 .524
.783 .714
.829 .766
.884 .784 1.057 .941
.951 .890 .966 .905
1.284 1.130 1. 597 1.452
1.008 .888 1.158 1.014
1.059 .933 1.183 1.027
.835 .784
1.165 1.059 1. 385 1.254
1.107 1.012 1. 311 1.208
.877 .821 1.197 1.122
.777 .743 .965 .922
.931 .858
.875 .817
.998 . 965 (1 4 ) (14)
1.003 .978 1. 070 1.045
.980 .938 .972 .932
.815 .789 .830 .803
.975 .933
1.026 .963
.756 .714 .526 .497
.734 .681 .798 .740
1.105 1.026
1. 054 .986
.854 .812 .964 .915
1.107 1.054
1. 515 1.495
.949 .913 .991 .959
.912 .849 .779 .726
1.087 1.024
.916 .850 .949 .881

(26)
27 No fixed rate.
28 Per day of 8 hours.

DAYS OF OPERATION- AND DAYS CLOSED,

Utah:
5
40 68.6 9.6 1.36 1.46 199
901........................
3
902........................
24 46.4 11.7 1.30 1.38 118
6
48 49.4 9.2 1.12 1.19 231
903........................
904........................
5
40 78.7 15.3 1.76 1.99 179
Washington:
96 126.3 11.5 1.34 1.42 224
12
1001......................
13 104 89.3 8.8 1.00 1.04 130
1002......................
13 104 50.0 4.8 .47 .50 118
1003......................
13 104 62.2 6.0 .63 .71 219
1004......................
West Virginia:
64 64.7 7.8 .87 .92 184
8
1101......................
11
81 78.9 7.9 .98 1.04 174
1102......................
14
52 72.1 7.0 .83 .88 157
11
1103......................
74 103.3 10.6 1.63 1.82 137
10
1104......................
75 130.2 13.0 1. 72 1.89 116
10
1105......................
12
78 93.0 10.5 1. 61 1. 75 198
1106......................
7
40 73.6 10.1 1.14 1. 28 169 (2)
1107......................
7
40 63.3 9.0 1.14 1. 22 155 (2)
1108......................
7
56 93.2 13.2 1. 54 1.74 140 (2)
1109......................
64 81.5 11.1 1.31 1.48 117 ( 2)
8
1110......................
56 68.1 10.6 1.26 1. 43 120 (2)
7
1111......................
6
25 38.4 7.0 .85 .91 151 (2)
1112......................
12 110 127.1 12.0 2.10 2. 31 237
1113......................
12 104 121.7 11.6 1.90 2. 07 234
1114......................
13 104 63.4 7.7 .99 1.06 228
1115......................
' 13 102 48.2 5.8 .76 .80 169
1116......................
13 117 92.3 9.3 1.10 1.19 291
1117......................
8
59 70.4 8.6 1.12 1.20 155
1118......................
12
96 111.4 10.2 1.33 1.38 139
1119......................
86 91.0 8.1 1.18 1. 21 78
11
1120......................
4
39 35.3 4.9 .62 .65 107
1121......................
13
91 125. 0 11.4 1.48 1.53 225
1122......................
7
56 76.0 •13.1 1.69 1.76 148
1123......................
64 72.5 10.1 1.23 1.31 110
8
1124......................
80 58.4 6.7 .75 .79 171
10
1125......................
9
71 62.0 7.2 .78 .85 197
1126......................
54 75.6 10.1 1. 45 1. 56 210
8
1127......................
7
48 97.5 12.1 1. 57 1.67 212
1128......................
10
69 102.0 12.1 1. 75 1. 84 209
1129......................
76 132.2 16.9 2.37 2.49 194
11
1130......................
41 83.6 14.7 2.15 2.18 141
6
1131......................
1132......................
10
80 101.6 11.6 1.66 1.72 224
7
58 100.0 14.6 1. 97 2.12 226
1133......................
209
6
48 43.8 8.7 1.01 1.07 274 (2)
1134......................
11
61 106.4 12.9 1.86 2.00
1135......................
2 Not reported.
11 None; loaders do machine mining.
1 For loading and machine mining.
14 No employees in this occupation during pay-roll period
scheduled.

Table 14.—DAYS AND HOURS OF OPERATION, TONS PRODUCED PER MAN, TONNAGE RATES, AND AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR FOR EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS FOR A HALF-MONTH PAY-ROLL PERIOD IN THE WINTER OF 1921-22; ALSO DAYS OF OPERATION AND
DAYS CLOSED DURING THE 12 MONTHS ENDING OCTOBER 31,1921, FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS MINE COVERED BY STUDY—Con.

In
Days Hours half­ Per
(tipple (tipple month start
(day)
time). time).
period.

West Virginia—Con.
1136.................... .
1137......................
1138......................
1139......................
1140......................
1141......................
1142.....................
1143......................
1144......................
1145......................
1146..................
1147........ .............
Wyoming:
1201......................
1202......................
1203......................
1204......................
2 Not reported.
11 Per hour.
28 Per day of 8 hours.




In
Per hour. oper­
ation.
Time Time
in at
mine. face.

Trans­ La­
Mine No
porta­ bor
Other
dis­
tion short­ Strikes. abil­ mar­ causes.
ket.
disa­ age.
ity.
bility.

72 90.2 10.3 1.42 1.53
3
12
19
8
51 80.3 13.4 1.71 1.83
3t
5 40 86.9 14.6 1.85 1.97
7
5 354 69.9 12.0 1.58 1.74 141
1
' 7 56 61.0 9.2 1.06 1.20 186
11 90 82.1 10.4 1.55 1.72
20
12 103 114.3 11.8 1.53 1.64
5
10 67 57.7 7.5 1.16 1.26 (2) (2) (2)
15
5 37 53.3 6.7 1.17 1.28
18
8 42 79.0 9.8 1.68 1.84
12 95 121.0 11.7 1.34 1.34
(2)
13 96 113.7 11.2 1.25 1.41 281 (2) (2)
12 96 69.0 8.0 .95 1.01
12 96 93.5 8.7 .98 1.04 287
12 96 105.3 11.1 1.24 1.31 190
13 104 206.3 « 17.7 2.23 2.37 212

(2)

2 21
160
2 154
162
4 165
71
59
(2) 3 (2)92 (2)
3 81
(2) (2)
(2) (2)
6 70
3 17
5 113
95

Average earnings per hour of—
Tonnage rate for—

Machine
miners.

Loaders.

Pick
miners.

Pick
Ma­
or
chine Load­ hand Time Time Time Time Time Time
in at in
at in at
mi­ ers. mi­ face. mine. face. mine. face. mine.
ners.
ners.
(2)

(2)
28$6.000
^ ..600
‘ .177
(2)
(2)

.100

.152
.152
.130
.130

.110

$0.423 $0,462 $0.627 $0,594
.500 [ .600 1.408 1.323
.550
.452
750 706
.417 .450 .’ 635 .588
.700 .950 2.001 1.758
.476
1.217 1.117
.440 .520 1.219 1.143
.550 .650 .780 .734
(2)
.627 (2) 1.469 1.469
.876
.627 .876 2.324 2.047
.810 1.010 3.543 3.331
.960
.810 1.010 1.524 1.439
.830 .960 2.875 2.675

$0.593
.550
.784
.711
.932
.879
.863
.830
.976
.847
.883
1.047
1.468

$0.552.$0.819 $0.763
.515 .829 .775
.735.649 .865 .785
.826 1.183 1.047
.790
.806 .731 .683
.763 1.002 .924
1.016 .928
1.381 1.262
.976 1.178 1.178
.753 1.193 1.063
.829 1.221 1.151
1.170 1. Ill
.990 1.033 .976
1.378 1.597 1.498

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

State and number of
mine.

Number of days during year ending Oct. 31,1921,
Time of
mines were—
tons produced
operation in Averageman by pick
half-month per
miners, machine mi­
pay-roll
ners and loaders.
Closed on account of—
period.

O

WAGE PEAK AND WAGE REDUCTIONS.

WAGE PEAK AND WAGE REDUCTIONS.

51

Table 15 shows for each bituminous mine the date of the ending of
the half-month pay-roll period scheduled; the date of the beginning
of the wage peak for employees who are paid tonnage rates and for
those who are paid rates per hour or day; the date and amount of
reduction of wages of employees of mines in which reductions have
been made; the overtime rate paid for work in excess of the regular
hours per day; whether a bonus in addition to the regular wage rates
was paid during the wage peak or during the pay-roll period; whether
deductions are made from the earnings of contract miners, loaders,
and pick miners for powder, fuses, caps, and squibs used in blasting
coal from the face or seam, and for blacksmithing; the regular full­
time hours per day of tonnage workers at the face, including time for
lunch; the average time of travel from the shaft or other opening at
the entrance of the mine to the face and return; and the total time
in the mine, which includes time of work at face, time, if any, for
lunch, and average time of travel from shaft or other opening at the
entrance of the mine to the face and return.
No data covering the above conditions are presented in tabular
form for anthracite collieries because—
(a) The data for all anthracite collieries are for the half-month
ending January 31, 1922.
(b) The peak of wages of anthracite mine employees under the
award of the United States Anthracite Coal Commission, began with
April 1, 1920, and continued under that award until March 31, 1922.
During that period no bonus was paid in addition to regular wage
rates.
(c) Overtime, or time worked in excess of the basic or regular
hours of the colliery or of the occupation, was paid for at the regular
rate.
(d) Deductions for powder, fuses, caps, or squibs used in blasting
anthracite coal from the seams were made from earnings of tonnage
employees of all collieries and for blacksmithing from the earnings of
tonnage employees of 24 of the 29 collieries,
Time at the face, including time for lunch, average time of travel,
and the total time in the mine for each anthracite colliery is shown in
Table 9 (p. 29).




Table 15.—DATE OF PAY-ROLL.PERIOD, DATE OF BEGINNING OF WAGE PEAK, DATE AND AMOUNT OF REDUCTION OF WAGES, OVERTIME
RATE, BONUS. DEDUCTIONS FROM EARNINGS, AND REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS
MINE, WINTER OF 1921-22, BY STATES.
Date of beginning
of wage peak for—

Alabama:
101....
102....
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110...
Colorado:
201...
202...
203..
204..
205..
206..
207..
208..

.
.
.
.
.,
.,

Pay-roll
period:
Ha If
month
ending— Tonnage Day
workers. workers.

1921.
Oct. 31
Nov. 30
Oct. 31
...do___
.do..
.do..
.do..
Nov. 15
...do___
...do.......
Oct. 31
..do__
..do__
..d o....
..do...
..do...
..do...
..do...




1920.
Apr. 1
...do....
...do....
...do__
.do..
..do..
.do..
,.do..
.do..
.do..
...d o....
...d o....
...do__
...d o....
...do__
Sept. 15
Apr. 1
...do-----

Tonnage workers.
Date.

1921.
1920.
Apr. 1
1
...do.......
1
...do....... June 1
...do.. July 1
.do.. June 1
.do.. rjuly 1
[Oct. 1
.do.. July 1
/July 16
.do.. \Aug. 29
16
.do.. /July 29
\Aug.
/July 16
.do.. \Aug. 29
Se]j>t. 1 Nov. —

{S&

.
’V.do'.V.V.

...do....... Nov.
...do.......
Sept. 15
Sept. 1

Amount.

No reduction....
24.2 per cent8..
(4)
20 per cent....... .
$1.09 to 85 cents
per ton.
20 per cent....... .
.......do.................
15 percent....... .
27$ per cent___
20.8 per cent___
15 percent....... .
20.5 per cent___
15 per cent....... .
20.7 per cent___
15.2 per cent___
30 percent__
No reduction..
___ do..............
30 per cent__
No reduction..
-----do..............
___do..x.........
— do..............

Day workers.
Date.
1921.
July 1
...do.......
Oct. 1
June 1
July 1
June 1
July 1
Oct. 1
July 1
July 16
Aug. 29
July 16
Aug. 29
July 16
Aug. 29
Nov. —

Amount.

or custom­
Deductions Regularhours per
ary
from earn­
day of tonnage
ings for—
workers.

Aver­
Dur­
age
ing
During Pow­
time of
Dur­ half­ During . half­ der, Black- Time travel
ing
fuses,
from
wage month wage month caps, smith­ at ■ shaft
peak. rofl" peak. pay-roll and ing. face.1 to face
period. squibs.
period.
and
return.

1
} 1
1
1
....... do.................
1
15 per cent... } 1
20 per cent...
1
20.8 per cent..
15 percent... } 1
20.5 per cent..
15 per cent... J 1
15.2 per cent.. | 1
30 per cent__
1
No reduction..
1
.......do..............
1
Nov. — 30 per cent__
1
No reduction..
1
___ do..............
1
__ do..............
1
___do..............
1
16§ per(2)
cent.
15 per cent..
20 per cent..

Bonus.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No....
N o....

N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No....
N o....
N o....
No....
N o....
N o....

Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes,..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

H r s. H . m .

9
9
8
8
8
8
8
8i
8$
8$
8$
8
8
8$
8
8
8
8

2
1
1
1
1

1
1
1

50
0
0
40
0
0
0
10
30
40
30
10
30
30
12
40
20
0

Total
time
in
mine.
H rs.
H

11
9
8|
9
9
9
8$
9
9$
9
9$
8$
9
8f
9?
9

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

State, and mine
number.

Overtime
rate.

Reduction of wages.

Ot
fc©

»
1
1 No__ No___ Y es.. Yes . °2
__ .do..................
...d o ___ Aug 16..
........do..............
40 n
1
1 No___ No___ Yes.. Yes.. 84
.. .d o .... . . .do___
........do.................
....... do.................
1
1 No__ No___ Y es.. Y es.. 84
. . .do___ ...d o.. .
....... do..............
....... do.................
25
8 40 m
4 25
1
1 No ... No___ Yes. No
...d o ___ __do.. .
........do..........
....... do.................
4 30
.. .do___ ...d o ___
........do................. 1
....... do.................
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
8 30 9
4
...d o .... ...d o___
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 8
........do................. 1
....... do.................
9
1
1 N»__ No.... Yes.. Yes.. 84 40 84
........do.................
.. .d o.__ __d o ....
. ...d o.................
1
1 No__ N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 84
40
........do.................
.. do.................
__do.. ..
1
1 No__ N o.... Y es.. Yes..
30
........do.................
. . .d o .... __d o ....
. do ...........
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. N o... f
15 8i
.. .do___ __do.. ..
....... do................. 1
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 84
30 9
. . .d o.. . . __do.. ..
....... do................. 1
1 N o.... N o.... No... Yes.. 8
...d o ___ __do....
....... do................. 1
4 1 30 9
1
1 N o.... No.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
...d o ___ . . .do___ __d o ....
....... do.................
4 0 9
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
...d o .... .. .do___ ...d o ....
....... do................. 1
... ; .do.................
4 40 94
1922.
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. No... 84
40
315......................... Feb. 15 . . .do___ __d o ....
....... do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. N o... 84
30 9t
316......................... ...d o .... ...d o .... ...d o ___
9
....... do.................
....... do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. No... 84
20 81
317......................... ...d o ___ ...d o ___ . . .do.__
....... do.................
...d o.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. No... 8
...d o ___ .. .do._. ..
__do.................
....... do.................
318.........................
4 30 9
30 8f
319.........................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 84
.. .do.__ . . .do.__
....... do.................
....... do.................
30 8|
320.........................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 84
....... do.................
...d o ___ __do.. ..
.......do.................
321.........................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. N o... 8
....... do.................
...d o ___ __do.. ..
.......do.................
4 30 9
322......................... ...d o ___ ...d o ___ __do.. ..
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. N o... 8
....... do.................
.......do.................
4 30 9
Indiana:
1921.
1
1 No__ N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
401......................... Oct. 31 Aug. 16
20 84
....... do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
402......................... __d o .... Apr. 1 Apr. 1
20 84
....... do.................
.......do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
10 84
....... do.................
403......................... ...d o ___ Aug. 16 Aug. 16
.......do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
10
404......................... ...d o ___ __d o .... __do. ..
....... do.................
.......do.................
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 84
9
30 84
........do................. 1
405......................... ...d o ___ __do.. . ..d o . .
....... do.................
1
1 N o.... No___ Yes.. Y es.. 8
8
406......................... __do.
........do.................
....... do.................
Apr. 1 Apr. 1
1
1 No.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8 (5)30 84
....... do.................
....... do.................
__d o .... Aug. 16 Aug. 16 407.........................
1
1 No__ N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
40 8§8
408......................... ...d o .. . Apr. 1 __do. ..
4
....... do. .
....... do.................
1
1 No__ No___ Yes.. Y es.. 8
30
409....................... ...do. . Oct. 1 Oct. 1
....... do.................
....... do. . . •
1
1 No__ N o.... Yes.. Y es.. 8
30
410......................... Nov. 30 Apr. 1 Aug. 15
....... do. . .
....... do.................
1
1 No__ N o.... Y es.. Y es.. 8
40
411......................... Oct. 31 __d o .... ... do. .. .
....... do.................
.......do...............
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 8
30 84
1
412......................... ...d o .. . __d o .... __do.
....... do.................
.. ..do.............
Kentucky:
9
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
....... do.................. 1
4 1 30 94
601......................... Nov. 15 .. .do....... Oct. 1
.do.................
1 Yes0.. N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 84
0
602......................... Oct. 31 May 1 May 1 Apr. 15 30 per cent__ Apr. 15 30 per cent......... 1
/May 16 14.4 cents per ton May 16 $1.50 per day__ /\ 1
10
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Y es.. 8
603......................... .. .do....... Apr. 1 Aug. 16 \Oet. 1 7 cents per ton .. Oct. 1 $1 per day..........
84
9
30
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes., Yes.. 84
No reduction__
604......................... .. .do....... .. .do....... Oct. 1
No reduction__
9
30
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes..
. . .do.......
.......do.................
...........do.............. 1
605......................... Nov. 15 . . .do.......
10
1 No__ N o .... Y es.. Yes.. P
606......................... Oct. 31 Sept. 15 Sept. 15 Aug. .*i(T About 15per cent Aug. ’is ’ About 15per cent 1
84
10
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 9
607.................. . .do....... Sept. 16 Sept. 16 May 16 20 per cent......... May 16 20 per cent......... 1
94
9
30
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Y es.. 84
No reduction__
608...........
N0
reduction.. .
Nov. 15 Apr. 1 Oct. 1
40 104
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 94
609......................... ...do....... Sept. 16 Sept. 16 June 1 22.8 per cent....... June 1 22.8 per cent....... 1
1 Including time for lunch.
3Also 16§ per cent yardage.
5Less than 5 minutes.
2No change in rate; hours increased from 8to 9 per day. *15per cent tonnage and yardage. 65 cents per ton to loaders loading over a specified number of tons per month.

Illinois:
301.........................
302.........................
303.........................
304.........................
305.........................
306.........................
307.........................
308.........................
309.........................
310.........................
311.........................
312.........................
313.........................
314.........................

Oct. 31..
. . .do___
...d o ___
. . .do___
...d o ....
...d o ___




$*

s

o

tei

s
>

W

%

O

3
>
o

H
W
H
O
Cl
O
a
o
%
U1

Co

Table 15.—DATE OF PAY-BOLL PERIOD, DATE OF BEGINNING OF WAGE PEAK, DATE AND AMOUNT OF REDUCTION OF WAGES, OVERTIME
RATE, BONUS, DEDUCTIONS FROM EARNINGS, AND REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITtTlIINOtJS
MINE, WINTER OF 1921-22, BY STATES—Continued.
Date of beginning
of wage peak for—

Kentucky—Conoid.
610.........................
611. .
612.
613.;......................
614.
615........................
616.......................
617.
618.
619.....................
620. .
Ohio:
701
702.........................
703.........................
704.........................
7Q5.........................
706.........................
707. .
708
709.........................
710.........................

Pay-roll
period:
Half
month
ending— Tonnage Day
workers. workers.

1921.
Oct. 31
Nov. 15
Oct. 31
Nov. 15
.do.......
Oct. 31
. ..do.......
. .do.......
_clo.......
.. .do.......
Nov. 15
Oct. 31
...d o.......
Nov. 15
Oct. 31
...d o.......
Nov. 15
Oct. 31
Nov. 15
Oct. 31




Day workers.

Tonnage workers.
Date.

1920.
1921.
1920.
/May
Apr. 1 Aug. 16 \Oct. 16
1
Sept. — Aug. —
Aug. 16 Aug. 16 May 16
Sept. 16 Sept. 16 June 1
Sept. — Aug. —
1921.
1921. (June 1
Jan. 1 Jan. 1 {Aug. 1
(Dec. 1
1920.
1920.
Aug. 16 AUg. 16 June 1
Apr. 1 Oct. 1
Oct. 1 . . .do.......
(7)
Aug. 16 Aug. 16 June 1
. . .do....... .. .do....... May 16
Apr. 1 . . .do.......
Mar. 30 ...d o.......
Apr. 1 ...d o .......
...d o...... ...d o .......
...d o....... ...d o.......
...d o....... Apr. 1
.. .do....... Aup 16
Mar. 30
Aug. 16 ...d o .......

Amount.

14.4 cents per ton
7 cents per ton..
No reduction__
20 per cent.........
22.8 per cent......
No reduction__
7 per cent...........
18 per cent__
15 p@r cont
20 per cent.........
No reduction__
15 per cent.........
20 per cent.........
.... -do................
No reduction....
....... do.................
....... do.................
.......do.................
.......do.................
.......do.................
.......do.................
.......do.................
.......do.................
.......do.................

Date.
1921.
May 16
Oct. 1
May 16
June 1
Aug. 1
Dec. 1
June 1
(7)
June 1
May 16

Amount.

Bonus.

or custom­
Deductions Regular hours per
ary
from earn­
day of tonnage
ings for—
workers.

Aver­
age
During Pow­
time of
der,
Dur­
During half­ fuses, Black- Time travel
ing
wage month
at from
wage month peak. pay-roll caps, smith­ face. shaft
and ing.
peak. SE to face
period. squibs.
and
period.
return.

$1.50 per day___ }
p©r day..........
No reduction__ )
20 per cent.........
22.8 per cent.......
No reduction__
1
18 per cent.........
Id bwilt . .. . .. J
20 per cent.........
No reduction__
15 per cent.........
20 per cent.........
....... do..................
No reduction__
....... do..................
....... do..................
....... do..................
....... do..................
....... do..................
....... do..................
....... do..................
....... do..................

Dur-

i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
l
l
l
l
l
l

1
1
1
1
1
1

N o....
N o....
N o ....
N o....
N o ....
N o....

N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No___

Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

N o ....
N o....
N o....
N o ....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No__
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....

N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No__
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No__
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....

Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es,.
Y es..
Yes,.
Yes,.
Y es,.
Y es..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..

Yes..
Yes..
Yes-.
Yes..
Yes..
N o..,
N o...
N o...
N o...
N o...
Yes..
No...
N o...
N o...
N o...

H rs.

Total
time
in
mine.

H . m . H rs.

8 ’ 20 84
30 9
84
30 84
8
4
40 10
9i
50 8f
8
10 84
8

30
gi
30
40
8
30
84
30
8
40
8
30
84
20
84
30
84
30
8
84 1 0
45
84
84 1 30
0
8
8
40

9
9
S*
8J
S*
8|
9
8
4
9
4
p
9
83

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING.

State and mine
number.

Overtime
rate.

Reduction of wages.

N o v . 15 A pr.
O ct. 31 ...d o
...d o ........ .. .d o

714.
715.
716.
717.
718.
719.
720.
721.
722.
723.
724.

N o v . 15
O ct. 31
...d o ........
N o v . 15
O ct. 31
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
..d o ........
..d o ........
...d o ........

725...............
P en n sylvan ia:
801...............
802...............
803
804
805
806

1 ... do

A pr. 1
A pr. 1
..d o ....
..d o ....
..d o ....
. .d o —
. .d o —
..d o ....
..d o —
Mar. 30
...d o ........

N o v . 15 A ug. 16
O ct. 31..
. . .d o ___
......................... 15..
O ct.
......................... 31
O ct.
......................... 15
O ct.
......................... 31
O ct.

. . . d o ___
A pr. 1 ...
__ d o __ _
N ov . 1
A pr. 1
Sept. 1

807
............ . . . d o . . . .
808
............! O ct. 15
809
............ O ct. 31
810
............ . . . d o ___
811.............................. . . . d o . . . .
812.............................. O ct. 15
813
............ . . .d o ___
814
............ . . .d o .. . .
815
............ O ct. 31
816
............ O ct. 15
817
............ __ d o .. . .
818
............ O ct. 31
819..............................

. .. d o ____
A pr. 1
. .. d o ____
. . . d o ___
Sept. 1
A pr. 1
...d o ....
.. .d o ...
A ug. 16
A pr. 1
...d o ....
Sept. 1
A pr. 1

7 N ot reported.
8 Purchased b y m en from outside store.
9 Increase.




do
do

1920.
. . . d o . . . . Sept. 16
. . . d o ___
...d o .......
A pr. 1
A ug. 16
...d o ....
...d o —
...d o ....
...d o ....
...d o ....
...d o ....
1921.
...d o ........ June 16
. .. d o ___ [May 15.....
[Aug. 1 .
A pr. 1
. .d o .
(Apr. 1
N ov. 1 {Ju ly 16
ISept. 16
A pr. 1 Apr. 1
(Mar. 1
Sept. 1 {A ug. 1
ISept. 15
ay
. . . d o . . . . /M ug. 16
lA
1
A pr. 1 Apr. 1
A ug. 15
1
A pr. 1 /A p r. 1
\A u g.
Sept. 1 /Muay. 16
\A g 1
A pr. 1 Apr. 1
A ug. 1
.d o .
A ug. 16 A ug. 16. .
A ug. 1
.d o ..
ay
Sept. 1 /Mu g. 16
\A
1
/M ar. 16
A pr. 1 \A pr. 1

____d o................
____do......................
------ d o . . . . . . . .

..d o ................
..d o ................
..d o .................
15 per c e n t. . .
N o reduction.
. ....d o ............
.........do...............
........ do...............
........ do...............
........ d o...............
____ d o...............
.........d o...............
.........d o...............
.........do...............
9 per cent

30 per cent.........
15 per cent.........
No reduction__
.......d o ...............
20 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
10 per cent9__ _
25 per cent.........
30 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
10 per cent9.......
25 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
24.65 per cent...
No reduction__
15 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
20 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
24.65 per cent...
No reduction__
.......do.................
22 per cent.........
No reduction__
.......do.................
25 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
17 per cent.........
14 per cent.........

1920.
S ep t. 16

1
1
1

1 N o . . .. N o . . .. Y e s .. N o ...
1 N o . . .. N o . . .. Y e s .. N o ...
1 N o . . .. N o . . .. Y e s .. N o ...

81
8
8h

1

30
30
0

n
84
4

15 per cent
No reduction.
..do.............
..do.............
..do........
..do.............
..d o ............
..do.............
..do.............
..do.............
..do............,

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8|
8f
8
84
8
8£
8J
8
8
84
8J

40
40
30
50
1 0
40
30
1 0
50
30
30

9*
0A
8i
n
9
n
9
9
8|
9
9

1

1 N o . . .. N o . . .. Y e s .. N o ...

1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

N o ....
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o . . ..

N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..

Y e s 8.
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..

Y e s ..
N o ...
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o ....
N o ....

N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..

Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s 7.
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s 7.
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..

Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..

1921.
June 16 9 per c e n t. . . .
M ay 15.. 30 per c e n t. . .
A ug. 1 .. 15 per c e n t____ ,
N o r e d u c tio n ....
------ d o .....................
A pr. 1 18 per c e n t...........
Ju ly 16 10 per c e n t...........
N o red u ction ___
A pr. 1 25 per c e n t...........
Mar. 1 30 per c e n t...........
A ug. 1 10 per c e n t...........
Sept. 15 10 per c e n t9.........
M ay 16 25 per c e n t...........
A ug. 1 10 per c e n t...........
A pr. 1 24.65 per c e n t. . .
N o red u ction —
A pr. 1 15 per c e n t. . .
A u g. 1 10 per c e n t. . .
M ay 16 20 per c e n t. . .
A u g. 1 10 per c e n t. . .
A pr. 1 24.65 per c e n t. . .
N o red u ction ..
. .d o ................
A u g. 16. $2 per d a y ........
N o red u ction ..
. .d o ................
M ay 16 25 per c e n t----A ug. 1 10 per c e n t----M ar. 16 20 per c e n t----A pr. 1 16 per c e n t___

N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o ....

N o .. . .
N o . . ..
N o ___
N o ....
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o ____

Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..
Y e s ..

N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
Y e s ..
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
Y e s ..
Y e s ..

9

30

8

1 30
40
10
1 0
20
40

Si

8*
8
8

n
8
8
8i
91
9
8
8
9
8,
8
8
8
8

1

1
1
1
1

0
30
50
20
30
30
50
50
30
40
20
0
30

n
9£

n
9
9

10
9
Si
9§
10
9§
8i
SI91
94
si
9|
9
94

WAGE PEAK AHD WAGE REDUCTIONS,

711.
712.
713.

Or
Ol

Table 15.—DATE OF PAY-ROLL PERIOD, DATE OF BEGINNING OF WAGE PEAK, DATE AND AMOUNT OF REDUCTION OF WAGES, OVERTIME
RATE, BONUS, DEDUCTIONS FROM EARNINGS, AND REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS
MINE, WINTER OF 1921-22, BY STATES—Continued.

State and mine
number.

Pennsylvania—Con.
820.........................
821.........................
822.........................
823.........................
824.........................
825.........................
826.....................
827.........................
828.........................
829.........................
830.........................
831.........................
832.........................
833.........................
834.........................
835.........................
836.........................
837.........................

Pay-roll
period:
Half
month
ending— Tonnage Day
workers. workers.

1921.
Oct. 15
...do.......

1920.

1920.
Aug. ■—
t"
...d o.......

Tonnage workers.
Date.
1921.

(Mar.
Oct. 31 ...d o ___ Apr. — jtlay
|Aug.
Oct. 15 .. .do....... . . .do.......
(Mar.
Oct. 31 ...d o....... ...do....... \May
...d o....... ...d o.......
.. .do....... .. .do....... . . .do....... < * £
Aug. 16 Aug. 16 /Aug.
\Aug.
Oct. 15 . . .do....... ...d o.......
|Mar.
Apr.
Dec. 15 Sept. 1 Sept. 1 Duly
(Sept.
Oct. 31 Apr. — Apr. —
...do....... ...d o ___ .. .do.......
.. .do....... ...d o....... ...do.......
...do....... .. .do....... ...do.......
.. .do.... . ...d o....... ...d o.......
...d o .... ...d o..!.. .. .do.......
Nov. 15




Overtime
rate.

Reduction of wages.

—
—
—
—
=
1
16
16
1
1
12

Amount.

Day workers.
Date.

1921.
N o reduction__
.......do.................
10 per cent......... Mar. —
.......do................. May —
....... do................. Aug. —
No reduction__
10 per cent......... Mar. —
....... do................. May —
15 per cent......... Apr. —
10 per cent...... Aug. —
N o reduction__
20 per cent......... Aug. 1
5 per cent........... Aug. 16
No reduction__
16 per cent......... Mar. 16
14 per cent... . Apr. 1
July 1
10 per cent9....... Sept. 12
N o reduction..
....... do................. ................
....... do.................
....... do.................
....... do.................
....... do.................

Bonus.

or custom­
Deductions Regular hours per
ary
from earn­
day of tonnage
ings for—
workers.

Aver­
Dur­
age
ing
time of Total
During Pow­
Dur­ half­ During half­ der, Black- Time travel
ing
at from time
wage month fuses,
wage month peak. pay-roll caps, smith­ face. shaft in
and ing.
Amount.
peak. S
to face mine.
period. squibs.
and
period.
return.
'
H rs. H . m . H rs.
1
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 9
30 9i
No reduction__
....... do.................
40 8§
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8
1
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Y es.. 8*
....... do.................
50 9 *
10 per cent.........
....... do................. l 1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8* 1 0 9§
....... do................. 1
1
1 N o .... N o.... Yes s. Yes.. 9
30 9i
No reduction__
10 per cent......... \ 1
56 84
1 N o .... N o.... Y es.. Y es.. 8
J
15 per cent......... > 1
20 10
1 N o .... N o.... Yes8. Yes.. 9§
10 per cent. .....
1 N o .... N o .... Yes.. N o... 8*
40 9*
No reduction__ J 1
$1.50 per day__
1 N o.... N o.... Yes8. Y es.. 8 1 30 9*
$1 per day.......... } i
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 8
No reduction__ ' X
30 8*
$1.50 per day___
.
,16 per*nonf
cent......... [\ 1
1 N o .... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 9 1 0 10
1A■pCll Loll l - - . • . .
D
±U n
10 per cent9.......
1 N o .... N o.... Y es.. Yes.. 8i 1 0 9*
N o reduction__ J 1
....... do.................
1
1 N o .... N o.... Yes s. Y es.. 8f 1 0 9|
....... do.................. 1
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Y es.. 8
20 8*
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Y es..
....... do.................
20 8^f
.......do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. Yes.. 8|
10 m
....... do.................
1
1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. Y es.. 8J
40 9*
1 N o .... N o.... Yes8. Y es.. sl
1
40 9

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL MINING,

Date of beginning
of wage peak for—

Cnt
C*

16
1
15
12

Sept. 1
Apr. —
...d o.......
.. .do.......
...d o.......
.. .do.......
__do.......
Apr. 1
...do.......
...d o.......
...do.......
Sept. 10
Sept. 1
Aug. 16
Sept. 15

1101........................ ...do.......
•
1102.......................
1103....................... ...do.......
1104....................... . ..*do.......
1105....................... ...do.......
1106....................... ...do.......
1107....................... ...do.......
1108....................... ...do.......
West Virginia:
1109....................... . ..do.......
1110..................... .. .do.......
1111....................... .; .do.......
1112....................... __do.......
1113.......................

Sept. 16 Sept. 16 Sept. 1
Apr. 1
...do.......
...d o.......
...do.......
...do.......
...do.......
Sept. 1
...d o.......
. ..do.......
. ..do.......
Aug. 16
Sept. 1

Aug. 16
...do.......
...do.......
...do.......
...do.......
...do.......
Sept. 1
...d o.......
. ..do.......
. ..do.......
Aug. 16
Sept. 1 July

15
15

1

16 per cent.........
10 per cent.........
20 per cent.........
20 per cent8
9........
N o reduction....
....... do.................
....... do.................
....... do.................
....... do..................
....... do.................
No reduction__
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
27 per cent.........
No reduction__
.......do..................
27 per cent.........
[Loaders, 35
cents a car.
Machine miners,
4 cents a car.
Miners, 30 cents
per place.
No reduction__
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
No reduction__
....... do..................
....... do..................
20 per cent.........

Mar. 16
July 1
Aug. 15
Sept. 12
................
................

Mar. 15
Mar. 15

16 per cent.........
50 cents per day.
$1.20 per day__ ■ 1
....... do.9...............
No reduction__ 1 1
....... do................. 1
....... do................. 1
....... do.................. 1
....... do................. 1
....... do................. 1
No reduction__ 1
.......do.................. 1
.......do.................. 1
.......do.................. 1
fio 1
24 to 36 per cent. V1 li
/10 1
N o reduction__ V1 li
.......do.................. \flOl 4
111
24 to 36 per cent. /\ io i
Q14

l

N o .... N o ....

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o ....

10 1

N o ....
N o ___
N o .:..
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..
N o . . ..

11 14 j-No___ N o . . ..
10 1 j-No----- N o . . ..
11 H
10 1 j-N o___ N o . . ..
1114
10 1

1114 j-No.... N o....

Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes8.
Yes..
Yes8.
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
N o...

Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
N o ...
Yes..
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...

N o...

40
38
55
50
16
50
20
30
84
84 1 30
0
84
30
84
20
84
84 1 0
30
84
40
84
84
84
8|
84
9
84
9

Sept. 1 22.6 per cent.......

l

l

N o .... N o.... Yes.. Yes..

8

No reduction__
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
.......do..................
No reduction__
....... do..................
....... do..................
July i 20 percent.........

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o ....
N o....
N o....
N o....'
N o....
N o....
N o....
Y es12.

N o.... Yes..
N o .... Yes..
N o .... Yes..
N o .... Y es..
N o .... Yes..
N o .... Yes..
N o .... Yes..
N o.... Yes..
N o.... Yes..
N o.... Y es..
N o.... Yes..
Yes 1 Yes..
2
.

84
84
84
84
84
84
8

Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
N o...
N o...
Yes..
Yes..

84
8
8
8

84

SI91
9

9!

30

1
1
1
1

0
30
0
0
0
30
30
30
30
20
40
30

8 Purchased b y m en from ou tside store.
9 Increase.
10 For w eek d ays.
11 For Sundays an d h olid ays.
12 24 per cen t on to ta l earnings to em p loyees w ho had been w ith th e com pany 3 m on th s or m ore and 5 per cen t to th ose w h o had b een w ith th e com pany th e entire year.




9
91
9

91
9
91
91
91
9
81
8*
81
81
8§

WAGE PEAK ASTD WAGE REDUCTIONS.

[Mar.
Sept. 1 ' July
Aug.
Sept.
Apr. —
. . .do.......
. . .do.......
...d o.......
...d o.......
.. .do.......
Sept. 1
...do.......
...do.......
Sept. 16
Sept. 10 Mar.
Sept. 1
Aug. 16
Sept. 15 Mar.

838
.......... Dec. 15
839
.......... Oct. 31
840
.......... .. .do.......
841
.......... ...d o.......
842
.......... ...d o.......
843
.......... ...d o.......
844
.......... __do.......
Utah:
901......................... Oct. 15
902......................... Nov. 15
903......................... ...do.......
904......................... . ..do.......
Washington:
1001....................... Oct. 31
1002....................... ...do.......
1003....................... ...do.......
1004....................... ...do.......
West Virginia:

Or

Table 15.—DATE OP PAY-ROLL PERIOD. DATE OP BEGINNING OF WAGE PEAK, DATE AND AMOUNT OF REDUCTION OF WAGES, OVERTIME
RATE, BONUS, DEDUCTIONS FROM EARNINGS, AND REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS PER DAY FOR EACH REPRESENTATIVE BITUMINOUS
MINE, WINTER OF 1921-22, BY STATES—Concluded.
Date of beginning
of wage peak for—
Bay-roll
period:
Half
month
ending— Tonnage Day
workers. workers.

Date.

1920.
1821.
Apr. 1
Apr. 1
Aug. 16
Sept. — Oct.
Augk 15
Aug. 16 Dec.
..do...*.
,..do.......

1123

.do.

Aug.

Aug.

1124

.d o .

.do.

1125.......................
1120......................
1127
.........
1128
.........

i l l

U

No reduction..
.iiido.............
.....d o...............
20 to 25 cents
per car.
No reduction..
No reduction.,
.do..
Loaders* 18cents
a car.
16 Sept. 15 Pibk miners, 15
cents a car.
Machine miners,
. 2 cents a car.
Loaders, 13cents
a car.
Pick miners, 15
do.
cents a car.
Machine miners,
2 cents a car.
1 Se^>t.
0 0 .......................
(16).......................
i* Oct.*
10 to 23 per cent.
... ...do.. ....... d o ..............

Afig; 16

.do.

.wdo..-v Apr. 1 Apr;
...do...*. .;.d0..k.. ..do.
Nov. 15 Sejt. 1
.. .do...4.




Amount.

( 1 4 ) .................

Day workers.
Date.

Amount.

1921.

or custom­
Deductions Regular hours per
ary
from earn­
day of tonnage
ings for—
workers.

Aver­
Dur­
age
time Qf Total
ing During During Pow­ BlackDur­ half­
half­ der,
ing month wage month fuses, smith­ Time travel time
at frolp in
wage
caps*
shaft
peak. a , peak. pay-roll and ing. face. to face mirie.
period. squibs.
period.
and
return.
Yes is.
No__
Yes n.
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
No__
N o....

H .m .

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Sept. 15 24 per cent

1

1 N o.... N o.... Yes.. N o...

8

30

84

,.do.... ___do..................

l

1 N o.... N o.... Y es.. N o...

8

30

84

30 to 40 per cent.
32 to 46 per cent.
14 to 37 per cent.
....... d o ..............

1
i
1
l

1
1
1
1

8
8
8
8

40
40
15
30

*1

Sept. 1
.do...-.
Oct. 1
..do.......

N o....
N o....
Y es...
Y es...

N o ....
N o ....
No—
N o..,.

Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

Y es..
Y es..
N o...
N o...

Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..

8
8
8
8
8
8
84
84
8!

15
20
10
20
15
30
30
80
40

H zs.

1
1
1
1
i
1
1
l
l

No..*.
N o....
N o ....
no :...
N o....
No___
N o....
No___
N o ....

Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

H rs.

No reduction.
.....d o ............
.......do.............
.do.
Oct. i $1.50 per day.
No reduction.
Dec. —
n o reduction.
...d o............

si
si
8*.
84

9
0
9*

gt
%

COAL M IN IN G ,

.do..

1920.
I
Apr. 1
Aug. 16
Sept.
AUgt 15
Apr. 1
...d O .:.,.
...do.......

West Virginia—Conk
1114
..........
1115
..........
1116
.: ...*.
1117.....................t.
1118.1................. i.
1119
1120
1121
1122

1921.
Oct. 3l
..do....
..do...i
..do...v
..do...*
.do..

Tonnage workers.

Bonus.

H O U R S A N D E A R N IN G S IN

State and mine
number.

Overtime
rate.

Reduction of wages.

Oi
00

'.A o ////

. .do.......
(7)
Nov. 1
Dec. 1
Nov. 1
Dec. 1
Oct. 1
Se^t. 1
Dec. 8
Sept. 15
Dec. 1
Sept. 15
Dec. 1

25 per cent.......
....... do................
.26 per cent........
18 per cent........
....... do................
___do................
....... do................
(7)
14 to 50 per cent
8to 25 per cent.
14 to 50 per cent
8to 25 per cent.
No reduction...
25 to.33 per cent
10to 30 per cent
334per cent**..
2 pet cent........
0
20 to 40 per cent
10to 2 per cent
0
2 to 40 per cent
0
10to 2 per cent
0
No reduction...
....d o ...
....d o ...
.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1 N o....
1 N o....
1 N o....
1 N o....
1 N o,...
1 No....
1 o....
1 N(7)
1 N o...,
1 No...*
1 No....
i
1 Y es...
Y es...
1 Y es...
1 N o....
1 No___
1 Yes is.
1 No..,*
l N o....
l No...*
1 NO....
1 N o....
1 No....

N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
NO....
N o....
(7)
NO....
N o....
N o,...
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....
N o....

Yes..
Yes..
Yes.*
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes.*
Y es..
Yes*.
Yes.*
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..

Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes.*
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Y es..
Yes..

84

84
8
4
8

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
3
8
8

84
84
84
84

8
4
8
4
8
4

30
20
20
30
30
30
30
30
30
40
1 0
40
30
30
30
30
30
1 0
(5)
30
30
30
30

8-j^r
8f
8#
84
84
84
8
2

8
4
8
4

81
9

$
1
$ B
4
84
n

84
84
9
94
84
9
9
9
9

0Less than 5 minutes.
1 Not reported.
1 Loaders, $12.50 to $35 per month for the 5 persons loading the greatest amount of coal; motormen, 3 prizes, $5. to $20, and brakemen, 3 prizes, $5 to $15. Motormen and brakemen
3
are also subject to a demerit system for various omissions.
1 This mine was closed down for several weeks prior to Dee. 1,1921, when their employees went to work at a reduced scale. The wage paid is the one in effect Sept. 1,1919.
4
1 Machine miners from $ to $4.80 per 8
6
8
-hour day; loaders, entry, from $1.06 to 64 cents per 14-ton car; pick miners, no reduction.
1 Machine miners from $ per day to 14 cents per car or 14 to 2 tons. Loaders: Boom, from $1.19 to 71 cents, and entry from $1.10 to 6 cents per 14 car; and room, from
6
8
6
-ton
$1.52 to 91 cents, and entry from $1.43 to 8 cents per 2 car.
6
-ton
/ Loaders only, 1per cent on lf^ton cars; 2per cent on 2
2
0
and 2 ton cars,
4
is 2 per car for clean coal; one dirty car eliminated bonus.
cents




sv sa

Sejt. 1
Sept.—
Se|»t. 1

‘SMOLxonaaa aavis.

1129
......... .do.., ...d o....... ...d o....... Sejj)t. 1 25 per cent
1130
......... .do.. ...do..**. ...do...**
....... d o ....
.do.. .. .do..-..
1131..
. ........................................ ...do....... Sept.—.., ....... do___
1132..
. . . . . . ..........
.do.. Aug. 1 Aug. 1 Se^t. 1 16 per cent
1133....................... .do.. .. .do....... ...do.......
....... do___
1134..
. . ...... .do.. .. .do....... ...do....... '.'.'.do.'/.'.'.. ....... do___
1135
......... .do.. .. .do..... .. .do....... . . .do........ -----do___
1136
......... .do.. Aug. — Aug.
(7)
to' (*0 cent.
per
1137
......... .do.. Sept. 16 Sept. 16 /NOv. 1 26 to 34 per cent.
\Dec. 1 12 23
/Nov. 1 20 to 30 per dent.
1138..
...do...., .. -do....... ...do....... \Doc. 1 19 to 22 per cent.
1139..
Oct. 31 Apr. 1 Aug. 16
No reduction....
1140..
Nov. 15 Sept. 16 Sept. 16 Oct. 1 324 percent.......
(17)
1141..
-.do...., Nov. 1 Nov. 1 Sept. 1
. .do........
percent___
1142..
...do*__ Sept. 1 Sept. 1 Dec. 8 33§per cent.........
2
0
’Sept.
to 27 per cent.
1143..
.do*. Sept. 16 Sept. 16 JDec. 15 20 to 29 per cent.
l 17
/Sept. 15 20 to 27 per cent.
1144.
.do..
\Dec. 1 17 to 29 per cent.
......... Oct. 31 Apr. 1 Aug. 16
1145
No reduction....
1146......................* ...do...., .. .do....... ...do.......
....... d o...
_ 1147..................... , ...do.......
..d o ...
Wyoming:
1201................ . ..do....... ...d o....... Sept. 1
.do*
1202....................... ...do*..* ....d o .... ../d o ....
.do.
1203....................... Nov. 15 ...d o....... ...do.......
.do.
1204..................... Oct. 31
.do.

Or
CO

60

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL M IN IN G .

DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONS.
Each of the occupations for which figures are presented in this
report is briefly defined below.
If a definition applies to an inside occupation the word “ inside”
follows the name of the occupation. Example—“ Brakemen, inside.”
If it applies to outside work the word “ outside” follows the name.
Example—“ Ash men, outside.” If the occupation is found both
inside and outside the mine no modifying word is used. Example—“ Blacksmiths.”
A similar rule has been followed to indicate anthracite and bitu­
minous mine occupations.
A sh m en , outside , anthracite. —Remove ashes from beneath the fire
box of boilers by flushing or by shoveling the ashes into cars.
B lacksm iths. —Do general blacksmithing, nearly all repair work.
B rakem en, in side. —Also known as trip riders, trailers, and tailers.
In anthracite mines they are called motor brakemen. They operate
or throw switches, couple and uncouple cars, assist motormen in the
transportation of loaded coal cars from switches or sidings in the mines
to the shaft, and of empty cars from the shaft to the switches or
sidings. Loaded cars are hauled by mules from rooms in which coal
is mined to the switches and empty cars from the switches to the
rooms.
B rattice m en, in side. —Sometimes also called airmen. They usually
work under the supervision of the fire boss, whose duty it is to see
that the mine is prepared for ventilation and for protection against
fire. They construct brattices of wood, canvas, stone, brick, or
cement. This work is of great importance in mines affected by gas,
as such mines must be thoroughly ventilated.
Cagers.—Also called bottomers and dumpers. They are stationed
at the shaft inside the mine and at the top of the shaft outside the
mine. Those inside the mine place loaded coal cars in the cage
and take empty cars out of it. Those outside the mine take loaded
cars from the cage and place empty cars in it.
Carpenters, outside. —Do general carpentry repair work.
Car runners, in sid e, anthracite. —In some mines cars are run by
gravity from rooms or chambers in which coal is mined to switches
or sidings, or to shafts, or from switches or shafts to rooms or cham­
bers. Cars so run are in charge of car runners who control their
speed or stop them by brakes or sprags.
Car runners, outside, anthracite.— Transfer empty railroad cars to
breaker chutes and loaded cars from chutes over a section of the
railroad track where scales for weighing cars are installed.
D oor tenders (boys), in side, anthracite. —Also called trappers.
They open ventilating doors to let cars through them to and from
the shaft and close them as quickly and securely as possible as soon
as the cars have passed. In some mines there are no door tenders
as the doors are opened and closed automatically.
D rivers, in sid e. —Drive mules into and out of rooms in which coal
is mined, hauling loaded coal cars from rooms to switches or sidings
where cars are assembled for transportation by motor to the shaft,
and empty cars from switches to the rooms. In mines where the
distance from the rooms to the shaft is short, the haul is from the
room to the shaft and return, no motor being used.



DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONS.

6 1

D um pers, outside, anthracite.—Dump loaded coal cars at the tipple
by hand or by operating mechanical apparatus.
Engineers. —Operate and repair ventilating fans inside the mines
and breaker machinery outside the mines. Operate and inspect
hoisting machinery which is used in lifting employees and loaded
coal cars in cages to the top of the shaft and in lowering employees,
empty cars, and material from the top of the shaft into the mines.
F irem en, outside .—Keep fires burning under boilers to produce
steam by shoveling coal into the fire box as needed and by keeping
the fire box clear of ashes and clinkers.
J ig runners, outside, anthracite. —Operate a jig, a mechanical
contrivance or part of the breaker machine, which cleans coal by
removing slate, rock, and waste material.
Laborers. —Do various kinds of unskilled inside and outside work.
They push cars, assist trackmen and timbermen, shovel dirt, and
handle material, and do other necessary unskilled work about the
mines. In anthracite mines company miners’ laborers and con­
sideration miners’ laborers are not included with these laborers,
because they are paid a higher wage than is paid to these.
Laborers , com pany m iners’, in sid e, anthracite. —Load cars and assist
company miners in drilling holes into stone or coal for explosives.
The drilling is done with electric or compressed-air machines. Com­
pany miners’ laborers seldom mine any coal, it being their duty to
remove obstructions and prospect for new chambers or rooms. These
laborers are paid a time rate which is a little lower than that of
“ Laborers, consideration miners’.”
Laborers, consideration m iners’, anthracite. —Load cars and assist
consideration miners in drilling holes into coal or stone for explosives.
The drilling is done with electric or compressed-air coal-mining
machines. They become contract miners’ laborers when working
conditions improve and miners are able to earn on a tonnage basis
more than the fixed or specified time rate of consideration miners.
They are paid a time rate when working as consideration miners’
laborers, the rate being a little higher than that of company miners’
laborers and are paid on a tonnage basis when working as contract
miners’ laborers.
Laborers, contract m iners ’, in sid e, anthracite. —Load cars and assist
contract miners in operating electric or compressed-air coal-mining
machines which are used in drilling holes into coal for explosives.
They become consideration miners’ laborers when mining or working
conditions are abnormal, due to obstructions, such as stone, slate,
and dirt, and when contract miners are thereby unable to earn on
a tonnage basis more than the fixed or specified rate of consideration
miners. They are paid on a tonnage basis when contract miners’
laborers and a time rate when consideration miners’ laborers. The
rate as consideration miners’ laborers is a little higher than that of
company miners’ laborers.
Loaders, in sid e , bitum inous. —Shoot or blast coal from seams or
beds after it has been undercut by machine miners and then load the
coal into cars, using hand shovels or coal-loading machines. In some
mines they do the timbering; that is, set props or timbers to pre­
vent the falling of slate, stone, and earth into the rooms of the
869°—22---- 5




62

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN COAL M IN IN G .

mines; also lay tracks in rooms of mines and keep rooms in good
working condition.
Loaders, outside, anthracite.—Load coal into railroad cars and
refuse into mine cars.
Machinists, anthracite.—Install and repair machines and machinery.
Masons, inside, anthracite.—Construct necessary air bridges and
walls to conduct or force air into all parts of the mine.
Miners, company, inside, anthracite.—These employees very seldom
mine coal. They operate electric or compressed-air machines, drill
holes into stone or coal for explosives, and load cars. They are
usually engaged in removing obstructions in the mines and in pros­
pecting for profitable mining chambers. They are paid a time rate
which is a little less than that of the consideration miner and are
called u company miners” to distinguish them from the consideration
miners.
Miners, consideration7 inside, anthracite.—Operate electric or com­
pressed-air coal-mining machines, drill holes into coal or stone for
explosives, and also load coal into cars* These employees are regular
contract miners who, in consequence of obstructions in their working
chambers or rooms, such as stone, slate, dirt, or of bad working
conditions, are unable to earn on a tonnage basis an amount equal
to or in excess of a certain specified rate per day. They are paid
the specified rate, which is a little more than that of company miners,
until they are able to earn more on a tonnage basis.
Miners, contract, inside, anthracite.—Operate electric or compressedair coal-mining machines, drill holes into coal for explosives, and
also load coal into cars. They are paid on a tonnage basis. A
contract miner becomes a consideration miner when, owing to obstruc­
tions in his working chamber or room, such as stone, slate, or dirt,
he is unable to earn an amount in excess of a fixed or specified rate
per day. He then becomes a consideration miner and is paid the
fixed rate per day until he is able to earn more'on a tonnage basis.
Miners, hand or pick, inside, bituminous.—Undercut coal with pick,
cutting some distance from the face of the seam, separate it from
seams with pick or explosives, and load the coal into cars.
Miners, machine, inside, bituminous.—Operate electric or com­
pressed-air coal-mining machines, undercutting seams of coal and
drilling holes into coal for explosives.
Motormen, inside.—Operate motors which are used in the trans­
portation of loaded cars from switches or sidings in the mines to the
shaft and of empty cars from the shaft to the switches or sidings.
Loaded and empty cars are hauled to and from the switches by mules.
Motor brakemenj anthracite.—See Brakemen, inside, bituminous.
Oilers, outside, anthracite.—Oil and clean machines and engines.
Other employees.—Include employees of all occupations in the
industry other than those specified and defined in this bulletin.
Plate men, outside, anthracite.—Work at the platform of the breaker
machine sizing coal and removing stones from the coal before.it
enters the conveyors.
Pump men, inside.—Operate, repair, and look after pumps used in
pumping water from the mines.
Repair men, outsider anthracite.—Repair chutes and breakers and
other machinery.



DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONS.

63

Timber cutters, outside, anthracite.—Cut and load props or timbers
into cars for transportation into the mines. They also load cars with
other supplies for use in mines.
Timbermen, inside.—Cut and set timbers or supports in mines to
prevent falls of slate, stone, and dirt.
Trackmen.—Lay and repair tracks used in transportation in and
about the mines. At some mines outside trackmen repair tracks on
the mine property.
Slaters (boys), outside, anthracite.—Also called pickers. They pick
slate from the coal as it passes over the automatic conveyors or down
the coal chutes.
Trappers ([boys), outsidey bituminous.—See Door tenders, inside,
anthracite.




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