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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S / • • • • JNQe
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

SERIES

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN ANTHRACITE
AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING




1922 AND 1924

SEPTEMBER, 1926

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING FFICE
1926




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OP THIS PUBLICATION MAT BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

15 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS
Introduction_______________________________________________________
1,2
Average hours and earnings_________________________________________
2-8
Miners, miners’ laborers, and loaders_____________________________
2-5
Emp oyees in other occupations_________________________________
6-8
Classified average earnings per hour__________________________________ 8-15
Anthracite tonnage workers_____________________________________ 9, 10
Bituminous tonnage workers____________________________________ 10, 11
Anthracite time workers________________________________________ 12, 13
Bituminous time workers________________________________________14, 15
Regular or basic hours per day and per week__________________________16, 17
Wage reductions and increases_______________________________________
17
Classified hours in half month_______________________________________ 18-21
Anthracite workers_____________________________________________
18
Bituminuos workers__________________ __________________________18-21
Classified earnings in half month_____________________________ _______ 22-24
State averages for miners and loaders________________________________ 25, 28
Index numbers of contract miners’ tonnage or mine-car rates, 1902 to 1926_ 27, 28
Index numbers of hand loaders and hand or pick miners’ tonnage rates in
Hocking Valley district, 1902 to 1925______________________________ 28, 29
Classified starts (days) in half month_________________________________30, 33
Classified days of operation in year__________________________________ 34, 35
Classified days closed in year________________________________________ 35-38
Importance of anthracite and bituminous mining______________________ 39, 40
Increase of mining costs, freight rates, and cost of distribution—anthracite. 40, 41
Brief history of discovery and production of anthracite__________ ______
42
Occupations in coal industry— ______________________________________
43
TEXT TABLES
T able 1.— Number of bituminous mines (exclusive of wagon mines),
production, number of employees, and number of employees covered in
present study, 1924, by principal States____________________________
T able 2.— Average number of starts (days) and average hours and earn­
ings of miners and loaders, inside mine, 1922 and 1924, by kind of coal,
and occupation___________ _______________________________________
T able 3.—Average number of starts (days) and average hours and earn­
ings of employees other than miners and loaders, 1922 and 1924, by kind
of coal, place of work, and occupation______________________________
T able 4.— Number and per cent of contract miners and contract miners’
laborers whose hourly earnings were within each classified amount,
1924—anthracite coal mining______________________________________
T able 5.— Number and per cent of loaders and miners whose hourly
earnings were within each classified amount, 1924—bituminous coal
mining__________________________________________________________
T able 6.— Per cent of employees in each specified occupation whose
hourly earnings were within each classified amount, 1924—anthracite
coal mining___ _________________________________ __________________
T able 7.— Per cent of employees in each specified occupation whose hourly
earnings were within each classified amount, 1924—bituminous coal
mining__________________________________________________________
T able 8.— Percentage of men employed in bituminous coal mines that
had an established working day of 8, 9, or 10 hours, 1903 to 1922_____
T able 9.— Per cent of employees in each specified occupation whose hours
in half month were within each classified number of hours, 1924— anthra­
cite coal mining---------------------------------------------------------------------------T able 10.— Per cent of employees in each specified occupation whose
hours in half month were within each classified number of hours, 1924—
bituminous coal mining__________________________________________
T able 11.— Per cent of employees in each specified occupation whose
earnings in half month were within each classified amount, 1924—
anthracite coal mining_________ ________ __________________________




in

1
5
7, 8
10
11
13
15
16
20
21
23

IV

CONTENTS
Pace

12.— Per cent of employees in each specified occupation whose
earnings in half month were within each classified amount, 1924—
24
bituminous coal mining___________________________________________
T a b l e 13.— Average starts (days) in half month, average hours and
earnings per start, average days of operation, and estimated possible
annual earnings of miners and loaders, 1924, by kind of coal, and State.
26
T a b l e 14.— Periods of wage agreements and index numbers of piece or ton­
nage rates of contract miners, 1902 to 1926—anthracite coal mining___
28
T a b l e 15.—Periods of wage agreements, tonnage rates, and index numbers
thereof, for hand loaders and hand or pick miners, 1902 to 1925—
bituminous coal mining___________________________________________
29
T a b l e 16.— Number and per cent of employees making each specified
number of starts (days) in half month, 1924, by kind of coal, place of
work, and occupation_____________________________________________ 31-33
T a b l e 17.— A v e r a g e a n d cla ssifie d d a y s o f o p e r a tio n o f m in e s , 1921 a n d
1924, by kind of coal, and State____________________________________
35
T a b l e 18.— Number of mines closed in each State in year ending October
31, 1924, by kind of coal, specified cause, and classified number of days
closed___________________________________________________________ 36-38
T a b l e 19.— Number of employees, average number of days of operation,
net tons mined, and value of total production and per ton, at collieries
or mines, and index numbers thereof, 1914 to 1924, by kind of coal, and
39
year---------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------

T a b le

GENERAL TABLES

A.— Average number of starts (days) and average hours and earn­
ings of miners and loaders, 1922 and 1924, by occupation and State—
bituminous coal mining__________________________________________ _ 44, 45
T a b l e B.— Average number of starts (days) and average hours and
earnings of employees other than miners and loaders, 1922 and 1924,
by place of work, occupation, and State—bituminous coal mining___ 46-53
T a b l e C.— Number of miners and loaders in each State whose average
hourly earnings were within each classified amount, 1924, by occupation—
bituminous coal mining___________________________________________ 54-56
T a b l e D.— Number of employees other than miners and loaders in each
State whose average hourly earnings were within each classified amount,
1924—bituminous coal mining_____________________________________ 57-59
T a b l e E.— Number of employees in each specified occupation in each State
whose hours of work in half month were within each classified number
of hours, 1924—bituminous coal mining------------------------------------------- 60-65
T a b l e F.— Number of employees in each specified occupation in each
State whose earnings in half month were within each classified amount,
1924—bituminous coal mining_____________________________________ 66-71
T a b l e G.— Number and per cent of employees making each specified
number of starts (days) in half month, 1924, by place of work, occupa­
tion, and State—bituminous coal mining,._________________________ 72-79
T a b le

APPENDIX

Appendix A.— Agreement between anthracite miners and operators----- 81, 82
Appendix B.—Agreement between bituminous miners and operators— 82-90
Appendix C.— Definitions of occupations-------------------------- ------ ------- - 90-92




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
NO. 416

WASHINGTON

SEPTEMBER, 1926

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING,
1922 AND 1924
INTRODUCTION
The coal industry in the United States comprises anthracite
and bituminous coal mining.
Anthracite or hard coal mining is limited almost entirely to a small
area of about 500 square miles in northeastern Pennsylvania. The
total production of anthracite in that State in 1924, according to
the United States Geological Survey, was 87,926,862 net tons and the
total number of wage earners was 160,009. About 96 per cent of this
roduction was in five counties— Luzerne, Schuylkill, Lackawanna,
forthumberland, and Carbon, The present study covers 56 col­
lieries employing 44,500 anthracite wage earners, of whom 34,136, or
77 per cent, were employed underground or inside the mines, and
10,364, or 23 per cent, were employed on the surface or outside the
mines. In the 1922 study, 21,999 anthracite wage earners were
included, of whom 78 per cent were employed underground.
Bituminous or soft coal is mined in 31 States and Alaska, the
total production for 1924 being 483,686,538 net tons and the total
number of wage earners in the industry being 619,604. However,
about 92 per cent of the production and about 90 per cent of the
total employees were in 11 States. The present study covers 140,719
wage earners (23 per cent of the total), of which 124,691, or 89 per cent,
were employed underground and 16,028, or llp e r cent, were employed
on the surface. In the 1922 study 52,748 bituminous wage earners
were covered, of whom 89 per cent were employed underground.
The production of bituminous coal and the number of wage earners
engaged in such production in 1924, according to the Geological
Survey, are shown in Table 1 for each of the 11 States referred to:

S

t a b l e 1.—NUMBER OF BITUMINOUS MINES (EXCLUSIVE OF WAGON MINES), PRO­

DUCTION, NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES COVERED
IN PRESENT STUDY, 1924, BY PRINCIPAL STATES
Number of wage earners
Number of
mines1

Pennsylvania............
West Virginia........... .
Illinois.......................
Kentucky..................
Ohio..........................
Indiana..................... .
Alabama....................
Virginia.....................
Colorado................... .
Tennessee..................
Kansas...................... .
Total, 11 States.
Total, all States.

2,122
1,220

488
660
750
248
238
115
231
139

7,586

Total
production1
130,633,773
101,662,897
68,323,281
45,147,204
30,473,007
21,480,213
19,130,184
10,693,464
10,444,098
4,556,555
4,247,733
446,792,409
483,686,538

Total1

Covered in
present study

169,322
102,203
89,363
55,766
44,229
27,558
27,956
12,679
12,954
9,365
8,561
559,956
619,604

42,796
25,473
22,749
15,003
10,545
5,177
8,495
1,908
3,797
2,902
1,874
140,719

* United States Geological Survey figures.




1

2

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

The data obtained for each employee covered by the present study
included the number of starts, or days, hours worked, and earnings
in a half-month pay period in October, November, or December,
1924, except in a few instances where the survey had to be carried
on in the early part of 1925. The information was taken directly
from the pay rolls and other records of the mines of coal companies
in the 11 States by agents of the Bure; \of Labor Statistics, except in
a few instances, where the companies preferred to make copies of the
records for the bureau. Such companies were furnished instructions
as to what the bureau desired and also the blanks used by agents in
reporting data to the bureau.
Nearly all of the mining companies from whom data were requested
cooperated with the bureau to the fullest extent. In a few instances
data were refused, but such refusal, except in one State, caused little
or no inconvenience or delay as data were obtained for a sufficient
number of employees of other mines to fill the quota for each State.
In Virginia, however, several large companies, each operating a
number of important mines in the State, did not cooperate. For this
reason the reports for Virginia cover only 15 per cent of the total
number of wage earners employed in the industry in that State in
1924, and the averages for Virginia, therefore, may not be as rep­
resentative as the averages for the other State®. The number of
wage earners for whom data were obtained in other States ranged
from 19 per cent of the total number in the industry in Indiana,
where many mines were not in operation at the time of inquiry, to
approximately 30 per cent in Colorado.
In the tables given in this bulletin averages are presented separately
for anthracite wage earners and for bituminous wage earners by
occupations. In order to distinguish the occupations of underground
wage earners from those of employees in surface occupations, the
former are grouped under the head “ Inside mine” and the latter
under “ Outside mine.”
AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS
MINERS, MINERS’ LABORERS, AND LOADERS

Table 2 shows the average number of starts and the average hours
and earnings for each of six anthracite and six bituminous under­
ground or “ inside mine” occupations for 1922 and 1924. The
employees in these occupations do the mining and loading of coal,
rock, and dirt into mine cars. The term “ starts,” as here used,
means the number of days or parts of days on which the wage earners
in these occupations worked in a half-month pay period.
In 1924 the six anthracite occupations listed had a total of 23,715
wage earners, or 53 per cent of the total of 44,500 employees in all
occupations for which data were secured, and the six bituminous
occupations had a total of 91,167, or 65 per cent of the 140,719
employees in all occupations for which data were obtained. The
average hours and earnings of wage earners in the six anthracite
occupations are based on (1) time at the face excluding time for lunch,
(2) time at face including time for lunch, and (3) total time in mine
including time for lunch and time of travel in mine from the mine open­
ing to the face and return. As a considerable number of employees
in the six bituminous occupations were reported as having no stated




AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS

3

length of time for lunch and as eating while at work or while waiting
for mine cars, hours at the face exclusive of lunch time could not be
determined for the employees of many mines, and therefore no averages
are shown for bituminous employees in these occupations for time
at face with lunch time excluded.
The term “ face,” as here used, means the perpendicular surface
of the seam of coal on which miners work, and at or near which loaders
are working.
Time for lunch is the difference between the average hours per
start based on time at face excluding lunch and those based on time
at face, including lunch. (Table 2 shows that, excluding time for
lunch the 11,778 contract miners of the 55 anthracite collieries covered
in 1924 were at the face an average of 6.3 hours per start or day,
while including time for lunch they were at the face an average of
6.8 hours per start or day, the difference being 0.5 hour per start or
day, or 30 minutes for lunch.
Travel time in mine from opening into mine to the face and return
is the difference between the average hours per start, or day, based
on the time at face, including time for lunch and those based on total
time in colliery or mine. Including time for lunch these 11,778
contract miners were at the face an average of 6.8 hours per start or
day, while including travel time in mine and time for lunch their
average time in colliery was 7.5 hours per start, or day, the difference
being 0.7 hour, or 42 minutes average time of travel in mine per day.
Reading further in the table, it is seen that these 11,778 contract
miners made an average of 10.8 starts or worked on 10.8 calendar
days in the half-month pay period.1 In the half-month pay period
they were at the face or their place of work in the colleries 68.5 hours
exclusive of 30 minutes per start (or day) for lunch and 73.9 hours,
including the time for lunch, and were in the colleries an average of
81.4 hours, including time for lunch and 42 minutes per start or day
of travel time in mine from shaft to the face and return. They
earned an average of $1,432 per hour based on hours at the face
excluding time for lunch, $1,327 based on hours at face including time
for lunch, and $1,204 based on total time in colliery. They earned an
average of $9.07 per start or calendar day and $98.07 in the half-month
pay period. The averages for other occupations may be read in like
manner.
Comparing 1922 and 1924 averages for anthracite contract mind's,
it will be observed that average starts and hours were more and the
average earnings less in 1922 than in 1924. The increase in average
earnings is due in part to the September, 1923, increase of 10 per cent
in wage rates and in part apparently to greater production per man
per hour than in 1922, and also possibly to the inclusion of data for
employees of 31 colleries in 1924 that were not included in the 1922
study.
Company miners, company miners’ laborers, consideration miners,
and consideration miners’ laborers are time workers, being paid at a
specified rate per hour or day. At times they may do other work
or be paid piece rates, earning more per hour than their regular
hourly rate. This often occurs with consideration miners, who are
shown as having an average rate of 86.1 cents per hour, as compared
with an average earning of 93.3 cents per hour, based on time at
1One colliery bad no contract miners, the work being done by consideration miners.




4

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

face excluding time for lunch. Average rates of wages per hour are
therefore shown for these occupations in order that they may be
compared with the average earnings per hour. As contract miners
and contract miners7 laborers are not time workers, average rates of
wages per hour are not shown for them.
Comparing 1922 and 1924 averages for hand loaders, pick or hand
miners, and machine miners in bituminous mining, in Table 2 it is
seen that the average starts and hours in half month and average
earnings per hour, per start, and in half month were less in 1924 than
in 1922. The decreases were due to a general depression in bitumi­
nous mining in 1924 resulting, as reported by officials of companies,
in less work at many mines in several States; to reductions in wage
rates between January, 1922, and the fall of 1924 by a very large
percentage of the mines in four or five States from which 1924 data
were obtained, and also possibly to the inclusion in the 1924 figures of
data for mines of two States (Tennessee and Virginia) and a large
number of mines in other States that were not included in the 1922
data.




T able 2.—AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DATS) AND AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS OF MINERS AND LOADERS, INSIDE MINE, 1922 AND
1924, BY KIND OF COAL AND OCCUPATION
Number of—

Kind of coal and occupation

Year

Average hours—

Aver­
age
number
of starts
(days)
Mines Employ­ in half
ees
month

In half
month

AVERAGE

Average earnings—
Aver­
age
In half month, based on—
Per start, based on—
Per hotir, based on—
rate of
wages
per
Per
Time at face
Time at face
hour at
Time at face
start
Time
Time face, ex­
Time (day)
cluding
in
in
in
Exclud­ Includ­ mine Exclud­ Includ­ mine lunch Exclud­ Includ­ mine
ing lunch ing lunch
ing lunch ing lunch
ing lunch ing lunch

ANTHRACITE

Consideration miners'___
Contract miners’.............

Consideration.................

BITUMINOUS;

Loaders, hand__ ; _________
Miners, hand or pick_______
Miners, machine__________
Loaders, contract__________
Loaders, machine__________
Miners, gang
„__




774
1,699
339
748
3,383
6,794

11.2
10.2
11.4
10.6
9.8
10.1

91.7
84.1
90.0
86.1
65.3
67.3

97.5
89.4
96.3
91.4
70.0
72.4

105.1
96.5
103.0
97.7
76.2
79.1

8.2
8.2
7.9
8.1
6.7
6.7

8.7
8.7
8.4
8.6
7.2
7.2

9.4 $0.621
9.4
.686
9.0
.655
9.2
.765
7.8
7.8

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924

25
47
12
22
29
55

775
1,735
626
961
6,209
11,778

11.1
10.3
12.9
10.9
11.5
10.8

90.6
84.5
98.5
84.7
73.8
68.5

96.1
89.8
104.8
90.1
79.6
73.9

103.2
96.7
110.5
96.3
87.4
81.4

8.2
8.2
7.7
7.8
6.4
6.3

8.7
8.7
8.1
8.3
6.9
6.8

9.3
9.3
8.6
8.9
7.6
7.5

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1924
1924
1924

176
514
127
291
161
485
24
10
40

22,560
61,936
8,429
21,424
2,371
6,499
170
102
1,036

8.7
8.1
9.2
8.5
9.5
8.8
9.5
9.4
8.1

66.2
63.3
71.0
65.6
75.4
72.9
79.9
84.3
65.6

71.5
68.6
77.5
71.2
81.5
78.6
84.3
90.4
71.1

7. 7
7.8
7. 7
7.7
7.9
8.3
8.4
9.0
8. 1

8.3
8.5
8.4
8.4
8.6
8.9
8.9
9.6
8.8

.683
.757
.755
.861

$0.629
.696
.654
.767
.829
.971
.697
.795
.883
.933
1.173
1.432

$0,592 $0,549
.655
.607
.611
.572
.722
.676
. 773
. 711
.903
.826

$5.15
5.72
5.16
6.21
5.55
6.47

$57.66
58.57
58.87
65.98
54.15
65.39

.612
.694
.787
.820
.991
1 204
.*

5.71
6.49
6.76
7.26
7 53
a 07

63.17
67.15
87.04
78.99
86.60
9&07

.902 ' .836
[ 748
] 811
.840
.769
.808
.744
1. 274 1.180
1.163 1.079
.929
.881
.690
.644
1.187 1.094

6.90
6! 32
6.47
6.26
10.10
9.65
7.82
6.20
9.66

59.75
5 * 29
1
59.62
53.02
96.14
84.79
74.26
58.20
77.79

.657
.747
.831
.876
1 088
l! 327

EARNINGS

Contract______________

25
47
11
22
29
53

AD
N

Miners:
Company.........................

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924

HOURS

Laborers:
Company miners’.......... .

6

ANTHRACITE ANI> BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

EMPLOYEES IN OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN MINERS, MINERS’
LABORERS, AND LOADERS

As already stated, the averages in Table 2 are for employees of
occupations inside the mines who work at or near the face of the work­
ings, mining and loading coal, rock, and dirt into mine cars. Table
3 presents 1922 and 1924 average starts, or days, and average hours
and earnings for employees in other inside occupations and for each
outside occupation. The employees in these occupations are usually
time workers, being paid rates per hour, day, or week. Their aver­
age hours ana earnings are based on hours actually worked, no time
for lunch or for travel in mine being included in the hours used in the
computations.
In this table the averages for anthracite employees in the occupa­
tions inside the mines in 1922 are for 5,014 wage earners, or 29 per
cent of the total of the 17,120 inside workers covered, and in 1924 for
10,421, or 31 percent of the total of the 34,136 inside workers covered.
The averages for bituminous employees in the occupations inside the
mines in 1922 are for 13,379, or 29 per cent of the total of 46,739
inside workers, and in 1924 for 33,524, or 27 per cent of the total of
124,691 inside workers.
The averages for anthracite employees in the occupations outside
the mines are for 4,879, or 22 per cent of the total of 21,999 in all
inside and outside occupations in the mines included in the 1922 study,
and for 10,364, or 23 per cent of the total of 44,500 included in the
1924 study. The averages for bituminous employees in occupations
outside the mines are for 6,009, or 11 per cent of the total of 52,748
in all inside and outside occupations in 1922, and for 16,028, or 11
per cent of tbe 140,719 in all occupations in the 1924 study.
Anthracite occupations inside mines.—Average starts, or days, in
the half month for employees in each of these occupations in 1924
range from 10.8 for the 48 blacksmiths to 14.8 for the 350 pump men.
The high average for pump men is due to the number working every
day in the half month, including Sundays, 113 of the 350 working
on 15 days and 145 working on 16 days in the half month covered.
Average hours worked in the half month range from 90.1 for timber
men to 126.9 for pump men. Average hours per start, or day, range
from 8.2 for door tenders (boys), masons, and timber men to 9.4 for
rnotormen. Average earnings in the half month in 1924 range from
$35.64 for door tenders (boys) to $89.89 for machinists. Average
earnings per start, or day, range from $3.13 for door tenders (boys)
to $6.98 for blacksmiths. Average earnings per hour range from
38.1 cents for door tenders (boys) to 77.5 cents for blacksmiths.
Averages for anthracite occupations outside mines and for bituminous
occupations inside and outside mines may be compared in like manner.
For State averages in bituminous occupations see Table B (p. 46) *




AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS

7

T able 3*—AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY KIND OF
C 04L, PLACE OF WORK, AND OCCUPATION
Number of—
Kind of coal, place of work,
and occupation

Year

Collier­ Em­
ies or ploy­
mines
ees

Average hours Average earnings—
Average
worked
number
of starts
(days)
Per
Per
in half In half start In half start
Per
month month (day) month (day) hour

ANTHRACITE

Inside mine
Blacksmiths...........................
Bratticemen______________
Cagers....................................
Car runners...........................
Door tenders (boys)...............
Drivers...................... ............
Engineers____ ________ ____
Laborers................................
Machinists............................
Masons........... ..................
Motormen___ —....................
Motor brakemen___________
Pump men............................
Timber men_______ -______
Trackmen..............................
Other employees___________
Outside mine
Ashmen.................................
Blacksmiths...........................
Cagers....................................
Carpenters....... .....................
Car runners...........................
Dumpers...............................
Engineers...............................
Firemen........... ...................
Jig runners.............................
Laborers................................
Loaders..................................
Machinists.. . . . . . ..... ............
Oilers____ ___________ ____
Platemen...............................
Repairmen.............................
Slaters (boys)...... ...................
Timber cutters.......................
Trackmen______ __________
Other employees....................




1922
1924'
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924

12
23
21
43
28
54
22
43
26
47
27
52
24
49
29
55
15
26
16
28
27
50
27
51
26
51
20
48
27
55
29
55

23
48
136
260
196
627
402
745
190
368
539
1,054
152
296
1,426
2,388
31
52
51
104
327
733
310
724
180
350
161
370
177
406
713
1,896

12.7
10.8
12.0
11.5
12.2
11.5
12.2
11.5
11.7
11.4
11.6
11.3
13.9
12.7
11.8
11.1
14.0
13.5
12.9
12.1
12.8
11.4
12.1
11.2
15.9
14.8
10.9
10.9
13.0
12.0
13.0
12.0

115.5
97.0
100.6
97.2
119.3
107.2
105.4
100.6
95.2
93.5
95.5
97.8
117.7
112.5
99.3
95.0
120.9
123.5
105.8
98.9
120.9
107.2
110.6
99.9
129.6
126.9
89.1
90.1
110.1
104.5
116.7
106.8

9.1 $79.08 $6.21 $0,685
.775
9.0 75.18 6.98
8.4 66.06 5.53
.657
8.4 68.87 5.99
.709
9.8 72.04 5.90
.604
9.3 71.41 6.20
.666
8.7 62.35 5.12
.592
8.7 65.25 5.66
.649
8.2 32.56 2.79
.342
8.2 35.64 3.13
.381
8.2 55.39 4.78
.580
8.6 61.83 5.46
.632
8.5 76.14 5.49
.647
8.8 77.93 6.13
.692
8.4 60.39 5.10
.608
8.6 63.05 5.68
.664
.678
8.6 82.03 5.85
9.2 89.89 6.67
.728
8.2 71.65 5.54
.677
8.2 72.04 5.96
.728
9.5 78.37 6.14
.648
9.4 75.32 6.60
.703
.585
9.1 64.64 5.33
9.0 63.87 5.72
.639
8.2 81.29 5.12
.627
8.6 87.52 5.90
.690
8.2 60.31 5.52
.677
8.2 69.75 6.38
.774
8.5 74.29 5.71
.675
8.7 77.39 6.47
.741
9.0 69.60 5.37
.596
8.9 80.43 6.70
.753

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924

25
41
29
55
26
52
26
56
22
41
26
55
29
52
29
51
23
47
29
55
27
54
27
51
28
50
25
45
14
38
26
53
28
46
22
42
29
56

67
94
64
142
100
234
221
607
87
231
85
197
203
441
249
413
109
282
1,349
2,612
187
381
89
244
69
134
181
366
94
182
410
1,103
181
240
60
127
1,074
2,334

15.4
14.4
13.5
12.5
12.8
12.1
12.8
12.3
12.3
10.9
12.2
12.0
15.0
14.2
15.7
14.7
13.2
11.9
12.1
12.0
12.9
11.7
13.7
13.2
13.2
11.8
12.5
11.1
13.7
11.9
12.2
11.6
12.3
11.4
12.1
11.2
13.5
12*7

135.7
124.3
120.5
113.4
120.3
112.4
113.9
109.0
106.5
97.2

8.8
8.6
8.9
9.1
9.4
9.3
8.9
8.9
8.6
8.9
9.1
9.0
8.6
8.6
8.1
8.4
9.4
9.6
8.8
9.1
8.8
8.9
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.5
8.5
8.6
8.5
8.9
8.1
8.3
8.7
8.5
8.2
9.0
9.5
8.9

111.0

108.0
m i
122.7
127.8
123.6
124.1
114.5
105.9
109.3
113.8
104.4
127.1
122.5
122.9
112.8
106.0
96.1
116.7
105.9
98.7
96.2
106.3
96.7
98.6
100.7
127.7
113.6

71.25
73.73
80.38
84.45
64.48
67.29
75.29
78.53
56.36
56.75
58.82
63.24
83.39
87.71
76.05
80.66
62.96
65.50
55.77
63.10
60.37
61.01
83.20
86.98
64.58
65.84
56.15
54.37
68.26
66.86
32.91
35.68
57.10
58.47
54.13
61.77
67.30
71.47

4.63
5.11
5.96
6.75
5.05
5.57
5.88
6.40
4.57
5.19
4.82
5.28
5.58
6.17
4.84
5.50
4.77
5.51
4.62
5.24
4.69
5.20
6.09
6.60
4.90
5.55
4.49
4.89
4.98
5.61
2.69
3.08
4.66
5.15
4.49
5.49
5.00
5.63

.525
.593
.667
.745
.536
.599
.661
.720
.529
.584
.530
.586
.646
.715
.595
.653
.507
.572
.527
.577
.531
.584
.655
.710
.525
.582
.530
.566
.585
.631
.333
.371
.537
.605
.549
.613
.527
.629

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

8

T able 3 .— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE HOURS AND EARN­

INGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY KIND OF
COAL, PLACE OF WORK, AND’ OCCUPATION—Continued
Number of—

Kind of coal, place of work,
and occupation

BITU IN U
M OS
Inside mine
Brakemen..... ........................
Bratticemen and timbermen.
Cagers....................................
Drivers...................................
Laborers................................
Motormen.............................
Pump men.............................
Trackmen..............................
Trappers (boys).....................
Other employees....................
Oviside mine
Blacksmiths...........................
Carpenters and car-repair men.
Engineers ............ ....... ..........
Firemen________ _________
Laborers.................................
Other employees....................

Year

Collier­ Em­
ies or ploy­
ees
mines

Average hours Average earnings—
Average
worked
number
of starts
(days)
Per
Per
in half In half start In half start Per
month month (day) month (day) hour

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924

181
547
181
484
83
198
125
377
181
502
183
548
157
402
im
587
103
273
188
538

1,333
4,259
986
2,521
185
410
2,080
4,603
2,967
7,228
1,296
3,751
452
1,015
1,393
4,026
393
925
2,294
4,786

19.4
8.9
810.4
9.8
310.3
9.6
*9.5
8.8
«9.9
8.9
610.1
9.7
13.0
11.7
710.7
9.7
9.1
8.3
810.9
10.5

77.3
75.0
85.7
81.1
89.4
83.2
78.7
72.3
80.8
74.2
84.2
83.6
110.2
103.4
87.3
81.2
72.3
66.7
91.4
89.7

18.2 $60.18 i$6.41 $0,779
8.4 53.25 5.96
.710
*8.1
70.26 26.81
.820
8.3 63.04 6.44
.778
.871
38.6 77.82 3 7.52
8.7 71.53 7.46
.860
<8.2 64.84 46.82
.824
8.2 54.08 6.12
.748
*8.0 56.30 *5.73
.697
8.3 48.74 5.47
.657
68.4 68.62 o 6.82
.815
8.6 62.89 6.46
.752
8.5 80.90 6.24
.734
8.8 7a 38 6.02
.681
78.2 72.05 76.77
.826
8.3 59.83 6.14
.737
7.9 34.09 3.75
.472
8.0 27.24 3.27
.408
88.3 75.49 86.97
.826
8.5 73.32 6.97
.817

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924

191
581
157
474
129
333
79
212
195
591
193
578

339
969
427
1,354
267
732
327
636
2,407
7,514
2,242
4,823

•11.7
10.7
w il.l
10.4
U3.9
12.9
ii 13.9
12.6
w10.1
9.5
»11.8
11.1

102.0 *8.6
92.0
8.6
94.7 1 8.4
0
89.6
8.6
121.3 18.7
114.4
8.9
117.1 ii 8.5
110.7
8.8
84.8 128.4
81.2
8.6
101.3 M8.5
99.1
8.9

87.42
71.75
71.23
61.96
99.50
91.56
87.24
78.83
55.06
46.73
70.02
62.73

07.47
6.72
1 6.42
0
5.93
17.21
7.09
H6.48
6.25
12 5.49
4.93
1 5.96
3
5.64

.857
.780
.752
.691
.820
.801
.745
.712
.649
.575
.691
.633

1Not including data for 8 employees whose starts were not reported.
2Not including data for 79 employees whose starts were not reported.
8Not including data for 2 employees whose starts were not reported.
<Not including data for 89 employees whose starts were not reported.
4Not including data for 237 employees whose starts were not reported.
e Not including data for 6 employees whose starts were not reported.
7Not including data for 30 employees whose starts were not reported.
8Not including data for 137 employees whose starts were not reported.
•Not including data for 9 employees whose starts were not reported.
Not including data for 22 employees whose starts were not reported.
Not including data for 24 employees whose starts were not reported.
12 Not including data for 51 employees whose starts were not reported.
w Not including data for 75 employees whose starts were not reported.

CLASSIFIED AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR
Average earnings per hour for each of the 11,778 contract miners
and 6,794 contract miners ’ laborers in anthracite mining included
in 1924 have been computed by dividing his net earnings in the half­
month pay period for which data were taken (1) by his total hours at
the face in the half month including time for lunch, and (2) by his
total hours in the colliery in the half month including time for lunch
and time of travel in the colliery. The first method gives average
earnings per hour for each man based on time in colliery exclusive
of time of travel, and the second gives his average earnings per hour
based on time in colliery including time of travel. Average earnings
per hour by the first method are greater than by the second owing
to the fact that the time used in the former does not include the
unproductive time of travel in mine which is included in the latter.



CLASSIFIED AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR

9

Average earnings per hour have also been computed in like manner
for each of the 61,936 hand loaders, 21,424 pick or hand miners,
6,499 machine miners in bituminous mining in 1924.
The term “ net earnings in half month,” as used above, means the
remainder after deductions for powder, dynamite, or other explosives,
fuses and caps used by miners and loaders in blasting coal from seams,
and for tool sharpening or blacksmithing. Deductions for these
costs were made from the earnings of employees who paid them. A
very few companies do not charge employees for explosives or tool
sharpening.
Employees in the above-named occupations, except in a very few
mines, are tonnage workers, being paid rates per ton. Averages have
also been computed for each employee in 10 of the most important
anthracite and 8 of the most important bituminous occupations of
time workers by dividing earnings in the half month by hours actually
worked. Time workers are paid rates per hour, per day, or per week.
Table 4 shows the number and the per cent (actual and cumulative)
of contract miners and of contract miners ’ laborers whose average
earnings per hour, based on time at the face including time for luncn,
and based on total time in collieries, were within each classified
amount. Table 5 (p. 11) shows like classification of hand loaders,
hand or pick miners, and machine miners in bituminous mining
in 1924.
ANTHRACITE TONNAGE WORKERS

Based on time at the face including time for lunch, 195, or 2 per
cent of the 11,778 contract miners covered in 1924, earned 60 and
under 70 cents per hour. Based on the total time in colliery including
time for lunch and time of travel in colliery, 375 of them, or 3 per
cent, earned 60 and under 70 cents per hour. Based on the time at
the face, 423, or 4 per cent, earned less than 70 cents per hour, while
based on the total time in the colliery, 711, or 6 per cent, earned less
than that amount. Based on time at the face, 54 per cent earned
less than $1.30 per hour, while based on total time in the colliery,
66 per cent earned less than that amount. Based on time at the
face, 98 per cent earned less than $3 per hour, while based on total
time in the colliery, 99 per cent earned less than $3 per hour. Based
on time at the face, 2 per cent earned $3 and over per hour, while
based on time in collieries, 1 per cent earned that amount.
Reading the figures for the 6,794 contract miners7 laborers, it is
seen that 32 per cent of them earned an average of 80 and under
90 cents per hour, based on either the time at the face or the time
in the collieries, and that 56 per cent, or more than half of them, earned
less than 90 cents per hour based on time at the face, while 78 per
cent earned less than that amount, based on total time in collieries.
Both actual and cumulative percentages have been computed to
the nearest full number, the fractional part of 1 per cent being
dropped when less than one-half and increased to one when one-half
or more. The cumulative percentages for the contract miners'
laborers based on time at face including lunch show that 3,820, or
56 per cent of them, earned less than 90 cents per hour. It will be
observed in the column in Table 4 giving cumulative percentages
that 100 is in some instances shown two or more times. The 100 in
each case except the one at the foot of the column may be any
fractional part between 99 and 100.



10

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

T able 4.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF CONTRACT MINERS AND CONTRACT MIN­
ERS’ LABORERS WHOSE HOURLY EARNINGS WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT, 1924—ANTHRACITE COAX MUSING
Contract miners (55 collieries)

Contract miners' laborers (53 collieries)

Per cent based on—
Number
based on—
Classified earnings per
hour
Time
at
face,
in­
clud­
ing
lunch
Under 30 cents..—
15
30 and. under 40 cents. .
27
74
40 and under 50 cents.
112
50 and under 60 eents60 and under 70 cents.
195
7Qand under 8©cents. 435
86 and under 90 cents. _ 787
90 cents and under $1__ 1,056
$1 and under $1.10:___ 1,132
$1.10*and under $1.20.. 1,257
$1.20 and under $1.30... 1,228
$1.30 and under. $1.40— 1,050
$1.40 and under $1.50.__ 883
711
$1.50 and under $1.60..
$1.60 and under $1.70...
565
$1.70 and under $1.80..
409
$1.80 and under $1.90327
$1.90 and under $2......
249
$2 and under $2.50......
$2.50 and under $3......
211
$3 and over.................
Total................ 11,778
Average earnings per
hour.... ..................... $1.327

Time
in col­
liery,
in­
clud­
ing
lunch
and
travel

Cumula­
tive-

Actual-

Time
Time
Time in col­ Time in col­
at liery, at liery,
face, in­ face, in­
in­ clud­ in­ clud­
clude ing clud­ ing
ing lunch ing lunch
lunch and luneh and
travel
travel

2 0) (l)
0
0)
1
0 0 8
1
1 1 l
1 1 2 3
4
2 3
6
2
4
6 7 1
22
10
14
7
9
11 23 33
10
1 33 45
2
11 11 43 56
54
10
6
6
10
8 63 74
6 70 79

44
104
168
375
718
1,143
1,332
1,386
1,297
1,137
937
669
505
353
303
208
195
549
246

4
3
3

2
2
5
2
1

76
81
84
*87
89
95
98

84
87
89
91
92
97
99

100

100

Per cent based on—
Number
based on—

Time
at
face,
in­
clud­
ing
lunch

Time
in col­
liery,
in­
clud­
ing
lunch
and
travel

2

10

1

30
50
80
156
278
693
1,298 2,259
2,147 2,147
1,504
808
720
348
394
116
83
130
82
48
45
23
33
20
18
11
16
1
6
9
7
1
15

e
1

11,778

Cumula­
tive—

Time
Time
Timeiin col­ Time in col­
at liery, at liery,
face, in­ face, in*
in­ clud­ in­ elud­
clud­ ing clud­ ing
ing lunch ing lunch
lunch and lunch and
travel
travel

(*
>
0 C
>
1
(0
2
3
6
13
25
56
78
89
95
97
98
99
99
99

100
100

100

100
100
100

47
78
90
95
97
98
99
99

100

100
100
100
100
100
100

100

6; 794 6,794

$1,204

Actual—

$0,903 $a 826

^Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

BITUMINOUS TONNAGE WORKERS

The 61,936 hand loaders in Table 5 earned an average of 81.1 cents
per hour based on time at the face, including lunch, and 74.8 cents
>er hour based on total time in mine. Reading part of the cumuative percentages for them, based on time at the face, it is seen that
2 per cent earned under 30 cents per hour, 6 per cent under 40 cents,
15 per cent tinder 50 cents, 52 per cent under 80 cents, and 74 per
cent under $1 per hour. Averages and percentages for hand or
pick miners are almost the same as for hand loaders. Machine
miners averaged $1,163 per hour based on time at the face, and $1,079
per hour based on total time in mine. Based on time at the face,
55 per cent of them earned under $1.20 per hour and 76 per cent
tinder $1.50 per hour. For classification of employees in these three
occupations in each State, according to average earnings per hour,
see Table C (p. 54).
Mines having coal-mining machines, as a rule, employ machine
miners to operate the machines and hand loaders to shovel the coal
from the floor of the mine into mine cars after it has been blasted
from the seam. In Table 5 and other tables figures are shown for
loaders of 514 mines and machine miners of 485 mines. In a number
of mines in which machine miners work at night, time was not kept
for them as the mine employee designated to keep the time was on
duty during the day only, while in a few others time was not kept for
other reasons.

1




T able 5 .

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF LOADERS AND MINERS WHOSE HOURLY EARNINGS WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924—
BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
Loaders, hand (514 mines)
Number based
on—

0
0
0)
0
0
0

3
6
10
13
15
14
12
9
7
5
3
2
1
1
(0
0
0
0
0
0

2
6
15
26
39
52
64
74
83
89
93
96
97
99
99
99
100
100
100
100
100

3
9
19
32
47
61
72
81
88
93
96
98
99
99
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

439
834
1,553
2,364
2,862
3,034
2,844
2,389
1,715
1,146
779
539
289
205
137
96
63
47
70
17
2

620
1,126
2,045
2,902
3,192
3,190
2,738
2,010
1,307
886
511
311
210
121
83
60
40
21
46
5

Time
in
Time mine, Time
at face, includ­ at face,
includ­ ing inelud­
ing
ing
lunch lunch lunch
and
travel
2
4
7
11
13
14
13
11
8
5
4
■z
1
1
1
0)
0
0
0
0
0

3
5
10
14
15
15
13
9
6
4
2
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
6
13
24
38
52
65
76
84
90
93
96
97
98
99
99
99
100
100
100
100

Time
in
mine,
includ­
ing
lunch
and
travel

Time
at face,
includ­
ing
lunch

3
8
18
31
46
61
74
83
89
93
96
97
98
99
99
99
100
100
100
100

32
84
222
392
301
375
507
532
504
565
481
413
452
349
242
272
154
144
343
55
20

37
138
286
405
368
449
658
583
598
544
459
452
385
280
204
176
127
116
184
42
8

Total........................ 61,936 61,936

21,424 21,424

6,499

6,499

Average earnings per hour. $0. 811 $0.748

$0,809 $0. 745

$1,163

$1,079

1Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




Cumulative—

Time
in
Time mine, Time
at face,
at face,
includ­ includ­ includ­
ing
ing
ing
lunch lunch lunch
and
travel
0

0

1
2
4
6
6
7
10
9
9
8
7

1
3
6
5
6
9
8
8
9
7
6
7
5
4
4
2
2
5
1

6
4
3
3
2
2
3
1
0

0

2
5
11
16
22
30
39
46
55
62
69
76
81
85
89
91
94
99
100
100

Time
in
mine,
includ­
ing
lunch
and
travel
1
3
7
13
19
26
36
45
54
63
70
77
83
87
90
93
95
96
99
100
100

HOUR

2
5
8
11
13
13
12
10
8
6
4
3
2
1
1

Time
at face,
includ­
ing
lunch

ActualTime
in
mine,
includ­
ing
lunch
and
travel

PE
E

1,604
3,823
6,439
8,066
9,199
8,388
7,198
5,686
4,311
2,883
1,804
1,066
636
311
232
105
74
36
57
11
7

Time
in
mine,
includ­
ing
lunch
and
travel

Cumulative—

P«r cent based on-

EARNINGS

1,158
2,847
5,085
6,821
7,984
8,323
7,478
6,381
5,071
3,897
2,603
1,708
1,007
649
339
227
130
81
117
18
12

Time
in
Time mine, Time
at face, includ­ at face,
includ­ ing includ­
ing
ing
lunch lunch lunch
and
travel

ActualTime
in
mine,
includ­
ing
lunch
and
travel

Number based
on—

Per cent based on-

AVERAGE

Under 30 cents..................
30 and under 40 cents........
40 and under 50 cents........
60 and under 60 cents........
60 and under 70 cents........
70 and under 80 cents........
80 and under 90 cents........
90 cents and under $1........
$1 and under $1.10............
$1.10 and under $1.20........
$3.20 and under $1.30........
$1.30 and under $1.40.........
01.40 and under $1.50........
$1.50 and under $1.60.........
$1.60 and under $1.70........
$1.70 and under $1.80........
$1.80 and under $1.90.........
$1.90 and under $2.............
$2 and under $2.50.............
$2.50 and under $3.............
$3 and over........................

Cumulative—

Miners, machine (485 mines)

CLASSIFIED

Time
at face,
includ­
ing
lunch

Time
in
mine,
includ­
ing
lunch
and
travel

Number based
on—

Per cent based onActilal—

Classified earnings per
hour

Miners, hand or pick (291 mines)

12

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

ANTHRACITE TIME WORKERS

Table 6 shows the actual and the cumulative percentages of em­
ployees whose average earnings per hour were within each classified
amount for each of 8 specified occupations inside mines and 2 occupa­
tions outside mines. The employees in these occupations are next in
importance to contract miners and contract miners’ laborers. The
data for the 8 inside occupations cover 9,705 employees and for the
2 outside occupations cover 3,219 employees, a total of 12,924, or
29 per cent, of the total covered in the anthracite industry in 1924.
The actual percentages given in the table show that 88 per cent of
the cagers, 100 per cent of the car runners, 79 per cent of the drivers,
91 per cent of the inside laborers, and 88 per cent of the motor brakemen earned an average of 60 and under 70 cents per hour; that 73 per
cent of the company miners, 52 per cent of the motormen, and 70
per cent of the carpenters, earned an average of 70 and under 80
cents per hour, and that 96 per cent of the laborers outside mine
earned 50 and under 60 cents per hour.




T a b l e 6 . — PER

CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPATION WHOSE HOURLY EARNINGS WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT,
1924—ANTHRACITE COAL. MINING

Classified earnings per
hour

Car
runners,
inside
mine

Drivers,
inside
mine

Laborers,
inside
mine

Laborers,
company
miners, in­
side mine

Miners,
company,
inside
mine

Motormen,
inside
mine

Motor
brakemen,
inside
mine

Carpenters,
outside
miry

Laborers,
outside
mine

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Ac- Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­
tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual

1
89
100
100

2
19
79
0)
0)
0)

2
21
100
100
100
100
100

0)
0)
2
91
6
1
0)

0)
(9

2
93
99
100
100

0)
64
34
2
0)
0)
C)
1

0)

64
97
99
100
100
100

0)

l
73
18
3
1
1
1
C)
1
0)
1
0)
0)
0)

0)

1
74
91
95
96
97
99
99
99
100
100
100
100

48
52

48
100

Ac­
tual
(})
0)
11
88
0)
0)

Cumu­ Ac­
lative tual
<9
0)
12
100
100
100

28
70
1
(*)

Cumu­ Ac­
lative tual

28
99
100
100

1
1
96
1
0)
C)
1

Cumu­
lative
1
2
98
100
100
100

PR
E
HOUR




0)
100
100

Cumu­
lative

EARNINGS

1Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

(0
100
0)

Cumu­ Ae*
lative tual

AVERAGE

30 and under 40 cents
fl
w aU iihH 'i*O Uclito « •
U lU Ci K />A
lUa U nfc
60 and under 60 cents __
1
60 and under 70 cents __ 88
70 and under 80 cents
11
80 and under 90 cents __ C)
1
90 and under $1............
$1 and under $1.10........
$1.10 and under $1.20
$1.20 and under $1.30
$1.30 and under $1.40
$1.40 and under $1.50
$1.50 and under $1.60
$1.60 and under $1.70
$1.70 and under $1.80
$1.90 and under $2____

Cumu­ Ac­
lative tual

CLASSIFIED

Cagers,
inside
mine

0
0

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

BITUMINOUS TIME WORKERS

Table 7 shows the percentage (actual and cumulative) of employees
whose average earnings per hour were within each classified amount,
for each of 6 specified occupations inside the mine and 2 outside the
mine. The employees in these occupations are considered next in
importance to hand loaders, pick or hand miners, an$ machine
miners. The data for the 6 inside occupations cover 26,388 employees
and the 2 outside occupations cover 8,868 employees, a total of
35,256, or 25 per cent of the total number of bituminous employees
included in the 1924 study.
The actual percentages show two distinctive groups of employees—
one consisting of a considerable percentage of employees at an average
earning of 50 and under 60 cents per hour and the other of a much
larger percentage (excepting for carpenters and laborers) at an
average of 90 cents and under $1 per hour. This is due, as can be
seen in General Table D (p. 57), to difference in averages in different
States.




T able 7.—PE A GENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECtPIED OCCUPATION WHOSE HOURLY EARNINGS WERE tVtTHIN EACH CLASSIF*l£t> AMOUNT.

1 2 —BITOMINOUS COAL MINING
94

Ifratticemwi
and limbermen,
inside mine

Drivers,
inside mine

Laborers,
inside mine

Motormen,
inside mine

Trackmen,
iusidg mine

Cflrenters,
Outside mine

Laborers,
outside mine

Pei* cent

P cG
ei* iit

Per cent

Per cent

Per cent

Per tent

Per cent

Per cent

!
Actual | Cumu­
lative

Actual ! CumulhfIve

Classified earnings per
hour

Actual

W4
14

22

9

3
tf

(')

i 0)
! (0

*Less than oae-hair of 1 per ceiit.

(l)
4
2
1
9
0
40
1
64
9
1
5
5
2
5
8
*
9
H
*>
;w 0)
>
M
H
J
100 "(i)"

(*)

Cumu­
lative
(*>

3
9
4
1
4
3
9
9
mi
M
,
m

100

3
4
9
1

(«)

2
2i
io !
»
3 iJ
9
17 |
2
9
lO
f
4
3
6!
4 '
6
ri
>
4i n i
9
9! 2
9
9
100 • (> j
)
1 0 j (0
0
:i (»)

I ....

-

<
l>

Actual

2
1'
0
1
2
9
3
4
9
2
8
1
3
iH
.
6 !
0i
5
2
70
100
33
10i 1
0
3
100 i (0
100 . 0)
1« •
0)
100
10 '
0

Cttriililative

Cumu­

lative

1

5,
SI
3
4 :
0
5
1
8
7
m
iuo

m

$>

1
2
4
8
4
5
(0
<
0
(')

3
6
48
5
2
5
5

100

100

100

100

Actual

Cumttlative

0)

Actual

0)

3

9
•S
8
16

22

2

0)

4
13
33
52

G
O

76
98

1O
0
to
o

Actual
6
15
23
17
4
4
27
4
(»)

Cumu­

lative

0
21
43
60
6t
63
96
100
100

I*E1{ HOUR




Actual

EARNINGS

i

4L
<>
■

lativO

AVEBAGE

Under 30 eents................
30 and under 40 eerits......
40 and under G cents......
O
50 and under 60 cents......
60 arid under 70 ccritd......
70 and under &i cents......
G
80 and under 00 eerits......
00 eerits and under $1......
$1 find under SI.10...........
$1.10 and under $1.20.......
#1.20 and under $|.30___;
51.30 and under $1.40.......
$1.40 mid tindcf Sl.SO___
$1.00 imd imder $1.70.......

Cnimi-

CLASSIFIED

Brakbmen,
inside mine

16

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

REGULAR OR BASIC HOURS PER DAY AND PER WEEK
The number of hours of work per day and per week of time workers
at the 56 anthracite collieries and the 599 bituminous mines included
in this report are fixed by a specified time for beginning work on
each working day of the week, for the midday lunch or dinner, and
for quitting work in the afternoon. The vast majority of the time
workers at these collieries and mines begin work at 6.30, 7, or 7.30
a. m., work 4 ^ ‘or 5 hours in the morning, take 30 minutes for lunch,
work 3 or 3J^ hours in the afternoon, and quit work at or near 3.30
p. m. The regular or basic hours of Wbrk of these employees are
therefore 8 per day and 48 per week, exclusive of lunch time. Some
of the pump men, engineers, firemen, motormen, drivers, car runners
and cagers, and a few employees in some of the other occupations
work at times or whenever necessary more than 8 hours per day, and
in several occupations some work on Sunday. The Sunday work
and the time in excess of 8 hours per day is generally called overtime
and is paid for at the regular rate.
The United States Geological Survey1 reports a total of 687,958
bituminous employees of 9,297 mines in 1922, and of these employees
647,050 at 7,995 mines as having the regular or basic 8-hour day.
The 8-hour day in bituminous mining has by agreement been m
effect at a very large per cent of the mines in the United States for
more than 25 years. Section 5 of the Chicago, January 28, 1898,
agreement between the miners and operators of the central com­
petitive field states “ That on and after April 1, 1898, the 8-hour
workday, with 8 hours’ pay, consisting of 6 days per week, shall be
in effect in all the districts represented, and that uniform wages for
day labor shall be paid the different classes of labor in the fields
named.”
The data shown in Table 8 as to hours is also given by the Geo­
logical Survey:1
T a b le 8 .— PERCENTAGE OF MEN EMPLOYED IN BITUMINOUS COAL MINES THAT

HAD AN ESTABLISHED WORKING-DAY OF 8, 9, OR 10 HOURS, 1903 TO 1922 •
Per cent of total
employees in—

Year

1903..................
1904..................
1905..................
1906..................
1907..................
1908..................
1910..................
1911..................
1912..................
1913..................

Weighted
average
workingday
8-hour 9-hour 10-hour (hours)
mines mines mines
56.4
62.1
61.1
63.0
64.0
63.5
62.1
62.9
61.6
61.9

17.1
13.8
13.6
13.5
11.6
11.1
11.3
10.9
11.5
15.2

26.5
24.1
25.3
23.5
24.4
25.4
26.6
26.2
26.9
22.9

8.7
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6

Per cent of total
employees in—

Year

1914................
1915................
1916................
1917............v__
_
1918..............
1919................
1920................
1921................
1922................

Weighted
average
workingday
8-hour 9-hour 10-hour (hours)
mines mines mines
60.7
59.6
58.6
79.0
90.6
95.5
97.1
96.6
95.1

15.4
17.0
17.4
12.6
6.7
3.5
2.0
2.9
4.0

23.9
23.4
24.0
8.4
2.7
1.0
.9
.5
.9

8.60
8.60
8.60
8.30
8.12
8.06
8.04
8.04
8.06

« Percentages are calculated on base of total number of men in mines definitely reported as having 8-hour,
9-hour, or 10-hour day. A small number of mines that work more than 10 hours or less than 8 hours have
been excluded, as have also all mines for which the reports were defective or which changed their workingday during the year.
i United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Coal in 1922. Washington, 1924, p.
603.




WAGE REDUCTIONS AND INCREASES

17

The 9-hour day and 54-hour week in anthracite mining, which was
established by the 1903 award of the Anthracite Coal Strike Com­
mission, was changed to an 8-hour day and 48-hour week by the
May, 1916, agreement. The 8-hour day as defined by the 1916
agreement and continued in effect to date by subsequent agreements
is as follows:
An 8-hour day means eight (8) hours of actual work for all classes of labor at
the usual working place, exclusive of noontime, for six (6) days per week, if the
operator desires to work his mines to that extent, excluding legal holidays. The
time required in going and coming from place of employment in and about the
mine shall not include any part of the day’s labor.

The hours of tonnage or piece workers in anthracite and bitumin­
ous mining are presumed or expected to be approximately the same
as those of the time workers, but in actual practice their hours are
usually more or less irregular. Some tonnage workers enter the
collieries as early as 6 or 6.30 a. m., begin work immediately on arrival
at* the face, and work throughout the day, eating their lunch while
waiting for mine cars or material; some quit for the day at or near
noon; while others enter the collieries around or after 7 a. m., take
as much time for lunch as they desire, and often quit work before
the mine as a whole ceases operation.
WAGE REDUCTIONS AND INCREASES
Between January 1, 1922, and the half-month pay period in 1924
or 1925 for which data as to hours and earnings of employees were
taken for each of the 599 bituminous mines included in the study,
38 of the 39 mines in Alabama, 2 of the 17 in Colorado, 71 of the 79
in Kentucky, 2 of the 57 in Ohio, 59 of the 155 in Pennsylvania,
20 of the 20 in Tennessee, 11 of the 12 in Virginia, and 117 of the
142 in West Virginia, or a total of 320, made one or more changes in
wage rates.
No change was made in the wage rates of any of the 46 mines
covered in Illinois, of the 23 in Indiana, or of the 9 in Kansas, and
no change was made in the rates of 15 of the 17 mines covered in
Colorado, 8 of the 79 in Kentucky, 55 of the 57 in Ohio, 94 of the 155
in Pennsylvania, 1 of the 12 in Virginia, 25 of the 142 in West Virginia,
or of a total of 276 of the 599 mines in all these States combined.
One mine in Alabama and 2 in Pennsylvania made no report as to
change in wage rates.
Of the 320 mines making changes in wage rates 4 in Kentucky and
5 in Pennsylvania made only one change increasing rates; 2 in Colo­
rado, 38 in Kentucky, 25 in Pennsylvania, 2 in Tennessee, 7 in Vir­
ginia, and 68 in West Virginia made one or more reductions in rates;
and 38 in Alabama, 29 in Kentucky, 2 in Ohio, 28 in Pennsylvania,
18 in Tennessee, 4 in Virginia, and 47 in West Virginia made two or
more changes, rates at these mines being reduced and then increased,
or increased and then reduced.
The general level of wage rates in bituminous mining, on account
of the changes enumerated above, were lower in 1924 than in 1922,
and in anthracite mining were, on account of the 10 per cent increase
in September, 1923, higher in 1924 than in 1922. This statement
as to wage rates applies also to average earnings per hour as is shown
in Table 2, (p. 5), Table A (p. 44) and Table B (p. 46).




18

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

CLASSIFIED HOURS IN HALF MONTH
AN TH RACITE W O R K E R S

Table 9 shows for 1924 the actual and cumulative percentages of
employees whose hours of work in the half month were within each
classified number of hours for each of 10 of the most important
underground or inside occupations and 2 of the most important
surface or outside occupations in anthracite mining. Contract
miners and contract miners' laborers are tonnage workers. Their
hours are the total time in collieries including time for lunch and time
of travel in collieries. The employees in the other occupations are
time workers and their hours are actual time at work exclusive of time
for lunch and time of travel in collieries. Average hours in half
month for these occupations are shown for tonnage workers in Table
2 (p. 5) and for time workers in Table 3 (p. 7).
In the half month the hours of a larger per cent (14) of the cagers
and of 8 other occupations are within the group “ 104 and under 112
hours ” than within any other group.
Reading the cumulative percentages, it is seen that the hours of 56
per cent of the cagers, 68 per cent of the car runners, 73 per cent of the
drivers, 74 per cent of the inside laborers, 87 per cent of the company
miners’ laborers, 93 per cent of the contract miners’ laborers, 88 per
cent of the company miners, 95 per cent of the contract miners, 56 per
cent of the motormen, and 67 per cent of the motor brakemen are
under 112 in the half month, thus showing that the hours of contract
miners’ laborers and contract miners, even with the inclusion of time
for hinch and time of travel, are fewer than the hours of any of the
other inside occupations.
In this table and in Table 10 a small per cent of employees in each
occupation is shown as working under 8,16, 24, 32 and 40 hours in the
half month. Practically every company reported a few employees
in ea<}h occupation as working on fewer days and fewer hours tnan the
number of days and hows the colliery or mine was in operation in the
half month for which data were taken* The time lost by such
employees was due to sickness, other disability, or voluntary absence,
or to later turnover. A number of employees in the service of the
companies at the beginning of the half month covered by the study
left the service before the end of the half month and a number
entered the service after the beginning of the period taken.
BITUMINOUS WORKERS

Table 10 shows for 1924 the actual and cumulative percentages of
employees whose hours in the half month were within each classified
number of hours for each ©f 9 of the most important underground or
inside occupations and 2 of the most important surface or outside
occupations in bituminous coal mining. Hand loaders, hand or pick
miners, and machine miners are tonnage workers. Their hours are
the total time in mines including time f 6 * lunch and time of travel.
1
The employees in the other occupations are time workers, and their
hours are actual time at work exclusive of time for lunch and time
of travel. For similar classifications of bituminous employees in these
occupations m each State see Table E >(p. GQ).




CLASSIFIED HOUBS IK HAI*F MONTH

19

Reading the actual percentages for brakemen, shown in Table 10,
it is seen that the hours in the half month of 10 per cent of them were
72 and under 80; of 11 per cent, 80 and under 88, of 12 per cent,
88 and under 96; and of 11 per cent, 96 and under 104. Approxi­
mately the same percentages are shown in these groups of classified
hours for 7 or 8 other occupations in the table. Tne per cent of
hand loaders, hand or pick miners, and machine miners in these
groups is less than that for any of the other occupations. Except in a
lew cases less than 10 per cent of the employees of any of the occu­
pations are found in any of the other groups.




T able 9.—PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPATION WHOSE HOURS IN HALF MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED
NUMBER OF HOURS, 1924-ANTHRACITE COAL MINING

Cagers,1
inside
colliery

Drivers,1
inside
colliery

Laborers,1
inside
colliery

Laborers,1 Laborers,2 Miners,
Miners,
company
contract
company,1 contract,2
miners’,
miners’,
inside
inside
inside
inside
colliery
colliery
colliery
colliery

Classified hours in
half month

Motormen,1
inside
colliery

Motor
brakemen,1
inside
colliery

Carpen­
ters,?
outside
colliery

Laborers, *
outside
colliery

PER CENT
Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­
tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative

(4
)

1
2
2
3
4
5
6
8
14
23
33
44
68
82
90
94
97
99
99
100
100
100

(4
)
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
7
12
9
12
24
12
8
3
2
1
(4
)
(*)
(4
)
(4)

(4
)

i
2
3
4
5
6
10
17
29
38
50
73
85
93
96
98
99
99
100
100
100
100

1
1
1
1
1
2
3
4
9
12
10
11
18
11
6
4
2
2
1
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

1
1
2
4
5
7
10
14
22
34
45
55
74
85
91
94
96
98
99
100
100
100
100
100

(4)
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
7
12
15
10
11
16
6
3
3
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)

3
5
6
7
9
12
15
22
34
49
60
71
87
93
96
99
99
100
100
100
100

1
3
2
2
3
3
4
5
9
12
13
13
14
10
5
2
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

1
4
6
8
11
13
17
22
31
43
56
69
83
93
98
100
100
100
100

(4)
1
1
1
2
2
3
4
9
14
16
7
9
18
5
3
1
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
1

(4)
2
3
4
6
7
11
15
24
38
54
61
70
88
93
96
98
98
99
99
99
100

(4
)
(4
)
1
1
2
3
4
7
10
14
15
16
13
8
4
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(<
)

(4)
1
1
2
4
7
11
18
28
42
58
74
87
95
99
100
100
100
100
100

(4
)
1
(4
)
(4
)
1
1
1
3
5
9
12
13
12
11
10
10
6
3
2
2
(4
)
(4
)

JThe hours for this occupation are hours actually worked or time at face, exclusive of travel time and lunch time,
a The hours for this occupation are total hours in mine, including hours actually worked, travel time in mine, and lunch time.
* The hours for this occupation are hours actually worked.
* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




(4
)

1
1
1
2
3
4
6
11
20
31
44
56
67
77
87
93
97
98
100
100
100
100
100

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
1
1
1
2
4
8
9
14
11
15
13
9
5
3
1
2
(4
)

(4
)

1
1
2
3
4
6
10
18
27
41
52
67
80
88
93
97
98
100
100

(4
)
(4
)
1
1
1
1
1
7
7
9
16
15
12
8
6
4
3
1
1
(4
)

(4
)

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
11
18
25
34
50
65
77
85
91
95
98
99
100
100

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
1
1
1
1
2
5
11
9
8
15
10
8
6
5
5
4
3
2
1
1
1

(4
)

1
1
1
2
3
4
6
8
13
24
33
41
55
65
73
79
84
89
92
96
98
99
99
100

M INING

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
6
9
10
11
25
14
8
5
3
2
(4)
1
(4
)
(4)

COAL

1
1
2
2
3
6
8
13
22
33
41
56
69
77
84
90
93
96
97
98
99
100
100

BITUMINOUS

(4
>
1
(4
)
(4
)
(0
l
3
3
5
9
11
9
14
13
8
8
5
3
3
1
1
1
(<)
(4
)

AD
N

Under 8 hours..............
8 and under 16 hours...
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112 hours.
112 and under 120 hours.
120 and under 128 hours.
128 and under 136 hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152 hours.
152 and under 160 hours.
160 and under 168 hours.
168 and under 176 hours.
176 and under 184 hours.
184 and under 192 hours.
192 hours and over___

ANTHRACITE

Car
runner?,1
inside
colliery

T a b l e 1 0 . — PER

CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPATION WHOSE HOURS IN HALF MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED
NUMBER OF HOURS, 1924—BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
BratticeBrakemen,1 men and
Drivers,1
inside mine timbermen,1 inside mine
inside mine

Loaders,3
Laborers,1 Motormen,1 Trackmen,1 Carpenters,2 Laborers,?
hand,
inside mine inside mine inside mine outside mine outside mine inside mine

Classified hours in half
month

Miners,3
machine,
inside mine

Miners,3
hand or
pick, inside
mine

PER CENT

(4
)
2
1
2
2
3
2
7
8
10
14
IB
14
11
5
3
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)

2
3
6
8
11
14
21
29
38
52
65
78
89
95
98
99
99
99
100
100
100

(4
)
3
2
3
4
6
9
10
8
10
1
1
11
12
7
3
2
(4
)
(4
)
ft
(<)
(4
)

(4
)

3
4
8
11
17
26
36
44
53
64
76
87
95
97
99
100
100
100
100
100

1
4
3
3
3
5
5
6
7
9
12
11
12
9
5
2
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

1
5
8
11
15
20
25
31
38
47
58
70
82
91
96
98
99
99
100
100
100
100

(4
)
1
1
2
3
3
4
6
8
9
11
13
14
11
5
3
2
1
1
(4
)
(4
)
(i)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)

2
3
5
7
10
15
21
29
38
49
62
76
87
92
96
98
99
99
100
100
100
100
100
100

(4
)
2
1
2
3
3
4
7
7
9
11
14
14
10
6
3
2
1
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4)

(4
)

2
4
6
9
12
16
22
30
39
50
63
77
87
93
96
98
99
99
100
100
100

1

1
1
1
2
3
4
5
4
8
9
15
15
14
8
6
3
2
1
(4
)
(4)

1
2
3
5
8
12
17
21
29
37
52
67
80
88
94
97
98
99
99
100

(4
)
2
2
3
3
4
6
6
7
9
10
11
11
9
5
4
3
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4 '
)
(4
)

(4
)

3
5
8
11
15
21
27
33
42
53
64
75
84
90
94
97
98
99
99
100
100
100
100
100

1
2
3
5
6
7
8
10
10
10
10
11
7
5
3
1
1
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

1
3
6
11
17
24
32
42
52
63
72
83
90
96
99
99
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

(4
)
2
2
4
4
5
7
9
8
8
8
11
9
8
6
3
2
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)

2
4
8
12
17
24
33
41
49
57
69
78
86
93
95
97
99
99
100
100
100
100
100
100

1
2
2
3
5
6
9
9
10
12
12
11
7
6
3
1
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

1
2
5
8
13
19
28
37
47
59
71
83
90
96
99
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

MONTH

(*>

3
5
7
12
,• 16
23
31
40
50
62
74
85
93
96
98
99
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

HALF

c4
)

(4
)

I
N

(4
)
2
2
2
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
11
7
3
2
1
1

HOURS

Under 8 hours.................
8 and under 36 hours____
16 and under 24 hours___
24 and under 32 hours___
32 and under 40 hours___
40 and under 48 hours___
48 and under 56 hours___
56 and under 64 hours___
64 and under 72 hours___
72 and under 80 hours___
80 and under 88 hours___
88 and under 96 hours___
96 and under 104 hours...
104 and under 112 hours..
112 and under 120 hours..
120 and under 128 hours..
128 and under 136 hours..
136 and under 144 hours..
144 and under 152 hours..
152 and under 160 hours..
160 and under 168 hours..
168 and under 176 hours..
176 and under 184 hours
184 and under 192 hours
192 hours and over__ ___

CLASSIFIED

Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­
tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative

i The hours for this occupation are hours actually worked or time at face, exclusive of travel time and lunch time.
* The hours for this occupation are hours actually worked.
» The hours for this occupation are total time in mine, including hours actually worked, travel time in mine, and lunch time.
« Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




to

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

22

CLASSIFIED EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH
Actual and cumulative percentages of employees whose hours of
work in the half month in 1924 were within each classified number
of hours are shown in Table 9 for each of 10 inside and 2 outside
occupations in anthracite mining, and in Table 10 for each of 9 inside,
and 2 outside occupations in bituminous mining. Percentages, actual
and cumulative, of employees whose earnings in the half month were
within each classified amount are presented in Table 11 for the same
occupations for which classified hours are shown in Table 9, and in
Table 12 for the same occupations for which classified hours are
shown, in Table 10. For similar classification of bituminous employ­
ees in these occupations in each State see Table F. (p. 66).
Tables 9 and 10 in effect show the number of hours worked or
on duty in the half month, and Tables 11 and 12 show the amount
of money earned in those hours. Employees who lost time or worked
short time in the half month on account of sickness, other disability,
or for any other reason, and whose hours in the half month were
consequently few in number, of course earned a small amount of
money in the half month and are therefore in the lowest groups
of classified earnings in the half month.
In Table 11 it is seen that in the half month 15 per cent of the
contract miners7laborers, 13 per cent of the company miners’ laborers,
9 per cent of the inside laborers and company miners, 8 per cent of
the outside laborers, 7 per cent of the drivers and motor brakemen,
6 per cent of the car runners, 5 per cent of the cagers and contract
miners, 4 per cent of the carpenters, and 3 per cent of the motormen
earned less than $40 in the half-month pay-roll period covered in
1924. These figures show that a larger per cent of the contract
miners’ laborers and company miners’ laborers earned less than $40
in the half month than the employees in any of the other occupations.
Reverting to Table 9, it is seen that the hours of 17 per cent of the
contract miners’ laborers, 12 per cent of the company miners’ laborers,
11 per cent of the company miners and contract miners, 7 per cent
of the inside laborers, 5 per cent of the car runners and drivers, 4
per cent o f the motor brakemen, carpenters, and outside laborers,
and 3 per cent of the cagers and motormen were less than 56 in the
half month. Thus it is seen that a larger per cent of the contract
miners’ laborers and company miners’ laborers worked under 56
hours in the half month and earned less than $40 in the half month
than employees in any of the other occupations.




T able

11.—PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN' EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPATION WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE WITHIN FACH CLASSIFIED
AMOUNT, 1924-ANTHRACITE COAL MINING

C
ar

Gagers,
inside
colliery

Drivers,
inside
colliery

runners,
inside
colliery

Laborers,
inside
colliery

Miners,

company,
inside
colliery

« S , h —
inside
colliery

'
1 tollltrj

Motor

Carpenters, Laborers,
outside
outside
colliery
colliery

• bn1Icemen,
.
inside
colliery

PER CENT

1

Ac­ Cumu­ Ac- jCumu- Ac- Cumu-! Actual lative tual lative ttial lative Itrial iative

(’)

0)
1

1
1
2
3
5
7
11

1
1
2
3
4
5

6
8
1
1

21

97
99

99

m
&
9
3
100

10
0
1 0 !.....I
0
-

0)

roo j

100

7
7
8
8
95’
U
i
f
100

3
4
5
7
10

18
29
39
5
'3
73

}3
19

3
1
41

g

80
80

10
Q
10
0

100

100

1

2
2
?
o

!
1
! O
; 5
13 :

9
3

88

(0
3

2

4

9'
3
97
99
100

19 :
!
1
1
71
82
89
97
9
.9

100
100

10
0

;{
4
7
9
7
8
.9
11
17
7
3
1
1
0)
(')

(0

0)

C
‘)
3
1
5
1
7
1
9
I
11.
1
13
I
2
15
17
3
ti
21
28 10
37 15
43
ij
52
0
61
.0
72 10
89 10
95
6
98
3
99
2
100 ! 1
100 | )
i
100 ; (1
100 1
100

l
1

.

(0

1
3
4
5
6
7
9
12
IS
28
43
49
55
61
71
87
91
97
99
10
(1
100

0)

0)

1 0)
1
1 : 0)
(*
)
(0
1
1
1 (*
1
0)
)
I
1 0)
1
1
1 ; 0)
2
2 (>
1
2; i
1
)
1
3 0)
2
1
3
1
4
1
2
1
4! i
7
1
5
1
3
3
i
4
1
6
1
3
10 1(‘)
7
2
8
2
6
17
2
2
10
4
10
9
4
20
3
13
7
17 u !
38 : 6
4
1
(3
8 i 26 14 !
I
52
5
4
20 12 ! 38 : 15 I £
5 8
4
51 , W 1 77 1.
25 H !
5
30 10 :
j 61 8
85 11
11
41 18 i 7 9 ; 11
w; 20
13
54 14 !
4
99 11
03
G 5 | 08 ; 1 100 1 7
O
12
1
!
10 1 70
1
1 j 100 :
!
■ 5
n :
i r
(0 ! 100 :
7
96
100 '
, 0)
2
98 ~0)"ii 100 1
!.......
!
1
99
!
i
'.
1
100 .....■...... j..... j. .. J.....

i

1

1

i

0)
0)

1
o
2
3
4
5
7
11
17
22
30
41 |
52 !
72 i
87 !
94 j
99 '
100 !
100 1

i
i

(i)
0)
oy
i
i
i

j

2
5
12
9
8
16
10
8
6
10
7
2
1

(!)

i

l

2
3
4
'
6
8
13
25
33
41
57
67
75
81
90
97
99
100

MONTH

31
42
03

(0

2
2

HALF

18
27
37 ,
47 i
(.4
0

0)

I
N

$10 aria undiii- $lfc.........
SlAand under $20.........
$2Qand under $25..........
$25 an<? under $30.........
$StQati:guncl^$35i......
$35. and wider $$Q.........
$4Qand under $45i.........
$45 aha under $50.........
$5Qand undei: $55.........
$55 and undiif $6.0.........
$$Giind under $*&
.........
$65 diid under $70.........
$70 and under $75.........
$75 and under $80.........
$80 and under $90.........
$90 and under $100.......
$100 and under $J10___
$110 and under $120___
$120 and under $140___
$140 and-under $ifiO___
$160 and under $180___
$130 and under $200___
$200 and over................

EARNINGS

Under $5.—
......
$54najw .$i0.,......
a/%

Cumu­ Ac­ Cumu­I A c !iCumu­ Ac­ Cumu­ Ac­ !Cumu­j Ac- !Cumu­JAc- Cumu­
; ual i lative tual lative tual lative tual lative tual lative ! tual lative j luid lative

: CLASSIFIED

Classified, eatnings in
trftlf m
ciflithr

Laborers,
contract
miners,
inside
colliery

Laborers,
company
miners,
inside
colliery

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




its3

CO

T a b l e 1 3 . — PER

CENT OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPATION WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924-BITTTMINOXJS COAI MINING
BratticeMotormen, Trackmen, Carpenters, Laborers,
Drivers,
Laborers,
men, and
Brakemen,
inside mine timber men, inside mine inside mine inside mine inside mine outside mine outside mine
inside mine

Miners,
Miners, ma­
chine, inside hand or pick,
inside mine
mine

PER CENT
Cu­ Ac­
Cu- Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu- Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu­ Ac­ Cu­
Ac­
mula­
mula­
mula­
mula­
mula­
mula­
tual mula­ tual mula- tual mula­ tual mula­ tual mula- tual tive tual tive tual tive tual tive tual tive tual tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive




(>)

1
2
3
5
8
11
15
19
24
28
35
41
50
60
65
74
85
94
97
99
100
100

0)
0)

1
3
2
3
5
5
7
7
6
7
7
6
7
6
4
5
7
8
3
1

1
4
6
9
14
19
26
33
39
46
53
59
66
72
76
82
88
96
99
100
100
100

3
4
4
4
5
6
6
8
8
7
8
6
5
6
5
5
7
3
1
1

<9
0)
0)

3
7
11
14
19
25
31
38
47
53
61
67
72
77
83
87
95
98
99
100
100
100
100

0)
2
1
2
2
3
4
4
5
8
8
8
7
8
7
5
11
9
4
2
1

(')

0)

2
3
4
7
9
13
17
23
31
39
47
54
62
68
74
85
94
98
99
100
100

1
2
1
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
9
7
9
8
5
7
10
8
3
1
1

0)
0)

1
3
4
6
9
12
16
21
27
34
42
49
58
66
71
77
87
95
98
99
100
100
100

0)

1
1
2
3
3
4
5
7
7
10
7
8
6
7
6
10
8
4
2
1

0)

0)

1
2
4
7
10
14
19
26
33
42
49
57
63
70
76
85
93
97
99
100
100

2
3
5
4
7
7
7
9
9
8
7
5
5
5
4
4
5
3
1

0)
(l)
0)

2
5
9
13
20
27
34
43
52
60
67
72
77
81
86
90
95
98
99
100
100
100

0)
0)

2
3
3
4
5
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
5
4
5
3
2
1
1

0)
0)
0)

2
4
7
12
17
23
30
37
44
52
59
65
72
77
82
86
92
95
97
98
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
9
9
6
6
9
6
3
1
1
(*)
0)
0
0)

1
2
3
5
6
8
11
15
18
22
26
30
35
40
45
51
60
68
75
81
89
95
97
#9
100
100
100
100
100

1
2
3
4
5
5
6
7
8
8
8
7
6
6
5
4
7
4
2
1
1
0)
0)
0)
0)

1
3
6
9
14
19
25
32
40
48
56
63
70
76
81
85
92
96
98
99
100
100
100
100
100

M INING

* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

1
2
1
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
7
6
9
10
5
8
11
9
3
2
1

COAL

V)

1
4
6
9
13
18
24
31
38
47
55
61
67
74
79
85
93
98
99
100
100

BITUMINOUS

1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
9
9
6
6
7
5
6
8
5
2
1

AD
N

Under $5..........................
$5 and iT
n<jftr $10_______
$10 and under $15______
$15 and under $20______
$20 and under $25______
$25 and under $30______
$30 and under $35______
$35 and under $40______
$40 and under $45__ ___
$45 and under $50______
$50 and under $55______
$55 and under $60______
$60 and under $65______
$65 and under $70______
$70 and under $75______
$75 and under $80__
$80 and under $90______
$90 and under $100_____
$100 and under $110_____
$110 and under $120__ __
$120 and under $140_____
$140 and under $160_____
$160 and under $180 _
$180 and under $200_____
$200 and under $£20 _
$220 and under $240 _
$240 and under $260._
$260 and under $280
$280 and under $300

^

ANTHRACITE

Classified earnings in
half-month

Loaders,
hand, in­
side mine

tO

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

25

STATE AVERAGES FOR MINERS AND LOADERS
Average starts, or calendar days, in the half month, average hours
and earnings per start, average days of operation in the year ending
October 31, 1924, and in the calendar year 1924, and estimated pos­
sible average annual earnings are presented in Table 13 for miners
and loaders of each of the 11 States included in the 1924 study and
for all of the 11 States combined.
Miners and loaders in anthracite mining, as here used, include
11,778 contract miners, 6,794 contract miners’ laborers, 1,735 com­
pany miners, 1,699 company miners’ laborers, 961 consideration
miners, and 748 consideration miners’ laborers, or a total of 23,715
employees. In bituminous mining, they include 61,936 hand loaders,
21,424 hand or pick miners, 6,499 machine miners, 1,036 gang miners,
170 contract loaders, and 102 machine loaders, or a total of 91,167.
Average starts, or calendar days in the half month in 1924 for each
State were obtained by dividing the total number of starts made in
the half month by all miners and loaders by the number of such
miners and loaders. All States combined, in bitumiuous mining,
average 8.3 starts, or days, in the half month, and the averages by
States range from 6.3 for Indiana to 9.8 for Kansas.
Average hours per start for each State were obtained by dividing
the total number of hours spent at thqface or places of work in the
mines in the half month by all miners and loaders by the total num­
ber of starts made by the employees in these occupations. All States
combined average 7.8 hours per start, and the averages by States
range from 6.5 for Kansas to 8.5 for Alabama.
Average earnings per start for each State were obtained by divid­
ing the total earnings of all miners and loaders in the half month by
the total number of starts made by them in the half month. All
States combined average $6.56 per start, or day, and the averages
by States range from $4.08 for Tennessee to $8.56 for Indiana.
Of the 599 mines included in the study, 549 reported the number
of days of operation in the year ending October 31, 1924, which
weighted by the number of miners and loaders in each of the report­
ing mines, average 198.2 days in the year. The averages by States
range from 147.7 for Indiana to 242.5 days for Virginia.
The days of operation in the calendar year 1924 for all mines of each
State are the days as reported by the United States Geological Survey
for that year, weighted by the total number of employees in all
occupations of each mine. All of the 11 States combined average
172 days in the calendar year. The averages for the States range
from 136 days for Indiana to 226 for Virginia. The method of com­
puting the average (172) is explained in footnote 4 to Table 13.
The average for all bituminous mines in the United States as reported
by the Geological Survey for the calendar year 1924 is 171 days, or
one day less than the average for the 11 States.
The estimated possible average annual earnings of miners and
loaders based on average earnings per start and average days of
operation for the year ending October 31, 1924, for the mines included
in the study by the bureau are $1,300. The averages by States range
from $757 for Tennessee to $1,483 for Illinois. The estimated pos­
sible average annual earnings of the employees based on average
earnings per start and average days of operation for the calendar
year 1924, for all the mines of the 11 States are $1,128 and the



'ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

26

averages by States range from $649 for Tennessee to $1,287 for
Colorado. Any estimate of possible yearly earnings, however, should
take all mines into consideration.
Many of the mines which were notin operation in the latter part of
1924 or early in 1925, when the study was made, may have been in
operation early in .1924. In order to obtain hours per start, or day,
and in the hall month for miners and loaders it was necessary to find
mines in operation, as very few of them seldom, if ever, recorded
the hours per day or pay period of the employees in these occupations.
This in part explains why the mines included in the study in each of
the 11 States have a greater average number of days of operation in
the year ending October 31, 1924, than all mines of each State in the
calendar year 1924. This condition, however, does not materially
affect the representative character of the average hours or earnings
in Table 13 or any of the other tables in this report. The mines,
after arrangements had been made with them, kept a special davby-day record of hours for each of the miners and loaders for a halfmonth pay period.
T able .13.—AVERAGE STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH, AVERAGE HOURS AND
EARNINGS PER START, AVERAGE DAYS OF OPERATION, AND ESTIMATED
POSSIBLE ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MINERS AND LOADERS, 1924, BY KIND OF
COAL, AND STATE
i
!Average days of

i
Number of—

Kind of coal, and
State

i Aver­
age
starts
(days)
.Mines Min­
in
ers
stud­ and
half
ied loaders month

Aver­
age
hours
per
start
(day),
in­
clud­
ing
lunch

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
start
(day)

Estimated possi ble
average
yearly
earnings of miners
and loaders in—

operation in—

Num­
ber of
niincs
re­
port­
ing
days
of
oper­
ation

Year Calen­
dar
ending year
Oct. 31,i 1924, of
1924, of
all
Mines All mines
niincs
report­ mines studied2 in States
in
ing
State 1

ANTHRACITE

50 .23,715

10.5

7.3

$7.77

56

.286. 7

274 | $2,228

Alabama...................
Colorado...................
Illinois.......................
Indiana.....................
Kansas...... ...... .........
Kentucky..................
Ohio.........................
Pennsylvania............
Tennessee..................
Virginia.....................
West Virginia...........

39 4,968
17: 2,448
40 15,769
■3 3,027
2
■ 1,474
9
79 8,802
57 7, (.37
155 29,190
20 1,873
12 1,121
142 14, 258

7.9
8.0
7.7
6.3
9.8
8.2
7.8
8.9
7.8
8.4
8.4

8.5
7. 6
7.9
7.4
6.5
7.9
7.7
8.2
7.7
7.7
7.0

1
i 4.57
7. 23
8.^5
8. 56
5.92 !
5. (5
3
7.17
| 6.40
| 4.08
4.65
I 6.10

38
16
44
22
'9
67
57
140
20
10
126

231.2
187.0
173. 5
147.7
192.9
200.3
177.7
215.2
185. G
242. 5
204.4

220
178
148
130
151
174
113
180
159
226
182

Total...............

599 91,167

8.3

7.8

6. 56 !
I

549

198.2

4172 !
1

Pennsylvania............
BITUMINOUS

!
!
j
!

i
i
!
i
I
1
'
i
i
!
!

$2,129

1
1,057 j
1,352 !
1.483 i
1,2f4 i
1,142
1,128 !
1,274 ;
1.377 1
757
1,128.
1,247 1

1,005
1,287
1,265
i, na
894
980
1,025
1,152
049
1,051
1,110

1,300

1,128

1The figures for each State are as reported by United States Geological Survey.
2 Computed by multiplying the average cawiings per start by the average days of operation in year end­
ing Oct. 31, 1924, for mines reporting.
3 Computed by multiplying the average earnings-per start by the average days of operation in the cal­
endar year 1924 of all mines in State.
4This average is for the States included in this table, with the days of operation for each State weighted
by the number of miners and loaders shown in the table.




rnsm ss. $rtnvrB£RS o f t o i t k a g e

27

INDEX NUMBERS OF CONTRACT MINERS’ TONNAGE OR
MINE-C^R RATES, 1902 T© 1926
Contract miner is the most important occupation in anthracite
mining. The 11,778 employees in this occupation constitute -& little
over 26 per cent of the 44,500 anthracite employees covered .in the
1924 study. They are paid ’tonnage rates or *a mine rate per car.
The rates per car vary with the capacity of the car— 1
2,
or
3 tons. M any of the contract miners employ ome or more contract
*
m&iners’ laborers ito assist them in their work, which consists df
diilhng holes,into the seams of coal with eleGtric or compressed air
coal-mining machines, df loading the holes wit-bexplosives, of blasting
the «o£l tfrom the seams, and of loading the ooal ?rock, and dirt -into
mine cars. The major |>art of the earnings of *the 6,794 ^contract
miners7-laborers covered in 1924 were paid from ;the geoss .earnings
of the contract miners by whom they were employed., the other part
being paid by the coal companies for which they worked. The
contract miners pay for the explosives used in blasting the coal
from the seams.
As contract miners are paid on the tonnage or mine-car basis,
and as but a very few companies keep any kind of a record of hours
of work of these employees, there is little or no information avail­
able as to hours or earnings per hour for this occupation for any of
the years before or immediately after the World War. It is therefore
not practicable to present index numbers of changes of hourly rates
or earnings for a period of years for this occupation as has been
done by the 'bureau for important occupations .in other industries.
The per cent of increase in tonnage, .mine-car, or other piece rates
is, however, shown in Table 14 for the years 1902 to 1924, with the
1902 rates as the basis of comparison, or 100. Part of the earnings
Of contract miners7 laborers and all the cost of explosives are ^aid
from the gross earnings of the contract miners. As these expenses
may not have changed during the years 1902 to 1924 in the same
proportion as the tonnage or mine-car rates have changed, the index
numbers should not be construed as representing exact changes in
net average earnings per hour. It is assumed, however, that they
approximately represent the trend of tonnage rates and earnings per
hour of contract miners.
The 1902 tonnage or -mine-car rates differed from colliery to
colliery and possibly even within a colliery on account of varying
conditions, as such rates have differed in each of the years since 1902.
In 1903 the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission made an award b y
which contract miners were given an increase of 10 jper cent over
the 1902 rates, and which also provided for an additional increase
of 1 per cent of the 1903 rate (representing an index of 110) for each
5-cent advance in the April, 1903, wholesale price of coal at New
York City. T his.award continued in effect 9 years. During these
years the 10 per cent increase plus the 1 per cent increases caused
by the advance in the wholesale price of coal at New Yoifk City over
the April, 1903, price .resulted m increases ranging from 14.22 per
cent in 1907 to 14.95 per cent in 1904 and 1911.
The May, 1912, agreement eliminated the 1 per cent increase for
each 5-cent ^advance in the April, 1903, wholesale price of coil at




28

ANTHRACITE

and

b it u m in o u s

coal

m in in g

New York City, and increased the 1903 rate (index 110) 10 per cent,
thus making the index 121 for 1912, which continued in effect 4
years or to March 31, 1916.
The May, 1916, agreement increased this rate 7 per cent, making
the index 129.47. The May, 1916, rate was increased by the agree­
ment of M ay, 1917, by 10 per cent, to an index of 142.42; by that
of November, 1917, by 25 per cent, to an index of 161.84; by that
of November, 1918 (which continued in force until April, 1920),
by 40 per cent, to an index of 181.26; and by the August, 1920, award
of the Anthracite Coal Commission by 65 per cent, to an index of
213.63. This award continued in effect until September, 1923,
when the strike of that year was settled, at which time the rate made
by the award was increased 10 per cent, to an index of 234.99 or a
little more than two and one-third times the 1902 rate. By agree­
ment made in February, 1926, at the end of the strike which began
September 1, 1925, the September, 1923, index will continue in effect
to January, 1927.
T a b le 14.—PERIODS OF WAGE AGREEMENTS AND INDEX NUMBERS OF PIECE OR

TONNAGE RATES OF CONTRACT MINERS, 1902 TO 1926—ANTHRACITE COAL MINING
[1902—100.00J
Period of wage agreement

1902........................................................
Apr. 1, 1903, to Mar. 31, 1904..................
Apr. 1, 1904, to Mar. 31, 1905..................
Apr. 1, 1905, to Mar. 31, 1906..................
Apr. 1, 1906, to Mar. 31, 1907..................
Apr. 1, 1907, to Mar. 31, 1908..................
Apr. 1, 1908, to Mar. 31,1909..................
Apr. 1, 1909, to Mar. 31,1910..................
Apr. 1,1910, to Mar. 31, 1911..................
Apr. 1,1911, to May, 1912......................
May, 1912, to Mar. 31,1913....................

Index
number
100.00
114.40
114.95
114.31
114.58
114.22
114.40
114.49
114.40
114.95
121.00

Period of wage agreement
Apr. 1,1913, to Mar. 31, 1914..................
Apr. 1,1914, to Mar. 31,1915..................
Apr. 1,1915, to Mar. 31,1916..................
May, 1916, to May, 1917.........................
May, 1917, to November, 1917....... ........
November, 1917, to November, 1918.......
November, 1918, to November, 1919.......
November, 1919, to Mar. 31, 1920______
April, 1920, to Sept. 1, 1923.....................
Sept. 1, 1923, to January, 1927....... .........

Index
number
121.00
121.00
121.00
129.47
142.42
161.84
181.26
181.26
213.63
234.99

INDEX NUMBERS OF HAND LOADERS AND HAND OR PICK
MINERS’ TONNAGE RATES IN HOCKING VALLEY DISTRICT,
1902 TO 1925
In number of employees and in work performed hand loaders and
hand or pick miners are the basic occupations in bituminous mining.
The 61,936 hand loaders and 21,424 hand or pick miners together
represent a little more than 59 per cent of the total of 140,719 em­
ployees of the 599 mines covered in the 1924 study of bituminous
mining.
Like contract miners in anthracite mining, hand loaders, and hand
or pick miners in bituminous mining are paid on the tonnage basis
and practically no data are available either as to hours per day in
the half-month pay periods or as to earnings per hour. The em­
ployees in these two occupations as a rule pay for the explosives
used by them in blasting the coal from the seams and for the sharpen­
ing of their tools. Index numbers based on average net earnings per
hour for a period of years could not therefore be computed for these
occupations.
Loading rates per ton of 2,000 pounds in rooms with hand drilling
and hand or pick mining rates per ton of 2,000 pounds of run oi




INDEX NUMBERS OF TONNAGE BATES

29

mine for each of the years 1902 to 1924, as given in Thirty-Two
Years’ Record of Hocting Valley Mining, of the 1924 agreement
between the miners and operators of the Hocking Valley district of
Ohio, have been used in computing index numbers for these two
occupations with the 1902 rate as the base, or 100. “ Run of mine”
is coal as it comes from the mines, including the various sizes of
“ lump” and “ slack.” The Hocking Valley district is Subdistrict
No. 1 of District No. 6 of the United Mine Workers of America.
The rates entered in Table 15 for hand or pick mining are, as stated
in the “ New York, N. Y., March 31, 1920, interstate agreement
between the miners and the operators of western Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, for the thin vein district of western
Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, Hocking, Cambridge, and AmsterdamBergholz district of Ohio.”
Inasmuch as loaders and hand or pick miners have usually paid
for explosives and tool sharpening from the amounts earned by them
at their tonnage rates and as the cost of such explosives may not
have changed in the same proportion as the tonnage rates have
changed, the index numbers in Table 13 do not represent exact net
average earnings per hour. They do, however, show the exact trend
of tonnage rates in the Hocking Valley district, and it is believed
that they also represent very nearly the trend in average earnings
per hour.
T able 1 5 .— PERIODS

OF WAGE AGREEMENTS, TONNAGE RATES, AND INDEX
NUMBERS THEREOF FOR HAND LOADERS AND HAND OR PICK MINERS, 1902
TO 1926—BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
[1902 rate==100.00. Corrected figures for hand or pick miners]
Hand loaders’, tonnage Hand or pick miners'
rate in rooms, with
tonnage rate for run
hand drilling
of mine
Period of wage agreement
Amount

Apr. 1, 1902, to Mar. 31, 1903______ ___ . . . . ___ . . . ___
Apr. 1, 1903, to Mar. 31,1904______________________
Apr. 1, 1904, to Mar. 31,1905.......................................
Apr. 1, 1905, to Mar. 31, 1906_________________ _____
Apr. 1,1906, to Mar. 31, 1907........................................ .
Apr. 1, 1907, to Mar. 31,1908..........................................
Apr. 1,1908, to Mar. 31,1909..........................................
Apr. 1, 1909, to Mar. 31,1910..........................................
Apr. 1,1910, to Mar. 31,1911..........................................
Apr. 1,1911, to Mar. 31,1912................ ........................
Apr. 1,1912, to Mar. 31,1913..........................................
Apr. 1,1913, to July 15,1914_______________________
July 16,1914, to Mar. 31,1915........................................
Apr. 1,1915, to Mar. 31,1916..........................................
Apr. 1,1916, to Apr. 15,1917..........................................
Apr. 16,1917, to Oct. 29,1917.........................................
Oct. 29,1917, to Mar. 31,1918....................................... .
Apr. 1,1918, to Mar. 31,1919..........................................
Apr. 1,1919, to Dec. 1,1919............................................
Dec. 1,1919, to Mar. 31,1920..........................................
Apr. 1,1920, to Mar. 31,1921.........................................
Apr. 1,1921, to Mar. 31,1922..........................................
Apr. 1,1922, to Mar. 31,1923..........................................
Apr. 1, 1923, to Mar. 31,1924..........................................
Apr. 1,1924, to Mar. 31,1925..........................................
Apr. 1,1925, to Mar. 31,1926..........................................
* Renewed by Jacksonville agreement.

94614°—26------3




$0.4400
.5100
.4800
.4800
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5470
.5470
.5850
.5850
.4000
.4000
.4260
.5110
.5960
.5960
.5960
.6900
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
».8000
K8000

Index
number
100.00
115.91
109.09
109.09
116.70
116.70
116.70
116.70
124.32
124.32
132.85
132.95
90.91
90.91
96.82
116.14
135.45
135.45
135.45
156.82
181.82
181.82
181.82
181.82
1181.82
1181.82

Amount
$0.5714
.6429
.6071
.6071
.6429
.6429
.6429
.6429
.6785
.6785
.7143
.7143
.6760
.6760
.6764
.7764
.8764
.8764
.8764
.9864
1.1164
1.1164
1; 1164
1.1164
11.1164
»1.1164

Index
number
100.00
112.51
106.25
106.25
112.51
112.51
112.51
112.51
118.74
118.74
125.01
125.01
118.31
118.31
118.38
135.88
153.38
153.38
153.38
172.63
195.38
195.38
195.38
195.38
1195.38
*195.38

S
O

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

CLASSIFIED STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH
The number of starts, or calendar days, on which employees were
on duty or did any work in the half month were obtained for each
of the 44,500 anthracite and 140,719 bituminous employees covered
by the 1924 study and are presented in Table 16. If a man were on
duty any part oi a day he was reported as having made a start or
worked on that day. The table shows for each occupation in%
anthra~
cite mining and in bituminous mining the average number of starts,
or days, per man and the number and per cent of employees who
were reported as having worked each specified number of starts or
days, in the half month. For similar classification of employees in
each occupation and in each State see Table G (p. 72).
The officials of nearly every anthracite colliery and bituminous
mine reported some employees as having worked on fewer than the
number of days the colliery or mine was in operation in the half
month in 1924 for which data was reported and as having lost one
or more days of work on account of sickness or other disability,
voluntary absence, or leaving the service. It was frequently re­
ported that a number of employees left the service before the end
of the half month studied and that others entered service after the
beginning of the period taken. The starts, or days, so lost account
in part for the number and per cent of employees who are shown as
having worked 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days. Also, owing to the depression
in bituminous mining or to no market, many mines were running
short time or only 1, 2, 3, or 4 days per week or 3, 4, or 5 days in the
half month.
A record of hours per day or in the half month of tonnage workers
is kept by only a veiy small per cent of the companies in the coal
industry. It was therefore not possible to obtain data as to days
and hours from all companies ana mines for an identical half month.
In reading the figures in the table it should be borne in mind that
the number of week days in the half month taken were 12, 13, or 14.
While in nearly all occupations some employees are shown as having
made more than 12, 13, or 14 starts, this is because they worked on
Sundays as well as week days.




T a b l e 1 6 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH, 1924, BY KIND
OF COAL, PLACE OF WORK, AND OCCUPATION
Per cent of employees whose starts (days on which
they worked) in half month were—

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

ANTHRACITE

CLASSIFIED

Number of— Aver­ Number of employees whose starts (days on which they worked) in half month
were—
age
num­
Kind of coal,
ber
place of work, Col­
of
and occupation lieries Em­
8
ploy­ starts I 2 3 4 5 6
13
14 15 16
7
10 11 12
9
or
mines ees (days)

Inside mine

47 368
52 1,054
49 296
55 2,388

11.4 2 1 2 4 5 3
11.3 3 10 9 12 6 7
12.7
2
11.1 ” l3 “ l7 "27 *29 ~29 48

143 21
338 111
96 41
587 254

3
26
68

10
1
3 0
24
40 1 1

397

54

28

14 2 2 1

173 102
11 12
43 11

5
12
2

47 1,699

10.2 38 26 25 27 40 27

22
26
28

10.6
13.5
12.1

748
52
104

56|34,136
a--------j

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




10.3 26 15
10.9 1 13
11.4 1 4
11.2 1 4
14.8 1
10.9 3 2
12.0
3
12.0 ~~12 16 “

26 22 32 36
9 5 12 22
3 4 4 5
2 7 6 8
2
2 6 5 7
7 5 1
16 20 27 27

15 16 47 46 57
36 85 154 97 160
8 23 34 37
3
96 197 377 266 271

51 108 185 337 171

171

31

31

2

2

93
2
17

26
3

69 116
2
2
6 16

61 126 196 399 103 132
27 50 103 176 101 79
12 25 63 111 107 94
22 28 58 120 106 98
1
2
2
2
2
7
12 14 31 62 43 59
3
8 15 47 47 55
37 82 130 196 155 183

3
1
2
0
0
1

2 2 2
1 1
0
2
2
”1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1
1
1

1
1

1

1

4
3
2
2
2
1

5
5
2
3
3
2

8
9
6
4
6
5

14
20
25
19
16
13

13
12
10
18
12
12

12
13
4
13
14
15

23
27
23
24
28
37

5
4
13
7
11
9

1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1
1 2 3

4
3
1
4

4
8
3
8

13
15
8
16

13
9
11
11

15
15
13
11

39
32
32
25

6
10 0 0
14 9 3
11 3 2

2 3
1 2
2 2
0) •
1 2
1 1

1
0
2
4
2
1

0
0
2
3
1
0

2 2 2 3 6 11 20 10 10 23 3 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 9 16 12 23 14 1 0
4 4 4 21 23 23 15
8
4 2
1
1
" § ” 2 "2 6 15 16 41 11 2 1

444 86 17 14 1
238 119
5
1 (l)
202 81 15
2 0
195 61
8
0
24 49 113 145 0
87 25; 10
21 1
117 73,1 20
5
369 149 147 330f i

10.9 369 334 369 417 500 590 962jl, 6792,825 5,675 3,996 4,131 8,803 2,294] 569 623! 1

1 1
1 1
1 0
1 0

1
1
1
1

1 1
1 ...
1

2
2
1
1
1
2: 7 2
2, 1 0
1! 1 1

1

11 1

1

2
1
1
1

4
3
2
3
1
3
1
2

7
5
3
4
1
4
2
4

11 23
11 18
9 15
8 17
1
0
8 17
4i 12
7, 10

6
11
15
15
1
12
12
8

1
1
2
1
32
3
5
8
2 3 5 8 17 12 12 26 71 2
1
i
8
8
13
14
2
16
14
10

26
25
28
27
7
24
29
19

5
12
11
8
14
7
18
8

1
0
0
41
1
1
17
2

MONTH

47 1,735
22 961
50 733
51 724
51 350
48 370
55 406
55 1,896

14 16 18 13 14 25
2 1
1

6
20
2
69

8
5
1
7
8
3

HALF

37
19
1
11
15
7

I
N

10.1 181 147 139 162 154 172 243 369 522 984 910 825 1,581 360
10.8 63 52 78 90 147 179 336 6401,092 2,309 1,457 1,555 3,235 521
3 12
1 1 1
1
2
10.8 1 1
5
1
6
a
"~2 2 1
63 18
11.5 1
6
7 11 49 48 34
1 5"id
11.5 2 "3
2
15 18 38 99 75 89 177 70
11.5 6 4 8 5 5 7
8 18 38 94 89 111 272 70

(DAYS)

Total............

53 6,794
55 11,778
23
48
43 260
54 627
43 745

STARTS

Laborers, contract
miners"...............
Miners, contract
Blacksmiths..........
Bratticemen_____
Cagers...................
Car runners...........
D oor t e n d e r s
(boys)_________
Drivers..................
Engineers_______
Laborers...........
Laborers:
Company
miners'____
Consideration
miners’.........
Machinists___
Masons_ _______
_
Miners:
Company........
Consideration Motormen.............
Motor brakemen—
Pumpmen______
Timbermen--.......
Trackmen.............
Other employees__

T a b le

16.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) IN HALF MONTH, 1924, BY KIND
OF COAL, PLACE OF WORK, AND OCCUPATION—Continued
Per cent of employees whose starts (days on which
they worked) in half month were—

1 1 12
0 1

13

15

1
0

ANTHBACITE—C n.
O

Outside mine

12.3 29 37 42 59 71 90 113 215 502 1,3571,086 907 2,379 1,325 1,141 1,011

Giand total.

5644,500

11.2




12.3
10.9
12.0

14.2
14.7
11.9
12.0

11.7
13.2
11.8
11.1

11.9
11.6

11.4
11.2

12.7

13
371

476 571

1,075 1,894 3,327 7,032 5,082 5,038 U, 1823,619 1,710

13

0) 0) 0)

13

1 1

7 16

1
0
1
1

23
25

1
0

M INING

56 10,364

4
13 16 13
31 27 2
0
54 64 70
47 28 17
34 13 18
2
18 19 2
3
5
8
60 28 2
1
392 268 222
67 41 41
9 39 38
25 15 13
6 44 42
8
16 43 16
204 136 104
54 31 19
14
9
251 208

12.1

COAL

Total...........

14.4
12.5

BITUMINOUS

94
142
234
607
231
197
441
413
282
2,612
381
244
134
366
182
1,103
240
127
2,334

AN
D

7
8
32
34 27 12 13
1 24 4
83 2
145 101 65 35
41 23 1
2 4
2 11 8
70 2
42 69 114 143
27 54 152 150
6 21 42 7
6
569 384 229 210
35 27
2
122
32 45 38 35
25 20 13
124
9
8
47 19 1
1
367 129 18
7
74
8 14 3
2
25 17
7
479
312 340

Ashmen................
Blacksmiths..........
Cagers...................
Carpenters............
Car runners..........
Dumpers...............
Engineers..............
Firemen................
Jig runners............
Laborers.............. .
Loaders.................
Machinists______
Oilers...................
Platemen...............
Repairmen............
Slaters (boys)____
Timber cutters___
Trackmen.............
Other employees...

ANTHBACITE

Number of— Aver- Number of employees whose starts (days on which they worked) in half month
were—
Kind of coal,
numplace of work,
ber
Col­
and occupation lieries Em­
of
starts
1 13 14 15 16
2
11
or ploy- (days)
mines

CO
fcO

BITUMINOUS

Inside mine
8.9

2,521
410
4,603
7,228
170
61,936
102
1,036

9.8 40 35 48 63 87
67 153 223 247 356 382 383 287 103
9.6
3
3
9 17 15
21
39
43
36
41 . 50
51 53 16
8.8 111 81 118 156 272 347 429 435 457 549 562 581 388 84
8.9 290 249 228 255 369 352 437 569 677 920 959 910 707 209
9.5 ____ __
3
4 15
10
6
6
19
37
2
21
46
8.1 1,092 1,500 2,588 3,248 3,872 5,273 6,580 7,642 6,642 8,338 7,921 4,975 2,054 193
9.4
5
4
3
4
6
7
1
7
16
17
10 13
8
8.1
10 19 36 37 74 100 204
98
88 160 153
56
1

291
485
548
402
587
273
538

21,424
6,499
3,751
1,015
4,026
925
4,786

599 124,691

8.5
8.8
9.7
11.7
9.7
8.3
10.5

100

84 108 173 189

257

344

407

469

552

625

533 298

74

35 1 2 2 3 4 4 6 8 10 11 1315 13 7
1
37
10
27
83
1
13
1

10
3
6
14

2
1
2
4

2 2
2 4
3 3
3 4
2 2
~5 2 ~~2 4 5
5 4 3
1 2 3 "4
1
1
2
3

268 358 597 834 1,274 2,047 1,836 2,498 2,780 3,275 2,820 1,888 891 54
4
1 2
135 90 213 220 297 505 615 720 588 787 971 852 438 58 10
2 1
43 52 71 100 106 159 232 339 369 461 668 552 412 114 63 ’ 16 1 1
19 14 10 15 19
29
27
61 113 136 123 113 222 39 2 1
21
54
76 54 97 114 131 151 232 360 366 462 617 631 461 175 86 13 2 1
14 24 40 53 42
66 112 108
88 103 123
86 58
2 3
7
1
62 45 66 102 126 184 213 272 354 471 752 752 785 290 283 "29 1 1

3
3
2
1
2
4
1

4
3
3
1
3
6
2

2 10

3 3 6 9 1014 15 15
4 5 10 10 9 1012 12
6 8 9 9 1012 12 13
5 5 6 8 9 13 13 13
9 6 4 4 11 2212 27
6 9 11 1211 13:13 8
6 4 7 1 7 1617 10
7 1020 9 8 1515 5

11 4
13 4
8 2
10 3
1
3 "(i)
13 8
0)

1 (>)
2 1
1 C)
1
1 0)
1
0) 71
)
1

6 10 9 12 1315 13 9
5 8 9 11 9 121513
3 4 6 9 1012 1815
2 3 3 2 5 6 11 13
3 4 6 9 9 11 1516
5 712 11 1011 13 9
3 4 4 6 7 101616

4
7
11
12
11
6
16

(i)
1
3
11
4
1
6

0)
(*)
2 "(i)
22 4
2 (l)
0)
6 ’ "I

8.6 2,268 2,612 4,235 5,391 6,894 9,572 11,466 13,742 13,241 16,589 16,754 12,442 6,971 1,498 876 140 2 2 3 4 6 8 9 11 11 13 1310 6 1 1 0)
10.7
10.4
12.9
12.6
9.5
11.1

581

Total...........

598 16,028

Grand total..

9

23

29

41

46

77

9 12 20 27 37
4
1
3
4
9
5
4
8
7
9
163 130 214 244 322
80 88 74 87 88

49
6
11
372
132

73
17
9
452
146

56
13
16
588
219

110
26
22
693
244

13

15

9

86

154

196 153

69

44 5 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 1620 16 7 5 1

136 221 285 209 73 32 5
41
41
76 117 57 286 31
37
38
51 90 77 226 26
831 1,127 1,027 868 334 127 22
340 559 800 886 370 606 104

1
1
1
2
2

1
0)
1
2
2

1
0)
1
3
2

2
1
1
3
2

3
1
1
4
2

4
1
2
5
3

5
2
1
6
3

4
2
3
8
5

8 101621
4 6 6 10
3 6 6 8
9 11 1514
5 7 1217

15
16
14
12
18

5
8
12
4
8

2
39
36
2
13

0)
4
4
0)
2

HALF

969

474 1,354
732
333
212
636
591 7,514
578 4,823

I
N

Blacksmiths..........
Carpenters and car
repair men_____
Engineers..............
Firemen................
Laborers___ _____
Other employees __

(DAYS)

Outside mine

STAETS

Total............

547 4,259
484
198
377
602
24
514
10
40

CLASSIFIED

Brakemen.............
Bratticernen and
timbermen_____
Cagers...................
Drivers.................
Laborers................
Loaders, contract __
Loaders, hand.......
Loaders, machine..
Miners, gang.........
Miners, hand or
pick....... ............
Miners, machine..
Motormen.............
Pumpmen______
Trackmen.............
Trappers (boys)...
Other employees __

599 140,719




MONTH

10.4 270 248 334 378 488 599 738 938 1,172 1,471 2,140 2,435 2,323 980 1,321 193 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 1315 14 6 8 1
=== = =
====
r T--:..:, ir .
Tr
= :j u
.:
T ' “ 1 ' ■■
'.~
1 ■
■
■
r1 ^i' ■
---i
-=
= = C = != --■ -- --==
8.8 2,538 2,860 4,569 5,769 7,382 10,171 12,204 14,680 14,413 18,060 18,894 14,877 9,294 2,478 2,197 333 2 2
4 5
9 10jl0 13 1311 7~~2 2 0)
17
I 3
» Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

34

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING-

CLASSIFIED DAYS OF OPERATION IN YEAR
Anthracite mining is limited in area and in number and capacity
of collieries. The annual production of anthracite coal seldom
exceeds the demand, consequently the collieries, except in case of
controversies between the operators and miners as in 1922, 1923,
and 1925, have been operated nearly the full number of workingdays in each year. The United States Geological Survey reports
a weighted average of 271 days of operation for all collieries in the
industry in the calendar year 1921; 151 days in 1922; 268 days in
1923; and 274 days in 1924. The weighted average days of opera­
tion for each of the years ending October 31, 1921 and 1924, as
computed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the 21,999 em­
ployees of 29 collieries covered in 1922 were 287.2 days, and for
the 44,500 employees of the 56 collieries in 1924 were 286.3 days.
Average days of operation in 1921, based on the 12,106 miners
and miners’ laborers were 287.7, or 0.5 of a day more than the average
based on the 21,999 employees in all occupations. The average in
1924 based on the 23,715 miners and miners* laborers were 286.7,
or 0.4 of a day more than for the 44,500 employees in all occupations.
In bituminous mining, as can be seen in comparing averages for bitu­
minous mines in Table 17, with those in Table 13 (p. 26) there is
very little difference in the averages for miners and loaders and
for all occupations combined.
In Table 17 it 'will be seen that of the 29 collieries included in
the 1922 study one was in operation 190 and under 220 days; six
were in operation 250 and under 280 days; and 22, or 76 per cent,
were in operation 280 and under 310 days; also, that of the 56 col­
lieries in the 1924 study, 1 was in operation under 50 days; 1 was
in operation 160 and under 190 days; 10 were in operation 250 and
under 280 days; and 44, or 79 per cent, were in operation 280 and
under 310 days.
Bituminous mining is very extensive in area and the number
and capacity of mines are large. Production would be much in
excess of demands should all the mines in the industry be operated
nearly full time or approximately 300 days per year. Many mines,
therefore, have been in operation much less than 300 days per year,
due primarily to “ no market ” or lack of orders. Table 18 (p. 36)
shows that 529 of the 549 mines were closed on account of no market.
The days the mines were closed ranged from 30 to 220 for 473 of the
529 mines closed for this cause. Thirty-three mines were closed
under 30 days, and 23 were closed 220 days and over in the year
on account of no market.
Data as to days of operation for the year ending October 31,
1924, were not available for 50 of the 599 bituminous mines, and
therefore the average days of operation and the classification for
tKat year shown in Table 17 are for 549 mines. Reading part of
the totals shown for the bituminous mines in that table it is seen
that 8 mines were in operation under 50 days in the year; 8 were
in operation 50 and under 70 days; 21 were in operation 70 and
under 100 days; 44 were in operation 100 and under 130 days; and
57 were in operation 130 and under 160 days, making 25 per cent
of the mines in operation under 160 days in the year. Only 5 per
cent of them were in operation 280 days and over.




35

CLASSIFIED DAYS CLOSED1 IK YEAS,

T able 1 7 . —AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED DAYS OF OPERATION OF MINES, 1921 AND

1924, BY KIND OF COAL, AND STATE

Kind of coal, and State

Year
end­
ing
Oct.
31

Num­
ber of
col­
lieries
or
mines

Number of mines in operation each classified number
Aver­
of days in year ending Oct. 31, 1921 and 1924
age
num­
ber of
50 70 100 130 160 190 220 250
days of
opera­ Un­ and and and and and and and and and 310
tion in der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
50 der der der der der der der der der over
year
70 100 130 160 190 220 250 280 310

ANTHRACITE

Pennsylvania............

287.2

1921
1924

286. a

10

BITUMINOUS

Alabama...................
Colorado...................
'Illinois......................
Indiana....................
Kansas.................... .
Kentucky_________
Ohio..........................
Pennsylvania............
Tennessee........ -____
Virginia.....................
West Virginia..........

1921
1924
1921
1924
1921
1924
1921
1924
J.924
1921
1924
1921
1924
1921
1924
1924
1924
1921
1924

Total bituminous. 19»
1924

10

222.0

8

200.2

39 1229.5

17 i 187.6
193.9
46 2173.2
1 171.4
2
23 i 148.2
9 193.1
204.6
20
79 »201.7
25 184.6
57 178.4
44 202.3
155 * 218.3
20 183.9
12 5 243.4
47 «195.5
142 7 205.5

22

188 8197.4
8 200.2

57

100

*Not including days of operation of 1 mine, data being for part of year only.
* Not including days of operation of 2 mines, data not reported.
* Not including days of operation of 12 mines, data not reported.
4 Not including days of operation of 5 mines, data not reported; 9 mines data for part of year only} and
1 mine closed entire year.
» Not including days of operation of 2 mines, data for part of year only.
« Not including days of operation of 1 mine, data not reported.
7 Not including days of operation of 10 mines, data not reported; 5 Mines data for part of year only, and
I mine closed entire year.
* Not including days of operation of 50 mines—29 mines data not reported, 19 mines data for part of year
Only,, and 2 mines closed entire year.

CLASSIFIED DAYS CLOSED IN YEAR
The cause of closing and the number of days each mine was closed
for each cause were obtained for the year ending October 31, 1924,
for the 5& anthracite collieries and for 549 of the 599 bituminous mines
included in the 1924 study. Data as to closing were not available
for 50 bituminous mines.
Each of the 56 anthracite collieries and 549 bituminous mines for
which data as to days and cause of closing were reported was closed
one or more days in the specified year on account of no market, short­
age of railroad cars, transportation disability, mine disability, strikes,
labor shortage, holidays, or other causes.
Table 17 shows average and classified days of operation in year for
the anthracite and the bituminous mines of each State. Table 18
shows the cause of closing of the mines, and the classification or group­
ing of mines closed in each State by the number of days closed for
each cause. Reading these tables it will be observed that 155 Penn­
sylvania bituminous mines were included in the 1924 study; the days




ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

36

of operation and the days closed are shown for 140 of the 155, such
data not being available for the other 15 mines in this State. Of the
140 for which data were available, 135 were closed on account of no
market. Three of them were closed 1 and under 5 days and 1 was
closed 300 days and over. The days closed of the other 131 were
between these two extremes, 64 of them being closed 100 and under
300 day^s in the year.
Reading the totals in Table 18, of mines closed on account of no
market, it is seen that 18 anthracite collieries and 529 bituminous
mines, including 38 in Alabama, 15 in Colorado, 44 in Illinois, 22 in
Indiana, 9 in Kansas, 63 in Kentucky, 56 in Ohio, 135 in Pennsyl­
vania, 20 in Tennessee, 10 in Virginia, and 117 in West Virginia were
closed on account of no market. The totals for each of the other
specified causes and for other causes may be read in like manner.
T a b le 18.—NUMBER OF MINES CLOSED IN EACH STATE IN YEAR ENDING OCTO­

BER 31, 1924, BY KIND OF COAL, SPECIFIED CAUSE, AND CLASSIFIED NUMBER
OF DAYS CLOSED
Number of mines closed each classified number of days

Cause of closing of An­
Bituminous
mines and classified
number of days thra­
cite,
Penn­
Penn­ Ten- Vir- West To
syl­ Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken- Ohio syl­
Vir­
tucky
ginia ginia tal
vania bama rado nois ana
vania
NO MARKET

Under 5 days...............
5 and under 10 days__
10 and under 15 days __
15 and under 20 days
20 and under 25 days
25 and under 30 days-.
30 and under 35 days __
35 and under 40 days..
40 and under 45 days..
45 and under 50 days.
50 and under 55 days55 and under 60 days.
60 and under 65 days.
65 and under 70 days _
70 and under 75 days.
75 and under 80 days.
80 and under 86 days.
85 and under 90 days.
90 and under 95 days.
95 and under 100 days.
100 and under 110 days.
110 and under 120 days.
120 and under 130 days
130 and under 140 days.
140 and under 150 days.
150 and under 160 days.
160 and under 170 days.
170 and under 180 days.
180 and under 190 days.
190 and under 200 days.
200 Mid under 220 days.
220 and under 240 days.
240 and under 260 days.
260 and under 280 days.
280 and under 300 days.
300 days and over........
Total-

7
3

6
6

4
7

12

14

10

16

22

12

18

21

16
19
25
17

22

18
25
31
24
35

22
19
22
9
13

12

19
9
7
5
1
*1
18

38

15

44

22

9

63

56

135

26

10

117 529

1 Not in operation in year Nov. l, 1923, to Oct. 31, 1924, but in operation in half month ending Dec. 31,
1924, for which data were taken.




37

CLASSIFIED DAYS CLOSED IN YEAR
T a b l e 1 8 .— NUMBER

OF MINES CLOSED IN EACH STATE IN YEAR ENDING OCTO­
BER 31, 1924, BY KIND OF COAL, SPECIFIED CAUSE, AND CLASSIFIED NUMBER
OF DAYS CLOSED—Continued
Number of mines closed each classified number of days

Cause of closing of
Bituminous
mines and classified An­
number of days thra­
cite,
closed
Penn­ Ten- Vir- West To­
Penn­ Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan­ Ken­
syl­
Vir­
syl­
tucky Ohio vania
ginia ginia tal
vania bama rado nois ana sas
LACE OF RAILROAD
CARS

18
32
16

1 day...........................
2 days........................ .
3 days........................ .
4 days......... ............. .
5 days.........................
6 days........................ .
7 days................... .
8 days........................
9 days........................ .
10 days........................
11 days............. ........ .
12 days.......................
13 days........................
14 days........................
15 and under 20 days..
20 and under 25 days.,
25 and under 30 days..
35 and under 40 days...
40 and under 45 days..

11

13
8
8

7

6

14
7
8

3

5

10

11
2
4

“1
1
1
1

70 days..,
83 days..
127 days..
38

15

Total..

74 187

TRANSPORTATION DIS­
ABILITY

11

1 day...........................
2 days................ .
3 days.........................
4 days.......................
6 days______ _______
9 days........................ .
10 days.......................
14 days.......................
15 days........................
16 days_________ ....
20 days........................
25 days.......................
26 days........................

10

4
2

1
1
1
1
2
1
1

Total..

12

36

MINE DISABILITY

1 day...........................
2 days.........................
3 days..........................
4 days............. ...........
5 days.........................
6 days______ _______
7 days..........................
8 days..........................
9 days____ ___ ______
10 days-------------------11 days___*.................
12 days........................
13 days.......... .............
14 days............. ..........
15 and under 20 days..
20 and under 25 days- .
25 and under 30 days. .
30 days........................
40 and under 50 days. _
60 and under 60 days. _
60 and under 70 days. J
70 and under 80 days. .
125 days.......................
Total_________




48
49
20

17

5

9
8

5
5
9
6

2
2

3
9
6

2

1
2
2
2
1
3

23

16

12

19

13

25

28

16

71 215

38

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

T a b le 18 —NUMBER OF MINES CLOSED IN EACH STATE IN YEAR ENDING OCTO­

BER 31, 1924, BY KIND OF COAL, SPECIFIED CAUSE, AND CLASSIFIED NUMBER
OF DAYS CLOSED—Continued
Number of mines closed each classified number of days

Cause of closing of
mines and classified
number of
days
closed

1 day__
2 days.
5 days.

STRIKE
.
_______
_. _________
—

» .

7 days. _
8 days_______________
9 days.......... ...... .........
10 and under 20 days. _
20 and under 30 days. .
30 and under 40 days-_
40 and under 50 days. _
50 and under 60 days..
60 and under 70 days^ _
92days.. ___ _
.
103 days_________ ___
104 days__ _ _______
118(iays_______
124 days__ ________. . .
152 days. . . . _________
175 days________
231 d ays................... .
Total..................
LABOR SHORTAGE
1 day____________ _
2 days_____ ______ ___
3 days________ ____ _
4 days............... ..........
5 and under 10 days
10 and under 15 days
15 and under 20 days
24 days.........................
26 days________ ;_____
30 days............ ............
Total........... .
HOLIDAYS
2 days...........................
3 days.................
4 days...........................
5 days'...........................
6 days..........................
7 days....................
8 days...................... .
9 days......................... .
10 days.........................
11 days............... .........
12 days.........................
14 days................. ........
Total..................
OTHER CAUSE
1 day............................
2 days...........................
3 days...........................
4 days..... ......................
5 days...........................
6 days...........................
7 days...........................
8 days...........................
9 days...........................
10 and under 15 days...
15 and under 20 days...
20 and under 25 days
25 and under 30 days.. _
30 and Under 35 days
40 and under 50 days
87 days.................... . __
95 days.........................
122 days....... ...............
Total..................




An­
Bituminous
thra­
cite,
Penn­ Ten-| Vir­ West
Penn­ Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan­ Ken­
syl­ bama rado nois ana sas tucky Ohio syl­ nes- ! ginia Vir­ To­
vania see i
vania
ginia tal
2
3
1
2
1
1
3
2
1
8
1

1

1

2
2
1
2

2
1

1

1

1
1

1
1
5

1

3
5
6
I
3
7
1

1
1

1

4
2
6
2
4
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
59

3

1
1
4
1
2

1
1

1
1
1
1

2

1
1

2
1
1

1

1

1

1

1
1
27

I

1

6

8

1

1
9
1
2
1
1
1
1

1
11

8

5
4
2

2

6

9
4
3
3
1
5
1
1
1

1

1
1
1

1
8

1
i
5
7
11
20
10
1
1
56
1
2
2
7
1
6
6
5
2
16
5

17

3

19
2

1
3
9

1

1
10
4
4
2
1

16

44

22

1

38

3
17
16
3
2
1
2

4
4
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1

I
1
1

15
21
22
8
1

13
1

1
1

5
53
1

1
9

67

57

1

1
2
3
1

5
2
1
1
1

2
1

1

1
1

9
3
9
8
33
56
6
6
2
1
4
3
140

11

5

4

10

20 | 10

126

3 i
1 !
I
!
!

1

13

10

i
i
2
4

1

1

2

14
7
i

1

1

1

1
2

2

5
2
1

1

1

19
20
13
28
28
14
20
1
2

10
2
6
2

2

1

54

1
4
1
3

3

3
1

4

1
1
41

13
9
6
3
7
3
1
1
1
1
45
78
41
87
51
62
105
29
18
11
56
3
3
549
32
21
11
9
4
2
2
4
2
2
1
3
1
4
2
1
1
1
103

39

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

IMPORTANCE OF ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS MINING
Table 19 compiled from Coal in 1922 1 and from the 1923 and 1924
preliminary reports published by the United States Geological Survey
indicates the importance of anthracite and bituminous mining in
number of employees, net tons of coal produced, value of total pro­
duction, and value per net ton at the collieries or mines, in each of
the years 1914 to 1924. Index numbers based on these figures, with
the 1914 figures taken as the base, or 100 per cent, are also shown in
the table.
During the period covered by the table the number of anthracite
employees decreased from 179,679 to 160,009, or 11 per cent.
The average number of days of operation shows that anthracite
mining is stable, to the extent that employees have, since 1915, had
the opportunity to work an average of more than 250 days in each
Tear except 1922, when the collieries were closed by a general strike
lasting 138 working days. The average days of operation by years,
1922 excepted, ranged from 230 in 1915 to 293 in 1918.
T able 1 9 —NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE NUMBER OF DAYS OF OPERATION,

NET TONS MINED, AND VALUE OF TOTAL PRODUCTION AND PER TON, AT COL­
LIERIES OR MINES, AND INDEX NUMBERS THEREOF, 1914 TO 1924, BY KIND OF
COAL, AND YEAR
[1914 average=100]
Value at colliery
or mine

Aver­
age
num­
Number ber of
Kind of coal, of em­ days
and year
ployees mines
were
in
opera­
tion

Net tons
produced
Total pro­
duction

Per
ton

Index numbers of—
Aver­
age
num­
ber of Net
Number days tons
of em­ mines pro­
ployees were duced
in
opera­
tion

Value at
colliery or
mine
Total
pro­ Per
duc­ ton
tion

ANTHRACITE

179,679
176,552
159,869
154,174
147, 121
154,571
145,055
159,499
156,849
157,743
160,009

245
230
253
285
293
266
271
271
•151
>268
274

90,821,507
88,995,061
87,578,493
9© 611,811
,
98,828,084
88,092,201
89,598,249
90,473,451
54,683,022
93,339,009
87,926,862

1914................ §83,506
1915................ 557,456
1918................ 561,162
1917................ 603,143
1918................ 615,305
1919_________ 621,998
1920_________ 639,547
1921................ 663,754
1922.________ «687,958
1923................ c702,817
1924................ <*619,604

195
203
230
243
249
195
220
149
142
179
171

422,703,970
442,624,426
502,519,682
551,790,563
579,385,820
465,860,058
568,666,683
415,921,950
422,268,099
564,156,917
483,686,538

1914................
1915 _______
1916................
1817—.............
1918................
1919................
1920................
1921................
1922_...............
1923................
1924................

$188,181,399 $2.07
184,653,498 2.07
202,009,561 2.31
283,650,723 2.85
336,480,347 3.40
364,926,950 4.14
434,252,000 4. 85
452,305,000 5.00
273,700,000 5.01
506,787,000 5.43
477,231,000 5.43

100 100
98
94
89 103
86 116
82 120
92 109
81 111
89 111
87 *62
88 *109
89 112

100
98
96
110
109
97
99
100
60
103
97

100
92
107
151
179
194
231
240
145
269
254

100
100
112
138
164
200
234
242
242
262
262

100
95
96
103
105
107
110
114
118
120
106

100
105
119
131
142
110
135
98
100
133
114

100
102
135
253
302
235
432
243
258
307
215

100
96
113
193
220
213
321
247
258
229
188

BITUMINOUS

493,309,244
502,037,688
665,116,077
1,249,272,837
1,491,809,940
1,160,616,013
2,129,933,000
1,199,983,600
1,274,820,000
1,513,327,000
1,062,626,000

1.17
1.13
1.32
2.26
2.57
2.49
3.75
2.89
3.02
2.68
2.20

100
104
118
125
128
100
113
76
73
92
88

« Collieries closed 138 days by general strike of 142,442 of the employees. Maintenance employees were
not included in the strike orders.
* Collieries closed 19 days by general strike of approximately 145,000 of the employees. Maintenance
employees were not included in the strike orders.
•Including wagon mines.
dExcluding wagon mines.
» United States Department of the Interior. Geological Survey. Coal in 1922. Washington, 1924;




40

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

The number of net tons of anthracite coal produced by years, 1922
excepted, ranged from 87,578,493 in 1916 to 99,611,811 in 1917.
The value of the annual production at the anthracite collieries in­
creased from $188,181,399 in 1914 to $506,787,000 in 1923, an increase
of 169 per cent, and the value per ton increased from $2.07 in 1914
to $5.43 in 1923 and 1924, or an increase of 162 per cent. In other
words, the value per ton at the mine was nearly 2% times as much
in 1924 as in 1914.
The figures for bituminous mining in this table may be explained
in a similar way.
INCREASE OF MINING COSTS, FREIGHT RATES, AND COST
OF DISTRIBUTION—ANTHRACITE
Every consumer of anthracite is well aware of the continuing
increase in the retail price of this necessary and important commodity.
The extent of this increase since 1913 is shown by the following
average retail prices of Pennsylvania anthracite, white ash stove

coal:

January
price

July
price

.................................................... . $7.99
191 3
191 4
_______
7. 80
191 5
- ........ .......................... ............................ 7. 83
191 6 ........................ .......... ............................... 7. 93
191 7
................................. ............................ 9. 29
191 8..................................... ................................ 9.88
1919.____ __________________________ ________ 11. 51
192 0
..................... ......... ..............................12.59
192 1
_________ 15. 99
192 2
..............................................................14.98
192 3
......................................... . 15. 43
1924. ________________________________________ 15.77

$7.46
7. 60
7. 54
8. 12
9. 08
9.96
12. 14
14.28
14. 90
14.87
15. 10
15.24

The increase has caused much discussion, concern, and specula­
tion as to the contributing causes, some of which are suggested by
the findings of the United States Coal Commission, which made a
thorough study of the various items of cost (including cost of mining,
freight* rates, and expense of distribution) incurred by retail coal
dealers in providing coal yards, storage, and delivery trucks in suffi­
cient quantity to make prompt delivery of coal at all seasons of the
year.
The commission in its report on anthracite coal, dated July 5,
1923, (pp. 4-6) covers the items of cost in detail, stating:
In the 10 years under review by the commission's accounting staff, labor costs
in the production of fresh-mined coal have risen from $1.56 a gross ton in 1913
to $4.12 in the first half of 1923, the cost of supplies from 35 to 71 cents, and
general expenses from 32 to 92 cents. Labor cost bears about the same relation
to total mine cost in 1923 (71.7 per cent) as in 1913 (70 per cent); supplies cost
relatively less in 1923; and general expenses are relatively higher in 1923.
The average mine cost of a ton of coal with the 9 railroad companies has been
$2.23 in 1913 to $5.75 in 1923. With 3 independent companies for which there
are continuous records the corresponding change has been from an average cost
of $2.50 in 1913 to $6.32 in 1923. Examined in detail, the increase in mine cost
for these 12 companies was moderate until 1918, when for three successive years
there was an annual jump of approximately $1.
The item of freight alone in the examples cited takes from 16 to 30 cents of the
consumer’s dollar. The question as to whether or not the existing freight rates
on anthracite are excessive is one that comes under the jurisdiction of the Inter­
state Commerce Commission.




INCREASE OF COSTS— ANTHRACITE

41

FREIGHT RATES FROM SCRANTON AND WILKES-BARRE TO SPECIFIED CITIES,
1913 AND 1925
[Data furnished by Interstate Commerce Commission]
Rate per gross ton of 2,240 pounds

City

Prepared sizes
(lump, egg, stove,
chestnut)

Buckwheat and
smaller sizes

Pea

1913

Boston_______. . . ______. . . . . . . _____________
New York____________________ __________
Philadelphia........................................... ..........
Baltimore____ _______ _____ ______________
Washington_________ _____________________
Richmond_____________ . _________________
Pittsburgh____ ___________ _______________
Cleveland___ . . _. . . ______________________
Detroit_____ _________________________ ____
Cincinnati________________________________
Chicago___ ____________ _________________
St. Louis_________________________________
Kansas City__ ...._____ ______________ _____
Milwaukee____ . . . . . _________ . . . ___________
Minneapolis______________________________

1925

1913

1925

1913

$2.70
1.80
1.80
2.00
2.00
2.15
2.00
2.75
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.00

$4.16
2.90
2.90
3.28
3.28
3.40
3.28
4.16
4.66
5.29
5.67
6.30

$2.70
1.65
1.50
1.60
1.85
2.00
1.85
2.75
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.00

$4.16
2.65
2.52
2.65
3.02
3.28
3.02
4.16
4.66
5.29
5.36
5.99

$2.70
1.45
1.35
1.60
1.60
2.00
1.85
2.75
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.00

16.30
<4.17
*5.74

*10.03
* 7.08
89.21

i 6.30
<4.17
75.74

#9.72
66.77
•8.90

16.30
<4.17
75.74

1925
$4.16
2.39
2.27

2.65
2.65
3.28
S. 02
4.16
4.66
5.29
5.36
5.99
•9.72
•6.77
•8.90

1The St. Louis rate of $4 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $2.05 per ton of 2,000 pounds, St. Louis to Kan­
sas City.
2The St. Louis rate of $6.30 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $3.33 per ton of 2,000 pounds, St. Louis to
Kansas City.
* The St. Louis rate of $5.99 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $3.33 per ton of 2,000 pounds, St. Louis to
Kansas City.
< The Chicago rate of $3.50 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and 60 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds, Chicago to
Milwaukee.
* The Chicago rate of $5.67 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $1.26 per ton of 2,000 pounds, Chicago to Mil-

W llk
& 66
* The Chicago rate of $5.'36 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $1.26 per ton of 2,000 pounds, Chicago to MilW1 6
&llc6

7 The Chicago rate of $3.50 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $2 per ton of 2,000 pounds, Chicago to Minne­
apolis.
8The Chicago rate of $5.67 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $3.16 per ton of 2,000 pounds, Chicago to
Minneapolis.
9The Chicago rate of $5.36 per ton of 2,240 pounds, and $3.16 per ton of 2,000 pounds, Chicago to
Minneapolis.

The expense of distributing coal is the item of cost nearest home, and yet it
is an item that the consumers may overlook. The city retailer may have pro­
vided extensive storage in his coal yard pr pocket and delivery trucks sufficient
to meet promptly every call for immediate delivery in midwinter; the small
dealer may own neither yard nor delivery equipment, simply selling from the
car to the consumer’s own truck or a hired truck. Such a variation in service
naturally involves a variation in gross margin or difference between the cost of
anthracite on the dealer’s siding and his price to the consumer. The field agents
of the commission have found that these margins are as high as $3.50 or more
per ton and as low as $1, or even less. The larger service rendered to the city
consumer includes unloading, storage, screening, and delivery. In five of the
larger cities examination of books of the dealers handling anthracite coal almost
exclusively showed that the average gross margin per ton was $2.88 in 1920,
$2.55 in 1921, and $2.41 in 1922. The average expenses of these dealers for
these three years was $2.39, $2.26, and $1.99, respectively, showing a decrease
since 1920, and a net margin of 49, 29, and 42 cents, respectively, for the three
years. Returns received from retailers throughout the country show that in
the past five years there has been in general an increase in gross margins in the
later years, amounting for some dealers to $1 or more. Generally there is also
a considerable diversity in the margins reported, due either to price competition
among dealers, or to the varying cost to dealers, depending on whether the coal
was purchased from big companies or from independents or from jobbers. Were
it not for these wide differences in wholesale prices the normal effect of compe­
tition would tend to narrow this spread of margins in the retail trade. The
source of the anthracite, as determining the cost to the dealer, may have more
to do with his success than the relative efficiency of his business organization.
The characteristic feature in retailing of anthracite is the lack of uniformity
in margins both within the same city and between cities.



ANTHBACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

42

BRIEF HISTORY OF DISCOVERY AND PRODUCTION OF
ANTHRACITE
The mining of anthracite in the United States is limited almost
entirely to nine counties, located in east central Pennsylvania, of
approximately 3,000 square miles, of which area only one-sixth is
underlaid with coal of sufficient quantity to make it profitable to
mine. Small amounts are produced in six other counties in the same
section of Pennsylvania, and also in Virginia, Arkansas, and Colorado.
It is generally understood by producers and others engaged in
marketing this coal that 75 to 80 per cent is produced by eight com­
panies generally known as the “ old-line companies,” and 20 to 25
per cent by companies known to the industry as the “ independents.”
The selling price per ton by the old-line companies at the mines
is less than that of the independents, according to information ob­
tained from retailers and also according to the report of the United
States Coal Commission to the President, dated July 5, 1923 (p. 3),
as follows:
Sight of the larger coal companies, most of them still closely affiliated with
the railroads, are grouped together in price quotations, and their product is
known as “ company” coal in contrast with “ independent” coal produced by
100 or more smaller “ individual” companies. In 1913 the average mine price
of stove anthracite was $3.53 a gross ton; to-day the quotations are $8 to $8.25
a gross ton for “ company” and $8.50 to $11.50 for “ independent” coal.

According to tradition, anthracite was discovered in 1791 by a
trapper who found pieces exposed among the roots of a fallen tree.
He recognized them as coal, and made an effort to develop a business
by mining and selling the coal to citizens of the near-by city of
Philadelphia. The people, however, were dubious as to the value of
the a black stones” as fuel, and not only refused to buy but had the
first shipments condemned as worthless and the promoters declared
impostors.
The attitude of the people as well as the lack of means of transpor­
tation retarded the development of the industry for many years,
until the building of railroads and the construction of canals leading
from the anthracite field to the rapidly increasing centers of popula­
tion along the middle Atlantic coast.
Between 1807 and 1820, according to the United States Geological
Survey, only 12,000 tons of anthracite coal were produced in the
United States, 1,322 tons in 1821, and 13,685 tons in 1824. Pro­
duction increased rapidly each year to 215,272 tons in 1830, 690,854
tons in 1835,1,071,151 tons in 1837, 2,009,207 tons in 1844, 4,138,164
tons in 1850, 8,141,754 tons in 1855, 15,664,275 tons in 1870, 28,649,812 tons in 1880, 46,468,641 tons in 1890, 60,418,005 tons in
1899, 77,659,850 tons in 1905, and 85,604,312 tons in 1907. Since
1907, the annual production has ranged from 81,070,359 tons in 1909
to 99,611,811 tons in 1917, except in 1922 and 1925 when, on account
of the general strikes extending from April 1 to September 9, 1922,
and from September 1, 1925, to February, 1926, production dropped
to 54,683,022 tons in 1922 and to 62,116,000 in 1925.




ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

43

OCCUPATIONS IN COAL INDUSTRY
The occupations for which data are presented in this bulletin are
listed below. For definitions see pages 90 to 92.
ANTHRACITE COAL

Inside work:

Blacksmiths.
Cagers.
Car runners.
Door tenders ( b o y s ) .
Drivers.
Engineers.
Laborers.
Laborers, company miners’.
Laborers, consideration miners’.
Laborers, contract miners’.
Machinists.
Masons.
Miners, company.
Miners, consideration.
Miners, contract.
Motormen.
Motor brakemen.
Pump men.
Timbermen.
Trackmen.
Other employees.
Outside work:

Ash men.
Blacksmiths*
Cagers.
Carpenters.
Car runners*
Dampers.
Engineers.
Firemen.
Jig runners.
Laborers.

Loaders.




Outside work— Continued.

Machinists.
Oilers.
Plate men.
Repair men.
Slaters (boys).
Timber cutters.
Trackmen.
Other employees.

BITUMINOUS COAL

Inside vjork:

Brakemen.
Brattice men and timber men.
Cagers.
Drivers.
Laborers.
Loaders, contract.
Loaders, hand.
Loaders, machine.
Miners, gang.
Miners, hand or pick.
Miners, machine.
Motormen.
Pump men.
Trackmen.
Trappers (boys).
Other employees.

Outside work:

Blacksmiths.
Carpenters.
Engineers.
F ir e m e n .

Laborers.
Other employees.

44

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING
GENERAL TABLES

T abus A.— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF MINERS AND LOADERS, 1922 AND
1924, BY OCCUPATION AND STATE
BITU IN SCOAL m O O
M OU
Number of—

Occupation and
State

Average hours—

Average earnings—

Aver­
In half
Per start,
Per hour,
age
month,
num­ based on— based on— based on—
ber of
Year
starts
In
Em­
Mines ployees (days) Time
Time
half Per
Time
in
at Time at Time at
month start
half face,
face, Time
face,
month includ­ in includ­ in includ­ in
mine ing mine ing mine
ing
lunch
lunch
lunch

LOADERS, HAND

Alabama_________ 1922
1924
Colorado------------- 1922
1924
Illinois................... 1922
1924
Indiana.................. 1922
1924
Kentucky........ ...... 1922
1924
Ohio....................... 1922
1924
Pennsylvania......... 1922
1924
Tennessee.............. 1924
Utah...................... 1922
Virginia................. 1924
Washington 1......... 1922
West Virginia........ 1922
1924
Wyoming............... 1922

8 1,535
32 3,060
7
445
15 1,178
17 4,257
35 10,079
8 1,436
15 2,470
20 2,540
78 7,266
25 3,119
55 6,832
41 5,650
128 19,046
17
860
4
295
12 1,006
1
76
42 2,979
127 10,139
3
228

1922
1924

176 22,560
514 61,936

Total______

8.4 69.8 74.9
7.6 64.8 70.4
9.1 69.9 77.5
8.0 62.3 66.8
8.9 70.7 75.1
7.6 60.8 66.2
8.3 61.7 64.6
6.0 45.3 47.4
8.6 63.4 67.7
8.1 63.2 67.8
8.7 65.0 70.9
7.7 59.1 64.3
8.8 68.5 75.4
8.9 72.3 78.7
7.5 56.5 60.1
5.1 38.8 41.6
8.2 61.6 65.4
10.1 85.9 89.0
8.6 . ea 2 64.7
8.2 56.4 61.4
10.0 79.3 84.2

8.3
8.5
7.7
7.8
8.0
8.0
7.5
7.5
7.3
7.8
7.5
7.7
7.8
8.1
7.6
7.7
7.5
8.5
7.0
6.8
7.9

8.9
9.3
8.5
7.9
8.5
8.7
7.8
7.9
7.8
8.4
8.2
8.4
8.6
8.9
8.1
8.2
8.0
8.8
7.5
7.4
8.4

$0,497
.492
.927
.858
1.197
1.092
1.146
1.083
.752
.693
.973
.860
.739
.743
.508
.939
.604
.893
.904
.831
1.158

66.2 71.5
63.3 68.6

7.7
7.8

8.3
8.5

.902
.811

66.2
69.5
81.3
57.4
80.3
62.9
55.8
49.9
64.0
64.5
70.9
79.9
38.9
72.2
70.7
62.1
41.9
90.2
55.4
61.6
85.1
81.9

74.8
75.7
9a 1
62.9
86.2
67.6
59.3
53.5
69.6
69.3
77.8
86.7
44.6
79.7
76.9
67.0
45.6
97.9
59.4
67.4
89.9
86.8

7.5
8.4
8.0
7.3
7.8
7.8
7.0
7.0
6.5
7.4
8.3
8.1
7.1
8.0
8.1
7.7
7.2
8.5
6.8
7.2
8.3
8.3

8.5
9.2
8.8
8.0
8.4
8.4
7.4
7.5
7.1
8.0
9.1
8.8
8.2
8.8
8.8
8.3
7.8
9.2
7.3
7.9
8.7
8.8

71.0 77.5
65.6 71.2

7.7
7.7
> 'M
i

8.4
8.4

8.7
8.1

$0,464
.454
.837
.799
1.127
1.003
1.094
1.034
.704
.646
.893
.791
.672
.682
.478
.876
.569
.862
.841
.764
1.090

$34.73 $4.12
31.93 4.20
64.84 7.13
53.41 6.65
84.58 9.53
66.40 8.76
70.65 8.54
49.05 a 17
47.64 5.51
43.78 5.40
63.32 7.29
50.87 6.63
50.64 5.79
53.68 6.05
28.73 3.85
36.42 7.20
37.24 4.53
76.68 7.60
54.40 6.33
5.69
46.91
91.80 9.20

.836 59.75
.748 51.29

6.90
6.32

.548 .485 36.28
.577 .529 40.07
.993 .896 8a 69
.929 .847 53.31
.865 .806 69.45
.912 .849 57.38
.827 .779 46.19
1.087 1.014 54.28
.901 .829 57.70
.825 .768 53.21
.776 .707 55.00
.916 .844 73.18
1.041 .910 40.54
.767 .695 55.38
.777 .714 54.91
.541 .502 33.60
1.023 .941 42.92
1.068 .984 96.31
1.019 .950 56.45
.831 .760 51.18
1.215 1.150 103.38
.652 .615 53.38

4.11
4.84
7.90
6.76
6.77
7.12
5.75
7.60
5.90
6.12
6.45
7.46
7.42
6.10
6.31
4.18
7.33
9.03
6.95
5.99
10.05
5.42

.769 59.62
.745 53.06

6.47
6.27

MINERS, HAND OR
PICK

Alabama................ 1922
1924
Colorado................ 1922
1924
Illinois............. ...... 1922
1924
Indiana.................. 1922
1924
Kansas................... 1924
Kentucky............... 1922
1924
Ohio....................... 1922
1924
Pennsylvania......... 1922
1924
Tennessee. ........... 1924
Utah...................... 1922
Washington........... 1922
West Virginia........ 1922
1924
Wyoming........ ...... 1922
Other States........... 1924
Total............ 1922
1924

8
18
6
11
11
28
7
12
9
5
14
3
2
42
105
14
4
3
34
77
4
1

785
1,477
564
1,146
1,864
3,921
542
799
1,474
223
654
47
15
2,898
8,010
869
167
243
972
3,046
124
13

8.8
8.3
10.2
7.9
10.3
8.1
8.0
7.1
9.8
8.7
8.5
9.8
5.5
9.1
8.7
8.0
5.9
10.7
8.1
8.5
10.3
9.8

127 8,429
291 21,424

9.2
8.5

1 ■

1 Loaders in this State also did the machine mining.




j

.840
.809

45

GENERAL TABLES

A.— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF MINERS AND LOADERS, 1922 AND
1924,
BY OCCUPATION AND STATE—Continued

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Number of—

Occupation and
State

Average hours-

Average earnings—

Aver­
In half
Per start,
Per hour,
age
month,
num­ based on— based on— based on—
ber of
Year
starts
In
Em­
Mines ployees (days) Time
half Per
Time
Time
in
at Time at Time at
month start
half face,
face,
face, Time
month includ­ in includ­ in includ­ in
ing mine ing mine ing mine
lunch
lunch
lunch

MINERS, MACHINE

1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1924
1922
1924
1922
1924
1922

6
27
6
15
15
35
8
15
19
75
25
57
41
126
16
3
12
35
107
3

146
842
85
119
369
1,196
136
260
268
797
354
740
703
1,852
125
21
93
271
975
18

9.5
8.4
9.3
8.8
10.0
7.8
8.8
6.5
9.7
8.8
9.9
8.8
9.3
9.7
8.2
6.5
9.9
9.3
9.0
9.8

1922
1924

161
485

2,371
6,499

9.5
8.8

1924
1924
1924
1924

10
8
2
4

72
85
4
9

8.3
10.2
10.5
11.8

Total........... 1924

24

170

2
5
3

1924

Illinois...............
Indiana_______
Pennsylvania_
_
West Virginia__
Other States___
Total........

A labam a..........
Colorado________
Illinois_________
Indiana____
Kentucky____ __
Ohio___________
Pennsylvania:___
Tennessee_______
Utah........... .........
Virginia................
West Virginia.......
Wyoming.............
Total...........

83.8
81.6
79.3
77.5
81.5
65.5
69.3
51.7
78.7
83.3
85.1
77.1
84.3
88.3
73.1
51.9
96.7
80.1
78.7
81.4

8.4
9.0
7.7
8.2
7.6
7.7
7.5
7.7
7.6
8.9
7.9
8.1
8.2
8.4
8.3
7.5
9.4
8.1
8.1
7.8

8.8
9.7
8.5
8.8
8.1
8.4
7.9
8.0
8.1
9.4
8.6
8.7
9.0
9.1
8.9
8.0
9.8
8.6
8.7
8.3

$48.64
63.29
106.59
96.56
114.68
90.10
121.06
83.15
85.83
72.79
109.12
9a 62
83.55
92.95
37.56
84.19
ea 53
103.06
83.09
163.76

$5. IS
7.56
11.48
11.01
11.46
11.57
13.73
12.88
8.88
8.25
10.99
10.27
8.94
9.61
4.58
13.0©
6.14
11.13
9.29
16.65

75.4 81.5
72.9 78.6

7.9
8.3

8.6 1.274 1.180 96.14
8.9 1.163 1.079 84.79

10.10
9.6S

73.8
90.5
93.8
106.5

8.4
8.4
8.6
8.5

8.8 .954
8.9 .878
8.9 1.129
9.0 1.127

.909
.828
1.087
1.063

67.06
74.94
101.88
113.14

8.03
7.36
9.70
9.61

9.5

79.9 84.3

8.4

8.9

.929

.881

74.26

7.82

15
46
41

11.6
10.8
7.0

98.1 102.4
99.1 106.7
62.7 67.8

8.5
9.2
9.0

8.8 1.179 1.130 115.75
9.9 .681 .633 67.48
9.7 .429 .394 26.72

9.98
6.23
3.82

10

102

9.4

84.3 90.4

9.0

9.6

.690

.644 58.20

6.20

1924
1924
1924
1924
1924

18
6
8
6
2

573
98
282
43
40

7.7
7.0
9.2
10.1
5.9

68.8
55.8
83.5
76.6
48.4

8.3
7.7
8.3
7.0
7.7

9.0
8.0
9.1
7.6
8.2

1.361
1.318
.865
1.031
1.241

1.254
1.269
.789
1.000
1.165

1924

40

1,036

8.1

65.6 71.1

8.1

8.8

1.187

1.094 77.79

79.6
75.8
71.4
72.3
76.4
60.0
66.1
49.4
73.6
78.5
78.2
71.1
76.7
81.4
68.5
48.3
92.2
74.7
73.3
76.5

$0,611
.836
1.493
1.336
1.500
1.500
1.832
1.684
1.166
.927
1.395
1.274
1.090
1.142
.549
1.745
.657
1.379
1.134
2.142

$0,580
.775
1.344
1.246
1.407
1.376
1.748
1.609
1.091
.874
1.282
1.175
.991
1.053
.514
1.621
.626
1.287
1.055
2.013

loaders , contract

Alabama................
Kentucky..............
Virginia.................
West Virginia.......•

70.3
85.4
90.3
100.4

LOADERS, MACHINE

Ohio............. ......... 1924
West Virginia...
1924
Other States___
1924
Total........
MINERS, GANG

94614°— 26--------4




63.4
53.7
76.2
70.9
45.4

86.23 11.26
70.82 10.15
65.90 7.16
79.00 7.81
56.37 9.55
9.66

46

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

B.— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE

T able

BITUMINOUS COAll M
I3STIW
6

[The data in this table are for employees who are usually paid rates per hour, day, or week]
Average
number
of starts
(days)
Year
Em­ made in
Mines ployees
half
month
Number of—

Place of work, occupation,
and State

A verage hours
worked
In half
month

Average earnings

Per
start Inihalf
(day) month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

IN E M E
SID IN
Brakemen:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois________________ 1922
1924
Indiana_______________ 1922
1924
Kansas............................ 1924
Kentucky________ ____ 1922
,1924
Ohio._________________ 1922
1924
Pennsylvania__________ 1922
1924
Tennessee---- ----- -------- -- 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia.------------- ----- 1924
Washington___________ 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming........................ 1922

8
24
6
16
20
43
10
19
9
19
75
22
48
44
147
20
3
12
3
45
134
1

139
220
29
79
216
764
88
135
26
.143
.539
65
161
319
979
85
13
82
13
306
1,189
2

7.8
8.6
10.9
8.8
10.4
8.1
9.6
6.6
10.7
9.2
8.9
8.9
8.8
19.5
9.9
9.1
5.5
8.4
12.8
9.3
9.0
13.0

61.8
78.1
87.6
70.9
85.8
66.6
76.9
52.7
85.2
75.4)
75.5
71.3
71.1
81.0
84.1
72.5
43.3
71.3
103:7
76.0
75.7
104.0

8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.3
8.2
8.0
8.0
7.9
8.2
8.5
8.0
8.1
18.4
8.5
7.9
7.9
8.5
8.1
8.2
8.4
8.0

$22.89
29.99
83.32
64.70
80.04
62.14
72.24
49.72
73.65
49.04
43.01
66.79
64.77
65.24
69.24
30.58
43.08
31.27
93.38
54.71
44.10
101.35

Total_______ ________ 1922
1924

181
547

1,333
4,259

i 9.4
8.9

77.3
75.0

18.2
8.4

60.18
53.25

16.41
5.96

.779
.710

Bratticemen and timbermen:
Alabama_______ _____ - 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois.......... - ....... - ....... 1922
1924
Indiana.,............——
____ 1922
1924
Kansas________ ______ 1924
Kentucky.____ _______ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania ................ 1922
1924
Tennessee....................... 1924
U tah ............................. 1922
Virginia. . . ____________ 1924
Washington.................... 1922
West Virginia....... .......... 1922
1924
Wyoming...... ................ . 1922

9
24
7
17
21
43
11
18
6
17
63
24
44
40
131
18
4
10
4
41
no
3

19
89
33
100
197
542
53
80
14
58
245
139
237
268
703
36
13
21
39
155
454
12

9.9
9.2
11.6
9.8
10.9
9.1
9.3
8.2
11.9
9.8
9.5
10.3
9.8
*10.6
10.7
9.0
7.5
9.3
12.6
9.8
9.6
12.1

80.5
79.8
92.7
79.2
87.7
73.0
71.4
65.3
99.1
79.9
81.3
82.1
80.3
91.3
89.7
75.3
58.9
79.1
101.1
80.5
81.1
96.8

8.1
8.7
8.0
8.1
8.0
8.0*
7.7
7.9
8.3
8.2
8.5
8.0
8.2
3 8.4
8.4
8.3
.7.8
8.5
8.0
8.2
8.4
8.0

34.16
34.74
91.09
73.98
82.23
68.44
67.31
61.19
93.13
55.33
50.36
76.87
74.89
64.05
71.69
34.42
59.47
38.61
87.20
61.12
49.76
95.83

3.43
3.78
7.87
7.53
7.54
7.50
7.25
7.45
7.81
5.65
5.30
7.50
7.63
* 6.13
6.69
3.81
7.89
4.16
6.91
6.25
5.16
7.93

.424
.436
.983
.934
.938
.937
.942
.937
.940
.693
.619
.937
.932
.701
.799
.457
1.010
.488
.863
.759
,613
.990

181
484

986
2,521

* 10.4
9.8

85.7
81.1

*8.1
8.3

70.26
63.04

26.81
6.44

.820
.778

Total_ ________ ___
_

1922
.1924

J Not including data for 3 employees whose starts were not reported.
* Not including data for 79 employees whose starts were not reported*




$2.95 $0.370
3.47
.384
7.65
.952
7.33
.912
7.76
.937
7.70
.935
7.52. .939
7.51
.944
6.86
.865
5.34
.654
4.85
.570
7.51
.936
7.35
.911
16.84
.806
6.99
.823
3.35
.422
7.89
.995
3.73
.439
7.31
.901
5.91
.7.20
4.88
.583
7.80
.975

47

GENERAL TABLES
T

B.— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE—Continued

able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued

Place of work, occupation,
and State

Number of— Average Average hours
worked
number
of starts
Year
(days)
Per
Em­ made in In half start
Mines ployees
half
month month (day)

Average earnings

In half
month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

inside mine—continued

Cagers:
Alabama.......................... 1922
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana............................ 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania.............. .
1922
1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming......................... 1922

1
5
9
22
46
12
22
9
2
12
10
26
21
56
1
8
18
1

6
13
20
62
109
22
47
20
4
42
27
45
35
96
2
12
31
2

10.2
11.8
9.4
10.6
9.7
10.5
8.4
11.1
8.5
8.3
8.8
9.7
*10.3
10.6
14.0
9.7
8.5
15.5

101.7
91.4
75.1
94.7
85.4
88.9
69.4
104.9
72.9
69.0
71.9
80.9
92.4
93.9
112.5
80.9
76.8
124.5

10.0
7.7
8.0
8.9
8.8
8.4
8.2
9.5
8.6
8.3
8.2
8.4
38.9
8.8
8.0
8.4
9.1
8.0

$31.38
90.97
72.28
88.71
80.22
82.81
65.03
98.36
61.14
41.16
67.11
74.23
70.29
77.91
77.35
65.54
50.48
123.26

Total............................. 1922
1924

83
198

185
410

* 10.3
9.6

89.4
83.2

» 8.6
8.7

77.82
71.53

87.53
7.46

.871
.860

Drivers:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado______________ 1922
1924
Illinois____ ___ ________ 1922
1924
Indiana......... .................. 1922
1924
Kansas---- -•
..................... 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee..................... . 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia____ __________ 1924
Washington....... ............. 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming......................... 1922

7
34
8
17
19
35
9
20
8
8
40
20
47
23
78
13
4
5
1
22
80
4

125
486
131
259
403
599
139
214
112
174
469
281
467
472
1,115
127
54
34
19
257
721
25

9.1
7.5
10.5
8.7
10.4
8.8
8.3
7.0
11.1
9.6
8.5
9.6
8.8
<9.5
9.7
8.2
5.8
9.8
11.4
9.1
8.9
11.3

75.7
63.1
83.0
69.8
86.7
74.1
65.2
55.1
89.0
80.1
70.0
75.6
70.5
82.5
80.5
64.1
44.2
77.3
91.1
73.4
71.8
90.2

8.4
8.4
7.9
8.0
8.3
8.4
7.8
7.8
8.0
8.3
8.2
7.9
8.0
48.3
8.3
7.9
7.7
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.0

29.15
22.09
79.37
65.59
83.17
69.53
61.40
51.99
83.66
57.48
44.56
70.86
65.77
58.10
62.72
26.50
45.14
35.76
88.21
58.83
45.66
88.68

3.22
2.94
7.59
7.52
8.00
7.90
7.37
7.40
7.56
5.99
5.23
7.40
7.49
*6.04
6.45
3.25
7,84
3.64
7.76
6.49
5.14
7.83

.385
.350
.956
.939
.960
.938
.942
.944
.940
.718
.637
.938
.932
.704
.779
.414
1.021
.463
.969
.801
.636
.984

Total............................. 1922
1924

125
377

2,080
4,603

*9.5
8.8

78.7
72.3

*8.2
8.2

64.84
54.08

* 6.82
6.12

.824
.748

* Not including data for 2 employees whose starts were not reported.
4Not including data for 89 employees whose starts were not reported.




$3.09 $0,309
7.68
.995
7.69
.962
8.35
.937
8.30
.940
7.85
.931
7.70
.937
8.90
.937
7.19
.839
4.94
.597
7.61
.933
7.68
.917
86.82
.761
7.32
.829
5.53
.688
6.78
.810
5.95
.657
7.95
.990

48

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OP EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE— Continued
BITU IN S COAL M
M OU
OTETO-Continued

T able B —

Average Average hours
worked
number
of starts
Year
(days)
Em­ made in In half Per
Mines ployees
half
start
month month (day)
Number of—

Place of work, occupation,
and State

Average earnings

In half
month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

inside mine —continued

Laborers:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois..—...................... 1922
1924
Indiana......... ....... .......... 1922
1924
Kansas................ ............ 1924
Kentucky............... ......... 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania.................. 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia.......; _________ 1924
_
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia__________ 1922
1924
Wyoming............ ............ 1922

9
35
7
7
20
39
11
18
7
20
69
21
36
42
131
18
3
12
4
40
130
4

354
736
57
69
444
1,097
145
167
21
326
1,017
152
213
923
2,012
126
22
98
58
461
1,672
25

9.7
8.5
12.1
8.9
10.4
8.6
9.7
7.5
10.7
9.4
8.4
8.6
8.9
•10.3
9.8
7.8
9.5
7.6
10.7
9.4
8.8
12.4

78.5
75.0
96.3
71.1
85.1
69.0
78.7
60.5
85.4
66.4
71.5
68.3
73.3
87.5
81.5
62.8
73.7
61.5
85.1
76.8
73.5
98.5

8.1
8.8
8.0
8.0
8.2
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.0
7.1
8.5
ao
8.3
•8.2
8.3
8.1
7.8
8.1
8.0
8.1
8.4
8.0

$28.49
28.73
90.98
65.46
77.33
63.08
73.72
56.89
80.37
48.59
38.02
62.81
63.48
56.18
60.58
24.90
71.66
23.84
59.19
47.91
39.89
96.23

Total_________ __ ___ 1922
1924

181
502

2,967
7,228

*9.9
8.9

80.8
74.2

*8.0
8.3

56.30
48.74

*5.73
5.47

.697
.657

Motormen:
Alabama......................... 1922
1924
Colorado______________ 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana..._____________ 1922
1924
Kansas_______________ 1924
Kentucky_____________ 1922
1924
Ohio__________________ 1922
1924
Pennsylvania__________ 1922
1924
Tennessee_____________ 1924
Utah_________________ 1922
Virginia____ __________ 1924
Washington.__________ 1922
West Virginia__________ 1922
1924
Wyoming__________ . . . . 1922

7
21
6
11
19
43
10
20
7
20
76
25
57
42
148
19
3
12
4
46
134
1

110
158
17
57
169
532
72
108
18
177
486
90
221
314
965
79
16
77
19
307
1,050
5

9.7
10.1
10.2
8.9
10.5
8.7
10.8
6.5
10.9
9.7
9.9
10.1
9.6
•10.0
10.3
9.6
6.8
10.4
12.8
9.8
10.0
13.8

77.6
91.9
81.9
73.6
89.5
73.4
86.7
51.2
88.4
81.2
86.1
84.2
79.4
86.3
88.6
76.6
52.6
89.8
103.7
82.8
86.4
110.4

8.0
9.1
8.0
8.3
8.5
8.4
8.0
7.9
8.1
8.4
8.7
8.3
8.2
•8.4
8.6
8.0
7.8
8.6
8.1
8.5
8.6
8.0

33.31
43.00
79.73
71.61
90.20
74.38
87.67
52,00
88.32
56.04
53.46
79.11
73.19
71.48
75.70
37.82
53.25
45.65
85.53
64.68
53.83
109.13

3.42
4.27
7.79
8.05
8.59
8.54
8.09
8.03
8.07
5.77
5.39
7.80
7.59
•7.03
7.38
3.95
7.89
4.37
6.66
6.62
5.38
7.91

.429
.468
.973
.974
1.008
1.013
1.012
1.016
.999
.690
.621
.940
.922
.829
.854
.494
1.013
.508
.825
.781
.623
.988

1922
1924

183
548

1,296
3,751

•10.1
9.7

84.2
83.6

•8.4
8.6

68.62
62.89

•6.82
6.46

.815
.752

Total_______________

* Not including data for 237 employees whose starts were not reported.
•Not including data for 6 employees whose starts were not reported.




$2.94 $0,363
3.38
.383
7.53
.945
7.36
.921
7.45
.909
7.32
.915
7.59
.937
7.59
.940
7.53
.941
5.18
.731
4.54
.532
7.33
.919
7.17
.866
•5.63
.642
6.16
.744
3 20
>
.396
7.58
.973
3.12
.388
5.55
.695
5.08
.624
4.54
.543
7.79
.977

GENEBAL TABLES

49

T able B — AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE— Continued
BITUM
INOUS COAX M IN —Continued
IN G

Place of work, occupation,
and State

Number of— Average Average hours
worked
number
of starts
Year
(days)
Per
Em­ made in In half start
Mines ployees
half
month month (day)

Average earnings

In half
month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

inside mine—continued

Pumpmen:
Alabama....... . ................. 1922
1924
Colorado.................. ....... 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana...... ..................... 1922
1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee.................. ...... 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia........................... 1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyomong........................ 1922

9
32
7
15
13
17
9
17
15
47
21
41
41
127
10
3
6
3
32
90
4

62
105
10
27
23
40
28
33
39
89
43
87
152
352
16
6
26
5
79
240
5

10.9
10.2
14.4
12.3
13.0
13.1
12.7
12.2
12.6
11.6
14.0
12.3
13.9
12.2
9.8
12.8
10.6
16.0
11.9
11.4
14.8

92.5
100.1
114.6
103.9
109.0
108.8
107.8
99.2
110.9
102.7
115.7
101.0
117.1
105.5
91.6
102.2
98.0
152.0
105.3
103.7
122.2

8.5
9.9
8.0
8.4
8.4
8.3
8.5
8.1
8.8
8.9
8.3
8.2
8.4
8.7
9.4
8.0
9.3
7.9
8.8
9.1
8.3

$32.70
36.67
111.66
96.54
101.46
100.91
102.07
93.65
73.59
54.36
106.27
92.04
86.70
83.82
39.86
99.17
34.15
115.42
73.92
59.73
120.42

$3.01
3.61
7.75
7.83
7.80
7.73
8.05
7.69
5.86
4.70
7.62
7.50
6.23
6.88
4.09
7.73
3.23
6.01
6.21
5.25
8.14

$0,353
.366
.974
.930
.931
.928
.947
.944
.663
.529
.919
.911
.740
.795
.435
.971
.348
.759
.702
.576
.985

Total............. ............... 1922
1924

157
402

452
1,015

13.0
11.7

110.2
103.4

8.5
8.8

80.90
70.38

6.24
6.02

.734
.681

Trackmen:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado....... .................. 1922
1924
Illinois__-_____________ 1922
1924
Indiana............................ 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky....................... 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia......................... 1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
W yom ing...................... 1922

10
37
8
17
22
46
11
22
9
19
77
25
54
44
151
20
4
12
4
47
142
4

58
131
38
90
301
670
108
153
30
159
579
111
213
287
895
63
20
83
17
274
1,119
20

10.4
9.6
12.2
10.6
10.8
9.0
10.3
7.1
11.6
10.5
9.6
10.7
10.3
*11.0
10.6
9.0
9.1
9.8
11.5
10.0
9.7
14.9

84.5
84.1
97.2
85.2
87.8
71.8
82.9
57.1
91.1
87.7
81.8
86.8
84.1
91.2
89.1
73.6
71.8
78.9
92.1
81.2
82.7
119.5

8.1
8.8
8.0
8.0
8.1
8.0
8.1
8.0
7.9
8.4
8.5
8.1
8.1
78.2
8.4
8.2
7.9
8.1
8.0
8.2
8.5
8.0

39.55
38.84
94.51
81.66
82.36
67.47
77.89
53.58
85.38
62.30
50.11
81.20
78.26
68.34
71.95
34.79
72.22
39.44
85.92
63.31
50.89
118.13

3.80
4.05
7.76
7.70
7.62
7.49
7.58
7.53
7.38
5.94
5.22
7.57
7.57
* 6.29
6.77
3.86
7.98
4.03
7.45
6.38
5.23
7.93

.468
.462
.972
.958
.938
.940
.939
.938
.938
.710
.612
.935
.931
.749
.807
.473
1.007
.500
.933
.780
.616
.989

Total............................. 1922
1924

198
587

1,393
4,026

no. 7

87.3
81.2

?8.2
8.3

72.05
59.83

76.77
6.14

.826
.737

9.7

f Not including data for 30 employees whose starts were not reported.




50

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

B.— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE-Continued

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Average Average hours
worked
nun) her
of starts
Year
(days)
Per
Em­ made in In half start
Mines ployees
half
month month (day)
Number of—

Place of work, occupation,
and State

Average earnings

In half
month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

inside mine—continued

Trappers (boys):
Alabama.........—............. 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana.... ....................... 1922
1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................ 1922
1924
Pennsylvania.............. .
1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Virginia........................... 1924
West Virginia....... .......... 1922
1924

5
18
4
9
16
25
9
16
6
34
22
‘ 36
12
37
15
8
29
75

29
60
12
31
72
132
41
65
15
126
84
125
36
77
49
30
104
230

8.3
7.5
11.2
8.1
8.6
7.4
6.6
6.0
10.5
8.4
9.2
8.3
10.5
10.2
7.4
9.0
9.7
9.2

66.9
64.4
89.3
64.8
68.3
54.2
52.4
47.6
79.6
67.6
72.1
64.7
85.5
84.3
58.4
72.4
76.8
75.7

8.1
8.6
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.3
7.9
7.9
7.6
8.0
7.8
7.8
8.2
8.3
7.9
8.0
7.9
8.2

$15.44
14.05
50.65
32.66
34.45
30.04
26.34
23.65
37.75
20.29
36.96
32.58
34.44
42.95
14.92
18.43
37.24
28.76

Total............................. 1922
1924

103
273

393
925

9.1
8.3

72.3
66.7

7.9
8.0

34.09
27.24

3.75
3.27

.472
.408

Other employees:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois-........................... 1922
1924
Indiana.... ....................... 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky................ ....... 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia........................... 1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming.................. .
1922

8
33
8
17
22
46
12
22
9
20
76
21
47
44
137
18
4
11
4
41
122
4

144
414
54
74
376
689
105
129
60
283
701
169
254
791
1,593
97
54
55
32
219
720
67

10.7
9.6
12.3
10.7
11.5
10.4
10.8
9.3
10.8
10.1
10.1
9.6
10.7
*11.1
11.2
9.9
9.1
9.2
13.6
10.6
10.5
13.3

87.8
84.9
98.6
87.0
94.7
85.8
86.5
74.7
88.9
87.1
88.5
77.1
87.8
95.3
94.6
81.5
71.8
76.6
110.4
88.3
92.6
107.3

8.2
8.8
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.0
8.0
8.3
8.6
8.8
8.0
8.2
*8.4
8.5
8.2
7.9
8.3
8.1
8.4
8.8
8.1

38.81
46.75
95.22
84.06
95.93
85.93
88.42
78.58
103.08
61.86
65.39
71.00
78.62
72.36
82.00
48.94
71.29
60.53
108.89
72.18
63.70
107.61

3.61
4.86
7.77
7.84
8.33
8.27
8.21
8.45
9.57
6.14
6.50
7.39
7.36
*6.64
7.35
4.93
7.84
5.48
7.99
6.83
6.08
8.11

.442
.551
.966
.966
1.013
1.002
1.022
1.052
1.159
.710
.739
.921
.895
.759
.867
.601
.993
.660
.987
.818
.688
1.003

Total............................. 1922
1924

188
538

2,294
4,786

*10.9
10.5

91.4
89.7

*8.3
8.5

75.49
73.32

*6.97
6.97

.826
.817

•Not including data for 137 employees whose starts were not reported.




$1.87 $0.231
1.86
.218
4.54
.567
4.03
.504
4.02
.504
4.04
.554
3.98
.503
3.93
.497
3.58
.474
2.40
.300
4.02
.512
3.94
.504
3.29
.403
4.22
.509
2.02
.255
2.04
.254
3.84
.485
3.11
.380

GENERAL TABLES

51

AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE.OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE— Continued

T a b l e B .—

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Average Average hours
Average earnings
worked
number
of starts
(days)
Year
Per
Per
Em­ made in In half start In half start
Per
Mines ployees
half
month month (day) month (day) hour
Number of—

Place of work, occupation,
and State

OUTSIDE MINE

Blacksmiths:
Alabama______________ 1922
1924
Colorado............... -......... 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana.............. -............ 1922
1924
Kansas..........................— 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio........................... — 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia........................... 1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia............. .
1922
1924
Wyoming......... ............... 1922

10
36
8
17
22
45
12
22
9
. 18
75
25
56
41
151
20
4
12
4
43
138
4

18
49
14
20
56
119
18
41
11
29
113
43
88
84
285
24
5
14
6
61
205
5

11.7
9.7
12.5
11.3
13.1
10.5
12.6
8.4
11.7
11.2
10.9
12.0
10.2
•11.0
11.2
10.7
11.4
10.9
14.2
10.6
10.9
14.2

95.1
86.0
114.8
98.3
116.2
86.8
113.4
74.1
109.3
94.4
92.2
100.0
85.3
100.2
98.1
86.7
91.4
90.4
115.2
90.0
93.6
125.4

8.2
8.9
9.2
8.7
8.9
8.3
9.0
8.8
9.3
8.4
8.5
8.3
8.4
98.8
8.9
8.1
8.0
8.3
8.1
8.5
8.6
8.8

$51.90
43.77
104.66
89.21
112.38
84.06
99.93
65.20
107.98
72.18
57.32
96.00
81.79
78.73
80.85
43.19
92.41
54.13
95.13
76.12
64.50
126.55

Total___ ___________

1922
1924

191
581

339
969

•11.7
10.7

102.0
92.0

98.6
8.6

87.42
71.75

Carpenters and car repair­
men:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois......... ............. .
1922
1924
Indiana................. .......... 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................. —............ 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah____________ _____ 1922
Virginia........................... 1924
Washington................... . 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming_______ _____ 1922

8
32
3
12
20
38
6
8
3
18
61
17
37
37
138
15
4
11
4
38
119
2

33
83
6
34
40
143
12
13
4
40
178
28
59
166
431
30
10
24
15
74
355
3

9.7
9.7
12.2
9.9
12.3
10.2
10.3
7.8
13.0
11.5
10.1
11.2
9.7
I®10.9
10.9
10.2
12.2
9.4
12.9
10.9
10.7
13.0

Total.......................... 1922
1924

157
474

427
1,354

11.1
10.4

97.47
6.72

.857
.780

81.7
8.5
9.0
87.4
108.0
8.9
8.8
87.6
104.1
8.5
84.4
8.2
85.2
8.2
68.0
8.8
110.5
8.5
93.3
8.1
84.5
8.4
91.3
8.2
79.1
8.2
96.7 i° 8.5
95.8
8.8
8.2
83.6
104.3
8.5
8.0
74.7
100.1
7.8
90.7
8.3
91.4
8.6
107.0
8.2

33.98
3.52
34.88
3.58
99.07
8.14
74.42
7.51
98.14
7.99
77.80
7.59
75.72
7.33
59. 57
7.67
102.94
7.92
64.67
5. 64
49.71
4.94
83.75
7.49
71.80
7.43
67.15 106.18
70.90
6.51
41. 61
4.07
107.53
8.80
40.91
4.36
81.98
6.37
69.77
6.41
57.12
5.35
107.00
8.23

.416
.399
.917
.850
.943
.922
.889
.876
.932
.693
.588
.917
.908
.694
.740
.498
1.029
.548
.819
.769
.625
1.000

94.7 108.4
89.6
8.6

71.23 106.42
61.96
5.93

.752
.691

•Not including data for 9 employees whose starts were not reported.
* Not including data for 22 employees whose starts were not reported.
•




$4.45 $0.546
.509
4.51
a 37
.912
7.89
.908
8.57
.967
8.00
.968
.881
7.96
.880
7.77
9. 21
.988
6.44
,765
.622
5.26
.960
8.02
.959
8.03
.786
97.16
.824
7.32
.498
4.05
8.11
1.011
.599
4.99
.826
6.72
7.17
.846
.689
5.92
8.91
1.009

52
T

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

B.— AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE—Continued

able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Average Average hours
worked
number
of starts
Year
(days)
Per
Em­ made in In half start
Mines ployees
half
month month (day)
Number of—

Place of work, occupation,
and State

Average earnings

In half
month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

o u ts id e mine—continued

Engineers:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois............................ 1922
1924
Indiana............................ 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming.......... —....... 1922

7
24
8
17
22
45
8
22
9
7
38
18
28
32
103
5
3
4
16
42
4

11
38
20
60
68
147
16
41
13
8
64
23
38
71
246
7
3
14
28
78
5

11.5
10.2
13.6
11.4
15.0
14.6
15.4
13.9
12.1
12.8
13.1
12.5
12.6
U 2. 4
12.6
11.3
13.7
15.9
15.0
12.8
15.0

96.8
81.5
117.5
99.8
122.1
12a 6
135.5
126.9
116.6
108.2
123.7
111.3
111.4
106.6
112.8
99.3
114.7
129.9
165.1
123.0
145.5

8.4
8.0
8.6
8.7
8.1
8.3
8.8
9.1
9.7
8.5
9.5
8.9
8.9
18.5
8.9
8.8
8.4
8.2
11.0
9.6
9.7

$47.87
43.71
107.02
87.01
116.63
116.87
121.34
110.71
104.70
84.24
69.99
95.29
103.91
80.35
91.96
49.48
111.30
113.42
100.88
72.60
142.09

Total................. ........... 1922
1924

129
333

267
732

113.9
12.9 j

121.3
114.4

18.7
8.9

99.50
91.56

17.21
7.09

.820
.801

Firemen:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado..................... .
1922
1924
Illinois............... ....... . . . 1922
1924
Indiana..... ..................... - 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming......................... 1922

6
12
5
13
20
39
5
21
6
2
24
8
14
18
59
4
1
2
9
20
3

25
30
9
30
87
130
15
41
16
9
53
18
31
114
244
8
1
9
31
53
9

11.9
11.4
13.8
11.1
14.0
12.5
13.1
11.2
13.9
12.6
12.5
12.4
13.5
n 14.2
13.3
12.9
15.0
15.8
14.7
11.5
15.6

108.6
9.1
114.8 10.1
143.0 10.4
98.4
8.9
112.5
8.0
102.7
8.2
122.7
9.4
113.0 10.1
117.8
8.4
108.2
8.6
114.5
9.1
111.4
9.0
114.2
8.5
113.2 118.2
114.3
8.6
115.6
9.0
128.0
8.5
128.0
8.1
141.6
9.6
108.6
9.5
124.3
8.0

33.73
38.02
107.94
80.19
101.53
92.90
96.67
80.91
100.97
82.65
60.46
95.82
99.31
82.50
81.91
45.31
112.00
95.11
82.27
55:58
115.35

2.83
3.35
7.83
7.22
7.25
7.45
7.40
7.23
7.24
6.58
4.82
7.70
7.38
H6.34
6.15
3.52
7.47
6.03
5.61
4.85
7.42

.311
.331
.755
.815
.902
.905
.788
.716
.857
.764
.528
.860
.870
.729
.717
.392
.875
.743
.581
.512
.928

79
212

327
636

n 13.9
12.6

117.1
110.7

87.24 H6.48
78.83
6.25

.745
.712

Total............................. 1922
1924

* Not including data for 8 employees whose starts were not reported,
u Not including data for 24 employees whose starts were not reported.




H8.5
8.8

$4.15 $0,495
4.29
.537
7.90
.914
7.61
.872
7.75
.955
8.02
.969
7,86
.895
7.98
.872
8.67
.898
6.61
.779
5.36
.566
7.61
.856
8.26
.933
16.50
.754
7.27
.816
4.38
.498
8.14
.971
7.12
.873
6.71
.611
5.66
.590
9.47
.977

GENERAL TABLES

53

B.—AVERAGE NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS) AND AVERAGE
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS
AND LOADERS, 1922 AND 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION,
AND STATE— Continued

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Average Average hours
worked
number
of starts
Year
(days)
Per
Em­ made in In half start
Mines ployees half
month month (day)
Number of—

Flaee of work, occupation,
and State

Average earnings

In half
month

Per
start
(day)

Per
hour

73.9
8.1
71.9
8.9
101.0
8.7
77.6
8.8
85.8
8.3
75.7
8.2
77.6
8.2
57.2
8.0
88.8
8.8
83.5
8.2
78.3
8.6
74.1
8.0
73.6
8.1
95.5 w8.8
89.8
8.8
70.2
8.0
77.7
7.8
68.9
8.2
89.3
8.1
80.0
8.4
84.8
8.6
95.1
8.0

$24.21
20.39
77.40
55.53
73.69
65.36
65.88
48.64
76.77
43.82
36.55
63.24
63.24
54.03
56.20
26.64
68.11
25.33
60.19
46.16
40.44
82.69

$2.66
2.53
6.64
6.27
7.13
7.07
6.98
6.81
7.62
4.29
4.00
6.80
6.92
125.17
5.51
3.03
6.85
3.02
5.43
4.82
4.08
6.96

$0,328
.284
.766
.716
.859
.863
.849
.850
.865
.525
.467
.853
.859
.566
.626
.379
.876
.367
.674
.577
.477
.870

128.4
8.6

55.06
46.73

125.49
4.93

.649
.575

93.7
8.5
93.5
9.2
115.2
8.9
101.2
9.2
104.5
8.4
87.8
8.4
106.7
8.4
83.2
8.6
107.5
9.0
93.7
8.5
97.3
8.9
95.1
8.2
93.9
8.3
104.9 1 8.8
3
106.7
9.0
76.5
8.3
78.5
7.8
87.3
8.7
108.4
8.1
100.5
8.7
101.4
9.1
110.5
8.1

36.85
38.13
97.53
71.93
90.15
69.64
93.16
60.19
95.51
59.46
54.28
73.94
72.81
66.26
72.06
34.33
68.68
41.42
79.77
70.70
59.02
96.73

3.32
3.74
7.56
6.55
7.24
6.68
7.32
6.24
7.96
5.38
4.98
6.36
6.44
W5.65
6.08
3.72
6.79
4.12
5.98
6.14
5.29
7.07

.393
.408
.847
.711
.863
.793
.873
.724
.888
.635
.558
.777
.775
.631
.676
.449
.875
.475
.736
.703
.582
.876

101.3
99.1

70.02
62.73

1 5.96
3
5.64

.691
.633

o u ts id e mine—continued

Laborers:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana............................ 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky. ...................... 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania__________ 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................ ............... 1922
Virginia.......................... 1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia.................. 1922
1924
Wyoming........................ 1922

10
39
8
17
21
.45
12
21
9
20
78
24
56
42
152
20
4
12
4
46
142
4

203
580
97
210
337
765
115
192
37
198
999
227
441
573
2,017
157
71
136
62
498
1,980
26

9.1
8.1
11.6
8.9
10.3
9.2.
9.4
7.1
10. 1'
10.2
9.1
9.3
9.1
» 10.8
10.2
8.8
9.9
8.4
11.1
9.6
9.9
11.9

Total............................. 1922
1924

195
591

2,407
7,514

M10.1
9.5

Other employees:
Alabama.......................... 1922
1924
Colorado.......................... 1922
1924
Illinois............................. 1922
1924
Indiana............... ........ . 1922
1924
Kansas............................. 1924
Kentucky........................ 1922
1924
Ohio................................. 1922
1924
Pennsylvania................... 1922
1924
Tennessee........................ 1924
Utah................................ 1922
Virginia........................... 1924
Washington..................... 1922
West Virginia....... .......... 1922
1924
Wyoming....... ................ 1922

10
88
7
17
21
44
12
23
7
20
73
25
54
42
151
20
4
12
4
44
139
4

185
348
68
189
247
502
87
91
18
258
501
160
228
713
1,596
125
45
107
60
371
1,118
48

11.1
10.2
12.9
12.5
10.4
12.7
9.6
12.0
11.1
10.9
11.6
11.3
11.9
11.9
9.2
10.1
10.1
13.3
11.5
11.2
13.7

Total..... ....................... 1922
1924

193
578

2,242
4,823

i» 11.8
11.1

11.0

84.8
81.2

» Not including data for 51 employees whose starts were not reported.
» Not including data for 75 employees whose starts were not reported.




1 8.5
3
8.9

T able C.— NUMBER OP MINERS AND LOADERS IN EACH STATE WHOSE AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS WERE
W ITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924, BY OCCUPATION

g
^

BITUMINOUS COAL MISTING
Number of employees whose average hourly earnings, based on time at face and time in mine, were within each classified amount
Alabama

Colorado

In
At
In
At
face mine face mine

Illinois
At
face

In
mine

34
42
104
230
389
592
998
1,391
1,512
1,506
1,162
819
540
340
165
109
60
30
52
4

42
59
164
352
531
948
1,353
1,666
1,627
1,239
840
558
328
143
116
42
33
13
24
1

Indiana

Kentucky

Ohio

In
In
In
At
At
At
face mine face mine face mine

Pennsylvania
At
face

In
mine

418
830
1,691
2,738
3,368
3,225
2,501
1,747
1,072
626
330
214
104
53
39
28
14
12
19

563
1,164
2,336
3,404
3,750
2,967
2,023
1,229
691
398
225
112
61
38
26
15
11
8
14
5

Tennessee
At
face

In
mine

Virginia
At
face

In
mine

West Virginia!
Total
____________I
___
At
face

In
mine

In
mine

71
196
547
1,074
1,411
1,629
1,538
1,167
8S1
581
383
246
133
106
55
35
29
20
29
4
4

103 1,158
317 2,847
906 5,085
1,290 6,821
1,768 7,984
1,630 8,323
1,412 7,478
1,031 6,381
695 5,071
403 3,897
224 2,603
144 1,708
75 1,007
64Q
51
339
33
227
18
130
13
8
81
12
117
18
5
12
1

1,604
3,823
6,439
8,066
9,199
8,388
7,198
5,686
4,311
2,883
1,804
1,066
636
311
22
-3
105
74
36
57
11
7

ANTHRACITE

Occupation and classified
earnings per hour

LOADERS, HAND

6

5
13
23
58
132
247
377
441
411
307
180
111
73
36
30
11
U
4

19
23
254 348
35
70
7 595 729
17 979 1,225 207 312
25 1,420 1,549 433 651
916 1,320
81 1,240 1,211
852 1,301 1,398
206
520 1,190 1,218
313
415 394 314 999 803
458 273 211 710 493
369 195 136 472 269
260 141
238 106
53
131
143
73
71
96
38
30
15
35
38
29
15
16
33
13
18
6
17
10
5
9
5
1
3
1
4
2

> 060 1,178 1,178 10,079 10,079 2,470 2,470 7,266
,
45.4

85.8

79.9

109.2 100.3 108.3 103.4

.3

108
185
224
141
84
40
35
13
11
8
4
2
1

74.3

68.2

73
131
236
126
334
115
59
49
32
22
13
5
3
2

860 1,006

6,832 6,832 19,046 19,046
64.6 86.0 79.1

139
209
220
129
59
44
27
5
11
11
1
2

50.8

47.8

60.4

94
158
230
138
134
96
48
56
24
12
5
3
1
4

1,006 10,139 10,139 61, S
56.9

83.1

76.4

81.1

61,936
74.8

M INING




91
108
143
367
241
131
86
37
33
15
7
5
5

COAL

Total.
Average earnings, in
cents, per hour............. 49.2

24
48
86
76
111
173
188
197
113
59
31
30
13
7
8
3
3
2

BITUMINOUS

157 259
780 1,044
998 938
560 420
273 202
128
53
47
26
17
7
8
1
1
3

AD
N

Under 30 cents...........
30 and under 40 cents..
40 arid under 50 cents..
50 and under 60 cents..
60 and under 70 cents..
70 and under 80 cents..
80 and under 90 cents..
90 and under $1..........
$1 and under $1.10......
$1.10 and under $1.20..
$1.20 and under $1.30..
$1.30 and uiider $1.40..
$1.40 and under $1.50..
$1.50 and under $1.60..
$1.60 and under $1.70..
$1.70 and under $1.80..
$1.80 and under $1.90..
$1.90 and under $2......
$2 and under $2.50___
$2.50 and under $3......
$3 and over.............. .

Number of employees whose average hourly earnings, based on time at face and time in mine, were within each classified amount
Occupation and class­
ified earnings per hour

Alabama

Colorado

Illinois

Indiana

Kansas

Kentucky

Pennsyl­
vania

Ohio

At
In
In
In
In
In
In
At
At
In
At
At
At
In
At
At
face mine face mine face mine face mine face mine face mine face mine face mine

Tennessee
At

West Vir­
ginia

Other
States

Total

In
In
In
At
At
mine face mine face mine

In
At
face mine

MINEBS, HAND OB
PICK

Under 30 cents______
30 and under 40 cents. _
40 and under 50 cents. _
50 and under 60 cents. _
60 and under 70 cents. _
70 and under 80 cents. _
80 and under 90 cents.
90 and und&r $1_____
$1 and under $1.10____
$1.1ftand under $1.20__
$1.20 and under $1.30. _
$1.30 and under $1.40. _
$1.40 and under $1.50. _
$1.50 anti under $1.60. _
$1.60 and under $1.70. .
$1.76 and under $1.80. _
$1.80 and under $1.90.
$1.90 and under $2...
$2 and under $2.50...
$2.50 and under $3. -.
$3 and over________
Total.
Average earnings, in
cents, per hour____




22
24
56
79
149
170
171
162
93
72
43
37
21
12
17
9
3
1
5

24
111
136
220
338
439
554
643
486
334
235
163
85
75
34
19
10
6
7
2

40
130
165
268
409
561
653
618

1,477 1,477 1,146 1,146

, 921

, 921

07
178
336
344
231
127
61
31
23
16
9
5
7
2
1
4

57.7

133
260
394
306
171
84
48
27
19
10
7
5
3
2
3

52.9

16
21
42
53
104
143
143
155
141
94
67
44
39
20
20
12
13
9
5
4
1

92.!

84.7

12
16
23
46
66
94
105
83
72
47
42
33
35
31
25
25
19
8
16
1

156
104
78
28
13
6
5
3
4
799

47
108
174
222
255
187
135
85
69
45
25
17
14
13
8
4
11
2
1

14
26
39
28
86
45
154
57
219 113
260 141
205
90
152
56
117 “ 40
69
28
53
15
28
14
18
1
15
3
11
7
5
5
1

799 1,474 1,474

91.2 84.9 108.7 101.4 90.1

654
77.6

157
225
531
694
1,301
1,394
1,220
876
521
338
191
122
58
36
18
9
4
8
5
2

60
133
130

654

15

70.7 104.1

198
332
740
1,345
1,477
1,411
1,083
594
380
216
109
56
30
15
7
8
2
2
4
1

85
174
212
169
87
57
36
21
12
4
7
4
1

15 8,010 8,010
91.0

77.7

71.4 54.1

142
197
212
128
72
53
30
16
5
7
4
3

11
55
182
395
457
429
390
323
268
191
135
103
38
22
14
9
4
3
14
3

24
89
308
479
495
422
380
306
198
159
83
43
21
12
5
7
5
4
5
1

2
2
1
4
2
1

3
1
4
1
3

76.0

620
1,126
2,045
2,902
3,192
3,190
2,738
2,010
1,307
886
511
311
210
121
40
21
46
5

3,046 t, 046
50.2 83.1

439
834
1,553
2,364
2,862
3,034
2,844
2,389
1,715
1,146
779
539
289
205
137

21,424 21,424
65.2 61.5

80.9

74.5

T able C.— NUMBER OF MINERS AND LOADERS IN EACH STATE WHOSE AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS WERE
W ITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924, BY OCCUPATION— Continued

gj

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING— Continued
Number of employees whose average hourly earnings, based on time at face and time in mine, were within each classified amount
Alabama

Colorado

In
In
At
At
face mine face mine

Indiana

Illinois
At
face

In
mine

Kentucky

Pennsylvania

Ohio

In
In
In
At
At
At
face mine face mine face mine

At
face

In
mine

Tennessee
At
face

In
mine

West Virginia

Virginia
At
face

In
mine

At
face

In
mine

Total
At
face

In
mine

342

342

Average earnings, in
cents, per hour----------- 83.6




no

1
6
18
27
39
57
93
125
124
164
139
113
75
57
50
41
54
11
2

2
14
20
15
17
15
17
25
7
28
16
10
43
22
9

3
29
13
13
23
18
21
13
21
18
14
31
41
17
5

119 1,196

1,196

260

260

4
3

77.5 133.6 124 6 150.0

11
13
49
118
50
82
81
102
84
77
35
32
22
13
14
4
3
3
3
1

12
26
66
105
63
101
82
102
♦
84
62
25
24
21
10
4
5
2
3

2
3
7
23
29
46
63
86
98
71
49
63
49
29
28
26
22
46

797

797

740

2
9
10
29
44
68
88
96
75
62
62
49
33
21
31
24
20
17

13
10
22
50
79
119
315
199
170
170
156
115
101
77
55
60
33
26
73
7
2

14
12
29
64
122
177
348
202
184
165
117
110
86
59
44
31
16
26
40
6

14
50
40
11
2
1
3

3
32
45
24
12
1
1
3

2
35
25
4
3
4
6
5
5
1
1
2

5
41
16
5
3
6
3
10
1
1
2

2

2

2

2

740 1,852 1,852

125

125

93

93

137.6 168.4 160.9 92.7 87.4 127.4 117.5 114.2 105.3

54.9

51.4

65.7

62.6

1
3
30
80
77
55
59
68
63
81
75
83
67
50
43
41
20
20
49
8
2
975

1
14
44
103
53
69
70
72
92
84
93
58
59
41
36
26
15
15
24
5
1

32
84
222
392
301
375
567
532
504
565
481
413
452
349
242
272
154
144
343
55
20

37
138
286
405
368
449
658
583
598
544
459
452
385
280
204
176
127
116
184
42
8

975 6,499 6,499

113.4 105.5

116.3 107.9

M IKING

Total......................

2
4
2
8
25
g
15
8
5
9
9
g
3
2
g
3
3
1

1
1
14
22
24
35
58
92
113
108
165
121
87
106
52
56
121
14
6

2
3
3
4
15
18
15
7
11
8
7
8
3
4
4

COAL

2
1
5

7
47
49
74
63
23
26
12
11
9
4
7
1
1
2
2
3
1

BITUMINOUS

7
40
32
69
39
61
28
19
10
12
2
6
7
1
1

AD
N

M
INERS, M IN
ACH E
Under 30 cents
30 and under 40 cents.....
_
40 and under 50 cents_ .,
60 and under 60 cents
60 and under 70 cents
70 and under 80 cents
80 and under 90 cents......
90 cents and under $1___
41 cm iihHat 10
* ri
$1.10 and under $1.20.......
$1.20 and under $1.30.......
$1.30 and under $1.40.......
$1.40 and under $1.50_ :
_
$1.50 and under $1.60.......
$1 AI onH iinrifV $1 70
T
P
ii 70 on/1 iiuH $1 R
pf
O
$1.80 and under $1.90.......
tl Q on/1
O
to qtiHiinH^f 49 fiO
jo ka
nnrJp.r $3
$3 and over......................

ANTHRACITE

Occupation and classified
earnings per hour

GENERAL TABLES
T

57

D .— NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS AND
LOADERS IN EACH STATE WHOSE AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS
WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924

able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
Number of employees in each occupation whose average hourly earnings
were within each classified amount
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings
per hour
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten- Vir- West Total
syl­ nes- ginia Vir­
tucky
bama rado nois ana
vania
ginia
INSIDE MINE

Brakemen:
Under 30 cents........
30 and under 40 cents..
40 and under 50 cents..
50 and under 60 cents..
60 and under 70 cents
70 and under 80 cents
80 and under 90 cents
90 cents and under $1.
$1 and under $1.10—
$1.10 and under $1.20.
$1.20 and under $1.30.
$1.30 and under $1.40.
Total.
Average earnings, in cents,
per hour....................

7
134
78
1

220

14

100

542

80

7
183
143
601
759
923
117
379
18
125
249
46
96 1,767
3
17
2
1
1
4
1

979

1,189 4,259

91.1 82.3

86.5

2
28
123
40
3
31
18

14

245

13

Total.

Drivers:
Under 30 cents...........
30 and under 40 cents.
40 and under 50 cents.
50 and under 60 cents..
60 and under 70 cents
70 and under 80 cents
80 and under 90 cents.
90 cents and under $1.
$1 and under $1.10....
$1.20 and under $1.30.

79

38.4 91.2

Bratticemen and timbermen:
Under 30 cents...........
30 and under 40 cents..
40 and under 50 cents.
50 and under 60 cents.
60 and under 70 cents..
70 and under 80 cents
80 and under 90 cents
90 cents and under $1.
$1 and under $1.10---$1710 and under $1.20.
$1.30 and under $1.40.
Average earnings, in cents,
per hour............ ............

1
133

1
3
11
4
141
1

3
43
196
83
65
584
4

161

3
22
729
7
1
2

14
256
101
48
8
110
2

58.3

2
44
7
151
54
406
220
81
378
14
62
53
17
59 1,394
1
25
.....
5
1

226
3
1
237

454 2,521

703

43.6 93.4 93.7 93.7 94.0 61.9 93.2 79.9 45.7 48.8 61.3
79
331
74

13
73
166
136

71.0

77.8

25

316
555
352
640
58
20
143
145
31
193 2,274
59
1

34

721 4,603

Average earnings, in cents,
per hour............... ........ . 35.0 93.9 93,8 94.4 94.0 63.7 93.2 77.9 41.4 46.3

74.8

Total.

*Pieceworker.




25
2
2
202
28
486

259

3
573
23

213
1
214

1
111

112

10

6
26
431

1
23
421
112
13
541
3
1

467 1,115

127

58

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS AND
LOADERS IN EACH STATE WHOSE AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS
WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924— Continued

T a b l e D .—

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Number of employees in each occupation whose average hourly earnings
were within each classified amount
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings
per hour

Penn­ Ten- Vir- West
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan­ Ken­
syl­
Vir­
bama rado nois ana sas tucky Ohio vania nes- ginia ginia Total

inside mine —continued

Laborers:
Under 30 cehts............
30 and under 40 cen ts...
40 and under 50 cen ts...
50 and under 60 cen ts...
60 and under 70 cents.
70 and under 80 cents.
80 and under 90 cents.
90 cents and under $1.

120
317
249
50
1
44
1,047

$1 and under $1.10.—
$1.10 and under $1.20.
$1.30 and under $1.40.
$1.40 and under $1.50.
$1.50 and under $1.60.

Total.
Average earnings, in cents,
per hour............. -.........

736

1,097

38.3 92.1

Motormen:
30 and under 40 cents__
40 and under 50 cents—
50 and under 60 cents—
60 and under 70 cents.
70 and under 80 cents.
80 and under 90 cents.
90 cents and under $1.
$1 and under $1.10__
$1.10 and under $1.20.
$1.20 and under $1.30.
Total.

91.5

3
103
412
131
107
236
22
3

146
12

167

21 1,017

94.0 94.1

158

57

532

Trackmen:
30 and under 40 cents__
40 and under 50 cents__
50 and under 60 cents...
60 and under 70 cents__
70 and under 80 cents.
80 and under 90 cents.
90 cents and under $1.
$1 and under $1.10__
$1.10 and under $1.20.
$1.20 and under $1.30.
Total.

108

18

62.1

152
1

30

670

153

30

579

46.2 95.8 94.0

>3.8

* Road cleaning or rock work at piece or yardage rate.




486

57
322
66
8
72
45

131

213 2,012

11

126

965

54.3

7,2
65.7

46
19
131
611 1,069
223
496
189
56
4
69
136 1,255
1
491
2

13
208
88
7
643
2
1

221

136
602
95
558 1,378
656 1,409
112
410
33
386
762
195
22 2,113
22
6
1
1
2

98 1,672

86.6 74.4 39. < 38.8

13
2
206

157
375

Average earnings, in cents,
per hour........................ . 46.8 97.4 101.3 101.6

Average earnings, in cents,
per hour.........................

53.2

2
54
15
140
2

1
5
42
557
186
62
467
680
5
3
21
*1
22

79

77 1,050 3,751

92.2 85.4 49.4 50.8 62.3

75.2

4
73
182
47
697 1,194
167
494
44
153
22
106
138 1,808
13
2
1

1
40
251
95
9
493

6
2
205

213

63

>3.8 61.2 93.1

80.7 47.3

1,119 4,026
50.0 61.6

73.7

59

GENERAL TABJ3ES

T a©3,e D,— NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN MINERS AND
LOADERS IN EACH STATE WHOSE AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS
WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924—Continued
BITUMINOUS COAL MINIS'G— Continued
Number of employees in each occupation whose average hourly earnings
were within each classified amount
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings
per hour
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten- Vir- West Total
syl­ nes- ginia Vir­
tucky
bama rado nois ana
vania
ginia
OUTSIDE MINE

Carpenters:
Under 30 cents........
30 and under 40 cents__
40 and under 50 cents__
50 and under 60 cents__
60 and under 70 cents__
70 and under 80 cents.
80 and under 90 cents.
90 cents and under $1.
$1 and under $1.10„_.
$1.10 and under $1.20.
TotalAverage earnings, in cents,
per hour........................ .

10
122
11
83

143

7
6
6
632
112
2
580

2X
0

Average earnings, in cents,
per hour........................ . 28.4 71.6




13

4

431

178

30

24

765

11
373
320
127
83
78
7

1
1
1
3
181
5
192

37

999

12
280
134

2
164
414
394
143
122
727

441 2,017

13
226
865
663
61
15
132
5
157

46
125
•4
32
190
109
216
299
24
1

355 1,354

92.2 87.6 93.2 58.8 90.8 74.0 49.8 54.8 62.5

!9.9

laborers:
Under 30 cents........... .
30 and under 40 cents...
40 and under 50 cents...
50 Mid under 60 cents...
60 and under 70 cents...
70 and under 80 cents...
80 and under 90 cents...
90 cents and under $1...
$1 and under $1.10____
Total-

2
25
162
60
41
38
27

21
62
87
56
120
76
8
1

69.1
417
1,141
1,707
1,244
304
322
2,042
330
7

136 1,980 7,514

85.0 86.5 46.7 85.9 62.6 37.9 36.7

47.7

57.5

60

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

E.— NUMBER OP EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED O C ­
CUPATION IN EACH STATE WHOSE HOURS OF WORK IN HALF
MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS,
1924

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MININS

Number of employees in each occupation whose
classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified hours in
Penn­
half month
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ In­ Kan­ Ken­
syl­
bama rado nois diana sas tucky Ohio vania

hours were within each

Ten­ Vir­ West
nes­ ginia Vir­ Total
ginia
see

INSIDE MINE

Brakemen: 1
Under 8 hours_______
8 and under 16 hours...
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours—
40 and under 48 hours—
48 and under 56 hours..
56 an,d under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104and under 112hours.
112 and under 120 hours.
120 and under 128hours.
128 and under 136hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152 hours.
152 and under 160hours.
160 and under 168hours.
168 and under 176 hours.
192 hours and over____
Total......... _..............

2
3
4
8
12
13
16
17
10
13
22
22
36
20
10
6
3
1
2

220

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 78.1

2
1
3
5
5
9
9
13
5
14
12
1

4
16
8
13
46
37
69
133
103
94
91
80
47
10
6
3
3
1

1
5
16
16
10
17
21
23
9
10
4
3

i

6
5
5
4
4
1

1
24
23
15
19
24
25
19
33
64
54
66
79
46
26
10
5
5
1

5
7
7
14
22
22
26
13
19
10
6
4
1
2
1

12
10
10
25
31
35
45
75
96
152
142
122
109
48
40
17
8
2

2

1
1
1
1
3
10
7
10
14
14
11
9
3

1
2
5
3
2
5
7
4
4
9
11
7
12
6
2
2

26

539

161

979

85

70.9 66.6 52.7

85.2

75.5

71.1

84.1

72.5

71.3

4
1
8
4
2
9
39
13
17
37
26
28
21
8
14
• 5
1
1
1

4
4
10
10
16
10
16
28
72
90
99
123
123
45
25
12
7
5
3

1

1
1

2
2
1
4
1
3
1

1
7
8
2
8
10
5
6
19
23
25
31
44
30
11
11

Bratticemen and timbermen: 1
Under 8 hours_______
8 and under 16 hours__
16 and under 24 hours
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112hours.
112 and under 120 hours.
120 and under 128 hours.
128 and under 136 hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152 hours.
152 and under 160hours.
160 and under 168 hours.
168and under 176 hours.

1
2

2

1
2
5
2
11
4
15
7
9
8
14
5
2
1

5
2
7
11
21
10
15
13
3
8
1
2

Total.........................

89

764

8
7
19
14
25
17
52
69
62
106
66
48
25
19
5

1
4
4
5
2
4
13
13
4
14
5
5
1
5

2

1
80

14

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 79.8 79.2 73.0 65.3

99.1

100

542

2

3

1

3
5
4
6
5
4
1

1

1

1

9
2
1
1
2
1

----

237

703

36

21

81.3 80.3

89.7

75.3

79.1

245

75.7

75.0

4
11
9
12
19
18
14
31
28
24
35
68
65
53
31
12
7

6
40
35
58
62
87
63
179
191
244
341
327
343
273
137
72
28
11
7
10
4
3

2

1

18
90
96
105
187
193
270
357
374
447
483
525
479
319
149
84
41
23
11
3
3
1
I

82 1,189 4,259

135

79

9
27
40
34
56
58
72
79
79
104
111
155
145
115
52
21
11
7
6
3
3
1
1

1
5
3
2

454 2,521
81.1

81*1

i The hours for this occupation are hours actually worked on time at face, exclusive of travel time in mine
and lunch time.




61

GENERAL TABLES

E .— NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OC­
CUPATION IN EACH STATE WHOSE HOURS OF WORK IN HALF
MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS,
1924—Continued

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued

Number of employees in each occupation whose hours were within each
classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified hours in
half month

Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ In­ Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten- Vir- West Total
syl­ nes- ginia Vir­
tucky
bama rado nois diana
vania
ginia

inside mine-—
continued

Drivers: 1
Under 8 hours............
8 and under 16 hours..
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours.
48 and under 56 hours.
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours __
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112 hours.
112 and under 120 hours.
120 and under 128 hours.
128 and under 136 hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152 hours.
152and under 160 hours.
160 and under 168 hours.
Total .

3

32
44
50 !
33 |
31 i
46 '
63 .
44 |
31
21 i

7!

414
445

513
525
533
331
130
77
20
12
4

1
486

214

259
19.8 74.1

112

467 1,115

55.1

;9.o

14
56
52
38
46
54
46
51

10
8

30
41
52
55
141
119
147
207
151
63
28

74
98 I
110

134
68 i
.

78 !
14 !

69.0

167

21 1,017
85.4

71.5

721 4,603
7L8

213 2,012
73.3

81.5

72.3
63
270
237

10

*1
5
2
1,097

34
77.3

45
32
41
42
117
65
67
128
164
214
254
341
271
117
65
18
10
8
1
1
1

68

8

736

127

70.0 70. 5 80.5

23

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 75. 0 71.1




164
281

2

Laborers: 1
Under 8 hours............ .
8 and under 16 hours...
16 aud under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112 hours.
112 and under 120 hours.
120 and under 128 hours.
128 and under 136 hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152 hours.
152 and under 160 hours.
160 and under 168 hours.
168 and under 176 hours.

94614°—26------5

5
19
26
55
79
67
78
124
133
118
169
128
51
28
9
7

22

Average hours worked in
half month......................

Total.

13
119
72
148

12

21
11
12

74
79
97
91
104

120

157
185
190
172
80
43

22

11

16

2

3
126

374
455
499
819
872
656
367
161
68

28
34

5
5
1

98 1,672 7,228

62. 6 61. 5 73.5

74.2

AN THE ACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

62

E .— NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OC­
CUPATION IN EACH STATE WHOSE HOURS OF WORK IN HALF
MONTH WERE W ITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS,
1924—Continued

T able

BITUMINOrS COAL MINING—Continuod

Number of employees in each occupation whose hours were within each
classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified hours in
half month

Penn­
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ In­ Kan- Ken- Ohio syl­ Ten­ Vir­ West Total
nes­
Vir­
tucky
bama rado nois diana
vania see ginia ginia

inside mine—continued

Loaders, hand:2
Under 8 hours..............
8 and under 16 hours. _.
16 and under 24 hours ._
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours.
64 and under 72 hours.
72 and under 80 hours.
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours.
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112hours.
112 and under 120bours.
120 and under 128 hours.
128 and under 136hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152hours.
152 and under 160hours.
160 and under 168 hours.
168 and under 176 hours.
176 and under 184 hours.
184 and under 192hours.
Total.

27
122
123
115
172
264
198
289
235
263
276
251
143
294
173
73
4
34
4

7
30
31
49
68
142
81
82
124
119
113
181
94
57

11
81
148
487
138
158
360
555
367
76
57
30
1
1

214
262
299
449
510
608
706
569
770
720
845
638
385
83
46
5
48
3
2
2
2

3,060 1,178 10,079 2,470

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 70.4 66.8
Miners, hand or pick:*
Under 8 hours..............
3
8 and under 16 hours.. .
16
29
16 and under 24 hours..
27
24 and under 32 hours..
41
32 and under 40 hours..
60
40 and under 48 hours..
88
48 and under 56 hours
56 and under 64 hours
235
64 and under 72 hours.. .196
72 and under 80 hours.. 205
80 and under 88 hours.. 159
88 and under 96 hours.
81
96 and under 104 hours.
81
104 and under 112 hours. 125
112 and under 120hours.
61
38
120 and under 128 hours.
5
128 and under 136hours.
24
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152hours.
152 and under 160 hours.
184 and under 192hours.
Total.

24
100
159
379
850
806
760
, 265
,507
,341
888
,196
477
169
97
1

21
36
44
48
57
98
60
95
220
217
91
64
48
44
3

66.2
10
34
114
157
155
285
663
373
278
498
539
349
376
110

1,477 1,146 3,921

67.8

64.3

78.7
37
141
148
170
323
425
465
525
612

6
30
40
42
50
81
107
127
110
101
72
50
21
21
1
1

13 160
481
44 290 1,329
35 411 1.840
54 586 2,940
50 823 3,690
63 918 4,456
70 1,159 5,092
93 1,102 6,360
130 964 6.220
131 975 6,443
124 899 5,948
81 835 6,658
50 491 4,545
34 301 3,178
29 151 1.840
594
5
165
127
14
3
3
2
1
2

60.1

65.4 61.4
23
65
81
139
163
258
264
337
331
341
345
298
164
113
92
22
4
2
2
1
1

US
354
512
701
1,021
1,388
1,909
1,921

15 8,010

3,046

21,424

77.8 44.6 76.9

67.0 67.4

71.2

10
25
37
51
72
109
163
228
284
225
208
36
18
2

799 1,474

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 75.7 62.9 67.6 53.5

88
274
385
565
669
1,040
936
1,266
1,450
2,007
2,106
2,484
2,189
1,819
1,185
388
148
39
6

6,832 19,046 860 1,006 10,139 61,936

47.4
14
32
63
148
94
63
74
106
39
133

47
144
246
364
421
474
813
875
704
665
693
705
441
97
121
21

1,292
748
789
346
51
4
5

654

14
21
26
47
80
157
76
80
75
82
74
49
81
1

2,102

2,665
2,609
2,450
1,538
1,352
551
137
14
75
5
1
1

2 The hours for this occupation are total hours in mine, including hours actually worked, travel time in
mine, and lunch time.




g e h e s a l ta b le s

63

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OC­
CUPATION IN EACH STATE WHOSE HOURS OF WORK IN HALF
MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS,
1924—Continued.

T a b l e E .—

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued

Number of employees in each occupation whose hours were within each
classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified hours in
Penn­
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken- Ohio syl­ Ten- Vir- West Total
half month
nes- ginia Vir­
tucky
bama rado nois ana
vania
ginia
inside mine —continued

Miners, machine: 3
Under 8 hours..............
8 and under 16 hours...
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112 hours.
112 and under 120hours.
120 and under 128hours.
128 and under 136homs.
136 and under 144 hours.
144and under 152 hours.
152 and under 160hours.
160 and under 168hours.
168and under 176 hours.
176and under 184hours.
184 and under 192 hours.
392 hours and over.......
Total.

10
16
33
100
99
177
139
174
122
99
146
53
8
20

342

119 1,196

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 81.6 77.5

65.5

12
35
26
21
41
64
36
99
144
147
150
245
221
234
186
87
50
24
17
2
9
2

2
5
3
7
3
3
5
12
10
16
17
15
13
6
5
*1
2

30
119
125
244
257
314
451
612
545
517
515
723
609
548
414
191
122
69
47
21
19
3
2
1
1

740 1,852

125

975 6,499

88.3

73.1

116
48
94
55
103
96
33
49
11
1

230

797

51.7

83.3

77.1

Motormen: 8
Under 8 hours..............
8 and under 16 hours...
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours.
104and under 112 hours.
112 and under 120hoars.
120 and under 128hours.
128and under 136hours.
136and under 144hours.
144 and under 152hours.
152and under 160hours.
160 and under 168hours.
168and under 176hours.
176and under 184hours.
184 and under 192hours.
192hours and over........
Total.

158

57

532

108

486

221

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 91.9

73.6

73.4

51.2

86.1

79.4

'See footnote on p. 60.




965

79
76.6

78.6

2
12
20
27
23
41
41
64
64
67
90
118
166
111
83
47
32
21

1
4
7
11
17
25
29
41
50
96
120
143
143
140
56
40
17
9
12
2
1
1

18.7 78.7

4
55
49
71
100
112
167
225
298
356
407
478
523
411
202
131
74
38
27
7
8
3
3
1
1

1,050 3,751
.4

83.6

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

64

E . — NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OC­
CUPATION IN EACH STATE WHOSE HOURS OF WORK IN HALF
MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS,
1924—Continued

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued

Number of employees in each occupation whose hours were within each
classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified hours in
half month

Penn­ Ten- Vir- West
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ In­ Kan- KenVir­
syl­
tucky Ohio vania nes- ginia ginia Total
bama rado nois diana

inside mine —continued

Trackmen: 8
Under 8 hours______
8 and under 16 hours. ..
16 and under 24 hours
24 and under 32 hours
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours.
48 and under 56 hours.
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours..
88 and under 96 hours
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112hours.
112 and under 120hours.
120and under 128frours_
128 and under 136hours.
136 and under 144hours.
144 and under 152hours.
152and under 160hours.
160and under 168 hours.
168 and under 176hours.
Total-

1
18
8
17
22
16
16
23
34
50
52
81
108
66
33
16
7
7
3

131

90

Average hours worked in
half month..................... 84.1

85.2

153

30

71.8 57.1

91.1

81.8

84.1

89.1

15
77
50
100
116
125
151
269
296
371
429
549
544
417
237
134
23
12
7
4

83 1,119 4,026

895

579

670

8
34
16
20
42
47
45
78
48
66
103
145
143
121
83
55
20
20
13
6
3
3

4
5
10
10
20
21
26
40
101
102
144
151
124
55
36
18
11
6
5
3
1

73.6 78.9 82.7

81.2

outside m ine

Carpenters: 4
8 and under 16 hours...
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours..
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours..
48 and under 56 hours..
56 and under 64 hours..
64 and under 72 hours..
72 and under 80 hours..
80 and under 88 hours.
88 and under 96 hours..
96 and under 104 hours
104 and under 112hours.
112 and under 120hours.
120and under 128hours.
128 and under 136hours.
136 and under 144hours.
144 and under 152hours.
152 and under 160hours.
160 and under 168 hours
168 and under 176hours.
176 and under 184hours.
Total-

12
14
17
26
41
55
61
57
103
119
199
197
185
106
82
36
21
12.
3
5

83

34

143

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 87.4 87.6 84.4
8See footnote on p. 60.




13
68.0 110.5

431

178
84.5

79.1

30

95.8 83.6 74.7

355 1,354
91.4

89.6

GENERAL TABLES

65

E .— NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OC­
CUPATION IN EACH STATE WHOSE HOURS OF WORK IN HALF
MONTH WERE WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS,
1924—Continued

T able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued

Number of employees in each occupation whose hours were within each
classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified hours in
half month

Ala- Colo­ Illi­ In­ Kan- Ken­ Ohio Penn­ Ten­ Vir­ West
syl­ nes­
Vir­ Total
tucky
bama rado nois diana
vania see ginia ginia

outside mine —continued

Laborers: <
Under 8 hours..............
8 and under 16 hours...
16 and under 24 hours..
24 and under 32 hours
32 and under 40 hours..
40 and under 48 hours.
48 and under 56 hours.
56 and under 64 hours.
64 and under 72 hours.
72 and under 80 hours.
80 and under 88 hours.
88 arid under 96 hours.
96 and under 104 hours.
104 and under 112 hours.
112 and under 120 hours.
120 and under 128 hours .
128 and under 136 hours.
136 and under 144 hours.
144 and under 152 hours.
152and under 160 hours.
160 and under 168 hours.
168 and under 176 hours.
176 and under 184 hours.
184 and under 192 hours.
192 hours and over..
Total..

580

210

765

192

441 2,017

37

Average hours worked in
half month...................... 71.9 77.6 75.7 57.2
* The hours for this occupation are hours actually worked.




3
30
31
36
40
46
50
86
119
212
225
226
214
220
147
140
84
48
27
14
11
3
2
2
1

5
30
29
29
37
40
61
47
67
74
100
119
160
106
38
27
20
5

3
19
9
11
21
42
64
80
59
70
98
101
63
57
29
12

78.3

73.6

12
39
36
51
52
82
85
125
120
128
181
250
259
184
133
86
66
36
20
16
9
6
2
1
1
157

19.8 70.2

136
68.9 84.8

27
167
150
220
238
327
418
471
491
679
788
839
412
302
192
107
69
37
24
14

7,514
11.2

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

66

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPA­
TION IN EACH STATE WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE
WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924

T a b l e F .—

BITUMINOUS GOAL MINING
Number of employees in each occupation whose earnings in half month
were within each classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings in
half month

Penn­ Ten- Vir- West
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan­ Ken­
Vir­
syl­
bama rado nois ana sas tucky Ohio vania
ginia ginia Total

INSIDE MINE

Brakemen:
Under $5..................
$5 and under $10___
$10 and under $15.. _
$15 and under $20...
$20 and under $25...
$25 and under $30._ _
$30 and under $35___
$35 and under $40__
$40 and under $45 _. _
$45 and under $50.. _
$50 and under $55___
$55 and under $60__
$60 and under $65...
$65 and under $70...
$70 and under $75...
$75 and under $80...
$80 and under $90...
$90 and under $100..
$100 and under $110.
$110 and under $120.
$120 and under $140.
Total..

11
5
9
7
14
25
31
41
46
48
49
78
101
73
119
164
92
44
16
6
220

79

764

135

26

539

161

979

2
3
11
9
17
9
18
11
2
3

85

2
6
3
6
10
7
9
14
14
6
4
1

82 1,

67
90
67
107
137
142
139
85
57
39
36
24
29
24
3
2

58
101
90
124
178
201

270
296
303
368
365
243
270
283
197
253
353

201

69
23
13

4,259

Average earnings in half
month........................ ..... $29.99 >. 70 $62.14 $49.72 $73. 65 $43.01 $64.77 $59.24 $30. 58 $31.27 $44.10 $53.25
4
Bratticemen and timbermen:
Under $5......................
$5 and under $10..........
$10 and under $15....... .
$15 and under $20-____
$20 and under $25....... .
$25 and under $30....... .
$30 and under $35....... .
$35 and under $40....... .
$40 and under $45....... .
$45 and under $50....... .
$50 and under $55....... .
$55 and under $60....... .
$60 and under $65....... .
$65 and under $70....... .
$70 and under $75____
$75 and under $80....... .
$80 and under $90....... .
$90 and under $100......
$100 and under $110_
_
$110 and under $120_
_
$120 and under $140_
_
$140 and under $160_
_

Total..

22
39
23
42
76
79
93
105
114
115
183
155
227
246
128
206
281
232
80
56
15
4

2
4
10
8
11
16
13
12
32
42
86
127
52
46
98
73
34
22

100

542

80

14

245

237

703

36

21

454 2,521

Average earnings in half
month............................. $34.74 $73.98 >68.44 $61.19 $93.13 $50.36 $74.89 $71.69 $34.42 $38.61 $49.76 $63.04




GENERAL TABLES
T

67

F .— NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPA­
TION IN EACH STATE WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE
WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924— Continued

able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Number of employees in each occupation whose earnings in half month
were within each classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings in
half month

Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten­ Vir­ West Total
Vir­
syl­ nes­
tucky
bama rado nois ana
vania see ginia ginia

inside mine —continued

Drivers:
Under $5.................
$5 and under $10___
$10 and under $15...
$15 and under $20. ..
$20 and under $25...
$25 and under $30...
$30 and under $35. _.
$35 and under $40...
$40 and under $45...
$45 and under $50...
$50 and under $55...
$55 and under $60...
$60 and under $65._ _
$65 and under $70...
$70 and under $75...
$75 and under $80...
$80 and under $90- . .
$90 and under $100..
$100 and under $110.
$110 and under $120.
$120 and under $140.
$140 and under $160.

34
39
45
67
77
106
83
26

22

1.8

10
17
26
46
44
79
115

111

134
142
74
82
61
89
43

Total.

259

214

Average earnings in iialf
month...................... $22. ( $65. 59 $69. 53 $51. 99
Laborers:
Under $5___________
$5 and under $10____
$10 and under $15____
$15 and under $20.......
$20 and under $25____
$25 and under $30____
$30 and under $35.......
$35 and under $40____
$40 and under $45____
$45 and under $50____
$50 and under $55____
$55 and under $60____
$60 and under $65____
$65 and under $70____
$70 and under $75____
$75 and under $80____
$80 and under $90____
$90 and under $100___
$100 and under $110
$110 and under $120
$120 and under $140.. _
$140 and under $160...
$160 and under $180...

Total.

10

5
9
2
9
16
22
36
64
50
72
80

120

38
126
183
,115
117
46
14
7
4
1
69 1,097

1,115

167

34

721 4.603

$44.56 $65.77 $62. 72 $26. 50 $35. 76 $45. 66 $54.08
48
67
59
52
58
92
118
96
103
58
36
40
39
54
20
24
50
3

21
7
4
24
38
8
40
46
21
108

736

112

65
124
86
139
232
246
300
S04
290
334
327
276
320
286
192
234
318
346
123
45
15
1

21 1,017

83
70
80
74
92
129
107
191

18
41
37
25
49
44
57
108
117
132

221

180

111

212

78
59
49
49
18
58
14
4
3

152
170
141
113
129
266
113
49
28
11
213 2,012

126

217
292
274
264
350
421

417
546
589
475
5C
1
424
358
400
395
328
529
231
81
54
19
2
1

98 1,672 7,228

Average earnings in half
month_______________ $28.73 $65.46 $63.08$56.89 $80.37 $38.02 $63.48 $60.58 $24.90 $23.84 $39.89 $48.74




ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING

68
T

F . — NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPA­
TION IN EACH STATE WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE
WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924— Continued

able

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Number of employees in each occupation whose earnings in half month
were within each classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings in
half month

Penn­ Ten- Vir- West
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken­
syl­
bama rado nois ana
tucky Ohio vania nes- ginia Vir- Total
ginia

inside mine—
continued

Loaders, hand:
Under $5......................
$5 and under $10___
$10 and under $15...
$15 and under $20...
$20 and under $25...
$25 and under $30...
$30 and under $35...
$35 and under $40...
$40 and under $45...
$45 and under $50...
$50 and under $55...
$55 and under $60...
$60 and under $65...
$65 and under $70...
$70 and under $75...
$75 and under $80...
$80 and under $90...
$90 and under $100___
$100 and under $110___
$110 and under $120.
$ 20 and under $140.
J
$140 and under $160.
$160 and under $180___
$180 and under $200.
$200 and under $220.
$240 and under $260.
Total.

135
186
192
263
351
373
377
306
228
213
143
90
63
50
26
28
19
8
5

65
98
145;
232
294
443:
539
572!
573;
690’
716
803;
744!
705!
617j
866!
580:
498j
413:
373!
65!
16
4

8
40
85
93
118
201
195
181
184
196
193
185
187
207
113
77
122
35
36
9.
4.

229
336
341
438
590
580
635
574
583
505
444
336
319
223
166
142
270
230
139
87
72
19

3,060 1,178 10,079 2,470

53
113
181
259
328
352
435
520
645
632
570
595
466
437
330
234
279
172
98
50
60
14
7
2

403
535
658
824
972
1,118
1,276
1,374
1,385
i,r~
1,462
1,:
1,207
1,'
935

1,222

744
413
230
175
32
5
3

6,832.19,046;
i

Average earnings in half
month............................ $31.93 $53.41 $66.40 $49.05

39
63
80
99
124
98
82
70
58
52
41
16
13

38
56;
67;
64
95
91
103
98!
72!
7|
8
55
47i
3|
2
29
23
18
17
11
5

198
284
391
512
585
692
733
818
840
766
758
715
621
281
474
232
126
58
47
11
5
2

970
1,586

2,012

2,590
3,301
3,717
4,206
4,453
4,631
4,458
4,328
4,228
3,970
3,516
2,985
2,401
3,368
2,052
1,336
866
750
151
46
12
1
2

860 1,006 10,139 61,936

$43. 78 $50.87 $53.68 $28.73 $37.24 $46. 91 $51.29

Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi- Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten- West Other To­
Vir­
syl­
tucky
bama rado nois
vania
ginia States tal
Miners, hand or pick:
Under $ 5-..................
$5 and under $10..........
$10 and under $15.........
$15 and under $20.........
$20 and under $25........
$25 and under $30.........
$30 and under $35........
$35 and under $40........
$40 and under $45.........
$45 and under $50........
$50 and under $55........
$55 and under $60........
$60 and under $65.........
$65 and under $70........
$70 and under $75........
$75 and under $80........
$80 and under $90........
$90 and under $100___
$100 and under $110___
$110 and under $120___
$120 and under $140___
$140 and under $160___
$160 and under $180...
$1S0 and under $200...
$200 and under $220. . .
Total.

21
41
58
112
141
137
141:
166
150
117,
106!
7|
2
49;
49,
28,
iej
37!
15j
12
3

20
24
27
46
46
55
68
74
62
102;
107
83
81
84!
71!
47j
6l|
34:
28
11
5
6
2
2

24
32
5|
5
86;
130:
194
201
249
261
315
270
245
221
186
356
178
81
52
47
5
2

1,477 1,146 3,921

14
18
26
26
«&
4
37
30

94
147
179
218
291
373
474
543
573
621
616
650
559
574
451
413
554
333
183
84
62
13
1
2
2

654

8,010

117
130
115
133
102
91
4
91
70!
119!

1,474

46
77
127
77
78
73
65
80
61
35
26
27
19
9
9
18
3
4
3

260
66........
412
85........
551
112........
786
167____
975
157]
2 1,125
1,320
230
2 1,499
253........ 1,615
270
3 1,771
240
1 1,674
236
1 1,604
205........ 1,387
178
2 1,335
144
1 1,093
90........
893
159____ 1,414
786
445
241
177
47

3,046

21,424

Average earnings in half
month___________ ____ $40.07 $53.31 $57.38 $54.28 $57. 70 $55.00 $40.54 $54.91 $33.60 $51.18 $53.38;$53.06




69

GENERAL TABLES

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPA­
TION IN EACH STATE WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE
WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924— Continued

T a b l e F .—

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Number of employees in each occupation whoso earnings in half month
were within each classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings in
half month

Penn­
Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Kcn- Ohio syl­ Ten- Vir- West
Vir­
tucky
ginia ginia Total
bama rado nois ana
vania

inside mine —continued

Miners, machine:
Under $5........................
$5 f nd under $10..........
$10 and under $15........
$15 and under $20........
$20 and under $25........
$25 and under $30........
$30 and under $35........
$35 and under $40........
$40 and under $45........
$45 and under $50..........
$50 and under $55........
$55 and under $60........
$60 and under $65........
$65 and under $70........
$70 and under $75........
$75 and under $80........
5®0 and under $90........
$60 and under $100___
$100 and under $110...
$110 and under $120...
$120 and under $140.. $140 and under $160___
$160 arid under $180.
$180 and under $200.
$200 and under $220.
$220 and under $240.
$240 and under $260.
$260 and under $280.
$280 and under $300.

14
25
15
25
18
23
25
40
31
44
72
61
83
100
100
93
174
180
139
153
171
122
79 I
.
27 !
28
2 i,
41
2i
2|
.

5
4
2
13
14
25
20
26
34
26
48
68

56

86

82
145
135
95
59
132
95
19
5

299
348
329
599
556
421
373
569
360
170
90
49
14
8
2
5
93

1,196

Total..

Average earnings in half
month............................ $63.29 $96.56 $90.10 $83.15
Motormen:
Under $5......................
$5 and under $10..........
$10 and under $15........
$15 and under $20........
$20 and under $25........
$25 and under $30........
$30 and under $35........
$35 and under $40........
$40 and under JM
5........
$45 and under $50........
$50 and under $55........
$55 and under $60........
$60 and under $65........
$65 and under $70........
$70 and under $75........
$75 and under $80........
$80 and under $90.........
$90 and under $100.......
$100 and under $110___
$110 and under $120___
$120 and under $140___
$140 and under $160___
Total..

87
76
81
102
145
183
216
228
248
261

$72.79 $90.62 $92.95 $37. 56 $60.53 $83.09 $84.79
4
3
5
12
5
20
17
19
37
32
42
68
83
100
78
185
149
63
29
13
1

8
3
2
2
4
2
20
12
10
25
33
48
42
54
40
101
63
43
14
4
2
158

57

532

108

6*499

18 I 486

221

965

19
17
22
32
47
53
54
52
108
130
134
87
80
58
44
56
38
11

j
i
i
!
■
'
i
:
!
:
I
79

12
57
87
101
136
162
205
291
307
293
278
288
250
200
421
327
155
57

77 1,050 3,751

Average earnings in half
month............................. $43.00 $71.61 $74.38 $52.00 $88.32 $53.46 $73.19 $75. 70 $37.82 $45.65 $53.83 $62.89




70

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL M INING

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPA­
TION IN EACH STATE WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE
WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924— Continued

T a b le F .—

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING—Continued
Number of employees in each occupation whose earnings in half month
were within each classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings in
half month

Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi- Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten- Vir- West
syl­ nes- ginia Vir­ Total
tucky
bama rado nois
vania
ginia

inside mine —continued

Trackmen:
Under $5.................
$5 and under $10---$10 and under $15...
$15 and under $20...
$20 and under $25.
$25 and under $30...
$30 and under $35...
$35 end under $40.._
$40 and under $45...
$45 and under $50. __
$50 and under $55...
$55 and under $60...
$60 and under $65...
$65 and under $70. _.
$70 and under $75...
$75 and under $80. ._
$80 and under $90.
$90 and under $J00._
$100 and under $110.
$110 and under $120.
$120 and under $140.
$140 and under $160.
$160 and under $180.
Total.

1
6
1
3
4
14
26
21

16
26
53
33
84
70
21

77
108
83
10
10

131

670

Average earnings in half
month............................ $38. 84 $81.66

53
63
45
81
136
117
160
192
231
276
351
285
358
316
186
264
405
315
109
46
30

4
3
6
11
10
7
20
18
31
49
55
87
120
79
89
145
99
31
15
13

153

30

579

1,119 4,026

63

0.
47 $53. 58|$85.38:$50.11 $78.26 $71.95 $34. 79$39.44 $E 89 $59.83

outside mine

Carpenters:
Under $5.................
$5 and under $10___
$10 and under $15__
$15 and under $20__
$20 and under $25...
$25 and under $30...
$30 and under $35...
$35 and under $40...
$40 and under $45...
$45 and under $50...
$50 and under $55...
$55 and under $60...
$60 and under $65...
$65 and under $70__
$70 and under $75.. .
$75 and under $80__
$80 and under $90...
$90 and under $100. .
$100 and under $110.
$110 and under $120.
$120 and under $140.
$140 and under $160.
Total.

1
13
16
27
38
39
56
62
101
90
130
89
108
81
91
86
129
103
53
23
14
4
83

34

143

13

178

59

431

30

24

355 1,354

Average earnings in half
month............................. $34.88 $74.42 $77.80 $59.57 $102.94 $49.71 $71.80 $70.90 $41.61 $40.91 $57.12 $61.96




GENERAL TABLES

71

NUMBER OP EMPLOYEES IN EACH SPECIFIED OCCUPA­
TION IN EACH STATE WHOSE EARNINGS IN HALF MONTH WERE
WITHIN EACH CLASSIFIED AMOUNT, 1924r—C o n t in u e d

T a b l e F .—

BITUMIKOUS COAL MOTHG—Continued

Number of employees in each occupation whose earnings in half month
were within each classified group
Place of work, occupation,
and classified earnings in
half month

Ala­ Colo­ Illi­ Indi­ Kan- Ken- Ohio Penn­ Ten- Vir- West Total
syl­ nes- ginia Vir­
tucky
bama rado nois ana
vania
ginia

o u t s id e m i n e — continued

Laborers:
Under $5..................
$5 and under $10----$10 and under $15...
$15 and under $20.._
$20 and under $25
$25 and under $30...
$30 and under $35...
$35 and under $40...
$40 and under $45...
$45 and under $50._.
$50 and under $55...
$55 and under $60...
$60 and under $65...
$65 and under $70...
$70 and under $75...
$75 and under $80.. .
$80 and under $90...
$90 and under $100..
$100 and under $110.
$110 and under $120.
$120 and under $140.
$140 and under $160.
Total.

35
39
63
70
78
111
91
128
99
74
57
34
23
22
29
14
22
10

46
121
81
98
105
42
27
9
11
1
3

580

210

765

Average earnings in half
month............................ $20.39 $55.53 65.36




192

37

12
31
37
36
60
66
92
170
180
161
172
150
158
157
109
112
146
101
46
17
441 2,017

137
163
215
251
245
211
165
118
71
39
50
40
40
5
2

157

136

133
208
350
309
489
554
527
673
657
585
516
402
354
359
312
316
387
223
94
35
29
2
7,514

$76.77 16.55 13.24 $56.20 $26.64 $25.33 $40.44 $46.73

T

able

G.— NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS)
IN HALF MONTH, 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION, AND STATE

-g
**

BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
Employees whose starts (days on which they worked) in the half month were—
1

3

2

5

4

6

8

7

9

10

11

12

13

14 15 16 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Per cent

Number

ANTHRACITE

Number of— Average
number
Place of work,
of starts
occupation, and
Em­ (days)
State
Mines ploy­ in half
month
ees
INSIDE MINE

Total_____

8.9

24
37
43
18
6
63
44
131
18
10
110

89
100
542
80
14
245
237
703
36
21
454

484 2,521




19 17 11 26
4
9
5 18
64 124 117 93
15 20 24 13
2
1
6
2l ""26 ' " ’ 14 '""18 ""‘ 21 """•82 16 31 80
4
7
6
6 19 29 25
2
8 10 23 34 35 45 90 84
11
1
9
6 10 . 9
2
2
3 ~~5
3
3
7
3
R
4
5
34 28 44 43 61 66 84 80 111|
100
--- --

3
9.2
2
9.8
9.1
6
1
8.2
11.9
7
9.5
ft 8
2
4
10.7
9.0 ----93
9! 6 16
9.8

40

3
1
8
5

84

8

8
16

13
3
48
13

25 36 28 13 3
2
1
6 10 13
9
3— 2
120 66 41
7
3
8
___
2
9
3
3
66 79 70 52 10 3 ___ ”
8
8 3 3 __
18 23
146 197 161 96 21 15 3
17 18
8
3
IS
9 10
3 4
130 176 188 103 25 10 6

2
3
2
1

1 4
1
1” l
4 12

4 ” 5 ‘ "3
1 __ 2
1 3 1
1
2
4~6 4
~
3 2 4

6
4
6
10
4
2
”6
4

“

6 9 8 5
6 5 11 6
4 816 15
7 11 1518
4 23
4 "6 3 6
4 4 12 18
3 4 5 9
2 11 7 12
4 9 4 5
5 6 7 7

12
23
12
10
8
15
16
9
11
10
9

11
8
16
5
8
12
11
15
20
18
11

16
13
9
6
12
15
14
20
21
11
15

33
16
5
2
12
13
5
16
9
12
16

6 1
1 __
3
1 1 0) 0)
35
10
5
10
4
4
9

2 1—
2 2—
2 2 0)
5
2 1

1

108 173 189 257 344 407 469 552 625 533 298 74 35 11 2 2 3 4 4 6 810 11 13 15 13 7 2 1 (*)
E
= = !=
T
------ .... i'lrr.i-i't■- --- = =
■■
i .— = == == = = r= =
.— 3=
in 1
:=====
1
1

2

5
4

13
3

19
5

9
2
4

2
9
8
2

7
4
8
1

48

2
9 ' " ‘ l6
35

13
5
34
10

5
5
20
3

2
2
21
3

9
7
39
7

6
10
79
19

4
6
12

17

12
2
18
3
1
18

8
33
18
3
]
28

17
23
31
5
1
32 “

63

87

17

9
7 16
8 1
20
14 13
3 7 4
22 11
65 107 63 54 32 12 7 IIII
3 16
5
4
3 4
1
2
8
3
19 38 ” 54 37 26 5
17 25 34 32 23 21 2 2
72 93 116 138 132 29 18 2
4
4
7
5
2
1
3
2
10
’ 24 40 79 81 48 24 6 6

1 2 6 2 10 7
3
5 2 7 10
2
1 1 2 4 4 4 7 15
1 5 4 6 4 4 924
3 4 1 3
1 1 4 2
1 1 1 1
6 3
10
3 2 ""2 ""4

22
22
12
4
7
8
7
10
11

10 8
11 14
20 12
20 6
23
5 2 3 7
16 ’ 22
1 3 14 10
11 14
3 2 3 4
13 17
11 19
8
814
5
5 5
48 14
4 "4 6 7 "’ 5 9 17

18
13
10
5
14
15
14
20
14
5
18

9
3
6
4
57
11
10
19
6
10
11

1
7 4
2 1
5
2
9 1 1
4 3 0)
5 1

1

67 163 223 247 356 382 383 287 103 37 10 2 3 2 2 3 3 6 9 10 14 15 15 11 4 1 0)
= = = ; =s S3 == =
ss== sss = sss
SSSi ....
SSS
ssatsfi
ss= se=

M INING

Brattice men and
timbermen:
Alabama __
Colorado
Illinois...........
Indiana
Kansas
ITpTitnrlrv
XC v vk
k IJ UJ jr
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania
XcUlltJoow••
VU lU•
giU
West Virginia

647 4,259
■ 1■ ~
'!" "

5
2
19
1

COAL

Total..........

86
8! 8
8.1
6.6
10! 7
8.9
8.8
9.9
9.1
84
9i0

BITUMINOUS

Kansas..........
Kentucky___
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania
1 uiiiivO . ___
dvC
VirfTlTllft •••..
VUgliUaiWest Virginia

24
220
16
79
764
43
19
135
9
26
75
539
48
161
147
979
85
20
82
12
134 1,189

AD
N

Brakemen:
Alabama
Colorado
Illinois...........

Cagers:

Colorado.......
Illinois....... . .
Indiana_____
Kansas..........
Kentucky___
Ohio......
Pennsylvania
West Virginia

46
22
9
12
26
56
18

20
109
47
20
42
45
96
31

11.1

Total..........

198

410

9.6

Drivers:
Alabama____
Colorado.......
Illinois...........
Indiana..........
Kansas..........
Kentucky___
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
Virginia........
West Virginia
T o ta l.......
Laborers:
Alabama____
Colorado.......
Illinois...........
Indiana_____
Kansas..........
Kentucky___
Ohio.__........
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
Virginia.........
West Virginia

486
259
599
214
112
469
467
1,115
127
34
721
377 4,6
35
7
39
18
7
69
36
131
18
12
130

9.4
9.7
8.4
8.3
9.7

10.6

8.5
17

41 71 42
14 40 37
113 64 91
25 19 18
14
6
8
36 35 45
38 35 49
76 113 157
16 10
9
5
53 83

11.1

8.5
8.8
9.7
8.2
9.8
8.9

126
98
1,672

111

81 118 156 272 347

8.5
8.9
8.6
7.5
10.7
8.4
8.9
9.8
7.8
7.6
8.8

2,012

41

7.5
8.7
8.8
7.0

8.8

736
69
1,097
167
21
1,017
213

1
17
5
3
1
4
8
2

Total..........

502 7,228

8.9

Loaders, contract:
Alabama, i __
Kentucky___
Virginia.........
West Virginia

72
85
4
9
170

9.5

42

60
53 53
9
15
6 14
113 141 151 219
7 18 20 23
___
1
1
56 72 ~"94 129
17 20 22 30
66 130 161 239
8 12 10 14
7 13
8 20
94 103 132 177

*Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




290 249 228 255

2
17
2

1
4
1

1
5
22
2

2
10
4
10
3
7
14
3

8
1

1
1
5
1

50

51

53

16

10

56
21
75
21
33
90
56
126
10
4
90

31
46
79
7
9
38
47
208
16
1
99

14
5
14
6
50
38
42
141
8
2
68

1
5
3

4

562

581

388

1

1
2
1 ___

5
1 1
2 __ “ 4

3
6

15 5 5
4 5 7 16
4 9 9 19
5
10
7 7 24 2
2 4 18 4
2 3 7 3
6 3 3 26

2

5

1

1

2

4

5

6

4

4 2 9
2 ....
6
““3
"2
12
6
2 3 2 5
34
8 ___ 1 1 1
1
5 1 3
4
1
3
3
16
4 ‘ ” *2 2 ~~2 2

4 8 9 11 8
4 7 7 13 5
5 8 4 7 19
6 10 16 7 12
1 1
7 13
4 5 ”9 11 8
1 2 7 19 8
2 5 6 6 7
4 6 10 17 7
3
6 9
4 " 6 II 6 9

84

3

3

1

^x= -■■— ■= = = = == = ==
rr , ■
== ==
■
■

==
——• = = = = = = =
1=

3

2
2

27

6

=

7
’ "4
2” 4
6 13

4 5 10 10

25 5 15 10
9 16 8 16
11 11 9 4
10 15 10
2 29 "2
16 9 11 11
6 8 13 23
3 6 10 6

9 10 12 12 13

(i) 1 4
2 0) 1

2

2

15
15
11
9
5
7
7
10
13
15
7

9
14
15
8
7
10
10
14
8
26
12

6 8 9 9 10 12 12 13

4
3
2”
9
5
4
1
2
6
6
3

3

959

910

707 209

3

4

10.2

18
4
15
15
3 .....
1

7
34
1
4

1

1
2

2

3 18 10 7 1 18 25 6
2 2 4 1 6 7 18 18
75
11 "22

19

37

46

2 ....

1 . . . . .. . . . .

2

2

11.8

10

21

14

8

2

= =• = == = s = = = = = = = = = =

92 16 12
6 5
1
3
4
9
35
6
4 3 1
4 ___
3 ___ 1 7
2 ___ ___ _
6
93 18
2
1 6 ’6
9 ___ 4 8
18 16
270 85 30
2 3 2
5
5 4
1 6
2
3
179 62 18
7 6 4
83

2

1

6 3 0) (9
8 18 2 2
13 13 2 1 l 0)
10 3 3
12 8 45 2
19 8 8 1 0)
12 10 9 3 1 0)
11 19 13 3 1
g 13 6 1
12 3 6 12 3
12 14 9 2 1 0)

78
10
66
13
3
89
17
389
11
2
232

677 920

4

12

13

352 437

10 5
9 4 1 2
9 2 2
50
7 "*2 ”'2
2 "~2
16
15 ” § 5
10 3 3 . . .

==■ == = = = = = ==== — = = = = = ===

89
5
147
11
5
168
15
292
18
8
201

10.5

Total..........

1
44
10
1
55
6
116
6
12
82

457 549

3
9
4
2
12
5
12
3

4

3

5 6 7 7 9 8
1 22 9 20 13
4 4 _5 10 13 14 20
8 6 10 4 11 12 14
5 5
5 5
4 5 1 6 7 " 9 ’ l3
3 3 4 8 9 10 14
2 6 3 3 6 8 12
2 5 16 6 10 8 11
4 12 6 13 8 20
5 5 6 6 6 8 11
5 5 6 8

12 11
7 14
13 6
7 8
24 14
17 9
7 8
15 19
14 9
8 2
12 14

12 2 2
4 1
3 1 1 C)
1
2
2
29 16
9 2 0) (0
8 8 4
13 4 1 71
)
4
2 3
11 4 1 (>)

9 13 13 13 10

3

10
40
25
44 22

9 6 4 4 11 22 12 27

1 0)

1 ---

1 0)
1

1 ...

able

G .— NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS)
IN HALF MONTH, 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION, AND STATE— Continued
BITUMHrOUS COAL MINISG—Continued
Number of—

Place of work,
occupation, and
State

Average
number
of starts
Em­ (days)
Mines ploy­ in half
month
ees

Employees whose starts (days on which they worked) in the half month were—
1

2

3

4

8

7

6

5

10

9

11

12

14 15 16 1

13

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Number

P er c e n t

INSIDE MINE—con.

3,060
1,178
10,079
2,470
7,266
6,832
19,046
860
1,006
10,139

514 61,936

127
31
143
142
231
179
295
32
48
272

101
39
266
473
277
354
546
39
44
449

169
42
898
119
378
378
623
41
46
554

76

6

1
2
253 5
231 8
911 61
8
24 45
549 68

1 ----

4 ‘4
2| 3
1 1
3 6
3 3
2 3
3 .... 1 2
3 4
2 5
9 5 2 3

8.1 1,092 1,500 2,588 3,248 3,872 5,273 6,580 7,642 6,642 8, 3387,921 4,975 2,054 193 13
2
2

3
4

1

2
5

8
3
5

8
9

1
8
1

2
11

4
4

1

3

6

4

7

1

7

16

17

10

13

8

1

76 118
6
15
12 27
1
1
5 20

54
38
36

43
8
34
7

76
4
74
6

78
4
65
9

23
1
19
14

1

74 100 204

98

88 160 153

56

1

2
5
3

15
46
41

11.6
10.8
7.0

1
4

4

TotaL___

10

102

9.4

5

4

Miners, gang:
Illinois
Indiana
Pennsylvania
West Virginia
Other States..

18
6
8
6
2

573
98
282
43
40

7.7
7.0
9.2
10.0
5.9

5
2

11
3

26
7
1

1

2

6
1
2

Total

40

1,036

8.1

10

19

36

37

23
7

40
5
6
3
10

3
3
o
19
4
5
3
5
4
4

6
4
9
5
5
6
3
5
5
5

10 9 10 10
10 12 7
6 9il7 18
3 11H 30
4
7 8! 9 10
6 13il4 11
5 6|7 11
8 8113 17
4 el 8 11
7 9! 9 8

5 2 2 4 5 6 9lll 12
~1
1
4
1
8 8il3 4
510
10 _1
10 10 7
i-"
6 4j 7 h
5 4 3
1
1
1

i i
21
7 13^ 9
5 1 ^ 6 39
5
2 4ll0 13
2j 2
l5
25 131 ft
2 3 4 7 10120 9
_l

2 5 4
3 7 7
O) 2
2
3 5 5

15
13
11
3
10
9
12
15
14
10

10
20
17
3
14
14
14
13
17
11

11 7
10 9
6 2
3
14 ’ *9
12 2
18 12
8 3
10 7
13 12

2 0) 0) —
0)
C
O
3 0)
3 0)
5 C) (l) —
1
1
2 4
5 1 "(0 0)

11 13 13 8j 3 0) 0) 0)
7 13 27
53
9 14 34 37 50 19 4
12 12 22 2
7 lfi! 17 10 131 8 1

M INING

3

2
4

West Virginia
Other States__




297 272 308 305 449 300 337 199
122 84 142 88 152 233 118 107
594 903 1,692 1,858 1,082 1,739 589 245
86 279 345 739 84 63 67
508 609 637 733 746 992 1,024 681
398 894 956 718 635 964 836 161
997 1,153 1,373 2,151 2,235 2, 653 3,506 2,288
69 67 111 142 126 108 73 22
45 60 81 113 142 171 96 66
756 952 935 795 991 1,115 1,275 1, 206

COAL

Loaders, machine:
Ohio

7.6 113
8.0 20
7.6 69
6.0 72
8.1 192
7.7 120
8.9 251
22
7.5
8.2 25
8.2 208

BITUMINOUS

Total___. . .

32
15
35
15
78
55
128
17
12
127

AN
D

Loaders, hand:
Alabama.......
Colorado
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky___
Ohio
____
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
Virginia.........
West Virginia

M
^

ANTHRACITE

! __________________________________________________________________________________________________
1C
_ O

T

13 14 4I
4 4
26! 23
14! 21
2
1
j
8 15- 15 5\(l)

8
8
12
16

Miners, hand or
pick:
Alabama.......
Colorado____
Illinois_____Indiana_____
Kansas_____
Kentucky___
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
West Virginia
Other States—

18
11
28
12
9
14
2
105
14
77
1

1,477
1,146
3,921
799
1,474
654
15
8,010
869
3,046
13

8.3
7.9
8.1
7.1
9.8
8.5
5.5
8.7
8.0
8.5
9.8

17 20 28 45 77
17 23 32 34 69
32 40 197 130 213
ft8 44 ft3 132
11
8 ?1
7
26 43
14 14 14 34 5ft
1
1
1
5
m 143 140 333 403
i?
18 23 3ft 77
31 63 97 177 207

268 358 597 834 1,274 2,047 1,836 2,49812,7803,275 2,820 1,888 891 54

8.5

342
27
119
15
35 1,196
15
260
75
797
57
740
126 1,852
125
16
12
93
107
975

8.4
8.8
7.8
6.5
8.8
8.8
9.7
8.2
9.9
9.0

10
3
39
1
42
6
1
20

Total..........

485 6,499

8.8

135

21
158
11
57
532
43
20
108
18
7
76
486
221
57
965
148
19
79
77
12
134 1,050

10.1
8.9
8.7
6.5
10.9
9.9
9.6
10.3
9.6
10.4
10.0

548 3,751

9.7

Motormen:
Alabama____
Colorado____
Illinois.........
Indiana_____
Kansas_____
Kentucky___
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee.. _
Virginia. West VirginiaTotal..........

9
4
16
4
3
7

-

8
.

3
3
24
48
16
43
20
8

10
16
1
23
3
4
22 "“'47

13
4
63
17
19
16
40
1
1
46

182
129
434
130
171
68
1
584 563 1,017
150 6ft 76
238 268 289
1

309 124 158
300 103 78
452 704 666
46 175 44
205 125 239
74 72 91
1
3
2
941 1,491 1,007
129 85 105
322 381 431
12

109 45
63
137
1
137 315
42 77

2

992 268 6
52 47 1
355 139 45

4? 19 36 16 51 43 48 45
9
6
6 23
2 13 12 17 29
69 177 173 226 122 203 87 39
2 32 22 97
4 23
2
44 52 52 70 91 99 102 118 74 5
9 53 137 78 42 88 197 17 55 3
61 84 100 142 178 230 349 382 182 18
4
5 15 25 22 28
5
2
3
2
8 14 19 21
9
3 7
60 75 64 66 50 67 99 211 115 25

1 ....

3

2
14

4
3
9
2
2
23

7
5
9
3
2
21

431 52

2
1
21
15
12
6
17

3
3
17
5

10
3
33
10

8
6
64
12

11
6
30

19
7
27
2

26

31

48

18
15
37
5
1
66

8
6
89
24
3
19
31
77
10
1
71

1
2
1
4
1
2
7
2
2
2

2
3
5
6
1
2
7
2
3
3

5111 14 12
6j 6 20 11
5 16 7 11
1713 8 16
3 4 8H
2
8 8 7 10
7
7
7 7
4 5 ~ ~ 13
4 9 17 7 9
6 7 8 9 9
8

3
3
.3
3
2
5

21
26
12
6
14
11
13
12
15
11

8
9
18
22
8
11
20
19
10
13
92

11 7 3 O) O)
7 5
17 3
6 O)
16 9l 21
14 6 12
7
13 12 3 O)
12 6 5 O)
14 12 5 1 O) —

2 3 4 6 10 9 12 13 15 13 9i 4 O) O)
1
3 2 1 4 12 6 11 5 15 13 14 13! 3
3 3 5 5 19 2 11 10 14 24!
3
1 0) 2
6 15 14 19 10 17 7 3
1 4 18 7 1 12 8 37 1 2 9
5 2 2 2 6 7 7 9 11 12 13 15 9 1
O) O) 6 2 1 7 19 11 6 12 27 2 7 O)
1 — - 2 1 1 2 3 5 5 8 10 12 19 21 10 1 O) —
5 2 7 1 3 4 4 12 20 18 22 2
1
1 4
1
9 15 20 23 10 3 8 1
2
8
2 2
5 " e 8 7 7 5 7 10 22 12 3 .1

4 ----

90 213 220 297 505 615 720 588 787 971 852 438 58 10 ---3
1
3
2

1
1
1
1
(0
2
33
2
1
1

18 19 34 20 27 2 2
1
1
7
3
6
19
3 1
77 85 66 28 24 "~7
1
3
3
9
6
1
2
2
3
7
49 61 114 76 64 10 6 — 18 25 37 24 21 9 9
87 118 223 158 115 32 22 1
3
6 18 17 13
9 24 10 21
2 5
74 99 159 203 143 49 20 7

71 100 106 159 232 339 369 461 668 552 412 114 63

10

1

2 1

3 3 5 8 9 11

2 1
2 ...
2 1
4 2 13
3 1
2 1
0) 1
3
3
1 2
1

1

1
2
1
4
3
2

1
2
4
14

2
5
3
5

2 2
3 3
2 3
2 3

2 3 3

6 5 5
5 11 11
6 12 17
9 11 22
17
4 4 4
3 7 14
3 4 8
3 6 13
1 1
5 6 .7

9 12 15 13 7 1 O) —11
33
14
8
17
10
8
9
8
12
7

12 22
12 2
16 12
3 6
11 6
13 23
11 |17
12 23
23 22
31 13
9 15

13 17 1
11 5
5 5" l
1 3
11 39
16 13 2
11 10 4
16 12 3
16 4
271 3 6
19
14 5
4 6 9 10 12 18 15! 11 3

1
2
1 0)

TABLES

291 21,424

201
229
288
63
114
48

GENERAL

Total..........
Miners, machine:
Alabama.......
Colorado____
Illinois...........
Indiana_____
Kentucky___
Ohio_______
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
Virginia____
West Virginia

159
69
628
102
63
54

1
40
2 0)
2 1
2 0)

* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




M
Cn

T

able

G .— NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED N UM BER OF STARTS (DAYS)
IN HALF MONTH, 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION, AND STATE— Continued

°

BITUMINOUS COAX MINING—Continued
Number of—
Em­
Mines ploy­
ees

Employees whose starts (days on which they worked) in the half-month were—

Average
of starts
(days)
in half
month

2

1

3

4

6

5

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14 15 16 1 * 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Number

Per cent

inside mine—con.

5
1
2
2
1
2
6

6
1
1
4

3

2
4

3

2
3

5

Total_____

402

1,015

11.7

19

14

10

15

37
131
17
90
670
46
153
22
9
30
579
77
54
213
151
895
63
20
83
12
142 1,119

9.6
10.6
9.0
7.1
11.6
9.6
10.3
10.6
9.0
9.8
9.7

2
2
7
4

5
4
6

4
4
25

2
36
4

10
7
1
2
18

18
10
8
2
1
25

587 4,026

9.7

14
2
4
3
1
37
76

54

97 114 1311 151
1

Trackmen:
Alabama____
Colorado.......
Illinois___ __
Indiana_____
Kansas..........
Kentucky___
O hio............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
Virginia.........
West Virginia.
Total_____




2

3

1

1

3

3

1

1
2

2
1

3
1

g
1
2
3

1
4
1
8

1
2
6

14

9

10

8

15i
i

19

29

27

21

541

5
1
25
4

7
1
40
10

’ “’ 13
1

20

22 11
1
3
2
12 18 20
1
3
6
1
37 - 5 0 - 5 4

11
1
4
10
6
15
2
1
11
61

R
17 0
5 4
5 4
10 1
7 11
12 11
32 46
2 1
3
30 "'30

5 2 3 3 A 3 2 3 6 10
4
4
4 4
--’3 5 10
3 3
9
3
1
” 1 2 4 'I 8 ’ ii
2
~ 1
2
1 2 5 7
1 2 1 1 2 4 2 2 4 4
0 13
6 6
6
5 2 8 4 ... ” g ” 4
4 4
38 15 2 2
1 2 4 ’ 4 ’3 6 5
K
113 136 123 113 222 39 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 9 O a
D
16
2
3
2
13
12
37
6
3
19

15
6
5
6
19
7
38
1
5
34

10
5 i
14 2
s
13
24 3
105 16

8
19 20 27 3
8 11
2 10 121 5 17
8 9 4
5
52 116 8 ,
90 68 38 11
1
16 35
7
9
3 1
11
1
1
6
4 12 1
3
24 44 • 5 ! 70 105 112 65 8 4 1
1
23 30 12 10 25 20 40 17 17
30 49 87 112 167 188 116 48 29 ...I
2
9
1 U
11
6 1
6
1 8
6
7 14 19 14
9
.68 56 70 112 168 175 145 68 27 9

2 4 3 2 4 5 6 8
2
1 1 2111
I
A
” l 5 4 O 8!17
3 4 16 3 3 7 10 23
3 3
2 2 3 3 4 2 4 10
5
1 0
1 11 14
0)
1 1 1 2 2 3 5
0)
5 2 3 2 5 10 3 2
1 2 1 1
7 g
3 2 2 3” 47 6 5
232 360 3 6 462 617 631 461 175 86 13 2 1 2' 3 3 4 6 9
6|

$

Q 8
13 21
12 13
12 7
7 10
9 12
§

5

10 13
17 10
17 23
10
6
p 11
|

15
7
8
0
15
14
11
38
12
8

14
22
13
18
21
8
11
6
19
14

11 lIQ
O

16 5
19 15
13 10
30 3
8 12
14 13
9 13
13 5
10
12j’ i2
j

i

10
19
35
24
15
28
30

4
5
3
5

19
16 6
O
ii O 4

15 21 2
19 9 10 4
in f* 2 1 0)
0
G 2 1
13 40 3
19 11 1 1 0 )
g 19 8 0
0
21 13 5 3 . . .
14 10 2'
11 1 10!
;
16 13 6. 2 1
15 16 11 4! 2 0)
1

15
6
13
5
20
18
12
19
17
17
15

iU

M INING

10.2
12.3
13.1
12.2
11.6
12.3
12.2
9.8
10.6
11.4

COAL

105
27
40
33
89
87
352
16
26
240

BITUMINOUS

32
15
17
17
47
41
127
10
6
90

AD
N

Pumpmen:
Alabama____
Colorado.......
Illinois. .........
Indiana_____
Kentucky___
Ohio. ..........
Pennsylvania
Tennessee___
Virginia.........
West Virginia.

ANTHBACITE

Place of work,
occupation and
State

(H 9 * 6

Trappers (boys):
Alabama____
Colorado____
Illinois.........
Indiana........
Kentucky_
_
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania.
Tennessee___
Virginia........
West Virginia

18
9
25
16
34
36
37
15
75

60
31
132
65
126
125
77
49
30
230

Total.........

273

925

8.3

33
17
46

414
74
689
129
60
701
254
.,593
97
55
720

9.6
10.7
10.4
9.3
10.8
10.1
10.7

538 4,786

10.5

49

9.7
11.3
10.5
8.4
11.7
10.9

Other employees:
Alabama......
Colorado___
Illinois..........
Indiana........
Kansas_____
Kentucky_
_
Ohio....... .....
Pennsylvania
Tennessee_
_
Virginia........
West Virginia.
Total.........
o u t s id e

8

22

9
76
47
137
18
11
122

7.5
8.1

7

7.4
6.0
8.4
8.3
7.4
9.0
9.2

8

24

3
25

2

18
9

2

2

14

21

3
16

” 2.
3

10.2

2

1
15

2

36
4
15
26
3

tl
1
4

40

112

2

108

15

13
2.

21 4;
28
1
14 15
3
5
4.
33 '46|

10

11

12

21

4
4
3
7

103 123
38
6
56

86

58

47
9
10
84 112

73
17

65

31

6
12
34
11
3! 20
10
84 124 92i 103
23 38 27j 33
101 134 283 3311 330
3
4 24 26
8
4 21
8
2
3
44
85 115 125

r 12
1
1
0)

4
62
25

11.2

9.9
9.2
10.5
62

45

66

102

12

6
27
6

14

"2

4
1
1

16

126 184 213 272 354 471 752 752! 785 290 283

m in e

Blacksmiths:
Alabama......
Colorado......
Illinois.........
Indiana........
Kansas.........
Kentucky_
_
Ohio.............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee_
_
Virginia........
West Virginia.
Total.........

36
17
45

22

9
75
56
151

20

119
41
11

138

113
88
285
24
14
205

10.7
10.9
10.9

581

969

10.7

20
12

*Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




510

10.2
11.2

29

8

1|
3

15

9

29

41

46

77

154 196 153 69 44

0)
5 11

0)
2 1

2 3

T

able

G .— NUMBER AND PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES MAKING EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF STARTS (DAYS)
IN HALF MONTH, 1924, BY PLACE OF WORK, OCCUPATION, AND STATE— Continued

00

BITUMINOUS GOAL MINING—Continued
Number of— Average
number
of stnrts
Em­ (days)
Mines ploy­ in half
month
ees

Employees whose starts (days on which they worked) in the half month were
2

1

4

3

5

7

6

8

10

9

11

12

14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5

13

Number

1
I6

7 8 9 10 11 121.3 14 15 16
1
Per cent

AD
N

OUTSIDE MINE—

continued.

83
34
143
18
4
178
59
431
30
24
355

Total...........

474

1,354

9.7
9.9
10.2
7.81
13 n1
10.11
9.7;
10.9|
10.21
0.4!
10.7
10.4

24
17
46
22
9
38
28
103
5
42

38
60
147
41
13
64
38
246
7
78

10.2
11.4
14.6
13.9
12.1
13.1
12.6
12.6
11.3
12.8

T o ta l..............

333

732

1 b9
2

2

1

3
1
2 ..... 1
2

1
5
3

4

9
1
4

2

4

6

1
3

9

12

20

27

1
1

1

1

1

1
1

1
1
4

1

3!
1
1

10

7
1
14
21

5
4
!
101 »
!
2
i
i
1
io| 11| 15
1
371 49! 73

1

8

5
14
1
20

8
2
18
2

12
6
35
1
4
25

18
10
48
5
7
26

56 110

5
2

5
7
1

1
2

2

2
1
6

1
1
8
1
2

12
2
4

36

41

1

1

1

4

0

6

17

IS

11
7I
!
23!
2

11
8
18i
1
!
36 33
10 11
4
75 10 ]|
9 10!
2
2I
46 88

1 2
4 12 8 4 11 10 13
15 1 2
2 2 1
6
3 3 3 3 9 9 6 21
7 11
1 1 3 1 5 10 6 10 13 16
13
1
8 23
15 8 8 16 15
4 ___
28 6 "3
~7
” 2 " 2 "h "~8 "3 6 _2 m ’ 16 "20
4 7 I
7 2 7
8 3 10 8 17
I
69 27 9 ‘ " I 0) ""l 0) 1 2 '§ 4 3 8 11 17
7 7 3
3 17 30
4 4 4 4 4 ‘ 4 17 29 8
2 1
1 1 2 1 3 3 4 6 7 7 13
22 5
7
1

186 221 285 209
32
i 73

2
1

1
1

9
3
14
1

3
1
1

1

\

3
3
9
1

6
11

2
5
1
3
1
4
3
18
4
4j

5
12
2
.
9
1
36
2
8

i

6!___
2
4
8 11
4
2
2
14 8
6 3
65 14
2
12 11

5

13 18 1 2 —
m
24 6 5 3
13 9 5 8 ’ i
8
100
19 16 3 2
19 7 12 2
24 16 6 2 "‘ 1
33
8 "8 "4
25 20 6 1 0)

1 1 1 2 3 4 5 4 8 10 16 21 15 5 2 (»)

4
8 5 13
13 16
13
2 2 2 3 ”2 12 18
1 1
109 12 I
" _2 ” 2
31
"2
5 .... 8
8
" ”2
’ 3 *2 ’ _2 “ 2
22
3 3 3 11
15 1
3
’l 3 3 3 5
61 13 0)
0)
14 29
1
26 4 1
1 1 3 3 5”

76 117 67 286 31 1 0) (0

1 li 1 2 2

4

•

1
5 13i 16
8 20 2 "*7
1 1 5 7
7
10
8 ”"8 ’ l5 15
6 14 22 12
8 3 16 8
7 15 26 6
29 29
5 10 15 14
6

10 16

8

11
22
74
76
38
34 ” 2
39 3
25 5
33 5
aol 4

MINING

Engineers:
Alabama......
Colorado . . . .
Illinois . . . . .
Indiana . . . . .
yanaM .....
Kentucky . .
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania.
Tennessee......
West Virginia.

1

2

COAL

32
12
38
8
3
61
37
138
15
11
119

BITUMINOUS

Carpenters and
car repairmen:
Alabama. . . .
Colorado.....
Illinois............
Indiana......
Kansas. . . . . .
Kentucky......
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania.
Tennessee.......
Virginia..........
West Virginia-




ANTHRACITE

Place of work,
occupation, and
State

Firemen:
Alabama...
Colorado. _.
Illinois.......
Indiana___

30
30
130
41
16
53
31
244
8
53

Kentucky_
_
Ohio............
Pennsylvania
Tennessee_
_
West Virginia
Total...

212
17
45

636

12.6

580

8.1

210

2
.....

11.1

12.5
11.2

16

8.9
9.2
7.1

21

9.1
9.1

41

591

7,514

&5

Other employees:
Alabama___
Colorado___
Illinois_____
Indiana____
Kansas____ _
Kentucky___
O hio...........
Pennsylvania.
Tennessee.
Virginia____
West Virginia.

38
348
189
17
44
502
23
91
7
18
73
501
54
228
151 1,596
20 125
12
107
139 1,118

10.2
11.0

10.1
11.2

Total-

578 4,823

11.1

Total-

9
78
56
152

20

12

1Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




10.1

10.2

8.8
8.4
9.9

34
163 130

10.4
9.6

22

37

38

60
29
61
25
1
90
42
192
24
17
152

56
16
102
19
3
113
65
242
20
21
174

47

25

12.0

10.9
11.3
11.9
9.2

5
5
7

5
1
23

15

3
24

1
29

88

74

2

80

2

87

6
6
1
5
9 "’ ”13 16
1
3 1
1
4. . . .
6
7
5
4 2
20 45 37
1 2
2
7 5
51

3
11
49
13
10
16
14
95
2
13

1

|

1
310 7 7 22 20 20
10 3 3
7, 3
17
2 4 "‘ 3 10 5 7 "Io 12
2
17 10 5 2 7 2
6 25
6
"2 4 *■§ ""2 11 13 l 7
3 16 13 6
6
’ i 0) "3 5 8 19 15
13 25
13 25
2, 6 6 6 9 ” 4 13 9
i
.1i 2 1
3 6 6 8 14 12
li
i
!
11 1011 3 10 10 13 9 6 1
8 2 5 14 14 8 9 12 6 7
6 7 8 12 8 13 14 10 8 4
4 8 4 11 13 10 10 4 3 1
5 s 8 g 3 8 11 8 24 5
4 6 5
9 11 18 14 12 1
2 4 12 9 10 15 16 8 9 4
2 2 4 8 10 12 16 15 14 5
4 15 4 8 15 13 15 11 5 1
5 9 5 10 12 15 8 7 2 9
4 4 5 7 8 9 15 18 15 7

3 7
!
10
4 1 2 l!
2!"o
2
2 5
10
i—
i—
3” 2“ 2-1
’ "2
2
!‘ 3
11 0) — (>) 1 1
I2
4 4
4 6 ...|..

90 77 226 26

73 52 34 7 9
18 25 13 15 3
105 78 61 33 13 ""9
20
8
6 1 1 ___
4
3
9 2 2
175 139 122 10 5
72 34 39 17 3 ’ "‘ i
329 308 283 104 75 4
24 17
8 2 1 ___
11 10
3 12
296 353 290 131 15 8

Li

1
I
5
1
2
1

1 1

2 3
1 5
1 2
7 15
3
3 2‘ ‘3
1 0) 6
1 1 2
3 2 1
1 4 4
2 2 2

4
8
2
8
3
4
4
3
3
7
3

10
37
38 " 3
32 5
63
30 "‘ 6
45 6
39 5
25
25
36 4
2
1
2
1
5
1
1 0)
40
1

131
1<
*)
372 452 588 693 831 1,127 1,027 868 334 127 22 2! 2: 3 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 15 14 12 4 2 (*)
=
= = = , = = = = = = ___ = = — = = ==!
=s= = =
— — =====i~" —
:==
1
33 351 35 57 63 10 27
1 31 2 3 3 7 4 4 9 10 10 16 18 3 8
11 21 24 38 10 36 14
1! 3 3 2 1 2 7 6 11 13 20 5 19 7
34 28 42 58 71 46 66 13 5 3 1 4 2 2 5 8 7 6 8 12 14 9 13 '§
5
2
7
5 17 2 18 __ 1 8 11 _ 7 2 2 8 5 2 8 5 19 2 20
2
--------- ______
1
_
7 1 4 _____ _ _ _ . 6
11
6 11 39 6 22
29 43 91 91 90 23 46 4 2 2 1 3 I 1 3 ~ ” 6 ‘ "9 18 18 18 5 9 " i
4
15 11 25 36 29 15 46 4 1
2 1 0) 5 6 4 7 5 11 16 13 7 20 2
64 82 165 245 387 142 265 40 1
0) 1 1 2 2 4 4 5 10 15 24 9 17 3
8 12 23 31
5 1 6 _
3 10 2 3 2 4 3 5 6 10 18 25 4 1 5
' 10 18 14 19
3 7 2 8 3 3 3 3 1 3 4 6 9 17 13 18 3 7 2 “ 7
47 35 88 132 218 204 87 112 35 1 1 2
3 3 3 4 3 8 12 19 18 8
3
146 219 244 340 559 800 886 370 606 104 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 7
17 18 8 13 2

1

12

10

TABLES

142

21

7
1
6
2

7
1. . . . . . . . . .
2
2. . . . .
1
1
13
1
2
3
5
3

13.9
12.5
13.5
13.3
12.9
11.5

765
192
37
999
441
2,017
157
136
1,

2
3
13
4

GENERAL

Laborers:
Alabama____
Colorado—.
Illinois___
Indiana__
Kansas___
Kentucky.
Ohio_______
Pennsylvania.
Tennessee___
Virginia........
West Virginia

11.4




APPENDIXES

APPENDIX A.—AGREEMENT BETWEEN ANTHRACITE MINERS AND
OPERATORS

The agreement between the United Mine Workers of America,
Districts 1, 7, and 9, and the anthracite operators, in force in 1924
at the time of this study and until August 31, 1925, covering wages
and conditions of employment in the Pennsylvania anthracite fields,
ratified and confirmed the award of the Anthracite Coal Strike
Commission and subsequent agreements, as well as the rulings and
decisions of the board of conciliation, except in the following
particulars:
(1) The contract rates at each colliery shall be increased 10 per cent over and
above the rates established under the award of the United States Anthracite
Coal Commission of 1920.
(2) The hourly, daily, or monthly rates of outside and inside company men,
working on the basis of an 8-hour day, shall be increased 10 per cent over and
above the rates established under the award of the United States Anthracite
Coal Commission of 1920.
(3) The hourly, daily, or monthly rates of pumpmen and engineers formerly
working a 12-hour cross shift, and changed to an 8-hour basis under the award
of the United States Anthracite Coal Commission of 1920, shall be increased 10
per cent over and above the rates established by the board of conciliation in
conformity with said award.
(4) The hourly or daily rates of consideration miners and consideration
miners' laborers shall be increased 10 per cent over and above the rates estab­
lished under the award of the United States Anthracite Coal Commission of
1920.
(5) The rates paid contract miners’ laborers shall be increased 10 per cent
over and above the rates established under the award of the United States
Anthracite Coal Commission of 1920, said increase to be paid by the operator
and miner by adding 10 per cent to the portion of the rate now assumed by
each.
(6) Outside and inside company men working on the basis of a day in excess
of 10 hours, shall be placed on the basis of an 8-hour day. The rate of pay for
an 8-hour day shall be adjusted in the same manner as rates were adjusted for
hoisting engineers and pumpmen, who were changed from a 12-hour day to an
8-hour day in 1920, subject to the same increase of 10 per cent provided for
other company men under clause 2 hereof.
(7) Outside and inside company men working on the basis of a 9-hour or
10-hour day shall be placed on the basis of an 8-hour day. The rates of pay
for the 8-hour day shall be the rates for the 9 or 10 hour day paid under the
agreement of 1916, plus $1.80 per day for outside employees and $2 per day
for inside employees, plus 17 per cent and subject to the same increase of 10
per cent provided for other company men under clause 2 hereof.
(8) Monthly men coming under the agreement of September 2, 1920, and
working on a basis in excess of 8 hours per day shall be placed on the basis of
an 8-hour day. The monthly rates for the 8-hour basis shall be the monthly
rates paid under the agreement of May 5, 1916, plus $54 per calendar month
for outside employees and $60 per calendar month for inside employees, plus
17 per cent (except where modified by ruling of the board of conciliation) and
subject to the same increase of 10 per cent provided for other company men
under clause 2 hereof.
(9) The colliery rate sheets of the different collieries shall be brought up
to date, shall be signed by the company officials and the mine committees,
and shall then be filed with the board of conciliation. In case of dispute as to
the correctness of any rate the rate shall be determined by the board, after
hearing: In such cases the burden of proof shall rest with the party taking
exception to the filed rate.




81

82

APPENDIX B

(10) A grievance referred to the board of conciliation shall be answered
within 15 days and shall be heard within 30 days from date of filing with the
board. Decisions shall be rendered by the board, or case shall be referred to
an umpire, within 30 days after hearing. In case of reference to an umpire,
the decision of said umpire shall be rendered within 30 days from date of
reference.
(11) Rates for new work, such as opening a seam of coal, shall be made col­
lectively as between the mine committee and the company officials on the basis
of the standard recognized rates paid for similar conditions in the mine in ques­
tion or adjacent mines. In case of disagreement the matter shall be adjusted
through the board of conciliation in the manner now customary. Pending
decision by the board, work shall proceed at rates set by the foreman and which
shall not be less than the standard recognized rates aforesaid. No contracts
shall be made with individual employees at less than the prescribed scale rates
or not in keeping with customary practices. This section shal] not be construed
to deny to the operator the right to change the method of mining.
(12) The board of conciliation is hereby authorized to undertake and com­
plete a thorough study of all wage scales before the expiration of this contract
and submit the same to the next joint conference. If the board of conciliation
shall, by unanimous vote, recommend the adjustment of any inequities or in­
equalities in wage rates during such study, the adjustment shall take effect on a
date set by the board.
APPENDIX B.— AGREEMENT BETWEEN BITUMINOUS MINERS AND
OPERATORS

The agreement between the United Mine Workers of America and
the coal operators of the Hocking District of Ohio, effective from
April 1, 1923, to March 31, 1924, and continued in force during the
period of this study by the Jacksonville agreement is given below.
This is the basing district of Ohio and part of the central competi­
tive field, consisting of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Western Pennsyl­
vania.
SUBDISTRICT No. 1
D e t a il e d M in in g S c a l e f o r H o c k in g V a l l e y (S u b d is t r ic t 1
Effective from April 1, 1923, to March 31,1924

op

D is t r ic t 6)

This agreement, by and between the respective duly authorized representatives
of the coal operators and miners of the Hocking District of Ohio.
Witnesseth, That pursuant to the agreement entered into at New York, N. Y.,
January 24, 1923, the following shall be the prices, rates of wages, rules and con­
ditions to govern the production of coal in the Hocking district.
We, the members of the scale committee representing the operators and miners
of the Hocking district, submit the following prices .and conditions as the wage
scale for said district for the period beginning April 1, 1923, and ending March
31, 1924.
Pick mining

Run of mine........................................................ ___per ton__ $1. 1164
Entries, dry_________________________________ per vard__ 3. 6217
Break th roughs, in entries________________________ do____ 3. 6217
Break throughs, in rooms______ _______ __________do____ 2. 5110
Room turning_______________________________per room__ 5. 4896
Inside day labor

Tracklayers.............. ....................................... ....... per d ay..
Tracklayers ’ helpers_____________________________ do-----Trappers_________________ _____________________ do____
Trappers (where old men are employed)___________ do____
Bottom cagers, drivers, trip riders________________ do____
Water haulers, machine haulers___________________do____
Snappers on gathering locomotives________________ do____
Timbermen_____________________________________ do-----Pipemen for compressed-air plants________________ do____
Wiremen_______________________________________ do-----Motormen______________________________________ do____
Motormen (minimum)___________________________ do____
Other inside day labor___________________________ do— _
Spike team drivers, extra________ ________________ do-----


7. 50
7. 25
4. 00
5. 41
7. 50
7. 50
7. 50
7. 50
7. 42
7. 50
7. 50
7. 50
7. 25
. 25

AGREEMENTS---- BITUMINOUS

83

Machine cutting

By
By
By
By

Jeffrey machine in room____________ _____ -.per ton .> $0. 14
Jeffrey machine in entry____________ ................. do____
. 1790
punching machines in room_________ - ................do— .
. 1744
punching machines in entry_________
. 1905
Loading

In rooms with hand drilling____________________ per ton_
In entry with hand drilling_____________ ___ ______do____
Break throughs in entries (entry price)__ _________ do____
Break throughs in rooms_______________ __________ do------

.80
.9290
.9290
0)

Outside day labor

First blacksmith______________ *_______ _______ per day__
Second blacksmith_____________________ __________do-----Blacksmith helpers____________________
Mine carpenters_______________________ __________do____
Dumpers___ __________________________ __________do____
Trimmers_____________________________ __________do____
Greasers and couplers__________________ __________do____

7.77
7.45
7.25
7.45
7.25
7. 25
5. 06

When engineers and firemen are employed by the day, the minimum rate *
shall be $7.25 for 8 hours' work. This shall not apply to men employed at a
monthly rate. This rule shall also apply to coal washers.
First. That the 8-hour day of 48 hours of 6 days per week is hereby reaffirmed*
The following holidays are recognized:
New Year's Day.
Lincoln's Birthday.
Washington's Birthday,
April 1.
Decoration Day.
Fourth of July.
August primary day.
Labor Day.
November general election day.
Thanksgiving Day.
Christmas.
Second. That an 8-hour day means 8 hours' work in the mines at usual working
places for all classes of inside day labor. This shall be exclusive of the time
required in reaching such working places in the morning and departing from same
at night.
(A) Regarding drivers, they shall take their mules to and from the stables and
the time required in so doing shall not include any part of the day's labor, their,
work beginning when they reach the change at which they receive empty cars,
but in no case shall the driver's time be docked while he is waiting for such car
at the point named.
(B) The company shall harness and unharness all stock. Drivers shall
unhalter and bridle stock in the morning and halter them in the evening at quit­
ting time. At mines having 15 head of stock or less the stable boss shall harness
and unharness all stock and at mines having over 15 head of stock the company
shall have the privilege of employing a regular employee 1 hour extra each morn­
ing and 1 hour extra each evening to assist the stable boss in harnessing and
unharnessing stock. Night drivers shall unharness their stock when taken in
stable at night.
Third. That when the men go into the mine in the morning they shall be
entitled to 2 hours' pay whether or not the mine works the full 2 hours. But
after the first 2 hours the men shall be paid for every hour thereafter by the
hour for each hour's work or fractional part thereof. If for any reason the regular
routine work can not be furnished the labor for a portion of the first 2 hours,
the operators may furnish other than the regular labor for the unexpired time.
INTERPRETATION

The interpretation of this rule is that day men working on idle days or extra
time are entitled to their regular wage, unless called upon to perform work carry­
ing a higher rate, for which such rate shall apply.
1Entry price.




84

APPENDIX B
TURNS

Sec. 4. The operators shall keep a square turn, and it shall be the duty of the
superintendent to see that this rule is properly carried out and that at least each
2 weeks the turn for all sections of the mine shall be made uniform.
There shall be no free turns allowed to either rooms or entries. The entries
shall be driven as fast as operators desire or conditions permit, but in no case
shall entry miners be allowed more cars per week than room miners. If however,
the regular turn will not allow cars enough to drive the entries as fast as desired,
the operators shall increase the number of miners in each entry, so that by giving
to each the regular turn the entries shall be driven as fast as two miners could
drive them with full work. But should the room men decline to take their
places in the entries when requested to do so by the operators, then the entry
men shall have free turns until the entries are driven the required length. Noth­
ing in the foregoing to prevent fast turns.
This rule shall apply to the machine men as well as loaders and the company
agrees to use every effort to the end that the number of men on each machine will
be equalized.
PREPARATION OF COAL

Sec. 5. Both miners and operators recognizing the importance of getting clean
and merchantable coal to insure the sale of the same, it is understood and agreed
that the miners will produce their coal in such a way as not to increase the per­
centage of fine coal, either by carelessness or reckless shooting, and will load
clean and merchantable coal free from impurities.
In order to secure the above results it is agreed as follows:
(A)
When necessary to snub coal, snubbing must be done in a practical and
workmanlike manner so as to keep the quality of the output uniform and produce
the largest amount of lump coal.
(R) The loader or loaders shall not drill any hole on the solid of the rib, nor
deeper than the undercut.
(C) Unless otherwise required by operator, the fine coal and cuttings must
not be loaded out separately, but must be loaded and distributed throughout
the balance of the coal in order to keep the product of the mine uniform.
(D) Any loader or loaders found breaking up the loading bone, soft coal, or
other impurities with his coal, shall be laid off 5 days for the first offense and 10
days for each succeeding offense.
DOCKING
S e c . 6. The operator may designate one man at each mine, who shall be
recognized as inspector, and whose duty it shall be to inspect the coal. The
miners may also designate one man at each mine to inspect the cleaning of the
coal and the weighing of the impurities. Should a loader willfully, carelessly,
or otherwise fail to load clean, merchantable coal, the inspector shall estimate or
cause to be weighed the impurities, and when 100 to 150 pounds of dirty coal
has been loaded, 10 cents shall be taken for the 100 or 150 pounds.
For from 150 pounds to 250 pounds of dirty coal 20 cents shall be taken.
For from 250 to 500 pounds of dirty coal, 30 cents shall be taken.
For the third car of dirty coal from any one. working place in any one day,
or where 500 or more pounds of dirty coal is found in any one car, 50 cents shall
be checked off.
If upon investigation by the mine boss and committee, the man or men are
found to have an average working place, he or they shall be suspended 1 or 2
days, at the discretion of the mine boss and mine committee. But should a
place be found below an average working place then the above penalties shall
not apply.
Whenever the provisions of this contract are not observed the operator has
the right to close down the mine until the miners will observe the contract to
produce clean, merchantable coal.
It is understood that the operators have a right to clean the coal, before weighing.
The moneys checked off shall be placed in the burial fund and shall not be
refunded and shall only be used by miners and operators for the purpose for
which such fund was created.
CLAY VEINS
S e c . 7. Where clay veins, rolls in bottom, or horsebacks exist, the price for
removing the same shall be determined between the loader and mine boss. If
loader and mine boss fail to agree, the same to be referred to loader, mine boss
and mine committee.




AGREEMENTS— BITUMINOUS

85

SLATE

S ec . 8. The company shall remove the slate from the working places of the
miners; and if the company fails after being notified, the miners shall be employed
to remove such slate and be paid therefor at the price agreed upon between the
mine boss and the miner, based on the price of inside day labor. This refers to
all lands and conditions of roof only and not to bone coal.
BOTTOM, SPRAGE, ETC.

Se c . 9. All machines shall be fitted with suitable skids, and maehine men
must cut coal level and close to bottom; and in no case shall thickness of bottom
exceed 4 inches, except in case of pots or other extreme variations. Machine
men leaving more bottom than above, and when upon investigation it is proven
that the machine men are at fault, must lift the same, or it shall be lifted at
their expense. Where the bottom is sulphurous and unmarketable, the miner
may call the attention of the mine boss to it and endeavor to arrive at an agree­
ment for its removal or retention. If the mine boss and miner fail to reach an
agreement as to compensation or otherwise, the matter shall be submitted to
the superintendent and mine committee for adjustment. In case of sprags
being left by machine men they shall be notified by the loader, and if they refuse
to remove the same the loader shall remove the same and be allowed 50 cents
for so doing, the said 50 cents being deducted from machine men. When machine
men leave six or more sprags in one pay, they shall be removed from machine
and their services be dispensed with.
The company shall provide shields for covering cutter head of machine. The
machine men shall be required to remove the bits from the chain on cutter head,
or place the shield over cutter head to make the machine safe to be moved.
Any machine men failing to carry out this rule may be removed from machine
without question.
Where machine men are required to repair or replace parts on machines they
shall be compensated for the same.
STICKY BOTTOMS

The question of what constitutes sticky bottom shall be determined by the
mine boss and loader in the following manner: When the bottom has been sheared
along the rib, to the face, and is open on the end, and two wedges are driven
through the bottom coal (wedges to be driven 18 and 36 inches from shearing
and 18 inches from the front of the bottom coal), and the coal still clings ana
adheres to the floor, it shall be termed sticky bottom and the loader shall not be
required to lift same without compensation based on tracklayer wage scale.
This, however, shall not prevent the mine boss and loader from making a mutual
agreement to lift same, or in case of their failure to agree to have it lifted by any
one by paying the tracklayers’ wage scale, nor shall it prevent the mine com­
mittee and superintendent from making investigation in case of disagreement
under the above rule.
WIDE ROOMS

Sec . 10. All rooms shall be 24 feet wide or over except under river bottoms
where the same may be driven 20 feet wide without extra compensation. All
other rooms from 24 to 18 feet $2.76 extra shall be paid. Rooms under river
bottoms where necessary to be driven from 20 feet to 18 feet, $2.76 extra shall be
paid. Rooms less than 18 feet wide shall be paid for at entry price. Where
rooms are driven 30 feet wide, same shall have two tracks if practical. Each two
men shall be given two rooms where practicable. Slabs to be left to men and
mine boss.
The operators shall designate the width of all working places and same shall
be paid for at the width ordered cut.
In working pillars and stumps, all places over 15 feet wide shall be paid for at
wide price to cutter and loader. Fifteen feet or less with two tight ends, entry
price. Fifteen feet or less open end shall be paid for at entry price to cutter ana
wide price to loader.
INTERPRETATION

Wherever a place is closed in by a fall or an excessive gob to such an extent
that one can not walk or work around the same conveniently, it shall be considered
tight end.

a




86

APPENDIX B
PUTTING ON CARS

Se c . 10^<2. When the miner has properly laid his track and a car jumps the
track, the same shall be put on by the company, and the miner shall not be dis­
criminated against in the way of regular turn.
c l e a r in g t r a c k

Sec. 11. Men other than drivers and trappers, motormen and motormen
helpers, cagers and incline men, employed to gather up coal along working roads
and cleaning up track shall receive pay for such work at narrow-work prices per
ton with cutting added.
Any such man found taking down or loading other than the coal already down
and along track shall be removed from his position. In the event that no o+her
class of labor is available, the company shall have the right to employ day men
to clean up tracks.
BLACKSMITHING

Sec. 12. Blacksmithing shall be three-fourths of 1 cent on the dollar for pick
mining.
All tools of machine miners, including axes, shall be sharpened without charge.
p ic k m in e n e c k s

Sec. 13. In opening rooms in pick mines where narrow work exceeds 18 feet
before widening rooms, all in excess of 18 feet shall be paid for at entry price.
l o st coal

Sec. 14. If the company insists upon the machine men cutting places, then
the company shall pay for all coal lost by places falling in. Coal so lost shall
be paid for within 30 days.
w e t p la c e s

Sec. 15. Where the mine boss and miners fail to agree as to whether the work­
ing place is wet and entitled to extra pay, it shall be referred to the committee
and mine boss or superintendent; if judged wet 3.60 cents per ton additional shall
be paid.
Fifteen cents per barrel shall be paid for bailing water; sufficient barrels to be
furnished to miners to keep their places dry. The said barrels shall be common
oil barrels. In the event of the management failing to provide empty barrels
as required by miners, then 3.60 cents per ton extra shall be paid for wet places.
Where a place is decided wet all the coal that comes out of the place shall be paid
for at wet price, so long as the place remains wet.
It shall be optional with the company to work wet places. It is agreed and
understood that in wet places the miner to be entitled to wet price must first
take the matter up with the mine boss for adjustment.
ENTRIES REGULAR AND DEFICIENT

Sec. 16. It is understood and agreed that in entries of regular height and where
no horseback, clay vein, or other foreign substance exists, no average will be paid.
In deficient entry, where it is necessary to take down slate for height of road­
way, the loader will shoot and load the same.
Where rock is encountered the same shall be drilled and shot down by the
company and loaded by the loader. Where such deficient entry is driven and
rock or slate is handled by the loader the established average tonnage of said
entry or mine will be paid.
Each crossing shall be cut full width and depth, unless otherwise ordered by
the company; and the manner of counting said crossing shall be the regular
depth of machine as determined by tape measure.
The coal to be mined in a workmanlike manner, so as to produce the greatest
amount of lump coal, and each car shall be checked with a check of the man
doing the work.
Where the company wishes to drive deficient entry by the day, the price per
day to be $8.70; the company to have the right to select their men but the man
working the place is to have the preference.




AGREEMENTS— BITUMINOUS

87

It is understood and agreed that in isolated territory where not more than
six men can be employed, when necessary, men shall be permitted to cut, load,
and haul their coal; cutting and loading to be paid for at tonnage rates, the
men doing the work to agree with mine boss on pay for hauling.
Where rock drilling and shooting in deficient entries is done by hand, the rate
per day shall be $8.70. Where done by electric drill, the minimum rate per day
shall be $7.50.
In working deficient wet entry by the average, the wet price shall apply to the
average tonnage paid the loaders. When paid by the day, the equivalent of the
average tonnage per cut, wet price, shall be paid day men driving deficient entry
by the day.
ENTRIES, DOUBLE-SHIFT

Sec . 17. Forty-eight cents per yard shall be paid for driving double-shift en­
tries, and break throughs between entries.
DAT LABOR ON IDLE DATS

Sec . 18. When necessary day men shall work on idle days, or9 in case of
emergency, overtime; but such work shall be distributed as equally as possible
among employees entitled to said extra work. The operators reserve the right
to work skilled labor upon days when mine is idle, or, in case of emergency, extra
shift.
DAT LABOR TRANSFERRED

Sec . 19. Drivers and other day men shall work under the direction of the mine

■boss or superintendent and shall perform such labor as may be required by mine
boss or superintendent; provided that the scale of wages is paid for such labor
required to be performed.
UNWARRANTED ABSENCE OF EMPLOTEES

Sec . 20. When any employee absents himself from duty for two days except
in case of sickness, and without giving advance notice to the mine boss, if possible,
he forfeits his position.
WAITING ON CARS

Sec . 21. Where cars are promised and are on the way between the yards and
mine at starting time in the morning, the men shall wait up to and not less than
30 minutes; provided, however, that where satisfactory local arrangements exist
for waiting for cars, the same shall remain in force and be observed.
INTERPRETATION

When the men go to work in accordance with the above rule, the mine com­
mittee have the right if they so elect to call up the railroad yards to ascertain
if cars will be at the-mine within the provisions of the rule. Should they be in­
formed that cars are on the way and will be there on time, then the men will go
into the mine and all inside daymen will be paid for or furnished at least 2 hours’
work. The outside daymen will take their regular positions and should cars
fail to come on time they will be paid at least 1 hour’s pay, whether they perform
any labor or not.
NOON HOUR VARIATION

Sec . 22. In case of emergency, the company shall have the right to vary the
noon hour to one-half hour earlier. All daymen affected shall be notified in
advance of such variation in noon hour.
MEETINGS AT MINE

Sec . 23. Where necessary to hold meetings at mine where miners so desire,
one afternoon each month shall be allowed for the purpose of holding such meet­
ings. Such afternoon to be agreed upon between the management and miners
at the different mines.
No other meetings than as herein provided shall be held at any mine during
working hours.




88

APPENDIX B
LOCAL RULES AND ORDERS

S e c . 24. No local rules or orders shall be made or given by either miners
operators, or their agents, that interfere with the provisions of this contract.
d r iv e r ’s, d a y m e n ’ s, o r

m a c h in e

op

m en’ s absence

S ec . 25. In case a machine man, driver, or other dayman fails to appear for
duty, a man may be taken from a working place; the man taking either’s place
to get such turn for one day each pay.
OUT OF CUTTING

Sec . 26. Under normal conditions, if 4 men are out of cutting or rails on any

one territory at work time in the morning and upon investigation by mine boss
and committee it shall be found to be the fault of the company, the men shall
be furnished work by the operator, but in no case shall a breakdown or un­
avoidable accident be considered the fault of the company. It is understood,
however, that all mine superintendents and mine bosses shall make every effort
to have all working places in working condition at starting time in the morning
and no man shall be required to lose two days’ work in succession.
SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

Sec. 27. It is agreed that in case of any local grievance at any mine the ag­
grieved party or parties and mine boss shall first make an earnest effort to adjust
the dispute.
In case they fail to agree the matter in dispute shall be referred to the mine
foreman or superintendent and mine committee. If they fail to agree it shall
then be referred to the general manager of the company involved, or his rep­
resentative, and the president of subdistrict 1, of district 6, U. M. W. of A.,
or his representative. In case they fail to agree the matter shall be referred to
the president of district 6, of U. M. W. of A., or his representative and the rep­
resentative of the Southern Ohio Coal Exchange, or the operator’s affected
thereby.
All controversies arising under the terms of this agreement shall be taken up
for adjustment as herein provided without delay.
STOPPING OF MINES

Sec. 28. No strike or stoppage of work shall occur at any mine except for
failure to pay upon regular pay day without explanation, or breakdown of
weight scales, until the matter has been taken up with the subdistrict officers
of subdistrict No. 1 of district No. 6, of U. M. W. of A., and the company af­
fected, and they have taken the matter up as provided in section 27.
(A) Should any local officer, or officers of any local union or any member
thereof, employed at any mine cause the mine to shut down in violation of this
rule, each member of the United Mine Workers of America employed at said
mine, except those who continue at work, shall have deducted from his earnings
the sum of one dollar ($1) per day for each day or part of day he remains idle.
(B) Should any operator or his representative lock the men out for the pur­
pose of forcing a settlement of any grievance, or cause the mine to shut down in
violation of this rule, he shall be fined one dollar ($1) per employee so idle, for
each day or part of a day the mine is thus thrown idle. It is agreed that the
stoppage of the mine as provided for in section 6 of this contract shall not con­
stitute a violation of this rule.
(C) All moneys assessed against the employees under this rule shall be col­
lected from the pay for the half month in which the violation of the rule occurs,
or from the first moneys due thereafter, and said moneys so collected shall be
turned over to the proper officers of subdistrict No. 1, district No. 6, U. M. W.
of A. All moneys assessed against the operators for violation of this rule shall
be paid over to the Southern Ohio Coal Exchange; provided that money as­
sessed against operators not members of the above-named exchange shall be
paid to the secretary-treasurer of the subdistrict.
Under no circumstances shall the money so paid be refunded by either the
subdistrict or the Southern Ohio Coal Exchange.
The company shall furnish the local secretary a list of money so collected and
paid over. It is understood that the collection of all fines shall take precedence
over all other collections.




AGREEMENTS— BITUMINOUS

89

BOYS
8 b c . 29. Sons of members of the United Mine Workers of America, when
becoming of proper age, shall be allowed the preference of going into the mines.
LIMIT ON MINE CARS

Sec. 30. No limit of weight shall be placed on loading mine cars, and, in case
of loss in transit, the company shall not be held responsible except where cars
are broken by employees, or where a wreck occurs, the average weight shall be
made good by the company. In order that miners can not take advantage
of this cause, the mine manager and committee of any mine where complaint
is made of loading cars over their capacity shall mutually agree on a standard
height of loading cars.
ENGINEERS AND FIREMEN

S ec . 31. In case of local or general suspension of mining, either at the expira­
tion of this contract or otherwise, the engineers, firemen, pumpers, fire bosses,
and other men necessary to keep mines in shape, shall not suspend work but
shall, when mine is suspended, fully protect and keep in repair all of the com­
pany’s property under their care, and operate fans and pumps, and lower and
hoist such men or supplies as may be required to keep up steam at the com­
pany’s coal plant; but it is understood and agreed that the operators will not ask
them to hoist any coal produced by nonunion labor for sale on the market. The
rates to be paid for such work to be those in effect at the time of suspension,
subject to any subsequent settlement.
CHECK OPP

Sec. 32. The system of checking off for the United Mine Workers' organiza­
tion remains in force and must be observed; the same to be checked off by per
cent of earnings. The above to include all dues and assessments for burial fund
and United Mine Workers’ organization.
No fines shall be collected except it is ordered by a majority vote of the mem­
bers present at a regularly called local meeting.
However, should either the operator, the local union or the party upon whom
the fine is imposed object to such fine, each of them shall have the right to appeal
to the subdistrict officers and the operator or the operators’ commissioner for
final ruling.
In order to be honored, check-off figures must be furnished to the company
by noon of the 1st and by noon of the 16th of each month.
DIVISION OF WORK

Sec . 33. It is understood that companies operating two or more mines will
work all mines on turn as near as possible or as near as market conditions will
permit. When it is necessary for any one company to close one or more mines
down on account of market conditions it is agreed that the men employed at
said mines shall be entitled to work at mines remaining in operation and the
company shall distribute the men proportionately to the mines remaining in
operation. It is understood that all classes of labor agreed upon by the mine
foreman and committee shall under these circumstances share their work. Noth­
ing in the foregoing to interfere with or affect the efficiency of the mine or the
quality of the output.
FIRE BOSSES

Sec. 34. We agree that fire bosses shall be entitled to a full day’s pay for
inspecting the mines on Sundays and all holidays.
CONTRACT WORK IN MINES

Sec. 35. There shall be no contract work in any mine in this subdistrict.
h ouse

coal

In keeping with the award of the Coal Commission, 27 per cent shall be added

to the price of house coal, prevailing October 31, 1919.




APPENDIX 0

90

POWDER

The price of powder to be $2.30 per keg delivered as provided for in contract.
SPECIAL CONDITIONS AND LOCAL CONCESSIONS

Sec. 36. Conditions governing all employees in and about the mines prevaling
during the years 1916 and 1917 and not specifically covered in the above rules
and conditions shall remain unchanged, but any local concession made hereto­
fore by any miner or operator at any mine shall be open to him for adjustment.
APPENDIX C.— DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONS

Each of the occupations for which figures are presented in this
report is briefly defined below.
If a definition applies to an inside occupation the word “ inside”
follows the name of the occupation. Example—“ Brakemen, inside.”
If it applies to outside work the word “ outside” follows the name.
Example—“ Ash men, outside.” If the occupation is found both
inside and outside the mine no modifying word is used. Example—
“ Blacksmiths.”
A similar rule has been followed to indicate anthracite and bitu­
minous mine occupations.
Ash men, outside, anthracite.— Remove ashes from beneath the fire box of
boilers by flushing or by shoveling the ashes into cars.
Blacksmiths.— Do general blacksmithing, nearly all repair work.
Brakemen, inside.— Also known as trip riders, trailers, and tailers. In an­
thracite mines they are called motor brakemen. The3r operate or throw switches,
couple and uncouple cars, assist motormen in the transportation of loaded coal cars
from switches or sidings in the mines to the shaft, and of empty cars from the
shaft to the switches or sidings. Loaded cars are hauled by mules from rooms in
which coal is mined to the switches and empty cars from the switches to the rooms.
Brattice men, inside.— Sometimes also called airmen. They usually work
under the supervision of the fire boss, whose duty it is to see that the mine is
prepared for ventilation and for protection against fire. They construct brattices
of wood, canvas, stone, brick, or cement. This work is of great importance in
mines affected by gas, as such mines must be thoroughly ventilated.
Cagers.—Also called bottomers and dumpers. They are stationed at the shaft
inside the mine and at the top of the shaft outside the mine. Those inside the
mine place loaded coal cars in the cage and take empty cars out of it. Those
outside the mine take loaded cars from the cage and place empty cars in it.
Carpenters, outside.— Do general carpentry repair work.
Car runners, inside, anthracite.—In some mines cars are run by gravity from
rooms or chambers in which coal is mined to switches or sidings, or to shafts,
or from switches or shafts to rooms or chambers. Cars so run are in charge of
car runners who control their speed or stop them by brakes or sprags.
Car runners, outside, anthracite.—Transfer empty railroad cars to breaker
chutes and loaded cars from chutes over a section of the railroad track where
scales for weighing cars are installed.
Door tenders (boys), inside, anthracite.— Also called trappers. They open
ventilating doors to let cars through them to and from the shaft and close them as
quickly and securely as possible as soon as the cars have passed. In some mines
there are no door tenders as the doors are opened and closed automatically.
Drivers, inside.— Drive mules into and out of rooms in which coal is mined,
hauling loaded coal cars from rooms to switches or sidings where cars are assem­
bled for transportation by motor to the shaft, and empty cars from switches to
the rooms. In mines where the distance from the rooms to the shaft is short,
the haul is from the room to the shaft and return, no motor being used.
Dumpers, outside, anthracite.— Dump loaded coal cars at the tipple by hand
or by operating mechanical apparatus.
Engineers.—Operate and repair ventilating fans inside the mines and breaker
machinery outside the mines. Operate and inspect hoisting machinery which is
used in lifting employees and loaded coal cars in cages to the top of the shaft
and in lowering employees, empty cars, and material from the top of the shaft
into the mines.




DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONS

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91

Firemen outside.—Keep fires burning under boilers to produce steam by
shoveling coal into the fire box as needed and by keeping the fire box clear of
ashes and clinkers.
Jig runners, outside, anthracite.— Operate a jig, a mechanical contrivance or
part of the breaker machine, which cleans coal by removing slate, rock, and
waste material.
Laborers.— Do various kinds of unskilled inside and outside work. They
push cars, assist trackmen and timbermen, shovel dirt, and handle material, and
do other necessary unskilled work about the mines. In anthracite mines com­
pany miners’ laborers and consideration miners’ laborers are not included with
these laborers, because they are paid a higher wage than is paid to these.
Laborers, company miners’ , inside, anthracite.—Load cars and assist company
miners in drilling holes into stone or coal for explosives. The drilling is done
with electric or compressed-air machines. Company miners’ laborers seldom
mine any coal, it being their duty to remove obstructions and prospect for new
chambers or rooms. These laborers are paid a time rate which is a little lower
than that of “ Laborers, consideration minersV,
Laborers consideration miners inside anthracite.-1 Load cars and assist con­
sideration miners in drilling holes into coal or stone for explosives. The drilling
is done with electric or compressed-air coal-mining machines. They become con­
tract miners’ laborers when working conditions improve and miners are able to
earn on a tonnage basis more than the fixed or specified time rate of consideration
miners. They are paid a time rate when working as consideration miners*
laborers, the rate being a little higher than that of company miners’ laborers and
are paid on a tonnage basis when working as contract miners ’ laborers.
Laborers, contract miners', inside, anthracite.— Load cars and assist contract
miners in operating electric or compressed-air coal-mining machines which are
used in drilling holes into coal for explosives. They become consideration miners*
laborers when mining or working conditions are abnormal, due to obstructions,
such as stone, slate, and dirt, and when contract miners are thereby unable to
earn on a tonnage basis more than the fixed or specified rate of consideration
miners. They are paid on a tonnage basis when contract miners’ laborers and
a time rate when consideration miners’ laborers. The rate as consideration
miners’ laborers is a little higher than that of company miners’ laborers.
Loaders, hand, contract, inside, bituminous.— Do same work as loaders, hand,
but employ one or more helpers whom they pay out of their earnings, while the
loaders, hand, have no helpers.
Loaders, hand, inside, bituminous.—Shoot or blast coal from seams or beds after
it has been undercut by machine miners and then load the coal into cars, using
hand shovels. In some mines they do the timbering; that is, set props or timbers
to prevent the falling of slate, stone, and earth into the rooms of the mines;
also lay tracks in rooms of mines and keep rooms in good working condition.
Loaders, machine, inside, bituminous.— Operate electric driven coal loading
machines which load, by endless chain scoop method, the coal, into mine cars,
after it has been blasted from the face or seam. The operator keeps the loading
chain of the machine against the loose coal bed and uses a hand shovel to assist
in keeping the coal in contact with the loading device.
Loaders, outside, anthracite.— Load coal into railroad cars and refuse into
mine cars.
Machinists, anthracite.— Install and repair machines and machinery.
Masons inside anthracite.— Construct necessary air bridges and walls to
conduct or force air into all parts of the mine.
Miners, company, inside, anthracite.— These employees very seldom mine
coal. They operate electric or compressed-air machines, drill holes into stone
or coal for explosives, and load cars. They are usually engaged in removing
obstructions in the mines and in prospecting for profitable mining chambers.
They are paid a time rate which is a little less than that of the consideration
miner and are called “ company miners” to distinguish them from the consider­
ation miners.
Miners consideration inside anthracite.— Operate electric or compressed-air
coal-mining machines, drill holes into coal or stone for explosives, and also load
coal into cars. These employees are regular contract miners who, in consequence
of obstructions in their working chambers or rooms, such as stone, slate, dirt,
or of bad working conditions, are unable to earn on a tonnage basis an amount
equal to or in excess of a certain specified rate per day. They are paid the
specified rate, which is a little more than that of company miners, until they are
able to earn more on a tonnage basis.

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92

APPENDIX C

Miners, contract, inside, anthracite.^-Operate electric or compressed-air coal­
mining machines, drill holes into coal for explosives, and also load coal into cars.
They are paid on a tonnage basis. A contract miner becomes a consideration
miner when, owing to obstructions in his working chamber or room, such as stone,
slate, or dirt, he is unable to earn an amount in excess of a fixed or specified rate
per day. He then becomes a consideration miner and is paid the fixed rate per
day until he is able to earn more on a tonnage basis.
Miners, gang, inside, bituminous.— ' hese employees work in groups dividing
T
their earnings equally regardless of the kind of work performed. Some of them
operate electric or compressed-air coal-mining machines undercutting seams of
coal and drilling holes into coal for explosives, while others are placing the explo­
sives and loading by hand into mine cars the coal which has already been blasted
from the seam. Only a few of a gang operate the undercutting machines, but
all do loading, etc.
Miners, hand or pick, inside, bituminous.— Undercut coal with pick, cutting
some distance from the face of the seam, separate it from seams with pick or
explosives, and load the coal into cars.
Miners, machine, inside, bituminous.— Operate electric or compressed-air
coal-mining machines, undercutting seams of coal and drilling holes into coal
for explosives.
Motormen, inside.— Operate motors which are used in the transportation of
loaded cars from switches or sidings in the mines to the shaft and of empty cars
from the shaft to the switches or sidings. Loaded and empty cars are hauled
to and from the switches by mules.
Motor brakemen, anthracite.— See Brakemen, inside, bituminous.
Oilers, outside, anthracite.— Oil and clean machines and engines.
Other employees.— Include employees of all occupations in the industry other
than those specified and defined in this bulletin.
Plate men, outside, anthracite.— Work at the platform of the breaker machine
sizing coal and removing stones from the coal before it enters the conveyors.
Pump men, inside.— Operate, repair, and look after pumps used in pumping
water from the mines.
Repair men, outside, anthracite.— Repair chutes and breakers and other
machinery.
Timber cutters, ouiside, anthracite.— Cut and load props or timbers into cars
for transportation into the mines. They also load cars with other supplies
for use in mines.
Timbermen, inside.— Cut and set timbers or supports in mines to prevent
falls of slate, stone, and dirt.
Trackmen.—Lay and repair tracks used in transportation in and about the
mines. At some mines outside trackmen repair tracks on the mine property.
Slaters (boys), outside, anthracite.— Also called pickers. They pick slate from
the coal as it passes over the automatic conveyors or down the coal chutes.
Trappers (boys), inside, bituminous.— See Door tenders, inside, anthracite.