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Union Security and Checkoff Provisions
in Major Union Contracts

1958-59




Bulletin No. 1272
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Union Security and Checkoff Provisions
in M ajor Union Contracts
19 58-59

Bulletin No. 1272
March I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.




Price 20 cents

From the Monthly Labor Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
December 1959 and January I960 issues.




ii

This study deals with the prevalence of different types of union security and
checkoff provisions in major collective bargaining agreements. Virtually all agreements
covering 1,000 or more workers, exclusive of railroad and airline agreements, were
analyzed. The 1,631 agreements in this category covered approximately 7.5 million
workers, or almost half of the estimated total agreement coverage in the United States,
outside of the railroad and airline industries. The provisions of these agreements do not
necessarily reflect policy in smaller collective bargaining situations. The agreements
studied were part of the file of current agreements maintained by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics for public and governmental use in accordance with section 211 of the Labor
Management Relations Act of 1947.
This report was prepared in the Bureau’ s Division of Wages and Industrial Rela­
tions by Rose Theodore, under the supervision of Harry P. Cohany.




iii




Page

Union security provisions -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Scope of study ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Union shop ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Maintenance of membership--------------------------------------------------------------------Sole bargaining---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The agency s h o p ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Regional and State variations ----------------------------------------------------------------Saving cla u se ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Hiring provisions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
2
4
5
5
6
6
8

Union checkoff provisions -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Scope of study-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Prevalence ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Checkoff authorization----------------------------------------------------------------------------Cost of checking off union dues --------------------------------------------------------------

11
11
12
15
16




v




Union Security and Checkoff Provisions in
Major Union Contracts, 1958-59
Union Security Provisions

S t r o n g u n i o n s e c u r i t y c l a u s e s in collective bar­
gaining agreements have traditionally been an
important objective of unions in the United States.
In recent years, relative stability has marked the
collective bargaining front, and union concern
has shifted to combating State aright-to-work”
laws which ban all forms of union security pro­
visions.
Meanwhile, negotiators of collective
bargaining agreements, increasingly mindful of
Federal and State requirements and National
Labor Relations Board rulings, have shown a
tendency to dress union security provisions in le­
galistic language or, in some cases, to strip them
of any exact meaning.
The Labor Management Relations (Taft-H artley) Act of 1947, applicable to industries affecting
interstate commerce,1 prohibits the closed shop but
permits union shop and maintenance of member­
ship clauses. However, State legislation, which is
given precedence over provisions of the LM RA
with regard to union membership under section
14 (b) of the act, outlaws any requirement of union
membership as a condition of employment in 19
States.2 Two of these “right-to-work” laws were
enacted recently— Indiana in 1957 and Kansas in
1958.8
Within this framework, closed shop provisions
are now found in relatively few agreements cov­
ering 1,000 or more workers. On the other hand,
during the past 5 years, union shop provisions,
the predominant form of union security, have con­
tinued to spread among major agreements. How­
ever, this increase has come entirely at the expense
of maintenance of membership provisions, since
the proportion of agreements without any form
of union security has not changed since 1954. In
an analysis of 1,631 major collective bargaining
agreements in effect in 1958-59, covering 7.5 mil­
lion workers, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
found that 74 percent of the workers were cov­
ered by agreements providing for a union shop
(including a small number of closed shop agree­




ments), 7 percent by maintenance of membership
provisions, and 19 percent by agreements recog­
nizing the union as sole bargaining agent but
containing no requirement regarding union mem­
bership. The proportions found by the Bureau
in a study of agreements in effect in 1954 4 were
64,17, and 19 percent, respectively (chart).
Scope of Study
For its 1958-59 analysis of union security pro­
visions, the Bureau studied 1,631 collective bar­
gaining agreements, each covering 1,000 or more
workers, or virtually all agreements of this size
in the United States, exclusive of those relating
to railroads and airlines.5 The total of 7.5 million
workers covered represented almost half of all
the workers estimated to be under agreements in
the United States, exclusive of railroad and air­
line agreements. O f these, 4.7 million workers,
covered by 1,054 agreements, were in manufac­
turing, and 577 agreements applied to 2.8 million

1 The railroad and airline industries come under the provisions
of the Railway Labor Act, which was amended in 1951 to permit
negotiation of union shop agreements.
2 Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, North
Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
and Virginia. Another State, Louisiana, has a “ right-to-work”
law limited to agricultural laborers and workers engaged in the
processing of certain agricultural products; this law was passed
in 1956, after a 1954 “right-to-work” law, general in application,
was repealed.
8 In the 1958 elections, right-to-work proposals were rejected
by voters in 5 States.
See State Right-to-Work Legislative
Action in 1958 (in Monthly Labor Review, December 1958, pp.
1380-1381).
* See Union-Security Provisions in Agreements, 1954 (in
Monthly Labor Review, June 1955, pp. 6 49-658). For earlier
studies, see Union Status Provisions in Collective Agreements,
1952 (in Monthly Labor Review, April 1953, pp. 383-387) ;
Union Status Under Collective Agreements, 1950-51 (in Monthly
Labor Review, November 1951, pp. 552-556) ; Union-Security
Provisions in Agreements, 1940-50 (in Monthly Labor Review,
August 1950, pp. 224-227) ; and Extent of Collective Bargaining
and Union Recognition, 1946, BLS Bull. 909 (1947).
5
The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline
agreements; hence their omission from this study.

1

2
workers in nonmanufacturing establishments.
Seventy-five percent of the agreements were in
force after January 1, 1959; the rest had expired
during the period June-December 1958.
Overall results of the study were not signifi­
cantly affected by agreements in the 19 “right-towork States,” since such agreements represented
only about 10 percent (164) of the contracts exam­
ined and only slightly over 5 percent of all workers
involved. Moreover, the recently enacted laws in
Indiana and Kansas did not affect the agreements
in effect at the time of their enactment.

Union Security Provisions in Major Collective Bargainins Agreements1
Percent of Workers Studied

Sole Bargaining

j:*25% :j

Maintenance j i l i j i
of Membership:;

Union Shop
Provisions for a union shop and its variations,
including, for purposes of this study, the closed
shop, were found in 71 percent (1,162) of the 1,631
agreements analyzed, covering 74 percent of the
workers (table 1). Excluding the 164 contracts
in “right-to-work” States, the percentage of union
shop agreements and of workers covered would be
increased to 78 percent.
The union shop provisions were of three major
types, with the following requirements:
1. A ll employees in the bargaining unit are re­
quired, as a condition of employment, to be or
become union members within a specified tim e6
after the effective date of the agreement or of
hiring. A typical clause read as follows:
All the present employees shall, on and after the 30th
day from the date hereof, as a condition o f continued
employment maintain their membership in the union dur­
ing the life o f this agreement by paying their current dues
and initiation fees. All new employees shall, as a condi­
tion of continued employment, 30 days after the date
hereof or the date of their employment, whichever is the
later, become and remain members o f the union in good
standing during the life of this agreement by paying their
current dues and initiation fees.

More than three-fourths of the 1,162 union
shop agreements were of this type (table 2 ).
2. Approximately a fifth of the union shop
agreements (224) modified the union shop by ex­
empting certain groups in the bargaining unit
6
The time allowed was generally 30 days, which Is the mini­
mum specified by the LMRA. A few agreements merely provided
for a union shop “ to the extent permitted by law,” as in the
national anthracite and bituminous coal agreements, which read
in p art:
. It is further agreed that as a condition of
employment all employees should be or become members of the
United Mine Workers of America, to the extent and in the
manner permitted by law. . . .”




1946

1949-50

1954

1958-59

1 The 1946 estimates relate to the proportion of all workers under agreement
covered by each type of union status. Closed and union shop clauses are
not shown separately for subsequent years. Bureau reports issued since
passage of the Labor Management Relations Act have classified closed shop
as a type of union shop.

from membership requirements. The exemptions,
in most instances, applied to employees who were
not members on the effective date of the agree­
ment. In a few cases, only employees with rela­
tively long service were exempted; in some in­
stances, the exemption applied only to members
of religious groups with prohibitions on member­
ship in a labor organization.
3.
Under a closed shop provision, all employees
must be members of the union before beginning
work. Usually such agreements provide that
only union members may be hired. However, if
no union members are available, other workers
may be hired provided they join the union prior
to or shortly after starting work. The closed
shop was found in 45 (less than 4 percent) of the
1,162 agreements designated as union shop agree­
ments, principally in local trade or service in­
dustries not subject to the LM RA. For example:
Each employer hereby agrees to employ none but mem­
bers of the union in good standing in his [establishment]

3
now owned, operated, and/or maintained by him in the
city of New York or in any [establishment] which he
may acquire, operate, and/or maintain in the city of New
York at any time during the term o f this agreement.
Each employer agrees to hire all employees through
the office of the union.
The union agrees to supply each employer with compe­
tent employees within 48 hours after a request therefor.
In the event that the union shall fail to supply any em­
ployer with competent employees within 48 hours after
a request therefor, said employer shall have the right to
procure in any other way the help needed, provided how­
ever, that such new employee or employees, before starting
work, shall apply for membership in and receive working
cards from the said union, said cards to be signed by a
duly authorized representative of said union. It is specif­
ically understood and agreed that the union may refuse
for cause to issue working cards to any such new em­
ployees who are not members of the union.

Since 1954, the date of the Bureau’s previous
survey of union security provisions, the propor­
tion of workers covered by union shop agreements
increased from 64 percent of the total to 74 per­
cent. A major factor accounting for this increase
T a b l e 1.

U n io n S e c u r i t y P r o v is io n s i n

was the action taken by major steel producers and
the United Steelworkers of America in 1956, re­
placing membership maintenance with a modified
union shop. This pattern was followed in some
agreements in related industries.
Another significant development, though not
affecting the proportion of union shop provisions,
took place in mid-1955 when the Automobile
Workers negotiated full union shop provisions in
major contracts in the automobile industry, re­
placing the modified union shop which had been
in effect since 1950. The provisions in the earlier
automobile agreements, in addition to exempting
from membership requirements nonunion em­
ployees when the agreements became effective, also
permitted new employees to withdraw from the
union after maintaining membership for 1 year.
In the present study, only 17 modified union shop
agreements, covering 95,000 workers, contained
such escape clauses. These agreements repre­
sented approximately 8 percent of the modified
union shop Agreements and workers covered, com-

M ajo r C o l l e c t iv e
Number studied

B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y I n d u s t r y ,
Union shop

Industry
Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

Agree­
ments

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

All industries....................... .................... — .............. —

1,631

7,472.0

Manufacturing................... — .............. - ----------------------Ordnance and accessories_________ _______________
Food and kindred products.................... ...................
Tobacco manufactures............................ _...................
Textile mill products................................ ........... ........
Apparel and other finished products_______________
Lumber and wood products, except furniture______
Furniture and fixtures................................... ...............
Paper and allied products________________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries_________
Chemicals and allied products----------- ----------------Petroleum refining and related industries__________
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products________
Leather and leather products_____________________
Stone, clay, and glass products__ _____ ___________
Primary metal industries---------- ------ -------------------Fabricated metal products.----------------------------------Machinery, except electrical______________________
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies_____
Transportation equipment...... .................... ..............
Instruments and related products...... ........... ............
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries___________

1,054
13
114
12
38
45
11
18
43
36
46
17
25
21
32
124
57
125
108
120
25
15

4,659.7
31.1
381.3
32.0
97.2
472.7
36.8
32.6
101.2
72.9
97.8
60.3
132.2
73.3
95.9
729.8
163.8
354.9
474.2
1,134. 8
58.2
27.0

776~
7
92
3
21
44
10
15
34
34
18
2
23
18
28
101
50
94
70
85
14
13

3,668.3
19.5
297.2
5.2
58.7
471.5
33.3
26.1
88.0
70.5
34.4
2.7
130.1
68.7
88.3
676.6
151.7
293.6
241.4
857.4
30.7
23.2

94~
2
7
1
3

Nonmanufacturing..............................................................
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas production.
Transportation *............... ............................................
Communications________________ _____ ___________
Utilities: Electric and gas........... ...... ..................... .
Wholesale trade..._ ________ ___________________
_
Retail trade.------------ --------- --------- ----------------------Hotels and restaurants_____ _____________________
Services..........................................................................

577
16
109
74
75
12
65
33
48
138
7

2,812.3
261.2
591.5
572.0
194.9
23.2
172.6
166. 7
172.0
646.9
12.4

386
11
76
5
44
11
60
28
41
105
5

1,864.3
253.2
481.9
17.4
114.8
22.2
165.4
136.7
142.9
521.7
8.3

.

...... .

........

Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries...............

1Each agreement included in this tabulation covered 1,000 or more
workers. Provisions in these agreements may not be representative of
provisions covering smaller establishments.
* Includes 8 agreements with provision for preferential hiring but no ex­
plicit statement as to nondiscrimination between members and nonmembers
of the union, and 4 agreements with provision for an agency shop.




1,162

Workers
(thousands)

Membership mainte­
nance

5,532.6

125

1958-591

Sole bargaining *

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

546.8

344

1,392.6

358.3
4.4
20.6
1.3
6.4

184
4
15
8
14
1
1
1
9
2
20
13
2
1
1
13
5
18
25
25
4
2

633.1
7.3
63.5
25.6
32.2
1.2
3. 5
a!o
13.3
2.4
42.3
54.4
21
1.3
2.0
36.3
9.4
38.9
162.4
121.0
7.6
3.8

160
5
27
56
24
1
2
4
6
33
2

759.5
8.1
94.9
417.5
54.9
1.0
2.0
24.0
27.9
125.3
4!l

2

3.6

8
2

21.2
3.2

2
3
10
2
13
13
19
7

3.4
5.6
16.9
2.7
22.4
70.5
156.5
20.0

31

188.5

6
13
7

14.7
137.2
25.2

3
1
1

5.2
5.0
1.3
............

* Excludes railroad and airline industries.

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may'I
not"equal totals.

4

T a b l e 2.

V a r ia t io n s i n T y p e s o p U n io n S e c u r it y P r o v is io n s i n M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
b y T y p e o f H ir in g C l a u s e , 1958-59
Hiring provision
Total
Preferential hiring 1

Union security provision
Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Consideration to union in
hiring *

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

No hiring provision

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

All agreements studied.............................

1,631

7,472.0

125

391.9

232

1,466.8

1,274

5,613.3

Union shop.................................................
Employees must be union members
before date of employment *...........
Union shop—all employees required
to join within a specified time........
Modified union shop—certain groups
exempted from membership re­
quirements «.....................................
Modified union shop plus agency
shop for the exempted groups.........

1,162

5,532.6

112

326.6

191

1,261.4

859

3,944.7

45

121.9

45

121.9

893

4,244.9

63

198.6

177

1,158.5

653

2,887.8

221

1,160.9

4

6.1

14

102.9

203

1,051.9

3

5.0

Maintenance of membership....................
Maintenance of membership only *_.
Maintenance of membership and
agency shop *...................................

125
117

546.8
499.8

8

47.0

Sole bargaining..........................................
Sole bargaining plus preferential
hiring 1
..........................................
Sole bargaining plus agency shop___
Sole bargaining plus harmony clause.
Sole bargaining only.........................

344
8
4
11
321

3

5.0
525.6
478.6

5
5

15.0
15.0

3
3

6.2
6.2

117
109
8

47.0

1,392.6

8

50.3

38

199.3

298

1,143.0

50.3
19.7
23.4
1,299.2

8

50.3

1
4
33

15.0
7.1
177.2

3
7
288

4.7
16.3
1,122.0

1No explicit statement as to nondiscrimination between members and
nonmembers of the union.
* Agreements provided for hiring on a nondiscriminatory basis.
* This is the closed shop, which was outlawed in establishments covered
by the Labor Management Relations Act. Although these figures are
indicative of the prevalence of the closed shop in major agreements, they
are not necessarily representative of all agreements because of the under­
representation in this study of agreements covering small establishments.

4 Includes agreements with escape clause, which permits members to
withdraw from the union at specified periods (usually after 1 year) during
term of agreement.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

pared to 20 percent of the modified union shop
agreements and almost 50 percent of the workers
covered in the Bureau’s study of agreements in
effect in 1954. Virtually all 17 agreements per­
mitted employees to withdraw from the union
after 1 year of membership or provided for the
exercise of this option annually at specified
periods.
The frequency of union shop provisions in the
1958-59 agreements studied was slightly higher in
manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing indus­
tries. Union shop provisions representing over
90 percent of the major agreements or workers
covered were found in 11 industries: apparel;
lumber; printing and publishing; rubber; leather
and leather products; stone, clay, and glass prod­
ucts; primary metals; fabricated metal products;
mining and crude petroleum production; whole­
sale trade; and retail trade. Union shop coverage
of 25 percent or less was found in only 3 indus­
tries: tobacco; products of petroleum and coal;
and communications.
Three-fourths of the major agreements negoti­
ated by A F L -C IO affiliates, as against slightly

more than one-half of those negotiated by un­
affiliated unions, provided for a union shop.




Maintenance of Membership
Membership maintenance provisions have be­
come relatively insignificant as a type of union
security during the post-World W ar I I years.
Only 125 of the 1958-59 agreements analyzed,
covering 547,000 workers, contained maintenance
of membership provisions. This represented less
than 8 percent of all major agreements and 7 per­
cent of the workers covered, compared to the Bu­
reau’s estimate of 25 percent of all workers under
agreement in 1946 (chart).
Under maintenance of membership clauses, the
employee is not required to join the union. How­
ever, those who are members when the clause be­
comes effective, or who later choose to become
members, are required to maintain their member­
ship as a condition of employment, usually for the
term of the contract or, less frequently, for short­
er periods. Although the union is granted some
measure of security under maintenance of mem-

5
bership provisions, it must undertake the job of
recruiting new members and of retaining members
when an escape clause is provided for withdrawal
from the union. Usually such agreements pro­
vide for an escape period (e.g., 10 to 30 days) im­
mediately following the signing of the agreement
and/or prior to its expiration or renewal. In
either case, employees are given a choice of with­
drawing from the union or retaining their mem­
bership for the period specified.
Approximately three-fourths of the 125 agree­
ments with membership maintenance provided for
an escape period immediately prior to the effective
date or the expiration or renewal of the contract.
Escape periods during the term of the contract
were provided by 18 agreements. These permitted
resignation from the union after 1 year or at an­
nual periods, or in a few instances, after a year
and a half.
Sole Bargaining
One-fifth (344) of the agreements analyzed for
union security provisions limited the union’s sta­
tus to sole bargaining rights, which is inherent in
virtually all collective bargaining agreements in
the United States. Under such contracts, the
union is recognized as the exclusive bargaining
agent for all employees, union and nonunion, in
the bargaining unit, but union membership is not
required as a condition of employment for any
worker.
Eleven agreements providing for sole bargain­
ing incorporated a statement of the company’s
policy of encouraging union membership for all
employees, often referred to as a “harmony
clause.” An example follows:
The union agrees that it will accept into membership
employees regularly hired by the employer and it will
not force any unusual requirements for their admission
to membership in the union.
The employer states to the union that it has no ob­
jection to and it believes that it is in the best interests
of the employees, the union, and the employer, that all
employees within the unit become and remain members
of the union. The employer agrees to cooperate with the
union in the achievement of that objective within the
limits permitted by law.

About a sixth of the agreements negotiated by
A F L -C IO affiliates provided for sole bargaining
rights only. The corresponding proportion for
unaffiliated unions was almost two-fifths.




The Agency Shop
Agency shop provisions were found in 15 of the
1,631 agreements examined (table 2 ). Under such
arrangements, all workers who do not wish to join
the union are required to pay a fixed sum monthly,
usually the equivalent of union dues, to help de­
fray the union’s expense in acting as their bargain­
ing agent.
Interest in the agency shop has been increasing
in recent years, particularly in some States which
have enacted laws banning union membership as
a condition of employment. Since some of these
“right-to-work” laws merely prohibit condition­
ing employment on union membership, while
others, in addition, contain a proscription on con­
ditioning employment on payment of dues, fees,
or charges to a union, the validity of the agency
shop in “right-to-work” States may depend largely
on the manner in which such laws are written.
Authorities in a few of these States have issued
rulings upholding the legality of the agency shop.7
Several new agency shop provisions were nego­
tiated in 1958. O f note was the Corn Products
Refining Co. multiplant agreement with the Oil,
Chemical and Atomic Workers Union.8
O f the 15 agency shop clauses included in this
study, 3 were combined with a modified union
shop, i.e., employees who were exempted from the
union shop provision and who did not join the
union were required to pay the equivalent of union
dues, as in the following example:
1. Subject to the limitations of section 8A(3) and 8B (2)
o f the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947, as amended,
the following will govern:
(a ) Present employees who are now members of the
union, or who hereafter become members, shall as a con­
dition of continued employment maintain their member­
ship in good standing for the duration of the contract.
(b) New employees hired after the execution date of
the contract shall, as a condition of employment, become
union members in good standing within not more than 30
calendar days after the date of their hiring; and these

7
For instance, in June 1959, the Indiana appellate court up­
held a decision of an Indiana superior court that agency shop
contracts did not violate the “right-to-work” act adopted in that
State in 1957.
On the other hand, the attorney general of
Nevada, in an opinion rendered in Sepember 1958, ruled that
agency shop clauses violated the “ right-to-work” law in Nevada;
this reversed a previous attorney general's opinion rendered in
1952.
* This agreement exempts employees in a Texas plant from the
agency shop provision because of a “right-to-work” law in that
State.

6
new employees shall, as a condition of continued employ­
ment, maintain their membership in the union in good
standing for the duration of the contract.
2. Present employees who are not union members, and
who do not in the future make application for member­
ship shall, as a condition o f employment, pay to the union
each month a service charge as a contribution toward the
administration of this agreement in an amount equal to
the regular monthly dues.

Eight agreements which provided for member­
ship maintenance included an agency shop ar­
rangement for nonmembers. The remaining four
agency shop clauses were found in sole bargaining
agreements, which gave further recognition to the
union’s responsibility to bargain for all employees
by requiring nonmembers to pay the equivalent
of monthly dues.
Regional and State Variations
Excluding 251 multiplant agreements which
covered more than one geographical region, the
highest concentration of union shop clauses was
found in major agreements in.the Middle Atlantic
region (83 percent), closely followed by the East
North Central and the Pacific regions (78 per­
cent) , and New England (77 percent). (See table
3.) In the southern regions, where States with
“right-to-work” laws predominate, the proportion
of union shop agreements was as follows: South
Atlantic, 30 percent; East South Central, 19 per­
cent ; and West South Central, 24 percent. Seventy-two percent of the interregional agreements
provided for the union shop.
Saving Clause
Because of Federal and State regulations, many
agreements include a general saving clause—
usually a statement to the effect that provisions of
the agreement found to be in conflict with the
law will become invalid. Generally, these clauses
refer to the actual provisions of the agreement,
as in the following:
Should any Federal or State law or regulation, or the
final decision of any court or board o f competent jurisdic­
tion, affect any practice or provision of this contract, the
practice or provision so affected shall be made to comply
with the requirements of such law, regulation, or decision
for the localities within the jurisdiction; otherwise all
other provisions of and practices under this contract shall
remain in full force and effect. Any changes made under
this article shall be discussed jointly by the company and
the union before written revisions are issued.




Another type of saving clause, commonly found
in International Typographical Union agreements
in the printing industry, also extends to the union’s
general laws which are typically incorporated into
the agreement:
. . . the union’s general laws . . . not in conflict with
Federal or territorial (State) law or this contract shall
govern relations between the parties on conditions not
specifically enumerated herein.

Saving clauses which relate to a specific pro­
vision" ,of the contract are less prevalent than the
general saving clause. For purposes of this study,
only clauses relating to union security were tabu­
lated. These were found in slightly over onefifth of the agreements, covering almost two-fifths
of the workers, and were classified into two cate­
gories: (1) clauses which provided for a different
form of union security, either to become effective
or to be negotiated, in event of a change in the
law, and (2) those which stipulated that the union
security provision would be inoperative if in con­
flict with (Federal or State) laws.
Illustrative clauses follow :
The following provision shaU immediately be substi­
tuted in place of Article “13” hereof should the Labor
Management Relations Act, 1947 (Taft-Hartley L aw ), be
repealed or should said law be amended so as not to pro­
hibit such provision: . . .
*

*

*

In the event that the union shop provisions o f the TaftHartley Act, so-called the Labor Management Relations
Act of 1947, shall be repealed or amended during the
period of this agreement, then the parties hereto agree to
renegotiate this Article III upon 30 days’ written notice
given by one party to the other of its desire for such
renegotiation.
*

*

*

(4b) Anything herein to the contrary notwithstand­
ing, an employee shall not be required to become a member
of, or continue membership in, the union, as a condition
of employment, if employed in any State which prohibits,
or otherwise makes unlawful, membership in a labor
organization as a condition of employment.

*

*

*

Any provisions o f the Trade Agreement hereinabove
mentioned which provides for union security or employ­
ment in a manner and to an extent prohibited by any law
or the determination o f any governmental board or
agency, shall be and hereby is of no force or effect during
the term of any such prohibition.

In general, specific saving clauses were more
prevalent in agreements involving workers in
States which banned union security provisions

7
T a b l e 3.

U n io n S e c u r it y P r o v is io n s

in

M a j o r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
1 9 5 8 -5 9 1
Union shop

Total
Region and State

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

by

Membership maintenance

R e g io n

and

St a t e ,

Sole bargaining

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

All agreements studied___

1,631

7,472.0

1,162

5,532.6

125

546.8

344

1,392.6

Interregional agreements*.

251

3,187.3

181

2,559.7

21

182.1

49

445.6

New England.....................
Intraregion».................
Maine..........................
New Hampshire..........
Vermont......................
Massachusetts.......... -.
Rhode Island...............
Connecticut.................

116
7
9
5
2
48
3
42

322.9
52.5
17.5
8.8
2.2
115.7
4.5
121.8

89
5
7
3
1
39
3
31

224.6
32.0
12.2
5.4
1.1
99.1
4.5
70.4

10

22.8

17
2

2
2
1
2

5.3
3.4
1.1
7.1

75.5
20.5

7

9.6

3

6.0

8

45.4

Middle Atlantic.................
Intraregion *................
New York....................
New Jersey..................
Pennsylvania........ ......

384
27
178
67
112

1,256.5
142.2
630.7
176.1
307.5

317
25
148
53
91

1,027.6
135.4
525.8
120.5
246.0

31
1
13
9
8

101.3
1.6
39.5
46.0
14.3

36
1
17
5
13

127.6
5.3
65.5
9.7
47.2

East North Central.........
Intraregion»_________
Ohio............................
Indiana______ _______
Illinois______ ________
Michigan.......... ..........
Wisconsin....................

399
13
93
34
125
82
52

1,107.5
105.4
221.7
75.1
404.7
191.1
109.5

311
12
70
21
98
71
39

834.6
96.9
136.7
40.4
321.8
155.8
83.0

27

80.9

8
4
10
4
1

13.2
12.5
44.8
9.0
1.5

61
1
15
9
17
7
12

192.0
8.5
71.8
22.2
38.2
26.4
25.0

West North Central-------Intraregion*_________
Minnesota..... ..............
Iowa.............................
Missouri................... .
North Dakota_______
South Dakota............ .
Nebraska......._........... .

85
4
31
10
29

203.6
23.8
70.1
21.5
54.4

57
2
27

104.8
2.0
50.5

8

37.3

2

10.2

26

48.6

1

2.5

20
2
2
10
2

61.6
21.8
9.4
21.5
3.3

1
3
7

2.5
3.2
28.3

2

3.7

5

24.6

1
3

2.5
3.2

South Atlantic................
Intraregion *..... ........
Delaware..................
Maryland.................
District of Columbia
Virginia....................
West Virginia...........
North Carolina........
South Carolina.........
Georgia........ ............
Florida......................

84
15
1
18
6
16
4
6
5
5
8

255.7
41.4
1.5
56.4
18.9
49.9
9.1
16.1
8.7
14.2
39.8

25
5
1
13
5

66.1
10.0
1.5
41.3
12.4

6

13.7

53
10

175.9
31.4

4

9.7

1

1.0

1
1
16
3
6
4
5
7

5.4
6.5
49.9
8.1
16.1
7.4
14.2
37.1

East South Central____
Intraregion*.............
Kentucky____ _____
Tennessee......... ........
Alabama...................
Mississippi...............

43
2
12
16
11
2

94.1
9.1
20.0
34.8
24.0
6.4

8
8

32
2
3
16
9
2

76.7
9.1
4.6
34.8
21.9
6.4

West South Central____
Intraregion *_______
Arkansas__________
Louisiana__________
Oklahoma_________
Texas_____ ________

50
5
2
15
2
26

132.1
19.1
2.9
38.2
7.2
64.8

12
2

36
3
2
4
1
26

90.5
11.0
2.9
10.7
1.2
64.8

Mountain_____ ________
Intraregion *..... ........
Montana............ ......
Idaho_____________
Wyoming..............
Colorado......... .........
New Mexico........ .
Arizona................ .
Utah____ _________
Nevada.....................

24
2
3
2

Pacific.............................
Intraregion *_______
Washington..............
Oregon____________
California.................
Alaska___ _________

1

1.3

1

2.7

14.2

3

3.3

14.2

1

1.3

2

2.1

34.5
8.1

2

7.2

10

26.4

1
1

1.2
6.0

45.2
2.7
9.0
4.6

10
1
3
2

22.0
1.4
9.0
4.6

1

1.8

13
1

21.4
1.4

6
1
3
5
2

12.8
1.1
5.3
7.3
2.4

4

7.0

1

1.8

1
1
3
5
2

4.0
1.1
5.3
7.3
2.4

195
8
23
9
152
3

867.2
63.5
63.0
19.1
716.4
5.2

152
7
21
7
115
2

644.8
48.5
57.5
12.3
522.5
4.1

16

96.5

16

96.5

27
1
2
2
21
1

125.9
15.0
5.5
6.8
97.5
1.1

i Each agreement included in this tabulation covered 1,000 or more workers.
Provisions in these agreements may not be representative of provisions
covering smaller establishments.
* Each of these agreements covers 2 or more plants located in different
regions.




* Each of these agreements covers 2 or more plants located in different
States in the same region.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

8
(table 4 ). Almost three-fourths of the company­
wide or association agreements which covered
plants in States with and without “right-to-work”
laws contained saving clauses exempting workers
in “right-to-work” States from the union security
provisions. O f the agreements covering plants in
“right-to-work” States exclusively, one-fourth
contained specific saving clauses. Most of the lat­
ter agreements were limited to sole bargaining
rights, and the saving clauses, in most instances,
provided for a different form of union security in
event of a change in the law.
Specific saving clauses were more prevalent in
union shop agreements, accounting for almost onehalf of the workers under this type of union se­
curity. The majority of these workers were cov­
T a b l e 4.

ered by master agreements which exempted those
in “right-to-work” States from the union shop ar­
rangement. Agreements covering approximately
one-fourth of the workers under membership
maintenance and one-sixth under sole bargaining
included saving clauses.
Hiring Provisions
The LM RA insures the employer’s preroga­
tive to hire employees by banning hiring arrange­
ments which restrict employment to those holding
membership in the union at the time of hiring.
However, the act does not bar hiring through a
union-operated hiring hall, so long as nonunion
applicants are not discriminated against.

U n io n S e c u r it y P r o v is io n s in M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s in S t a t e s W it h
“ R ig h t - t o - W o r k ’ ’ L a w s , b y T y p e o f S a v in g C l a u s e , 1958-59

W it h o u t

Union security provision

Total
Union shop

Type of saving clause
Agreements

and

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Membership maintenance

Sole bargaining i

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

All agreements studied............................

1,631

7,472.0

1,162

5,532.6

125

546.8

344

1,392.6

Agreements with saving clause..............

359

2,824.8

283

2,478.0

19

125.2

57

221.9

1,295
201

4, 595.8
880.6

1,028
181

3,619.6
786.7

101
5

355.7
14.7

166
15

620.5
79.2

141

674.0

131

616.1

1

1.2

9

56.7

60
1,094

206. 6
3,715.3

50
847

170.6
2,832.9

4
96

13.5
341.1

6
151

22.5
541.3

164
41

410.9
114.2

* 23
4

44.1
6.6

8
3

18.6
9.8

133
34

348.2
97.9

34

100.3

1

2.5

1

2.7

32

95.1

7
123

14.0
296.7

3
19

4.1
37.5

2
5

7.1
8.8

2
99

2.8
250.4

161
112

2,419.8
1,808.1

105
95

1,846.3
1,671.7

16
11

172.6
100.6

40
6

401.0
35.9

12

110.4

10

97.4

2

13.0

100
49

1, 697.7
611.7

85
10

1,574.3
174.6

4
34

22.9
365.2

11
5

45.5
21.9

6
3

22.6
13.0

5
2

22.9
8.9

4

14.9

3

13.0

1

1.9

1
6

7.0
23.7

3

9.6

1
3

7.0
14.1

All workers covered in States without
“ right-to-work" laws________________
Saving clause______________ ___ __
Different form of union security
effective or negotiated if law
changes 2__ _______________
Provision not operative if in
conflict with law or in States
where prohibited....................
No specific saving clause___________
All workers covered in States with
"right-to-work" laws________________
Saving clause___________________
Different form of union security
effective or negotiated if law
changes 2
_______________ ___
Provision not operative if in
conflict with law or in States
where prohibited____________
No specific saving clause.......... .........
Mixed State coverage—some workers
in States with "right-to-work" laws
Saving clause________ _______
Different form of union security
effective or negotiated if law
changes*.___ ____ __________
Provision not operative if in
conflict with law or in States
where prohibited__________
No specific saving clause___________
State coverage not known _ __________
Saving clause_______________ _
Different form of union security
effective or negotiated if law
changes________ _____
Provision not operative if in
conflict with law or in States
where prohibited . . . _ _
N o s p e c ific s a v in g cla u se

* Includes 8 agreements with provision for preferential hiring but no ex­
plicit statement as to nondiscrimination between members and nonmembers
of the union, and 4 agreements with provision for an agency shop.
* Includes several agreements which also specified that the provision was
not operative in States where prohibited by law.




11
5

100.6
72.0

* All of these agreements were negotiated in Indiana prior to June 25,1957,
the effective date of that State's “ right-to-work" law.
N o t e : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

9
T a b l e 5.

H ir in g P r o v is io n s

in

M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s , b y C o v e r a g e
W it h o u t “ R ig h t - t o - W o r k ” L a w s , 19 5 8-5 9

in

S t a t e s W it h

and

Hiring provision
Total

Preferential hiring 1

State coverage of agreements
Agreements

All agreements studied............................
Agreements with all or some workers
covered in States with “right-to-work”
law
ra............................................. ...........
All workers covered in States with
“ right-to-work” laws____________
Mixed coverage—some workers in
States with “ right-to-work” laws..
Agreements with all workers covered in
States without “right-to-work” laws..
Coverage not known_________ _______ _

No hiring provision

Consideration to union
in hiring *

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

1,631

7,472.0

125

391.9

232

1,466.8

325

2,830.7

6

22.2

47

164

410.9

19

161

2,419.8

6

22.2

1,295
11

4,595.8
45.5

119

369.7

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Workers
(thousands)

1,274

5,613.3

530.1

272

2,278.4

64.2

145

346.7

28

466.0

127

1,931.7

180
5

922.1
14.6

996
6

3,304.0
30.9

* No explicit statement as to nondiscrimination between members and
nonmembers of the union.

2 Agreements provided for hiring on a nondiscriminatory basis.
N o t e : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Less than 10 percent (125) of the 1,631 agree­
ments examined, including the 45 closed shop
agreements, provided for preference to union
members in hiring, in some instances through a
union hiring hall. These agreements did not con­
tain any explicit statement as to nondiscrimination
between members and nonmembers. Many of the
clauses were ambiguous and difficult to interpret.
For instance, some required preference in employ­
ment to workers with previous training and ex­
perience in the industry and often referred to
employment prior to 1947, when closed shop ar­
rangements may have prevailed. Such clauses,
even when incorporated in agreements otherwise
limited to sole bargaining, could result in virtually
closed shop conditions, since applicants with pre­
vious experience in industries with a history of
extensive unionization would presumably be union
members. For purposes of this study, clauses of
this type were tabulated as sole bargaining with
preferential hiring. However, these represented
only a very small portion of the sole bargaining
agreements.
Following is an example of more typical prefer­
ential hiring clauses in union shop agreements,
which may, in practice, result in a closed shop.

found in 14 percent (232) of the agreements.
Usually union members were to be referred to the
employer for job vacancies and were to be given
equal consideration with other applicants, or re­
ferrals were made through a hiring hall operated
by the union, or jointly by the union and manage­
ment, for both union and nonunion workers, on a
nondiscriminatory basis. For example:

The employer shall be the judge o f the qualification of
all employees, but in the filling of vacancies or new posi­
tions and in the employment of extra help, the employer
shall employ such persons through the office of the union
and shall give preference of employment to qualified
members of the union who are in good standing. . . .

Provisions for consideration to union members,
specifically on a nondiscriminatory basis, were




When the employer needs additional men he shall give
the local union equal opportunity with all other sources
to provide suitable applicants, but the employer shall not
be required to hire those referred by the local union.
*

*

*

The union will maintain a hiring hall and will solicit
qualified workmen, both union and nonunion, in order to
fill necessary requisitions for such workmen. The em­
ployer shall have the right to use the services o f such
hiring hall and may call upon the union to furnish such
qualified workmen as he may require in the classifications
herein mentioned. The union agrees that it will not dis­
criminate against nonunion workmen in the operation of
such hiring hall.
*

*

*

A provision for a nondiscriminatory, exclusive hiring
hall shall be incorporated into this agreement consistent
with the announced standards o f the National Labor Re­
lations Board and statement of its General Counsel on
union hiring halls.

Distribution of hiring clauses in States with
“right-to-work” laws and States without such laws
is shown in table 5. Both types of hiring clauses
were more prevalent in States which did not have
“right-to-work” laws.




11

Union Checkoff Provisions

A
ch eck o ff
syste m
is a procedure by
which the employer regularly deducts union dues
and, in many cases, other financial obligations
to the union from employees’ pay for transmittal
to the union. In the union’s view, a checkoff
arrangement eliminates the need to solicit in­
dividual members each month and insures finan­
cial stability. To the employer who agrees to
such an arrangement, checkoff eliminates on-thejob interruptions caused by dues collection and,
where a union shop prevails, safeguards operations
against the discharge problems that would arise
through dues delinquency.
Checkoff provisions in union contracts in the
past were a controversial issue, and their growth
represents, in some measure, a victory of efficiency
over principle. According to earlier Bureau of
Labor Statistics studies, the proportion of workers
under agreements with checkoff provisions rose
from 20 percent in 1942 to 40 percent in 1946,
and to 78 percent by 1951.1 It has remained at
this level since. A Bureau study covering major
contracts in effect in 1958-59 revealed 77 percent
of the workers under agreements with checkoff
provisions. W hy a substantial proportion (29
percent) of major agreements do not contain
checkoff provisions has not been studied. Un­
doubtedly, checkoff is not readily adaptable to
collective bargaining situations in which small
establishments predominate (perhaps another type
of delinquency might arise here). In some in­
dustries, e.g., construction, employment is typi­
cally of short duration and the worker looks to
the union for job leads— circumstances which
provide the union member with sufficient reason
to maintain his good standing without checkoff
and without much solicitation. Beyond these
situations, however, it can be presumed that ob­
jections on the part of employers to assisting




unions in dues collections, and a reluctance on the
part of unions to abandon personal solicitations,
which encourages closer contacts between union
representatives and members, still persist, al­
though in diminished strength.
Checkoff is permitted under the Labor Manage­
ment Relations Act, but only on written authoriza­
tion of the employee. A few of the State “rightto-work” laws include similar checkoff regulations.
Under the LM R A, the employee’s authorization
may not continue for more than a year or the
duration of the agreement, whichever is shorter,
without an opportunity for withdrawal or renewal.
Scope of Study
For its 1958-59 analysis of checkoff provisions,
the Bureau studied 1,631 collective bargaining
agreements, each covering 1,000 or more workers,
or virtually all agreements of this size in the United
States, exclusive of those relating to railroads and
airlines.2 The total of 7.5 million workers covered
represented almost half of all the workers esti­
mated to be under agreements in the United
States, exclusive of railroad and airline agreements.
Of these, 4.7 million workers, covered by 1,054
agreements, were in manufacturing, and 577
agreements applied to 2.8 million workers in non­
manufacturing establishments. Seventy-five per­
cent of the agreements were in force after Jan­
uary 1,1959; the rest had expired during the period
June-December 1958.

i See Extent of Collective Bargaining and Union Recognition, 1046, BLS
Bull. 909 (1947); Union Status Under Collective Agreements, 1950-51 (in
Monthly Labor Review, November 1951, pp. 552-556); and Union-Security
Provisions in Agreements, 1954 (in Monthly Labor Review, June 1955, pp.
649-658).
* The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements;
hence their omission from this study.

12
T a b l e 1.

C h e c k o f f P r o v is io n s in M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s b y I n d u s t r y ,

Total
studied

Total with
checkoff
provisions

Industry

1958-59 1

Items checked off

Dues only

Dues and
initiation
fees

Dues and
assessments

Dues, initia­
tion fees, and
assessments

Other
combinations

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All agreements.

_ _______

1,631

7 ,4 7 2 .0

1,163

5,72 8 .7

376

1,5 4 5 .2

Manufacturing _
1,054
Ordnance and accessories...................
13
Food and kindred products...............
114
Tobacco manufactures.......................
12
Textile mill products..........................
38
Apparel and other finished products.
45
Lumber and wood products, except
11
furniture..........................................
Furniture and fixtures........................
18
Paper and allied products..................
43
Printing, publishing, and allied
industries.........................................
36
Chemicals and allied products...........
46
Petroleum refining and related
industries.............................. .........
17
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products________________________
25
Leather and leather products............
21
Stone, clay, and glass products_____
32
Primary metal industries
124
Fabricated metal products................
57
Machinery, except electrical________
125
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies.....................................
108
Transportation equipment................
129
Instruments and related products___
25
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries
__
15

4,659 .7
3 1.1
381.3
3 2 .0
9 7.2
472.7

886
12
86
12
33
23

4,0 91.2
29.7
317 .6
3 2 .0
7 7.6
285.7

239
3
17
6
20
5

811.2
6 .3
3 2 .7
2 1 .3
36.1
78.6

36.8
3 2 .6
101.2

7
11
36

2 0 .3
19.0
89.3

2

8 .7

21

48.5

3
7
14

5. S
11.2
3 9 .3

7 2 .9
97.8

8
45

13 .5
96.8

3
19

5 .1
46.7

4
20

6 .5
34.6

60.3

15

4 3 .9

13

40.3

2

3 .6

132.2
7 3 .3
95.9
729.8
163.8
354.9

25
15
29
116
46
114

132.2
5 7 .5
89.8
716.9
134.3
339.8

16
7
8
7
6
27

90.2
24.9
20.6
2 5 .5
15.1
60.8

7
3
15
39
20
53

10.6
2 1 .3
39.6
86.0
39.1
194.5

474.2
1,134.8
58.2

97
123
21

447.8
1,070.9
53.9

23
26
7

119.5
113.9
12 .0

65
74
13

295.5
767.0
3 2 .9

2 7 .0

12

2 3 .0

3

4.9

8

16.6

N onmanufacturing__________
Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas production
Transportation *
......
__
Communications__________________
Utilities: Electric and gas.............. .
Wholesale trade
Retail trade . _
Hotels and restaurants____

577

2 ,8 1 2 .3

277

1,6 37.6

137

734.0

53

234.1

16
109
74
75
12
65
33
48
138

261.2
591.5
5 72.0
194.9
2 3 .2
172.6
165.7
172.0
646.9

13
67
72
49
6
25
14
23
6

2 5 5 .3
400.5
562.7
114.8
11.4
80.4
105.5
85.1
19.7

2
19
59
35
2
12
2
3
1

5 .7
82.5
487.2
81.2
2 .7
5 1 .2
1 3 .5
5 .8
2 .0

2
8
10
6
3
8
5
7
4

3 .5
12 .5
5 5.6
18.3
7 .7
19.1
59.2
4 1 .5
16.7

7

12 .4

2

2 .3

2

2 .3

S e rv ice s .

_

_ .

Construction_____________________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing in­
dustries

1 Each agreement included in this tabulation covered 1,000 or more workers.
Provisions in these agreements may not be representative of provisions
covering smaller establishments.

Prevalence
Seventy-one percent of the major agreements
studied contained checkoff provisions (table 1).
Of the 1,163 checkoff clauses, 469 provided for the
deduction of dues and initiation fees, 273 specified
dues, initiation fees and assessments, and 376
specified dues only. Other combinations, found
in a few agreements, also included fines. Against
the total of 1,631 agreements studied, 71 percent
checked off dues; 46 percent, initiation fees; 19
percent, assessments; and 1 percent, fines. (See
table 2).
Checkoff arrangements were far less prevalent
in multiemployer or association agreements than




2 ,11 4 .4

29

84.1

273

1,938.9

16

46 .2

416 ~ L 8 8 0 .4
20.9
7
45
213.9
4
7 .1
10
2 3 .1
3
11.8

469

15

4 7.3

lfTl

15.8

1
3

3 .5
6 .9

1 ,3 3 7 .2
2 .6
5 5 .3
3 .7
15 .0
188.5

5

3

211
2
21
2
2
12
2
4
1

5 .8
7 .8
1 .5

6

15.6

28.0
6 .8
19.7
600.6
80.1
76.6

1
3

10 .0
3 .8

1

1 .3

1

2 .0

1

1

3 .5
4 .5

1

1 .0

3

6 .8

1
4
5
66
20
30

3 .4

9
22

1

3 2 .8
186.6
9 .0

1

1 .5

1

14

36.8

7

26.1

4

5 .7

1
1
1

2 .5
1 .5
1 .0

62

601.7

9
31
3
4
1
3
4
7

246.1
267.8
19.9
9 .8
1 .0
7 .3
2 5 .2
24.8

.
11

3 1 .2

2

11.6

2
2
5

2 .9
5 .1
11.6

* Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

in agreements negotiated by a single company.
About a third of the multiemployer agreements
studied contained checkoff provisions, as against
9 out of 10 single employer agreements. This
difference is reflected in table 1 where checkoff
provisions are presented on an industry basis; the
proportion of agreements with checkoff was low­
est in industries such as construction, maritime,
and printing, where multiemployer bargaining is
the rule. For all nonmanufacturing industries,
checkoff agreements accounted for 48 percent of
the total, compared with 84 percent for
manufacturing.
The proportion of checkoff provisions varied
relatively little as between agreements with union

13
Checkoff Provisions, by Type of Union Security, in
Major Collective Bargaining Agreements, 19 58-5 9

-, ,--- ---- -

P e r c e n t o f W o r k e r s S t u d ie d

0

20

1

40
1

60

1

1

1

80
1

1

100
1

Union Shop

Maintenance of
Membership

W it h c h e c k o ff
p r o v is io n
W it h o u t c h e c k o ff
p r o v i s io n

Sole Bargaining

security clauses and those without.
Checkoff
arrangements were found in 76 percent of the
sole bargaining contracts (no form of union secu­
rity) covering 80 percent of the workers under
such contracts; and in 70 percent of those with
union security provisions (union shop and mem­
bership maintenance), representing 76 percent of
the workers (table 2 and chart). However, the
distribution of checkoff clauses varied by type of
union security; 89 percent of the workers under
T a b l e 2.

C h e c k o f f P r o v is io n s

in

membership maintenance were covered by check­
off provisions, compared to 75 percent under union
shop. About half of the checkoff arrangements
under sole bargaining agreements were limited to
dues checkoff; the corresponding proportion under
some form of union security was about one-fourth
(table 2).
Regional and State distribution of checkoff
clauses, by combined types of payments specified,
are shown in table 3. Checkoff arrangements were
most prevalent in interregional agreements and
the following four regions: New England, East
North Central, South Atlantic, and East South
Central. Eighty percent or more of the major
agreements in these regions, covering a similar
proportion of workers, provided for checkoff, in
contrast to approximately 40 percent of the agree­
ments in the Pacific region, where checkoff was
least prevalent. State bans on union security
clauses appear to have intensified efforts to include
checkoff provisions. Thus, 85 percent of the work­
ers under major agreements in States with “rightto-work” laws were covered by such provisions,
as against 68 percent under agreements in States
without such laws (table 4). 3

3 None of the State “ right-to-work** laws prohibits checkoff.

M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
S e c u r it y , 1 9 5 8-5 9

by

T ype

of

U n io n

Type of union security
Total

Union shop

Type of checkoff provision
Agreements

Sole bargaining

Workers Agreements Workers Agreements Workers Agreements Workers
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)

1,631

All agreements studied No provision fnf nhAntnff
Number w it h c h e c k o ff ,

Membership mainte­
nance

.

_ .
_

____

7,472.0

1,162

5,532.6

125

546.8

344

1,392.6

468
1,163

1,743.2
6,728.7

376
787

1,397.9
4,134.7

11
114

62.4
484.4

82
262

283.0
1,109.6

1,163
767
314
16

6,728.7
4,091.0
2,063.2
46.2

787
567
269
14

4,134.7
3,387.7
1,929.0
43.5

114
67
14

484.4
243.9
34.5

262
123
32
2

1,109.6
459.4
89.7
2.7

376
469

1,646.2
2,114.4
84.1

194
321

668.5
1,523.7
77.1

46
54

239.1
210.9

136
94

1
13

1 .5
3 3 .0

3
27

379.8
5 .5
84.0

2

2 .7

TYPE OP PAYM ENT1

Dues * _____________________________________________
Initiation fees
.....
Assessments
______ _____________________
Fines
COMBINED TYPES OP PAYMENT

Dues only____________ . . . . . . . . . _______ _____________
Dues and initiation fnes
Dues and assessments______________ - _____ - _____ - ___
Dues, initiation fees, and assessments.
Dues, initiation fees, and fines
___
Dues, assessments, end fines
_
___
Dues, initiation fees, assessments, and fines
____ ____

29
273
4
1
11

1,938.9
13.6
1 .4
3 1 .3

i Nonadditive. These items may appear singly, or in combination, in
one agreement.
* Includes agreements which also specified convention dues.




25
233
4
1
9

1,821.9
1 3 .5
1.4
28.6

637.6

N otk: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

14
T a b l e 3.

C h e c k o f f P r o v is io n s

in

M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
1 9 5 8-5 9 1

by

R e g io n

and

St a te ,

Items checked off
Total studied
Region and State

Total with
checkoff

Dues only

Dues and
initiation fees

Dues and
assessments

Dues, initiation
fees, and
assessments

Other com­
binations

Agree- Workers Agree- Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou- ments (thou- ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
1,631

7, 472.0

1,163

5, 728.7

376

1, 545.2

469

2, 114.4

29

84.1

273

1, 938.9

16

46.2

Interregional agreements *.

251

3 , 187.3

193

2, 853.5

54

527.2

67

1, 002.7

7

26.0

64

1, 287.6

1

10.0

New England...................
Intraregion *.......... .....
Maine....... ................. .
New Hampshire_____
Vermont____________
Massachusetts.............
Rhode Island............ .
Connecticut................
Middle Atlantic_________
Intraregion ....... .....
New York_____ ____ _
New Jersey__________
Pennsylvania........ .....
East North Central..........
Intraregion *.............
Ohio..................... .......
Indiana_______ ______
Illinois____ _________
Michigan.....................
Wisconsin....................
West North Central_____
Intraregion 3
__....... .....
Minnesota__________
Iowa........................... .
Missouri........ ..............
North Dakota_______
South Dakota_______
Nebraska............. .......
Kansas...................... .
South Atlantic__________
Intraregion *_________
Delaware............. .......
Maryland___________
District of Columbia..
Virginia_____________
West Virginia..............
North Carolina______
South Carolina______
Georgia____ ________
Florida................. .......
East South Central.......... .
Intraregion 3________ _
Kentucky______ _____
Tennessee.................. .
Alabama____________
Mississippi_________ _
West South Central........ .
Intraregion«..... ..........
Arkansas....... ............ .
Louisiana........ ........... .
Oklahoma....... ........... .
Texas.................. .........

116
7
9
5
2
48
3
42

322.9
52.5
17.5
8.8
2.2
115.7
4.5
121.8

93
5
8
5
2
35
2
36

257.1
36.5
16.3
8.8
2.2
84.6
3.5
105.3

44
5
6
4
1
13
2
13

122.3
36.5
12.4
7.5
1.1
29.6
3.5
31.7

35

106.5

3

6.1

11

22.4

2
1
1
11

3.9
1.3
1.1
32.3

3

6.1

8

16.7

20

67.9

384
27
178
67
112

1, 256.5
142.2
630.7
176.1
307.5

266
19
100
56
91

844.2
118.2
324.4
149.5
252.2

85
2
35
26
22

320.1
32.8
123.4
95.6
68.4

97
5
38
21
33

257.3
14.0
129.9
36.2
77.3

11
3
5

37.1
17.4
14.8

4

9.6

3

4.9

399
13
93
34
125
82
52

1, 107.5
105.4
221.7
75.1
404.7
191.1
109.5

320
12
90
30
87
72
29

894.9
93.4
218.1
64.4
280.4
172.0
66.6

91
2
29
10
23
18
9

273.1
14.1
95.4
28.6
70.5
46.9
17.7

140
4
39
17
32
36
12

309.1
12.2
73.9
31.0
102.7
61.7
27.7

4
1
2

7.5
2.0
4.0

1

1.5

85
4
31
10
29

203.6
23.8
70.1
21.5
54.4

49
1
15
10
14

129.1
20.3
29.8
21.5
26.0

12
1
4
2
4

36.9
20.3
6.0
4.1
5.3

23

59.1

2

4
6
6

5.0
10.5
15.7

2

1
3
7

2.5
3.2
28.3

1
2
6

2.5
2.2
27.0

1

1.2

1
6

1.0
27.0

84
15
1
18
6
16
4
6
5
5
8

255.7
41.4
1.5
56.4
18.9
49.9
9.1
16.1
8.7
14.2
39.8

71
13

215.1
35.1

28
6

87.9
22.5

29
4

83.7
6.7

1

2.2

14

3
2
6
2
3
2
1
3

4.6
7.5
26.2
6.2
7.2
3.0
1.2
9.6

8
2

2.2

2
3
3
1
2

32.9
7.6
6.6
2.9
8.9
5.7
9.3
3.2

1

6
5
3
7

44.4
17.9
38.1
9.1
16.1
8.7
12.2
33.8

43
2
12
16
11
2

94.1
9.1
20.0
34.8
24.0
6.4

37

73.8

14

27.8

15

11
14
10
2

19.0
26.7
21.8
6.4

4
8
2

6.2
18.2
3.5

2
6
5
2

All regions.........................

5

14

4

5.7

•69
9
20
9
31

220.3
54.1
51.0
17.8
97.5

79
5
20
3
28
16
7

285.8
65.2
44.9
4.8
91.5
59.7
19.8

4.4

9

4.4

4
2
2
1

4

3

2.5

12
3

39.8
5.9

4

2
1

4.7
2.8
5.4

2

21.1

32.1

7

12.9

3.0
8.6
14.2
6.4

5

9.8

2

3.1

6
2

15.0
8.1

3

5.2

50
5
2
15
2
26

132.1
19.1
2.9
38.2
7.2
64.8

38
4
2
10
2
20

93.7
11.1
2.9
17.1
7.2
55.5

17
1
1
1
9

39.3
2.0
1.8
9.7
1.2
24.7

Mountain...........................
Intraregion *________ _
Montana.................... .
Idaho..........................
Wyoming................... .
Colorado____________
New Mexico.......... .....
Arizona....................... .
Utah...........................
Nevada....................... .

24
2
3
2

45.2
2.7
9.0
4.6

15
1
2
2

30.1
1.4
7.0
4.6

7

15.6

2

7.0

6
1
3
5
2

12.8
1.1
5.3
7.3
2.4

4

7.8
1.1
4.3
2.8
1.2

3

6.3

1

1.5

1
1

1.1
1.2

1
1

3.3
1.6

Pacific............. ................. .
Intraregion *............... .
Washington.................
Oregon........................ .
California______ ____ _
Alaska........................ .

195
8
23

867.2
63.5
63.0
19! 1
716*4
5.2

81

337.3
31.5
14.4
11*4
278*9

24

95.4
11.0
1.4
6.3
75.6

43
2

213.4
20.5
13.0
4.1
175.8

o

152
3

1
2
2
1

5
g

6
61
1

ill

1 Each agreement included in this tabulation covered 1,000 or more
workers. Provisions in these agreements may not be representative of
provisions covering smaller establishments.
>Each of these agreements covers 2 or more plants located in different
regions.




5

3

1
2
17
1

l!l

14

38.4

1
2
1
10

1.1
2.3
6.0
29.0

6
1

12.3
1.4

2

5.5

2

4.1

6

19.6

4
2

15.8
3.8

24.5

3

4.4

12.3
6.9
2.8

1

2.1

2

2.3

1

1.7

1

1
1

2

1.7

1

1.0

1

1.0

4.6

7
3

31

1.0
1.0

1

1.8

2

2.3

1

1.1

1

1.2

14

28.6

1
13

1.0
27.6

* Each of these agreements covers 2 or more plants located in different
States in the same region.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

15
T a b l e 4.

C h e c k o f f P r o v is io n s

in

M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e m e n t s ,
W it h o u t “ R ig h t - t o - W o r k ” L a w s , 1958-59

by

C overage

in

S t a t e s W it h

Items checked off
Total studied

Total with
checkoff
Dues only

State coverage of agreements

Initiation fees

Assessments

and

Other
combi­
nations

Initiation fees
and assess­
ments

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All agreements................................................ 1,631 7,472.0
All workers covered In States without
“ right-to-work” laws. ................... ............. 1,296 4,695.8
All workers covered in States with “ right164
410.9
to-work” laws_________________________
Mixed State coverage—some workers in
States with “ right-to-work” laws..............
161 2,419.8
11
45.5
Coverage not known......................................

1,163 5,728.7

376

890 3,120.8
139

1,545.2

469 2,114.4

283 1,009.1

355 1,075.7

348.1

53

143.9

66

38
2

383.8
8.4

48

892.6

273 1,938.9

74.0

213
19

24

84.1

40
1

959.0
6.0

146.1

131 2,245.5
3
14.4

29
=====

5

10.1

16

46.2

917.5

15

44.5

56.4

1

1.7

=

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Checkoff Authorization
Of the 1,163 contracts with checkoff arrange­
ments, 710 (61 percent) specified the length of
time for which the authorization was to be effec­
tive (table 5). The term of authorization most
frequently specified was for the duration of the
contract or 1 year, whichever was shorter, during
which time the authorization was irrevocable.
This appeared in over half (363) of the 710 clauses,
representing 44 percent of the workers. Over
three-fourths (276) of these clauses also provided
for automatic renewal of the authorization, unless
the employee gave written notice of cancellation
during a specified escape period at the end of the
term of authorization. Nearly all of such clauses
specifically stated that the automatic renewal
would be effective from year to year, unless notice
was given. Frequently, the agreement included
a copy of the authorization form to be used, as in
the following:
The authorization for the deductions . . . shall be in
the following form:
Pursuant to this authorization and assignment,
please deduct from my pay each month, while I am in
employment within the collective bargaining unit in
the company, monthly dues, assessments and (if owing
by me) an initiation fee each as designated by the
international secretary-treasurer of the union, as my
membership dues in said union.
The aforesaid membership dues shall be remitted
promptly by you to [union official].




This assignment and authorization shall be effective
and cannot be canceled for a period of 1 year from
the date appearing above or until the termination date
of the current collective bargaining agreement between
the company and the union, whichever occurs sooner.
I
hereby voluntarily authorize you to continue the
above authorization and assignment in effect after the
expiration of the shorter of the periods above specified,
for further successive periods of 1 year from such date.
I agree that this authorization and assignment shall
become effective and cannot be canceled by me dur­
ing any such years, but that I may cancel and revoke
by giving to the appropriate management representa­
tive of the plant in which I am then employed, an in­
dividual written notice signed by me and which shall
be postmarked or received by the company within 15
days following the expiration of any such year or
within the 15 days following the termination date of
any collective bargaining agreement between the com­
pany and the union covering my employment if such
date shall occur within one of such annual periods.
Such notice of revocation shall become effective re­
specting the dues for the month following the month
in which such written notice is given; a copy of any
such notice will be given by me to the financial secre­
tary of the local union.

A small group of agreements (30) merely stipu­
lated that the authorization was irrevocable for
the term of the contract. Another group (59)
made the authorization irrevocable for 1 year.
Over half (50) of the clauses in these two groups
also provided for automatic renewal of the author­
ization, unless notice was given. The majority of
these renewal clauses were effective from year
to year.

16
T a b l e 5. C h e c k o f f A u t h o r iz a t io n a n d R e n e w a l
P r o v is io n s in M a jo r C o l l e c t iv e B a r g a in in g A g r e e ­
m e n t s , 1958-59

Total
Checkoff authorization

With renewal
provision 1

Without
renewal
provision

Work­
Work*
Work­
Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)

dues and initiation fees insofar as permitted by State or
Federal laws, upon receipt of and in accordance with a
duly executed authorization by the employee in the form
agreed upon by the company and the union.

The remaining 156 clauses stipulated that the
authorization was irrevocable at any time.

Cost of Checking Off Union Dues
Number with checkoff.......... ...... 1,163 5t728.7
Number with provision for term
710 3,913.2
of authorization________ _____
156 744.9
Revocable at any time..____
Irrevocable for term of con­
tract or 1 year, whichever
363 1,707.3
is shorter________________
59 280.4
Irrevocable for 1 year_______
Irrevocable for term of con­
88.6
25
tract____________________
Irrevocable for term of con­
tract or any renewal
13.4
5
thereof__________________
Checkoff consistent with
102 1,078.6
Federal and/or State law...

326 1.619.7

837 4,109.0

326 1.619.7

384 2,293.5
156 744.9

276 1,385.4
40 172.8
7

54.3

3

7.2

87
19

321.9
107.6

18

34.3

2

6.2

102 1,078.6

i After “ escape” period during term of agreement. All of these clauses
provided for automatic renewal of the authorization unless notice was given;
all but a few specified renewal from year to year.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may hot equal totals.

A checkoff provision which simply stated that
it was to be consistent with Federal and/or State
law was stipulated in 102 contracts, covering over
one-fourth of the workers. No other details were
given in the provision which follows:
The company will deduct out of the current net earnings
payable to an employee covered by this agreement union




Provisions for assessing the union for the expense
incurred by the company in checking off dues, etc.,
are rare. This function is generally carried out by
the employer without charge to the union, although
only eight agreements, covering 1 percent of the
workers, specifically stated that the company
agreed to assume the cost of making dues
deductions.
Only 12 agreements, covering 2 percent of the
workers under checkoff arrangements, provided
for payment by the union to the employer to cover
the cost of checkoff; all but 2 were in the telephone
industry. Most of these clauses specified payment
of a fixed charge or percent. A few did not stipu­
late the cost to be paid, but merely stated that the
union would reimburse the company for the ex­
pense incurred, or that the company would notify
the union of the cost for this service.
*U
.s.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 0 — 544723