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UNION CONSTITUTION PROVISIONS:
Election and Tenure of National and
International Union Officers
1958
o

£

Qualifications for Office

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Nominating and Election Procedures

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Term of Office

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Presidential Salaries

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Removal Procedures

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Bulletin

N o. 1239

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Ja m es P. M itchell, S e c r e ta r y
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




U N IO N

C O N S T IT U T IO N

E le c t io n a n d

P R O V IS IO N S

T e n u re o f N a t io n a l a n d

In t e r n a t io n a l U n io n

O ffic e r s

1958

0

Q u a lific a tio n s f o r

0

N o m in a t in g

#

Term

0

Presidential Salaries

#

Removal

of

and

Office
E le c tio n

P rocedu res

Office

Bulletin

P rocedu res

N o. 1239

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Jam es P. M itchell, S e c r e ta r y
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

November 1958
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - Price 30 cents




The Library of Congress has cataloged the series
in which this publication appears as follows:

U. S. Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

Bulletin, no. 1Washington.

Jfov. 1895-

no. in v. Ulus. 10-28 cm.
Bimonthly, N ot. 1895-May 1912; irregular, July 1912No. 1-111 issued by the Bureau of Labor.

1. Labor and laboring classes—U. S.—Period.
H D8051.A62

831.06178

Library of Congress

15-23307 rev^t

ir58t2|

The Library of Congress has cataloged this
publication as follows:




C ohany, H arry P

Union constitution provisions: election and tenure of na­
tional and international union officers, 1958 [by Harry P.
Cohany, and Irving P. Phillips. Washington] U. S. Dept,
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1958.

vi, 37 p. tables. 26 cm. (U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Bulletin no. 1239)
1. Trade-unions—U. S.—Officials and employees. 2. [Trade
unions—Constitutions, by-laws, etc.]
i. Phillips, Irving Philip^
joint author, n. Title, m . Title: Election and tenure of national
and international union officers, 1958. ( Series)

HD8051.A62 no. 1239

331.880973

--------------- Copy 3.

HD640O.O4C6

U. S. Dept, of Labor,
for Library of Congress

Library

t

L 58-66




P r * fo c «
The U. S. Department of L abor1s Bureau of Labor
Statistics maintains a current file of national and in ter­
national union constitutions fo r public and governmental
use, and from tim e to time undertakes studies of con ­
stitution p rov ision s. The subjects covered in recent y ears
include anti-Com m unist and strik e-con trol provision s in
union constitutions.
This study of the form al provision s governing the
election and tenure of national and international o ffice rs
was based on constitutions in effect at m id- 1958. M em ­
bership figu res w ere derived from the B u re a u s D irectory
o f National and International Unions in the United States,
1957 (Bulletin 1222).
Rules governing the election and
tenure of o ffice r s of the A m erican Federation of Labor and
C on gress of Industrial Organizations (A F L -C IO ) are briefly
sum m arized in the appendix.
JThis report was prepared in the Bureau1s D ivision
o f Wages and Industrial Relations by H arry P . Cohany and
Irving P . P h illips, under the general direction of Joseph W.
B loch .
Henry S. Rosenbloom assisted in the prep ara­
tion of the tabulations.

iii




Contents

Introduction________________________________________
Qualifications for o ffic e ___________________________
Union membership and/or industry experience
Criminal and other conviction bans ___________
Subversive b a n s ________________________________
Age lim its ______________________________________

1
1
1

3
4
5

Nominating and election provisions____
Nominating procedures______________
Elections and balloting ______________
Election of executive board members

16

Selection of convention delegates

18

6
6
8

Tenure __________________________

19

Presidents1 compensation______
S ala ries______________________
Expense allowances__________

21
21

Removal of international officers ____________________________________ ______________X
________
Initiation of ch arges______________________ ________________________________________ _________
Endorsement of c h a r g e s ___________________________________________________________________

24
26
27

Filling vacancies____________________________________________________________________ .______

32

22

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Procedures for nomination and election of international union
presidents provided in union constitutions, 1958___________________________________
Voting procedures for electing international union presidents
provided in union constitutions, 1958 ______________________________________________
Voting procedures for electing international union presidents
provided in union constitutions by size of unions, 1958 ____________________________
Constitutional provisions governing votes needed for election
of international union presidents and other international
union officers, 1958 _________________________________________________________________
Methods of selecting convention delegates provided for in
union constitutions, 1958 ____________________________________________________________
Frequency of election of international union presidents as provided
for in union constitutions, 1958 ____________________________________________________
Presidential salary provisions in international union
Annual salaries of international union presidents as provided
for in union constitutions by size of unions, 1958 __________________________________
Types of provisions for removal of international officers
stipulated in union constitutions, 1958 ____________________________________________
Initiating agency for recall and impeachment proceedings against
the international union president stipulated in union
constitutions, 1958 m_________________________________________________________________
L
Recall and impeachment clauses against international union
presidents in union constitutions by type of endorsements

6
9
9
14
18
20

23
24
26

Agency empowered to remove international union presidents under
recall and impeachment proceedings contained in union
constitutions, 1958 __________________________________________________________________
Constitutional provisions for filling of vacancy in the office of
international president during term of office, 1958 _______________________________

29

Appendix: The election and tenure of officers of the A F L -C I O _____________________________

35

13.




v

33




U n io n C o n stitu tio n P r o v is io n s :

E le c tio n

and

T en u re o f N a tio n a l a n d

I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n O f f ic e r s

1958
In trodu ction
P r o v is io n s regu latin g the e le c tio n o f union o f f i c e r s , the con d u ct o f th ese
o f f i c e r s , the in tern al a dm in istra tion o f u n ion s, and the rights o f union m e m b e rs
have r e c e n tly r e c e iv e d w id e sp re a d public attention. H earin gs b e fo r e C o n g re ssio n a l
C o m m itte e s have d is c lo s e d a r e c o r d o f m is d e e d s on the part o f som e union o f ­
fic ia ls and have le d to le g is la tiv e p ro p o s a ls d esig n ed to cu r b v a riou s abu ses and
to m ake union le a d e r s m o r e r e s p o n s iv e to m e m b e rsh ip c o n t r o ls . A re la te d d e ­
v elop m en t has b een the adoption by the A F L -C IO o f a s e r ie s o f E th ica l P r a c t ic e s
C odes w hich e sta b lish stan dards f o r fin a n cia l re s p o n s ib ility and d e m o cra tic adm in ­
istra tio n o f in tern al union a ffa ir s .
T h is b u lletin a n a lyzes the fo r m a l ru les stipulated in union con stitu tion s
govern in g the e le c tio n and tenure o f in tern ation al union o f f i c e r s , the q u a lifica tion s
n e c e s s a r y to h old union o f f i c e , nom inating and e le c tio n p r o c e d u r e s , te rm s o f o f ­
f i c e , s a la r ie s and a llo w a n ce s o f union p r e s id e n ts , and re m o v a l p r o c e d u r e s . It is
e s s e n tia lly a su m m a ry o f union la w s , in e ffe c t in 1958, and d oes not extend to
union p r a c t ic e s .
The study c o v e r e d the con stitu tion s o f 111 national and in tern ation al
u n io n s ,1 ea ch with 1 0 ,000 o r m o r e m e m b e r s .2 T h ese 111 unions accou n ted f o r
1 7 ,6 4 1 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s , o r a p p ro x im a tely 96 p e rce n t o f total m e m b e rsh ip o f a ll
national and in tern ation al unions in the U nited S ta tes. L o c a l union con stitu tion s
w e re not stu d ied .
Q u a lifica tion s f o r O ffice
Union M e m b e rsh ip a n d /o r Industry E x p e r ie n c e .— Union con stitu tion s f r e ­
quently re q u ire d that p r o s p e c tiv e in tern ation al union o ffi c e r s m u st have b een union
m e m b e r s fo r a s p e c ifie d n u m ber o f y e a r s , and m ust have obtained som e non the
j o b 1 e x p e r ie n ce in the tra d e s o r in d u stries re p re s e n te d by the u n ion s. Such r e ­
1
q u ire m e n ts, it is re a so n a b le to a ss u m e , w e re d esig n ed to a ss u re a national le a d ­
e rsh ip w hich has e sta b lish e d a r e c o r d o f p a rticip a tion in union a ffa irs and is
fa m ilia r with the p ro b le m s o f the in d u stry .
T his p re re q u isite was fu rth er e m ­
ph a sized in a few unions w h ere con ten d ers f o r top o ffic e s m u st have m et lo n g e r
m in im u m m e m b e rsh ip re q u ire m e n ts than con ten d ers f o r l e s s e r national p o s ts . The
fo llo w in g ex a m p les fr o m s e v e r a l union con stitu tion s illu stra te th ese q u a lifica tio n s:
No one sh a ll be e lig ib le as an o f f i c e r e x ce p t a m e m b e r having
5 y e a r s 1 continuous g ood standing im m e d ia te ly p r io r to e le c tio n ,
(in tern a tion al B ro th e rh o o d o f E le c t r ic a l W o rk e rs)
*

*

*

1 Throughout this bulletin^ the te rm s "n a tion a l1 and "in te r national* * union a re
1
u sed in terch a n g ea b ly .
2 A c c o r d in g to the D ir e c t o r y o f N ational and International L a b o r U nions in
the United S ta tes, 1957 (B LS B u ll. 1222), th ere w ere 125 n ational and in t e r ­
national unions in the U nited States with 10 ,0 0 0 o r m o r e m e m b e r s . F o r 14 u n ion s,
cu r r e n t con stitu tion s w e re not a v a ila b le . T h ese 14 unions a ccou n ted f o r 4 6 4 ,0 0 0
m e m b e r s ; in clu d ed am ong th ese w e re 5 rep re se n tin g 195,000 G overn m en t p osta l
e m p lo y e e s •




2
T o be e lig ib le fo r e le c tio n to any o ffic e o f a lo c a l union o r the
In tern ation al U nion, a m e m b e r m u st be in continuous g ood stan d­
ing fo r a p e r io d o f 2 y e a r s p r io r to nom ination fo r said o ffic e
and m u st have w ork ed at the c r a ft as a m e m b e r fo r a total o f
2 years. . • .
(in terna tion al B ro th erh ood o f T e a m s te rs )
*

*

*

A ny m e m b e r is e lig ib le to o ffic e in the International A s s o c ia tio n
who has b e e n a m e m b e r in good standing in the A s s o c ia tio n f o r
2 y e a r s , with the e x ce p tion o f the P r e s id e n t, who shall have
b een a m e m b e r in g ood standing fo r at le a s t 3 y e a rs p re ce d in g
su ch e le c tio n .
(A m alga m ated A s s o c ia tio n o f S tre e t, E le c t r ic
R a ilw a y and M o to r C oa ch E m p loy es o f A m e r ic a )
*

*

*

No p e r s o n sh all be e lig ib le fo r nom ination o r e le c tio n as G en era l
P r e s id e n t, G e n e ra l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o r as a V ice P r e s id e n t,
u n le ss he sh all have b een a m e m b e r o f the International Union in
continuous g ood standing f o r the p e rio d not le s s than 24 m on th s,
in the c a s e o f G e n e ra l P r e s id e n t o r G en era l S e c r e ta r y -T r e a s u r e r ,
and 12 m on th s, in the c a s e o f V ice P r e s id e n ts , im m e d ia te ly
p re ce d in g the con v e n tio n .
(T e x tile W ork ers Union o f A m e r ic a )
C on stitu tion s w hich lis t e d trade e x p e rie n ce as one o f the q u a lifica tion s
u su a lly w a ived this r e q u ire m e n t fo r m e m b e r s holding union o ffic e o r th ose e m ­
p lo y e d on the union s ta ffs , as in the follow in g ex a m p le:
A ny b e n e fic ia l m e m b e r , who is a jou rn ey m a n o f the B r o th e r ­
h o o d , sh all be e lig ib le as a G en era l O f fic e r , who has b een in
continuous g ood standing fo r 5 y e a rs p rev iou s to e le c tio n , who
has b een a ctu a lly en gaged at the trade fo r 1 y e a r im m e d ia te ly
p r io r to the date o f e le c tio n (o r o f n om inations when e le c tio n s
a re h eld by the referen d u m ) and who is not oth e rw ise d isq u a lifie d
b y the p r o v is io n s o f this con stitu tion .
P r o v id e d , h o w e v e r, that
the re q u ire m e n t o f bein g engaged at the trade shall not be c o n ­
stru e d to p re v e n t the e le c tio n o f a m e m b e r , oth e rw ise q u a lifie d ,
who is e m p lo y e d as a G en era l O ffic e r o r agent o r o f f i c e r o f
the B ro th e rh o o d , a D is t r ic t C ou n cil o f the B ro th e rh o o d , a lo c a l
union o r o th er su bord in ate b od y o f the B ro th e rh o o d , the A m e r i­
ca n F e d e ra tio n o f L a b o r , a State F ed e ra tio n o f L a b o r . . .
(P a in te r s , D e c o r a to r s and P a p erh a n g ers o f A m e r ic a )
Although in m o s t u n ion s, a m e m b e r who m eets one o r m o r e o f the above
q u a lifica tio n s can b e c o m e a candidate f o r a top e le c tiv e o f f i c e , a few con stitu tion s
fu rth e r stipu lated that can didates m u st be ch o se n fr o m am ong the con vention
d e le g a te s .
Incum bent o f f i c e r s w ere eith er ex em p ted fr o m this req u ire m e n t o r
w e re d e c la r e d d eleg a tes by v irtu e o f p re s e n t o ffic e h old in g , as in d icated in the
fo llo w in g e x a m p le s:




. . . A ll ca n dida tes f o r International O ffice who a re not the
in cum ben ts o f an In tern ational O ffice o r who a re not International
R e p re s e n ta tiv e s m u st be duly e le c te d and q u a lified d eleg a tes
sea ted in the con ven tion in w hich such o ffic e r s a re e le c te d .
(A m e r ica n F lin t G la ss W o r k e r s 1 U nion o f N orth A m e r ic a )
*

*

*

3
The o ffic e r s o f the URW shall be e le c te d by and fr o m the d e le ­
gates a ss e m b le d in con v en tion . . . .
A ll International O ffic e r s
shall be d e le g a te s to the International C onvention by v irtu e of
th eir o ffic e , with a ll rights and p r iv ile g e s o f oth er deleg a tes
but without vote u n less e le c te d d eleg a tes by th eir own lo c a l union.
(U nited R u b b er, C o r k , L in oleu m and P la s tic W o rk e rs o f A m e rica )
C r im in a l and O ther C o n v ictio n B a n s. — A s stipulated in a re la tiv e ly sm a ll
num ber o f con stitu tion s (2 3 ), c e r ta in c rim in a l acts a n d /o r keeping the m e m b e r ­
ship in ig n o ra n ce o f su ch a c ts , o r m isd eed s against the union, d isq u a lifie d a
m e m b e r fr o m running fo r in tern ation al o ffic e .
In a few in sta n ce s, in e lig ib ility
co u ld re su lt on ly fr o m a co n v ic tio n b e fo r e a co u rt o f law; m o re freq u en tly m e n ­
tion ed, h o w e v e r, w e re co n v ictio n s b e fo r e a union tribu n al.
S e v e ra l unions r e ­
q u ired a p r o s p e c tiv e o ffic e r to b e " f r e e fr o m any d elin qu en cy to the u n io n ," and
a few b a r r e d anyone found guilty o f "a n y d ish on ora b le a ct" o r o f "a n y offen se
against the In te rn a tio n a l."
Seven con stitu tion s r e fe r r e d s p e c ific a lly to e m b e z z le ­
m ent o f union funds, and one to a ccep tin g b r ib e s fr o m e m p lo y e r s , as re a so n
fo r in e lig ib ility .
No p e r s o n who has been co n v icte d of a fe lo n y shall be e lig ib le
to hold o ffic e .
(B uilding S e r v ic e E m p loy ees International Union)
♦

*

*

N o p e rs o n c o n v icte d o f grand la r c e n y , fo r g e r y , b r ib e r y , e x tortion ,
r e c e iv in g m on ey under fa ls e p reten ses o r any oth er fe lo n y , w hich
c o n v ic tio n has not been m ade known to the body p r io r to his
e le c tio n , sh all be e lig ib le to hold o ffic e in the International Union
or any a ffilia te d union o r subordinate body.
The te rm felon y
shall not be co n stru e d to apply to any offen se co m m itte d by a
p e rso n on beh alf of and in the in te re s t o f a la b o r o r g a n iz a ­
tion. (R e ta il, W h olesa le and D epartm ent S tore Union)
*

*

*

N o m e m b e r sh all be e lig ib le to hold o ffic e in the N ational M a r i­
tim e Union w ho, w hile a m e m b e r o f this union, was found guilty
by a c o u r t o r any trade union or fra te rn a l org a n iza tion o f a
c r im e defin ed as a fe lo n y o r , if a le s s e r c r im e , one that is
o ffe n siv e to the m o r a ls o f s o c ie ty , p ro v id e d the co n v ictio n is
in no w ay re la te d to tra de union a c tiv itie s .
The N ational O ffice
a n d /o r the N ational C o u n cil shall d eterm in e fitn e ss under this
c la u s e . (N ational M a ritim e Union o f A m e r ic a )
♦

*

*

Any m e m b e r who fa ils p r o p e r ly to a ccou n t fo r union funds in ­
tru sted to his c a r e o r who m isa p p ro p ria te s funds belonging to
the union shall not be e lig ib le to hold any o ffic e within the union.
. . .
(C o m m e r c ia l T e le g r a p h e r s 1 Union)
*

*

*

A ny In tern ation al, State, P r o v in c ia l o r su bordinate union o ffic e r
found guilty o f a ccep tin g any b rib e o r p re s e n t fr o m any c o r p o r a ­
tion, c o n tr a c to r o r a s s o c ia tio n shall be im m e d ia te ly suspended
fr o m o ffic e and upon c o n v ictio n shall be fin ed not m o re than
$ 1 ,0 0 0 , and be re n d e re d in elig ib le to hold any o ffic e . . • •
(B r ic k la y e r s , M asons and P la s t e r e r s International Union of
A m e r ic a )




4
S u b v e rsiv e B a n s. — T o guard against the p o s s ib ility that trad e unions
m ight be u tilize d fo r oth er than leg itim a te p u rp oses and fu n ction s, m any c o n s t i­
tutions con tain ed p r o v is io n s w hich b a r r e d fr o m m em b ersh ip a n d /o r o ffic e any
" m e m b e r ," " s u p p o r t e r ,n o r M d v o ca te” o f C om m u n ist, F a s c is t , o r n s u b v e r s iv e "
a
groups and i d e o l o g i e s .3 M ost freq u en tly , "c a t c h a ll" c la u s e s c lo s e d the union
to any adherent o f u n d em ocra tic m o v em en ts.
A lthough the a n tisu b v e rsiv e p r o v is io n s in so m e con stitu tion s r e fe r r e d to
m e m b e r s on ly, they co u ld be c o n s id e r e d as a ffectin g o ffic e r s * as w ell b e ca u se
o f the g e n e ra l re q u ire m e n t that e le c te d o ffic e r s m ust be fu lly q u a lified m e m b e r s .
A ls o , it is u n lik ely that o ffic e r s w ould be le s s su b je ct to su ch p r o v is io n s than
the rank and f ile .
F o r ex a m p le:
N o m e m b e r o f the C om m u n ist P a rty o r any oth er su b v e rs iv e
o rg a n iza tion nor any oth er p e r s o n who a d v oca tes o r w ork s fo r
the o v e rth ro w o f the U nited States . . .
by any m eans what­
s o e v e r ca n re m a in an e x ecu tiv e o ffic e r . . . (in tern a tion al
B ro th e rh o o d o f B ook b in d ers)
*

*

*

No p e r s o n sh a ll be e lig ib le f o r , o r continue to hold any o ffic e
in the International Union o r any o f its su bordinate a ffilia te s o r
s e r v e as a con v en tion d eleg ate o r oth er re p re se n ta tiv e o f an
a ffilia te , if su ch p e rs o n a s s o c ia te s h im s e lf with C om m u n ist,
F a s c is t o r s im ila r o rg a n iz a tio n s, o r the Ku K lux KLan, o r C o ­
lu m b ia n s.
Such e lig ib ility sh all lik e w ise b e denied w h ere a
p e r s o n a s s o c ia te s h im s e lf with, lends su p port o r s u b s c rib e s
to the su b v e rsiv e d o c tr in e s o f the org a n iza tion s enu m erated
h e re in , s im ila r o rg a n iz a tio n s, o r any o rg a n iz a tion or group
that expounds o r p r o m o te s any d o ctrin e o f p h ilosop h y in im ica l
o r s u b v e r siv e to the fundam ental p u rp ose o f the con stitu tion
o f the G overn m en t o f the United States (Canada in the c a s e
of C anadian R e sid e n ts ), A m e rica n F e d e ra tio n o f L a b or and C o n ­
g r e s s o f In du strial O rg a n iza tion s, o r this International Union.
(H otel and R estau ran t E m p loy ees and B a rten d ers International
Union)
The L a b o r M anagem ent R ela tion s (T a ft-H a rtle y ) A c t o f 1947 r e q u ire s
the filin g o f a n ti-C o m m u n ist affid av its by o ffic e r s o f unions seek in g to use the
fa c ilit ie s o f the N ational L a b o r R elation s B oa rd .
The a n ti-C om m u n ist p r o ­
v is io n s adopted by the tw o m a jo r unions w hich had not, up to m i d - 1958, file d
su ch a ffid a v its, the United M ine W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a and the International T y p o ­
g ra p h ica l Union, re a d as fo llo w s :
A ny m e m b e r a cce p tin g m e m b e rsh ip in the In du strial W o rk e r s
o f the W o rld , the W orkin g C la s s U nion, the One B ig Union, o r
any oth er dual org a n iza tion ; o r m e m b e rsh ip in the N ational
C h a m b er o f C o m m e r c e , o r the Ku Klux K lan, o r the C om m u n ist
P a r ty , o r F a s c is t , N azi o r Bund org a n iza tion s sh all be e x p e lle d
fr o m the United M ine W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a , and is p erm an en tly
d e b a rr e d fr o m holdin g o ffic e • . . (U nited M ine W o rk e rs of
A m e r ic a )
*

*

*

3
F o r the p r e c is e nature and g en era l p re v a le n ce o f such p r o v is io n s ,
A n ti-C o m m u n ist P r o v is io n s in Union C onstitutions (in M onthly L a b o r R ev iew ,
O cto b e r 1954, p. 1097).




se e

5
It is the duty o f each and e v e r y m e m b e r o f the Union not to
belon g to any grou ps o r org a n iza tion o f any kind w hich ad v oca tes
the o v e rth ro w o f the G overnm ent o f the United States o r Canada
by f o r c e and v io le n c e .
The C om m u n ist P a rty has been p rov en
su ch an o rg a n iza tion .
/T o qu alify fo r o ffic e , m e m b e rsh ip " in
continuous good standing fo r at le a s t 1 y e a r " is r e q u ir e d /^
(in terna tion al T y p o g ra p h ica l Union)
A g e L im it s . — S p e c ific age lim its at w hich o ffic e r s m ust r e tir e or at
w hich they b e co m e in e lig ib le to hold o ffic e w e re r a r e ly esta b lish ed by union
con stitu tio n s.
One of the few con stitu tion s w hich e sta b lish ed a defin ite age lim it
fo r can didates fo r o ffic e re a d as fo llo w s :
Any m e m b e r who is in good standing in the b e n e fic ia r y d e p a rt­
m ent, and not o v e r 70 y e a rs o f ag e, sh all be e lig ib le to any
o f the e le c tiv e o f f ic e s .
(N ational P o sta l T ra n sp o rt A ss o cia tio n )
A few con stitu tion s w hich p rov id ed f o r a c o m p u ls o r y re tire m e n t age a ls o
stipulated that an o f f ic e r co u ld continue to s e r v e with the ap p rova l o f the union*s
govern in g body.
This a rra n g em en t was e x p r e s s e d by the United M ine W ork ers
as fo llo w s :
. . . an o f f i c e r , E x ecu tiv e B oa rd m e m b e r o r em p lo y e e shall
r e tir e fr o m the s e r v ic e o f the United Mine W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a
upon his 70th birth day. E x cep tion s to this o b lig a to ry retire m e n t
age m ay be m ade by the International E x ecu tiv e B oa rd if it finds
it n e c e s s a r y to continue the s e r v ic e s o f an o f f i c e r , E x ecu tiv e
B o a rd m e m b e r o r e m p lo y e e .
Som ew hat m o r e freq u en t w e re c la u s e s w hich e sta b lish ed an autom atic
re tire m e n t a g e, that i s , an age beyond w hich no one cou ld hold a s a la r ie d o ffic e .
F o r exa m ple:
A ll o ffic e r s . . .
o f the International Union re c e iv in g c o m p e n s a ­
tion fo r th eir s e r v ic e s sh all be r e tir e d at the age o f 65, p r o ­
v id ed , h o w e v e r, that the G en eral E x ecu tiv e B oa rd m ay extend
the re tire m e n t age f o r an additional p e rio d o r p e r io d s , but in
no c a s e beyond the age o f 70. (U nited H a tters, Cap and M illi­
n e ry W o rk e rs International Union)
A sligh t v a ria tio n o f the above p r o v is io n w hich p erm itted o ffic e r s to c o m ­
p lete th eir te r m o f o ffic e was stipulated in the con stitu tion s of the International
A s s o c ia tio n o f M ach inists and the United R u bber W o rk e r s , r e s p e ctiv e ly :
P e r s o n s c o v e r e d by the pen sion plan . . . m ay r e tir e at the
age of 60 y e a r s w ith the ap p rova l o f the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil and
m ust r e t ir e at the age o f 65 y e a r s , p ro v id e d , h ow ev er, that
should an o f f ic e r r e a c h r e tire m e n t age w ithin 1 y e a r p r io r to
the c a ll fo r n om in ation s in Grand L od g e e le c tio n s , sa id o ffic e r
sh all be p r iv ile g e d to co m p le te his te rm o f o ffic e .
* * *
E le cte d o ffic e r s who attain the age o f 65 during th eir te rm of
o ffic e m ay r e tir e upon the attainm ent of age 65, but sh all be
re q u ire d to r e t ir e at the end of such te r m o f o ffic e .




6
N om inating and E le c tio n P r o v is io n s
V irtu a lly a ll union con stitu tion s set fo rth the p r o c e d u r e s by w hich union
m e m b e rs nom inate and e le c t th e ir e x e cu tiv e o f f i c e r s . 4 T h ese p r o c e d u r e s w ere
d e s c r ib e d in va ryin g d e g r e e s , ranging fr o m b r ie f r e fe r e n c e s to d eta iled d e s c r i p ­
tions o f e v e r y step o f the p r o c e s s .
The union con ven tion is ty p ica lly the fo ru m w h ere p resid en ts a re n o m i­
nated and e le c te d .
This m ethod was fo llo w e d by 80 o f the 111 unions studied
(table 1).
F o r the next la r g e s t num ber o f unions, 16, nom inations took p la ce
at lo c a l union m e e tin g s, and e le c tio n s w e re d e cid e d by a m e m b e rsh ip referen d u m .
Nine unions fo llo w e d the p r a c t ic e of nom inating at con v en tion s, but e le ctin g by
m e m b e rsh ip re fe re n d u m .
T A B L E 1.

P r o c e d u r e s f o r n o m in a tio n and e le c tio n of in tern a tio n a l union p r e s id e n ts
p r o v id e d in union c o n s titu tio n s , 1 9 5 8
U nion a ffilia tio n
A F L - C IO

P rocedu re
M em bers

U n a ffilia te d
N u m be r

N um ber

N um ber

M em bers

M em bers

(th ou san d s)

(th ou san d s)

(thousands)
.

111

1 7 ,6 4 1

96

1 4 ,7 0 7

15

2 ,9 3 4

N o m in a te d and e le c t e d b y con v en tio n
_
N o m in a te d at c o n v en tio n ; e le c t e d b y
m e m b e r s h ip r e f e r e n d u m ____ __________________
N o m in a te d at lo c a l union m e e t i n g s ;1
e le c t e d b y c o n v e n t i o n ____________________________
N o m in a ted at lo c a l union m e e t i n g s ;1
e le c t e d b y m e m b e r s h ip r e fe r e n d u m
N o m in a te d both at lo c a l union m e e t in g s and
a t co n v en tio n ; e le c t e d b y con ven tion -- ------------N o m in a tin g p r o v is io n s not g iv e n ;
e le c t e d b y con v en tio n __ „ __

80

1 1 ,5 5 7

68

9 ,2 4 3

12

2 ,3 1 4

A l l un ions stu d ied

.

.

.

.

9

1 ,1 7 6

7

1 ,0 0 6

2

170

2

56

2

56

-

-

16

4 ,2 9 1

15

3 ,8 4 1

1

450

1

49

1

49

-

-

3

512

3

512

1 In clu d es a fe w c o n stitu tio n s w hich p e r m itte d a m e m b e r to s u b m it
ting a p e titio n o r b y p la cin g h is n a m e on the l i s t o f c a n d id a te s .

h is ow n n o m in a tio n ,

”

e ith e r b y c i r c u la ­

N om inating P r o c e d u r e s *— A s in d ica ted in table 1, 89 o f the
p ro v id e d fo r the nom in ation o f can didates fo r in tern ation al p re sid e n t
tion and 18 by lo c a l unions o r individual m e m b e r s .
In one union,
w e r e nom inated by both the con v en tion and lo c a l unions.
N om inating
w e re not d e s c r ib e d in th ree co n stitu tion s.

111 unions
by co n v e n ­
candidates
procedu res

The fo llo w in g c la u s e s ty p ify nom ination by con vention :
A ll n om in ation s fo r International O ffic e r shall be m ade in open
con v en tion . , . (B u ildin g S e r v ic e E m p loy ees International Union)
* * *
On the la s t day o f the con v en tion , the International P re s id e n t,
the International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r , and the 4 V ice P re s id e n ts
and the m e m b e r s o f the G en eral E x ecu tiv e B oa rd sh all be n o m i­
nated and e le c te d b y the a s s e m b le d d eleg a tes at the con ven tion .
(U nited F u rn itu re W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
4
P r o c e d u r e s d e s c r ib e d in this bu lletin ap p lied , in the m ain , equ ally to union
p re sid e n ts and oth er in tern ation al o ffi c e r s .




7
A cla u se
rea d s as fo llo w s :

w hich p ro v id e d f o r

the nom ination at a lo c a l union m eeting

E ach lo c a l union sh a ll have the righ t to nom inate a m e m b e r fo r
ea ch o ffic e to be fille d .
The International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r
shall p re p a re nom ination blanks and send them to the lo c a l unions
not la te r than 90 days b e fo r e the date o f e le c tio n and the lo c a l
union R e co rd in g S e c r e ta r y sh all fill in the nam es o f the m e m b e rs
nom inated by the lo c a l union fo r the v a rio u s o ffic e s and fo rw a rd
the sam e to re a ch the International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r 's o ffice
not la te r than 60 days b e fo r e the date o f e le ctio n . . . . (U nited
S te e lw o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
The con stitu tion o f the A m algam ated L ith og ra p h ers o f A m e r ic a p erm itted
the con ven tion and the lo c a l union to nom inate can d id ates:
N om inations fo r International
con ven tion . . . .

o ffic e r s

sh all be

m ade

at the

In addition to nom in ation s at con v en tion , ea ch lo c a l m ay nom inate
one additional can didate f o r ea ch e le c tiv e o ffic e . . . .
A few unions p e rm itte d any m e m b e r to nom inate h im s e lf, p rov id ed that
he was able to obtain su fficie n t en d orsem en t fr o m eith er m e m b e rs o r lo c a l unions:
Any m e m b e r w ho is in good standing . . . sh all be e lig ib le to
any o f the e le c tiv e o ffic e s o f the a s s o c ia tio n • . . and, upon
w ritten a p p lica tion a d d r e s s e d to the S e c r e ta r y , designating the
o ffic e he d e s ir e s , sh a ll have his nam e p la ce d upon the o ffic ia l
b a llot as a can didate, p rov id ed , . . . su ch m e m b e r shall file
. . .
a statem ent b ea rin g the sign atu res o f not le s s than 2 p e r ­
cen t o f the m e m b e rs o f the a s s o c ia tio n (not m o re than o n e -h a lf
of w h ich r e q u ir e d sig n a tu res sh all be fr o m any one d iv is io n ),
as an e n d orsem en t o f his ca n d id a cy . . . . (N ational P osta l
T ra n sp o rt A ss o c ia tio n )
A s the above cla u se in d ic a te s, a ca n d id a te 's ch a n ce f o r nom ination m ay
depend on obtaining a given num ber o f e n d o rs e m e n ts, e ith er fr o m a p ro p o rtio n
o r num ber of the m e m b e r sh ip , lo c a l unions, o r d e le g a te s.
Such req u irem en ts
w e re found in 10 con stitu tion s.
Seven oth er unions n a rrow ed the fie ld fu rth er by
p erm ittin g only a s p e c ific num ber o f n om in ees to co m p e te , u sually the two obtain ­
ing the highest n um ber o f e n d orsem en ts o r v o te s.
The follow in g two c la u s e s a r e ex a m p les o f p r o v is io n s req u irin g a ca n d i­
d a te 's en d o rse m e n t by a n u m ber o f lo c a l unions and by a p ro p o rtio n o f con vention
d e le g a te s, r e s p e c t iv e ly :
N o one sh all be p la ce d on the o ffic ia l b a llo t who has not been
nom inated b y at le a s t 25 lo c a l unions.
(R eta il C le r k s In te r­
national A s s o c ia tio n )
* * *
A ll International O ffic e r s • . . sh all be nom inated and e le c te d by
the con v en tion u n less th ere is a co n te st fo r any such o ffic e .
• • . In c a s e o f a c o n te s t, in o r d e r fo r a nom ination o f In ter­
national O ffic e r s to be v a lid it m ust be secon d ed by at le a st
20 p e rce n t o f the d e le g a te s p re se n t.
(in ternation al Union o f the
D oll and T oy W o rk e rs o f the United States and Canada)




8
P r o v is io n s lim itin g the n um ber o f final n om in ees rea d as fo llo w s :
The nom ination and p r im a r y e le c tio n o f titled o ffic e r s sh all be
h eld on the la st day o f the con v en tion . • . . T h ere sh all be no
lim it to the num ber o f n o m in e e s.
A r o l l - c a l l vote sh a ll be held and the 2 n om in ees r e c e iv in g the
h igh est n um ber o f v o te s sh all be d e c la r e d e le c te d in the p r im a r y
e le c tio n .
The n om in ees so e le c te d in the p rim a ry e le c tio n sh all be p la ced
on a re fe re n d u m b a llo t f o r a vote o f the en tire International
m e m b e rsh ip fo r fin a l e le c tio n .
(in ternation al L o n g s h o r e m e n ^
and W a r e h o u s e m e n ^ Union)
* * *
. . . L o c a l lo d g e s m a y, by a m a jo r ity vote o f th ose votin g,
e n d o r s e one can didate fo r ea ch e le c tiv e o ffic e . . . .
F r o m the en d o rse m e n ts r e c e iv e d fr o m the lo c a l lo d g e s , th ere
sh all be s e le c te d fo r e a ch e le c tiv e p o sitio n the 2 can didates
r e c e iv in g the h igh est nu m ber o f en d o rs e m e n ts, and the 2 s o
s e le c te d sh a ll con stitu te the can didates on the final b a llot. £The
co n stitu tion fu rth er r e q u ire s ea ch candidate to be e n d o rs e d by
at le a s t 10 d iffe re n t lo c a l lodges.J7 (international A s s o c ia tio n
o f M ach in ists)
The International B ro th e rh ood o f O pera tiv e P o tte rs was the on ly union
am ong th ose studied w hich h eld a m e m b e r ship w ide p r im a r y to d eterm in e the two
top n om in ees f o r an in tern ation al o ffic e . Its con stitu tion p ro v id e d that:
E a ch lo c a l union sh a ll have the p r iv ile g e o f nom inating one o r
m o r e m e m b e r s . . . fo r International P r e s id e n t, S e c r e t a r y T reasu rer . . .
The n om in ees sh a ll not n e c e s s a r ily be con fin ed to th e ir r e s p e c ­
tive lo c a ls . . . .
N om in ation s sh all take p la ce on the se co n d m eetin g night o f the
Ideal union in January.
The nam es o f the n om in ees m ust be in
the International S e c r e t a r y fs o ffic e within 10 days a fte r the date
o f su ch m eetin g. . . .
The International S e c r e ta r y sh all p r e p a r e a b a llo t lis tin g the
nam es of a ll n o m in ees in alph abetical o r d e r . • . . He shall
fo r w a r d to ea ch lo c a l union su fficie n t b a llots and a retu rn ad ­
d r e s s e d e n v e lo p e .
The p r im a r y e le c tio n o f International o ffic e r s
sh all take p la ce on the f i r s t T u esd ay follow in g the f i r s t M onday
in M a rch . . . .
The 2 n om in ees r e c e iv in g the highest num ber of votes fo r any
o ffic e sh all b e the on ly candidates e lig ib le to co n te st in the
re g u la r e le c tio n . . . .
E le ctio n s and B a llo tin g . — Union o ffic e r s a re m o s t freq u en tly e le c te d by
lo c a l union d e le g a te s at n ational con v en tion s.
This p r o c e d u r e was stipulated in
86 o f the 111 con stitu tion s studied. The rem a in in g 25 con stitu tion s p ro v id e d that
o f f ic e r s w e r e to be e le c te d by d ir e c t p a rticip a tio n o f the m e m b e rsh ip in a r e f e r ­
endum v ote.




9
O f the 86 anions w hich e le c te d o ffic e r s at con v en tion , 23 stipulated a
r o l l - c a l l m ethod o f voting and 15 the s e c r e t b a llot (table 2).
S ixteen o f the
25 unions holding a m e m b e rsh ip re feren d u m s p e c ifie d eith e r voting by s e c r e t
b a llot o r , when not using the te rm M e c r e t , 1 d e s c r ib e d voting p r o c e d u r e s in
s
1
su fficie n t deta il to c o n v e y the intent o f s e c r e c y .
The p r o v is io n s o f 26 c o n s t i­
tutions (17 p rov id in g fo r e le c tio n by con v en tion and
by referen d u m ) r e fe r r e d
to " b a llo t in g ,1 but did not use the te r m " s e c r e t , " n or did the p r o c e d u r e ru le
1
out the p o s s ib ility o f open b a llotin g . In this con n e ctio n , it m ust again be em ph a­
s iz e d that this study w as co n fin e d to the fo r m a l p r o v is io n s o f union con stitu tion s;
use o f the s e c r e t b a llo t m ay w e ll be the intent and the p r a c tic e in m any o f th ese
unions, e s p e c ia lly in th ose r e ly in g upon a referen d u m .

9

TABLE 2.

V o tin g p r o c e d u r e s fo r e le c tin g in tern a tio n a l union p r e s id e n ts
p ro vid ed in union c o n s titu tio n s , 1958

T

U nion a ffilia tio n

1

A F L - C IO

P rocedu re
M em bers

U n a ffilia te d
M em bers

M em bers
N u m b er

N um ber

N u m b er
(thou sands)

(th ou san d s)

(th ou san ds)

A l l unions s t u d i e d _________________________________

111

1 7 ,6 4 1

96

1 4 ,7 0 7

15

2 ,9 3 4

E le c te d at con ven tion .
—
R o l l - c a l l vote _ __
—
_
_ _
—
___ ___
S e c r e t b a llo t _
B a l l o t 1 (no s p e c ific r e fe r e n c e to
secrecy)
_
__ _
N o p r o v is io n
___
_ ___ __
E le c te d b y m e m b e r s h ip re fe r e n d u m _
S e c r e t b a llo t
______ _____
_
B a l l o t 1 (no s p e c ific r e fe r e n c e to
s e c r e c y ) -------------------------------------------------------------

86
23
15

1 2 ,1 7 4
5 ,6 7 6
1 ,5 7 1

74
19
13

9 ,8 6 0
4 ,0 0 6
1 ,4 6 4

12
4
2

2 ,3 1 4
1 ,6 7 0
107

17
31
25
16

1 ,9 0 1
3 ,0 2 6
5 ,4 6 7
2 ,2 9 8

14
28
22
14

1, 734
2 ,6 5 6
4 ,8 4 7
2 ,1 2 8

3
3
3
2

167
370
620
170

9

3 ,1 6 9

8

2 ,7 1 9

1

450

1 T h e u s e o f b a l l o t s , in p r a c t ic e , m a y in v o lv e c o m p le te s e c r e c y , a su b sta n tia l d e g re e o f s e c r e c y , o r p e r ­
haps n o n e .
T h e s e c o n stitu tio n s p ro v id ed fo r u s e o f b a l l o t s , but did not s p e c ify a p ro c e d u re includ in g the w ord
" s e c r e t " o r its e q u iv a le n t.

The con stitu tion s o f 31 u nions, including a few fa ir ly la rg e org a n iza tion s
(table 3), sim p ly s p e c ifie d that "in tern a tion a l o ffic e r s sh all be nom inated and
e le c te d in con v en tion " without defin in g the votin g p r o c e d u r e to be used.
P re ce d e n t
m ay be the d eterm in in g fa c to r in th ese in sta n ce s. C on stitu tion s ty p ica lly p ro v id e d
fo r a co m m itte e (often appointed by the p resid en t) to d ra ft con v en tion ru le s w hich
freq u en tly em b od ied voting p r o c e d u r e s . (The con vention ru les a re n o rm a lly adopted
on the fir s t day o f the c o n v e n t io n .)
TA BLE 3.

V otin g p r o c e d u r e s f o r e le c tin g in tern a tio n a l union p r e s id e n ts
p ro vid ed in union c o n stitu tio n s b y s i z e o f u n io n s , 1 958
In tern atio n al union p re s id e n t e le c te d by—

S iz e o f union

C onven tion

T o ta l
T o ta l

A ll unions studied
1 0 ,0 0 0 and under 2 5 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s _____
2 5 , 0 0 0 and under 5 0 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s _____
5 0 ,0 0 0 and under 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s _ _
1 0 0 ,0 0 0 and un der 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s _
_
2 0 0 , 0 0 0 and under 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s _
_
3 0 0 ,0 0 0 and un der 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s _
_
4 0 0 ,0 0 0 and un der 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s __
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 and under 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s _
_
1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 m e m b e r s and o v e r ____________

R o ll c a ll
vote

S ecret
b a llo t

111

86

23

15

18
20
30
19
9
5
4
3
3

14
14
24
17
9
2
3
1
2

2
5
7
3
1

4
2
4
2
2
1
_

_

2
1
2

-

R e fe re n d u m

B a llo t 1

No p ro­
v is io n

T o ta l

Secret
b a llo t

B a llo t 1

17

31

25

16

9

3
8
4
1

8
4
5
8
5
1

4
6
6
2

3
4
5
1

1
2
1
1

3
1
2
1

2

1
1
1
1

1
_

_

-

-

_

_
1
-

1 T h e u se o f b a l l o t s , in p r a c t ic e , m a y in v o lv e c o m p le te s e c r e c y , a su b sta n tia l d e g re e o f s e c r e c y , o r p e r ­
haps none.
T h e s e co n stitu tio n s p ro v id ed f o r u s e o f b a l l o t s , bu t did not s p e c ify a p ro c e d u re includ in g the w ord
" s e c r e t " o r its e q u iv a le n t.




10

An exam in a tion o f con vention p ro ce e d in g s fo r s e v e r a l o f th ese anions
r e v e a le d a frequ en t use o f the s e c r e t b a llot in co n te ste d e le c tio n s fo r national
o r in tern ation al o f f i c e s .
H o w e v e r, the a b s e n ce o f a fo r m a l con stitu tion al p r o ­
v is io n c h a r a c te r iz e d the voting p r o c e d u r e s o f th ese 31 unions.
Union con stitu tion s w h ich p rov id ed fo r the e le c tio n o f o ffic e r s by r o l l c a ll vote ty p ic a lly r e fe r r e d to th is p ro ce d u re v e ry b r ie fly :
• • . e le c tio n s sh all be by r o ll c a ll w h ere th ere is m o r e than
1 candidate fo r any o f f ic e , (in terna tion al B ro th e rh o o d o f T e a m ­
s t e r s , C h a u ffeu rs, W a reh ou sem en and H e lp e rs o f A m e r ic a )
* * *
The e le c tio n
tio n . • • •

o f o ffic e r s

shall be held at the re g u la r co n v e n ­

B a llo ts sh all be ca s t o r a lly by d e le g a te s fr o m the flo o r o f the
con ven tion .
(S e a fa r e r s 1 International U nion o f N orth A m e r ic a )
S im ila rly , unions w h ich u sed the s e c r e t b a llo t in con vention voting did
not go into deta il on th is p r o c e d u r e in th e ir co n stitu tion s.
E x a m p les o f c la u s e s
ca llin g f o r con ven tion d e le g a te s to vote by s e c r e t b a llot fo llo w :
A ll e le c tio n s sh all be con d u cted by s e c r e t b a llo t; b a llo ts sh all
show only the voting strength o f d e le g a te s, nam es o f ca n d i­
d ates and o ffic e f o r w h ich nom inated.
(B roth erh ood o f R ailw ay
and Steam ship C le r k s , F re ig h t H a n d lers, E x p r e s s and Station
E m p lo y e s )
♦ * *
The P r e s id e n t and S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r sh all be e le c te d by d e le ­
ga tes voting th eir r e p re se n ta tio n . • • • V oting shall be by s e c r e t
b a llo t and th e r e a fte r tabu lated. • • •
The e le c tio n r u le s govern in g the e le c tio n o f o ff i c e r s o f th is In te r­
national U nion sh all be a s d e v is e d and s p e c ifie d by re g u la r c o n ­
v en tion s, su b je ct to the p r o v is io n s o f th is con stitu tion . • • .
(O ffice E m p loy es* In tern ational U nion)
* * *
• • . The e le c tio n s sh all be d e cid e d by m a jo r ity vote by s e c r e t
b a llo t, s u p e rv ise d b y an E le c tio n C om m ittee o f 5 e le c te d by the
con ven tion , w hich sh a ll d istrib u te and r e c e iv e b a llo ts , and a ls o
ta lly and announce a ll r e s u lts in the p r e s e n ce o f the co n v e n ­
tio n . • • • (The In tern ational A s s o c ia tio n o f Heat and F r o s t
In su la tors and A s b e s to s W o rk e rs)
H ow ev er, unions w h ich use the s e c r e t b a llo t in m e m b e rsh ip re fe re n d u m s
freq u en tly d e s c r ib e d in c o n s id e r a b le d eta il the m e ch a n ics o f the en tire o p era tion ,
a p r a c tic e p ro b a b ly expla in ed by the a d m in istra tiv e p ro b le m s w hich m ay a r is e
in conducting a p o ll o f th is ty p e.
Since such e le c tio n s a r e con d u cted by n um erous
and farfiu ng lo c a l unions, the national con stitu tion , in o r d e r to a s s u re u n iform ity ,
e s ta b lish e s p r e c is e r u le s and p r o c e d u r e s .
The follow in g c la u s e s a re illu stra tiv e
o f p r o v is io n s re q u irin g s e c r e t voting in a m e m b e rsh ip referen d u m :
M e m b e r s d e s ir in g to vote sh all r e tir e to the e le c tio n booth o r
a n te ro o m and th ere in s e c r e c y p re p a re th eir b a llo ts . No m e m b e r
sh all re m a in in the b ooth o r a n te ro o m lo n g e r than 3 m in u tes;




11

the v oter sh all then fo ld the b a llo t and p resen t it to an in s p e c to r ;
without opening the b a llo t, the in s p e c to r shall d e p o sit the b a llot
in the b o x . . . . Im m e d ia te ly a fte r the c lo s in g o f the p o lls , the
In s p e c to r s o f E le c tio n sh all p r o c e e d to open the b a llot b ox c o n ­
taining the b a llo ts, and count and r e c o r d the v otes fo r each
c andi dat e. . . .
The In s p e c to r s of E le c tio n shall place the b a llo ts ca st, tog eth er
with the retu rn c e r t ific a t e o f the re su lt, signed in th eir own
handw riting, in one e n v e lo p e , a box, and s e c u r e ly c lo s e and seal
the sa m e, and sh all fo rw a rd the b a llo ts to the International
C an vassin g B o a r d . . . .
The m e m b e r s se le c te d as the International C an v assin g B oa rd
shall m eet at the o ffic e o f the International P r e s id e n t -S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r at 10 o , c lo c k on the m orn in g o f the f ir s t M onday in
June fo llo w in g an e le c tio n .
They shall then fo r m a lly , and in
the p r e s e n c e o f ea ch oth e r, open the co n ta in e rs containing the
b a llo ts . . . and a s c e r ta in and v e r ify the re su lt o f the e le c tio n .
. . . (M etal P o lis h e r s , B u ffe rs , P la te r s and H elp ers In te r­
national U nion)
* * *
The e le c tio n o f o f f ic e r s o f this union shall be held in ea ch lo c a l
union on the fou rth T u esd a y in June in the sch ed uled e le c tio n
year. . . .
E a ch lo c a l union, b e fo r e the p o lls a re opened, shall
3 in s p e c to r s o f e le c t io n fo r each p ollin g p la c e . . . .

s e le c t

The in s p e c t o r s of e le c tio n shall p ost the sam p le b a llot . . .
in
a co n sp icu o u s p la ce in the p ollin g p la ce ; . . . they shall hand
e a ch m e m b e r , a fter they have found him to be in good stand­
ing . . . , an o ffic ia l b a llo t . . . ; they shall p e rm it each q u a li­
fie d m e m b e r to c a st h is b a llot in s e c r e t ; . . .
A fte r the vote is counted and r e c o r d e d , the in s p e c to r s shall
p la ce the b a llo ts and the ta lly sheet, sign ed by ea ch in s p e c to r ,
in an en velop e . . . and s e c u r e ly c lo s e and sea l the sa m e. . . .
B etw een M ay 20th and M ay 25th in the e le c tio n y e a r , the In te r­
national S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r shall send to ea ch m e m b e r o f the
E x ecu tiv e C o u n cil o f th is union a lis t o f a ll lo c a l unions in good
s e n d in g . E a ch m e m b e r o f the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil shall thereupon
im m e d ia te ly vote fo r 3 lo c a l unions.
The 3 lo c a l unions r e ­
ce iv in g the g re a te st num ber o f v otes shall be n otified by the
In tern ation al S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r to ea ch s e le c t one o f its m e m ­
b e r s to con stitu te the G en era l C an v assin g B o a rd .
No candidate,
nor E x ecu tiv e C o u n cil m e m b e r nor International O rg a n iz e r o r
R e p re se n ta tiv e snail be e lig ib le to se rv e as a m e m b e r of the
G en era l C a n va ssin g B o a rd .
The m e m b e r s o f the G e n e ra l C an vassin g B oa rd shall m eet at the
o ffic e of this union at 10 a . m . on the th ird T h u rsd a y in A ugust
w h ereu pon they shall open the e n v e lo p e s . . . and a s c e r ta in
and v e r ify the r e s u lts o f the e le c tio n . . . . A fte r the re s u lts
have b e e n v e r ifie d . . . the B o a rd shall p la ce the b a llo ts , ta lly
sh eets and a copy o f its r e p o r t in a s e c u r e ly se a le d b o x o r p a ck ­
age w h ich shall not be opened ex cep t upon a p p lica tion to the
E x ecu tiv e C o u n cil by 10 p e rcen t of the lo c a l unions in good
standing. . . . (United B r ic k and C lay W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )




12
An exa m ple o f a union w hich d oes not use the te r m " s e c r e t " in defining
its votin g p r o c e d u r e , but w as in clu d ed in the " s e c r e t b a llo t" c a te g o r y , is the
In tern ation al A s s o c ia t io n o f M a ch in ists. In this in sta n ce , the d eta ils and m e ch a n ics
o f the voting p r o c e d u r e s e e m to ru le out any oth er in terp reta tion :
A ll b a llo ts sh a ll b e a r the se a l o f the G rand L o d g e , and be so
a rra n g e d that v o te r s m ay designate th eir c h o ic e by m ark in g an
(X) o p p o site the n am es o f those fo r w hom they w ish to r e c o r d
th e ir v o t e s .
B a llots sh a ll be p e r fo r a te d so that the n a m e,
a d d r e s s , lod g e n u m ber and c a r d num ber o f m e m b e r v otin g m ay
be d eta ch ed . Both the b a llo t and the p e rfo ra te d detachable stub
sh a ll con ta in a c o r r e s p o n d in g s e r ia l n u m b er.
The G e n e ra l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r shall supply lo c a l lo d g e s with
a su fficie n t n u m ber o f such b a llots on o r b e fo r e A p r il 1, and
no o th er b a llo ts sh all be u se d . He shall ta lly sh eets in d u p li­
c a t e , upon w hich sh all be tabulated the v otes o f the m e m b e rs
o f the lo c a l lo d g e s .
One ta lly sh eet sh all be retain ed by the
R e c o r d in g S e c r e ta r y o f the lo c a l lod g e and one sh all be retu rn ed
to the G e n e ra l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r .
The e le c tio n o f G rand L odge o ffic e r s • . • sh a ll be held on the
1st r e g u la r m eetin g o f each lo c a l lod g e in A p ril, in the lo c a l lod g e
r o o m w h ere the re g u la r lo c a l lod g e m eetin g s are h eld , ex cep tin g
in the lo c a l lo d g e s w here c irc u m s ta n c e s re q u ire so m e oth er a r ­
ra n g em en t, the lo c a l lod g e m a y , through its b y la w s, p ro v id e oth er
m eth ods su b je ct to the ap p rova l o f the International P r e s id e n t.
^Subsequent se ctio n s deal with voting q u a lifica tio n s, n o tifica tio n s
and a bsen tee voting^_7
A t the la s t re g u la r m eetin g in M a rch , o f ea ch 4 -y e a r p e r io d
fo llo w in g M a rch 1957, ea ch lo c a l lod g e sh all e le c t 3 m e m b e rs
as in s p e c to r s o f e le c tio n who sh all r e c e iv e , r e c o r d and count
the vote o f the m e m b e r s . . • .
A ll b a llo ts m u st be m a rk ed in ink o r p e n c il. . • . A ll v otes
a re to be d e p o site d in the p r e s e n ce o f at le a st 2 o f the in s p e c t o r s .
No m e m b e r sh a ll be a llow ed to fill out the b a llo t fo r any o th er
m em ber.
Any m e m b e r w h o, a fte r due t r ia l, is found guilty o f ille g a l voting
o r in any o th er w ay preven tin g an h on est e le c tio n shall be lia b le
to a fin e o r e x p u lsio n . • . .
A m on g the 17 union con stitu tion s w hich p rov id ed that con v en tion d eleg a tes
d e cid e c o n te ste d e le c tio n s by b a llo t, but w hich did not s p e c ific a lly design ate the
u se o f s e c r e t b a llo ts , w e re th ose o f the Sheet M etal W o r k e r s 1 International A s s o ­
cia tio n and the International M o ld e r s and F ou n dry W o rk e rs Union o f N orth A m e r ic a ,
e x ce p te d b e lo w , r e s p e c t iv e ly :
When th ere a re 2 o r m o r e can didates fo r any g e n e ra l o ffic e the
vote fo r such o ffic e sh all be by b a llo t and such b a llots sh all be
c a s t by each duly q u a lified and sea ted d e le g a te . . • •
The p re sid in g o f f i c e r sh all appoint 2 t e lle r s and a ju d g e; sh all
announce the n am es o f the n om in ees in the o r d e r o f th eir n o m i­
nation and a vote sh a ll be taken. The te lle r s sh a ll then c o l le c t
and count the v o te s c a s t and the p resid in g o ffic e r sh all d e c la r e
the r e s u lt.
* * *




13
The e le c tio n sh all be by b a llo t.

. • •

o . . the P r e s id e n t . . • sh all appoint • . • two te lle r s and a
c l e r k , who sh a ll k eep a c o r r e c t r e c o r d o f the v o te s . . • .
The fo llo w in g c la u s e s illu stra te p r o v is io n s w hich w e re c la s s ifie d as
" b a llo t, no s p e c ific r e fe r e n c e to s e c r e c y , " taken fr o m union con stitu tion s req u irin g
e le c tio n b y m e m b e r sh ip re fe re n d u m :
The e le c tio n s sh all be d e cid e d by referen d u m vote o f the en tire
m e m b e r s h ip . . . .
P r o v is io n m u st be m ade w h ereb y a ll m e m b e rs m ay have an
opportu n ity to c a s t th eir vote within the p r e s c r ib e d tim e . . . .
. . . The P r e s id e n t and S e c r e ta r y o f each lo c a l are re q u ire d
to fo r w a r d to the S e c r e ta r y o f the R eferen d u m B o a rd a co m p le te
r e p o r t o f the n u m ber o f votes c a s t fo r each candidate and the
nu m ber o f d e fe ctiv e b a llo t s . . . . (A m alga m ated L ith ogra p h ers
o f A m e r ic a )
* * *
The International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r sh all p re p a re b a llo ts
givin g the n am es and p la ces o f re s id e n c e o f those a ccep tin g
n om in ation s . . • and fo r w a rd them to the lo c a l unions in su f­
fic ie n t n u m b e rs. . . •
E ach lo c a l union sh all design ate . . . w here its e le c tio n shall
be h e ld , and the p la ce so design ated shall be the o ffic ia l voting
p la ce o f such lo c a l union, and under no c irc u m s ta n c e s sh all
the v o te s o f any lo c a l be tabulated in any p lace oth er than the
p la ce d esign a ted by the lo c a l union. . . .
E a ch lo c a l union sh all e le c t fr o m am ong its m e m b e rs a c o m ­
m ittee o f not le s s than 3 n or m o r e than 6 . . .
to a ct as lo c a l
t e l le r s , w hose duty sh a ll be to su p e rv ise the e le c tio n , and when
re q u e ste d , in stru ct the m e m b e rs how to v o te , and tabulate the
v otes c a s t b y the m e m b e rs fo r .International O ffic e s . . • .
No m e m b e r oth er than the lo c a l t e lle r s sh all be a llow ed to lo ite r
around the voting p la ce o r to in te r fe re in any w ay with the
e le c tio n o f any lo c a l union.
Any lo c a l o f f i c e r o r t e lle r fa ilin g to o b e y the law s regu latin g
International e le c t io n s , o r any m e m b e r o r m e m b e r s in te rfe rin g
with lo c a l o f f ic e r s o r t e lle r s . . .
o r any m e m b e r o r m e m b e rs
r e s o r tin g to d ish on est o r qu estion able p r a c tic e s to s e c u r e the
e le c tio n o r d efea t o f any candidate f o r International o ffic e sh all
be tr ie d by the International E x ecu tiv e B oa rd and fin e d , s u s ­
pen ded, o r e x p e lle d , as the m agnitude o f the tr a n s g r e s s io n m ay
w a rra n t.
(U nited M ine W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
Although m o s t unions p r e fe r to e le c t p re sid e n ts at a con v en tion ra th er
than by a m e m b e r sh ip re fe r e n d u m , the s p e c ific m eth od is not n e c e s s a r ily d e t e r ­
m in ed b y a u n io n 's s i z e .
Both d e v ice s are u sed by unions la r g e and sm a ll
(table 3 ). Of the 6 unions with 5 0 0,00 0 o r m o r e m e m b e r s , 3 e le c t at con v en tion ,
and 3 by m e m b e rsh ip re fe re n d u m .
G e n e ra lly , la r g e r unions tend to fo r m a liz e
e le c tio n p r o c e d u r e s to a g r e a te r e x te n t than do s m a lle r o n e s .
A ll but 6 o f the
31 unions w hich did not e sta b lish the m ethod o f con vention voting had le s s than
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s . O f the 26 unions not c le a r ly req u irin g a s e c r e t b a llo t, 21 had
a m e m b e rsh ip o f le s s than 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 .




14
The m a jo r ity co n ce p t a pp ears m o s t p rev a len t am ong the p r o v is io n s g o v ­
ern ing v otes needed fo r e le c tio n of international union p r e s id e n ts .
F ifty -s e v e n
of the 111 in tern ation al union con stitu tion s re q u ire d a m a jo r ity of a ll votes ca st;
4, a m a jo r it y o f a il e lig ib le v o te s , and 2, votes o f a m a jo r ity of d eleg ates
p re s e n t. T w en ty -fou r re q u ire d a p lu ra lity o f a ll v o te s .
The rem ain in g 24 c o n ­
stitutions did not state the re q u isite p ro p o rtio n of votes (table 4).
TABLE 4.

Constitutional provisions governing votes needed for election of international
union presidents and other international union officers, 1958
International union
presidents

Other international
union officers

Provision
Members
Unions

Members
Unions
(thousands)

(thousands)
All unions studied _

111

Majority of all votes cast __________________
Majority of all eligible votes_____________
_
Plurality of all votes _ __ __ __
_ __ __ __ _
_
Other provisions ___
No provisions
_ ________ _____ ___
_

17,641

111

17,641

57
4
24
1 2
24

8,664
473
5,910
115
2,480

53
4
26
2 5
23

8,048
473
6,025
627
2,469

1 Provided for majority vote of delegates present.
2 2 constitutions provided for majority vote of delegates present; in 3 constitutions,
international officers were voted on simultaneously and a specified number of candidates re­
ceiving the most votes were declared elected.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal totals.

Should a candidate fa il to a ch iev e a m a jo r ity on the fir s t b a llo t, the ty p ica l
p r o v is io n re q u ire d that (1) the two h igh est candidates w e re to app ear on the next
b a llo t, o r (2) the candidate r e c e iv in g the lo w e st num ber of v otes was to b e e lim i­
nated in each subsequent voting until one o f the contestants r e c e iv e d a m a jo r ity .
F o r the o ffic e o f P r e s id e n t, V ic e -P r e s id e n t , S e c r e ta r y and
T r e a s u r e r , a m a jo r ity o f votes ca st is n e c e s s a r y to e le c t.
In
c a s e o f n om in ees not r e c e iv in g a m a jo r ity of v otes fo r th eir
r e s p e c t iv e o f f ic e , a ll but th ose 2 n om in ees f o r said o ffic e r e ­
ce iv in g the h igh est vote sh all be dropped and a secon d b a llo t
sh a ll then be taken fo r such o f f i c e r s , and the candidate r e c e iv in g
the m a jo r ity o f v otes shall be d e cla re d e le cte d .
(A m e rica n
F e d e ra tio n o f M u sicia n s)
* * *
. . . e le c tio n sh all be
deleg a tes votin g.

determ in ed b y a m a jo r ity

vote

o f the

. . . the candidate r e c e iv in g the low est num ber of votes shall
b e elim in ated in the ru n off e le c tio n , and in each s u c c e s s iv e
ru n off e le c tio n the candidate re c e iv in g the lo w e st num ber of
v otes sh all be elim in a ted . . . . (United A u tom ob ile, A ir c r a ft
and A g r ic u ltu r a l Im plem ent W ork ers of A m e rica )
V oting p r o c e d u r e s and reg u lation s u su a lly do not b e c o m e e ffe c tiv e if only
one candidate is running fo r a s p e c ific o ffic e . Since the a b sen ce of any op p osition
m ak es the s o le ca n d id a te's e le c tio n a fo re g o n e co n clu s io n , the p re s id in g (or other




15

union) o ffic e r was in stru cted
ty p ica lly as fo llo w s :

in som e

con stitu tion s

to ca st a unanim ous b a llot

If th ere is no con test, the con vention m ay in stru ct the S e c r e ta r y
to ca st one b a llo t f o r a ll the n o m in e e s, a il other laws to the
co n tra ry notw ithstanding.
(A m e rica n F e d e ra tio n o f M u sicia n s)
* * *
. . . if th ere is but one candidate no b a llotin g sh all be n e c e s ­
s a r y , but the p re s id in g o ffic e r sh all d e c la r e such candidate duly
e le c te d .
(B roth erh ood of L o c o m o tiv e F ir e m e n and E nginem en)
Under con stitu tion s w hich p ro v id e d fo r the e le c tio n of o ffic e r s by r e fe r e n ­
dum , each e lig ib le union m e m b e r was to ca st his own b a llo t. W here o ffic e r s a re
e le cte d at a con vention , a d e le g a te d voting strength is u su ally sca le d to r e fle c t
the num ber o f m e m b e r s he r e p r e s e n ts , although the s p e c ific fo rm u la s set fo rth
in the con stitu tion s d iffe r c o n s id e ra b ly .
F o r in sta n ce, the constitution of the
International B roth erh ood o f E le c t r ic a l W ork ers stipulated that "e a ch lo c a l union
sh all b e entitled to a p e r capita tax vote on m e m b e r s ; that is , one vote fo r each
m e m b e r in good standing. . . . 1 U nder this a rra n g em en t, the delegates of a
1
lo c a l union with 5 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s would be entitled to ca st a total o f 5 ,0 0 0 v o te s.
Since the num ber o f d eleg a tes u su ally in c re a s e s with lo c a l union s iz e , p o s s ib le
sp lit voting m ay be ruled out under the unit ru le , as illu stra ted b elow :
The vote o f each lo c a l union sh all be d ecid ed b y a m a jo r ity of
its d e le g a te s.
If the deleg ates of a lo c a l union a re equally
divid ed, then that lo c a l union sh all have no v ote. . . .
Other unions fo llo w e d a v arian t o f the above arra n g em en t by dividing
equ ally am ong the d eleg a tes the vote a lo c a l union m ay ca st. Thus, the c o n s ti­
tution o f the Insurance W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a stipulated that a lo c a l with 400 m e m ­
b e r s is entitled to send 4 d e le g a te s, with each d elegate castin g 100 v o te s.
M o re freq u e n tly , lo c a l unions w e re entitled to 1 delegate fo r each d e s ­
ignated n um ber o f m e m b e r s , with each d eleg ate lim ited to 1 v o te , as fo llo w s :
A ll lo c a l unions . . . a re entitled to rep re se n ta tio n as fo llo w s :
1 delegate fo r the fir s t 100 m e m b e rs o r fr a c tio n a l p a rt th e re o f,
and 1 additional delegate f o r each 300 additional m e m b e rs . . .
in no ca se shall a delegate be entitled to m o r e than 1 v ote.
(A m algam ated M eat C utters and B utcher W orkm en of N orth
A m e r ic a )
A few con stitu tion s p ro v id ed fo r a sin g le delegate to ca st a ll the votes of
a lo c a l union, with the num ber of v otes d eterm in ed by a sy stem o f p ro p o rtio n a l
rep re se n ta tio n :
L odges o f 150 o r m o r e m e m b e rs sh all be entitled to 1 d e le ­
gate. . . .
The delegate to have the voting p ow er of the lodge
ele ctin g him ba sed on 1 vote fo r the 150 and 1 additional vote fo r
each additional 150 m e m b e rs o r m a jo r fr a c tio n th e re o f. (B r o th e r ­
hood of R ailw a y and Steam ship C le r k s , F re ig h t H a n d lers, E x p re ss
and Station E m p lo y e s)
send.

S e v e ra l in tern ation al unions lim ited the num ber o f d eleg a tes a lo c a l m ay
With each delegate holding on ly one v o te , this d e v ic e , in e ffe c t, dilutes




16
the r e la tiv e stren gth o f la r g e r lo c a l u n ion s.
illu s tr a te s this poin t:

The fo llo w in g con stitu tion al cla u se

F r o m lo c a l unions having 150 m e m b e r s th ere
gate; fr o m 151 m e m b e r s to 300 m e m b e r s , 2
fr o m 1,201 m e m b e r s to 1 ,6 0 0 m e m b e r s , 6
fr o m 2 ,1 0 1 m e m b e r s and up, 8 d e le g a te s.
No
have m o r e than 8 d e le g a te s. . . •
E ach deleg a te sh all be en titled to one v o te .
e lr y W o r k e r s 1 Union)

sh a ll be 1
d e le g a te s;
d e le g a te s;
lo c a l union

d e le ­
. . .
. . .
sh all

(in terna tion al J ew ­

E le c tio n o f E x ecu tiv e B oa rd M e m b e r s . — In m o s t u n ion s, m e m b e r s to the
u n ion ’ s g overn in g b o d y , design ated as the ''g e n e ra l e x ecu tiv e b o a r d , " "in tern a tion a l
c o u n c i l ," "g ra n d l o d g e , " e tc . , w e re e le cte d in the sam e m an n er and at the sam e
tim e as the in tern ation al p r e s id e n t, that i s , eith er b y con vention d eleg a tes o r
b y m e m b e r sh ip re fe re n d u m . 5 A s a r u le , each ex ecu tiv e b o a rd m e m b e r w as to
b e voted on se p a ra te ly , but in th ree unions the o ffic e r s w e re voted on s im u l­
ta n eou sly and a s p e c ifie d n u m ber o f candidates r e c e iv in g the m o s t votes d e c la r e d
e le c te d .
F o r e x a m p le:
The o ffic e o f the G en era l P r e s id e n t and G en eral S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r sh all be d e cid e d b y a m a jo r ity v ote ca st; the o ffic e r s
o f the 11 V ice P r e s id e n ts sh all be fille d b y the 11 candidates
r e c e iv in g the 11 h igh est v o tes ca st, (international J e w e lry W o rk ­
e r s ’ Union)
A su bstan tial n u m ber o f union con stitu tion s p ro v id e d fo r e le c tio n o f r e p ­
r e se n ta tiv e s to the g e n e ra l e x e cu tiv e b oa rd on a g e o g ra p h ic b a s is , b y vote o f
d eleg a tes o r m e m b e r s fr o m ea ch a r e a .
A few p ro v id e d fo r re p re se n ta tio n b y
g overn m en ta l units of the union; e. g. , " d iv is io n s " o r " s y s t e m s " w hich a re
often b a sed on m a jo r com p a n ies under co n tra ct.
Ten unions re q u ire d that m e m b e r s o f the ex ecu tiv e b oa rd be e le cte d b y
the d e le g a te s fr o m ea ch d is t r ic t a s s e m b le d in con vention .
This was ty p ica lly
e x p r e s s e d as fo llo w s :
. . . The International E x ecu tiv e B oard sh all be co m p o s e d o f
the International O ffic e r s and one D is tr ic t D ir e c t o r fo r ea ch
g e o g ra p h ica l d is t r ic t . . . .
D is t r ic t D ir e c t o r s sh all be e le cte d by duly a c c r e d ite d deleg a tes
fr o m th eir r e s p e c t iv e d is tr ic ts to the International C onvention
m eetin g in s p e c ia l s e s s io n f o r this p u rp o s e .
(United P a ck in g ­
h ouse W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
* * *

5
A s a rule» g o v e rn in g b od ies o f unions a re co m p o s e d o f p re s id e n t, s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r , and a d esig n a ted num ber of v ic e p re s id e n ts . S e v e ra l unions have m o re
than one govern in g b od y .
Under such a rra n g e m e n ts, d iffe re n t p r o c e d u r e s m ay
g o v e rn the e le c tio n to s p e c ific b o d ie s .
This is not to be con fu sed with situations
w h ere top e x e cu tiv e o f f i c e r s , e. g. , the p re s id e n t and the s e c r e t a r y -t r e a s u r e r , a re
e le c te d b y a ll con ven tion d eleg a tes o r the en tire m e m b e rs h ip , w h ile oth er in te r ­
national o f f ic e r s a r e e le c te d b y d is tr ic t d eleg a tes o r oth er designated grou ps of
m em bers.




17
The e le c tio n o f m e m b e r s o f the G en eral E x ecu tiv e B oard fr o m
each r e g io n sh a ll be conducted under the su p e rv is io n o f the
International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r at the re g u la r bien n ia l c o n ­
vention in r e g io n a l ca u cu se s o f seated and a c c r e d ite d d e le g a te s.
A m a jo r it y o f the p e r capita r o l l - c a l l v otes ca st b y each o f the
seated d eleg a tes and p r e s e n t at such ca u cu ses sh all e le c t such
m e m b e r s to the G e n e ra l E x ecu tiv e B oa rd , (in su ran ce W o rk e rs
o f A m e r ic a )
The fo llo w in g cla u se s illu stra te how re p re se n ta tiv e s fr o m d iv is io n s d e te r ­
m ined by m a jo r c o lle c t iv e ba rga in in g a g re e m e n ts , in add ition to a re a r e p r e s e n ta ­
tiv e s , m ade up the g overn in g b o d y o f the C o m m e r c ia l T e le g r a p h e r s 1 Union:
The International E x ecu tiv e B oard m e m b e rs sh all be e le cte d fr o m
e lig ib le m e m b e r s w itkin the d iv ision s of the International Union
as in dicated h e r e in b e lo w , to w it:
F o u r m e m b e r s fr o m the W estern U nion D iv isio n ;
One m e m b e r fr o m the Southern D iv ision ;
One m e m b e r f r o m the S outhw estern D iv ision ;
One m e m b e r fr o m the Canadian N ational D iv ision ;
One m e m b e r fr o m the Canadian P a c ific D iv ision ;
One m e m b e r fr o m the com bin ed ju r is d ic tio n s o f the A s s o ­
ciated P r e s s , Canadian P r e s s , International News S e r v ic e
and United P r e s s D iv isio n s;
One m e m b e r fr o m the com bin ed ju r is d ic tio n s of the Canadian
R adio D iv isio n ; R adio O f f i c e r s 1 Union and T ra n s-C a n a d a
A ir lin e s D iv isio n s; and
One m e m b e r fr o m the com bin ed ju r is d ic tio n s of the E a ste rn
B r o k e r , P r e s s W ir e le s s and W estern B r o k e r D iv is io n s .
Only the d eleg a tes to the International A s s e m b ly who a r e m e m ­
b e r s o f the group o f D iv ision s in w hich the p r o p o s e d m e m b e r o f
the International E x ecu tiv e B oa rd holds his union m e m b e rsh ip
sh a ll be entitled to vote in the e le c tio n o f the IEB m e m b e r fro m
that g rou p . . . .
The e le c tio n o f e x ecu tiv e b oa rd m e m b e rs by a rea re fe re n d a w as stipulated
in the con stitu tion of sev en u n ion s, and w as ty p ica lly e x p r e s s e d as fo llo w s :
The e le c tio n s sh all be d e cid ed b y referen d u m vote o f the en tire
m e m b e r sh ip , ex ce p t that:
E ach n om in ee f o r International C o u n cillo r sh all be nom inated and
e le c te d on ly by the m e m b e rs h ip of the re g io n in w hich he holds
lo c a l m e m b e r sh ip .
(A m algam ated L ith og ra p h ers o f A m e r ic a )
In the International L o n g s h o r e m e n ^ and W a re h o u s e m e n ^ Union, e x ecu tiv e
b o a rd m e m b e r s w e r e to be n om inated in a caucus m ade up of con vention d eleg a tes
fr o m the design ated a r e a s , and e le c te d in an a rea w id e re fe re n d u m .
P r o v is io n
was a ls o m ade f o r a p r im a r y e le c tio n to d ecid e n o m in e e s:
At the con ven tion , ca u cu se s o f the deleg a tes fr o m each of said
a re a s sh all be held at the tim es and p la c e s design ated b y the
International P r e s id e n t f o r the p u rp ose o f the n om in ation and
p r im a r y e le c tio n o f E x ecu tiv e B oard m e m b e r s .




18
The n om in a tion and p r im a ry e le c tio n o f E x ecu tiv e B o a rd m e m ­
b e r s sh a ll be con d u cted b y ea ch cau cu s in the sam e m anner
as su ch n om in ation s and p rim a ry e le ctio n s a re con d u cted f o r
title d o f f ic e r s b y the co n v en tion . • • • /U n d e r th ese r u le s ,
the tw o n o m in e e s r e c e iv in g the h igh est num ber o f v o te s a re
d e c la r e d e le c te d in the p rim a ry e l e c t i o n ^ R eferen d u m b a llot
sh a ll be con du cted f o r e le c tio n o f E x ecu tiv e B o a rd m e m b e r s in
the sa m e m anner and at the sam e tim e as titled o f f i c e r s , p r o ­
v id ed that on ly the m e m b e rs o f the lo c a ls within each a re a • • ,
sh a ll vote f o r E x ecu tiv e B o a rd m e m b e rs fo r th eir r e s p e ctiv e
areas• • • .
S e le c tio n o f C onvention D elega tes
In m o s t o f the
s e le c tio n o f con v en tion
tutions stipu lated that
tained no r e fe r e n c e to
o f con v en tion d e le g a te s
O nly nine con stitu tion s

T A B lL E 5 .

in tern a tion al union co n stitu tio n s, the ru le s g overn in g the
d eleg a tes w ere stated b r ie fly , i f at a ll. Seventy c o n s t i­
d eleg a tes be " e l e c t e d ,1 and 10 oth er con stitu tion s c o n ­
1
this m a tter (table 5).
In th ese la tte r u n ion s, s e le c tio n
was p resu m a b ly le ft to the d is c r e tio n o f the lo c a l union.
d ir e c te d the u se o f the s e c r e t b a llo t.

M eth o d s o f s e le c t in g con ven tion d e le g a te s p ro v id ed fo r in union c o n s titu tio n s , 195 8
In tern atio n al union p r e s id e n t e le c t e d by—
fL
1 OlrlU
C onven tion

M ethod

N um ber

N u m b er

S e c r e t b a llo t
—
B a l l o t 1 (no r e fe r e n c e to s e c r e c y )
E le c te d by lo c a l unions but no r e fe r e n c e
to b a llo tin g
.
—
-------- ---E le c te d e ith e r at re g u la r lo c a l union
m e e tin g o r by re fe r e n d u m vote 2 _________ ____
O th e r 3
_
______
E le c tiv e o f f i c e r s o f su b o rd in a te b o d ie s to
s e r v e as con ven tion d e l e g a t e s -------------------------No p r o v is io n
—
___
___
—

M em bers
N u m b er
(th ou san ds)

(th ou san d s)

(th ou san ds)
A l l unions s t u d i e d ------------------------ -------------- ----- ——

R e fe re n d u m

M em bers

M em bers

111

1 7 ,6 4 1

86

1 2 ,1 7 4

25

5 ,4 6 7

9
13

2 ,4 0 1
2 ,0 2 8

5
11

2 ,2 5 2
1 ,1 4 6

4
2

149
882

70

8 ,5 4 6

55

5 ,8 5 3

15

2 ,6 9 3

4
3

1 ,3 5 2
1 ,5 6 2

2
3

32
1 ,5 6 2

2

1 ,3 2 0

-

-

2
10

141
1 ,6 1 1

2
8

141
1 ,1 8 9

-

2

-

42 2

1 See footn o te 1 , ta b le 2 .
2 2 c o n stitu tio n s p ro v id ed fo r e le c tio n eith e r at a r e g u la r lo c a l union m e e tin g o r b y a r e fe r e n d u m vote o f
m e m b e r s f r o m each lo c a l un ion; 1 p ro v id ed fo r e le c tio n eith e r at a re g u la r l o c a l union m e e tin g o r by " m a i l b a l l o t "
o f the m e m b e r s h ip f r o m each lo c a l un ion; 1 p ro vid ed f o r e le c t io n b y " b a l l o t " at a re g u la r lo c a l union m e e tin g o r
by " s e c r e t " re fe r e n d u m vote o f the m e m b e r s h ip f r o m each lo c a l u n io n .
3 1 c o n stitu tio n p ro vid ed its lo c a l unions w ith the c h o ic e o f in c o r p o ra tin g into th e ir b y la w s a p ro c e d u re e ith e r
fo r e le c tin g o r s e le c t in g con ven tion d e le g a t e s ; a n o th e r, fo r e le c tin g o r lim itin g d e le g a te s to lo c a l o f f i c e r s ; 1 c o n s t i­
tution p ro v id e d each lo c a l union w ith the ch o ic e o f e le c tin g con ven tion d e le g a te s at a r e g u la r m e e tin g o r o f holdin g
a vote on the q u estio n o f w heth er o r not to d e leg a te that rig h t to the lo c a l g e n e ra l e x e c u tiv e b o a r d , w ithout m a k in g
any r e fe r e n c e to lo c a l b y la w s .
NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g ,

s u m s o f in dividu al it e m s do not n e c e s s a r i l y equ al t o t a l s .

19
The e lig ib ility req u ire m e n ts fo r con vention d eleg a tes w e r e , w h ere defined,
s im ila r to th ose fo r p r o s p e c tiv e in tern ation al o ff i c e r s . T y p ica lly , they req u ired
that any n om in ee fo r deleg a te m ust have b een a union m e m b e r fo r a certa in
num ber o f y e a r s , have been em p loy ed in the tra d e, e tc .
V irtu a lly a ll types o f
q u a lifica tion s w e re set fo rth in the con stitu tion o f the International Ladies* G a r­
m ent W ork ers* Union:
To be e lig ib le as a d elegate
a candidate m u st b e :

to the

con vention

of the ILGW U,

A m e m b e r o f the ILGWU in good standing fo r at le a st 2 y e a rs
p r e c e d in g the date o f n om inations in his lo c a l union.
A m e m b e r o f the lo c a l union w hich he is to
con vention f o r at le a s t 1 y e a r.

re p re s e n t in the

A ctu a lly engaged in the ladies* g arm en t in du stry fo r
6 m onths p r e c e d in g the holding o f the con vention .
A p r a c t ic a l ladies* g a rm en t w o r k e r.

.

.

at le a s t

.

M e m b e rs who w e re at any tim e ex p elled or suspended fr o m the
lo c a l union a fte r tr ia l a r e not e lig ib le as d eleg a tes to the c o n ­
ven tion , u n less r e s to r e d to fu ll rights and p r iv ile g e s by the
G en eral E x ecu tiv e B o a rd .
M e m b e rs who have a cted as strik e b r e a k e r s
as deleg a tes to the con vention . . . .

a re

not e lig ib le

Any m e m b e r who has b een found guilty of viola tin g union w ork
sta n d a rd s, o r of m is c o n d u ct, or of v iolatin g any of the p r o v is io n s
o f this C on stitu tion , sh all not be e lig ib le to be a d elegate to the
con vention . . . .
Tenure
The m o s t co m m o n term of o ffic e fo r union p re s id e n ts was 2 y e a r s , stip u ­
lated in about tw o -fifth s of the 111 con stitu tion s studied (table 6 ).* The la r g e s t
n u m ber o f union m e m b e r s , h o w e v e r, voted in e le ctio n s e v e r y 4 y e a r s .
A m ong
the m a jo r unions w h ich accou n ted fo r the n e a rly 7. 5 m illio n total in this c a te g o ry
w e re the United S te e lw o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a , the International A s s o c ia tio n of M a­
c h in ists, the United B roth erh ood of C a rp en ters and J oin ers of A m e r ic a , and
the International B roth erh ood of E le c t r ic a l W o rk e rs.
Incum bents in a ll but 15 unions s e rv e d fo r term s of 4 y e a rs o r l e s s .
Two of these 15 unions did not in dicate the fre q u e n cy o f e le c tio n s , but 1 held
a con vention e v e r y y e a r , and the oth er e v e r y 4 y e a r s .
Since both unions e le c t
p re sid e n ts at con ven tion , it is p o s s ib le that the span betw een con vention s c o in ­
cid e s with the term o f o ffic e . F o r 3 u n ion s, the holding o f an e le c tio n was tied
to the ou tcom e o f a m e m b e r sh ip referen d u m w hether o r not to hold a con vention .
F o r ex a m p le, the con stitu tion o f the International Hod C a r r ie rs * B uilding and
C om m on L a b o re rs* Union of A m e r ic a p rov id ed that "the e le c tiv e o ffi c e r s sh all
be e le cte d at a con vention fo r a term o f 5 y e a rs . . . "
H ow ev er, on the su b ­
je c t o f h olding con v en tion s, the con stitu tion stipulated: " E v e r y 5 y e a rs a r e fe r e n ­
dum of the m e m b e rsh ip sh all be had through the lo c a l unions on the qu estion
6
Two unions held e le c tio n s e v e r y 4 y e a rs fo r p re s id e n t and e v e r y 2 y e a rs
fo r oth er in tern ation al o f f i c e r s ; o th e r w is e , the sam e fre q u e n cy of e le c tio n applied
to in tern ation al o ffic e r s in the con stitu tion s an alyzed.




20
w hether the con ven tion sh all be h eld , . • .
If a m a jo r ity o f those voting vote
in fa v o r o f a con v e n tio n , it w ill be held on the th ird M onday o f O c to b e r . " U nder
th ese t e r m s , a m e m b e r sh ip d e c is io n to postpone the holding o f a con v en tion
w ould p re s u m a b ly a lso postpone the holding o f an e le c tio n .
TABLE 6
.

Frequency of election of international union presidents as provided
for in union constitutions, 19581
International union president elected by—
T ota l

Interval between
elections

Members
Unions
(thousands)

Convention
Members
Unions
(thousands)

All unions studied__ „

111

17,641

86

12,174

1 year _ ___
2 years ____
__ _
3 years _ _ __
_

6
42
14
1 34
10
3
2

627
4,940
1,374
7,303
2,408
668
320

6
26
14
25
10
2 3
2

627
3,471
1,374
3,305
2,408
668
320

4 years

_ _ ..

5 years _
Other
_ __
_
No provision______

Referendum
Members
Unions
(thousands)
25

5,467

16

1,469

9

3,998

_

_
-

_
_
-

1 2 unions held elections every 4 years for president and every 2 years for other
international officers, otherwise, the same frequency of electing applies to other interna­
tional officers in a the constitutions analyzed.
ll
2 For 3 unions, the frequency of elections is linked to the holding of conventions. An
automatic referendum vote was to be taken to determine whether a convention should be held.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal totals.

5 years.

The m a x im u m te r m fo r union p re sid e n ts am ong the unions studied was
No co n stitu tion lim ite d the num ber o f te rm s a p resid en t co u ld s e r v e .

In a ll but 25 o f the u n ion s, the te r m o f o ffic e and the in terva l betw een
union con ven tion s c o in c id e d . In 17 o f th ese 25 u n ion s, o ffi c e r s w ere to be e le c te d
f o r te rm s w hich w e re tw ice as long as the tim e betw een co n v e n tio n s. T h u s, in
7 u n ion s, top o f f i c e r s w ere to be e le c te d f o r 2 -y e a r te rm s w hile con vention s
w e re to be h eld y e a r ly ; in 1 u nion, a 3 -y e a r te rm was m atch ed with con vention s
e v e r y l l/z y e a r s ; and 9 unions design ated 4 -y e a r te rm s and bien n ial co n v e n tio n s.
O f the rem a in in g 8 u n ion s, 2 did not in d icate the fre q u e n cy o f e le c tio n s ; 3 m ade
e le c tio n s con tin gen t on the o u tco m e o f a m e m b e rsh ip re feren d u m on the qu estion
o f holdin g a con v en tion ; 1 e le c te d e v e r y 4 y e a r s and m et annually; 1 e le c te d
e v e r y 2 y e a r s and m et e v e r y 3 y e a r s ; and 1 e le c te d e v e r y 2 y e a r s and m et
3 tim e s a y e a r .
A u nionts s iz e m ay in flu en ce the fre q u e n cy o f con v en tion . F o r in sta n ce ,
40 o f the 68 unions with le s s than 100,000 m e m b e rs w ere to hold con v en tion s
e v e r y y e a r o r e v e r y 2 y e a r s . On the oth er hand, only 17 o f the 43 unions with
1 0 0 ,0 0 0 o r m o r e m e m b e r s m et at such freq u en t in te r v a ls .
O f the 10 unions
with a m e m b e r s h ip o f 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 o r m o r e , 5 m et e v e r y 4 y e a r s , 2 b ie n n ia lly ,
1 e v e r y 3 y e a r s , 1 e v e r y 5 y e a r s , and 1 p o lle d its m e m b e rs e v e r y 5 y e a r s
w hether to h old a con v e n tio n . 7
7
The re a so n s why la rg e unions h old con vention s le s s freq u en tly is often
attribu ted to the c o n s id e r a b le ex p en se in v olv ed in holding such m eetin gs fo r a
thousand o r m o r e d e le g a te s . F o r e x a m p le , the A m e r ic a n F e d e ra tio n o f M u sicia n s
r e c e n tly d e cid e d to h old con ven tion s e v e r y 2 y e a r s , in stea d o f e v e r y y e a r .
At
that tim e , it w as re p o r te d :
"E a ch con v en tion c o s ts the parent union n e a rly
$ 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 , m o s t o f it to c o v e r a llow a n ces o f $30 a day, plus h otel e x p e n s e s , f o r
the 1 ,2 0 0 d e l e g a t e s .1 (New Y o rk T im e s , June 6, 1 9 5 8 .)
1




21
P r e s id e n t s T C om pen sation
V irtu a lly a ll union con stitu tion s stu d ied , s p e c ifie d the am ount o f s a la r ie s
to be paid to in tern ation al p r e s id e n ts , o r how such am ounts w e re to be d e te rm in e d .
A n u m ber o f con stitu tion s a ls o in clu d ed in form a tion on s a la r ie s fo r the s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r o r o th e r e x e cu tiv e o f f i c e r s , but such p r o v is io n s fo r oth er m e m b e r s o f
the u n ion 's g overn in g b ody w e re le s s freq u en t. Many con stitu tion s p rov id ed f o r
a llo w a n ce s to c o v e r v a rio u s e x p en ses in c u r r e d w hile p e rfo rm in g o ffic ia l b u s in e s s .

S a l a r i e s .— S e v e n ty -fiv e o f the 111 con stitu tion s studied s p e c ifie d the
annual s a la r ie s fo r the p re sid e n ts (table 7).
In 28 oth er u n ion s, the p r e s id e n ts '
s a la r ie s w ere to be d e te rm in e d by v a rio u s union b o d ie s , such as co n v e n tio n s,
g e n e ra l ex e cu tiv e b o a r d s , o r m e m b e rsh ip re fe re n d u m s , as the fo llo w in g c la u s e s
illu str a te :

The s a la r ie s and a llow a n ces o f the International O ffic e r s shall
be fix e d by the con v en tion p r io r to th eir n om in ation .
(in te r ­
n ation al U nion o f U nited B r e w e r y , F lo u r , C e r e a l, S oft D rink
and D is t ille r y W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
* * *
F ix e d s a la r ie s and ex p e n ses o f the International P r e s id e n t • . .
sh a ll be d e te rm in e d b y the G en era l E x ecu tiv e B o a rd .
(in te r ­
national Union o f the D o ll and T oy W o rk e rs o f U nited States
and Canada)
* * *
The P r e s id e n t, V ice P r e s id e n ts , . . . shall be paid a w eek ly
s a la r y out o f the G en era l Fund o f the International T r e a s u r y . The
am ount o f such s a la r ie s is to be stipulated by referen d u m vote o f
the m e m b e r s h ip . (A m a lga m ated L ith og ra p h ers o f A m e r ic a )




T A B L E 7.

Presidential salary provisions in international
union constitutions, 1958
Members
Provision

Unions
(thousands)

All unions studied _ -- — —
Annual salary stipulated in international
union constitution ____ _ _ _ ___
_
Salary to be determined by convention____
Salary to be determined by General
Executive Board _ _ __ _
_
_
Salary to be determined by membership
referendum
____
Salary to be related to earnings of
members _ _ ___
_
_ ___
_
„ .
Other 1
No provision
_ __ __ _
_
_ ____ _

111

17,641

75
20

14,145
2,175

6

425

2

72

4
3
1

341
253
230

1 1 constitution established a maximum yearly salary only;
1 provided for an hourly rate and a daily maximum; the third speci­
fied a minimum salary, with the exact amount to be determined by
the General Executive Board.

22
F o u r unions w h ich did not in d icate s p e c ific am ou n ts, rela ted the p r e s i ­
d e n ts 1 s a la r ie s to the earn in gs of m e m b e r s .
Two o f the unions in this c a te g o r y ,
the B roth erh ood o f R a ilro a d T ra in m en and the International T y p og ra p h ica l Union
used the fo llo w in g s a la r y -s e ttin g fo r m u la s , r e s p e c t iv e ly :
The s a la r ie s o f Grand L odge O ffice r s . . . sh all be the rate
o f pay a p p lica b le to such o ffic e r s A ugust 30, 1954.
The p e r
diem s a la r y a llo w a n ce s o f Grand L odge O ffice r s . . . sh all be
the p e r diem a p p lica b le to such o ffic e r s O ctob er 1, 1954.
H ere­
a fte r such s a la r y a llo w a n ces sh all b e in c re a s e d o r d e c r e a s e d
in the sam e m a n n er, that is , as determ in ed b y g en era l in c r e a s e s
o r d e c r e a s e s in the pay o f m e m b e r s em p loy ed in train and yard
s e r v ic e in the United States as o f the e ffe c tiv e date o f such
changes in ra tes o f pay. . . .
* * *
The s a la r y o f the P r e s id e n t,
be com puted as fo llo w s :

. . . during ^iis7term o f o ffic e sh all

F o r the P r e s id e n t, fo r s e r v ic e s ren d ered as P re s id e n t of the
International T y p o g ra p h ica l Union and as P re s id e n t of the B oard o f
T ru ste e s of the Union P r in te rs H om e, th ree (3) tim es the a v era g e
fu ll-t im e w e e k ly w ages of the m e m b e rsh ip p e r w eek . . . .
The oth er two union con stitu tion s with s im ila r p r o v is io n s w e re those of the
N ational M arin e E n g in e e r s 1 B e n e ficia l A s s o c ia tio n and the United Stone and A llie d
P ro d u cts W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a .
The am ount o f y e a r ly s a la ry r e c e iv e d b y p re s id e n ts v a ried fr o m a low
o f $650 to a high o f $ 5 0 ,0 0 0 , a c c o r d in g to union con stitu tion s.
The m o s t com m on
s a la r y b r a c k e t w as $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 but le s s than $ 1 5 ,0 0 0 , and included 20 p re s id e n ts
(table 8).
Of the r e m a in d e r , 13 r e c e iv e d le s s than $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 , and 42, $ 1 5 ,0 0 0
or m ore.
The 3 h igh est paid union p re s id e n ts r e c e iv e d a s a la ry o f $ 5 0 ,0 0 0 .
In g e n e ra l, the am ount o f s a la r y a p re s id e n t r e c e iv e d tended to v a ry
w ith the s iz e o f the union.
A il of the 33 unions w hich paid th eir p re s id e n ts
le s s than $15,00 0, f o r e x a m p le , had fe w e r than 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s .
T h ere w e re
a few n otable e x cep tion s to this g en era l ten den cy.
F o r in sta n ce, the 1 0 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r International A s s o c ia tio n of Heat and F r o s t In su lators and A s b e s to s
W o rk e rs and the International A llia n ce of T h e a trica l Stage E m p loy ees and M oving
P ic tu r e M achine O p era tors of the United States and Canada (50, 100) paid th eir
c h ie f ex ecu tiv e o ffic e r s $2 5 ,0 0 0 and $ 3 0 ,4 1 7 a y e a r , r e s p e c t iv e ly , w hile the
United A u tom ob ile W o rk e r s , with 1 .3 m illio n m e m b e r s , p rov id ed $ 2 2 ,0 0 0 .®
E xpen se A llo w a n c e s .— A n u m ber o f con stitu tion s d e s c rib e d the types o f
su p plem en ta ry paym ents intended to c o v e r v a riou s ex p en ses a p re s id e n t m ight
in cu r in the p e r fo r m a n c e of his d u ties. A m a jo r ity of such con stitu tion s stip u ­
lated that the p re s id e n t w as to be re im b u rs e d fo r "e x p e n se s aw ay fr o m h om e, "
"le g itim a te e x p e n s e s ," "h o te l, m e a ls , tra v elin g , and other n e c e s s a r y ex p en ses
when aw ay fr o m h e a d q u a rte rs, " o r used s im ila r sta tem en ts.
S e v e ra l of these

8
In A p r il 1958, the United A u tom ob ile
cut fo r o ffic e r s as a te m p o r a r y e co n o m y m e a s u r e .




W o rk e rs

announced a 1 0 -p e rce n t

23
con stitu tion s s p e c ific a lly re q u ir e d that p re s id e n ts subm it ite m iz e d expen se v o u ch e rs
o r p ro v id e d that paym ents w ould be su b ject to a p p rov a l by the u n io n s govern in g
b od y .
A ll o f f ic e r s . • • sh all r e c e iv e th e ir actu al e x p e n se s w h ile per*
fo rm in g s e r v ic e s pertain in g to the B ro th e rh o o d .
O ffic e r s . . .
shall when aw ay on a p ro lo n g e d stay file a daily ite m iz e d expen se
a ccou n t w ith the S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o f Grand L odge at the end
o f ea ch 2 w e e k s, and when on the road fo r l e s s than that tim e
sh all file a da ily ex p en se a ccou n t im m e d ia te ly upon th eir retu rn
to h ea d q u a rters . . . (B roth erh ood o f R a ilro a d Signalm en o f
A m e r ic a )
♦ * *
The In tern ation al P r e s id e n t . . . p e rfo rm in g du ties away fr o m
the In tern ation al o ffic e • . . shall r e c e iv e h is e x p e n s e s , w hich
sh all be su b ject to the a p p rov a l o f the International E x ecu tiv e
C o u n cil.
(T r a n sp o r t W o rk e rs U nion o f A m e r ic a )
A s m a lle r num ber o f con stitu tion s d esign ated fix e d p e r d iem a llo w a n ce s ,
ranging fr o m $ 8 to $ 3 5 .
G e n e ra lly , th ese am ounts w e re intended to c o v e r h otel,
m e a ls , and oth er in cid en ta l e x p e n s e s .
V irtu a lly a ll o f th ese unions p rov id ed fo r
add ition al re im b u rse m e n t fo r tra n sp o rta tio n c o s t s .
TABLE 8
.

Annual salaries1 of international union presidents as provided for
in union constitutions by size of unions, 1958
Unions stipulating
salary in constitution

Total
Size

Members

Members
Unions

Unions

(thousands)

(thousands)
111

10.000 and under 25,000 members _
25.000 and under 50,000 members . _
50.000 and under 100,000 members ___
100.000 and under 200,000 members_____
200.000 and under 300,000 members_____
300.000 and under 400,000 members
_
400.000 and under 500,000 members___ __
500.000 and under 1,000,000 members___
1,000,000 members and over .

17,641

75

____ 1±, 145

18
20
30
19
9
5
4
3
3

All unions studied

270
700
2,056
2,600
2,052
1,742
1,808
2,475
3,939

12
12
17
17
4
4
3
3
3

189
425
1,138
2,311
920
1,392
1,357
2,475
3,939

Union presidents receiving annual salaries of—
$10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000 $35,000 $40,000
Less but less but less but less but less but less but less
than
or
than
than
than
than
than
than
$10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 more 2
All unions studied _
10,000 and under 25,000 members
25,000 and under 50,000 members —
50,000 and under 100,000 members
100,000 and under 200,000 members___ _
200,000 and under 300,000 members _
_
300,000 and under 400,000 members
400,000 and under 500,000 members
500,000 and under 1,000,000 members--1,000,000 members and over

13

20

16

3
4
4
2

6
4
5
5

2
4
3
5
2

.
_
_
_
*

_
_
_
.
-

_
_
_
-

10
_
3
1
1
3

_
1
1

5
1
_
1
2

_
1
1
1

3

1
-

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal totals.

_
1
.
1
_

-

1
“

_
_

3

.

2

_

1 Excludes allowances.
2 Each of these 3 unions provided a salary of $50,000 t their presidents.
o




5

1

.
2

24

The A m e r ic a n F e d e ra tio n o f M u sicia n s granted its p re s id e n t a $ 3 ,0 0 0
ex p en se a ccou n t " f o r the spending o f w h ich he shall not be re q u ire d to m ake
an a ccou n tin g , " and fu rth e r a llo w e d him " a ll h otel and tra v elin g e x p e n s e s . " The
con stitu tion o f the In tern ation al B roth erh ood o f T e a m s te r s stipulated that a ll
in tern a tion a l o f f i c e r s w e r e en titled to a d a ily a llow a n ce o f $ 7 .5 0 f o r "in cid e n ta l
e x p e n s e s ." T h ey w e re a ls o en titled to a ll tr a v e l ex p e n se s and, w hen aw ay fr o m
th e ir h om e city , to an a dd ition a l p er d iem a llow a n ce o f $ 2 5 .
In add ition , the
con stitu tion p ro v id e d :
The G e n e ra l P r e s id e n t, fo r the p u rp ose o f p rom otin g the in te r ­
e s ts and w e lfa r e o f the International Union and the m aking o f
d ip lo m a tic co n ta cts w ith oth er org a n iz a tion s and in stitu tion s, and
fo r the p u rp ose o f c o n s e r v in g h is health, m ay in h is d is c r e tio n
tr a v e l in th is cou n try o r , w ith the a p p rov a l o f the G en era l E x e c u ­
tive B o a r d , a b ro a d and m ay take p e r io d ic r e s t s .
The G en era l
E x e cu tiv e B o a rd shall p ro v id e fo r a ll e x p e n se s o f the G en era l
P r e s id e n t when p e r fo r m in g the s e r v ic e s m en tion ed h e re in o r
w hen taking p e r io d ic r e s t s .
The said ex p e n se s sh all include
tr a v e l in th is cou n try and a b roa d , the fu ll and co m p le te m a in ­
ten an ce o f h is w ife so that she can a cco m p a n y the G en era l
P r e s id e n t, and a ll s e c r e t a r ia l help and s e r v ic e s w h ich he d e e m s
n e c e s s a r y w h ile en gaged as a fo r e r e fe r r e d to .
The e x p e n se s
p ro v id e d fo r h e r e in a r e in add ition tb a ll oth er con stitu tion a l
co m p e n sa tio n and a llo w a n ce s .
R e m o v a l o f In tern ation al O ffic e r s
P r a c t ic a lly a ll o f the 111 in tern ation al union con stitu tion s studied contained
p r o v is io n s under w h ich in tern a tion a l union p re s id e n ts and oth er o ff i c e r s cou ld be
d is c ip lin e d fo r in fra ctio n s o f con stitu tion al p r o v is io n s o r union r e g u la t io n s .9
P e n a ltie s cou ld take the fo r m o f re p rim a n d , fin e, su sp en sion , o r re m o v a l fr o m
o ffic e and e x p u lsio n .
The p r o c e s s o f re m o v in g an o ffic e r in v olv ed im peach m en t o r r e c a ll p r o ­
c e d u r e s , o r a com b in a tion o f both ty p e s .
T h r e e -fo u r th s o f the con stitu tion s c o n ­
tained im p ea ch m en t c la u s e s , about 15 p e rce n t contained r e c a ll p r o v is io n s , and
both ty p e s o f re m o v a l m a ch in e ry w e r e found in 8 p e r c e n t o f the c o n s titu tio n s 1
0
(table 9).
Im peach m en t p r o c e e d in g s r e s e m b le d , in som e m e a s u r e , p r o c e e d in g s
b e fo r e a co u rt o f law , and g e n e r a lly took the fo r m o f a t r ia l b e fo r e the u nions1
T A B L E 9. Types of provisions for removal of international
officers stipulated in union constitutions, 1958
Members
Type of provision1

Unions
(thousands)

All unions studied

_ r ,
_

Impeachment
Recall T
Tmneachment and recall
No provision________________________

—

111

17,641

84
17
9
1

12,560
3,502
1,529
50

1 Removal proceedings against a president and other officers
were identical in all but 1 union which provided for recall proce­
dures against the president and impeachment procedures against
other officers.

9 T h is d is c u s s io n is lim ite d to d is c ip lin a r y p r o v is io n s rela tin g s p e c ific a lly
to o f f i c e r s and th e ir con du ct in o ffic e .
1 R e m o v a l p r o c e e d in g s again st a p resid en t and oth er in tern ation al o f f ic e r s
0
w e r e id e n tica l in a ll but one union studied.




25

g overn in g b o d ie s .
U su a lly, th ese p r o c e e d in g s a llow ed a final appeal to the
u n ion s1 con v en tion s.
In r e c a ll c a s e s , the m e m b e r s w e r e m o r e d ir e c tly in v olv ed .
T y p ic a lly , ch a r g e s again st o f f i c e r s w e re to be initiated by p etition s, w h ich, w ith ­
out e x c e p tio n , r e q u ire d the e n d o rse m e n ts o f a given num ber o r p ro p o rtio n o f
m e m b e r s o r lo c a l unions.
A lthough a few o f th ese Constitutions p rov id ed fo r
t r ia l b o d ie s , th ese fu n ction ed p r im a r ily a s factfin din g b o a rd s o r a d m in istra tiv e
a g e n c ie s fo r the con d u ct o f a m e m b e rsh ip re feren d u m . The fin a l d e c is io n w hether
to retain an o f f i c e r r e s te d w ith the m e m b e rs h ip s .
In m any con stitu tion s * the s p e c ific v io la tio n s fo r w h ich an intern ation al
o f f ic e r cou ld be d is c ip lin e d w e re stated v e r y b r ie fly , if at a ll.
F o r in sta n ce,
nn eg lect o f duty o r v io la tio n o f the l a w s ," ' ‘viola tin g the con stitu tion o r the
g e n e ra l w e lfa r e o f the o rg a n iza tio n , " o r "an y a ct ca lcu la te d to im p a ir the dignity
o f the o rg a n iz a tio n " w e r e the only grounds stated in a num ber o f con stitu tion s.
Such g e n e ra l c la u s e s w e re a ls o found in con stitu tion s w h ich defin ed re m o v a l ca u se s
in g r e a te r d e ta il.
In th ese in sta n ce s, the c a tc h -a ll p r o v is io n s w e r e app aren tly
intended to be u sed fo r a c ts that did not c le a r ly com e under any o f the s p e c ific
c a t e g o r ie s .
The follow in g tw o e x a m p les typ ify such c la u s e s :
^ C h arges again st a G rand L odge O ffice£7 shall be m ade fo r any
o f the follow in g c a u s e s : dru n k en n ess, in ca p a city , d is o b e d ie n ce
to a s u p e r io r o f f i c e r , abu sive o r threatening language to a b ro th e r
o f f ic e r , m isa p p ro p ria tin g o r d iv ertin g Grand L odge funds, n eg lect
o f duty o r any m isco n d u ct su b v e rsiv e o f the in te r e s ts o r w e ll­
bein g o f the o rg a n iz a tio n .
(B roth erh ood o f L o co m o tiv e F ire m e n
and E n gin em en )
* * *
. . . G en era l O ffic e r s m ay be re q u ire d to
ch a rg e d w ith any o f the follow in g o ffe n s e s :

stand tr ia l

when

(a ) V io la tio n o f any s p e c ific p r o v is io n o f th is con stitu tion ;
(b ) G r o s s d islo y a lty o r con d u ct un becom in g to a m e m b e r;
(c ) G r o s s in e ffic ie n c y o f a . . . G en eral O ffic e r w hich
h in d ers o r im p a ir s the in te re st o f the
. . . International;
(d ) P u b liciz in g the in ternal a ffa ir s o f . . . the International
Union;
(e ) M isa p p ro p ria tio n ;
(f)
S e c e s s io n o r fo s te r in g s e c e s s io n ;
(g ) A bu se o f fe llo w m e m b e r s o r o f f i c e r s ;
(h) A c tiv itie s w h ich w ould tend to b rin g the . . . In te r­
national into d isre p u te ;
(i)
D iso b e d ie n ce to the re g u la tion s, r u le s , m an dates, and
d ecrees . . .
o f the o f f i c e r s o f the International;
(j)
Such oth er a c ts and conduct w hich shall be c o n s id e r e d
in co n siste n t with the d u ties, o b lig a tion s and fea lty o f a m e m b e r
o f a union, o r v io la tio n o f sound trade union p r in c ip le s ;
(k) P r e fe r r in g ch a r g e s against an o ffic e r o f . . . the In te r­
national without re a so n a b le ev id en ce in support o f the sam e;
(l)
D e lib e r a te ly aiding o r abetting another m e m b e r in the
v iola tion o f any s e ctio n o f th is con stitu tion .
(H otel and R e sta u ­
rant E m p lo y e e s and B a rten d ers International U nion)
C on stitu tion s w ith im p ea ch m en t c la u s e s u sually lis te d re m o v a l grounds in
g r e a te r d eta il than con stitu tion s w ith r e c a ll p r o v is io n s .
U nder im peach m en t p r o ­
c e e d in g s , it w ou ld se e m that an a c c u s e d o ffic e r cou ld be tr ie d only fo r having
co m m itte d ce r ta in a c ts , w h e re a s under the r e c a ll d e v ic e , the m e m b e rsh ip retain ed
the righ t to re m o v e an o f f ic e r fo r any re a s o n .




26
Initiation o f C h a r g e s . — U nder r e c a ll p r o c e e d in g s , the in itiation o f ch a rg e s
again st o f f i c e r s o r , m o r e s p e c ific a lly , the filin g o f p etition s lis tin g such c h a r g e s ,
w as the p r e r o g a tiv e o f the m e m b e rsh ip a ctin g through lo c a l unions (table 10).
C on stitu tion s w ith im p ea ch m en t p r o v is io n s v a rie d w id ely in th e ir id e n tifica tio n
o f initiating a g e n ts. A la r g e num ber o f con stitu tion s (34) fa ile d to nam e a s p e c ific
initiating agen t. 11
TABLE 10. Initiating agency for recall and impeachment proceedings against the
international union president stipulated in union constitutions, 1958
Unions with recall
proceedings

Agency

Unions
All unions studied1 ------- _

26

— -----

M hsr
<»m
_
r
.. n , Tv
General Executive Board2 - ___
—
M K of ffA ral F,Y(»riiH RnarH
Am itr
TiA
ve
Local union _ ___ _ ----_
_
„ — —Local union or member_________________
,Local union or General Executive
Board__
___ „
__ — --O
th#»r
_
No provision _ ___ _ ----- ------- -_

Members
(thousands)

Unions with impeachment proceedings
Unions

Members
(thousands)

5,031

93

14,089

20
_

_
4,249
.

22
8
3
314
3

2,432
350
1,405
1,890
222

56

782

4 9

1,050

34

6,741

_

1 Includes 9 unions with both recall and impeachment procedures.
2 Also includes other governing bodies of international unions.
3 3 constitutions provided for initiation of charges by both local unions and by district
councils or other bodies composed of local unions.
4 1 constitution provided for initiation of charges by the General Executive Board,
local unions, or bodies composed of local unions.
5 These constitutions provided for circulation of a petition for signature by a given
percentage of the entire membership, but did not designate a specific initiating agent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal totals.
A num ber o f con stitu tion s re q u ire d that the filin g o f any ch a rg e be a c ­
com p a n ied b y an ite m iz e d statem ent lis tin g the s p e c ific law s v iola ted o r oth er
releva n t fa c t s . A lthough su ch re q u ire m e n ts w e re found in r e c a ll and im p each m en t
p r o v is io n s , the la tte r tended to d e s c r ib e them in g r e a te r d e ta il. R e c a ll c la u s e s ,
a s a rule, tre a te d the m a tter a s fo llo w s :
The p etition shall be a cco m p a n ie d by the ch a rg e s upon w hich the
r e c a ll is b a se d . . . (in terna tion al W o o d w o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
* * *
E v e r y p etition fo r a r e c a ll m ust con tain a c le a r , c o n c is e sta te­
m ent o f the s p e c ific c h a rg e s again st such o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s
upon w h ich tne p ro c e e d in g is b a s e d .
(in tern a tion al A s s o c ia tio n
o f M a ch in ists)

11
The a b s e n ce o f a fo r m a l d esig n a tion o f in itiating agent should not be c o n ­
stru ed to m ean that m e m b e r s o r lo c a l a ffilia te s w e re p o w e r le s s to initiate c h a r g e s .
A num ber o f unions w ith such c la u s e s , it should be pointed out, r e fe r r e d in th e ir
tr ia l o r r e m o v a l p r o c e e d in g s to an " a c c u s e r . " T h e se r e fe r e n c e s c a r r ie d the stron g
im p lic a tio n o f m e m b e r s having the right to initiate c h a r g e s .
M o re s p e c ific a lly ,
the en tire im pea ch m en t p r o v is io n w ould be m ea n in g le ss u n less m e m b e r s , s u b o r ­
dinate union b o d ie s , o r th e ir o f f i c e r s have the right to sta rt such a ctio n .




27
Im peach m en t c la u s e s p ro v id e d as fo llo w s :
A ch a rg e o f d e r e lic t io n in duty sh all s p e c ify the acts o r o m is s io n s
a lle g e d to con stitu te d e r e lic tio n in duty • . .
The ch a rg e sh a ll be file d with the S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o r with
the E x ecu tiv e V ic e -P r e s id e n t . . . , with su fficie n t c o p ie s fo r
each International E x e cu tiv e B oa rd m e m b e r . • . (A m e rica n
N ew spaper Guild)
♦ * *
A ccu sa tio n s o r c h a r g e s /a g a in s t International O f f i c e r s / m u st be
m ade in w ritin g b y a m e m b e r o f the union in g ood standing w ith­
in 30 days
o f the tim e com plain an t b e c o m e s cog n iza n t o f the
o ffe n s e s a lle g e d .

In a ll c a s e s , c h a r g e s m u st be sign ed by the com plain an t and shall
be s u ffic ie n tly s p e c ific as to the p ro v isio n s o f union law v iola ted
and o f the a lle g e d a cts w hich con stitu te the b a s is o f the ch a rg e
to p e rm it the defendant to p re p a re a p ro p e r defen se . • .
If the a c c u s e d International O ffic e r is the G en era l P r e s id e n t,
the ch a rg e s sh all be file d with the G en era l S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s ­
u r e r . . . (U nited R u b b e r, C o rk , L in oleu m and P la s tic W o rk ­
e r s o f A m e r ic a )
* * *
. . . ch a r g e s sh a ll be in w ritin g and sh all set fo rth the nature
o f the v io la tio n o r v io la tion s com p la in ed o f and s p e c ify the act
o r a cts con stitu tin g the v iola tion and sh all be sig n ed by the
accu ser.
T h ese c h a r g e s sh all be a ccom p a n ied by a sw orn a ffi­
davit o r a ffid a v its settin g forth in d eta il the fa ctu a l m a tters upon
w hich the a ccu sa tio n s a re b a s e d .
(U nited F u rn itu re W ork ers
o f A m e r ic a )
E n d orsem en t o f C h a r g e s . — C harge petitions again st o ffic e r s r e q u ire d a
s p e c ifie d nu m ber o f e n d o rse m e n ts in a ll r e c a ll c a s e s (table 11).
U nder im p e a c h ­
m en t p r o c e e d in g s , h o w e v e r , a p p rov a l o f the m e m b e rsh ip (o r lo c a l unions) was
stipu la ted in on ly a s m a ll n u m ber o f con stitu tion s and the n um ber o f e n d o r s e ­
m en ts n e c e s s a r y was u su a lly s m a lle r than under r e c a ll c la u s e s .
The a b sen ce o f
e n d o rs e m e n t re q u ire m e n ts in r e c a ll c a s e s w ould m ean that a sin g le m e m b e r co u ld
in vok e the re fe re n d u m m a ch in e ry f o r any r e a s o n , no m a tter how fr iv o lo u s .
Such
a c tio n s , i f taken o fte n 9co u ld r a is e h avoc with the o p e ra tio n o f the union.
T h u s,
the n e c e s s it y o f obtaining e n d o rse m en ts s e r v e s as a bra k e again st ir r e s p o n s ib le
b e h a v io r.
U nder im pea ch m en t p r o c e e d in g s , on the oth er hand, such ap p rova l
is le s s n eed ed sin ce t r ia l m a ch in e ry is r e la tiv e ly e a sy to o rg a n iz e (in co n tra st
to a m e m b e r s h ip r e fe r e n d u m ), the tr ia l it s e lf a cts as a b a r against fr iv o lo u s
and unfounded c h a r g e s , and p en a lties a re u su ally m eted out to those m aking such
ch arges.
E igh t unions with r e c a ll p r o v is io n s re q u ire d a m in im u m num ber o f lo ca l
union e n d o r s e m e n ts , ranging fr o m 1 to 150. In 5 of these u n ion s, the m inim um




28

am ounted to l e s s than 10 p e rce n t o f a ll lo c a l unions; and, in the other 3, to be*
tw een 10 and 15 p e rce n t:
F ive o r m o r e l o c a ls , w ho . . . d e s ir e the r e c a ll o f an e le c tiv e
o f f ic e r o f th is In tern ation al A s s o c ia tio n , and w h ere the r e a s o n s
and r e q u e s ts fo r the r e c a ll have been subm itted to the m e m b e r s
o f 5 o r m o r e r e s p e c t iv e lo c a ls at a s p e c ia l m eetin g c a lle d fo r
that p u rp o se , and a r e fa v o ra b ly a cted upon by a tw o -th ird s v ote
o f the m e m b e r s , sh all im m e d ia te ly fo rw a rd a c o p y o f the r e a s o n
fo r the r e c a ll to the o f f ic e r o r o ff i c e r s w hom they d e s ir e to r e ­
c a ll, and 15 days sh all be g iv en the a c c u s e d to p re p a re his or
th eir d efen se. (A m a lga m a ted L ith og ra p h ers o f A m e r ic a )
TABLE 11.

Recall and impeachment clauses against international union presidents
in union constitutions by type of endorsements required, 1958
Unions with recall
clauses

Type of endorsement

Unions
All unions studied1

_

__

General Executive Board________________
Percentage of total local unions__________
Percentage of total membership__________
Minimum number of local unions ___
Percentage of local unions plus
percentage of membership*__ „
Number of local unions containing specified
percentage of membership ______
Other ,
u
~ ■ - - - -- , , ... T
,
No provision ___ — ______ __

Members
(thousands]

Unions with impeach­
ment clauses
Unions

Members
. (thousands)

26

5,031

5
2 6
8

1,866
926
1,007

8

1,947

2

459

-

5
.
*

772
_
-

1
32
73

83
330
10,956

93

14,089

8
1

721
52

-

-

1 Includes 9 unions with both recall and impeachment procedures.
2 2 unions called for a petition signed by a percentage of members as a mandate for
the international office to circulate a recall petition among the entire membership through
regular union channels.
3 For the first union, endorsement by two-thirds of membership of any local union is
required; for the second, endorsement is by convention.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal totals^
M o re strin g en t re q u ire m e n ts w e r e found am ong the fiv e unions w hich
dem anded e n d o rse m e n ts b y a designated p e rce n ta g e o f total lo c a l u n ion s. A p p rov a l
b y m o r e than h a lf of a ll lo c a l unions had to be obtained in 3 unions; f o r the oth er
2 , the re q u ire m e n ts w e r e 15 p e r c e n t and 5 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c t iv e ly .
Six unions r e q u ir e d sig n a tu res by the follow in g p ro p o rtio n o f m e m b e rsh ip :
1 union b y 15 p e r c e n t, 2 b y 20 p e rce n t, 2 by 25 p e rce n t, and 1 by 30 p e rce n t.
In this la s t c a te g o r y w e r e 2 unions w h ich, in e ffe c t , u tiliz e d a 2 -s t e p e n d o r s e ­
m en t p r o c e s s w h e re b y p etition s w e r e sent f ir s t to the International E x ecu tiv e
B o a r d s , and next to the e n tire m e m b e rsh ip b e fo r e a fin al re fe re n d u m co u ld be
h eld .
One o f th ese u n ion s, the International W o o d w o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a , d e s c r ib e d
th is p r o c e d u r e a s fo llo w s :
Upon the sig n ed re q u e st o f 5 p ercen t o f the en tire International
Union m e m b e r s h ip , the International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r shall
send out a petition to e a ch lo c a l union fo r the r e c a ll o f any
In tern ation al O ffic e r .
The petition sh all be a cco m p a n ie d by the
ch a r g e s upon w hich the R ecall is b a se d and a defen se o f the
ch a rg e d o f f i c e r .




29
If w ithin 40 days a fte r the petition is subm itted to the m e m b e r ­
ship in v o lv e d , 20 p e rce n t o f the m e m b e rsh ip sen d a sig n ed r e ­
qu est to the International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r , the International
E x ecu tiv e B o a rd shall c a ll an e le ctio n fo r the r e c a ll o f any
International O ffic e r so ch a rg e d . . .
A tim e lim it fo r subm itting e n d o rs e m e n ts, s im ila r to the one noted
a b o v e , w as s p e c ifie d in m any r e c a ll c la u s e s .
It w as sp e lle d out in* som e detail
in the con stitu tion o f the International B roth erh ood o f L o c o m o tiv e E n g in e e rs:
In event 25 p e rce n t o f the d u es-p a y in g m e m b e r s , or d iv is io n s
r e p re se n tin g 25 p e rce n t o f the d u es-p a y in g m e m b e r s , have not
file d a r e q u e s t in w ritin g with the G rand C h ief E n gin eer o r the
G en era l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r w ithin 6 m onths fr o m the
tim e
the fir s t r e q u e st is file d instituting an in itia tiv e , re fe re n d u m
a n d /o r r e c a l l, no c o n s id e r a tio n w ill be g iven such re q u e st until
another 6 m onths p e r io d has e la p sed , a fter w hich it w ill be n e c e s ­
sa r y to re in sta te the in itia tiv e, re fe re n d u m and r e c a ll by filin g
new p e titio n s.
Six o f the 8 im p ea ch m en t c la u s e s req u irin g lo c a l union en d orsem en t
s p e c ifie d 6 lo c a ls ; in the rem a in in g 2 c la u s e s , 3 e n d orsem en ts w e r e n eed ed .
In
no c a s e did the r e q u ir e d n u m ber o f lo c a l unions re p r e s e n t a sig n ifica n t p r o ­
p o rtio n o f the to ta l.
In 8 oth er union con stitu tion s, im p each m en t ch a rg e s r e ­
q u ire d a p p ro v a l o f the e x e cu tiv e b o a rd b e fo r e a c a s e co u ld be tr ie d .
Som e ty p ica l
c la u s e s w e r e :
The G en era l E x ecu tiv e B o a rd shall exam ine a ll ch a rg e s p r e fe r r e d
to it a gain st an o ffic e r to this A llia n ce and sh all have the pow er
to d e c la r e su ch c h a r g e s co g n iz a b le o r n ot. . . .
W ithin 1 w eek a fte r co g n iz a n ce o f the c h a rg e s the G en eral E x e cu ­
tive B o a rd shall . . . n otify /t h e a c c u s e d o f f i c e r 7 o f the tim e
and p la ce appointed fo r the hearin g th ereon .
(International
A llia n c e o f T h e a trica l Stage E m p loy es and M oving P ictu re M a­
ch ine O p e ra to rs o f the U nited States and Canada)
R e m o v a l A g e n c y . — The d e c is io n to r e m o v e a p resid en t fr o m o ffic e , under
a ll r e c a l l p r o v is io n s , r e s t e d upon a m e m b e rsh ip re fe re n d u m (table 12).
The
TABLE 12. Agency empowered to remove international union presidents underrecall and impeachment proceedings contained in union constitutions, 1958

Agency

Unions
All unions studied1

Unions with impeach­
ment proceedings

Unions with recall
proceedings

__

General Executive Board----------------------Membership referendum
___
Trial committee or special board
__
Regular convention ___________________
Other----------------------------------------------

Members
(thousands)

26

5,031

224

4, 761

-

32

-

270

Unions
93
74
27
6
4
42

Members
(thousands)
14,089
10,434
1,154
2,043
186
273

1 Includes 9 unions with both recall and impeachment procedures.
2 The recall proceedings in 2 unions and impeachment proceedings in 1 union had the
characteristics of membership referendums in that the membership voted in the local unions,
but the vote of each local was cast as a unit.
3 In these unions, power to remove was by membership referendum or convention.
4 In 1 union, final power to remove was by referendum or convention, in the other,
it was by General Executive Board or Convention.




NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal totals.

30
vote o f the m e m b e rsh ip was fin a l— th ere was no app eal fr o m
m o v a l fr o m o ffic e o f an im peach ed o ffic e r m a y be a u tom a tic,
gu ilt, but, the p r e c is e pen alty to be im p o se d was g e n e ra lly le ft
o f the tr ia l b od y .
T y p ic a lly , con stitu tion s with im peach m en t
f o r a fin a l appeal to the u n ion ’ s con vention .

its v e r d ic t.
R e­
a fte r a finding o f
to the d is c r e tio n
cla u se s p ro v id e d

R e c a ll p r o v is io n s fre q u e n tly w ent beyond the statem ent that a m e m b e r ­
ship referen d u m sh all be h eld.
In s o m e , the rights o f the a c c u s e d to refu te
ch a rg e s w e re m en tion ed , as w e re the ru le s f o r conducting the re fe re n d u m .
. . . The E x ecu tiv e C om m ittee sh all send one co p y o f ch a rg es
to the o f f ic e r aga in st whom the ch a rg es have b een p r e fe r r e d .
The o f f ic e r who has had r e c a ll p ro ce e d in g s file d ag a in st him
sh a ll be given an opportu nity f o r d e fen se. T h irty days sh all be
a llow ed him to r e p ly to the c h a r g e s , sam e to be in w ritin g .
If
a fte r 30 d a y s, the E x ecu tiv e C om m ittee has fa ile d to r e c e iv e
r e p ly , they sh a ll p r o c e e d w ith the r e c a ll e le c tio n . C o p ie s o f the
ch a rg e s and the r e p ly to be sen t with each b a llo t sh all contain
not m o r e than 1 ,0 0 0 w ord s ea ch .
(international A s s o c ia tio n
o f F ir e F ig h te r s )
* * *
. . . e v e r y m e m b e r sh a ll r e c e iv e a b a llo t w h ich sh a ll contain
the fo llo w in g :
(a)
(b)
(c )

the r e q u e st f o r r e c a ll;
the o f f i c e r ’ s d e fen se;
the b a llo t sh a ll c le a r ly state in fa v o r o f r e c a ll— again st
r e c a ll.
S p e cia l lo c a l m eetin gs sh all be c a lle d to c o n s id e r the
r e c a ll.
The a ctio n o f the lo c a ls sh all be file d at the
In tern a tion a l O ffice within 30 days o f n otifica tio n .
If tw o -th ird s o f the m e m b e rs v otin g , vote in the a ffir m a ­
tiv e , the o f f ic e r sh a ll then be r e c a lle d , the o ffic e d e ­
c la r e d v a ca n t, and the v a ca n cy fille d as p ro v id e d f o r .
(A m alga m ated L ith og ra p h ers o f A m e r ic a )

In the ex a m p les cited a b ov e, the m e m b e rsh ip voted on w hether o r not
to reta in an o f f i c e r .
In a few u n ion s, h o w e v e r, the v ote took the fo r m of up­
h oldin g o r r e je c tin g the fin din gs o f the u n ion ’ s ex ecu tiv e b o a rd :
. . . the International E x ecu tiv e B oard . . . sh all re n d e r a
d e c is io n as to the guilt o r in n ocen ce o f the a c c u s e d .
If the
a c c u s e d is found gu ilty and the ch a rg es w a rra n t, the B oard
sh a ll suspend him fr o m o ffic e .
The International E x ecu tiv e
B oard sh all then o r d e r the ch arge o r ch a rg es to be pu blish ed
in the o ffic ia l m inutes and the o ffic e r o r o ffic e r s a g ain st whom
ch a rg e o r ch a rg e s a re m ade sh all have p r iv ile g e o f explaining
h is a ctio n in the sam e m inutes in w hich the ch arge o r ch a rg e s
a r e p rin ted . The b o a rd sh all im m e d ia te ly subm it th eir d e c is io n
and fin din gs as to the in n ocen ce o r guilt to the m e m b e rsh ip at
la r g e , o r d e r a referen d u m v ote fo r a p p rov a l not le s s than 15
n o r m o r e than 30 days a fte r th eir d e c is io n and findings have
re a ch e d the lo c a l u n ion s.
If a m a jo r ity of m e m b e r s voting
a p p rove the a ctio n o f the International JSxecutive B o a rd , th eir
d e c is io n sh all then b e c o m e fin a l and binding . . • (United G lass
and C e r a m ic W o rk e rs o f N orth A m e r ic a )




31
A fu rth er v a ria tion was noted in a few con stitu tion s w h ere the r e c a ll vote
a ls o e le c ts the o f f i c e r ^ s u c c e s s o r . F o r in sta n ce, the s e c tio n o f the constitution
o f the International A s s o c ia tio n o f M ach in ists stipulating the r e c a ll p ro ce d u re a ls o
p ro v id e d :
. . . the
a ll lo c a l
o ffic e o r
is sought

G en era l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r shall issu e a c ir c u la r to
lod g es ca llin g f o r en d orsem en ts of n om in ees fo r the
o ffic e s held b y the o ffic e r o r o ffic e r s w h ose r e c a ll
. . .

. . . the candidate fo r any o ffic e who r e c e iv e s the g re a te st
n u m ber o f votes in any r e c a ll e le c tio n sh all be p ro m p tly n otified
o f his e le c tio n b y the G en eral S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r .
If the
o ffic e r w h ose r e c a ll is sought, is not e le c te d , his tenure of
o ffic e sh all term in a te 15 days a fte r the r e s u lt o f the e le c tio n
is announced and the n ew ly e le cte d o ffic e r sh all thereupon a ssu m e
the duties o f the o ffic e .
G e n e ra lly , a m a jo r it y o f the m e m b e rs voting was su fficie n t to r e c a ll an
o f f i c e r , although a few unions r e q u ire d a tw o -th ird s v ote. The con stitu tion of the
International Union o f O perating E n g in eers was unique in that it stipulated the
m inim um p ro p o rtio n o f the m e m b e rsh ip req u ire d to p a rticip a te in a valid r e fe r e n ­
dum and a ls o d ire cte d that a m a jo r ity o f the en tire m e m b e rsh ip was needed to r e ­
c a ll an o ffic e r :
. . . No r e c a ll p etition sh all p r e v a il u n less th ere sh all be ca st
th ereon the votes o f not le s s than 55 p e r c e n t o f the en tire
m e m b e rsh ip o f the International Union in good standing and a
m a jo r ity vote o f the en tire m e m b e rsh ip in good standing ca st
in fa v o r th e re o f.
Under a lm o st a ll im peach m en t p r o c e e d in g s , the tria l b od y , u su a lly the
u n io n s e x ecu tiv e b o a r d , w as e m p ow ered to r e m o v e an o f f i c e r , o r to d eterm in e
a le s s s e v e r e punishm ent (table 12).
When the testim on y is a ll subm itted, the B oard o f A d v oca tes
sh all d eterm in e the guilt or in n ocen ce of the a c c u s e d , and if
found guilty fix the punishm ent of the o f f i c e r , w hich shall be
eith er re p rim a n d , su sp en sion fr o m o ffic e o r ex p u lsion fro m
the B ro th e rh o o d . (B roth erh ood of R ailw a y and Steam ship C le r k s ,
F re ig h t H a n d lers, E x p r e ss and Station E m p lo y e s)
* * *
A ny o f f ic e r . . . m a y be im p each ed b y the E x ecu tiv e B o a rd , and
if the ch a rg e s a re p ro v e d sh all be d isq u a lified to fu rth er d i s ­
ch a rg e the duties o f h is o ffic e , and a s u c c e s s o r sh all b e a p ­
poin ted . . . (in terna tional S te r e o ty p e r s 1 and E le c t r o t y p e r s 1
Union o f N orth A m e r ic a )
* * *
The T r ia l C o m m itte e , upon co m p le tio n of the h ea rin g on the
e v id en ce and a rg u m e n ts, sh all go into c lo s e d s e s s io n to d e te r ­
m in e the v e r d ic t and pen alty.
A tw o -th ird s vote sh all be r e ­
q u ired to fin d the a c c u s e d g u ilty. In ca s e the a ccu se d is found
gu ilty, the T r ia l C om m ittee m a y , b y a m a jo r ity v o te , rep rim a n d
the a c c u s e d o r it m a y , b y a tw o -th ird s v o te , a s s e s s a fin e not
to e x c e e d $ 5 0 0 , with a u tom atic su sp en sion , re m o v a l fr o m o ffic e
o r ex p u lsion in the event o f the fa ilu re of the a c c u s e d to pay the




32
fin e w ithin a s p e c ifie d tim e; o r it m a y , b y a tw o -th ird s v o te , s u s ­
pend o r re m o v e the a c c u s e d fr o m o ffic e , o r suspend o r e x p e ll him
fr o m m e m b e r sh ip in the International U nion. (United A u to m o b ile ,
A ir c r a ft and A g r ic u ltu r a l Im plem ent W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
In se v e n con stitu tio n s, the qu estion o f w hether to re m o v e an im p ea ch ed
o f f i c e r w as to be d e cid e d b y a m e m b e rsh ip refe re n d u m .
T h ere w e r e , h o w e v e r,
s e v e r a l elem en ts w h ich distin gu ish ed su ch cla u se s in th ese sev en con stitu tion s
fr o m th ose c la s s ifie d as r e c a ll cla u se s in the oth er con stitu tion s. F o r e x a m p le,
none o f th ese sev en re q u ir e d e n d o rsem en ts o f c h a rg e s b y lo c a l unions o r m e m b e rs.
M o re s ig n ific a n tly , h o w e v e r , in 6 o f th ese 7 con stitu tion s a referen d u m w as to
be h eld on ly if a tr ia l b ody retu rn ed a v e r d ic t o f guilty; the referen d u m thus
b e c o m e s a fin a l avenue o f appeal f o r a co n v icted o ff i c e r . Should the tr ia l b od y
hold f o r the defendant, a refe re n d u m could not be h eld; and the m e m b e rsh ip
cou ld not vote on the is s u e .
. . . the B oa rd . . . sh all d eterm in e the guilt o r in n ocen ce
o f the a c c u s e d . . .
If found gu ilty, it sh all be the duty o f th e
G en era l E x ecu tiv e B oa rd to issu e a c ir c u la r containing th eir
fin din gs . . .
C opy o f sam e to be sent to each lo c a l union,
w h ich .sh a ll at a s p e c ia l m eetin g ca lle d fo r that p u r p o s e , p r o c e e d
to vote on sa m e .
(United G arm ent W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
* * *
. . . The N ational E x ecu tiv e C om m ittee m a y d is m is s the ch a rg e s
o r b y a tw o -th ird s vote suspend o r d is m is s the a c c u s e d fr o m
o f f ic e . F a ilu r e to obtain a tw o -th ird s vote sh all be d eem ed to be
a d is m is s a l of the ch a rg e s ag ain st the a c c u s e d .
In the event the N ational E x ecu tiv e C om m ittee sh all b y a tw o thirds vote suspend o r d is m is s the a c c u s e d , the N ational E x e cu ­
tive C om m ittee sh a ll p ro m p tly cau se the c h a r g e s , a n sw er and
the r e c o r d of the h ea rin g to b e subm itted to the en tire m e m b e r ­
ship re feren d u m vote . . . (N ational M arin e E n g in e e r s 1 B e n e ­
f i c ia l A s s o c ia t io n )
One addition al v a ria tio n was found in the tria l p r o v is io n s o f the N ational
M a ritim e U nion.
In this union, an o ffic e r w h ose co n v ictio n w as upheld b y a
m e m b e r s h ip re feren d u m reta in ed the righ t to app eal the v e r d ic t to the next national
con vention .
F o u r con stitu tion s stipulated that the r e m o v a l issu e w as to be settled at
the union*s re g u la r c o n v e n t io n .12
Any o f f ic e r of the F e d e ra tio n having ch a rg es p r e fe r r e d again st
him m a y b e suspended b y a tw o -th ird s vote o f the E x ecu tiv e
C ou n cil . . .
Such su sp en sion b y the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil, to b e c o m e p erm an en t,
m u st be su stain ed b y a m a jo r ity vote at the next re g u la r c o n ­
ven tion . (A m e r ica n F e d e ra tio n o f G overnm ent E m p lo y e e s)
F illin g V a c a n c ie s .— If a union p re s id e n t b e c o m e s in cap acitated o r dies
w hile in o f f ic e , o r if he is r e c a lle d o r im peach ed b e fo r e com p letin g his te r m ,
his s u c c e s s o r w ould be s e le c te d b y the u n ion fs e x ecu tiv e b od y a c c o r d in g to 64 of
12
This is to be distin gu ish ed fr o m ca s e s w h ere o ffic e r s re m o v e d b y the
e x e cu tiv e b o a r d , o r oth er tr ia l b od y , m a y app eal to the con ven tion .




33
the 111 con stitu tion s studied (table 13).
In a co n s id e ra b ly s m a lle r n um ber o f
unions (22), a design ated o f f i c e r , freq u en tly the fir s t v ic e p re s id e n t o r s e c r e t a r y tr e a s u r e r w ould a ssu m e the p r e s id e n c y .
F ou rteen con stitu tion s re q u ire d a new
p re s id e n t to b e e le c te d b y the en tire m e m b e rsh ip o r by d eleg a tes to a s p e cia l
con vention . O f the rem a in in g 11, 7 stipulated a v a rie ty o f p ro c e d u r e s , and 4 c o n ­
tained no p r o v is io n s on this m a tter.
TA B L E 13. Constitutional provisions for filling of vacancy in the
office of international president during term of office, 1958
A ll unions
M em bers

Method of filling vancy
Unions

(thousands)
111

A ll unions studied .
General Executive Board or other
governing body _
-------------—
Special mem bership election . _
Automatic assumption of office by
another international officer
Special convention
O th .r
........ .
_ . _ _ . . ...
.
No provision
—
—

17.641

64
11

8 ,7 5 8
2 ,6 9 9

22
3
1 7
4

3 ,1 8 4
1 ,6 0 9
1,1 7 0
221

1 In 1 constitution, the General Chairman of each railway s y s ­
tem votes the m em bership of his system as a unit; for 3 unions, the
vacancy is to be filled by the General Executive Board in event of
impeachment, and by a special mem bership election in event of re ­
call; in 1 union, the General Executive Board fills the vacancy if it
occurs within 6 months prior to the convention, otherwise it is filled
by special m em bership election; in another union, the secre ta rytreasurer assum es the office providing less than 1 year of the un­
expired term rem ains, otherwise it is filled by special m em bership
election; for the 7th union, the secreta ry-treasu rer fills the office
until the General Executive Board or convention elects a su ccessor,
when 1 or the other method will be used is not given in the constitution.

The 64 con stitu tion s w h ich au th orized the G en eral E x ecu tiv e B oa rd to
f i ll v a c a n c ie s a ls o delegated r e m o v a l p o w e rs to that b o d y in 41 in sta n ces.
R e­
m o v a l in the rem a in in g 23 unions w a s, in the m a in , b y m e m b e rsh ip referen d u m
o r tr ia l co m m itte e .
C la u se s p ro v id in g fo r re p la ce m e n t b y the B oa rd show ed
tittle v a ria tio n in p h r a s e o lo g y and ty p ica lly read as fo llo w s :
If a v a ca n cy should o c c u r in the O ffice o f P r e s id e n t, G en eral
S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o r o f any oth er g en era l o ff i c e r , the G en era l
E x ecu tiv e B oard sh all f i ll the v a ca n cy until the next trien n ial
con vention , (in terna tion al L a d ie s 1 G arm ent W o r k e r s 1 Union)
C la u se s w hich s p e c ific a lly m ade any union m e m b e r e lig ib le to su cce e d
an ex e cu tiv e o f f ic e r w e re r a r e and ty p ica lly read as fo llo w s :
A v a ca n cy in the O ffice of P re s id e n t o r G en eral S e c r e ta r y T r e a s u r e r sh all be fille d b y the G en eral E x ecu tiv e B oard within
15 days fr o m its own m e m b e r s o r fr o m the g e n e ra l m e m b e rsh ip
o f the United H a tte rs, Caps and M illin e ry W o rk e rs International
U nion.
The fo llo w in g ex a m p les w e re ty p ica l of cla u se s p rov id in g f o r the au to­
m a tic a ssu m p tion o f a vacated o ffic e b y a designated o ffic e r :
. . . Should the O ffice o f P re sid e n t b e c o m e v acan t, the S e c r e ­
ta ry sh a ll s u cce e d to the o f fic e .
(B r ic k la y e r s , M asons and
P la s t e r e r s International Union o f A m e r ic a )




*

*

*

34

W henever the O ffice o f P r e s id e n t, S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r , or V ice
P re s id e n t is v a ca te d by re sig n a tio n , death, re m o v a l fr o m o f f i c e ,
o r any oth er r e a s o n , the v a ca te d o ffic e shall be te m p o r a r ily
fille d until the next G en eral E le ctio n by the next ranking o ffic e r
as fo llo w s : S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r , V ic e P re s id e n t re c e iv in g the
h igh est v o te in the la st national e le c tio n ; N ational R e p re s e n ta ­
tive r e c e iv in g the h igh est vote in the la st national e le c tio n .
(N ational M a ritim e Union o f A m e r ic a )
A s n oted e a r lie r , in a few unions, the r e c a ll re fe re n d u m s e r v e d the
dual p u rp ose o f ousting an in cum bent o ffic e r and ele ctin g his s u c c e s s o r .
Pending
the o u tcom e o f the e le c tio n , m o s t unions p rov id ed fo r a te m p o ra ry a d m in istra to r,
as in the fo llo w in g e x a m p le s:
In the c a s e o f death, re sig n a tio n o r r e c a ll o f the International
P r e s id e n t, G en era l E x ecu tiv e B oa rd shall be con v en ed by the
International S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r w ithin 30 days a fte r the o c ­
c u r r e n c e to s e le c t a te m p o ra ry s u c c e s s o r to s e r v e until a s u c ­
c e s s o r fo r the re m a in d e r o f the te rm has been e le c te d by n o m i­
n ations and re fe re n d u m o f the m e m b e rs h ip .
(U nited F urniture
W o rk e rs o f A m e r ic a )
♦

*

*

W ithin 5 days a fte r a v a ca n cy o c c u r s in any e le c tiv e In te r­
national O ffic e , the International E x ecu tiv e B oa rd shall n otify
the G uilds c o n c e r n e d .
W ithin 30 days a fter the n otifica tio n
is m a ile d the g overn in g b o d ie s o f the lo c a ls c o n c e r n e d shall
nom inate ca n dida tes and n om in ation s sh all c lo s e at h e a d q u a rte rs.
The e le c tio n sh all then be m ade by re fe re n d u m v ote . . .
In
the event o f a v a ca n cy in any o f the 3 p rin cip a l o f f i c e s , th ere
shall be a te m p o r a r y s u c c e s s io n pending the e le c tio n o f a new
o f f i c e r . The P r e s id e n t sh all thus be s u c c e e d e d by th^ E x e c u ­
tive V ic e -P r e s id e n t . . . (A m e rica n N ew spaper G uild)
A '‘c a r e t a k e r " w as a ls o desig n ated in the th ree con stitu tion s w hich r e ­
q u ire d the holding o f a s p e c ia l con vention to fill a v a ca n cy in the o ffic e o f the
p resid en t:
. . .
In c a s e o f death o r re m o v a l o f the G en era l P r e s id e n t, it
sh all be the duty o f the G en eral S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r , in addition
to h is oth er d u ties, to a ssu m e the duties o f G en era l P r e s id e n t,
and he sh all c a ll a S p ecia l C onvention not m o r e than 75 days
a fte r su ch even t fo r the pu rp ose o f e le ctin g a new G en era l P r e s i ­
dent who then shall s e r v e the b a la n ce o f the u n ex p ired te r m .
(B u ildin g S e r v ic e E m p lo y e e s International Union)




35

Appendix
Th. Election and Tonuro of Officers of tho AFL*CIO
The A F L -C IO con stitu tion adopted by the F ir s t C onstitutional C onvention
(D e ce m b e r 5 -8 , 1955), and am ended by the Second C onstitutional C onvention
(D e ce m b e r 5 -1 2 , 1957), contained ru les governing the e le c tio n and tenure of the
p resid en t and s e c r e t a r y -t r e a s u r e r — the execu tive o ffic e r s — and o f the 27 v ice
p re sid e n ts servin g on the E xecu tive C ou n cil. °
The elem en ts o f e le ctio n and
tenure p re v io u sly d is c u s s e d in con n ection w ith o ffic e r s o f national and in te r­
national unions a r e su m m a rized in this appendix fo r the fed era tion .
E lig ib ility req u irem en ts fo r o ffice in the A F L -C IO stipulated that a can d i­
date fo r o ffic e m ust be a m e m b e r o f an affilia ted org a n iza tion .
The constitution
b a r r e d fr o m o ffic e anyone—
. . . who is a m e m b e r o f the C om m unist party, any F a s c is t
org a n iza tion , o r oth er totalitarian m ovem en t, o r who con sisten tly
p u rsu es p o lic ie s and a c tiv itie s d ire cte d tow ard the ach ievem en t
o f the p ro g ra m o r the p u rp oses o f the C om m unist party, any
F a s c is t org a n iza tion o r oth er totalitarian m ov em en t.
(A rt. V,
S e c. 10)
Although cr im in a l bans w e re not e x p licitly enum erated under the cla u se s
on q u a lifica tion s fo r o ffic e , the o b je ct and p rin cip le s esta b lish ed fo r the A F L -C IO
in clu de:
T o p r o te c t the la b o r m ovem ent fr o m any and a ll co rru p t influ­
e n ce s . . . (A rt. 11, S e c. 10)
It is a b a s ic p rin cip le o f the F ed era tion that it m ust be and r e ­
m ain fr e e fr o m any and a ll co rru p t in flu en ces . . . (A rt. VIII,
S ec. 7)
T o help im plem en t th ese "b a s ic p r in c ip le s ," the E xecu tive C ou n cil was
au th orized—
. . . to take such a ctio n s and ren der such d e c is io n s as a re
n e c e s s a ry and a p p rop ria te to safeguard and prom ote the b est
in te re sts o f the F e d e ra tion . . . (A rt. VIII, S e c. 2)
The A F L -C IO constitution d e s c rib e d the nom ination and e le ctio n
o ff ic e r s v e ry b r ie fly .
The kind o f b a llot to be used w as not s p e cifie d :

of

The o f f ic e r s sh all be e le c te d by the convention by m a jo rity v ote.
Such e le c tio n shall take p la ce on the la st day o f the convention,
u n less oth erw ise determ in ed by the convention. In the event that
m o r e than 2 candidates a re nom inated fo r any o ffic e and no
1 candidate r e c e iv e s a m a jo rity o f the v otes ca st, a ll ex cep t the
2 candidates r e c e iv in g the highest votes shall be elim in ated fr o m
the lis t o f candidates and a secon d vote taken.
(A rt. V, S ec. 3)

1
3
F o r a su m m ary o f the stru ctu re o f the A F L -C IO , see the D ir e c t o r y o f
National and International L a b or U nions in the United States, 1957 (BLS B u ll. 1222).




36
A deleg a te to the con ven tion , the con stitu tion p ro v id e d , m ust be a " m e m ­
b e r in g ood standing o f the org a n iza tion he i s s e le c te d to r e p r e s e n t ." He m ust be
" e le c t e d o r o th e rw ise d esig n a ted by the a ffilia te at le a st 30 days p r io r to the c o n ­
vention . . . "
The num ber o f d e le g a te s an in tern ation al union m ay send is b a sed
on the a v e ra g e m onthly num ber o f m e m b e rs on w hich a p er capita tax is paid to
the A F L -C IO , a c c o r d in g to the follow in g fo rm u la :
L>ess
O v er
O ver
O ver
O ver
O v er
O ver
O ver
O ver

than 4 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s ____________________________
4 , 000 m e m b e r s __________________________________
8 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s __________________________________
1 2 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s --------------------------------------------------2 5 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s --------------------------------------------------50, 000 m e m b e r s --------------------------------------------------7 5 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s --------------------------------------------------125, 000 m e m b e r s ------------------------------------------------1 7 5 ,0 0 0 m e m b e r s ------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

deleg a te
d e le g a te s
d e le g a te s
d e le g a te s
d e le g a te s
d e le g a te s
d e le g a te s
d e le g a te s
d eleg a tes

plus 1 add ition al deleg a te f o r ea ch 75, 000 m e m b e r s o v e r 175, 000.
(A r t. IV , S e c . 4 )
On r o l l c a lls , ea ch d eleg a te v o te s a p rop ortion a te share o f the v o te s a c c r e d ite d to
h is union (equ ivalen t to p a id -u p m e m b e rs h ip ).
D eleg a tes fr o m State and lo c a l
b o d ie s and fr o m the A F 1 j-C IO , s d ep artm en ts a re en titled to one v o te .
E le c tio n s a r e held b ien n ia lly at
p re s id e n t and s e c r e t a r y -t r e a s u r e r a r e
t iv e ly . A s p e c ific ex p en se a llo w a n ce is
is a u th o rize d "t o r e im b u r s e m e m b e r s
p e r fo r m in g th e ir du ties . . . "

ea ch re g u la r con v en tion . S a la rie s fo r the
$ 3 5 ,0 0 0 and $ 3 3 , 000 p er y e a r , r e s p e c ­
not lis te d ; in stea d , the E x ecu tiv e C ou n cil
o f the C o u n cil fo r n e c e s s a r y e x p e n se s in

On the su b je ct o f r e tire m e n t, the con stitu tion states:
T he P r e s id e n t and S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o f the F e d e ra tio n o r
e ith er o f th em m ay r e tir e a fte r rea ch in g age 65 y e a r s , and a fter
having se r v e d 20 y e a r s .
(A rt. V , S e c. 9)
If the p re s id e n t o r s e c r e t a r y -t r e a s u r e r should r e t ir e , he is to r e c e iv e a
p en sion equ al to 75 p e r c e n t o f h is annual s a la ry . He a c q u ir e s the title o f P r e s i ­
dent E m e ritu s o r S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r E m e ritu s and s e r v e s in an a d v is o r y
c a p a city .
The E x e cu tiv e C o u n cil has the p ow er to ch a rg e any ex ecu tiv e o ffic e r and
m e m b e r o f the C o u n cil w ith m a lfe a sa n ce o r m a la d m in istra tion , conduct h ea rin g s
on su ch c h a r g e s , and re c o m m e n d a p p rop ria te a ctio n in a r e p o r t to the con vention
(A r t. VIH, S e c . 11).
The s p e c ific grounds on w h ich a C ou n cil m e m b e r cou ld be
re m o v e d without con v en tion a ctio n a re contained in A r t . V , S e c. 10 (cited on
page 35), but a g e n e ra l p r o v is io n " t o p rom ote the b e s t in te r e s ts o f the F e d e ra tio n "
o ffe r s w id e r s c o p e . 1 A tw o -th ir d s vote is n e c e s s a r y fo r r e m o v a l.
1
In addition,

i* On M ay 20, 1957, Dave B e ck , fo r m e r p re s id e n t o f the International
B ro th e rh o o d o f T e a m s t e r s , w as re m o v e d fr o m the E x ecu tiv e C o u n cil.
A t that
tim e , P r e s id e n t M eany stated that the a ctio n w as taken under A r t. VIH, S e c. 2,
w hich p r o v id e s :
"T h e E x e cu tiv e C ou n cil . . .
is a u th orized and e m p ow ered to
take such a ctio n and r e n d e r such d e c is io n s as m ay be n e c e s s a r y to c a r r y out
fu lly and adequately the d e c is io n s and in stru ctio n s o f the con v en tion s and to en ­
f o r c e the p r o v is io n s con tain ed in th is con stitu tion .
B etw een con v en tion s, it sh all
have the p ow er to d ir e c t the a ffa ir s o f the F e d e ra tio n and to take such a ctio n s
and r e n d e r such d e c is io n s a s a r e n e c e s s a r y and a p p rop ria te to safeg u ard and
p ro m o te the b e st in te r e s ts o f the F ed e ra tio n and its a ffilia te d u n io n s ."
(A FL.-C IO
N ew s, M ay 25, 1957)




37
the e x p u lsio n o f an a ffilia te d union a u tom a tica lly
e x p e lle d union fr o m the C o u n cil. 1
5

r e m o v e s any m e m b e r o f an

Should the o ffic e o f p re sid en t o r s e c r e t a r y -t r e a s u r e r b e c o m e vacant, "the
rem a in in g ex ecu tiv e o f f ic e r sh all p e r fo r m the duties o f the vacant o ffic e until a
s u c c e s s o r is e l e c t e d . 1 The C o u n cil is then c a lle d into s e s s io n nfo r the pu rp ose
1
o f e le c tin g an e x e cu tiv e o f f ic e r to f ill said va ca n cy fo r the u nexpired t e r m . "
(A rt. V, S ec. 5)

15
F o r in sta n ce , the e x p u lsion o f the International B roth erh ood o f T e a m s te rs
and the B a k e ry and C o n fe c tio n e r y W ork ers* International U nion re m o v e d two
o f f i c e r s o f th ese unions, John F . E n g lish and H erm an W in ter, r e s p e c t iv e ly , fr o m
the E x ecu tiv e C o u n cil. See The S econd B ien n ial C onvention o f the A F L -C IO (in
M onthly L.abor R e v ie w , F e b r u a r y 1958, pp. 146-152 ).




* U S. G V R M N P IN G O IC : 1»S8 0-4M 7I6
.
O E N E T R TIN FF E