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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES\
/WHOLE 1QC
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ # * * \NUMBER iZJj
EM PLOYM ENT

AND

UNEM PLOYM ENT

S E R IE S :

U N E M PLO Y M E N T
TH E




U N IT E D

/ v

N o.

IN

STATES

\

JULY, 1916

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1916

2




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OP THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED PROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OP DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
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AT

15 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction................................................................................................. 5,6
Unemployment in 16 cities in the East and Middle West................................ 6-92
Occupations of unemployed.................................................................... 9-43
Unemployment rates in selected*cities and occupations........................... 44-46
Extent of unemployment in principal occupations................................... 47-56
Duration of unemployment.....................................................................57-65
Causes of unemployment........................................................................ 65-92
Unemployment in 12 cities in Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast States........ 93-97
Occupations of unemployed....................................................................94,95
Duration of unemployment.....................................................................95,96
Causes of unemployment........................................................................ 96,97
Unemployment in New York City............................................................... 98-115
Second survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, September, 1915......... 98-107
Duration of unemployment.............................................................99,100
Occupations of unemployed...........................................................101-103
Unemployment rates in selected occupations................................. 103,104
Causes of unemployment...............................................................105-107
Second survey by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., September, 1915. 107-115
Duration of unemployment..............................................................
109
Occupations of unemployed.......................................................... 109-112
Causes of unemployment...............................................................113-115




3




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 195.

WASHINGTON.

JULY.MM.

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
INTRODUCTION.
During the winter of 1914-15 there was much discussion of the
amount of unemployment that existed throughout the country. It
was commonly believed that the amount was abnormal and many
conflicting statements were published from time to time, as to the
numbers involved. No definite conclusion could be drawn, however,
as there were not in existence at that time any reliable statistics of
unemployment in the United States to be used as a basis of com­
parison. The conditions of unemployment were reported to be most
acute in New York City. It was recognized that more accurate
information must be obtained before the solution of the problem
could be found. In order to meet the demand for information on the
subject and to secure data that would furnish a reliable basis for com­
parison in future years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics during January
and February, 1915, undertook a survey for the purpose of determin­
ing the amount of unemployment in that city. A census was taken
of all families residing in 104 city blocks, representing the various
industries and nationalities of the city, and in 3,703 individual tene­
ment houses and residences, widely distributed. The extent of unem­
ployment in the whole city was then estimated on the basis of the
percentage of unemployed found in the families canvassed.
At about the same time the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. of
New York made a similar investigation by taking a census of the
families in New York City holding industrial insurance policies in
that company, and ascertaining the number of unemployed in those
families. The investigation was made by the regular agents of the
company, who were furnished with inquiry blanks and who secured
the facts as to unemployment from each family visited. The agents
as a rule were experienced men and as they were in most cases
acquainted with the families canvassed, they were able to get very
accurate information. The only question that can be raised as to the
reliability of the returns is whether the families visited, those holding
policies in the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., were fairly represen­
tative of the population of New York City generally. The fact that
the results obtained tallied very closely with the results of the inves­
tigation made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the method




5

6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

described above supported the conclusion that the figures were
representative and accurate. The results of both these studies were
published in Bulletin 172 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In view
of the fact that the figures secured by the Metropolitan Life Insurance
Co. practically agreed with the bureau’s study, that company was
employed to make further studies in other cities.
The second of the series of investigations included 16 cities in the
East and Middle West. The canvass was made during March and
the first part of April, 1915. The third of the series covered 12 cities
in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast States, and the canvass
was made during June and July, 1915. The fourth of the series
undertaken was a second survey of New York City in August and
September, 1915. This was made by both the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., the same plan and
methods being followed as in the earlier investigations described in
Bulletin No. 172 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The facts se­
cured by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., on which each of its
reports is based, were obtained in the same manner as those included
in the first report of that company for New York City. The returns
thus secured in all these investigations were tabulated in the Sta­
tistical Bureau of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. and are here
presented.
UNEMPLOYMENT IN 16 CITIES IN THE EAST AND MIDDLE
WEST.
The following table shows the summary of the investigation made
in 16 cities in the East and Middle West:
T a b le l.-SU M M A R Y OF UNEMPLOYMENT SURVEY IN 1# CITIES.

City.

Boston, Mass........
Bridgeport, Conn..
Cleveland, Ohio...
Duluth, Minn.......
Kansas City, Mo..
LouisviUe/Ky___
Milwaukee. Wis...
Minneapolis, Minn
Philadelphia, Pa..
Pittsburgh, Pa___
St. Louis, Mo.......
St. Paul, M inn....
Springfield, M o....
Toledo, O h io ......
Wilkes-Barre, Pa..
Total...........




Part-time
Per
Unemployed.
workers.
cent
Number of Number Number
fami­
of
of
of
families lies persons
wage
can­
with
earners
in
in
vassed. un- families.
Per
Per
em­
families. Number. cent. Number. cent.
ployment.
207,956
32,144
414,675
67,787
6,596
53,437
7,238
36,346
8,571
346,787
155,763
258,669
10,782
6,199
28,045
53,900

77,419
12,533
157,616
24,934
2,089
22,512
3,036
13,112
3,449
137,244
53,336
104,499
4,135
2,284
10,312
18,884

7,863
537
20,952
2,348
425
2,815
399
1,030
495
14,147
5,942
14,219
582
162
1,102

401,548 15.0 1,694,895

647,394

46,649
8,144
96,579
16,851
1,383
14,890
1,667
8,813
2,206
79,058
36,544
65,979
2,515
1,584
7,233
11,453

14.1
6.1

17.5

11.6

24.7
15.6
19.7
9.9
17.5
14.2
13.6
17.2
17.9
8.4
12.8

8.6

10.2
4.3
13.3
9.4
20.3
12.5
13.1
7.9
14.4
10.3
13.6
14.1
7.1
10.7
6.4

13,426
2,493
16,575
3,060
371
1,979
842
3,788
183
26,907
15,474
14,317
142
32
1,801
6,104

17.3
19.9
10.5
12.3
17.8
8.8
27.7
28.9
5.3
19.6
29.0
13.7
3.4
1.4
17.5
32.3

74,218 11.5

107,494

16.6

1,200

11.1

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

7

This table shows that in the 401,548 families canvassed in the 16
cities visited, with a total of 1,694,895 members there were 647,394
wage earners, of Whom 74,218, or 11.5 per cent, were outN work.
of
Of the total number of families canvassed 15 per cent had one or more
wage earners out of work. These figures, however, do not fully
measure the distress resulting from unemployment, because in
addition to the number wholly unemployed an even larger number,
107,494, or 16.6 per cent of all wage earners, worked only part time.
These part-time workers included all those who had jobs but who
for various reasons were idle one or more days per week or whose
work was otherwise broken or irregular.
The highest percentage of unemployment in these 16 cities was
found in Duluth, Minn., where 20.3 per cent-of all wage earners were
reported without work of any kind, and 17.8 per cent were working
part time. The lowest percentage of unemployment was found in
Bridgeport, Conn., where only 4.3 per cent were unemployed, although
19.9 per cent were reported as working only part time. The other
cities showing a high percentage out of work were: St. Paul, 14.1 per
cent; Minneapolis, 14.4 per cent; St. Louis, 13.6 per cent; Chicago,
13.3 per cent; Louisville, 13.1 per cent; and Kansas City, 12.5 per
cent. Each of the other cities show a percentage of unemployed less
than the average for all the cities combined.
In studying the figures in the last two columns relating to parttime workers it will be noted that for several of the cities the numbers
and percentages are laige. In this connection attention is directed
to the fact that the numbers given for part-time workers include all
persons who worked any period less than full time. In many instances
the time worked was nearly full time, while in other cases only a few
hours per day or one or more days per week were worked. There­
fore, while the numbers are large, they may not represent more than a
small amount of unemployment.
It will be noted that the percentages of wholly unemployed in the
various cities and the percentages of part-time workers as well vary
widely. Some cities having a low percentage of wholly unemployed
show a large percentage of part-time workers, while others show a
high percentage of wholly unemployed and a low percentage of parttime workers.
These variations from city to city in percentages of the unemployed
and of the partly employed are undoubtedly due to the nature of the
leading industries in the various cities. In some industries it is the
practice in slack times to put all employees on part time instead of
discharging a part of the help. On the assumption that hard times
prevail in general, we would expect a city with a low unemployment
rate to have a high part-time rate and vice versa, depending on the




8

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

nature of the leading industries of that particular city and the con­
ditions prevailing in those industries.
While we can not account fully for a low or a high percentage of
unemployment in all of these cities, a ready explanation presents
itself for some of them. For instance, the very low percentage of
unemployed reported for Bridgeport, Conn., is accounted for by the
very large increase in the working force of the various establishments
manufacturing munitions of war. In that city, however, the per­
centage of part-time workers, 19.9 per cent, is rather high. The low
percentage of unemployed in Wilkes-Barre is undoubtedly accounted
for by the fact that Wilkes-Barre is in a mining region and that the
workers were employed in larger part in the coal mines, which were
operating much as usual, or in industries dependent upon coal min­
ing. The large percentage of part-time workers is accounted for by
the nature of the coal mining industry, as it is well known that a
large percentage of miners under normal conditions can not or at
least do not work full time.
In making this canvass covering so many cities it might be expected
that with a large number of agents engaged upon the work there
would be a variation in results, due to possible differences in inter­
pretation of what constitutes unemployment or to incompleteness
of schedules secured; on the contrary, the completeness and accuracy
of the information secured is indicated by the small percentage of
schedules that had to be rejected on account of inaccuracies or
deficiencies, as shown by the following table:
TABLK 2.—FAMILIES SCHEDULED AND NUMBER AND PER CENT OP SCHEDULES
REJECTED, BY CITIES.

City.

Boston.......
Bridgeport..
Chicago.......
Cleveland...
Duluth.......
Kansas City.
Milwaukee..
Minneapolis.

Schedules rejected.
Families
sched­
uled. Number. Percent.
48,023
8,299
98,644
17,146
1,406
15,260
9,193
2,237

1,374
155
2,065
295
23
370
380
31

2.9
1.9
2.1
1.7
1.6
2.4
4.1
1.4

City.

Philadelphia,
Pittsburgh..
St. Louis___
St. Paul___
Toledo........
Total..

Schedules rejected.
Families
sched­
uled. Number.
Per cent.
81,798
37,054
67,212
2,587
7,380

2,740
510
1,233
72
147

3.3
1.4
L8
2.8
2.0

9,395

2.4

In five of the cities the number of persons in the families can­
vassed was very large; thus, in Boston there were 207,956 persons
canvassed, in Chicago 414,675, in Philadelphia 346,787, in Pitts­
burgh, 155,763, and in St. Louis 258,669. We may, therefore,
assume with confidence that the unemployment rates obtained
are representative and can safely be used to estimate the total ex­
tent of unemployment in the cities mentioned.




9

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

The following is an estimate of the number of unemployed in.
those cities, by sex, based upon the number of wage earners given
in the 1910 census, allowance being made by the census method
for increase in population. It will be noticed that in every case the
unemployment rate for males is greater than that for females.
T a b le 3 . —ESTIMATED NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS AND NUMBER AND PER CENT

OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED IN FIVE CITIES.
Males.

City.

Esti­
mated
number
of wage
earners.

Boston........................
Chicago.......................
Philadelphia...............
Pittsburgh..................
St. Louis.....................

244,708
849,262
555,275
194,936
263,944

Females.

Esti­
Esti­
Esti­
Esti­
mated Per
mated Per
number cent mated number cent mated
un- number of wage un- number
of wage emearners ploy- of wage earners em- of wage
unem­
earners. unem­ ploy- earners.
ployed. ed.
ployed. ed27,910
121,607
63,921
24,449
37,169

11.4
14.3
11.5
12.5
14.1

107,035
264,700
217,712
55,364
84,290

7,813 7.3 351,743
26,472 10.0 1,113,962
15,758 7.2 772,987
3,437 6.2 250,300
10,215 12.1 348,234

Total.
Esti­
Per
mated
number cent
unof wage emearners
unem­ pioyployed.
35,723
148,079
79,679
27,886
47,384

10.2
13.3
10.3
11.1
13.6

OCCUPATIONS OP UNEMPLOYED.

In making this survey of unemployment, an attempt was made to
ascertain the industry and occupation in which each unemployed
person last worked. Those industries in the various cities in which
the largest number of unemployed were found, with the percentages
these numbers are of the total unemployed whose occupations were
reported, are shown in the statement below. It should be borne in
mind that the percentages given in this statement are not employ­
ment rates for the industries and occupations listed. For the com­
putation of such rates, it would be necessary to relate the numbers
unemployed in each occupation to the total number of persons belong­
ing to that occupation in the section of the city canvassed. The
statement shows for Boston, for example, that in the families can­
vassed there were found 928 unemployed workers in the building
trades, who constituted 12.2 per cent of the 7,595 unemployed wage
earners in the families canvassed. Table 5 shows that the unemploy­
ment rate for the building trades in Boston, computed on the basis
of the total number of building-trade workers and the number out of
work in that industry, was 20.5 per cent.
Boston, Mass.:
Total unemployed, 7,595.
Building trades, 928, or 12.2 per cent.
Wholesale and retail trade, 657, or 8.7 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 622, or 8.2 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 622, or 8.2 per cent.
Leather and its finished products (mostly boots and shoes), 526, or 6.9 per cent.




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Chicago, 111.:
Total unemployed, 19,539.
Building trades, 3,127, or 16 per cent.
Wholesale and retail trade, 950, or 4.9 per cent.
Iron and steel and their products, 2,314, or 11.8 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 2,020, or 10.3 per cent.
Railroad transportation, 1,038, or 5.3 per cent.
Philadelphia, Pa.:
Total unemployed, 12,550.
Building trades, 2,752, or 21.9 per cent.
Textiles, 1,591, or 12.7 per cent.
Wholesale and retail trade, 1,517, or 12.1 per cent.
Iron and steel and their products, 1,254, or 10 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 1,035, or 8.2 per cent.
Pittsburgh, Pa.:
Total unemployed, 5,511.
Iron and steel and their products, 1,361, or 24.7 per cent.
Building trades, 670, or 12.2 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 455, or 8.3 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 308, or 5.6 per cent.
St. Louis, Mo.:
Total unemployed, 12,455.
Building trades, 1,817, or 14.6 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 1,497, or 12 per cent.
Wholesale and retail trade, 1,412, or 11.3 per cent.
Leather and its finished products (boots and shoes), 1,177, or 9.5 per cent.
Iron and steel and their products, 1,077, or 8.6 per cent.
Bridgeport, Conn.:
Total unemployed, 500.
Building trades, 94, or 18.8 per cent.
Iron and steel and their products, 88, or 17.6 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 46, or 9.2 per cent.
Cleveland, Ohio:
Total unemployed, 2,266.
Building trades, 568, or 25.1 per cent.
Iron and steel and their products, 397, or 17.5 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 192, or 8.5 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 121, or 5.3 per cent.
Duluth, Minn.:
Total unemployed, 399.
Building trades, 99, or 24.8 per cent.
Railroad transportation, 44, or 11 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 24, or 6 per cent.
Water transportation, 23, or 5.8 per cent.
Kansas City, Mo.:
Total unemployed, 2,791.
Building trades, 773, or 27.7 per cent.
Domestic and personal se!!rvice, 717, or 25.7 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 263, or 9.4 per cent.
Food and kindred products, 188, or 6.7 per cent.
Railroad transportation, 156, or 5.6 per cent.




UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

11

Louisville, Ky.:
Total unemployed, 356.
Building trades, 82, or 23 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 56, or 15.7 per cent.
Railroad transportation, 16, or 4.5 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 15, or 4.2 per cent.
Milwaukee, Wis.:
Total unemployed, 923.
Building trades, 220, or 23.8 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 72, or 7.8 per cent.
Leather and its finished products, 70, or 7.6 per cent.
Minneapolis, Minn.:
Total unemployed, 495.
Building trades, 82, or 16.6 per cent.
Public administration, 64, or 12.9 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 58, or 11.7 per cent.
Iron and steel and their products, 28, or 5.7 per cent.
St. Paul, Minn.:
Total unemployed, 497.
Building trades, 134, or 27 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 45, or 9.1 per cent.
Railroad transportation, 38, or 7.6 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 38, or 7.6 per cent.
Springfield, Mo.:
Total unemployed, 150:
Building trades, 39, or 26 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 19, or 12.7 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 19, or 12.7 per cent.
Toledo, Ohio:
Total unemployed, 972.
Iron and steel and their products, 205, or 21.1 per cent.
Building trades, 111, or 11.4 per cent.
Domestic and personal service, 88, or 9.1 per cent.
Road, street, and bridge transportation, 70, or 7.2 per cent.
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.:
Total unemployed, 1,085.
Mining, 401, or 37 per cent.
Building trades, 159, or 14.7 per cent.
Textiles, 111, or 10.2 per cent.
Chemicals and allied products, 92, or 8.5 per cent.

The next table shows the number of unemployed persons found in
each industry and occupation and the length of the unemployment,
in days. The facts are shown separately for each city. For the
smaller cities, owing to the small numbers of unemployed in many
occupations, information for separate occupations is omitted, and
the facts are reported only for the industry as a whole. Data for the
principal occupations are given in detail, however, for five cities:
Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis.




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4.—NUMBER OF WAGE

EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT.
BOSTON, MASS.

Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Agricultural pursuits:
Farm laborers.......
Gardeners.............
Other workers.......
Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers......................
Building laborers............
Carpenters.......................
Cement and concrete
workers........................
Electricians.....................
Hod carriers....................
Painters, paper hangers,
and decorators..............
Plasterers........................
Plumbers, gas and steam
fitters...........................
Roofers............................
Structural-iron workers...
Tile layers.......................
Other workers................ .

1
to
7

91

1
1
l
1i

4
5
37

6
8
40

20
7
49

28
14
78

20
8
47

1
1

1
2
2

5

1
2

1
1

22
6

45
4
1
3

20
8
1
1
7

10
5
1
2
7

7
3

1
2

35
1
2
1
4

63

90

130

180

231

147

52

5

3

2

1

4
1

1

2
3

1
1
1

6
6

3
1

11
3
1

5

2
1

1
4

2
1

1

7

8
1
2

........ i .......
1
i

1

1
8
2
3
1

14
2
3
1

10
2
5
1

11
1
6

2

18
2
7
2

1
6

2
1

2

2
4

1
5

5

5

3

1

3
1
5
3
3
2

4
1
1
1
4
6
8
14
1

3
1
5
2
7
7
3 ......
4
1

1

2

1
!

4

2
3
2
22
3

7
4
1
16
1
1
2

5

1
6
1
3

Candy packers..
Other workers..

25
1
25
27
7
110
22
2
18
20

1
1

1

2

1

2

10

4
6

4
2
3
11
8
4

1
1
8
23
9
8
2

1

5
1
4
4
2
12
4

3

4

6

4
3

2
5

12
3

22
4

4
1

3

4

1

6
8
2
19
6
1
4
1

1
1

1

1

15
17
49
5

2
2

1

1

Candy makers................

2

5
21

8
4

I

Other bakery workers...

1

1
2

42
2

1

Food and kindred products—
Bakers.............................




2
14
4
2

62
5

1

Waist, underwear, neck­
tie, etc., makers.......... .

11
10
3

40
6

1

Other workers.

3
3
2

30
1

1

Suits, coats, cloaks, and
overalls—
Tailors.....................

1
2
3

9
3

21 I

1

Clothing manufacture—
Corset makers..........

3
2
3
1

____
11
I
1
i
3

2
1
1

1

121 181 Not
to
and re180 over. port­
ed.

17
2
!
2 S 11
21 4
1!
i
1
3!

14

15

91
to
120

61
to
90

5
3
18

3
2
5

2
8

209
23
154
34
7
7
29

31
to
60

1
1

9
7
6

Total..

Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Automobile-factory work­
ers................................ M.
F.
Car-shop employees......... M.
Hardware-factory workers M.
F.
Iron-foundry workers___ M.
Machine-shop employees. M.
F.
Ship and boat builders... M.
Stove-factory workers...... M.
Wagon and carriage work­
ers............................... M.
Other iron and steel
industries—
Machinists................. M.
Other workers.......... . M.
F.

14
to
30

8
to
13

1
1

Chemicals and allied products.
Clay, glass, and stone prod­
ucts—
Stone and marble cutters.
Other workers.............

days.

1

2

1

1

4

1

6

1

11
1

3
6
1

2
2

4

6
8
2

6
14
1

1

13

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

TABLE 4,—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Contd.
BOSTON, MASS.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classifled number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Continued.
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts—
Shoe factories—
Clerks and stenogra­
phers......................
Cutters......................

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

M.
F.
M
F.

Edge setters and trim­
mers........................ M
F.
Lasters...................... M,
F.
Stitchers.................... M,
F.
Vampere............... M.
F.
Other workers........... M
F.
Tannery workers
M
F.
Other workers................. M.
F.
Liquors and beverages—
Brewery workers............. M.
Other workers.................. M.
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture—
Furniture workers........... M.
F.
Piano makers................... M.
F.
Saw and planing mill
workers......................... M.
F.
Other wood workers........ M.
F.
Metals and metal products
other than iron ana steel—
Brass mill and foundry
workers......................... M.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Paper and paper products— M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees.. M.
F.
Electrotypers and lithog­
raphers......................... M.
F.
Printers and other em­
ployees......................... M.
F.
Textiles—
Carpet-mill workers......... M.
F.
Cotton-mill workers......... M.
F.
Dyers ^ cleaners.......... M.
F.
Knitting-mill operatives.. M.
F.
Lace, embroidery, a n d
curtain workers............. M.
F.
Rope and cordage workers M.
F.
Woolen-mill workers........ M.
F.
Other textile workers...... M.
F.




14
12
64
1
6
3
18
2
8
21
2
12
169
109
68
5
11
1
13
13

1
to
7

8
to
13

1

14
to
30

31
to
60

1
1
9
1

2
4
10

2

1

2
3

1
1

1
3

1
6
1

3
3

ii
9
1
1

2

2
6
1

5
15 ” *2i
15
17
7
12
1
1
2

1

1
1

61
to
90

10
1
1
1
4
1
3
15
14
10

......
4

91
to
120

3
2
6
1
3

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2
2
7

16

1

4

4
2
3

2
18
10
13
1
3

39
20
13

2
38
11
11
1
1

10
7
1

1
1

2

7
4

2

12
1
9

4
1

2

8

8

7

7

2

5

3

2

7

2

1

1

4

1
2
4

2

1

4
1

1

1

18
28

1
2

1

8
6

1

126
20

2

29
40
3
17
13

7
14
9
7
11
2
14
28
1
8
12
8
13
7
21
26

1

2
2

4
3
2

1

9
2
41
3

1

1
2

1

49
1
32
3

5

1

4
3
3

2

3

2
1

3

11
1

13

3

1
9
1
3
3

6
2

5
7
1
5
2

11
12

1
1

1
2

1
5
1
2
2

1
3

5
1

2
5

3
4

3
9

1

1

1
1

3
1

1
5

4
4
2

1
2

1

13
3

13
2

19
5

18
3

21
2

34
4

2

1
1

2
2
1

1
5
3
3

1
6
2
2
1

2

3

1

2

i
2

2
2

5

5
5

2
1

1

7
1

2

3
1
3

3
1
4
6

1

1
1
1
5

1
1

2
1

2
1
2
6

1

1
5
2
1
2

1

1

2
7

3
4
1
7
6

2
2
3
1
3

4
1
2
2

1
2

14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
BOSTON, MASS.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Concluded.
Miscellaneous industries—
Brush and broom makers. M
F
Electric light and power
employ®®**..................... M
F
Electrical supply workers. M.
F.
Gas-works employees....... M
Rubber-factory workers.. M.
F.
Tobacco and cigar-factory
workers......................... M.
F.
Other employees.............. M
F.
Industry not specified—
Blacksmiths and horse,sho«rs., _ t ..................... M.
Dressmakers..................... M
F.
Laborers.................... ...... M
Machinists,.. - - T r- - - ....... M
Milliners........................... F
Stationary engineers........ M.
Stationary firemen........... M.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Transportation:
Express company employees.. M.
Post-office clerks and letter
M.
Railroad transportation—
Brakemen........................ M.
Clerks and bookkeepers... M.
Conductors. . . . .
M
Engineers and firemen— m !
Other workers................. M.
F*
Road, street, and bridge
transportation—
Chauffeurs........................ M.
Drivers............................ M
Garage employees............ M.
Livery-stable employees.. M.
Road, street, and biridge
workers......................... M.
Street-railway employees. M.
Truck, transfer, and cab
• company employees.... M.
Telegraph and telephone—
Telegraphers and tele­
phone operators........... M.
F.
Other employees.............. M.
Water transportation—
Longshoremen................. M.
Other workers.................. M.
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and in­
surance—
Clerical employees........... M.
F.
Real-estate employees___ M.
Other employees............ £:
Wholesale ana retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees.. M.
Department - store em­
ployees......................... M.
F.
Drivers, coal yard............ M.




1
to
7

14
to
30

8
to
13

2

14
9

19
9
28
9

1
1
2
1

1
1

5
5
5
1
3
1

8
1

15

2
1
13

1

1
1
1

5
2
6

11
5

3
4

1

3

1

4
1

4
2

2

1
7
3

8
22
7

1
2
2

2
5
19

2
1
6
24
2
2
12
3

1

1
11

1
13
2

3
2
3
1

6
3
4
1

2
4
1

3
2
5
1

1
12
75
17
4
4
4
13
3

2
1
11
63
16
2
5
3
25
4

3

7

14

2

12
92
20
6
2
2
23
1

7
132
39
3
4
2
18
4

10
156
33
4
5
7
30
3

2
O
l
ul
*
7
i

1

3
1
x
2

l
1
20

1

3

1

3

4

6

2

2

5

1

1
2
3

7
1
7

8
1

16

1
1
6
4
7

4
4
7
3
22

4
7
9
1
18

1
2

3

7
3
4
2
13

5
1

6
46
4
1

9
64
3
5

12
67
1
2

11
64
4
2

13
63
3
7

11
103
4
11

2
2

2
3

5
3

8
3

12
3

11
6

2

1

2

1

1

2

1
4
1

4
5

10
2

2
3
3

2
6
7

2
7
5

1

6
5

10
5

16
2

7
2

12
11

15
10

6
2

3

2

3

1
1
2

2
1
1

2
2
1

4
2
1

2

4

1
2
1
3
1
3
7
2

2

1

4

1

5

7

4

2

5

10

3

3
5
6

2
21
8

9
29
9

3
38
5

6
12
8

11
13
3

1
1
2

1

9
8
35
23

1

78
39

1
2

16
7
5
2
14

4
1

16

10

40
22

3
2

10

1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2
3

1

20

67
433
21
30

1
2

91
to
120

2

4
1

24
20
40
11
98
2

61
to
90

1

10
1
92
4
10
57
23

32
2
68
583
147
20
24
26
153
16

31
to
60

1

40

2
3
2

1

4

37
124
43

5

2

8
2
13
1

1

15

UNEMPLOYMENT IN' THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 4 .—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OP UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
BOSTON, MASS.—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Trade—Concluded.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Concluded.
Other coal-yard employees
Drug-store employees..
D ry-goods-store
ployees................
Grocery-store employees..
Ice-wagon employees.......
Merchants and dealers....
M31k-wagon employees....
Other forms of trade—
Canvassers,
collectors,
and solicitors................
Clerks, cashiers, and
bookkeepers.................
Messengers.
Stenographers and type­
writers..........................
Other employees..
Public service.................
Professional service:
Musicians..............
Theatrical employees.
Trained nurses.
Other workers..
Domestic and personal service:
Barber-shop employees........
Building employees..
Domestic servants...

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

1
to
7

91
to

120

181 Not
re­
to
and port­
180 over. ed.

121

7
21
2
51
94
131
13
26
44
24

18

123
97
17
23
44

20
15

14
84
128
29
170
3
16
5

11

10

57
41

22

31
3
42
1
7

Hotel employees—
Cooks.................
Waiters................
Other employees..

13

14

Laundry workers..........
Restaurant employees:
Waiters...................
Other employees..
Saloon employees.......
Other workers...........
All occupations:
Males..........
Females.......
Total.........................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of un­
em p loym en t un­
known ......................
Total unemployed.




5,934
1,661

138
76

104
28

7,595

214

132

512
174

790

798
310

865 1,133 1,319
285 219 261

1,108 1,150

1,580

275
72
347

16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 4.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
CHICAGO, ILL.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Agricultural pursuits:
Farm laborers......................
Gardeners.............................
Other workers.
................
Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers......................
Building laborers.............
Carpenters.......................
Cement and concrete
workers.........................
Drivers............................
Electricians. . ..........
Hod carriers— ...............
House wreckers...............
Painters, paper bangers,
and decorators.............
Plasterers.........................
Plumbers, gas and steam
fitters............................
Roofers.............................
Structural-iron workers*..
Tile layers........................
Other workers..................

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

31
to
60

61
to
90

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

91
to
120

5
2
1

3
4
4

7
2
3

6
8
2

29
21
7

6
10
2

5

37
43
62

32
47
95

51
61
128

57
97
155

123
122
207

53
102
156

6
7
15

12
7
4
8
1

19
3

23
6
3
15

56
8
1
19
1

12
4

2

5
4
3
6

12

5
1

11
10

2
4

23
14

33
13

69
19

74
19

184
49

80
17

9
2

299
35
72
4
96

15
1

4

25
1
2

57
3
8

46
3
11

12

13

59
11
21
2
29

44
8
18
1
12

9-

10

40
8
9
1
15

3,127

93

38

235

332

439

522

892

519

57

3
1

1
6

6
3

23
2

2
1

6

6
2

3

3
3
1

1
7
3
1

5
5
3
2

14
7
3
2

17
6
3
2

38
5
6
1

6
11
5
1

1
1
1

1

1
3
1
1
1

2
1

3
2
1

2
1

2
2
2

1

1

1

1

2
1

2

61
47
20

M.
M.
M.

373
493
857

9
11
23

M
M
M
M.
M

129
33
14
86
4

1
3
4

M.
M.

485
147

M.
M
M
M.
M.

Total..........................

14
to
30

8
to
13

M
M
M

Chemicals and allied products. M.
F.
Clay, glass, and stone prod­
ucts—
Brickyard workers........... M.
Glass-factory workers...... M.
Stone and marble cutters. M.
Other workers.................. M.
Clothing manufacture—
Corset makers.................. M.
F.
Glove makers.................. M.
F.
Hatters (wool and felt). . . M.
F.
Shirt, collar, and cuff
makers........................ M.
F.
Suit, coat, cloak, and over­
all makers—
Cutters...................... M.
Finishers................... M.
F.
Pressers..................... M.
Seamstresses.............. F.
Tailors....................... M.
F.
Other workers........... M.
F.
Waist, underwear, neck­
tie, etc., makers............ M.
F.
Food and kindred products—
Bakers............................. M.
F.
Butter and cheese makers M.
F.
Candy makers.................. M.
F.
Flour and grain mill
w ork ers...............— M.
F.




1
to
7

1

5

50
15
85
48
26
9
3
10
12
5
4
3

5
3
16
%
1
1

3
1
1

2
1

1

4
4
55
5
21
48
84
59
22
87
39

2

12
1

2
1
2
1

6
12

1
3
5
4
3
4
2

15
1

1

U
7
2
3
7
9
10
32
12
4
8
5
U * *i7*
11
3

1
5
7
10
U
16
8
12
8

1
2

38
1

2

2
2

3

8
2
1

22
2
1

15
5
1

11

1

98
11
7
1
14
26

3

1

4
8

5
7

2
5

1

4

5

6
1

5

3

8
4

1
1

6
13
9

1

2
11
3
3
7
9
15
5
20
5

3

3

4
2
3
4
1
1
2

1
3

19
2
2
1
2
1

3

9

3

16

1

1

17

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a ble 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE

EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Continued.
Food and kindred prod­
ucts—
Concluded.
Slaughter and packing
house workers—
Butchers...................
Clerks, bookkeepers,
and stenographers..
Laborers.................. .
Packers, wrappers,
and labelers........ ..
Other workers.
Sugar-refinery workers—
Other workers.............
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Agricultural - implement
workers........................
Automobile and motor­
cycle workers...............
BOiler-works employees...
Car shops—
Blacksmiths..........
Boiler makers . ___
Brass workers.......
Cabinetmakers----Clerks....................
Electricians...........
Laborers...............
Machinists............
Painters................
Other workers.......
Iron foundries—
Molders.................... .
Other workers...........
Iron and steel mills—
Clerks and book­
keepers...................
Cranemen.......... *_
_
Laborers.................. .
Machinists.................
Other workers.......... .
Machine shops—
Machinists.................
Other workers..........
Shii

aborers
Other workers.
Stove-factory workers —
Wagon and carriage
manufacture—
Painters................... .
Other workers...........
Other iron and steel in­
dustries—
Clerks and book­
keepers .................
Machinists-----Other workers.

32656°—Bull. 195—16----- 2



76
1
55
4
222
8
12
73
4
7
16
3

1
to
7

8
to
13

2

3

5

7

44
10
34
69
36
16
132
152
79
547
2
227
18
15
23
263
60
130
23
40
1

2

3

91
to
120

121 181 Not
and re­
to
180 over. port­
ed.

9

19

13

1

6

11

18

29

9
1
32

13
1
21

11

62

1
2
4

1
3

2
5
13

2
2
17
2
1
4

1
4
8
2
4
5
1

1

2

13

13

1

1
2

1

8
1

5

9

8

1

11

1
1

8

1

6

1

61
to
90

12
1

6

1
1

4
1
6

2
1

44

6

2

8

6

12

5

7

8

6
3
3
12
6
4
22
37
18
85

3
1
1
5
4
3
17
16
7
64

10

4
11
6
3
13
18
11
56

13
2
10
17
5
4
20
25
18
111
1

9
4
6
13
2

4
1

11

29
1

41
7

27
3

49
1

60
5

5

2
1
2

1
1
1

2
15
3
10

4
3
24 *25*
15
6
17
22

1
4
40
8
12

5
6
65
13
23

4
8
89
13
43

2

1
3

2

1
5

1
6
1

5
6

5
6

1
5

9
7

1

1
1
1

4
5
2

13
4
6

5
1
3

5
6
4

4
10
4

1

2
2

1
2
1

2
4

6
8

14
12

6
5

5

1
7
9

2

5
9
1

7
10

1
1
13
23
2

1

1

1
3

3

2
1

3
1
10

1
2
2
4
22

1
1

2

35
27
21
31
34
1

5
2
39
75
6

31
to
60

4

40
1
33
1
42

14
to
30

1
3
3

2

8
7
13
1
37
33
7
95
1

4
13
3

20
18
12
97

1

1
1
7

1

1
1

18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.

T able

CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
1
ployed. to
7

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—
Continued.
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts—
Harness and saddle mak­
ers................................. M
Leather belt, case, and
pocketbook makers....... M.
Shoe-factory operatives... M.
F
Othershoe-factory workers M
F
Tannery employees.......... M
Trnnlr rnr^lrA T.. . . . . . . . M
rs
Liquors and beverages—
Brewery workers............. M
Other workers.................. M
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture—
Furniture work—
Cabinetmakers.......... M
Furniture workers,
not specified........... M
Piano workers........... M
Upholsterers
M.
Saw and planing mills—
Drivers...................... M.
Sawyers, planers, and
filers....................... M.
Other employees....... M.
Other wood workers........ M.
F.
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel—
Jewelry workers............... M.
F.
Tin-ean factory workers.. M.
Tinners and tinsmiths___ M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Paper and paper products—
Envelope, tag, and paperbag makers................... M.
F.
Paper-box workers.......... M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees.. M.
F.
Electrotypers and lithog­
raphers......................... M.
Printers and other em­
ployees.......................... M.
F.
Textiles—
Dyers and cleaners.......... M.
F.
Textile workers................ M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries—
Electric light and power
plant workers............... M.
F.
Clerks ancPbookkeepers..........................
Other workers...........




M.
F.
M.
F.

8
to
13

14
to
30

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2

1

2
7

1

5
4

2

1

4

5

1
9
1
1
4
2

3
1

1

4
2

3

6

13

4

4
1

11

7
i

8
17
34
1
9
5
27
5

31
to
60

2
1
1

2
2

2

1
1

1

48
2

3
4
10
1
11
1

97

5

1

3

9

14

16

16

33

114
11
24

2

1
2

8

22
1
3

10

17
3
3

23
3
5

28
2
4

2
2

1

2

21
22
9
107
5
16
3
26
47
12
28
3
6
6
14
16
7
2
42
65

5

2
1'
21

1
i

1

6

4

4

1

1

3
1
16

5
2
14
3

3
2
11

4
1
28
1

•4
2
26
1

1
1
4
8
1
3

4
1
2
9
4
6

5
1
3
6
2
1
1

3

5
11
1
4

2

11
........
1 i........
i i........
i
i
i
1•
i
1
I
1

1

3

1

6
6
3
10
1

6

|

4
3

2

5
4
1
1

1
1
1
2
1
1

3
4

3
2
2
1

7
11

7
.8

10
18

2

2

1
2
4

6
1
3
8

4
5

4

2
2
x
2

%
o
9i

1

6
9

1
2

38

1

2

2

7

12

5

6

2

x

269
32

12
1

8

29
3

50
6

60
8

18
5

31
3

56
5

10
5
31
20

1

1

1

1

1
1

5
2

2
5
5

2
4
3

2
1
3
2

1
1
4
3

x
1
7
2

5
1
x

41
6

4

1

5

5

2
1

5
1

7
1

11
2

1
x

17
7
J
»9
15 I

1

1
3
i

2
2
8
4

4
2
6
4

5

2i
!

2
14
2

3
1
12
1

2

1

5
2

2
1

x

19

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 4 .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
/if rlavfi
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Concluded.
Miscellaneous in d u stries—
Concluded.
Gas-works employees....... M.
Oil-works employees........ M.
Tobacco and cigar factory
workers........................ M
F
Workers in other indus­
tries.......... .................. M
F.
Industry not specified—
Blacksmiths and horseshoers........................... M
Dressmakers and seam­
stresses.......................... F,
_ T TM
_ -,
Laborers.-^..................... M
F
"MV^binists-...................... M
Metal polishers and buffers M
F
Mn]tnersT
......................... M
F.
Packers............................ M.
Shoemakers..................... M.
Sign painters................... M.
Stationary engineers and
firemen......................... M.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Transportation:
Express companies—
Clerks............................... M.
Drivers............................. M.
Other employees............. M.
Post-office clerks and letter
carriers................................ M.
Railroad transportation—
Brakemen........................ M.
Clerks and bookkeepers... M.
F.
Conductors...................... M.
Engineers and firemen— M.
Laborers......................... M.
Porters............................. M.
Stenographers.................. M.
F.
Trackmen and switchmen M.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation—
Chauffeurs........................ M.
Garage employees............ M.
Livery-stable employees.. M.
Motormen, street railway. M.
Sewer construction work­
ers............ .................... M.
Street cleaners.................. M.
Street pavers................... M.
Truck, transfer, and cab
drivers.......................... M.
Other employees. . . . . . . . . M.
Telegraph ana telephone—
Clerks, bookkeepers, and
stenographers.....
. M.
F.
T,fnftfflftti.............
M.
Operators......................... M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.




52
26

to
7

14
to
30

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

3
1

4
2

6
4

4
10

7

12
3

7
6

3

2

6

8
2

11

13

11

5
2

3

1
1

1

6
5

28
7

32
9

30
9

32
5

29
3

3

6

59
4
162
39

8
to
13

57

2

1

3

4

9

6

10

19

3

149
m
1,378
10
495
17
3
4
42
22
84
13

4
2
19

1
2
10

15
7
74

10

38
1
1

28
17
171
4
96
4

23
28
249
2
79
4

16
22
306
1
104
4

4
1
1

8
5
14
2

5
2
12
2

9
3
11
1

1
5
4
14
2

1

3
1
4

20
25
356
1
82
3
1
1
8
2
23
4

9
3
44

18

33
22
149
2
57
1
1

57
41
7

1

9
6
1

6
4
2

5
6

6
5
2

11
7
1

15
13
1

1

2
15

1
15

5
16

2
11
2

4
22
2

7
11
1

1

1

3

5

6

4

3

3

1

1
3

2
8
1
8
8
18
5

5
25
2
7
18
24
21

8
29
3
9
13
29
27

8
15
1
3
13
52
21

10
36
1
8
11
58
23
3
6
38
20

6
32
2
16
15
57
6
1
1
32
37
2

21
98
5

1
1
2

6

26
39
147
11
57
83
244
110
4
21
175
140
7

1
2
2
2

1
2

11

3
3
2
4

1
1
3
3
5

2
3

5
2

1
12
12
1

2
25
21
1

7
34
24
1

4
25
20
1

101
55
13
20

1
1
1

2

12
3
2

16
7
2
1

21
9

14
11
2
4

18
11
2
2

17
9
3
6

2
2
1

16
199
24

1
1
1

1
15
1

2
24

1
22

3
37
5

6
57
11

2
40
5

1

67
8

1

11

9
1

13
2

7
1

18
2

7
2

1

1

1
2 ......
2
4
6
45
28
5
4

2
1
4
4
33
6

1
5
1
40
4

4
4
16
21
251
24

1
15
2

1
*2
1

4
1

2
3
29
2

2
1
51

6

2
1
1

*
1
6

20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 4 .— NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Transportation—Concluded.
Water transportation—
Boat employees............... M
Dredge work-er??. . . _____ M
T/Ongshoremfin.. .........
M
Other workers.................. M
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and in­
surance\i
clerical employ****F
Insurance agents.............. M.
F
Real estate employees___ M,
F
Wholesale and retail trade—
Department-store
em­
ployees.......................... M.
F.
Drug-store employees...... M.
F
Dry-goods-store employees M
F.
Grocery-store employees.. M.
F.
M ail-order-house em­
ployees.......................... M.
F.
Merchants and dealers___ M.
Other forms of trade—
Canvassers, collectors, and
solicitors....................... M.
Clerks, cashiers, and book­
keepers.......................... M.
F.
Drivers............................. M.
Errand and messenger
boys.............................. M.
Laborers.......................... M.
Salesmen......................... M.
Stenographers.................. M.
F.
Other employees.............. M.
F.
Public service:
Army and N avy................... M.
City employees...................... M.
F.
Park employees..................... M.
Other employees.................... M.
F.
Professional service:
Graphic arts workers............. M.
Public entertainers................ M.
F.
Teachers................................ M.
F.
Trained nurses....................... M.
F.
Other workers........ ............... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service......... ........... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barber-shop employees... M.
F.
Building employees......... M.
F.
Hotel employees.............. M.
F.




1
to
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

1

14
15
38
2

1

1

31
to
60

1

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2
1

4
5
15
1

7
3
13

2
5
7

1

3
1
4
1

9
3
5

1
2

2

3
3
3

2
3
1

5
2
2

1
1

23
12
18
1
20
10

2
1

4
2

6
2

3

15
11
1

21
38
10

47
57
5

25
37
6

19
17
6

6
7
19
1

4
14
31
2

15
27
47
6

10
10
33
8

6
13
2

15
19
1

19
29
7

8
10
$

1

6
1

1

4
4
1

8
3
28
3

24
19
7
1
2
8
24
4

14
8
11

12
11
12

162
191
38
1
45
73
196
25

6
6
2

79
95
45

2
1

2
4
1

1

3

2

1

2

6

657
370
265

14
9
3

11
8
12

53
34
38

88
65
46

152
81
38

94
80
42

105
24
51

113
56
31

27
13
4

84
114
118
4
185
75
10

1
2
3

3
1

19
22
21
1
40
9

8
20
16
1
26
7

9
16
24

3

4
1

15
8
12
1
26
14
3

19
35
25

2
2

10
8
10
1
25
9
4

25
12
2

25
15
1

12
6

4

4

4
11
1
2

5
14

12
17
1
9
1

5
12

3
3
1
1
1

2
6

16

27
77
3
22
5
2
27
117
33
7
14
4
51
12
14
115
862
132
29
174
17
76
24

3
1

1
3
1
2

1
1
1

2
15
6

5
20
7

3
1
6

1
13

3
1
2

3

2

2
2

1
2
1
1
1

1

3
1

16

3

3
1

2
5
1
4

6

3

6
1

1
16
1
1
3

2
14

4
2
19
2
2

8
20
13
1
1
1
13
4
3

1

3
28
4
3
1

4
1
3

2
1
2

3
2
4

1
1

7
101

27
178

22
179

13
100

23
121

21
107

1
47

9
8
21
3
9
1

25
1
28
2
12
4

26
9
37
5
12
4

20
18
4
23 “ 20
1
2
11
14
4
7

26
3
32
2
12
2

2
3
8
2
2

21

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b le 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED

BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
CHCIAGO, ILL.—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Domestic and personal service—
Concluded.
Personal service—
Concluded.
Laundry workers.

1
to
7

8
to
13

13

1

57
63

1
1

191
13
5

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

9
48

10
47

4
32

6
23

6
19

3

2

1

2

2

1

1

1
2

4
8

14
14

8
17

9
6

12
7

6
7

2
1

7

3

16

23
3
1

40
1

23
3
1

43
2
1

36
3
2

1

108
75
544
152

3
3
2

1
1

13
5
3
1

24
13
12

15
8
12

20
13
11

12
15
17

17
16
16
1

3
2
470
150

16,046
3,493

345
74

265 1,242 2,086 2,604 2,337 3,372 2.971
59 363 655 766 499 391 418

824
268

Total.........................
industry, occupation,
sex, and days of une m p lo y m e n t
unknown................

19,539

419

324 1,605 2,741 3,370 2,836 3,763 3,389 1,092

Total unemployed

20,952

All occupations:
Males............................
Females........................

1
5

31
to
60

5
26

M
F.
Pool and billiard room
employees..................... M.
Restaurant and club em­
ployees.......................... M.
F.
Saloon keepers, bartend­
ers, etc.......................... M.
Other workers................. M.
F.
Industry not specified:
Porters................................... M.
- , _____________________ _ M.
Other workers........................ M.
F.

41
208

14
to
30

3

5

1,413

PHILADELPHIA, PA.
Agricultural pursuits:
Farm laborers........................
Gardeners..............................
Other workers........................
Manufacturing and mechanical
Industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers......................
Building laborers.............
Carpenters.......................
C em en t a n d concrete
workers........................
Drivers............................
Electricians.....................
Hod carriers.....................
Painters, pai
and decoral
Plasterers....................... .
Plumbers, gas and steam
fitters..........................
Roofers........................... .
Tile layers...................... .
Other workers................ .
Total..
Chemicals and allied products:
Chemical and drug workers. M.
F.
Clay, glass, and stone prodBrickyard workers.
Glass workers.........
Marble and stone cutters.,
Other workers................




32
67
23

2

1

4
5

6
7
2

1
9
3

239
1,062
428

2
13
4

4
8
5

13
50
29

16
134
51

35
153
68

3

6
7
10
2

9
5
7
4

55
28
52
18

3
1

4
3

6
6
7
1

1

5
9
3

12
19

6
12
8

2
4
2

75
44
152 *274
81
80

42
251
82

8
27
28

15
5
8
3

10
3
9
4

6
1
4

328
94

2
1

3

24
4

29
10

54
10

69
15

80
33

45
19

22
2

276
68
14
90

4
3

5

34
16

44
11
9

32
4
2
11

41
12
2
13

36
9
6
23

19
1

8

61
12
4
20

2,752

30

29

188

324

442

435

641

539

124

50
9

1

1

6
1

10
1

5

6
1

6
1

15
4

1

2
3

5
4
1
2

7
5

U
5
1
14
1

2
7
1
9
1

9
10
1
13

8
14
1
17
3

45
50
5
60
6
1

1
1

1

3

1

6

1
2

22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF

EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Cantd.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing an
industries—Continued.
Clothing manufacture—
Hatters (wool and felt)...
Shirt, collar, and cuff
makers..........................
Suits, coats, cloaks, and
overalls—
Cutters......................
Pressers and spongers
Other workers...........
Waist, underwear, and
necktie makers.............
Food and kindred products—
Bakers.............................
Bakery drivers.
Candy makers..
Dairy workers..
Other workers..

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

106
9

1
to .
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

Other workers...........




121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1

6
3

20
2

11
1

18
1

13

26

1

2
4

1
4

2
4

1
3

5

4
2

i
2

3
2
22
4

1

2

26
2

5
5
5
45 “ '32’
g
11

2
5
42
6

5
3
37
11

3

3
2

3
3

2
7

1
3

4
2

4
1

7
2
3
3
1
2
6

10
2

1

6
2
5
5

1
2

21

17
219
44

1

14

20

47
6
14
24
36
13

2

1

3

1

1

1
2
1

1

1
3
3

1

1

1

5
1
1
1
4

8
1

1
11
2

7

10

3
2
5
2
5
4

3
8
13
3
1

3
1

4
5
4

7
2
8

3
4
10

4
1
22

4
10
13

3
5
10

1
1
1

1
1

1

3

1

2

10

1

3

4
8

1

1
31
116

4

1

1

1

2

5

1

1

6

5

10

6

13

18

1

1
1

3
3
2

I
7
2

9
6

3
16
10

3
27
11

19
49
25

1
4
1

7

18
2

39

47
5

42
2

34
3

81
5

. 13
2

4
5

13
4
16
19

8
6
4
16

26
8
10
26

14
8
2
24

*1
1

1

284
20

3
1

70

1
1

37
115

25
27
147
31

1
3

2

9

1

3

27

3
5
5
12

3

4

5

5

1

8

4
1

1
2
8
1

1
2
25
2

4
1
14
8

4
6
14
5

3
9
24
3

11
4
48
6

4

1
2
7
5

2.

1
1

Leather belt, case, and
pocketbook makers----Tannery employees..,

91
to
120

3
1

Iron foundries and iron

Leather and its finished prod­
ucts—
Lasters in shoe factories...
Other workers in shoe fac­
tories............................

61
to
90

1

Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Automobile factories—
Machinists.................
Other workers...........
Car-shop workers........... .
Cutlery, file, and saw
workers........................
Iron and steel mill opera­
tives.................... .........
Locomotive works—
Laborers....................
Machinists................
Other employees.......
Machine shops—
Machinists.................
Other employees.......
Ship and boat building—
Laborers...................
Machinists............... .
Riveters....................
Other workers...........
Wagon and cai.iage build­
ers................................
Other iron and steel in­
dustries—
Boilermakers...........
Machinists.................
Other workers...........

31
to
60

1

6

9

16

13

20

2

7
4

9
2

15
1

11
5

5
6

17
6

2

1
2
3

1
2
7
1
1

3
1
9
2

2
2
3
1
3

1

5

10
3
2

17
2

2

4
1

UNEMPLOYMENT IN’ THE UNITED STATES.

n

T able 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Contd.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Continued.
dumber of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Continued.
Liquors and beverages: Brew­
ery workers.........................
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture—
Furniture factories—
Cabinetmakers..........
Upholsterers..............
Other workers...........
Piano and organ makers..
Sawmill workers.............
Other woodworkers.........
Metals and metal products
other than iron ana steel—
Brass-mill workers.........
Jewelry-factory workers -.

Paper-box-factory em ­
ployees........................ .
Paper-mill workers........ .
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees.
Compositors................... .
Other employees............
Textiles—
Carpet-mill workers.........
Cotton-mill operatives_
_
Dyers and cleaners..........
Knitting mills—
Boarders...................
Knitters....................
Loopers....... -............
Menders.....................
Toppers.....................
Weavers....................
Other employees.......
Lace and embroidery
workers......... ..............
Silk-mill workers.............
Woolen-mill workers.......
Other textile workers......




8
to
13

14
to
30

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 X X Not
8
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

3

1
2

2
1
3

2

4

6

5

4

X
X

3
1
4
2
2
7

5
6
6
X
2
8

4
7
5
X
5
9

4
2
9
2
3
6

6
2
12
X
3
X
X

5
5
6

2
2

9
13

2
2

3
x

X
2
x

4
3

2
X

6
2

2

X
5
x

X
7
x

3
9
X

10

7
5

1

2

X
3

Tinware-factory employ­
ees.................................
Other workers................
Paper and paper products—
Envelope, tag. paperbag, etc., makers...........

1
to
7

8
18
31
26
28
12

3

5

2

3
2

X
1

X
X

3
4

2

1
x
3
3

4
4
s
x

4
8
4
2

4
3
5
x

9
5
2
3

6
4
4
X

1
X

x
5
x
8
2

2
5
2
29
3

5
X
X
2
x
19 “ ‘ ie
3
2

4
X
4
17
x

4
6
9
23
3

2

15
4
X
X
7

18
8

20
5

19
6

16
4
4
x
X
X

31
X
O
X
x
16
2

5
6

6
2
5
2
2
x
4

9
9
6

X

3

2

3

X

7
8
2
16
18

3
3
x
14
24

X
X
O

2
6
8
2
3

X
X

110
44

26
18

2
1

19

1

21

18

1
2

1

2

121

2

125
43
6
9

1

15

31
19
49
7
52
7
28
4
40
26
8
70
115

19
16
16
2
480
320

2

2
1

3

1
1
1

X
4

2

3

4
%2
9

8
X
6
x
17
4
18
4
7

2
9
4
2
6
X
9

1
4
1
2
4
8

3
2
9
8

12
2
4
3
9
2
2
10
15

x
3
5
X

1
2

15
8

x
7

X
6
4
5
3

X
3

X
4
4
x
1

54
51

73
65

86
53

53
34

x

X
X
x
x
10
18
x
6

8
8
7
9
18

5
x
2
2
59
39

X
4
X

X
3

X

2

24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 4 .—NUMBER OF

WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—
Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—
Concluded.
Miscellaneous industries—
Cigar makers...................
Electrical supply workers.
Gas-works employees......
Oil-works employees........
Rubber-factory workers..
Tobacco-iactory employOther workers.
Blacksmith
Dressmakers..

Ld
e—

Laborers...
Milliners......................
Stationary engineers...
Stationary firemen......
Transportation:
Express-company employees..
Post-office employees.............
Railroad transportation—
Clerks and bookkeepers...
Engineers and firemen—
Laborers......................
Railroad trainmen...
Other railroad employees.
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation—
Chauffeurs...................... .
Drivers...........................
Garage employees.......... .
Livery-stable employees.
Street-railway employees.
Other workers................
Telegraph and telephone em­
ployees..............................
Water transportation—
Other workers.
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and in­
surance—
Insurance agents.............
Office employees............
Real-estate employees___
Wholesale and retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees..
Coal yards—
Drivers..................
Other employees...
Department stores—
Drivers:................
Other employees...
Drug-store employees..
Dry-goods-store employees
Grocery-store employees..




Num­
ber
unem­
ployed.

45
35
32
34
1
99
10

1
to
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1
3

4
1
5
3

10
4
4
6

14
9
4
8

7
4
5
5

2
8
5
3

4

1

5
1

24

20
2

9
1

18
1

1

3

11

3
2

2

9
1

12

2
2
13

46
2
196
186
17
31
65
24

2
4
1
1
1
1

1
5

1

10
2
83

1
2

4
5
6
7
1
18
5

2
1
1
2

1

1

2

5
1

14
3

22
2

3
2

5

5

29
1
23
65
39
64
3

...............

1

1

17
7
2
2
7.
2

47
39
2
5
8
5

5
1
34
20
1
7
11
7

24
29
4
4
11

20
1
38
48
4
6
17
5

14
10
1
1
4

1
!
i

5
19
24
2
5
6
3

3

7
1

8
2

14
1

4
1

9
5

5

2

1
1
5
6
7
3
1

5

6

4

11

1
5
5
7
2

4
8
6
8

1
11
3
8

1
6
3
7

11
25
13
26

3
1
2

10
41
3
7
1
5

12
53
4
3
4
4

15
67
4
3
2
13

16
48
2
3
7
21

23
48
1
6
7
44

21
73
5
13
4
14

5
13
1
2
1
3

1

3
1

4
5

2
1

4
4

8
3

7
3

1
2

1

52
10

5

7
2

16
2

25
4

6
2

12
2

10
7

2

1

4
5

4
3
3
1

2
2
1
1

1
1

5
9
3
3
1

1

..

1

1
1

2

108
347
20
40
26
105

2
2

4
2

2

1

21

2

1

17
21
9
10
5
65
1

1
1

2
1

1

3

9

16
1

9

4

8

12

1

2
1

3
1

10

7

5

9
1

9
3
1

2
1

4
2

3
1

1
8
20
2

2
13
26

9
39
64
1

6
8
34
3

1
5
11
4

3
1

2

2
17
1

25
5

3
27
3

3
13

2
21
3

1
17
24
2
1
7
16
2

3

47
7
1
20
97
190
13
1
20
128
17

1
2
2

8
1
3
4
2

25

UNEMPLOYMTUST^ T S TTTTC UNITED STATES.
TT
T a b l e 4»— NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Contd.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Trade—Concluded.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Concluded.
Ice-wacon drivers............ M
Merchants and dealers— M.
Office e m p lo y e e s in
stores—
Clerks, bookkeepers,
and messengers....... M.
F.
Stenographers a n d
typewriters.. .......... M
F.
Other employees... .. M.
F.
Other employees.
M
Public service:
City employees—
Laborers......................... M
Policemen...................... . M
M
Other employees__ r
F
Federal employees—
Customhouse, Army, and
Navy........-.................. M.
Navy yard and arsenal
M.
employees........ .
F.
Maintenance oflaw and order:
Watchmen, not elsewhere
classified.......................... M.
Professional service:
Actors and theater employees. M.
F.
Motion-picture employees...... M.
F.
M u s ic ia n s ..................... M.
F.
Teachers............... ................ F.
Trained nurses....................... F.
Other workers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service: Servants... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barbers and barbershop
employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Hotel employees—
Waiters and wait­
resses.. ................... M.
F.
Other employees........ M.
F.
Janitors, elevator con*
ductors, and other build­
ing employees............... M.
F.
Laundry workers............. M.
F.
Restaurant employees—
Waiters and wait­
M.
resses......... .
F.
Other employees........ M.
F.
Saloonkeepers, bartend­
ers, ana other saloon
employees................... M.
M.




1
to
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
and re­
to
180 over. port­
ed.

4

10
58
258
95
47

1
2
5
1
2

28
33
58
3

8
23

8
14

14
17

15
17

4
9

20
5

29
15

32
14

23
15

40
12

47
8

14
1

5
18
8
7

2
9
26
7
13

2
11
60
26
9

2
10
29
25
3

1
7
51
7
5

1
10
51
10
7

4
13
8
1

3
2
1
1

3
5
4

6

4
4
5

4
5
12

6
6
15

2
1
4

3

2

8

2

2
1

2

1

1
1

3

4

4
3

1
12

2

2
1

213
73

3
8

2

55
101

4

14

11

8

14

5

4
3
4

4

3
3
1

6
3
3

2
6
5
4

2
3
4
1

6
3
2
1
9
2
2
8
4
2

2

1
2
4

3
2
1
2
5

7
1
5
9
10
2

1
4
2
4
16

1
5
3

2
1

17
11
3

1

61

1

31
15
13
6
34
3
13
52
33
u

31
to
60

1

3
1
1
1

1

15
1

7

1

3

14
5

1
4
3
2

34
446

1
14

12

2
51

4
102

1
72

9
67

7
62

6
50

64
3

3

1

6

4
1

19

10

9

12
2

49
2
68
7

3

6

3

9

14

8

7
2

9
1
19
2

6

3

11
1
9
10

2

37
3
29
63

1
1

7

12
1
8
2

1

2
1
2
6

2
1
7
18

9

5

5

6
13

1
5

4
7

1
1

1

2

1

28
24
31
8

2

2
1

3
3
3
1

6
6
11
1

5
2
7
1

4
4
3

4
2
3

2
5
3
5

1

109
30

8

3
3

13
2

22
6

9
1

21
5

15
7

18
4

2

1

26

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

91
to
120

181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.
121

Industry not specified.
All <
Males.. _
Females..

10,069
2,481

175
53

151
50

817 1,307 1,687 1,406 1,843 2,264
274 423 491 376 312 377

419
125

Total.........................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of un­
employment u n ­
known....................

12,550

228

201 1,091 1,730 2,178 1,782 2,155 2,641

544

Total unemployed.

14,147

1,597

PITTSBURGH, PA.
Agricultural pursuits..
Extraction o_ minerals:
______ _f i
T
Coalminers..............
Other coal-mining employees.
Otherworkersin extraction of
minerals..............................
Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers......................
Building laborers.............
Carpenters.......................
Cement and concrete
workers.........................
Electricians.................. .
Hod carriers.....................
Painters, pai
and decorat
Plasterers.......................
Plumbers, gas and steam
fitters.......................... .
Roofers............................
Other workers.................

M.

36

1

M.
M.

107
10

1

M.

11

M.
M.
M.

108
63
145

M.
M.
M.

15
64
20

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Total..
Chemicalsandallied products. M.
Clay, giass, and stone prod­
ucts—
Glass-factory workers...... M.
F.
Other workers................. M.
Clothing manufacture—
Suit, coat, cloak, and
overall workers............. M.
F.
Other workers..
M.
F.
Food and kindred products—
Bakery workers............... M.
F.
Candy makers..
M.
F.
Other workers.
M.
P.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Car-shop employees......... M.
Iron-foundry workers....... M.




2

3

3

14

9

3

1

5
1

5
2

15

37
1

34
6

8

1

1

1
1

4

3

3

62
15
15

7

9
6
10

11
8
29

23
18
25

39
15
40

17
7
26

5
1
1

3
3

3
1

1
6
4

5
10
6

8
17
5

1
23
1

1

1
1

2
2

6
3

14
7

24
2

55
10

25
5

4

3
1

......

12

15
4
1

10
2

12
6
10

8
2

33

54

100

125

217

115

12

4

2

4

4

2

10
1
1

7

9
1
6

10
1
5

22

1

1

8

3
4

2
8

2

670

3
7
9

2

2
133
30 ........

1
3
1

2

7

18
73
3
18

3

13
38
1
2

1
1

7

1
2

6
10
1
1

4

2

1
1

3
1
1
1

1
1
2

4
6

1
13

9
19

5
17

11
21

2

5

1

1

5
2
2
4
3
2

2
2

1

3
6

4
6
1
1
1
3
2

1

24
9
11
7
12
7
50
142

4

4
2
4

1
1

1
1
15
56

4

27

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 4.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
PITTSBURGH, PA.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Concluded.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—Concluded.
Iron and steel mills—
Catchers.............. .
M
Craneman..
____ M
M.
Laborers.................... M
M.
Puddlers...... ............. M
R ollers.,.,................. M
F,
Other worker's........... M
F.
Wagon and carriage
workers............ .
M.
Other workers._ _____ M.
_
F.
L iq u o rs and b evera ges:
Brewery workers................. M.
Lumber and its remanufacM.
F.
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel:
Brass and copper mill
workers........................ M.
Other workers.................. M.
Printing and bookbinding— M.
F.
Textiles................................. M.
Miscellaneous industries—
Electrical supply workers. M.
F.
Laborers, not specified... M.
Tobacco and cigar work­
ers........ ........................ M.
F.
Industry not specified: Em­
p loy ees.....................
M.
F.
Transportation:
Post-office employees............. M.
Railroad transportation—
Brakemenand conductors M.
_ M.
Engineers and firemen_
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Road, street, and b r id g e
transportation—
Chauffers......................... M.
Drivers............................. M.
Road, street, and bridge
construction employees. M.
Street-railway employees. M.
Other workers.................. M.
T elegraph and telephone emolovees.......... .................. . M.
F.
Watertransportation workers. M.
Trade:
Banking, Brokerage, and in­
surance employees.............. M.
F.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees.. M.
Department-store e m ­
p loy ees......... ............. M.
F.




1
to
7

8
to
13

7
28
17
92
62
41
49
1
690
2
3
170
7

1

17

1

47
7
445

94

159
1

190

19

1
31
1

24
3

#
29

1
44
1

3
X

4

1

2

3

4

4
1

8

5
2

5
6

7
4

1
4
5
4

1
4
5
7
7

3
8
3
1

2
7
9
7

3
7
10
x

14
1
95

13
4
131

1
1

6
10
2
5

10
1

7

31

74

3

14

1
22

2
1

5

2

1
3
5

5
3
10

X

x

2

1

2

1

3

7

4

1

15

40

48

4
1
78

1

2
3

2
1

4
8

2
2

2
3

x

5
1

23
3

49
3

51
13

40
6

77
5

98
3

9
1
1
2
2

5

4

1

1
1
32
x
x

2
1
2
x

1
2
1

1

1

19
25
14
1

31

1

1
5

7
2
11

14
4
13
1

15
2
10

18
7
21
1

24
6
22

2

5
33

9
39

3
42

12
47

10
29

3

3
1
2

8
2
1

5
1
8

2

2
1

4
3
2

2
2
1

80
24
85
4

28
71

2
7
1
106

X
3
2
2

2
x
1

6

13
1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1
11
6
34
17
14
9

1
6
13
9
1
9

358
35

22
13
15

91
to
120

5
3
1
17
14
14
12

3

2

61
to
90

1
2
1
9
7
4
5

1

15
18

42
216

31
to
60

1

36
13
11
37
39
12
18

14
to
30

4
3

3
4
2

4
2
2

3
8
3

x
5
3

2
1
3

1

5
1

5
7
4
8

1
1

1

1

6

4

6

6

1

2
3

2
11

10
19

4
11

2
13

5

4
4

28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 4 .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
PITTSBURGH, PA.—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
unem­
ployed.

91
to
120

181
to
and
180 over.

121

Not
re­
port­
ed.

Trade—Concluded.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Concluded.
Drug-store employees----Dry-goods-store employ­
ees................................
Grocery-store employees..
Other forms of trade—
Canvassers, co lle cto rs ,
and solicitors...............
Clerks,cashiers, and book­
keepers.....................
Drivers..
Laborers.
Salesmen..............
Saleswomen........
Stenographers___
Other employees.

10

2

201
41
46
17
13
3
42
38
12
27
58
3

10
1
1

Public service:

State and municipal employ­
ees.....................................

Professional service:

Public entertainers..............
Other workers..

Domestic and personal service:

Domestic service..................

Personal service—
Barbers...........................
Bartenders and saloon
porters........................ .
Elevator conductors, jani­
tors, and other building
attendants....................
Hotel employees.............
Laundry workers...........
Restaurant employees...
Other workers................
Industry not specified.................

10

All occupations:

Males.............
Females........

678

Total..
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of
unemployment un­
known ..................

5,511

82

Total unemployed..

5,492

278
54

13




431

65

523
90

731
184

332

613

915

108

1,117 1,202
92
101

160
29

1,218 1,294

189

29

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 4 . —NUMBER

OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
ST. LOUIS, M O.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
nf Amm
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:
Building trades—
Brw lftyw?.. . . . . . . . . . . T Bnild^pg laborer?*.. . , , . __
Carpenters.......................
Cement and concrete
workers.........................
Hod
Painters, paper hangers,
and decorator^.
Plasterers........
Plumbers.........................
Roofers........ ...................
Structural-iron workers...
Tile layers.......................
Other workers.. . . . . . . . . . .

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

8
to
13
1

M
F

103
1

2

M,
M
M,

322
9
M2

2

1

5

5

M,
M

70
67

5

M
M
M
M
M.
M
M.

365
98
1.75
36
76
14
43

3

3
1
2

3

1,817

16

17

38
29

1

Total.............................
Chemicals and allied prod­
u cts.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... M.
F.
Clay,glass,and stoneproducts—
Brickyard workers.. . . . . . M.
Glass-ractory workers....... M.
Terra-cotta workers. . . . . . M.
Other workers.................. M.
Clothing manufacture—
Shirt, collar, and cuff
m akers....................... M.
F.
Suits, cloaks, and overallfrTailors.............. ....... M.
Other workers............ M.
F.
Waist, underwear, and
neo-ktfe makers............. M.
F.
M.
Other workers.. . . . . . .
F.
Food and kindred products—
Bakers............................. M.
Other bakery workers— M.
F.
Candy m a k e rs .......... M.
F.
Slaughter and packing
M.
house w ork ers.......
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Automobile workers........ M.
Car-shop workers—
Car ouilders.............. M.
Carpenters................ M.
Laborers.................... M.
Machinists.. . . . . . . . . . M.
Painters..................... M.
Other workers.. . . . . . . M.
Hardware-factory workers. M.
F.
Iron foundries—
Molders...................... M.
Other workers........... M.




l
to
7

16
136
34
84

14
to
30
1

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1

6

9

49

22

7

8

16

21

37

52
1
67

45
1
96

127
3
181

62
4
113

17

3
6

4
4

7
3

15
6

23
27

12
18

1
2

12
7
7
7
9

23
17
38
3
12
6
4

58
22
33
3
9
2
7

149
33
46
8
15
2
12

73
10
30
7
19
1
10

18
3
4
4

3

28
6
16
4
6
1
4

83

126

233

297

626

359

60

6
4

7
6

3
2

6
4

6
4

10
6

2

12

1

6
1

9

4
67
8
8

7
12
17
14

4
12
3
13

1
9
4
25

23
2
10

2

1

3
3

2
7

2
7

2
2

2
2

2
4

1

1

3

9

1
1

1

15
27

2

47
30
13

1

1
1

1
1

4
3
3

7
3
1

9
7
3

12
4
2

12
10
4

22
81
8
1

3

5

4
10
1
1

2
12

4
12
1

1
16

5
9
2

6
14
3

1

2

1

1

19
1
1
2
4

12

6
2

12

6

3

1
4
1

4
14

7
2

2
12
1

1

5

6

9

5

4

2
2

5
3

3
1

8
1
3
2

6

11
1

62
3
5
36
32

1

1
7
8

37
1
32
9

1

32

1

1

6

7

7

7

3

68
44
81
21
23
84
25
10

1
4

1

1
1

1
4
9
4
3
12
1
3

13
13
17
7
4
28
1
4

44
12
33
4

1
1

1
1
3
6
3

4
6
3
2
1
7
4

20
7
1

4
4
15
3
9
9
7
2

110
127

2
2

1
2

6
4

10
10

11
19

16
16

44
34

18
36

1

1

1

3
3

2
4

30

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T ab le 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Contd.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical
Industrie®—
Continued.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—Concluded.
Iron and steel mill work­
ers................................
Ship and boat yard work­
ers................................
Stove-factory workers—
Wagon and carriage manumcture—
Painters................... .
Other workers...........

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

142

Edge setters and trim­
mers.......................
Finishers...................
Heelers......................
Stitchers....................
Other woijkers...........
Other workers................ .
Liquors and beverages—
Beer bpttlers.................. .
Brewery drivers..............
Other brewery workers...
Distillery and otherbever­
age workers..................
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture—
Furniture factories—
Cabinetmakers..........
Upholsterers..............
Other workers...........
Saw and planing mill
workers.........................
Wooden-box makers........
Other woodworking in­
dustries—
Coopers......................
Other workers............
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel—
Tinware factories—
Tin-can makers..........

2




1

31
to
60

11

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

11

14

21

37

39

8

9

1
8

2
15

4
22

8
22

1

1
1

3
6

4
5

3
11

14
8

3
15
2

6

6

1
3

3
9

2
7

3
13
1

1
13

5
22

9
22

1
4

162
7

2

3

10

21

26
2

26
2

34
2

38

2
1

39
8

3

1

6
1

o
2
1

5
3
2
5

10
4
12
2
7

2

1
7
11
75
10

1
7
20
104
2

5
7
9
107
7

2
19
2$
121
8

6
11
42
166
14

1
20
2

9
3
2
20

14
4
16

2

1
1

3

8

4
1

1

2

9

10

9

1
2

1

2
11

3
19

9
23

6
9
1

1
1

1

7
3
4

5
3
13

6
2
10

6
3
12

19
3
25

5

5
3

7
2

4
4

10
6

12
2

1

9
3

5
4

2
7
1

13
2

12
7

1
4

1

3

4

1

7

13

11

7

7

6
1

1

8
11
3

5
24
3
17
58
124
654
54
1

1
1
2
1
11

54
3
27
103
1
15
2

2

8
1
I
1
4

3
1
1
1
5
9
46
10

21

1

1

1

1

1

4

2

1

8

1

3
1

1

Other workers...........
Other workers..................

14
to
30

8
to
13

1
2

Other iron and steel in­
dustries—
Machinists.................
Other workers...........
Leather and it s finished prod­
ucts—
Shoe factories—
Cutters......................

1
to
7

1
1

2
1

25
1
9
1

3
1
19
14
1

2
1

6
1

1

31

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 4.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Contd.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

1
to
7

8
to
13

Manufacturing and mechanical
Industrie*—
Concluded.
Paper and paper products—
Envelope, tag, and paper-bag makers.............
Paper-box workers.

3
1

1
1

14
to
30

2
1
1

Other workers........

31
to
60

10
4

61
to
90

91
to
120

1

2
2
4
4

2

1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1
1
6
1
3

1
3
9
4
3

1
2

2
1
16
1
5
1
8
1
6
1

2
3
24
1
6

3
2
2
3

5
3
9
5

1
3
3
1

P rinti„„----------------- „
Bookbindery employees..

1

Compositors and printers.

1

3
3
9
2
7

2

7

Textiles....................

3
3
1

1

Miscellaneous industries—
Cigar-factory employees..

2
2

2

2

6
4

4

8

4

4
1

11

Electric light and power
company’s employees...
Electrical supply workers.

1

1
4

1
3

2

1
3

5
5

2
5
2
40
3

4
6
8
74
2

5
9
6
68
8

2
8
3
96
3

5
15
2
124
2

2
5
1
5
27
3
143
8

10
49
1
4
7
1

12
85

14
129
1
4
6
6
7
3

16
120

15
216
2
2
6
6
3
3

37
212

8
1
3

1

Press feeders___
Other employees,

Gas-company employees..
Tobacco-factory workers..
Other workers.............
and horseLaborers..
Milliners..
Stationary engineers..
Stationary firemen.
Other workers.
Transportation:
Ex

581
28
114
874
4
38
57
26
32
18

Engineers and firemen_
_
Trackmen and switchmen
Other workers..................
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation—
Chauffeurs........................
Drivers.............................
Garage employees............
Livery-stable workers___
Street-cleaning workers...
Street-railway employees.
Other workers,
Telegraph and
Operators.
Other employees..
Water transportation.,




2
2

4
12

2
4

3
2
1
1

1
####

1
2

Other employees.
Post-office employees.
Railroad transportation—
Clerks, bookkeepers, and
stenographers........ .

1
1
1
17
1

4
1

9

3
1
2
1

1

54
537

3
7

2
6

17
67
22
55
16
31
26
4
20

2
3
2
1

2

2

16

9

3
2
1
3
5
1 . 1
6
8
1
1

5
1
3
1
10
5

2

116
6
29
49
142
2

20

1
3
7

1
I
1

1

5
12
3
8
3

1
1
1

3
1
1

4
3

3
1

7
1
2
1

3
1
1
2
10

13
4
7
26

22
1
5
4
16

14
1
3
6
14
1

127
2
5
10
30

3
41
2
1
5
2
2

6
73
2
3
2
1
8

13
74
3
1
6
2
10

8
75
4

10
136
5
2
17
7
12

4
2

3
8
5

2

i

1

1
1
5

12
8
5
7
2

16
2
6
5
4
2

4
2
5
1
6I
1

8*
8
3
5
4

2
‘9
1
15
4
47
7
1
1
1
2

34
11
14
38
1
9
113
4
8
19
5
13
5
4
8
5

4
6

12
1
1
1
2
5
1
1

32

BULLETIN" OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 4 . - NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

1
to
7

14
to
30

8
to
13

91
121 181 Not
to
to
and re­
120 J 180 over. port­
ed.

61
to
90

31
to
60

Trade:

Banking, brokerage, and inemployees...... .

M
F
Wholesale and retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees.. M.
F
Departm ent-store em­
ployees.......................... M
F.
Drug-store employees....... M
F
Dry-goods-store employees M.
F.
Grocery-store employees.. M.
F.
Merchants and dealers___ M.
Other employees.............. M.
F.

Public service:

City employees—
Laborers..........................
Other employees..............
Public defense—
Policemen, d etectiv es,
and guards..................
Watchmen.......................
Other workers........................

26
5

1

1
1

2

7
1

2
1

3
2

8

2

4

9
1

12

10

12

13

1

4

3
5

7
13
6

5
10
6

1
5
7
3
13
1 ........
8
7
56
2
16

10
9
18
2
17
68
37

17
33
28
3
18
93
41

14
9
18
1
18
81
29

1
2

2
3

5
8

3
5

12
4

12
14

2
3

1
4
1

3
3

1
e
5

6
2

2
5
5

1
17
8
1

2
1
2

2
1
2
1

4

2
2
1

1
2

6
1
4
1
1

6
1
9
3

2

3
2

2
6
4

1
2

61
1
20
44
1
33
1
84
1
83
3
4
135
11 ........
2
130
15
587
222
5

M.
M

37
40

M.
M.
M.
F.

7
42
26
1

M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Teachers................................ M.
F.
Trained nurses....................... F.
Other workers...................... M.
F.

23
4
22
8
2
10
33
35
5

2

Professional service:

Public entertainers—
Musicians.............. ......

1

1

1

2
5
2
1

1
7
7

3
6
6
1

1
1
4
7
2

2
9
1

7
1

2
45
3

4
71
6

5
106
3

6
71
1

6
96
4

9
119

3
61
6

3

4

7

5

5

2

2

1

2

3
1

1

1
1

1
2

1
1

6

8
2
3
2

2
1
1

8
3
1

7
1
3
1
1

6
2

7

14

18
1

5
4
59

4
7
32

2
7
44

3
9
59

1
4
3

1
5
5

2
5
2
3

2
5
2
2

Domestic and personal service:

Domestic service—
Servants.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Washerwomen................. F.
Personal service—
Barbers............................ M.
Other workers in barber
shops............................ M.
F.
Hotel employees—
Cooks......................... M.
F.
Waiters...................... M.
Other employees........ M.
F.
Janitors, elevator conduc­
tors, and cleaners in
buildings...................... M.
F.
Laundries—
Ironers....................... M.
F.
Other workers........... M.
F.
Restaurant e nployees—
Waiters....... ............. M.
F.
Other e nployees....... M.
F.




35
587
24

8

29

1

12
5

2

25
6
20
12
7

2
1
1
1
2

2
1

11
26
14
7

3
2
2

6
2

58
5
3
20
41
319

1
5
2
6
5
1
4
10
1
1
10 ' *24* .......2
11
2
9
20
28
3
2
2
22
31
14
112 132
23
45
36
11

2
9
1
1

1
6

5

1
1
4
37

2
3
9
61

1
2
2

2
3

2

1
2

2

12
1
1

33

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OP UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—Concluded*

Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
8
to
13

1
to
7

14
to
30

31
to
00

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
and re­
to
180 over. port­
ed.

Domestic and personal service—

Concluded.
Personal service—
Concluded.
Saloon keepers, bartend­
ers, etc..........................
Other workers.................

139
86
6
9,770
2,685

177
67

Total.........................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of un­
employment
un­
known.......................

12,455

244

‘Total unemployed.

29
23
3

4
2

102
34

649 1,110 1,386 1,417 2,367 2,247
239 376 474 383 415 545

315
152

136

888 1,486 1,860 1,800 2,782 2,792

467

10
4
2

20
11

32
8

15
14

26
24

14,219

All occupations:

Males...........
Females.......

1,764

1

2

1

0

BRIDGEPORT, CONN.
17

M.
M.
F.
Clothing manufacture............ M.
F.
Food and kindred products... M.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts..................................... M.
F.
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts.................. -................ M.
Liquors and beverages........... M.
Lumber andits remanufacture F.
Metals and metal products
other than iron ana steel— M.
Printing and bookbinding— M.
Textiles.................................. M.
F.
M.
Miscellaneous industries.
F.

94
2
3
6
22
7

2

85
3

2

Buitf
Chemic

Transportation:

1

F.
M.

1
6

M.
M.
Trade.............................................. M.
F.

14
3
39
11

1
2

Post, telegraph, and telephone
Railroad transportation........
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation.............................
Water transportation.............

Public service:

11

13

20

1

6
2

3
4
1

4

1
1
4
1

1
1
2
2

5

8
1

17

8

7
1

34
1

1

1

1

1
1
1

2
1

1
2
2

1
1
3

3
1

7
6

5
12

M.

8
5
3
15
31

1
1

377
123

10
4

500

14

1

Public administration...........
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order........

All occupations:

Males............................
Females........................
Total......................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of
unemployment un­
known.......................
Total unemployed.

32656°—Bull. 195—16----- 3




37
537

1
2

1

4

5
6

4
10

1
1
17
9
1
3

3

7

9
3

3

M.
Professional service...................... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service.. M.
F.

3
5
3

4
2
10

3

2
3

2
1
4
1

5
2
7

1

3
1
1

1
2

1

1

2
1
1
1
1
5

3

1

1

1

1

1

1
1

6

16
1

1
1

5

9
14
1 ......

2
1
1
10
8
6
2
46
46

10

2

M.

Agricultural pursuits....................
Manufacturing and mechanical
Industries:

3

3
1
1
5
1

1
2
2

1
4

5
15

31
10

46
17

74
22

35
16

48
21

113
30

15
1

41

63

96

51

69

143

16

i
........ !.......
i

34

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 4 .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
CLEVELAND, OHIO.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unemr
ployed.

91
to

120

Agricultural pursuits.
Extraction or miners

121 181 Not
to and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

M.

Mining._____________
Quarrying..............................
Salt, oil, and natural gas pro­
duction...............................

Manufacturing and mechanical
Industries:

Building trades.....................
Chemicals and allied products.

Clay, glass, and stone prod­
ucts
Clothing manufacture............
Food and kindred products...
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts....................................
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts.....................................
Liquors and beverages..........
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture.....................................
Metals and metal products
Paper and paper products—
Printing and bookbinding.. . .
Textiles.............................
Miscellaneous industries...

1
77

568
11
2

143

31

66
89
18
10

1

390
7

84

17

9
9
36
29
4
11
4
33
3
8
7
147

Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone

Railroad transportation........
Road, street, and bridge
transportation................... .
Water transportation........... .

Trade.............................................
Public service..

Domestic and personal service..
Industry not spcified................
AO

6
4
74
121
26
180
82
44
35
5
67
125
14

Males..
Females..

1,937

Total.....................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of
unemployment un­
known.......................

2,266

Total unemployed.

2,348




163
43
59

50

272
55

270
74

306
36

400
33

345
51

94
15

206

327

344

342

433

396

109

82
l..............-

35

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 4.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
DULUTH, MINN.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
or days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

91
to

120

M.

3

M.

16

M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
Food and kindred products... M.
F.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts..................................... M.
F.
Liquors and beverages........... M.
Lumber and its remanufacture..................................... M.
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel.... M.
Paper and paper products___ M.
Printing and bookbinding___ M.
M.
Miscellaneous industries...
F.

99
1
2
2
1
4
2

Post, telegraph, and telephone M.
F.
M.
Railroad transportation
Road, street, and bridge trans­
lation,
M.
M.
M.
Trade.,
F.

1
2
44

Public administration............ M.
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order........ M.
Professional service.................... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service. M.
F.

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2

Agricultural pursuits.......
Extraction of minerals:
M in in g _____

Manufacturing and mechanical

Building trades......................
Chemicals and allied products.
Clay, glass, and stone products
Clothing manufacture........

Transportation:

Public service:

All occupations:

Males..

15
2
4
10
2
2
3
18
3

24
23
48
31
2
8
3
11
11
344
55

27

Total......................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of
unemployment un­
known.......................

26

Total unemployed.

425




25

103
9

14
36

95

112

55

36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
KANSAS CITY, M O.

Number o! persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Agricultural pursuits....................
Extraction of minerals:

M in in g ...........................................

Quarrying..............................
Salt, oil, and natural gas pro­
duction............................... M.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:

Building trades.....................
Chemicals and allied products.
Clay, glass, and stone products
Clothing manufacture............
Food and kindred products...
Iron and steel and their prodLeather and its finished prod­
ucts................................... .
Liquors and beverages...........
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture................................... .

Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel....
Paper and paper products___
Printing and bookbinding___
T ex tiles...........................
Miscellaneous industries...
Transportation:

Express companies................
Post, telegraph, and telephone
Railroad transportation........
Road, street, and bridge
transportation.....................

Trade.............................................
Public service:

1
to
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

31
to
60
1

17
3
4
7

1

1
1

2

61
to
90

91
to
120

5

2
1

5
1

2

1

1

3
1
1

1

1

1

2
773
3
47
12
4
168
20

15

57

2

8

1

163
1
10
2
2
26
1

68

55

7
1

1
1

12
1

3
1

7

10

1

72
1
1
1

77

1

32
5

36
3

176
1
7
13
4
2
1
22 *'*3i'
6
2

2

5

11

13

1
1

2
1
1
5
1

2
2

1
2
1

2

2

1
1
1

6
1

1

9

6

3

4

5
8
4
30
1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1

6

1

9
1
1
2
13
9
1
3
94
21

1
6
3

2
10
15
156

1
2
2

1
1

6

3
1

1
2

139

1
1

1
3

2

3

1
3

1

1
1

2

1
14
5

15
1

20
2

2
1

1

2

10

9
2

1
16
7

1
7

3

2
2
15

1
3
20.

2
4
3
30

1
2
25

2
2
21

1
25

1
10

263
10
206
10
18 ........

3
4
1

25
37
43
19
3 ......

47
48
4

55
28
3

61
24
3

15
22
4

10
8

2

4

2

6

4

1

1
6
2
30
121
1

2
3
2
31
101

5
3
2
13
41

4
10
5
5
39

1
1
11
49

25

4

15
27
15
160
557
3

1
1
6
18

1
12

25
64
1

1
3
2
38
112
1

Males............
Females........

2,118
673

72
29

27
13

250
76

268
125

397
148

404
118

374
53

217
57

109
54

Total.....................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of
unemployment un­
known.......................

2,791

101

40

326

393

545

522

427

274

163

Total unemployed.

2,815

Public administration............
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order........

Professional service......................

Domestic and personal service..
Industry not spcified................
All occupations:




24

2
2

1
........ i.........
........ 1
.........
i
........ i.........
1

37

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 4 .— NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
LOUISVILLE, KY.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

91
to

120
Agricultural pursuits:
Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:

Building trades.....................
Chemicals and allied products.
Clay, glass, and stoneprodw"
Clothing manufacture........

Food and kindred products...
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts....................................
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts....................................
Liquors and beverages...........

10

121

to
180

181 Not
re­
and port­
ed.

14

12
1

10

Lumber and its remanufac­
ture.....................................
Metals and metal products
other than iron ana steel....
Paper and paper products...
Printing and bookbinding—
Textiles..........................
Miscellaneous industries.
Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone.
Railroad transportation.........
Road, street, and bridge
transportation....................
Water transportation.............

Trade.............................................
Public service...........
Professional service..
Domestic and personal service..
All occupations:

Males............

Total......................
Industry, occupation,
sex, ana days of unem­
ployment unknown...
Total unemployed..




356
43

32
6

13

74
19

13

25

60

42

41

46

72

38

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Contd.
MILWAUKEE^ WIS»

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
1
ployed. to
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

31
to
60

61
to
90

1

M

4

M
M

1
2

Building trades.................... M.
Chemicals and allied products. M
Clothing manufacture..,
M
F
Food and kindred products... M.
F
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts................................... . M.
F.
Leatherand its finished prod­
ucts................................... . M.
F.
Liquors and beverages........... M
F.
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture................................... . M.
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel.... M.
Paper and paper products_
_ M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding.
M.
F.
Textiles................................ . M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries........ M.
F.

220
3
7
4
18
3

1

30
1

Agricultural pursuits...................
Extraction of minerals:
M in in g ...........................................

Q uarrying.................................

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:

Transportation:

Post, telegraph,and telephone. M.
F.
Railroad transportation......... M.
Road, street, and bridge
transportation.................... M.
Water transportation............ M.
Trade............................................. M.
F.
Public service:

Public administration........... M.
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order........ M.
Professional service..................... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service... M.
F.
Industry not spoiled................
M.

1
18

1

2

1

4
1

4
2

2

2

3

52
18
15
1

1
1
1

2
2

13
2
2

16

1

1

1

1

5
20
1
6
5
3
6
162
24

1
5
1

4
1
10

1
4
2
3
1

923

29

Total unemployed.

1,030




4

6

7
1

6
3
4

8
2

'4

2

1
4

2

1
1
1
1
25

3
24
5
1
3

45
1
2

15

2

1
1
2

4

2

14
2
5

4
6
2

2

2

5

5

4

3

2

1

39
4

32
7

1
1

1
2
14
3

2

1

2

3

6
1
6
3

11

6

11
4

6
1
8
5

15
3

15
2

3

T ota l........................

107

97

2
2

1

3

5

1

1
1

1
5

3
4

3

8
4

12

24
5

Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of un­
employment unknown

1
1
14
2

1

793
130

Males............

1
8
2

2

1

1

1
1
1

1

41
4
71
22

1
2
1
1

3
1

3

3

1

1

Fem ales.........

30
1

9

1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1

4
1

2
22
2
30
42
33

All occupations:

91
to
120

1

4
1
*6
1

5
4
2

5
1
7
8
6

2
4
5

5
7
11

4
1
8
4
2

1
9
6

9

28
11

74
15

109
20

107
22

204
17

155
17

83
23

9

39

89

129

129

221

172

106

2

39

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T& b l e 4 . — NUMBER

OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OP UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Extraction of minerals:

Quarrying.................................................... M

Mantfacturing and mechanical
industries:

Bijfldfrlg trad<WClay,glass,and stoneproducts.
niotnmg fnftitiifftfrtnmr
Food and kindred products..

1
to
7

8
to
13

M

28

3

M.
M.

2
8

M.
M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding___ M.
Textiles.................................. M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries......... M.
F.

15
4
2
1
3
1
30
5

Post, telegraph,and telephone. M.
Railroad transportation......... M.
Road, street, and bridge
transportation.............
M.
F.
Trade.............................................. M.
F.

6
27

Public administration............ M.
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order....... M.
Professional service............. .
M.
F.
Domestic and personal service... M.
F.
Iiuinatry not spcMied.. . . . . . . . . . . . M.
All occupations:

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2

6
1

6

14

15

24

9

3
1

4

1
4

2

3

1

4

1

4

9

3

4

1

6
1

2
1
4

2
1
1

6
1

7
4

6

6

4

3

3
5

1
1

2
11

1

5

3

4

10

9

10
1

6
3

5
6

6
4

1

2

1

1

9

1

1
1

2

1

1
.

1

3
1
7
2

2
1
2
2

2

1

64

1

1

3

2

4

2

1

5
1

32
2
45
18
2
9
3
34
24
21

91
to
120

4

4
2
1

Public service:

61
to
90

1

82
1
2
21
2

Transportation:

31
to
60

1

M
M
M
M.
F

Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts.....................................
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts.....................................
Liquors and beverages...........
Lumber and its remanufaoture...................................
Paper and paper products___

14
to
30

37

12

1
1

1

1

1
4

1
2

7
6
1

2
1
8
2
2

1
1
4
2
7

5
1
3

4
2
4

2
1
1
3
1

3
2
3

2

Males............................
Females........................

438
57

11
5

14
5

50
8

48
8

65
13

71
5

119
3

43
8

17
2

Total unemployed

495

16

19

58

56

78

76

122

51

19




40

B U L L E T IN OF TTXE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 4.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
ST. PAUL, MINN.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Agricultural pursuits..................
Extraction o f minerals.............. .
Manufacturing and mechanical
Industries:
Building trades....................
Chemicals and allied products
Olay, glass, and stoneproducts.
Clothing manufacture............
Food and Idndred products...
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts.....................................
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts.....................................
Liquors and beverages...........
Lumber and its remanufacture.....................................
Metals and motal products
other than iron and steel.
Paper and paper products......
Printing and bookbinding___
Textiles..........................
Miscellaneous industries.
Transportation:
Post, telegraph, and telephone
Railroad transportation.........
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation.............................
Trade...........................................
Public service...........
Professional scrvice.
Domestic and personal service..
All occupations:
Males...........
Females.......

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

120

134
3
2
8

21

181 Not
re­
to
and port­
180 over.
ed.

121

27

10

1

5

12
16
5
4
12
4
4
11

1

3
31
5

5
8
3S
38
45
22
14
12
2
29
10
434
03

Total......................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of unem­
ployment unknown...

497

Total unemployed..

5X2




91
to

to
13

85

10
17

10

G
4
48

91

72

10
91

13
3

78

16

41

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

Table 4*—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Ccaitd.
SPRINGFIELD, M O.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

Agricultural pursuits.
Extraction of minerals:

duction,

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:

Building trades.....................
Clay, glass, and stone products
Clothing manufacture............
Food and kindred products...
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts................................... .
Lumber and its remanulac-

ture...... .....................

Printing and bookbinding---Miscellaneous industries.......
Transportation

Railroad transportation
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation................
water transportation.
Trade..............................
Public service:

Public administration..........
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order .......

Professional service...................
Domestic and personal service.
Industry not specified.................
All occupations:

Males............
Females........

130
20

Total.

150

*5'
* unknown .
ployment - i

12

Total unemployed

102




19

33

19

21

17

23

42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T ab le 4 .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT; CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Contd.
TOLEDO, OHIO.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Num­
Industry and occupation.

Sex.

ber

91
to

ployed.

120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

Agricultural pursuits.......
Extraction of minerals:

Salt, oil, and natural gas pro­
duction..............................

Manufacturing and mechanical

Building trades..................
Chemicals and allied products.
Clay, glass, and stone prod­
ucts...................................
Clothing manufacture........
Food and kindred products...
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts................................... .
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts................................... .
Liquors and beverages...........
Lumber and its remanulacture................................... .
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel...
Printing and bookbinding. . . .
Textiles.............................
Miscellaneous industries...
Post, telegraph, and telephone.
Railroad transportation..

13

I ll

3
1
2
7
2
9
4

199
6

5

5
3
14
12
8
1
177
19

11
3

2
2

14

Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation
Water transportation.,
Trade.............................. .

15
19

Public service:

Public administration.......... .
Public defense and maintetenance of law and order—

Professional service................

Domestic and personal service..

18

120

972
pioyment unwnown.

130

Total unemployed.

1,102




11

121

146
18

122

30

152

109

189
7

130
10

37
13

164

196

140

50

43

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T able 4 .— NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OP UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.
WILKES-BARRE, PA.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
o f days*
Industry and occupation.

Num­
Sex. ber
ployed.

Agricultural pi
Extraction or minerals................
Manufacturing and mechanical

3
401

Building trades......................
Chemicals and allied products.

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

159

i, and stone products
Clay
Clotl. _.w
Food and kindred products...
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts.....................................
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts.
Liquors and beverages...........
Metals and metal products
other than iron ana steel—
Printing and bookbinding—
Textiles.............................
Miscellaneous industries.
Industries not specified..........

Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone

Railroad transportation.........
Road, street, and bridge trans­
portation.............................
Other forms of transportation.
Trade:
Wholesale and retail trade___

21

15

52

42

13
24

8
6
6
1
3
10
2
13

1

5

3
2
22
89
14
7
32
7
2
33

Clerical assistants.
Public service:

Public administration...........
Public defense and mainte­
nance of law and order........

Professional service....................

Domestic and personal service..
All occupations:

Males............
Females........

939
146

Total......................
Industry, occupation,
sex.and days ofunemploymentunknown.

1,085

Total unemployed..

1,200




115

138
28

34
37

158
26

163

127
21

117

137
16

166

184

183

148

140

153

37

1

44

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEATT OF LABOR STATISTICS.

UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN SELECTED CITIES AND OCCUPATIONS.

The following table has been prepared to give the approximate
unemployment rates in certain occupations for the cities of Boston,
Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. The table gives
for each city the estimated total number of unemployed persons in
each of certain specified occupations and the per cent that such
number is of the total number of wage earners in that occupation.
Only those occupations have been included for which the data
necessary to compute the percentages of unemployment were avail­
able. For each city, the estimated number of people engaged in
each of the various occupations, which was used as the base for
computing the percentages given, was secured from the report of the
1910 census1 by making proper allowance for increase in population
since 1910. The occupations presented in the table are the only
ones of importance which were found to be classified cn the same
basis as the data secured in the unemployment surveys.
T a b l e 5 . — ESTIMATED

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS AND PER CENT
UNEMPLOYED IN EACH OF CERTAIN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY SEX.
BOSTON. MASS.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Occupation.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Building trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons..............
Carpenters..........................................
Painters and paper hangers................
Plasterers................... ........................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters..........

428
1,425
983
108
724

23.3
19.2
18.0
19.0
27.7

428
1,425
983
108
724

23.3
19.2
18.0
19.0
27.7

Total..........................................

3,668

20.5

3,668

20.5

Bakers.......................................................
Bartenders.................................................
Chauffeurs.................................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers............
Cooks.........................................................
...........................................
Dressmakers..
Laborers....................................................
Longshoremen and stevedores...................
Machinists.................................................
Marble and stone cutters...........................
Stenographers and typewriters..................
Waiters and waitresses..............................

108
155
315
89
174

7.0
13.6
22.1
6.2
7.2

4,539
367
1,082
122
85
221

16.1
14.7
15.8
24.8
12.5
5.9

108
155
315
131
207
320
4,539
367
1,082
122
598
404

7.0
13.6
22.1
6.9
3.8
4.4
16.1
14.7
15.8
24.8
9.4
5.5

Total, selected occupations...............

10,925

16.0

1,091

5.4

12,016

13.6

All occupations..........................................

27,910

11.4

7,813

7.3

35,723

10.2




42
33
320

9.4
1.1
4.4

513
183

9.0
5.1

"

* Occupation Statistics, U. S. Census of 1910, Vol. IV.

45

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES*

T a b le 5 .— ESTIMATED NUMBER OP UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS AND PER CENT

UNEMPLOYED IN EACH OP CERTAIN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY SEX-C ontd.
CHICAGO, ILL.
Males.

Total.

Females.

Occupation.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent.
Building trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons..............
Carpenter?........ .
...... .......
Painters and paper hangers................
Plasterers................ ....... ...................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.........

2,827
6,485
3,676
1,114
2,266

35.6
24.2
20.8
52.1
29.8

2,827
6,495
3,676
1,114
2,266

35.6
24.2
20.8
52.1
29.8

Total..........................................

16,378

26.3

16,378

26.3

Bakers........ ...............................................
Bartenders........... .......................- ............
Chauffeurs.......... ......................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers............
Dressmakers.............................................
Laborers....................................................
Longshoremen and stevedores...................
Machinists................................................
Marble ^ stone cutters...........................
Stenographers and typewriters..................

743
1,129
765
447

13.9
18.4
30.9
13.8

23,585
288
6,518
197
83

15.2
43.1
24.9
17.0
2.4

30
1,129

2.3
6.7

2,122

8.8

743
1.129
765
477
1.129
23,585
288
6,518
197
2,205

13.9
18.4
30.9
10.5
6.7
15.2
43.1
24.9
17.0
7.9

Total, selected occupations............ .

50,133

18.8

3,281

7.7

53,414

17.3

All occupations..........................................

121,607

14.3

26,472

10.0

148,079

13.3

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Building trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons..............
Carpenters..........................................
Painters and paper hangers................
Plasterers..........................................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters..........

1,517
2,717
2,082
597
1,752

28.7
20.7
21.0
43.1
27.4

1,517
2,717
2,082
597
1,752

28.7
20.7
21.0
43.1
27.4

Total................................................

8,665

24.0

8,665

24.0

Bakers.......................................................
Bartenders.................................................
Chauffeurs................................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers............
Dressmakers..............................................
Laborers....................................................
Longshoremen and stevedores...................
Machinists.................................................
Marble ynd stone cutters...........................
Stenographers and typewriters..................
Waiters and waitresses..............................

298
686
686
349

7.3
17.4
34.9
13.2

12,342
502
3,670
381
95
489

18.3
15.1
17.1
36.0
5.2
9.6

7.3
17.4
34.9
11.1
8.9
18.3
15.1
17.1
36.0
5.9
7.9

Total, selected occupations...............

28,163

All occupations..........................................

63,921

235
1,244

9.0
8.9

502
165

6.0
5.2

298
686
686
584
1,244
12,342
502
3,670
381
597
654

18.9

2,146

7.7

30,309

17.1

11.5

15,758

7.2

79,679

10.3

PITTSBURGH, PA.

Building trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons..............
Carpenters........ .................................
Painters ami paper hangers................
Plasterers...........................................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters..........

548
736
675
152
315

30.7
17.2
22.8
30.9
18.5

548
736
675
152
315

30.7
17.2
22.8
30.9
18.5

Total................................................

2,426

21.6

2,426

21.6

122
142
213
167
71
188
5,341
1,061
218

11.5
9.9
33.1
7.0
3.9
5.2
9.4
18.2
4.7

122
11.5
Bakers.......................................................
142
9.9
Bartenders.................................................
213
33.1
Chauffeurs.................................................
76
11.1
Cigar makers and tobacco workers............
91
9.6
Cooks.........................................................
56
15
188
Dressmakers..............................................
9.4
5,341
Laborers....................................................
18.2
1,061
Machinists.................................................
6.5
Stenographers
typewriters..................
61
157

5.4
1.2
5.2
4.3

Total, selected occupations...............

9,498

12.0

451

4.4

9,949

11.1

All occupations..........................................

24,449

12.5

3,437

6.2

27,886

11.1




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLES.— ESTIMATED NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS AND PER CENT

UNEMPLOYED IN EACH OF CERTAIN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY SEX-Conduded.
ST. LOUIS, MO.
Males.
Occupation.
i trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons....
Carpenters..................................
Painters and paper hangers.......
Plasterers...................................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.

Females.

Number. Percent

Total.

Number. Percent. Number. Percent.

1,225
2,062
1,389
373

51.3
26.3
23.7
48.4
30.4

1.225
2,062
1,389
373

51.3
26.3
23.7
48.4
30.4

5,715

30.0

5,715

30.0

236
430
205
472
179

10.7
20.3
25.0
25.7
11.4

5,026
1,758
49
118

11.8
31.4
4.5
6.8

10.7
20.3
25.0
20.7
6.4
3.3
11.8
31.4
8.2
7.4

Total, selected occupations..

14,188

18.1

All occupations.............................

37,169

14.1

Total.
Bakers............................................
Bartenders......................................
Chauffeurs......................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers.
Cooks..............................................
Dressmakers...................................
Laborers.
Stenographers and typewriters.
Waiters and waitresses..............

118
91
217

11.6
3.5
3.3

99

8.8
8.2

236
430
205
590
270
217
5,026
1,758
585
217

1,061

6.1

15,249

15.9

10,215

12.1

47,384

13.6

Examination of the table shows that although the unemployment
rates for the cities of Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and
St. Louis ranged from 10.2 per cent in Boston to 13.6 per cent in St.
Louis, the rates for the individual occupations specified varied much
more widely. In the total for building trades the percentage unem­
ployed ranged from 20.5 per cent in Boston to 30 per cent in St. Louis.
In making up the tables an attempt was made to select the same
occupations for each of the cities, in order that comparisons might
be made. This was accomplished in all cases with the exception of
cooks, marble and stone cutters, longshoremen and stevedores, and
waiters and waitresses. In these instances it was not possible to get
the data for all of the five cities. With the exceptions mentioned, the
following summary gives in order, for each selected occupation, the city
with the lowest unemployment rate, the city with the highest unem­
ployment rate, and the average rate for the five cities combined:
T a b u s e.-C IT IE S IN WHICH WERE FOUND THE LOWEST AND HIGHEST PERCENTAGE

OP UNEMPLOYED IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS—FIVE CITIES.
Lowest percentage.
Occupation.

City.

Per cent.

Highest percentage.
City.

Aver­
age, five
Per cent. cities.

ilding trades, total...................
Build
,
and stonemasons.
Bricklayers!
Carpenters..
Carpenft
Painters and paper hangers........
Plasterers....................................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.
Bakers...............................................
Bartenders........................................
Chauffeurs........................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers...
Dressmakers.....................................
Laborers...........................................
Machinists.........................................
Stenographers and typewriters.........

Boston. ,
do.
Pittsburgh..
Boston........
___ do........
Pittsburgh.
Boston.......
Pittsburgh.
Boston........
do.
St. Louis...
Pittsburgh.
Boston.......
Pittsburgh.

20.5 St. Louis.......
23.3 ----- do...........
17.2 — .do...........
iao ....d o .
19.0
18.5 St. Louis......
7.0 Chicago........
9.9 St. Louis......
22.1 Philadelphia.
6.9 St. Louis.......
3.3 Philadelphia.
9.4 ....d o ...........
15.8 St. Louis.......
4.7 Boston..........

30.0
51.3
26.3
23.7
52.1
30.4
13.9
20.3
34.9
20.7
8.9
18.3
31.4
9.4

25.1
34.0
22.5
21.0
43.8
27.9
10.6
17.2
29.8
11.5
6.4
14.5
21.4
7.5

All occupations..

Boston..

10.2 St. Louis.,

13.6

11.9




47

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

EXTENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS.

Many occupations are common to two or more industries and in
order to show the extent of unemployment in each of the principal
occupations, regardless of industry, the data for all those occupations
which are found in two or more industries have been combined and
the results shown in the following table, together with some of the
other important occupations of the various industries:
TiB I* 7 .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT 0 7 EMPLOYMENT IN PBIHOIPAX. OCCTT.
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT.
BOSTON, MASS.

Number of parsons unemployed each classified number
of days.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ploy­ 1 to
ed.
7

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers
Bakers........................................
Barbers.
Blacksmiths and horseshoers.
Bookkeepers..........................
Bricklayers----Cabinetmakers.
Candy makers..
Carpenters...............................
Cashiers...................................
Cement and concrete workers..
Clerks and salesmen................
Cooks.......................................
Domestic servants...................
Dressmakers and seamstresses.
Drivers...................... .
Electricians............... .
Engineers, stationary.
Firemen, stationary...
Hod carriers...............
Laborers.
Messengers.
hangers, and
Paint
dc
Plasterers
. . ... . . . . . .
Plumbers, gas Mid steam fitters...
Porters........................................
Roofers.......................................
Stone and marble cutters.
Structural-iron workers...
Tile layers........................
Watchmen.......................
Total.




22
35
9
31
3
44
39
71
91
16
23
34
315
25
9
516
326
37
7
7

221

2

8 to
13

14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
90
120

18
8
17
20
4
5

11

606
87
34
45
6
965
78
230
70

96
8
6

120

10
33
13
13
3

22

1
6
3

4

11

.....
.....

4,750 l0 5

2

386

85
19

2

6
1
118
16
26
10

6
2
140
7
27
7

32
1
35
5
1
3
27
1

47
6
45
5
4

2

1
4
80

12

611 ~726

* is
*
6
1

7
98
8
5
10
2
228
12

57
13
64
5
20
3
8
5
17
3
1
1
5

765 ~878

22

36

2

1
43
1

13

i

**50
3
1
119
55
6

59
9

68

154
35
34
18
109
26
7
7
30

121 181 Not
and re­
to
180 over. port­
ed.

14

10
132
21
8
8

1

23
8
1
1

2

19
1
1

*241
15
51

*47
6
8
3

49
2
10
12
5
7

9
4
7
3
3

11

22

11
1

2

4
216

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUHEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

T a b l e 7.—NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED B Y SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
BRIDGEPORT, CONN.

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers..

M.
61
2
1
V
Bakers.......................................... M.
98
2
3
11
F.
132
Barbers........................................ M.
3
3
1
F.
29
Blacksmiths and horseshoers....... M.
134
4
2
Boiler makers.............................. M.
10
121
Bookkeepers................................. M.
2
2
F.
61
1
1
Bricklayers................................... M.
373
9
5
5
1
Cabinetmakers............................. M.
145
Candy makers............................. M.
14
1
F.
26
28
22
Carpenters.................................... M. 1,102
6
Cashiers....................................... M.
F.
37
1
1
1
1
Cement and concrete workers....... M.
129
Clerks and salesmen..................... M. 1,297
15
26
14
F.
676
15
1
Domestic servants...................... M.
115
F.
862
16
13
281
Dressmakers and seamstresses...... F.
7
2
14
24
Drivers......................................... M.
652
Electricians................................. M.
207
7
3
2
Engineers, stationary................... M.
85
1
Firemen, stationary..................... M.
30
Hod carriers.................................. M.
86
4
2
M. 3,112
42
35
Longshoremen.............................. M.
38
Machinists.................................... M.
860 “ *29* ***ie*
4 ........
143
Messengers.................................... M.
227
1
4
Molders........................................ M.
Painters,paper hangers, anddeco634
M.
12
6
2
F.
4
147
10
Plasterers..................................... M.
4
299
15
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.. M.
Porters, general............................ M.
239
6
6
M.
2
110
Porters, railroad...........................
1
35
Roofers......................................... M.
11
Stenographers............................... M.
4
7
F.
280
1
1
Stone and marble cutters.............. M.
26
Structural-iron workers................ M.
72
4
Tile layers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
1
1
64
Tinsmiths..................................... M.
4
2
109
Watchmen................................... M.
Total...................................




13,193

279

6
8
2
9
8
9
12
6
37
8
1
92
2
5
5
110
57
7
101
23
83
18
11
3
6
206
1
68
15
11

8

11

22
15
2
5
25
26
1
9
18
19
3
2
24
18
14
11
32
51
22
25
4
5
8
7
144 165
...... ......

11

6

12
179
133
27
178
61
110
40
11
3
8
332
106
26
29

19
282
183
22
179
66
116
27
10
6
15
448
2
171
38
41

39

56

98

14
25
23
5
1
1
28
3
2

13
57
44
21
3
1
34
3
8

19
46
44
27
3
2
73
3
11

5
8

10
23

12
10

18
4
16
1
14
11
57
20
2
5
189
2
9
23
180
124
13
100
41
94
37
11
2
15
553
15
134
15
27
93
1
19
40
46
21
8
2
40
3
9
1
12
20

7
1
16
20
30
25
5
123
21
1
3
252
1
2
56
235
48
23
121
43
128
37
15
8
19
754
13
152
28
49

20

1

19
2
2
26
2
3
3
33
3
4
4
20
12
6
53
43
2
1
18
192
1
7 .......i
12 . . . . . .
37
233
19
83
1
21
107
47
12
26
74
9
35
3
3
22
1
6
12
5
679
63
7
171
13
4
13
60
5

12
211 107
1
49 ***i7* .......2
44
9
59
30
34
6
23
6
5
11
8
1
4
38
13
43
1
6
5
18
3
21
1
2
2
8
13
19
20
6

206 1,084 1,849 2,354 2,069 |2,723 |2,311

318

49

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 7 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­

PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
CLEVELAND, OHIO.

NumOccupation.

Blfiftlrsmitfis and hnrsftshnflrs,___

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.

Sex. unemploy- lt o
ed.
7

M
M
F
M
M
M
F
M
F.
M
F
M
M
M
M
M
M
M.
M.
M.
F.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
Watchmen.................................... M.

87
13
27
8
2
26
15

Clerks...........................................
C ooks.........................................
Drivers.........................................
Electricians................ .
■ftnginAArSj stationary.. . . . . . . . .
Firemen, stationary". . . . . . . ...
Foremen and oversow*. . . . ........
Laborers.......................................
Machinists....................................
Messengers....................................
Packers.........................................
Painters,paper hangers,and deco­
rators. .......................................
porters........ ................................
Salesmen......................................
Shipping clerks.............................
Stenographers...............................
Total...................................

1,213

14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
30
60
90 m

1

1
1

2
4

4

1

1
8

4
1

7!0
33
1
9
139
2
5
76
59
10
6
109
15
7
12
9
342
129
7
6
3

Ca^fnAtmalrftrs. . . . _________
Carpenters....................................
Cashiers.................r...................

8 to
13

1
5
2

4
1
1
6
6

3

3
4

9
6
2
1
14
2
1
1
22
18
1
2

3
5

4
4

2

4
17

15

2
12
7
3

1
23
1

14
19

5
4
1

2
47
1
1
12
2
3
1
22
2
2
1
5
89
20
3

17
1

2
15
4

1

1

12
1
2
3

53
18

57
14
1
1

65
19
1
2

10
4
2
2

14
2
2
2

6
1

5
173

1
1

1

3

3

2

8
2
5

1

1
1

3
1

8
3
4
1
2
4
2

26

109

167

176

2
1
1
2
1
5
1
1

*

33

121
to
180

181 Not
re­
and port­
over. ed.
8
6
18
1
12
13
1
1
16
4
2
4
3
71
21
1

2
1
1
6
3
1
1
6
1
26
9

2
15
2
2
2

2

6
5

5
5

1

254

213

62

26

1
1

DULUTH, MINN.
Blacksmiths................................. M.
Bookkeepers................................ M.
F.
Carpenters.................................... M.
Clerks......................................... M.
F.
C o o k s ..................................... M.
Drivers......................................... M.
Engineers, stationary.. . . . . . . . . . . . M.
Firemen, stationary..................... M.
Laborers..... - .............................. M.
Wflnhlnijiia T, .......... .............................. M.
Packers...................................... M.
F.
M.
Painters........ -............... ....... .
Stenographers....... ....................... M.
F.
Watchmen.................................. M.

3
2
3
27
17
22
8
26
4
3
97
6
3
1
3
1
5
2

Total...................................

233

32656°—Bull. 195—16-




1
1

2
2

i
2

1

1
2

9

1
1
1
1

5
1
1

8
1

11
1
1
1
2

4

3

14

21

30

1
9
3
9
3
3
2
28
1

2
9
4
5
1
6
1
2
25
3

1
2
1
62

2
5
2
1
3
1

1

IT

2

1

1

1

2
1

59

36

4

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

7 .-NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.

T able

KANSAS CITY, M O.

NumOccupation.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.

Sex. unemploy- 1 to
ed.
7

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers.. M
Blacksmiths and horseshoers....... M.
Bookkeepers............ ' .................. M
F
C abinetm akers........... .......
M
Carpenters................................... M.
Clerks........................................... M.
F.
Cooks........................................... M.
F.
Drivers......................................... M.
Electricians.................................. M.
Engineers, stationary................... M.
Firemen, stationary
..................... M.
Foremen and overseers................ M.
Inspectors.................................... M.
Laborers....................................... M.
Machinists,................................... M.
Messengers.................................... M.
Packers........................................ M.
F.
Painters, paperhangers, and deco­
rators........................................ M.
Porters......................................... M.
flalegmen...................................... M.
Shipping clerks............................. M.
******************
Stenographers.............................. M.
F.
Tinsm iths................................... M.
Watchmen................................... M.

17
17
7
4
11
135
89
30
35
23
154
11
12
17
11
7
618
21
21
13
4

14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
30
60
90
120

5
2
3

2
1
2
4
1
2
7
3
1
21
1
2
1
1

65
68
16
6
1
8
5
12

2
2
2

1,438

Total...................................

8to
13

56

3
4
3
1
2
1
1
4
1

1
1

1
22

2
21
15
4
5
3
16
3
2
3
1
1
53
3
5
3
2

2
2
13
8
2
5
7
22
1
2
5
1
1
69
2
3
2

1
4
3

2
2
1

4
15
21
9
8
5
24
3
3

3
27
20
5
8
2
32
2
1
1

1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.
1
4
1
1
36
7
4
4
2
30
2
3
x

131
1
5
3
1

127
1
3
1

114
3
3
1

3
3
1
15
9
2
x
2
12
2
2
X
5
3
53
6

3

3
x
2
1
9
x
x
46
3

2

5
8
1
1
1
2
1
1

5
18
1
1

11
12
3
1

14
11
1
1

15
8
3
2

7
4
4

5
4
x

1

1
2
2

1

1

2

3

3
X
x

x
X

172

174

274

.267

249

142

82

LOUISVILLE, KY.

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers.
Blacksmiths
horseshoers.......
Bookkeepers................................
Cabinetmakers...........................
Carpenters.................................
Clerks................ ..........................
Drivers........ ................................
Electricians............................. .
Engineers, stationary...................
Firemen, stationary.....................
Foremen and overseers................
Inspectors....................................
Laborers....... ...............................
Machinists......................... .........
Packers ...................................
Painters, paperhangers, and deco­
rators....................... .
Porters....................... ...............
Pftfftgmfm ........................
Saleswomen .............................
Shipping clerks.............................
Stenographers .............................
Total...................................




M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

3
3
X
2
8
15
3
17
1
2
4
3
1
82
4
2
2

M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.

8
3
4
7
1
7
183

1
2
1
1

1
1

2
3

2
2

1
1

1
1
2

6

9

7
1

1
1
1

1
1
2
1

1
x
2
3
1
2

16

2
5

2
3

7

x

X
13
2

9

1

1
13

7
1

2
3

1
1
2

9

1

3

2
4

1
1
1
1

2

26

21

26

1
x

1
1
1

2

2
2

2
1

21

1
1

38

23

51

UNEMPLOYMENT I N THE UNITED STATES.

7.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.

T able

MILWAUKEE, WIS.

Occupation.

Number of persons unemployed each
of days.
Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ploy­ 1 to 8 to 14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
ed.
120
90
7
13
30
60

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers. M.
Blacksmiths and horseshoers....... M.
Bookkeepers......... ...................... M.
F.
Cabinetmakers............................. M.
Carpenters......... .......................... M.
Clerks.......................................... M.
F.
Cooks........................................... F.
Drivers...................................
M.
Electricians.................................. M.
Laborers....................................... M.
Machinists.................................... M.
Messengers.................................... M.
Packers......................................... M.
F.
Painters, paperhangers, and deco­
r a to r s..................................... M.
Plumbers..................................... M.
Porters......................................... M.
Salesmen...................................... M.
Seamstresses................................. F.

5
3
5
3
6
62
19
20
4
45
15
156
55
9
3
2

Total...................................

507

1
1
1

2

4

2

1
2
2

5
2
1
1
1

1

1

1

3
3
1

7
4
12
2
1

2
11
3
6

6
3
16
11
3

6
2
18
6

1

6

2
2
1
1
2

4
5
1
3

19

39

1

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
12
23
3
5
2
1
1
2
8
2
3
42
53
14 ' 12
1

6
6
2

21
3
1

4
5
2

3

2

3

71

73

132

104

1
1

1

16

1

1
7
4
4

1

44
26
.7
7
11

2
2

4

1
1

classified number

1
1
2

1
1
1

3
1
2
3
1

4
1
3
1

3

2
2
1
9

2

4

1

5
1

5
1
1
1
6

1
1
9

1
1
1
6
4
2
8
1
6
5
2
5
2
3
47

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers.
Blacksmiths and horseshoers.......
Bookkeepers................................
Cabinetmakers..............................
Carpenters...................................
Cashiers......................................
Clerks...........................................
Cooks...........................................
Drivers........ ................................
Electricians.................................
Engineers, stationary...................
Firemen, stationary..'..................
Laborers.......................................
Machinists...................................
Messengers...................................
Packers........ ...............................
Painters, paper hangers, and deco­
rators*.. . . » ..............................
Pattern makers............................
P orters.......................................
Salesmen......................................
Stenographers.............................
Total...................................




M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

3
5
9
2
31
3
21
7
4
3
30
4
5
3
99
12
9
4
1

M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

16
4
11
4
2
298

1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2

1
1

2
1
6
1
7
1
7
3
2
1

1
1

6

1
3
1
1

12

32

i
2
3

30

2
1
2
3
1
1
37

7
1
1
1
16
1
1

1
1
1
45

1
1
6

1
1
1

2
1

1

1

1
1

14
2
1

1

2
50
4

5
1
1
1

1
2

1

94

32

10

2

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

7.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.

TABLE

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Occupation.

Number of persons unemployed each
of days.
Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ploy­ 1 to 8 to 14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
ed.
7
13
30
60
90
120

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers. M.
K
,
Bakers.......................................... M.
P,
Barbers......................................... M,
F
Blacksmiths and horseshoers....... M.
Boiler ma-Vers.. . . , r_ T
_ .............. M
Bookkeepers................................. M.
F.
Bricklayers................................... M.
cabinetmakers . . . . . . . . _______ M
M
Candy ?nalrersT , - - T
T ___ ____
F.
Carpenters.................................... M.
Cashiers....................................... M.
F.
Cement and concrete workers....... M.
Clerks and salesmen..................... M.
F.
Compositors.................................. M.
Domestic servants........................ M.
F.
Dressmakers and seamstresses.... M.
F.
Drivers......................................... M.
Electricians.................................. M.
Engineers, stationary................... M.
Firemen, stationary..................... M.
Hod carriers...... .........................< M.
■
Laborers....................................... M.
Longshoremen............................. M.
Machinists.................................... M.
Messengers.................................... M.
Painters, paper hangers, and deco­
rators......................................... M.
Plasterers..................................... M.
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters... M.
Porters......................................... M.
Roofers......................................... M.
Stenographers............................... M.
F.
Stone and marble cutters............. M.
Tile layers.................................... M.
Tinsmiths..................................... M.
Watchmen................................... M.
Total...................................




1
40
1
1
1
47
2
6
1
64
3
3
73
1
1
42
1
72
32
1
4
239
2
2
32
24
1
1
36
497
10
7
5
1
17
55
642
9
13
286
5
3
18 •• • ........
•• •
1
34
12
446
14
2
196
2
1
693
12
5
3
55
2
87
3
3
70
1
18
1,944
27
26
1
79
578
8
9
4
100
2
357
94
276
55
68
15
79
60
14
12
67

2
1
4
2
3
1
2
1

7,630

120

2

4

6

7
7
2
9

5
1
1
1

1
1
116

6
2

33
10
44
. 10
11
6
12
3

3
4

3

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

4
7
5
10
1 ......
1
**ig
6
10
1
8
8
1
11
1
5
4
4
1
11
10
11
3
5
4
3
13
16
44
35
3
5
4
4
1
2
8
4
4
5
8
13
34
56
81
89
1
1
2
1
5
2
1
6
3
9
6
81 145
65
75
40
31
85
55
1
2
1 ......
1
9
2
4
72
67
51 102
1
17
47
19
34
63 125 128
93
4
8
7
10
11
9
6
17
11
9
10
13
3
1
2
4
119 238 300 262
6
7
16
25
68
40
80
92
11
12
23
7
24
4
34
5
16

8

classified number

59
10
61
9
12
2
19
14
4

4

14

11

10
2
12
2
12
27
4
22
15
16
5
10
75
42
8
6
6
2
3
6
1
2 .......i
94
94
32
1 ......
4
.......i
6
15
10
93 135
26
32
22
13
4
9
1
7
4
6
62
50
16
1
*24* 38 “ *’ i4
102 138
27
9
4
10
4
13
25
5
16
3
4
459 453
60
2
10
12
91 168
22
19
19
3
52
19
36
12
9
2
13
17
6
6
18

23
2
19
1
1

616 1,005 1,355 1,117 1,404 1,578

319

73
15
32
4
4
2
13
9
2
2
11

88
33
41
11
12
1
9
13
2
9

5

6

53

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

TABLE 7 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­

PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
PITTSBURGH, PA.

Occupation.

Number of persons unemployed each
of days.
Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ploy­ lt o 8to 14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
ed.
30.
60
90
120
7
13

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers. M.
F
■R rflra.............................
ftT
M
F
Barbers....................................... . M
Blacksmiths and horseshoers....... M.
M
Bookkeepers-t F
Bricklayers................................... M
dandy makers, ........ ................... M
F
Carpenters.................................... M.
Casniers........................................ M.
F.
Cement ^ concrete workers....... M.
Clerks and salesmen..................... M.
F.
Cooks............................................ M.
F.
Domestic servants........................ M.
F.
Dressmakers and seamstresses___ F.
Drivers......................................... M.
Electricians.................................. M.
Engineers, stationary................... M.
Firemen, stationary..................... M.
Hod carriers................................. M.
Laborers....................................... M.
Machinists.................................... M.
Messengers.................................... M.
F.
Painters, paper hangers,and deco­
rators......................................... M.
F.
Plasterers..................................... M.
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters... M.
Porters......................................... M.
Roofers......................................... M.
Stenographers.............................. M.
F.
Tinsmiths..................................... M.
Watchmen................................... M.
Total...................................




23
1
9,4
9
21
42
30
11
108
11
7
154
4
1
15
382
83
11
3
13
203
37
299
79
58
36
20
1,052
209
35
4
146
2
30
62
34
15
12
31
26
29
3,372

1
1
1

1

1
2
3
2
1
5
1
5

3
1
2
2
1
4
3

3
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

9
1
14
8
3
3
19
2
23
3
3
2
3
58
17
3

8
4

11
1

4

1

3

1

2
3
3
1

2
1

1

1
2
1
44

2
1
3

36

205

classified number

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

2

3

3

3

8

6
1
2
6
4
1
9
1
1
12

5
2
5
10
9
4
11
2
4
30

4

2

4
2
3
10
11

34
8
1
......
34
4
41
4
6
3
1
108
29
1
1

1
1
73
23
1
1
1
51
10
58
9
9
9
4
138
16
10
2

14
8
1 ......
3
12
15
8
6
4
1
2
3
5
3
3
4
2
364

560

5
4
2
1
23
3
1
26
5
63
19
2
3
32
7
52
11
6
5
6
160
25
5
25
2*
10
3
2
2
7
9
3
536

4
5
3
4
39 *' iir
1
4
1
43
28
1
2
8
76
11
4
1
3
32
4
69
22
14
7
5
223
52
7
55
1
10
12
5
6

1
98
10
21
8
43
28
17
8
1
299
60
4
1
31

1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
15
1
1
8
1
7
1
1
47
5
5
5

4
6
4

5
8
5
2
6
5
3
11

3
1
1

747

764

116

2

54

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T abus 7 .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT-Continued.
ST. LOUIS, MO.

Occupation.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofdays.
Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ploy­ 1 to 8 to 14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to 121 181 Not
ed.
to
and re­
7
30
13
60
90
120 180 over. port*
ed.

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers. M
F
Bakers.......................................... M,
F,
Barbers.......... ............................. M
F,
and "hr Alin r ..... M
os s As
Bookkeepers................................ M
F
C a b in e t m a k e r s ..... ..... M
tfswdy makers-____ ____ M
F
Carpenters.................................... M
Cashiers........................................ M
F.
Cement flr»d concrete workers....... M.
Clerks ^ < salesmen..................... M.
n1
F.
Compositors................................. M.
F.
Cooks........................................... M.
F.
Domestic servants........................ M.
F.
Dressmakers and seamstresses___ F.
Drivers......................................... M.
Electricians.................................. M.
F.
Engineers, stationary................... M.
Firemen, stationary..................... M.
Hod carriers................................. M.
Laborers....................................... M.
Machinists.................................... M.
Messengers................................... M.
F.
Holders........................................ M.
Painters, paper hangers, and deco­
rators......................................... M.
Plasterers..................................... M.
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.. M.
Porters, general............................ M.
Porters, railroad........................... M.
Roofers......................................... M.
Stenographers.............................. M.
F.
Structural-iron workers................ M.
Tile layers.................................... M.
Tinsmiths.................................... M.
Watchmen................................... M.
Total...................................




38
1
65
5
41
5
114
66
16
49
36
32
614
7
14
70
799
228
84
7
47
24
35
587
74
778
115
2
41
51
67
1,321
462
83
2
110
454
98
175
166
15
36
13
141
76
14
92
42
7,412

1
2

1
1

5

8

6

2

1
1
5

20
1
7
1
12
5
2
7
2
4
45
2
4
4
94
29
7

12
1
8

8

12
6
2
15
12
4
6
7
2
199

3
7
146
67
16

6
1
16
12
2
6
4
14
110
1
4
15
114
28
9

10
2
4
71
13
95
17

8
5
5
106
7
120
12

4
3
6
71
11
105
18

4
12
4
130
53
16

7
15
3
185
60
18

9
7
11
3
6
27
183 356
72
99
9
9
1
16 *44*

3

1

4

2

10
2

1

1

4
4
1
22

1
10
12
4
1

8
2
13
5
1
1
1
19
7
3

6
1
1
5
12
3
1

7
1
19

5
3

3
64
20
9
2
5
2
2
45
14
59
6
3
2
6
70
36
10

14
9
4
5
7
8
77

2

1

6

10

11

3

3

1
5

2

22
7
7
9
1
7

7
3
1
1

2
3

15
9

38
6
16
30
3
4
5
19
6
1
9
3

37
17
38
24
1
3
2
19
12
6
14
6

122

80

7
4
503

..

23
138
37
16
1
8
4
6
96
9
195
23

9
6
1
6
3
2
3
2
1
4
37
1
25
4
19
12
1
1
128
17
1
2
1
1
12
203
16
7
33
2
24
1
2
11
1
3
5
9
3
64
119
8
9
156
16
31
3
2
8 .......2
1
6
18
2
307
66
122
10
4
14
1
***i8*
2
95
10
30
34
1
7
3
32
19
1
19
17

23
3
4
5
3
4
1
9

832 1,133 1,080 1,730 1,626

306

67
22
33
25
2
3
1
17
9
2
12
6

166
33
46
32
4
8
1
21
15
2
28
5

1
2
1

55

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

7.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­
PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.

TABLE

ST. PAUL, MINN.

Occupation!.

Num­
ber
Sex. unemp!s r

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers.
x, ____
Carpenters....................................
Clems...........................................

Number of parsons unemployed each classified number
of days.

1 to
7

8 to
13

14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
30
60
90
120

1

M
M
M
M
F.
M
F
M
M
M
M
M.
M.
M.
F.

3
3
39
96
21
7
2
41
11
4
92
15
3
2
1

M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Tinsmiths..................................... M.

17
3
7
4
1
5
5

1
1

Total...................................

312

2

1

Cooks...........................................
Drivers.........................................
"Electricians . . . r . . . ......................
PorAmA^ and overseers
Laborers.......................................
Machinists....................................
Messengers..................................
Packers........................................
Painters, paper hangers, and deco­
rators ........................................
P orters.......................................
Salesmen......................................
Seamstresses...............................
Stenographers..............................

1

2
2
3

1
1
4

1

1

1
3
1

4
2
9
1

1
2
1
1
1
9
1
1
16
1

12
8
9
1

4
7
4
1

3
1
1
15
3

4
3

10
4

4

17
2

20
3
1

7
1

7

27

1
9
5
1
1

1
1
2
2

6

1

1
1
1
1

2

2

1

2
7
3
2
1

1
3
1

1

181 Not
re­
and port­
over. ed.

11
4
2
2

1
1

121
to
180

1

2
1

2

41

58

58

61

3
1

1

42

6

SPRINGFIELD, MO.
Clerks........................................... M.
F.
Carpenters................................... M.
C ooks . .................................................... M.
F.
Drivers......................................... M.
Laborers............... ....................... M.
Machinists................................... M.
Painters, paper hangers, and deco­
rators.......................... ........... M.
Porters........................................ M.
Stenographers......................... ... F.

3
1
6
1
3
16
35
3

Total...................................

75




1

1
3

2
2
3

1
3

1
1
6

5

•1

3
7

1

1
4

3
1
1
5
4
1

8

1

17

12

1

1

1

2

1
5

3

1

1

1

1
10

1
1
6
2
1

3

15

1

56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 7.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINCIPAL OCCU­

PATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded*
TOLEDO, OHIO.

NumOccupation.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.

Sex. unem­
ploy­ 1 to
ed.
7

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers.. M
Blacksmiths and horseshoers....... M
Bookkeepers................................. M
F
M.
M.
M.
Clerks.
F.
M.
Drivers..........................
M.
Electricians............. .
M.
Engineers, stationary...
M.
Firemen, stationary—
M.
Foremen &nd overseers.
F.
M.
Inspectors..
M.
Laborers...
M.
Machinists..
M.
M.
Packers.
F.
Painters,paper hangers,and deco­
rators....................................... M
Porters......................................... M.
M.
Salesmen....................................
Saleswomen................................. F.
Shipping clerks........................... M.
M.
Stenographers...........................
F.
M.
Watchmen..
Total..

2
8
2
4
65
3
25
16
24
7
8
1
3
1
2
271
84
5
3
1

8to
13

14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to
30
60
90
120

1
1

2
1
2

8
4
3
3

1

5
3

2

2
26
12

1
1
1
8
1
4
5
6
3
1

1
1
3
9
1
3
3
3
1

11

1

5
2
. 4
1
1

3
1
4
1
2
1

2

40
13

12
5

!
26
8
1
1

45
18
2
1

85
14

5

3
1

7
1
1
1

14

3
3

12

2
2
3
1
3

2

2
4
1

1

70

91

67

1

2

13

32
9
2
1
1
1

1
3

1

1
1

1
3/
l'
2
1

35
2
7
1
5
4
4
1
1
6
12 ........ r
18
609

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1

1

_

3
2
i

1

4
100

3

1

146

89

25

WILKES-BARRE, PA.

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers.. M.
Blacksmiths................................. M.
Bookkeepers................................. M.
F.
Carpenters.................................... M.
Clerks........................................... M.
F.
Drivers......................................... M.
Electricians.................................. M.
Engineers, stationary................... M.
Firemen, stationary..................... M.
Foremen and overseers................. M.
Inspectors.................................... M.
F.
Laborers....................................... M.
M.
Machinists....................................
Messengers................................... M.
Packers........................................ M.
F.
Painters........................................ M.
Salesmen...................................... M.
................................. F.
Saleswomen
Watchmen................................... M.

2
4
14
1
46
28
17
34
6
11
6
8
2
2
180
18
2
1
1
14
9
7
10

Total...................................

423




I
......

1

i
i
>

1
.

I

1
2

1
1

1
2
2

i

1
6
1
1

1
2
2
3

3
1

1
30
3

2
2

12

6

53

1
2

1
2

4

1
5
1
4
5

10
4
3
2
3
1
2
1

13
11
5
9

11
4
3
4

2
1
3
1

1
1
1

33
3
1

24
3

25
3

18
2

1
3
3
2
2

2
1
1

3
1
1
2

86

57

51

71

2

2
2
2
5

2
2
70

6
1
2
6
2
2

1
1

7
4
1
1
30
1

11
1

1

17

57

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

Any amount of enforced unemployment must be regarded as a
hardship to the wage earner, and the extent of that hardship is
measured by the length of time the wage earner is out of work.
Table 4 shows the number of persons in each industry and occu­
pation unemployed each classified number of days. The information
for each city contained in that table is summarized by sex and for
each specified period of unemployment, regardless of industry or
occupation. In Table 8 the proportions of wage earners out of
work each classified number of days are presented for each city in
the form of simple and cumulative percentages. The percentages
are based on the number of cases for which the duration of unem­
ployment is known.
This table shows that in nearly all of the cities the largest numbers
of unemployed wage earners fall in the duration periods 31 days and
over, thus indicating the unemployment was not a temporary con­
dition of slight importance. The duration of unemployment in the
greater number of cases was such as to make the condition one of
extreme hardship.
T m i .ii 8 —NUMBER AMD PER CENT 0 7 WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLA8.
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVEB EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS.
BOSTON, MASS.

Number and per cent.
Females.

Males,

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent.
138

1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days...............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days...... ........................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...... .....................................
181 days
over....... ...........................

512
790
798
865
1,133
1,319

Total known....................................
Unknown..........1>ttltttt. tt___________

5,659
275

Total unemployed............................

2.4
1.8
9.0
14.0
14.1
15.3
20.0
23.3

76
28
174
236
310
285
219
261

4.8
1.8
11.0
14.9
19.5
17.9
13.8
1&4

214
132
686
1,026
1,108
1,150
1,352
1,580

3.0
1.8
9.5
14.2
15.3
15.9
18.7
21.8

100.0

1,589
72

100.0

7,248
347

100.0

5,934

m

1,661

7,595

Cumulative number and per cent.
Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days............................................
Over 90days..............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Over30days ............................... .
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days...............................................
1 day
over...........................................




1,319
2,452
3,317
4,115
4,905
5,417
5,521
5,659

23.3
43.3
58.6
72.7
86.7
95.7
97.6
100.0

261
480
765
1,075
1,311
1,485
1,513
1,589

16.4
30.2
48.1
67.7
82.5
93.5
95.2
100.0

1,580
2,932
4,082
5,190
6,216
6,902
7,034
7,248

21.8
40.5
56.3
71.6
85.8
95.2
97.0
100.0

58

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 8 .— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS-Continued.
BRIDGEPORT, CONN.
Number and per cent.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cont.
1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 days..................... ..........................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................. ..............
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

10
5
31
46
74
35
48
113

2.8
1.4
8.6
12.7
20.4
9.7
13.3
31.2

4
2
10
17
22
16
21
30

3.3
1.6
8.2
13.9
18.0
13.1
17.2
24.6

14
7
41
63
96
51
69
143

2.9
1.4
8.5
13.0
19.8
10.5
11.3
29.5

Total known....................................
Unknown..................................................

362
15

100.0

100.0

484
16

100.0

Total unemployed...........................

377

122
1
•
123

500

Cumulative number and per cent.

113
31.2
30
Over 180 days............................................
161
44.5
Over 120 days............................................ 51
196
54.1
67
Over 90 days..............................................
270
74.6
Over 60 days..............................................
89
316
87.3
106
Over 30 days..............................................
347
95.9
116
Over 13 days..............................................
352
97.2
118
Over 7 days...............................................
362
100.0
122
1 day and over........................... .............

24.6
41.8
54.9
73.0
86.9
95.1
96.7
100.0

113
212
263
359
422
463
470
484

29.5
43.8
51.3
71.2
87.2
95.7
97.1
100.0

CHICAGO, ILL.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days.....................
8 to 13 days...................
14 to 30 days..................
31 to 60 days..................
61 to 90 days..................
91 to 120 days................
121 to 180 days...............
181 days and over..........

345
265
1,242
2,086
2,601
2,337
3,372
2,971

2.3
1.7
8.2
13.7
17.1
15.4
22.2
19.5

74
59
363
655
766
499
391
4IS

2.3
1.8
11.3
20.3
23.8
15.5
12.1
13.0

419
324
1,605
2,741
3,370
2,836
3,763
3,389

2.3
1.8
8.7
14.9
18.3
15.4
20.4
18.4

Total known........
Unknown......................

15,222
824

100.0

3,225
268

100.0

18,447
1,092

100.0

Total unemployed

16,016

3,493

19,539

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days.
Over 120 days.
Over 90 days..
Over 60 days..
Over 30 days..
Over 13 days..
Over 7 days...
1 day and over




2,971
6,343
8,680
11,281
13,370
14,612
14,877
15,222

19.5
41.7
57.0
74.1
87.8
96.0
97.7
100.0

418
809
1,308
2,074
2,729
3,092
3,151
3,225

13.0
25.1
40.6
64.3
84.6
95.9
97.7
100.0

3,389
7,152
9,988
13,358
16,099
17,704
18,028
18,447

18.4
38.8
54.1
72.4
87.3
96.0
97.7
100.0

59

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

8.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS—Continued.

T able

CLEVELAND, OHIO.
Number and per cent.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent.
1 to 7 days . . i ..... .......................................
8 to 13 days..
................................. - 14 to 30 d a v s ....... ..................................
31 to 60 days. .........................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days ftTid over......................................

47
40
163
272
270
306
400
345

2.6
2.2
8.8
14.8
14.7
16.6
21.7
18.7

12
10
43
55
74
36
33
51

3.8
3.2
13.7
17.5
23.6
11.5
10.5
16.2

m
50
206
327
344
342
433
396

2.7
2.3
9.6
15.2
15.9
15.9
20.1
18.4

Total known.....................................
Unknown..................................................

1,843
94

100.0

314
15

100.0

2,157
109

100.0

Totalunemployed.............................

1,937

2,266

329

Cumulative number and per cent.
Over 180 days............................................
Over 1^) days....................................... .
Over 90 days..........................................
Over 60 days.............................................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days................................................
1 day
over..........................................

345
745
1,051
1,321
1,593
1,756
1,796
1,843

18.7
40.4
57.0
71.7
86.4
95.3
97.4
100.0

51
81
120
194
219
292
302
314

16.2
26.8
38.2
61.8
79.3
93.0
96.2
100.0

396
829
1,171
1,515
1,842
2,048
2,098
2,157

18.4
38.4
54.3
70.2
85.4
94.9
97.3
100.0

1.9

9
4
27
36
82
95
112
55

2.3
1.0
6.9
7.2
13.3
24.4
28.7
14.1

DULUTH, BONN.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days.....................
8 to 13 days....................
14 to 30 days..................
31 to 60 days..................
61 to 90 days..................
91 to 120 days.................
121 to 180 days...............
181 days and over..........

8
4
25
31
38
78
103
50

2.4
1.2
7.4
9.2
11.3
23.1
30.6
14.8

3.8
9.4
26.4
32.1
17.0
9.4

Total known____
Unknown......................

337
7

100.0

100.0

Total unemployed

344

100.0

55

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days.
Over 120 days.
Over 90 days..
Over 60 days..,
Over 30 days..
Over 13 days..
Over 7 days...
1 day and over




50
153
231
269
300
325
329
337

14.8
45.4
68.5
79.8
89.0
96.4
97.6
100.0

5
14
31
45
50
52
52
53

9.4
26.4
58.5
84.9
94.3
98.1
98.1
100.0

55
167
262
314
350
377
381
390

14.1
42.8
67.2
80.5
89.7
96.7
97.7
100.0

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 8 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS—Continued.
KANSAS CITY, M O.
Number and per cent.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent.
1 to 7 days................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

72
27
250
268
397
401
374
217

3.6
1.3
12.4
13.3
19.8
20.1
18.6
10.8

29
13
76
125
148
118
53
57

4.7
2.1
12.3
20.2
23.9
19.1
8.6
9.2

101
40
326
393
545
522
427
274

3.8
1.5
12.4
15.0
20.7
19.9
16.2
10.4

Total known.....................................
Unknown..................................................

2,009
109

100.0

619
54

100.0

2,628
163

100.0

Total unemployed............................

2,118

673

2,791

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days............................................
Over 90 days..............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days...............................................
1 day and over...........................................

217
591
995
1,392
1,660
1,910
1,937
2,009

10.8
29.4
49.5
69.3
82.6
95.1
96.4
100.0

57
110
228
376
501
577
590
619

9.2
17.8
36.8
60.7
80.9
93.2
95.3
100.0

274
701
1,223
1,768
2,161
2,487
2,527
2,628

10.4
26.7
46.5
67.3
82.2
94.6
96.2
100.0

5

7.4

7
15
9
10
8
14

10.3
22.1
13.2
14.7
11.8
20.6

19
13
25
60
42
41
46
72

6.0
41
7.9
18.9
13.2
12.9
14.5
22.6

68
6

100.0

318
38

100.0

LOUISVILLE, KY.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 days...............................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

14
13
18
45
33
31
38
58

5.6
5.2
7.2
18.0
13.2
12.4
15.2
23.2

Total known.....................................
Unknown...................................................

250
32

100.0

Total unemployed............................

2S2

74

356

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days.
Over 120 days.
Over 90 days..,
Over 60 days..,
Over 30 days..,
Over 13 days..
Over 7 days...
1 day and over




58
96
127
160
205
223
236
250

23.2
38.4
50.8
64.0
82.0
89.2
94.4
100.0

14
22
32
41
56
63
63
68

20.6
32.4
47.1
60.3
82.4
92.6
92.6
100.0

72
118
159
201
261
286
299
318

22.6
37.1
50.0
63.2
82.1
89.9
94.0
100.0

61

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
TABLE 8 .— NUMBER

AND PER CENT OP WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OP DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS—Continued.
MILWAUKEE, W IS.
Number and per cent.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent.
1 to 7 days..................................................
8 to 13 days...............................................
14 to 30 d a y s............................................
31 to 60 d a y s............................................
61 to 90 days...............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

24
9
28
74
109
107
204
155

Total known.....................................
U nknow n................................................

710
83

Total unemployed............................

3.4
5
4.7
1.3
3.9 .......... i i ’ .......io.*3*
10.4
15
14.0
15.4
20
18.7
15.1
22
20.6
28.7
17
15.9
21.8
17
15.9

793

100.0

107
23

100.0

130

29
9
39
89
129
129
221
172

3.5
1.1
4.8
10.9
15.8
15.8
27.1
21.1

817
106

100.0

923

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days.............................................
Over 120 days.............................................
Over 90 days.............................................
Over 60 days........................ .....................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days................................................
1 day and over...........................................

155
359
466
575
649
677
686
710

21.8
50.6
65.6
81.0
91.4
95.4
96.6
100.0

17
34
56
76
91
102
102
107

15.9
31.8
52.3
71.0
85.0
95.3
95.3
100.0

172
393
522
651
740
779
788
817

21.1
48.1
63.9
79.7
90.6
95.3
96.5
100.0

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days..................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days...............................................
61 to 90 days...............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
120 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over.......................................

11
14
50
48
65
71
119
43

2.6
3.3
11.9
11.4
15.4
16.9
28.3
10.2

5
5
8
8
13
5
3
8

9.1
9.1
14.5
14.5
23.6
9.1
5.5
14.5

16
19
58
56
78
76
122
51

3.4
4.0
12.2
11.8
16.4
16.0
25.6
10.7

Total known.....................................
Unknown..................................................

421
17

100.0

55
2

100.0

476
19

100.0

Total unemployed............................

438

57

495

Cumulative number and per cent.

10.2
8
43
Over 180 days............. ..............................
38.5
162
Over 120 days.............................................11
233
55.3
Over 90 days..............................................
16
70.8
298
29
Over 60 days..............................................
82.2
37
Over 30 days..............................................
346
94.1
45
396
Over 13 days..............................................
97.4
Over 7 days................................................
50
410
1 day fynd over...........................................
421
100.0
55




14.5
20.0
29.1
52.7
67.3
81.8
90.9
100.0

51
173
249
327
383
441
460
476

10.7
36.3
52.3
68.7
80.5
92.6
96.6
100.0

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 8 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS-Continued.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.
Number and per cent.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Percent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.
1 to 7 days..................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

175
151
817
1,307
1,687
1,406
1,843
2,264

1.8
1.6
8.5
13.5
17.5
14.6
19.1
23.5

53
50
274
423
491
376
312
377

2.2
2.1
11.6
18.0
20.8
16.0
13.2
16.0

228
201
1,091
1,730
2,178
1,782
2,155
2,641

1.9
1.7
9.1
14.4
18.1
14.8
17.9
22.0

Total known.....................................
Unknown...................................................

9,650
419

100.0

2,356
125

100.0

12,006
544

100.0

Total unemployed............................

10,069

2,481

12,550

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days.............................................
Over 90 days..............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days................................................
1 day and over...........................................

2,264
4,107
5,513
7,200
8,507
9,324
9,475
9,650

23.5
42.6
57.1
74.6
88.2
96.6
98.2
100.0

377
689
1,065
1,556
1,979
2,253
2,303
2,356

16.0
29.2
45.2
66.0
84.0
95.6
97.8
100.0

2,641
4,796
6,578
8,756
10,486
11,577
11,778
12,006

22.0
39.9
54.8
72.9
87.3
96.4
98.1
100.0

PITTSBURGH, PA.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 d a y s..............................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

69
58
278
523
731
695
1,117
1,202

1.5
1.2
5.9
11.2
15.6
14.9
23.9
25.7

• 13
7
54
90
184
108
101
92

2.0
1.1
8.3
13.9
28.4
16.6
15.6
14.2

82
65
332
613
915
803
1,218
1,294

1.5
1.2
6.2
11.5
17.2
15.1
22.9
24.3

Total known.....................................
Unknown..................................................

4,673
160

100.0

649
29

100.0

5,322
189

100.0

Total unemployed............................

4,833

678

5,511

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days.
Over 120 days.
Over 90 days..
Over 60 days..
Over 30 days..
Over 13 days..
Over 7 days....
1 day and over.




1,202
2,319
3,014
3,745
4,268
4,546
4,604
4,673

25.7
49.6
64.5
80.1
91.3
97.3
98.5
100.0

92
193
301
485
575
629
636
649

14.2
29.8
46.4
74.7
88.6
96.9
98.0
100.0

1,294
2,512
3,315
4,230
4,813
5,175
5,240
5,322

24.3
47.2
62.3
79.5
91.0
97.2
98.5
100.0

63

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

8 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS—Continued.

T able

ST. LOUIS, M O.
Number and per cent.

Females.

Males.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.
1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

177
102
649
1,110
1,386
1,417
2,367
2,247

1.9
1.1
6.9
11.7
14.7
15.0
25.0
23.8

67
34
239
376
474
383
415
545

2.6
1.3
9.4
14.8
18.7
15.1
16.4
21.5

244
136
888
1)486
1,860
1,800
2,782
2,792

2.0
1.1
7.4
12.4
15.5
15.0
23.2
23.3

Total known.....................................
Unknown...................................................

9,455
315

100.0

2,533
152

100.0

11,988
467

100.0

Total unemployed............... ............

9,770

2,685

12,455

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days............................................
Over 90 days..............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days............................................
Over 7 days................................................
1 day and over...........................................

2,247
4,614
6,031
7,417
8,527
9,176
9,278
9,455

23.8
48.8
63.8
78*4
90/fc
97.0
98.1
100.0

545
960
1,343
1,817
2,193
2,432
2,466
2,533

21.5
37.9
53.0
71.7
86.6
96.0
96.3
100.0

2,792
5,574
7,374
9,234
10,720
11,608
11,744
11,988

23.3
46.5
61.5
77.0
89.4
96.8
98.0
100.0

17
10
48
74
91
72
91
78

3.5
2.1
10.0
15.4
18.9
15.0
18.9
16.2

481
16

100.0

ST. PAUL, MINN.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 days.............................. ................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days............................. ................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days..............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

14
10
40
68
74
64
83
68

3.3
2.4
9.5
16.2
17.6
15.2
19.7
16.2

Total known....................................
Unknown.................................................

421
13

100.0

Total unemployed..........................

434

3

5.0

8
6
17
8
8
10

13.3
10.0
28.3
13.3
13.3
16.7

60
3

100.0

63

497

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days............................................
Over 90 days..............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Ovsr 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days. .1...........................................
1 day and over.............. ...........................




68
151
215
289
357
397
407
421

16.2
35.9
51.1
68.6
84.8
94.3
96.7
100.0

10
18
26
43
49
57
57
60

16.7
30.0
43.3
71.7
8L7
95.0
95.0
100.0

78
169
241
332
406
454
464
481

16.2
35.1
50.1
69.0
84.4
94.4
96.5
100.0

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

8.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLAS­
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS-Continued.

T able

SPRINGFIELD, M O.
Number and per cent.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.
1 to 7 davs............ .....................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 d a y s ...........................................
31 to 60 d a y s ................................... .......
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 d ays...........................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days andover......................................

4
7
14
31
17
19
16
21

3.1
5.4
10.9
24.0
13.2
14.7
12.4
16.3

5
1
5
2
2
2
1
2

25.0
5.0
25.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
5.0
10.0

9
8
19
33
19
21
17
23

6.0
5.4
12.8
22.1
12.8
14.1
11.4
15.4

Total known.....................................
Unknown..................................................

129
1

100.0

20

100.0

149
1

100.0

Total unemployed............................

130

20

150

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days...........................................
Over 120 days...........................................
Over 90 days..............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 d a y s............................................
Over 7 days........ ............................. .........
1 day and over...........................................

21
37
56
73
104
118
125
129

2
3
5
7
9
14
15
20

16.3
28.7
43.4
56.6
80.6
9L5
96.9
100.0

10.0
15.0
25.0
35.0
45.0
7a 0
75.0
100.0

23
40
61
80
113
132
140
149

15.4
26.8
40.9
53.7
75.8
88.6
94.0
100.0

TOLEDO, OHIO.
Number and per cent.

1 to 7 days.................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days............................................
61 to 90 days.............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

25
10
103
122
90
146
189
130

3.1
1.2
12.6
15.0
11.0
17.9
23.2
16.0

4
1
18
30
19
18
7
10

3.7
.9
16.8
28.0
17.8
16.8
6.5
9.3

29
11
121
152
109
164
196
140

3.1
1.2
13.1
16.5
11.8
17.8
21.3
15.2

Total known.....................................
Unknown....... ..........................................

815
37

100.0

107
13

100.0

922
50

100.0

Total unemployed...........................

852

120

972

Cumulative number and per cent.

Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days............................................
Over 90 days..............................................
Over 60 days.............................................
Over 30 d a y s ...........................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 d a y s ............................................
1 day and over...........................................




130
319
465
555
677
780
790
815

16.0
39.1
57.1
68.1
83.1
95.7
96.9
100.0

10
17
35
54
84
102
103
107

9.3
15.9
32.7
50.5
78.5
95.3
96.3
100.0

140
336
500
609
761
882
893
922

15.2
36.4
54.2
66.1
82.5
95.9
96.0
100.7

65

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 8 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLASU
SIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEM­
PLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS—Concluded.
WILKES-BARRE, PA.
Number and per cent.
Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Percent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
1 to 7 days..................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

34
28
138
158
163
127
117
137

3.8
3.1
15.3
17.5
18.1
14.1
13.0
15.2

2
9
28
26
20
21
23
16

1.4
6.2
19.3
17.9
13.8
14.5
15.9
11.0

36
37
166
184
183
148
140
153

3.4
3.5
15.9
17.6
17.5
14.1
13.4
14.6

Total known.....................................
Unknown.................................................

902
37

100.0

145
1

100.0

1,047
38

100.0

Total unemployed...........................

939

146

1,085

Cumulative number and per cent.
137
254
381
544
702
840
868
902

Over 180 days.
Over 120 days.
Over 90 days..
Over 60 days..
Over 80 days..
Over 13 days..
Over 7 days...
1 day and over

15.2
28.2
42.2
60.3
77.8
93.1
96.2
100.0

16
39
60
80
106
134
143
145

11.0
26.9
41.4
55.2
73.1
92.4
98.6
100.0

153
293
441
624
808
974
1,011
1,047

14.6
28.0
42.1
59.6
77.2
93.0
96.6
100.0

CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

There is always considerable unemployment in every city at all
times, the number and percentage of persons out of work varying
according to the available supply of and demand for labor. This is
affected not only by the conditions of business in the various indus­
tries generally, but by the fluctuating demand for help dining cer­
tain months of the year, owing to rush work or slack work in the
various seasonal industries. There are also many persons who will
not accept work except in their own particular trades, and there is
also a varying number who will not accept employment of any kind
when offered. An effort was made, therefore, to ascertain the cause
of each wage earner’s unemployment. In many cases it was found
difficult to ascertain the exact cause, and in some cases the informa­
tion secured was not entirely satisfactory. The table following
shows the number m each city for which information as to the cause
of unemployment was secured, classified by industry and reported
cause of unemployment.
32656°—Bull. 195—16----- 5




66

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 9.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OP UNEMPLOYMENT.
BOSTON, MASS.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Industry and occupation.

Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Agricultural pursuits:
Farm laborers............................................. M.
M.
Gardeners......................................
Other workers............................................. M.
P.
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
Building trades—
B rick lay ers*.................................... M.
M.
Building laborers..........
Carpenters............................................ M.
Cement and concrete workers............... M.
Electricians.................................,,,.,- M.
Hod carriers......................................... M.
Painters,paperhangers, and decorators. M.
M.
plasterers............................ .
Pliimhors, gag and steam fitters..
M.
Roofers.. .7 .......................................... M.
fttnicturaMrnn workers........ .
M.
Tile layers............................................ M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Total...............................................
Chentfcais and allied products.................... M.
F.
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Stone and marble cutters...................... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Clothing manufacture—
Corset makers....................................... M.
F.
Suite, coats, cloaks, and overalls—
Tailors... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Other workers................................ M.
P.
Waist,underwear,necktie, etc., makers. M.
P.
Pood and kindred products—
Bakers................................................... M.
F.
Other bakery workers........................... M.
F.
Candy makers..................................
M.
F.
Candy packers...................................... F.
Other workers....................................... M.
F.
Iron and steel and their products—
Automobile-factory workers.................. M.
F.
Car-shop employees.............................. M.
Hardware-factory workers............ .
M.
F.
Iron-foundry workers............................ M.
Machine-shop employees....................... M.
F.
Ship and boat builders.......................... M.
Stove-factory workers........................... M.
Wagon and carriage workers................. M.
Other iron and steel industries—
Machinists...................................... M.
Other workers................................. M.
P.
Leather and its finished products—
Shoe factories—
Clerks and stenographers................ M.
P.
Cotters............................................ M.
P.
Edge setters and trimmers............. M.
P.




Other
causes.

21
35
17
3

17
22
12
3

2
10
5

2
3

91
49
303
9
7
6
209
23
154
34
7
7
29

72
42
246
8
6
6
173
18
120
27
6
5
18

13
6
44
1

6
1
13

31
3
25
4
1

5
2
9
3

9

2
2

928

747

137

44

17
2

13
2

4

26
15
2

21
10
2

3
2

, 6
13

4
12

1

78
10
30
5
6
20

58
9
20
2
5
16

23
1
12
8
23
66
34
45
6

15
1
11
7
17
54
27
33
4

25
1
25
27
7
110
22
2
18
20
15

22
1
21
17
5
77
17
2
14 ^
2
8

5

1

1

2
8

7
1
4

1

2

3
1
3
5

1
3

X

1

1
5
9
7
9
2

1
3
*3

3
3
8
2
16
5

14

4
4

i7

1
2
3

1
3

17
49
5

14
39
3

3
8
2

14
12
64
1
6
3

10
11
56
1
3
3

3
1
7

1

2

1

2
1

67

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 9 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
BOSTON, MASS.—Continued.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Continued.
Leather and its finished products—Concld.
Shoe factories—Concluded.
Lasters............................................
Stitchers.........................................
Vampers........................... .............
Other workers.................................
Tannery workers...................................
Other workers.......................................
Liquors and beverages—
Brewery workers...................................
Other workers.......................................
Lumber and its remanufacture—
Furniture workers................................
Piano makers........................................
Saw and planing mill workers..............
Other woodworkers...............................
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Brass mills and foundry workers..........
Other workers.......................................
Paper and paper products...........................
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees........................
Electrotypers and lithographers...........
Printers and other employees...............
Textiles—
Carpet-mill workers..............................
Cotton-mill workers..............................
Dyers and cleaners...............................
Knitting-mill operatives.......................
Lace, embroidery, and curtain workers.
Rope and cordage workers...............
Woolen-mill workers........................
Other textile workers......................
Miscellaneous industries—
Brush and broom makers................
Electrical supply workers................
Electric light and power employees..
Gas-works employees.......................
Rubber-factory workers...................
Tobacco and cigar factory workers..,
Other employees..............................




Number
unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts.

18
2
8
21
2
12
169
109
68
5
11
1

16

2

7
17
2
8
151
99
61
3
9
1

1
3

13
13

7
10

6
2

49
1
32
3
9
2
41
3

37
1
24
3
7
1
25
3

7

40
3
17
13

22
32
3
14
10

4
4

18
28
8
6
126
20

16
23
7
5
93
13

2
4

7
14
9
7
11
2
14
28
1
8
12
8
13
7
21

6
13
7
4
10
2
9
22
1
5
10
6
9
6
14
22

Other
causes.

13
9
87
4
7
1
6
37
16
15
7
20
9

4
15
5
7
2
2

2
1
2
3

1
2

1

4

1

4
1
1
9

4
1
3

3
4

3
3

1
27
6

•
1
1
1

1

5
1
1
2
2
1

1
3
3

4

1

2
2
1

2
2
2
2
1
5
3

1
1

4

1

2

1

3
10
6
4
1
7

1
2

1
1
1

68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 9 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
BOSTON, MASS.—Continued.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Industry and occupation.

Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Other
causes.

Manufacturing and mechanical Industrie*—

Concluded.
Industry not specified—
Blacksmiths and horseshoers............... M.
Dressmakers......................................... M.
F.
Laborers...................
M.
Machinists................
M.
Milliners...................
F.
Stationary engineers.
M.
Stationary firemen...
M.
Other workers...........
M.
F.

32
2
68
583
147
20
24
26
153
16

22
1
49
490
121
17
14
12
108
13

19
73
21
3
8
10
23
3

M.
M.

10
20

9
12

1
8

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

24
20
40
11
98
2

20
12
14
8
62

3
7
21
1
28
2

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

67
433
21
30
40
22

51
341
17
20
30
7

10
75
3
9
9
13

Transportation:

Express company employees.......
Post-office clerks andletter carriei
Railroad transportation—
Brakemen.............................
Clerks and bookkeepers.........
Conductors.............f..............
Engineers and firemen..........
Other workers.......................
Road, street, and bridge transportationCnauffeurs........................................
Drivers.

Livery-stable employees......................
Road, street, andTbridge workers........
Street-railway employees.....................
Trunk, transfer, and cab company em­
ployees.............................................. M.
Telegraph and telephone—
Telegraphers and telephone operators.. M.
F.
M.
Other employees...........................
Water transportation—
Longshoremen..............................
M.
M.
Other workers............ .................
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance—
M.
Clerical employees........................
F.
Real-estate employees..
M.
F.
Other employees...................
M.
Wholesale ana retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees.......
M.
Drivers, coal yard..................
M.
M.
Other coal-yard employees. . .
M.
Department-store employees.
F.
Drug-store employees.........
M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employees.
M.
F.
Grocery-store employees. . .
M.
F.
Ice-wagon employees........................ .
M.
Merchants ana dealers.......................
M.
Milk-wagon employees..................... .
M.
Other forms of trade—
M.
Canvassers, collectors, and solicitors..
M.
Clerks, cashiers, and bookkeepers___
F.
M.
M.
F.
Stenographers and typewriters.
M.
F.
Other em ployees,...,................
M.
F,




7

3
1
2

18
5
2
4
22

1
1
5
2
8
6

6
11
1
1
1
2

9

5

4

8
35
23

7
21
16

1
12
5

2
2

78
39

65
28

11
11

2

16
7
5
2
14

9
5
4
1
8

4
2
1
1
4

3

40
43
7
37
124
21
2
51
94
131
13
26
44
24

28
37
4
29
97
15
2
38
71
104
12
24
33
19

8
5
1
6
24
6

4
1
2
1
3

10
19
19
1
1
6
3

3
4
8

9
123
97
17
23
44
14
84
128
29

5
96
78
12
17
40
13
68
98
27

3
19
12
4
3
3
1
11
19
X

1
8
7
1
3
1

2

1

1
5
2

5
11
I

69

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
BOSTON, MASS.—Concluded.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Industry and occupation.

Public service..................................
M.
F.
Professional service:
Musicians* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t.. M.
F.
Theatrical employees................................ . M.
F.
Trained nurses^ . *........ .
......... .
F.
M.
Other workers................ ........................
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Barber-shop employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Building em ployees................................... M.
F.
Domestic servants.............................. ....... M.
F.
Hotel employees—
C ooks.................................................. M.
W aiters................... ..................... .
M.
Other employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Laundry workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ M.
F.
Restaurant employees—
Waiters................................................. M.
F.
Other restaurant em ployees................ M.
F.
e m p lo y e e s ..........................
Other workers.......... ................................ £
F.

170
3

106
3

54

10

16
5
11
10
57
36
22

15
4
10
7
46
30
12

1
1
1
2
7
3
9

1
4
3
1

31
3
42
1
7
221

21
3
24

9

1
4

3
146

14
1
4
61

14

35
22
38
5
24
65

30
17
29
3
16
43

5
4
4
1
4
21

1
5
1
4
1

25
39
9
7
36
11
1

19
29
8
6
26
8
1

5
5

1
5
1

5,934
1,661

4,552
1,285

992
301

59
6

331
69

Total...............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
nf imimiplflyipfft nnlmnwn______

7,595

5,837

1,293

65

400

Total unemployed............... ..........

7,863

All occupations:
Males................... ........................ .
Females... -T ___________________
.

1
5
1

5
2

268

CHICAGO, ILL.
Agricultural pursuits:
Farm laborers..........................................
Gardeners.................................................
Other workers..........................................
I and mechanical industries:
Bricklayers...........................................
Building laborers..................................
Carpenters............................................
Cement and concrete workers...............
Drivers.................................................
Electricians........................................
Hod carriers..........................................
House wreckers
Painters,paper hangers, and decorators.
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.
Roofers.......................................
Structural-iron workers..............
Tile layers..................................
Other w orkers.........................
Total.




M.
M.
M.

61
47
20

53
40
20

6
7

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

373
493
857
129
33
14
86
4
485
147
299
35
72
4
96

335
445
703
127
31
14
72
4
435
118
269
34
62
4
86

24
31
92

3,127

2,739

1

2

5
8
47
1

9
9
15
1
1

6

7

1

27
4
22

8
23
3

15
2
5
1
3

6

1

5

2

3

218

105

65

70

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b u s 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OP UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Continued.
Chemicals and allied products..*................ M.
F.
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Brickyard workers............................... M.
GtasiM&ctory workers........................... M.
Stone and marble cutters...................... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Clothing manufacture—
Corset makers....................................... M.
F.
fflovenwlffirs
M.
F.
Hattere (w<v>l and felt)...... .................. M.
F.
fihfr^ nnllflTj spiri
M.
F.
Suit, coat, cloak, and overall makers—
Cutters........................................... M.
Finishers....................................... M.
F.
Pressers.......................................... M.
SAftm$tresses.................
........... F.
TfMlorp............... . ,’T r.............. M.
....
F.
Other workers................................ M.
F.
Waist,underwear,necktie,etc., makers. M.
F.
Food and kindred products—
Bakers.................................................. M.
F.
Butter and cheese makers..................... M.
F.
Candy makers....................................... M.
F.
Flour and grain mill workers............... M.
F.
Slaughter and packing house workers—
Butchers......................................... M.
F.
Clerks, bookkeepers, and stenogra­
phers........................................... M.
F.
Laborers......................................... M.
Packers, wrappers, and labelers___ M.
F.
Other workers............................... M.
F.
Sugar-refinery workers......................... M.
Other w orkers.................................... M.
F.
Iron and steel and their products—
Agrinnltyiml-implATnAntf workers. . . . . . . M.
P.
Automobile and motorcycle workers... M.
P.
Boiler-works employees........................ M.
Car shops—
Blacksmiths................................... M.
Boiler makers................................. M.
Brass workers................. ............... M.
Cabinetmakers............................... M.
C^rks................. ............... . . . . . . . M.
Electricians................................... M.
Laborers......................................... M.
M achinists.................................... M.
Painters......................................... M.
Other workers................................ M.
P.
Iron foundries—
Molders.......................................... M.
Other workers................................ M. j




50
15

46
12

4
3

85
48
26
9

81
38
23
8

1
7
2
1

3
10
12
5
4
3
4
4

3
9
10
4
3
3
3
4

55
5
21
48
84
59
22
87
39
6
12

48
5
20
46
73
51
21
72
38
4
12

3

98
11
7
1
14
26
38
1

89
10
4

6
1
2

13
23
30
1

1
3
6

2

76
1

60
1

12

4

55
4
222
8
12
73
4
7
16
3

52
3
202
5
10
55
4
7
14
3

2
1
17
2
2
17

3

40
1
33
1
42

35
1
29
1
38

5

44
10
34
69
36
16
132
152
79
547
2

43
8
33
67
33
16
129
130
73
505
2

227
18

201
17

3
3
1

i
1
1

1
1

1

1
2
7
7
1
9
1

4
1

3
1
6
2
3
1
1

1
1
1

2

3

1

3

1

1
1
1
1
2

i
1

1

3
15
6
35

1

17
1

3

6
7
6

71

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical Industries—
Continued.
Iron and steel and their products—Concld.
Iron and steel mills—
.................
Cranemen......... ........ ........
Laborers........................................
Machinists.. . . . . . . t
,
Other workers....................... .........
Machine shops—
M a c h i n i s t s . r ,
Other workers.................................
Ship and boat building—
Laborers........................................
Other workers............................
StowHfactorv workers......... .
Wagon and carriage manufacture—
Painters.......................................
Other workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

15
23
263
60
130

14
22
247
56
118

M.
M.
F.

23
40
1

23
34

5

M.
M.
M.

35
27
21

26
27
19

9

M.
M.
F.

31
34
1

30
31
1

1
2

5
2
39
75
6

5
2
33
65
5

2
7

Other iron and steel industries—
Clerks
bookkeepers................ . M.
F.
M
a c h i n i s t s ___ M.
Other workers................................ M.
F.
Leather and its finished products—
TTftrfiftgaami saddle makers................. M.
Leather belt, case, and pocketbook
m a k e r s .................... . . ................. M.
Shoe-factory operatives....................... M.
F.
Other shoe factory workers................... M.
F.
Tannery employees.............................. M.
Trunk m akers............... ..................... M.
Liquors and beverages—
Brewery workers................................... M.
Other workers....................................... M .!
Lumber and its remanufacture—
Furniture workers—
................................ M.
Furniture workers, not specified... M.
Plano workers................................. M.
Upholsterers.................................. M.
Saw and planing mills—
Drivere.’ . . . ................................... M.
Sawyers, planers, «nd filers............ M.
Other employees............................. M.
Other woodworkers............................. M.
F.
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Jewelry workers.................................... M.
F.
Tin-can factory workers........................ M.
F.
Tinners «ynd t-insnnit.hg.......................... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
F.
Paper and paper products—
Envelope, tag, and paper-bag makers.. M.
F.
Paper-box workers................................ M.
F.
Other workers....................................... M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding—
Bnftghin^flry ^mplnyww.
T T M.
T
F.
Electrotypers rond lithographers............ M.
M.
Printers and other employees...............
F.




1

1
16
4
10

2
1
1

2

8

5
14
32
1
7
5
24
5
37
1

10

97
114
11
24

85
96
10
21

11
16
1
2

21
22
9
107
5

18
14
8
90
5

2
7

16
3
26
12
47
28
3

15
2
25
11
44
25
3

6
6
14
16
7
2

4
5
12
15
5

42
65
38
269
32

36
61
27
344
29

2
2
1

3
2

48
2

2
1

3

17
34
1
9
5
27
5

1

2
3
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
4

13

1

1
1
2

1

1
2
1
2

1
1
1
1
1
4
4
11
22
3

2

1
1
1
2
2

1

72

BULLETIN O# THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATiSfiC^*
9.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIES) M
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued*
CHICAGO, ILL—
-Continued.

T able

Industry and occupation.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
or
to be
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
Textiles—
Pyffli? ai^d cleaner?*. ...................... ....... M.
F.
M.
Textile workers............. ................ ...
F.
Miscellaneous industries—
Electric light and power plant workers. M.
F.
Electrical supplies—
Clerks and bookkeepers.................. M.
F.
Other workers................................. M.
F.
Gas-works employees............................ M.
Oil-works employees............................. M.
Tobacco and cigar factory workers....... M.
F.
Workers in other industries.................. M.
F.
Industry not specified—
■Rlap.ksmit.ns
horseshoers.......... .
M.
DrftssmalrArs And
. . . . . . . F.
RlflCtrioiftns,........................... : ............ M.
Laborers............................................... M.
F.
Machinists............................................ M.
Metal polishers ftnd buffers................... M.
F.
Milliners..... .......
...................... M.
F.
Packers................................................. M.
Shoemakers........ ................................. M.
Sign painters......................................... M.
Stationary engineers find firemen.......... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
F.
Transportation:
Express companies—
Clerks.................................................... M.
Drivers................................................. M.
Other employees................................... M.
Post-office clerks and letter carriers........... M.
Road, street, and bridge transportation—
Chauffeurs............................................ M.
Garage employees................................. M.
Livery-stable employees....................... M.
Sewer construction workers.................. M.
Street cleaners....................................... M.
Street pavers......................................... M.
Street-railway motormen...................... M.
Truck, transfer, and cab drivers........... M.
Other employees................................... M.
Railroad transportation—
Brakemen........................................... . M.
Clerks and bookkeepers....................... M.
F.
Conductors............................................ M.
Engineers and firemen.......................... M.
Laborers............................................... M.
Porters.................................................. M.
Stenographers........................................ M.
F.
Trackmen and switchmen.................... M.
M.
Other workers.................................. .
F.
Telegraph and telephone—
Clerks, bookkeepers,and stenographers. M.
F.
Linemen................................................ M.
Operators.............................................. M.
F.
Other workers....................................... M.




10
5
31
20

8
4
24
19

1
1
3
1

41
6

36
5

2

17
7
52
15
52
26
59
4
162
39

15
7
47
13
37
21
50
3
147
37

2

57
149
128
1,378
10
495
17
3
4
42
22
84
13
57
41
7

1
4
3
1

5
2
7
1
6
1
10
2

3

47
134
115
1,230
10
434
15
2
2
32
19
71
12
48
33
6

7
12
7
121

2

3
3
4
27

42

2
1

17
1

1

7
5
1

1
1

1
4
1
3
1
1
2

21
9&
5
26

20
83
4
16

1
10
1
10

3

2

101
55
13
16
199
24
20
67
8

91
52
10
14
181
23
5
60
8

6
3
1
2
16
15
5

2

39
147
11
57
83
244
110
4
21
175
140
7

27
124
8
32
68
229
78
4
19
143
116
7

9
15
2
18
11
13
19

3
8
1
7
4
2
13

2
26
16

6
8

4
4
16
21
251
24

4
3
13
18
221
22

1
1
6
2
9

1
2
3
26
2

8
1
3
5

4
2
1

1
1

1
4

73

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Transportation-^Concluded.
Water transportation—
Dredge workers....................................
Boat employees. . . . . . ............ ....... ......
Longshoremen........................ .............
Other workers.____________________

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or
or dis­
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

1

M.
M.
M.
M.

15
14
38
2

12
14
36
2

2

M.
F.
M.
F.
Real estate e m p l o y e e s . T
r______ M.
F.
Wholesale and retail trade—
M.
Pepartment-store employees...........
F.
Prug-store-employees................ .......... M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
M.
Grocery-store employees....... .......... .
F.
Mafl-order-hnnse employees.................. M.
F.
Merchants and dealers.......................... M.
Other forms of trade—
_ M.
Canvassers, collectors, and solicitors_
ffiftrks,
bookkeepers......... M.
F.
Drivers................................ ................ M.
M.
Errand and messenger boys..................
Laborers............................................... M.
Salesmen............................................... M.
Stenographers....................................... M.
F.
Other employees................................... M.
F.
Public service:
A rm y and Navy......................................... M.
City employees.......................................... M.
F.
Park employees........................................... M.
M.
Other employees........................................
F.
Professional service:
Graphic arts workers.................................. M.
Public entertainers..................................... M.
F.
Teachers...................................................... M.
F.
Trained Tuirses............................................. M.
F.
other workers............................................. M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service......................................... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barber-shop employees....................... M.
F.
Building employees.............................. M.
F.
Hotel employees................................... M.
F.
Laundry workers................................. M.
F.
Pool and billiard room employees........ M.
M.
Restaurant and club employees............
F.
Saloon keepers, bartenders, etc............ M.
Other workers................... ................... M.
F.

23
12
18
1
20
10

20
8
13

3
4
3

17
9

2

162
191
38
1
45
73
196
25
79
95
45

148
167
30
1
36
62
180
21
71
81
29

8
15
5

16
657
370
265
84
114
118
4
185
75
10

12
565
324
232
76
103
101
4
157
54
8

27
77
3
22
5
2

22
57
2
21
4
1

27
117
33
7
14
4
51
12
14

23
101
23
6
6
3
40
9
14

4
11
7
1
8
1
10
1

1
2

115
862

95
709

18
104

2
49

132
29
174
17
76
24
41
208
13
57
63
191
13
5

103
23
132
11
61
16
38
160
9
54
55
149
11
3

23
6
25
3
10
4
3
45
3
1
6
28
1
1

Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance—
Clerical employees....... ........................




8
9
9
4
8
10
7
3
59
35
20
6
11
11
19
17
1

2

2
1
\
I
6
9
3
1
2
7

2

4
7
1
33
11
13
2

1

5

1

8
4
1
5
3
1

17
1
1
1

5
3

6
1
1

1

16
2
5
4
3
1
2
2
13
1
1

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T ab le 9 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
CHICAGO, ILL.—Concluded.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Industry and occupation.

Industry not specified:
Porters...................
Watchmen.............
Other workers.......

108
75
544
152

All occupations:
Males............
Females.......

7
2
469
150

16,046
3,493

1,403
383

144
5

935
272

19,539

Total............................................. .
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown.

13,564
16,397

1,786

149

1,207

1,413
20,952

Total unemployed.

PHILADELPHIA, PA.
Agricultural pursuits:
Farm laborers.............................................
Gardeners.................................................. .
Other workers.................. ........................ .
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers..........................................
Building laborers................................
Carpenters...........................................
Cement and concrete workers..............
Drivers................................................
Electricians.........................................
Hod carriers........................................ .
Painters, paperhangers, and decorators
Plasterers..................
Plumbers,*gasand steam fitters.*.
Roofers................................................ .
Tile layers........................................... .
Other workers..................................... .

M.
M.
M.

32
67
23

25
53
20

4
9
2

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

239
1,062
428
55
28
52
18
328
94
276
68
14
90

202
917
356
48
21
44
15
288
81
246
59
13
71

16
78
45
1
4
4
2
23
5
16
5

Total............................................. . M.

2,752

2,361

207

6

M.
F.

50
9

41
8

7
1

2

M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
E.

45
50
5
60
6
1

38
41
3
49
5
1

7
6
2
7
1

M.
F.
M.
F.

106
9
10
24

91
6
8
22

6
1
1
1

9
2
1
1

M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.

21
17
219
44
14
20

19
15
183
40
11
18

1
1
14

1
1
22
4
1
2

M.
F.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
F.

47
6
14
24
36
13
26
8

35
6
13
22
34
10
21
6

9

Chemicals and allied products: chemical
and drug workers.....................................
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Brickyard workers..............................
Glass workers......................................
Marble and stone cutters.....................
Other workers.....................................
Clothing manufacture—
Hatters (wool and felt)........................
Shirt, collar, and cuff makers..............
Suits, coats, cloaks, and overalls—
Cutters..........................................
Pressers and spongers...................
Other workers...............................
Waist, underwear, and necktie makers
Food and kindred products—
Bakers.................................................
Bakery drivers....................................
Candy makers.....................................
Dairy workers.....................................
Other workers.....................................




3
5
1
4
1

1

8

2

17
66
27
6
3
4
1
17
8
13
4
1
11
178

3
4

3
1

2
1
3
1

1
3
2
1

75

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 9 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Continued.
Number unemployed from specified
Number
unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Continued.
Iron and steel and their products—
Automobile factories—
Machinists......................................
Other workers............................... .
Car-shop workers................................. .
Cutlery, file, and saw workers............. .

M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.

27
31
72
21
1
16
60

22
22
63
12
1
12
47

4
4
5
9

1
5
4

4
9

4

M.
M.
M.

31
116
58

28
108
55

3
3
1

M.
M.

284
20

218
16

35
4

31

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

70
38
37
115
27

54
32
37
101
19

7
5

9
1

9
7

5
1

M.
M.
M.
F.

25
27
147
31

21
24
117
27

2
2
12
1

2
1
18
3

M.
M.
F.

69
67
24

64
53
22

3
8
2

M.
F.
M.
F.
Other workers..................................... . M.
Liquors and beverages: Brewery workers. M.
Lumber and its remanufacture—
Furniture factories—
Cabinetmakers............................. M.
Upholsterers.................................. M.
Other workers............................... . M.
Piano and organ makers....................... M.
Sawmill workers............. ..................... M.
Other woodworkers.............................. M.
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Brass-mill workers.............................. M.
Jewelry-factory workers...................... M.
F.
Tinware-factory employees.
M.
Other workers.....................
M.
F.
Paper and paper products—
Envelope,tag, paper-bag, etc.,makers.. M.
F.
Paper-box-factory employees..
M.
F.
Paper-millworkers.................
M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding—
M.
Bookbindery employees..
F.
M.
Compositors.......
Other employees.
M.
F.
Textiles—
M.
Carpet-mill workers.
F.
M.
Cotton-mill operatives.
F.

13
7
54
10
8
33

11
4
42
10
7
21

2
1
4

31
27
47
7
26
58

25
25
40
7
19
47

16
14
2
16
41
3

13
10
2
11
36
3

8
18
31
26
28
12

Iron foundries and iron works.,
Iron and steel mill operatives..
Locomotive works—
Laborers........................... .
Machinists........................ .
Other employees................
Machine sho
Other employees...................
Ship and boatbuilding—
Laborers................................
Machinists.............................
Riveters................................
Other workers.......................
Wagon and carriage builders.......
Other iron and steel industries—
Boiler makers.......................
Machinists.............................
Other workers.......................
Leather and its finished products—
Lasters in shoe factories.............
Other workers in shoe factories..
Leather belt, case, and pocketbook
makers..............................................

Tannery employees.




12

1

1

5
1

1
6
2
8

1

3
1
3

3
1
4

3
7

4
4

1
3

2
1

4
3

1
2

8
11
24
23
21
9

4
3
2
5
3

3
4
1
2

19
21
18
121
15

18
18
15
103
13

1
3
1
13

125
43
6
9

113
33
4
7

8
1

2
5
2
1
2
1

3
7
1
2

76

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 9.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
Textiles—Concluded.
Dyers and cleaners............................... M.
F.
Knitting mills—
Boarders......................................... M.
K nitters........................................ M.
F.
Loopers.......................................... M.
F.
Menders......................................... M.
F.
Toppers.......................................... M.
F.
Weavers......................................... M.
F.
Other employees............................ M.
F.
Lace and embroidery workers.............. M.
F.
Silk-mill workers.................................. M.
F.
Woolen-mill workers............................ M.
F.
Other textile workers........................... M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries—
Cigar makers........................................ M.
F.
Gas-works employees........................... M.
F.
Oil-works employees............................ M.
Rubber-factory workers....................... M.
Tobacco-fectory employees................... M.
F.
Electrical supply workers................... M.
Other workers..................................... M.
F.
lifted—
Blacksmith
M.
Dressmakers........................................ M.
F.
Laborers............................................. M.
F.
Milliners.............................................. F.
Stationary engineers........................... M.
Stationary firemen.............................. M.
Transportation:

Express-company employees.....................
Post-office employees.................................
Railroad transportation—
Clerks and bookkeepers.......................
Engineers and firemen........................
Laborers..............................................
Railroad trainmen..............................
Other railroad employees....................
Road, street, and bridge transportation—
Drivers_____________________
Garage employees...................... .
Livery-stable employees............
Street-railway employees...........
Other workers............................
Telegraph and telephone employees.
Water transportation—
Longshoremen........................... .
Other workers.............................




62
3
31
19
49
7
52
7
28
4
40
26
8
70
115
5
29
19
16
16
2
480
320
45
35
34
1
99
10
10
2
32
83
11

17
43
7
40
7
21
4
36
23
7
61
97
3
27
18
15
14
2
414

26

1
1
1
6
13

31
14
5
1
4

87
8
7
2
23
71
8

46
2
196
186
17
31
65
24

34
2
160
151
15
28
47
21

18
13
1
2
6
1

M.
M.

52
10

42
6

5
1

M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

29
1
23
65
39
64
3

21
1
12
52
22
35
2

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

108
347
20
40
26
105
30
21

90
291
17
31
12
90
21
10

M.
, M.

79
19

60
14

11
23
1

U N E M P L O Y M E N T IN

77

T H E U N IT E D STATES.

T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

lYade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance—
Insurance agents................................... M.
Office employees*.............................. ... M.
F.
Real-estate employees........................... M.
F.
Wholesale and retail trade—
M.
Butc^er-shop employees...................
F.
Coalyards—
Drivers..................... ..................... M.
Other employees........................... - M.
F.
Department stores—
Drivers............... ........................... M.
Other employees............................. M.
F.
Drugstore employees........................... M.
F.
Dry-gonckH?tore employees...... ............ M.
Grocery-store employees....................... M.
F.
Tee-wagon drivers........... ..................... M.
M.
Merch**ntrSand dealers......................
Office employees in stores—
Clerks,bookkeepers, and messengers M.
F.
Stenographers ^ typewriters....... M ,
F.
Other employees............................. M.
F.
Other employees................................... M.
Public service:
City employees—
Laborers............................................... M.
Policemen....... ..................................... M.
Other employees.............. ................... M.
F.
Federal employees—
Customhouse, Army, and Navy
... M.
Navy yard and arsenal employees........ M.
F.
Maintenance of law and order: Watchmen,
not elsewhere classified............................ M.
Professional service:
Actors and theater employees..................... M.
F.
Motion-picture employees........................... M .
F.
Musicians.................................................... M.
F.
Teachers...................................................... F .
Trained purses............................................ F.
Other workers............................................. M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service: Servants......................... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barbers and barber-shop employees___ M.
F.
Janitors, elevator conductors, and
other building employees.................. M.
F.
Laundry workers.................................. M.
F.
Saloon keepers, bartenders, and other
saloon employees.........................
M.
Hotel employees—
Waiters and waitresses................... M.
F.
Other employees............................. M.
F.




1

1
1

17
21
9
10
5

10
15
9
8
4

5
5
1
1

1

65
1

53
1

6

6

47
7
1

39
4
1

3
2

20
97
190
13
1
20
128
17
55
101

19
86
153
12
1
14
106
11
46
74

213
73
10
58
258
95
47

178
59
10
47
193
78
37

28
23
58
3

1

1
7
6

4
31
1
4
9
3
4
17
15
12

4
1

1

1

2
12
3
5
10
19
2

6
35
7
8

5
30
10
2

26
4
31
3

1
11
21

1
8
6

17
u
3

9
8
3

2

8
1

61

39

16

6

31
15
13
6
34
3
13
52
33
11

26
14
10
6
32
3
6
41
27
9

4

1
1
2

1

1

5
6
3
2

2
5
3

34
446

28
364

3
71

3
11

64
3

48
3

10

6

37
3
29
63

29
1
24
54

5
2
3
9

2

109

95

4

10

49
2
68
7

44
2
50
6

2

3

13
1

5

1

3

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.—Concluded.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Industry and occupation.

Domestic and personal service—Concluded.
Personal service—Concluded.
Restaurant employees:
Waiters W waitressest.................. M.
F.
Other employees............................. M.
F.
Other workers................................ M.
Industry not specified................................. M.
F.

Other
causes.

1
1
1
1
3
2
1

28
24
31
8
30
13
5

25
19
29
6
26
10
4

2
4
1
1
1
1

10,069
2,481

8,303
2,079

1,005
249

27
3

734
150

T o ta l............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

12,550

10,382

1,254

30

884

Total unemployed..........................

14,147

All occupations:
Males.................................................
Females.............................................

1,597

PITTSBURGH, PA.
36

25

8

3

107
10
11

87
9
9

7
1
2

13

108
63
145
15
64
20
133
30
62
15
15

96
57
120
14
61
16
120
29
59
13
15

9
4
21
1
3
3
7
1
1
2

Total...............................

670

600

52

Chemicals and allied products___
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Glass-factory workers............

18

17

73
3

63
3

7

3

18
13
38
1
2

14
? 10
29
1
2

3
2
6

1
1
3

24
9
11
7
12
7

19
7
7
7
12
6

4
1
2

1
1
2

50

44

2

7
28
17
92
62
41

7
27
15
88
55
37

2

Agricultural pi
Extraction o f minerals:
Coalminers.................................................
Other coal-mining employees......................
Other workers In extraction of minerals—
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers...........................................
Building laborers..................................
Carpenters............................................
Cement and concrete workers...............
Electricians..........................................
Hod carriers.........................................
Painters, paper hangers, and decorators,
Plasterers............................................
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters..........
Roofers.................................................
Other workers......................................

Other workers......................................
Clothing manufacture—
Suit, coat, cloak, and overall workers..
Other workers..
Food and kindred products—
Bakery workers................
Candy makers.
Other workers.
Car-shop employees..
Iron ana steel mills—
Catchers....
Cranemen..
Heaters......
Laborers....
Machinists..
Puddlers...




1

3
2
3
1
6
2

1

17
1

1
4
1
3
3

4
4
1

79

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
PITTSBURGH, PA.-Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
Iron, steel, and their products—Concluded.
Iron and steel mills—Concluded.
Rollers............................................ M.
F.
Other workers...t. ..................... .
M.
F.
Iron-foundry workers- ................. ........ M.
Wagon 1 carriage workers............. M.
***^
.
Otfier workers, - T .. ........ r- - - T .......... M.
7
F.
Liquors and beverages: Brewery workers.. M.
T.nmhflr flnd its rAmjynvifftfitnrA_____ _____ M.
F.
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Brass and copper Tnill wnrlrArs....... ...... M.
Other workers...................................... M.
•Printing and bookbinding---...................... M.
F.
Textiles............ ........................................ M.
Miscellaneous industries—
M.
Electrical supply workersT
.........
F.
Laborers, not specified.......................... M.
Tobacco and cigar workers................... M.
F.
Industry not specified: Employees....... M.
F.
Transportation:
Post-office employees.................................. M.
Railroad transportation—
Brakemen and conductors.................... M.
Engineers and firemen.......................... M.
Other workers...................................... M.
F.
Road, street, and bridge transportation—
Chauffeurs............................................ M.
Drivers................................................. M.
Street-railway employees...................... M.
Road, street, ana bridge construction
employees.......................................... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Telegraph and telephone employees........... M.
F.
Water transportation workers..................... M.
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance em­
ployees..................................................... M.
F.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees....................... M.
Department-store employees................ M.
F.
Drug-store employees............................ M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employees.................... M.
F.
Grocery-store employees....................... M.
F.
Other forms of trade—
Canvassers, collectors, and solicitors___ M.
F.
Clerks, cashiers, and bookkeepers......... M.
F.
Drivers................................................. M.
Laborers............................................... M.
Messengers.......................................... M.
F.
flftlftfffW Tl............................................... M.
A
Saleswomen.......................................... F.




40
1
690
2
142
3
170
7
17
36
13

40
1
610
2
131
2
152
6
13
30
12

11
37
39
12
18
47
7
445
15
18
358
35

8

1

56

4

4
1
12

1

20
6
6
1

4
5
1

1

9
35
34
10
15

2
2
4
2
2

1

40
7
400
13
14
315
29

6

1

20
2
1
19
5

1

25
1
11

2
13
1
5
1
6

4

2

1

80
24
85
4

66
19
63
2

8
4
15
2

1

42
216
13

34
186
5

5
17
6

1
1

22
15
19
25
14

18
12
14
21
11

3
2
2
3

1
1
3
1
3

13
1

9
1

2

2

31
28
71
14
2
7
25
48
6

27
22
63
12
2
7
19
39
5

3

10
2
201
41
46
17
13
3
42
38

7
1
174
39
40
17
11
2
36
34

4
1

1
1

2

2
12
2

1
4
4
1

5
5

1
4
1

2
1
12
2
2

1

1
1
1
2

15
4
1
5
2

80

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued,
PITTSBURGH, PA.—Concluded.
Number unemplo’red from specified
cai se.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Industry and occupation.

Trade—Concluded.
Other forms of trade—Concluded.
Stenographers--.................................... M.
F.
Other.................................................... M.
F.
Public service:
State and municipal employees................... M.
Professional service:
Public OTtatrfttfnArs____ „ T rT T - - _______ M.
, T.
F.
Other workers*............................................ M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service,............. .......................... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barbers................................................ M.
Bartenders and saloon porters.............. M.
Elevator runners, janitors, and other
foijidtag attendants_________ _____ M.
F.
Hotel employees................................... M.
F.
T^mndry worke*#-.--,........................... M.
F.
Restaurant employees........................... M.
F.
Other workers....................................... M.
F.
Imhifitry not specified........................................ M.
F.

12
27
58
3

11
23
50
3

1
2
6

2
2

88

58

15

15

14
2
35
23

13
2
26
11

1
f
10

2
2

13
203

10
162

2
32

1
9

21
38

16
26

4
8

1
4

62
10
32
5
11
17
19
6
16
2
32
1

46
8
20
4
10
14
14
4
11

11
2
8

5

All occupations:
lifting.................................................
Females............................................

4,833
678

4,151
556

Total unemployed..........................

5,511

i
2
4
1
2
1
6

4
1
1

1

1
1
3
1
1

413
86

24
2

245
34

4,707

499

26

279

103
1

90
1

7

6

322
9
542
70
67
365
98
175
36
76
14
43

283
8
506
70
61
327
91
163
32
68
13
37

26
1
16

20

1,817

1,659

82

38
29

31
25

5
4

2

16
136
34
84
2

15
129
34
76
2

1
5

2

5

3

15
27

11
24

2
2

2
1

24
1

ST. LOUIS, MO.
Agricultural pursuits......................................... M.
F.
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers................................ ........ M.
Building laborers.................................. M.
Carpenters............................................ M.
Cement and concrete workers............... M.
Hod carriers.......................................... M.
Pafeiters,paper hangers, and decorators. M.
Plasterers.............................................. M.
Plumbers.............................................. M.
Roofers................................................. M.
Structural-iron workers....................... M.
Tile layers........... ................................ M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Total..............................................
Chemicals <ynd aiifafl products..................... M.
F.
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Brickyard workers................................ M.
Glass-factory workers........................... M.
M.
Terra-cotta workers.............. ........
Other workers..................................... M.
F.
Clothing manufacture—
Shirt,collar,
cuff makers................. M.
F.




13

2
17
2
6
6

i

4
21
5
6
4
1
1

6
1

75

81

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b l e 9 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or
to be
or dis­
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—

Continued.
Clothing manufacture—Concluded.
Suite, cloaks, and overalls—
Tailors............................................ M.
Other workers................................ M.
F.
Waist, underwear, and necktie makers M.
F.
Other workers..................................... M.
F.
Food and kindred products—
M.
Other bakery workers.......................... M.
F.
Candy makers..................................... . M.
F.
Slaughter and packing house workers... M.
F.
Other workers...................................... M.
F.
Iron and steel and their products—
M.
Automobile workers..................
Car-shop workers—
M.
Carouilders.........................
Carpenters...........................
M.
Laborers..............................
M.
Machinists...........................
M.
Painters...............................
M.
M.
Other workers......................
Hardware-factory workers.........
M.
F.
Iron foundries—
Molders......................... .
M.
Other workers................
M
Iron and steel mill workers...
M.
Ship and boat yard workers..
M
Stove-factory workers.,
m!
Wagon and « *
Painters..
M.
Other workers...
M.
F.
Other iron and steel industries—
Machinists.............................
M
M.
Other workers.......................
F.
Leather and its finished products—
Shoe factories—
Cutters.................................
M.
F.
Edge setters and trimmers.
M.
F.
Finishers............................
M.
F.
Heelers...............................
M.
F.
Stitchers.............................
M.
F.
Other workers....................
M.

47
30
13
22
81
8
1

42
26
13
21
73
7
1

5
4

62
3
5
36
32
37
1
32
9

47
3
4
31
31
31

7

1
5

3
1
5

3
1

5

1
2

29
8

4
1
1
1

32

30

2

68
44
81
21
23
84
25
10

68
42
72
21
22
80
19
8

110
127
142
16
87

100
113
128
15
74

6
13
7
1
10

1

32
48
2

31
42
2

1
4

1

25
Q
Q
W
I

22
90
i

2
6

153
7
36
7
19
5
20
1
17
58
119
614
43

2

F.

162
7
39
8
21
5
24
3
17
58
124
654
54
1

M.
F.
M.
M.
F.
Distillery and other beverage workers.. M.
F.

54
3
27
103
1
15
2

51
3
22
85
1
11
2

Other workers..........................
Liquors and beverages—
Beer bottlers.............

Brewery drivers...............................
Other brewery workers....................

—Bull. 195—16----- 6




£:

2

2
5

4

1
2
3
2

2
3

3
1
1
3

3

2
2
2

4
1
6

2

4
22
8
1

i
7

1

1

4
1
1
2

11
3
1

3
11

2
7

3

1

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
» .—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.

T able

ST. LOUIS, MO.—Continued.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
Lumber and its remanufacture—
Furniture factories—
tI,,,t- T f........... M.
.T
M.
OfhW W
0rVffl'8-T „..r't--rT-TT--....... M.
M.
Wooden box mafcers.........—
Saw fvnd planing mill workers. ............ M.
Other woodworking industries—
Coooers........................................... M.
M.
Other workers.. . .... .................
F.
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Tinware factories—
Tin-c&n m a k e r s ___ - rr-.......... M.
F.
M.
Other workers..................... .
F.
Other workers,................... ....... ....... . M.
F.
Paper and paper products—
Envelope, tag, and paper-bag makers.... M.
F.
Paper-box workers................................ M.
F.
Other workers....................................... M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees........................ M.
F.
Compositors and printers...................... M.
F.
Press feeders......................................... M.
F.
M.
F.
Textiles....................................................... M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries—
Cigar-factory employees........................ M.
F.
Electrical supply workers..................... M.
F.
Electric light and power company’s
employees. . . , ................................... M.
Gas-company employees...................... M.
Tobacco-factory workers....................... M.
F.
Other workers...................................... M.
F.
Industry not specified—
Blacksmiths and horseshoers................ M.
Laborers............................................... M.
Milliners............................................... M.
F.
Seamstresses......................................... F.
Stationary engineers............................. M.
Stationary firemen................................ M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Transportation:
Express companies—
Drivers................................................. M.
Other employees................................... M.
Post-office employees.................................. M.
F.
Railroad transportation—
Clerks, bookkeepers, and stenographers. M.
F.
Engineers M firemen.......................... M.
Trackmen and switchmen.................... M.
Other workers...................................... M.
F.

.

T

1

|

1
o




1

' 6

49
14
81
17
45

42
14
73
15
38

52
36
4

47
34
4

*1

1
1

12
2
81
1
46
5

9
2
73
1
39
4

1

2

5

7
7
35
18
7
l
1

6
7
30
16
5
1

13
13
84
7
31
3
36
11
46
18

13
10
69
27
3
28
9
36
14

42
5
23
1

38
4
19
1

10
28
82
26
581
28

10
24
70
25
507
25

114
874
4
38
57
26
32
18

93
774
4
35
44
23
19
14

37
8
10
1

35
7
6
1

4

116
6
29
49
142
2

101
2
26
33
106
2

11
3
3
12
25

6

7
3

6

1

1
2
3

3
1

1

1
4
2
2

1

1
8
1
1

2
7
3

6
1
4
3

2
1
6
1

4
1
4

1
0
1
45
2

3
6
3

5
45

16
55
3
7
3
7
i

26
1

6
2
1

1

4
2
1
1

4
1
1
2

3
9

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

83

T ables 9.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—Continued.
Number unemployed from specified
Industry and occupation.

Transportation—Concluded.
Road, street, and bridge transportation—
Chauffeurs...........................................
Drivers................................................
Garage employees...............................
Livery-stable workers.........................
Street-cleaning workers......................
Street-railway employees.....................
Other workers.

Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
or dis­
or
to be
found. ability. lockouts.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

54
537
20
17
67
22
55

51
485
18
14
51
12
47

M.
Operators
F.
Other employees................................... M.
F.
Water transportation................................. M.
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance em­
ployees.................................................... M.
F.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees...................... M.
F.
Department-store employees................ M.
F.
Drug-store employees........................... M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employees................... M.
F.
Grocery-store employees..................... . M.
F.
Merchants and dealers.......................... M.
Other employees................................. . M.
F.
Public service:
City employees—
Laborers............................................... M.
Other employees................................... M.
Public defense—
Policemen, detectives, and guards........ M.
Watchmen............................................ M.
Other workers............................................. M.
F.
Professional service:
Public entertainers—
’R P frfana.........................................
ffT S
M.
F.
Other workers..................................... . . M.
F.
Teachers.................................................... . M.
F.
Trained nurses............................................ F.
Other workers........................................... . M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service—
Servants.............................................. . M.
F.
Washerwomen...................................... F.
Personal service—
Barbers............................................... . M.
Other workers in barber shops............. M.
F.
Hotel employees—
Cooks........ .................................... M.
F.
Waiters......................................... M.
Other employees........................... . , M.
F.
Janitors, elevator conductors, and
M.
F.

16
31
26
4
20

12
18
24
3
19

26
5

17
3

61
1
20
44
33
1
84
83
135
11
130
587
222

52
1
16
38
25
1
74
78
106
10
93
489
190

Other




21
*2

5
2
10
13
29
12

37
40
7
42
26
1
23
4
22
8
2
10
33
35
5
35
587
24

26
445
16

29
12
5

19
12
4

25
6
20
12
7

18
4
18
11
4

58
5

41
4

8
102
7

1
40
1

84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.
NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
ST. LOUIS, MO.—
Concluded.

T able

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
to be
or dis­
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Industry and occupation.

Personal service—
Concluded.
Laundries—
Ironers............................................ M.
F.
Other workers................................ M.
F.
Restaurant employees—
Waiters........................................... M.
F.
Other employees............................. M.
F.
Saloon keepers, bartenders, etc............ M.
Other workers................................. - • M.
•
F.

Other
causes.

3
20
41
319

2
15
36
271

1
5
5
27

11
26
14
7
139
86
ft

9
21
13
7
120
69
3

1
2
1

1
3

15
12
2

4
5
1

Males. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Females....... ........................ ....... .

9,770
2,685

8,518
2,291

800
263

33
7

419
124

Total....... ............. ........................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

12,455

10,809

1,063

40

543

Total unemployed.................. .......

14,219

All occupations:

21

1,764

BRIDGEPORT, CONN.
M.

15

1

M.
M.
F.
M.
Clothing manufacture.
F.
lucts............
M.
Food and kindred
M.
products..
Iron and steel and
F.
Leather and its finished products............... M.
Liquors and beverages................................ M.
Lumber and its remanufacture................... F.
Metals and metal products other than Iron
and steel.................................................. M.
Printing and bookbinding.......................... M.
Textiles....................................................... M.
F.
M.
Miscellaneous industries..
F.

73
1

17

Agricultural pursuits...................................... .
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:

Building trades........................................
Chemicals and allied products............... .

Transportation:

Post, telegra^ ,
_______
Railroad transportation.
Road, street, and bridge transportation...
Water transportation................................

Trade..................................................................
Public service:

5
14
4
58
3
1
1
1
0
3
6

1
5

....
11
6

F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

5
3

....
4

Public administration................................. M.
Public defense and maintenance of law and
order....................................................... M.
Professional service.......................................... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service.
M.
F.
AH occupations:

’ *7*

2
3
5
1
12
18

4

....
2
12

Males............
Females........

377
123

266
81

86
35

25
6

Total.....................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and
of unemploymentunknown

500

347

121

31

Total unemployed.................

537




37

85

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

TABLE 9 . — NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
CLEVELAND, OHIO.

Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Sex.

Industry and occupation.

Number
ployed.

No work Sickness Strikes
or
or dis­
to be
found. ability. lockouts.

Other

Agricultural pursuits.......................................
Extraction of minerals:

M in in g - ..................................................................

Quarrying................................................
Salt, oil, and natural gas production........

1

Manufacturing and mechanical industries:

Building trades........................................
s and allied products..................

11
2
28
56
39
18
10
390
7
9
9
36

Iron and steel and their products................
Leather and its finished products...............
Liquors and beverages................................
Lumber and its remanufacture...................
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel..................................................
Paper and paper products..
Printing and bookbinding.
Textiles..............................
Miscellaneous industries....
Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone..................

Railroad transportation.............................
Road, street, and bridge transportation...
Water transportation.................................

Trade..................................................................
Public service............
Professional service..
Domestic and personal service.
Industry not specified...................
All occupations:

21
3
9
2
27
2
6
7
124
25

6
4
74
121
26
180
82
44
35
5
67
125
14

Food and kindred products....................... .

5
1
26
46
34
13
6
309
6
6
5
26

29
4
11
4
33
3
8
7
147
36

Clay, glass, and stone products.
Clothing manufacture..............

19

5
3
58
99
23
129
70
35
29
4
56
87
11

2
1
1
1
14

3
4
1
16
2
2
1
1
1
8
1

Males..........
Females___

1,937

269

Total..............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown.......

2,266

331

~102

1

1

17

2,348

Total unemployed.

DULUTH, BONN.
Agricultural pursuits....................................
Extraction of minerals:
M in in g .............................. . ...............................

Manufacturing and mechanical industries

M.

5

Building trades.....................................
Chemicals and allied products..............
Clay, glass, and stone products.............
Clothing manufacture..........................

5

Food and kindred products..................

2

Iron and steel and their products..........

1




1

4

86

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
DULUTH, MINN.—Concluded.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
_
Liquors and nQveragAS........... ........ .
T..i«nh<vr and its f
.................................
Metals and metal products other than
Iron and steel...........................................
Paper, and paper products..........................
Printing ancl 6oo^binding...........................
yisnftiiflnftrma industries..............................

M.
M.

4
10

4
10

M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

2
2
3
18
3

1
1
3
17
2

1
1

1
2
44
24
23
48
31

1
1
43
19
22
42
25

1
1
5
1
6
2

2

2

2
8
3
11
11

1
2
2
5
9

1
5

344
55

295
44

40
6

9
5

399

339

46

14

1

Transportation:
Post, telegraph, and telephone.................... M.
F.
Railroad transportation.............................. M.
Road, street, and bridge transportation___ M.
Water transportation.................................. M.
Trade................................................................ M.
F.
Public service:
Public administration................................. M.
Public defense and maintenance of law and
order......................................1................. M.
Professional service......................................... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service....................... M.
F.
An occupations:
Males.................................................
Females.............................................
Total..............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........
Total nnenmloved..........................

1
1

4

1
1
1

5
2

10
409

1

KANSAS CITY, MO.
M.
F.

17
3

15
3

1

Mining....................................................... . M.
Quarrying................................................... M:
Salt, oil, and natural gas production.......... M.

4
7
2

2
6
1

2
1

773
3
47
12
4
168
20
57
5
8
4
30
1

630
2
39
9
3
132
14
42
5
7
2
25

77
1
8

9
1
1
2
13
9
1
3
94
21

6
1
1
2
12
6
1
2
74
17

Agricultural pursuits........................................ .
Extraction of minerals:

Manufacturing and mechanical industries:

Building trades...........................................
Chemicals and allied products....................
Clay, glass, and stone products...................
Clothing manufacture.................................
Food and kindred products........................

Iron and steel and their products.............. .
Leather and its finished products...............
Liquors and beverages.............................. .
Lumber and its remanufecture................... .

M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.

Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel................................................... M.
F.
Paper and paper products......................... . M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding.......................... M.
F.
Textiles....................................................... M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries............................ . M.
F.




1
1

3

1
28
5
10

8
1
5

1
2
1

65

1

2
2
3

1
2

1

13
3

1
7
1

87

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 9 .— NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
KANSAS CITY, MO.—Concluded.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Sex.

Industry and occupation.

Transportation:
Express companies.................................
Post, telegraph, and telephone...............
Railroad transportation..........................
Road, street, and bridge transportation.
Trade...........................................................
Public service:
Public administration.................................
Public defense and maintenance of law and
order................. ......................................
Professional service.........................................

Number
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
or dis­
or
to be
found. ability. lockouts.

2
10
15
156
263
206
18

2
7
7
117
196
155
12

Other

1
3
16
18
13
2

25

All occupations:
Males............
Females........
Total...............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

10
17
11
126
391
2

2
4
3
21
101
1

3
6
1
12
65

2,118
673

Domestic and personal service.
Industry not specified..................

15
27
15
160
557
3

1,664
471

284
125

165
77

2,791

2,135

409

242

24
2,815

Total unemployed.

LOUISVILLE, KY.
5

3

1

1

82
3
2
6
6
8
10
6
6
1
6

58
2
1
4
5
5
9
6
4
1
4

5

19
1

3
1
2
1
1
1
43
10

3
1
2
1
1
1
33
5

1
16
15
5
35
17
2
4
2
21
35

1
12
11
3
20
8
2
2
1
15
18

1
3
16

282
74

201
41

31
21

1

50
11

Total.............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown-----

356

242

52

1

61

Total unemployed.........................

399

Agricultural pursuits......................................
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
Building trades......................................
Chemicals and allied products................
Clay, glass, and stone products..............
I manufacture.............................
Food and kindred products..........
Iron and steel and their products..
Leather and its finished products..
Liquors and beverages..................
Lumber and its remanufacture...................
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel..................................................
Paper and paper products.
Printing and
Textiles...........................
Miscellaneous industries..
Transportation:
Post, telegraph, and telephone...............
Railroad transportation.........................
Road, street, and bridge transportation.. . .
Water transportation..............................
Trade......................... '.................................
Public service...........
Professional service.
Domestic and personal service.
All occupations:
Males........................
Females.....................




43

1
1
1
1

1
1
2

*

2
1

6
2

1

1

2
3
1
5
2

4
2
2
1
1
10
7
2
3
1

88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
MILWAUKEE, WIS.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Industry and occupation.

AgrtrtritnMl pursuits ................ ........ .....
Extraction o f minerals:
Mining...................... ........... ........ ..........
Quarrying.......... rT r. Tr -.......................
,,
Manufacturing and mechanical Industries:
Building trades. . . . . . . . .
.....................
rifiAinfr% and allied products....................
Clothing manufacture. . . . . . . *»..................

Other
causes.

1

M.

4

3

M.
M.

1
2

2

M.
M.
M.
F.
Food and kindred p r o d u c t s . r..........- M.
F.
M.
Iron and
and their products........ .
F.
Tweather
ft-* finishmi products.
M.
F.
Liquor* a^d beverages....... ................ M.
F.
Lumber ai^d its remanufacture................... M.
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel................................................... M.
Paper and paper products........................... M.
F.
Printing
bookbinding........................... M.
F.
M.
T extiles.............................................
F.
urigftftiiflTiAftngindustries.............................. M.
F.
Transportation:
Post, telegraph, «vnd telephone............. M.
HftflwaH trflnannrtfttjOP . ■ T - T . T_______ M.
- ., t
Road, street, and bridge transportation— M.
Water transportation............... .............. M.
F.
Trade................................................................ M.
F.
Public service:
Public administration................... ............. M.
Public defense and maintenance of law
and o rd er................................................ M.
Professional service......................................... M.
F.
Domestic and personal service....................... M.
F.
Industry not specified........................................ M.

220
3
7
4
18
3
30
1
52
18
15
1
16

187
2
5
3
15
3
26
1
43
14
10
1
11

5
20
1
6
5
3
6
162
24

5
16
1
5
3
2
6
137
18

4
10
41
4
1
71
22

3
7
32
3
1
51
15

10
4

12

7

5

2
22
2
30
42
33

1
19
2
21
31
29

1
2

1

7
8
1

2
3
3

793
130

642
99

87
18

1

63
13

Total...............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown....* .

923

741

105

1

76

Total unemployed..........................

1,030

All occupations:
Males...................................................
Fem ales..............................................

1

107

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.
Extraction o f minerals:
Quarrying.............................................
Manufacturing and mechanical industries
Building wades.....................................
Clav, glass, and stone products.............
Clothing manufacture..........................
Food and kindred products..................
Iron and steel and their products.........
Leather and its finished products.........
Liquors and beverages..........................
Lumber and its remanufecture.............
Paper and paper products.....................
Printing and bookbinding....................




75
1
1
18
2
20
2
8
14
4
2
1

20
1
1

13
1
1
1

2

I

3
4
1
3

1

4
3
2

1

4

1

3

1
2

1
9
3

16
3

1
I
5

2
4
1

10
3

89

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 9 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.-Concluded.
Number unemployed from specified
cause.
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
Other
or dis­
or
to be
found. ability. lockouts. causes.

Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
Textiles........................................................ M.
F.
Miscellaneous
-. t. . . . . . . . . . T r M.
.
F.
Transportation:
Post, telegraph, and telephone.................... M.
F.
M.
Railroad transportation............. .............
Road, street, and bridge transportation___ M.
Trad© ........................ .............. ***»*......... a M.
F.
Public service:
M.
Public administration... - .................
Public defense and maintenance of law and
order......................................................... M.
Professional service.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Domestic and persona] service....................... M.
F.
IwJpi^ry not specified......... T - . ___
r..
M.

3
1
30
5

1

1

28
2

1
1

1
1
1
2

6
2
27
32
45
18

5
1
21
24
35
15

3
8
5
2

64

60

4

2
9
3
34
24
21

2
6
3
27
16
19

1
3
1

All occupations:
Males.................................................
Females.. . . . . . . . T - -. -. r. ... -

438
57

373
41

39
6

2

24
10

Total unemployed..........................

495

414

• 45

2

34

1
1
3
5
1

3
6
5
1

ST. PAUL, MINN.
Agricultural pursuits........................................
Extraction o f
............. ...................
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:
Building trades...........................................
Chemicals and allied products....................
Clay, glass, and stone products...................
Clothing manufacture..................................
Food and kindred products........................
Iron and steel and their products................
Leather and its finished products...............

1
1

M.
M.

5
2

4
1

M.
F.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.

134
3
2
8
1
5
12
16
5
4
12

120
3
2
6

13

3
9
15
4
3
10

2
3

4
4
11
1
3
31
5

3
4
6

1
2

1

2
25
4

1
5
1

1

Liquors and beverages................................
Lumber and its remanuiacture...................
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel................... .............................. M.
Paper and paper products........................... M.
Printing and bookbinding........................... M.
F.
Textiles....................................................... M.
Mfgeeiiflneoiig Industries............................ M.
F.
Transportation:
Post, telegraph, and telephone................... M.
F.
Railroad transportation.............................. M.
Road, street, and bridge transportation___ M.
Trade................................................................ M.
F.
Public service.................................................... M.
Professional service...................... .
M.
F.
Domestic and personal service........................ M.
F.

1

2

1
1
1

1
2

2
1

5
8
38
38
45
22
14
12
2
29
16

5
7
31
31
32
15
10
8
21
11

1
4
2
6
3
3
3
1
7
3

434
63

351
44

57
9

3

23
10

Total...............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

497

395

60

3

33

Total unemployed.........................

582

All occupations:
Males.................................................
Females.............................................




85

1

3
5
6
4
1
1
1
1
2

90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAtF OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T ab le 9 .— NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
SPRINGFIELD, MO.
Number unemployed from specified
Number
Sex. unem­
ployed. No work Sickness Strikes
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts.

Industry and occupation.

Other

Agricultural pursuits....................................... .
Extraction of minerals:

Quarrying................................................
Salt, oil, and natural gas production......

Manufacturing and mechanical industries:

Building trades........................................
Clav, glass, and stone products................
Clothing manufacture.............................
Food and kindred products....................
Iron and steel and their products..........
Lumber and its remanufacture...............
Printing and bookbinding......................
Miscellaneous industries.........................

Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone...............
Railroad transportation..........................
Road, street, and bridge transportation.
Water transportation.............................
Trade............... „ . ..........................................
Public service:

Public administration.................................
Public defense and maintenance of law and
order........................................................

Professional service...........................................
Domestic and personal service.........................
Industry not specified..........................................
All occupations:

Males.

130
20

Total...............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

150

Total unemployed.

109

12
162

TOLEDO, OHIO.
Agricultural pursuits................................... .
Extraction of minerals:

1

M i n i n g ..............................................................

Salt, on, and natural gas production-----

Manufacturing and mechanical industries

Building trades
Chemicals and a

Clay, glass, and stone products..................
Clothing manufacture................................
Food and kindred products.......................
Iron and steel and their products...............
Leather and its finished products..............
Liquors and beverages...............................
Lumber and its remanufacture..................
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel................................................
Printing and bookbinding.........................
Textiles............................................. .—
Miscellaneous industries............................
Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone..................
Railroad transportation.............................
Road, street, and bridge transportation...
Water transportation.................................




I ll

3
1
39
2
7
2
9
4
199
6
5
3
14

3
1
35
2
7
2
8
3
168
4
3
3
10

12
8
1
177
19

7
5
1
155
15

2
2
62
1
70
6

**48

9

3
4

i

1
19
2
1

12

2

2

3
1

2
2

11

11
4

1

2
11
1
9

1

2
2
1

91

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T a b le 9 .— NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OP UNEMPLOYMENT-Conduded.
TOLEDO, OHIO—Concluded.

Sex.

Industry and occupation.

Trade................................................................. .

Number unemployed from specified
Number
unem­ No work
Strikes
ployed.
Other
or dis­
to be
or
found. ability. lockouts.
54

Public service:

Public administration............................... .
Public defense and maintenance of law
and order.................................................

Professional service..........................................

26

Domestic and personal service.
All occupations:

Males............
Females........

852
120

Total..............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

78

48
13

108

972

Total unemployed..........................

725
77

61

1,102

130

WILKES-BARRE, PA.
Agricultural pursuits.......................................
Extraction of minerals...................................
Manufacturing and mechanical industries:

Building trades........................................
Chemicals and allied products..................
Clay, glass, and stone products.
Clothing manufacture...............
Food and kindred products....

Iron and steel and their products..............
Leather and its finished products.............
Liquors and beverages..............................
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel.................................................
Printing and bookbinding........................
Textiles....................................................
Miscellaneous industries..
Industry not specified...............................

Transportation:

Post, telegraph, and telephone.................

Railroad transportation.........................
Road, street, and bridge transportation...
Other forms of transportation...................
Trade:

Clerical assistants......................................
Wholesale and retail trade.

225

159
86
6
1
3
10
2
13
1
5

134
84
5
1
2
9
2
10
1
3

3
2
22
89
14
7
32

3
1
21
82
9
6
20

1
1
5
4
1
9

3

7
2
33
33
4

5
1
24
28
4

2
1
8
3

1
2

27
4
37
19

20
4
26
17

8
11
7
2
17
15

7
5
4
2
12
9

1
6
3

939
146

658
128

245
14

3

33
4

1,085

786

259

3

37

Public service:

Public administration................................
Public defense and maintenance of law
and order................................................

Professional service..........................................
Domestic dnd personal service.
All occupations:

Males............
Females........

T ota l.............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........
Total unemployed.




115
1,200

2
155

1

23

2

1
20

3
401

1
1

2
1

3
2

2
1

7
1

10
2

1
2

4
4

92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Of the 68,084 unemployed in the above cities for whom cause of
unemployment was secured, 82,7 per cent were apparently able and
willing to work, but could not find employment; 11 per cent were
prevented from working on account of sickness or disability; 0.5 per
cent, on account of strikes or lockouts; and 5.9 per cent because of
other reasons.
In the table which follows, the per cent of wage earners unem­
ployed from each specified cause in each city is shown, the percent­
ages being based upon the number of wage earners reporting.
Table 10.—SUMMARY OF CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN 16 CITIES.

City.

Boston, Mass..........
Bridgeport, Conn...
CUwSand, Ohio----Duluth, Minn........ .
Kansas City, Mo----Louisville, K y........
Milwaukee. W is----Minneapolis, Minn..,
Philadelphia, P a ...
Pittsburgh, Pa.......
St. Louis, Mo..........
St. Paul,Minn.......
Springfield, Mo.......
Toledo, Ohio..........
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...
Total.............

Wage earners
Per cent of wage earners unem­
unemployed. ployed from each specified cause.
Number
of wage
earners
No
Sick­ Strikes
report­ Number. Per
work ness or
or
Other
ing.
cent. to be disa­ lock­ causes.
found bility. outs.
77,419
12,533
157,616
24,934
2,089
22,512
3,036
13,112
3,449
137,244
53,336
104,499
4,135
2,284
10,312
18,884

7,863
537
20,952
2,348
425
2,815
399
1,030
495
14,147
5,942
14,219
582
162
1,102
1,200

10.16
4.28
13.29
9.42
20.34
12.50
13.14
7.86
14.40
10.31
11.14
13.61
14.07
7.09
10.69
6.35

7.84
2.98
11.16
7.60
17.11
9.58
8.91
6.34
11.54
8.52
9.49
11.80
11.21
5.16
8.83
4.63

1.73
1.04
1.21
1.37
2.50
1.83
1.91
.90
1.26
1.03
1.00
1.16
1.88
1.80
1.19
1.53

0.09
.01
.11
(l)

.01
.02

0.54
.27
.82
.42
.69
1.08
2.24
.65
.95
.72
.56
.60
.93
.14
.67
.22

647,394

74,218

11.46

9.51

1.27

.06

.68

.03
.04
.01
.06
.02
.06
.04
.08

•i Less than one-hundredth of 1 per cent.

Of the 647,394 wage earners concerning whom reports were secured
11.5 per cent were unemployed. Assuming that the causes of unem­
ployment among those reporting as to causes were representative
of all, 9.51 per cent of the entire number were unemployed because
of inability to find work, 1.27 per cent because of sickness or disa­
bility, 0.06 per cent because of strikes and lockouts, and 0.68 per
cent from other causes.
The percentage unemployed because no work was to be found
varied from 2.98 in Bridgeport, Conn., to 17.11 in Duluth, Minn.,
while percentages in excess of 10 were reported in Chicago, Minne­
apolis, St. Paul, and St. Louis. The percentage unemployed on
account of sickness or disability ranged from 0.90 in Milwaukee to
2.50 in Duluth, Minn. Other cities showing a high percentage due
to this cause were Louisville, 1.91; St. Paul, Minn., 1.88; Kansas
City, 1.83, and Springfield, Mo., 1.80.
It is of significance to note that the percentage unemployed because
of strikes and lockouts was very small—only 0.06. This eliminates
labor disputes as an important factor in the unemployment situation
at the time of the survey.



93

UNEM PLOYM ENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

UNEMPLOYMENT IN 12 CITIES IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN AND
PACIFIC COAST STATES.
During June and July, 1914, the third of the series of unemployment
investigations was inaugurated and covered 12 cities in the Rocky
Mountain and Pacific Coast States. This canvass was also made
by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., in the same manner as the
previous investigations. The following table shows in summary
form the results of the canvass in the 12 cities named:
Table 11.—SUMMARY OF UNEMPLOYMENT SURVEY IN 12 BOCKY MOUNTAIN AND
PACIFIC COAST CITIES.

City.

Per cent
Unemployed.
Number
Number
of
families Number of wage
of
of per­
families having sons in earners
can­
unem­ families.
in
Per
vassed.
families. Num­ cent.
ploy­
ber.
ment.

3,557
Butte, Mont..........................
5,621
Los Angeles, Cal...................
2,927
.........................Oakland, Cal
581
Ogden, Utah.........................
Portland, Oreg......................
1,783
Sacramento. Cal....................
1,288
1,052
Salt Lake city, Utah............
Stan Diego, Cal.......................
1,466
Sftn Francisco, Cal................
5,320
10,112
Seattle, Wash........................
1,012
Spokane, Wash.....................
1,818
Tacoma, Wash......................
Total............................

36,537

Part-time work­
ers.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

7.6
13.1
15.1
5.7
23.4
11.8
14.3
18.3
19.5
15.0
19.0
21.3

13,148
21,414
11,478
2,668
6,711
4,856
4,436
5,682
20,810
36,242
3,479
6,977

4,229
7,227
4,256
887
2,347
1,856
1,664
1,828
7,749
13,473
1,259
2,558

298
822
510
40
469
170
173
305
1,206
1,713
210
457

7.0
11.4
12.0
4.5
20.0
9.2
10.4
16.7
15.6
12.7
16.7
17.9

536
1,744
1,144
127
406
439
295
533
1,971
1,992
257
527

12.7
24.1
26.9
14.3
17.3
23.7
17.7
29.2
25.4
14.8
20.4
20.6

15.3

137,901

49,333

6,373

12.9

9,971

20.2

This table shows that in the 36,537 families canvassed in the 12
cities visited, with a total membership of 137,901 persons, there were
49,333 wage earners, of whom 6,373 were out of work, the number
unemployed being 12.9 per cent of all wage earners in the families.
The highest percentage of wholly unemployed was found in Port^
land, Oreg., where 20 per cent, or one-fifth, of all wage earners were
out of work. The smallest percentage of unemployed was found in
Ogden, Utah, where only 4.5 per cent were found out of work. The
other cities where a large percentage of unemployment was found
were: Tacoma, 17.9 per cent; Spokane, 16.7 per cent; San Diego,
16.7 per cent; and San Francisco, 15.6 per cent. The other 7 cities
showed percentages of unemployment less than the average for the
12 cities, and ranged from 12.7 per cent in Seattle to 4.5 per cent in
Ogden. It should be noted, however, that in addition to the number
wholly unemployed at the time the canvass was made there were
9,971, or 20.2 per cent of all wage earners covered by the survey, who
were employed only part time, which magnifies to a greater or less
extent the distress resulting from unemployment. The percentages
of these part-time workers ranged from 29.2 per cent in San Diego,
Cal., to 12.7 per cent in Butte, Mont. In this connection attention



94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

should be directed to the fact that the number of persons shown as
part-time workers include all who worked any period less than full
time. In many instances the time worked may have been but slightly
less than full time, while in other cases only a few hours per day or
one or more days per week may have been worked. The extent of
unemployment, taking into consideration the part-time workers, par­
ticularly in the cities of the Pacific Coast States, is very large and
probably abnormal for the summer season. These large figures are
probably accounted for to some extent at least by the fact that there
had been a large influx of wage earners seeking employment in con­
nection with the two expositions in California, and the supply of
labor being found greater than the demand, they drifted to various
points throughout the Pacific Coast States. Owing to the compara­
tively small number of families canvassed in these 12 cities, a sepa­
rate tabulation for each city, as in the preceding investigation, was
not deemed practicable. A tabulation has been made, therefore, for
all 12 cities- combined.
OCCUPATIONS OF UNEMPLOYED.

In making the canvass an attempt was made to ascertain the spe­
cific occupation of each unemployed person. This information was
secured for 5,830 of the total of 6,373 cases. Of this number 4,316
have been tabulated by sex, occupation, and period of time out of
work. The other 1,514 were reported in a large number of unim­
portant occupations and the number in each was so small that all
have been combined and tabulated in one miscellaneous group, under
the designation “ All other occupations.” The table follows:
TABLE 1 2 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

Occupation.

Agents, solicitors, and canvassers
Bartenders................................ .
Blacksmiths and horseshoers—
Boiler makers.............................
Bookkeepers...............................
Bricklayers................................
Butchers...................................
Cabinetmakers..........................
Carpenters................................. .
Cashiers.....................................
Cement-fectory employees........
Chauffeurs..................................
Clerks........................................
Cooks (not in domestic service)..




Number of persons unemployed each classified number of
Num­
days.
ber
unSex. employ- lto 7 8 to 13 14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to 121 to 181 Not re­
ed.
60
90
120 180 and pored.
over.

14
32
41
17
486
5
12
41
61
238
101
67
15

5
8
9
4
3
1
5
11
3
68
1
1
10
9
29
15
2
3

1
5
6
8
9
1
1
6
2
50
1
2
5
8
34
15
11
2

3
1
3
3
3
6
1
33
2
5
15
7
4

3
7
18
11
9
4
8
5
4
92
2
2
9
13
39
20
19

6
12
21
6
19
1
7
9
3
122

16
1
3
4
1
40

2
7
7
44
19
12
3

1
2
1
35
10
6
4

2
1
1

95

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T able

12.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number of
Num­
days.
ber
unSex. em181
ploy- 1 to 7 8 to 13 14 to 31 to 61 to 91 to 121to and Not re­
30
90
120 180 over. ported.
ed.
60

Occupation.

211
Domestic servants...................... F
40
T)r^snnf^<^>i i_______________ F
t
283
Drivers................ ........ ............. M
61
F,]Ar»triciaTis................... ............ M
M
25
7
I n s p e c t o r s ..................... M
Laborers.................................... M
977
M
T^firahnr$ni$n............- , T 40
Machinist*__________________ M.
168
Miners......................................... M.
183
Molders....................................... M.
22
40
Nurses.— . ................... -............ F.
14
P ack ers.................................... M.
F.
14
Painters,paper hangers,and dec­
orators.................................. M.
138
Plasterers................................... M.
50
102
Plum bers.................................. M.
M.
31
Porters.....................................
Printing employees..................... M.
33
Salesmen..................................... M.
127
Saleswomen............. .................. F.
38
Stationary engineers.................. M.
83
11
Stationary firem en.................... M.
91
Steam railroad employees........... M.
M.
Stenographers
11
F.
95
42
Waiters...................................... M.
Watchmen................................. M.
23
Ail other occupations.................. M. 1,217
F.
297

6
1
11
1
1
28
4
7

1

3
2

1
6
1
1
1
1
3
1
1

2

2

1

44
35
9
4
46
20
4
11
6 ......

34
5
53
10
9
2
211
10
32
62
3
10
2
1

23
4
25
2
2

7
2
5
4

7
i
8
4
2
142
49

146
7
18
22
3
5
3
3

59
1
9
13
1
2

19
13
14
4
6
17
9
8

26
8
10
3
3
14
5
10

8
1
13
10
1
166
39

8
1
12
5
2
112
36

13
1
10
2
1
8
2
2
1
5
7
1
3
76
25

19
26
11
10
18
24
5
5
11
7
26
26
3
6
25 * 21
4
4
17
36
1
5
16
19
8
8
7
5
211 290
33
54

2
1

2

23
9
52
15
3
3
166
7
47
20
6
5
2
2

148
8
25
20
4
4
3
3

2
30
12

1

13
4
34
6
3

146
5
25
26
3
10
4
3
20
4
19
7
4
20
9
11
2
7
2
18
6
1
188
48

1

33
4
41
12
2

1

70
8
13
2
4

12
3
5

All occupations:
Males..............................
Females..........................

4,953
877

131
25

14
1

722
164

674
127

603
118

325
64

922 1,137
117 154

425
107

Total...........................

5,830

156

15

886

801

721

389 1,039 1,291

532

This table shows that of the 5,830 unemployed of known occupa­
tion, 977,. or 16.8 per cent, were laborers. The other occupations
showing a large number out of work were: Carpenters, 486, or 8.3
per cent; clerks, 339, or 5.8 per cent; drivers, 283, or 4.9 per cent;
domestic servants, 211, or 3.6 per cent; miners, 183, or 3.1 per cent;
machinists, 168, or 2.9 per cent; salesmen and saleswomen, 165, or 2.8
per cent; and painters and paper hangers, 138, or 2.4 per cent.
DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

In order to secure a measure of the distress resulting from unem­
ployment, the length of time each person had been out of work was
reported and the results are shown by occupation in the preceding
table.
The duration of unemployment is summarized by sex without
regard to occupation and shown in the table following, the percentages
being based on the number of cases of known duration.




96

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

13.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED EACH CLASSI­
FIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMULATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEMPLOYED
OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS IN 12 ROCKY MOUNTAIN AND PACIFIC
COAST CITIES.
Number and per cent.

T able

Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemoloyment.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
1 to 7 days..................................................
8 to 13 days................................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..................... .........................
61 to 90 days..............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days and over......................................

131
14
722
674
603
325
922
1,137

2.9
.3
15.9
14.9
13.3
7.2
20.4
25.1

25
1
164
127
118
64
117
154

3.2
.1
21.3
16.5
15.3
8.3
15.2
20.0

156
15
886
801
721
389
1,039
1,291

2.9
.3
16.7
15.1
13.6
7.3
19.6
24.4

Total known.....................................
Unknown..................................................

4,528
425

100.0

770
107

100.0

5,298
532

100.0

Total unemployed............................

4,953

877

5,830

Cumulative number and per cent.
Over 180 days............................................
Over 120 days............................................
Over 90 days^............................................
Over 60 days..............................................
Over 30 days..............................................
Over 13 days..............................................
Over 7 days................................................
1 day and over...........................................

1,137
2,059
2,384
2,987
3,661
4,383
4,397
4,528

25.1
45.5
52.7
66.0
80.9
96.8
97.1
100.0

154
271
335
453
580
744
745
770

20.0
35.2
43.5
58.8
75.3
96.6
96.8
100.0

1,291
2,330
2,719
3,440
4,241
5,127
5,142
5,298

24.4
44.0
51.3
64.9
80.0
96.8
97.1
100.0

From the above table it will be seen that the unemployment was
to a large extent of long duration. Nearly one-fourth had been unem­
ployed 181 days and over; nearly one-fifth from 121 to 180 days.
Four-fifths had been unemployed over 30 days.
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

The information secured from each family included so far as
possible a statement of the cause of each unemployed wage earner's
unemployment. This information was found difficult to secure
accurately in a number of cases. The following table, however,
shows by sex and occupation the principal causes of unemployment
as reported by the individuals themselves:
T able

14.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

Occupation.

agAnt.g solicitors, ffnd canvassers....................................
Bartenders ..... .... ....... ........... ....................................
Blacksmiths and horseshoers...........................................
Boiler makers..................................................................
Bookkeepers...................................................................




Cause of unemployment.
Num­
ber
Sick­ Strikes
Sex. unem­
No
and
Other
ployed. work ness or lock­ reasons.
disa­
to be
found. bility. outs.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

24
41
68
33
60
14

14
31
54
25
47
10

2
5
10
3
6
1

1
3

8
5
3
2
7
3

97

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b u s 1 1 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.

Occupation.

Cause of unemployment.
Num­
ber
Sick­ Strikes
Sex. unem­
No
Other
and
ployed. work ness or lock­ reasons.
disa­
to be
found. bility. outs.

Bricklayers......................................................................
Butchers........... .............................................................
Cabinet-makers............................. .......
Carpft?it«rs.. t.................................. ..............................
Casniers............................ ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

M.
32
27
41
M.
31
M.
16
17
M.
404
486
5
M.
3
9
F.
12
Cement-factory employees............................................... M.
41
37
Chauffeurs..................................................................... M.
52
61
ClflrTrs....................................................... ..................... M.
238
193
F.
101
88
Cooks (not in domestic service)....................................... M.
54
67.
F.
13
15
Dnmestfaservants......................... T . ......................
F.
211
152
Dressmakers................................. ................ -.......
31
40
F.
Drivers............................................................................ M.
283
215
Electricians.................................................................. . M.
61
57
Foremen and overseers.................................................... M.
25
17
5
Inspectors........................................................................ 7
M.
Laborers.......................................................................... M.
817
977
Longshoremen................................................................. M.
27
40
147
Machinists....................................................................... M.
168
Miners.......................................................... ; ................. M.
183
62
Molders......................................... ................................. M.
22
19
Nurses............................................................................. F.
31
40
11
Packers................... ........................................................ M.
14
F.
12
14
Painters, paper hangers, and decorators......................... M.
138
117
M.
45
Plasterers........................................................................
50
Plumbers........................................................................ M.
102
88
Porters.......... ................................................................. M.
31
23
33
26
Printing employees......................................................... M.
Salesmen...................... .
, ........ ......................... M.
127
97
Saleswomen..................................................................... F.
38
30
Stationary engineers........................................................ M.
83
€8
Stationary firemen.......................................................... M.
8
11
Steam railroad employees............................................... M.
91
58
11
Stenographers................................................................. M.
10
F.
79
95
Waiters.......................................................................... M.
42
31
Watchmen....................................................................... M.
23
20
1,217
918
All other occupations...................................................... M.
F.
297
215
A1 O C p U VS
1 A
f^ IO
All AC U & AD *
U «
Hales................................................................
4,953 3,874
877
670
Females..............................................................
......... rT - . ..................-....................
Occupation, sex, and cause of unemployment
unknown.........................................................

5,830

Total unemployed...................... ................

4,544

3
9
1
49
2
1
1
3
16
5
9
30
8
41
2
8
2
91
12
7
50
1
8
2
1
9
4
8
4
6
19
6
6
2
12
1
5
2
2
144
43

2
1
2

5
1

2
4
54

1

3
4
1
19

31
2
3
6
29
8
4
2
24
1
26
2
67
•1
10
17
2
1
1
1
11
1
6
4
1
11
2
6
1
17
11
8
1
136
39

554
108

95
5

430
94

662

100

524

6,373

543

Among the 49,333 wage earners concerning whom information was
secured 10.05 per cent were unemployed because unable to find work,
1.47 per cent because of sickness or disability, 0.22 per cent because
of strikes and lockouts, and 1.16 per cent from other causes, or a total
of 12.9 per cent from all causes. In this connection it should be
borne in mind that there are in every city a certain number of persons
out of work who will not accept employment in any occupation
except that of their own particular trade, and also an indefinite
number who will not accept employment of any kind even when
offered. A portion of these are probably included under the cause,
“ No work to be found.”
32666°—Bull. 195—16----- 7



98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

UNEMPLOYMENT IN NEW YORK CITY,
SECOND SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, SEPTEMBER,
1915,

The fourth investigation made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
was a second survey of New York City. Previous mention has been
made of the unemployment survey of this city made in January and
February, 1915, by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Metropoli­
tan Life Insurance Co., respectively, and reported in Bulletin 172.
These surveys were made at a time when the abnormal extent of
unemployment manifested itself in a number of different ways. By
the end of the summer, however, the feeling was general that condi­
tions had greatly improved since the preceding winter, but no measure
of this improvement had been determined. In order to determine
the falling off in unemployment between the winter season, when the
number of wage earners out of work probably reached the highest
point, and the summer season, when the number unemployed under
normal conditions would probably be the smallest of the year, a sec­
ond survey was undertaken by both tHe Bureau of Labor Statistics
and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
The canvass by the Bureau of Labor Statistics was made in August
and September, 1915. The same 104 city blocks were covered as in
the earlier investigation, the blocks having been carefully chosen so
as to represent the different nationalities and industries of the city.
A census was also made of individual tenement houses and residences
in the same widely distributed assignments covered in the first inves­
tigation, but the number of houses included was somewhat larger,
being 3,895, as against 3,703 in the former study.
The summary of the results of this investigation and that of the
February survey are given in parallel columns in the following table
for purposes of comparison:
T a b l e 1 5 . — UNEMPLOYMENT

IN NEW YORK CITY, FEBRUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915.
February, September,
1915.
1915.

Item.
Families canvassed................................................................................................
Families with, unemployment..............................................................................
Per cent of families with unemployment..............................................................
Persons in famflfas canvassed................................................................................
Persons per family................................................................................................
Number of wage earners........................................................................................
Wage earners per family.......................................................................................
Full-time wage earners..........................................................................................
Per cent of wage earners employed fail tima.........................................................
Part-time wage earners..........................................................................................
Per cent of wage earners employed part time.......................................................
Unemployed wage earners....................................................................................
Per cent of wage earners unemployed...................................................................




* Not tabulated.

54,849
11,723
21.4
229,428
4.2
95,443
1.7
M
M
m
15,417
16.2

56,539
5,480
9.7
235,628
4.2
97,741
1.7
83,036
85.0
8,176
8.4
6,529
6.7

99

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

The above summary shows that unemployment conditions had
changed to a remarkable degree in the interval between the two
surveys. This table shows that 56,539 families, with 6,529 unem­
ployed wage earners, were scheduled in the second investigation, as
against 54,849 families, with 15,417 unemployed wage earners, in the
first survey. In February the number unemployed per hundred wage
earners was 16.2; by September this rate had dropped to 6.7 per
hundred, indicating a marked revival in industry and a large in­
crease in the demand for labor.
Because of the large numbers involved it is safe to estimate the
total number unemployed in the entire city. The following table
gives the estimates of the total number out of work in New York
City, by sex, with unemployment rates, as made for both surveys.
These estimates are based upon the number of wage earners given
in the 1910 United States Census1 (with proper allowance for increase
in population), the unemployment rates obtained in the surveys, and
the sex distribution of the unemployed canvassed.
T a b l e 1 6 . — ESTIMATED

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS
IN NEW YORK CITY, FEBRUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915, BY SEX.
Males.

Time of survey.

February, 1915........................
September, 1915......................

Estimated
un­
employed.
336,230
127,842

Total.

Females.

Per cent
of wage
earners.
18.8
7.1

Estimated
un­
employed.

Per cent
of wage
earners.

Estimated
un­
employed.

61,770
37,094

9.2
5.5

398,000
164,936

Percent
of wage
earners.
16.2
6.7

The above figures show that the distress caused by unemployment
conditions in February was to a large extent alleviated by September.
The total number unemployed was nearly two and one-half times as
great in February as in September. However, the estimate of about
165,000 unemployed in September must be regarded as a minimum
because a similar estimate based on the results of the September
survey by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. gives 224,000 unem­
ployed.
Similarly the unemployment rate of 6.7 per cent must be regarded
as a minimum because the corresponding survey by the Metropolitan
Life Insurance Co. showed an unemployment rate of 9.1 per cent.
DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

The next table shows the unemployed in September, 1915, classified
by sex and duration of unemployment and the corresponding informa­
tion for the February survey given in parallel columns.




i Vol. IV, Occupation Statistics.

100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

17.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN NEW YORK CITY, FEB­
RUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915, UNEMPLOYED EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF
DAYS.

T able

February.
Duration of unemploy­
ment.

Males.

Females.

September.
Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
1 to 7 days.......................
8 to 13 days.....................
14 to 30 days....................
31 to 60 days....................
61 to 90 days....................
91 to 120 days..................
121 to 180 days................
181 days and over............

766
530
1,469
2,570
2,126
1,686
1,968
1,440

6.1
4.2
11.7
20.5
16.9
13.4
15.7
11.5

221
130*
324
504
339
244
321
215

9.6
5.7
14.1
21.9
14.8
10.6
14.0
9.4

987
660
1,793
3,074
2,465
1,930
2,289
1,655

6.6 322
4.4 267
12.1 667
20.7 738
16.6 656
13.0 439
15.4 454
11.1 1,254

6.7
5.6
13.9
15.4
13.7
9.2
9.5
26.1

91
74
215
283
215
139
132
236

6.6 413
5.3 341
15.5 882
20.4 1,021
15.5 871
10.0 578
9.5 586
17.0 1,490

6.7
5.5
14.3
16.5
14.1
9.3
9.5
24.1

,
Total known.......... 12,555 100.0 2,298 100.0 j14,853 100.0 4,797 100.0 1,385 j100.0 6,182 100.0
63
52
22
Unknown........................
46
17
74
Total unemployed. 12,601

2,315 ........ 14,916 i.......... 4,849
I
!

6,256

1,407

It will be noticed that of the males unemployed in September,
1,254, or 26.1 per cent, were out of work 181 days or over—that is,
6 months or more.1 . The corresponding number for the February
survey was 1,440, or 11.5 per cent. This would indicate that a con­
siderable number listed as unemployed in February had not found
work in the interval between the two surveys, and consequently reap­
peared in the September survey.
The figures of the previous table are presented in another form
in the next table, which gives the cumulative number and per cent
of wage earners out of employment each specified number of days.
The percentages for the two surveys are very similar except for
the group “ over 180 days,” which has been discussed above.
The number of people unemployed over 60 days was nearly 60
per cent of the total in both surveys.
T a b l e 1 8 .— CUMULATIVE

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN NEW YORK
CITY, FEBRUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915, UNEMPLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED
NUMBER OF DAYS.
February.

Duration of unemploy­
ment.

Males.

Females.

September.
Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Over 180 days.................. 1,440 11.5 215
Over 120 days.................. 3,408 27.1 536
Over 90 days................... 5,094 40.6 780
Over 60 days................... 7,220 57.5 1,119
Over 30 days................... 9,790 78.0 1,623
Over 13 days................... 11,259 89.7 1,947
Over 7 days..................... 11,789 93.9 2,077
1 day and over................ 12,555 100.0 2,298

9.4
23.3
33.9
48.7
70.6
84.7
90.4
100.0

1,655
3,944
5,874
8,339
11,413
13,206
13,866
14,853

11.1
26.6
39.5
56.1
76.8
88.9
93.4
100.0

1,254
1,708
2,147
2,803
3,541
4,208
4,475
4,797

26.1
35.6
44.8
58.4
73.8
87.7
93.3
100.0

236
368
507
722
1,005
1,220
1,294
1,385

17.0
26.6
36.6
52.1
72.6
88.1
93.4
100.0

1,490
2,076
2,654
3,525
4,546
5,428
5,769
6,182

24.1
33.6
42.9
57.0
73.5
87.8
93.3
100.0

i It may be noted that the corresponding percentage in the duration table of the Metropolitan Life
Insurance Co.'s September survey is larger, viz, 30.3 per cent. See p. 109.




101

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
OCCUPATIONS OF UNEMPLOYED.

The following table presents the number unemployed, classified
by sex, industry, occupation, and periods of unemployment:
T able 19.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT.
NEW YORK CITY.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
ofaays.
Industry and occupation.

ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Agricultural pursuits.................. M.
Manufacturing and mechanical
Industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers......................
Building laborers.............
Carpenters.......................
Cement and concrete
workers
••• ##l
Painters and paper hang­
ers.................................

8
to
13

1
to
7

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

5

2

1

9
21
14

12
22
8

11
49
17

19
43
20

11
25
14

8
21
12

121 181 Not
and re­
to
180 over. port­
ed.

1

13
101
248
130

14
to
30

3

1

7
19
16

24
46
29

2

8
1
8

1

2

30
10
30
10
8
7

61

198

4

12

3

1

2

2

Plumbers and gas fitters..
Roofers........................... .
Structural-iron workers...
Other workers................ .

113
39
101
27
25
16

14
8
6
4
2
1

6
8
4
1
2
2

22
5
16
2
3
3

15
4
23
3
3

9
1
8
4
3
1

8
2
5
3
4

Total.........................

812

82

65

129

132

78

63

Chemicals and allied products.

11
4

5

2
2

4
5

1
2

5

2
3

2
3

12
10

3

5

4

7

2

4

1

4
6
3
1
5

4
35
9
1
35

5
51
9
1
38
3
36
16

2
21
15
2
30

7
21
13

16
39
35

1

26
2
28
11

44
1
52
15

5

26
8
6

2
8

3
6

1
1

8
2
1

12

Clay, glass, and stone prod­
ucts—
Marble and stone cutters..
Other workers.................
Clothing manufacture—
Hatters............................
Suits, coats, cloaks, and
overalls—
Cutters..................... .
Dressmakers..............
Tailors............
Other workers.,
Waist, underwear, neck­
wear, etc., makers........
Food and kindred products—
Bakery workers...............
Candy makers.,
Slaughter and packing
house workers..............
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Iron-foundry workers......
Iron and steel mill workMachine-shop workers_
_
Other workers................ .
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts—
Shoe factory operatives...
Other workers..................
Liquors and beverages...........
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture—
Cabinetmakers................
Piano and organ makers...
Other furniture workers..
Other woodworkers........




23
28

1

28

1

2

4

1
2

1

3

46
239
97
6
241
11
227
101

15
3
7
11

10
4

29
12

8
58
10
1
43
2
38
23

12
63

2
3

2

2
14

1
12

1
11

57
6
11
13

4

8

2
2
2
2

11

2
1

4

10
1
4
1

3

3
2

18

3

2

1

3

4

4

20

2

4

3

3

1

1

6

17
51
63

1
4
2

1
9

2
5
7

4
10
9

3
9
6

2
5
7

1
10
7

4
6
16

48
8
24
21

3

3

3
2
3
4

11
2
6
3

5
1

1
2
1
2

13

1
1

12
2
2
2

2

3
2

27
58
23
26

4
2
2

3
5
3
5

6
6
1
2

4
10
4
3

3
11
1
2

3
6
2
4

7
15
9
8

7
3

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1

3
6

1

102

BULLETIN' OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 1 9 .— NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
NEW YORK CITY—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
14
to
30

8
to
13

1
to
7

31
to
60

91
to
120

61
to
90

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—Concluded.

Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel—
Silversmiths and jewelry
workers......................... M
Other workers.................. M
Paper and paper products___ M.
F.
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees.. M
F
Printers and other em­
ployees.......................... M,
F
Textiles—
Silk, lace, and other tex­
tile workers................... M
F.
Miscellaneous industries—
M
Blacksmiths
Cigar and tobacco workers M.
F.
Furriers.......................... M
F
MAItam*...
______ F,
Packers............................ M
F.
Porters............................. M.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Transportation:
Express companies—
D rivers.:......................... M.
Other employees.............. M.
Railroad employees................ M.
Road,street, and bridgetrans­
portation—
Chauffeurs....................... M.
Livery-stable employees.. M.
Street-railroad employees. M.
Teamsters and drivers___ M.
Telegraph and telephone em­
ployees................................ M.
F.
Watertransportation—
Boat employees................ M.
Longshoremen................. M.
Trade:

Banking, brokerage, and in­
suranceclerical employees............ M.
F.
Other employees.............. M.
Wholesale and retail trade—
Department-store em­
ployees.......................... M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employees M.
F.
Merchants and dealers___ M.
Other forms of trade—
Clerks,cashiers, and book­
keepers......................... M.
F.
Drivers............................. M.
Errand boys and mes­
sengers .......................... M.
Peddlers........................... M.
Salesmen.......................... M.
Saleswomen..................... F.
Stenographers and type­
writers .......................... M.
F.
Other employees.............. M.
F.




31
38
15
10

2
2
1

4
6
3
2

19
5

7
4
3
2

1
5

5
3

4
2
1

3

2

3
1
2

1
1
1

16
13
2
1

2
1

2

7
1

95
3

10

7
1

12

14

11

7

9
1

25
1

33
45

1
7

1
6

5
7

6
6

5
7

2
2

3
4

10
5

22
41
26
23
4
45
10
14
34
43
8

3
2
1

1
5
3

5
5
2

3
5
7
4

6
1
6

1
3
1
1

2
6
6
1

5

1

10

3
4

4
3
3
7
4

3
1

2
1
2

9
3
5
6
9

8

2
5
3
3

2
6
2

1
4
1

6
8
4
10
3
5
1
4
8
11

41
5
88

2

2

5

5

3

7

7

8

11

11

12

10

5
2
10

12
3
19

5

7

3

2

1
1
1

1

55
21
57
165

6
8

2
3
3
3

8
18

5
3
9
17

13
4
5
30

6
20

5
3
5
23

14
5
14
43

24
22

3
2

1

1
2

4
4

3

1

4
5

4
14

4
4

3
32

4
16

10
13

2
3

5

3

1

3
1

3
1

1
1
5

6
3
1

2
1

7
1

5
3
11

88
73
38
52
16

2
4
1
2

2
2
3
5

11
6
5
8
2

17
9
5
7
2

12
8
4
2
2

6
10
5
3
2

13
4
3
6
2

25
28
12
18
6

264
85
70

16
2
2

8
5
6

26
15
10

33
12
8

36
17
18

30
10
g

24
10
2

85
13
18

59
50
86
21

4
2

3
4
4

8

9
7
11
7

15
10
9
3

2
4
5
1

3
5
0
2

15
11
32
3

2
9
14
2

2
9
9

5
8

8
7

23

1

6
22

27
12
20

1
1
1

7
4

33
109

1

10
58
74
8

1

1
6
5
2

1

14
4

4
1

3
6
7

1

1

1

3
1

11

1
1
1

3

2
1

(j
1

103

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
TABLE 1 9 .— NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.
NEW YORK CITY—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Public service:
City employees.. -rT . ...........
Professional service:
Public entertainers................

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
1
ployed. to
7

M

M,
F.
Other workers.
........... M
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service................... M
F.
Personalservice—
Barbers and hairdressers.. M.
F.
Building employees......... M.
F.
Hotel employees...........*- M.
F.
Laundry workers............ M.
F.
Restaurant employees.... M.
F.
Saloon keepers, bar­
tenders, and other
saloon employees.......... M.
Industry not specified:
Laborers................................. M.
W atchmen........................... M.
Other workers........................ M.
F.

35

8
to
13

1

14
to
30

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

3

3

5

4

1

3

15

17
2
6
2

7
2
4
1

3
5
4

5
3
3
1

10
2
20
5

51
16
48
19

2
1
2
4

1
1

5
3
6
2

31
264

2
14

2
17

5
44

8
61

5
40

2
29

3
12

4
42

5

29
2
71
17
123
11
4
55
98
27

2

7

4
1
7
6
27
1

4

2

8

1

9
4
13
2

9
18
5

7
14
3

14
2
U
2
1
7
6

1
1
9

9
2
22
3

2

4

7

12

1
4
7
3

1
8
1
3

1

7

9
1
10
14
1

17
2
20
2
1
3
17
4

2
2
1

1
2

1

79

3

3

16

14

6

7

10

19

1

127
42
305
54

7
3
21
3

14
3
21
1

14
6
37
9

24
5
39
9

17
1
46
7

7
3
30
7

7
1
33
4

35
19
69
9

2
1
9
5

4,849
1,407

322
91

267
74

667
215

738
283

656
215

439
139

454 1,254
132 236

52
22

Total..........................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of
unemployment un­
k n o w n ..............

6,256

413

341

882 1,021

871

578

586 1,490

74

Total unemployed.

6,529

All occupations:
.............................
Females. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

273

The industries in the preceding table showing the largest numbers
of unemployed are as follows:
Clothing manufacture 1,071, or 17.1 per cent of the total for all
occupations; building trades 812, or 13 per cent; domestic and per­
sonal service 811, or 13 per cent; road, street, and bridge transpor­
tation 298, or 4.8 per cent.
UNEMPLOYMENT BATES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS.

The following table has been prepared by the same method as those
for other cities described on page 44. It shows approximately the
total number of unemployed persons in each of certain specified
occupations in Greater New York and the per cent such number is
of the total number of wage earners in that occupation, which is
the rate of unemployment. A similar table was made from the
results obtained in the February census. (See Bulletin 172, p. 13.)



104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 20.—ESTIMATED NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS AND PER CENT
UNEMPLOYED IN EACH OF CERTAIN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, NEW YORK CITY,
SEPTEMBER, 1915, BY SEX.
Females.

Males.

Total.

Occupation.
Number. Percent. Number. Percent, Number. Percent,
Building trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons_
_
Carpenters..................................
Painters and paper hangers........
Plasterers
Plumbers,*gas and steam fitters.

14.7
7.2
7.8
14.0
11.9

2.663
3,427
2,979
1,028
2.663

14.7
7.2
7.8
14.0
11.9

12,760

9.5

12,760

9.5

1,503
1,582
1,450
1,081
9,887
2,874
1,345
606
264

9.5
11.0
13.7
9.4
5.8
14.6
4.7
14.0
3.6

685

6.8

1,529

3.9

1,503
1,582
1,450
1,766
9,887
2,874
1,345
606
1,793

9.5
11.0
13.7
8.2
5.8
14.6
4.7
14.0
3.9

Total, selected occupations.

33,352

8.0

2,214

4.5

35,566

7.6

All occupations............................

127,842

7.1

37,094

5.5

164,936

1^7

2.663
3,427
2,979
1,028
2.663

Total.................................................!
Bakers............................................
Bartenders......................................
Chauffeurs......................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers..
Laborers.........................................
^shoremen and stevedores........
Marble and stone cutters..........
Stenographers and typewriters.

The table shows the highest unemployment rates among brick­
layers and stonemasons 14.7 per cent, longshoremen and stevedores
14.6 per cent, plasterers 14 per cent, marble and stone cutters 14
per cent, and chauffeurs 13.7 per cent. The following summary
gives in parallel columns the unemployment rates in the occupations
tabulated above for the February and September surveys:
T a b l e 2 1 . — PER

CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS
IN NEW YORK CITY, FEBRUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915.

Occupation.

Febru- Septem­
ber,
1915.
1»&

Building trades:
Bricklayers and stonemasons.
Carpenters..............................
Painters and paper hangers_
_
Plasterers................................
Plumbers, gas and steam
fitters...................................

32.5
25.9
43.9
37.1

14.7
7.2
7.8
14.0

23.1

11.9

Total..............................

32.1

9.5

Bakers...........................................
Bartenders.....................................

16.3
14.0

9.5
11.0

Occupation.
Chauffeurs..... .............................
Cigar makers and tobacco work­
ers.........................................

Febru- Septem­
ber,
StL 1915.
28.1

13.7

Longshoremen and stevedores___
Machinists...................................
Marble and stone cutters.............
Stenographers and typewriters...

15.9
34.2
16.2
13.1
47.3
7.0

8.2
5.8
14.6
4.7
14.0
3.9

411 rtCM
TnaH
nns

16.2

6.7

This comparison shows that in nearly all of the occupations listed
there was a very considerable decrease in the unemployment rate
between February and September.
Although the clothing industry contributed more unemployment
than any other, it could not be included in the preceding table
because of the fact that the classification of the clothing trade occupa­
tions in the report of the Bureau of the Census, which is used as the
basis for computing the above percentages, is made on a different
basis from that used in this study. Therefore, it is impossible to
compute the unemployment rate for this industry.



105

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES,
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

In the February survey the causes of unemployment were not
tabulated. This has been done, however, for the September survey,
and the next table gives the unemployed classified by industry, occu­
pation, sex, and cause of unemployment.
T able 22.—NUMBER OP WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT.
NEW YORK CITY.

Industry and occupation.

Agricultural pursuits...................................... .
Manufacturing and mechanical Industries:
Building trades—
B riw y w s.
T r, . , . , . T r-. ,
Building laborers.. . . . . . . . . . T -. ., r-. .
Carpenters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r.. . . .
Cournot and concrete workers...............
Painters and paper hangw? . . . . . . . .
* Plasterers..
r...... ~ m
TT .
, ...
Plumbers and gas f i t t e r s ...........
Roofers................................................
Structural-iron workers........................
Other workers......................................

Cause of unemployment.
Number
Sex. unem­ No work Sickness
ployed.
to be
or dis­ Strikes or Other
found. ability. lockouts. reasons.
M.

13

9

3

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

101
248
130
12
113
39
101
27
25
16

79
196
101
8
96
20
86
22
21
12

19
46
25
3
14
9
11
4
3
3

2
2
1

812

641

137

16

11
4

10
4

1

23
28

21
23

1
4

28

25

2

1
2
6
1

Total...............................................
Chemicals and allied products..................... M.
F.
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Marble and stone cutters...................... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Clothing manufacture—
Hatters............................................
M.
Suits, coats, cloaks, and overalls—
Cutters............................................ M.
Dressmakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.
Pressers.......................................... M.
F.
Tailors............................................. M.
F.
Other workers................................. M.
F.
Waist, underwear, neckwear, etc., mak­
M.
ers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ .
F.
Food and kindred products—
M.
Bakery workers ............. ..................
F.
M.
Candy makers..............................
F.
Slaughter and packinghouse workers.. M.
Iron and steel and their products—
Iron-foundry workers............................ M.
Iron and steel mill workers.................. M.
Machine-shop workers.......................... M.
Other workers....................................... M.
Leather and its finished products—
Shoe-factory operatives......................... M.
F.
Other workers....................................... M.
Liquors and beverages................................ M.
Lulnber and its remanufacture—
Cabinetmakers..................................... M.
M.
Piano and organ makers............... .
Other furniture workers........................ M.
Other woodworkers............................. M.
Metal and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Silversmiths and jewelry w ork ers...... M.
Other workers....................... ............... M.
Paper and paper products........................... M.
F.




1

9
1
1

1
4
3
1
3
1
4
1

18

1
1

46
239
97
6
241
11
227
101

36
202
73
6
206
8
196
88

6
29
22

2
2
1

31
3
23
9

2

2

6
1

2
3

12
63

8
56

2
5

2
1

1

57
6
U
13
18

41
4
7
11
10

9
2
2
2
5

2

5

1

2

20
17
51
63

15
11
41
49

2
5
5
11

2
1
1
2

4
1

48
8
24
21

40
8
18
12

4

27
58
23
26

17
53
16
16

10
2
5
9

31
38
15
10

25
28
15
8

C
5

2
8

i

2
1

4
2

2
1
3
2
1

2

3
i

106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 2 2 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED B Y
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
NEW YORK CITY—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Cause of unemployment.
Number
Sex. unem­ No work Sickness
ployed.
to be
or dis­ Strikes or Other
found. ability. lockouts. reasons.

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—
Concluded.
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees....................... M.
F.
Printers and other employees............... M.
F.
Textiles—
Silk, lace, and other textile workers___ M.
F.
Miscellaneous industries—
Blfickmnitha- rT . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . . . . . M.
.
Cigar and toMcco workers.................... M.
F.
Furriers................................................. M.
F.
F.
Milliners.
Packers..
_______r... rT ¥ , r.. M.
.,
F.
Porters.................................................. M.
Other workerSx M.
F.
Transportation:
Express companies—
Drivers........................................ ........ M.
Other employees.................... .
M.
Railroad e m p lo y e e s ............................. M.
Road, street, and bridge transportation—
Chauffeurs.................... ....................... M.
Livery-stable employees...................... M.
Street-railway employees..................... M.
Teamsters and drnrers.......................... M.
Telegraph
telephone employees.......... M.
F.
Water transportation—
Boat employees..................................... M.
T.on gshor AmAn................................................ M.

19
5
95
3

16
5
78
3

10

7

33
45

27
40

3
3

3
2

22
41
26
23
4
45
10
14
34
43
8

16
35
22
20
3
40
8
11
28
31
6

5
6
3
2

1

41
5
88

34
3
50

3
1
16

55
21
57
165
24
22

45
13
28
129
16
16

3
7
23
31
3
5

33
109

16
73

9
33

27
12
20

21
10
17

2

88
73
38
52
16

75
61
35
42
9

10
10
3
7
3

3
2

264
85
70
59
50
86
21
10
58
74
8

206
68
59
47
25
71
19
4
50
61
4

30
10
10
2
23
9
1
1
3
7
1

28
7
1
10
1
6
1
5
5
5
3

35

17

9

9

M.
F.
M.
F.

51
16
48
19

47
14
34
14

3
1
10
1

1
1
4
4

M.
F.

31
264

20
195

4
40

7
29

M.
F.

29
2

20
2

9

Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance—
Clerical employees...............................

M.
F.
Other employees................................... M.
Wholesale ana retail trade—
Department-store employees................ M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employees................... M.
F.
Merchants M dealers.......................... M.
Other forms of trade—
Clerks, cashiers, fynd bookkeepers.. . . . . M.
F.
Drivers................................................. M.
Errand boys
messengers................ M.
Peddlers............................................... M.
Rq.lAgmp.n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
Saleswomen............................ ............ F.
Stenographers
typewriters............ M.
F.
Other employees................................... M.
F.
Public service:
City employees............................. ............. M.

Professional service:
Public entertainers.......... .........................
Other workers............................................
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service........................................
Personal service—
Barbers and hairdressers......................




3

4
1
2
5
7
1

1

1

3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
4
1
19
7
1
6
5
5
1

1

8
2

1

4
2
1

3
4

1

1

107

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 2 2 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.
NEW YORK CITY—Concluded.
Cause of unemployment.
Industry and occupation.

Sex.

unem­
ployed.

M.
F.
M.
F.
Laundry workers................................. M.
F.
Restaurant employees.......................... M.
F.
Saloon keepers, bartenders, and other
saloon employees................................ M.
Industry not specified:
Laborers...................................................... M.
Watchmen.................................................. M.
Other w orkers........................................... M.
F.

71
17
123
11
4
55
98
27

52
11
90
9
3
45
77
24

10
6
20
2

2

11

8
15
3

1

1
2
5

79

64

11

127
42
305
54

98
25
224
36

23
14
52
10

3
1

5
3
26
7

4,849
1,407

3,729
1,145

774
172

60
5

286
85

Total..............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown........

6,256

4,874

946

65

371

Total unemployed..........................

6,529

Domestic and personal service—Concluded.
Personal service—Concluded.
B id in g employees....................
Hotel employees.............................. .

All occupations:
Males.................................................
Females............................................

No work Sickness Strikes or Other
or dis­
to be
found. ability. lockouts. reasons.

9

4
1

273

In the table which follows the number and per cent of wage earn­
ers unemployed from each specified cause are shown for each sex, the
percentages being based upon the number of wage earners reporting.
T a b l e 2 3 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS UNEMPLOYED IN NEW
YORK CITY SEPTEMBER, 1915, BY CAUSES AND SEX.
Wage earners unemployed from each specified cause.
Wage earners
unemployed.

Sex.

No work to be Sickness or dis­
found.
ability.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Males.......................
Females...................

4,849
1,407

7.1
5.5

3,729
1,145

5.46
4.48

774
172

Total..............

6,256

6.7

4,874

5.22

946

Per
cent.

Strikes and
lockouts.

Other causes.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

1.14
.67

60
5

0.09
.02

286
85

0.42
.33

1.01

65

.07

371

.40

Per
cent.

SECOND SURVEY BY THE METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE CO., SEP­
TEMBER, 1915.

As previously stated, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., in
order to secure information regarding unemployment, made a can­
vass of its industrial policyholders in January, 1915, and repeated it
in September, 1915. The latter canvass was not as complete as the
former. The details of the first survey are given in Bulletin 172 of



108

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but both investigations are summa­
rized as follows:
T a b le

24.—UNEMPLOYMENT IN NEW YORK CITY, JANUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915.
January,
1915.

Item.

September,
1915.

155,960
100,951
Families canvassed........................................................................... *..................
37,064
11,408
Families with unemployment..............................................................................
Per cent of fa n gwith unemployment..............................................................
.Tilfa
11.3
23.8
(i)
Persons in familifts canvassed................................................................................
413,146
(i)
4.1
Persons per family................................................................................................
Number of wage earners........................................................................................
252,912
141,616
1.4
Wage earners per family.......................................................................................
1.6
106.179
Full-time wage earners..........................................................................................
0)
75.0
Per cent of wage earners employed full time.........................................................
(l)
22,572
Part-time wage earners..........................................................................................
C)
1
(i)
15.9
Per cent of wage earners employed part time.......................................................
Unemployed wage earners................................................ J..................................
45,421
12,865
Per cent of wage earners unemployed...................................................................
9.1
18.0
* Not ascertained in this survey.

The unemployment rate in January was 18 per cent, but by Sep­
tember it had dropped to 9.1 per cent. While these rates are not
identical with those of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, they never­
theless strongly corroborate them.
Following are estimates of the total number unemployed in New
York City, based on. the above rates according to the method dis­
cussed in the report of the surveys of the Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Tabus

28.—ESTIMATED NUMBER AND PER CENT OF UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS
IN NEW YORK CITY, JANUARY AND SEPTEMBER, 1915, BY SEX.
Males.
Time of survey.

January, 1915..........................
September, 1915......................

Estimated
unem­
ployed.
351,249
177,417

Females.

Percent
of wage
earners.
19.6
9.9

Estimated
unem­
ployed.
90,751
46,877

Total.

Percent
of wage
earners.
13.5
7.0

Estimated
unem­
ployed.
442,000
224,294

Percent
of wage
earners.
18.0
9.1

In every case, the unemployment rate found by the Metropolitan
Life Insurance Co. was larger than the corresponding rate determined
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This, of course, results in larger
estimates of the number unemployed in the city. We may, there­
fore, consider 200,000 a liberal estimate of the number unemployed
in New York City in September, 1915.
The following tables are arranged in similar order to the corre­
sponding ones for the survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
which have already been discussed. They present the data obtained
for the unemployed classified by duration of unemployment, industry,
and cause of unemployment. They are of considerable interest
because the two sets of tables are in a general way largely corrobora­
tive of each other.



109

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES*
DURATION OP UNEMPLOYMENT.

The table following shows the number and per cent of persons of
each sex unemployed each classified number of days and the cumula­
tive number and per cent unemployed over each specified number of
days, the percentages being based on the number of cases for which
the duration of unemployment is known.
T a b l e 2 6 . — NUMBER

AND PER CENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN NEW YORK CITY, SEP­
TEMBER, 1915, UNEMPLOYED EACH CLASSIFIED NUMBER OF DAYS, AND CUMU­
LATIVE NUMBER AND PER CENT UNEMPLOYED OVER EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER
OF DAYS.
Number and per cent.
Males.

Females.

Total.

Duration of unemployment.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
1 to 7 d a ys...............................................
8 to 13 d a y s..............................................
14 to 30 days..............................................
31 to 60 days..............................................
61 to 90 days.............................................
91 to 120 days.............................................
121 to 180 days...........................................
181 days ana over......................................

228
134
1,201
1,344
1,088
590
881
2,377

2.9
1.7
15.3
17.1
13.9
7.5
11.2
30.3

63
17
346
442
362
194
156
450

3.1
.8
17.0
21.8
17.8
9.6
7.7
22.2

291
151
1,547
1,786
1,450
784
1,037
2,827

2.9
1.5
15.7
18.1
14.7
7.5
10.9
28.6

Total known....................................
Unknown..................................................

7,843
559

100.0

2,030
190

100.0

9,873
749

100.0

Total unemployed............................

8,402

2,220

10,622

Cumulative number and per cent.
Over 180 days.
Over 120 days.
Over 90 days..
Over 60 days..
Over 30 days..
Over 13 days..
Over 7 days...
1 day and over

2,377
3,258
3,848
4,936
6,280
7,481
7,615
7,843

30.3
41.5
49.1
62.9
80.1
95.4
97.1
100.0

450
C06
800
1,162
1,604
1,950
1,967
2,030

22.2
29.9
39.4
57.2
79.0
96.1
96.9
100.0

2,827
3,864
4,648
6,098
7^884
9,431
9,582
9,873

28.6
39.1
47.1
61.8
79.9
95.5
97.1
100.0

OCCUPATIONS OF UNEMPLOYED.

The table following shows the number of persons unemployed each
classified number of days, classified by industry and occupation.




110
T a b le

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
27.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT.
NEW YORK CITY.

Number of persons unemployed eacli classified number
ofdays.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

1
to
7

8
to
13

14
to
30

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1

6

8

4

3

11

12

1

3
5
10

2

31
17
54

41
14
61

21
13
39

18
5
16

19
22
45

46
29
75

13
6
21

220
103
271
45
28
61

3
13
5
2

9
8
16

20
17
30
5
10
10

41
14
45
13
4
9

15
37
4
8
24
29
3 ......
3
7
8

11
6
13
8
4
7

71
25
87
13
6
13

13
8
22
1

1,354

44

35

194

242

161

135

365

88

Chemicals and allied products. M.
Clay^ glass, and stone prod-

16

2

3

2

3

2

4

M
M.
M

49
49
25

3
2

5
9
2

5
1
5

4
6
1

10
8
2

15
14
10

3
5
3

M.
F.
Suits, coats, cloaks, and
overalls—
Cutters.......... ............ M.
Dressmakers.............. F.
Operatives................. M.
F.
Pressers..................... M.
Tailors....................... M.
F.
Waist, underwear, and
neckwear makers.......... M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Food and kindred products—
Bakery workers............... M.
Candy makers.................. M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Iron and steel and their prod­
ucts—
Automobile workers........ M.
Iron-foundry workers....... M.
Machine-shop workers. . . . M.
Other workers................. M.
Leather and its finished prod­
ucts—
Shoe-factory operatives... M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Liquors and beverages........... M.
Lumber and its remanufac­
ture—
Cabinetmakers................. M.
Furniture workers........... M.
F.
Piano makers................... M.
F.
Other workers.................. M.
F.
Metals and metal products
other than iron ana steel—
Brassand copper workers. M.

18
3

1
1

3
2

3

1

9

1

2
3
7
5
6
34
9

3
4
9
8
3
51
8

2
5
2
7
6
33
10

3

3
3
9
2
5
78
3

1

1
2
1
3
7
19 ***io
1
7

4
2
1
17
5

1
13
2
19

2
11
4
10

9
1
7

1
7
4
6

4
15
11
4

3
3
3

Agricultural pnr«i|ttgI. It- TrTTt--- M
Manufacturing and mechanical
industries:

46

M
M
M

194
111
321

M
M
M.
M.
M
M

Building trades—
Bricklayers......................
Building l a b o r e r s . ^ Carpenters.......................
Painters and paper hang­
ers.................................
Plasterers.........................
Plumbers and gas fitters..
Roofers...........................
Structural-iron workers...
Other workers..................
Total..........................

Gta&s workers................ .
Marble and stone cutters..
Other workers.................
Clothing manufacture—
Cap and hat makers.........




16
15
37
29
31
245
44
11
67
27
55

3

2
2

1
1
1
3
1
3
2

2
3

1
2

90

2
4

1

3
5
4

4

89
6
23
11
10

1

11

5

6
1
1

5
1
1

14
2
1
3
1

19
2
3
2
1

2

1
2

21
2
2
2
3

16

6
1
1

28
110
42
55

1
3
3
2

2

5
24
5
8

5
21
13
11

4
11
6
5

2
5
3
2

1
14
2
3

7
25
6
20

1
7
4
2

77
8
37
3
33

2

1

14
4
8

15
1
6

10

7

16
1
9

2

5

10
2
2
2
7

5

1

2
8

3
6

7

7
10
1
22

1
1

12

2

18
41
1
64
3
53
2
32

2

2

2
1
1

1

•
•

•
*

1

1
4

2
3

3
3

1

8

8

4

11

2

6

6

4
1
7

2

6

4

2

12
•
•
* "i4 ‘
1
1
3

1

4
1
1

I ll

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

T ab le 27.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
NEW YORK CITY—Continued.
Number of persons unemployed feach classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Manufacturing and mechanical
industries—
Concluded.
Metals and metal products
other than iron and steel—
Concluded.
Silversmiths and jewelry
workers.........................
Tinners and tinsmiths....
Other workers................ .
Paper and paper products....
Printing and bookbinding—
Bookbindery employees.,
Electrotypers and lithogPrinters and other em­
ployees........................
Textiles—
Silk-mill workers..
Other workers.
Miscellaneous industries—
Blacksmiths.....................
Cigar and tobacco workers.
Dressmakers....................
Electric light and power­
house employees...........
Electricians.................... .
Furriers...........................
Gas-works employees___
Laborers..........................
Machinists...................... .
Milliners..........................
Packers............................
Other workers.................
Transportation:
Express companies—
Drivers........................
Other employees.........
Post-office employees........
Railroad transportation—
Clerks..........................
Trainmen....................
Other employees.........
Road, street, and bridge
transportation—
Chauffeurs........................
Livery-stable employees..
Teamsters and <
Other workers................
Telegraph and telephone emWater transportation—
Boat employees...............
Longshoremen.................
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and in­
suranceclerical employees...........
Other employees...
Real-estate employees..




Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

1
to
7

8
to
13

1

47
5
18
15
30
27

2
1

40
18

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
to
and re­
180 over. port­
ed.

1
1

4
1
8
1
1
4

4
2
2
1
8
6

2
3
4
5

2
1
1
1

2
2
6
1

26
1
2
3
7
6

7

2
2

5
3

4
3

4

8
2

10
4

6

5

1

1

12

15
2

24
6

23
1

18

7
2

60
2

13
1

2
9
10
5

1
1
12
2

3
2
7
5

i
1
1

1

1

3
1

8
3
16
3

1
4
1

8
8
3
44

3
12
9
72

3
9
2
58

3
5
1
19

5
6
2
9

15
17
7
55

5
14
1
3
12
11
14

1
6

1
15
2
1
7
5
4
16
6

5
33
9
4
7
43
8
8
55
18

8
3
1

32
5
4

11

3

11
184
14

14
to
30

12

17
17
54
18

5

41
60
27
277

1
4

18
95
19
22
45
135
51

1
1
1
5
1
3
1

3
1

3
13
2
3
4
20
10

195

4
3

5
1

33
12

34
18

1
10
1
4
6
22
9
1
28
14

13
2
1

18
1
1

6
1
2

5
1

7
13
19

3
7
7

3
5
12

2
6
2

1
8
4

10
21
37

1
1
8

18
9
13
57
3

25
6
7
62
6

23
8
4
51
7

14
2
1
26
3

14
4
4
12
2

28
10
10
123
7

6
4
4

12

2
1

1
4
14
2
1
10
11

94
15

1
1

27
66
101

3
10

2
2

139
44
45
364
28

2
1
2
11

9

21
50

3
2

4
3

4
5

6

2
4

3
8

3
5

4
40

4
35

6
14

4
6

2
17

10
45

2

2
1
2
1
1

1
1

4
1
2
5
2

5
1
1
2
3

2
3
1

13
4
2
10
3

3
1
16
1
3
3
1
4
14

2
2
10

6

5
16

34
174

2

11

1
2

1

2

22

1

12

112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

27.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND PERIODS OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.

T a b le

NEW YORK CITY—Concluded.
Number of persons unemployed each classified number
of days.
Industry and occupation.

Num­
ber
Sex. unem­
ployed.

1
to
7
i

Trade—Concluded.
Wholesale and retail trade—
■Rntfttiftr-sbop ftmployftfts., M
Department-store e m ­
ployees................ . ....... M.
F.
Dry-goods-store employ­
ees ................................ M.
F.
Grocery-store employees.. M.
F.
Merchants and dealers___ M.
Other forms of trade—
Clerks, cashiers, and book­
keepers ........................ M.
F.
Drivers............................ M
Errand boys and messen­
gers............................... M.
Peddlers........................... M.
Salesmen and store clerks. M.
F.
Stenographers and type­
M
writers.................
F.
Other em ployees........... M.
F.
Public service:
City employees...................... M.
Federal employees.................. M.
Professional service:
Mii.gioin.tig........................................ M.
Public entertainers................ M.
F.
Other workers........................ M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service.................... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barbers and hairdressers.. M.
F.
Building employees......... M.
F.
Hotel employees.............. M.
F.
Laundry workers............. M.
F.
Restaurant employees___ M.
F.
Saloonkeepers, bartenders,
and other employees_
_ M.
Industry not specified:
Laborers................................. M.
Porters.............................. .
M.
Watchmen............................. M.
Other workers........................ M.
F.
All occupations:

'Kfq.lftg................

.

Females........................
Total..........................
Industry, occupation,
sex, and days of un­
employment u n know n*

•

•
•

npfttal iinAirmlnvAd




14
to
30

8
to
13

31
to
60

61
to
90

91
to
120

121 181 Not
and re­
to
180 over. port­
ed.

1

17

17

16

10

9

31

13

87
184

2
2

1
1

8
28

10
43

16
27

5
21

21
21

22
38

2
3

83
21
92
11
36

1

1
1
1
1
1

5
5
18
2
3

19
4
10
1
5

11
2
12
2
6

8

2

7
1
2

12
2
14

6
2
8

2

20
5
20
4
13

479
172
191

21
2
5

2
7

54
17
26

77
29
37

57
26
31

34
13
11

64
4
10

133
57
55

37
17
16

76
44
314
71

2
2
6
2

1
2

15
8
43
5

13
4
45
16

9
4
50
14

12
1
28
5

6
4
44
14

11
15
84
10

7
4
14
5

27
151
62
6

1
9

2
13
7

2
2i
U

6
24
12

2
21
6

5
16
4
1

9
19
6
2

25
7
1

122
17

1
1

1

15
1

17
3

11
1

11
1

13
1

42
7

11
2

23
75
27
52
5

2
1

4

4

6
14

7

4
2

3
19
2
10
1

1
6
10
4
2

2
8
6
7

10
15
7
16

1
3
1
4

21
390

1
10

3
78

2
73

3
62

29

3
8

4
86

5
44

4
3
21
3
11
1
6
15
24
9

11
1
27
11
13
1
3
31
16
5

6
1
35
7
9
2
3
24
16
2

6

10
3
2
36
11
7
8
24
4
3
1
2
29 ' * 24
30
9
2
2

24

22

28

8

25

31

7

92
7
7
26
11

90
12
10
36
10

70
10
7
27
9

41
6
10
21
8

105
1
9
19
4

177
29
55
50
14

49
7
9
11
4

113

41
11
171
40
79
11
16
153
118
29

9
1

2
5

11

5
1
1
5
4
4

2

1

1

2
1
13
3
3
1
13
4
1

9
1
8
2
12
15
3

4

147

2

629
73
109
198
63

4
1
2
6
3

8,402
2,220

22S
63

134 1,201 1,344 1,088
17 346 442 362

590
194

881 2,377
156 450

559
190

10,622

291

151 1,547 1,786 1,450

784 1,037 2,827

749

2,243
12,865

1
2

*
i

i

...........i...........
i

113

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT.

The next table shows the number for which the cause of unem­
ployment was secured, classified by occupation, sex, and cause of
unemployment.
T a b le

28.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT.
NEW YORK CITY.

Industry and occupation.

Agricultural pursuits.....................................
Manufacturing and mechanical.industries:
Building trades—
Bricklayers........................................
Building Iaborers...............................
Carpenters.........................................
Painters and paper hangers...............
Plasterers...........................................
Plumbers and gas fitters....................
Roofers..............................................
Structural-iron workers.....................
Other workers....................................
Total.
Chemicals and allied products..
Clay, glass, and stone productsGiass workers.....................
Marble and stone cutters...
Other workers....................
Clothing manufacture—
Cap and hat makers...........
Suits, coats,cloaks, and overalls—
Cutters.....................................
D ressm akers....................................

Operatives................................

Pressers.
Tailors...
W aist, underwear, and neckwear
makers.................
Other workers.
Food and kindred products—
Bakery workers........ .—
Candy makers..................
Other workers.
Iron and steel and their products—
Automobile workers..................
Iron-foundry workers................
Machine-shop workers...............
Other workers............................
Leather and its finished products—
Shoe-factory operatives..............
Other workers.
Liquors and beverages................
Lumber and its remanufacture—
Cabinetmakers.....................
Furniture workers................
Piano makers..
Other workers.

32656°—Bull. 195—16----- 8



Cause of unemployment.
Number
Sex. unem­ No work Sickness Strikes
ployed.
Other
to be
or dis­
or
found.
ability. lockouts. reasons.
46

29

8

194
111
321
220
103
271
45
28
61

145
79
221
154
62
199
37
24
44

13
17
66
41
8
36
3
4
9

20
2
2

6

965

203

31

155

7

6
3
2

1,354

9
3
3
1

27
12
33
25
13
34
5

16

12

3

49
49
25

34
43
21

2
3
2

18
3

16
3

1

16
15
37
29
31
245
44

13
10
27
24
24
175
27

1
4
6
2
2
30
4

11
67
27
55

8
53
19
44

2
8
5
7

1
6
3
4

89
6
23
11
10

63
5
18
6
8

15
5
4

11
1

28
110
42
55

21
76
34
39

3
20
4
12

77
8
37
3
33

58
8
31
2
19

11

18
41
1
64
3
53
2

14
36
1
54
3
36
2

2
........... 1
i

1

1

1
1
5
2

2
1
3
2
5
35
11

I
2
2
3

4
12
1
4

2
1

2

8

11

2
2 !..............
I
l
i
51
1
i
9j
|
1

3
3
5
7

114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T ab le 28.—NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OF EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY

INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Continued.
NEW YORK CITY—Continued.

Industry and occupation.

Cause of unemployment.
Number
! Sex. unem­ No work Sickness Strikes
ployed.
Other
to be
or dis­
found.
ability. lockouts, i
i

_____ I_____

Manufacturing and mechanical industries—

Concluded.
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel—
Brass and copper workers....................
Silversmiths and jewelry workers....... .

32
47
5
18
15
30
27

Tinners and tinsmiths.
Other workers..............
Paper and paper products..
Prinl
Bookbindery employees............

40
18

17
17
54
18

Dressmakers.........................................
Electric light and power-hcuse employElectricians................
Furriers......................
Gas-works employees..
Laborers.....................
Machinists..................
Milliners.....................
Packers......................
Other workers............

Wholesale and retail trade—
Butcher-shop employees.......
Department-store employees.
Dry-goods-store employees.
Grocery-store employees. . .
Merchants and dealers.......




47
19
218

18

Miscellaneous industries—
Blacksmiths.......................
Cigar and tobacco workers.

Other employees...
Real-estate employees..

13
15
37

41
60
27
277

Other workers.

Water transportation—
Boat employees.................................
Longshoremen...............; ..................
Trade:
Banking, brokerage, and insurance—
Clerical employees.............................

125

12

11

Textiles—
Silk-mill workers..

Transportation:
Express companies—
Drivers...............................................
Other employees.................................
Post-office employees................................
Railroad transportation—
Clerks..................................................
Trainmen............................................
Other employees.................................
Road, street, and bridge transportationChauffeurs.............. t .........................
Livery-stable employees.....................
Street-railway employees................... .
Teamsters and drivers....................... .
Other workers...................................
Telegraph and telephone employees........

12

1?4
14

Electrotypers and lithographers.
Printers and other employees_
_

10

6

5

94
15

67
9
2

27

3

2

9

136

13
32
57

12

M.
M.
M.

2

40
90
41

195

11

66

101

77

4
2
13
5
1
19
11

10

139
44
45
364
28
21

M.
M.

34
174

107

8

13
4

10

6
6

12
12

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

18

12
10

HO
25
23
266

7!

20

17

8

14
2
2

10

95
19
22
45
135
51

M.
II.
M.

15 !

10

40

4!

15
9
7
52
3
1
5
6
23

1

24

18
9

2

113
87
184
83
21
92
11
36

79
66
141
64
16
61

16
9
22

18

10

11

11

1

8

2

13

115

UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
T a b l e 2 8 . — NUMBER

OF WAGE EARNERS OUT OP EMPLOYMENT, CLASSIFIED BY
INDUSTRY, OCCUPATION, SEX, AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT—Concluded.
NEW YORK CITY—Concluded.
Cause of unemployment.
Industry and occupation.

Number
Sex. unem­ No work Sickness Strikes
Other
ployed.
or dis­
to be
or
ability. lockouts. reasons.
found.

Trade—Concluded.
Other forms of trade—
Clerks, cashiers, and bookkeepers......... M.
F.
Drivers.......................... ...................... M
Errand boys and messengers.
M.
Peddlers, r................... .'I..................... M.
and store clerks.
M.
F.
Stenographers and typewriters............. M
F
Other employees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.
F.
Public service:
City employees........................................... M.
Federal employees...................................... M.
Professional service:
Musicians................................................... M.
Public entertainers...................................... M.
F.
Other workers............................................. M.
F.
Domestic and personal service:
Domestic service......................................... M.
F.
Personal service—
Barbers and hairdressers...................... M.
F.
Building employees.............................. M.
F.
Hotel employees................................... M.
F.
Laundry workers................................. M.
F.
Restaurant employees.......................... M.
F.
Saloon keepers, bartenders, and other
employees.......................................... M.
Industry not specified:
Laborers...................................... .............. M.
Porters........................................................ M.
Watchmen......................... ........................ M.
Other workers............................................. M.
F.

479
172
191
76
44
314
71
27
151
62
6

361
134
135
63
21
237
50
23
no
44
4

47
15
31
7
15
44
10
2
17
11
1

1

122
17

76
12

25
2

1

23
75
27
52
5

15
60
23
41
4

4
10
2
7

1

21
390

12
251

4
99

1

41
11
171
40
79
11
16
153
118
29

30
9
116
29
57
8
14
102
88
17

10
1
24
7
12
2
2
29
17
7

1
1

70
23
24
6
7
33
11
2
24
7
1
20
3
4
5
2
3
1
5
39
1
1
31
4
10
1
22
13
5
23

147

99

25

629
73
109
198
63

431
49
74
134
44

97
13
21
35
8

3

8,402
2,220

5,951
1,620

1,317
319

113
8

1,021
273

Total..............................................
Industry, occupation, sex, and cause
of unemployment unknown.. . . .

10,622

7,571

1,636

121

1,294

Total unemployed........................

12,865

All occupations:
Males.................................................
Female........................... ..................




2,243

6

98
11
14
23
11