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N'DUSTRY AND SCIENCE

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
September 1982
Bulletin 2148




A , l/K >

IV ' ’

$0




F o r sale by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t of D ocum ents, U.S. G overnm ent P rin tin g Office
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Unemployment and its Effect
on Family Income sn 1980
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1982
Bulletin 2148




Unemployment and its effect
on family income in 1980
Survey on work experience of the population
shows that the median income
o f families with an umemployed member
was 21 percent lower than that
o f families without unemployment
Sylvia Lazos Terry
Data from the “work experience” survey conducted in
March 1981 show that, with the weakening of the econ­
omy in 1980, the total number of persons who were un­
employed for at least 1 week during the year rose to
21.4 million, nearly 3 million more than in 1979. This
represented 18.1 percent of all persons who were in the
labor force for any part of 1980, well above the compa­
rable proportion for 1979— 15.8 percent— but still be­
low the 1975 high of 20.2 percent. Also reflecting the
impact of the 1980 recession was the relatively small in­
crease recorded in the number of persons with jobs.
About 115.8 million were employed during all or part
of 1980, an increase of less than 800,000 over 1979 and
the smallest annual increase since 1975.1
The work experience survey is conducted each March
as a supplement to the monthly Current Population
Survey (CPS). In this supplement, respondents are que­
ried concerning their employment and unemployment
experiences, personal earnings, and family income for
the preceding year.
Because of the dynamic nature of the labor force, the
total number of persons with jobs or those engaged in
job-seeking during the year, as obtained retrospectively
through the work experience survey, is far higher than
the “average” number employed or unemployed in any
given month. Therefore, the survey data provide a much

Sylvia Lazos Terry is a labor economist in the Division of Labor
Force Studies, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bernard Altschuler, a stat­
istician in the Data Services Group, assisted in the preparation of ta­
bles.

From April 1982
Monthly Labor Review
with supplementary tables



more complete picture of the extent to which all
persons of working age have engaged in employment or
job search during the year.2 In addition, the linkage of
these data with the information on income obtained
through the same survey provides valuable insights as
to how employment and unemployment affect the eco­
nomic welfare of individuals and of families.
The data show, for example, that the median income
of families with one unemployed member or more dur­
ing 1980 was 21 percent below the median for families
not affected by unemployment ($19,076 compared with
$24,020). Primarily because of lower earnings, 15 per­
cent of the families affected by unemployment were in
poverty in 1980. By contrast, among families where no
working members experienced unemployment, only 6
percent had incomes which fell below the poverty level.
Jolfe growth Is slow
During the 4 years of economic recovery since the
1974-75 recession, the annual increases in the number
of persons who worked during all or part of the year
had averaged close to 3 million with more than half of
the year-to-year gains being in year-round, full-time
jobs. The 1979-80 increase of 759,000 in the number of
persons with full- or part-year jobs represented only
one-quarter of the average gain for the previous 4 years.
Of this gain, only 230,000 were in full-time, year-round
jobs, slightly more than one-tenth of the average in­
crease in this category over the last 4 years.3
Since job growth in 1980 did not keep pace with pop­
ulation growth, the proportion of the working age
35
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 o Unemployment in 1980
population with some employment— 68.3 percent— was
slightly lower than in 1979. (See table 1.) The slow

Table 1. Work experience during the year of persons
16 years and over by extent of employment, race,
and sex, 1979 and 1980
[In percent]

Extent of employment

Both sexes
19791

1930

166,953
114,993
68.9

Men

Women

1979'

1980

1979'

1980

169,452

79,014

80,193

87,939

89,259

115,752
68.3

64,063
81.1

64,260
80.1

50,929
57.9

51,492
57.7

100.0
79.0
56.3
13.0
9.7
21.0
7.1
5.5
8.5

100.0
78.5
56.1
12.5
10.0
21.5
7.7
5.2
8.5

100.0
87.5
66.3
12.9
8.4
12.5
4.2
3.1
5.1

100.0
87.2
65.2
12.9
9.1
12.8
4.4
3.0
5.5

100.0
68.2
43.7
13.0
11.4
31.8
10.8
8.4
12.6

100.0
67.8
44.7
12.0
11.0
32.2
11.9
8.0
12.3

145,671

147,371

69,439

70,154

76,232

77,217

101,407
69.6

101,904
69.1

57,084
82.2

57,122
81.4

44,323
58.1

44,782
58.0

100.0
78.8
56.7
12.7
9.4
21.2
7.3
5.6
8.3

100.0
78.4
56.5
12.4
9.5
21.6
7.8
5.4
8.4

100.0
87.7
67.1
12.7
8.0
12.3
4.3
3.1
4.8

100.0
87.5
66.2
12.7
8.5
12.5
4.4
3.0
5.1

100.0
67.2
43.3
12.8
11.1
32.8
11.1
8.8
12.9

100.0
66.9
44.1
12.0
10.8
33.1
12.2
8.4
12.6

17,701

18,105

7,884

8,065

9,817

10,039

11,114
62.8

11,153
61.6

5,638
71.5

5,652
70.1

5,476
55.8

5,502
54.8

100.0
80.3
53.0
14.8
12.5
19.7
5.9
4.3
9.5

100.0
78.9
52.7
13.1
13.1
21.1
6.9
4.3
9.9

100.0
85.4
59.0
15.1
11.4
14.6
3.6
3.0
7.9

100.0
84.5
56.4
14.3
13.9
15.5
3.8
2.8
8.9

100.0
75.0
46.8
.14.6
13.5
25.0
8.3
5.6
11.2

100.0
73.1
49.0
11.9
12.2
26.9
10.0
5.9
11.0

8,394

8,862

4,043

4,255

4,351

4,607

5,732
68.3

5,914
66.7

3,369
83.3

3,484
81.9

2,363
34.3

2,430
52.7

100.0
82.8
53.2
16.9
12.7
17.2
5.0
4.4
7.8

100.0
82.4
53.1
15.2
14.1
17.6
5.9
4.2
7.6

100.0
87.5
60.1
17.4
10.0
12.5
3.6
2.9
5.9

100.0
88.3
61.1
15.7
11.5
11.7
4.0
2.4
5.4

100.0
76.0
43.3
16.2
16.5
24.0
7.0
6.4
10.6

100.0
73.9
41.6
14.4
17.8
26.1
8.6
6.7
10.8

All persons
Population (in thousands)2 . . .
Worked during the year-3
Number (in thousands) ..
Percent of the population
Persons who worked during
the y e a r .............................
Full time4 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e k s .............
27 to 49 w e e k s .............
1 to 26 w e e ks................
Part time5 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e ks.............
27 to 49 w e e ks.............
1 to 26 w e e ks...............

Whites
Population (in thousands)2 . . .
Worked during the year:3
Number (in thousands) ..
Percent of the population
Persons who worked during
the y e a r .............................
Full time4 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e ks.............
27 to 49 w e e ks.............
1 to 26 w eeks................
Part tim e5 .........................
50 to 52 w e e k s .............
27 to 49 w e e k s .............
1 to 26 w e e ks................

Blacks
Population (in thousands)2 . . .
Worked during the year:3
Number (in thousands)..
Percent of the population
Persons who worked during
the y e a r .............................
Full time4 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e ks .............
27 to 49 w e e k s .............
1 to 26 w e e ks...............
Part time5 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e ks.............
27 to 49 w e e k s .............
1 to 26 w e eks................

Hispanics6
Population (in thousands)2 . . .
Worked during the year:3
Number (in thousands)..
Percent of the population
Persons who worked during
the y e a r .............................
Full time4 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e k s .............
27 to 49 w e e ks.............
1 to 26 w e eks................
Part time5 ...........................
50 to 52 w e e k s .............
27 to 49 w e e k s .............
1 to 26 w e eks................

'D ata for 1979 reflect updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population;
therefore, these differ from 1979 data previously published in the June 1981 Monthly Labor
Review.
2 Unadjusted population as of the survey date.
3 Weeks worked includes paid vacation and sick leave.
4 Usually worked 35 hours or more per week.
5 Usually worked 1 to 34 hours per week.
6 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

36



growth in employment for 1980 was evident among all
major demographic groups. For example, after increas­
ing steadily since 1976, the proportion of women 16
years old and over who worked during the year re­
mained largely unchanged from 1979 to 1980, at 58
percent. For men, the job gain was only 300,000. This
was considerably less than the increase in their popula­
tion, so that the proportion with employment declined
from 81 percent in 1979 to 80 percent in 1980. For
black men, the proportion who worked during the year
declined from 72 percent to 70 percent in 1980,
reaching the lowest level since 1950, the starting point
for this data series.
The proportion of workers employed at full-time jobs
(35 hours or more per week) all year long remained at
56 percent in 1980. This was in line with the pattern
observed over most of the last decade and significantly
higher than the low (54 percent) registered during
1974-75. Among women with jobs, the proportion em­
ployed full-time, year-round continued to increase as it
has since 1976. It rose slightly from 44 to 45 percent,
but the comparable proportion for men edged down,
from 66 to 65 percent.
Among blacks with jobs during the year, the propor­
tion employed full-time, year-round continued to drop
for men (from 59 to 56 percent), but rose further for
women (from 47 to 49 percent). Black men remain less
likely to be employed full-time, year-round than their
white or Hispanic counterparts, while black women re­
main more likely to be employed full-time, year-round
than white or Hispanic women.
Reflecting the deterioration in labor market condi­
tions, more workers were apt to be employed only part
time in 1980. The 25 million who usually worked part
time represented 22 percent of all workers, a high
previously reached in 1975, another recession year. The
increase in part-time work during a recession reflects
both cutbacks in hours among the employees on board,
as well as the hiring of part-timers to fill jobs that nor­
mally would be for full-time workers.4In addition to the
25 million usually employed part time in 1980, another
18 million workers reported that they were confined to
part-time work for at least 1 week, although they were
usually employed full time. Of the 43 million workers
with some part-time work, 31 percent of them attribut­
ed it to unfavorable economic conditions— that is, slack
work or being unable to find full-time jobs. This pro­
portion was significantly higher than the 26 percent av­
erage for the previous 4 years.

A rise isi unemployment
A total of 21.4 million persons experienced some
unemployment during 1980. This figure is 2.7 times
higher than the average number unemployed during any
given month of 1980. In addition, it represents an in­

crease of 3 million over 1979, a year-to-year jump sur­
passed only once before in the history of the series— in
1974, also a recession year.5
In contrast to the usual patterns, a higher proportion
Table 2.

of men than women who were in the labor force en­
countered some unemployment during 1980 (19 versus
18 percent). (See table 2.) Since 1965, only in 1972 and
1973 had men been more likely to encounter unemploy-

Persons 16 years and over who experienced some unemployment, by race and sex, 1979 and 1980

[Numbers in thousands]

Both sexes

Extent of unemployment

Men

Women

19791

1980

19791

1980

19791

1980

Employed or looked for work during the y e a r........................................
Percent unemployed........................................................................
Persons unemployed ..........................................................................
Did not work but looked for work ...............................................
1 to 14 w e e ks..........................................................................
15 to 52 w e e k s .......................................................................
With work experience .................................................................
Median weeks unemployed ........................................................

116,983
15.8
18,468
1,990
1,300
690
16,478
—

118,348
18.1
21,410
2,597
1,434
1,163
18,813
12.5

64,739
15.5
10,042
675
351
324
9,367
—

65,277
18.5
12,072
1,018
416
602
11,054
13.2

52,244
16.1
8,426
1,315
949
365
7,111
—

53,071
17.6
9,338
1,579
1,018
561
7,759
10.7

Unemployed persons with work experience..........................................
Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2 w eeks.................................
Part-year workers unemployed ..........................................................
1 to 4 w e eks............................................................................
5 to 14 w e e ks..........................................................................
15 weeks or m o re ...................................................................
With 2 spells or more of unemployment.............................................

100.0
5.2
94.8
25.9
35.7
33.3
32.2

100.0
4.9
95.1
20.8
33.1
41.2
31.7

100.0
6.4
93.6
21.2
37.4
35.0
35.7

100.0
6.1
93.9
16.6
33.7
43.6
34.5

100.0
3.6
96.4
32.0
33.4
31.0
27.7

100.0
3.3
96.7
26.7
32.4
37.7
27.7

Employed or looked for work during the y e a r ........................................
Percent unemployed.......................................................................
Persons unemDloyed ..........................................................................
Did not work but looked for w o r k ...............................................
1 to 14 w e e ks..........................................................................
15 to 52 w e e k s ........................................................................
With work experience .................................................................
Median weeks unemployed ........................................................

102,761
14.8
15,168
1,354
906
448
13,814
—

103,608
16.9
17,506
1,704
956
748
15,802
12.3

57,548
14.6
8,426
464
245
219
7,962
—

57,791
17.3
10,005
668
275
393
9,336
12.9

45,214
14.9
6,742
891
661
229
5,851
—

45,817
16.4
7,501
1,035
681
354
6,465
10.3

Unemployed persons with work experience..........................................
Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2 w eeks.................................
Part-year workers unemployed ..........................................................
1 to 4 w eeks............................................................................
5 to 14 w e e ks..........................................................................
15 weeks or m o re ...................................................................
With 2 spells or more of unemployment.............................................

100.0
5.5
94.5
26.9
36.4
31.1
31.9

100.0
5.2
94.8
21.7
33.2
39.9
31.5

100.0
6.8
93.2
21.9
38.4
33.0
35.4

100.0
6.5
93.5
17.1
34.1
41.3
34.8

100.0
3.8
96.2
33.8
33.8
28.5
27.0

100.0
3.4
96.6
28.3
31.8
36.4
26.9

Employed or looked for work during the y e a r........................................
Percent unemployed.......................................................................
Persons unemployed ..........................................................................
Did not work but looked for w o r k ...............................................
1 to 14 w e e ks..........................................................................
15 to 52 w e e k s .......................................................................
With work experience .................................................................
Median weeks unemployed ........................................................

11,702
24.6
2,880
588
362
226
2,292
—

11,980
28.0
3,352
826
434
392
2,526
13.9

5,837
24.2
1,412
198
99
99
1,213
—

5,972
29.4
1,755
321
125
196
1,435
17.4

5,865
25.0
1,468
390
263
126
1,079
—

6,007
26.6
1,596
505
309
197
1,091
12.9

Unemployed persons with work experience..........................................
Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2 w eeks.................................
Part-year workers unemployed ..........................................................
1 to 4 w e eks............................................................................
5 to 14 w e eks..........................................................................
15 weeks or m o re ...................................................................
With 2 spells or more of unemployment.............................................

100.0
3.5
96.5
19.0
30.8
46.7
35.0

100.0
3.2
96.8
14.2
33.1
49.5
31.9

100.0
4.5
95.5
16.0
30.8
48.7
37.7

100.0
3.6
96.4
12.9
31.1
52.4
31.9

100.0
2.4
97.6
22.3
31.0
44.4
31.9

100.0
2.6
97.4
16.0
35.8
55.7
31.9

Employed or looked for work during the y e a r........................................
Percent unemployed........................................................................
Persons unemployed ..........................................................................
Did not work but looked for w o r k ...............................................
With work experience .................................................................
Median weeks unemployed ........................................................

5,872
22.4
1,314
140
1,174
—

6,069
23.0
1,396
155
1,240
13.0

3,416
22.2
757
47
709
—

3,547
23.2
822
63
759
13.7

2,456
22.6
556
93
463
—

2,522
22.7
574
93
481
12.1

Unemployed persons with work experience ..........................................
Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2 w eeks.................................
Part-year workers unemployed ..........................................................
1 to 4 w eeks............................................................................
5 to 14 w e e ks..........................................................................
15 weeks or m o re ...................................................................
With 2 spells or more of unemployment.............................................

100.0
3.9
96.1
22.4
36.9
36.9
33.9

100.0
2.7
97.3
19.5
34.5
43.3
35.6

100.0
4.6
95.4
20.1
38.0
37.4
36.8

100.0
3.5
96.5
15.8
34.9
45.8
37.2

100.0
2.8
97.2
26.0
35.1
36.1
29.6

100.0
1.4
98.6
25.4
33.8
39.3
32.9

All Persons

Whites

Blacks

Hispanics

1
Data for 1979 reflect updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population;
therefore these data differ from 1979 data previously published in the June 1981




Monthly Labor Review.
Note: Dashes indicate data not available.

37

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 © Unemployment in 1980
ment during the year than women were. Men and wom­
en are not equally distributed among the various
occupations and industries, and this affects their vulner­
ability to unemployment when the economy slows
down.6 Relative to women, men are much more concen­
trated in blue-collar occupations and in goods-producing industries, which are very sensitive to economic
fluctuations. In 1980, for example, one-fourth of all
workers in blue-collar occupations were unemployed for
at least 1 week. In contrast, only one-tenth of white-col­
lar workers encountered some unemployment during
the year.7
Because jobs are not readily available during reces­
sionary periods, the duration of unemployment also
rose in 1980. Of all the persons who encountered unem­
ployment during the year, the proportion that was job­
less for 15 weeks or more was 41 percent, up from 33
percent in 1979. The median duration of unemployment
in 1980 was 12 weeks. Of course, ending a period of un­
employment does not necessarily mean that a person
found a job. Many who are unable to find work become
discouraged over their prospects and simply stop
looking.8
As in past years, men experienced more weeks of un­
employment in 1980 than women. The median duration
of unemployment in 1980 was 13 weeks for men and 11
weeks for women. One of four jobless women was un­
employed only 1 to 4 weeks during the year compared
with 1 of 6 men.
Race. Blacks and other minorities have traditionally ex­
perienced unemployment more often and for longer pe­
riods than whites and this was again the case in 1980.
About 28 percent of all blacks who were in the labor
force experienced some unemployment compared with
17 percent of all whites. And blacks remained unem­
ployed longer than whites. Their median duration of
unemployment was 14 weeks compared with 12 weeks
for whites.
The differences in the incidence and the duration of
unemployment between blacks and whites remained
large, both among men and women. Over 29 percent of
black men, who were in the labor force during the year,
encountered some unemployment in 1980, and the me­
dian duration of their joblessness was 17 weeks. By
comparison, 17 percent of all white men experienced
some unemployment during the year; their median du­
ration was 13 weeks. The incidence of unemployment
for black women was 27 percent, compared with 16
percent for white women, and black women remained
unemployed roughly 3 weeks longer than white women
(a median 13 weeks versus 10 weeks).
The proportion of Hispanics who were unemployed
at some time during 1980 was largely unchanged from
the 1979 level, remaining at approximately 23 percent.
38



However, as for other demographic groups, the dura­
tion of unemployment for Hispanics rose in 1980, and
at 13 weeks, was 1 week higher than the median for
whites.
Age. Teenagers are much more likely to experience un­
employment during the year than older workers. How­
ever, teenagers also spend less time looking for work. In
1980, 30 percent of all teenagers with labor force expe­
rience encountered some unemployment during the
year, but their median duration of unemployment was
only 10 weeks. (See table 3.)
Older persons are the least likely to experience a spell
of joblessness during the year. However, when they do
they tend to remain jobless longer. Both in 1980 and
1979 the median number weeks of unemployment for
workers age 55 and over was 13 weeks, exceeding all
other age categories.
Occupations. The 9.2 million blue-collar workers with
some unemployment in 1980 represented one-fourth of
all persons who worked at such jobs during all or part
of 1980, the highest among all occupational groups. By
comparison, 19 percent of all serviceworkers and only
13 percent of all farmworkers encountered some unem­
ployment during the year. However, farmworkers were
even more likely than blue-collar workers to experience
more than one jobless period.
Workers employed in white-collar occupations experi­
enced the smallest year-to-year increase in the propor­
tion encountering unemployment, from 9 to 10 percent
in 1980. They were also the least likely among all occu­
pational groups to experience two periods or more of
unemployment during the year. Managers and adminis­
trators, although having the lowest incidence of unem­
ployment, experienced the sharpest year-to-year increase
in the median duration of unemployment among all
worker groups (from 9 weeks in 1979 to 12 weeks in
1980). (See table 3.)

Unemployment and annua.! earnings
Economically, unemployment represents a loss of
earning power. Table 4 shows that the median annual
earnings of persons who encountered some unemploy­
ment in 1980 was $4,046 or only 38 percent as much as
the median earnings of workers with no unemployment,
$10,760.9 However, this wide earnings gap also stems
from unemployment often being symptomatic of other
labor market problems. For example, at least 40 percent
of all persons who encountered some unemployment in
1980 also dropped out of the labor force at some time
during the year.1 In addition, the workers who are most
0
prone to joblessness during the year have a different oc­
cupational and demographic mix than workers who do
not experience unemployment. Persons who encounter

unemployment are more likely to be women, youths,
blacks, and Hispanics, who, even when employed, tend
to be concentrated in low-skill, low-paying occupations.1
1
Unemployment had a particularly hard impact on
blacks’ earnings. The median annual earnings of blacks
with some unemployment in 1980 was $1,990 or only
one-fifth that of blacks who did not encounter any un­
employment. By comparison, whites and Hispanics with
some unemployment earned at least two-fifths as much
as their counterparts who were never unemployed. The
median for blacks with unemployment is so low partly
because a very high proportion of them never worked at
all during the year. About one-quarter of all unemployed
blacks were nonworkers who looked for work, compared
to only one-tenth of whites and of Hispanics.1
2
Married men who experienced unemployment earned
$9,514 in 1980 or about half as much as those who
were not unemployed. On the other hand, among wom­
en who maintained families, those who encountered un­

employment during the year had median earnings of
only $2,097, less then one-fourth that of those who
were never unemployed during the year.

Unemployment and the family
Unemployment affects the economic well-being of the
family unit as well as that of the individual. However,
the impact on the family is often cushioned by the pres­
ence of other earners or of other sources of income.1
3
As shown in table 5, the 14.6 million families1 in
4
which at least one member was unemployed had a me­
dian income of $19,076— 21 percent less than the medi­
an income of families where none of the working
members were unemployed in 1980. And the likelihood
of falling below the poverty level was 15 percent for
families with unemployment compared with 6 percent
for those who were free of unemployment.1 In addition,
5
there were 3.5 million unrelated men and women who
experienced some unemployment in 1980 and their me-

TabSe 3. Selected characteristics of persons who were unemployed during the year by percent with unemployment, percent
with 2 spells or more of unemployment, and median number of weeks unemployed, 1978-80
1980
Persons unemployed
Characteristic
Number
(in thousands)

All persons ...................................................
M en............................................................................
Women .....................................................................

Percent
of the
labor force

1979’
Percent of
unemployed
workers with
2 spells or
more of
unemployment

Persons unemployed
Median
number
of weeks
unemployed

Number
(in thousands)

Percent
of the
labor force

Median
number
of weeks
unemployed

21,410
12,072
9,338

18.1
18.5
17.6

31.7
34.5
27.7

13
13
11

18,468
10,042
8,426

15.8
15.5
16.1

10
11
9

3,235
5,197
11,415
1,563

29.5
28.8
15.9
8.9

36.1
33.2
30.2
30.1

10
12
13
13

3,085
4,523
9,566
1,295

26.5
25.4
13.7
7.4

8
9
11
13

6,060
1,458
867
827
2,907
9,194
2,959
3,520
894
1,821
3,149
162
2,987
410
34
376

10.3
8.2
7.0
11.4
13.4
25.1
20.6
28.6
22.4
30.8
18.5
11.5
19.1
13.2
( 3)
22.1

25.0
20.9
25.7
24.3
26.9
34.8
36.7
31.0
33.7
39.8
33.4
42.0
32.9
48.8
( 3)
49.2

11
10
12
10
11
13
13
13
13
14
13
14
13
14
( 3)
16

5,444
1,341
740
771
2,592
7,835
2,486
2,852
798
1,699
2,847
137
2,710
352
15
337

9.4
7.7
6.3
10.8
12.1
21.1
17.3
22.7
19.8
27.4
16.8
10.6
17.3
11.0
( 3)
19.7

9
9
9
9
8
11
10
11
10
12
11
12
11
14
( 3)
14

5,397
4,226
4,214
1,406
1,889
315
435
2,162
1,366

13.3
14.6
26.1
22.3
34.1
20.3
30.5
22.4
16.9

32.4
25.6
33.1
26.9
36.7
38.4
35.4
35.2
32.4

13
11
11
12
14
14
14
14
10

4,279
3,835
3,895
1,228
1,499
211
339
1,914
1,268

10.5
13.3
23.6
20.5
28.4
15.6
25.4
20.6
16.5

11
9
9
10
12
12
12
12
8

Age
16 to 1 9 .....................................................................
20 to 2 4 .....................................................................
25 to 5 4 .....................................................................
55 and o v e r ...............................................................

Occupation2
W hite-collar...............................................................
Professional, technical..........................................
Managers, administrators......................................
Salesworkers........................................................
Clerical .................................................................
Blue-collar.................................................................
Craftsmen ............................................................
Operatives, except transport ...............................
Transport equipment operatives...........................
Nonfarm laborers .................................................
Serviceworkers ........................................................
Private household w orkers....................................
Other serviceworkers ..........................................
Farmworkers .............................................................
Farmers and farm m anagers...............................
Farm laborers and supervisors.............................

Marital and family status4
Husbands .................................................................
Wives ........................................................................
Others in married-couple fam ilies.........................
Women who maintain families alone.........................
Others in such families ........................................
Men who maintain families alone .............................
Others in such families ........................................
Unrelated m e n ..........................................................
Unrelated w o m en......................................................

1 Data for 1979 reflect updated weights based on the 1980 Census of the Population;
therefore, these data differ from 1979 data previously published in June 1981 Monthly Labor
Review.
2 Only persons who worked during the year are asked to report their occupation; there­




fore, the percent of the labor force with unemployment represents the percent of workers with
unemployment.
3 Percentages and medians are not shown when base is less than 75,000.
4 Includes secondary families.

39

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 © Unemployment in 1980
Table 4. SVaedian annual earnings by whether persons did
or did not encounter some unemployment during 1980,
and by race, sex, and marital and family status
Persons with no
unemployment

Characteristic

Persons with unem­
Ratio of me­
ployment
dian
earnings for
Number
Number
Median the two cat­
Median
(in
(in
earnings
earnings
egories
thousands)
thousands)

More relevant in terms of the true impact of unem­
ployment on income is the position occupied within the
family by the members affected by unemployment and
the type of family to which they belong. A closer exam­
ination of the data for 1980 provides some interesting
insights.

A closer look
All persons ...........
M e n ...............................
Women ........................

96,939
53,206
43,733

$10,760
15,491
7,198

21,410
12,072
9,338

$4,046
5,724
2,636

0.38
.37
.37

86,102
47,786
38,316
8,628
4,217
4,411
4,674
2,725
1,949

11,036
16,077
7,131
9,250
10,997
7,696
8,932
11,193
6,369

17,506
10,005
7,501
3,352
1,755
1,596
1,396
822
574

4,508
6,251
2,919
1,990
2,963
1,024
3,956
5,347
2,599

.41
.39
.41
.22
.27
.13
.44
.48
.41

35,227
24,807

18,708
7,183

5,397
4,226

9,514
3,218

.51
.45

11,949

3,076

4,214

1,970

.64

4,888
3,648

9,288
5,085

1,406
1,889

2,097
1,572

.23
.31

1,239
989
7,476
6,716

15,243
6,908
14,031
9,689

315
435
2,162
1,366

6,385
2,568
6,070
4,157

.42
.37
.43
.43

Race and sex
W h ite s...........................
M e n ...........................
W omen......................
Blacks ...........................
M e n ...........................
W omen......................
Hispanics ....................
M e n ...........................
W omen......................
Marital and family status
Husbands ......................
W ives.............................
Others in marriedcouple families. . . .
Women who maintain
families alone ...........
Others in such families
Men who maintain families alone ..................
Others in such families
Unrelated men .............
Unrelated women .........

dian personal income was only half that of those not
experiencing any unemployment.
The median income of black families in which at least
one member was unemployed at some time in 1980 was
$12,880 compared with $19,959 for white families. Be­
cause the income of black families is one-third lower
than that of white families even when no members expe­
rience unemployment, the proportion whose incomes
fell below the poverty line when affected by unemploy­
ment was 2.7 times higher for black families than for
white ones (33 percent versus 12 percent). The median
income of Hispanic families who experienced some un­
employment ($14,338) fell between that of black fami­
lies and white families. Over one-fifth of all Hispanic
families with unemployment had incomes which fell be­
low the poverty line.
Of all the families with some unemployment in 1980,
the vast majority, or 83 percent, had only one unem­
ployed member, 15 percent had two members, and 2
percent had three members or more unemployed. Inter­
estingly, the median income of the latter families was
higher than that of families where only one or two
members experienced unemployment. The reason is that
the unemployment of three members or more is indica­
tive of at least that many members actively participat­
ing in the labor market. Even with some unemploy­
ment, their combined earnings tend to boost the
family’s income.
Digitized 40 FRASER
for


Husband-wife families constitute the majority of all
families in the labor force. This is also the case among
families in which at least one member was unemployed
in 1980. (See table 5.) About 78 percent were husbandwife families, 18 percent were families maintained by
women, and 4 percent were families maintained by men.
Mainly because there are more members participating
in the labor force in husband-wife families, their in­
comes are higher than those of other family groups. The
11.3 million husband-wife families with at least one
member unemployed in 1980 had the highest median in­
come, $21,448, and lowest incidence of poverty, 9 per­
cent.
Unemployment has its greatest financial impact on
husband-wife families when husbands are affected. For
example, in the 4 million families in which only hus­
bands encountered unemployment during the year the
median income was $17,432, about 19 percent below
the median income of $21,448 for all husband-wife fam­
ilies with any unemployed members. The incidence of
poverty of families in which only the husband encoun­
tered unemployment was 14 percent compared with 9
percent for all husband-wife families. When both hus­
band and wife experience some joblessness during the
year, family income drops even more dramatically. In
1980 there were 925,000 such families. Their median in­
come was $14,840 and 16 percent had incomes which
fell below the poverty level.
Husband-wife families were least affected by unem­
ployment when the family member who experienced un­
employment was not one of the spouses. In such cases,
the median income of husband-wife families was more
than $30,000. Close to 80 percent of family members
experiencing unemployment in these instances were
youths from 16 to 24 years old. Their earnings often go
to meet personal expenses rather than family expenses.
Regardless of labor force status, families headed by
women are the least well-off financially of all family
groups. According to the Bureau of the Census, in 1980
the poverty rate for the 9 million families headed by
women was 33 percent, compared with 6 percent for
husband-wife families.1 When a member of a family
6
headed by a woman experienced unemployment, the in­
cidence of poverty increased to 39 percent. (See table 5.)
In 1980, 2.6 million female-headed families were af­
fected by joblessness. In roughly half of these families
the individual who experienced unemployment was not

woman householder was unemployed, the poverty rate
was 76 percent.
Aside from those who live in a family environment,
there are millions who either live alone or with other
persons to whom they are not related. In 1981, there
were 18 million such individuals who participated in the
labor market and, as could be expected, unemployment
has a great impact on their personal incomes. For the
2.2 million such men who were unemployed at some
time during 1980, personal median income was $7,459.
For the 1.4 million such women with some unemploy-

the householder but a related member—usually a
young son or daughter. As in husband-wife families, un­
employment had a very small impact on the family’s
economic welfare when only the young members experi­
enced joblessness.
The economic impact of unemployment greatly in­
creases when the female householder is out of work.
There were 1.2 million families in 1980 in which only
the female householder was unemployed, and for 60
percent of them, family incomes fell below the poverty
line. For the 430,000 black families where only the

Table 5. Unemployment of families and unrelated individuals in 1980 by family relationship, member experiencing
unemployment, income, and percent below poverty level
[Numbers in thousands]

Extent of unemployment

Number

Median
family
income

All families in the labor fo rc e ........................................
All unrelated individuals in the labor fo rc e ....................

53,048
17,720

$22,700
11,090

Families with no members unemployed....................
Unrelated individuals with no unemployment...........

38,455
14,192

Families with at least one member unemployed . . . .
Unrelated individuals with some unemployment . . . .

Percent
below
poverty
level

Family income
Below
$5,000

$5,000
to
$9,999

$10,000
to
$14,999

$15,000
to
$19,999

$20,000
to
$24,999

$25,000
to
$49,999

$50,000
and
over

8.0
13.6

2,153
2,919

5,143
4,547

6,932
4,109

7,708
2,729

7,900
1,597

19,273
1,489

3,938
206

24,020
12,333

5.5
9.2

1,038
1,612

3,114
3,354

4,700
3,521

5,423
2,483

5,934
1,477

14,994
1,417

3,251
204

14,592
3,528

19,076
6,616

14.7
31.2

1,115
1,306

2,029
1,193

2,232
588

2,285
245

1,967
120

4,278
73

686
3

Husband-wife families with at least one member
unemployed ............................................................
One member unemployed ....................................
Husband unemployed........................................
Wife unemployed...............................................
Other related family member ...........................
16 to 19 years old ........................................
20 to 24 years old ........................................
25 years or o ld e r ...........................................

11,344
9,357
4,023
2,980
2,353
1,140
825
389

21,448
21,555
17,432
21,455
32,039
32,083
32,651
30,247

9.0
8.3
14.0
4.3
3.7
2.8
3.8
6.1

387
297
219
58
20
9
7
4

1,171
941
630
213
98
36
32
30

1,703
1,376
759
460
157
83
42
32

1,862
1,570
787
578
204
80
85
39

1,661
1,423
594
566
262
139
88
35

3,900
3,231
968
1,008
1,255
653
415
188

660
519
66
97
356
141
155
60

Two members unemployed .................................
Husband and wife o n ly ......................................
Wife and other related family m em ber.............
Husband and other related family member. . . .
Two related family members unemployed . . . .
Three members or more unemployed..................

1,770
925
210
316
320
217

19,900
14,840
28,505
23,021
35,050
29,854

12.6
15.9
7.3
13.8
5.7
9.3

85
73
4
9
0
5

220
177
7
23
13
10

302
222
19
47
15
25

275
179
16
54
26
16

207
112
32
34
29
32

568
147
121
129
171
102

113
17
11
20
66
28

Families maintained by women with at least one
member unemployed...............................................
One member unemployed ....................................
Householder unemployed..................................
Other related family member ...........................
16 to 19 years old ........................................
20 to 24 years old ........................................
25 years or o ld e r ..........................................

2,648
2,249
1,196
1,053
383
343
326

9,157
8,681
5,527
14,670
13,040
15,532
15,483

39.1
40.5
60.1
18.2
25.9
14.3
13.2

672
627
523
103
48
30
25

743
619
378
241
98
65
78

418
338
153
184
63
68
53

340
285
75
210
74
76
60

223
179
48
132
45
35
51

241
192
19
174
53
64
57

10
9
1
8
1
5
2

Two members unemployed ..................................
Householder and other related family member .
Two related family members unemployed . . . .
Three members or more unemployed..................

338
185
153
61

11,522
9,334
15,579
( 1)

30.9
34.1
27.1
( 1)

41
29
12

106
73
32

44
15
29

39
19
21

( 1)

n

72
41
31
(’ )

35
8
27
( 1)

2
0
2
( 1)

Families maintained by men with at least one
member unemployed...............................................
One member unemployed ....................................
Householder unemployed..................................
Other related family member ...........................
16 to 19 years old ........................................
20 to 24 years old ........................................
25 years or o ld e r ...........................................

600
504
244
260
79
94
87

15,649
15,511
11,656
19,852
17,838
19,190
21,720

15.0
14.7
24.6
5.4
7.6
5.8
3.1

56
42
36
6
1
2
3

114
99
64
35
9
14
13

111
97
48
49
19
15
15

84
76
35
40
14
18
9

82
61
24
38
7
20
11

137
117
38
79
26
20
33

16
13
0
12
4
5
3

Two members unemployed .................................
Householder and other related family member .
Two related family members unemployed . . . .
Three members or more unemployed..................

82
61
21
15

19,245
( 1)
( 1)
C)

18.6

14

( 1)
(’ )
(’ )

n
(’ )
n

13
n
C)
n

10
t 1)
( 1)
n

6
(’ )
(’ )
( 1)

20
( 1)
( 1)
n

( 1)
n
C)

Unrelated men with some unemployment2 .............
Unrelated women with some unemployment2 .........

2,162
1,366

7,459
5,674

28.4
35.5

701
605

692
501

416
172

185
61

102
17

64
9

'Data not shown when base is less than 75,000.




-

n

V)

14

3
( 1)
( 1)
n
2
1

'The income figures for unrelated individuals represent personal income.

4!

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 © Unemployment in 1980
ment, median income was $5,674. The incidence of income
below the poverty level for these individuals who ex­
perienced some unemployment in 1980 was approximately 33
percent.
T h e NUMBER o f p e r s o n s who encountered some un­
employment in 1980— when the Nation experienced
a moderate recession— was 21.4 million. On the aver­
age, these persons earned only 38 percent as much as
those who did not experience any unemployment. The
median income of families in which at least one member

was unemployed was 20 percent lower than that of fam­
ilies with no unemployed members. For unrelated indi­
viduals with some unemployment, median personal
income was only half that of those who did not experi­
ence any unemployment during the year.
With the labor market deteriorating further in the
last half of 1981, the total numbers of persons affected
by unemployment during the year is expected to show a
further increase. The exact numbers will not be known
until the work experience data to be collected in March
1982 are tabulated and analyzed.
□

FOOTNOTES
1The work experience numbers reported here have been inflated us­
ing population weights based on results from the 1980 Census of the
Population. The previously published 1979 work experience data, as
they appeared in the June 1981 Monthly Labor Review, reflected popu­
lation weights projected forward from the 1970 Census of the Popula­
tion. The revision of the 1979 data raised the number of persons who
worked or looked for work by 2.3 million and the number experienc­
ing some unemployment by 500,000. Despite these significant changes
in the data for 1979, the various relationships and rates based on the
new estimates are nearly the same as those based on the previously
published estimates. For example, the percent of the population with
some unemployment in 1979 was estimated at 15.7 percent using the
1970 population weights and 15.8 percent using the 1980 weights. For
further comparisons see Press Release USDL 81—
413.
Because the numbers in this report are based on a sample they are
subject to sampling error. Standard error tables, which estimate the
magnitude of sampling errors, are available upon request. As in any
survey, the results are also subject to errors in response and reporting.
These may be relatively large in the case of persons with irregular at­
tachment to the labor force.
2 For a review of the employment and unemployment situation in
1980 based on the monthly CPS labor force data, see Diane N.
Westcott and Robert W. Bednarzik, “Employment and unemploy­
ment: a report on 1980,” Monthly Labor Review, February 1981, pp.
4-14.
3Historical work experience data are published in the Handbook of
Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2070, Bureau of Labor Statistics, December
1980, as well as in the Employment and Training Report o f the Presi­
dent, U.S. Department of Labor and U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, 1980.
4 See Robert W. Bednarzik, “Involuntary part-time work: a cyclical
analysis,” Monthly Labor Review, September 1975, pp. 12-18.
5The work experience figures may underestimate the number of per­
sons who are unemployed during the year. Studies comparing the
work experience and the monthly survey unemployment numbers esti­
mate the degree of underreporting to be between 15 and 25 percent.
Groups which are more likely to be in and out of the labor force dur­
ing the year, such as teenagers and adult women, have a greater de­
gree of underreporting. For further discussion see Richard
Morgenstern and Nancy Barrett, “The Retrospective Bias in Unem­
ployment Reporting by Sex, Race and Age,” Journal of the American
Statistical Association, June 1974, pp. 355-57; Wayne Vroman, “Meas­
uring Annual Unemployment,” Working Paper 1280-01, The Urban
Institute, Washington, D.C., February 1979; and Francis W. Horvath,
“Forgotten unemployment: recall bias in retrospective data,” Monthly
Labor Review, March 1982, pp. 40-43.
6Women tend to find employment in a small selected number of oc­
cupations. Both in 1969 and 1979, about one-half of all working
women were employed in fewer than 30 of the detailed census occupa­
tions, such as nurses, secretaries, and elementary schoolteachers. For
further discussion of this issue and the related earnings issue, see
Nancy F. Rytina, “Occupational segregation and earnings differences
by sex,” Monthly Labor Review, January 1981, pp. 49-53, and
Francine Blau, “Women’s Place in the Labor Market,” American Eco­

Digitized42 FRASER
for


nomic Review, May 1972, pp. 161-66.
7With the major exception of the 1980 recession, women employed
in manufacturing and in blue-collar occupations have in past reces­
sions tended to lose their jobs more readily than men. For further dis­
cussion, see Norman Bowers, “Have employment patterns in reces­
sions changed?” Monthly Labor Review, February 1981, pp. 15-28.
8Unemployment and discouragement are directly related. The
number of persons who become discouraged over their job prospects
increases as the unemployment rate rises. See Paul O. Flaim, “Dis­
couraged workers and changes in unemployment,” Monthly Labor Re­
view, March 1973, pp. 8-16. Also, see Carol M. Ondeck,
“Discouraged workers’ link to jobless rate reaffirmed,” Monthly Labor
Review, October 1978, pp. 40-42.
9The medians as shown in this report are calculated from the corre­
sponding distributions by linear interpolation within the interval in
which the median falls. Therefore, because of this interpolation, the
median value depends not only on the distribution of income but also
on the income intervals used in calculating the median.
1 Only 14 million of the 21 million who were unemployed in 1980
0
indicated that looking for a job was their major activity when not
working. For the remaining 7 million unemployed, activities such as
keeping house, going to school, retirement, represented their major
activity when not employed. Data on monthly labor force movements
for 1980 show that, on average, 21 percent of persons who were un­
employed in a given month dropped out of the labor force in the sub­
sequent month.
" See Paul O. Flaim, “The effect of demographic changes on the
Nation’s unemployment rate,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1979,
pp. 13-23.
1 When unemployed non workers are excluded from these computa­
2
tions, the median annual earnings for persons who were unemployed
increased to $4,886 from $4,046. For blacks, the median annual earn­
ings of the unemployed increased to $3,658 from $1,990 when exclud­
ing nonworkers.
1 Other Bureau of Labor Statistics studies which link individual
3
labor force status to family income include “Linking Employment
Problems to Economic Status,” Report 2123, b l s , January 1982; and
Howard Hayghe, “The effect of unemployment on family income in
1977,” Monthly Labor Review, December 1979, pp. 42-44.
1 The term family is used broadly in this report. The count of 14.6
4
million includes 14.3 million primary families (a group of two persons
or more residing together by blood, marriage, or adoption), and
.3 million secondary families (a married couple or parent-child group
sharing the living quarters of the married couple or persons
maintaining the household).
1 Data on income are limited to money income received before per­
5
sonal income taxes and payroll deductions. Money income is the sum
of the amounts received from earnings (hourly wages, salaries, or
profits or losses of self-employed operations); social security or rail­
road retirement; public assistance or welfare payments; supplemental
security income; dividends, interest, and rent (including losses); unem­
ployment, veterans’, and workers’ compensation; government and pri­
vate employee pensions; alimony, child support, or regular

contributions from persons not living in the household; and other pe­
riodic income. In the March 1981 CPS, income did not reflect
nonmoney transfers, such as: food stamps; subsidized housing; goods
produced on a farm or in a home; employer-financed fringe benefits,
such as retirement, stock options, or health insurance.
Poverty statistics presented in this report are based on a definition
developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and revised
by a Federal Interagency Committee in 1969. These indexes are based
on the Department of Agriculture’s Economy Food Plan and reflect
the different consumption requirements of families based on their size
and composition, sex and age of the family head, and farm-nonfarm




residence. The poverty thresholds are updated each year to reflect
changes in the Consumer Price Index. For more information on the
income and poverty population in 1980, see the advance report Money
Income and Poverty Status o f Families and Persons in the United States:
1980, advance report, Series P-60, No. 127, Bureau of the Census, Au­
gust 1981. For a technical description of the income data, see Money
Income o f Families and Persons in the United States: 1979, Series P-60,
No. 129, Bureau of the Census, November 1981, pp. 282-302.
1
6
Money Income and Poverty Status o f Families and Persons in the
United States: 1980, advance report, Series P-60, No. 127, Bureau of
the Census, August 1981.

43

Appendix

This report contains, in addition to the article from the April
Monthly Labor R e v i e w , the following material:

Explanatory note

1982 issue of the

, * . .... . .. < .»»0......» . =......... . ..,...»». <>......... o ... ......<> ...« A-2
>

Supplementary tables:
A-l.

Age:

Persons with work experience in 1980, by sex

..... ..... ............ 0. A-10

A-2 o

Industry:
Persons with work experience in 1980, by class of worker of
longest job and sex ». 0 ....... 0 < . .»».»0... e <>«... o»o»».. o ° c = >.«o««.«»o < o < » , a A-ll
>
> >«

A-3 o

Industry of wage and salary workers by race:
Percent distribution, by
work experience of longest job in 1980 and sex oo<.oco,ooooo.oo9ooo...0o».oo A-13

A-4.

Occupation:

A - 5.

Occupation by race:
Persons with work experience in 1980, by longest
job and sex »<>«=«.....»»....»......«<>. „.....»....
o «. o. s s««..... e» o». A-l 6

A-6o

Marital status:

A-7 o

Race and Hispanic origin:
and sex o o o o o s . o o o o o o o o o o o

Persons with work experience in 1980, by longest job and

Persons with work experience in 1980, by age and sex ».... A-17
Persons with work experience in 1980, by age
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o a o o . o o o o o o o s s o o o c o c o

Major activity when not working by extent of employment:
worked only part of 1980, by sex 0 . o o . . . o o o o o o o o 0 . o < , . o o .

B - l c

B-2o

Major activity when not working by race:
of 1980, by age and sex o o o o 0 o o o o o o c o » < . o

A“ 17

Persons who
o o . < , o o » 0 o » o o o o o o < » o o

A - 18

Persons who worked only part
o o o 0 o o o o o o < » < » c 0 o o o o o « . o o o o < » o < . o o o o o o 0 <
,

A - 19

C-lo

Extent of unemployment by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin:
Persons
with unemployment in 1980, by work experience in 1980 ».«... „.............. „ A-20

C-2 •

Extent of unemployment by industry:
experience in 1980, by longest job

Wage and salary workers with work
. . o e o . o o e o o o o . e o . o e . . . , .

A-22

C-3 o

Extent of unemployment by occupation:
Persons with work experience in
1980, by longest job and sex .............................................. A-23

C-4

Extent of unemployment by occupation and race:
Persons with work
experience in 1980, by longest job ........................................ A-24

o

C-5o

Extent of unemployment by marital status and race:
Persons with
unemployment in 1980, by work experience in 1980 and sex .................. A-25

C-6o

Extent of unemployment by spells of unemployment:
Part-year workers
with unemployment in 1980, by sex ......................................... A-26

D-lo

Extent of unemployment:
Persons with no work experience in 1980 who
were unemployed during the year, by age, sex, marital status, and race

D-2.

.... A-26

Major reason for not working:
Persons with no work experience in 1980,
by a g e , sex, and race ..................................................... A-27




A-1

Explanatory Not®

The following sections briefly describe the basic

labor

force

con c e p t s ,

sample

design,

estimating procedure, and reliability of the e s timates.
DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS
Population Coverageo
In March 1981 trained interviewers collected information from a sample
of
about
65,000 occupied households in 629 areas, in 1,133 counties and independent cities in each
of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Estimates in this
report
are
for
persons
16
years
of
age
and
over
in the civilian noninstitutional population during the calendar week
ending March 14, 1981=
The civilian noninstitutional population excludes
all members
of
the
Armed
Forces
and
inmates
of
institutions
such
as homes
for
the
aged and correctional
institutions <
>
No information was obtained on persons who might have been
in
the
civilian
labor
force
during
1980 but were
not
in
the civilian noninstitutional population as of the March date;
similarly, data on persons who died in 1980 before the survey date are not reflected.
(Persons
who reached age 16 during January, February, or March 1981, however, are included.)
Work Experienceo
Persons with work experience are those who worked as
during the year at full- or part-time jobs.

civilians

Part-Time and Full-Time J o b s o Respondents are asked how many hours they usually
during the year.
They are classified as having worked at full-time jobs if they
per week or more in a majority of the weeks worked during the year; respondents
as having worked
at part-time jobs if they worked 1 to 34 hours per week in a
weeks worked during the year.

at

any

time

worked per week
worked 35 hours
are
classified
majority of the

Extent of Employ m e n t . The proportion of the population who worked and the total number of weeks
worked
during
the year
indicate
the extent of employment.
Persons with work experience are
classified according to the number of weeks in which they did any work during
the year
as
civilians for pay or profit (including paid vacations and sick leave) or worked without pay on a
family-operated farm or business.
Year-Round Full-Time W o r k e r s . Year-round full-time workers are persons who worked primarily
full-time jobs for 50 weeks or more.
Part-Year W o r k e r s .
to 49 weeks.

at

Part-year workers are persons who worked either full time or part time for 1

Nonwork activities of part-year w o r k e r s .
The
nonwork activities
of
part-year
workers
are
classified
on
the
basis of what they were doing most of the weeks in which they did not work.
Activities are reported as unemployment or
layoff
from a job,
illness
or
disability
(not
including
paid
sick leave),
taking care
of home, going to school, retirement, in the Armed
Forces, and other activities.
N onworkers. Nonworkers are persons who did not work during the year.
They
are asked whether
they looked for work during the year and, if so, for how many weeks.
Nonworkers are classified
according to the main reason for not working.
Reasons are reported as
Illness
or
disability,
taking care
of home, going to school, inability to find work, retirement, serving in the Armed
Forces, and other reasons.
Longest J o b . A person's longest job during the year is the one which was held for the greatest
number
of weeks.
For most wage and salary workers, a job is defined as all the time worked for
the same employer.
The only exception is work for families (domestic services, babysitting, odd
jobs
and
the
like)
which
is counted as
a single
job regardless of number of employers.
Self-employment and unpaid xrork in family-operated enterprises are also designated as
purposes of this survey.




A-2

jobs

for

Occupation, Industry, and Class of W o r k e r . The data
on occupation,
industry,
and
class
of
worker
refer
to the job held for the longest period of time during the year.
Persons who held
two jobs or more are reported in the job at which they worked the greatest number of weeks*
The occupation and industry categories used here are those used in the 1970 Census
of
the
Population.
The
class of worker breakdown specifies "wage and salary workers," "self-employed
workers," and "unpaid family workers."
Wage and salary workers are persons
working
for wage,
salary,
commission,
tips,
payment
in kind,
or at piece rates for a private employer or any
government unit.
Self-employed
workers
are
persons
working
in
their
own unincorporated
business,
profession,
or trade, or operating a farm for profit or fees.
Unpaid family workers
are persons working without pay on a farm or in a business operated by a member of the household
to whom they are related by blood or marriage.
Spell of Unempl o y m e n t . A spell of unemployment is a continuous period
of
unemployment
of
at
least
1 week's
duration.
A spell
is terminated by employment or withdrawal from the labor
force.
Extent of Unemployment. The number and proportion of the work force looking for work while
employed
or
on
layoff at some time during the year indicates the extent of unemployment.
number of weeks unemployed is the total number of weeks accumulated during the entire year.

not
The

R a c e . The population is divided into three groups on the basis
of
race;
white,
black,
and
"other"
races.
The
last category includes American Indians, Japanese, Chinese, and any other
race except white and black.
Data in this report are for black only; data in reports for years
prior to 1976 were for "black and other."
Marital S t a t u s . Persons are classified into the following categories according to their marital
status
at
the
time
of
interview;
"single,"
"married, spouse present," and "other marital
status."
The classification "married, spouse present" applies to husband and wife if
both
are
reported as members of the same household even though one may be temporarily absent at the time
of the interview for business or personal reasons.
The term "other marital status"
applies
to
persons who are married with spouse absent, widowed, or divorced.
RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES
Estimating P r ocedure. The estimating procedure used in this
survey
inflates
weighted
sample
results
to independent
estimates of the civilian noninstitutional population by age, sex, and
race.
These independent estimates were
based
on statistics
from
the
1980 Census
of
the
Population
and
other
data
on births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and size of the Armed
For c e s .
The data for 1980 collected in the March 1981 work experience
survey
have
been
inflated
using population weights based on results from the 1980 Census of the Population.
The 1979 data
discussed in tables 1 and 2 have also been revised to bring them in line with the new population
weights
and
to make
them comparable with the* 1980 data.
The previously published 1979 work
experience data (as they appeared in the June 1981 Monthly Labor Rev i e w ) reflected
population
weights projected forward from the 1970 Census of the Population.
The effect of the revision on
the 1979 data is shown in tables 1 and 2, all of which present the originally published as well
as
the
revised
estimates
for
1979.
As the tables show, the number of persons who worked or
looked for work in 1979 was revised upward by 2.3 million
and
the
number
experiencing
some
unemployment
was
estimated
to
be
500,000
greater
than originally reported.
Despite these
significant changes in the data for 1979, the various relationships
and rates based on the new
estimates
are
nearly
the
same
as
those
based
on the previously published estimates.
For
example, the percent of the population with some unemployment in
1979
was
estimated
at
15.7
percent using the 1970 population weights and 15.8 percent using the 1980 weights.
Variability of the E s t i m a t e s . Since the CPS estimates in this report are
based
on a sample,
they may differ somewhat from the figures that would have been obtained if a complete census had
been taken using the same schedules and procedures.
There are two types of errors
possible
in
an
estimate
based on a sample survey - sampling and nonsampling.
The standard errors provided
for this report primarily indicate the magnitude of the sampling
error.
They
also
partially
measure
the
effect
of some nonsampling errors in response and enumeration, but do not measure
any systematic
biases
in
the data.
The
full
extent
of
nonsampling
error
is
unknown.




A-3

Table 1. Work experience during the year by race, ethnic origin, sex, and extent of employment using 1970 and 1980
census population estimates, 1979
(N u m b e rs in th o u s a n d s )
1970
Base

1980
Base

Women

Men

T otal
E x t e n t o f em ploym ent

Net
d iffer­
ence

1970
Base

1980
Base

Net
d iffer­
ence

1970
Base

1980
Base

Net
d iffer­
ence

ALL PERSONS
C iv ilia n n o n in stitu tio n a l
p o p u l a t i o n , 16 y e a r s a n d o l d e r -------------P e r c e n t w i t h w o r k d u r i n g t h e y e a r -----------P e r s o n s who w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r -------------F u l l t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 ' t o 5 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------1 t o 4 9 w e e k s --------------------------------------------P a r t t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 5 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------1 t o 49 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------

163,410
69.0
112,721
8 9,019
63,609
2 5 ,409
23,703
8,0 4 8
15,654

166,953
68.9
114,993
90,789
64,706
26,803
24,204
8 ,1 9 0
1 6,014

3,543
-0 .1
2,2 7 2
1,7 7 0
1,097
1,394
501
142
360

77,362
81.2
62,843
5 5 ,065
4 1 ,804
1 3,262
7,777
2 ,650
5,127

7 9 ,014
81.1
64,063
56,078
42,464
1 3,614
7,986
2 ,6 9 9
5 ,2 8 6

1,652
-0 .1
1,220
1,013
660
352
209
49
15 9

86,048
5 8.0
49,879
3 3 ,953
21,806
12,147
15,926
5,398
10,527

87,939
57.9
5 0,929
34,711
2 2 ,242
1 2,469
1 6,218
5,491
10,727

1,891
-0 .1
1,050
758
436
32 2
292
93
200

143,114
69.7
99,773
7 8,597
5 6 ,674
21,924
2 1 ,176
7,273
13,903

145,671
69 .6
1 01,407
7 9 ,869
5 7 ,481
22,388
2 1 ,538
7,378
14,160

2,557
-0 .1
1,634
1,272
807
464
362
105
257

68,241
82.3
56,183
4 9 ,348
3 7 ,803
1 1,544
6,835
2,3 9 9
4,4 3 6

69,439
82.2
5 7 ,084
5 0 ,089
3 8,292
11,797
6,995
2,442
4,553

1,198
-0 .1
90 1
741
489
253
160
43
11 7

74,873
58.2
43,591
29,250
18,871
10,378
14,341
4 ,8 7 4
9,466

76,232
58.1
4 4 ,323
29,779
1 9,189
1 0 ,590
14,543
4 ,9 3 6
9,607

1,359
-0 .1
732
529
318
212
202
62
141

17,201
63.0
10,844
8,708
5,788
2,920
2,137
646
1,4 9 0

17,701
62.8
1 1,114
8,9 2 2
5,8 8 7
3,0 3 5
2,1 9 2
655
1,537

500
-0 .2
270
214
99
11 5
55
9
47

7,6 6 4
72.1
5,5 2 5
4,719
3 ,2 7 6
1,443
805
205
600

7,8 8 4
7 1.5
5,6 3 8
4 ,8 1 8
3 ,3 2 4
1,494
82 1
201
619

220
-0 .6
113
99
48
51
16
-4
19

9,537
55.8
5 ,3 2 0
3 ,9 8 9
2 ,5 1 2
1,477
1,331
441
890

9,817
5 5.8
5,4 7 6
4,1 0 5
2 .5 6 3
1,541
1,371
453
918

280
—
156
116
51
64
40
12
28

8,268
68.7
5,683
4 ,7 2 8
3,0 7 5
1,653
954
279
676

8,3 9 4
6 8.3
5,732
4 ,7 4 4
3,0 4 8
1,696
988
288
701

126
-0 .4
49
16
-27
43
34
9
25

4,074
83.7
3 ,4 1 0
3 ,0 0 0
2,087
913
410
120
290

4,0 4 3
83 .3
3 ,3 6 9
2,9 4 9
2,0 2 4
925
420
123
297

-31
-0 .4
-41
-51
-63
12
10
3
7

4,194
5 4.2
2 ,2 7 2
1,729
989
739
544
158
385

4,351
5 4.3
2 ,3 6 3
1,795
1,024
772
568
165
403

1 57
0 .1
91
66
35
33
24
7
18

WHITE
C iv ilia n n o n in stitu tio n a x
p o p u l a t i o n , 16 y e a r s a n d o l d e r -------------P e r c e n t w i t h w o r k d u r i n g t h e y e a r -----------P e r s o n s who w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r -------------F u l l t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 5 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------1 t o 4 9 w e e k s --------------------------------------------P a r t t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 5 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------1 t o 49 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------

BLACK
C iv ilia n n o n in stitu tio n a l
p o p u l a t i o n , 16 y e a r s a n d o l d e r -------------P e r c e n t w i t h w o r k d u r i n g t h e y e a r -----------P e r s o n s who w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r -------------F u l l t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 52 w e e k s ------------------------------------------1 t o 4 9 w e e k s --------------------------------------------P a r t t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 5 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------1 t o 4 9 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------

HISPANIC
C iv ilia n n o n in stitu tio n a l
p o p u l a t i o n , 16 y e a r s a n d o l d e r -------------P e r c e n t w i t h w o r k d u r i n g t h e y e a r -----------P e r s o n s who w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r ------------F u l l t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 5 2 w e e k s -------------------------- : --------------1 t o 4 9 w e e k s --------------------------------------------P a r t t i m e --------------------------------------------------------5 0 t o 5 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------1 t o 4 9 w e e k s --------------------------------------------




A-4

Table 2. Extent of unemployment during the year, by race, ethnic origin, and sex using 1970 and 1980
census population estimates, 1979
(Num bers in thousands)

Total

Men

1980
Base

Net
Differ­
ence

114,648
15.7
17,971
1,927
16,045

116,983
15.8
18,468
1,990
16,478

2,335
0.1
497
63
433

838
15,207
4,146
5,727
5,334
5,164

856
15,622
4,264
5,877
5,480
5,314

18
415
118
150
136
150

Employed or looked for work during the year- 101,097
14.7
Percent unemployed----------------------14,850
Persons with unemployment-----------------1,324
D i d n o t w o r k --------------------------------------------------------------------13,526
With work experience--------------------Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2
755
weeks--------------------------------12,771
Part-year workers unemployed----------3,636
1 to 4 weeks------------------------4,932
5 to 14 weeks-----------------------4,203
15 weeks or more--------------------4,290
With 2 spells or more------------------

102,761
14.8
15,168
1,354
13,814

1,664
0.1
318
30
288

765
13,048
3,718
5,033
4,297
4,404

10
278
82
101
94
114

534
7,252
1,701
2,989
2,563
2,748

11,405
24.2
2,764
560
2,204

11,702
24.6
2,880
588
2,292

297
0.4
116
28
88

74
2,130
422
677
1,031
782

80
2,212
435
707
1,069
802

5,822
22.0
1,280
139
1,140
44
1,096
256
423
417
384

Extent of unemployment

1970
Base

Women
Net
Differ­
ence

Net
Differ­
ence

1970
Base

1980
Base

1,249
0.1
278
28
250

51,158
16.0
8,207
1,280
6,927

52,244
16.1
8,426
1,315
7,111

1,086
0.1
219
35
184

601
8,766
1,988
3,499
3,279
3,347

14
235
56
92
87
92

252
6,676
2,215
2,320
2,141
1,909

254
6,857
2,276
2,378
2,202
1,967

2
181
61
58
61
58

56,632 57,548
14.5
14.6
8,236 8,426
464
450
7,786 7,962

916
0.1
190
14
176

44,465
14.9
6,614
874
5,740

45,214
14.9
6,742
891
5,851

749
—
128
17
111

542
7,420
1,742
3,053
2,626
2,821

8
168
41
64
63
74

221
5,519
1,935
1,944
1,640
1,542

223
5,628
1,977
1,980
1,671
1,582

2
109
42
36
31
40

5,710
23.8
1,357
185
1,172

5,837
24.2
1,412
198
1,213

127
0.4
55
13
41

5,695
24.7
1,407
375
1,032

5,865
25.0
1,468
390
1,029

170
0.3
61
15
47

6
82
13
30
38
20

49
1,123
191
358
574
453

54
1,159
195
374
591
457

5
36
4
16
17
4

24
1,008
231
319
458
328

25
1,054
241
335
478
345

1
46
10
16
20
17

5,872
22.4
1,314
140
1,173

50
0.4
34
1
34

3,459
21.5
744
49
695

3,416
22.2
757
47
710

-43
0.7
13
-2
14

2,363
22.7
535
91
445

2,456
22.6
556
93
463

93
-0.1
21
2
18

46
1,128
263
432
432
398

2
32
7
9
15
14

31
664
141
267
256
252

32
677
142
270
265
261

1
13
1
3
9
9

13
432
116
157
160
131

13
450
120
162
167
137

_
18
4
5
7
6

1970
Base

1980
Base

ALL PERSONS
E m ployed

or

look ed

for

work

d u rin g

the

year-

percent unemployed----------------------Persons with unemployment-----------------Did not work----------------------------With work experience--------------------Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2
weeks--------------------------------Part-year workers unemployed----------1 to 4 weeks------------------------5 to 14 weeks-----------------------15 weeks or more--------------------With 2 spells or more------------------

63,490 64,739
15.4
15.5
9,764 10,042
647
675
9,117 9,367
587
8,531
1,932
3,407
3,192
3,255

WHITE

BLACK
E m ployed

or

look ed

for

work d u rin g

the

year-

Percent unemployed----------------------P ersons

w ith

u n e m p l o y m e n t -------------------------------------------

Did not work----------------------------With work experience--------------------Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2
weeks--------------------------------P art-year

w orkers

u n e m p l o y e d ---------------------------

1 to 4 weeks------------------------5 to 14 weeks-----------------------15 weeks or more--------------------With 2 spells or more------------------

HISPANIC
E m p lo y e d ,or
Percent

look ed

for

work

d u rin g

the

year-

u n e m p l o y e d -------------------------------------------------------

Persons with unemployment-----------------Did not work----------------------------With work experience--------------------Year-round workers unemployed 1 or 2
weeks------------------- -------------Part-year workers unemployed----------1 to 4 weeks------------------------5 to 14 weeks-----------------------15 weeks or more--------------------With 2 spells or more------------------




A-5

Consequently,
particular
care
should be exercised in the interpretation of figures based on a
relatively small number of cases or on small differences between estim a t e s .
Nonsampling V a r i ability. Nonsampling errors can be attributed
to many
sources— inability
to
obtain
information about all cases in the sample, definitional difficulties, differences in the
interpretation of questions, inability or unwillingness
on
the
part
of
the
respondents
to
provide
correct
information,
inability
to
recall information, errors made in processing the
data, errors made in estimating values for missing data, and failure to represent all units with
the sample (undercoverage).
Sampling Variability. The standard errors given in tables 3 to 5 are
primarily measures
of
sampling variability, that is, of the variation that occurred by chance because a sample rather
than the entire population was surveyedo
The sample estimate and its standard error enable
one
to construct confidence intervals— ranges that would include the average result of all possible
samples with a known probability.,
For example, if all possible samples were selected,
each
of
these
being
surveyed
under
essentially the same general conditions and using the same sample
design, and if an estimate and its standard error were calculated from each sample, then;
lo Approximately 68 percent of the intervals from one standard error below the estimate
to one standard error above the estimate would include the average result of all
possible sampleso
2. Approximately 90 percent of the intervals from lo6 standard errors below the estimate
to 1.6 standard errors above the estimate would include the average result of all
possible samples.
3 = Approximately 95 percent of the intervals from two standard errors below the estimate
to two standard errors above the estimate would include the average result of all
possible samples.
The average estimate derived from all possible samples may or may not be contained
in
any
particular
computed
interval.
However, for a particular sample, one can say with a specified
confidence that the average estimate derived from all
possible
samples
is
included
in
the
confidence interval.
Standard Error Tables and Their U s e ,
In order
to derive
standard errors
that would
be
applicable
to a large number of estimates and could be prepared at a moderate cost, a number of
approximations were required.
Therefore, instead of providing an individual standard error
for
each
estimate,
generalized
sets
of
standard
errors
are provided
for various
types
of
characteristics.
As a result, the sets of standard errors provided give an
indication
of
the
order
of magnitude of the standard error of an estimate rather than the precise standard error.
The figures presented in tables 4 and 5 are approximations of standard errors
of various
estimates.
Standard
errors
for
intermediate
values
not shown in the generalized tables of
standard errors may be approximated by interpolation.
Two parameters (denoted "a" and "b")
are
used
to calculate
standard
errors
for
each
characteristic; they
are presented in table 3,
The parameters were used in order to derive the
standard errors in tables 4 and 5=
They also may be used to directly calculate
the
standard
errors
for
estimated numbers and percentages.
Methods for direct computation are given in the
following sections.
Standard Errors of Estimated N u m b e r s . The approximate standard
error
of
an
estimated number
shown in this report can be obtained in two ways.
It may be obtained by use of the formula (1)
=

a

f

»

(1)

a

x
where f is the appropriate factor from table 3, and <r is the standard
error
of
the
estimate
obtained
by interpolation from table 4,
Alternatively, standard errors may be approximated by
the following formula (2) from which the standard errors in
table
4 were
calculated.
= \/ax 2'+ bx

(2)

x
Here x is the size of the estimate and a and b are the parameters in table 3 associated with the
particular
characteristic.
Use of this formula will provide more accurate results than the use
of formula (1) above.




A-6

Illustration of the Computation of the Standard Error of an Estimated N u m b e r . Suppose
.
that
in
1980
there were 18,282,000 men 25 to 34 years old with work experience.
Using formula (2) with
a = -0o000025 and b = 1798 from table 3, the approximate standard error is

crx =

V

(-.000025)

(18,282,000)2 + (1798)

(18,282,000) = 157,000

The chances are 68 out of 100 that the estimate would have been
a figure
differing
from
the
average
of
all
possible samples by less than 157,000.
The chances are 95 out of 100 that the
estimate would have been a figure differing from the average of all
possible
samples
by
less
than 314,000 (twice the standard error), i.e., the 95 percent confidence interval for the number
of men 25 to 34 years old with work experience is from 17,968,000 to 18,596,000.
Using
formula
(1), the appropriate factor, from table 3 (0.93), and interpolating from table 4, the approximate
standard error is .93 x 172,000 = 160,000.
Standard Errors of Estimated Percentages. The reliability of an estimated
percentage
computed
using
sample
data
for
both numerator
and
denominator,
depends
upon both the size of the
percentage and the size of the total upon which this percentage is based.
Estimated percentages
are
relatively mare
reliable
than
the
corresponding
estimates
of
the numerators of the
percentages, particularly if the percentages are 50 percent or more.
The
approximate
standard
error of the estimated percentage can be obtained by use of the formula
f

- cr

(3)

(x,p)

a

In this formula f is the appropriate factor from table 3, and cr is the standard
error
of
the
estimate
from
table
5.
Alternatively,
standard
errors may be approximated by the following
formula (4), from which the standard errors in table 5 were calculated.

(x,p)

= V b (p (100 - p))
x

(4)

Here x is the size of the subclass of persons or households which is the base of the percentage,
p is the percentage (0 < p < 100), and b is the parameter
in
table
3 associated
with
the
particular
characteristic in the numerator of the percentage.
Use of this formula will provide
more accurate results than the use of formula (3) above.
Illustration of the Computation of the Standard Error of an Estimated P e r c e n t a g e . Suppose
that
of
the
53,071,000 women who worked or looked for work in 1980, 17.6 percent were unemployed at
some time during the year.
From table 3 the appropriate parameter b is
1971.
Using
formula
(4), the approximate standard error on 17.6 percent is
= V
O'

(x ,p)

" 1971
53,071,000

(17.6)

(82.4) = 0.2 percent

Consequently, the chances are 68 out of 100 that the
estimated
percent would
be within
0.2
percentage
points
of
the average of all possible samples.
Chances are 95 out of 100 that the
estimate would be within 0.4 percentage points of the average of all possible samples, i.e., the
95 percent
confidence
interval
for
the percentage of women who were unemployed at some time
during the year is from 17.2 to 18.0 percent.
Using formula (3), the
appropriate
factor
from
table 3 (0.97), and interpolating from table 5, the approximate standard error is 0.2 percent.




A-7

Table 3. Parameters and factors used for ealeuSating approximate standard errors of estimated numbers
and percentages for work experience data
I
| Persons, families, family heads, unrelated
|
individuals
Characteristic
I
1
I
I
b
|
I
a
|
n/
I
I
1
I
I
1
Worked, or looked for work
I
I
I
Both sexes
I
I
1
Total
2,078
|
1.00
White ..»
2,078
|
1.00
Black and other races
1.00
2,078
|
Spanish origin® .. ...... 00. ..»..
2,607
|
1.12
1
|
l
l
I
Male
1
1
1
Total......
1,798
|
.93
White
1,798
|
.93
Black and other races 0.. . ». ..»
1,798
|
.93
Spanish origin.
1,863
|
.95
i
i
1
I
s
8
Female
i
1
i
Total or white®®.. ....... ..0.
.
1,541
|
.86
Black and other races ® ®..0».».
1.541
|
.86
Spanish origin
1,381
|
.83
1
1
1
1
I
Did not work or unemployed
1
1
1
Total or white,.,..,............,
1,971
|
.97
Black and other races...........
1.04
2,265
|
Spanish origin...................
1,106
1
.73
1
1
1
These factors should be used only with formulas (1) and (3).
o o c o o c o o o o o o o c » c c o o c o o c c o o o

C 0 . o o c o c c c o c o OOOC OOOC 0 o o

o

o

O

C

O

O

c

O

C

o

C

c

O

e

.

. . . . . .

O

O

O

0

o

c

o

c

o

c

o

.

o

c

o

c

o

c

o

c

c

o

o

c

o

o o c o c o c c c o o c o o c o o

o

o

o o c o c o c c c c o o o o o c o c

T a b le 4 . S t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t im a t e d n u m b e r s 1
(Numbers in thousands)

Size of estimate

50
100.........................................
o o

.

o o o o o o o g . o o o c.
o

o o o o o o o
.

|

o o

Standard error

10

. o o o o o o o o |
o

I

14

2 0 0 .

o . o . o o e . . . o o . c o o o c o . . . o o . o o c o o . o o . o . I

2 0

5 Q 0 o

o . o c c O C o o e o o o o . c o o c c c o . o o o o c c o o o o . . o I

3 2

1 .0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 . 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............
I
5. 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 C CO 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 coco col
O
1
0
,
0
0
0
c
|
2 0 ,0 0 0 ....................................... ................................... |
5 0 .0 0 0 . . . .
|
168 chances out of 100.




A-8

45
64
100
138
188
253

Table 5. Standard error of estimated percentages1

Standard

error

(i n p e r c e n t a g e

points) w h e n base
t h o u s a n d s ) is -

of

estimated

percentages

(in

Estimated

percentage
75
1 or 9 9 . . . . . . .
2 or 9 8 . . . . . . .
5 or 95 ..............
10 or 9 0 . . . . . .
15 o r 8 5 ___ . .
20 o r 80 ............
25 o r 7 5 . ..........
35 o r 6 5 . . . . . .
5 0 . . . . ................

| 100

| 250

1. 6
2.3
3.6
5.0
5 o9
6.6
7 .2
7.6
8. 3

I
|
|
|
|
|
I
|
|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
I

1.4
2.0
3. 1
4 .3
5.1
5.8
6.2
6 .6
7.2

0.9
1 .3
2 .0
2.9
3.3
3.7
4. 1
4.4
4.7

| 500

|
|
|
|
|
|
1
|
|

0.6
.9
1.4
1.9
2.3
2.6
2.8
3.0
3. 2

1
| 1,000 | 2,5 00 | 5,000
1
1
| 0 . 4 | 0 .3 | 0. 2
.6 |
.3
I
.5 I
| 1.0 |
.4
.6 |
| 1. 4 |
.9 |
.6
| 1.6 1 1.1 |
.7
| 1 . 8 I 1.2 |
.8
| 2 .0 | 1. 3 I
.9
| 2.1 | 1 . 4 |
.9
| 2 . 3 | 1. 5 I 1 . 0
1

168 chances out of 100.




A-9

1
1
110,000 25,000 50,0001 100,000
1
1
1
1
| 0.14
0. 0 9
0 . 0 6 | 0.0 4
|
.2
.12
.09 | .06
|
.3
.14 |
.19
.1
|
.4
.3
.2 I .14
|
.4
.5
.2 |
.2
|
.6
.4
.3 |
.2
|
.6
.4
.3 |
.2
.6
.4
|
.2
.3 I
|
.7
.5
.2
.3 |
1
1

Table A-1. Age: Persons with work experience in 1980, by sex
(Numbers i thousands)
n

WORK EXPERIENCE AND SEX

TOTAL/ 16 AND 18 AND
17
16 YEARS
19
AND OVER YEARS YEARS

20 TO
24
YEARS

25 TO
34
YEARS

35 TO
44
YEARS

45 TO
54
YEARS

55 TO
59
YEARS

60 TO 64 YEARS
60 AND 62 TO
64
61
YEARS
years

TOTAL

65 YEARS AND OVER
65 TO 70 YEARS
69
AND OVER
YEARS

t o ta l

BOTH SEXES
NUMBER ........ 169,452
100.0
PERCENT........

TOTAL:

WORKED IN 1980 ........................................
.......................
DID NOT WORK IN 1980
WORKED IN

1980'.

8/153
100.0

68.3
31.7

51.0
49.0

NUMBER. . . . 115,752
loo.o
PERCENT . . .

4/158

loo.o

8/188 20/774 37/485 25/991 22/473 11/527 10/176
100.0 loo.o 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
83.9
16.1

4/311 5/864 24,686 8/735 15/950
100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0
100.0

78,5
21,5

68.7
31.3

52.7
47.3

59.1
40.9

48.0
52.0

16.9
83.1

26.1
71.9

10.7
89,3

6/141 17,482 31/458 21/426 17/647
100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0

7,915
100.0

5,363
100.0

2/550
100.0

2/813
100.0

4,161
100.0

2/456
100.0

1/705
100.0

75.0
25.0

84.2
15.8

82.4
17.6

WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS . . .
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . .
48 OR 49 WEEKS . . . . . . .
40 TO 47 WEEKS . . . . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS ............
14 TO 26 WEEKS . . . . . . .
1 TO 13 WEEKS..............

78.5
56.1
2.2
5.1
5.2
5.5
4.5

19.4
2.0
0.1
0.6
1.0
3.3
12.4

48.3
15.6
1.2
3.3
5.6
10.3
12.3

77.6
42.0
2.7
7.0
7.9
9,5
8.5

85.8
62.2
2.7
6.2
6.0
5.4
3.2

85.4
67.9
2.5
4.4
4.3
4.0
2.2

86.0
70.2
1.9
4.5
4.1
3.2
2.1

85.5
69.0
2.1
4.7
4.1
3.5
2.0

81.3
62.4
1.8
4.4
4.2
4.9
3.6

85.2
67.7
2.0
4.6
4.3
4.0
2.7

77.7
57.6
1.6
4.2
4.2
5,7
4.3

48.3
29.6
1.0
3.1
4.2
5.7
4.5

55.7
33.9
1.3
3.7
4.8
6.7
5.2

37.6
23.5
O06
2,3
3.3
4.3
3.4

WORKED AT PART-TIME JOBS . . .
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . .
48 OR 49 WEEKS ............
40 TO 47 WEEKS . . . . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS . . . . . . .
14 TO 26 WEEKS . . . . . . .
1 TO 13 WEEKS. . . . . . . .

21.5
7.7
0.7
1.9
2.6
3.8
4.7

80.6
17.0
1.4
4.6
8.3
19.7
29.7

51.7
14.5
0.9
4.3
7.0
11.5
13.4

22.4
7.5
0.9
1.8
2.9
4.5
4.8

14.2
4.9
0.6
1.3
1.9
2.6
2.9

14.6
6.1
0.5
1.6
1.9
2.2
2.3

14.0
6.9
0.5
1.3
1.6
1.7
1.9

14.5
6.9
0.6
1.5
1.7
1.5
2.3

18.7
9.0
1.1
1.7
1.9
2.6
2.6

14.8
7.4
0.5
1.5
1.3
1.8
2.3

22.3
10.4
1.5
1.9
2.4
3.3
2.8

51.7
22.1
1.9
4.8
4.7
7.3
10.8

44.3
19,1
1.5
4.1
4.2
6.4
9.0

62.4
26.5
2.5
5.9
5,5
8.7
13.4

NUMBER . . . . .
PERCENT. . . . .

80,193
100.0

4/131
100.0

4/025 10,089 18/282 12/610 10/820
100.0 loo.o 100.0 100.0 100.0

5,428
100.0

4,700
100.0

2/005
100.0

2/695 10/108
100,0 100.0

3/878
100.0

6/229
100,0

WORKED IN 1980 ........................................
DID NOT WORK IN 1980 .......................

80.1
19.9

54.9
45.1

78.6
21.4

NUMBER. . . .
PERCENT . . .

64,260

loo.o

2/269
100.0

3/165
100.0

WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS . . .
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . .
48 OR 49 WEEKS . . . . . . .
40 TO 47 WEEKS . . . . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS . . . . . . .
14 TO 26 WEEKS . . . . . . .
1 TO 13 WEEKS. . . . . . . .

87.2
65.2
2.3
5.3
5.3
5.2
3.9

22.7
2.9
0.1
0.8
0.8
4.0
14.2

54.5
17.0
1.3
4.2
6.5
11.5
13.9

82.1
44,4
3.1
7,8
8.9
9.9
8.0

94.9
72.4
2.9
6.5
5.8
4.9
2.4

WORKED AT PART-TIME JOBS . . .
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . .
48 OR 49 W E E K S ...........
40 TO 47 WEEKS . . ........
27 TO 39 WEEKS ............
14 TO 26 WEEKS . ..........
1 TO 13 WEEKS. . . . . . . .

12.8
4.4
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.4
3.0

77.3

45.5
13.1
0.9
3.8
6.1
10.2
11.4

17.9
6.1
0.9
1.5
2.5
3.3
3.4

5.1
2.0
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.8
0.9

89,259

loo.o

4/022
100.0

57.7
42.3

47.0
53.0

71.5
28.5

NUMBER. . . .
PERCENT . . .

51,492

loo.o

1/890
100.0

2/976
100.0

WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS . . .
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . .
48 OR 49 WEEKS ............
40 TO 47 WEEKS . . . . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS . . . . . . .
14 TO 26 WEEKS . ..........
1 TO 13 WEEKS. . . . . . . .

67.8
44.7
2.1
4.8
5.1
5.8
5.2

15.4
0.9
0.1
0.5
1.2
2.4
10.4

41.8
14.0
1.1
2.4
4.7
9.1
10.6

WORKED AT PART-TIME JOBS . . .
50 TO 52 WEEKS . . . . . . .
48 OR 49 WEEKS . . . . . . .
40 TO 47 WEEKS . . . . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS . . . . . . .
14 TO 26 WEEKS „ ..........
1 TO 13 WEEKS..............

32.2
11.9
1.1
3.0
4.0
5.6
6.7

84.6
14.8
2.1
6.1
9.3
21.8
30.7

58.2
16.0
0.9
4.9
8.0
12.9
15.5

MEN
TOTAL:

WORKED IN

1980:

18.8

0.8
3.4
7.4
18.0

28.8

95.2
4.8

92.0
8.0

85.1
14.9

67.3
32.7

74.4
25.6

61,9
38.1

25.2
74.8

38.5
61.5

16.9
83.1

9/125 17/412 12/008
100.0 100.0 100.0

9/956
100.0

4/620
100.0

3,161
100.0

1/492
100.0

1/669
100.0

2/543
100.0

1/492
100.0

1/051
100.0

97.0
81.1
2.6
4.5
4.1
3.3
1.3

96,0
81.7
1.9
4.4
4.1
2.7
1.3

94.5
79.2
1.9
4.8
4.1
3.2
1.3

90.1
71.8
1.6
3.7
4,6
5,0
3.4

93.0
77.0
1.9
3.8
3.9
4.3
2.1

87.5
67.2
1.3
3.7
5.2
5.5
4.5

53.0
33.2
1.3
2.8
4.6
6.2
4.9

61.6
38.3
1.6
3.1
5.7
7.6
5.3

40.8
25.9
0.9
2.3
3.2
4.2
4.3

3.0
1.1
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5

4.0
1.9
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.5
0,5

5.5
2.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

9.9
3.9
0.9
0.6
0.9
1.9
1.7

7.0
3.5
0.4
0.3
1.5
1.3

12.5
4.3
1.3
0.9
1.7
2.3
2.0

47.0
19.7
1.5
4.5
4.3
6.9
10.3

38.4
15.4
0.8
3.5
4.0
6.4
8.2

59.2
25.7
2.3
5.8
4.7
7.5
13,2

4/163 10,685 19,204 13/381 11/653
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

6,099
100.0

5,475
100.0

2/306
100.0

3/169 14/578
100,0 100.0

4/857
100.0

9/721
100.0

90.4
9.6

95.2
4.8

WOMEN
TOTAL:

NUMBER . . . . .
PERCENT. . . . .

WORKED IN 1980 . . . . . . . .
DID NOT WORK IN 1980 . . . . .
WORKED IN

1980:

73.1
26.9

70,4
29.6

66.0
34,0

54.0
46.0

40.2
59.8

45.9
54.1

36.1
63,9

11.1
88.9

19.9
80.1

6,7
93.3

8/357 14/046
loo.o 100.0

9/418
100.0

7/691
100.0

3/295
100.0

2/202
100.0

1/058
100.0

1/144
100.0

1/618
100.0

964
100.0

653
100.0

72.6
39,4
2.3
6.0
6.9
9.1
9.0

74.5
49.6
2.5
5.9
6.2
6.1
4.3

70.5
51.0
2.3
4.3
4.4
5.0
3.4

72.9
55.4
1.8
4.5
4.2
3.8
3.2

72.8
54.7
2.5
4.6
4.2
3.8
3.0

68.6
48.9
2,1
5.3
3.8
4.8
3.8

74.4
54.6
2.0
5.7
4.8
3.6
3.6

63.4
43.6
2.1
4.9
2.8
6.0
4.0

40.9
24.1
0.6
3.7
3.6
5.0
3.9

46.6
27.1
0.9
4.6
3.5
5.3
5.1

32.4
19,7
0,1
2.3
3.7
4.7
2.0

27.4
9.0
0.8
2,2
3.3
5,8
6.3

25.5
8.6
0.9
2.4
3.4
4.8
5.4

29.5
12.4
1.1
3.1
4.0
4.3
4.6

27.1
13.5
1.0
2.5
3,1
3.3
3.7

27.2
13.1
1.1
3.2
3.3
2.6
4.1

31.4
16,2
1.3
3.3
3.2
3.6
3.8

25.6
12.8
0.7
3.1
3.2
2.3
3.6

36.6
19.2
1.8
3.5
3.3
4.8
4.0

59.1
26.0
2.6
5.4
5.4
8.1
11.7

53.4
24.7
2.6
4.9
4,6
6.4
10.2

67.6
27.8
2,7
6.1
6,7
10.5
13.8

78.2
21.8

N ote : I t i r p r , the population and work f r e i c u e an persons 16 years o age and ov r
n hs eot
oc nld
f
e
who were i the c v l a n n n t t t o a population i March 1981.
n
iiin o i s i u i n l
n




A-10

Table A-2. Industry: Persons with work experience in 1980, by class of worker of
longest Job and sex
(Numbers i thousands)___________ ____________________________________________________________________
n
BOTH SEXES
TOTAL
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
______ WORK EXPERIENCE_________
WITH
INDUSTRY GROUP AND CLASS OF WORKER
WORK
WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS WORKED
EXPERI­ TOTAL 50 TO
27 TO
1 TO
AT PART49
ENCE
52
TIME
26
WEEKS
WEEKS
JOBS
WEEKS
ALL INDUSTRY GROUPS............................. 115,752

100.0

56.1

12.5

10.0

AGRICULTURE...........................................

3,792

100.0

50.8

10.4

13,7

25.1

WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS.............................
SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS...............................
UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,923
1,504
365

100.0
100.0
100.0

35.5
74.4
34.0

15.0
6.4
2.8

23.8
2.2
7,6

25.7
17.0
55.6

NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES . ..........

21.5

. . . . . . . . 111,959

100.0

56.3

12.6

9.8

21.3

TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS....................... 104,419
MINING ...........................................
1,054
CONSTRUCTION . . .................................
6,114
MANUFACTURING..................................... 24,359
DURABLE GOODS..................... ............ 14,566
LUMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS, EXCL. FURNITURE. . . .
679
FURNITURE AND FIXTURES . . . . . . . ........ .
607
STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS. . ............
726
PRIMARY METAL INDUSTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,279
FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS. . . . . . . . . . . .
1,651
MACHINERY, EXCEPT ELECTRICAL . . . . ..........
3,129
ELECTRICAL MACHINERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,663
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . ........
2,311
AUTOMOBILES. . .............. . . . . . . . .
1,213
OTHER TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT ..............
1,098
OTHER DURABLE GOODS...........................
1,520
NONDURABLE GOODS ...............................
9,794
FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS................... . 2,095
TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
824
APPAREL AND OTHER FABRICATED TEXTILE PRODUCTS. . 1,492
PRINTING, PUBLISHING, AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. . . . 1,726
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. . . . ........ . 1,449
OTHER NONDURABLE GOODS .......................
2,206
TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES................ 6,744
RAILROAD AND RAILWAY EXPRESS . . . ............
573
OTHER TRANSPORTATION .........................
3,151
COMMUNICATIONS . . .............. . . . . . . .
1,531
OTHER PUBLIC UTILITIES . . . .................. 1,490
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,441
WHOLESALE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4,084
RETAIL ....................................... 18,357
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE. . . . . . . . .
6,188
SERVICE........................................... 31,312
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES .................. 3,953
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS ...........................
1,614
PERSONAL SERVICE, EXCL. PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS . . . 2,300
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES........
1,377
MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES.............. 8,204
WELFARE AND RELIGIOUS SERVICES . . . ........ . 1,909
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ............ . ..........
9,245
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES.................... 2,562
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES . . . . . . . . ........
148
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6,206
POSTAL SERVICE ........................... . .
723
FEDERAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. . . . . . . . . .
1,927
STAJE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.................... 1,157
LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.................... 2,399
SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS. . . .............. . . . . . .
7,009
u n p a i d Fa m i l y w o r k e r s . , . . -.......................
532

100.0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0

56,4
68,8
47.4
66,9
68,8
57.0
56,7
65.2
69.5
68.1
73.6
69.6
67.9
57.7
79.2
71.0
64.1
62.3
59.2
52,6
62.0
76.9
68,7
71.2
76.6
59.3
83.6
81,3
44,1
71.2
38.0
69.0
49.6
51.6
12.8
38,9
27.3
57.0
52,8
50.7
62.1
34.2
72,6
84.7
74,8
72.6
67.1
55.8
33.7

12.6
17.4
25.6
15.8
16.4
21.7
23.1
21.2
17.1
16.5
13.2
16.7
17.7
24.1
10.7
12.1
15.0
15.2
20.5
21.3
10.6
10.8
14.9
10.8
14.8
13.7
6.0
8.2
9.8
12.2
9.3
10.2
11.6
13.4
5.9
13.2
12.9
10.1
9.1
13.3
9.6
24.6
6.5
4.3
6.5
9.8
5.7
12.1
4.6

10.2
11.7
16.6
11.0
10.5
12.5
14.3
9.5
8.9
10.3
8.6
10.3
12.6
16.6
6.3
11.1
11.8
13.6
13,6
15.4
6.9
9.1
12.7
7.2
6.9
9.3
5.0
5.3
9.6
7.9
9.9
7.2
10.0
12.6
10.7
14.4
18.8
9.4
7.0
7.0
10.9
27.6
9.4
5.1
10.6
11.5
8.9
4.9
7.2

20.8
2.1
10.4
6.2
4.3
8.8
5.9
4.2
4.4
5.1
4.6
3.4
1.7
1.5
1.9
5.8
9.0
9.0
6.7
10,8
20.5
3.1
3.7
10.7
1.7
17.7
5.3
5.1
36.6
8.8
42.8
13.6
28.8
22.4
70.6
33.5
41.1
23.5
31.2
29.0
17.4
13.7
11.5
5.9
8.2
6.1
18.3
27.2
54.5




A-11

Table A-2. Continued— Industry: Persons with work experience in 1980, by class of worker of longest job and sex
(Numbers i thousands)
n

INDUSTRY GROUP AND CLASS OF WORKER

MEN
WOMEN
TOTAL
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
WITH
WORK EXPERIENCE
WORK EXPERIENCE
WORK
WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS WORKED
WORKED AT FULL-T ME JOBS WORKED
e x p e r i ­ TOTAL
27 TO
27 TO
50 TO
1 TO
AT PART
AT PART- EXPERI­ t o ta l 50 TO
1 TO
99
TIME
ENCE
26
26
99
52
52
TIME
e n ce
WEEKS
WEEKS
WEEKS
JOBS
WEEKS
WEEKS
JOBS
WEEKS
TOTAL
WITH
WORK

ALL INDUSTRY GROUPS.............................

64,260

100.0

65.2

12.9

9.1

12.8

51,992

100.0

44.7

12.0

11.0

32.2

AGRICULTURE...........................................

2,971

100.0

57.7

11.3

12.0

19.0

821

100.0

25.7

7.2

19.8

97.2

1,990
1,359
127

100.0
100.0
100.0

40,8
77.6
43.8

16.3
6.6
2.7

21.3
2.2
7.6

21.7
13.5
95.9

933
150
238

100.0
100.0
100.0

17.5
99.8
28.8

10.6
4.3
2.8

32.9
2.8
7.6

39.5
98.1
60.8

61,289

100.0

65.6

13.0

8.9

12.5

50,671

100.0

45.0

12.1

10.9

32.0

56,923
923
5,697
16,279
10,798
589
928
577
1,129
1,203
2,917
1,518
1,895
1,019
881
917
5,527
1,365
926
306
996
1,091
1,392
9,876
522
2,359
786
1,209
11,175
2,988
8, 187
2,906
11,330
2,991
250
815
790
1,702
795
3,133
1,287
118
3,791
551
1,099
669
1,983
4, 807
58

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.C
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

65,6
68.9
97,5
73.0
72.5
57.0
62.5
66,9
70.9
70.7
77.7
78.2
69.5
59,9
80.5
77.9
79.0
71.2
65.8
75.9
71,3
81.3
75.2
79.1
76,2
69,5
87,6
83.0
57.2
77.2
99,9
79.9
61.5
59.9
8.3
50.7
33.5
72.9
67.9
65,8
73.2
39,5
80.9
91.8
81.9
79.5
76.7
65.7
( )
1

13.0
17.9
26.8
19.9
15.6
21.0
23.2
21.2
16.8
15.8
12.6
13.1
17.5
23.3
10.9
11.0
12.0
19.3
16.9
9.7
9.1
9.6
12.9
11.6
16.1
19.3
5.3
6.3
10.3
10.9
10.0
8.3
10.6
13.8
2.4
19.2
14.8
8.1
6.7
9.1
8.8
26.8
5.1
2.2
5.1
8.0
4.9
12.9

9.9
12.1
16.9
8.6
8.8
13.0
9.9
8.3
8.7
9.5
6.7
6.1
11.5
15.4
7.0
8.8
8.4
9.3
13.9
8.2
9.9
7.1
9.6
6.8
6.9
9.1
2.9
5.3
8.5
6.3
9.2
6.6
9.5
10.9
8.3
13.3
18,8
8.1
6.6
6.1
8.9
28.6
8.1
9.9
8.9
9,3
8.3
3.7

12.0
1.1
8.9
9.0
3.2
8.9
9.5
3.6
3.5
9.0
2.9
2.5
1.5
1.9
1.5
2.8
5.6
5.3
9.9
6.3
19.8
2.0
2.3
7.6
1.3
12.0
9.7
3.9
29.1
5.5
30.9
10.6
18.9
15.9
81.1
21.8
32.9
10.8
18.7
18.9
9.1
10.1
5.9
1.5
9.0
3.3
10.1
17.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

45.6
68.3
46.6
54.8
58.6
56.5
92.7
58.6
59.0
59.0
59.8
58.2
60.9
46.8
73.8
61.2
51.3
45.7
52.2
46.6
99.9
65.5
57.5
63.6

12.2
13.6
11.1
18.8
18.6
26.0
22.9
21.0
19.8
18.7
15.9
21.9
18.6
28.5
9.6
13.9
18.9
16.7
29.9
29.3
12.6
19.1
18.9
9.0

11.1
9.3
13.0
15.8
15.3
9.1
25.0
19.1
10.1
13.1
19.7
15.8
17.7
22.6
13.2
19,5
16.3
21.7
13.7
17.2
9.7
19.9
18.1
8.9
C )
9.7
7.9
5.7
10.7
12.0
10,5
7.6
10.3
15.9
11.1
15.1
18.7
9.7
7.2
7.9
13.0

31.0
8.7
29.3
10.6
7.9
8.9
9.4
6.3
11.1
9.2
10.1
9.5
2.8
2.1
3.9
10.9
13.5
16.0
9.2
11.9
28.3
6.0
6.0
19.0
C1 )
34.4
6.0
12.5
99.0
17.7
52.3
15.5
39.8
33.4
68.7
39.9
52.2
26.8
39.2
39.1
25.7

(1)

(’)

( )
'

47,995
130
967
8,085
3,818
95
179
199
150
368
712
1,195
916
199
217
603
4,267
730
399
1,186
730
908
819
1,868
51
792
795
281
11,266
1,096
10,170
3,781
19,982
1,962
1,365
1,985
587
6,502
1,169
6,113
1,275
30
2,915
172
833
993
917
2,202
474

WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS.............................
s e l f -e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s ........................... . .
UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS...............................
NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES ...........................
TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS.......................
MINING ...........................................
CONSTRUCTION .......... . ........................
MANUFACTURING.....................................
DURABLE GOODS...................................
LUMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS, EXCL. FURNITURE. . . .
FURNITURE AND FIXTURES .......................
STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS. . . ..........
PRIMARY METAL INDUSTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . .
FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS.....................
MACHINERY, e x c e p t ELECTRICAL ..................
ELECTRICAL MACHINERY .........................
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT .....................
AUTOMOBILES.................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . .
OTHER DURABLE GOODS...........................
NONDURABLE GOODS ...............................
FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS.....................
TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS.........................
APPAREL AND OTHER FABRICATED TEXTILE PRODUCTS. .
PRINTING, PUBLISHING, AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. . . .
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. . . . . . . . . .
OTHER NONDURABLE G O O D S ................... . .
TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES................
RAILROAD AND RAILWAY EXPRESS ..................
OTHER TRANSPORTATION .........................
COMMUNICATIONS ...............................
OTHER PUBLIC UTILITIES .......................
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE .......................
WHOLESALE....................................
RETAIL .......................................
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE................
SERVICE........................... ..
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES ................ .
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS .............. . ..........
PERSONAL SERVICE, EXCL. PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS . . .
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES........
MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES..............
WELFARE AND RELIGIOUS SERVICES ................
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES .........................
. OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES....................
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES .......................
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.............................
POSTAL SERVICE ...............................
FEDERAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION..................
STATE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION....................
LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION................. .
SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS..............................
UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS.....................

(1)

1Percent not shown where base i l s than 7 , 0 .
s es
500




A-12

(I)

( )
i

( )
>

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1C0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(1)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

44.0
79.4
74.1
31.0
59.8
28.5
65.5
92.9
38.3
13.6
32.9
18.9
52.9
93.1
43.0
50.9
(1 )
59.5
61.9
65.9
63.9
51.6
39.2
39.3

12.0
6.8
7.7
9.3
15.5
8.7
11.5
12.1
12.8
6.6
12.7
10.2
10.6
10.5
15.5
10.3
( )
i
8.8

u.i
8.2
12.3
7.0
10.1
4.7

( )
'

( )

11.5
7.1
12.8
19.9
9.7
7.6
6.9

20.2
19.9
13.6
10.0
31.6
98.1
59.6

Table A-3. industry ©f wage and salary workers by race: Percent distribution, by work experience
of longest Job in 1980 and sex
(Numbers i thousands)
n
WHITE
BLACK
WORKED AT FULL­
WORKED at p a r t TOTAL
TOTAL
WORKED AT FULL­
WORKED AT PARTWITH
TIME JOBS
ti m e JOBS
WITH
TIME JOBS
TIME JOBS
WORK TOTAL 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO
WORK TOTAL 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO
EXPE­
49
26
52
49
EXPE­
26
52
49
26
52
49
26
52
RIENCE
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS RIENCE
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS

INDUSTRY GROUP AND SEX

BOTH SEXES
ALU INDUSTRY GROUPS. . . . 93,002 100.0

56.4

12.6

10.0

7.3

5.3

8.4 10,861 100,0

52.8

13.1

13.3

6.7

4.3

9.8

1,635
91,367
1,001
5,542
21,471
12,929
8,542
5,891
20,260

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

36.3
56.8
69.7
48.4
67.8
69.8
64.9
71.7
43.9

13.4
12.6
16.7
25.6
15.3
15.9
14.4
10.8
9.8

23.8
9.8
11.4
15.7
10.6
10.1
11.4
7.0
9.1

5.9
7.3
1.0
2.4
2.3
1.5
3.4
4.3
12.6

3.9
5.3
0.5
2.6
1.7
1.2
2.3
3.0
9.1

16.7
214 100.0
8.3 10,648 100.0
0.6
32
(i)
5.2
487 100.0
2.3 2,367 100.0
1.4 1,340 100.0
3.6 1,027 100.0
751 100.0
3.3
15.5 1,632 100.0

35.3
53.1
(i)
35.1
60.0
61.4
58.1
67.6
44.7

22.3
13.0
( 1)
25.4
20.4
20.3
20.6
10.7
9.1

18.1
13.2
m
26.4
14.1
13.2
15.2
8.8
14.2

2.6
6.8
(i)
1.5
1.7
1.5
2.0
2.4
10.2

1.2
4.4
(i)
1.0
1.8
1.9
1.7
3.5
6.0

20.5
9.6
<1)
10.6
2.0
1.8
2.4
6.8
15.9

5,512
26,514
1,101
1,898
8,021
15,494
5,175

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

69.6
49.8
11.5
38.2
51.3
53.2
73.3

10.1
11.8
6.7
12.6
13.2
11.2
6.5

6.8
9.6
12.2
14.7
6.7
10.4
8.9

6.3
10.3
14.7
13.5
7.8
10.8
2.9

2.9
7.7
12.9
7.8
10.5
5.8
2.2

4.4
10.9
42.0
13.2
10.5
8.5
6.3

100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

62.6
47.5
15.4
39.8
47.0
55.9
67.6

11.9
10.5
4.4
16.4
14.4
9.2
6.3

10.0
12.0
7.5
12.0
9.7
14.1
12.7

6.9
10.8
34.5
14.0
9.5
5.7
2.3

4.2
6.4
15.2
4.5
7.6
4.2
1.9

4.5
12.8
23.0
13.3
11.8
10.9
9.2

ALU INDUSTRY GROUPS. . . . 51,105 100.0

66.0

12.9

9.1

3.9

2.9

5.1

5,460 100.0

56.4

14.2

14.3

3.5

2.8

8.8

AGRICULTURE...................
1,272 100.0
NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES . . . 49,833 100.0
MINING . . . . . . . . . . . .
877 100.0
CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . .
5,108 100.0
MANUFACTURING........ .
14,411 100.0
DURABLE GOODS. . . . . . . .
9,545 100.0
NONDURABLE GOODS . . . . . .
4,866 100.0
TRANS. AND PUBLIC UTILITIES. . 4,260 100.0
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE . . 10,022 100.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND
REAL ESTATE . . . . . . . . .
2,171 100.0
SERVICE................... . 9,748 100.0
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS ........
187 100.0
PERSONAL SERVICES. . . . . .
679 100.0
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES . . . .
2,723 100.0
OTHER SERVICES . . . . . . .
6,159 100.0
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. . . . .
3,238 100.0

41.1
66.7
70.1
48.6
74.1
73.4
75.4
75.0
57.7

14.8
12.9
17.1
26.8
13.7
15.1
11.0
11.7
10.3

21.2
8.8
11.7
16.0
8.2
8.4
7.8
6.3
7.9

4.3
3.9
0.4
1.5
1.4
1.0
2.2
2.9
8.3

3.5
2.9
0.4
2.1
1.1
1.0
1.3
1.8
5.7

15.0
4.9
0.4
4.9
1.5
1.1
2.2
2.4
10.0

170
5,290
28
463
1,573
988
586
546
853

100.0
100.0

43.3
56.9

15.4
14.2

1.5
2.9

13.9
8.6

<11)

(> )

100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0

34.2
63.8
64.6
62.3
68.8
51.1

23.4
13.9
(1 )
26.7
19.3
19.5
18.9
10.1
8.9

75.7
63.1
5.3
51.2
68.5
63.7
82.4

8.3
10.7
2.3
14.4
8.9
11.4
5.0

6.1
8.8
9.5
12.8
5.3
9.8
7.3

3.9
5.6
5.9
7.2
5.5
5.5
1.6

2.3
4,5
6.2
5.6
5,9
3.7
1.3

3.7
7.3
70.7
8.8
5.9
5.8
2.3

185
1,202
54
91
313
742
440

100.0
100.0
<1)
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0

57.5
50.4
(T)
45.2
48.7
54.0
70.1

. . . 41,897 100.0

44.8

12.2

11.1

11.4

8.1

12.4

5,402 100.0

AGRICULTURE...........
363 100.0
NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES . . . 41,533 100.0
MINING . . . . . . . . . . . .
124 100.0
CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . .
435 100.0
MANUFACTURING. , . . . . . . .
7,060 100.0
DURABLE GOODS. . ..........
3,384 100.0
NONDURABLE GOODS . . . . . .
3,676 100.0
TRANS. AND PUBLIC UTILITIES. . 1,631 100.0
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE . . 10,238 100.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND
REAL ESTATE . . . . . . . . .
3,341 100.0
SERVICE. . . . . . . . . . . . 16,766 100.0
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS ........
914 100.0
PERSONAL SERVICES..........
1,219 100.0
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES . . . .
5,298 100.0
OTHER SERVICES . . . . . . .
9,335 100.0
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION........
1,938 100.0

19.7
45.0
67.0
45.8
55.0
59.4
51.1
63.3
30.3

8.3
12.3
14.3
11.9
18.5
18.2
18.8
8.6
9.3

32.7
10.9
9.8
12.0
15.5
14,9
16.1
8.7
10.3

11.5
11.4
5.8
12.2
4.1
3.2
4.9
7.8
16.8

5.3
8.1
1.0
8.4
2.8
1.9
3,7
6.1
12.4

22.5
12.3
2.0
9.7
4.0
2.4
5.5
5.6
20.8

44
5,358
4
24
794
352
442
205
778

(1)
100.0
(1)
(1>
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

65.6
42.1
12.7
31.0
42.5
46.2
58.0

11.3
12.3
7.6
11.6
15.4
11.1
9.1

7.3
10.1
12.8
15.7
7.4
10.7
11.4

7.8
13.0
16.5
17.0
9.0
14.4
5.1

3.2
9.5
14.3
9.0
12.8
7.3
3.6

4.8
12.9
36,1
15.7
12.9
10.3
12.8

356
2,777
430
220
707
1,419
419

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0

AGRICULTURE. . . . . . . . . . .
NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES . . .
MINING . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . .
MANUFACTURING................
DURABLE GOODS..............
NONDURABLE GOODS . ........
TRANS. AND PUBLIC UTILITIES. .
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE . .
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND
REAL ESTATE . . . . . . . . .
SERVICE. . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS ........
PERSONAL SERVICES..........
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES . . . .
OTHER SERVICES . . . . . . .
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. . . . .

541
3,979
485
312
1,021
2,161
859

MEN

2.6
3.5

<1>

(1 )

<1 )

26.2
11.9
10.8
13.8
9.8
14.5

1.3
1.6
1.7
1.4
2.3
6.9

0.7
1.7
2.0
1.1
3.8
4.6

10.8
1.8
1.3
2.5
5.3
13.9

9.4
10.5
(1 )
13.9
11.8
10.0
5.6

12.6
15.1
n )
16.1
14.0
16.2
13.1

10.2
4.8
<1 )
11.4
6.4
3.3
1.2

3.6
4.2
(i )
2.9
5.6
3.2
1.2

6.6
15.0
( 1>
10.6
13.4
13.3
8.7

49.0

12.1

12.3

9.9

5.8

10.8

(1 )
49.4
(1 )
( )
1
52.5
52.3
52.6
64.6
37.8

(1 )
12.0
(1 )
( )
1
22.6
22.4
22.8
12.4
9.2

d >
12.1
( )
(1 )
18.3
19.8
17.1
6.4
13.8

< )
1
10.0
)
(1 )
1.9
1.0
2.7
2.9
13.7

(1 )
5.9
( )
1
(1 )
2.1
1.4
2.6
2.9
7.6

( )
'
10.6
(1)
(1 )
2.6
3.1
2.2
10.9
18.0

65.1
46.2
14.9
37.6
46.3
57.0
65.0

13.1
10,5
4.6
17.5
15,5
8.7
7.0

8.7
10.6
7.8
10.3
7.8
13.0
12.3

5.2
13.4
38.3
15.1
10.9
6.9
3.4

4.5
7.4
15.6
5.2
8.5
4.7
2.6

3.4
11.8
18.9
14.4
11.1
9.7
9.6

(1 )

WOMEN
all

industry g r o u p s .

1Percent not shown where base i l s than 7 , 0 .
s es
500




A-13

Table A-4. Occupation: Persons with work experience in 1980, by longest Job and sex
(Numbers i thousands)___________________________________________
n
' —
BOTH SEXES
TOTAL
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
WITH
_____ ______ WORK EXPERIENCE_________
WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS WORKED
OCCUPATION GROUP
WORK
27 TO
e x p e r i ­ TOTAL
50 TO
1 TO
AT PART49
26
TIME
52
en ce
JOBS
WEEKS
WEEKS
WEEKS
100.0

56.1

12.5

10.0

21.5

17,675
1,586
3,260
3,593
1,245
7,991
12,474
10,563
871
1,040
7,269
3,966
3,302
21,619
2,178
1,069
5,768
12,605

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

66,9
88,3
63,0
58.0
73,5
67,3
79,8
81,5
70,8
70,6
49,3
31.3
70,8
53,9
57,1
68,3
58,5
50,0

10.1
4.5
9.4
15.1
11.8
9.0
8.7
8.1
9.9
13.7
8.0
6.7
9.5
10.8
9.4
8.3
11.7
10.9

6,5
5.1
5.5
6.1
8.4
7.0
4.3
4.4
5.3
2.7
5.9
7,2
4.4
9.8
6.5
8.9
9.8
10,5

16.5
2.1
22.1
20.8
6.3
16.7
7.2
6.0
14.0
13.0
36.8
54,7
15.3
25.5
27.0
14.5
19.9
28,6

CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,347
1,345
CARPENTERS . . ..................... . . . . . . . .
CONSTRUCTION CRAFT, EXCEPT CARPENTERS. . . . . . . . .
3,146
MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,763
METAL CRAFT, EXCEPT MECHANICS. . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,481
OTHER CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . . . . . . . . . .
2,572
BLUE-COLLAR WORKER SUPERVISORS, NOT ELSEWHERE
CLASSIFIED........ ................ .
2,041
OPERATIVES, EXCEPT TRANSPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,328
348
M I N E ................................. .......... .
DURABLE GOODS MANUFACTURING........ ................
5,422
NONDURABLE GOODS MANUFACTURING .......... . . . . . .
3,950
OTHER INDUSTRIES . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,609
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,990
DELIVERY AND ROUTE WORKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,415
OTHER TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES . . . . . . . . .
575

100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0

66,1
38,4
51,1
72.6
72.9
70.5

16.8
34.4
24.9
13.2
15.6
10.3

9.5
16.3
12.9
7,9
8.7
8.4

7.6
10.9
11.1
6.3
2.8
10.8

100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.7
53,2
57,3
57,9
53,5
42,6
56.8
56,0
61,5

8.7
20.9
22.3
22.6
21.6
16.1
18.2
17.6
21.4

4.8
15,4
18.5
14.7
16.2
15.5
9,8
9.9
8,9

1.8
10.5
1.9
4.9
8.8
25.8
15.3
16.4
8.2

LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM. „ . ........ . . . . . . . . . .
CONSTRUCTION . . ..................... . . . . . . .
MANUFACTURING. . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER INDUSTRIES ...................................

5,909
1,127
1,161
3,621

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

36.0
27.7
49,3
34.3

16.4
25.9
23.5
11.1

19,9
30.9
19.4
16.7

27.7
15.4
7.8
37.8

PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERVICE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD. . . . . . . .
CLEANING SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOOD SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HEALTH SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PERSONAL SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROTECTIVE SERVICE .................................

1,403
15,628
3,135
6,207
2,470
2,211
1,605

100,0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100,0
100.0

13,0
36,1
41,4
21,2
45,6
33,6
72.3

6.3
10.3
10.1
10.3
11.3
11.3
8.3

11,8
11.9
13,3
11.5
13.5
13.3
5.8

68.9
41.7
35.2
57.0
29.6
41.8
13.6

1,406
1,704
1,362
342

100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0

78,5
32,8
32,0
35,9

5.3
12.0
14.4
2.3

2.2
23.0
26.8
8.0

14.0
32.2
26.8
53.7

ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS. , .............. . . . . . . .

.115,752

PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND KINDRED WORKERS . . . . . .
ENGINEERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH WORKERS . . . . . . . . . . .
TEACHERS, EXCEPT COLLEGE . . . . . ........ . . . . .
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE TECHNICIANS. . . . . . . . . .
OTHER PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND KINDRED WORKERS . .
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS, EXCEPT FARM . . . . . . . .
SALARIED WORKERS ............ . . . . . . . . . . . .
s e l f -e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s in re t a i l t r a d e . . . . . . . . .
SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS, EXCEPT RETAIL TRADE . . . . . .
SALES WORKERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RETAIL TRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER SALES WORKERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BOOKKEEPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STENOGRAPHERS, TYPISTS, AND SECRETARIES. . . . . . . .
OTHER CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS ................ .

FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS.............................
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS. . . . . . . . ........ .
PAID WORKERS . ................ .................. .
UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS..................




A-14

Table A-4. Continued—Occupation: Persons with work experience in 1980, by longest job and sex
(Numbers i thousands)
n
MEN
TOTAL
WITH
OCCUPATION

GROUP

WORK
EXPERI­

PERCENT

DISTRIBUTION

OCCUPATION

50 TO
52

27

WEEKS

TOTAL

ENCE

ALL

OF

THOSE

WORK EXPERIENCE
W O R K E D AT F U L L - T I M E JOBS
TO

WEEKS

49

1

TO

26
WEEKS

WITH
WORKED
AT

PARTTIME

TOTAL
WITH
WORK
EXPERI­

PERCENT

WOMEN
D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H O S E
WORK EXPERIENCE

WORKED
TOTAL

ENCE

50

TO

52
WEEKS

JOBS

AT

FULL-TIME JOBS
27 TO
1 TO
26
49
WEEKS

WEEKS

WITH
WORKED
AT

PARTTIME
JOBS

G R O U P S .....................................................

64,260

100,0

65,2

12.9

9.1

12.8

51,492

100.0

44.7

12.0

11.0

32.2

, t e c h n i c a l , a n d KINDRED WORKERS
................
E N G I N E E R S ....................................................................

9,501
1,524

100,0
100,0

77.8
88,8

5.3
4.8

8.9

8,174
62

12.5

7.8

25.3

1,025
962

(1 )
55.7

100,0

78.8
76.2

100.0
(')
100.0

54.3

...............................

8.0
4.3
8.1
12.9

100.0

51.3

(* )
10.0
15.9

!1)
6.1
6.7

100,0
100,0

77.2
74,6

10.5

8.2

p r o f e s s i o n a l

MEDICAL

AND

TEACHERS,

OTHER

EXCEPT

ENGINEERING
OTHER

AND

AND

SALARIED

WORKERS

...........................................
T E C H N I C I A N S ............................

17.0

9.0

5.2

4.1
12.4

59.4

7.8

100.0

55.1

11.1

85.3

7.4

3.1

4.1

3,537

100.0

65.9

12.0

10,0
7.2

23.8

100.0
100,0

87.0

6.7

3.3

3,107

100.0

68.1

11.7

7.0

560
921

100.0

81,9

8.4

2.0
2.6

3.0
7.7

100.0

50.6

11.2
3.1

13.2
25.5

8.0
7,8

57.1
66.4

WORKERS

.

.

OFFICE MACHINE
STENOGRAPHERS,

OPERATORS
...........................................
TYPISTS,
A N D S E C R E T A R I E S ......................

OTHER

AND

CLERICAL
KINDRED

KINDRED

WORKERS

............................

174
266
95
3,521

47.4

70,3

3.9

16.7

3,619

100.0

28.0

6.9

100.0

53,6

10.1

6.0

30.3

2,685

100.0

100,0

79.4

8.5

934

100.0

21.9

100.0
100.0

11.0

8.7

17,562
2,004

51.6

58.5

10.0
10.9

8.7
10.1

30.3

63,8

9.3
17.4

5.1
11.9

100.0
100.0

2.7
8.7

20.7
49; 1
56.9

9.3

6.3

27.4

100.0
100.0

75.1
53.9

6.3
12.4

9.4
18.8

802
5,672

100.0

66.0

8.0

100.0

58.6

11.7

9.7
9.7

16.2
20.0

100.0

63.5

8.8

17.7

9,084

100.0

44.7

11.2

11.2

32.9

66,9

9.2
16,3

6.7

902

100.0

53.6

12.1

14.1

20.2

10.7

(1)

(1 )

10.8

21
55

( n

12.6

< 1>

( 1>

(’ )

(1 )

( 1)

7.8
7.8

6.2
2.2

47
75

1>
100.0

( 1>
45.0

)
17.9

(1 )
24,4

( 1)
12.6

100,0

73.6

27.3

1,325
3,091

100,0

38,3

17.2
34.8

100,0

3,716
1,406

100.0
100,0

51.6
72.8

25.0
13.2

74,4

15.5

2,115

100.0

76.2

10.0

7.2

6.5

457

100.0

43.7

11.6

13.8

30.9

1,793
7,186

100.0

85.3
59.1

8.5
19.7

4.5

1.7

248

100.0

80.0

10.4

13,0

5,142

100.0

45.0

22.5

2.6
13.7

343

100.0
100,0

22.2
21.7

18.0
12.3

4

3,495
1,554

57.9
61.8

8.2
1.9

7.0
18,9

11.5

45.1

23.9

)
19.0
19,2

(1 )
6.0
11.9

1,794

100.0

47,7

14.5

815

100.0

3,643
3,085

100.0

10.0

11.6

346

100.0

31.2
23.3

100.0

60.0
59.6

18.0
17.1
18.4

1,927
2,396

(1)
24.3

66.5

4.2
4.0
20.7

( ')
50.7

100.0

(')
100.0
100.0

12.2
7.9

329

100.0

22.0

17

(')

(' )

26.4

675

100.0

21
181
474

35.6
<>)

100.0

CRAFT,
CRAFT

EXCEPT
AND

BLUE-COLLAR

M E C H A N I C S .....................................

KINDRED

WORKER

W O R K E R S ..................................

SUPERVISORS,

NOT

EXCEPT

TRANSPORT

........................................

M I N E ..........................................................................
D U R A B L E G O O D S M A N U F A C T U R I N G ........................................
GOODS

MANUFACTURING

..................................

OTHER
INDUSTRIES
........................................................
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES
.....................................
AND

ROUTE

WORKERS

........................................

100.0

.........................

558

100.0

61.9

21.0

F A R M .....................................................

EXCEPT

5,233

36.1
28.2

16.9

20.6

25.7
24.2

31.0
20.3

15.1
6.9

11.6

17.1

36.5

EQUIPMENT

OPERATIVES

CONSTRUCTION
..............................................................
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ..............................................................

1,106
981

100.0
100.0
100.0

OTHER

3,146

100,0

48.6
34.9

39

(1)
100.0
100.0

47.2

100.0

27.2

INDUSTRIES

PRIVATE

HOUSEHOLD

SERVICE

WORKERS,

........................................................
W O R K E R S ..............................................
H O U S E H O L D ......................

6,096

CLEANING SERVICE
........................................................
FOOD SERVICE
..............................................................

1,896
1,975

HEALTH SERVICE
...........................................................
PERSONAL SERVICE
........................................................
PROTECTIVE SERVICE
.....................................................

1,438

EXCEPT

PRIVATE

F A R M E R S A N D F A R M M A N A G E R S ..............................................
F A R M L A B O R E R S A N D S U P E R V I S O R S ........................................
WORKERS
FAMILY

18.0

10.2
9.2

TRANSPORT

..............................................................
W O R K E R S .................................................

242
545

( 1)
47.7

1>

(1)
100.0

t1>
10.7

(' )
31.8

1,363

100.0

9,533

10.5
10.7

13.1
10.9

29.3

1,239

100.0
100.0

4,233

13.4
13.3
5.7

51.2
22.4
32.4
9.9

(1 )
9.8

100.0

56.9

7.3

100.0
100.0

42.7
76,8

11.6
7.6

<
1

136

( 1)

17.6
7.3
7.7

(i )

37.1
54.0
55.8

(1>

<<!

12.3

14.8

37.3

(4)
19.8

( ')
14.4
14.3

47.0

8.3

12.6

6.3

28.7

10.7

32.5
18.4

9.6

44.4

10.0
11.7

100.0
100.0

30.6
33.6

11.2
14.0

I ’D
12.6

12.2
12.6

68.9

13,7
11.8

44.3
59.7

48.0

13.5

30.4

13.3
6 o9

44.9
45.4
46.8
47.5

1,270
1,203

100.0
100.0

82.1
39.3

2.1
21.6

10.5
25.8

4.8

3.2

502

100.0
100.0

45.1

13.3

100.0

23.2
7.6

286

100.0

17.3
7.0

8.7
13.7

26.5
40.2

100.0

14.6
2.8

23.5

126

38.7
44.1

45.5

216

100.0

31.1

2.1

8.3

A-15

5.3

2,229
1,666
167

100.0
100.0

53.1
30.4

14.1
15.4
14.5

<
1

1,077

1Percent not shown where base i l s than 7 , 0 .
s es
500




1
1

ELSEWHERE

C L A S S I F I E D .................................................................

UNPAID

14.9
9.9

32.7

100.0

METAL

PAID

9.2

100.0

13,445

OTHER

OTHER

2,368
4,056

10.5

100.0

13.3
9.1

12.7
16.7

.................................................................

CARPENTERS

LABORERS,

3,650
1,282

14.9

310
119

W O R K E R S ..............................................

C O N S T R U C T I O N C R A F T , E X C E P T C A R P E N T E R S .........................
M E C H A N I C S A N D R E P A I R E R S ..............................................

DELIVERY

100.0

(1 )
28.2
26.1
14.6

5,002
8,937

KINDRED
FARM

CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS
........................................
B O O K K E E P E R S .................................................................

NONDURABLE

2,235
2,632

7,455

AND

EXCEPT

W O R K E R S .................................................................

OPERATIVES,

6.4

......................

TECHNICAL,

RETAIL TRADE
..............................................................
O T H E R S A L E S W O R K E R S .....................................................

AND

2.1
8.8

WORKERS
I N R E T A I L T R A D E .........................
WORKERS,
EXCEPT RETAIL TRADE
............
.

SELF-EMPLOYED
SELF-EMPLOYED

CRAFT

4.4
4.5

........................................................

ADMINISTRATORS,

WORKERS

987

100,0

258
2,989

PROFESSIONAL,

MANAGERS

SALES

HEALTH
COLLEGE

SCIENCE

39.1
58.6

T a b le A -5 . O c c u p a t io n b y r a c e : P e r s o n s w it h w o r k e x p e r ie n c e in 1 9 8 0 , b y lo n g e s t J o b a n d s e x
(Numbers in thousands)_________________

BLACK
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
WORK EXPERIENCE
worke - AT PARTWORKED AT FULLTOTAL
WORKE: at f u l l d
D
WORKED AT PARTTOTAL
WITH
WITH
____ ti me jo bs ____ ____ T ME JOBS
T ME JOBS
TIME JOBS
WORK TOTAL 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO
WORK tota l 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO 50 TO 27 TO 1 TO
49
26
52
49
26
EXPE­
49
26
52
EXPE­
49
26
52
52
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS RIENCE
w e ek s WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS
RIENCE
WHITE
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH

MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP AND SEX

BO T H SEXES
ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS. . .101/904 100.0
PROFESSIONAL/ TECHNICAL/ AND
KINDRED WORKERS . . . . . . . .
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS/
EXCEPT FARM . . . . . . . . . .
SALES WORKERS..................
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS . .
CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . .
OPERATIVES/ EXCEPT TRANSPORT . .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES .
LABORERS/ EXCEPT FARM. . . . . .
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS. . . .
SERVICE WORKERS/ EXCEPT PRIVATE
HOUSEHOLD . . . . . . . . . . .
FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS. . . .
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS. .

15/968 100.0

56.5

12.4

9.5

7.8

5,4

8.4 11/153 100.0

52.7

13.1

66.9

10,0

6.4

6.4

5.1

5.1

1/150 100,0

66.2

10.6

1.7
15.1
9.4
2.7
4.8
5.1
15.3
35,3

473
292
2/137
1/007
1/525
560
891
424

100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100.0

76.7
49.1
58.0
61.1
52.8
63.6
40.1
15.0

13.1

6.9

4.3

9.9

7.1

6.0

4.1

6.0

8.2
6.9
11.0
20,4
22.9
14.2
13.7
4.6

7.6
9,4
12.6
12.1
16.4
8.4
22.8
6.1

2.8
11.0
5.9
1.4
3.0
5.3
2.5
39.4

1.8
9.0
3.6
0.4
1.6
4.6
3.6
15.7

3.0
14.6
9.0
4.5
3.3
3.9
17.3
19.3

9.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

49.3
53.4
66.5
53.3
55.7
35.0
12.0

8.7
8.1
10.8
16.6
20.7
18.8
17.1
7.2

4.1
5.7
9.5
9.3
15.2
9.9
19.5
14.4

3.8
13.3
10.6
2.6
3.3
5.4
7.1
16.9

1.6
8.6
6.4
2,3
2,7
5,0
6,0
14.1

12/694 100.0
1/367 100.0
1/447 100.0

34.3
78.8
33.8

10.4
5.3
10.2

11.3
2.2
22.6

14.9
9,8
12.5

11,0
1.8
3,6

18.1
2.2
17.4

2/487 100.0
21
(1>
189 100.0

44.4
(n
32.8

9.4
<1>
20.3

14.4
(U
19.4

2.7

6.7
(’>
.
1.3

15.6
<1>
23.6

ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS. . . 57/122 100.0

66.2

12.7

8.5

4.4

3,0

5.1

5/652 100,0

56.4

14.3

13.9

3.8

2.8

8.9

78.4

8.0

5.1

3.7

2.6

2.3

432 100,0

66.3

9.4

8.3

5.7

3.7

6.6

85.7
70.6
64.1
67.4
59.4
59.0
35.1
(D

7.4
9.2
10.1
16.9
19,4
19.3
17.7
(1)

3.0
3.7
8.2
8.9
12.5
10.1
20.3
(1)

2.1
7.3
6.3
2.3
2.7
4.5
6.7
(1)

0,9
3,3
4.4
2.0
2,0
3,2
5,5
(D

1.0
5.9
6,9
2.5
4.0
4.0
14,8
(1 )

100.0
100.0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100,0
100.0
(1)

79.7
61.3
64.4
61.4
57.8
66.5
39.5
d )

7.9
8.3
8.7
20.4
21.9
13.3
13.8
(!)

6.6
6.7
11.2
12.1
15.4
8.9
23.6
(1>

1.5
4.8
4.4
1.1
1.7
4.5
2.5
(' )

1.4
8.5
2.1
0.4
1.2
3.9
4.0
<n

2.8
10.4
9.2
4,6
2.0
2,9
16.7
(1 )

48.3
82.4
39.9

9.8
5,3
11.8

9.7
2.1
21.2

10.3
7.3
8.1

8.2
1,3
2.7

13.6
1.7
16.2

1/000 100.0
21
en
146 100.0

44.8
<1 )
42.4

9.6
(1 )
20.9

15,6
<1 )
16.4

7.7
<1 )
3.5

4.9
(')
1.7

17.5
<1 >
15.1

44.1

12,0

10.8

12.2

8.4

12.6

5/502 100,0

49.0

11.9

12.2

10.0

5.9

11.0

53.1

12.6

7.9

9.8

8.2

8.5

718 100.0

66.2

11.3

6.3

6.1

4.4

5.6

65.6
27.3
51.0
53.1
44.5
22.8
34.3
12.1

12.2
6.9
10.9
11.6
22.6
14.1
12.6
7,3

7,1
7.7
9.8
14.4
19.1
8.1
14.0
14.8

8.1
19.5
11.5
7.9
4.3
15.0
10.1
16.7

3.6
13,9
6,8
7,5
3,7
23,4
9,3
14,3

3.5
24,7
10,0
5.6
5.9
16.6
19.6
34.8

162
171
1/668
65
659
38
79
412

100.0
100.0
100.0
{1)
100,0
<1)
100,0
100,0

70.9
40.6
56.2
(U
46.2
C )
46.6
13.5

8.6
6.0
11,6
( 1)
24.2
<1>
13,1
4.3

9.4
11.2
13.0
(1)
17.6
<1 )
14.7
6.2

5.2
15.5
6.3
(1)
4.7
<M
2.2
40.0

2.4
9.3
4.1
<1>
2.1
16.2

3.3
17.5
8,9
(T >
5.2
(!M
23.4
19.8

25.5
45.4
19.4

10.8
4.9
6.3

12.3
3.3
25.7

17.7
32.7
22.9

12,8
6.9
5.6

20.9
6,9
20.1

1/487 100.0
(1)
43
(1)

44.2

9.3
(1)
( )
1

13.6
(1)
(M

10.8
(1 )
( >
i

7.9
<» )
< )
»

14.3
(>
>
(’)

11/775
6/850
19/026
13/102
10/454
3/385
4/879
958

80.1

MEM

PROFESSIONAL/ TECHNICAL/ AND
KINDRED WORKERS .............. 8/733 100.0
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS/
EXCEPT FARM . . . . . . . . . .
8/478 100.0
SALES WORKERS. . . . . . . . . .
3/476 100.0
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS . . 3/459 100.0
CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . . 12/285 100.0
OPERATIVES/ EXCEPT TRANSPORT . . 6/163 100.0
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES . 3/078 100.0
LABORERS/ EXCEPT FARM. . . . . . 4/304 100.0
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS. . . .
23
<1>
SERVICE WORKERS/ EXCEPT PRIVATE
HOUSEHOLD . . . . ............
4/877 100.0
FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS. . . . 1/231 100.0
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS. . 1/014 100.0

311
120
469
942
866
522
811
12

WOMEN
al l o c c u p a t i o n

groups.

. . 44/782 100.0

PROFESSIONAL/ TECHNICAL/ AND
KINDRED WORKERS . ............
7/235 100.0
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS/
EXCEPT FARM . . . . . . . . . .
3/297 100.0
SALES WORKERS. . . . . . . . . .
3/374 100.0
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS . . 15/567 100.0
CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . .
817 100.0
OPERATIVES/ EXCEPT TRANSPORT . . 4/290 100.0
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES .
306 100.0
LABORERS/ EXCEPT FARM. . . . . .
576 100.0
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS. . . .
934 100.0
SERVICE WORKERS/ EXCEPT PRIVATE
HOUSEHOLD................. . 7/816 100.0
FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS. . . .
135 100.0
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS. .
433 100.0
' Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.




( n

< )
»

N ote : Dash (-) represents zero or rounds to zero.

A-16

(')
-

Tabs© A-6. Marital status: Persons with work experience in 1980, by age and sex
WOMEN
MEN
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
POPULATION
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
WORK EXPERIENCE
WORK EXPERIENCE
WORKED AT FULL-TIME WORKED
PERCENT
WORKED AT FULL--TIME WORKED
PERCENT
JOBS
JOBS
AT
WITH
AT
WITH
WORK
50 TO 27 TO 1 TO PARTNUMBER WORK
50 TO 27 TO 1 TO PART- NUMBER
TOTAL
TOTAL
TIME
52
26
EXPERI­
49
26
experi­
TIME
49
52
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS JOBS
ENCE
WEEKS WEEKS JOBS
en c e
w e ek s
POPULATION

MARITAL STATUS AND AGE

TOTAL* 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER . 80,193

80.1

100.0

65.2

12.9

9.1

12.8

89,259

57.7

100.0

44.7

12.0

11.0

32.2

o o . . . . . . . . 22,353
7,955
YEARS . . . . . . .
7,090
YEARS . ..........
5,788
YEARS . . . . . . .
1,068
YEARS . . . . . . .
452
AND OVER. . . . . .

78.0
66.2
88,0
88.9
65.5
17.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

38.4
10.2
37.1
64.5
69.1
41.3

13.8
7.2
18.1
15.3
12.4
12.2

18.2
22.6
22.0
10.6
7.0
11.8

29.7
60.0
22.8
9.5
11.6
34,7

18,674
7,397
5,543
3,867
1,033
834

69.5
59.2
81.6
83.4
69.5
17.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

37.6
8.0
39.4
67.6
74.4
30.2

10.0
4.6
13.5
12.9
8.2
12.0

13.4
16.0
17.4
6.2
5.8
8.6

38.9
71.4
29.7
13.3
11.7
49.3

SPOUSE PRESENT. . . . 49,277
147
TO 19 YEARS ............
2,621
TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . .
TO 44 YEARS . . . . . . . 2 1 , 4 8 6
TO 64 YEARS ............ 17,239
YEARS AND OVER. . . . . . 7,783

82.8
90.1
96.9
97.4
87.6
27.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

76.7
44.6
80.9
33.6

12.2
28.7
22.7
12.7
10.2
8.4

5.0
14.4
8.5
4.4
4.4
11.4

6.0
12.3
6.9
2.8
4.5
46.6

49,883
670
4,327
22,956
16,419
5,511

57,5
62.2
74.5
68.5
53,5
9.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

44.1
16.8
39.0
43.6
49.4
21.5

12.5
16.3
17.4
12.8
10.4
6.5

10.6
26.0
19.0
10.3
7.4
10.9

32.8
40.8
24,6
33.2
32,8
61.1

8,563
54
378
3,618
2,641
1,873

70.2
(1 !
90.7
92.3
73.4
18.9

100.0
p )
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

65.0
P )
48.1
67.9
70.4
28.7

15.0
P >
28.6
16.4
11.3
9.9

10.1
P )
12.8
10.8
8.2
9.1

10.0
(1 )
10.5
4.9
10.1
52.3

20,702
116
815
5,761
5,776
8,233

47.4
60.5
75.3
78,4
63.8
11.3

100.0
(1)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

55.9
(t)
41.3
60.5
61.5
24.7

13.1
<1>
15.6
14.6
12.2
8.0

9.1
(t)
18.6
9.4
7.2
7.8

21.9
P )
24.5
15.6
19,2
59.6

SINGLE o .
16 TO 19
20 TO 24
25 TO 44
45 TO 64
65 YEARS
married,

16
20
25
45
65

OTHER MARITAL STATUS . „ . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . .
25 TO 44 YEARS ............
45 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . .
65 YEARS AND OVER. . . . . .

62.0
80.1

1 Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

Table A-7. iRaee and Hispanic origin: Persons with work experience in 1980, by age and sex
(Numbers in thousands)

MEN
WOMEN
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
POPULATION
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE WITH
WORK EXPERIENCE
WORK EXPERIENCE
AGE, RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN
percent
WORKED AT FULL-TIME WORKED
PERCENT
WORKED AT FULL -TIME WORKED
WITH
JOBS
AT
WITH
JOBS
AT
number
WORK
50 TO 27 TO 1 TO PART- NUMBER WORK
t o ta l
TOTAL
50 TO 27 TO 1 TO PARTEXPERI26
52
49
TIME
EXPERI52
49
26
TIME
ENCE
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS JOBS
ENCE
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS JOBS
POPULATION

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND
OVER. . . . . . . . . .

80,193

80.1

100.0

65.2

12.9

9.1

12.8

89,259

57.7

100.0

44.7

12.0

11.0

32.2

WHITE. . . . . . . .......... 70,154
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .
8,065
HISPANIC ORIGIN..............
4,255

81.4
70.1
81.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

66.2
56.4
61.1

12.7
14.3
15.7

8.5
13.9
11.5

12.5
15,5
11.7

77,217
10,039
4,607

58.0
54.8
52.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

44.1
49.0
41.6

12.0
11.9
14.4

10.8
12.2
17.8

33.1
26,9
26.1

16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . .
WHITE. . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .
HISPANIC ORIGIN..............

8,156
6,799
1,113
591

66.6
70.6
46.1
59,2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

11.1
11.4
8.7
21.1

7.7
7.7
6.7
8.4

22.4
21.7
27.6
22.5

58,8
59,2
56.9
47.9

8,184
6,840
1,183
572

59.4
64.2
34.3
42.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.9
9.2
5.5
8.3

5.7
5.7
4.4
6.4

17.0
16.1
25.1
25.3

68.5
68.9
64,9
60,0

20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . 10,089
white. . . . . . . . . . . . .
606
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,176
HISPANIC ORIGIN. . ..........
707

90,4
92,6
79.7
87.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

44.4
45.7
35.5
49.1

19.8
20.0
19.6
20.0

17.9
17.1
23.9
14.9

17.9
17.2
21.0
16.0

10,685
8,942
1,445
719

78.2
81.3
60.7
63,5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

39.4
39.8
38.0
35.4

15.1
15.5
12.4
16.2

18,1
17.6
19.5
23.9

27.4
27,1
30.2
24.4

25 TO 44 YEARS . . . . . . 30,892
WHITE. . . . . . . . ........ 26,931
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .
3,101
HISPANIC ORIGIN, . . . . . . .
1,845

95.2
96.6
84,9
94,5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

76.0
77.0
67.0
69.9

13.6
13.4
15.5
16.4

6.2
5.6
11.8
9.2

4.2
4.0
5.6
4.4

32,584
27,767
3,867
2,053

72.0
72.3
70,5
60.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

50.2
48.8
58.9
47.6

13.2
12.9
14.6
15.7

9.6
9.4
10.6
15.7

27.1
28,8
15.8
21,0

45 TO 64 YEARS .......... 20,948
WHITE, . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,703
1,846
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .
HISPANIC ORIGIN, . . . . . . .
833

84.7
85.8
74,0
84,3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

79.3
71.8
72.3

10.4
10.2
12.2
14.1

4.9
4.8
5.9
8.0

5.4
5.0
10.1
5.6

23,227
20,457
2,320
959

56.8
56 *6
57.5
48,1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

54.1
54.0
53.4
51.1

10.8
11.0
9.5
13.0

7.2
7.1
7.5
13.1

27,8
27.8
29.6
22.8

65 YEARS AND OVER. . . . . 10,108
w h i t e , . . . ................
9,115
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .
830
HISPANIC ORIGIN, . . . . . . .
278

25,2
25.2
24.5
24.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
p )

33.2
33.4
31.3
P )

8.7
8,8
7.2
(1>

11.1
10.6
12.9
( 1)

47.0
47.2
48.6
P )

14,578
13,210
1,224
303

11.1
11.0
12,9
8.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
p )

24.1
25.4
13.2
(i)

7.8
8.5
2.7
(1>

8.9
9.1
6.7
( )
1

59,1
57.1
77.4
(i)

80.0

1 Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.




A-17

Table B*1. IVlajor activity when not working by extent of employment: Persons who worked only
part of 1980, by sex
(Numbers in thousands)

WORK EXPERIENCE AND SEX

TOTAL
PART-YEAR
WORKERS

MAJOR ACTIVITY WHEN NOT A' WORK

unem­
ployment

ILLNESS OR
DISABILITY 1

TAKING CARE
OF HOME

GOING TO
SCHOOL

RETIRE­
MENT

IN ARMED
FORCES

OTHER
REASONS 2

BOTH SEXES
TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER. .

9,254

1,539

127

4,763

4,594
1,258
1,266
1,028
1,042
5,015
3,152
1,862

4,029
1,855
1,281
635
258
5,225
3,973
1,252

787
245
275
169
98
752
558
194

109
50
29
20
10
18
12
6

3,410
299
571
680
1,861
1,353
405
947

1,599

250

4,880

1,242

118

2,842

7,330
775
1,616
2,112
2,828
1,268
665
603

1,281
158
265
309
549
318
191
127

183
30
36
51
67
67
43
24

2,339
1,088
759
347
146
2,541
1,951
590

622
203
210
139
70
620
462
157

102
50
25
20
6
17
11
6

2,257
197
420
422
1,218
585
192
393

22,347

5,007

1,383

9,358

4,373

297

8

1,921

11,868
2,674
3,012
2,623
3,559
10,479
6,352
4,127

3,559
409
869
899
1,383
1,448
662
787

885
127
170
172
415
498
249
249

4,411
1,228
1,231
977
975
4,948
3,110
1,838

1,690
767
523
288
112
2,684
2,021
662

164
42
65
29
28
132
96
37

7
-

1,153
101
150
258
643
768
214
554

13,606

2,981

25,983
5,174
6,343
6,023
8,442
15,895
9,867
6,028

10,889
1,183
2,485
3,010
4,211
2,717
1,326
1,390

2,165
285
435
481
964
816
440
376

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER. .

19,531

8,599

WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS.
1 TO 13 WEEKS . . . . .
14 TO 26 WEEKS. . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS........
40 TO 49 WEEKS. . . . .
WORKED AT PART-TIME JOBS. . n • . . 0
1 TO 26 WEEKS . . . . .
27 TO 49 WEEKS. . . . .

14,115
2,500
3,331
3,400
4,884
5,416
3,515
1,901

WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS.
1 TO 13 WEEKS . . . . .
14 TO 26 KEEKS. . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS. . . . .
40 TO 49 WEEKS. . . . .
WORKED AT PART-TIME JOBS.
1 TO 26 WEEKS ........
27 TO 49 WEEKS. . . . .

41,878

9,609

MEN

WOMEN
TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER. .
WORKED AT FULL-TIME JOBS.
1 TO 13 WEEKS ........
14 TO 26 WEEKS. . . . .
27 TO 39 WEEKS. . . . .
40 TO 49 WEEKS. . . . .
WORKED AT PART-TIME JOBS.
1 TO 26 WEEKS . . . . .
27 TO 49 WEEKS. . . . .

1 Excludes paid sick leave from a job (which is counted as time worked) and periods of illness or
disability during which the person would not have worked or would not have been in the labor force




A-18

4
-

3

1
1
-

even if well,
1 Includes, among others, unpaid vacations, strikes, and summer vacations for students.

T a b le B -2 . M a jo r a c t iv it y w h e n n o t w o r k in g b y r a c e : P e r s o n s w h o w o r k e d o n ly p a r t o f 1 9 8 0 s b y a g e
and sex
(Numbers in thousands)

TOTAL
PARTYEAR
WORKERS

AG E, SEX, A N D RACE

M A J O R A C T IV IT Y W H E N N O T A T W O R K

UNEMPLOY­
MENT

ILLNESS
OR DIS­
ABILITY1

TAKING
CARE OF
HOME

GOING TO
SCHOOL

RETIRE­
MENT

IN ARMED
FORCES

OTHER
REASONS2

WHITE
BOTH SEXES
TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER . . . . . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . .
20 AND 21 YEARS. . . . . .
22 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . .
25 TO 44 YEARS . . . . . . .
45 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . .
65 YEARS AND OVER........ .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

. . . . .
. . . . .
........
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

36,369

11,342

2,498

8,695

8,109

1,421

99

4,205

6,746
7,562
3,375
4,187
13,654
6,625
1,782

1,096
2,713
1,091
1,622
5,354
2,051
128

87
274
86
188
954
954
230

258
1,180
411
769
4,855
2,054
347

4,805
2,557
1,442
1,115
677
71

_

15
54
29
24
27
3

“

485
785
315
469
1,778
923
234

16,777

7,226

1,352

210

4,235

1,156

94

2,505

-

15
50
26
24
26
3

253
453
187
266
1,106
558
135

-

9
569
842

MEN
TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3,456
3,835
1,753
2,083
5,562
2,854
1,069

637
1,792
719
1,074
3,493
1,223
81

39
147
48
100
503
533
130

9
18
3
15
94
54
34

2,503
1,375
770
605
333
25

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER . . . . . . .

19,592

4,116

1,147

8,485

3,874

265

3,290
3,726
1,622
2,104
8,093
3,771
713

459
920
372
548
1,861
828
48

48
127
38
89
451
421
100

249
1,162
408
754
4,761
2,000
313

2,302
1,182
672
510
344
46

-

4,507

1,949

439

719

874

772
1,029
460
569
1,797
712
195

165
481
178
303
998
288
17

8
37
11
26
179
170
45

26
131
49
82
371
138
53

518
293
174
119
58
5
“

2,252

1,173

223

33

432
558
255
303
826
331
105

91
313
119
194
573
182
14

8
12
3
9
89
83
31

_
4
4
21
4
3

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND O V E R ...........

2,254

777

216

686

16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 AND 21 YEARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 TO 44 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 TO 64 YEARS .............. . .......... .
65 YEARS AND OVER..........................

340
472
205
266
971
381
90

74
168
59
109
425
106
3

25
8
17
90
87
13

16 TO 19 YEARS . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . .
20 AND 21 YEARS.
22 TO 24 YEARS .
25 TO 44 YEARS . .
45 TO 64 YEARS . .
65 YEARS AND OVER.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

-

7
459
690

WOMEN

16 TO 19 YEARS . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . .
20 AND 21 YEARS.
22 TO 24 YEARS .
25 TO 44 YEARS . .
45 TO 64 YEARS . .
65 YEARS AND OVER.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

5

_

1,701

“

232
332
128
203
672
366
99

99

23

403

_
9
27
63

2
15
9
6
6
1
“

54
73
39
33
176
34
17

494

71

21

237

300
176
106
70
16
2
-

9
14
48

_
15
9
6
6
1
“

33
38
18
20
113
45
9

381

28

218
118
68
50
42
3
-

_
13
14

”

-

4

-

3

-

2
110
152

1

1
-

BLACK
BOTH SEXES
TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND O V E R ...........
16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . ........ .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 AND 21 YEARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 TO 44 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 YEARS AND O V E R . ............ ............

-

MEN
TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER . . . . . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS ...................... .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 AND 21 YEARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 TO 44 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 YEARS AND OVER. . . . . . . . . ..........
WOMEN

1 See footnote 1, table B-1.
2 See footnote 2, table B-1.




26
126
49
7 7

350
133
50

N ote : Dash (-) represents zero or rounds to zero.

A-19

2

166

2

20
34
21
13
64
39
9

_
_
-

-

Table C-1. Extent of unemployment by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Persons with
unemployment in 1980, by work experience in 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

TOTAL WORKING
OR LOOKING
FOR WORK

PERSONS WITH UNEMPLOYMENT
WORKED DURING 1980
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

TOTAL
PERCENT DID
NOT
OF
PER­
CENT
WORK
TOTAL
OF
NUMBER w o r k i n g BUT
NUMBER
OR
POPU­
LOOKED
LATION
LOOKING FOR
FOR
WORK
WORK

AGE* SEX* RACE* AND
HISPANIC ORIGIN

PERCENT OF TOTAL
WHO SORKF.D
YEARPART-YEAR WORKERS BY WEEKS
ROUND
OF UNEMPLOYMENT
WITH 3
WITH 2
WORKERS
SPELLS
TOTAL
27
WITH
TOTAL
SPELLS OR MORE
1 TO 5 TO 11 TO 15 TO
WEEKS OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­
4
14
26
1 OR 2
10
WEEKS
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE PLOYMENT PLOYMENT
OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT

ALL PERSONS
BOTH SEXES
TOTAL* 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . . 118,348
16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

AND 17 YEARS ,
AND 19 YEARS „
TO 24 YEARS. .
TO 34 YEARS. .
TO 44 YEARS. .
TO 54 YEARS. .
TO 64 YEARS. „
YEARS AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.
„
.

.
„
„
.
.
.
.
.

4*518
6*437
18*051
32*091
21*749
17*856
13*428
4*218

TOTAL* 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .

69.8

21*410

18.1

55.4
78.6
86.9
85.6
83.7
79.5
61.9
17.1

1*215
2*020
5*197
6*309
3*104
2*003
1*324
238

26.9
31.4
28.8
19.7
14.3
11.2
9.9
5.7

2*597 18*813 100.0
360
296
568
632
324
209
150
57

855
1*724
4*628
5*676
2*780
1*794
1*175
181

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4.9

20.8

20.1

13.0

23.4

17.8

16.8

14.9

1.0
2.7
3.4
5.5
6.6
7.8
6.1
3.5

35.3
27.5
23.4
18.9
18,0
14.6
17.1
6.7

20.1
20.6
20.4
20.6
18.1
20.0
21.3
15.8

8.1
12.0
13.0
13.2
13.8
14.0
12.5
24.1

15,1
20.8
22.4
24.3
26.5
25.0
22.1
32.3

20.3
16.4
17.5
17.5
17.0
18.5
21.0
17.6

18,2
21.1
19,4
15,2
14.3
16.6
13.5
15,9

19.1
14.3
13,8
14.6
15.9
15.0
15.9
18.5

MEN
1*018 11*054 100.0

6.1

16.6

20.1

13.6

25.1

18.5

17.6

16.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0.8
3.8
4.1
6.9
8.4
8.9
7.2
4.5

31.9
24.7
18.8
14.2
14.1
12.9
12.0
4.7

19.7
20.2
20,4
21.0
17.7
20.0
21.2
14,7

8.9
12.8
14.8
13,3
13.0
14.0
13.2
21.0

16.5
20.3
23.1
26.6
29.3
26.9
23.8
37.7

22.1
18.2
18.8
18.0
17.4
17.2
22.7
17.3

17.6
20.9
20.8
15.9
15.0
17.2
16.1
14.7

22.6
16.3
15.3
16.8
18.1
17.3
17.4
18.3

7*759 100.0

3.3

26.7

20.1

12.3

21.0

16.7

15.6

12.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.3
1.3
2.3
3.4
4.1
6.4
4.5
(1>

39.2
31.2
30.5
26.0
23.2
16.9
24.3
(1)

20.4
21.0
20.4
20.0
18.6
20.0
21.4
M>

7.2
11.0
10.1
13.1
14.8
14.0
11.4
M)

13.7
21.4
21.2
20.8
22.7
22.6
19.7
( J

18.3
14.1
15.5
16.7
16.5
20.2
18.6
(1)

18,8
21,4
17,1
14.1
13.3
15.8
9.8
(1)

15.1
11.7
11.5
11.4
12.9
12,0
13.8
<1)

65*277

81.4

12*072

18.5

.
,
.
.
,
„
,
.

2*455
3*298
9*357
17*622
12*088
10*034
7*846
2*577

59.4
81.9
92.7
96.4
95.9
92.7
77.5
25.5

636
1*102
3*039
3,603
1*684
1*099
754
152

26.0
33.4
32.5
20.4
13.9
11.0
9.6
5.9

187
133
232
210
80
78
64
34

TOTAL* 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .

16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

53*071

59.5

9*338

17.6

1*579

2*063
3*139
8*693
14*468
9*661
7*822
5*582
1*641

51.3
75,4
81.4
75.3
72.2
67.1
48.2
11.3

578
918
2*158
2*705
1*420
904
570
86

28.0
29.2
24.8
18.7
14.7
11.6
10.2
5.3

173
164
336
422
244
131
85
23

AND 17 YEARS .
AND 19 YEARS .
TO 24 YEARS. .
TO 34 YEARS. .
TO 44 YEARS. .
TO 54 YEARS. „
TO 64 YEARS. .
YEARS AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

451
970
2*807
3*393
1*604
1*021
690
118

WOMEN

16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

AND 17 YEARS .
AND 19 YEARS .
TO 24 YEARS. .
TO 34 YEARS. .
TO 44 YEARS. .
TO 54 YEARS. .
TO 64 YEARS. „
YEARS AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

404
754
1*821
2*283
1*176
773
484
63

See footnotes at end of table.




A-20

(1 >

Table C-1. Continued— Extent of unemployment by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Persons
with unemployment in 1980, by work experience in 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

TOTAL WORKING
OR LOOKING
FOR WORK

PERSONS WITH UNEMPLOYMENT
TOTAL

WORKED DURING 1980
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

PERCENT DID
PEROF
NOT
CENT
WORK
TOTAL
OF
NUMBER
NUMBER WORKING BUT
OR
POPu~
LOOKED
LATION
LOOKING FOR
FOR
WORK
WORK

PERCENT OF TOTAL
WHO WORKED
YEARPART-YEAR WORKERS BY WEEKS
ROUND
OF UNEMPLOYMENT
WITH 3
TOTAL
WORKERS
WITH 2
SPELLS
WITH
TOTAL
1 TO 5 TO 11 TO 15 TO
27
SPELLS OR MORE
1 OR 2
4
10
14
26
WEEKS OF UNEM- OF UNEMWEEKS
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE PLOYMENT PLOYMENT
OF UNEMPLOYMENT

57,791

82.4

10,005

17.3

668

9,336 100.0

6.5

17.1

20.4

13.7

24.9

17.4

17.6

17.2

„
.
.
.
,
,

5,034
8,107
26,179
8,956
7,196
2,320

74.0
94.2
97.2
93.6
78.8
25.5

1,448
2,507
4,384
911
638
117

28.8
30.9
16.7
10.2
8.9
5.0

233
137
175
51
52
20

1,215
2,370
4,208
860
587
96

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3.1
4.5
8.1
9.4
6.7
5.6

27.0
19.6
14.8
12.8
11.2
5.8

20.8
20.8
20.3
20.5
20.0
15.2

11.9
15.0
13.3
14.3
12.2
23.0

18.7
22.9
27.0
26.8
25.7
36.8

18.5
17.2
16.6
16.2
24.1
13.6

20.1
21.0
15.1
18.1
17,0
7.9

17.6
15.8
17.4
18.2
18.4
20.0

TOTAL, 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .

AGE, SEX, RACE, AND
HISPANIC ORIGIN

WHITE
MEN
TOTAL, 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .
16
20
25
45
55
65

TO 19
TO '24
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

YEARS, ,
YEARS. „
YEARS, .
YEARS. „
YEARS. .
AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.

WOMEN
45,817

59.3

7,501

16.4

1,035

6,465 100.0

3.4

28.3

19.6

12.0

20.8

15.6

15,5

11.4

.
.
.
.
,
.

4,619
7,473
20,499
6,777
4,980
1,469

67.5
83.6
73.8
66.9
48.2
11.1

1,237
1,717
3,210
746
514
76

26.8
23.0
15.7
11.0
10.3
5.2

225
199
416
101
75
20

1,013
1,519
2,794
645
439
56

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(1)

1.5
2.5
3.5
7.0
4.9
(1 )

35.2
31.6
27.3
16.8
25.9
(1 )

21.6
20.7
18.4
20.6
20.7
(’ )

9.6
10.8
13.2
13.0
11,0
(1 )

17.5
20.9
21.5
23.3
20.1
(1 )
-

14.5
13.5
16.1
19.3
17.4
(1 )

20.1
16.9
14,0
15,4
9.2
(1)

12.7
10.2
11.2
9.9
14.8
CM

TOTAL, 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .

16
20
25
45
55
65

1,435 100.0

TO 19
TO 24
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.

BLACK
MEN
5,972

74.0

1,755

29.4

321

.
.
.
.
.
.

592
1,026
2,740
867
533
215

53.2
87.2
88.4
86.4
63.2
25.9

244
467
761
161
93
29

41.2
45.6
27.8
18.6
17.5
13.2

79
89
107
24
10
12

TOTAL, 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .

16
20
25
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.

3.6

12.9

18.0

13.1

26.0

26.4

17.5

14.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(1)

1.2
1.8
3.5
7.0
11.4
(1)

25.0
12.6
10.0
14.2
13.8
(1)

15.6
18.0
17.3
16.8
30.3
<1>

11.7
13.7
12.6
12.1
18.8
<’)

21.8
26.1
29.0
24.7
8.7
(1>

24.8
27.8
27.6
25.1
16.9
(1)

18,5
18.7
17.5
14.3
7.2
( 1)

22.9
11.2
14.8
11.1
14.8
( 1)

1,091 100.0

2.6

16.0

21.7

14.1

22.2

23.5

15,9

16.0

.
.
0.6
4.1
4.3
<1>
(1>

25.7
20.7
12.1
16.5
(i )
(1 )

14.0
17.5
26.5
15.2
(1>
(1)

8.9
8,0
16.3
20.8
(1)
<1)

28.3
24.5
20.9
19.2
<1 )
(1 )

23.0
28.8
20.3
24.0
( )
1
(’ )

22.7
19.6
13.0
15.7
( )
*
<1 )

12.2
18.6
16.0
18.3
(1 )
<1>

165
378
654
137
83
17

WOMEN
6,007

59.8

1,596

26.6

505

.
.
.
.
.
.

516
1,010
2,946
856
518
162

43.6
69.9
76.2
68.2
48.6
13.2

243
391
780
130
45
8

47.0
38.7
26.5
15.2
8.6
5.1

110
134
220
28
11
3

TOTAL, 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . ,

16
20
25
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

YEARS, .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.

133
257
560
102
34
5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
<1>
<1>

HISPANIC ORIGIN
MEN
3,547

83.4

822

23.2

63

759 100.0

3.5

15.8

20.0

14.9

28,9

16.9

18.9

18.3

.
.
„
.
.
.

370
637
1,760
452
258
70

62.7
90.0
95.4
90.2
77.7
25.1

106
204
379
79
45
8

28.7
32.0
21.6
17.4
17.6
<1 )

21
19
15
7
1

86 100.0
185 100.0
364 100.0
72
(1)
45
t1)
8
t1)

0.4
1.7
4.8
( )
t
( )
1
( )
1

25.6
18.3
12.6
<1 )
(1 )
<1 )

26.1
19.9
16.1
(1 )
(1)
<1)

8.6
19.9
14.0
(1 )
(1 )
(1)

22.6
28.3
31.8
t1 )
(1 )
(1 )

16.8
11.9
18.7
(1 )
(1 )
(’ )

29.2
21.6
14.9
C1 )
(1 )
<1)

17.8
21.8
15.7
(1 >
(1)
<1)

TOTAL, 16 YEARS
OLD AND OVER . .

16
20
25
45
55
65

2,522

54.7

574

22.7

93

481 100.0

1.4

25.4

18.5

15.3

21.4

17.9

21.0

12.0

264
477
1,291
303
163
25

46.1
66.3
62.9
56.0
39.0
8.1

77
140
266
58
32
1

29.2
29.4
20.6
19.0
19.4
(1 )

22
21
46
3
1

55
<1)
120 100.0
220 100.0
55
<1)
30
(1)
1
(1>

(1>
0.8
1.3
(1)
( )
1
( )
1

(1 )
31.8
23.3
(1 )
(1 )
(t)

(1)
17.4
17.8
(1 )
(1)
<1)

<1 >
7.8
20.0
(t)
(1 )
(t)

(1 )
22.4
21.0
(’ )
(1)
<1 )

(1 )
19.9
16.4
(1 )
(1)
(1)

(1)
25.2
20.4
(1)
(1)
(1>

(1 )
10.7
13.0
<1>
(1)
<1)

TO 19
TO 24
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

YEARS. .
YEARS. .
YEARS, .
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
AND OVER

.
.
.
.
.
.

-

WOMEN

16
20
25
45
55
65

TO 19
TO 24
TO 44
TO 54
TO 64
YEARS

YEARS. „
YEARS, .
YEARS. ,
YEARS. .
YEARS. .
AND OVER

'Percent

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
,
,
„
„
.

not shown where base is less than 75,000




N ote : Dash

A-21

()represents
-

zero or rounds to zero.

Table 0=2= Extent ©f unemployment by industry" Wage and salary workers wiflh work experience in
1980, by longest job(Numbers in thousands)

TOTAL
wage
and
sa l a r y
workers

INDUSTRY GROUP

TOTAL WITH
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS WITH
UNEMPLOYMENT IN 1980
UNEMPLOYMENT
PART-YEAR WORKERS BY WEEKS
YEAR-ROUND
PERCENT
WORKERS
OF UNEMPLOYMENT
OF TOTAL
NUMBER WAGE AND TOTAL WITH 1 OR
27
2 WEEKS OF 1 TO 5 TO 11 TO 15 TO
SALARY
WEEKS
26
WORKERS
UNEMPLOY­
4
14
10
MENT
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE

PERCENT OF TOTAL
WITH UNEMPLOYMENT
WITH 3
WITH 2
SPELLS
SPELLS OR MORE
OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT PLOYMENT

17.1

100.0

5,0

20.9

20,2

12,9

23.1

17.9

16,8

14.4

514

26.7

100.0

1,7

14.1

20.4

12.9

25.9

25.0

27,6

20.3

NONAGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES........ . . 104*419 17*666
1*054
MINING,, . . . . . . . . . „ . . . . .
203
6*114 2*126
CONSTRUCTIONo . . . . . . . . . . . .
MANUFACTURING . . . . . . . . . . . .
24*359 4*982
DURABLE GOODS „ o . o . . . . . . . 14*566 3*119
LUMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS* EXCEPT
679
209
FURNITURE. . . . . . . . . . . .
FURNITURE AND FIXTURES. . . . . .
180
607
STONE* CLAY* AND GLASS PRODUCTS .
726
180
PRIMARY METAL INDUSTRIES. . . . .
1*279
305
366
FABRICATED METAL INDUSTRIES . . .
1*651
3*129
510
MACHINERY* EXCEPT ELECTRICAL. . .
2*663
505
ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. . . . . . .
2*311
619
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT. . . . .
AUTOMOBILES . . . . . . . . . .
1*213
474
144
OTHER TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT.
1*098
245
OTHER DURABLE GOODS . . . . . . .
1*520

16.9
19.2
34.8
20.5
21.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5,1
7,0
3,4
9,9
10,7

21.1
13.4
12.0
18.0
17.0

20,2
25,1
20,0
19,5
19,7

12.9
16.8
15.0
12,9
12,4

23.1
20.8
29.5
22,2
23,0

17.7
17.0
20.1
17.4
17.1

16,5
16,0
20,9
14,7
14,0

14.2
13.8
22.1
13.3
12.6

30.8
29.7
24.8
23.8
22.2
16.3
19.0
26.8
39.1
13.1
16.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6,1
7,4
9,2
15,6
7,7
12,3
12,9
11,0
11,7
8,,8
8,5

12.0
21.6
24.0
8.9
19.2
19.7
19.8
13.6
12.4
17.4
16.5

23,6
19,2
18,9
24,0
17,6
19,9
17,4
18,9
18,1
21,6
21,9

15.7
10.8
9.8
14.9
13.4
12.8
U.O
11.5
10.8
13,9
12.3

26.5
29.9
20.9
20.7
21.5
19.0
23.7
24.8
25.4
23.0
24.5

16.0
11.0
17.2
16.0
20.7
16.4
15.2
20.1
21.5
15.4
16.3

15,8
16,6
19,9
9,9
19,0
10,8
15,1
11,1
12,4
7,0
15,0

17.2
23.3
13.0
13.3
7.6
8.0
7.4
17.7
18.4
15.3
14.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

8,5
5,8
13,7

19.7
17.8
23.6

19,2
15,9
21,6

13.7
13,2
12.3

20,9
25,2
12,8

10.0
22.0
16.1

15,9
18,3
10,4

14.4
15.4
22.9

al l

in d u s t r y g r o u p s

............ 106*342 18*180

AGRICULTURE . o o . = o . . o . o . . .

1*923

NONDURABLE GOODS..................
FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS . . . .
TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS . . . . . .
APPAREL AND OTHER FABRICATED
TEXTILE PRODUCTS ..............
PRINTING* PUBLISHING* AND ALLIED
INDUSTRIES . . . . . . . . . . .
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS . .
OTHER NONDURABLE GOODS. . . . . .

9*794
2*095
824

1*864
447
233

19.0
21.3
28.2

1*492

406

27.2

100.0

11,0

17.2

23,0

14,3

17.7

16.8

14,6

16.4

1*726
1*449
2*206

206
161
411

11.9
11.1
18.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

6,0
5,1
8,7

26.8
21.5
17.7

19.8
11,3
20.5

14.3
17.0
12.8

22.3
33.0
18.5

10.8
12.2
21.8

16,7
14,4
18,0

11.2
9.5
10.3

TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES .
RAILROADS AND RAILWAY EXPRESS . . .
OTHER TRANSPORTATION. . . . . . . .
COMMUNICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER PUBLIC UTILITIES. . . . . . .

6*744
573
3*151
1*531
1*490

877
75
572
106
125

13.0
13.0
18.1
6.9
8.4

100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4,0
4,6
4,1
3,5
3,3

19.2
19.5
18.0
21.8
22.5

18,6
27.1
17,2
20,2
18,4

14.0
6.3
13.6
16.9
18.1

25.9
22.0
28,7
20.9
19.3

18.4
20.6
18.4
16.6
18,4

15.8
10,8
16,7
13,5
16,4

15.6
6.8
18.0
12.8
12.5

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE. . . . . .
WHOLESALE . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RETAIL...........................

22*441
4*084
18*357

4*076
574
3*502

18.2
14.1
19.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

3,1
6,1
2,6

27.0
18.6
28.4

21.1
21,2
21,0

10.2
11.9
10.0

22.1
25,2
21.6

16.5
17.0
16.4

16,7
13,7
17,2

13.5
11.8
13.8

FINANCE* INSURANCE* & REAL ESTATE . .
SERVICE . . . . . . ................
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES. . . .
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS. . . . . . . . .
PERSONAL SERVICES* EXCEPT PRIVATE
HOUSEHOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERV .
MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES .
WELFARE AND RELIGIOUS SERVICES. . .
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES. . . . . . . .
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES . . . .
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES. . . . . . .

6*188
31*312
3*953
1*614

605
4*219
805
238

9.8
13.5
20.4
14.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3,0
2,8
2,8
1,2

27.3
23.6
22.9
17.8

19,2
20,9
19.2
15,5

15.7
13.8
10.7
12.4

20.7
21.8
24.1
21.0

14.1
17.2
20.2
32.2

16,4
16.2
16,6
19,8

11.6
12.3
14.0
20.2

2*300
1*377
8*204
1*909
9*245
2*562
148

450
311
880
233
942
296
65

19.6
22.6
10.7
12.2
10.2
11.6
43.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(I1)

2,2
3,4
2,4
6,7
2,4
4,4
(H)

20.5
22.6
25.7
21.8
23.4
30.9
(1)

26,8
18,3
21,7
20.3
21,1
23.2
(')

12.0
15.3
13.2
16.9
17.2
11.3
<1 )
|

21.4
26.9
21.8
20.3
19,7
18,9
CM

17.1
13.4
15.3
14.0
16,2
11.2
(1
1)

21,6
20,8
15,6
15,6
11,3
13,4
( )
1

18.0
18.8
8.3
8.4
9.8
8.5
<1)
!

6*206

577

9.3

100.0

3,0

19.1

17,3

12.4

22.2

25.9

17,8

13.3

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . .
1 Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.




A-22

Table C-3. Extent of unemployment by occupation: Persons with work experience in 1980, by
longest Job and sex
(Numbers i thousands)
n
TOTAL WITH
PERCENT
UNEMPLOYMENT
WITH
PERCENT
YEARWITH
OF
ROUND
WORK
TOTAL
WORKERS
EXPE­ NUMBER WITH
WITH
TOTAL
RIENCE
WORK
1 OR 2
EXPE­
WEEKS
RIENCE
OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT
t o ta l

OCCUPATION GROUP AND SEX

DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS
UNEMPLOYMENT IN 1980
PART-YEAR WORKERS BY WEEKS
OF UNEMPLOYMENT

PERCENT OF TOTAL
WITH UNEMPLOYMENT

WITH 3
WITH 2
SPELLS
1 TO 5 TO 11 TO 15 TO
27
SPELLS OR MORE
26
10
WEEKS OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­
4
14
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE PLOYMENT PLOYMENT

MEN
al l o c c u p a t i o n g r o u p s

. . . . . . . .

64*260 11*054

17.2

100.0

6.1

16.6

20.1

13.6

25.1

18.5

17.6

16.9

753
66
40
73
126

7.9
4,3
3.9
7.6
12.8

100.0
<1>
(1)
(1)
100.0

8.8
(V)
P )
( )
1
8.7

23.7
(1)
(1 )
(1 )
38.5

20.3
P )
P>
P )
15.4

12.9
('
)
<1)
(1)
14.6

24.4
(1 )
( )
1
( )
1
18.4

10.0
Pi)
(1
)
(1
)
4.5

12.1
( )
1
( )
1
(1 )
3.9

10.6
(1>
(1)

5*002

447

8.9

100.0

8.1

18.6

21.9

15.5

24.6

11.4

11.7

12.1

8*937
3*650
1*282
2*368
4*056

579
371
191
180
545

6.5
10.2
14.9
7.6
13.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.2
8.2
5.2
11.3
4.4

16.6
17.3
22.8
11.5
23.7

21,1
25.1
24,0
26.3
23.0

16.8
17,7
14.7
20.9
15.4

26.8
17.5
20.9
13.8
19.3

11.5
14.2
12.4
16.2
14.2

12.6
13.5
15.8
11.0
15.6

13.3
12.3
15.3
9.2
13.6

CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS ................
CARPENTERS.
................. .
CONSTRUCTION CRAFT* EXCEPT CARPENTERS . .
MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS . . . . . . . . .
OTHER CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS ........

13*445
1*325
3*091
3*716
5*313

2*804
516
961
591
735

20.9
39,0
31.1
15.9
13.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6.7
2.5
4.8
8.8
10.3

13.8
11.2
12.5
19.2
12.9

20,3
20.4
19.3
20.7
21.5

13.8
16.0
15.5
10.3
13.0

28.0
33.5
31.3
20.6
25.8

17.4
16,4
16,5
20.4
16.7

17.0
18.6
19.9
13.2
15.0

20.2
26.3
24.7
10.4
17.8

OPERATIVES* EXCEPT TRANSPORT..............
DURABLE GOODS MANUFACTURING ............
NONDURABLE GOODS MANUFACTURING. . . . . .
OTHER INDUSTRIES. . ...................
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES............
DELIVERY AND ROUTE WORKERS..............
ALL OTHER .............. ..............

7*186
3*495
1*554
2*138
3*643
3*085
558

1*997
1*068
355
574
833
698
135

27.8
30,5
22.8
26.9
22.9
22.6
24.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.1
14.0
10.8
2.3
5.7
4.7
10.8

14.8
13.3
18.1
15.5
14.6
12.2
27.1

19,0
18.8
17.0
20.6
22.0
23,1
16.6

13.0
12.4
14.8
12.8
12.3
12.4
11.7

24.1
22,8
20.1
29.0
25.9
28.1
14.9

19.1
18,7
19.3
19.8
19,5
19.6
18.8

17.4
14.7
21.1
20.3
17.5
18.3
13.3

15.9
13.0
11.5
24.0
15.6
15.6
15.6

LABORERS* EXCEPT FARM .................. .
CONSTRUCTION...........................
MANUFACTURING .................. .
OTHER INDUSTRIES. .................... .

5*233
1*106
981
3*146

1*668
520
340
808

31.9
47.0
34.6
25.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.6
0.7
3.1
3.7

14.9
13.8
12.1
16.9

19.4
21.2
23.0
16.6

14.5
15.5
12.4
14.8

23.9
22.5
27.4
23.3

24.6
26.3
21,9
24.7

21.8
22.8
19.2
22.2

18.9
21.3
17.7
17.9

SERVICE WORKERS2- . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:
CLEANING SERVICE. . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOOD SERVICE. ........................ .
HEALTH SERVICE. .................. .
PERSONAL SERVICE. . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROTECTIVE SERVICE.....................

6*135
1*896
1*975
242
545
1*438

1*196
400
546
32
79
135

19.5
21.1
27,7
13.2
14.5
9.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
P )
100.0
100.0

1.8
1.0
1.7
( )
1
3.0
4.5

22.8
18.8
26.0

10.3
10.7
8.8
(1 )
15.1
14.0

25.1
24.4
25.0
<1)
16.0
30.6

22,0
30.3
17.7
(1)
8.9
21.5

19.7
19.5
19.9

36.4
14.5

18,0
14.8
20.8
( 1)
20.6
14.9

13.8
21.3

16.1
15.4
17.4
(1)
22.9
7.9

FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS . . ............
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS.........
.
PAID WORKERS...........................
UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS ..................

1*270
1*203
1*077
126

28
281
272
9

2.2
23.4
25.3
7.3

(if)

( t>

100.0
100.0
(1)

P)
13.9
12.6

P>

2.3
2.4
P )

18.9
19.0

P‘
>
12.7
13.1

P)

P )
27.8
27.9
P)

P )
24.4
25.0

( 1)
26.9
26.8

51*492

PROFESSIONAL* TECHNICAL* AND KINDRED WORKERS
ENGINEERS . . . . . .................. ,
MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH WORKERS. . . . .
TEACHERS* EXCEPT COLLEGE. . ........ . .
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE TECHNICIANS . . .
OTHER PROFESSIONAL* TECHNICAL* An D KINDRED
WORKERS. . . . . . . ..................
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS* EXCEPT FARM. .
SALES WORKERS
.................. .
RETAIL TRADE. . . . . . . . ............
OTHER SALES WORKERS ....................
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS..............

9*501
1*524
1*025
962
987

(P

( 1)

(1 )

(1 )

(it)

( 1)

8.0

(i )

( 1)

22.3
23.1
P)

WOMEN
ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS . . . . . . . .

7*759

15.1

100.0

3.3

26.7

20.1

12.3

21.0

16.7

15.6

12.1

PROFESSIONAL* TECHNICAL* AND KINDRED WORKERS
MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH WORKERS. . . . .
TEACHERS* EXCEPT COLLEGE. „ ........ . .
ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE TECHNICIANS . . .
OTHER PROFESSIONAL* TECHNICAL* An D KINDRED
WORKERS........ .................. . .

8*174
2*235
2*632
258

705
144
189
47

8.6
6.5
7.2
18.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
(1)

2.9
2.1
3.1
(1)

33.2
38.9
27.2
P)

21.4
29.6
20.3
( 1>

16.5
15.8
19.4
P )

16.4
10.0
16.2
P )

9,7
3.7
13.7
(>)

10,5
8.3
13.2
( )
t

8,6
9.1
8.3
( )
1

3*050

324

10.6

100.0

2.2

33.4

19.5

14.0

19.9

11.0

7.5

9.2

MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS* EXCEPT FARM. .
SALES WORKERS . . . . . ..................
RETAIL TRADE. .........................
OTHER SALES WORKERS .................. .
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS. ............
STENOGRAPHERS* TYPISTS* AND SECRETARIES .
OTHER CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . .

3*537
3*619
2*685
934
17*562
5*672
11*890

289
456
351
105
2*363
660
1*703

8.2
12.6
13.1
11.3
13.5
11.6
14.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.2
1.6
0.8
4.3
3.0
3.0
3.0

28.7
34.0
35.5
28.7
26.8
26.4
27.0

26.3
19.9
21,2
15.7
20,2
19.3
20,6

8.1
12.7
11.5
17.0
12.4
13.0
12.1

20.6
16.4
18.2
19.3
21.3
19.7
21.9

15.1
13.3
12.8
14.9
16.3
18,5
15.4

12.9
14.9
15.4
13.5
15.2
15.1
15.3

12.5
8.1
6.2
14.3
11.2
11.4
11.1

CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS . . . . . . . . .
OPERATIVES* EXCEPT TRANSPORT. . . . . . . .
DURABLE GOODS MANUFACTURING ........ . .
NONDURABLE GOODS MANUFACTURING........ .
OTHER INDUSTRIES........ .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES........ . .
LABORERS, EXCEPT F A R M ......................

902
5*142
1*927
2*396
819
346
675

155
1*523
582
761
180
62
153

17,2
29,6
30.2
31.7
22.0
17.8
22. 7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

26.5
19.8
19.3
20.1
19.6
P )
27. 9

16.4
18.8
16,5
21.1
16.1

9.6
11.0
9.2
12.3
11.3

27.3
24.0
27.6
21.5
22.7

P)

P)

(P

100.0

5.3
7.3
6.2
9,1
3.2
P )
5.9

1 8
7.

13.0

1 0
9.

14.9
19.2
21.2
15,8
27.0
(1)
1 3
6.

17.6
13.6
13.1
13.2
17.0
(1)
20. 8

12.0
14.4
10.0
18.7
10.0
P )
V 8
.

PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS ............ . .
SERVICE WORKERS* EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD .
CLEANING SERVICE. . ..............
FOOD SERVICE. ........................ .
HEALTH SERVICE. .................... .. ,
PERSONAL SERVICE. . ..................
PROTECTIVE SERVICE.....................
FARMERS, FARM MANAGERS, AND FARM LABORERS . . .

1*363
9*533
1*239
4*233
2*229
1*666
167
638

158
1*795
247
966
347
203
31
101

11.6
18.8
20.0
22.8
15.6
12.2
18,8
15.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
<1)
100.0

1.7
1.0
2.9
0.5
1.2
0.2
(P
1.9

25.0
28.4
18.2
34.2
19.5
27.7
(P
17.5

12.4
20.3
17.2
20.2
22.2
19,6
(i )
21.2

11.2
12.5
15.3
9.9
15.0
16.9
(1)
13.7

19.8
20.0
22.9
17.9
23.5
21.6
P )
17.0

29,9
17.8
23.5
17,3
18.6
14.1
P )
28,6

22.4
18.0
21.5
17.0
18.8
19.0
(1 )
31.8

19.3
13.1
14.0
13.8
10.4
12.6
(1)
15.8

' Percent

p )

not shown where base is less than 75,000.

2Includes a small number o p i a e household wor e s
f rvt
kr.




A-23

Table C-4. Extent ©f unemployment by ©ceupatlon and race” Persons with work experience in
1980, by longest Job
(Numbers i thousands)
n

MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP AND RACE

PERCENT
TOTAL WITH
WITH
UNEMPLOYMENT
YEARPERCENT
TOTAL
ROUND
WITH
OF
WORKERS
WORK
TOTAL
WITH
TOTAL
EXPE­ NUMBER WITH
WORK
RIENCE
1 OR 2
EXPE­
WEEKS
OF UNEM­
RIENCE
PLOYMENT

DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS
UNEMPLOYMENT IN 1980
PART-YEAR WORKERS BY WEEKS
OF UNEMPLOYMENT

PERCENT OF TOTAL
WITH UNEMPLOYMENT

WITH 3
WITH 2
SPELLS
27
1 TO 5 TO 11 TO 15 TO
SPELLS OR MORE
26
WEEKS OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­
4
10
14
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE PLOYMENT PLOYMENT

WHITE
al l o c c u p a t i o n g r o u p s

15.5

100.0

5.2

21.7

20.2

13.0

23.2

16.7

16.7

14.8

15,968
11,775
6,850
19,026
13,102
10,454
3,385
4,879
958
12,694
1,367
1,447

1,266
803
760
2,436
2,621
2,946
766
1,475
110
2,307
31
281

7.9
6.8
11.1
12.8
20.0
28.2
22.6
30.2
11.4
18.2
2.3
19.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
p >
100.0

6.0
5.6
5.0
3.5
7.0
9.2
5.5
2.9
1.4
(1)
3.0

28.9
21.2
26.1
28.4
14.8
17.3
14.6
17.6
25.1
28.5
(U
13.9

21,3
22.3
22.6
20.6
20.6
19.0
23.3
19.1
13.0
19.0
(1)
16,6

13.3
14.1
15.4
12.9
13,7
12.1
11.5
14.6
9.4
11.9
( )
1
10.6

20.8
24.6
17.5
20.8
27.0
23.8
27,6
23.0
22,1
21.7
( )
1
28.3

9.7
12,1
13.5
13,8
16,8
18,6
17.5
22,8
30,4
17,5
P >
27.7

10,9
13,0
14.4
15.0
17,3
16,0
18.6
21.9
23,8
18.2
(1)
29.5

10.1
13.2
8.9
11.4
19.6
15.3
15.9
18.9
14.6
13.9
P)
18.5

11,153

2,526

22.6

100.0

3.2

14.2

19,6

13.5

24.4

25.1

16,8

15.1

1,150
473
292
2,137
1,007
1,525
560
891
424
2,487
21
189

130
46
50
408
287
481
113
305
49
596
3
59

11.3
9,7
17,0
19.1
28,5
31,6
20.3
34,2
11.5
24,0
<1>
31.3

100.0
(1)
(1)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
<1)
100.0
!1>
<1)

4.7
< 1>
( 1)
1.4
3.0
7.7
5.2
2.6
(1)
1.0
(1
P>

17.1 16.2 28.9 18.6
<i)
(1)
(1)
(1)
( 1)
P >
P>
(1
)
12.7 21.7 13.8 21.5
11.2 16.0 12.3 36.7
13.9 19.2 11.5 25.3
19.2 18,3 15.5 17,3
8.2 19.4 14.1 26.6
(D
( 1)
P>
(D
16.6 21,4 10.4 23.0
P>
P>
( 1>
P>
( 1>
< 1)
<1>
(1)

14,6
(1 )
(U
28,8
20,9
22,3
24,4
29,1
(1)
27,6
(1
)
(1
)

17,9
(1)
(i)
16.6
12.8
14.4
14.6
19.3
(1 )
20.0
(1)
(1
)

6.6
P>
P>
12.3
22,3
13.3
14.1
14.2
(1)
16.0
P)
P)

............ . .101,904 15,802

PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND KINDRED WORKERS,
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS, EXCEPT FARM, , .
SALES WORKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . . . . . . .
CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATIVES, EXCEPT TRANSPORT. . . . . . . . .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES. . . . . . . .
LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS
SERVICE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD . .
FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS . . . . . . . . . .
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS . . . . . . . .

-

BLACK
ALL OCCUPATION GROUPS
PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND KINDRED WORKERS.
MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS, EXCEPT FARM. , .
SALES WORKERS . . . . . . .............. . «
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS. . . . . . . . .
CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATIVES, EXCEPT TRANSPORT. .......... , .
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT OPERATIVES. . . . . . . .
LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS . . . . . . . . . .
SERVICE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD . .
FARMERS AND FARM MANAGERS . . . . . . . . . .
FARM LABORERS AND SUPERVISORS . . . . . . . .
1

PERCENT NOT SHOWN WHERE BASE IS LESS THAN 75,000,




A-24

Tabl© C-5. Extent ©f unemployment by marital status and! race: Persons with unemployment In
1980, by work experience in 1980
(Numbers in thousands)

PERSONS WITH UNEMPLOYMENT
WORKED DURING 1980
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

TOTAL
to ta l
PERCENT did
WORKING
OF
NOT
OR
TOTAL
WORK
MARITAL STATUS, SEX, AND RACE LOOKING NUMBER WORKING BUT
TOTAL
LOOKED
FOR
OR
WORK
LOOKING FOR
WORK
FOR
WORK

PERCENT OF TOTAL
WHO WORKED
YEARPART-YEAR WORKERS BY WEEKS
ROUND
OF UNEMPLOYMENT
WITH 3
WORKERS
WITH 2
SPELLS
WITH
1 TO 5 TO 11 TO 15 TO
TOTAL
27
SPELLS OR MORE
1 OR 2
26
4
10
WEEKS OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­
14
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE PLOYMENT PLOYMENT
WEEKS
OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT

ALL PERSONS
MEN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . .
SINGLE . . . . . . . ........
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT........
OTHER MARITAL STATUS . . . . .

1,018 11,054

100.0

6.1

16.6

20,1

13.6

25.1

18.5

17.6

16.9

4,506
5,297
1,251

100.0
100.0
100.0

3.2
8.8
4.8

20.6
14.3
12.3

19.3
21,5
17.1

12.8
14.4
12.9

23.2
25.4
31.0

21,0
15,6
21.9

19.3
16.5
16.4

17.4
16.0
18.8

65,277 12,072

18.5

18,051
41,097
6,129

28.4
13.6
22.4

618
278
122

5,124
5,574
1,373

W OMEN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . .

53,071

9,338

17.6

1,579

7,759

100.0

3.3

26.7

20.1

12.3

21.0

16,7

15.6

12.1

13,568
29,348
10,155

3,124
4,317
1,897

23.0
14.7
18.7

583
660
337

2,541
3,657
1,560

100.0
100.0
100.0

2.2
3.8
3.9

31.2
25.9
21.2

21,0
19.2
20.5

10.7
13.1
12.8

19.1
21.7
22.3

15.7
16.3
19.2

17.5
14.4
15.2

12.7
11.3
13.3

57,791 10,005

17.3

668

9,336

100.0

6.5

17.1

20,4

13.7

24.9

17.4

17.6

17.2

20,347
37,444

5,139
4,866

25.3
13.0

468
201

4,671
4,665

100.0
100.0

3.9
9.2

19.7
14.5

19,6
21.2

13.2
14.1

24.2
25,6

19,3
15,5

18.2
16.9

18.2
16.2

45,817

7,501

16.4

1,035

6,465

100.0

3.4

28.3

19.8

12.0

20.8

15.6

15.5

11.4

19,438
26,379

3,785
3,716

19.5
14.1

505
530

3,279
3,186

100.0
100.0

2.9
3.9

29.3
27.2

21.0
18.5

11.3
12.8

20.1
21.6

15.3
16.0

16.7
14.4

12.1
10,7

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . .

5,972

1,755

29.4

321

1,435

100.0

3.6

12.9

18.0

13,1

26.0

26.4

17.5

14.4

SINGLE AND OTHER MARITAL
STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT. . . . .

3,223
2,749

1,202
553

37.3
20.1

254
66

948
487

100.0
100.0

2.4
5.9

13.2
12.4

14,4
24.9

10.8
17.6

28.2
21.8

31.0
17.3

20.6
11.6

15.7
11.9

6,007

1,596

26.6

505

1,091

100.0

2.6

16.0

21.7

14.1

22.2

23.5

15.9

16.0

3,772
2,236

1,133
463

30.0
20.7

401
104

732
359

100.0
100.0

2.4
3.1

18.0
11.8

19.5
26.0

12.7
16.9

22.0
22.7

25,4
19,5

16.7
14.4

16.1
15.7

SINGLE . . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIED, HUSBAND PRESENT . . .
OTHER MARITAL STATUS . . . . .

WHITE
M EN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER, . . . . . . .
SINGLE AND OTHER MARITAL
STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIED, WIFE PRESENT. . . . .
W OMEN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER, . . . . . . .
SINGLE AND OTHER MARITAL
STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIED, HUSBAND PRESENT . . .

BLACK
M EN

W OMEN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . .
JINGLE AND OTHER MARITAL
STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIED, HUSBAND PRESENT . . .




A-25

T a b le C -6 . E x te n t © f u n e m p lo y m e n t b y s p e lls o f u n e m p lo y m e n t : F a r t - y e a r w o r k e r s w i t h
u n e m p lo y m e n t In 1 9 ® 0 S b y s e x
(Numbers in thousands)

_______________________________ PART-YEAR WORKERS WITH UNEMPL0YMEN1
FULL-TIME WORKERS
TOTAL WORKERS
PART-TIME WORKERS
WITH 1
WITH 2
WITH 3
WITH 1
WITH 3
WITH 1
WITH 2
WITH 2
WITH 3
EXTENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND SEX
SPELL
SPELLS
SPELLS
SPELLS
SPELLS
SPELL
SPELL
SPELLS
SPELLS
TOTAL OF UNEM­ OF u n e m ­ OR MORE TOTAL OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­ OR MORE TOTAL OF UNEM­ OF UNEM­ OR MORE
PLOYMENT p l o y m e n t OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT PLOYMENT OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT PLOYMENT OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT
PLOYMENT
PLOYMENT

BOTH SEXES
TOTAL WITH UNEMPLOYMENT. . 17,808
1 TO 4 WEEKS . .
5 TO 10 WEEKS. .
11 TO 14 WEEKS .
15 TO 26 WEEKS .
27 WEEKS OR MORE

. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

3,908
3,781,
2,452
4,404
3,343

11,919

3,159

3,093
2,564
1,630
2,547
2,086

505
638
413
910
693

2,810 13,450

9,036

2,449

1,965 4,437

2,882

710

845

310
579
410
947
564

2,754
2,873
1,953
3,445
2,425

2,185
1,979
1,279
2,005
1,588

370
479
355
750
495

199 1,154
907
415
499
319
959
690
918
342

908
584
351
542
498

136
159
160
199

110
164
91
258
222

1,425 1,895

1,143

309

443

57

MEN
TOTAL WITH UNEMPLOYMENT. . 10,383
1 TO 4 WEEKS . .
5 TO 10 WEEKS. .
11 TO 14 WEEKS .
15 TO 26 WEEKS .
27 WEEKS OR MORE

. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. ..........

6,566

1,949

1,868

8,488

5,423

1,641

1,837
2,224
1,499
2,776
2,047

1,425
1,497
938
1,481
1,225

258
366
270
616
440

154
361
291
679
382

1,403
1,856
1,286
2,363
1,579

1,089
1,270
797
1,276
991

203
305
251
546
336

111
281
239
541
252

434
368
212
412
469

335
227
142
205
235

55
61
18
69
105

44
80
52
138
129

7,504

5,352

1,210

942

4,962

3,613

809

540 2,542

1,739

401

402

2,071
1,557
953
1,629
1,296

1,668
1,067
691
1,066
860

247
272
143
295
253

155
218
118
268
182

1,351

1,096
709
482
729
597

167
175
104
204
159

89
134
80
148
90

572
357
210
337
263

80
97
39
90
94

67
84
39
120
92

WOMEN
TOTAL WITH UNEMPLOYMENT. .
1 TO 4 WEEKS . . . . ........
5 TO 10 WEEKS. . . . . . . . .
11 TO 14 WEEKS . . . . . . . .
15 TO 26 WEEKS ..............
27 WEEKS OR MORE . . . . . . .

1,018

665
1,082
846

719
539
287
547
«49

T a b le D -1 . E x t e n t o f u n e m p lo y m e n t : P e r s o n s w it h n o w o r k e x p e r ie n e © in 1 98 ® w h o w e r®
u n e m p lo y e d d u r in g t h e y e a r , b y a g e , s e x , m a r it a l s t a t u s , a n d ra e e
(Numbers in thousands)__________ _______________ _______________ __________________________________________

TOTAL LOOKING
ASE, MARITAL STATUS
AND RACE

fo r wo r k
number

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER, . . . . . .

PERCENT
DISTRI­
BUTION

MEN________________________ _________________ _______ WOMEN
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION BY UMBER
PERCENT DIS1 RIBUTION BY JUMBER
TOTAL LOOKING
FOR WORK
OF WEEKS UNEMPLOYEC
OF WEE.KS UNEMPLOYEC
5 TO 15 TO
1 TO
27
PERCENT
5 TO 15 TO
1 TO
27
4
WEEKS
NUMBER DISTRI­ TOTAL
4
WEEKS
TOTAL
14
26
26
14
WEEKS WEEKS WEEKS OR MORE
WEEKS WEEKS w e e k s OR MORE
BUTION

100.0

100.0

19.3

21.6

10.5

48.7

1,579

100,0

100.0

34.9

29,5

13.9

21.6

187
365
368
98

18.4
35.8
36.2
9.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

47.3
18.3
5.7
20,8

32.1
26.4
11.6
21.0

8.2
13.5
9.8
6.3

12.4
41.9
72.9
51.9

173
500
797
109

11.0
31.7
50.5
6.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

42.9
35.2
32.2
41.1

36.2
32.1
27.4
22.6

8.9
13.6
15.8
9.4

12.0
19.0
24,7
26.9

618

278
122

60.7
27.3
12.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

25.9
9.3
8.6

26.8
13.5
13.3

10.3
10.1
12.4

37.0
67.1
65.7

583
660
337

36,9
41.8
21.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

34.1
38.3
29.9

33.8
27.3
26.5

13.7
13.5
15.1

18.4
21.0
28.6

668
321

65.7
31.5

100.0
100.0

20.4
16.8

20.8
22.2

10.0
10.3

48.9
50.6

1,035
505

65.6
32.0

100.0
100.0

38.3
27.6

27.4
33.5

13.1
16.6

21,2
22,3

1,018

AGE
16
18
25
55

AND 17 YEARS. .
TO 24 YEARS . .
TO 54 YEARS . .
YEARS AND OVER.

. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
....

.
.
.
.

MARSTAL STATUS
SINGLE . . . . . . . . . . .
MARRIED, SPOUSE PRESENT. . .
OTHER MARITAL STATUS . . . .

RAGE
WHITE. . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK. . . . . . . . . . . .




A-26

TabE© D -2 . M laj@ r r e a s o n f o r n o t w o r k in g : P e r s o n s w i t h n o w o r k e x p e r ie n c e in 1 9 8 0 , b y a g e , s e x , a n d ra e e
(Numbers in thousands)

TOTAL WITH
NO WORK
EXPERIENCE

AGE, SEX, AND RACE

ALL

ILLNESS OR
DISABILITY

PERSONS WHO DID NOT WORK BECAUSE OF —
TAKING CARE
GOING TO
RETIREMENT
INABILITY TO
FIND WORK
SCHOOL
OF HOME

IN ARMED
FORCES

OTHER
REASONS

PERSONS
M EN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . o o

15,933

3,708

139

3,197

893

7,547

87

361

16 TO 19 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
20 AND 21 YEARS. . . . . . . .
22 TO 24 Y E A R S ........ .
25 TO 54 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
55 TO 6 4 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
55 TO 59 YEARS . . . . . . . .
60 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . . .
65 YEARS AND OVER.......... . .

2,722
964
441
523
2,336
2,346
807
1,539
7,565

63
87
28
58
1,334
1,090
475
614
1,134

9
9
2
7
48
18
9
8
55

2,384
527
267
260
276
9
5
4
“

198
208
88
120
386
72
32
40
30

1
101
1,119
266
853
6,327

6
44
19
25
38
-

61
89
36
53
153
39
20
20
19

37,767

4,484

22,779

3,526

958

5,409

14

598

2

2

98
79
41
38
149
82
38
44
189

W OMEN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . . .

3,319
2,328
992
1,336
13,082
6,078
2,804
3,273
12,960

47
106
34
72
1,147
1,056
492
565
2,128

328
1,373
465
909
10,966
4,170
2,097
2,073
5,941

2,644
564
341
223
295
14
6
7
9

199
201
108
92
472
71
34
37
15

„
48
685
137
548
4,676

2,414

756

19

691

312

549

20

67

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

600
239
120
119
629
320
145
175
627

11
26
7
19
348
196
102
94
175

4
1
1
4
4
2
2
6

514
101
66
35
76
”

60
82
33
49
146
16
7
9
8

13
100
31
69
436

1
8
3
5
10
-

10
20
10
10
31
4
2
1
2

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . . .

4,538

1,053

1,884

812

383

318

4

82

777
569
265
304
1,568
558
268
290
1,066

12
33
10
23
337
244
125
119
427

74
248
104
144
966
257
125
132
340

607
160
89
71
41
1
1
2

73
105
52
52
194

2

7
2
3

o
.
40
6
34
279

10
22
9
13
29
7
4
4
14

TOTAL....................

2,597

160

470

479

1,398

27

11

52

MEN. . . . . . . . . ..........
WHITE. . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,018
668
321

70
54
17

1
1
-

255
174
76

634
399
214

19

18
1

10
8
2

28
14
11

WOMEN, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
white. . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK, . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,579
1,035
505

90
56
31

469
342
106

224
157
65

764
456
296

8
8
”

-

24
16
8

16 TO 19 YEARS ................
20 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
20 AND 21 YEARS. . . . . . . .
22 TO 24 YEARS . . . . . . . .
25 TO 54 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
55 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . . . .
55 TO 59 YEARS . . . . . . . .
60 TO 64 YEARS . . . . . . . .
65 YEARS AND OVER. . . . . . . .

4
2

2
6

_
-

BLACK
M EN

TOTAL, 16 YEARS OLD
AND OVER. . . . . . . . .
16 TO 19 YEARS . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . .
20 AND 21 YEARS.
22 TO 24 YEARS .
25 TO 54 YEARS . .
55 TO 64 YEARS . .
55 TO 59 YEARS .
60 TO 64 YEARS .
65 YEARS AND OVER.

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

W OMEN

16 TO 19 YEARS . .
20 TO 24 YEARS . .
20 AND 21 YEARS.
22 TO 24 YEARS .
25 TO 54 YEARS . .
55 TO 64 YEARS . .
5 5 TO 59 YEARS .
60 TO 64 YEARS .
65 YEARS AND OVER.

. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

9

_

2

-

NONWORKERS WHO LOOKED
FOR WORK

NONWORKERS WHO DID NOT
LOOK FOR WORK
51,103

8,032

22,448

6,244

453

12,930

91

907

MEN...........................
WHITE, . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK. . . . . . . . . . . . .

14,915
12,363
2,093

3,638
2,833
739

138
111
19

2,941
2,103
615

259
160
98

7,529
6,861
548

77
53
18

334
242
56

WOMEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHITE. . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLACK. . . . . . . . . . . . .

36,188
31,400
4,032
____________

4,394
3,317
1,022

22,310
20,062
1,778

3,302
2,429
748

193
103
88

5,401
5,022
318

14
10
4

573
457
74

TOTAL, . . . . . . . . . .

N ote : Dash (-) represents zero or rounds to zero.




A-27

A Report on White-Collar Salaries
% Occupation
from the Bureau of Labor Statistics

The 22nd in an annual
series, the “Nations!
Survey of Professional,.
Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay,
SVlarch, 1981,” provides
nationwide salary
averages and distribu­
tions for 96 work level
categories covering 23
occupations. Data for
purchasing assistants
and photographers are
published for the first
time. The occupations
include:
Order Form

Professional and
Administrative
Accountant
Attorney
Auditor
Buyer
Chemist
Chief Accountant
Director of Personnel
Engineer
Job Analyst
Public Accountant

Technical Support
Computer Operator
Drafter
Engineering Technician
Photographer

Clerical
Accounting Clerk
File Clerk
Key Entry Operator
Messenger
Personnel Clerk/Assistant
Purchasing Assistant
Secretary
Stenographer
Typist

Also included are salary
data from 1970, a des­
cription of survey
methods and scope,
survey changes in 1981,
occupational definitions,
and a comparison of
average annual salaries
in private industry with
Federal Classification
Act salary rates.

Please send____—.copies of “National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical
Pay, March 1 9 8 1 Bulletin 2108. Stock no. 029-001 -02629-3, price $4.75.**
The following BLS regional
offices will expedite orders:
1603 JFK Building
Boston, MA 02203
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, NY 10036
□
□

P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, PA 19101
1371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30367
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, IL 60604

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Square Bldg.
Dallas, TX 75202
911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, MO 64106
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, CA 94102

You may send your order
directly to:
Superintendent of
Documents,
U.S. Government Printing
Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402

Enclosed is a check or money order payable to Superintendent of Documents.
Charge to my GPO Account no. ---------------------------------- -----------------

□

Charge to MasterCard* Account no_____________________________ Expiration date ______

□

Charge to VISA* Account no. _________________________________

Expiration date ____

'Available only on orders sent d r c l t Superindent o Documents. "Note: GPO p i e are subject t change w t o t n t c .
iety o
f
rcs
o
i h u oie

Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street address
City, State,

ZIP
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/Code
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

R e g io n S

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

R e g io n IV

1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418
R e g io n V

R e g io n IS

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121
R e g io n i l l

3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154



9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880
R e g io n V I

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

R e g i o n s V I I a n d V S II

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481
R e g io n s IX a n d X

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678