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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/
EMPLOYMENT

AND

• • • •

UNEMPLOYMENT

No. 409
SERIES

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO




1921 TO 1925

By FREDERICK E. CROXTON

JUNE, 1926

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1926




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CONTENTS
¥age

1-5
Introduction_______________________________________________________
Employment status_________________________________________________ 5-10
Duration of unemployment__________________________________________ 10-14
Cause of unemployment-------------------------------------------------------------------- 14-16
Duration and cause of unemployment________________________________ 16-21
Industry and employment status_____________________________________22-29
Conclusion_________________________________________________________30-32
Appendix.— The industrial classification---------------------------------------------- 33-35
xn







BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

No. 409

JUNE, 1926

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO, 1921 TO 1925
INTRODUCTION
Following the suggestion of the President’s Conference on Unem­
ployment, which met in the autumn of 1921, that each community
undertake to meet its own unemployment problem, there was
organized in Columbus, Ohio, the M a jor’s Emergency Unemploy­
ment Committee, composed of leaders in the community from the
fields of industry, labor, commerce, and finance. The first problem
confronting the mayor’s committee was that of forming some esti­
mate of the needs in the city. To this end the various social agencies
submitted estimates for the coming winter. The mayor’s committee,
however, desirous of checking carefully upon these estimates of the
agencies, requested the Ohio State University to cooperate in a houseto-house survey of selected districts. Prof. Mary Louise Mark and the
writer were at the same time considering a study of unemployment in
order to furnish the students of statistics in the departments of econo­
mics and sociology some practice in collecting and assembling statis­
tical data. The study for 1921 was therefore made a joint one.1
In selecting the districts to be studied, it was desirable to obtain
a fair sample of the wage-earning population of the city; accordingly,
the president of the Columbus Federation of Labor and the president
of the Columbus Chamber of Commerce (both active members of the
Mayor’s Emergency Unemployment Committee), jointly selected the
territories. Field work, which consumed about a week, was begun
late in October by the students in economic statistics and in social
statistics under the close personal supervision of their instructors.
A preliminary estimate, placed in the. hands of the committee about
10 days after the beginning of the field work, indicated that about
14,000 persons were out of work in Columbus. The proportions
shown in the final figures for 1921 when applied to the city as a whole
indicated that about 13,300 persons were idle and 10,700 employed
part time, a total of 24,000 persons employed less than full time. The
study covered more than one-ninth of the total occupied males in
Columbus and one-twelfth of the total occupied females 18 years of
age and over as reported in the United States census of the previous
year.
i The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Prof. Mary Louise Mark, with whom he originally
worked out«nd developed the study, to Louis Edwin Smart, William J. Blackburn, Lloyd Wilcox, Peter
O. Poss, Heston McPherson, Malvern O. Buchanan, Miss Helen Oherington, and Miss Grace Richmond,
each of whom assisted in the supervision of the field work and the tabulation of the results, and to the
more than 450 students who assisted at some time during the five years in the work of enumerating and
tabulating.




2

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

The mayor’s committee recognized that no comparable data were
available for other years and that it therefore could not measure the
extent of unemployment as compared with more prosperous times.
It was therefore suggested in the final report of the mayor’s com­
mittee (p. 70) that the study be made for several years.
The survey indicates that the unemployment situation was more serious than
the estimates of the relief agencies showed and the actual experience with the
relief problem throughout the winter has demonstrated the approximate accuracy
of the higher figures.
One weakness of survey figures such as these secured in this study is that,
unfortunately, no accurate data are available with reference to the number idle or
working part time when industrial conditions approximate normal.
The Ohio State University is in a position to make a real contribution along
these lines by making a comparative study of these same three districts at intervals
for a series of years under varying industrial and economic conditions.

The present study was undertaken to carry out the suggestion of the
mayor’s committee. The late fall period, approximately the last
week of October, has been studied for five years, and comparative
data are presented in this report. The territories have remained the
same in each of the five periods studied. A survey of the magnitude
of this one requires considerable time for field work and tabulation,
both on the part of the students and their instructors. It is hoped,
however, that the survey can be continued for at least another fiveyear period and that data may be secured for the spring season in
order that comparison may be made with conditions during the late
autumn.
Only students enrolled in the classes in economic statistics and in
social statistics participated in the five studies. Each studentenumerator received a sheet of detailed instructions concerning the
use of the schedule and these were carefully discussed before any
interviews were conducted. The schedules brought in were critically
examined and the students were required so far as possible to obtain
any missing data. If no one was at home at the time of the first
visit, second and third calls were made, usually at a different time of
day. A considerable part of the tabulating was also done by the
students under the close supervision of their instructors. The data
here presented are believed to be as nearly accurate as house-to-house
work, which of course does not permit of the examination of work
records, can be expected to be.
Columbus is a city with large districts of native white population,
with few districts of negroes, and with relatively few areas where
immigrant populations predominate. Table 1 presents the nativity
distribution of the persons 18 years of age and over enumerated in
1921, as compared with the nativity distribution of all employed
>ersons 18 years of age and over shown in the United States census
or 1920.

f




3

INTRODUCTION

T able 1.—N A T IV IT Y OF PERSONS IN CLU DED IN 1921 SURVEY AND OP OCCUPIED
PERSONS 18 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN COLUMBUS REPO RTED B Y U N ITED
STATES CENSUS (1920) BY SEX
Males
Nativity

Columbus
survey

Females

Census of
1920

Columbus
survey

Both sexes

Census of
1920

Columbus
survey

Census of
1920

Number
Native white............................
Native colored.........................
Foreign born............................

7,255
591
1,332

61,760
8,656
7,869

1,672
210
180

20,054
3,179
1,109

8,927
801
1,512

81,814
11,835
8,978

Total...............................

9,178

78,285

2,062

24,342

11,240

102,627

Per cent
Native white............................
Native colored.........................
Foreign born.............................

79.0
6.4
14.5

78.9
11.1
10.1

81.1
10.2
8.7

82.4
13.1
4.6

79.4
7.1
13.5

79.7
11.5
8.7

Total...............................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

* Fourteenth Census of the United States, vol. 4 (Occupations), p. 459.

From this table it may be seen that the Columbus survey included,
in 1921, slightly more than 10 per cent of the employed persons in
the city, exceeding this figure somewhat in the case of male em­
ployed persons and falling slightly below in the case of females.
The proportion of native wmte employed persons included corresponds
very closely with the proportion among the employed population as a
whole. The fact that the study includes a larger proportion of foreign
born and a smaller proportion of native colored employed persons than
is shown by the United States census is due to the fact that the most
thickly populated negro section of Columbus (East Long Street and
vicinity) was not included in the territories studied. The detailed
nativity and racial distribution is shown in Table 2.
T able 3.—N A T IV IT Y AND RACE OF PERSONS INCLUDED IN 1921 SURVEY, BY SEX
Males

Females

Both sexes

Nativity and race
Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Per cent
Native white.—. ___________ _______ ____
Native colored_________________________

7,255
591

79.0
6.4

1,672
210

81.1
10.2

8,927
801

79.4
7.1

Foreign born:
English____________________________
German.......... .......................................
Hebrew___________________________
Irish. ......................... . ....... ......... ...
Italian_____________________________
M a g y a r....._______________________
Other____ _________________________

35
614
67
46
245
124
201

.4
6.7
.7
.5
2.7
1.4
2.2

9
88
10
7
20
21
25

.4
4.3
.5
.3
1.0
1.0
1.2

44
702
77
53
265
145
226

.4
6.2
.7
.5
2.4
1.3
2.0

Total, foreign born________________

1,332

14.6

180

8.7

1,512

13.5

Total, native and foreign__________

9,178

100.0

2,062

100.0

11,240

100.0

The industrial distribution of the persons included in the survey
in each of the years is shown in Table 3. Due to the fact that the
number of persons included in the study varies somewhat from year



4

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

to year, attention will be directed throughout this study to the relative
rather than to the absolute figures.2 With the exception of the fact
that the contractors in building trades and the self-employed (other
than building contractors) were not segregated in 1921, the industrial
classification is strictly comparable throughout the five periods.3
The schedule, shown in the appendix, called for not only the industry
and occupation of each person but also the name of the employer.
The reply concerning industry could thus be checked by a personal
knowledge of the local concerns. All clerks and laborers were placed
in their reported industries and those shown as “ not otherwise speci­
fied” in Table 3 and elsewhere are those for whom no industry or no
employer was reported.
T able 3.—IN D U STRIA L DISTRIBU TION OF ALL PERSONS E N U M E R A T E D , 1921 TO 1925
[Includes only persons reporting as to industry]
Industry group

1922

1921

1923

1924

1925

Number of persons
Agriculture.....................................

69

59

61

40

42

Professional service........................

295

277

319

295

292

Clerical (not otherwise specified).

95

60

57

29

12

Domestic and personal service___

1,151

1,329

1,189

1,224

1,296

Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade..
Telegraph and telephone.. .
Railway and express—........
Other...................................

1,225
157
1,362
535

1,007
123
1,295
535

1,213
145
1,481
450

1,058
123
1,313
487

1,059
154
1,553
514

3,279

2,960

3,289

2,981

3,280

/
866 \
407
606
1,316
119
308
863
539
795

253
822
382
564
1,689
95
305
892
501
600

332
770
463
566
1,792
86
300
804
428
654

313
759
345
538
1,273
72
306
660
472
505

398
969
429
632
1,354
43
361
807
591
624

Total, manufacturing and mechanical.

5,819

6,103

6,195

5,243

6,208

Labor (not otherwise specified)......................

264

86

157

143

89

877

926

714

870

11,751

12,193

10,669

12,089

Total, trade and transportation..
Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors.......
Building trades, wage earners___
Clay, glass, and stone products..
Food and kindred products.........
Iron, steel, and their products.. .
Other metal products...................
Paper, printing, and publishing.
Wearing apparel...........................
Automobiles, parts, and tires___
Other.............................................

}

Self employed...................................................
Grand total.............................................

10,972

Per cent of grand total
Agriculture.....................................

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.3

Professional service........................

2.7

2.4

2.6

2.8

2.4

Clerical (not otherwise specified).

.9

.5

.5

.3

.1

Domestic and personal service___

10.5

11.3

9.8

11.5

10.7

8 The variation in numbers included is due partly to movements of population and partly to differences
in the completeness of the coverage of the enumeration in the various years. A large part of the shortage
in 1924 was due to the fact that four subdistricts were omitted, due to the incapacity of several of the student
enumerators. The variation in numbers included from this latter cause is believed to have introduced no
selective error in the study. As demonstrating this contention, note the stability of industrial distribution,
as shown by the proportions engaged in each industry (Table 3).
1 For a detailed explanation of the industrial classification see Appendix.




5

EMPLOYMENT STATUS

T able 3.—IN D U STRIA L DISTRIBU TION OF A LL PERSONS E N U M E R A TE D , 1021 TO
1925—Continued
Industry group

1922

1921

1923

1924

1925

Per cent of grand total—
-Continued
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade____________________
Telegraph and telephone_____________________
Railway and express
.. ................... ........... .
Other................................................... ...................

11.2
1.4
12.4
4.9

8.6
1.0
11.0
4i 6

9.9
1.2
12.1
3.7

9.9
1.2
12.3
4.6

8.8
1.3
12.8
4.3

Total, trade and transportation_____________

29.9

25.2

26.9

28.0

27.2

f
7.9 {
3.7
5.5
12.0
1.1
2.8
7.9
4.9
7.2

2.2
7.0
3.3
4.8
14.4
.8
2.6
7.6
4.3
5.1

2.7
6.3
3.8
4.6
14.7
.7
2.5
6.6
3.5
5.4

2.9
7.1
3.2
5.0
11.9
.7
2.9
6.2
4.4
4.7

3.3
8.0
3.5
5.2
11.2
.4
3.0
6.7
4.9
5i 2

53.0

52.1

50.8

49.0

51.4

2.4

.7

1.3

1.3

.7

7.6

7.6

6.7

7.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Manufacturing and meehanical:
Building trades, contractors___________________
Building trades, wage earners_________________ }
Olay, glass, and stone products_______________ _
Food and kindred products___________________
Iron, steel, and their products_________________
Other metal products_________________________
Paper, printing, and publishing............................
Wearing apparel.....................................................
Automobiles, parts, and tires__________________
Other.......................................................................
Total, manufacturing and mechanical________
Labor (not otherwise specified)___________________
Self employed______ « . . . _________________________
Grand total________________ _______________

Approximately one-half of all persons enumerated were in manu­
facturing and mechanical industries, more than one-fourth were in
trade and transportation, one-tenth were in domestic and personal
service, one-fourteenth were self-employed, and the remainder were
distributed through other general industrial groups.
Considering the individual industries, the principal ones were iron
and steel and their products, railway and express, building trades
and retail and wholesale trade. Considering a five-year average,
iron and steel ranks first with a percentage of 12.9, and railway and
express second with 12.1 per cent.
In view of the fact that, on the part of the wage earners, shifting
is easier from one industry to another than from occupation to occu­
pation, remarkable stability is shown by the industrial distribution
given in Table 3. Fluctuations in the industrial distribution from
year to year are due partly to general employment conditions in the
various industries and partly also, especially in the case of an indi­
vidual city, to the establishment or failure of one or two plants.
A large part of the proportionate decline in the importance of auto­
mobiles, parts, and tires in 1923 was due to the failure of a single
plant manufacturing automobiles.
EMPLOYMENT STATUS
In each of the five surveys an attempt was made to ascertain, for
the districts covered, the employment status at the time of the study
of all males 18 years of age or over and of all females 18 years of age or
over usually occupied.4 Information was sought concerning whether
* Thus all housewives were omitted as were also all women who worked outside the home, on a part time
basis, in addition to their housework. Those women were included who were working full time for pay or
rofit, and those who were working part time for pay or profit or who were idle, but who would work full
me for pay or profit if such full-time employment were available.

g

77341°—26------ 2




6

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

each person was (1) working full time; (2) working part time, and if
so what fraction of the usual full time for the industry in which the
individual was engaged; or (3) idle, and if so how long continuously
at the time of the visit, and for what reason. The classification “ idle”
thus includes all those of the enumerated group who were idle for any
reason whatsoever, whether involuntarily or of their own volition.
This section deals with the general condition of employment of all
persons enumerated and of heads of households. Throughout the
study most of the tables for all persons enumerated are followed by
tables showing separately heads of households, since it is upon this
latter group that the greatest burden of support rests.
Table 4 shows the extent of employment of all persons who reported
this item in detail.
T a b l e 4.—E M PLO Y M E N T STATUS OF A LL PERSONS ENU M ERATED, 1921 TO 1925,

BY SEX

[Includes only persons reporting full details as to employment status]
Sex and employment status

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

Number
MALES

E m ployedFull time......................................................
Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time____
One-half but less than two-thirds time.
One-third but less than one-half time. _
Less than one-third time.......................

6,853

8,646

8,896

7,053

8,251

241
540
99
57

209
272
40
22

275
255
46
9

464
414
131
35

425
373
80
41
919

Total, part time.................................

937

543

585

1,044

Idle.....................................................................

1,329

795

692

850

847

Total, males..............................................

9,119

9,984

10,173

8,947

10,017

Employed—
Full time......................................................

1,629

1,808

1,862

1,534

1,761

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time.......
One-half but less than two-thirds time.
One-third but less than one-half time..
Less than one-third time......................

39
102
30
11

62
120
44
38

50
96
29
9

75
116
50
17

96
104
43
17
260

FEMALES

Total, part time............ ................... .

182

264

184

258

Idle......................................................................

156

65

80

95

113

Total, females...........................................

1,967

2,137

2,126

1,887

2,134

E m ployedFull time..................................................... .

8,482

10,454

10,758

8,587

10,012

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time----One-half but less than two-thirds time.
One-third but less than one-half time..
Less than one-third time..................... .

280
642
129
68

271
392
84
60

325
351
75
18

539
530
181
52

521
477
123
58

Total, part time.................................

1,119

807

769

1,302

1,179

1,485

860

772

945

960

11,086

12,121

12,299

10,834

12,151

BOTH SEXES

Idle-...................................................................
Total, both sexes..................................... .




7

EMPLOYMENT STATUS
T able 4.—E M P L O Y M E N T STATUS OF ALL PERSONS E N U M ERATED, 1921 TO 1925,
BY SEX—Continued
1921

Sex and employment status

1922

1923

1924

1925

Per cent
MALES

Employed—

75.1

86.6

87.4

78.8

82.4

Less than one-third time.............. ..................

2.6
5.9
1.1
.6

2.1
2.7
.4
.2

2.7
2.5
.5
.1

5.2
4.6
1.5
.4

4.2
3.7
.8
.4
9.1

F^ ll timft.... _r . ,

_

_

__ _______

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time_________
O ne-half b lit
than tw o-thirds timp.
One-third b u t IasR than onp.-half timft

,

.

Total, part time________________________

10.2

5.4

5.8

11.7

Idle ..............................................................................

14.6

8.0

6.8

9.5

8.5

Total, males_______________________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

E m ployedFull time____________________________________

82.8

84.6

87.6

81.3

82.5

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time_________
One-half but less than two-thirds time_______
One-third but less than one-half time______
Less than one-third time__________________

2.0
5.2
1.5
.6

2.9
5.6
2.1
1.8

2.4
4.5
1.4
.4

4.0
6.1
2.6
.9

4.5
4.9
2.0
.8
12.2

FEMALES

Total, part time________________________

9.3

12.4

8.7

13.6

Idle................................................................................

7.9

3.0

3.8

5.0

5.3

Total, females_____________________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

BOTH SEXES

E m ployedFull time___________________________________

76.5

86.2

87.5

79.3

82.4

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time_________
One-half but less than two-thirds tim e.........
One-third but less than one-half time............
Less than one-third time__________________

2.5
5.8
1.2
.6

2.2
3.2
.7
.5

2.6
2.9
.6
.1

5.0
4.9
1.7
.5

4.3
3.9
1.0
.5
9.7

Total, part time________________________

10.1

6.6

6.2

12.1

Idle................................................................................

13.4

7.1

6.3

8.7

7.9

Total, both sexes___________________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

The proportion of males 18 years of age or over who were employed
full time, varied from 75.1 per cent in 1921 to 87.4 per cent in 1923;
the proportion employed part time, from 5.4 per cent in 1922 to 11.7
per cent in 1924; and the proportion idle, from 6.8 per cent in 1923
to 14.6 per cent in 1921. Tne proportion of females 18 years of
age or over employed full time varied from 81.3 per cent in 1924 to
87.6 per cent in 1923; the proportion employed part time, from 8.7
>er cent in 1923 to 13.6 per cent in 1924; and the proportion idle,
rom 3.0 per cent in 1922 to 7.9 per cent in 1921.
Of the males employed part time, the percentage working less
than half time in no year reached 2 per cent of those enumerated.
Of the females working part time the percentage working less than
half time varied from 1.8 per cent of those enumerated in 1923 to
3.9 per cent in 1922.
Table 5 presents detailed data concerning the proportion of time
worked by heads of households.

}




8

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

T a b l e 5.—E M PL O Y M E N T STATUS OP HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS, 1921 TO 1925, B Y SEX

[Includes only heads of households reporting full details as to employment status]
Sex and employment status

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

Number
E m ployedFull time..

4,675

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time.........
One-half but less than two-thirds time..
One-third but less than one-half time—.
Less than one-third time________ _____
Total, part time..
IdleTotal, females -

186
402
63
39

159
205
27
13

192
168
24
9

351
294
89
18

332
268
45
32

690

404

393

752

677

578

481

528

617

6,916

7,118

6,348

7,306

316

325

266

339

13
19
6
3

8
20
13
4

10
21
5
1

20
30
8
2

25
27
6
6

41

45

37.

60

64

23

35

36

39

295

384

397

362

442

4,885

6,250

6,569

5,334

6,351

199
421
69
42

167
225
40
17

202
189
29
10

371
324
97
20

357
295
51
38

731

449

430

812

741

820

E m ployedFull time..

6,012

44

Total, males..

5,068

210

idle.

6,244

6,141

Total, part time-

5,934

776

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time........
One-half but less than two-thirds time..
One-third but less than one-half time...
Less than one-third time_________ ____

601

516

564

656

6,436

7,300

7,515

6,710

7,748

BOTH SEXES.

E m ployedFull time..
Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time....... .
One-half but less than two-thirds time..
One-third but less than one-half tim e...
Less than one-third time....................... .
Total, part time.
IdleTotal, both sexes..

Per cent
Employed—
Full time..

Total, males..
E m ployedFull time..
Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time........
One-half but less than two-thirds time..
One-third but less than one-half time...
Less than one-third time........................
Total, part time.
Idle.
Total, females.




87.7

79.8

82.3

3.0
6.5
1.0
.6

2.3
3.0
.4
.2

2.7
2.4
.3
.1

5.5
4.6
1.4
.3

4.5
3.7
.6
.4

11.1

5.9

5.5

11.8

9.2

8.4

6.8

8.3

8.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

71.2

82.3

81.9

73.5

76.7

4.4
6.4
2.0
1.0

2.1
5.2
3.4
1.0

2.5
5.3
1.3
.3

5.5
8.3
2.2
.6

5.7
6.1
1.4
1.4

13.8

11.7

9.4

16.6

14.6

14.9

Total, part time..
Idle-

85.8

12.6

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time.........
One-half but less than two-thirds time..
One-third but less than one-half tim e...
Less than one-third time.......................

76.1

6.0

8.8

9.9

8.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

m o

9

EMPLOYMENT STATUS

T able 5.—E M PL O Y M E N T STATUS OF HEADS OP HOUSEHOLDS, 1921 TO 1926, B Y S E X Continued
Sex and employment status

1922

1921

1923

1924

1925

Per cent—Continued
BOTH SEXES.

Employed—
Full time................. .............................................

75.9

85.6

87.4

79.5

82.0

Part time:
Two-thirds but less than full time......... ........
One-half but less than two-thirds time..........
One-third but less than one-half time....... . . .
Less than one-third time__________________

3.1
6.5
1.1
.7

2.3
3.1
.5
.2

2.7
2.5
.4
.1

5.5
4.8
1.4
.3

4.6
3.8
.7
.5

Total, part time...........................................

11.4

6.1

5.7

12.0

9.6

Idle................................................................................

12.7

8.2

6.9

8.4

8.5

Total, both sexes.................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

In the case of male heads of households the proportion employed
full time varied from 76.1 per cent in 1921 to 87.7 per cent in 1923;
the proportion employed part time, from 5.5 per cent in 1923 to 11.8
per cent in 1924; and the proportion idle, from 6.8 per cent in 1923
to 12.6 per cent in 1921.
Of the male heads of households working part time the percentage
working less than half time in no year exceeds 1.7 per cent of those
enumerated. Of the female heads of households, a maximum of 4.4
per cent were reported as working less than half time in 1922.
A ready comparison of the condition of employment at the different
periods may be obtained by expressing the various part-time groups
m terms of their full-time equivalent ® and then constructing index
numbers of employment and of idleness.
Table 6 shows the proportion of employment and the proportion
of idleness in the population enumerated when part time is expressed
in terms of full time.
T able 6.—E M PL O Y M E N T STATUS OF ALL PERSONS E N U M ERATED, P A R T T IM E R E ­
DU CED TO FULL-TIM E EQUIVALENT, 1921 TO 1925

Percentage of time employed

Percentage of time idle

Year
Males
1921...........................................
1922...........................................
1923...........................................
1924...........................................
1925...........................................

81.4
90.1
91.4
86.5
88.5

Females
88.2
91.5
92.8
89.4
90.1

Both sexes
82.6
90.4
91.6
87.0
88.8

Males
18.6
9.9
8.6
13.5
11.5

Females
11.8
8.5
7.2
10.6
9.9

Both sexes
17.4
9.6
8.4
13.0
11.2

On the basis upon which this table has been computed, all males
enumerated in 1921 show 81.4 per cent employment and 18.6 per
cent idleness; in 1923, 91.4 per cent employment and 8.6 per cent
• This is accomplished by considering each group as concentrated around its mid-point. Thus all those
working “ two-thirds but less than full time” have been considered as working five-sixths of the time and
idle one-sixth of the time; those working “ one-half but less than two-thirds time ” as working seven-twelfths
of the time and idle five-twelfths of the time; those working “ one-third but less than one-half time” as work­
ing five-twelfths of the time and idle seven-twelfths of the time; and those working “ less than one-third
time” as working one-sixth of the time and idle five-sixths of the time.




10

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

idleness; and in 1925, 88.5 per cent employment and 11.5 per cent
idleness. Considering the enumerated population as a whole the
greatest amount of employment was present in 1923 and the least
in 1921.
Table 7 presents index numbers of employment and idleness based
upon the percentages of Table 6, employment and idleness in 1921
having been considered the base, or 100 per cent.
T a b l e 7 —IN D E X NUM BERS OF EM PLOYM EN T AN D IDLENESS OF A LL PERSONS

EN U M ERATED, PA RT T IM E REDUCED TO FULL-TIM E EQUIVALENT, 1921 TO 1925
[1921=100]
Employment

Idleness

Year
Males
1921...........................................
1922...........................................
1923...........................................
1924...........................................
1925.............................. - ...........

100.0
110.7
112.3
106.3
108.7

Females
100.0
103.7
105.2
101.4
102.2

Both sexes
100.0
109.4
110.9
105.3
107.5

Males
100.0
53.2
46.2
72.6
61.8

Females
100.0
72.0
61.0
89.8
83.9

Both sexes
100.0
55.2
48.3
74.7
64.4

The index numbers presenting employment show for all males
enumerated an advance of 10.7 per cent over 1921 in 1922, 12.3
per cent in 1923, 6.3 per cent in 1924, and 8.7 per cent in 1925. On
this basis employment for females shows a slignt advance over 1921
in each succeeding year but nowhere so great an advance as is shown
for males. This is due to the fact that the females (because of
being more largely salaried workers) showed a greater proportion of
employment in the base year, 1921, than did the males (see Table
4), and upon the basis of Table 6 exceeded the males each year in
the proportion of time employed and fell below them in the propor­
tion of time idle.
The index numbers which present idleness show for all males
enumerated, 53.2 per cent as much idleness in 1922 as in 1921, 46.2
per cent in 1923, 72.6 per cent in 1924, and 61.8 per cent in 1925.
For all females enumerated the idleness in comparison with 1921 is
72 per cent in 1922, 61 per cent in 1923, 89.8 per cent in 1924, and
83.9 per cent in 1925.
DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT
The tables of the preceding section show a marked decrease in the
percentage of persons enumerated who were idle in the years sub­
sequent to 1921. The tables presented in this section analyze the
duration of idleness for those persons reported as unemployed at
the time of each survey.
The duration of unemployment is shown in Table 8 for all persons
enumerated.




11

DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT

T able 8.—DURATION OF U N EM PLOYM EN T OF ALL PERSONS ENU M ERATED, 1921 TO
1925, BY SEX
[Includes only persons reporting as to duration of unemployment]
Number unemployed
Sex, and duration of unem­
ployment

1921

Males:
Under 2 weeks..............
2 and under 4 weeks—
4 and under 10 weeks__
10 and under 20 weeks..
20 and under 30 weeks..
30 and under 40 weeks..
40 and under 52 weeks..
52 wee'&s and over.........
Total..........................
Females:
Under 2 weeks..............
2 and under 4 weeks—
4 and under 10 weeks...
10 and under 20 weeks..
20 and under 30 weeks..
30 and under 40 weeks..
40 and under 52 weeks..
52 weeks and over.........

83
98
226
160
147
209

86

215

1922

1924

1925

125
108
118
38
16

80
145
171
108
72
21
15
111

93
146
139
78
41
16

723

84
95
166
53
14
14
196

1923

8

10

213

1,224

1921

1922

1923

9.9
8.0
18.5
13.1
12.0
17.1
7.0
17.6

13.8
24.1
7.7
2.0
2.0
28.4

19.7
17.0
18.6
6.0
2.5
1.3
1.6
33.5

825 j 100. 0

100.0

1924

1925

10.0
2.9
2.1
15.4

11.3
17.7
16.8
9.5
5.0
1.9
1.1
36.7

100.0

100.0

100.0

14.5
27.3
23.6
16.4
7.3
1.8
3.6
5.5

34.2
17.7
15.2
10.1
3.8
3.8
2.5
12.7

13.8
24.1
26.4
14.9
7.0
2.3
1.1
10.3

18.8
16.1
30.4
11.6
2.7
1.8

12.2

11.1

20.1
23.7
14.9

21
133

55

95
109
269
183
162
215
90
234

76
99
108
175
57
15
16
199

1, 357

745

Total.
Both sexes:
Under 2 weeks................. .
2 and under 4 weeks-------4 and under 10 weeks____
10 and under 20 weeks......
20 and under 30 weeks___
30 and under 40 weeks___
40 and under 52 weeks.......
52 weeks and over..............
Total-

Per cent of total

9.0
8.3
32.3
17.3
11.3
4.5
3.0
14.3

79

87

112

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

152

114
164
173
91
44
18
9
324

7.0
8.0
19.8
13.5
11.9
15.8
6.6
17.2

10.2

12
223

92
166
194
121
78
23
16
120

13.3
14.5
23.5
7.7
2.0
2.1
26.7

21.3
17.1
18.2
6.4
2.7
1.5
1.7
31.2

11.4
20.5
23.9
14.9
9.6
2.8
2.0
14.8

12.2
17.5
18.5
9.7
4.7
1.9
1.0
34.6

715

810

937

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

mo

122

130
46
19
11

18.8

The relative importance of the group “ 52 weeks and over” is due
largely to the fact that practically all of those persons idle because of
old age or retirement were idle for more than a year.6 The greater
severity of unemployment in 1921 than in any other year is again
evident here, as the proportion of idle persons who were unemployed
for the comparatively shorter periods was decidedly greater in later
years than m 1921.
Table 9 gives a comparative summary of the percentage of those
unemployed persons who were idle for the shorter periods.
T able 9,—COM PARATIVE SUM M ARY OF ALL IDLE PERSONS E N U M ERATED, 1921
TO 1925, B Y SEX AND Y E A R
[Includes only persons reporting as to duration of unemployment]
Per cent of unemployed who were idle—
Sex and year

Males:
1921.............................................................................
1922.................................................................. ..........
1923.............................................................................
1924.............................................................................
1925.............................................................................
Females:
1921.............................................................................
1922.............................................................................
1923............................................................................
1924.............................................................................
1925................................................................. ...........
See Table 15.




Less than
2 weeks

Less than
4 weeks

Less than
10 weeks

6.8
9.9
19.7
11.1
11.3

14.8
22.1
36.7
31.2
29.0

33.3
35.9
55.3
54.9
45.8

66.7
64.1
44.7
45.1
54.2

9.0
14.5
34.2
13.8
18.8

17.3
41.8
51.9
37.9
34.9

49.6
65.4
67.1
64.3
65.3

50.4
34.6
32.9
35.7
34.7

10 weeks
or over

12

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

Considering the total number of males idle as 100 per cent (Table
9), the proportion of males who were unemployed less than two
weeks varied from 6.8 per cent in 1921 to 19.7 per cent in 1923; the
proportion of those idle less than four weeks varied from 14. 8 per
cent in 1921 to 36.7 per cent in 1923; and the proportion of those
idle less than ten weeks varied from 33. 3 per cent m 1921 to 55. 3
per cent in 1923. In 1925 the duration of idleness was less than two
weeks for 11.3 per cent of all idle males enumerated, which exceeds
the proportionate idleness for this short period in 1921 by almost
two-thirds. The duration of idleness in 1925 was less than four
weeks for 29 per cent, a proportion idle for this period nearly twice as
great as in 1921.
In 1925 the proportion of females idle who had been unemployed
for the short period of less than two weeks (Table 9) more than
doubled over 1921 as did also the proportion of those idle less than
four weeks. The greater concentration of idle females than of idle
males in the periods of shorter duration at the time of each of the
five studies is attributable at least in part to the fact that very few
females were reported idle because of old age or retirement.7
Table 10 presents the duration of idleness for unemployed heads
of households. The group “ 52 weeks and over” is of even greater
relative importance in the case of heads of households than in the
case of all persons. The definite concentration in the periods of
shorter duration is again present in every year except 1921 and 1922.
T a b le 10.—DU RATIO N OF U N E M PLOYM EN T OF HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS, 1921 TO
1925, BY SEX
[Indudes only heads of households reporting as to duration of unemployment]
Number unemployed
Sex and duration

Per cent of total

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

1921

1922

1923

1924

Males:
Under 2 weeks...................
2 and under 4 weeks..........
4 and under 10 weeks.........
10 and under 20 weeks.......
20 and under 30 weeks.......
30 and under 40 weeks___
40 and under 52 weeks.......
52 weeks and over..............

51
60
116
78
78
126
52
138

35
45
60
127
42
10
9
167

65
69
71
19
12
7
10
177

46
80
89
59
47
15
6
80

65
89
92
52
31
15
8
248

7.3
8.6
16.6
11.2
11.2
18.0
7.4
19.7

7.1
9.1
12.1
25.7
8.5
2.0
1.8
33.7

15.1
16.0
16.5
4.4
2.8
1.6
2.3
41.2

10.9
19.0
21.1
14.0
11.1
3.6
1.4
19.0

10.8
14.8
15.3
8.7
5.2
2.5
1.3
41.3

Total...............................

699

495

430

422

600

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1

2
5
3
1
1

7
5
3
2

4
6
8
3

KV

fa\
\
a)

fa\
\
a)

/<l\
K
a)

/\
d
KV

1
12

1

3
2
8

1

4
7
8
4
1
1

8

13

30

30

38

(*)

(°)

(•)

(•)

(•)

Females:
Under 2 w e e k s . _______
2 and under 4 weeks..____
4 and under 10 weeks_____
10 and under 20 weeks____
20 and under 30 weeks____
30 and under 40 weeks____
40 and under 52 weeks____
52 weeks and over..............

8
1
7

1925

Total_________________

30

13

Both sexes:
Under 2 weeks. .................
2 and under 4 weeks_____
4 and under 10 weeks.........
10 and under 20 weeks___
20 and under 30 weeks . ..
30 and under 40 weeks.......
40 and under 52 w eeks___
52 weeks and over..............

52
60
124
79
85
126
53
150

37
50
63
128
43
10
10
167

72
74
74
21
12
10
12
185

50
86
97
62
47
16
6
88

69
96
100
56
32
16
8
261

7.1
8.2
17.0
10.8
11.7
17.3
7.3
20.6

7.3
9.8
12.4
25.2
a5
2.0
2.0
32.9

15.7
16.1
16.1
4.6
2.6
2.2
2.6
40.2

11.1

19.0
21.5
13.7
10.4
3.5
1.3
19.5

10.8
15.0
15.7
&8
5.0
2.5
1.3
40.9

Total_________________

729

508

460

452

638

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

• Percentages not computed because of small numbers involved.
’ See Table 15.




13

DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT

T abXIS11.—DU RATIO N OF U N EM PLOYM EN T OF A LL PERSONS E N U M E R A TE D AND
i
OF HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS, 1921 TO 1925, BY SEX: CUMULATIVE FIGURES
[Includes only persons reporting as to duration of unemployment]
AIL PERSONS ENUMERATED
Number unemployed

Per cent of total

Sex and duration
1921 i 1922

1923

1924

1925

1921

1922

1923

1924

723

825

100.0

100.0

100.0

10 0 .0

100.0

643
498
327
219
147
126

732
586
447
369
328
312

93.2
85.2
66.7
53.7
41.7
24.6
17.6

90.1
78.0
64.2
40.1
32.5
30.4
28.4

80.3
63.4
44.8
35.1
33.5

45.2
30.3
20.3
17.4
15.4

88.7
71.0
54.2
44.7
39.8
37.8
36.7

87

112

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

91.0
82.7
50.4
33.1

65.8
48.1
32.9

17.3
14.3

85.5
55.2
34.5
18.2
10.9
9.1
5.5

19.0
15.2
12.7

86.2
62.1
35.6
20.7
13.8
11.5
10.3

81.3
65.2
34.8
23.2
20.5
18.8
18.8

100.0

10 0 .0

1925

MALES

Total unemployed.
2 weeks and over............
4 weeks and over............
10 weeks and over..........
20 weeks and over..........
30 weeks and over..........
40 weeks and over..........
52 weeks and over..........

1,2
1,141
1,043
817
657
510
301
215

622
538
443
277
224
196

511
403
285
247
231
223
213

Total unemployed.

133

55

79

2 weeks and over............
4 weeks and over............
10 weeks and over..........
20 weeks and over..........
30 weeks and over....... .
40 weeks and over..........
52 weeks and over..........

121
110

210

111

FEMALES

67
44
29
23
19

21.8

22.8

BOTH SEXES

Total unemployed.

1,357

2 weeks and over............
4 weeks and over______
10 weeks and over..........
20 weeks and over..........
30 weeks and over..........
40 weeks and over..........
52 weeks and over..........

1,262
1,153
884
701
539
324
234

745

715

810

937

100.0

100.0

100.0

570
462
287
230
215
199

563
441
311
265
246
235
223

718
552
358
237
159
136

823
659
486
395
351
333
324

93.0
85.0
65.1
51.7
39.7
23.9
17.2

76.5
62.0
38.5
30.9
28.9
26.7

78.7
61.7
43.5
37.1
34.4
32.9
31.2

120

44.2
29.3
19.6
16.8
14.8

87.8
70.3
51.9
42.2
37.5
35.5
34.6

68.1

HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS
MALES

Total unemployed..........

699

495

30

422

600

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

2 weeks and over................. .
4 weeks and over.....................
10 weeks and over___________
20 weeks and over....... ............
30 weeks and over......... . ........
40 weeks and over....................
52 weeks and over....................

648
588
472
394
316
190
138

460
415
355
228
186
176
167

365
296
225
206
194
187
177

376
296
207
148
101
86
80

535
446
354
302
271
256
248

92.6
84.0
67.4
56.3
45.1
27.1
19.7

92.9
83.8
71.7
46.1
37.6
35.6
33.7

84.9
68.8
52.3
47.9
45.1
43.5
41.2

89.1
70.149.1
35.1
23.9
20.4
19.0

89.2
74.3
59.0
50.3
45.2
42.7
41.3

30

13

30

30

38

29
29
21
20
13
13
12

11
6
3
2
1
1

23
18
15
13
13
10
8

26
20
12
9
9
8
8

34
27
19
15
14
13
13

0)

0)

0)

0)

FEMALES

Total unemployed..........
i
2 weeks and over...................... 1
4 weeks and over...................__ !
10 weeks and over....... ............ !!
20 weeks and over___________ !!
30 weeks and over...............
!
40 weeks and over....................
52 weeks and over

0)

BOTH SEXES

Total unemployed..........

729

508

460

452

638

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

2 weeks and over......................
4 weeks and over............ . ....... .
10 weeks and over....................
20 weeks and over.....................
30 weeks and over...................
40 weeks and over............... .
52 weeks and over.....................

677
617
493
414
329
203
150

471
421
358
230
187
177
167

388
314
240
219
207
197
185

402
316
219
157
110
94
88

569
473
373
317
285
269
261

92.9
84.6
67.6
56.8
45.1
27.8
20.6

92.7
82.9
70.5
45.3
36.8
34.8
32.9

84.3
68.3
52.2
47.6
45.0
42.8
40.2

88.9
69.9
48.5
34.7
24.3
20.8
19.5

89.2
74.1
58.5
49.7
44.7
42.2
40.9

1Percentages not computed because of small numbers involved,

77341°—26------ 3




14

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

Table 11 shows the cumulative duration of idleness for all persons
and for heads of households, respectively. In the case of all unem­
ployed male persons 53.7 per cent were idle 20 weeks and over in
1921. This figure gradually fell to 30.3 per cent in 1924 and rose to
44.7 per cent in 1925. In 1921, 41.7 per cent of all unemployed male
persons were idle 30 weeks and over; in 1924, 20.3 per cent; and in
1925, 39.8 per cent. For idle male heads of households, 56.3 per cent
were idle 20 weeks and over in 1921, 35.1 per cent in 1924, and*50.3
per cent in 1925. The proportion of idle male heads of households
who had been unemployed 30 weeks and over varied from 23.9 per
cent in 1924 to 45.1 per cent in 1921 and 1923, and 45.2 per cent
in 1925.
CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT
The amount of unemployment attributable to the various causes
is shown in Table 12 for all persons reporting the cause. Slack work
is the predominant cause of idleness for each year except 1922, when
it is slightly exceeded in importance by sickness. In 1921 slack work
accounted for 79.4 per cent of all males reported as idle, sickness
included 13.1 per cent, and old age or retirement embraced 7.3 per
cent; in 1922, 28 per cent were idle because of slack work, 32.8
per cent because of sickness, 18.5 per cent because of old age or
retirement, and 19.5 per cent because of strike; in 1925, 40.8 per
cent were unemployed on account of slack work, 30.3 per cent on
account of sickness, and 23.5 on account of old age or retirement.
T able 13.—CAUSE OF U N EM PLOYM EN T OF ALL PERSONS ENU M ERATED, 1921 TO
1925, BY SEX,
[Includes only persons reporting as to cause of unemployment]
Number unemployed
Sex, and cause of unemploy­
ment

Per cent of total

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

1921

1922

1923

1924

992
164
91
3

153
219
257
145
9

3
253
221
169
28

2
452
191
134
35

343
255
198
45

79.4
13.1
7.3
.2

19.5
28.0
32.8
18.5
1.1

0.4
37.5
32.8
25.1
4.2

0.2
55.5
23.5
16.5
4.3

40."8
30.3
23.5
5.4

Total............................... 1,250

783

674

814 j

841

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Males:
Strike______ __________
Slack work.........................
Sickness.............................
Old age or retirement........
Miscellaneous....................

1925

Females:
Slack work.........................
Sickness.............................
Old age or retirement........
Miscellaneous....................

87
38
29

19
31
10
2

29
34
8
9

39
27
10
14

60
42
7
4

56.5
24.7
18.8

30.6
50.0
16.1
3.2

36.3
42.5
10.0
11.3

43.3
30.0
11.1
15.6

53.1
37.2
6.2
3.5

Total...............................

90

113

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

154

62

80

Both sexes:
Strike.................................
Slack work....... ................. 1,079
Sickness......................... H 202
Old age or retirement____
120
3
Miscellaneous....................

153
238
288
155
11

3
282
255
177
37

2
491 ""403" "76.9
297
14.4
218
205
144
8.5
49
49
.2

18.1
28.2
34.1
18.3
1.3

.4
37.4
33.8
23.5
4.9

.2
54.3
24.1
15.9
5.4

42.2
31.1
21.5
5.1

Total.............. i .............. 1,404

845

754

904

954

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

The greatest amount of variation over the five periods is found in
the slack work group. The total persons idle for whom cause of




CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT

15

idleness was reported varied from 754 to 1,404; those idle because of
slack work varied from 238 to 1,079; those idle because of sickness 8
varied from 202 to 297; and those idle because of old age or retire­
ment 9 from 120 to 205. It is probable that with the serious un­
employment condition which existed in 1921 many aged persons
sought casual labor, odd jobs, and other types of employment when
other members of the family were unable to secure work. The
number of persons idle because of old age or retirement constitutes
from about 1.1 per cent to approximately 1.7 per cent of the total
persons included in the enumeration. Strikes were not an important
factor as a cause for idleness, the greatest number reported idle from
that cause being in 1922 when a strike of railway shopmen was in
progress.
Owing to inability to secure complete data for a few persons in­
cluded in the surveys, some of the detailed tables include fewer
persons than do the summary tables. For this reason it was not
possible in all cases to compute exact percentages comparing in­
dividual items with the total number of persons enumerated for
each year. Thus in 1921, 1,485 of the total persons studied were
idle (Table 4), the cause of idleness, however, was reported for but
1,404 persons (Table 12). In 1925 the number idle was 960 and
the cause of idleness was reported for 954. With such omissions,
however, it is possible to show approximate conditions through a
comparison of the numbers idle from each cause (Table 12) with
the total persons included in the survey as shown in Table 4.
Of the total persons enumerated, idleness because of slack work
was reported for one person in 10 enumerated in 1921, one person in
51 enumerated in 1922, one person in 44 enumerated in 1923, one
person in 22 enumerated in 1924, and one person in 30 enumerated
m 1925.
Of the total persons enumerated, idleness by reason of sickness
was reported for one person in 55 enumerated in 1921, one person in
42 enumerated in 1922, one person in 48 enumerated in 1923, one
person in 50 enumerated in 1924, and one person in 41 enumerated
m 1925.
Of the total persons enumerated, idleness by reason of old age or
retirement was reported for one person in 92 enumerated in 1921,
one person in 78 enumerated in 1922, one person in 69 enumerated in
1923, one person in 75 enumerated in 1924, and one person in 59
enumerated in 1925.
The causes of unemployment effecting idleness of heads of house­
holds are shown in Table 13. In the case of male heads of house­
holds, slack work, while an important cause of idleness at the time of
each of the five studies, yields somewhat in importance to sick­
ness and to old age or retirement in 1922 and 1923. Comparison
with Table 12 will reveal that a relatively smaller proportion of male
heads of households than of all persons were idle because of slack
work and a relatively larger proportion idle because of sickness and
old age or retirement. Many employers in the city have a definite
policy of favoring those with family responsibilities when work is
* Sickness includes also injuries.
9 Old age or retirement includes also idleness because of the infirmities of age (not actually sick) and
voluntary or involuntary retirement.




16

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

slack. If the proportion idle due to that cause is reduced the pro­
portion unemployed from other causes must rise. Sickness is, of
course, no respecter of family responsibility.
Of the total number of heads of households enumerated, idleness
because of old age or retirement was reported for one person in 58
enumerated in 1921, one person in 50 enumerated in 1922, one
person in 46 enumerated in 1923, one person in 55 enumerated in
1924, and one person in 43 enumerated m 1925.
T able 13.—CAUSE OF U N EM PLOYM EN T OF HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS, 1921 TO 1925,
B Y SEX
[Includes only heads of households reporting as to cause of unemployment]
Number unemployed
Sex, and cause of unemploy­
ment

1921

1922

1923

1924

Per cent of total
1925

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

Males:
Strike__________ ________
Slack work........................
Sickness________________
Old age or retirement........
Miscellaneous___________

532
111
91
3

124
116
189
135
5

3
134
157
155
22

2
250
130
114
16

215
193
173
31

72.2
15.1
12.3
.4

21.8
20.4
33.2
23.7
.9

0.6
28.4
33.3
32.9
4.7

0.4
48.8
25.4
22.3
3.1

35.1
31.5
28.3
5.1
100.0

Total...............................

737

569

471

512

612

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Females:
Slack work______________
Sickness.............................
Old age or retirement........
Miscellaneous___________

U
13
20

1
8
' 10
2

7
12
8
4

11
12
9
2

14
18
6
1

0)

0)

(0

(*)

0)

Total_________________

44

i 2
1

31

34

39

Both sexes:
Strike__________________
Slack work______________
Sickness___ ____________
Old age or retirement........
Miscellaneous___________

543
124
111
3

124
117
197
145
7

3
141
169
163
26

2
261 ’ ""229’ "*69.5~
142
211
15.9
14.2
123
179
.4
32
18

21.0
19.8
33.4
24.6
1.2

.6
28.1
33.7
32.5
5.2

.4
47.8
26.0
22.5
3.3

35.2
32.4
27.5
4.9

Total_________ _______

781

590

502

546

651

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

* Percentages not computed because of small numbers involved.

DURATION AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT
With the greater detail that is included in the tables in this section
percentages have not been computed for females, owing to the small
numbers involved. In the case of all males enumerated (Table 14),
both those idle because of slack work and those idle on account of
sickness show a greater proportion of persons idle for the compara­
tively shorter periods in the later years than in 1921.
Table 14 gives a comparative summary of the percentage of those
males unemployed because of slack work or sickness who were idle
for the shorter periods.




17

DURATION AND CAUSE OF UNEMPLOYMENT

T able 1 4 —COM PARATIVE SU M M ARY OF ALL M ALE PERSONS IDLE BECAUSE OP
SLACK W ORK OR SICKNESS, 1921 TO 1925
[Includes only persons reporting as to cause and duration of unemployment]
Per cent of males unemployed because
of slack work, who were idle—
Year

1921............................
1922............... ............
1923.............................
1924.......... ...............
J925.............................

Per cent of males unemployed because
of sickness, who were idle—

Less
than 2
weeks

Less
than 2
weeks

6.9
18.2
33.2
12.5
16.1

Less
than 4
weeks
15.3
37.8
55.7
36.1
44.2

Less
than 10
weeks

10 weeks
and over

34.9
59.8
82.3
63.3
67.8

65.1
40.2
17.7
36.7
32.2

4.7
10.9
13.1
5.9
10.0

Less
than 4
weeks
12.1
26.4
30.4
21.2
24.4

Less
than 10
weeks
26.2
43.6
49.6
41.8
42.0

10 weeks
and over

73.8
56.4
50.4
58.2
58.0

Of all males enumerated who were idle because of slack work,
34.9 per cent were idle less than 10 weeks and 65.1 per cent were
idle 10 weeks and over in 1921; in 1923, 82.3 per cent were unem­
ployed less than 10 weeks, and but 17.7 per cent were idle 10 weeks
and over; in 1925, 67.8 per cent were idle less than 10 weeks and
32.2 per cent were idle 10 weeks and over. Of all males enumerated
who were idle because of sickness, 26.2 per cent were idle less than
10 weeks in 1921, 49.6 per cent in 1923, and 42 per cent in 1925.
Table 16 presents the duration and cause of idleness for heads of
households. As in the case of all male persons, the idleness of male
heads of households due to slack work was of relatively short dura­
tion, except in 1921. Idleness because of sickness, while also con­
centrated in the groups of shorter duration, shows a more marked
concentration in the group “ 52 weeks and over.”
The duration of unemployment for those male persons reported as
idle because of old age or retirement is shown in Table 15 to have
been usually of long standing.1
0
It was extremely difficult to secure data even approximately accurate concerning duration of idleness
from old age or retirement for the reason that for only a few wage earners is “ retirement” a definite act
at a specific moment. Neither does “ old age” arrive at a particular day and hour. Old age for many,
as a cause of unemployment, arrives when work fitted to their years and physical condition can no longer
be had. Preceding this is often a period of “ slack work” and “ odd jobs,” and finally the wage earner
discovers that he is “ old.” Retirement, too, generally follows along the same line of experience, except
that it is coupled with ability to secure some support from a home or other property accumulated, from
other members of the family, or from organizations. In some cases, even with the exercise of extreme
care and close supervision, it was practically impossible to distinguish clearly between sickness and old
age as a cause of idleness for those persons past middle age.




T able 15.—D U R A TIO N A N D CAUSE OF U NEM PLOYM EN T OF A LL PERSONS E N U M E R A TE D , 1921 TO 1925, BY SEX

00

[Includes only persons reporting as to cause and duration of unemployment]
HUMBER
Slack work

Total, all causes1

6ld age or retirement

Sickness

Sex, and duration of unemployment
1923

1924

1925

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

Males:
Under2 week's
_____
2 and under 4 weeks..........................................
4 and under 10 weeks______________________
10 and under 20 weeks_____________________
20 and under 30 weeks_____________________
30 and under 40 weeks_____________________
40 and under 52 weeks_____________________
52 weeks and over____________ •
____________

66
81
188
129
123
190
75
109

39
42
47
24
15
4
5
38

81
55
65
22
4

54
94
79
4727
6
4
24

7
11
21
17
15
9
4
65

26
37
41
21
19
7
6
81

28
37
41
12
10
7
3
76

10
26
35
20
20
7
5
47

25
36
44
21
9
7
5
103

3
3

1
2
3
2
2

3
14

55
104
120
78
44
10
9
21

1
30

Total...............................................................

961

214

244

441

335

149

238

214

170

250

38

Ftmales:
Under 2 weeks
2 and under 4 weeks
4 and under 10 weeks
10 and under 20 weeks
20 and under 30 weeks ______ ______
30 and under 40 weeks
40 and under 52 weeks
'
52 weeks and over..............................................

9
7
29
17
12
4
2
4

7
5
3
2

14
7
5
2
1

5
7
12
8
4
1
1
1

18
11
18
6
2
1

3
4
14
4
2

9
5
5
5
2
3
1
4

3
7
6
3
2
1

1
7
14
7
1
1

1
1
2

3

1
8

1
9
8
6
3
1
1
1

4

11

7

Total______ ____________________________

84

19

29

39

59

36

30

34

26

42

11

Both sexes:
Under 2 weeks - _ ____ ___ _________ ______
2 and under 4 weeks ______________ - _____
4 and under 10 weeks __ _________________
10 and under 20 weeks_____________________
20 and under 30 weeks__________________ _
_
30 and under 40 weeks
_
_ ______
40 and under 52 weeks
_ ____ - _________
52 weeks and over_________________________

75
88
217
146
135
194
77
113

46
47
50
26
15
4
6
39

95
62
70
24
5
3
14

60
111
132
86
48
11
10
22

72
105
97
53
29
7
4
27

10
15
35
21
17
9
5
73

27
46
49
27
22
8
7
82

37
42
46
17
12
10
4
80

13
33
41
23
22
8
5
51

26
43
58
28
10
8
5
114

4
4
2
1
37

Total............................................................... 1,045

233

273

480

394

185

268

248

196

292

49

1

1923

1924

1925

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

3
2
4
6
4
2

73
94
210
149
142
199
80
204

67
83
95
165
53
14
14
192

123
101
116
37
16
8
10
213

75
137
165
103
70
19
14
104

93
145
138
77
40
16
9
301

3
64

1
3
5
1
1
1
3
120 ' ”

§4" ” i69~

77

135

43

190 1,151

683

624

687

819

3

7

8
15
11
9
4
1
2
2

26
14
12
8
3
3
2
10

11
19
23
12
6
2
1
8

21
18
34
13
3
2

1
6

12
11
43
22
15
6
3
19

21

1

7
,

3

7

131

52

78

82

112

1
2
3
2
3

3
2
4

3
2
4
6
4
2

3
64

1
3
5
1
1
1
4
126

37

176

85
105
253
171
157
205
83
223

75
98
106
174
57
15
16
194

149
115
128
45
19
11
12
223

86
156
188
115
76
21
15
112

114
163
172
90
43
18
9
322

78

142

46

197 1,282

735

702

769

931

UNEMPLOYMENT

1922

3
2
4

I
N

1
1

1

1

COLUMBUS, OHIO




1921

1922

1921

PEE CENT a

Total...............................

33.2
22.5
26.6
9.0
1.6

12.5
23.6
27.2
17.7
10.0
2.3
2.0
4.8

16.1
28.1
23.6
14.0
8.1
1.8
1.2
7.2

10.9
15.5
17.2
8.8

13.1
17.3
19.2
5.6
4.7
3.3
1.4
35.5

5.9
15.3
20.6
11.8
11.8
4.1
2.9
27.6

10.0
1.3
0.7
14.4
2.6
2.6
2.2
17.6
3.9
3.7
8.4 " 7 . T 2.6
.7
3.6
7.9
2.6
.7
2.8
.7
2.0 ” iT ” 3.9" 2.2
41.2 78.9 83.1 88.9

10.9
19.9
24.0
15.0
10.2
2.8
2.0
15.1

11.4
17.7
16.8
9.4
4.9
2.0
1.1
36.8

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

7.2
8.4
20.8
14.0
12.9
18.6
7.4
10.8

19.7
20.2
21.5
11.2
6.4
1.7
2.6
16.7

‘"i.Y
5.7

34.8
22.7
25.6
8.8
1.8

12.5
23.1
27.5
17.9
10.0
2.3
2.1
4.6

18.3
26.7
24.6
13.5
7.4
1.8
1.0
6.9

5.4
&1
18.9
11.4
9.2
4.9
2.7
39.5

ao

2.9
2.5
34.0

10.1
17.2
18.3
10.1
8.2
3.0
2.6
30.6

14.9
16.9
18.5
6.9
4.8
4.0
1.6
32.3

6.6
16.8
20.9
11.7
11.2
4.1
2.6
26.0

8.9
14.7
19.9
9.6
3.4
2.7
1.7
39.0

1.3
2.6
3.8
2.6
3.8

7.0
4.7
9.3

1.6
1.1
2.1
3.2
2.1
1.1

79.1

88.9

0.7
1.5
2.1
1.0
3.5 "~6.5" 2.0
.7
4.3
3.0
.7
8.7
2.0
.7
1.0
2.8
88.7 Ԥ0.T "89.T

6.3
8.2
18.2
12.9
12.3
17.3
7.0
17.7

6.6
8.2
19.7
13.3
12.2
16.0
6.5
17.4

9.8
12.2
13.9
24.2
7.8
2.0
2.0
28.1

I}.2
t

19.7
16.2
18.6
5.9
2.6
1.3
1.6
34.1

2.0
14.6

12.2
17.5
18.5
9.7
4.6
1.9
1.0
34.6

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

“ LT
5.1

'To'
~YY
8.2
4.1
2.0
75.5

3.8
82.1

13.3
14.4
23.7
7.8
2.0
2.2
26.4

21.2
16.4
18.2
6.4
2.7
1.6
1.7
31.8

11.2
20.3
24.4
15.0
9.9

2.7

O
P

* Includes also persons idle because of strike and miscellaneous causes.
* Percentages not computed for females because of small numbers involved.

UNEMPLOYMENT




4.7
7.4
14.1
11.4
10.1
6.0
2.7
43.6

CAUSE

Total______ __________

18.2
19.6
22.0
11.2
7.0
1.9
2.3
17.8

AD
N

Both sexes:
Under 2 weeks................. .
2 and under 4 weeks..........
4 and under 10 weeks....... .
10 and under 20 weeks___
20 and under 30 weeks___
30 and under 40 weeks___
40 and under 52 weeks___
52 weeks and over............ .

6.9
8.4
19.6
13.4
12.8
19.8
7.8
11.3

DURATION

Males:
Under 2 weeks...................
2 and under 4 weeks..........
4 and under 10 weeks........
10 and under 20 weeks___
20 and under 30 weeks___
30 and under 40 weeks___
40 and under 52 weeks___
52 weeks and over.............

T a b le

16.—DU R A TIO N A N D CAUSE OF U NEM PLOYM ENT OF HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS, 1921 TO 1925, BY SEX
[Includes only beads of households reporting as to cause and duration of unemployment]
NUMBER
Slack work

Total, all causes1

Old age or retirement

Sickness

Sex, and duration of unemployment

25

3
8

33
58
63
43
25
7
3
10

38
57
46
29
19
5
4
14

6
7
15
12
10
9
1
42

15
22
26
14
19
4
1
73

15
23
28
6
8
7
3
62

7
15
20
10
16
5
3
36

19
25
32
14
7
7
4
80

Total________________ ____________- ..........

519

115

128

242

212

102

174

152

112

188

1

1

5
2

1
4
3
2

3
3
4
2

1
3
3

2
1
2
1

2
2
3
1
1

1

3
1
2

1
4
3
2
1
1

3

6

7

12 !
I

12

18

7

11

1

Both sexes:
Under 2 weeks
_
_ ___ ____
2 and under 4 weeks
_
________
4 and under 10 weeks . _____ __ ________
10 and under 20 weeks_____________________
20 and under 30 weeks......................................
30 and under 40 weeks
40 and under 52 weeks
- 52 weeks and over..............................................

43
47
97
57
68
111
47
60

18
19
30
12
8
4
25

Total - - - - - - - __ - ___ _____________ - - - - - _

530

116




7

11

13

12

8

42
37
33
10
2
3
8

34
62
66
45
25
7
3
11

41
60
50
31
19
5
4
15

6
7
20
13
12
9
1
46

16
25
29
14
19
4
2
73

17
24
30
7
8
10
4
64

9
17
23
11
16
6
3
39

20
29
35
16
8
8
4
86

135

253

225

114

182

164

124

206

1

43
76
88
57
45
13
6
78

65
89
91
51
30
15
8
246

118

36

165

662

488

423

406

595
■

2
4
3
1
1

7
5
3
2

3
6
8
3

4
7
8
4
1
1

8
1
7

1
1
6

6

I
12

1

3

3
2
S

7

13

1

7

3

6

30

12

30

28

38

3
3

1
1
3
2
3

1
3
5
1
1

1
2
3

1
37

8
59

4
110

2
2
2
5
4
2

33

154

49
56
118
73
84
120
49
143

36
48
63
127
43
10
10
163

70
70
74
20
12
10
12
185

46
82
96
60
45
14
6
85

69
96
99
55
31
16
8
259

45

77

125

39

171

692

500

453

434

633

1

1

COLUMBUS, OHIO

37
35
33
10
2

I
N

17
19
30
12
8
4

UNEMPLOYMENT

4 and nndfir 1ft wp.pk's
10 and under 20 weeks_____________________
20 and under 30 weeks_____________________
30 and under 40 weeks
40 and under 52 weeks
52 weeks and over..............................................

42
47
94
57
63
111
46
59

Total...............................................................

148

63
65
71
18
12
7
10
177

1

1925

4

30

34
44
60
126
42
10
9
163

76
--------

1924

1

3
104

48
56
110
72
77
120
48
131

38

1923

1

1
2
3

2
2
2
5
4
2

8
59

1922

1
1

1924

1
30

1921

5
1
2

1923

3
3

1925

5

1922

1
3
5
1
1

1924

3

1921

1
1
3
2
2

1923

Females:
Under 2 weeks
__ _
_______
2 and under 4 weeks
4 and under 10 weeks
10 and under 20 weeks
20 and under 30 weeks
30 and under 40 weeks
40 and under 52 weeks
62 weeks and over..............................................

1925

1923

1922

Males:

1925

1924

1922

1921

1921

PER CENT2

10.1
13.3 “ i T
17.0
7*4
7.9
7.9
3.7
3.7
2.1
2.6
42.6 78.9

10.6
18.7
21.7
14.0
11.1
3.2
1.5
19.2

10.9
15.0
15.3
8.6
5.0
2.5
1.3
41.3

Total............................................................... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

13.6
24.0
26.0
17.8
10.3
2.9
1.2
4.1

18.2
26.7
22.2
13.8
8.4
2.2
1.8
6.7

5.9
6.9
14.7
11.8
9.8
8.8
1.0
41.2

8.6
12.6
14.9
8.0
10.9
2.3
.6
42.0

&8
13.7
15.9
7.7
10.4
2.2
1.1
40.1

9.9
15.1
18.4
3.9
5.3
4.6
2.0
40.8

10.4
14.6
18.3
4.3
4.9
6.1
2.4
39.0

5.3
13.4
17.9
8.9
14.3
4.5
2.7
32.1

7.3
13.7
18.5
8.9
12.9
4.8
2.4
31.5

1.3
1.3
3.9
2.6
2.6

.8
2.5
4.2
’ .8
.8

10.5
77.6

2.5
88.1

9.7
1.3
14.1 ” 2. 2' 1.3
17.0
3.9
7.8 " 6 . T
2.6
3.9
6.7
3.9
3.9
1.9
2.2 10.4
41.7 82.2 76.6

7.3
8.5
16.6
10.9
11.6
18.1
7.3
83.3" 89.7" 19.8
2.8
5.6
8.3

1.2
1.2
1.2
3.0
2.4
1.2

10.9
15.2
15.6
8.7
4.9
2.5
1.3
40.9

Total............................................................... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

100.0

31.1
27.4
24.4
7.4
1.5

84.6

90.1

7.1
8.1
17.1
10.5
12.1
17.3
7.1
20.7

7.2
9.6
12.6
25.4
8.6
2.0
2.0
32.6

15.5
15.5
16.3
4.4
2.6
2.2
2.6
40.8

UNEMPLOYMENT




3.2
88.0

1.2
1.2
1.2
2.9
2.3
1.2

O
F

* Includes also persons idle because of strike and miscellaneous causes.
* Percentages not computed for females because of small numbers involved.

5.3
6.1
17.5
11.4
10.5
7.9
.9
40.4

2.6
5.1
7.7

14.9
15.4
16.8
4.3
2.8
1.7
2.4
41.8

10.6
18.9
22.1
13.8
10.4
3.2
1.4
19.6

8.1 15.5
8.9 16.4
18.3 25.9
10.8 10.3
12.8
6.9
20.9
3.4
8.9
11.3 "21.6"

.8
2.4
4.0
.8
.8

7.0
9.0
12.3
25.8
8.6
2.0
1.8
33.4

CAUSE

13.4
24.5
26.1
17.8
9.9
2.8
” 2. 2" 1.2
5.9
4.3

17.9
26.9
21.7
13.7
9.0
2.4
1.9
6.6

AD
N

Both sexes:
Under 2 weeks..................................................
2 and under 4 weeks_____________________
4 and under 10 weeks........................................
10 and under 20 weeks....... ..............................
20 and under 30 weeks.......................................
30 and under 40 weeks.......................................
40 and under 52 weeks.......................................
52 weeks and over..............................................

8.1 14.8 28.9
9.1 16.5 27.3
18.1 26.1 25.8
7.8
11.0 10.4
12.1
1.6
7.0
21.4
3.5
8.9
'T I T
11.4 ~2L7~ 6.3

DURATION

Males:
Under 2 weeks____________________________
2 and under 4 weeks.................... ....................
4 and under 10 weeks______________________
10 and under 20 weeks.____ ________ ________
20 and under 30 weeks.......................................
30 and under 40 weeks____________________
40 and under 52 weeks.......................................
52 weeks and over..............................................

22

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS
Marked differences were found in employment conditions in the
primary industries of the city.1 A comparative analysis of the five
1
leading industries, each of which is represented each year (with but
a single exceptioji) by more than one thousand persons, is presented
in Table 17.
TABpo 17.— COM PARATIVE SU M M ARY OF EM PLO YM E N T STATUS IN SELECTED
INDUSTRIES, 1921 TO 1925-ALL PERSONS
Per cent employed—
Year and industry
Full time

One-half
but less
than full
time

Less than
one-half
time

Per cent
idle

Total

1921
Domestic and personal service______ _____
Retail and wholesale trade..........................
Railway and express....................................
Building trades1
..........................................
Iron and steel and their products...............

81.9
89.5
85.8
72.5
49.9

7.3
2.7
3.9
11.4
20.0

2.8
li6
.8
2.8
3.4

8.0
6.2
9.5
13.3
26.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

81.5
92.9
83.0
85.8
89.5

9.3
3.4
3.0
7.7
5.2

5.3
.9
.7
.8
.2

3.9
2.8
13.2
5.6
5.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

86.3
94.7
91.8
84.7
83.5

5.7
1.8
4.5
6.3
7.8

2.0
.4
.1
1.6
.4

6.0
3.1
3.6
7.4
8.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

83.5
92.7
89.4
72.8
70.1

7.3
2.6
5.4
13.1
17.9

3.3
1.2
.6
2.4
2.9

5.9
3.6
4.7
11.8
9.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

77.3
90.5
91.4
73.2
74.7

8.8
2.7
3.6
12.7
16.7

3.8
.7
.4
1.8
.6

10.1
6.1
4.6
12.3
8.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1922
Domestic and personal service....................
Retail and wholesale trade..........................
Railway and express....................................
Building trades1
..........................................
Iron and steel and their products...............
1923
Domestic and personal service....................
Retail and wholesale trade________ ______
Railway and express....................................
Building trades *..........................................
Iron and steel and their products...............
1924
Domestic and personal service....................
Retail and wholesale trade..........................
Railway and express....................................
......................................
Building trades
Iron and steel and their products...............
1925
Domestic and personal service....................
Retail and wholesale trade..........................
Railway and express....................................
Building trades1
...........................................
Iron and steel and their products................
i Contractors and wage earners.

In 1921 the most unemployment was found in the iron and steel
industry and the steadiest employment conditions obtained in retail
and wholesale trade. Full-time employment was reported for but
49.9 per cent of all persons enumerated m the iron and steel industry
and for 89.5 per cent in retail and wholesale trade. Employment for
half but less than full time was reported for 20 per cent in the iron
and steel industry and for 2.7 per cent in retail and wholesale trade.
The iron and steel industry showed 26.8 per cent idle and retail and
wholesale trade 6.2 per cent.
u For an explanation of the industrial classification see Appendix, p. 31.




INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS

23

In 1925 the steadiest employment conditions were foiled in rail­
way and express and the most unemployment in the building trades.
Full-time employment was reported for 73.2 per cent in the ouilding
trades and 91.4 per cent in railway and express. Employment for
half but less than full time was reported for 12.7 per cent in the build­
ing trades and 3.6 per cent in railway and express. Building trades
showed 12.3 per cent idle and railway and express 4.6 per cent.
Domestic and personal service.— The proportion of persons in
domestic and personal service who were employed full time varied
from 77.3 per cent in 1925 to 86.3 per cent in 1923. Part-time
employment was shown for 7.7 per cent in 1923 and 14.6 per cent in
1922. In 1922 the proportion of persons idle was 3.9 per cent and
in 1925 the proportion was 10.1 per cent.
Trade and transportation.— This general group, including retail
and wholesale trade, telegraph and telephone, railway and express,
and all other types of trade and transportation (the four presented
separately in Table 18), showed the greatest proportion of full-time
employment in 1923, when 93.4 per cent of all persons were returned
as fully employed, and the least full-time employment in 1921,
when 88.3 per cent were so reported. In no year did the propor­
tion of persons working less than half time exceed 1.1 per cent, which
was reported for 1921, and in no year was the proportion of persons
working part time greater than 4.6 per cent, which was shown in
1924. The proportion of persons idle varied from 3.5 per cent in
in 1923 to 7.4 per cent in 1922. The slightly greater percentage of
persons idle in 1922 over 1921 is attributable to a strike of railway
shopmen which had been in progress about three months at the
time of the 1922 study.
Retail and wholesale trade.— The year of greatest full-time employ­
ment in retail and wholesale trade was 1923, when 94.7 per cent of
all persons were reported as fully employed, and the year of least
full-time employment was 1921, when 89.5 per cent were employed
full time. Employment for part time was shown for 2.2 per cent
in 1923 and for 4.3 per cent in 1921 and 1922. The proportion of
persons idle varied from 2.8 per cent in 1922 to 6.2 per cent in 1921.
Railway and express.—Because of a strike of railroad employees
in 1922, this year shows the smallest proportion of persons employed
full time and the greatest proportion oi persons idle. Considering
only the four years 1921, 1923, 1924, and 1925 the percentage of
persons employed full time ranges from 85.8 per cent in 1921 to 91.8
per cent in 1923 and the percentage of persons idle varies from 3.6
per cent in 1923 to 9.5 per cent in 1921. Part-time employment
mcluded 6 per cent of the persons reporting in 1924 and 4 per cent
in 1925.
Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.— The general group of
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits included 10 individual manu­
facturing and mechanical classifications, each of which is listed in
Table 18 and 7 of which are discussed separately below. In this
group of industries the year showing the greatest proportion of persons
employed full time was 1922, when 88.8 per cent were so returned;
the smallest percentage of persons employed full time occurred in
1921, when 72.2 per cent were fully occupied. Part-time employ­
ment varied from 6.5 per cent in 14)22 to 18.2 per cent in 1924. The




24

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

relative number of persons idle was lowest in 1922, with 4.6 per cent,
and highest in 1921, with 13.9 per cent.
Building trades.— This classification includes both contractors and
wage earners in the building trades, separate showing for each of
which (except in 1921) is given in Table 18. Full-time employment
in this line included the largest proportion of persons in 1922, when
85.8 per cent of all persons were fully occupied, and embraced the
smallest percentage m 1921, with 72.5 per cent. Part-time employ­
ment included 15.5 per cent of all persons in 1924 and 7.9 per cent
in 1923. The highest proportion of persons unemployed occurred in
1921, when 13.3 per cent were idle, and the lowest proportion in
1922, when 5.6 per cent were idle.
Clay, glass, and stone 'products.— The relative number of persons em­
ployed full time varied from 68.2 per cent in 1924 to 90.6 per cent
in 1922. The proportion of persons idle ranged from 12.9 per cent
in 1924 to 4.7 per cent in 1922. The percentage of persons working
part time was 18.8 per cent in 1924 and 4.7 per cent in 1922.
Food and Tcindred products.— The year 1923 shows the greatest
proportion of persons employed full time, when 92.4 per cent were
so reported, and 1921 shows the lowest, with 78.1 per cent. The
proportion of persons idle was a maximum in 1921, when 12.9 per cent
were unemployed, and a minimum in 1922, when 4.6 per cent were
unemployed. Part-time employment embraced 2.7 per cent of all
persons in 1923 and 9.2 per cent in 1924.
Iron and steel and their products.— This industry showed the greatest
degree of full-time employment in 1922, when 89.5 per cent of all
persons were returned as occupied full time, and the least *in 1921,
when but 49.9 per cent were fully employed. Idleness included
26.8 per cent of the persons reported as in this industry in 1921 and
but 5.1 per cent in 1922. Part-time employment was reported for
23.4 per cent of the persons in 1921 and 5.4 per cent in 1922.
Paper, printing, and publishing.— The highest proportion of persons
employed full time occurred in 1923, when 94.3 per cent were fully
employed, and the lowest proportion in 1921, when 86.3 per cent
were so classified. The year showing the lowest proportion of persons
idle was 1924, with 3.3 per cent, and the highest was 1921, with 5.9
per cent. Part-time employment included 7.9 per cent in 1921 and
2.3 per cent in 1923.
Wearing apparel.— The year 1921 shows the largest percentage of
persons employed full time, when 89.2 per cent were so returned,
and 1924 the smallest percentage, when but 60.8 per cent were
fully occupied. The proportion of persons idle varied from 2.1
per cent in 1922 to 6.3 per cent in 1924. Persons employed part
time varied from 32.8 per cent in 1924 to 7.4 per cent in 1921.
Automobiles, parts, and tires.— The relative number of individuals
employed on a full-time basis in this industry was greatest in 1923,
when 89.2 per cent were returned as in this classification, and least
in 1924, when but 63.2 per cent were reported as employed full time.
The highest proportion of persons idle occurred in 1921, with 16
per cent, and the lowest in 1922, with 3.8 per cent. Part-time
employment varied from 4.8 per cent in 1923 to 25.4 per cent in 1924.
All industries.—A detailed presentation of the condition of em­
ployment of those persons engaged in each of the industries at the
time of the five studies is given in Table 18.




25

INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS

T a b l e 18.—DETA ILE D E M PLO Y M E N T STATUS OF A L L PERSONS ENU M ERATED, 1921

TO 1925, BY IN DU STRY GROUP

[Includes only persons reporting as to industry and full details as to employment status]
NUMBER
Persons employed—

Year and industry group

1921
Agriculture___ ____________________________
Professional service________________________
Clerical (not otherwise specified)____________
Trade and transportation:

Other _______________________________
Total

....................................................

Full
time

49
276
84
907
1,081
144
1,162
479
2,866

Twothirds
but
less
than
full
time

Onehalf
but
less
than
twothirds
time

I

1
2
1
66

14
5

Onethird
but
less
than
onehalf
time

1
2
26

Less
than
onethird
time

2

Idle

Total

1
6

12
13
7
89

65
294
93
1,108

13

27
2

28
3
26
18

8
2

6
3
3
2

75
7
128
24

1,208
157
1,354
527

34

75

23

14

234

3,246

24
19
25
68
7
9
19
21
30

71
15
18
189
14
10
39
56
50

12
2
5
32
2
3
6
7
2

12
2
6
11
1
2
3
4

112
51
78
345
11
18
29
85
69

839
403
603
1,288
116
306
860
531
780
5,726

Manufacturing and mechanical:
•
Tluilrling trades, wage earners ________ [ 608
314
Clay, glass, and stone products __ ______
471
Food and kindred products_____________
643
Iron, steel, and their products__________
81
__________________ products
Other metal
264
______
Paper, printing, and publishing
767
Wearing apparel._____________________
359
Automobiles, parts, and tires___________
625
Other....................... ......... ......... ...............
4,132

222

462

71

41

798

Labor (not otherwise specified)_____________

95

8

23

6

4

90

226

Grand total, 1921____________________

8,409

279

630

129

68

1,243

10,758

47
263
53
1,080

1
5
1
44

1
4

1
1

79

37

1
1
33

9
2
5
52

59
276
60
1,325

933
117
1,072
503

11
1
19
3

23
2
20
7

4
1
6
2

3
3

28
2
171
17

1,004
123
1,291
535

11

218 j

2,953

1

17
43
18
26
86
2
12
19
19
36

253
820
382
564
1,688
95
305
892
500
598

Total

................................ .........

1922
Agriculture ____________________________
Professional service________________________
Clerical (not otherwise specified)___________
Domestic and personal service______________
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade______________
Telegraph and telephone_______________
Railway and express___________________
Other . ___________________________
Total.........................................................

2,625

34

52

13

Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors____________
Building trades, wage earners. _ _________
Clay, glass, and stone products_________
Food and kindred products_____________
Iron, steel, and their products__________
Other metal products . _____________
Paper, printing, and publishing_________
Wearing apparel_______________________
Automobiles, parts, and tires___________
Other _______________________________

210
711
346
501
1,511
90
282
777
443
545

7
20
6
11
47
2
2
43
24
10

17
39
10
22
40

2
6
2
2
2

8
49
11
6

1
3
3

5

1
2
2
1
1

Total_______________________________

5,416

172

202

21

8

278

6,097

Labor (not otherwise specified)_____________
Self employed____________________________ -

40
784

3
11

17
33

5
5

2
4

15
36

82
873

Grand total, 1922___ __ ______________

10,308

271 1

388 1

83

60

615

11, 725




26

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COL/trMBTTS, OHIO

T a b l e 1 8 . —D E T A ILE D E M PLO Y M E N T STATUS OF A L L PERSONS E N U M E R A T E D , 1921

TO 1925, B Y IN DU STRY GROUP—Continued
NUMBER—Continued

Persons employed—

Year and industry group
Full
time

Twothirds
but
less
than
full
time

Onehalf
but
less
than
twothirds
time

4

2
3
3
44

Onethird
but
less
than
onehalf
time

Less
than
onethird
time

1923
Agriculture.........................................................
Professional service............................................
Clerical (not otherwise specified)— .................
Domestic and personal service......... ...............
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade............. ...........
Telegraph and telephone............................
Railway and express................................. .
Other..........................................................

48
304
52
1,024

24

17

7

1,147
139
1,358
420

5
1
47
6

17

3

19
2

2

Idle

Total

11
5
2
71

61
316
57
1,187

2

37
5
53
19

1,211
145
1,479
447

2

114

3,282

Total....................................................... .

3,064

59

38

5

Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors.... ......... ........
Building trades, wage earners____ ______
Clay, glass, and stone products.................
Food and kindred products_______ _____
Iron, steel, and their products...................
Othor metal products.................................
Paper, printing, and publishing................
Wearing apparel.........................................
Automobiles, parts, and tires....................
Other...... .............................................

285
646
406
521
1,493
79
279
585
381
596

6
19
15
6
88
2
3
57
13
9

11
33
10
7
52
1
3
92
7
10

1
16
1
6
1
1
19
1
1

Total........................................................

5,271

218

226

47

6

405

6,173

Labor (not otherwise specified) _ . . ___ Self employed................. ............................ .

113
817

5
13

17
16

4
2

3

15
75

154
926

Grand total, 1923..................................... 10, 693

323

349

75

18

698

4
8
1
52

r-

1
1
1
2
1

1924
1
30
Agriculture______________________ _________
270
Professional service________________________
1
23
Clerical (not otherwise specified). . ____ _ _
37
Domestic and personal service........... ............ 1,019
Trade and transportation:
974
9
Retail and wholesale trade........................
______________and telephone
Telegraph
117
Railway and express ________________
1,165
52
3
461
Other_________________________________

33

7

18

9

3

18
13

5

2,717

64

49

224
547
232
461
889
53
276
397
296
420

16
44
18
15
123
6
8
61
91
32

29
49
27
24
104
4
10
95
24
10

Total........................................................! 3, 795

414

63
639

6
13
536 |

Total_______________________________
Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors____________
Building trades, wage earners___________
Clay, glass, and stone products.................
Food and kindred products ___________
Iron, steel, and their products_____ _____
Other metal products___________ ______ _
Paper, printing, and publishing............
Wearing apparel..........................................i
Automobiles, parts, and tires - _____ _.l
Other_________________________________|

Labor (not otherwise specified)........................!
Self employed....................................................i

Grand total, 1924.....................................| 8,556
i'




26
55
30
28
146
3
10
45
25
37

•

329
770
462
564
1,787
86
296
799
427
653

12,156

5
13
5
72

40
294
29
1,220

2

38
6
61
9

1,051
323
1,303
486

14

5

114

2,963

6
16
16
7
33

1
2
3
3
4

1
40
4
1

1
19

35
90
44
27
116
8
10
41
53
37

311
748
340
537
1,269
71
306
653
468
500

376

124

33

461

5,203

15
24

5
5

4
1

40
29

133
711

529

181

52

739

10,593

o

27

INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS

T able 18.-— E TA ILE D E M PLO Y M E N T STATUS OF A LL PERSONS E N U M ERATED, 1921
D
TO 1925, BY IN DU STRY GROUP—Continued
NUMBER—Continued
Persons employed—

Year and Industry croup

Full
time

1925
Agriculture______________________________
Professional service________________________
Clerical (not otherwise specified)___________
Domestic and personal service______________
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade______________
Telegraph and telephone ______________
Railway and express _________________
Other
_____________________________

Twothirds
but
less
than
full
time

25
276
10
1,000
957
142
1,419
479

7
1

Onehalf
but
less
than
twothirds
time

Onethird
but
less
than
onehalf
time

Less
than
onethird
time

1

Idle

Total

9
11
1
131

42
291
12
1,294

1

65
7
72
22

1,058
154
1,552
514

57

3
1
57

33

16

13
1
31
1

16
2
25
10

4
2
4
2

3

Total_______________________________

2,997

46

53

12

4

166

3,278

Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors____________
Building trades, wage earners___________
Clay, glass, and stone products_________
Food and kindred products____________
Iron, steel, and their products__________
Other metal products_________________
Paper, printing, and publishing_________
Wearing apparel_______________________
Automobiles, parts, and tires. .
.. .
Other___ ______ ___________ __________

272
726
3,54
530
1,011
39
335
577
509
551

20
54
25
28
167
1
5
48
24
23

42
58
11
16
59
2
5
101
18
5

4
9
1
3
7

3
8
1

57
no
36
55
108

1
27
5
2

3

13
43
34
40

398
965
428
632
1,354
43
361
806
590
624

T o ta l.......................................................

4,904

395

317

59

30

496

6,201

Labor (not otherwise specified)_____________
Self employed____________________________

27
746

6
9

21
24

6
13

5
2

23
75

88
869

Grand total, 1925____________________

9,985

521

476

123

58

912

12,075

0.3

1.5
.7
1.1
6.0

1.5
.7

3.1

2.3

1.1
.5

18.5
4.4
7.5
8.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2
1
2
10

PER CENT
1921
Agriculture....................................
Professional service.......................
Clerical (not otherwise specified).
Domestic and personal service---Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade___
Telegraph and telephone____
Railway and express...............
Other.................. ....................

75.4
93.9
90.3
81.9

.4

1.1

2.0
.4

.6
.4

.5
1.9
.2
.4

6.2
4.5
9.5
4.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

88.3

TotalManufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors-----Building trades, wage earners....
Clay, glass, and stone products..
Food and kindred products.......
Iron, steel, and their products_
_
Other metal products..................
Paper, printing, and publishing.
Wearing apparel...........................
Automobiles, parts, and tires----Other............................................

1.3

2.3
1.9
1.9
3.4

1.0

2.3

.7

.4

7.2

100.0

72.5
77.9
78.1
49.9
69.8
86.3
89.2
67.6
80.1

2.9
4.7
4.1
5.3
6.0
2.9
2.2
4.0
3.8

8.5
3.7
3.0
14.7
12.1
3.3
4.5
10.5
6.4

1.4
.5
.8
2.5
1.7
1.0
.7
1.3
.3

1.4
.5
1.0
.9
.9
.7

13.3
12.7
12.9
26.8
9.5
5.9
3.4
16.0
8.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

89.5
91.7
85.8
90.9

}

.6
.5

Total.................................

72.2

3.9

8.1

1.2

.7

13.9

100.0

Labor (not otherwise specified).

42.0

3.5

10.2

2.7

1.8

39.8

100.0

Grand total, 1921..............

78.2

2.6

5.9

1.2

.6

11.6

100.0




28

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

T a b l e 1 8 — D E T A ILE D E M PL O Y M E N T STATUS OF A L L PERSONS E N U M E R A T E D , 1921

TO 1925, BY IN D U ST R Y GROUP—Continued
PER CENT—Continued
Persons employed—

Year and industry group

1922
Agriculture____________________________
Professional service...........................................
Clerical (not otherwise specified)_____
Domestic and personal service....... .................
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade....................
Telegraph and telephone____ ______ ____
Railway and express.............. ...................
Other__________ ___ ______ ____________

Twothirds
but
less
than
full
time

Onehalf
but
less
than
twothirds
time

Onethird
but
less
than
onehalf
time

79.7
95.3
88.3
81.5

1.7
1.8
1.7
3.3

1.7
1.4

1.7
.4

6.0

2.8

92.9
95.1
83.0
94.0

1.1
.8
1.5
.6

2.3
1.6
1.5
1.3

.4
.8
.5
.4

.5

Full
time

Less
than
onethird
time

Idle

Total

15.3
.7
8.3
3.9

100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0

.2
.6

2.8
1.6
13.2
3.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.4

7.4

100.0

6.7
5.2
4.7
4.6
5.1
2.1
3.9
2.1
3.8
6.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.4
1.7
2.5

88.9

1.2

1.8

.4

Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors......... .............
Building trades, wage earners___________
Clay, glass, and stone products....... .........
Food and kindred products.......... ...... ...
Iron, steel, and their products.............. _..
Other metal products______________
Paper, printing, and publishing.............
Wearing apparel..... ........... .......... ...... ...
Automobiles, parts, and tires....................
Other........................ ............................

83.0
88.7
90. G
88.8.
89.5
94.7
92.5
87.1
88.6
91.1

2.8
2.4
1.6
2.0
2.8
2.1

6.7
4.8
2.6
3.9
2.4

.8
.7
.5
.4
.1

4. 8
*
4.8
1.7

2.6
5.5
2.2
1.0

.3
.3
.6

Total________________ ______________

83.8

2.8

3.3

.3

.1

4.6

100.0

Labor (not otherwise specified)....................... 1 48.8
Self em ployed................................................ > 89.8

3.7
1.3

20.7
3.8

6.1
.6

2.4
.5

18.3
4.1

100.0
100.0

Grand total, 1922..................................... !

87.9

2.3

3.3

.7

.5

5.2

100.0

78.7
96. 2
91. 2
86.3

1.3
2.0

3.3
.9
5.3
3.7

1. 4

0.6

18.0
1.6
3.5
6.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

94.7
95.9
91.8
94.0

.4
.7
3.2
1.3

1.4

.2

.2

1.3
.4

.1

3.1
3.4
3.6
4.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total....... ................................................

93.4

1.8

1.2

.2

3.5

100.0

Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors_____ _______
Building trades, wage earners...................
Clay, glass, and stone produets....... .........
Food and kindred products .... ..............
Iron, steel, and their products.................
Other metal products.................... ............
Paper, printing, and publishing. ..............
Wearing apparel............... ..........................
Automobiles, parts, and tires....................
Other___ _________________ ___________

86.6
83.9
87.9
92.4
83.5
91.9
94. 3
73. 2
89. 2
91.3

1.8
2.5
3.2
1.1
4.9
2.3
1.0
7.1
3.0
1.4

3.3
4.3
2.2
1.2
2.9
1. 2
1.0
11.5
1. 6
1.5

.3
2.1

7.9
7.1
6.5
5.0
8.2
3. 5
3.4
5. 6
5.9
5.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.1
•x

6.6

100.0

.3

9.7
8.1

100.0
100.0

-i

5.7

100.0

Total............... ...... ............................

1923
Agriculture______________________________ _
Professional service.......... ................................
Clerical (not otherwise specified). ________ _
Domestic and personal service.........................
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade... ...................
Telegraph and telephone. .......... ..............
Railway and express.................................
Other....................... ................................ I

Total.......... ............................................

85.4

3.5

3.7

Labor (not otherwise specified)........................
Self employed...................................................

73.4
88.2

3.2
1.4

11.0
1.7

Grand total, 1923.....................................

88.0

2.7 |




2.9

.2
.3
1. 2
.3 I
2.4
.2 1
.2 |
.8 1
!
2.6 j
.2 !
i
.6 !

.1
.4
.1
1.1
.1
.2

.1
.1
.2
.2
.1

*1

29

INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS

T a b le 18 .— DETAILED EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF ALL PERSONS ENUMERATED* 1921

TO 1925, BY INDUSTRY GROUP—Continued
PER CENT—Continued
Persons employed—

Year and industry group

Full
time

Twothirds
but
less
than
full
time

Onehalf
but
less
than
twothirds
time

Onethird
but
less
than
onehalf
time

Less
than
onethird
time

1924
Agriculture._________ ___ _____ __________
Prnfpgsinrml
_____ ____ ____ . w n
Clerical (not otherwise specified)- .
DnxnestlO
pfirs<vnfll spfvinfi _____ ,
.
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade______________
Telegraph and telephone. ______ _____
Railway and express
, T„r ___
O t h e r ............._____________________

75.0
91.8
79.3
83.5

2.5
.3
3.6"

10.0
2.7
3.4
4.3

2.7

.6

92.7
95.1
89.4
94.9

.9

1.7

.9

.3

4.0
.6

1.4
2.7

.4

Idle

Total

12.5
4.4
17.2
5.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.2

3.6
4.9
4.7
1.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0.7

T o ta l......__________________________

91.7

2.2

1.7

.5

.2

3.8

100.0

Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors____________
Building trades, wage earners— ________
Clay, glass, and stone products_________
Food and kindred products_____________
Iron, steel, and their products__________
Other metal products__________________
Paper, printing, and publishing................
Wearing apparel_______________________
Automobiles, parts, and tires___________
Other__. . . . . . __ ___ ____ ______________

72.0
73.1
68.2
85.8
70.1
74.6
90.2
60.8
63.2
84.0

5.1
5.9
5.3
2.8
9.7
8.5
2.6
9.3
19.4
6.4

9.3
6.6
7.9
4.5
8.2
5.6
3.3
r 14.5
6.1
2.0

1.9
2.1
4.7
1.3
2.6

.3
.3
.9
.6
.3

.3
6.1
.9
.2

.3
2.9

11.3
12.0
12.9
5.0
9.1
11.3
3.3
6.3
11.3
7.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total_______________________________

72.9

8.0

7.2

2.4

.6

8.9

100.0

Labor (not otherwise specified) *____________
Self employed________;____________________

47.4
89.9

4.5
1.8

11.3
3.4

3.8
.7

3.0
.1

30.1
4.1

100.0
100.0

Grand total, 1924............................ ........

80.8

6.1

5.0

1.7

.6

7.0

100.0

59.5
94.8
83.3
77.3

16.7
.3

2.4

21.4
3.8
8.3
10.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

90.5
92.2
91.4
93.2

1925
Agriculture................. .......................................
Professional service___ __________________ __
Clerical (not otherwise specified)____________
Domestic and personal service______________
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade______________
Telegraph and telephone_______________
Railway and express............................... .

4.4~

1.0
8.3
4.4

2.6

1.2

1.2
.6
2.0
.2

1.5
L8
1.6
L9

.4
1.3
.3
.4

.3
.1

6.1
4.5
4.6
4.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

91.4

1.4

1.6

.4

.1

5.1

100.0

68.3
75.2
82.7
83.9
74.7
90.7
92.8
71.6
86.3
88.3

5.0
5.6
6.8
4.4
12.3
2.3
1.4
6.0
4.1
3.7

10.6
6.0
2.6
2.5
4.4
4.7
1.4
12.5
3.1
.8

L0
.9
.2
.6
.6

.8
.8
.2

14.3
1L4
8.4
8.7
8.0

.3
3.3
.8
.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total.........................................................

79.1

6.4

6.1

1.0

.6

8.0

100.0

Labor (not otherwise specified)_____ . . . . . . . . .
Self employed____ ______ __________________

30.7
85.8

6.8
1.0

23.9
2.8

6.8
1.5

5.7
.2

26.1
8.6

10a 0

Grand total, 1925_____ _______________

82.7

4.3

3.9

1.0

.6

7.6

100.0

Othfir

, . ___________

.

Total................ - ........................ .......
Manufacturing and mechanical:
Building trades, contractors____________
Building trades, wage earners....................
Clay, glass, and stone products_________
Food and kindred products_____________
Iron, steel, and their products__________
Other metal products____. _____________
Paper, printing, and publishing_________
Wearing apparel____________ ______ ____
Automobiles, parts, and tires________ __ ,
Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . . . . . . . ___ . . .




...

2.3
.6
1.2
.5

3.6*
5.3
5.8
6.4

100.0

30

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

CONCLUSION
In drawing conclusions from the data herein presented it must be
borne in mind that the figures for each year represent a cross section
of the employment situation at the time of the study, not a record
of conditions for the year.
Whether the number of persons working full time, part time, or
idle be considered, or whether the proportion of employment and
idleness in the population enumerated be taken as a criterion, the
greatest amount of employment was present in 1923, which was fol­
lowed in order by 1922, 1925, 1924, and 1921, and the largest amount
of unemployment existed in 1921, with 1924, 1925, 1922, and 1923
each showing, respectively, somewhat less. K only that idleness
reported as due to slack work be considered the order of importance
of the years becomes 1921, 1924, 1925, 1923, and 1922.
The variation in full-time employment, part-time employment,
and idleness over the five years is less for all females than for all
males enumerated, attributable, at least in part, to the fact that the
females were more largely engaged in salaried occupations than the
males. In the case of heads of households the variation in full-time
employment is greater for the males than for the females, but the
variation in part-time employment and in idleness is greater for the
females.
Considering the more important of the industry groups, no one
shows consistently the highest degree of employment or the largest
proportion of unemployment in each of the five periods (Table 18),
though retail and wholesale trade evinces the most full-time employ­
ment for the first four of the years.1 In 1921 the highest percentage
2
of persons employed full time was found in retail and wholesale traae
ana in wearing apparel, each of which slightly exceeded 89 per cent,
and the greatest percentage of persons idle was reported for iron and
steel, which showed 26.8 per cent of the persons m that industry as
unemployed. The greatest proportion of persons employed full time
in 1922 occurred in retail and wholesale trade, where just under 93
per cent were reported as fully employed, and the greatest relative
number of persons idle was for railway and express, with 13.2 per cent
unemployed. The study of 1923 showed retail and wholesale trade
with 94.7 per cent employed full time and iron and steel with slightly
over 8 per cent idle. In 1924 retail and wholesale trade again pre­
sents the largest percentage of persons employed full time, 92.7 per
cent, and clay, glass, and stone shows 12.9 per cent idle. Paper,
printing, and publishing, which had ranked a close second to retail and
wholesale trade in 1922 and 1923, giving full-time employment for
92.8 per cent of the persons in that industry, leads in the proportion
of persons fully employed in 1925, and building trades (wage earners
and contractors) with 12.3 per cent showed the greatest relative
number of persons idle.
Trade and transportation as a group showed a greater degree of
stability than did the group manufacturing and mechanical pursuits,
the proportion of persons employed full time in trade and transpor­
tation varying from 88.3 per cent in 1921 to 93.4 per cent in 1923 and
1 The sroup “ labor (not otherwise specified),” though too small a class upon which to generalize, shows
2
the greatest relative number of persons unemployed in each of the five years, save that in 1923 it is exceeded
by agriculture.




CONCLUSION

31

those in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits varying from 72.2
per cent in 1921 to 88.8 per cent in 1922. Idleness included in trade
and transportation 3.5 per cent in 1923 and 7.4 per cent in 1922,
while in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 4.6 per cent were
unemployed in 1922 and 13.9 per cent in 1921. Of the leading indi­
vidual industries the most stable in regard to the relative number of
persons employed full time was retail and wholesale trade, which
showed 89.5 per cent in 1921 and 94.7 per cent in 1923, and the most
highly fluctuating was iron and steel, which provided full-time work
for 49.9 per cent in 1921 and for 89.5 per cent in 1922. Concerning
the proportion of persons idle the least variation was found in paper,
printing, and publishing, with 3.3 per cent in 1924 and 5.9 per cent
in 1921, and the greatest in iron and steel, with 5.1 per cent in 1922
and 26.8 per cent in 1921.
Columbus is a city of diversified industries largely managed and
owned locally. The diversity of industry tends to minimize extreme
fluctuations in employment conditions affecting the community as a
whole. The fact of local control is, of course, conducive to a very
definite acceptance of responsibility on the part of employers and
has led to adoption of the policy of pushing plant improvements in
times of depression and to other methods of stabilizing employment
on the part of several of the larger firms. The result of this practice
is seen in the unusual amount of part-time work reported in 1924, a
number of firms having retained a large proportion of their force on
part-time work in preference to a smaller proportion on full time.
Of the three important causes of idleness shown in the section
on cause of unemployment, the most highly fluctuating is slack work,
which included approximately one out of 10 of all persons enumerated
in 1921 and one out of 51 m 1922. Sickness evinces the smallest
degree of variation, one out of 41 of the population enumerated in
1925 being reported as umemployed for that cause and one out of
55 in 1921. Old age or retirement shows about one out of 59 persons
enumerated idle for that reason in 1925 and one out of 92 in 1921.
Figures such as those presented in this study are of especial value
in connection with social planning for a community. With the aid
of data concerning unemployment, social agencies, especially when
their activities are coordinated as in Columbus, can plan their work
and estimate their needs in advance. It is clear that not all unem­
ployment shown by a study of this type indicates actual need, yet
lby a comparison with past years, especially when the causes and
duration of unemployment are known, it is possible to make a reason­
able estimate concerning the requirements of a coming winter in
terms of previous ones.
The greatest value of a series of studies of this kind is to learn as
definitely as possible the usual employment conditions and the varia­
tions in employment as a basis of industrial and social planning,
looking toward stabilization of employment and improvement of
economic and social conditions.
The average condition of employment for all males enumerated as
shown for the five periods studied was:
82.3 per cent employed full time; 3.4 per cent employed two-thirds but less
than full time; 3.8 per cent employed half but less than two-thirds time; 0.8 per
cent employed one-third but less than half time; 0.3 per cent employed less than
one-third time; 9.4 per cent idle.




32

XnSTBMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

On this basis the average employment status per thousand males
enumerated was 823 employed full time, 83 employed part time, and
94 idle. The greatest variations from these figures occurred in the
case of full-time employment, in 1921, when 75.1 per cent were em­
ployed full time, and in 1923, when 87.4 per cent were fully employed;
and in the case of idleness, in 1921, when 14.6 per cent were unem­
ployed, and in 1923 when 6.8 per cent were unemployed. Part-time
employment for males was, in general, least in 1922 and greatest in
1924.
The average condition of employment for all females enumerated
was:
83.8 per cent employed full time; 3.1 per cent employed two-thirds but less
than full time; 5.3 per cent employed half but less than two-thirds time; 1.9
per cent employed one-third but less than half time; 0.9 per cent employed less
than one-third time; 5 per cent idle.

On this basis the average employment status per thousand females
enumerated was 838 employed full time, 112 employed part time,
and 50 idle. The greatest variations from these figures occurred,
in the case of full-time employment in 1924, when 81.3 per cent
were employed full time and in 1923 when 87.6 per cent were fully
employed, and in the case of idleness, in 1921 when 7.9 per cent
were unemployed and in 1922 when 3 per cent were unemployed.
In general, part-time employment for females was least in 1923 and
greatest in 1924.




APPENDIX
THE SCHEDULE AND THE INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION
Form 2195

Territory.
Visitor_____

House No. and Street.

Present or last regular employment
Relation to
head of Sex Race
household
1

2

Employer

3

Employed
now

Full Part Weeks
time
Industry Occupation time (frac­ idle
5
6
9
<f> tion)
8

Idle now

Reason for
idleness
10

a. Head
b.................

d.................

f._________
List all persons 18 years of age or over ex&pt women n o t usually employed. If native-born, enter in
column 3 “ N .W .” for native white and “ N. O.” for colored; if foreign-born enter “ Ger.” for German,
“ Heb.” for Hebrew, “ Ital.” .for Italian, “ Mag.” for Magyar (or Hungarian), “ Pol.” for Polish, “ Slov.1
for Slovak, and “ Other” for all other foreign-born. If employed part time enter in column 8 approximate
fraction of time working. If idle enter in column 9 number of weeks since regularly employed.
Notes,.______________________ _________ _________________________ _____________ _________________

Unemployment Survey, Columbus, Ohio, 1925

Based upon the information in the schedules concerning each indi­
vidual^ employer, industry, and occupation, each person was classi­
fied according to the industry in which engaged. JBelow is given in
detail the various groups included in each of the industry classes:
Agriculture:
Farmers.
Florists (growers).
Gardeners.
Poultry farms.
Professional service:
Accountants.
Actors.
Architects.
Clergymen.
Doctors.
Employees of employees’ associations.
Employees of employers' associations.
Employees of social agencies.
Lawyers.
Nurses.
Photographers.
Teachers.




34

UNEMPLOYMENT IN COLUMBUS, OHIO

Clerical (not otherwise specified):
Only those persons reported as being engaged in clerical work and for whom
no information concerning industry or employer was available.
Domestic and personal service:
Persons employed as—
Barbers.
Chauffeurs.
Hairdressers.
Laundresses.
Maids.
Manicurists.
Valets.
Employees of—
Amusement houses and parks (other than actors).
City, county, State, or Federal Government (not including teachers).
Hotels.
Laundries.
Restaurants.
Trade and transportation:
Retail and wholesale trade—
All retail and wholesale trade; food, drugs, clothing, etc.
Telegraph and telephone—
Employees of telegraph and telephone companies.
Railway and express—
Employees of—
Express companies (other than local transfer companies).
Steam railways.
Traction companies (local and interurban).
Other—
Employees of—
Advertising agencies.
Banks.
Brokers.
Gas and oil companies.
Insurance companies.
Real estate companies (sales only).
Transfer companies.
Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits:
Building trades—contractors (all general contractors and subcontractors in
building trades and road construction).
Building trades—wage earners (all wage earners in building trades and road
construction).
Clay, glass, and stone products—
Employees of companies manufacturing—
Bricks.
Cement blocks.
Glass
Monuments (stone).
Pottery.
Tile.
Employees of—
Quarries.
Sand and gravel producing companies.
Food and kindred products—
Employees of companies manufacturing-—
Baked goods.
Candy.
Ice.
Ice cream.
Meat products.
Milk (creameries).
Pickles.
Soft drinks.




SCHEDULE AND INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION

35

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits—Continued,
Iron and steel and their products—
Employees of companies manufacturing—
Anvils.
Chains.
Machine tools.
Mining machinery.
Saws.
Stoves.
Wire.
Employees of—
Blast furnaces.
Rolling mills.
Other metal products—
Employees of companies manufacturing articles ofl—
Aluminum.
Brass.
Bronze.
Employees of nickel and silver plating companies.
Paper, printing, and publishing—
Employees of—
Book binderies.
Newspapers.
Paper (cardboard) box manufacturing companies.
Paper manufacturing companies and companies manufacturing
specialties of paper.
Printing, engraving, and lithographic companies.
Wearing apparel—
Employees of companies manufacturing—
Clothing.
Gloves.
Hats.
Regalia.
Shoes (also shoe repairing).
Automobiles, parts, and tires—
Employees of companies manufacturing—
Automobiles.
Automobile bearings.
Automobile curtains.
Automobile heaters.
Automobile lamps.
Automobile tires.
Automobile tops.
Employees of companies engaged in automobile repairing, tire repairing,
and of manufacturers’ agents.
Other—
All manufacturing and mechanical pursuits other than listed above.
Including employees of companies manufacturing—
Cigars.
Dental supplies.
Furniture.
Optical goods.
Starch (not for food), etc.
Labor (not otherwise specified): Only those persons reported as being laborers
and for whom no information concerning industry or employer was available.
Self employed: Includes all self-employed persons other than building contractors
and those classified above as professional service.







SERIES OF BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The publication of the annual and special reports and of the bimonthly bulletin was dis­
continued in July, 1912, and since that time a bulletin has been published at irregular inter­
vals. Each number contains matter devoted to one of a series of general subjects. These
bulletins are numbered consecutively, beginning with No. 101, and up to No. 236 they also.
carry consecutive numbers under each series. Beginning with No. 237 the serial numbering
has been discontinued. A list of the series is given below. Under each is grouped all the
bulletins which contain material relating to the subject matter of that series. A list ot
the reports and bulletins of the Bureau issued prior to July 1,1912, will be furnished on ap­
plication. The bulletins marked thus * are out of prinU
Wholesale Prices.
*Bul. 114. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 149. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1913.
•Bui. 173. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries.
•Bui. 181. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1914.
•Bui. 200. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1915.
•Bui. 226. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1916.
Bui. 269. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1919.
Bui. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries.
of Bulletin No. 173.]
Bui. 296. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1920.
Bui. 320. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1921.
Bui. 335. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1922.
Bui. 367. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1923.
Bui. 390. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1924.

[Revision

Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
♦Bui. 105. Retail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to 1911: Part n —General tables.
•Bui. 106. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912: Part I.
Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912: Part H—General tables.
Bui. 108. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1912.
Bui. 110. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1912.
Bui. 113. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1912.
Bui. 115. Retail prices, 1890 to February, 1913.
*Bul. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer.
Bui. 125. Retail prices, 1890 to April, 1913.
*Bul. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer.
Bui. 132. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1913.
Bui. 136. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1913.
•Bui. 138. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1913.
•Bui. 140. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1913.
Bui. 156. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1914.
Bui. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
•Bui. 184. Retail priees, 1907 to June, 1915.
Bui. 197. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1915.
Bui. 228. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1916.
Bui. 270. Retail prices, 1913 to December, 1919.
Bui. 309. Retail prices, 1913 to December, 1920.
Bui. 315. Retail prices, 1913 to December, 1921.
Bui. 334. Retail prices, 1913 to December, 1922.
Bui. 357. Cost of living in the United States.
Bui. 366. Retail prices, 1913 to December, 1923.
JBul. 369. The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments.
Bui. 396. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1924.
Wages and Honrs of Labor.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia.
•Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
•Bui. 128. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1890 to 1912.




(I)

Wages and Hours of Labor—Continued.
*Bul. 129. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1890 to 1912.
*Bul. 131. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, 1907 to 1912.
*Bul. 134. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and knit goods industries, 1890
to 1912.
*Bul. 135. Wages and hours of labor in the cigar and clothing industries, 1911 and 1912.
Bui. 137. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1890 to 1912.
Bui. 143. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1913.
*Bul. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and
waist industry of New York City.
*Bul. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
*Bul. 150. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1913.
*Bul. 151. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry in the United States, 1907 to 1912.
Bui. 153. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1907 to 1913.
*Bul. 154. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and underwear industries, 1907
to 1913.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments
. and garment factories.
Bui. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
Bui. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.
Bui. 168. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1913.
*Bul. 171. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1,1914.
Bui. 177. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907 to 1914.
Bui. 178. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1914.
*Bul. 187. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1914.
*Bul. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
•Bui. 194. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1,1915.
Bui. 204. Street railway employment in the United States.
Bui. 214. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1916.
Bui. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munitions factories.
Bui. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
Bui. 232. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1916
Bui. 238. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1916.
Bui. 239. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing and finishing, 1916.
Bui. 245. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1917.
Bui. 252. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1917
Bui. 259. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1918.
Bui. 260. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1918.
Bui. 261. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1918.
Bui. 262. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing and finishing, 1918.
Bui. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919. Preliminary report.
*Bul. 274. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1919.
Bui. 278. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1920.
Bui. 279. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining: Anthracite, 1919 and 1920;
bituminous, 1920.
Bui. 286. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1920.
Bui. 288. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing, 1920.
Bui. 289. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1920.
Bui. 294. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in 1921.
Bui. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.
Bui. 302. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15,1921.
Bui. 305. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1920.
Bui. 316. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining: Anthracite, January, 1922;
bituminous, winter of 1921-22.
Bui. 317. Wages and hours of labor in lumber manufacturing, 1921.
Bui. 324. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1922.
Bui. 325. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1922.
Bui. 327. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1922.
Bui. 328. Wages and hours of labor in hosiery and underwear industry, 1922.
Bui. 329. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1922.
Bui. 345. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing, 1922.
Bui. 348. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile industry, 1922.
Bui. 353. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1922.
Bui. 354. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1923.
Bui. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry.
Bui. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
Bui. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes.




(H)

Wages and Honrs o f Labor—Continued.
Bui. 362. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1923.
Bui. 363. Wages and hours of labor in lumber manufacturing, 1923.
Bui. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry.
Bui. 371. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing, 1924.
Bui. 373. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat packing industry, 1923.
Bui. 374. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1924.
Bui. 376. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907 to 1924.
Bui. 377. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1924.
Bui. 381. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1924.
Bui. 387. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1924.
Bui. 388. XJniOn scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1924.
Bui. 394. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
Bui. 404. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1925.
Bui. 407. Wages and hours, and labor cost of production in the paper box-board industry, 1925. [In
press.]
Employment and Unemployment.
*Bul. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia.
Bui. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y.
♦Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass.
*Bul. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
Bui. 192. Proceedings of the American Association of Public Employment Offices.
•Bui. 195. Unemployment in the United States.
Bui. 196. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, held at Minneapolis, Minn.,
January, 1916.
*Bul. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass.,
held May 10,1916.
Bui. 206. The British system of labor exchanges.
Bui. 220. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Public Employ­
ment Offices, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21, 1916.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
*Bul. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,
1917.
Bui. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association.
*Bul. 241. Public employment offices in the United States.
Bui. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., May 9-11, 1918.
Bui. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes.
Bui. 311. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Public Em­
ployment Services, held at Buffalo, N. Y., September 7-9, 1921.
Bui. 337. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Public
Employment Services, held at Washington, D. C., September 11-13, 1922.
Bui. 355. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the International Association of Public
Employment Services, held at Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
Bui. 400. Proceedings of the Twelfth annual meeting of the International Association of Public
Employment .Services, held at Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
Women in Industry.
Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia.
*Bul. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
- *Bul. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin.
*Bul. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee.
Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments
and garment factories.
*Bul. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
*Bul. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in the United States.
*Bul. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon.
♦Bui. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
*Bul. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass.
Bui. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts.
Bui. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts.
Bui. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Bui. 253. Women in the lead industries.




<m)

Workmen's Insurance and Compensation (Including burs relating thereto).
*Bul. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany.
•Bui. 102. British national insurance act, 1911.
Bui 103. Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland.
Bui. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany.
•Bui. 126. Workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries.
•Bui. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States.
•Bui. 185. Compensation legislation of 1914 and 1915.
•Bui. 203. Workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries, 1916.
Bui. 210. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28,1916.
Bui. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association
of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D. C., December 5-9,1916.
Bui. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children.
•Bui. 240. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States up to December 31,1917.
Bui. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and
1918.
Bui. 248. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Boston, Mass., August 21-25,1917.
Bui. 264. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Madison, Wis., September 24-27, 1918.
Bui. 272. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada, 1919.
•Bui. 273. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Internationa Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919
Bui. 275. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States and Canada up to
January, 1920.
Bui. 281. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24, 1920.
Bnl. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration.
Bui. 304. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Chicago, 111., September 19-23,1921.
Bui. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1920.
Bui. 332. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada, 1920 to 1922.
Bui. 333. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Baltimore, M d., October 9-13,1922.
Bui. 359. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industria
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at St. Paul, Minn., September 24-26, 1923.
Bui. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925.
Bui. 385. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the International Association of Indus
trial Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
Bui. 395. Index to proceedings of International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Com­
missions, 1914-1924.
Bui. 406. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial
Accident Boards and Commissions, held at Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20, 1925.
[In press.]
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
Bui. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary ware factories.
Bui. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade.
*Bul. 127. Dangers to workers from dust and fumes, and methods of protection.
•Bui. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead.
•Bui. 157. Industrial accident statistics.
•Bui. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries.
•Bui. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry.
Bnl. 188. Beport of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting
of buildings.
•Bui. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the International
Association o f Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [Limited editionJ
Bui. 205. Anthrax as an occupational disease.
•Bui. 207. Causes of death by occupation.
•Bui. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades.
•Bui. 216. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building.
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
•Bui. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts).
•Bui. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
Bui. 236. Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters.
Bui. 251. Preventable death in the cotton manufacturing industry.
Bui. 253. Women in the lead industries.
Bui. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [Revision of Bulletin No. 216.)




(IV)

industrial Accidents and Hygienic—Continued.
Bui. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [Revised.]
Bui. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics.
Bui. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates.
Bui. 291. Carbon monoxide poisoning.
Bui. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granit*stone industry.
Bui. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steeUndustry, 1910 to 1919.
Bui. 306. Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs. A guide to impairment to be looked for In has*
ardous occupations.
Bui. 339. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States.
Bui. 392. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades.
Bui. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus.
Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts.)
*Bul. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
♦Bui. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements.
•Bui. 139. Michigan copper district strike.
Bui. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
Bui. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry.
*Bul. 198. Collective agreements in the men's clothing industry.
Bui. 233. .Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada.
Bui. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes.
Bui, 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City.
Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to Jabor).
•Bui. 111. Labor legislation of 1912.
♦Bui. 112. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1912.
*Bul. 148. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
•Bui. 152. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1913.
•Bui. 166. Labor legislation of 1914.
•Bui. 169. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1914.
♦Bui. 186. Labor legislation of 1915.
♦Bui. 189. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1915.
Bui. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States.
♦Bui. 213. Labor legislation of 1916.
. Bui. 224. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1916.
Bui. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the United States.
•Bui. 244. Labor legislation of 1917.
Bui. 246. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1917.
*Bul. 257. Labor legislation of 1918.
Bui. 258. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1918.
Bui. 277. Labor legislation of 1919.
Bui. 285. Minimuxn-wage legislation in the United States.
Bui. 290. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1919-1920.
Bui. 292. Labor legislation of 1920.
Bui. 308. L abor legislation of 1921.
Bui. 309. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1921.
Bui. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional.
Bui. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations.
Bui. 330. Labor legislation of 1922.
Bui. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc.
Bui. 344. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1922.
Bui. 370. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
Bui. 391. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1923-1924.
Bui. 403. Labor legislation of 1925.
Bui. 408. Laws relating to payment of wages. [In press.]
Foreign Labor Laws.
♦Bui. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries.
Vocational Education.
Bui. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City.
♦Bui. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, with plans for
apprenticeship for cutters and the education of workers in the industry.
•Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners and a factory school experiment.
•Bui. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va.
Bui. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn.
Bui. 271. Adult working-class education (Great Britain and the United States).




tn

Labor as Affected by the War.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war
Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories.
Bui. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain.
Bui. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers
Committee.
Bui. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain.
Bui. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
Bui. 287. History of National War Labor Board.
Safety Codes.
Bui. 331. Code of lighting factories, mills, and other work places.
Bui. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
Bui. 338. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
Bui. 350. Rules governing the approval of headlighting devices for motor vehicles.
Bui. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders.
Bui. 364. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus.
Bui. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations.
Bui. 378. Safety code for woodworking machinery.
Bui. 382. Code of lighting school buildings.
Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions.
Bui. 340. Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions.
Bui. 349. Industrial relations in the West Coast lumber industry.
Bui. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous coal field.
Bui. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany.
Bui. 383. Works council movement in Germany.
Bui. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920 to 1924.
Bui. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace curtain industries in the United States.
Miscellaneous.
*Bul. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons.
*Bul. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons.
*Bul. 123. Employers’ welfare work.
*Bul. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries.
*Bul. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners and a factory school experiment.
*Bul. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war.
*Bul. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to
May 1, 1915.
Bui. 208. Profit sharing in the United States.
Bui. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories.
Bui. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
•Bui. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States.
Bui. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations.
Bui. 263. Housing by employers in the United States.
Bui. 266. Proceedings of Seventh Annual Convention of the Association of Governmental Labor
Officials of the United States and Canada, held at Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
Bui. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor.
Bui. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States.
Bui. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D. O.
Bui. 295. Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
Bui. 299. Personnel research agencies: A guide to organized research in employmenfmanagement,
industrial relations, training, and working conditions.
Bui. 307. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Convention of the Association of Governmental Labor
Officios of the United States and Canada, held at New Orleans, La., May 2-6,1921.
Bui. 313. Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
Bui. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and in foreign countries.
Bui. 318. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 1921.
Bui. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization.
Bui. 323. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Convention of the Association of Governmental Labor
Officials of the United States and Canada, held at Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26, 1922.
Bui. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics.
Bui. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems.
Bui. 346. Humanity in government.




(VI)

Miscellaneous—Continued.
Bui. 347. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 1922.
Bui. 352. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Convention of the Association of Governmental Labor
Officials of the United States and Canada, held at Richmond, Va., May 1-4, 1923.
Bui. 368. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 1923.
Bui. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
Bui. 383. Works council movement in Germany.
Bui. 384. Conditions in the shoe industry in 1924.
Bui. 386. The cost of American almshouses.
Bui. 389. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Convention of the Association of Governmental Labor
Officials of the United States and Canada, held at Chicago, HI., May 19-23, 1924.
Bui. 393. Trade agreements, 1923 and 1924.
Bui. 397. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 1924.
Bui. 398. Growth of legal aid work in the United States.
Bui. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries.
Bui. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. A study of trade unionism among performers of the Eng­
lish-speaking legitimate stage in America.

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Description of occupations, prepared by the United States Employment Service, 1918-19.
*Boots and shoes, harness and saddlery, and tanning.
*Cane-sugar refining and flour milling.
Coal and water gas, paint and varnish, paper, printing trades, and rubber goods.
‘ Electrical manufacturing, distribution, and maintenance.
Glass.
Hotels and restaurants.
‘ Logging camps and sawmills.
Medicinal manufacturing.
Metal working, building and general construction, railroad transportation, and shipbuilding.
♦Mines and mining.
♦Office employees.
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Street railways.
♦Textiles and clothing.
♦Water transportation.
♦ Out of print




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