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v"

___ v.

LIBRARY..

TRAINING
OPPORTUNITIES
for
I I" 14

Women and Girls

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary

Mo. 274

WOMEN’S BUREAU
Mrs. Alice

K. Leopold, Director

Wells, Jea r, A tree.

TRAINING
OPPORTUNITIES
lor
Women and Girls
Preemployment Courses
Initial Training Programs

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Mrs. Alice K. Leopold, Director
WOMEN’S BUREAU BULLETIN 274

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON : 1960

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 23, D.C. Price SO cents

Foreword
In this age of dynamic technological change which has already
created many new opportunities for women, and has been character­
ized by an ever increasing diversity of occupations, it is imperative
for women as well as men to develop their skills and abilities to the
fullest if they are to meet the needs of the future and take the greatest
advantage of opportunities which lie ahead.
More women will be entering new fields of work in the decade of
the sixties. The variety of technical work which has emerged in
the growing engineering, scientific, health and medical fields; new
and changed office occupations resulting from the introduction and
use of electronic data processing systems and other business ma­
chines; continually rising skill levels in industrial work—these and
other developments portend the need for more education and training.
In planning for their vocational futures, women need to know
what training is available and where they can obtain it. It is with
this in mind that the Women’s Bureau has prepared this bulletin.
It describes the types of training facilities currently available and
suggests where to get additional information.
If more women and girls are stimulated to seek formal job prep­
aration and more employers and vocational educators to increase
training opportunities in fields where women trainees are still scarce,
this report will have achieved its purpose. But the ultimate rewards
can be much greater. Education and training geared to future job
requirements may be the pathway to greater advancement for women,
as well as the means to a larger supply of highly skilled and trained
workers for our growing Nation.
Alice Iv. Leopold,

Director, Women's Bureau.

iii

Acknowledgments
The Women’s Bureau wishes to acknowledge with sincere apprecia­
tion the many organizations and individuals who supplied informa­
tion on which this report is based. Special appreciation is extended
to James H. Pearson, Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Educa­
tion, and staff of the Division of Vocational Education, Office of
Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, for
review of the draft and valuable comments.
For the photographs included in the bulletin, we wish to thank
officials of the following organizations:
Emily Griffith Opportunity School, Denver, Colo, (top of cover).
The University of the State of New York, Division of Industrial Education,
Albany, N.Y. (center of cover, pp. 13, 35, 52, 56).
Dan River Mills, Danville, Va. (bottom of cover).
Armstrong Cork Co., Lancaster, Ta. (p. 15).
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Washington,
D.C. (p. 21).
Boeing Airplane Co., Wichita, Kang. (p. 40).
Central Dauphin High School, Harrisburg, Pa. (p. 53).

The report, was prepared by Jean A. Wells in the Division of
Program Planning, Analysis, and Reports, of which Stella P. Manor
is Chief.

iv

Contents
Page

1. Growing importance of job training _______________________ _
The need for more training
1
Employment advantages of training
3
Training for what? _
Training for how long?
6
2. Major types of training facilities
7
Public trade and high schools
Junior and community colleges;__________________________________
Private business, trade, and technical schools 11
In-service training_______________________________________________
Apprenticeship system_____________________________
Correspondence schools 16
Miscellaneous________________________ _________________ - ______
3. Training opportunities in specific fields 18
Office work 18
Office jobs with public contacts_________ _____________ _ _ _....... - Sales work________________________
Technicians and craftswomen 32
Industrial work 36
Nursing and health services 41
Housekeeping and food services ________________
Miscellaneous services 54
4. Conclusion 59

1

4

7
10
14
15
17

26
29

47

Appendix A—List of State offices 61
Appendix B—Index to occupations 64

v

THIS REPORT PROVIDES . . .
A glimpse at the variety of occupations for which
women and girls can obtain formal training. Ex­
cluded are professional occupations requiring a col­
lege degree.
A guide to the principal types of preemployment
or initial training available in the major occupa­
tional fields—with a few specific examples.
Sources of additional information, including lists
of State education offices and employment offices.

VI

1.

Growing Importance of Job Training
A review of some of the initial and preemployment training pro­
grams and courses currently offered in the United States indicates that
numerous training opportunities are available to women and girls
seeking employment, although the amount and accessibility of some
types of training are still quite inadequate. Training facilities to pre­
pare a woman as a stenographer, practical nurse, or beauty operator
are located in virtually all cities and most towns and can be found
fairly easily by those seeking their services. On the other hand, train­
ing for such occupations as laboratory assistant, factory production
worker, electronic and auxiliary equipment operator, or institutional
housekeeper are much less prevalent and often overlooked even in
those localities where they do exist.
Reasons for the wide differences in the extent of training opportu­
nities for women are varied but relate primarily to the pattern of
women’s employment. In the fairly small number of occupations
with large numbers of women workers, formal training facilities
have generally been provided—either by public or private facilities
or both. But in the wide array of occupations with relatively low
percentages of women, training opportunities open to women tend
to be rather scarce and sometimes available only upon occasion.
In presenting examples of various types of formal training courses
and programs found in a brief review during the winter of 1959-60,
this report provides a picture of the principal types of initial and
preemployment training opportunities open to women and girls. In
addition, it emphasizes the growing importance of such training not
only to women and girls themselves but also to the Nation’s employers
and our economy as a whole.
THE NEED FOR MORE TRAINING

The need for formal job training has been intensified in the past
several decades. Earlier, when our economy was less developed and
less mechanized, there were relatively more repetitive and unskilled
occupations than now exist. Then it was much easier for workers to
leam each task when needed and to become productive after just a

1

brief period on the job. As business and industry have grown more
complex and as technological and scientific improvements have trans­
formed industrial processes and equipment, the need for more skilled
and better trained workers has spread. Forecasts for the 1960’s
indicate that this trend will continue, not only requiring more exten­
sive training and education for new jobs being created but also raising
the general skill level of all jobs in the economy.
By 1970, our labor force is estimated to reach 87 million workers—
an increase of 13.5 million, or almost 20 percent more than in 1960.
There will probably be 30 million women workers in the 1970 labor
force, about 6 million more than at present.
Chart A

Employment Changes,-']960-1970, by Occupational Group
Percent of change

Professional and technica

Proprietors and managers

Clerical and sales workers

Skilled workers

No change

Farmers and farm workers

Source: U.S. Department of Labor.
Manpower-Challenge of the 1960’s.

The greatest percentage expansion within the total force will
occur in professional and technical jobs, which as a group is expected
to rise by more than 40 percent. In addition, it is anticipated that
the numbers of clerical and sales workers will increase by over 25
percent; skilled workers, by almost 25 percent; and semiskilled
workers by almost 20 percent (chart A). As these are all occu­
pational fields which require the most education and training, new
entrants into the labor force will need to be properly prepared if they
hope to qualify for these expanding job opportunities.
2

The ages of the workers in the expanding work force of the
1960’s also are expected to have considerable influence on future man­
power needs. Especially significant is the fact that the number of
male workers 25 to 45 years of age (low because of the comparatively
small number of persons born during the depression of the 1930’s)
will remain fairly stationary, particularly during the first half of
the 1960’s. As these are the workers who normally constitute the
central core of the experienced work force, their relatively short
supply will be keenly felt and will result in greater demand for
younger workers and adult women. Most of the workers in these
latter two groups will have had little or no previous job experience.
It becomes additionally important, therefore, that sufficient training
opportunities be made available for them.
Since there will be a tremendous rise in the numbers of young per­
sons (14 to 25 years of age) entering the labor market, individual
job seekers can anticipate considerable competition from other in- '
experienced new workers. There is little doubt that the best trained
and educated among them will be in position to obtain the better
jobs.
With respect to women workers, a major social change is also
contributing to the need for expanded training facilities. The earlier
age at which women are now marrying and having children results
in their having less time to attain job experience in their youth.
Then, when they reenter the labor market as mature women after
their family responsibilities have decreased, as many of them are
doing, they usually want and need training so that their talents
may be utilized adequately.
EMPLOYMENT ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING

The strong relationship between employment and training or edu­
cation has been demonstrated in many instances. It is well known
that the likelihood that a woman will have a job increases directly
with the amount of formal education she has received. Her pre­
vious education is also an important determinant of the type of job
that she can obtain. For example, in 1959, half of the women workers
who had finished high school but had not attended college had clerical
jobs, while most of those who had received from 1 to 3 years of high
school training were employed primarily as service workers, factory
operatives, and clerical workers (chart B).
Income is also strongly affected by the amount of education one has
obtained. Among women who received some income in 1958, the high
school graduates with no college training had a median income of
$2,036—more than twice as much as elementary-school graduates
($909) and almost three times as much as women without an elemen­
tary-school diploma ($711).
555150°—60------2

3

The advantages to be gained from formal training can be expected
to resemble those derived from formal education. Persons with the
best qualifications will be in a position to obtain the more skilled, inChart B

Occupations of Women With Specified Years of Schooling, 1959
With 1 to 3 Years of College
Operatives 3%

’i r

With 4 Years of High School
Other

Other 1%

3%
M an - \
Lagers'

yC Man-.Y
Saies%. 7%

ayers/

6%

Profes-.

Ksional

Sales

Service

Clerical

ltV*T4
■BBS*

Clerical
50%

Operatives

//10%-V
Professional

Service i,

88$32%g&

15%''

With 1 to 3 Years of High School
Professional 2%
Managers 5%~}

•

With 8 Years or Less of Grade School
Professional

Other 4%
Managers
5%

1%

Other
10%

Service
Service

Clerical
Clericali

ai%!
Operatives

Operatives

//lb-///
//////

7/27%//

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census.
Current Population Reports. P-20. No. 99.

teresting, and better paying jobs. Women and girls both will need to
be well trained if they hope to share in the employment opportunities
of our complex and rapidly changing economy.
TRAINING FOR WHAT?

Before describing some of the training opportunities now available
to women and girls, it should be noted that the initial and preemploy4

nient training programs and courses covered in this study are those
which prepare women for occupations not requiring a college degree.
The types of training programs included were selected on the basis
of the method of training, the length of training time, and the types
of jobs for which training is given.
In general, the study covers formal training for paid employment.
Only such training courses or programs in which women or girls are
participating currently or have participated recently are included.
For the most part, the training described is open to women regardless
of age. However, age preferences in hiring for certain jobs un­
doubtedly affect the selection for or enrollment in such training. In
general, where women are accepted for employment in an occupation,
they are also accepted for training.
The word “formal” indicates that the instruction is carried on in an
orderly systematic manner in accordance with a scheduled plan. The
phrase “for paid employment” places emphasis on initial job train­
ing that is, preparation for entry into a specific occupation. This
means that the training courses described consist of more than just
orientation to an establishment or work situation. Also, morale-build­
ing courses which provide general information about how to get
and hold a job in today’s labor market are excluded unless they also
teach basic job skills.
Most of the training discussed consists primarily of either preem­
ployment courses conducted by schools and other groups, or initial
training programs carried on by private companies and government
agencies for their new employees. While it is recognized that there
are many other types of training also available, the programs and
courses listed here are those which provide women and girls with the
work skills and knowledge needed to enter a specific occupational field.
They do not include the many on-the-job training programs con­
ducted or supported by industry for their employees to improve their
skills or develop new skills. However, retraining programs for work­
ers who face job displacement because of technological changes are
also included, as well as refresher courses for those who may have
lost some of their previous skills or need to learn the latest techniques
and developments.
Because private companies do have many other training opportuni­
ties available to employees once they are on the payroll, women and
girls need to take this fact into consideration in planning for their
occupational future—especially in those occupations or locations
where preemployment training is not available. Information about
these opportunities can be obtained directly from the companies and
may also be available to job applicants at the local public employment
office.
5

TRAINING FOR HOW LONG?

Great differences exist, of course, in the length of formal training
period required to produce a satisfactory degree of skill or pro­
ficiency—with variations both by occupation and by school or estab­
lishment. This report includes information on formal preemploy­
ment or initial training courses of at least 1 week’s duration at the
lower end of the scale, although, in a few instances, shorter courses
are also described. At the other end of the time range, the training
periods under review stop short of the time required to obtain a
baccalaureate degree. Thus, the report excludes the training and
education which college graduates obtain to qualify for professional
positions.
Many kinds of training programs are currently available aside
from those covered in this bulletin. For example, there are the many
supervisory, managerial, and executive training programs conducted
by private industry and government, as well as the training programs
designed to help workers qualify for advancement to other types of
jobs. These programs are not included here because of the fact that
they do not cover initial training for a specific occupational skill, and
because their great number and variety would necessitate a separate
study for adequate consideration.
While some of the training courses included in this study are part
of the well-rounded, vocational-education program of “preparation
for work and life,” most of the training described centers around
skills and knowledge relating to a specific occupation. As presented
in part, 3, these occupations are grouped under the following cate­
gories: Office work, office jobs with public contacts, sales work, techni­
cians and craftswomen, industrial work, nursing and health services,
housekeeping and food services, and miscellaneous services. In each
case, only a few examples of current training programs are described
in this report.

6

2
Major Types of Training Facilities
Just how many women and girls are now participating in formal
training courses or programs is not known, but the number probably
equals several millions. The largest group, totaling about 1.8 million
women and girls during the school year 1958-59, consists of those
enrolled in federally aided vocational courses. Most of these women
and girls attend public trade or high schools but some are enrolled
in public junior colleges or in the extension courses of public univer­
sities. Included in the latter group are probably most of the 20,849
women reported by institutions of higher education as 1956-57 grad­
uates of “organized occupational currieulums” lasting at least 1 year
but less than 4 years.
Private trade schools and business colleges outside the “regular
school system” had an enrollment of about 591,000 women and girls
in October 1959. These students were taking primarily business
subjects, art, fashion design, photography, and cosmetology.
No reliable estimates are available of how many women receive
formal job instruction through either in-service programs conducted
by private industry and government agencies, apprenticeship pro­
grams, or correspondence courses.
PUBLIC TRADE AND HIGH SCHOOLS

Of the 25,000 public secondary schools in the Nation, about 14,000
offer some kind of vocational education. In addition to their avail­
ability in most cities and large towns, vocational courses of public
trade schools and comprehensive high schools have several other
advantages of interest to women and girls. Of major importance
is that they are free or, as in the case of adult education courses, quite
inexpensive. They also cover numerous occupations, although the
range of skill choice varies considerably from school to school.1 *
1A list of vocational courses offered by specific public schools during the school year
1958-59 is contained in Trade and Industrial Education for Girls and Women, A Directory
of Training Programs. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Publication
No. OE—84002.

7

The current trend toward consolidation of local schools into district
schools is stimulating the establishment of additional vocational edu­
cation courses. As a result, vocational training is being made avail­
able to many more persons living in outlying areas.
Public vocational courses are undoubtedly the best developed and
most widely standardized of all the training resources available to
women and girls in this country. As originally provided in the
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 and later expanded in the George-Barden
Act of 1946, Federal funds are provided for vocational education
courses which meet Federal and State standards. These include the
requirements that education must be of less than college grade and
directed toward “useful employment.”
Today most vocational schools are coeducational but there are still
some separate schools for girls and boys. Of course, girls are not
eligible for the courses given in boys’ schools and are sometimes ex­
cluded from courses in coeducational schools. Reasons given for the
limitations on girls’ enrollment are that some training leads to jobs
which are physically difficult for women or to jobs which are tradi­
tionally considered men’s work and generally not available to women
workers. Many jobs, however, once considered not appropriate for
women have been opened to them in recent years, in some cases because
technological advances have decreased the physical requirements of a
job and in others because manpower shortages have compelled em­
ployers to hire women.
Day-school students (who for federally aided courses must be at
least 14 years old) are required in most schools to take a complete pro­
gram of vocational education leading to a high school diploma. As a
result, the typical day-school student is of high school age. In some
of the large cities with daytime schools for adults, however, there are
no restrictions on the number or type of courses which may be taken.
Of particular interest to young students is the cooperative program
offered in many public trade and high schools. Under this plan, stu­
dents spend half time in school continuing their high school education
and half time at paid employment receiving school credits for related
instruction and on-the-job training. Most girls who participate in
cooperative programs are enrolled in distributive education or busi­
ness education courses.
Part-time and evening students must be at least 16 years of age and
employed to satisfy Federal-aid requirements. Most students attend­
ing school part time are enrolled in cooperative programs and, there­
fore, are largely under 20 years of age. The evening students are
typically an older group. Courses given in the evening are often
shorter and more intensive than regular-term courses.
8

In addition to offering preparatory training leading to entrance into
useful employment, many public schools have long-range programs
for employed adults. These programs often consist of a series of
courses which can help improve the employees’ chances for job
advancement.
: able 1 .—Women Enrolled in Vocational Trades and Industries Classes, by Occupation

1958-59

Occupation

Women
enrolled
Number

All occupations_________________________
Artist (commercial)____________________________
Beauty operator_______________________________
Building trades worker____________ __________
Domestic worker_______________
___________
Draftsman________________________ ____________
Dressmaker, machine operator (needle trades)__
Driver, commercial vehicle___ _ _____________
Fishery worker________________ _______________
Food trades worker (commercial)_______________
Foreman, supervisor, manager__________________
Hospital aide or attendant-" _______________ _
Janitor____________________
_________________
Jeweler or watchmaker. _. ___________________
Launderer, drycleaner, presser______________ __
Machinist_____________________________________
Mechanic or repairman_______________
______
Nurse (practical)______________________________
Photographer___________________
__________
Policewoman__________________________________
Printer, stereotyper, lithographer, photoengraver
Technician:
Dental____________________________________
Design____________________________________
Electrical____________________________ _____
Electronics________________________________
Laboratory________________________________
Medical___________________________________
Other________________________ ____________
Textile worker_________________________________
LTpholsterer___________
__________________
Miscellaneous___________________

Per­
cent

95, 041

100

2, 970
18, 351
368
3, 079
654
24, 135
1, 360
321
9, 623
4, 384
4, 939
834
188
298
393
3, 198
7, 472
439
818
455

3
19

2, 077
408
248
1, 212
294
1, 093
1, 162
2, 508
193
1, 567

(')
3
1
25
1
(>)

(>)
(’)

P)
P)

10
5
5
1

3
8
1

(l)
2

P)
P)

1

(>)
1
1
3
0)
2

1 Less than 1 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Division of Vocational
Education.

Local job demands are taken into consideration by public education
administrators in establishing vocational courses in their area.
Through the use of local advisory committees, both labor and manage­
ment representatives participate in determining what specific types of
training and kinds of instruction and equipment would be most useful
9

in their locality. Some public vocational schools provide placement
services for those who complete their courses, but since this service is
optional, the amount of time spent helping graduates find jobs varies
by school.
Principal fields for which vocational education is offered on a coop­
erative Federal-State basis and the numbers of women and girls
enrolled during the 1958-59 school year were, as follows:
Number of

Field

women students

Home economics 1, 542, 512
Distributive education_ _
_
Trade and industrial:
Trades and industries classes
95, 041
General continuation
10, 363
Practical nursing_!_________________________________________________

152, 836

30, 306

Some of the major occupations for which women and girls receive
trades and industrial training in public vocational schools are the socalled traditional women’s fields: practical nursing, needle trades,
cosmetology, food trades, and dental and medical assisting (table 1).
However, increasing numbers of women are reported to be preparing
also for such occupations as mechanic or repairman, electronics tech­
nician, textile worker, policewoman, and commercial driver.
The distributive education program covers not only general basic
courses in distribution but also specialized courses in retailing, whole­
saling, service businesses, insurance, real estate, and investments.
The training provided in these fields leads to a wide diversity of
occupations, including saleswoman, cashier, buyer’s assistant, stock
worker, real estate agent, insurance agent, and investment counselor,
as well as proprietor and manager.
It should be noted that “commercial courses” are not included
among the fields of training for which the Federal law provides the
use of Federal funds when paying teachers’ salaries and certain re­
lated expenses. These courses, generally the most popular among
high school girls, are financed from regular funds of the local school
system. Commercial subjects usually offered in public schools in­
clude typing, shorthand, bookkeeping, operation of office machines,
business English, business arithmetic, and business law.
JUNIOR AND COMMUNITY COLLEGES

Most junior colleges and nearly all public “community colleges”—
the 2-year schools becoming so popular these days—offer vocational
courses in addition to the academic subjects usually studied by fresh­
men and sophomores. These colleges—which now total about 675—
were established primarily to provide 2 years of post-high school
10

education. However, mature adults also find these schools valuable
because classes are typically held during both the day and evening,
and students may enroll on a part-time basis.
Course requirements in most 2-year colleges depend on the interests
of individual students. Those working toward an associate degree
must take certain academic subjects along with courses of their own
choice. Those wishing trade or industrial training leading to a cer­
tificate may not be required to study other subjects. In some schools,
it is also possible to enroll just in individual evening courses.
States with the largest numbers of public 2-year colleges are Cali­
fornia, Texas, New York, Illinois, and Mississippi. In California,
for example, the junior college is reported to have taken the place
of the private technical institute, still popular in the East and Mid­
west.
Since 2-year colleges include both public and private schools, there
is considerable variation in tuition and other costs. Most public
community colleges, which seldom provide housing facilities, have
veiy low tuition. However, among junior colleges are a few private
girls schools which are both fashionable and expensive.
\ ocational courses most popular with women students in 2-year
colleges are secretarial studies, nursing, dental hygiene, medical
laboratory technology, and dental or medical assisting. Other voca­
tional courses with small but significant numbers of women students
include commercial art and advertising, fashion design, accounting,
practical nursing, sales and distribution, and food-service administra­
tion. Although technical courses relating to engineering are found
in many 2-year colleges, they have fairly few women students. The
relative popularity among women of various occupational fields is
shown in table 2 for both 2-year colleges and for those 4-year colleges
and universities which also offer programs of technical education at
less than baccalaureate level.
In some 2-year colleges, as in some high schools, cooperative pro­
grams have been established to enable students to obtain job instruc1 ion and job experience at the same time they are pursuing a general
education.
PRIVATE BUSINESS, TRADE, AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS

As most private business, trade, and technical schools specialize in
training for employment, they usually offer short-term, intensive and
practical courses. These are often held both day and evening and
on either a full-time or part-time basis to accommodate individual
students. Most students in private vocational schools are older than
those in public vocational schools and frequently are employed.
555150°—60------ 3

11

Table 2.—Women Graduates of Organized Occupational Curriculums Lasting at Least
1 Year But Less Than 4 Years, Institutions of Higher Education, United States,
1956-57
Women graduates

Organized occupational curriculum

As per­
cent of
men and
Number
women
gradu­
ates

All organized occupational curriculums

20, 849

44

Technician level---------------------------------------------Engineering related------------------------------------Aeronautical___________________________
Architectural and civil_________________
Chemical______________________________
Electrical
General engineering technology-------------Industrial. ________________ :------ -----------Mechanical____________________________
Metallurgical___________________________
Miscellaneous--------------------------------------Nonengineering related-------------------------------Agriculture and forestry-----------------------Applied and graphic arts----------------------Business and commerce------------------------Education_____________________________
Health service_________________________
Home economics_______________________
Miscellaneous__________________________
Other----------------- ---------------------------------Craftsman-clerical level_____________ _________ -­
Engineering________________________________
Nonengineering_____________________ _______

20, 474
170
3
15
49
6
74
5
6
3
9
20, 304
37
632
9, 029
5, 538
4, 080
508
436
44
375
14
361

46
1
(’)
1
23
0)
13
1
w
3
1
65
3
45
57
83
94
84
38
27
18
1
55

1 Less than 1 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education: Organized Occupa­
tional Curriculums, Enrollments and Graduates, 1957. Circular No. 568,

Tuition at private vocational schools may range from very modest
to relatively high fees, depending largely on the type of training
and the amount of equipment necessary for practice work. Also,
many private schools give graduates considerable assistance in obtain­
ing employment, since job placement is often viewed by students
as a major service of these schools.
Kesralations covering such items as standards of instruction and
advertising statements are in effect in some States for some types of
schools. By and large, however, it is necessary for prospective stu­
dents to inquire locally about the reputation and past performance
of the private school they might attend.
The largest number of private vocational schools are business or
secretarial schools. Most of these offer a wide variety of business
12

subjects, including stenography, typing, executive secretarial study,
office machine operation, and bookkeeping. Other separate schools
usually specialize in teaching such skills as speedwriting, comptome­
ter operation, stenotyping, switchboard operation, or keypunch
operation.
Among other types of private trade schools, probably the most
numerous are beauty culture schools. Tn addition, private schools of
interest to women wishing to learn a trade offer courses in such fields
as practical nursing, sales training, drafting, clothes designing, com­
mercial art, photography, fashion art, real estate, insurance, millinery,
power-machine sewing, airline hostessing, or hotel training.
Most technical schools are open to women and girls. Numerous
women students have entered technical schools offering courses in
medical, dental, and other laboratory techniques; mathematical com­
putations; or drafting. However, few women prepare themselves
for technical work in engineering and the physical sciences. Their
l°w enrollments in these classes may be related primarily to custom
and tradition, which have influenced the attitudes and interests of
both employers and potential students.

Students in a fashion trades high school practice sketching

IN-SERVICE TRAINING

A comprehensive picture of training operations conducted by pri­
vate and public establishments is difficult to obtain for several rea­
sons. The large number and variety of situations existing in different
areas, industries, and organizations would require a lengthy and
intensive study. Even more formidable, however, is the fact that the
picture is constantly changing. Training activity is greatest when
large numbers of workers are needed to fill new jobs. Such a need
usually occurs during wartime, postwar reconversion, or immediately
following major technological changes. Once job demands are met
and new workers trained, hiring is curtailed and so usually is train­
ing. During periods of relative stability, there is also a considerable
amount of change as employers adopt and then discontinue certain
training programs to meet their immediate needs.
Many training activities are, of course, carried on regularly by
industry and government. Probably the most extensive type of train­
ing in existence is informal, on-the-job training, by which a worker
is taught each new duty at the time that it is needed in the work
process. Also widespread throughout industry is orientation train­
ing to acquaint new workers with company routines and regulations.
Many organizations, particularly the large ones, also conduct in­
service or extension training programs to help their employees
advance—either to more skilled jobs or to supervisory or managerial
positions. Some companies, hoping to encourage their employees
to get “more schooling,” pay full or part of the tuition of employees
who enroll in courses given by approved educational institutions.
When companies offer initial training on a formal basis, employees
are generally paid the hiring rate for their job. The training is
sometimes held in the classroom, sometimes in a specially designated
area of the plant or office (called “vestibule training”), and often at
the regular workplace. In the latter case, only such instruction as is
given in a systematic and planned manner is included in this study
as formal training. In most training programs arranged by em­
ployers, work skills are acquired along with the technical knowledge
needed.
Some private companies maintain preemployment training schools
in which work skills needed for their operations are taught. At
such schools, interested persons who pass required tests are usually
admitted without charge and also without pay.
Most formal training programs in private industry are conducted
independently by individual companies, but upon occasion arrange­
ments are made for instruction to be provided by the local vocational
14

Iff |

fills
Bililii

.

ft

liliilfci

In-service training programs in private industry are preparing more women for technical
jobs.

school—either in the school or on company property. The training
objective in these cases is generally the typical industry objective—
to provide the specific skills and knowledge needed for a certain job.
In the Federal Government, training programs have been estab­
lished primarily to help improve the work performance of employees
in jobs for which they have already qualified. As a result, most
Federal training programs consist either of orientation, special pro­
cedures or technique courses, supervisory training, or management
development. However, initial training courses, of the type under
study here, are provided when necessary for certain kinds of Gov­
ernment work.
APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM

Through apprenticeship programs, workers may learn a recognized
skilled trade by means of a formal procedure combining work ex­
perience of at least 2 years’ duration with 144 hours per year of re­
lated instruction. To meet standards recommended by the Federal
Government, the program adopted must contain provisions concern­
ing the content of instruction, scheduling of progressive work assign­
ments, amount of classroom study, supervision, hours, wages, and
conditions of employment.
Although formal programs for the employment and training of
apprentices have been established in about 300 skilled occupations,
very few women are registered apprentices. The principal reason
15

is that few women are employed in the trades recognized as “apprenticeable” in this country, either because of the physical require­
ments of the occupation or because of the length of apprentice­
ship required. Most women apprentices are learning bookbinding
or cosmetology. Small numbers of women are also found in ap­
prenticeship programs for dressmakers, dental technicians, fur
finishers, fabric cutters, tailoresses, and printers.
One of the major advantages of apprenticeship training is that
the apprentice becomes a part of the work force immediately, receiv­
ing wages as she learns her trade. Then, as training progresses her
rate of pay is advanced. Those women and girls interested in ob­
taining detailed information about apprenticeship programs and re­
quirements should contact the apprenticeship agency in their State.
Such agencies are usually part of the State’s department of labor or
industrial commission. A few States have an independent Appren­
ticeship Council. In States without any apprenticeship agency, in­
formation may be obtained from the nearest office of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. Other
sources of information on apprenticeship openings in a particular
ai’ea are the public employment service and the unions or employers
in the industry under consideration.
CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS

Home study courses provide another method by which women and
girls may learn vocational skills. Such courses cover, of course, a
multiplicity of subject matter, with the majority furnishing basic job
information. Most home study courses are prepared by private cor­
respondence schools and some by such public institutions as State uni­
versities and the Armed Forces. The cost depends principally on the
type and length of each course, as well as the amount of practice mate­
rials and services provided students. Home study courses purchased
by private companies as part of their in-service training seldom re­
quire any payment by employees.
There are several advantages connected with home study courses.
For one, they offer opportunities to learn skills not taught locally.
This is particularly beneficial to persons living in small towns and
rural areas. In addition, correspondence courses allow students to
exercise their own initiative in the learning process and to progress
at their own rate of speed. The primary emphasis, of course, is on the
completion of a course rather than on the time period of study.
Examples of correspondence courses with vocational content of
particular interest to women students are those in shorthand, typing,
bookkeeping, accounting, tailoring, clothes designing, drafting, pho­
tography, hotel training, and real estate.
16

As not all States have laws or regulations covering correspondence
schools, it is important that prospective students check with local em­
ployers concerning the claims and merits of a specific home study
course if they hope to qualify for a particular type of job after its
completion.
MISCELLANEOUS

Although most formal training programs are conducted independ­
ently by a single organization, a few are sponsored on a cooperative
basis. The sponsors may include two or more of the following: A
private company, an industry association, a public vocational school,
a labor union, or the public employment office. Frequently, in a coop­
eratively sponsored program, the public employment office is the
agency which first notes the need for the program, seeks assistance
from other community groups, and then continues to act as program
coordinator. However, any of the organizations listed above may be
the one which initiates a cooperative training program.
In addition to the participation by many union organizations in na­
tional apprenticeship programs, some union members and officials
upon occasion have set up a single-time training course to teach the
basic skills in their work area. In a few situations with a continuing
shortage of trained workers, a local union has conducted a job course
regularly and thereby established another permanent training
resource.
Similarly, some industry associations have seen the need for job
training in their field of operation and have independently established
a training program, sometimes on a permanent basis.

17

3
Training Opportunities in Specific Fields
OFFICE WORK

As clerical or kindred jobs are
held by over 6 million women—
almost one-third of all women
workers in the country—train­
ing opportunities available for
various types of office work are
of interest to large numbers of
women and girls. Especially in­
teresting at the present time is
information about training for
jobs stemming from the automa­
tion of office operations with
modern business machines. These include a variety of new types of
accounting, calculating, computing, and auxiliary machines all de­
scribed by the general term of automatic data processing equipment.
Important also, of course, are the many formal courses leading to
employment in long established office jobs. These include the jobs of
typist, stenographer, and secretary—in which there are more than 2
million women—as well as the jobs of bookkeeper, telephone operator,
and office-machine operator. All cover relatively large numbers of
women workers and are essential to the operation of most offices.
The number of programmers and operators of electronic computers
and auxiliary equipment is still rather small but rising fast and, as
predicted by one private surveyor, will approximate 170,000 by 1965.
Most of the jobs in this field are fairly new and are attracting numer­
ous women. There are relatively more women, however, among the
operators than among the programmers.
Electronic and Auxiliary Equipment Operators
The usual way to learn how to operate electronic computer and
auxiliary equipment is through employment with one of the equip18

ment manufacturers or with an establishment using their equipment.
Most of the manufacturers maintain training centers in the large
cities or, when feasible, send instructors to their customers’ offices.
This training service is provided to the employees of customers who
have purchased or rented their equipment. Customers are, of course,
mainly large corporations, universities, or government agencies.
The training period varies in length, depending on the complexity
of the machines. Auxiliary equipment to electronic computers
include punchers, sorters, calculators, tabulators, reproducers, and
printers.
A description of the type of training service offered by a manufac­
turer follows:
^

One large producer of electronic equipment maintains permanent train­
ing centers in 21 major cities and conducts courses when necessary in the
other branch offices of the company. Trainees are primarily company or
customer employees, although a few outsiders are admitted without charge
in some towns. Courses include card-punch operation, machine operation,
and control-panel wiring—each course lasting about 15 to 30 hours.

Some large establishments, both private and public, have their
own training programs for operators of electronic computing and
auxiliary equipment. They may accept the services of an instructor
provided by the equipment manufacturer or may utilize just training
or instructional materials prepared by the manufacturer, as indicated
in the following instances:
^

When the Social Security Administration, a large-scale user of electrical
accounting and card-punch machines, encounters a shortage of persons with
machine experience, it trains selected employees during office hours. Meet­
ing 2 hours a day for several weeks, classes in machine operation last 40
hours and in wiring, 60 hours. The machine course is attended by em­
ployees in machine jobs and “interested clerks” upon the approval of their
supervisors. Those who complete this course and show aptitude for the
work may take the wiring course also. The agency has its own instructors
but utilizes training materials of the equipment manufacturer.

^

At an Air Force base in the West, courses offered in machine wiring and
operation consist of a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job
practice. The wiring class lasts over 50 hours and the machine operation
course from 50 to 60 hours, depending on the type of machine. Instructors
are furnished by equipment manufacturers.

In recent years, special schools have been established to provide
preemployment training in machine operation for a fee. Generally,
these are private schools with experienced instructors and modern
equipment. Most offer both day and evening classes and operate a
free placement service. Training time varies—usually from 1 to 8
weeks—depending on the number and types of operations studied.
555150°—00

i

19

Courses in key punch operation are generally more numerous than
those for other machine operators, as many private business schools
have added a key punch course to their curriculums.
Some equipment manufacturers also conduct preemployment
courses which the public may attend for a fee.
^

At one manufacturer’s school, a course In Logical Operation (of an elec­
tronic computer) consists of 4 hours of lecture and 4 hours of supervised
study per day and lasts for 6 weeks. The tuition fee is $500.

Only a very few public trade or high schools offer low-cost or free
instruction in the operation of electronic data processing equipment.
However, additional public schools are considering adding such a
course to their curriculums in response to public demand.
^

The adult education school in Denver (Emily Griffith Opportunity School)
conducts on school premises a 60-hour course (both daytime and evening)
in operating card punch equijmient and a 102-hour course in tabulator equip­
ment. The modern machines on which the students practice are rented
from the equipment manufacturer. Over half the students in these free
courses are women.

Junior and community colleges in particular, as well as a few uni­
versities and engineering schools, are beginning to add courses in
office machine operation to their business education curriculum.
While such courses are considered, in some schools, as part of a broad
program of business administration, they may often be taken singly
by those interested in employment as machine operators.
Programmers
Training courses for programmers are provided in most of the facil­
ities described for electronic equipment operators. Thus, at present,
most programmers are trained in courses conducted by manufacturers
of electronic computing equipment. Instruction is usually provided
by the manufacturer as a customer service, and the trainee is paid a
beginner’s salary by the employer. Formal training time for pro­
grammers is longer, of course, than for machine operators and varies
with the complexity of the programming assignment and the level of
responsibility involved. Some companies prefer college graduates
for programming work but most are willing to hire and train qualified
persons—qualified, that is, on the basis of aptitude tests or previous
work experience. Examples of courses conducted by equipment
producers follow:
^

One large computer manufacturer offers up to 30 days of formal training
in computer programming to company and customer employees. Following
this classroom training, additional on-the-job training is provided.
^
Another large manufacturer of computer equipment has an 18-month train­
ing program for its own employees.

20

Training consists of a scheduled pro-

HP

This console operator has one of the new jobs which emen
computers.

with the use of electronic

gram for classroom work in the local office, on-the-job training, and instruc­
tion at a company Career School. Trainees learn a wide range of activities,
including machine operation, technical assistance relating to machine instal­
lation, programming and system analysis, and customer relations.
^
At a special school operated in New York by one of the computer manu­
facturers and open to the public, courses in Programming I and II are each
scheduled to last 6 weeks and cost $100 and $500, respectively.

Numerous large establishments which employ programmers have
developed their own training programs. In some instances, a com­
pany program has been established just prior to the installation of
computer equipment as a means of obtaining an initial staff of trained
personnel. In others, the formal program is utilized whenever neces­
sary to satisfy staff requirements. Consisting of a combination of
classroom lectures, demonstrations, and on-the-job practice under
close supervision, the formal training period may vary from a few
weeks to several months. The following are illustrative of training
programs conducted by employers for programmers:
21

p

'I’lic Social Security Administration trains “carefully selected personnel”
as programmers in a 6-week course (240 hours) given during office time.
Trainees spend about 4 hours each day at lectures and discussions. The
balance of their training time is devoted to practice problems and supervised
study.
^
An airplane manufacturer on the west coast conducts a 5-week (200
hours) course for digital computer programmers who have completed appro­
priate college work. In 1959, there were 7 women among the 15 persons
who comj)leted the combination of classroom work, lectures, and supervised
study.
^
A large insurance company hires college men and women for programmer
training of unstated duration. It includes formal classroom work, devising
practice programs, and testing such programs on the computer.

Courses in electronic data processing are being offered by a rising
number of universities and colleges, particularly 2-year colleges.
About 15 colleges and universities now have computing centers and
offer such basic courses as the general logic of programming, coding
for computers, and the mechanics of computers.
A few public high schools are also starting to offer courses in the
programming of data processing equipment. For example:
An introductory course In digital computing was given during the 1960
spring semester at the Northwood High School in Silver Spring, Md. Offered
without credit, the course was held every Saturday for 3 hours and required
an additional 8 hours of homework per week. Teacher and organizer of the
course was a data processing expert from the Navy Bureau of Supplies and
Accounts, where a new computer was expected to be installed. Class members
consisted of 20 juniors and seniors, of whom 4 were girls. The students
were selected, from a group twice as large, on the basis of a preliminary test.
Upon completion of the course, arrangements were made for most of the
students to work in summer jobs as programmer trainees.

Bookkeepers

As more and more offices utilize modern business machines, knowl­
edge of the new types of bookkeeping machines has become increas­
ingly more useful than learning hand bookkeeping or the operation of
standard bookkeeping machines. The latter were once the usual tools
of bookkeepers, the second largest group of women office workers. Of
course, bookkeeping principles and practices as taught in most public
and private business courses continue to be important, but graduates
of these courses are generally thought to need further training. Most
employers follow the practice of hiring such graduates for entry book­
keeping positions and providing them with informal, on-the-job train­
ing in bookkeeping operations. However, formal training in book­
keeping machine operation is also offered upon occasion, as for
example:
22

►

One large manufacturer of modern bookkeeping machines maintains train­
ing centers for operators in several large cities over the country. These
schools, run primarily as a customer service, admit customer employees, In­
dependent applicants, and high school students (contacted through their
schools and recommended by their instructors). Classes, which are offered
fairly continuously, last from 2 to 3 weeks. There is no charge for the
instruction or the placement service.

►

At a New York City bank which operates a training center for various
types of bank jobs, bookkeepers may receive 3 weeks of formal training.
Trainees are usually selected from among current employees but, if necessary,
are also recruited from outside. They are required to have a high school
diploma and pass an intelligence test.

►

A large Wisconsin bank has conducted a training program for machine
operators since 1947, when it arranged to hire housewives and students on
a part-time basis to alleviate a shortage of clerical workers. While assigned
to the training department, trainees are paid the regular starting salary
for their job. Formal training time lasts 75 hours for proof machine oper­
ators and 50 hours for bookkeeping machine operators.

►

In a major banking organization on the west coast, new employees
assigned to bookkeeping-machine operation spend their first 3 days learningbasic job duties and practicing on a standard bank adding machine keyboard.
Most of the remaining 3-week training period is devoted to posting under
supervision and studying the bookkeeper’s manual, with a review and test
on the final day.

The operation of some modern bookkeeping machines is taught by
a few private business schools, public high schools, and junior colleges.
Generally, however, not many schools of this type are able to purchase
many of the complex and costly business machines recently invented.
Office-Machine Operators (Miscellaneous)
Training in the operation of other office machines—such as comp­
tometers, billing machines, duplicating machines, and cash registers—
is provided in many public and private business courses. Of course,
comptometer or calculating machines and billing machines take con­
siderably more time to learn how to operate than do cash registers
and various types of duplicating machines.
As mentioned in relation to bookkeeping-machine operators, opera­
tion of the traditional and less expensive types of miscellaneous office
machines is taught in many more schools than is the operation of
fairly expensive modern machines. Again, the latter type of train­
ing is provided principally by the machine manufacturers—generally
without charge to customer employees but with a fee for the general
public.
^

A manufacturer of modern office machines advertises courses which are
open to the public at tuition fees ranging from $110 to $150 for “a few

23

short weeks of intensive training” in the operation of its billing, book­
keeping, or calculating machines.

Women and girls who wish to become teletype operators have
numerous training facilities from which to choose. Formal training
in teletype operation is offered without charge by some employers
and some public vocational schools.
^

An organization employing large numbers of teletype operators provides

numerous training opportunities for inexperienced persons. Offices in
many large cities conduct training classes lasting from 10 to 13 weeks.
Training covers not only teletype operation but also how to handle sales,
dispatch messages, make reports, and read perforator tape. For those hired
in its smalltown offices, the company maintains a central telegraph school
in New Jersey. Teletype operator trainees, who attend the school for 8
weeks, receive free transportation and a small salary to defray meal and
lodging expenses. The average class of 15 persons includes 6 women.
^
Since the General Services Administration maintains a large telecom­
munication center for the Federal Government, it provides Teletype Operator
Training for its own employees and those of agencies utilizing the GSA
Teletypewriter System. Generally, 1 week is spent in classroom training
and 1 month on the job, sending and receiving messages under close super­
vision. Over half the teletype operators in the Federal Government are
women.
^
A free course in teletype operation is offered by the adult education school
in Denver. Located on school premises, the course is given 10 hours a week
for 2 weeks.

A few private schools throughout the country, sometimes called
personnel training schools, offer courses in teletype operating which
usually last several months.
^

At a personnel school in the Midwest, a 3-month training program costing
$445 provides 85 hours of instruction in teletypewriting operation and 45
hours of teletypewriting procedure and tape reading along with other courses
in typing, business administration, business spelling, airline reservations,
telephone technique, and personality development. Only girls and women
who are high school graduates between 17% and 35 years of age and who
successfully pass an aptitude test are admitted to the school.

Typists, Stenographers, and Secretaries
Since typists, stenographers, and secretaries comprise the largest
single occupational group of women workers, it is to be expected that
initial training in typing, shorthand, and office practices and pro­
cedures is available in most public high schools throughout the coun­
try. Completion of these courses and graduation from high school
are generally considered to be the minimum requirements for em­
ployment in these three office jobs. However, further training in
business skills is sometimes desired by employers.
Both initial and advanced training in business skills is usually
available at private secretarial and business schools, which number
24

about 1,400. For a fee, these schools offer short, practical courses in
basic typing and shorthand skills, as well as supplementary and ad­
vanced courses in such subjects as principles of business operation,
office methods, secretarial accounting, business English, business cor­
respondence, elementary bookkeeping, use of standard business ma­
chines, and various other skills which a secretary needs.
Private companies do not generally provide initial training in
typing or shorthand. However, many organizations, particularly
large ones, hire graduates of public or private business courses with
the idea of providing additional training at company expense. This
training often includes speed drills in typing and shorthand, secre­
tarial duties, office forms and tiling, correspondence, special company
practices and procedures, and attitudes and etiquette. The following
illustrate this type of training:
^

A rubber manufacturer in the Midwest annually contacts local high schools
shortly before spring graduation and recruits about 15 girls for a 4 weeks’
course (40 hours per week) for stenographers, typists, transcribers, and
secretaries.

►

An insurance firm in New England gives 2 weeks of special classroom in­
struction to newly employed stenographers, typists, transcriptionists, and
secretaries. In addition, typists receive 3 weeks of training in the typing
unit, and stenographers received 2 hours of special instruction a day.

►

A paper manufacturer in the Midwest recently conducted an 80-hour
clerical training program for 30 women employed at production jobs in the
plant. About half the time was devoted to typing and the remainder to skills
required in miscellaneous office work.

►

A utility company in New York holds 15 typing sessions of 2(4 hours each
for newly hired typists and stenographers.

►

Since 1942, the U.S. Navy has conducted refresher Secretarial Training in
the Washington, D.O., metropolitan area for civilian stenographers, typists,
and secretaries who are recommended by their supervisors. During 1% hours
a day for 15 days, the trainees practice to attain speed and accuracy and to
learn proper office procedures. Recently, the program has been expanded to
include a secretarial skills course, which covers the basic duties and respon­
sibilities of a personal secretary.

►

The Army installation at Fort Monmouth, N.J., conducts a broad training
program during office hours. Attendance at a 10-hour course in military cor­
respondence, forms, and practices is recommended for new typists and
stenographers within 3 months of their employment.

Training in special secretarial skills leading to such positions as
medical, legal, or engineering secretary can be obtained in many junior
colleges and some private business schools. Courses, which may last
from 1 to 3 years, usually cover special terminology as well as back­
ground subjects in the field of specialization.
With the rising number of mature women interested in entering or
reentering the business world, some schools and other groups are
25

offering courses specially oriented to their needs. Some of these
courses provide information on ways to find and hold a job, in addition
to teaching specific job skills. The preparation and training received
in these courses have enabled many women with little or no work ex­
perience to become productive and satisfactory employees. Their emo­
tional maturity, responsible attitudes, and steady work habits are
definite assets, increasing their work contributions not only to indi­
vidual employers but to our expanding economy.
A description of one course tailored to help mature women prepare
for office employment follows:
^

The Boston Y.W.C.A., in cooperation with a local secretarial institute,
offers a “personalized” course in Business Skills, which is aimed at mature
women. One class meets in the morning and another in the evening. Both
are scheduled to last 2 hours a day twice a week for 12 weeks. Subjects
taught include typing, filing, general clerical procedures, business English,
and vocabulary building. The course fee is $33.

It should be noted that training programs specifically directed to­
ward mature women are not the only ones in which mature women are
enrolled a« trainees. Many of the programs and courses described in
this bulletin represent good training opportunities for women of all
ages.
OFFICE JOBS WITH PUBLIC CONTACTS

In certain office jobs, an impor­
tant part of the work is the abil­
ity to handle contacts with the
public efficiently and graciously.
To teach women and girls the in­
formation, techniques, and skills
required in some jobs of this type,
formal training programs have
been developed for such occupa­
tions as those of telephone operatore, service representatives, bank
tellers, and library assistants.
Telephone Operators
Telephone operating, numerically the third largest office job for
women, is frequently taught in a formalized manner. The major tele­
phone communications system, which employs almost half of all tele­
phone or switchboard operators, has substantially the same training
procedures for employees of all its numerous affiliates. Illustrative
of these training procedures is the following:
26

p

One telephone system affiliate prefers to hire girls who are high school
graduates and at least 18 years of age to operate its switchboards. Appli­
cants must also pass dexterity and intelligence tests as well as a physical
examination. With the help of an instructor, two girls are trained at a time
at the switchboard where they will be regularly assigned. Initial training
generally takes from 2 to 3 weeks. Further training is given to meet unusual
operating conditions as they are encountered.

In addition to training their own operators, affiliates of the major
telephone system frequently arrange to train telephone operators em­
ployed by their customers. Some large private and public establish­
ments, however, maintain their own telephone training school, as for
example:
^

In the District of Columbia, the General Services Administration conducts
a Telephone Operating course for its new telephone operators. The training,
which usually extends over 40 to 56 hours, consists of group lectures and
individual switchboard instruction.

Upon occasion, a public vocational school conducts a course in
switchboard operation when there is local demand for it.
^

The Miami, Fla., public vocational school which specializes in hotel train­
ing offers two types of courses for switchboard operators. A 3-week course,
open to high school graduates with a good voice, provides basic theory and
practical knowledge in the operation of a commercial switchboard. A longer
course, extending 0 weeks for daytime classes and 8 weeks (24 hours) for
evening classes, includes special information needed for operating a hotel
switchboard. In addition to basic knowledge about switchboard opera I ion,
students learn such duties as filing guests’ names, paging, handling emer­
gency calls, and computing taxes and services charges. For the commercial
course, a $3 materials fee is charged and for the hotel telephone service course,
$5. In addition, all must pay a $2 registration fee and nonresidents a $50
State tuition fee.

Service Representatives
To provide customers with information and assistance when they
make inquiries by telephone, some companies—particularly those spe­
cializing in providing services—have employees called service repre­
sentatives. As this type of customer-liaison job generally requires
detailed knowledge of many company services and operations, large
establishments often give intensive systematic training to these
employees.
^

One of the major telephone system affiliates recruits service representative
trainees from both inside and outside the company, accepting high school
graduates but preferring those with some college training. Initially, three
or four trainees receive 5 weeks of classroom instruction combined with prac­
tice in answering inquiries. This period is followed by 1 month of on-the-job
coaching. Further instruction in handling less common inquiries is given
during the remainder of the first year.
555150°—60-

5

27

A large utility company on the east coast has formal training classes for
telephone-service clerks. A class of six to eight persons engages in practice
work for 3 weeks, learning how to answer customer requests and responding
to prearranged calls.

Bank Tellers

Bank tellers, who continue to include more and more women among
their numbers, have in the past usually been promoted from within
the bank and given informal on-the-job'training in their new posi­
tions. While this procedure still prevails generally, a few banks do
operate a training school of their own or cooperate with local schools
to train students on a part-time basis, as for example:
^

One New York bank provides a 3-week training course for tellers, who
are selected from both inside and outside the bank. Lectures and classroom
discussions held during the first week cover job duties, bank terminology,
and related information. The second week is spent working with currency
in the money department, and the third week reviewing job procedures and
security measures. Afterward, only a short period of window practice
under close supervision is needed.
^
Another large New York bank conducts its own training school, where up
to 3 weeks of training is provided to tellers. While the bank prefers to pro­
mote from within for this job, it will hire trainees from outside when
necessary.
^
A large banking corporation on the west coast has a 3-week training
program for new employees assigned to the position of teller. The basic
duties and procedures of teller work are studied with the aid of a detailed
teller’s guide developed by the company. In addition, supervised practice
at the teller window is combined with practice in x'elated banking work.

Library Assistants

Assistants to professional librarians can be utilized very advan­
tageously in performing such tasks as working at the record desk
with outgoing and incoming books, checking files and sending notices
for overdue books, cataloging books, and sorting books and magazines
according to classification. In order that library assistants can attain
a broad understanding of overall library operations as well as tech­
niques essential to library service, some public vocational schools,
junior colleges, and private schools offer courses in this type of work.
^

The Boston Y.W.C.A. offers a course in Librarianship which covers the
Dewey Decimal System, reference tools, poster making and layouts, book
mending, and special types of literature. A 1%-hour session is given once
a week for 10 weeks. The course, taught by a librarian from the public
library, costs $11.
The Library Assistant curriculum at East Los Angeles Junior College
covers two semesters of study. In addition to an introductory course in

28

library science, classes are offered in the processing of library materials
(including reference materials), and in book ordering procedures. Other
subjects studied include secretarial science, English, history, art, political
science, and psychology.

When large libraries find it difficult to hire trained assistants, they
sometimes conduct a formal training course for inexperienced persons.
SALES WORK

The essential skills and quali­
fications needed in sales work are
rooted in such personal charac­
teristics as poise, emotional
maturity, resourcefulness, initia­
tive, a pleasing personality, good
grooming, ability to meet the
public, and a marked interest
in selling. For persons with
these essential characteristics,
training programs provide infor­
mation on sales techniques and
procedures and also stress the importance of interpersonal relations in
their contacts with the public. As a result, many of the 1 y2 million
women engaged in sales work have participated in some type of
formal ized training program.
Specialized courses in salesmanship and retail selling procedures
are offered by many schools and community organizations—both pub­
lic and private. Such courses provide basic information about job
duties, techniques, and requirements, as well as a good opportunity for
women and girls to determine their suitability for sales work.
Many in-service training programs are conducted by retail em­
ployers. These programs encompass training not only for sales work
but also for related occupations in merchandising (such as buyer or
department head, assistant buyer, and head of stock) and for execu­
tive and supervisory positions. Successful sales experience is fre­
quently the criterion used in the selection of trainees for the more
intensive programs.
Retail Saleswomen
Many private employers provide a limited amount of training
to newly hired salespeople. In addition, numerous schools offer retail
sales training. These schools include public vocational schools, pri­
vate business schools, junior colleges, and universities and colleges.
29

Almost, all universities and colleges offer at least one course in
retailing or marketing. Some maintain a school of retailing or a
department of retailing in tlieir school of business administration.
In these programs, students learn all phases of retailing as prepara­
tion for work in merchandising, sales promotion, personnel adminis­
tration, or store operation. Their 4-year period of study exceeds the
general level of training covered in this report and includes academic
work leading to a bachelor’s degree.
Retailing programs of 2-year colleges are also fairly comprehensive
in their program of study. Intended to make students familiar with
a wide range of retail store operations, they often include courses in
merchandising, buying, advertising, recordkeeping, and supervision.
Particularly valuable training for salesworkers is the public voca­
tional program of “distributive education,” in which students com­
bine classroom study with at least 15 hours of store work per week.
In the classroom, students usually are taught basic facts about dis­
tribution and marketing which may be applied to a wide range of
situations. Their study may cover the kinds of organizations per­
forming distributive functions; various marketing operations such as
buying, selling, and pricing; and other related activities such as ad­
vertising, market research, and customer services. Some time may
also be devoted to personality, grooming, work habits, and attitudes.
Sales courses offered by many private business schools also typically
emphasize the basic principles of salesmanship and personality
development.
The in-service training offered by most department and other large
stores consists of a combination of classroom instruction and on-thejob training. Classroom instruction, which varies in length in differ­
ent stores, is usually presented by a training director or assistant.
The time is spent largely in learning basic selling procedures, the
types and characteristics of stock to be sold, and also store practices
and rules. Subsequent training is generally given through direct
assistance by the immediate supervisor. The total training time is
usually of fairly short duration since it is concentrated mainly on sales
work. However, sales experience is regarded as basic for many other
occupations in the retail industry, and provides the foundation for
more comprehensive in-service training for a great variety of special­
ized and executive positions.
When the public employment office in one State encountered con­
tinued shortages of trained and experienced sales personnel, the fol­
lowing short-term sales course was developed in cooperation with other
community groups:
30

In Arkansas, the Employment Security Division, the Department of Educa­
tion, and the Retail Merchants Association have developed a sales course
which may be given to a minimum of 10 trainees anywhere in the State. The
instructor and classroom facilities are provided by the local school system.
The course, which usually lasts 18 to 20 hours, is generally given in 2-hour
sessions twice a week.

Florist Assistants
Courses for florist assistants are offered by some public vocational
schools and 2-year colleges. In the short courses which have been
developed, students are usually taught how to care for flowers and
plants in florist shops and greenhouses, how to make corsages, how
to wait on customers, and how to make arrangements for delivering
or telegraphing orders. The study of floriculture available in some
2-year colleges is, of course, more extensive and may include such
subjects as nursery, landscaping, and plant protection technology.
Graduates from these programs are qualified for positions as assistants
in nurseries and greenhouses as well as florist shops and often plan to
open their own shops.
An example of a course available at a public vocational school
follows:

k

I^aced by a shortage of trained workers, the Florists Association in Little
Rock, Ark., requested the Employment Security Division to help set up a
course for florist assistants and agreed to furnish training supplies and pay
for additional expenses. Classes, held in the vocational school, are scheduled
five evenings a week for 2 hours each evening and extend over a 3-month
period. The number of students is limited to 15.

Real Estate Agents
Real estate agents or salesmen must be licensed to make real estate
transactions in the District of Columbia and all States except Rhode
Island and New Hampshire. Since the examination set by the licens­
ing board in each State generally includes questions on pertinent State
laws and regulations as well as basic real estate procedures, most pros­
pective agents find it very helpful to take one or more courses in this
field.
Real estate courses are frequently sponsored by local real estate
boards, which are members of the National Association of Real Estate
Boards, and taught by practicing real estate experts. Some private
business schools, colleges, and universities also offer courses in real
estate usually in the evening. Subject matter covered in most courses
includes real estate appraisal, law, financing, principles, practices, and
insurance.
Many women are finding real estate work to be both interesting
and rewarding and are proving that women can be very successful
31

in this field. Their satisfactory job experiences are encouraging other
interested women to obtain the necessary educational preparation for
this type of work.
TECHNICIANS AND CRAFTSWOMEN

Technical jobs, currently ex­
panding at a fast rate in the
scientific and engineering fields,
merit special interest in terms of
available training facilities. Al­
though relatively few women
have engaged in technical work
in the past, the numerous new
job opportunities, the growing
interest in technical jobs on the
part of more women and girls,
and the greater complexity of the Nation’s defense needs—all com­
bine to increase the significance of this field of training for women.
Technicians assist professional engineers and scientists in a wide
variety of jobs. The kind of technical work now being done by
women (excluding those in the medical and dental fields) is prin­
cipally as industrial laboratory technicians, chemical aides, routine
analysts, engineering assistants, and draftswomen. Technicians who
work in the medical and dental fields are discussed in the section on
Nursing and Health Services (pp. 41-47).
Craft workers, who traditionally learn their trade through a
formal training program, include significant numbers of women in
some fields. Foremost among these is cosmetology, where virtually all
the workers are women. Although fewer women are employed at
photography, commercial art, and bindery work, there are sufficient
numbers to indicate women’s interest.
Industrial and Research Laboratory Technicians

Technical education can be obtained primarily in technical insti­
tutes, junior and community colleges, public vocational schools, and
some universities and colleges with a 2-year technical program. Of­
fering a variety of courses in applied science, applied mathematics, and
applied engineering, these schools place emphasis on laboratory and
drafting work in order to familiarize students with techniques and
equipment used in industry.
Technical high schools also offer a broad range of technical subjects
and some public vocational schools and correspondence schools have
such courses as drafting, mechanical drawing, and blueprint reading32

basic skills used in some types of technical jobs. In addition, since
the nature of technical assignments varies widely among industries
and establishments, some employers provide formal training in their
own type of technical work.
^

The industrial research and development center of a private company in
Pennsylvania annually recruits about 15 high school graduates who have
studied chemistry or physics to participate in a 2%-month training program.
Instruction covers such subjects as general laboratory techniques, handling
of equipment and precision instruments, principles of testing, and technical
information about company processes and products. About one-fourth of the
trainees to date have been women.

Engineering Assistants
In order to assist professional engineers with calculations and re­
lated engineering duties of a subprofessional nature, interested persons
may enroll in the same types of schools mentioned in connection with
laboratory technicians, that is, technical institutes, junior and com­
munity colleges, some universities, area vocational schools, and tech­
nical high schools. Also, some employers have found it advantageous
to set up a formal training program to teach persons with an aptitude
for mathematics the elemental and repetitive calculations and duties
previously performed by graduate engineers. The following pro­
grams illustrate training of this type:
^

A utility company in Michigan has established an engineering-clerk pro­

gram to which girl clerks are assigned when additional engineering assist­
ance is needed. During the first 3 weeks, trainees become familiar with
electrical terms, charts, maps, and records used by the engineers as well as
a variety of voltage, circuit, and other computations. The amount of sub­
sequent training, received largely through job performance, varies with each
individual but generally requires at least 1 year before all the numerous tasks
have been learned.
^
A research and engineering company in New Jersey conducts a course for
mathematics clerks as the need arises. The participants are women employees
selected to assist professional engineers tjy doing standard mathematical
calculations. Classes, held during working hours, are given several hours a
week and generally total from 20 to 30 hours.

Draftswomen
Instruction in drafting is available through a number of sources.
Some public vocational or technical high schools, particularly in
large industrial cities, offer one- or two-semester courses in mechan­
ical or architectural drafting. These courses—plus others in such
specialties as electrical or structural drafting—are given also by many
technical institutes, junior and community colleges, universities, pri­
vate trade schools, and correspondence schools. In addition, some
employers have made arrangements for 3- or 4-year apprenticeships,
33

on-the-job training combined with part-time schooling, or formal
in-service training programs.
^

In the aircraft division of a large electrical company, a drafting training
program has been arranged to extend over 2 years. Following “vestibule
training” in a designated part of the office—where trainees learn the funda­
mentals of drafting each trainee receives individual instruction and exper­
ience through typical on-the-job assignments. Supplementary classroom
instruction on company time covers 60 hours of mathematics, 30 hours of
physics, and 60 hours of factory processes and materials. A small number of
women have benefited from this program for which trainees must be high
school graduates and pass tests in verbal reasoning, numerical ability, and
mechanical comprehension.

Photographers
The majority of photographers learn their trade through several
years of on-the-job training. However, photography courses are
ottered by some public vocational schools and private schools. Many
of the latter are commercial art schools but some are special schools
of photography. Although some photographers’ assignments—such
as carrying heavy equipment or working unusual hours for prolonged
periods—are not attractive to women, there are numerous women em­
ployed as portrait photographers or in retouching or coloring work.
Some studios employ photographer apprentices, who work and study
for 3 years under a journeyman photographer, with pay which ad­
vances at regular and stated intervals. Not many women, however,
participate in this type of program.
Commercial Artists
Commercial artists typically receive their training in art schools
or institutes which specialize in teaching commercial and applied art.
Many others learn their trade through practical experience on the job.
Students who enroll in art schools are usually required to be high
school graduates and frequently must submit work samples which
show they have artistic ability. Courses of study in most art schools
extend over 2 or 3 years, but some are longer. In the first year, art
students usually study such fundamentals as perspective, design, color
harmony, composition, and the use of various mediums such as crayon,
pencil, pen, and ink. Among the more advanced courses they study
are advertising layout, lettering, typography, illustration, drawing
from life, and specialized courses of individual interest.
Some public vocational schools offer commercial art courses which
are generally less extensive than the programs of private art schools.
Beauty Operators
Over 1,000 private beauty culture schools and a large number of
public vocational schools provide formal training to beauty opera­
34

tors—a numerically important service job giving employment to al­
most a quarter of a million women. As a license is required for
employment as a beauty operator in all States except Delaware and
Virginia, most women interested in this type of work seek formal
training in cosmetology.
Applicants for a beauty operator license usually must be at least
16 or 18 years of age, have at least 8 or 10 years of formal schooling,
complete an approved cosmetology course, and then pass a State ex­
amination in both the theory and practice of cosmetology. In half the
States, apprenticeship training in a beauty shop—generally a 1- to
2-year program—qualifies an applicant to take an examination for
licensure.
Most cosmetology courses consist of 1,000 to 1,500 hours of instruc­
tion and classroom practice. In private schools and adult educa­
tion schools, the period of training most often takes 6 to 9 months.
However, public trade schools generally incorporate the cosmetology
courses into their 4-year curriculum leading to a vocational high
school diploma. Public vocational school students who satisfy State
board requirements in cosmetology may in some States obtain a
license to practice while still attending school.

Cosmetology is one of the most popular courses offered by public vocational schools.

Bindery Workers
Women who wish to learn how to perform the numerous hand and
machine operations involved in binding a book, magazine, or pam­
phlet may do so by enrolling in a formal apprenticeship program.
The only other way to learn this trade is through informal on-the-job
training.
The work done by women bindery workers covers a diversity of
binding operations as, for example, banding, tipping, stripping, inter­
leaving, gumming, and the operation of punching, sewing, round
cornering, stapling, and perforating machines. Some large em­
ployers therefore, prefer to train each bindery woman in only a few
operations and, thereby, limit the training period to a few months or
more.
In union shops, however, women apprentices receive all-round
training in all phases of the work in accordance with a formally
scheduled program. Classroom instruction and on-the-job training
are combined throughout the apprenticeship period, which usually
lasts 2 years.
INDUSTRIAL WORK

Of the approximately 3 mil­
lion women engaged in factory
production work, large numbers
are employed in the apparel, tex­
tile, electrical machinery, and
transportation equipment indus­
tries. It is not surprising,
therefore, that the majority of
industrial training classes lo-.
cated during the study were
found to be preparing women
for production work in these
industries.
Preemployment courses leading to industrial work are offered
by some public vocational and trade schools. Generally, these in­
dustrial classes are established in response to local job needs and
community interests. For example, courses in textile operations have
been set up by some public vocational schools in New England and
the South, and courses in airplane production and petroleum process­
ing by some vocational schools in California.
Most private employers are motivated to establish formal training
procedures for newly hired women production workers only in times
of emergency. When this is nationwide, as during wartime, initial
36

training programs are established by many employers. But. if the
shortage of women workers exists just in certain jobs and certain
localities, relatively small numbers of training programs of the type
under study are conducted in private industry.
Needle Trades and Textiles
Women’s employment in apparel and textile establishments covers
a large number of occupations but centers around sewing-machine
operators in apparel shops and spinners and weavers in textile plants.
Although many women learn these operations informally on the job,
formal training procedures have long been developed for these trades.
Courses leading to employment in all three occupations are offered
in some public schools.
Among all trades and industrial classes in public vocational schools
throughout the country, the largest enrollment of women—about
24,000 in 1958-59—was in classes for dressmakers and sewing-machine
operators. In the case of many publicly operated courses for sewingmachine operators, the initial request came from a community group
outside the school, such as a union, an employer’s association, or the
public employment office. Following are descriptions of several
community training projects operated under joint sponsorship.
^

In Philadelphia, a 4- to 6-week course for sewing-machine operators was
jointly established in 1954. Initial cost of the sewing machines used in
training was shared by the union and employer associations. Instruc­
tion and classroom facilities are provided by the public school system.
Testing and selection of applicants are done by the public employment serv­
ice, which also works with the union and employers in the final placement
of graduates. The course is offered continuously except when the school
is closed in summer. It is estimated that 75 percent of the women entering
the course stay to finish and that 90 percent of the graduates are placed
in jobs.

k employers to of sewing-machine operators in Denver in 1951 aprompted given
A shortage ask the adult education school to reinstate course local
during World War II. The school agreed to provide instruction and class­
room facilities. The employers offered to lend the school modern sewing
machines and also to make arrangements for publicizing the course. In
classes held daily for 6 to 8 weeks, trainees are allowed to progress at
their own individual pace.
^
When a shortage of sewing-machine operators persisted in Troy, N.Y.,
the public employment office developed a training course in 1956 in coopera­
tion with the board of education, the chamber of commerce, local garment
manufacturers, and garment unions. A local businessman (engaged in
repairing and selling sewing machines) offered the necessary space and
equipment and agreed to be course instructor. Applicants were referred
to the course by the employment service and the local school. A total of
170 women received training on 2 evenings a week for 10 weeks—until the

37

course was discontinued in the fall of 1958 because of a lack of interested
trainees. Since the demand for operators continues, the course may be
resumed in the future.

In addition to the industrial classes for weavers and spinners
available in a few public vocational schools, private employers upon
occasion also offer formal training for this work, as shown in the
following example:
^

A textile manufacturer in the South maintains a weaver learners school
at which attendance is free to the public. The school has facilities for
about 14 to 16 weaver learners at a time, and instruction is given continu­
ously throughout the year on an individual basis. After 3 weeks (120
hours) of instruction and practice, women and men with suitable aptitudes
and skills are hired by the textile manufacturer. It is estimated that
women comprise 16 percent of the trainees and that 90 percent of them
finish their training and are offered jobs.

Electronic and Electrical Equipment

With more women employees than any other industry manufactur­
ing durable goods, the electronics and electrical equipment industry
frequently offers formal training to its inexperienced women workers.
This is particularly true when large numbers of women are hired for
production-line operations. However, many electrical companies re­
port that when sufficient numbers of experienced employees are on
hand, they need to hire only occasionally a few women without ex­
perience. These women are usually given individual on-the-job in­
struction of short duration in simple operations such as assembling
small parts, wiring, soldering, testing, inspecting, or operating light
machines.
Following are reports of a few programs offering a formal period
of instruction for production-line work on electrical equipment.
^

At one Ohio plant of a large electronics company, a 3-da,y program of vesti­
bule training in assembly skills is given to groups of 25 women. A full-time
training instructor demonstrates the proper methods of crimping and solder­
ing and then lets the women practice on a moving belt in a special part of
the plant. During 1959, about 225 women were formally trained in the
vestibule school.
^
The radio division of an eastern aviation company has established a 3-day
training program which is utilized when necessary to teach women how to
wire and solder. Groups of 10 to 30 women, who receive instruction in a
special training area of the plant, are paid the regular wage for beginning as­
semblers and wirers.
In 1957, a Baltimore local of the International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers, AFL-CIO, presented a 10-week course to 2 groups of union members
employed at the local plant of a large manufacturer of electrical equipment.
Each group of 40 men and women attended class 2 hours a week and received
information about wiring and assembly manufacturing methods and pro­

38

cedures. After passing a comprehensive final examination, 50 members—in­
cluding 33 women—received certificates of graduation.
The electrical equipment division of an automobile firm in Michigan con­
ducts a basic inspection course for bench inspectors as needed. From 10
to 20 women employees meet for 9 sessions of 1 ',4 hours each to learn about
instruments used in precision measurements, plant engineering processes,
basic arithmetic calculations, and inspection procedures.
With the movement of electronics-assembly plants into the Denver area,
the adult education school in that city arranged a 60-hour course to train
production-line workers in cabling, wiring, and soldering techniques. When
the course was conducted in 1959, over 60 women took it and were placed in
jobs. As hiring for this type of work then became slow, the course was not
offered the next year but can be reinstated wrhen needed.

Airplane Manufacturing
While on-the-job training prevails extensively in airplane manufac­
turing companies as elsewhere in industry, probably a greater number
of formal in-plant training programs are conducted in this industry
than any other. The rapid expansion which took place in the aircraft
manufacturing industry in the past decade created a widespread de­
mand for new workers—largely in jobs with special skill requirements.
As few experienced workers were available, airplane manufacturers
established their own training facilities—frequently on a formal
basis. While many of their training programs were opened to both
men and women, the numbers of women trainees have been highest in
courses covering subassembly work, riveting, wiring, sealing, and
inspecting.
Formal courses in airplane production work are offered by some
public vocational schools—principally in areas where there are numer­
ous aircraft plants— as well as by many aircraft manufacturers them­
selves. However, as the amount of initial training offered by em­
ployers varies with their number of new hires, there is relatively little
training of this type during periods when numerous aircraft workers
are on layoff status and most hiring is actually rehiring.
Descriptions of a few programs reported by airplane manufacturers
illustrate the kind of training available to women workers in this
industry:
^

For the past 8 years, an aircraft manufacturer in California has offered a

2-week (80 hours) course for electronic assemblers. Entrance tests are given
for finger dexterity and general ability. Women who pass receive a combina­
tion of classroom instruction and practice at special assembly stations set
aside for the training school. Basic assembly skills taught include the use
of tools, mechanical assembly, wire preparation, wrapping of wires and com­
ponent leads, soldering, and harness assembly.
^
Another major aircraft plant on the west coast offers employees a broad
range of formal training courses. Those providing women with at least 80
hours’ instruction include courses for electronics assemblers, aircraft sealers,

39

riveters, and inspectors. Although the number of women trained in 1059 was
small compared with some previous years, each course is utilized whenever
necessary.
A Maryland aircraft manufacturer has women trainees in many of the
formal courses offered on company time. Of particular interest to women are
the 80-hour course in tank sealing and the 160-hour course in manufacturing
inspection.
A Connecticut aircraft corporation enrolled women employees in an aircraft
electrical wiring course offered in 1958. Instruction, which covered funda­
mentals of electricity, soldering, wiring, and assembly work, was given during
1%-hour sessions once a week for 12 weeks. The course will be offered again
if necessary.
An aviation company in New York State reported that during a recent
4-month period it trained 80 women workers in a special course on soldering
miniature aircraft connectors. Work techniques included the use of con­
ventional soldering irons and soldering through induction heating.

■

mm
A company instructor shows trainees how to assemble an electrical wiring panel for an
airplane.

40

NURSING AND HEALTH SERVICES

With the current shortages of
health workers, women and girls
interested in nursing and health
services are being offered many
opportunities to prepare for the
numerous occupations in this
field. Traditionally attractive to
women, nursing and health occu­
pations are now estimated to pro­
vide jobs for over a million
women workers. The strong
demand for additional workers is expected to continue with our popula­
tion growth and with the widespread public interest in good health and
the prevention of illness.
Formal training is well-established for such health workers as reg­
istered nurses, dental hygienists, and X-ray technicians but is fairly
new for practical nurses and not very widely developed for medical
laboratory workers or medical and dental assistants. Most nursing
aides and other auxiliary nursing workers still receive their training
on the job in an informal manner. Nevertheless, developments in the
past few decades indicate that the trend in the health field is toward
more formalized training and the requirement of a license for em­
ployment in many occupations.
Professional Nurses
Those wishing to practice professional nursing within a State must
obtain a State nursing license. In order to be licensed, a nurse must
have graduated from a school approved by the State board of nursing
and must pass a State board examination.
Some colleges and universities have nursing programs which require
4 years of study and lead to a baccalaureate degree. This type of pro­
gram prepares nurses for administration, supervision, teaching, and
for public health work, as well as for bedside nursing. Since the
period of formal education is longer and on a higher academic level
than the other training covered by this study, the baccalaureate-degree
program is not discussed further in this report.
Most nursing schools are operated by hospitals. These schools offer
a 3-year training program and grant a diploma at graduation.2
2 Names and addresses of the more than 1,000 State-approved schools of professional
nursing may be obtained from the Committee on Careers, National League for Nursing,
10 Columbus Circle, New York 19, N.Y.

41

Another and newer way to prepare for professional nursing is to
enroll in an associate-degree nursing program offered by some junior
and community colleges and lasting approximately 2 years. Along
with general education subjects, these shorter programs have consol­
idated nursing courses and have a minimum of repetitive nursing
practice.
All nursing schools require applicants to be high school graduates
and some specify courses in high school science and mathematics.
Usually the minimum age for entrance is 17 years and the maximum
is 35 years, but the latter is sometimes waived.
Nursing preparation offered both by hospital schools and 2-year
colleges includes classroom study and actual nursing practice. In
the classroom sessions, usually held during the first few months of
training, nursing students learn the fundamentals of such subjects
as anatomy, physiology, microbiology, nutrition, psychology, and
basic nursing care. During the subsequent period of practice train­
ing, students are assigned to various hospital services to learn how
to take care of different types of patients.
Training costs are generally moderate for nursing students. In
many hospital schools, the nursing services performed during practice
training compensate for part of the training costs. At junior and
community colleges maintained by public taxes, tuition fees are usually
nominal.
Refresher Training for Graduate Nurses

When graduate nurses return to active practice after not working
at their profession for several years, they generally find it necessary
to refresh their skills and to be brought up to date regarding new
drugs and current nursing practices. Many hospitals retrain these
nurses informally on the job. Others, however, consider this pro­
cedure hard both on their busy staff and on incoming nurses and
prefer to set up a formal refresher course.
^

At one Maryland hospital, a nurse refresher course has been offered to the
public since 1954. Tuition is free; students must be graduate nurses. Five
classes are offered a year, with a maximum of eight students per class.
Training is given 6 hours a day on 3 days a week for 6 weeks. Lunch and
laundering of uniforms are provided without charge. Students are not
required to work at the hospital upon completion of the course but are ex­
pected to return to nursing.

Some universities and colleges have included a refresher course for
graduate nurses in their curriculum. Illustrative of these are the
following:
^

42

The University of Washington in Seattle has offered a refresher course in
nursing twice a year since 1957. Lasting for 4 weeks, the course is given 3

days a week and consists of 2 hours of classroom work and 4 hours of prac­
tice work per day. Practice work is performed at one of six cooperating
hospitals in the area. From 15 to 20 women are enrolled in each class. The
course, which has a $15 fee, is open to graduate nurses eligible for licensure
in the State of Washington.
The East Los Angeles Junior College offers a refresher course on Current
Trends and Practices in Nursing in cooperation with the Los Angeles County
General Hospital. The course is given 10 hours a week for 18 weeks. The
first 3 weeks consist of classroom study: the next 6 weeks, of lectures and
demonstrations; and the last 9 weeks, of practice in bedside care. Open to
registered nurses, the course has a $6.50 registration fee.

Practical Nurses
To obtain a job as a practical nurse today, it is usually necessary to
have completed a formal course in practical nursing. This require­
ment, developed largely in the last few decades, is a definite improve­
ment over the informal instruction previously received by practical
nurses, as they are now prepared for a wide variety of nursing services.
Of approximately 580 practical nurse training programs currently
accredited by State boards of nursing, over half are operated by
public-school systems, usually as part of a vocational school or adult
education program. Most of the remaining courses in practical nurs­
ing are under the auspices of hospitals, health agencies, junior colleges
and universities, or community organizations.3 At those private
schools which charge a tuition fee, the amount is usually about $50
to $100 a year.
Applicants to practical nursing courses are generally required to
have completed at least 2 years of high school or the equivalent if they
are under 25 years of age or to have graduated from grammar school
if they are 25 years of age or over. Those between the ages of 18 and
50 years are usually preferred.
Most practical nursing courses are 1 year in duration but training
periods range from 9 to 18 months. Training includes both class­
room study of basic skills and supervised practice in applying these
skills in a hospital. After completing a training program approved
by a State board of nursing and passing a State examination, prac­
tical nurses may obtain a State license. At present, every State and
the District of Columbia provides for the licensing of practical nurses.
Although persons employed as nurse aides are generally given
informal on-the-job training, some courses have been developed for
this group of workers. A description of one formal training pro­
gram for nurse aides follows:
s Information about State-approved practical nursing courses is available from the
Committee on Careers, National League for Nursing, 10 Columbus Circle, New York 19,

43

The Welfare Rehabilitation Service of the Cook County (111.) Department
of Welfare has developed several programs to prepare for employment per­
sons who are receiving public assistance. Requirements for those enrolled
in the Hospital Training Program are that they be between 18 and 50 years
of age, in good health, have some high school education, and pass an aptitude
test. The first week of the 4-week course is an orientation period with dis­
cussions of job duties, attitudes, and ethics. During the second week, stu­
dents take the regular Red Cross course for nurse aides and hospital attend­
ants. The last 2 weeks are spent in a cooperating hospital or health agency
working under close supervision. On the average, 15 nurse aids are trained
every 6 weeks.

Medical and Dental Assistants

In order to teach the skills and related information needed by as­
sistants in doctors’ or dentists’ offices and in laboratories or other
departments of hospitals, some schools and employers are now estab­
lishing formal training courses or programs. Not long ago, virtually
all training for this type of work was gained through job experience.
Now, courses for medical assistants and dental assistants have been
added to the curriculum of a number of public vocational schools, jun­
ior colleges, and university dental schools. Indicative of the demand
for trained health assistants is the fact that at least one public voca­
tional school is now planning a program to train assistants for occu­
pational therapists.
To help increase the supply of trained dental assistants, the Com­
mittee on Education of the American Dental Assistants Association
has developed an extension study course which can be given by its
local chapters with dentists acting as instructors. The course,
planned for 2-hour sessions to be held once or twice a week, covers
a minimum of 104 hours. Study course outlines and an instructor’s
bulletin have been prepared by the Association and cover such subjects
as laboratory and chair assistance, patient education, dental anatomy
and physiology, office management, and recordkeeping.4
As the demand for trained health workers continues to grow, addi­
tional new programs are expected to be organized in the future. Ex­
amples of two current programs for health assistants follow:
^

In Springfield, Mass., a medical-assistants course given by the public trade
school since 1040 was recently expanded with the cooperation of a private
hospital to become a “hospital-externship program.” In the 1-year posthigh school course, the first 5 months are spent in classwork at the trade
school, studying medical techniques plus such courses as anatomy, chemistry,

* Information about the extension study courses as well as about approved 1- and 2-year
courses can be obtained from the American Dental Assistants Association at 410 First
National Bank Building, La Porte, Ind.

44

nutrition, medical terminology, and office procedures. During the remaining
time, the class (maximum of 25 girls) divides in half and alternates 2 weeks
of hospital practice work with 2 weeks of classroom study. The nurse in­
structor employed by the trade school also coordinates and supervises hospital
assignments.
At the request of the local dental society, the vocational adult evening
school in Fort Wayne, Ind., 2 years ago established a course for dental
assistants. Open to all high school graduates, the course begins in September
and is held for 2 hours an evening twice a week during the school year (36
weeks). Instruction is divided among three local dentists and a dental
assistant. The $75 registration fee covers textbooks and supplementary
materials.

Dental Hygienists
Graduation from a dental hygiene school is required before taking
a licensing examination in all of the States except two (Alabama and
Georgia). A license to practice as a dental hygienist is needed in
each State.
Training is available in 34 schools accredited by the Council on
Dental Education of the American Dental Association.5 Of these
schools, 25 are associated with dental programs of universities and
the other 9 are affiliated with institutes, colleges, or universities which
do not have a dental school.
Women only are admitted to accredited schools of dental hygiene.
They must be high school graduates and must usually have studied
certain subjects, such as mathematics, biology, and chemistry. Age
requirements for entry are flexible but usually range from a minimum
of 17 to 21 years to a maximum of about 35 years.
Most dental hygiene schools offer a 2-year course leading to a
diploma or certificate. About a third of the schools have a 4-year
program, from which graduates receive a bachelor’s degree with a
major in dental hygiene. Tuition fees and other school costs (ex­
cluding living costs) were recently estimated to average about $1,200
for a 2-year course. To help pay these fees, a number of scholarships
and loans are available from schools, Government, and private
organizations.
Medical Laboratory Workers

Many technical institutes, junior colleges, and universities offer the
kinds of technical courses needed by those who perform many tests,
blood counts, and related tasks in assisting medical scientists, tech­
nologists, and physicians in their work. Examples of such technical
5 Names of the schools may be obtained from their office at 222 East Superior St.,
Chicago 11, 111.

45

Subjects are biochemistry, bacteriology, hematology (blood analysis),
histologic technic (tissue preparation), urinalysis, and basal metabo­
lism. Usually medical laboratory work requires at least 1 or 2 years
of technical training in addition to the completion of a high school
education.
-Job duties and training requirements are changing in the field of
medical laboratory work. At the present time, a registered medical
technologist is required to have 2 years of approved college courses
and 1 year in an accredited school of medical technology. Beginning
in January 1962, the period of college study will be raised to 3 years.
In cancer detection work, requirements for the certificate in Exfolia­
tive Cytology (offered by the American Society of Clinical Patholo­
gists) were recently raised to 2 years of college work, including a
specified number of courses in biology and chemistry, plus 6 months
of study in cytology and 6 months of specialized training in an ap­
proved laboratory.
Advances in medical knowledge and practice are increasing the use
of laboratory tests in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The
resulting demand for trained laboratory workers is increasing the
need for additional training facilities and programs. In addition to
the types of schools previously mentioned, some training programs
for medical laboratory assistants and technicians have been estab­
lished in private industry and government. Illustrative of these is
the following:

y

In the an in-service training program for new technical of Laboratories
conducts Maryland State Department of Health, the Bureauemployees. The
length of training varies with each employee’s previous training and experi­
ence but averages about 3 months for some bacteriological and chemical
assistants and from 6 to 8 months for others in higher skilled jobs. About
half the technical staff are women.

X-Ray Technicians

Training programs for X-ray technicians are offered by more than
600 medical and hospital schools approved by the Council on Medical
Education and Hospitals of the American Medical Association.15
These schools combine classroom instruction and practical experience
under qualified radiological and technical supervision.
To enter any of the approved schools, students must be at least a
high school graduate. In a few schools, as much as 2 years of college
training or registered nurse status is required as a prerequisite. Ap­
plicants must generally be between 18 and 35 years of age.
0 Information about approved schools may be obtained from the above council at 535
North Dearborn St., Chicago 10. 111., or from the American Society of X-Ray Technicians,
16 Fourteenth St., Fond du Rac, Wis.

46

The majority of approved courses in X-ray technology last 2 years;
others vary from 1-year courses to 4-year degree-granting programs.
Very recently, the requirements for taking the examination prior to
becoming a registered X-ray technician were changed. Now the 2
years of training and experience required must all be under the direc­
tion of a professional radiologist, and no credit will be given for
experience under a nonradiologist.
Most approved hospital schools do not have a tuition fee but rather
provide a stipend to students for services performed during their
period of practice training. Schools which do charge tuition usually
set modest fees ranging up to $150 for the complete program. How­
ever, college-affiliated schools granting degrees generally require the
payment of regular tuition fees.
HOUSEKEEPING AND FOOD SERVICES

In the industries which provide
housekeeping and food services
to the public, large numbers of
women are employed in a wide
range of occupations and skill
levels. Some of these occupa­
tions, such as institutional house­
keeping and commercial cooking,
require a considerable amount of
skill, responsibility, and, conse­
quently, training. On the other
hand, jobs such as hotel maid and kitchen helper are at the lower
end of the skill range and do not require extensive training.
In the past, training received by almost all housekeeping and foodservice workers has, with few exceptions, consisted of informal instruc­
tion or experience on the job. The value of preemployment training
is now becoming fairly well recognized in the case of those occupa­
tions requiring a considerable amount of skill. Many other service
jobs, however, also have skills which can be advantageously developed
by formalized instruction.
As the public-housekeeping and food-service industries continue to
expand, the desirability of having a well-trained work force is being
realized more keenly. To help provide the trained workers needed,
numerous schools, employer associations, employers, and community
organizations are being stimulated to set up formal training programs
for such positions as institutional housekeeper, hotel maid, waitress,
food-trades worker, and commercial cook.
47

Institutional Housekeepers

Although there are still limited numbers of training facilities avail­
able to prepare women to become institutional housekeepers, more are
expected along with increasing public awareness that this field offers
women, particularly mature women, an interesting and rewarding
career. The scope of duties and level of responsibility required of
an institutional housekeeper are reflected in the subject matter covered
in most training programs. Courses usually provide instruction in
housekeeping procedures, bulk purchases, budgeting, interior deco­
rating, the use and care of equipment and fabrics, sanitation, employee
training, and supervision. As hospital housekeepers are given re­
sponsibilities for many of the housekeeping duties formerly handled
by nurses, there is additional realization of the importance of this
type of work and the need for more training facilities.
Comprehensive programs in institutional housekeeping and house­
hold management are offered by some 2-year colleges and private
schools. Graduates of these programs are usually qualified for such
fairly responsible positions as assistant housekeepers or managers of
institutions or residences.
Some public school systems also have courses in institutional house­
keeping. Many of these cottrses are fairly short and are presented
largely to stimulate interest in this field of employment and to ac­
quaint students with the various types of work assignments and skills
required. Women who complete these courses often become linenroom attendants or motel operators. A few have been selected for a
housekeeping internship in a hospital or hotel.
Examples of some preemployment programs and courses in insti­
tutional housekeeping follow:
^

In Washington, D.C., the Hannah Harrison School, a privately endowed

organization administered by the local Y.W.C.A., has offered a course in
institutional housekeeping every September since the school opened in 1950.
Designed to prepare students for professional housekeeping positions, the
program lasts 9 months and includes 1 month of internship in a loeal hos­
pital. The school does not charge for tuition, room, or board. Women be­
tween the ages of 25 and 55 who have at least 2 years of high school education
or its equivalent are qualified to take the entrance tests.
^
At the Emily Griffith Opportunity School in Denver, special facilities
equipped with furniture, fixtures, and supplies associated with hotel and
hospital cleaning have been provided for courses taught by executives of local
hotels and hospitals. A short course, called Basic Housekeeping, is given
for 8 weeks in 2-hour sessions one evening a week and provides instruction
and practice in the techniques of institutional housecleaning. Only those
considered qualified to train for executive housekeeping positions in hotels
or hospitals are admitted to the Executive Housekeeping course, which is
held 2 hours an evening twice weekly and lasts two semesters. A third course

48

in Office Management and Front Office Training is open to those interested
in hotel work.

y

A private trade school in Washington, D.C., offers a 4-month course in hotel
training. Courses, divided into three parts, cover “front of house,” “back of
house,” and “management and executive work.” The $350 tuition fee includes
instruction, textbooks, demonstration materials, and placement service. Many
women graduates obtain employment as hotel housekeepers or front-office
clerks.

Upon occasion, experienced housekeepers are instrumental in setting
up courses in public housekeeping. As these courses are usually quite
short, they also emphasize primarily the scope and variety of inter­
esting positions in the housekeeping field. Illustrative of these courses
are the following:
►

The local Altrusa Club in Lansing, Mich., cooperates with the board of

education in conducting a course for executive housekeepers. Classes meet
for 3 hours once a week in the high school and at various area institutions.
3 he class coordinator, a member of the local club, is also the executive house­
keeper at the State university.
^
Tll° Department, of Agriculture Graduate School in the District of Columbia
has an evening course in institutional housekeeping. The 2-hour classes are
held once a week for 16 weeks. Basic information in hotel and hospital
housekeeping is provided by two members of the National Executive House­
keepers’ Association.
.

Internships in housekeeping positions have been established in sev­
eral hotels and hospitals around the country. A fairly new intern
program for housekeeping and executive management positions is
sponsored by the Statler Foundation. A financial award of $1,000
is provided for an internship in a cooperating hotel to a girl or boy
graduating from each of certain approved vocational high schools.
Those eligible must have studied home economics, business manage­
ment, and other courses of value to the hotel industry.7 An example of
a hospital internship in housekeeping work follows:
^

In Paterson, N.J., a course in hospital housekeeping is sponsored by the
local board of education and the Passaic County Hospital Administrators
Association. During the first semester (17 weeks), 2-hour classes are held
2 nights a week. Following this, a student spends full time for 6 months as
a housekeeping intern in an approved hospital at a salary. There is a $5
registration fee for the course. Although preference is given to local resi­
dents, all high school graduates at least 25 years of age are eligible to apply
for training.

Indicative of the rising interest in formalized training for institu­
tional housekeeping are courses now being offered by some colleges and
universities. In some cases, these are short courses given primarily for
persons already in the field. But a few universities, such as the Uni7 Information about the Intern program may be obtained from the American Hotel
Association, 221 West 57th St., New York 19, N.Y.

49

versify of Washington, now grant a bachelor’s degree with a major in
institutional housekeeping.
Hofei Maids and Other Workers
Public vocational schools in or near resort areas with recurring
demand for large numbers of hotel workers are most likely to offer
special courses in hotel work. These courses may provide training
for such jobs as hotel maid, linen-room attendant, houseman, switch­
board operator, front-office clerk, or operator of hotel posting and
auditing machines.
^

In Miami, Fla., the Lindsey Hopkins Vocational School operates a hotel in
conjunction with the school for training purposes. Instruction includes both
classroom work and actual practice. Courses last 4 weeks each for hotel
maids and linen-room attendants and 8 weeks for women front-office clerks.
In addition to nominal materials fees and a $2 registration fee required of all,
nonresidents must pay a $50 State tuition fee.

Training provided by a private trade school in Washington, D.C., as
described under institutional housekeeping, is similar for all students,
whether interested in hotel housekeeping or other types of hotel work.
Waitresses
The largest service occupation for women outside of private house­
holds is that of waitress. Most of the estimated 750,000 waitresses
have received their instruction on the job but some have participated
in the fairly new training courses being offered in various parts of the
country. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that for many of these
courses extensive training manuals are being developed and are avail­
able to others interested in developing waitress-training programs.
Waitress training is usually provided through instruction, demon­
stration, and practice. The duties and subject matter covered include
setting up tables, studying menu items, taking orders, writing checks,
making change, stacking trays, giving attention to appearance, and
establishing good customer relations.
A few public vocational schools have developed courses for wait­
resses, usually because of a local shortage of trained workers. Descrip­
tion of a situation of this type follows:

y

50

In Denver, courses in waitress, cashier, and hostess training were devel­
oped at the adult-education school in response to requests from restaurant
owners. The women trainees all receive 8 weeks of waitress training and
those who wish may also enroll for 4 weeks of cashier training and 4
weeks of hostess training. Classes are held for 5 hours a day, 5 days a
week. Each day, for 1 hour, there is lecture and discussion, and then for
4 hours practice training in the school dining room, serving lunch to
faculty and students. Course applicants must be at least 16 years old
and must have a personal interview to determine their suitability.

In a few States, the department of education cooperates with the
restaurant association to provide a Statewide program of waitress
training. Mostly, these are “extension” training programs for
employees already in the occupation. An example of preemployment
training offered by a State restaurant association follows:
^

In Boston, two separate classes are started each February for college
and high school girls planning to wait on tables during the summer.

Each

y2

class, weeks. The cost of the course is 1 and includes assistance in
hours) a week
for 10with a maximum of 35 girls, is held $10evening (1
writing to resort employers for jobs. The Massachusetts Restaurant Asso­
ciation has sole responsibility for the program, which was originally started
with the Massachusetts Department of Education. The Association is hoping
to set up a course in Springfield in the future.

A combined training program for waitresses, hostesses, and cashiers
is jointly sponsored in Washington, D.C.
^

The Washington Restaurant Association and the Board of Education
conduct a training course which has been offered continuously since 1940.
About 9 to 10 free courses, held both in the morning and the evening, are
conducted each year. Trainees attend for 2 hours a day, 5 days a week,
during a 4-week period. The training consists of 2 weeks of instruction
related to waiting on tables; 1 week, to hostessing; and 1 week, to cashier­
ing. The Association selects the trainees, tries to find jobs for them, and
also provides the training facilities; the Board of Education develops the
course of study and pays the instructor’s salary.

Waitress training provided by individual restaurant or hotel em­
ployers is generally on-the-job training. In some instances, however,
a large establishment may conduct a formal program, such as the
following:
^

A company which operates restaurants in several large cities has a
2-week training program for all newly hired waitresses. During the first
week, trainees receive classroom instruction and assist in clearing tables.
The second week includes class work plus waitress service for two small
tables.

Food-trades Workers
The term “food-trades workers,” as used primarily by vocational
educators, refers to workers engaged in food preparation and serv­
ice. Women trained as food-trades workers are the fourth largest
group in trade and industrial classes of public vocational schools
in the country. Many of these schools, as well as some junior col­
leges and private technical institutes, have a well-rounded program
of food-trades instruction lasting 2 years.8
8 Names of public and private trade schools offering training in the quantity food field
may be obtained from the National Council on Hotel and Restaurant Education, 777 14th
St. NW., Washington 5, D.C.

51

.■

■

Students in food-service courses learn serving duties and procedures for cafeteria work.

Classes in food preparation generally cover large scale preparation
and cooking of a variety of foods, such as soups, meats, poultry, fish,
vegetables, salads, breads, pastries, and desserts. Also studied are
the arrangement and care of equipment in commercial or institutional
kitchens, serving rooms, and dining rooms. In addition, trainees
learn standard serving practices as well as such related subjects as
business procedures, arithmetic, and ethics. Usually a major portion
of the training for food-trades workers is spent in practice work.
Vocational schools are required to work closely with a local advi­
sory committee of labor and management representatives from the
food service industry to assure that the training provided is useful
for local employment. Illustrative of a public vocational course in
food trades is the following:
^

A three-semester program of study in Food Preparation and Service is
open to boys and girls at the Central Dauphin High School in Harrisburg,
Pa. The Restaurant and Cafeteria Course, which lasts 2 semesters, pro­
vides 405 hours of instruction in preparing basic foods sold in restaurants
and cafeterias and includes information on equipment, labor laws, and busi­
ness practices. The 1-semester Soda and Luncheonette Course includes 202
hours in the study and preparation of such soda fountain items as beverages,
sandwiches, salads, and desserts.

Food-service courses are offered upon occasion by other groups such
as a public welfare department, as described below:
^

52

As part of its training program for public-assistance recipients, the Cook
County (111.) Department of Welfare conducts a 4-week Food Service Pro-

gram. Men and women between the ages of 18 and 50 and in good health
are trained for work as general helpers in cafeterias and restaurants. Dur­
ing the first week of training, they are oriented regarding job duties, atti­
tudes, and ethics. The second week they receive training from a cafeteria
manager in such duties as preparing salads and simple desserts, cleaning
vegetables, and serving from steam fables. The remaining time is spent on
the job working under close supervision in a cooperating cafeteria.

Commercial Cooks
N mMorons public vocational schools oiler courses in commercial
cooking. Both girls and boys are enrolled in these courses. A few
pi ivate trade schools also provide training for commercial cooks,
usually lasting from 1 to 2 years. In addition, some food-service
employers and employer associations have developed formal training
for cooks, A report on one association program follows:

V

Tlle Massachusetts Restaurant Association, in response to local requests,
has conducted evening courses in basic commercial cooking in Boston,
M orcester, and Springfield. The 10-week demonstration course is held 1
night a week for 214 hours. The students are principally men and women
employees of member companies, but outsiders are also admitted. A 30-hour
advanced course in commercial baking and cooking has also been given in
Boston and is expected to be held elsewhere in the State.

Students learn the fundamentals of quantity food preparation.

MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES

In addition to health, public­
housekeeping, and food-service
activities, there are many other
service occupations in which
women are employed. These in­
clude such occupations as airline
stewardess, nursery assistant,
home companion, private-house­
hold worker, and cleaner and
presser. Altogether in service
occupations, there are approxi­
mately 5 million women, of
whom 3 million are employed outside private households.
Only a relatively small number of women service workers—aside
from those mentioned in previous sections—typically receive formal­
ized training to prepare them for paid employment, The major
exception among service workers not discussed earlier is the airline
stewardess.
Forother miscellaneous service occupations, a few
courses and programs are offered by some schools, public agencies,
and women’s organizations.
Stewardesses

Formal training is required of all girls who wish to become airl ine
stewardesses. Most large airlines operate a central training school,
which is free to those who satisfy fairly strict specifications and are
selected for employment. These specifications generally require that
applicants for stewardess positions be attractive, poised, and resource­
ful; 20 to 27 years of age; unmarried; and at least a high school
graduate. Some airlines also require 2 years of college study or
equivalent business experience and, in the case of those lines flying
outside the country, fluency in an appropriate foreign language.
Training time in the stewardess schools operated by airline com­
panies typically lasts from 3 to 51/2 weeks. Students receive not only
free training but usually free transportation to and from the school,
room, board, and a small expense allowance. Subjects studied at the
training center cover airline operations, flight duties, aircraft service
equipment, geography, customer relations, and good grooming.
Practice work is carried on in classrooms which resemble airplane
cabins and galleys, as well as in practice flights taken near the end of
the training period. Illustrative of the type of training ollered by
private airlines is the following:
54

►

One large airline maintains its own Stewardess College, which continually
has three overlapping classes of no more than 50 trainees each. The company
pays all of the trainees’ expenses: tuition, room, meals, and transportation.
Training, which covers all the basic information needed by stewardesses,
lasts 5% weeks. Requirements for applicants are: single, 20 to 26 years old,
height between 5 feet 3 inches and 5 feet 8 inches, weight in proportion to
height with 135 pounds maximum, 20/50 vision or better without glasses, a
high school graduate, in good health, and attractive.

Several private schools specialize in offering training to steward­
esses and other airline personnel. The tuition fees of these schools
approximate $225 to $300 and include the cost of training materials
and field trips. Day courses usually last 6 to 8 weeks, and night
courses 12 to 30 weeks. Instruction generally covers the same subject
matter provided in company-operated schools.
Private schools cannot guarantee employment after graduation but
do assist students in obtaining interviews with airlines. Although
most private schools have entrance requirements for stewardesses
which resemble those set by airlines, it is important that prospective
students check airline requirements for themselves before enrolling
in a private school.
Homemakers or Companions

Training courses are offered in some localities to mature women
who are interested in assisting families in which there is a working
mother, a widower, or an invalid who does not require the services of
a practical nurse. Sometimes, homemakers visit several families a
few hours each day; often arrangements are made for home com­
panions to reside with the family who employs them.
A few local school systems include a course for home companions
or home managers in their curriculum. In some areas, the course is
sponsored by several community organizations. Interest in this type
of training is often stimulated by the local chapter of a women’s
organization or the public employment office—as a service both to
mature women seeking employment and to families in need of trained
assistance.
Following is an example of community training courses in home­
maker service:
To prepare mature women as homemakers in families disrupted by illness,
a 20-hour course was given by the Visiting Nurse Association of Peoria, 111.,
in 1956 and may be resumed in the fall of 1960. Classes were held in various
community buildings and addressed by several types of professional workers,
including a nutritionist, home economist, social worker, public health nurse,
and physician. In a series of 10 sessions, each lasting 2 hours, community
homemakers, as nonnursing members of a home-care team, were instructed

55

about such duties as routine light housekeeping, planning and preparing bal­
anced meals, marketing, reading to the patient, and writing letters.

Another community course, tailored to help older workers without
specialized skills or training, is described below:
^

A home companion course was established in Arkansas in 1957 through the
combined efforts of the Business and Professional Women’s Club, the Em­
ployment Security Division, the State department of education, and the
Chamber of Commerce. The 20-hour course can be given in any town and
at any time that a minimum of 10 students are available. A home economics
teacher from the public school system coordinates the course, inviting guest
speakers and arranging for some classes to meet at local institutions. Train­
ing is given in such duties as preparing formulas and diets, arranging meal
trays, making beds, and reading stories to children.

jSSsiES
A student nursery assistant learns how to arrange a program 1

56

Nursery Assistants
Courses to prepare girls for work as nursery assistants in public
and private day nurseries, children’s homes, and other child-service
centers are offered by some public high or trade schools and 2-year
colleges. Classroom study covers such subjects as child care, child
psychology, family and social relationships, nutrition, and children’s
literature. These courses are supplemented with practical experience
in working with young children.
Most schools with a nursery-assistant course maintain a nursery
center where trainees can observe the methods used by skillful teach­
ers, practice what they have seen and studied, and then help plan
daily programs for preschool children. In general, such programs
usually include group stories and games, exercises, creative play, and
lunch. Additional experience may be obtained through scheduled
practice work in cooperating nurseries in the area.
Private Household Workers
Training programs are established from time to time to prepare
women as service workers in private households. In addition to their
usual purpose of providing training—mostly to mature women—these
courses frequently are aimed at raising the performance standards of
domestic employment and improving the attractiveness of this type
of work.
Usually a public agency is the major sponsor of a training program
for private household workers and it cooperates with other public or
private groups. Joint sponsors may include the local employment
office, the local board of education, the local branch of a women’s
organization, or the local welfare department. In the case of public
welfare agencies, the goal is generally to reduce relief rolls as well as
to help employable persons receiving public assistance obtain a job.
During the school year 1958-59, there was a marked increase in the
number of women enrolled in domestic work classes in public voca­
tional schools.
Household-service courses which have been established in recent
j-eais vary considerably in duration, depending on the number and
type of household activities studied. Short courses may cover meth­
ods of cleaning, use and care of household equipment and appliances,
table serving, personal hygiene, appearance, and manners. In addi­
tion to these duties, longer courses may also provide training in laun­
dering and ironing, nutrition, simple meal preparation, table setting,
operation of sewing machines, and care of children. Normally, prac­
tice work in local homes or institutions is included as part of the
training. Examples of two short courses in this field are:
57

k

Because Chicago offices of the Illinois State Employment Service encoun­
tered a growing demand for household-service workers and a substantial
increase in unskilled female job applicants, steps were taken with the Chicago
Board of Education to establish a course called Vocational Training in the
Homemaking Arts. The Cook County Department of Welfare also assists
by referring employable applicants for training. The covirse, held for 3 hours
on one evening a week for 8 weeks, is offered in two different public schools
and taught by public school teachers. In less than one year (1959), 300
persons completed the course and 260 obtained jobs.

^

In Arkansas, a 20-hour training course for household-service workers has
been developed by the Employment Security Division, in cooperation with the
State Department of Education and the Arkansas Federation of Business and
Professional Women’s Clubs. When a minimum of 10 trainees are available,
the course may be given in any town or city in the State. The instructor,
provided by the department of education, teaches the trainees how to clean
a room properly, how to use appliances, how to follow recipes, how to set a
table, and how to act in the home of an employer.

Cleaners and Pressers
Training courses to prepare women for drycleaning, dyeing, and
pressing jobs are being established as more communities encounter
shortages of workers for these jobs and as more women are being
employed in all but the most heavy and hot cleaning operations. Such
courses are offered mainly by public vocational schools and sometimes
by other community groups.
Students are taught proper methods of drycleaning and dyeing,
analysis of fabric weights and colors, spotting, finishing, pressing,
and maintenance of equipment. Depending on the number of oper­
ations and the amount of theoretical subjects (like chemistry or tex­
tiles) which are taught, courses may extend from 80 to 1,000 hours.
Examples of two very different courses are given below:
^

Following a shortage of cleaning and pressing workers in Little Bock, Ark.,
the Employment Security Division helped organize a course to provide free
preemployment training for work in this industry. The division recruits the
trainees and the Department of Education provides instruction and super­
vision. Members of the local drycleaning association have contributed
additional equipment for classes held in facilities of the Goodwill Industries.
Glasses are held 2 hours a day for 5 days a week during an 8-week period, but
individuals who qualify for employment before the end of this period are
placed in jobs by the employment division.

k

The Margaret Murray Washington Vocational High School in the District
of Columbia offers a 3-year program in drycleaning and dyeing during the
daytime and a supplemental course for beginners or “refreshers” in the
evening. The daytime program covers all types of work handled by a regular
cleaning shop. Evening students may choose any aspect of the work they
wish to learn and continue in the class until they have studied all operations.

58

4.
Conclusion
From this review of formal training programs and courses, it is
evident that many women and girls are receiving helpful preparation
for entry into the world of work. Nevertheless, the numbers of cur­
rent training facilities and range of jobs for which training is available
are both still far from adequate. In job fields which traditionally
attract many women and also require specialized skills, formalized
job training for women can be found most frequently. Even in these
fields, however, variations in training opportunities exist from locality
to locality as well as from job to job and there is little room for com­
placency. As might be expected, the greatest lack of training oppor­
tunities is in job fields where relatively few women have been employed
in the past.
The urgent need to expand and improve training opportunities in
which women and girls may participate stems from several basic
factors. Of immediate concern, of course, are the occupational areas
with current shortages of trained workers. But those who consider
the social and economic changes which will affect our national life in
the next decade emphasize the increasingly greater training needs of
the future.
With 26 million young men and women entering the labor market in
the 1960’s, expanded and strengthened training facilities are required
if these young people are to receive adequate employment preparation.
Similarly, with the continued entry and reentry of mature women into
the labor force, sufficient and appropriate training opportunities need
to be made available to this group if their job talents are to be utilized
to the extent required by our expanding economy. In addition to social
changes, there is also the marked influence of technological changes in
the coming years. As the jobs of many experienced workers are made
obsolete by automation, retraining is necessary to enable them to per­
form the new jobs created.
In the light of these expected developments, it becomes important
for each community to review its training facilities and needs—both
present and anticipated. Following are some of the questions which
59

community representatives might ask in making an appraisal of the
situation in their own area:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Are there current shortages of trained workers?
Is training available for shortage fields ?
Do job opportunities exist in fields where training is now offered?
Is the type of training given being geared to the needs of local
employers ?
Do labor and management representatives participate in setting up train­
ing programs?
Are entrance requirements for each type of training similar to those of
employers who do the hiring ?
Is an effort being made to make training as inexpensive as possible for
qualified persons ?
Are training facilities open to women?
Are women encouraged to obtain training in all fields in which they have
ability and interest ?
Is comprehensive vocational training available to young people who want
it?
Are accelerated job-oriented training courses available for mature
workers ?
Have estimates been made of local manpower needs in the next 5 or
10 years ?
Are plans being made to provide training for the expected jobs?

Education and training may well be the key to our future. For in­
dividual men and women seeking paid employment, good occupational
preparation can lead to jobs which allow for full expression of per­
sonal talents and interests. For our Nation, an adequate supply of
trained workers is necessary for economic development toward the goal
of a fuller and richer life for all.

60

Appendix A—List of State Offices
For More Information About Training Opportu­
nities in Your State—
• Visit the local office of your public school system and your
public employment office. Their addresses are listed in
your telephone directory. If you are unable to contact
them directly, then—
• Write to the State offices listed below.
State Director of
Vocational Education

State and City
Alabama, Montgomery___
Alaska, Juneau___________
Arizona, Phoenix
Arkansas, Little Rock____
California, Sacramento____
Colorado, Denver_________
Connecticut, Hartford____
Delaware:
Dover
Wilmington__________
District of Columbia______
Florida, Tallahassee
Georgia, Atlanta
Hawaii, Honolulu.
Idaho, Boise
Illinois:
Springfield
Chicago______________
Indiana, Indianapolis
Iowa, Des Moines
Kansas, Topeka
Kentucky, Frankfort

___

Louisiana, Baton Rouge_
_
Maine, Augusta
Maryland, Baltimore_____
Massachusetts, Boston____

State Department of Edu­
cation.
P.O. Box 1841____________
400 Arizona State Bldg___
State Education Bldg. _
_
721 Capital Ave
State Office Bldg
P.O. Box 2219

State Employment
Service Director
State Office Bldg.
P.O. Box 2661.
1720 West Madison
St.
P.O. Box 2981.
800 Capital Ave.
1210 Sherman St.
92 Farmington Ave.

313 South State St.
Franklin
Administration
Bldg.
Capitol Bldg
State Office Bldg______
.
P.O. Box 2360._
610 Main St

601 Shipley St.
1724 F St. NW.
Caldwell Bldg.
State Labor Bldg.
P.O. Box 3680.
P.O. Box 520.

415 Centennial Bldg.
215 State House
State Office Bldg
State Office Bldg
State Department of Edu­
cation.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
301 West Preston St
200 Newbury St

165 North Canal St.
141 South Meridian
St.
112 Eleventh St.
401 Topeka Blvd.
Capitol Office Bldg.
P.O. Box 4094.
331 Water St.
1100 North Eutaw St.
881 Commonwealth
Ave.

61

List of State Offices—Continued
State and City
Michigan:
Lansing------- -----------Detroit_______*_______
Minnesota, St. Paul -------Mississippi, Jackson---- --Missouri, Jefferson City_
_
Montana, Helena_________
Nebraska, Lincoln-----------Nevada, Carson City-------New Hampshire, ConcordNew Jersey, Trenton-------New Mexico:
Santa FeAlbuquerque-------------New York:
Albany
New York
North Carolina, Raleigh—
North Dakota, Bismarck-_
Ohio, Columbus
Oklahoma:
Stillwater
Oklahoma City_______
Oregon, Salem-----------------Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. _
Rhode Island, Providence. _
South Carolina, Columbia. _
South Dakota:
Pierre
Aberdeen------------------Tennessee, Nashville--------Texas, Austin —
Utah, Salt Lake City-------Vermont, Montpelier.. ...
Virginia, Richmond
Washington, Olympia-------

62

State Director of
Vocational Education

State Employment
Service Director

P.O. Box 928
658 Cedar St
P.O. Box 771_______
State Department of Edu­
cation .
State Capitol
State Capitol
State Department of Edu­
cation.
State House Annex
175 West State St

7310 Woodward Ave.
369 Cedar St.
P.O. Box 1699.
421 East Dunklin St.
P.O. Box 1728.
P.O. Box 1033.
P.O. Box 602.
34 South Main St.
28 West State St. •

State Department of Edu­
cation.
P.O. Box 1799.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
220 South Parsons Ave-----

500 Eighth Ave.
P.O. Box 589.
P.O. Box 568.
427 Cleveland Ave.

1515 West 6th Ave
American National
Bldg.
513 Public Service
105 State Library Bldg___
Bldg.
Seventh and Forster
P.O. Box 911
Sts.
24 Mason St.
Roger Williams Bldg
State Department of Educa­ P.O. Box 995.
tion.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
Cordell Hull State Office
Bldg.
Texas Education Agency.
State Department of Edu­
cation.
State Office Bldg
State Department of Edu­
cation.
P.O. Box 250

310 Lincoln St.
Cordell Hull State
Office Bldg.
TEC Bldg.
P.O. Box 2100.
P.O. Box 435.
Broad-Grace Arcade.
P.O. Box 367.

List of State Offices—Continued
State and City
West Virginia, Charleston^_
Wisconsin, Madison
Wyoming:
Cheyenne
Casper

Slate Director of
Vocational Education
State Department of Edu­
cation.
14 North Carroll St.._

State Employment
Service Director
State Office Bldg.
105 South Blair St

State Department of Edu­
cation.
P.O. Box 760.

63

Appendix B

Index to Occupations
Page

Page

Aircraft workers_________ —
Artists, commercial_________
Assemblers__________________

39
34
,39

Laboratory technicians ----- 32, 46
Library assistants____ ____
28

Bank tellers_________________
Beauty operators----------------Bindery workers____________
Bookkeepers________________
Bookkeeping-machine
oper­
ators

28
34
36
22

Maids, hotel _
Medical assistants__________
Medical laboratory workers-Needle trades workers_______
Nurse aides_________________
Nursery assistants__________
Nurses, practical-----------------Nurses, professional_________

Dental assistants____________
Dental hygienists----------------- .
Draftswomen_______________
Electrical workers------------—
Electronic
and auxiliary
equipment operators--------Electronic assemblers----------Engineering assistants---------Factory workers____________
Florist" assistants-----------------Food-trades workers-------------

Industrial workers---------------Inspectors---------------------------Keypunch operators-------------

20

o

64

50
31

X-ray technicians-

36
39

32
26
24
37
24

Waitresses
—
Weavers_________________

Health workers---------41
Homemakers________________
55
Hostesses--- ----------------------50, 51
Hotel workers----------------50
Household workers------------- 57
48
Housekeepers, institutional--

24
27

Technicians_________________
Telephone operators------------Teletype operators__________
Textile workers-. __________
Typists ____________________

36
31
51

18
38
33

31
29

Secretaries___________
Service representatives--------Service workers, miscellane­
ous_______________________
Sewing-machine operators---Stenographers_______________
Stewardesses________________

38

34
57
20

Real estate agents---------------Retail saleswomen__________

44
45
33

23
18

Photographers______________
Private-household workers_
_
Programmers_______________

Cashiers 50, 51
Cleaners and pressers-----------58
Clerical workers------------------18
Cooks, commercial__________
53
Craftswomen________________
32

37
43
56
43
41

Office-machine operators____
Office workers_______________

23

50
44
45

46

-- -

54
37
24
54