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National manpower projections and a guide
to their use as a tool in developing State
and area manpower projections
V O L U M E

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NATIONAL TRENDS AND OUTLOOK:
INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
B U L L E T IN

N O .

1 6 0 6

February 1 9 6 9

'Z 3 T '
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




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T O M O R R O W

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M A N P O W

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N E E D S

National manpower projections and a guide
to their use as a tool in developing State
and area manpower projections
V O L U M E II.

NATIONAL TRENDS AND OUTLOOK:
INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
B U L L E T IN N O . 1 6 0 6
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Governm ent Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.25







PREFACE

This is the second of four volumes of Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs, a publication
devoted to the subject of national, State and area projections of manpower
requirements. The full series of volumes is as follows:
I Using National Manpower Data to Develop Area Manpower
Projections
II National Trends and Outlook: Industry Employment and
Occupational Structure
III National Trends and Outlook: Occupational Employment
IV The National Industry—
Occupational Matrix and Other
Manpower Data
The objective of this publication is to help fill a gap in manpower information best
described by President Johnson in his 1964 Manpower Report to Congress, “Projections
of probable need in particular occupations are an essential guide for education, training,
and other policies aimed at developing the right skills at the right time in the right
place.” Projections of occupational needs at the State and area levels are needed in
planning education and training programs. To help meet this need, Tomorrow’s
Manpower Needs presents up-to-date national manpower projections and provides a
guide to their use in developing State and area manpower projections. This publication
will be used in conjunction with a campanion publication, Handbook for Projecting
Manpower Requirements and Resources for States and Areas, prepared by the Bureau of
Employment Security, Manpower Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, which
will provide detailed operating instructions for the specific use of State employment
security agencies.
The assumptions underlying this publication are: (1) State and area manpower
requirements estimates can be made more reliable if the analyses are made within the
context of nationwide economic and technological developments. (2) Regional
manpower analysts familiar with local markets, the movement of industry into an area,
and other factors affecting local industry and occupational employment are best able to
estimate manpower requirements at the local level. (3) Selection of an appropriate
projection technique or mix of techniques should take into account the financial
resources available to the regional manpower analysts, the technical sophistication of
their staff, the volume of projections required, the purpose of the projections as they
affect the need for accuracy and detail, and the availability of computer assistance.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics hopes that by providing a consistent and reasonably
detailed national manpower framework and a guide to its use in making State and area
manpower projections the well-informed local analyst will be aided in developing or
improving local manpower projections.
This report was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Office of Manpower and
Employment Statistics. The study was performed by staff of the Bureau’s Division of







Manpower and Occupational Outlook. It was planned and supervised by Sol Swerdloff
and Russell B. Flanders. Richard E. Dempsey, David P. Lafayette, James W. Longley,
Neal H. Rosenthal, and Joe L. Russell prepared or supervised preparation of major parts
of the study. Other staff members contributing to the research and writing were liguori
O’Donnell, Melvin Fountain, Gerard Smith, Michael Crowley, Lloyd David, Penny
Friedman, Edward Ghearing, William Hahn, Jerry Kursban, Annie Lefkowitz, Dorothy
Orr, Judson Parker, Irving Phillips, Joseph Rooney, Norman Root, John Sprague,
Howard Stambler, and Annie Asensio.
The industry—
occupational matrices for 1960 and 1975 were developed in the
Division of Occupational Employment Statistics, under the direction of Harry
Greenspan. The Office of Manpower Research of the Manpower Administration, U.S.
Department of Labor, funded a large part of the development of the national
industry—
occupational matrix for 1975. The projections of the labor force were
prepared by Sophia Cooper Travis, Chief, Division of Labor Force Studies and by Denis
F. Johnston of that Division. The illustrative labor force projections by State presented
in the appendix were reprinted from Special Labor Force Report No. 74, prepared by
Denis F. Johnston and George F. Methee of that Division. Information on trends in
output per man-hour was provided by the Office of Productivity, Technology, and
Growth. Especially valuable was information on technological trends in major industries
collected by that office under the direction of Edgar Weinberg. In the projections of
employment by industry, extensive use was made of the work on estimates of industrial
output and employment carried on by the Division of Economic Growth, as part of the
Interagency Growth Study Project.
The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the encouragement received from the Coordi­
nating Committee on Manpower Research (CCMR) of the U.S. Department of Labor,
which recommended the development of this report. We also appreciate the assistance
of many representatives of other Federal agencies, State government agencies, private
research organizations, trade associations, labor unions, and colleges and universities.

CONTENTS

Page
Introduction..................................................................................................... 1
Definitions and limitations of the data............................................................. 3
Projections of national manpower requirements in 1975................................... 4
Agriculture................................................................................................... 6
Mining ......................................................................................................... 8
Contract construction....................................................................................... 11
Manufacturing .............................................................................................. 14
Ordnance and accessories ...................................................................... 17
Food and kindred products.................................................................... 19
Tobacco manufactures ............................................................................ 21
Textile mill products................................................................................ 24
Apparel and related products ................................................................... 26
Lumber and wood products, except furniture............................................. 29
Furniture and fixtures.............................................................................. 32
Paper and allied products ...................................................................... 34
Printing, publishing, and allied industries ................................................ 36
Chemical and allied products.................................................................. 39
Petroleum refining and related industries ................................................... 42
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products............................................ 44
Leather and leather products.................................................................. 46
Stone, clay, and glass products .............................................................. 48
Primary metal industries........................................................................ 51
Fabricated metal products...................................................................... 54
Machinery, except electrical .................................................................. 57
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies ........................................ 61
Transportation equipment...................................................................... 64
Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment................................... 67
Aircraft and parts......................................................................... 69
Instruments and related products ........................................................... 71
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.................................................... 74
Transportation and public utilities.................................................................. 77
Railroad transportation................................................................ 78
Local and suburban transit and interurban passenger transportation . . 81
Motor freight transportation and storage........................................ 83
Transportation by air.................................................................... 85
Communication........................................................................... 87
Electric, gas, and sanitary services .................................................. 90
Wholesale and retail trade............................................................................... 93
Wholesale trade ........................................................................... 94
Retail trade ................................................................................. 96




v




CONTENTS-Continued

Finance, insurance, and real estate.................................................................. 99
Finance ....................................................................................... 100
Insurance..................................................................................... 103
Real estate................................................................................... 105
Services and miscellaneous............................................................................. 107
Hotels, rooming houses, camps, and other lodging places.................. 108
Miscellaneous business services....................................................... 110
Automobile repair, automobileservices, and garages......................... 112
Miscellaneous repair services .............................................................. 114
Medical and other health services.................................................... 116
Educational services...................................................................... 118
Government employment ............................................................................. 121

INTRO D U C TIO N

In a growing economy, the occupational composition of the work force, as well as
the skills required in each occupation, changes through the years. Present manpower
needs therefore are an uncertain guide to future requirements. To plan education and
training programs to meet tomorrow’s manpower needs, projections are needed of these
changing manpower requirements. Such projections can help also in the vocational
guidance of young people. To the extent that education, training, and vocational
guidance accurately reflect the changing character of manpower needs, imbalances
between manpower requirements and labor supply can be reduced, the productivity of
the economy and the earning power of workers enhanced, and structural unemployment
minimized.
The manpower legislation passed in the early 1960’s emphasized the need for
projections of occupational requirements and supply information. The Area Redevelop­
ment Act of 1961, the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962, the
Vocational Education Act of 1963, and the Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963
were concerned with the education and training needs of the Nation. Some of these acts
specifically provided that occupational needs should be one of the factors on which
education and training programs should be based. Other legislation, such as the
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Higher Education
Act of 1965, and the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965, focused
additional attention on the need for up-to-date information on future skill
requirements. Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs is an attempt to provide a basis for
developing manpower requirements information for States and areas through the use of
national manpower information. The report presents the latest projections of national
manpower requirements and provides a guide to their use in developing State and area
manpower projections. The Bureau hopes that this information will be useful also in
planning national programs of education and training, and in reviewing the extent to
which State and local programs are meeting the Nation’s manpower needs. Specifically,
the publication provides information on the impact of national developments on
industry and occupational manpower requirements. It presents the results of research on
the growth and changing composition of the population and the labor force, the relative
growth of industries, the effect of automation and other technological changes and
economic factors on industry employment, the occupational structure of industries,
patterns of working life, and techniques for appraising the supply of workers having
various skills. This information is provided to serve as a background and tool for the
appraisal of manpower requirements at the State and local level.
The bulletin reflects the continuing program of manpower research conducted by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Consequently, the projections of industry and occupational
employment requirements supersede those published in previous Bureau reports. In
addition, some of the projection data never have been published before by the Bureau in
the detail presented in this report. It is anticipated that Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs
will be revised every few years to reflect the latest information available as a result of
the Bureau’s continuing program of manpower research.
The Bureau of Employment Security currently is preparing a companion volume,
Handbook for Projecting Manpower Requirements and Resources for States and Areas,
which will explain in additional detail how analysts in State employment security
agencies can use various methods and sources of data, including the national manpower
information presented in this report, to develop State and area manpower estimates and
projections.




1

This volume presents a discussion of industry employment trends and occupational
structure, and projections of manpower requirements for each major industry in the
economy. Also included is a discussion of the reasons for the expected changes.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics, as its resources permit, may be able to provide
technical assistance, including clarification of the methods described in volume I of this
Bulletin, to organizations developing State and area manpower projections. Request* for
such assistance should be made to the appropriate BLS Regional Office, located as
follows:

REGION I
1603-A Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6727 (Area code 617)
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts

New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

REGION II
341 Ninth Avenue
New York, N. Y. 10001
Phone: 971-5401 (Area code 212)
New Jersey
Puerto Rico
New York
Virgin Islands
REGION III
Penn Square Building, Room 406
1317 Filbert Street
Philadelphia, Pa. 19108
Phone: 597-7796 (Area code 215)
Delaware
Pennsylvania
District of Columbia
Virginia
Maryland
West Virginia
North Carolina
REGION IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5416 (Area code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia

2




Mississippi
South Carolina
Tennessee

REGION V
219 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, 111. 60604
Phone: 353-7226 (Area code 312)
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Michigan

Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

REGION VI
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2378 (Area code 816)
Colorado
Nebraska
Iowa
North Dakota
Kansas
South Dakota
Missouri
Utah
Montana
Wyoming
REGION VII

Mayflower Building
411 North Akard Street
Dallas, Tex. 75201
Phone: 749-3641 (Area code 214)
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico

Oklahoma
Texas

REGION VIII
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, California 94102
Phone: 556-3178 (Area code 415)
Alaska
Arizona
California
Hawaii

Idaho
Nevada
Oregon
Washington

TOMORROWS MANPOWER NEEDS: VOL. II
D E FIN ITIO N S AND L IM IT A T IO N S OF THE D ATA

The industry statements that appear in this chapter
are presented in two parts, each of which is related to a
different series of employment data. Differences in
coverage between these series must be understood for
the reader to properly evaluate the information in these
statements.
In the sections on current employment and employ­
ment trends and outlook, employment data relate to
wage and salary workers. These data, collected by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics from payroll reports of
employers, represent the number of jobs in the nonfarm
economy and count multiple jobholders in each job they
hold. Excluded from these data are self-employed
workers, unpaid family workers, and domestics in
households. These data are available in greater industry
detail and include more past years than any other
employment series.
In the industry sections on occupational structure, on
the other hand, the data relate to all employees,
including wage and salary workers, self-employed,
unpaid family workers, and domestics. In addition,
unlike the BLS wage and salary data discussed pre­
viously, the total employment data exclude the second­
ary jobs of multiple— holders.
job
Another major difference between the sections on
wage and salary employment trends and projections and
on occupational structure concerns government workers.
The wage and salary data for government cover all
civilian employees in government, regardless of function.
The occupational structure data, on the other hand,
cover only government workers in public administration,
i.e., those workers engaged in activities that are uniquely
governmental in nature.1 Government employment in
functions other than public administration is classified in
the appropriate industrial classification— govern­
e.g.,




ment education workers are included in educational
services, government hospital workers are included in
hospitals, and government construction workers are
included in the construction industry.2
In interpreting the discussion of projected changes in
occupational ratios between 1960 and 1975, readers
should exercise special care. These ratios represent only
the relative importance of each occupation in an
industry. To measure changes in actual employment
requirements in an occupation, the ratios must be
applied to actual national employment figures for the
appropriate industry, as shown in volume IV, appendix
C.
Numerous references are made in this report to
“white-collar” and “blue-collar” workers. Whitecollar workers include professional, technical, and
kindred workers; managers, officials, and proprietors;
clerical and kindred workers; and sales workers. Bluecollar workers include craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers; operatives and kindred workers; and laborers,
except farms.
1 Industry-occupational patterns are not available for all
government workers, but only for public administration (see
appendix G). No discussion of the occupational structure of
public administration is included because it represents such a
small part of total government employment and differs so much
from total government employment. Occupational patterns also
are not available for the ordnance major industry group. In the
industry-occupational matrix, employment in the ordnance
industry is included in the instruments and fabricated metal
products industry groups.
2 For more information about differences between BLS
wage and salary employment and total employment related to
the industry-occupational patterns, see Vol. I, Ch. 1, and Vol.
IV, appendix A.

3

PROJECTIONS OF N A TIO N A L MANPOWER REQUIREM ENTS IN 1975

The projections of manpower requirements presented
in this report are based on a labor force of 94.1 million
workers in 1975, and assume that the size of the Armed
Forces will be 2.7 million in that year. Subtracting the
Armed Forces from the total labor force results in a
civilian labor force of 91.4 million workers. Assuming a
national unemployment rate of 3 percent, total employ­
ment requirements in the United States in 1975 will be
88.7 million, an increase of 22 percent over the 72.9
million workers employed in 1966. This projected
increase in requirements reflects both the expected
growth in the labor force and the added rise in
employment involved in reducing unemployment from
3.8 percent in 1966 to the assumed 3 percent level in
1975.3
Despite the projected overall increase of over onefifth in total employment requirements, manpower
needs in agriculture are expected to continue to decline
between 1966 and 1975, even under conditions of
generally full employment in the economy. In contrast
to the decline in agricultural manpower needs, the
projections for 1975 show a rise of nearly one—
fourth
(23 percent) in total manpower needs of the nonfarm
economy of nearly one— (23 percent). By 1975,
fourth
nonfarm manpower requirements are expected to in­
crease by more than 16 million over the 68.9 million
employed in 1966. Most of the increased nonfarm
manpower needs will be in wage and salary employment.
However, the number of other nonfarm workers (do­
mestics, self-employed, and unpaid family workers) also
is expected to increase over the 9-year period.
The figures cited above include all workers in the
farm and nonfarm economy, including wage and salary
workers, self-employed, unpaid family workers, and
domestics, as covered in the monthly labor force surveys
of households made by the Bureau of the Census for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The discussion of industry
employment that follows, however, relates only to the
estimates of wage and salary employment derived by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics from payroll reports and
excludes self-employed, unpaid family workers, and
domestics in households. In addition, the data on wage
and salary workers represent the number of jobs in the
nonfarm economy rather than the number of people,
and thus count multiple job holders in each job they
hold.

Because of the differences in the way the data are
collected, and because of multiple jobholding, the count
of jobs from the establishment surveys of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics has generally been 2.0 to 2.5 million
higher than the count of people employed as wage and
salary workers based on the household surveys of the
Bureau of the Census.4 Thus, in order to translate the
projections of the overall number of people (based on
household survey data) into the number of jobs (estimat­
ed from reports based on payrolls), it was necessary to
estimate the difference between the count of jobs and
the count of people in 1975. The employment trends
projected for each industry division discussed below are
thus related to a projection of 75.9 million nonfarm
wage and salary jobs in 1975.
The projections of manpower requirements for nonagricultural wage and salary workers presented in this
study indicate that the rate of job growth will continue
to be faster in the service—
producing industries than in
the goods—
producing industries. (See table 1.) Employ­
ment in the goods—
producing industries—
manufacturing,
construction, and mining— 25 percent between 1947
rose
and 1966, or from 18.5 million to 23.1 million.
Significant gains in productivity resulting from automa­
tion and other technological developments permitted
large increases in output in the goods—
producing indus­
tries without a corresponding increase in employment.
Between 1966 and 1975, manpower requirements in
the goods—
producing sector are expected to increase by
percent to 24.5 million. The projected gain in
manpower requirements in contract construction (27
percent) contrasts sharply with mining, where little
change is expected. Manpower requirements in manu­
facturing are expected to rise by about 3 percent, or less
than one— the rate of increase in total wage and
sixth
salary employment.5
Requirements in the service—
producing industries—
transportation and public utilities; trade; finance, insur­
ance, and real estate; service and miscellaneous indus6

4 For a discussion of the differences in composition and
employment levels between the monthly labor force surveys and
the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates of employees in
nonfarm establishments, see the technical appendix in any
current issue of the BLS periodical, Em ploym ent and Earnings
and M onthly R eport o f the Labor Force.
5 See Vol. IV, appendix B for projections of nonagricultural
3
For a more thorough discussion of the assumptions andwage and salary workers, by industry, 1960,1966, and projected
methods of the national projections, see Vol. IV, appendix A.
1975.

4




Table 1. N onagricultural Wage and Salary Workers, by Major Industry
D iv isio n , Actual 1966 and P rojected 1975 Employment Requirements
(In thousands)
Actual 1966
P rojected 1975 1/
employment
Industry d iv isio n
requirem ents
Percent
Number
Number
Percent
75,900
100.0
100.0
Total 2 /......................- ............................ 63,982
36.1
24,530
Goods producing in d u stries---------------- 23,103
32.3
Mining----------------------------------------------620
0 .8
625
1 .0
Contract con stru ction --------------------4,190
3,292
5.1
5.5
Manufacturing----------------------------------- 19,186
30.0
19,720
26.0
Service producing in d u stries------------- 40,880
63.8
51,370
67.7
Transportation and public
u t i l i t i e s -------------------------------------4,580
6.0
4,151
6.5
Trade------------------------------------------------- 13,211
20.6
16,115
21.2
Finance, insurance, and real
e s ta te -------------------------------------------3,102
4.8
3,725
4.9
Services and m iscellaneou s------------17.0
9,545
14.9
12,915
Government 3 /----------------------------------- 10,871
17.0
14,035
18.5

Percent
change,
1966-75
18.6
6.2
-0 .8
27.3
2.8
25.7
10.3
22.0
20.1
35.3
29.1

1/ Based on an assumed national unemployment rate of 3 percent.
2/ Represents wage and salary employment as covered in the BLS monthly establishm ent
survey, which excludes self-em ployed, unpaid fam ily workers, and dom estic workers in
households.
3/ Data for Federal Government, included in th is s e r ie s , r e la te to c iv ilia n employment
only and exclude the Central In te llig e n c e and National Security A gencies.

tries; and government— expected to increase rapidly,
are
but at a slower rate than during the post-World War II
period. Between 1947 and 1966, the number of workers
on the payrolls of these industries rose by 61 percent,
rising from 25.4 million to 40.9 million. Manpower
requirements in the service—
producing industries are
expected to increase by 26 percent between 1966 and
1975, reaching about 51.3 million in the latter year.
The largest increase in manpower requirements in the
service—
producing sector is expected to be in the
services and miscellaneous industries group (a growth of
35 percent). The expected increases in government (29
percent) and in trade (22 percent) are greater than for
total nonagricultural wage and salary employment (19
percent). The number of jobs in finance, insurance, and
real estate, on the other hand, will increase at about the
same rate as total nonfarm wage and salary employment




percent), and manpower requirements in transporta­
tion and public utilities are expected to rise only
moderately (10 percent).
The composition of industry in the United States will
change in the years ahead as a result of different rates of
growth among industries. Employment in the service and
miscellaneous industries and government will increase
significantly as a proportion of total nonagricultural
wage and salary employment. Other industries whose
relative importance will increase are trade and contract
construction. On the other hand, the relative importance
of manufacturing will decline substantially. Slight
declines in relative importance also are anticipated in
transportation and public utilities and mining. The
following sections of this chapter treat in detail employ­
ment trends and outlook and changing occupational
patterns in major industries.
(2 0

5

A G R IC U LTU R E 6

Current Employment
Over 4.2 million workers were employed in agri­
culture in 1966. Self-employed and unpaid family
workers accounted for two— of this total, while
thirds
women workers accounted for almost 20 percent. (See
table 2.)
Employment in agriculture is concentrated in a
relatively few major types of farming. In 1966, about
two-thirds of the workers engaged in commercial
farming were employed on livestock, dairy, cash grain,
and cotton farms. The remaining workers on commercial
farms were employed on farms producing vegetables,
fruits and nuts, poultry, tobacco and miscellaneous farm
products, and other farm commodities. Virtually all
self-employed farmers and unpaid family farm workers
were engaged in commercial farming activity.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Agricultural employment decreased from about 8 1/4
million to nearly 4.2 million between 1947 and 1966, or
nearly one— Accompanying the decrease in employ­
half.
ment was an even sharper decline in man hours of
farm work, which shrank from 17.2 to 7.5 million hours
between 1947 and 1966. During the same 19-year
period, total farm output increased by 40 percent.
There were wide variations in the rate of employment
decline in various types of farming. For example,
between 1947 and 1966, man-hours of labor on cotton
farms declined by more than 80 percent; on farms
producing food and feed grains, it declined by 70
percent compared with a 43-percent decline in man­
hours on tobacco farms and a 50-percent decline on
farms specializing in production of livestock.
The major factor responsible for the decline in farm
employment during the post-World War II period has
been the great increase in the efficiency of farm
operations resulting from the greater use of powered
farm equipment and scientific farming techniques on
increasingly larger farms. Between 1947 and 1965, the

size of the average farm increased from about 197 acres
to 351 acres, and crop production per acre rose by 51
percent.
Agricultural employment7 is expected to continue to
decline in the future-from 4.2 million in 1966 to 3.7
million 1975, despite a rise of about one— in
fifth
agricultural output. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
Demand for agricultural products will continue to
increase, primarily as a result of a growing national and
world population.
Employment in agriculture is expected to decline for
reasons similar to those in the past. The growing use of
electrical and mechanical power equipment will continue
to reduce labor requirements. The competitive advan­
tages of large farms will force many operators of
less—
efficient, small farms to sell their holdings or divert
them to other uses. The more efficient small farm
operators will enlarge their farm holdings to take
advantage of the economies of increased size made
possible through mechanization.
Occupational Structure
The nature of agricultural production requires two
broad classifications of workers— engaged in actual
those
operation of farms and those in establishments that
provide agricultural services, such as threshing, ginning,
crop dusting, veterinary medicine, and animal breeding.
In 1960, more than 9 out of 10 workers in agriculture8
were either farmers or farm managers, laborers, or
foremen—
workers engaged in the operation of farms.
(See volume IV, appendix G.) Of these workers, slightly
more than half were either farmers (owners or tenants)
or farm managers. Nearly one— were unpaid family
fifth

7 The concept of employment requirements is less relevant
in discussing actual levels of employment in agricultural than in
most other industries. Because so many farmers own their own
farms and continue in fanning even though their incomes are low
and their contribution to agricultural production for the market
negligible, real manpower requirements in agriculture have been
6
This major group includes commercial farms; non­well below the number actually engaged in this work. The
commercial farms (those not having the production of farm projections of employment in agriculture in this report are,
products for sale as the principal purpose of business); and therefore, not estimates of manpower required to produce the
establishments primarily engaged in performing agricultural, anticipated level of farm output in 1975, but are projections of
animal husbandry, and horticultural services on a fee or contract the number of workers likely to be employed in agriculture.
8 Including self-employed and unpaid family workers as well
basis, except grist mills. Commercial hunting and trapping and
as wage and salary workers.
the operation of game preserves are also included.

6




Table 2. Employment in A gricu ltu re, by C lass of Worker, 1966
A griculture
(01, 02, 07 except 0713)
Total employment---------------------------Wage and salary workers------------------------Self-em ployed workers---------------------------Unpaid fam ily workers----------------------------

(In thousands)
Number of workers

Percent
d istrib u tio n

Women workers
as percent of
to ta l

4,206

100.0

18.4

1,369
2,147
690

32.5
51.0
16.4

17.2
6.0
59.6

Note: Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal to ta ls . Data from the
Monthly household survey of the labor fo rce.

workers, and the remainder were hired workers who
received a wage or salary. About 4 percent of the more
than 2 million commercial farms in 1960 employed over
three—
fourths of all hired farm workers.
In the decade ahead, a significant shift in the
occupational structure of the agricultural industry can
be expected. Farms will be larger in size and fewer in
number, more specialized in function, increasingly mech­
anized, and professionally managed.
The increasing application of technological innova­
tions will reduce the need for agricultural workers.
However, requirements for some types of farm workers
and those that perform agricultural services will increase.
For example, farm managers trained in modern farming
techniques will make up an increasing share of employ­
ment as farms become larger and more specialized.
Although the proportion of farm laborers will continue
to decline, those who can operate farm equipment, such
as threshers and combines, will increase. A significant




number of these farm equipment operates will be
self-employed, as many large farm managers find it
economically advantageous to contract out such work.
The growing use of complex farm machinery and
equipment will tend to increase the ratio of mechanics
and repairmen; the need for veterinarians will rise with
the increasing number and value of livestock; and a
growing demand for such workers as conservationists,
inseminators, feed testers, and agricultural research
scientists will boost the ratio of professional and tech­
nical workers. Increasing requirements for agricultural
services, such as packing and shipping, poultry hatching,
ginning, and landscape gardening and tree planting, will
result in a gain in the proportion of managers and
proprietors of establishments performing such services.
In addition, more operatives, particularly truck drivers,
will be needed to transport materials about farms and to
move the increasing volume of agricultural products to
storage and marketing areas.

7

M IN IN G 9

Current Employment
A total of 625,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in mining in 1966. (See table 3.) About 45
percent of total employment was in the crude petroleum
and natural gas major industry group. Coal mining
accounted for more than one-fifth (22 percent) of total
mining employment, most of it being in bituminous coal
mining. The remaining workers were employed in
quarrying and mining of nonmetallic minerals, except
fuels, (19 percent) and metal mining (14 percent).
Production workers accounted for 78 percent of
employment in mining. Among the different industry
groups, the proportions of production workers ranged
from 69 percent in crude petroleum and natural gas to
about 87 percent in coal mining.
Women workers accounted for only 5.4 percent of
employment in mining. Among the major industry
groups, the proportion of women workers ranged from
less than 2 percent in coal mining to nearly 9 percent in
crude petroleum and natural gas.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in mining declined between 1947 and
1966, despite an increase in mining output. Only coal
mining experienced a decrease in both employment and
output. Technological innovations that raised output per
worker in coal mining were particularly significant
because they were introduced at a time when that
industry’s total output was declining. In two major
industry groups— petroleum and natural gas, and
crude
mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals—
employ­
ment increased between 1947 and 1966.
Between 1947 and 1966, production workers de­
creased as a proportion of total employment in mining
from 91 to 78 percent. During the more recent 1958-66
period, production workers as a proportion of employ­
ment increased slightly in one major industry groupmetal mining— decreased in all the other major
and
industry groups. The decreasing production worker ratio

in mining as a whole resulted primarily from the
increasing mechanization of production operations.
Manpower requirements in mining are expected to be
about 620,000 in 1975, relatively little changed from
the 1966 level, despite an anticipated substantial in­
crease in mining output. Employment growth will be
limited because of the increasing use of new and
improved laborsaving devices and techniques, such as
new continous mining machinery systems and more
efficient blasting methods in mining solid minerals, and
more efficient exploration and recovery techniques in
crude oil and natural gas extraction.
Manpower requirements in the mining and quarrying
of nonmetalic minerals, except fuels, are expected to
increase rapidly over the decade ahead, primarily
because of the anticipated increase in the demand for
construction materials, particularly for highway con­
struction. (See volume IV, appendix B.) A slight increase
in labor requirements is expected in metal mining as the
demand for ores is stimulated by growing expenditures
for consumer products, rising capital equipment
expenditures, and a continued high level of defense
spending.
In contrast, manpower requirements in coal mining
are expected to decline, although at a slower rate than in
the past. Demand for coal will be stimulated by the
growing need for fuels for industrial processing and
electric power. In addition, the competitive position of
coal is likely to improve through the industry’s use of
unitized trains, new and improved slurry pipelines, and
other modern means of mass transport to move coal
more cheaply. Manpower requirements in crude petro­
leum and natural gas establishments are likely to remain
relatively stable, despite the rising demand for the
products of these industries.

Occupational Structure
All mining involves the extraction of minerals from
the earth. However, because of the variety of minerals
mined, there is a corresponding variety of production
9
SIC Division B. This division includes all establishmentstechniques and manpower requirements among the
primarily engaged in mining. Mining is used in the broad sense to various mining industries. For example, in 1960, nearly
include the extraction of minerals occurring naturally: solids,
such as coal and ores; liquids, such as crude petroleum; and half of all mining workers10 were operatives. However,
gases, such as natural gas. The term “mining” also is used in the
broad sense to include quarrying, well operation, milling
(crushing, screening, washing, flotation, etc.), and other prepara­
tion needed to render the material marketable. Exploration and
development of mineral properties are included.

8




10
Includes self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

Table 3. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in
Mining, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
SIC
Industry
Number Percent
Code
d is tr i­
bution
100.0
B
Mining------------------------------------------------- 625.0
13.8
10
Metal mining----------------------------------86.5
101
Iron ores------------------------------------4 .2
26.3
102
Copper ores--------------------------------5.1
31.7
2 /1 .9
103
Lead and zinc o res--------------------- 1 /11.5
104-6, 8, 9
Other metal o res------------------------ 1/16.9
2 /2 .7
22.0
Coal Mining------------------------------------ 137.7
11, 12
2 /1 .4
11
A nthracite co a l----------------------------- 1/ 8.5
20.8
Bituminous co a l----------------------------129.9
12
Crude petroleum and natural gas-- 279.8
44.8
13
Crude petroleum and natural
131, 2
24.4
gas f ie ld s ------------------------------- 152.4
138
20.4
O il and gas fie ld s e r v ic e s------- 127.4
14
Quarrying and nonm etallie
m ining----------------------------------------120.8
19.3
41.6 - 6.7
Crushed and broken ston e---------142
144
Sand and g ra v el-------------------------39.1
6.3
Quarrying and nonm etallie
141, 5, 7-9
m ining, not elsew here
2 /6 .4
c la s s if ie d ........................................ . 1/39.5

55.4
86.0
82.6
84.9
(3)

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
5 .4
2.5
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
1.6
(3)
(3)
8.7
11.7
5.2
4.2
4.3
4.1

(3)

(3)

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
77.6
83.0
84.0
82.3
(3)
(3)
86.9
(3)
86.8
69.4

I f Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966 to ta l employment in the industry d iv isio n .
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.

Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

in coal mining the proportion was much higher, mainly
because of the need for many mine operatives for face
work, such as drilling, cutting, and blasting; for the
operation of mining equipment, such as tipples, ore cars,
and cones; and for helpers to assist construction and
maintenance men, such as plumbers, carpenters, electri­
cians, and mining—
machinery mechanics. On the other
hand, the proportion of operatives in petroleum and
natural gas extraction was significantly below the
average for mining, reflecting the nature of drilling
operations, which required a much smaller proportion of
operatives. In petroleum and gas field operations, special
equipment is used to pump oil or gas from wells to, and
among, storage tanks. In 1960, many stationary
engineers (pumpmen) were needed to operate this
equipment, check tank gages and pump meters, and keep
production records. Thus, the proportion of stationary
engineers (craftsmen, not elsewhere classified) in petro­




leum and natural gas extraction was much higher than
the average for mining.
Surface (or strip) mining involves the extensive use of
earth moving equipment, including trucks. Because this
mining technique was used, to a varying degree, in all
three solid mineral mining industries, these industries
had a much higher proportion of excavating machine
operators and truck drivers than petroleum and natural
gas extraction, reflecting entirely different modes of
extracting and transporting minerals.
The differences in mining operations between solid
mineral and petroleum and natural gas extraction also
were evidenced by the relatively high proportion of
white-collar workers that were employed in the petro­
leum and natural gas extraction industry. This industry
employed nearly twice the proportion of professional
and technical workers than the average for mining
industries because of the relatively greater need for
9

geologists, geophysicists, and technicians in exploration
activities; and for mining engineers, technicians, and
draftsmen in the design and construction of natural gas
liquids plants, pipeline systems, offshore drilling plat­
forms, and other facilities. The proportions of manage­
rial and clerical workers’ in establishments engaged in
the extraction of petroleum and natural gas also was
much higher than the average for all mining. The greater
need for clerical workers in petroleum and natural gas
establishments is explained, in large part, by the larger
average size of these establishments, where clerical
workers usually account for a larger share of the work
force, and the need of supporting personnel for pro­
fessional, technical, and managerial workers.
Technological innovations are expected to have a
significant effect on the occupational structure of the
mining major industry group through the mid-1970’s.
They are expected to result in a substantial decline in
the proportion of mine operatives and laborers in all
types of mining. For example, the increasing use of more
efficient blasting agents, power shovels, drilling equip­
ment, and off—
highway trucks in surface mining will
reduce the ratio of mine operatives and laborers engaged
in this type of mining. The more widespread use of
continuous mining machinery and the long-wall mining
techniques will cause the ratio of mine operatives to
drop in coal mining. These workers also will be adversely
affected by the growing use of computers in monitoring
and controlling many types of mining operations. In the
petroleum and natural gas extraction industry, more
efficient drilling techniques and equipment, including
automated drilling operations, will reduce the need for
such operatives as drill operators and roughnecks.
However, the extent of the reduction may be limited by
an increase in activities, such as off-shore drilling and
thermal methods in oil production, including secondary
recovery in older fields.

10




The proportion of craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers is expected to remain relatively stable in the
overall mining industry through 1975. However, diver­
gent trends are anticipated among the individual mining
industries and among individual craft occupations. For
example, the ratio of craftsmen is expected to rise in all
mining industries except petroleum and natural gas
extraction, where a sharp drop in the proportion of
craftsmen, not elsewhere classified, primarily pumpmen,
will more than offset increases in the relative share of
most other craft occupations. This drop in requirements
for pumpers will result primarily from the greater use of
LACT systems.
Mechanics and repairmen will account for a larger
share of total employment in all types of mining
activity. The increasing use of complex mining produc­
tion and processing equipment will sharply increase the
needs for skilled workers to install, maintain, and repair
this equipment.
The proportion of professional and technical workers
is expected to increase in all types of mining; however,
the greatest increase will be in petroleum and natural gas
extraction, reflecting the growing complexity of produc­
tion operations and increasing research and exploration
activity. For example, the greater use of computer
systems will increase the need for scientists and
engineers as well as computer programming specialists.
In addition, the use of more efficient exploration and
recovery techniques should increase the need for geolo­
gists, geophysicists, mining engineers, and technicians.
Clerical workers are expected to increase as a propor­
tion of total employment in all types of mining
establishments, reflecting, in large part, an increase in
the average size of mining establishments; and the
increasing need for stenographers, typists, and secretaries
as supporting personnel to professional and managerial
workers, particularly in the petroleum and natural gas
industry.

CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION D IV IS IO N 11

Current Employment
Nearly 3.3 million wage and salary workers were
employed in contract construction in 1966. (See table
4.) Almost one— worked for special trade contrac­
half
tors, slightly more than 30 percent were employed by
general building contractors, and the remainder worked
for heavy construction contractors.
Construction workers12 accounted for 85 percent of
total employment in contract construction in 1966, and
approximately the same proportion of construction
workers were employed by each of the division’s three
major industry groups. Women accounted for a very
small proportion of the industry’s employment.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in contract construction establishments
increased from nearly 2 million to nearly 3.3 million
between 1947 and 1966, or by 66 percent. Employment
reached nearly 3 million in 1956, then fluctuated
downward to about 2.8 million in 1961, and since then
has advanced steadily.
Rates of employment growth differed widely among
the three contract construction major industry groups
between 1947 and 1966. Employment increased very
rapidly (about 83 percent) in the special trades con­
tractors major industry group, mainly because of the
increasing importance in electrical, plumbing, airconditioning, and other work usually performed by
special trades contractors. Very rapid employment
growth (about 86 percent) in the heavy construction
major industry group was spurred by a fourfold increase
in expenditures for highway construction (in constant
11 SIC Division C. This division covers three major industry
groups, as follows: (a) building construction general contractors,
who construct residential, farm, industrial, commercial, public,
or other buildings; (b) heavy construction general contractors,
who engage in heavy construction, such as highways and streets,
bridges, sewers, railroads, irrigation projects, flood control
projects and marine construction, and miscellaneous types of
construction work other than buildings; and (c) special trade
contractors, who specialize in activities such as plumbing,
painting, plastering, and carpentry.
12 Construction workers include working foremen, journey­
men, mechanics, apprentices, laborers, etc., whether working at
the site of construction or in shops or yards, at jobs (such as
precutting preassembling) ordinarily performed by members of
the construction trades.




dollar terms), as well as increases in the construction of
sewer and water systems, airports, bridges, dams, and
similar projects. Employment by building construction
general contractors also gained substantially (about 37
percent). Employment in the latter major industry group
rose to more than a million in 1956; however, by 1966,
employment was slightly lower (3 percent) than in 1956,
reflecting, in part, a slowdown in the rate of increase in
residential construction activity.
Construction workers decreased as a proportion of
total wage and salary employment in the contract
construction division, from 89 percent in 1947 to 85
percent in 1966. The rate of decline in the proportion of
construction workers was slower in heavy construction
than in the other two major industry groups.
Manpower requirements in contract construction are
expected to rise by more than one—
fourth between
1966 and 1975, to nearly 4.2 million workers. Construc­
tion activity is expected to be stimulated by a rising
population and household formations, higher levels of
personal and corporate income, a continued shift of the
population from the cities to the suburbs, increases in
government expenditures for highways and schools, and
rising expenditures for new industrial and commercial
facilities. Employment growth, however, will be limited
by the increased use of more efficient materials handling
equipment, prefabricated building components prepared
off the construction site, new and improved construc­
tion materials, and other technological innovations.
Manpower requirements are expected to rise in all
three major industry groups, although faster increases
are expected among heavy construction contractors than
among general and special trades contractors. (See
volume IV, appendix B.) A growing volume of highway
construction generated by the Federal Government’s
long-range highway development program is expected
to be an important factor in stimulating employment in
heavy construction. Employment requirements of
special trades contractors also are expected to increase
rapidly, primarily because of the trend toward multi­
bathroom homes, air-conditioning, and more extensive
wiring systems required by the growing use of electrical
appliances and machines. A moderate to rapid increase
in employment requirements is expected among general
building contractors, mainly because of the expected
increase in residential building spurred by a high rate of
family formation.
11

olO
Code
15
16
161
162
17
171
172
173
174
176
177
175, 8, 9

Table 4. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in
Contract C onstruction, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Industry
Number
Percent
d is tr i­
bution
Contract con stru ction ----------------------------------- 3 ,2 92 .0
100.0
General building con tractors------------------- 1,047.3
31.8
Heavy construction con tractors---------------- 673.9
20.5
Highway and s tr e e t con stru ction ----------- 326.8
9.9
Other heavy con stru ction ----------------------- 347.1
10.5
Special trade co n stractors----------------------- 1,570.9
47.7
Plumbing, h eatin g, and a ir-co n d itio n in g........................- ................................................. 373.1
11.3
P ain tin g, paperhanging, and decoratin g........................................................................... 141.0
4.3
7.6
E le c tr ic a l work-------------------------------------- 250.4
Masonry, p la ste r in g , stone and t i l e
work------------------------------------------------------ 235.0
7.1
3 .4
Roofing and sheet metal work--------- ----- 112.2
3 / 2.1
Concrete work------------------------------------------ 1 /62.7
Other sp ecia l trade con tractors............... 1/367.2
3 /1 2 .3

C onstruction
workers 2/as
percent of
employment,
by industry
85.0
86.1
86.2
88.8
83.9
83.7
81.1
89.0
80.4
90.9
81.0
(4)
(4)

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ See tex t; footnote 2.
3/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the industry d iv isio n .
4 / Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

Occupational Structure
The complexity of today’s construction activity
requires the use of a wide range of building materials and
machines, and the services of an equally diverse group of
specialists who can use them. In 1960, construction
industry employment13 contained a higher proportion
of craftsmen and foremen (over 50 percent) than any
other industry division. (See volume IV, appendix G.)
Carpenters, who outnumbered the industry’s combined
force of professional, technical, clerical, and sales
workers, were employed in activities ranging from
foundation work on dam construction to finishing work
on kitchen cabinets. To assist craftsmen and to move

onsite materials, a high proportion (over 18 percent) of
laborers were employed in this industry in 1960.
In the decade ahead, technological developments are
expected to have a significant effect on both the number
and characteristics of contract construction jobs. For
example, increases in the size, capacity, speed, and
mobility of construction machinery will decrease unit
labor requirements for operators. New construction
methods also will increase worker efficiency on
construction projects.
Overall, these laborsaving innovations are expected to
reduce somewhat the proportion of craftsmen and
laborers by 1975. However, the rates, and even the
direction, of change in the relative position of individual
occupations are expected to differ. For example, the
proportion of carpenters is expected to decline
13
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
significantly due the
use of prefabricated
well as wage and salary workers, both those employed in private components, such to roof growingfloors, and wall panels
as trusses,
enterprises and those in government agencies that are engaged in
construction related activities, such as the Alaska Road Commis­ that can be produced more efficiently offsite and lifted
sion and State and local highway departments.
into place onsite by cranes. Improved adhesives and

12




nails, new types of power tools, and the increasing use of
nonwood materials, including glass, aluminum and
plastics, also will tend to reduce requirements for
carpenters. More widespread use of materials such as
aluminum and plastic are also expected to adversely
affect the proportion of painters in the construction
industry. Longer lasting paints and greater use of spray
and roller painting equipment are likely to contribute to
this reduction.
On the other hand, the ratio of mechanics is expected
to increase in response to the growing use of scrapers,
concrete paving machines, tower and climbing cranes,
and other complex machinery requiring repair and
periodic maintenance. The proportion of excavating,
grading, and road machinery operators also should rise,
due principally to an increase in heavy construction
activity, particularly highway construction.
Laborers who perform material handling jobs are
expected to decline relatively as materials such as
concrete and brick are moved increasingly by forklift
trucks, motorized wheel barrows, and conveyor belts,




and lifted to upper floors by cranes and highspeed
mechanized hoists.
The proportion of professional and technical workers
will increase, in large part, because of increasing
requirements for engineers. These workers will be
needed to design and supervise a growing number of
complex construction projects, such as high-rise
apartments having intricate air-conditioning, heating,
and ventilating systems, and industrial plants having
extensive wiring and plumbing systems, to facilitate
quick realinement of production operations. The
increase in urban highway and rapid transit systems also
will boost the need for these workers.
Laborsaving innovations that reduce the proportion
of some types of workers will increase the ratio of
others. For instance, certain wall techniques may shift
employment from carpenters and bricklayers to
ornamental— workers; and the use of prestressed
iron
concrete in the place of steel beams may shift work from
the structural—
metal worker to cement masons and
other workers.

13

M A N U F A C T U R IN G 14
Current Employment

About 3 out of 10 nonagricultural wage and salary
workers in 1966 were employed in manufacturing.
Approximately three— of the 19 million workers in
fifths
manufacturing were located in durable goods plants.
(See Table 5.) Among the major industry groups within
manufacturing, the largest employers were the
machinery, transportation, and food and kindred
products industries, each having approximately 10
percent of total manufacturing employment. The
smallest employer in manufacturing was the tobacco
industry, which employed less than 90,000 workers.
Production workers accounted for 74 percent of total
manufacturing employment in 1966. The proportion of
production workers in both the durable and nondurable
goods industries was about the same as that for all
manufacturing.
Women workers accounted for 27 percent of all
manufacturing employment in 1966. The proportion of
women workers differed considerably between the two
general classes of manufacturing industries. Women
composed 38 percent of total employment in the
nondurable goods industries compared to 19 percent in
the durable goods establishments.
Employment Trends and Outlook

Employment in manufacturing establishments
increased from 15.5 million to about 17.3 million
between 1947 and 1964, or by 11 percent. Since 1964,
there has been a sharp increase in manufacturing em­
ployment from 17.3 million to nearly 19.2 million. A re­
cent BLS study15 indicates a large share, over one-third,
of this increase is directly attributable to the Viet Nam
buildup, most of the impact being felt in durable goods
industries such as ordnance, electrical equipment, and
14 SIC Division D. This division includes those establish­
ments engaged in the mechanical or chemical transformation of
inorganic or organic substances into new products, and usually
are described as plants, factories, or mills, which characteristi­
cally use power-driven machines and materials handling equip­
ment. Establishments engaged in assembling component parts of
manufactured products also are considered manufacturing if the
new product is neither a structure nor other fixed improvement.
15 “The Employment Effects of Defense Expenditures”,
M onthly Labor Review, September 1967, pages 9-16.

14




aircraft and parts. During the 1947-66 period, output
rose by 139 percent. Major factors responsible for the
growing demand of manufactured goods over the 194766 period were continued rapid growth of the popula­
tion, rising personal and corporate incomes, growth in
numbers of households, rising business activity, and in
recent years, the increase in defense expenditures. Laborsaving technological innovations, more efficient manage­
ment, better trained workers, and a variety of other fac­
tors increased output per worker and allowed much of
the growing demand for manufactured goods to be satis­
fied without commensurate increase in employment.
Although manufacturing employment was higher in
1966 than in 1947, employment did not grow
consistently. Employment increased from 15.5 million
in 1947 to 17.5 million in 1953, a period of high
economic activity resulting from high demand for
durable consumer goods and new plant equipment; large
Federal expenditures for military items; and favorable
trade balances in foreign trade. Between 1954 and 1966,
manufacturing employment fluctuated with general
business activity, but until 1965, it did not surpass the
1953 level—
falling as low as 15.9 million in 1958 and
rising as high as about 17.2 million in 1956, 1957, and
1964.
Between 1947 and 1966, employment in the durable
goods manufacturing industries increased by 34 percent,
and in the nondurable industries, by 11 percent.
Production increased by 156 percent in durables and by
approximately 124 in nondurables, indicating a faster
increase in output per worker in nondurable than in
durable goods industries.
Changes in employment among individual
manufacturing industries varied widely between 1947
and 1966. Employment in the ordnance and accessories
industry, for example, increased nearly 850 percent
between 1947 and 1966, as demand for military items
for the earlier Korean conflict and current Viet Nam
buildup stimulated production. The complex items
manufactured by this industry required considerable
hand labor. In addition, the rapid obsolescence of many
items limited the application of mass production
techniques in their manufacture. Similarly, segments of
the electrical equipment industry that fabricates
complex electronic items for sophisticated
military— products were unable to introduce many
space
mass production techniques for the same reasons.

Table 5. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in
M anufacturing, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
D
19
24
25
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
20
21
22
23
26
27
28
29
30
31

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Industry
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution
A ll m anufacturing--....................- .................. 19,186.0 100.0
58.7
Durable goods------------------------------------- 11,256.0
256.0
Ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s-------------1.3
Lumber and wood products
612.6
excluding fu rn itu re------------------3.2
2.4
Furniture and fix tu r e s -----------------461.7
644.6
3 .4
Stone, cla y , and g la ss products-7.0
Primary metal in d u str ie s-------------- 1,345.4
Fabricated metal products------------ 1,349.1
7.0
10.0
Machinery---------------------------------------- 1,911.1
E le c tr ic a l equipment and
9.9
su p p lies-------------------------------------- 1,896.4
10.0
Transportation equipment-------------- 1,911.5
Instruments and rela ted products433.1
2.3
M iscellaneous manufacturing
in d u str ie s----------------------------------434.5
2.3
Nondurable........................................................ 7 ,9 30 .0
41.3
Food and kindred products------------ 1,778.9
9.3
0 .4
83.9
Tobacco m anufactures--------------------5 .0
T ex tile m ill products------------------961.5
Apparel and rela ted products------- 1,398.8
7.3
Paper and a llie d products------------3.5
667.5
P rin tin g , p u b lish in g, and a llie d
in d u str ie s----------------------------------- 1,021.8
5.3
Chemicals and a llie d products-----957.9 • 5 .0
186.0 1 1.0
Petroleum and rela ted in d u striesRubber and m iscellaneous p la s tic s
509.8
2.7
products-------------------------------------Leather and leath er products------363.5
1.9

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
74.4
74.2
47.6
87.3
82.9
80.3
81.4
77.8
70.4
69.4
71.2
63.9
79.8
74.7
66.4
85.2
89.1
88.9
77.8
63.6
59.7
62.3
77.9
87.6

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
27.1
19.3
20.0
8 .4
20.0
15.7
6.3
17.0
13.5
40.4
10.3
35.4
43.9
38.2
24.9
46.1
44.4
79.8
21.2
30.0
19.3
9.0
30.6
55.0

Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of rounding.

Employment increased in some industries despite the
existence of mass production techniques. For example,
in the chemical and allied products industry, which has
utilized a continuous flow process for years, the rapidly
increasing demand for chemical products caused total
production to grow faster than output per worker. On
the other hand, employment declined in other
industries, such as petroleum refining, tobacco
manufacturing, and lumber and wood products, as
laborsaving innovations, including more mechanized
production processes, increased output per worker faster
than total production.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in manufacturing from about 84 percent in




1947 to 74 percent in 1966. The amount of decrease
was reflected about equally in both durable and
nondurable goods manufacturing.
Manpower requirements in manufacturing are
expected to increase to nearly 20 million workers by
1975. This increase is at a considerably slower pace than
that experienced in the 1958-66 period, chiefly because
of the current high levels of employment in certain
industries resulting from the Viet Nam buildup.
Employment trends in these industries are assumed to
return to pre— Nam employment patterns by 1975.
Viet
As in the past, changes in employment in individual
manufacturing industries are expected to vary widely,
depending primarily on rates of change in production
15

and the impact of technology. The increasing application
of technological innovations to manufacturing processes
is expected to continue to reduce unit labor
requirements in manufacturing.
All manufacturing industries will not be affected
equally by technological change. For example, in some
industries, such changes may reduce employment growth
by increasing output per employee faster than total
production. On the other hand, technological changes in
other industries may create new products and markets
and increase production and employment. In nearly all
industries, technological changes are expected to affect
occupational patterns. For example, requirements
should increase for skilled maintenance and repair
workers to insure the operation of complex equipment,
and requirements for machine tenders and materials
handlers should fall.
Most of the technological developments that are
expected to affect employment in manufacturing can be
included in seven broad categories: Numerical controls;
new metal processing methods; machinery
improvements; improved materials handling (including
layout); new and improved raw materials and products;
instrumentation and automatic controls; and electronic
computers.
In the metalworking industries, more automatic
production is being achieved through numerical control.
This innovation provides a means of automatically
controlling the operation of machine tools and certain
other types of equipment by means of numerically
coded information recorded in advance on punched
cards, magnetic tape, or punched paper tape. Numerical
control already is finding numerous applications in
drafting, welding, and wiring operations. Expanding use
of these techniques will be an important development in
nearly all the metal working industries but will have very
limited use in the nondurable industries.
New developments in metal processing, such as the
basic oxygen process, will continue to reduce unit labor
requirements and alter occupational patterns in primary
metals establishments.
Improvements in machinery will continue to
contribute to increased output per employee throughout
manufacturing. New and improved models of automatic
machinery, such as that used for stamping, pressing,
bottling, packaging, or printing will continue to be
introduced. Improvements in standard machinery will
continue to be made by incorporating more powerful
motors, heavier frames, simpler controls, and variable
motor speeds.
16




Another important development in machine design is
the trend toward the integration of hitherto separate
machine operations into one large machine complex that
carries through a series of operations with a minimum of
intervention on the part of the machine tender. Many
automatic transfer lines have been built that integrate
materials handling equipment with a series of machine
tools. Such transfer lines are applicable to the mass
production of a variety of products requiring
metalworking operations, including components for
automobiles, appliances, farm equipment, and office
machinery. Machines that perform automatic assembly
operations also are being introduced, although at the
moment the number of manufacturers that can justify
using automatic assembly machines are comparatively
few (generally large firms in the fabricated metal
products, electrical and nonelectrical machinery, and
transportation equipment industries). However, such
machines are expected to be used increasingly in the
years ahead and could have adverse effects on the
requirements for assemblers in some industries.
Increasing mechanization also is occurring in the
movement of materials, from receipt of raw materials to
the shipping of final products. More powerful and
maneuverable models of forklift trucks, hoists, cranes,
conveyors, and tractors are being introduced in many
industries, including pulp and paper manufacturing, food
processing, footwear manufacturing, meat packing, and
foundries. For example, in the food and footwear
industries, improved conveyors and other materials
handling equipment are being used to move final
products from the production line to the warehouse and
the shipping platform.
Pneumatic conveyors are being used increasingly for
moving granular materials. This technique is widely
applicable in baking and in the manufacture of cement,
flour, and fertilizer. The expanding use of improved
materials handling equipment will primarily affect
requirements for unskilled labor. These workers will
most probably be replaced by smaller numbers of
semiskilled workers to operate or monitor the
equipment.
The development of new products is also expected to
affect manpower requirements in many manufacturing
industries. New products may create new markets and
thus additional employment requirements, shift
employment from one industry to another, modify
occupational patterns, or decrease unit labor
requirements. For example, new synthetic fibers that
require fewer mill operations than natural textile mill

products may reduce unit labor requirements. Plastic
materials, which are readily adaptable to mechanical
processing, are replacing metal and wood and causing an
employment shift.
In many manufacturing industries, more measuring
and control instruments and electronic computers are
being used to increase the efficiency of continuous flow
production processes. In the food industry, computers
arid sensors control the preparation of food, and other
automatic equipment grade, weigh, and package food
items. In textile mills, electronic monitoring systems and
photoelectronic devices are increasingly being used for
quality control and inspection. The use of electronic
controls, such as magnetic flowmeters, is expanding in
the paper industry in connection with the industry’s
increased emphasis on automatic quality control. The
potential of computers seems especially significant in the
continuous process industries, such as paper and

chemicals, and their use in spreading into other
industries, such as printing and primary metals. In the
chemical industry, computers direct and control entire
production processes, including automatic testing and
analysis to insure optimum quality control. In pulp and
paper, they are being used increasingly with paper
machines to accelerate grade changes and prevent breaks
in the web, while providing optimum use of input
materials and greater machine productivity.
The increasing use of instrumentation and computers
in manufacturing will have several effects on the
numbers and types of workers employed. Employment
requirements for maintenance, technical, and
supervisory workers will increase and requirements for
production workers should decline.
Additional information of likely effects on
technological and other changes to occupational
requirements in manufacturing industries are included in
the individual statements that follow.

O rdnance and A ccesso ries16

lower than the average of 74 percent for all
manufacturing. Two of the individual industry groups
About 256,000 wage and salary workers were em­ comprising the ordnance and accessories
ammunition except for small arms, and
ployed in the ordnance and accessories major industry industry—
group in 1966. (See table 6.) About three-fourths sighting and fire control equipment— roughly about
had
worked in establishments manufacturing ammunition, the same proportions of production workers. However,
except small arms, 84 percent of whom were engaged the proportions were much higher in the other ordnance
in the production of guided missiles and spacecraft. and accessories industry group.
About 5 percent of the employees in the ordnance
Women workers accounted for 20 percent of the total
industry were employed in establishments producing employment in the ordnance and accessories industry in
sighting and fire control equipment, such as bomb 1966, compared with 27 percent for all manufacturing.
sights, gun data computers, windage instruments, aim­ The individual industry groups constituting the ordnance
ing directors, and sound locators. The remaining workers and accessories industry had about the same proportions
in this major industry group were employed in other of women workers.
ordnance and accessories establishments making guns,
howitzers, mortars, and related equipment; tanks and Employment Trends and Outlook
tank components; small firearms and small arms ammu­
Ordnance employment is highly responsive to changes
nition; or other ordnance and accessories.
Production workers accounted for 48 percent of the in defense spending; since World War II, employment has
total employment in this industry in 1966, considerably fluctuated between 26,000 and 266,000 workers.
Employment grew most rapidly during the Korean
16
SIC 19. This major group includes establishmentsConflict, rising from 30,000 in 1950 to about 234,000
engaged in manufacturing artillery, small arms, and related
equipment; ammunition; tanks and specialized tank parts; in 1953. Employment declined after these hostilities but
Korean level. Toward the end of
sighting and fire control equipment; and miscellaneous ordnance never below the pre—
the 1950’s employment again began to rise because of
and accessories, not elsewhere classified.

Current Employment




17

SIC
Code
19
192
1925
1929
194
191, 3, 5,
6, 9

Table 6. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Ordnance
and A ccessories Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
workers
workers as
Industry
Number Percent percent of
d i s t r i ­ emp 1oymen t ,
bution
by industry
Ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s------------------ 256.0
Ammunition except for small
arms--------------------------------------------- 192.6
Guided m issile s and
sp a cecra ft.............- ........................... 161.7
Ammunition (except small arms)
not elsewhere c la s s if ie d ------- 1 /2 5 .4
Sighting and fir e control equipment--------------------------------------------13.4
50.0
Other ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s----

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
20.0

100.0

47.6

75.2

42.0

63.2

34.4

19.5
17.8

2 /7 .1
5.2

(3)
41.8
70.6

(3)
20.9
21.6

19.5

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966 to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

percent in 1958 to 48 percent in 1966. The rate of
decline during the 1958-65 period was much slower in
establishments producing guns, mortars, tanks and tank
components, small arms, and small arms ammunition
than in the other industry groups.
Manpower requirements in ordnance are expected to
be about 250,000 in 1975, or at about the level prior to
the Viet Nam build up. Labor saving technological
developments, such as numerically controlled machine
tools, new processing automatic transfer equipment, and
new processing techniques are expected to offset, in
part, slightly higher levels of production.
A very important technological change affecting
employment in ordnance establishments is the
development of numerically controlled machine tools
(N/C). Tape—
controlled tools are particularly important
in short production runs common in prototype
development of missiles and spacecraft. A rapid rise in
the number of N/C machines in use during the 1965-75
period could substantially limit employment
opportunities in some occupations. For example,
employment requirements for machine tool operators
may
17
BLS employment (payroll) data for the individual be reduced somewhat by the widespread use of N/C
machines. Requirements for highly skilled craftsmen,
industries in this major industry group are not available for the
years prior to 1958.
such as toolmakers and setup men, also would be

the increasing importance of missile production; it
reached its peak in 1963.
Between 1958 and 1966,17 employment changes
among the individual industry groups differed widely.
Employment more than doubled in the ammunition,
except small arms, industry. Employment in other
ordnance and accessories establishments (those
producing guns, mortars, tanks and tank components,
small arms, and small arms ammunition) also increased.
Most of the employment growth was due to the
increased emphasis on missile and space vehicle
development, the changing types of materials required
for fighting a “limited war,” and the replenishment of
inventories. Employment declined by 68 percent in
establishments engaged in manufacturing sighting and
fire control equipment, reflecting the increased use of
electronic equipment, such as computers and radar
instruments, that are produced in other industries to
perform sighting and fire control functions.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 52

18




reduced since fewer jigs, fixtures, and machine setups
would be required. On the other hand, the use of
numerically controlled machines would increase
requirements somewhat for specially trained workers,
particularly for jobs in computer operation and machine
tool maintenance. It is possible that machining workers,
skilled in the operation of conventional machines, could
be trained to perform these jobs.
Automatic transfer equipment is another develop­
ment that will continue to limit employment growth in
ordnance. Such equipment has been used increasingly to
link machining operations, primarily in the manufacture
of small arms. The employment impact of such equip­
ment will fall heaviest on machine operators.
Computer applications in this industry, which now
range from accounting and production control to scien­
tific and engineering computations, are expected to have
both employment reducing and employment generating
effects. Laborsavings will occur chiefly in routine clerical

work, such as billing, posting, filing, and maintaining
records, and in some office machine operations, such as
tabulating and bookkeeping. Computers also will tend to
reduce employment in certain types of quality control
and warehousing jobs as a result of improved production
standards and tighter inventory control. Requirements
for lower and middle management employees also may be
reduced because of the centralization arid coordination
of managerial functions. Computers, however, may
extend man’s capabilities and produce conditions favor­
able to employment growth, especially for scientists,
engineers and technicians. A notable example of com­
puter generated employment in this industry is in the
research, design, and testing of missiles, space vehicles,
and their components. Present successes with computers
in ordnance research and development indicate that even
more extensive use will be made of computers in the
future to aid in the development of new products and
processes.

Food and Kindred Products18

Current Employment

About 1.8 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the food and kindred products major
industry group in 1966. (See table 7.) Five of the nine
industry groups within this major industry group ac­
counted for 1.4 million or nearly four— of total
fifths
employment in 1966-meat products, bakery products,
dairy products, canned and preserved foods except
meats, and beverages. The remaining workers were in
establishments producing grain mill products, con­
fectionery products, sugar, and miscellaneous food
preparations.
Production workers accounted for 66 percent of total
employment within this major industry group in 1966,
compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
proportion of production workers in the individual
industry groups constituting this major industry group
differed widely, ranging from about 46 percent in the
dairy products industry group to 85 percent in the
canned and preserved foods industry group.
Women workers accounted for about 25 percent of
total employment in the food processing industry

establishments in 1966, slightly below the average for all
manufacturing. Among the individual industry groups,
the proportions of women workers ranged from 8
percent in the sugar industry group to 50 percent in the
confectionery and related products industry group.
Employment Trends and Outlook

Employment in establishments manufacturing food
and kindred products remained relatively stable between
1947 and 1966. During the same period, production rose
by over one— Between 1947 and 196619, employ­
half.
ment trends differed somewhat among the individual
industry groups. For example, in meat products estab­
lishments— largest food industry group—
the
employ­
ment rose from about 275,000 in 1947 to about
338,000 in 1956, an increase of nearly one-fourth,
then declined to about 324,000 in 1966. Employ­
ment in the bakery industry group—
about 281,000
in 1947—
increased to 304,000 in 1956, before de­
clining to about 284,000 in 1966. In the dairy
products industry group, employment dropped from

18
SIC 20. This major group includes establishments manu­ 19 BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data for the dairy products
facturing foods and beverages for human consumption and
and the miscellaneous food products industry groups are not
certain related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum,
available for the years prior to 1958. Data for the grain mill
vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for
products industry group are not available for years prior to
1951.
animals and fow ls.




19

SIC
Code
20
201
2011
2013
2015
202
2023
2024
2026
2021, 2
203
2031, 6
2032, 3
2034, 5
2037
204
2041
2042
2046
2043, 5
205
2051
2052
206
2061
2062
2063
207
2071
2072, 3
208
2082
2085
2086
2083, 4,
209
2091-3
2094-9

Table 7. Distribution of Wage and Salary Workers in the Food and
Kindred Products Major Industry Group) by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary Production
workers
workers as
Number Percent percent of
Industry
d istr i­ employment,
bution by industry
66.4
Food and kindred products-------------- 1,778.9 100.0
Meat products----------------------------323.8 18.2
79.9
Meat packing plants----------------77.4
189.9 10.7
Sausages and other prepared
3.0
71.0
meats----------------------------------52.5
4.6
Poultry dressing and packing--81.5
91.5
Dairy products---------------------------- 277.5 15.6
45.9
Condensed and evaporated milk-- 1/13.1 2/0.8
(3)
Ice Cream and frozen desserts-29.8
1.7
52.3
Fluid milk.......................................... 198.7 11.2
37.2
Other dairy products---------------- 1/34.8 2/2.1
(3)
Canned and preserved foods
except meats---------------------------- 275.7 15.5
84.6
Canned, cured and frozen sea
foods----------------------------------40.2
2.3
88.3
140.4
7.9
Canned food except sea foods--82.3
Dried, dehydrated and pickled
foods----------------------------------- 1/29.6 2/1.7
(3)
59.8
3.4
Frozen fruits and vegetables--90.0
127.8
7.2
70.1
Grain m ill products-------------------Flour and other grain products30.2
1.7
71.9
Prepared feeds for animals and
58.0
3.3
fowls----------------------------------65.7
Wet corn m illing---------------------- 1/17.1 2/1.0
(3)
(3)
Other grainmill products--------- 1/22.4 2/1.3
284.4 16.0
58.0
Bakery products-------------------------Bread, cake and perishable
products------------------------------- 241.4 13.6
53.5
Biscuits, crackers, and
2.4
43.0
pretzels------------------------------83.5
35.6
2.0
80.6
Sugar----------------------------------------Cane sugar except refining
(3)
only------------------------------------- I f 9.8 2/0.6
Cane sugar refining----------------- 1/11.6 2/0.7
(3)
Beet sugar------------------------------- 1 / 9.5 2/0.6
(3)
Confectionery and related
80.7
4.5
81.9
products---------------------------------Candy and other confectionery
66.1
84.4
3.7
products------------------------------Chocolate and coca products,
chewing gum-------------------------- 1/14.2 2/0.8
(3)
51.6
229.3 12.9
Beverages----------------------------------66.1
62.2
3.5
Malt liquors---------------------------D istilled liquors-------------------- 1/21.6 2/1.3
(3)
7.0
38.4
Bottled and canned soft drinks- 124.9
Other beverages and related
7
(3)
products------------------------------- 1/19.5 2/1.2
Miscellaneous food and kindred
8.1
65.1
products---------------------------------- 144.1
Vegetable o ils and fa ts----------- 1/19.5 2/1.2
(3)
Miscellaneous food prepara(3)
tions----------------------------------- 1/123.8 2/7.3

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
24.9
26.9
14.2
29.9
54.7
15.2
(3)
21.5
12.8
(3)
44.9
61.2
38.2
(3)
50.7
14.2
9.3
12.2
(3)
(3)
23.2
18.6
48.6
7.9
(3)
(3)
(3)
49.8
52.8
(3)
11.7
5.9
(3)
9.0
(3)
25.4
(3)
(3)

1J Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966 total employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not available.
Note: Individual items may not add to totals because of the inclusion of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

20




about 319,000 in 1958 to approximately 278,000
in 1966.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 77
percent in 1947 to 66 percent in 1966. The rate of
decline in the proportions of production workers during
the recent 1958-66 period was much faster in establish­
ments producing dairy products than in the other
industry groups. The decreasing production worker ratio
primarily resulted from the increasing mechanization of
production operations.
Despite a rising demand for food, especially highly
processed foods that need little preparation in the home,
manpower requirements in the food and kindred prod­
ucts industry are expected to decline slightly between
1965 and 1975. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
Employment trends for the individual industries are
expected to differ. Employment requirements in the
meat production industry are likely to decline, despite
increasing demand, because of the greater use of laborsaving technological innovations, such as automatic
bacon slicers, sausage stuffers, frankfurter machines,
electric stunners and saws, and mechanical hide
strippers. In contrast, moderate employment gains are
expected in the canned and preserved food industry
group because of the large number of small plants having
little mechanization, and because of increasing consumer
demand for geriatric, dietetic, and other specialty foods.
Occupational Structure

Chicken plucker, bean snapper, bologna maker, alfal­
fa dehydrator, bread catcher— are examples of the
these
wide range of specialized operative jobs that characterize
the food and related products major industry group.
Nearly half of all workers20 in this major industry group
in 1960 were operatives (See volume IV, appendix G.)
Although many were employed in the more common
operative jobs, such as driver and deliverymen (particu­
larly in dairy products and bakery products), the vast
majority were in the residual “not elsewhere classified”
occupational classification and performed specialized
activities unique to a single industry.
Although the distribution of employment in this
major industry group generally followed the average for
nondurable goods industries, there were some variations.
oq
Including self-em ployed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.




The ratio of professional and technical workers was
substantially lower in food than in other nondurables,
while that of managerial workers was considerably
higher in the food manufacturing industry. These varia­
tions from the average of nondurables may be explained,
to a large extent, by the prevalence of small firms in
food manufacturing, particularly in the beverage indus­
tries and in grain mill products.
Technological innovations are expected to have some
bearing on the nature of the industry’s 1975 occupa­
tional structure. Noteworthy trends in the industry
include more widespread use of improved conveyor and
transfer systems to handle food in process; computers
and environmental sensors to control preparation of
food; and automatic equipment to grade, weight, and
package a greater variety of foods. Improved communi­
cations to further coordinate and integrate activities
among the various functional areas of an establishment
and between geographically scattered divisions of an
organization are also expected. The economies of scale
made possible by improvements in equipment and
methods (such as freezing processes in the baking
industry) may be expected to continue the trend to
fewer, but larger, food processing establishments in
many food industries.
Laborers are expected to be most affected by such
technological developments. More widespread use of
improved conveyor and transfer systems to handle food
in process will adversely affect such laborers as ware­
house and shipping platform workers and materials
handling workers. Other developments, such as the dairy
industry’s use of clean— place piping systems that can
in—
reduce pipe cleaning time by nearly one— con­
half,
tribute toward a significantly lower concentration of
laborers by 1975. Ratios for other major occupational
groups are expected to undergo only moderate change
over the decade ahead.
Although technology is expected to reduce the
percentage of many operatives used in production, this
reduction will be largely offset by a substantial rise in
the proportion of drivers and deliverymen needed to
transport increasing amounts of food products required
for an expanding population. Some skilled jobs such as
baker and brewer will be adversely affected by increasing
use of automatic batch mixing and instrument control.
However, offsetting these reductions, needs will increase
for instrument repairmen and other mechanics to main­
tain and repair equipment of growing complexity.
Expansion in the use of more highly mechanized
equipment also will increase the relative position of
professional workers. Greater emphasis on the develop21

ment and operation of such innovations as environ- result in higher proportions of both engineers and
mental sensors to control the preparation of food should technicians.
Tobacco Manufactures 21

Nearly 84,000 wage and salary workers were employ­
ed in the tobacco manufactures major industry gourp in
1966. (See table 8.) More than 70 percent of total
employment in tobacco manufacturing in 1966 was
concentrated in two industries—
cigarettes (47 percent)
and cigars (26 percent). The remaining workers were
employed in establishments producing smoking and
chewing tobacco and snuff; and in tobacco stemming
and redrying establishments.
Production workers accounted for 85 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,
compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
proportion of production workers was lower in establish­
ments manufacturing cigarettes (82 percent) than in
those producing cigars (93 percent).
Women workers accounted for 46 percent of total
employment in tobacco manufacturing in 1966; con­
siderably higher than the 27 percent average for all
manufacturing. The proportion of women was much
lower in plants making cigarettes (37 percent) than in
cigar producing establishments (71 percent).

percent in 1947 to 85 percent in 1966. The rate of
decline was slower in cigarette manufacturing establish­
ments than in those producing cigars.
By 1975, manpower requirements in tobacco manu­
facturing are expected to decline to about 80,000,
somewhat below the 1966 level. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) The increasing demand for tobacco prod­
ucts is expected to result mainly from population
growth. However, it should be noted that the contro­
versy over smoking and health, particularly cigarette
smoking, continues to create uncertainty about the
market for tobacco products. Information programs and
restrictive legislation intended to discourage cigarette
smoking could result in a shift in this industry’s product
mix. Also, both cigar and cigarette manufacturers are
expected to expand their tobacco product lines in an
effort to gain increased consumer acceptance. Never­
theless, laborsaving technological developments, such as
wrapping, banding, and cartoning machines in this
already highly mechanized industry group, are expected
to more than offset increases in the production of
tobacco products without the need for a larger work­
force.

Em ploym ent Trends and Outlook

Occupational Structure

SIC 21. This major group includes establishments
engaged in manufacturing cigarettes, cigars, smoking and
chewing tobacco, and snuff; and in stemming and redrying
tobacco.

22 Including self-em ployed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

Current Employment

Employment in tobacco manufacturing as a whole
Although the tobacco manufactures industry is
has declined steadily since World War II. However, characterized by a high degree of mechanization, nearly
employment in the cigar industry and the cigarette 6 out of 10 workers22 in this major industry group were
industry moved in opposite directions. Since 1947, operatives in 1960. (See volume IV, appendix G.) This
employment increased rapidly (more than 33 percent) in occupational group included most workers engaged
establishments producing cigarettes, as increased demand directly in the tobacco manufacturing process, including
for the industry’s products more than offset job dis­ machine tenders, checkers, and cigar wrappers. Other
placement caused by the expanding use of laborsaving workers that accounted for a significant proportion of
mechanized equipment. During the same period, im­ employment were foremen, needed to supervise the
proved mechanization in the cigar industry outstripped operation of complex and expensive equipment, and
demand for cigars, and employment declined by over 50 skilled mechanics and repairmen, required to keep the
percent.
machines in operation.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
Laborsaving technological innovations in tobacco
employment in this major industry group, from 93 productions are expected to affect the number and
characteristics of jobs through the mid-1970’s, particu21

22




Table 8. D is t r ib u t io n of Wage and S a la ry Workers in the
Tobacco Manufactures Major In d u stry Group,
by In d u s try , 1966

SIC
Code

21
211
212
213
214
1J
2/
3/

In d u stry

(In thousands)
Wage and s a la ry
workers
Percen t
Number
d is t r i­
bution

Tobacco m anufactures----------------------C ig a r e t t e s -------------------------------------C ig a r s --------------------------------------------Tobacco (chewing and smoking)
and s n u ff-----------------------------------Tobacco stemming and re d ry in g —

Women
P roduction
workers as t workers as
percent of
percent of
employment, employment,
by in d u stry by in d u stry

83.9
39.0
22.0

100.0
46.5
26.2

85.2
82.1
92.7

46.1
37.4
70.9

1/ 5 .0
1/13.0

2/ 6.4
2/16.6

(3 )
(3 )

(3 )
(3 )

Benchmark data fo r March 1966.
Based on March 1966 to t a l employment in the major in d u stry group.
Data are not a v a ila b le .

Note: In d iv id u a l items may not add to to t a ls because of the in c lu s io n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

larly in the cigar industry. The expanding use of
processed tobacco, composed of natural leaf materials
that are finely ground and reconstituted into a continu­
ous uniform sheet, will make possible substantial savings
in material and labor in the manufacture of cigars. It is
used widely as a binder and to a limited, though
increasing extent, as a wrapper in place of natural leaf.
Further integration of cigar manufacturing processes
also are expected. The connection of such equipment as
wrapping and banding machines with cartoning machines
reduces cigar handling and will adversely affect labor
requirements for cigar packers. Full integration of
processing equipment from cigar making through
wrapping, banding, and cartoning has been accomplished




in some large plants.
Cigarette manufacturing, by using highly mechanized
equipment, is now a continuous process of wrapping,
cutting, inspecting, and packaging. Modifications made
in cigarette machines in the last decade have increased
their operating speed substantially. A new type of
cigarette producing machine, recently introduced in the
industry, makes possible further increases in production
rates. Highly efficient equipment for attaching filter
plugs to cigarettes has become an integral part of the
producing machine in recent years. In addition, some
plants are joining producing machines in pairs, per­
mitting a reduction of one— in the number of
half
operators of these machines.

23

Textile Mill Products 23

Current Employment

Approximately 962,000 wage and salary workers
were employed in the textile mill products major
industry group in 1966. (See table 9.) About half of the
employment was divided almost equally between the
cotton broad woven fabrics industry segment and the
knitting segment. Three other industry groups
combined— and thread; silk and synthetic broad
yarn
woven fabrics; and finishing textiles, except wool and
knit—
accounted for nearly one-third of all workers.
Together, the remaining four industry groups—
weaving
and finishing broad woolens, floor covering, narrow
fabrics and small wares, and miscellaneous textile
goods—
employed one-fifth of the workers.
Production workers constitute approximately 89
percent of the textile workforce, considerably higher
than the average for all manufacturing. Three
sectors—
finishing textiles, except wool and knit (85
percent); floor covering (82 percent); and miscellaneous
textile goods industries (83 percent) had proportions
somewhat lower than the average for the major industry
group.
Women workers accounted for about 44 percent of
total employment in textile mill products establishments
in 1966—
substantially higher than the 27 percent for all
manufacturing. Among the individual industry groups,
the proportion of women workers ranged from 24
percent in establishments producing finishing textiles,
except wool and knit, to 68 percent in knitting
establishments, where many women are employed as
machine tenders.
Employment Trends and Outlook

Employment in establishments manufacturing textile
products fell from nearly 1.3 million in 1947 to
approximately 962,000 in 1966, or by about 26 percent.
Most of the decline took place in the early part of this
period. Between 1958 and 1966,24 employment rose in
seven textile mill products industry groups, but employ2 3 SIC 22. This major group includes establishments en­
gaged in performing any o f the following operations: (1)
Preparation o f fiber and subsequent manufacturing o f yam ,
thread, braids, tw ine, and cordage; (2) manufacturing broad
woven fabric, narrow woven fabric, knit fabric, and carpets and
rugs from yarn; (3) dyeing and finishing fiber, yam , fabric, and
knit apparel; (4) coating, waterproofing, or otherwise treating
fabric; (5) the integrated manufacture o f knit apparel and other
finished articles from yam ; and (6) the manufacture o f felt
goods, lace goods, bonded-fiber fabrics, and miscellaneous
textiles.

24




ment declines in the other two groups offset these gains.
As a result, there was little change in total employment
at the end of the period. The fastest rate of employment
growth was recorded in the floor covering sector, where
the rapidly growing demand for these products caused
employment to rise by about 25 percent. This gain
occurred despite the introduction of new, more efficient
machines. In contrast, a relatively small change in the
production of wool fabrics, combined with an increasing
output per worker resulting from the use of improved
looms and other laborsaving innovations, caused employ­
ment in wool weaving and finishing establishments to
decline by about 21 percent.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in the textile mill products major industry
group from 94 percent in 1947 to 89 percent in 1966.
During the 1958-66 period, the ratio of production
workers increased somewhat in the narrow fabrics and
smallwares industry group and remained about the same
in the yarn and thread industry group. In all other
industry segments, the proportion of production
workers declined.
Manpower requirements in this major industry group
are expected to decline from approximately 962,000 to
880,000 between 1966 and 1975, assuming no signifi­
cant changes in balances between imports and exports.
Production is expected to increase during this period,
stimulated by such factors as a growing population
(especially teenagers and young adults who are major
consumers of clothing) and rising family formations and
personal disposable income (which should stimulate
demand for such products as carpets and drapes as well
as clothing). In addition, expenditures for research and
development in the fields of synthetic fibers and natural
fibers and fabrics are expected to increase. Such ac­
tivities can be expected to result in new fabrics and
synthetic fibers that will open new markets for textile
mill products. However, the expanding output of textile
mill products is expected to be more than offset by
rising output per worker resulting from the greater use
of laborsaving technology, such as faster, higher capacity
machines; more efficient methods of materials handling;
and automatic production machinery. Among the in­
dividual industry groups, employment trends are expect­
ed to differ.
24
BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data prior to 1958 are
available only for three industry groups-knitting; yam and
thread; and finishing textiles, except w ool and knit.

Table 9.

SIC
Code

Industry

22
221
222
223
224
225
2251
2252
2253
2254
2256, 9
226
227
228
2281, 3
2282, 4
229
2298
2291-7, 9

l_f

2/
3/

Distribution of Wage and Salary Workers in the Textile Mill
Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Percent
Number
distri­
bution

Textile mill products------------Cotton broad woven fabrics-----Silk and synthetic broad woven
fabrics---------------------Weaving and finishing broad
woolens---------------------Narrow fabrics and small wares-Knitting----------------------Women's full and knee length
hosiery-------------------Miscellaneous hosiery and
socks---------------------Knit outerwear--------------Knit underwear--------------Knit fabrics and knitting,
not elsewhere classified---Finishing textiles, except wool
and knit--------------------Floor covering----------------Yarn and thread---------------Yarn spinning---------------Yarn throwing and thread millsMiscellaneous textile goods----Cordage and twine-----------Miscellaneous textile goods,
not elsewhere classified----

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

961.5
237.2

100.0
24.7

89.1
91.9

44.4
38.7

97.0

10.1

90.2

35.1

45.4
31.4
234.4

4.7
3.3
24.4

87.2
88.9
89.5

35.5
56.7
68.4

54.2

5.6

91.5

76.0

42.3
72.9
34.7

4.4
7.6
3.6

91.5
87.4
89.9

72.3
72.7
69.7

1/29.7

2/3.1

(3)

(3)

79.6
43.5
115.9
1/89.2
1/25.5
77.2
1/10.9

8.3
4.5
12.1
2/9.3
2/2.7
8.0
2/1.1

84.5
81.8
92.9
(3)
(3)
82.6
(3)

24.2
31.5
45.1
(3)
(3)
27.8
(3)

1/66.8

2/7.0

(3)

(3)

Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966 total employment in the major industry group.
Data are not available.

Occupational Structure
and man-made fibers into yarn and fabric involves many
The textile mill products major industry group individualofproduction operations asthat utilize large
contains the highest proportion of production workers numbers machine tenders, such spinners, weavers,
and
“Other” operatives accounted
of
among all manufacturing industries. In 1960, almost 9 the knitters. in the operative occupational for mostand
workers
group
out of 10 workers25 in the industry was a blue-collar nearly half of all workers in the industry. Process jobs
worker, the vast majority of whom were operatives.
common among “other” operatives were doffers,
The explanation for this high concentration of colorists, drying-frame operators, and loom threaders.
semiskilled workers lies in the nature of the production
process. Although the manufacture of textile products is The proportions of textile mill workers in the remaining
craftsmen and
highly mechanized, the transformation of wool, cotton, blue-collar major occupation groups—
laborer— below the average for nondurables manu­
were
facturing. Nevertheless, textile mills employed signifi­
25
Includes self-employed and unpaid family workers, ascant numbers of mechanics and repairmen, loom fixers,
well as wage and salary workers.
and foremen. The proportion of textile mill workers in




25

each white-collar major occupation group also was
substantially below the average for all nondurables
manufacturing. Clerical workers accounted for more
than half of all white-collar workers.
Increasing use of laborsaving technological innova­
tions, including faster and higher capacity machines,
improved methods of material handling, and greater
application of continuous manufacturing techniques
should result in substantial changes in the industry’s
occupational structure by 1975 (See volume IV, ap­
pendix G.) As an example of the accelerating mechaniza­
tion occurring in the industry, new carding and drawing
machines now operate more than three times as fast than
10 years ago; spindle speeds were 10,000 r.p.m. in 1950,
but between 13,000—
20,000 r.p.m. are now possible;
winding speeds are at least double that of 10-15 years
ago; and loom speeds have increased substantially.
Equally dramatic improvements are occurring in the
capacity and speed of spinning, weaving, and other
production equipment. Probably more important, the
use of improved yarns results in fewer loom stops and
allows operators to watch more looms with less effort.
Innovations such as these are expected to continue to
reduce the proportion of operatives through the mid1970’s. The ratio of spinners and weavers will be
particularly affected. Other process operatives likely to
be adversely affected include card tenders, comber
tenders, drawers, doffers, loom threaders, and spool
winders. The ratio of knitters, however, is not expected
to decline, since reduced labor requirements resulting

from increased machine speeds will be offset by the
continued growth of demand for knit goods— process
a
in which manpower requirements remain relatively high.
Employment requirements for craftsmen, particularly
mechanics and repairmen, are expected to increase
sharply because of the growing use of complex machines
and instruments, such as devices that photoelectrically
detect defects in yarn, automatically tie breaks in yarn,
and control dyeing machine temperature and time.
The ratio of unskilled labor, which is only a small
proportion of total jobs in the industry, will continue to
be reduced by improved materials handling innovations,
including powered conveyors, hoists, monorails, tramrails, and forklift trucks. Requirements for unskilled
workers, such as cleaners and oilers, will also be reduced
as automatic cleaning devices and central lubrication and
sealed antifriction bearings are used increasingly on
spinning, twisting, weaving, and other types of textile
machinery.
Each of the major white-collar occupation groups is
expected to constitute a larger proportion of total
employment in 1975, offsetting the substantial declines
in the ratios of operatives. Engineers and technicians
should benefit particularly from the expanding research
and development activities being conducted by larger
establishments in the industry and by the greater
technical requirements necessary to design, install, and
maintain the increasingly complex equipment in use in
the industry.

Apparel and Related Products26

establishments in 1966, compared with 74 percent for
all manufacturing. The proportion of production
workers in the individual apparel industries varied only
slightly from the average for this major industry group.
Women workers accounted for 80 percent of all wage
and salary workers in apparel manufacturing establish­
ments in 1966, considerably higher than the 27 percent
average for all manufacturing. Among the individual
industry groups, the proportion of women workers
ranged from 65 percent in establishments manufacturing
miscellaneous fabricated textiles to 87 percent in plants
making women’s and children’s undergarments.
Employment Trends and Outlook
in apparel manufacturing
26
SIC 23. This major group includes establishments pro­ Employment million to nearly 1.4 million increased
from about 1.2
between
ducing clothes and fabricated products by cutting and sweing
1947 and 1966. This 21 percent advance was slightly
purchased woven or knit textile fabrics and related materials
such as leather, rubberized fabrics, plastics and furs.
lower than the rate of increase for manufacturing.

Current Employment
Nearly 1.4 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the apparel incustry group in 1966. (See
table 10.) More than one-third made mens’ and boys’
clothing, about 30 percent made women’s outerwear,
and about 12 percent worked in establishments produc­
ing miscellaneous fabricated textile products. The re­
maining workers were employed in establishments
making women’s and children’s undergarments; hats,
caps, and millinery; girls’ and children’s outerwear; and
fur goods and miscellaneous apparel.
Production workers accounted for 89 percent of total
wage and salary employment in apparel manufacturing

26




SIC
Code
23
231
232
2321
2322
2323, 9
2327
2328
233
2331
2335
2337
2339
234
2341
2342
235
236
2361
2363, 9
237, 8
237
2381
2384-7, 9
239
2391, 2
2393
2394-7, 9

Table 10. Distribution of Wage and Salary Workers in the Apparel and
Related Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Women
Production
workers
workers as workers as
Industry
Number Percent percent of percent of
d is tr i­ employment, employment,
bution by industry by industry
Apparel and related products-------- 1,398.8
100.0
79.8
88.9
Men's and boys' su its and
coats--------------------------------------122.9
8.8
70.6
89.3
Men's and boys' furnishings------370.6
26.5
90.4
84.6
Men's and boys' shirts and
nightwears--------------------------9.4
130.9
90.5
88.2
Men's and boys' nightwear------- 1/17.0
2/1.2
(3)
(3)
Men's and boys' clothing,
not elsewhere c la ssifie d ----- 1/61.3
2/4.4
(3)
(3)
Men's and boys' separate
trousers------------------------------79.1
5.7
93.7
81.7
Work clothing-------------------------81.9
84.1
5.9
89.3
Women's, m isses', and juniors'
outerwear-------------------------------89.4
423.5
30.3
83.2
Women's blouses, w aists, and
sh irts---------------------------------53.9
3.9
88.7
91.3
Women's, m isses', and juniors'
dresses-------------------------------201.1
14.4
89.6
85.5
Women's su its, sk irts, and
coats----------------------------------89.0
6.4
72.8
89.7
Women's and misses' outerwear
not elsewhere c la ssifie d ----79.6
5.7
87.3
85.3
Women's and children's undergarments............................................9.0
125.2
88.3
86.7
Women's and children's underwear------------------------------------5.8
81.7
88.4
90.5
Corsets and a llied garments---84.6
43.5
3.1
83.7
28.0
2.0
Hats, caps, and m illinery---------88.9
67.5
G irls' and children's outerwear, e t c .------------------------------80.2
5.7
89.5
85.5
Children's dresses, blouses,
35.4
and sh ir ts--------------------------2.5
90.7
88.7
Girls' and children's outerwear, e t c .---------------------------- 1/45.0
2/3.2
(3)
(3)
Fur goods and miscellaneous
apparel-......... ..................................79.5
5.7
86.7
72.7
2/0.6
Fur goods----------------------------------- 1/ 8.3
(3)
(3)
Dress and work gloves, except
knit and a ll leather------------ 1/15.4
2/1.1
(3)
(3)
Miscellaneous apparel and
accessories, not elsewhere
c la ssifie d --------------------------- 1/53.5
2/3.8
(3)
(3)
Miscellaneous fabricated
169.0
te x tile s ---------------------------------12.1
84.9
64.7
60.8
Housefurnishings--------------------73.0
4.3
85.7
T extile bags---------------------------- 1/ 9.1
(3)
2/0.7
(3)
Miscellaneous fabricated
te x tile products, not
elsewhere c la ssifie d ----------- U 96.8
2/6.9
(3)
(3)

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966 total employment in the major industry group.
3V Data are not available.
Note: Individual items may not add to totals because of the inclusion of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
2/




27

limited impact on employment requirements. Although
mechanization of many of the production operations in
this industry is technically feasible, mechanized equip­
ment has generally lacked the flexibility required to
adjust to seasonal changes in styling and shifts in style
trends. Moreover, although apparel firms are becoming
larger, most firms in the industry are still small and lack
the capital to invest in expensive equipment. Never­
theless, due to increases in the size of apparel firms and
rising research and development expenditures to improve
apparel production operations, a gradual increase in the
use of mechanized equipment and other laborsaving
devices is anticipated in this industry. Most new highly
mechanized equipment will be used in the sewing,
cutting, and pressing operations of large plants.
Occupational Structures
In apparel manufacturing, the number of production
operations on a garment is large, production runs are
short, and firms tend to be small and often under­
capitalized. This industry structure is not conducive to
widespread use of automatic production equipment, and
accordingly, the industry is one of the least automated
of all manufacturing industries. Apparel manufacturing
is characterized by a great variety of sewing operations
requiring a large number of operatives, each of whom
typically performs a relatively simple sewing task (See
volume IV, appendix G.) In 1960, more than 3 out of 4
persons employed in apparel manufacturing was an
operative. Nearly half of the operatives were sewers,
either sewing machine operators, who predominated, or
hand stitchers. The remaining miscellaneous operatives
were workers such as thread trimmers, form makers,
clothing cutters, and hand pressers.
The large number of small firms engaged in apparel
manufacturing is reflected in the relatively small propor­
tion of white-collar workers employed in 1960, particu­
larly professional and technical workers.
The most significant shift over the next decade in the
occupational structure of the apparel industry will be
the decline in the proportion of operatives. A continuing
shift from skilled hand operations (tailor system) to the
section system, which utilizes much single purpose
machinery, is expected to result in a decline in the
relative employment of stitchers. However, this decline
will be somewhat offset by the growing demand for
expensive, styled garments, requiring custom work.
In the cutting room, greater use of automatic die
cutting machines is expected to reduce the proportion of
27
BLS employment (payroll) data for 3 industry groupshats, caps, and millinery; fur goods and miscellaneous apparel; cutters required, and the application of jets of steam
and miscellaneous fabricated textile products-are not available through mannequins, or forms, is expected to reduce the
for years prior to 1958.
ratio of pressers to total employment in the industry.

Production rose by 103 percent, compared with an
increase of 139 percent in all manufacturing production.
Between 1958 and 1966,27 employment trends
varied considerably among the different apparel industry
groups, reflecting factors such as the needs of different
age groups in a changing population and the increasing
demand for casual wear. Employment grew most rapidly
in miscellaneous fabricated textile products establish­
ments, whose products include curtains, draperies, and
other textile housefurnishings required by the growing
numbers of young adults establishing homes. A signifi­
cant increase in the number of workers making men’s
and boys’ furnishings is attributed to the growing
preference for casual wear. By contrast, a very small rise
in the employment of workers making men’s and boys’
suits and coats reflects the decline in popularity of more
formal wear. The substantial drop in the number of
workers making hats, caps, and millinery is further
evidence of waning demand for formal attire.
Production workers as a proportion of total wage and
salary employment in apparel establishments decreased
from 91 percent in 1947 to 89 percent in 1966. The
proportions of production workers to total employment
within the individual industry groups changed very little,
although miscellaneous and fabricated textile establish­
ments showed a small increase.
Assuming no significant changes of relative trends in
the importance of apparel imports and exports over the
decade ahead, manpower requirements in this industry
are expected to be more than 1.5 million in 1975 or
about 9 percent above the 1966 level. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) The annual rate of growth implied by the
projection is slightly higher than the annual rate between
1955 and 1966.
The anticipated employment expansion is based on a
rapidly rising demand for apparel from a growing, more
affluent, and younger population. Growth in population
and personal disposable income should contribute sub­
stantially to an increasing demand for apparel and
fabricated textile products for the home. Of particular
importance is the anticipated increase in the proportion
of the population ages 14 to 34—
generally the largest
consumers of apparel. Those in this age group are
expected to increase as a proportion of the population
by about one-seventh over the decade ahead.
Technological developments in the apparel industry
during the next decade are expected to have relatively

28




On the other hand, expanding use of more complex,
special purpose machinery is expected to increase the
need for mechanics and repairmen, and they should
make up a higher proportion of the industry’s work
force by 1975. In addition, the greater use of new and
improved material handling equipment will reduce the
ratio of laborers.
The trend toward larger and better capitalized apparel
firms will likely reduce the percentage of managers,

officials, and proprietors in the industry; however, the
need for highly trained managerial workers, such as
personnel and labor relations specialists, will increase.
The requirements for engineers and technicians needed
to perform industrial engineering tasks, such as time
studies, plant layouts, and work flow analyses, will
increase. Workers having special training also may be
required for curing and testing jobs in rapidly expanding
“durable press” operations.

Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture 28

Current Employment
Approximately 613,000 wage and salary workers
were employed in the lumber and wood products major
industry group, except for furniture, in 1966. (See table
11.) About 40 percent worked in establishments engaged
primarily in sawing and planing lumber, and 28 percent
were employed in establishments producing millwork,
plywood, and prefabricated structural wood products.
Smaller numbers of workers were employed in logging
camps and by logging contractors (13 percent) and by
miscellaneous wood products establishments (13 per­
cent). The remaining workers were in establishments
producing wooden containers.
Production workers accounted for 87 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,
compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
proportion of production workers was slightly higher
than the average for the major industry group in
establishments producing wooden containers and in
sawmills and planing mills, and slightly lower in the
remaining industry groups.
Women workers accounted for 8 percent of total
employment in this major industry, substantially lower
than the 27 percent for all manufacturing. Among the
individual industry groups, the proportion of women
workers varied considerably, ranging from slightly less
than 4 percent of total employment in logging camps
and logging contractors and in sawmills and planing
mills, to more than 20 percent in establishments
producing miscellaneous wood products.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the lumber industry fell from
845,000 to 613,000 between 1947 and 1966, a decline
of more than one-fourth. Employment in total manu­
facturing increased by 23 percent during the same
period. Production rose by more than one-third, con­




siderably slower than the rate of increase in total
manufacturing production.
During the 1947-66 period, employment changes
varied widely among the individual industry groups. For
example, employment declined by almost one-half in
sawing and planing establishments and by more than
one-half in establishments producing wooden containers.
The decline of employment in sawmills and planing
mills was the result of increasing mechanization, im­
proved plant layout, and a reduction in the number of
establishments. These developments were more than
sufficient to offset the increase in the production of
lumber. Employment also declined in establishments
producing wooden containers, primarily as a result of a
decline in the demand for these products. Logging camp
and logging contractor employment declined only
slightly between 1947 and 1966.
Employment in establishments producing millwork,
plywood, and related products increased substantially,
primarily because of growing demand for products
produced in these establishments for use in construction
and manufacturing. Employment in establishments pro­
ducing miscellaneous wood products also increased
substantially between 1958 and 1966, again reflecting
strong demand from the construction industry for wood
products, especially particle board.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 93
percent in 1947 to 87 percent in 1966. The rate of
decline within individual industry groups was about the
same as in the major industry group.
Manpower requirements in the lumber and wood
products major industry group, except for furniture, are
2
8 SIC 24. This major group includes logging camps engaged
in cutting timber and pulpwood; merchant sawmills, lath mills,
shingle mills, cooperate stock mills, planing mills, and plywood
mills and veneer mills engaged in manufacturing finished articles
made entirely or mainly of wood or wood substitutes.

29

Table 11. Distribution of Wage and Salary Workers in Lumber and Wood
Products, except Furniture, Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966

SIC
Code

Industry

24
241
242
2421
2426, 9
243
2431
2432
2433
244
2441, 2
2443, 5
249

\_/

2/
3/

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Percent
Number
distri­
bution

Lumber and wood products, except
furniture---------------------Logging camps and logging
contractors-----------------Sawmills and planing mills-----Sawmills and planing mills,
general....... -...... -....
Special product sawmills and
planning mills------------Millwork, veneer, plywood, and
related products------------Millwork--------------------Veneer and plywood-----------Prefabricated wooden buildings
and structural members-----Wooden containers-------------Wooden boxes, shook, and
crates-------------------- h
Wooden containers, except
boxes and crates----------Miscellaneous wood products-----

Production
Women
workers as
workers as
percent of
percent of
employment, employment,
by industry by industry

612.6

100.0

87.3

8.4

81.3
244.9

13.3
40.0

(3)
91.2

3.7
4.3

205.4

33.5

91.1

3.8

1/39.6

2/6.6

(3)

(3)

171.3
70.8
81.0

28.0
11.6
13.2

84.0
80.4
91.2

8.9
9.9
8.3

1/18.3
35.5

2/3.0
5.8

(3)
89.9

(3)
17.7

27.4

4.5

90.1

18.2

1/ 8.0
79.6

2/1.3
13.0

(3)
85.7

(3)
20.4

Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966 total employment in the major industry group.
Data are not available.

Note: Individual items may not add to totals because of the inclusion of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

expected to decline by 10 percent between 1966 and
1975, falling from 613,000 to about 550,000. Despite
anticipated increases in demand for lumber and wood
products resulting from rising levels of construction and
manufacturing activity, employment is expected to
decline due primarily to increased output per worker. In
addition, the lumber industry’s small but growing
research and development programs are expected to
increase the markets for many wood products.
Employment trends for the individual lumber and
wood products industry groups are expected to differ.
(See volume IV, appendix B.) Despite increasing demand
for millwork, plywood, and related products, employ­
ment in establishments manufacturing these products
will remain relatively stable. Items such as wooden
panels, plywood, and millwork are expected to be in
much greater demand in the future, reflecting a greater
30




use by construction and manufacturing industries. How­
ever, manpower requirements will not grow as fast as
output because more highly mechanized plants are
expected to be in operation.
Employment requirements in establishments produc­
ing miscellaneous wood products also are expected to
remain relatively stable through the mid-1970’s. The
rising demand for products of this industry group,
particularly for particle board, is expected to be offset
by increasing output per worker resulting from greater
mechanization.
Manpower requirements in sawmills and planing
mills are expected to continue to decline as the impact
of laborsaving innovations, such as conveyor belts,
electronic sorting devices, and higher speed equipment,
increases operating efficiency and more than offsets
increased output. In addition, plywood and veneer

products are expected to continue capturing markets equipment is being increasingly used and will reduce the
from lumber, thus limiting growth in the demand for size of log cutting crews. In sawing and planning
operations, the greater use of conveyors, sorting devices,
lumber.
Employment in logging camps and by logging con­ and faster speed equipment will increase production and
tractors is expected to decrease moderately between lower unit labor requirements. An especially sharp
1966 and 1975. Although demand is expected to decrease in labor requirements will occur in the area of
accelerate for many types of forest products, continuing manual material movement.
improvements in the harvesting and transporting of logs
Moderate changes in the occupational structure are
will tend to limit manpower needs.
expected during the 1960-75 period as growing mechani­
Employment in establishments producing wooden zation, increasing establishment size, and shifts in
containers is expected to fall slowly through the employment size of the industry segments all influence
mid-1970’s. Containers made of metal, plastic and the industry’s occupational structure. The most signifi­
paperboard will continue to offer strong competition to cant change will be the decline in the need for unskilled
wooden containers in the years ahead, especially since laborers. A substantial drop in the proportion of these
these substitute containers are generally lighter and more workers is expected in both sectors of the industry. In
durable. Manpower needs in these establishments also the logging sector, larger and more powerful tree cutting
will tend to be limited by increasing mechanization.
equipment will reduce the need for lumbermen and
wood choppers. In the lumber and wood processing
Occupational Structure
sector, mechanization of material movement operations
In 1960, blue-collar workers accounted for about 87 and general plant modernization will decrease the need
percent of the work force in the lumber and wood for material movement laborers, machine operators’
products industry.(See volume IV, appendix G.) Opera­ helpers, and other unskilled workers. Offsetting this
tives and kindred workers alone accounted for nearly 4 decline in laborer employment will be a growth in the
out of 10 employees. Within this group, truck and proportion of semiskilled operatives needed to operate
tractor drivers was the largest occupation. Most of the and monitor the new machinery and equipment. The
remaining workers were operators of specialized proportion of truck and tractor drivers also will increase.
machines and equipment, such as sawyers, planers, Additional drivers will be needed to transport the logs
feeders, press operators, etc. Laborers accounted for from the timber tracts to mills. The sharpest increase in
over one-third of total employment. In the logging driving requirements will occur in the logging of pulpsector, laborers, mostly lumbermen and wood choppers, wood. A large share of pulpwood logging is conducted
made up over 70 percent of the work force. Craftsmen, on smaller and more widely dispersed timber tracts
foremen, and kindred workers represented about one- where transportation requirements are greater. The
eight of the industry’s employment in 1960. Important proportion of mechanics and repairmen will increase as a
skilled occupations were carpenters, foremen, inspectors, result of the more extensive use of modern complex
mechanics and repairmen. Employment in white-collar machinery and equipment.
Few changes are expected in the white-collar occupa­
occupations accounted for less than 15 percent of all
tions. The proportion of clerical workers will increase.
this industry’s workers in 1960. Most of the white-collar
workers were employed either in managerial or clerical This gain will result primarily from the movement
towards larger establishments where clerical staff
occupations.
Important advances in technology are expected in account for a greater share of the work force. The
both the logging and wood processing sectors. New decrease in small marginal logging and sawmill opera­
highly mechanized plants for the production of plywood tions also will result in a slight drop in the proportion of
and veneers are being built to replace older, less efficient managers, officials, and proprietors. This decrease will be
establishments. Higher powered and more mobile logging sharpest for the self-employed owner-operators.




31

Furniture and Fixtures29

Current E m ploym en t

Between 1958 and 1966,30 the employment growth
among the industries of this major group was similar.
The greatest rate of employment increase, 38 percent,
occurred in establishments producing office furniture.
Employment grew by 26 percent in establishments
manufacturing household furniture; by 32 percent in
the partitions and office and store fixtures industry
group; and by about 30 percent in establishments
producing other furniture and fixtures.
Manpower requirements in this major industry group
are expected to increase by almost 10 percent between
1966 and 1975, from 462,000 to about 510,00. (See
volume IV, appendix B.) Demand for this major industry
group’s products is expected to increase rapidly during
the next decade. However, the increasing application of
technological developments, such as automatic profilers
and roisters and larger factory size, will tend to increase
the efficiency of production and limit employment
growth. Demand for household furniture will be stimu­
lated by factors such as continued increases in popula­
tion, new family formations, and rising disposable
personal income. The anticipated increase in construc­
tion of commercial, industrial, and public buildings will
contribute to high levels of demand for furniture,
fixtures, and partitions.

Nearly 462,000 wage and salary workers were em­
ployed in the furniture and fixtures major industry
group in 1966. (See table 12.) Over 70 percent worked
in establishments producing household furniture, such as
sofa beds, studio couches and mattresses, and bedsprings. One-tenth of the workers were employed in
establishments engaged in manufacturing partitions,
shelving, lockers, and office and store fixtures. Another
percent were employed in establishments producing
public building and related furniture and miscellaneous
furniture and fixtures. The remaining workers were
employed in establishments making office furniture.
Production workers accounted for 83 percent of total
employment in 1966, compared to 74 percent for
manufacturing as a whole. Among the individual
industry groups, the proportion of production workers
ranged from 74 percent in establishments manufacturing
partitions and office and store fixtures to 85 percent in
the household furniture industry group.
Women workers accounted for 20 percent of total
employment in furniture and fixtures establishments in
1966, compared with 27 percent in all manufacturing.
Within the individual industry groups, the proportion of
women workers varied greatly. Women workers
accounted for only 10 percent of the work force in Occupational Structure
establishments manufacturing partitions and office and
Blue-collar workers accounted for over 8 out of 10
store fixtures, whereas in establishments producing other
furniture and fixtures, they constituted nearly 25 workers in the furniture and fixtures major industry
group in 1960 (see volume IV, appendix G.), a high ratio
percent.
for durable manufacturing. The large amount of general
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook
and special purpose machinery used to produce the
products of this major industry group require large
Employment in establishments manufacturing furni­ numbers of semiskilled workers. For this reason, opera­
ture and fixtures increased from 336,000 to about tives accounted for a very large proportion of em­
462,000 between 1947 and 1966, or approximately 38 ployment-more than 50 percent. Craftsmen represented
percent, more than PA times as fast as all manufacturing about 1 out of 5 workers. Large numbers of skilled
employment. During the same period, production rose
by 154 percent, a rate higher than the 139 percent cabinetmakers and upholsterers were employed, re­
flecting the continuing importance of hand craftsmenincrease for total manufacturing production.
ship in this major industry group. Compared to most
manufacturing industries, a lower proportion of me­
chanics and repairmen were employed in this industry,
2 9 SIC 25. This major group includes the manufacture of
due mainly to the simple and durable nature of much of
household, office, public building, and restaurant furniture; and the machinery and equipment used. Laborers made up
the manufacture of office and store fixtures.
about 6 percent of employment, while professional,
3 0 BLS employment (payroll) data for all furniture industry
segments are available only for the years since 1958. However, technical, and service workers accounted for most of the
data for two segments are available for earlier periods-since remaining employment.
In general, the occupational structure is not expected
1947 for household furniture and since 1951 for the partitions
and office and store fixture segment.
to change appreciably by 1975, but the application of
10

32




Table 12. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Furniture and
F ixtu res Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
25
251
2511
2512
2515
2514, 9
252
253
254
259
253, 9

(In thoq sands)
Wage and salary
work ers
Industry
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution
100.0
Furniture and fix tu r e s --------------------- 461.7
Household fu rn itu re----------------------- 328.1
71.1
Wood house fu rn itu re not
upholstered--------------------- -------- 172.2
37.3
Wood house fu rn itu re upholstered -------------------------------------82.4
17.8
M attresses and bedsprings--------8.2
37.9
Metal household fu rnitu re and
household fu rn itu re, not
elsew here c la s s if ie d -------------- 1/35.8
2 /7 .9
34.8
O ffice fu rn itu re---------------------------7.5
Public building and rela ted
fu rn itu re------------------------------------- 1/27.3
2 /6 .0
P a r titio n s, o ffic e and sh elv in g ,
sto re fix tu r e s, lo ck ers-----------47.2
10.2
M iscellaneous fu rnitu re and
fix tu r e s -------------------------------------- 1/22.9
2 /5 .1
Other fu rn itu re and fix tu r e s ------51.6
11.2

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

88.7

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
20.0
21.5
17.8

83.3
79.2

26.7
27.2

(3)
78.2

(3)
13.8

(3)
74.2

(3)
10.0

(3)
77.7

(3)
24.6

82.9
85.4

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

new technology will have a significant impact on expected to increase proportionately because of the
requirements for some occupations. For example, the needed for closer supervision of production and inspec­
increasing use of automatic machinery, such as auto­ tion processes required by the greater use of automatic
matic routers, and the more extensive use of specialized equipment. The growth in mechanization also will
semiskilled workers in the woodworking process is increase the requirements for mechanics and repairmen
expected to reduce requirements for cabinetmakers. The need to maintain the more sophisticated equipment. The
proportion of upholsterers is expected to decline as the proportion of laborers is expected to decrease by about
use of improved power-driven fastening equipment, such one-third as automatic stockers, conveyors, and hoppers
as nailers, staplers, tackers, and clippers, becomes more replace the unskilled workers in transferring materials
widespread. Partially off-setting the decrease in the between machines and work areas. The trend to larger
proportion of cabinetmakers and upholsterers in the size companies is expected to further reduce require­
craftsman category, will be an increase in the proportion ments for laborers by increasing the potential for capital
of foremen, mechanics, and repairmen. Foremen are investment in plant mechanization.




33

Paper and Allied Products31

Current E m ploym en t

About 668,000 wage and salary workers were em­
ployed in the paper and allied products major industry
group in 1966. (See table 13.) More than two-fifths
worked in establishments manufacturing pulp, paper,
and paperboard. Nearly one-third were in establishments
making paperboard containers and boxes, including
folding and set-up paperboard boxes; corrugated and
solid fiber boxes; sanitary food containers; and fiber
cans, tubes, and drums. The remaining workers were
employed in establishments producing converted paper
products, such as coated and glazed papers, envelopes,
and sanitary paper products.
Production workers accounted for 78 percent of total
wage and salary employment in this major industry
group in 1966, slightly higher than the 74 percent in
manufacturing as a whole. Women workers accounted
for about 21 percent of all wage and salary employment
in paper and allied products establishments, compared
with 27 percent in all manufacturing. Among the
individual industry groups, the proportion of women
workers ranged from 9 percent of the work force in
establishments producing paperboard to 36 percent in
establishments manufacturing converted paper and
paperboard products.
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook

Employment in establishments manufacturing paper
and allied products increased from 465,000 to about
668,000 between 1947 and 1966, or approximately 44
percent. This increase was almost twice as fast as the
employment growth in all manufacturing over the 19
year period. During the same period, production rose by
128 percent, somewhat slower than total manufacturing
production.
Between 1958 and 1966,32 employment growth
among the various segments of this major industry group
differed widely, reflecting in part differences in the rates
31 SIC 26. This major group includes the manufacture of
pulps from wood and other cellulose fibers, and rags; the
manufacture of paper and paperboard; and the manufacture of
paper and paperboard into converted products such as paper
coated off the paper machine, paper bags, paper boxes, and
envelopes.
32 BLS (payroll) employment data for two industry
groups-paperboard mills, and converted paper and paperboard
products, except containers and boxes-are not available for
years prior to 1958.

34




of increase in product demand and the introduction of
laborsaving technology. For example, employment in­
creased by more than two-fifths in establishments
producing converted paper and paperboard products,
except containers and boxes. Additional plants and
workers were needed during this period to meet the
rapidly increasing demand for this industry’s products,
particularly for coated and processed papers, sanitary
tissue health products, and grocers’ multiwall bags.
However, employment did not rise as fast as production
because of the increasing use of more efficient produc­
tion techniques and equipment, including automatic
packaging machines, conveyor systems, mechanized
baling operations, and multioperation printing and fold­
ing machines. On the other hand, employment in
establishments producing pulp, paper, paperboard, and
building paper and board remained relatively unchanged.
Rising production was largely offset by higher output
per worker resulting from the growing use of more
efficient production machinery, including machines that
produce paper at higher speeds and of greater width than
older equipment.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 87
percent in 1947 to 78 percent in 1966, mainly because
of increasing mechanization of production operations.
The rate of decline was much slower in establishments
producing paperboard containers and boxes than in the
other three industry groups.
Manpower requirements in establishments making
paper and allied products are expected to increase by
more than one-fifth between 1966 and 1975, rising from
about 668,000 to 775,000. Employment will be spurred
by increased production of paper and paper products,
which is expected to rise rapidly through the mid1970’s, stimulated by population growth, general busi­
ness expansion, and rising per capita consumption of
paper products. Growing outlays for research and the
development of new products and the application of
existing products to new markets also are expected to
increase production and employment. For example, a
new technique has recently been developed for laminat­
ing draft paper to very thin sheets of steel, which can be
used in corrugated shipping containers. New paper prod­
ucts introduced recently or to be introduced shortly in­
clude industrial wipes, stretchable grocery and refuse
bags, and improved paper textiles and clothing for men
and women. However, accelerating output of paper and

SIC
Code
26
261, 2, 6
263
264
2643
2641, 2,
4 -6 , 9
265
2651, 2
2653
2654
2655

Table 13. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Paper and
A llied Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
workers
workers as
Number Percent percent of
Industry
d i s t r i ­ employment,
by industry
bution
Paper and a llie d products---------------- 667.5
100.0
77.8
Paper and pulp-------------------------------- 215.2
79.0
32.2
10.8
Paperboard-------------------------------------71.8
78.6
Converted paper and paperbroad
products-------------------------------------- 171.7
25.7
73.3
Bags, except t e x t ile bags--------40.0
6.0
80.5
Other converted pulp and paperboard products, not elsewhere
c la s s if ie d ------------------------------- i/1 2 7 .0 2 /1 9 .4
(3)
Paperboard containers and
boxes------------------------------------------- 208.8
31.3
79.9
Folding and setup paperboard
boxes---------------------------------------65.6
9.8
82.9
Corrugated and so lid fib er
14.6
77.4
boxes---------------------------------------97.3
Sanitary food con tain ers----------- 1 / 30.0 2/ 4.6
(3)
Fiber cans, tubs, drums, and
sim ilar products--------------------- 1/ 15.2 2/ 2.3
(3)

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
21.2
11.2
8.6
35.5
36.0
(3)
24.0
34.3
14.4
(3)
(3)

IV Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
2/

allied products is expected to be partly offset by rising
output per worker resulting from the greater use of
laborsaving technology, such as huge continuous digest­
ers used in pulp making, and computers to control pro­
duction operations. Employment in the paperboard con­
tainers and boxes segment is expected to increase faster
than the average for the major industry group, despite
significant increases in output per worker. (See volume
IV, appendix B.)
Occupational Structure

The production of paper and allied products involves
the use of highly complex machines, as well as many
machines that perform only one operation. In addition,
powered equipment and hand labor are required to move
materials and pack and crate finished products. Because
of the manner in which paper and allied products are
produced, the industry employs a relatively high propor­
tion of blue-collar workers. In 1960, about half of the




workers33 were operatives (see volume IV, appendix G),
the highest proportion being in establishments that
produced paperboard containers and boxes where many
production operations were completed by machines that
performed only a single operation. The proportion of
craftsmen in establishments producing paper and allied
products was somewhat above the average in nondurable
industries because of the relatively greater need in plants
making pulp, paper, and paperboard for millwrights,
machinists, and mechanics to install, maintain, and
repair the highly complex production equipment; for
cranemen to move raw materials and finished products;
and for carpenters, electricians, and plumbers to perform
plant maintenance. Such plants also employed twice the
proportion of laborers as did nondurable establishments,
on the average, mainly because of the importance of
materials handling activities.
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.
33

35

The ratio of white-collar workers in the paper and
allied products major industry group was substantially
below the average for manufacturing in 1960. However,
the proportions of white-collar workers in the individual
industry groups differed significantly, reflecting differ­
ences in production operations, average establishment
size, and other factors. For example, professional and
technical workers accounted for a larger share of total
employment in pulp, paper, and paperboard establish­
ments than in the other paper and allied products
industries because of the more complicated production
process and, therefore, the greater need for engineers,
chemists, and other technical workers. The proportion
of managers was highest in plants producing other paper
products, largely because of the many small establish­
ments in this industry segment. Other paper products
plants also had the largest share of clerical workers,
reflecting the large number of outlets these plants have
for a great variety of paper products and, therefore, the
need for a relatively large number of workers in
recordkeeping operations.
The occupational structure of the paper and allied
products major industry group is expected to change
substantially by 1975. The increasing use of laborsaving
equipment will be a factor contributing to this change.
More widespread use of such innovations as electron­
ically controlled continuous digesters, more efficient
papermaking machines, and instruments to monitor and
control papermaking operations should cause a decline
in the proportion of operatives. This decline is expected
to be particularly sharp in plants producing pulp, paper,
and paperboard, where continuous flow processing and

centralized control systems are expected to be used
increasingly. In the converted paper products and the
paperboard containers and boxes industry groups, re­
quirements for workers, such as hand-feed machine
operators and materials handlers and packers, will
continue to be affected adversely by the growing use of
automatic packaging machines; conveyor systems; multi­
operation cutting, creasing, and stripping machines;
multioperation printing and folding machines; pallet­
izing; and mechanized baling operations. Comparable
technological developments in each of the other industry
segments is expected to cause the ratio of such workers
as materials handlers and other laborers to drop sharply
by 1975.
On the other hand, more widespread use of electronic
instruments, such as the radioisotope (beta) gage and
other complex machinery, should increase requirements
for skilled maintenance mechanics and instrument re­
pairmen. The ratio of printing craftsmen also will
increase because of the trend toward printing at convert­
ing establishments.
The proportion of professional and technical workers
is expected to rise because of increasing requirements for
such workers in research and development activities and
in the modernization and expansion of production
facilities. The growing use of more complex production
machinery and instruments and other control devices,
including computers, will result in increased needs for
technicians. The proportions of designers and artists—
workers who determine the construction and appearance
of paper products— are expected to increase.
also

Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries34

one-third worked in newspaper publishing and printing
establishments, while almost another one-third were
Over 1.0 million wage and salary workers were employed in commerical printing establishments. The
employed in the printing, publishing, and allied indus­ remaining workers were employed in establishments that
tries major industry group in 1966. (See table 14.) Over publish and print books or periodicals; and in other
printing and publishing industries, such as those produc­
34
SIC 17. This major industry group includes establish­ ing business forms or greeting cards, or providing
ments engaged in printing by one or more of the common typesetting, photoengraving, platemaking, and book­
processes, such as letterpress, gravure, or screen; and those binding services to the printing trades. Production
establishments that perform services for the printing trade such workers accounted for approximately 64 percent of
as typesetting, photoengraving, platemaking, and bookbinding. total employment in this major industry group in 1966,
This major group also includes establishments engaged in
publishing books, newspapers, and periodicals, regardless of compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
whether or not they do their own printing.
proportion of production workers among the individual
Current E m ploym en t

36




Table 14. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in P rin tin g , P ub lishing,
and A llied In d u stries Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
27
271
272
273
275
2751
2752
2753
277
278
274, 6, 9

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

P rin tin g , p u b lish in g, and a llie d
in d u str ie s..........- - .................................. 1,021.8
Newspaper p rin tin g and
p u b lish in g--------------------------------353.1
P erio d ica l p rin tin g and
p u b lish in g--------------------------------71.7
Book p rin ting and p u b lish in g-----89.3
322.8
Commercial p rin tin g (to ta l
Commercial p rin tin g except
lithographic^-------------------------204.2
Commercial p rin tin g lith o graphic...................................... .........
107.4
Engraving and p la te p rin tin g -- 1/11.1
Greeting cards------------------------------ 1 /22.5
Bookbinding----------------------------------54.9
Other p rin tin g and pu b lish in g,
not elsew here c la s s if ie d --------- 1/103.0

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

63.6

30.0
22.9
48.0
44.3
25.6

10.5
2 /1 .1
2 /2 .2
5 .4

50.5
35.4
61.9
78.5
79.5
76.4
(3)
(3)
82.5

2/10.3

(3)

(3)

100.0
34.6
7 .0
8.7
31.6
20.0

24.9
25.9
(3)
(3)
48.1

IV Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

industry groups varied considerably, ranging from 35
percent in periodical publishing and printing, to nearly
83 percent in establishments engaged in bookbinding
and related activities.
Women workers accounted for 30 percent of total
employment in the printing, publishing and allied
industries major industry group in 1966, only slightly
higher than the 27 percent in all manufacturing. Among
the individual industry groups, the proportion of women
workers ranged from 23 percent in newspaper publishing
and printing to 48 percent in periodical publishing and
printing.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in printing, publishing, and allied indus­
tries rose from 721,000 in 1947 to about 1,022,000 in
1966, and increase of 42 percent. This increase was
three-fourths greater than the gain in all manufacturing.
During the same period, production in this major
industry group rose by 87 percent.




Between 1947 and 1966,35 employment growth
differed considerably among the segments comprising
this major industry group. Employment growth was
most rapid (117 percent) in the lithographic segment of
the commercial printing industry. The introduction of
more durable printing plates and larger, faster, weboffset presses increased significantly the application of
the lithographic process to large scale production.
Employment in the book printing and publishing indus­
try increased by 76 percent, despite the expanding
application of laborsaving technology. Growth was
stimulated by the increasing demand for books by
schools, colleges, and individuals. Employment in the
newspaper printing and publishing industry increased by
about 42 percent between 1947 and 1966, however,
most of this increase occurred between 1947 and 1958.
35
BLS employment (payroll) data for total commercial
printing are not available for years prior to 1958, but data for
commercial printing except lithographic and commercial printing
lithographic are available from 1947.

37

The decline in the rate of employment growth since
1958 reflects the increasing use of modern printing
technology, such as automated typesetting processes,
photocomposition, mechanized plate-casting equipment,
and the greater use of more mechanized materials
handling equipment. In addition,'the decrease in the
total number of large metropolitan dailies, and the
growing practice of many small newspapers to contract
with larger newspapers or other printing firms to do their
printing, has contributed to the decline in the rate of
employment growth of this industry group in recent
years.
Employment in the periodical printing and publishing
industry has been stable. Production increases in this
industry were achieved by little change in employment,
primarily because of the growing practice of hiring
commerical printing establishments to print the periodi­
cals.
Production workers declined as a proportion of total
employment in the printing, publishing, and allied
industries major industry group from about 68 percent
in 1947 to about 64 percent in 1966, reflecting the
increasing mechanization of production operations. The
decline in the proportion of production workers in the
individual industries generally followed the same
pattern, except for the book printing and publishing and
the bookbinding industries in which the proportions of
production workers remained unchanged.
Manpower requirements in this major industry group
are expected to increase by about 12 percent between
1966 and 1975, rising from about 1.0 to 1.1 million.
(See volume IV, appendix B.) Primary factors that are
expected to contribute to employment growth include
expanding school enrollments; increasing Federal aid to
education; higher consumer expenditures for books and
periodicals; greater use of prepackaged goods, including
printed cartons, labels, and wrappers; rapidly growing
use of business forms; and increasing emphasis on
advertising and other printed materials stimulated by the
general growth of the economy. However, the growth of
employment requirements will be somewhat limited by
the continuing use of laborsaving technological develop­
ments in printing production equipment, such as com­
puter-controlled typesetting equipment, more highly
mechanized plate-casting equipment, faster press speeds,
and more mechanized bindery equipment.
Employment trends among the industries constituting
the printing, publishing, and allied industries major
industry group are expected to differ. Employment in
newspaper publishing and printing is expected to decline
slightly as efficiency in typesetting, plate-making, and
38




finishing operations increases. In all other segments of
the printing and publishing industry, manpower require­
ments are expected to increase because of the antici­
pated rapid growth in demand for printed materials.
Occupational Structure
The printing industry requires a highly skilled produc­
tion work force. In 1960, craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers accounted for nearly 3 out of 10
workers in the industry, (see volume IV, appendix G )
the highest proportion of any major industry group
found in nondurable goods manufacturing. Most of the
craftsmen were employed in one of the highly skilled
printing trades. Together, the printing trade occupations
accounted for nearly one-fourth of the industry’s work
force. In 1960, compositors and typesetters was the
largest single occupational classification, representing
nearly one-half of all the craftsmen employed in the
industry. Other important skilled printing occupations
were pressmen and printers, photoengravers and litho­
graphers, and electrotypers and stereotypers. Operatives
and kindred workers accounted for most of the remain­
ing blue-collar workers, accounting for 1 out of 8
workers in 1960. These semiskilled workers were largely
concentrated in finishing occupations, such as bindery
hand, collator, wrappers, bundler, and packer.
Sales workers accounted for nearly one-fifth of the
industry’s work force in 1960. Newspaper delivery boys
made up over 90 percent of the sales workers. Clerical
workers also accounted for about one-fifth of the
industry’s employment. The largest clerical occupation
was stenographers, typists, and secretaries. Many other
workers were employed in specialized clerical occupa­
tions, such as ad takers, copyboys, proofreaders, and
subscription and circulation clerks. The occupational
groups comprising the managers, officials, proprietors,
and professional workers each accounted for nearly
one-tenth of the industry’s work force. Editors and
reporters, largely concentrated in newspaper printing,
accounted for nearly two-thirds of all the professional
workers.
A number of important changes in the occupational
structure of this industry are expected during the
1960-75 period. The most significant changes will occur
in the printing craft occupations. Technological changes,
coupled with shifts in industry structure, will cause
diverse trends among these occupations. The growing use
of computers to control typesetting, together with the
increasing speeds of typesetting equipment, will substan­
tially reduce the proportion of compositors and type­
setters required by the industry. The growing use of the

offset printing process for the printing of newspapers also
will lessen the need for compositors and typesetters.
Many small newspapers and a greater share of all
advertisements are being printed by the offset process.
On the other hand, the proportion of photoengravers
and lithographers in the industry is expected to increase.
The expanding use of the offset process in newspaper
printing, together with the rapid employment growth
expected in the book publishing and printing sector of
the industry, where these workers make up a larger share
of the work force, will raise the employment require­
ments for these skilled craftsmen. The ratio of pressmen
and plate printers will remain relatively constant as their
lower unit labor requirements, resulting from increases
in press speeds, are offset by the growth expected in the
volume of printing.
The manpower requirements for electrotypers and
stereotypers are expected to decline substantially during

the 1960-75 period. The introduction of new plate­
making equipment will result in a substantial reduction
in the proportion of these skilled craftsmen needed in
the industry. Some increase in the ratio of operatives is
expected. The sharp rise of employment in book
printing and publishing, where a large share of the
bindery and finishing workers are employed, will more
than offset the additional mechanization expected in
these operations.
Few major occupational structure changes are
expected in the white-collar occupations. Sales workers
will slightly increase their share of the industry’s work
force. Most of the increase will result from the growing
need for newspaper delivery boys to service the rapidly
expanding suburban areas. The proportions of the
remaining white-collar occupations are not expected to
change significantly during the 1960-75 period.

Chemical and Allied Products3 6

Current Employment
Nearly 960,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the chemicals and allied products major
industry group in 1966. (See table 15.) More than half
of total employment was concentrated in two industry
groups—
industrial chemicals, which accounted for nearly
one-third of total employment; and plastics and
synthetic fibers, (except glass), which represented more
than one-fifth. Large numbers of workers also were
employed by drug manufactures (13 percent), and by
producers of soap, cleaners, and toilet goods (12
percent). The remaining workers were in establishments
producing paints, varnishes, and allied products (7
percent); agricultural chemicals (6 percent); and other
chemical product (10 percent).
Production workers accounted for 60 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,

compared to 74 percent in all nondurable manufac­
turing. The proportion of production workers among the
industry groups constituting the major industry group
ranged from 53 percent in the drugs industry to 66
percent in plastics and synthetics.
Women workers accounted for 19 percent of total
employment in chemicals and allied products establish­
ments in 1966, substantially lower than the 38 percent
for all nondurable manufacturing. Among the individual
industry groups, the proportion of women workers
ranged from 9 percent in establishments producing
agricultural chemicals to 39 percent in firms producing
drugs. The relatively high ratio of women workers in the
drugs industry reflected the large number of packaging
and assembling occupations in establishments producing
pharmaceutical preparations.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in establishments manufacturing chemi­
36
SIC 18. This major group includes establishments pro­cals and allied products increased from 649,000 in 1947
ducing basic chemicals, and establishments manufacturing pro­
ducts by predominantly chemical processes. Establishments to 958,000 in 1966, or about 48 percent. This increase
classified in this major group manufacture three general classes was twice as rapid as the rate of growth in all
of products: (1) Basic chemicals such as acids, alkalies, salts, and manufacturing employment. During the same period, the
organic chemicals; (2) chemical products to be used in further chemicals production index rose 318 percent, more than
manufacture such as synthetic fibers, plastics materials, dry
Vi
colors, and pigments; (3) finished chemical products to be used tion.times the growth rate of all manufacturing produc­
for ultimate consumption such as drugs, cosmetics, and soaps; or
The demand for chemicals and allied products has
to be used as materials or supplies in other industries such as
paints, fertilizers, and explosives.
been stimulated, particularly in recent years, by the




2

39

SIC
Code
28
281
2812
2813-6
2818
2819
282
2821
2822
2823, 4
283
2831, 3
2834
284
2841
2842, 3
2844
285
287
2871, 2
2879
286, 9
286
289
2892
2891, 3,
9

Table 15. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Chemicals and
A llied Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
Women
workers
workers as workers as
Industry
Number Percent percent of percent of
d i s t r i ­ employment, employment,
bution
by industry by industry
100.0
Chemicals and a llie d products------59.7
957.9
19.3
56.6
301.5
31.5
10.2
In d u stria l chem icals------------------2.6
69.4
A lk a lies and ch lo rin e-------------25.2
7.9
In d u strial g a se s, c y c lic crude
2 /6 .6
dyes, and pigm ents------------------- 1/62.1
(3)
(3)
In d u stria l organic chem icals,
not elsew here c la s s if ie d -----12.4
45.4
118.9
12.9
In d u strial inorganic chemic a ls , not elsew here
60.8
c la s s if ie d ........................................
9.9
8.8
94.5
P la s tic s m aterials and synthet i c s ........................................................
205.4
21.4
66.4
16.3
P la s tic s m aterials and resin s88.4
62.8
9.2
9 .4
Synthetic rubber----------------------- 1/13.8
2 /1 .5
(3)
(3)
Synthetic fib e r s ----------------------102.9
10.7
69.7
23.3
Drugs--------------------------------------------52.6
13.2
38.8
126.9
Other drugs and m edicines------- 1 /31.2
(3)
2 /3 .3
(3)
42.0
Pharm aceutical preparations---9.9
94.7
50.5
Soap, clea n ers, and t o ile t
61.1
goods-----------------------------------------36.6
109.7
11.5
38.0
4 .0
Soap and d eterg en ts-----------------21.8
67.9
Other cleaning p o lish in g , and
sa n ita tio n preparation--------- 1 /29.6
2 /3 .2
(3)
(3)
T o ilet preparation------------------55.8
41.2
4.3
60.7
P a in ts, varn ish es, and a llie d
products------------------------------------67.6
55.8
7.1
15.5
8.8
65.0
5.7
A gricultural chem icals---------------54.7
F e r tiliz e r s complete and mixing on ly...............- -------- -----------4.2
40.7
69.5
7.1
A gricultural chem icals except
f e r t il i z e r ------------------------------ 1/14.1
2 /1 .5
(3)
(3)
9.6
92.1
17.4
Other chemical products-------------63.7
Gum and chem icals------------------------- 1/ 6.9
2 /0 .7
(3)
(3)
2 /8 .6
M iscellaneous chemical products- 1/80.7
(3)
(3)
E xp losives--------------------------------- J./23.9
2 /2 .5
(3)
(3)
5,
Other chemical products, not
2 /6 .0
elsew here c la s s if ie d ------------- 1 /56.8
(3)
(3)

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

tremendous increase in research and development
activity, which resulted in many new products such as
petrochemicals. In 1963, research and development
expenditures by the chemicals industry totaled $1.25
billion-10 percent of all such funds expended by all
40




industries, and nearly double the amount spent by the
chemicals major industry group in 1956. It is estimated
that more than 90 percent of the drugs and pharma­
ceuticals in use today were not in commercial produc­
tion in 1939.

Although employment in each of the chemical
industry groups rose between 1958 and 1966,37 the
rates of growth differed widely. Employment increased
most rapidly (44 percent) in establishments producing
plastics and synthetics. Employment grew moderately in
establishments producing soaps, cleaning preparations,
and toilet goods because of the greater number of
consumers, spendable income, and the variety of prod­
ucts produced. Moderate employment gains in plants
producing agricultural chemicals reflected the growing
role of fertilizers, pesticides, vitamins, antibiotics (for
farm animals), and other chemicals in modern farming
techniques. In contrast, employment rose only slightly
in the large industrial chemicals industry group, as
continuous flow process technology significantly in­
creased output per worker.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 75
percent in 1947 to 60 percent in 1966. Among most of
the individual industry groups, the proportion of pro­
duction workers to total employment declined at about
the same rate between 1958 and 1966. The exception
was in establishments producing plastics materials and
synthetics; and soap, cleaners, and toilet goods; the
proportions remained about the same.
Manpower requirements in this major industry group
are expected to increase about 15 percent between 1966
and 1975, rising from 958,000 to more than 1.1 million.
(See volume IV, appendix B.) Employment will be
spurred by substantial increases in the demand for
chemicals and allied products, resulting mainly from a
rising population and higher personal and corporate
income. Rising levels of expenditures for research and
development should continue, resulting in new products
and markets for chemicals and allied products. However,
increasing use of laborsaving technological devices are
expected to limit employment growth, particularly in
establishments producing industrial chemicals, petro­
chemicals, and plastics and other synthetics.
Employment is expected to increase very rapidly in
several chemical industry groups. For example, demand
for drugs is expected to accelerate sharply because of
higher pension and social security payments and
improved living and health standards, combined with
increased numbers of persons age 55 and over. Also, the
industry’s extensive drug research and development
program will probably yield a broad range of new
products that will stimulate increased demand. Demand
37

BLS employment (payroll) data for all of the individual
industry groups are not available for the years prior to 1958.




for plastics also is expected to increase, particularly for
new and improved plastics for use in building construc­
tion, automobiles, housewares, and packaging. In
addition, demand for industrial chemicals, such as acids,
salts, and other basic raw materials, will continue to
advance with overall industrial activity.
Occupation Structure
White-collar workers made up about 45 percent of
total employment38 in the chemicals and allied products
major industry group in 1960, (see volume IV, appendix
G) substantially higher than the average for all non­
durable manufacturing. Professional, technical, and
kindred workers accounted for more than 1 out of 6
workers— proportion about three times larger than the
a
average for nondurable manufacturing. Nearly 15 per­
cent of all workers were scientists, engineers, and
technicians, reflecting the emphasis on research and
development activities and the sophisticated nature of
the production processes in some plants. Operatives
accounted for about 3 out of 10 workers— 90
nearly
percent of these workers were in the miscellaneous
operative group, which included occupations such as
acid loader, spool winder, silk hanger, pill maker, tablet
coater, cosmetic maker, and brine plant operator.
Another large occupational group was craftsmen who
represented about 15 percent of employment. Large
numbers of mechanics, repairmen, and foremen were
employed.
The occupational structure of the chemicals and
allied products major industry group differed con­
siderably among the four industry segments. White-collar
workers in the drug industry segment accounted for
more than 2 out of 3 workers, and nearly half of these
were professional, technical, and kindred workers. Many
scientists (particularly chemists and biological scientists)
and technicians were needed in the drug industry for the
extensive research and development programs. Sales
workers also accounted for a substantial proportion of
employment in the drug industry, primarily because of
the practice of introducing each new drug individually to
doctors, hospitals, and drug outlets. On the other hand,
white-collar workers in the synthetic fibers industry
segment accounted for only about 1 out of 5 workers,
and the proportion of professional, technical, and
kindred workers was less than one-half of its counterpart
in the drug industry segment. Moreover, sales workers in
the synthetic fibers industry, where there is less competi38
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

41

tion, accounted for less than one percent of total
employment. Managers, officials, and proprietors ac­
counted for about 12 percent of employment in the
paint industry segment, but only 2 percent in the
synthetic fibers segment. The decentralized nature of
the paint industry results in a high proportion of
managers.
The occupational structure of the chemicals and
allied products major industry group is expected to
change moderately by 1975. By far, the most significant
change in the occupational structure will be a nearly
50-percent increase in the proportion of professional,
technical, and kindred workers. This shift—
affecting all
industry segments— result from the increasing
will
requirements for technicians and engineers to operate
the expanding research and development programs, and
to design and improve increasingly sophisticated produc­
tion processes. Managers, officials, and proprietors, and
clerical workers ratios, however, are expected to decline
because of the growing use of electronic data processing
equipment and the trend toward the centralization of
many managerial and clerical functions. Although sales
workers are expected to decline slightly in the major
industry group as a whole, they will increase in the
consumer-oriented drug and paint industries, where
competition will continue to be strong.

The proportion of craftsmen, foremen and kindred
workers is expected to rise by 1975. The increasing use
of laborsaving equipment will require more skilled
craftsmen, both for supervision of production processes
(e.g., foremen) and for maintenance (e.g., mechanics and
repairmen). However, technological advances in the use
of electronic computers to plan maintenance and to
design plants, and the widespread use of new, corrosion
resistant materials will help limit the increase in the
proportion of craftsmen. The proportion of operatives is
expected to remain relatively constant in the overall
industry. Within the industry sectors, however, the
proportion of operatives will decline as additional
mechanization decreases the need for certain processing
occupations. The introduction of automatic conveyors
and other types of materials handling equipment is
expected to reduce substantially the proportion of
laborers in this industry. For example, products will be
increasingly transported by mechanical and pneumatic
conveyor systems; automatic palletizing machines will
eliminate hand-stacking of cartons; and computers will
increasingly be used to control and expedite ware­
housing and shipping activities. The expanding use of
instrumentation and electronic computers to assist in the
production processes in all segments of the major
industry group, however, also will limit the rise in the
ratio of operatives.

Petroleum Refining and Related Industries39

Current Employment
Approximately 186,000 wage and salary workers
were employed in the petroleum refining and related
industries major industry group in 1966. (See table 16.)
About 8 out of 10 workers were employed in the
petroleum refining industry group. The remaining
workers were employed in establishments producing
paving and roofing materials and miscellaneous products
of petroleum and coal.
Production workers accounted for 62 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,
compared to 74 percent in manufacturing as a whole.
Within the major industry group, the proportion of
3 9 SIC 29. This major group includes establishments primarily

engaged in petroleum refining, manufacturing, paving and
roofing materials, and compounding lubricating oils and grease
from purchased materials.

42




production workers was 60 percent in the petroleum
refining industry and 71 percent in the other petroleum
and coal products industry.
In 1966, women workers accounted for 9 percent of
total employment in petroleum refining and related
industries major industry group, substantially lower than
the 27 percent in all manufacturing. Both industry
groups within the major group had roughly the same
proportion of women workers.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Between 1947 and 1966, employment in the petro­
leum refining and related industry group declined from
221,000 to 186,000, a decrease of 16 percent. Between
1947 and 1953, employment increased to 241,000, but
since 1953, it has steadily declined to 186,000, whereas
employment in manufacturing has increased. Production
during the 1947-66 period has doubled in this major

Sic
Code
29
291
295, 9

Table 16. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Petroleum R efining
and Related In d u stries Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Women
Production
workers
workers as workers as
Number Percent percent of percent of
Industry
d i s t r i ­ employment, employment,
by industry by industry
bution
Petroleum refin in g and related
in d u stries------------------------------------Petroleum r e fin in g ----------------------Other petroleum and coal
products------------------------------------

186.0
149.6

100.0
80.4

36.4

19.6

62.3
60.2
70.6

9 .0
8.6
10.7

Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of rounding.

industry division, a somewhat slower pace than the
average for all manufacturing.
Between 1958 and 1966,40 employment changes
between the two broad sectors of this major industry
group differed widely. Employment in petroleum re­
fineries decreased significantly, although output of
petroleum refining products increased as demand rose
for fuel, lubricants, and raw materials for the fast
growing petrochemical industry. Increased application of
laborsaving technology, such as the continuous flow
process, expanded faster than the increase in demand for
the products of this industry group. Employment in
establishments manufacturing paving and roofing
materials and miscellaneous products of petroleum and
coal remained relatively stable between 1958 and 1966.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 77
percent in 1947 to 62 percent in 1966. The rate of
declined during the 1958-66 period was slower in estab­
lishments producing paving and roofing materials and
miscellaneous products of petroleum and coal than in
the petroleum refining industry group. The decreasing
production worker ratio resulted from the increasing
automation of production processes.
Manpower requirements in petroleum refining and
related industries are expected to decline by 14 percent
between 1966 and 1975, from 186,000 to 160,000,
despite substantial increases in the production of petro­
leum products. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Employ­
ment in this major industry group is expected to decline
at a slower rate through the mid-1970’s than that
experienced between 1953 and 1966. The pace of

introducing new technology will slow somewhat, since
automatic systems are now widely used throughout the
refining industry. Future technological advances are
expected to improve upon existing processes and result
in fewer, but larger, plants that are highly mechanized
and employ relatively few workers. Anticipated increases
in contract-maintenance services also will reduce em­
ployment requirements during the coming decade.
Occupational Structure
White-collar workers accounted for more than twofifths of total employment41 in the petroleum refining
and related industries major industry group in 1960—
about one-third higher than in nondurable manufactur­
ing as a whole. (See volume IV, appendix G.) The
proportion of professional and technical workers (16
percent) was particularly high, attributable to the
advanced state of mechanization and the emphasis
placed on research and development activities in re­
fineries. Operatives, by contrast, represented a smaller
proportion of employment (26 percent) in petroleum
refining nondurable manufacturing. Many of the
processes in refineries are automatically monitored and
controlled, thus reducing the need for these workers.
About one-fifth of the workers were craftsmen ; foremen
constituted about one-quarter of this occupational
group. The capital-intensive nature of the modern
refinery requires many first-line plant supervisors.
Plumbers and pipefitters, who install, repair, and main­
tain the networks of pipes associated with continuous
flow technology, also accounted for a significant propor­
tion of employment in the craftsmen occupational

Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
40
BLS employment (payroll) data for all industry groups 41
are not available for years prior to 1958.
well as wage and salary workers.




43

group. In spite of the advanced state of technology in
1960, about 8 percent of the workers were laborers.
Many of these workers, however, were employed in the
other petroleum and coal products industry group,
where “batch type” production processes require large
numbers of unskilled materials handlers.
By 1975, the most significant impact of technology
in this major industry group will occur in refineries,
where more than 4 out of 5 workers are employed.
Larger and more highly automated plants will continue
to replace less efficient plants. Substantial economies of
scale are achieved by increasing the size of refineries.
Instrumentation and computer control— are highly
which
developed in this major industry group— increasingly
will
be applied to production processes in refineries. Most
computers now in use receive data, perform calculation,
and turn out operating instructions, but operators still
make the indicated adjustment. By 1975, however, a few
installations may feature fully-automated closed-loop
operations. Computers also will be used more exten­
sively in offices to perform routine bookkeeping and
clerical tasks. Computer use as a research tool also will
become more widespread.

Occupational structure in the petroleum and related
industries major industry group will be mainly affected
by advances in technology which will continue to reduce
the need for operatives, laborers, and— an extentto
craftsmen. The decline in the proportion of operatives
and laborers will reflect the trend to more efficient, large
refineries and increasingly sophisticated automatic
control equipment. Advances in materials quality also
will reduce the need for laborers as fewer turnarounds—
major overhauls— required. The proportion of profes­
are
sional and technical workers will rise by about one-third,
although absolute employment in this category will
show little change. The proportion of technicians, in
particular, will increase to handle the operation and
maintenance requirements of advanced refinery
processes.
The ratio of skilled workers is expected to decline
slightly. An increasing amount of maintenance work is
being contracted out to specialized firms. This practice
will adversely affect the employment in maintenance
occupations, causing some to decline and limiting
growth in others.

Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products42

Current Employment
About 510,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products major industry group in 1966. (See table 17.)
More than 20 percent worked in establishments manu­
facturing tires and innertubes; 35 percent were in
establishments producing other rubber products (foot­
wear, reclaimed rubber, and fabricated rubber products,
not elsewhere classified, and the remainder were employ­
ed in establishments producing miscellaneous plastics
products.
Production workers accounted for nearly 78 percent
of total employment in this major industry group in
1966, compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing.
The proportions of production workers ranged from
about 71 percent in the tire and tube industry to over 80
percent in the miscellaneous plastics products industry.
42 SIC 30. This major group includes the manufacture of
rubber products from natural, synthetic or reclaimed rubber; the
manufacture of or rebuilding of retreaded tires; and the molding
of primary plastics for the trade and the manufacture of
miscellaneous finished plastics products.
43 BLS employment (payroll) data for the other rubber
products industry are not available for years prior to 1958.

44




Women workers accounted for 31 percent of total
employment in the rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products major industry group in 1966, slightly higher
than the 27 percent for all manufacturing. Among the
individual industry groups, the proportion of women
workers differed widely ranging from 12 percent of the
work force in establishments producing tires and innertubes to 37 percent in establishments manufacturing
miscellaneous plastics products.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products major industry group increased over twice as
rapidly as employment in total manufacturing between
1947 and 1966. The numbers of workers employed in
this industry rose from 323,000 in 1947 to about
510,000 in 1966—an increase of almost three-fifths.
During the same period, production rose by 206 percent,
more than 1Vi times as fast as the increase in total
manufacturing production. Most of the gain in produc­
tion was recorded between 1954 and 1966.
Employment growth has varied greatly among the
industries in this major group. During the 1958-66
period43 employment rose very rapidly in the miscel­
laneous plastics products industry, more than doubling

Table 17. Percent D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers, in the Rubber and
M iscellaneous P la s tic s Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
30
301
302, 3, 6
302
303, 6
307

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

Rubber and m iscellaneous p la s tic s
products---------------------------------------509.8
T ires and innertubes------------------107.2
Other rubber products-----------------178.7
Rubber fo o tw ea r--................................. 1 / 2 6 . 2
Reclaimed rubber and other
rubber products, not e ls e where c la s s if ie d - ............................ 1/149.7
M iscellaneous p la s tic s products223.9

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

100.0
21.0
35.1
2 /5 .3

77.9
70.9
79.3
(3)

30.6
11.9
34.1
(3)

2/30.2
43.9

(3)
80.2

(3)
36.7

1J Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment as the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

from 101,000 in 1958 to 224,000 in 1966. Employment
grew substantially in the other rubber products industry
(29 percent), but increased only slightly in the tire and
innertube industry (3 percent).
The varied employment growth rates are the result of
two significant factors-increased demand for the many
and diverse rubber and plastics products, and greater use
of laborsaving technological devices in the tire industry.
Demand for tires increased steadily but the growth in
use of laborsaving innovations more than offset rising
demand.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 81
percent in 1947 to 78 percent in 1966. However, during
the 1958-66 period, the relative importance of produc­
tion workers showed little change.
Manpower requirements in the rubber and miscel­
laneous plastics products major industry group are
expected to increase by over 15 percent between 1966
and 1975, rising to about 580,000. Employment growth
will occur primarily from the rising demand for products
manufactured in this major industry group, particularly
products of the miscellaneous plastics industry. The
continuing increase in the substitution of plastics for
wood, glass, and metal, together with new product
development, will foster considerable employment
growth.




Employment trends for the three broad sectors of
this major industry group are expected to differ. (See
volume IV, appendix B.) Employment in the tires and
innertubes industry is expected to remain relatively
stable to 1975. The demand for tires and innertubes will
continue to increase, but growing use of automatic and
semi-automatic machines and electronic control equip­
ment in processes, such as tire building, are expected to
limit the need for additional employment.
Employment levels in establishments producing rub­
ber products other than tires and innertubes are ex­
pected to rise because of the increasing demand for such
items as footwear, drug and medical sundries, wire and
cable coating, and foam rubber. Relatively small produc­
tion runs makes the introduction of laborsaving techno­
logical innovations more difficult in this industry,
although mechanized production systems are being used
in some areas, such as drug sundries and some facets of
footwear production.
Employment in establishments producing miscel­
laneous plastics products is expected to increase rapidly
between 1966 and 1975. Employment growth will
reflect an increasing use of the products of this industry
group in construction, appliances, packaging, and general
industrial and consumer products. Government spon­
sored activities, such as aerospace, also will contribute to
the additional demand for plastics products.
45

Occupational Structure
Nearly three-fourths of the workers in this industry
are concentrated in the blue-collar occupational group.
In 1960, operative and kindred workers alone accounted
for over one-half of the work force. (See volume IV,
appendix G.) Included in the operative group are the
semi-skilled operators and tenders needed to operate the
wide variety of production process machines used
throughout the rubber and plastics products industry.
Craftsmen, foremen and kindred workers, mainly fore­
men and maintenance workers, accounted for over
one-eigth of the industry’s work force in 1960. Laborers,
the smallest blue-collar occupational group, accounted
for less than 6 percent. Clerical workers, managers,
officials, and proprietors were the largest white-collar
occupational groups, representing about three-fourths of
all white-collar workers in 1960. Clerical employees
accounted for about 13 percent of the work force, about
twice the proportion employed as managers, officials,
and proprietors. Professional, technical and kindred
workers constituted less than 5 percent of the work
force; scientists and technicians made up the majority of
these highly trained workers.
During the coming decade, the impact of techno­
logical innovations on manpower requirements will vary
considerably among the individual sectors of the
industry. In the rubber products industry, relatively few
changes of occupational significant are expected. The
rubber tires and tubes industries are already highly
mechanized. The wide product diversity and short

production runs which characterize much of the re­
mainder of the rubber industry will continue to restrict
the prospects for widespread automation. Some changes,
such as a decrease in the need for unskilled laborers, are
expected to result from general plant modernization and
the increasing use of conveyors and other power
equipment for material movement.
In the plastic products industry, the expanding
mechanization of the production process will reduce the
need for semiskilled workers. The small establishment
size, which characterizes this industry, has hampered
mechanization in the past. As average plant size increases
in the years ahead, the larger firms will be able to invest
more heavily in new plant and equipment. As mechani­
zation grows, the need for unskilled workers will decline.
Conversely, the demand for skilled mechanics and
repairmen needed to maintain the new equipment will
increase.
An increase in the proportion of professional workers
is expected. More scientists, engineers, and technicians
will be needed as a greater emphasis is placed on
research, particularly research directed towards the
development of new products.
Little change is expected in the proportions of other
major white collar occupations. The increasing use of
computers and other office equipment will tend to lower
the requirements for certain clerical occupations. How­
ever, the growth in establishment size, where clerical
workers make up a large share of the work force, will
largely offset the affects of this new equipment.

Leather and Leather Products44

ments. The remaining workers were in establishments
manufacturing “other” leather products, which include
industrial leather belting and packing, boot and shoe cut
stock and findings, leather gloves and mittens, luggage,
and other leather goods.
Production workers accounted for almost 90 percent
of employment in this major industry group in 1966.
This was one of the highest proportions of production
workers in any industry group in manufacturing, and
compares with 74 percent for manufacturing as a whole.
The individual industry groups within the leather and
leather products major industry group had about the
44
SIC 31. This major group includes establishmentssame proportions of production workers. Women
engaged in tanning, currying, and finishing hides and skins; and
establishments manufacturing finished leather and artificial workers accounted for over half of total employment in
leather products and some similar products made of other this major industry group, about double the proportion
materials. Leather converters also are included.
in all manufacturing. Among the individual industry

Current Employment
About 364,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the leather and leather products major
industry group in 1966. (See table 18) Two-thirds of the
workers were employed in establishments producing
footwear (except rubber). About 1 out of 10 workers
were engaged in the manufacture of handbags and other
personal leather goods, and nearly an equal number were
employed in leather tanning and finishing establish-

46




SIC
Code
31
311
313
314
316
317
312, 5, 9

Table 18. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Leather and
Leather Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
Women
workers
workers as workers as
Industry
Number Percent percent of percent of
d i s t r i ­ employment, employment,
bution
by industry by industry
Leather and leath er products---------363.5
Leather tanning and fin is h in g ----31.7
Boot and shoe cut stock ---------------- 1 /1 3 .6
Footwear, except rubber---------------- 240.6
Luggage......................................................
1 /2 0 .4
Handbags and personal leather
38.6
goods------------------------------------------Other leath er products, not
elsew here c la s s if ie d ------------------ 1 /1 7 .6

100.0
8.7
2 /3 .7
66.2
2 /5 .6

87.6
87.1
(3)
88.7
(3)

55.0
12.0
(3)
60.2
(3)

10.6

87.0

67.9

2 /4 .8

(3)

(3)

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
2/

groups, the proportion of women workers ranged from
percent in leather tanning and finishing plants to 68
percent in establishments manufacturing handbags and
other personal leather goods.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in establishments manufacturing leather
and leather products declined from 412,000 to 364,000
between 1947 and 1966, or by about 12 percent.
Production rose by 13 percent, about one-tenth as
rapidly as the increase for total manufacturing produc­
tion.
Between 1947-1966, the sharpest employment
decline within this major industry group was experi­
enced in the leather tanning and finishing industry,
where employment fell by over two-fifth; manufacturers
of shoes and other leather products increasingly substi­
tuted man-made materials for leather. For example, by
means of a vacuum forming process, a single piece of
specially developed synthetic material constitutes the
bottom and most of the upper parts of a recently
introduced line of women’s casual shoes. The number of
workers in the footwear (except rubber) industry
declined by about 8 percent in the same 19 year period,
primarily because of increases in output per worker and
the growing volume of imported shoes. Manufacturers
were able to reduce labor requirements by producing
shoes of simpler construction, by using man-made
materials, and by using more automatic equipment.
Between 1958 and 1966,45 combined employment in
12




the other sectors of the leather and leather products
major industry group was relatively stable.
Production workers in this major industry group
decreased slightly as a proportion of total employment,
from 91 percent in 1947 to 88 percent in 1966. The rate
of decline was similar in each individual industry group.
Manpower requirements in leather and leather pro­
ducts manufacturing in 1975 are expected to be slightly
below the level of 1966. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
Domestic production of footwear (except rubber) is
expected to increase moderately by 1975. Some of the
increased demand for footwear, generated by a growing
population, is expected to be satisfied by imports.
Increasing output per worker is expected to roughly
offset the moderate rise in output. More use of
man-made materials as substitutes for leather, the
development of more uniform leathers, and improved
production machinery are the primary factors that are
expected to increase output per workers.
Employment in the footwear (except rubber) and “all
other leather products” industry groups are expected to
remain relatively stable. In leather tanning and finishing
establishments, employment will decrease as a result of
the growing mechanization in the processing of hides.
Although the increasing use of man-made materials may
make further inroads, the industry is finding ways to
make better, more uniform leather products, and the full
45
BLS employment (payroll) data are not available for 6 of
the 8 leather and leather products industry groups for the years
prior to 1958.

47

effect of man-made materials on employment will
depend on the extent that this development succeeds.
Occupational Structure
Blue-collar workers accounted for more than 8 out of
10 workers46 in this major industry group in 1960, a
ratio substantially higher than that for all nondurable
manufacturing. (See volume IV, appendix G) This was
due in large measure to the high proportion of operatives
in leather and leather products manufacturing. Produc­
tion operations in this industry are only partially
mechanized, and many semiskilled workers, such as
stichers, lasting machine operators, vampers, fitters, and
trimmers, are needed.
In 1960, the occupational structure differed some­
what among the three sectors of the leather products
major industry group. The ratio of operatives and
kindred workers was highest in the manufacture of
footwear (except rubber). Production of footwear is a
complicated process involving the assembly of many
parts through a long series of hand and machine
operations, many of which require semiskilled workers.
The leather tanning and finishing industry segment had
by far the largest proportion of laborers, reflecting
requirements for moving and handling large quantities of
hides and other materials. This industry group also had
the largest proportion of craftsmen, many of these
workers were foremen needed to direct machine opera­
tors and maintenance personnel. Also, many were
mechanics and repairmen needed to maintain and repair
tanning and finishing equipment.
Among the three industry sectors, the proportions of
sales workers and managers, officials, and proprietors
were somewhat higher in establishments manufacturing
“other” leather products. In part, this was because
companies in this segment are relatively small and highly
competitive.

A number of significant developments are occurring
in the leather industry that will substantially affect
methods of production during the next 10 years. Such
technological developments are expected to substantially
alter the industry’s occupational structure by 1975. For
example, the proportion of operatives will decline
somewhat because of the greater use of more efficient
production equipment, including injection molding and
vulcanizing equipment; thermalasting machinery; and
geometric lasting equipment. The use of more uniform
leather and leather substitutes in shoe manufacturing is
expected to affect employment requirements adversely
for cloth lining cutters, upper cutters, and workers
engaged in mulling, treeing, splitting, and skinning.
Operatives, however, will still represent the largest
proportion of total employment in 1975. On the other
hand, requirements for skilled mechanics and main­
tenance workers will increase. Also, requirements for
foremen, needed to supervise more complex operations,
should rise. Concentrated in the leather tanning and
finishing sector of the industry, laborers should be
adversely affected by the greater application of more
efficient materials handling techniques such as conveyor
systems, improved palletizing methods, and, in some
cases, computer-controlled warehouse systems.
Increases in professional, technical, and kindred
workers are expected mainly because of increasing
requirements for professional workers in research and
development activities. Clerical requirements should rise
substantially due to trends towards larger plants, which
need greater proportions of clerical workers to assist in
such activities as inventory and cost control, centralized
billing and accounting, and marketing research opera­
tions.
46
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

Stone, Clay, and Glass Products47

Current Employment
About 645,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the stone, clay, and glass products major
industry group in 1966. (See table 19.) More than half of
the workers were employed in establishments manu­
facturing clay products, including cement, concrete,
gypsum, plaster, and pottery. Slightly more than onefourth of all the workers were in establishments making
glass products, including flat glass, glass containers, and
48




other blown and pressed glass products. The remaining
establishments, those producing stone and other nonmetallic mineral products, employed about one-fifth of
the workers.
47
SIC 32. This major group includes establishments
engaged in manufacturing flat glass and other glass products,
cement, structural clay products, pottery, concrete and gypsum
products, cut stone products, abrasives and asbestos products,
etc., from materials taken principally from the earth in the form
of stone, clay, and sand.

Table 19. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Stone, Clay
and Glass Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
32
321
322
3221
3229
323
324
325
3251
3255
3253,
326
327
328, 9
328
329
3291
3292
3293,
9

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Industry
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution
Stone, cla y , and g la ss products----- 644.6
100.0
F la t g la s s ....................................................
32.7
5.1
Glass and glassw are, pressed
or blown-------------------------------------- 122.6
19.0
Glass con tain ers-----------------------69.4
10.8
Pressed and blown glassw are,
not elsew here c la s s if ie d ------53.2
8.3
Glass products, made of purchasec
g la s s - ........................................................ 1/ 23.0 2/ 3.7
Cement, h yd raulic-------------------------38.0
5.9
Structural clay products-------------70.3
10.9
Brick and stru ctu ral clay
31.0
4.8
t i l e ----------------------------------------Clay r e fr a c to r ie s---------------------- 1/ 14.9 2/ 2.4
9
Other stru ctu ral clay products- 1/ 24.0 2/ 3.8
P ottery and rela ted products------43.3
6.7
C oncrete, gypsum, and p la ster
products-------------------------------------- 178.9
27.8
Other stone and nonm etallie
mineral products-----------------------135.7
21.1
Cut stone and stone products------- 1/ 17.2 2/ 2.7
A brasive, a sb esto s, and m is­
cellaneous nonm etallie mineral
products-------------------------------------- 1/116.4 2/18.5
Abrasive products---------------------27.2
4.2
A sbestos products---------------------- 1/ 25.7 2/ 4.1
M iscellaneous nonm etallie
5 -7 ,
m ineral products--------------------- 1/ 64.4 2 /1 0 .2

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

80.3
79.2

15.7
4.9
32.0
34.3
28.9

87.3
88.3
85.7
(3)
76.8
84.5
88.4
(3)
(3)
85.0
77.0

(3)
3.7
11.4

75.5
(3)

3 .2
(3)
(3)
32.3
5.5
15.2
(3)

(3)
68.4
(3)

(3)
21.7
(3)

(3)

(3)

Jif Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le,
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

Production workers accounted for 80 percent of total
employment in the major industry group in 1966,
compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
proportion of production workers among the individual
industry groups varied little from the average of the
major industry group.
Women workers accounted for 16 percent of total
employment in this major industry group, substantially
lower than the 27 percent for all manufacturing. Among
the individual industries that make up this group, the
proportion of women workers ranged from 4 percent in




establishments manufacturing hydraulic cement to 32
percent in establishments manufacturing pottery and
related products; and glass and glassware, pressed or
blown.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in establishments manufacturing stone,
clay, and glass products increased from 537,000 to
about 645,000 between 1947 and 1966, or approxi­
mately 20 percent. This was slightly lower than the rate
of increase for all manufacturing. During the same
49

increase because of a substantial increase in demand.
Employment requirements in these establishments are
not expected to be significantly affected by mecha­
nization and other technological innovations because the
industry is already highly mechanized. In contrast,
employment in establishments making flat glass products
is expected to decline, despite rising demand, primarily
because of the introduction of the “float” process.
Labor requirements in establishments producing other
pressed or blown glass products are expected to remain
relatively unchanged. Although the substitution of
plastic materials for these glass products is anticipated,
many glass manufacturers are, or can be, equipped to
produce the plastic substitutes.
Employment trends also are expected to vary among
industries producing clay products. For example, em­
ployment requirements of establishments producing
hydraulic cement and concrete block are expected to
remain relatively stable during the next decade, despite
increasing demand for their products, because the use of
automatic controls in production processes are expected
to account for greater output per worker. On the other
hand, employment requirements in other clay producing
industries (those producing gypsum, plaster, lime, and
other concrete products) are expected to increase
because of growing demand. Also, accelerating home
construction activity, anticipated as the result of new
family formations, will stimulate the demand for such
products as plaster, plasterboard, brick, clay pipe, and
ceramic title.
Employment requirements in the industries produc­
ing cut stone and stone products are expected to remain
relatively stable through the mid-1970’s as increasing
demand for construction related products-insulation,
asbestos, etc.-is roughly offset by a drop in demand for
longer lasting abrasive products.
Occupational Structure
In 1960, blue-collar workers made up nearly threefourths of the total employment in the Stone, Clay, and
Glass products industry. Operative and kindred workers
alone accounted for about 45 percent of the work force,
the largest single occupational group. (See volume IV,
appendix G.) The manufacturing of cement, concrete,
glass, tile, and bricks is, for the most part, highly
mechanized and requires large numbers of semiskilled
workers to operate and monitor the processing
machinery. Truck drivers account for an important share
48
BLS employment (payroll) data for only three industryof the operative occupational group. In the cement and
groups-hydraulic cement, structural clay products, and pottery concrete manufacturing sector, drivers accounted for an
and related products-are available for years prior to 1958.
especially high proportion of the work force, repre-

period, production rose by 110 percent, about fourfifths as fast as the growth of total manufacturing
production.
Between 1958 and 1966,48 employment trends
among the three broad sectors of the major industry
group differed. Although the sector producing glass
products is highly mechanized, employment increased
most rapidly in this group (24 percent) to satisfy the
growing demand for its products, particularly glass
containers and flat (sheet) glass. During the 1958-66
period, employment declined slightly in the manufacture
of structural clay products because the growth of
demand was slower than the rapid utilization of laborsaving equipment. Employment of workers producing
cut stone and stone products increased by 11 percent,
reflecting the demand by industrial users for such
materials as abrasives, asbestos, and rockwool insulation.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 88
percent in 1947 to 80 percent in 1966. During the
1958-66 period, production workers as a proportion of
employment increased in one industry group—
other
stone mineral products— decreased in all other
but
industries within the major industry group. The
decreasing production worker ratios in the majority of
the industry groups resulted from the expanding mecha­
nization of production operations.
Employment requirements in this major industry
group are expected to rise only slightly between 1966
and 1975, to about 655,000. Output is expected to be
stimulated by increases in population, new family
formations, rising levels of highway and building con­
struction, and expanding manufacturing activity, par­
ticularly for motor vehicles. However, employment
growth is expected to be limited because of the
introduction and greater use of laborsaving equipment
and improved production techniques, such as new
coating materials that reduce glass breakage, semi­
automatic electronic devices that inspect bottles and
other glass containers, and prestressed concrete and
concrete containing additives to control shrinkage and to
provide greater resilience.
Employment trends for the individual industries
within the three broad sectors of this major industry
group are expected to differ widely. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) For example, worker requirements in the
industry producing glass containers are expected to

50




senting over 1 out of 6 workers in 1960. The remaining
blue-collar workers were about equally divided between
the craftsmen, foremen and kindred workers group, and
unskilled laborers. Each of these occupational groups
made up about 15 percent of the work force. Over
one-half of the craftsmen were employed either as
foremen or as mechanics and repairmen.
Among the white-collar occupations, clerical workers
accounted for the largest number of workers. In 1960,1
out of 10 workers in the industry was employed in a
clerical position. Managers, officials, and proprietors
accounted for less than one-tenth of the work force.
Relatively few workers were employed in professional or
sales occupations.
Some changes in the industry’s occupational structure
are expected during the 1960-75 period. Within the
operative group, the proportion of truck drivers is
expected to increase. Additional drivers will be needed
to transport the expanding production of the industry.
Trucking also is supplying a growing share of the
industry’s transport needs. For example, in 1964, over
two-thirds of the portland cement shipments were

transported by truck. Partially offsetting the increase of
truck drivers will be a decline in the proportion of
semiskilled operatives engaged in production processing
operations. Although production will increase substan­
tially, the use of faster, more automatic equipment will
slightly lower the need for semiskilled machine operators
and tenders. The proportion of mechanics and repairmen
is expected to increase, since the use of more complex
machinery and control devices will raise the require­
ments for highly skilled maintenance workers. The
proportion of laborers, on the other hand, will decrease
sharply as conveyors, pneumatic loading, and other
power equipment reduce the need for unskilled materials
movement workers.
Among the white-collar occupations, the most signifi­
cant change will occur in the proportion of professional,
technical, and kindred workers. The increase in the
proportion of these highly trained workers will result
from the growing demand for engineers and technicians,
particularly those engaged in research and product
development activities.

Primary Metal Industries49

74 percent in all manufacturing. The individual industry
Current Employment
groups had about equal proportions of production
More than 1.3 million wage and salary workers were workers, although in the nonferrous smelting and re­
employed in the primary metal industries major industry fining group and the nonferrous rolling, drawing, and
group in 1966. (See table 20.) About two-thirds of extruding group, the proportions were slightly lower.
employment was concentrated in the ferrous industry
Women workers accounted for only about 6 percent
groups, including blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling of employment in the primary metal industries, much
and finishing mills, which employed almost half of the lower than the 27 percent in manufacturing as a whole.
workers in ferrous metals; and iron and steel foundries, Among the individual industry groups, the proportion of
which employed another 18 percent. Over one-fourth women workers ranged from 4 percent in the blast
were employed in nonferrous industries engaged in furnaces and basic steel products industry to 13 percent
smelting and refining; rolling, drawing, and extruding; in nonferrous rolling, drawing, and extruding mills.
and foundry activities. The remaining workers (5
percent) were employed in establishments producing Employment Trends and Outlook
miscellaneous primary metal products, including both
Employment in the primary metal industries group in
ferrous and nonferrous forgings.
1966 differed little from the 1947 level of 1.3 million
Production workers accounted for 81 percent of
In contrast,
in
employment in primary metals in 1966, compared with workers. increased by total employment1947all manu­
facturing
23 percent from
to 1966.
49
SIC 3 3. This major industry group includesDuring the same period, production in the primary metal
establishments engaged in the smelting and refining of ferrous industries rose by 52 percent, compared with a 139and nonferrous metals from ore, pig, or scrap; in the rolling, percent increase in total manufacturing production.
drawing, and alloying of ferrous and nonferrous metals; and in
Employment increased both
the manufacture of castings, forgings, and other basic products nonferrous segments of theinprimary the ferrous and
metal industries
of ferrous nonferrous metals; and in the manufacture of nails,
spikes, and insulated wire and cable. This group also includes the between 1958 and 1966, although the rates of growth
production of coke.
differed, primarily reflecting differences in the rates of




51

SIC
Code

Table 20. D istribution of Wage and Salary Workers in the Primary
Metal Industries Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
workers
workers as
Number Percent percent of
Industry
d is t r i­ employment,
bution
by industry

33
Primary metal industries
B last furnace and basic steel
331
products-----------------------------------3312
B last furnaces, steel and
ro llin g m ills------------------------Steel fin ish in g m ills and
3313, 5, 6
electrom etallurgical products-------------------------------------Steel pipe and tubes----------------3317
332
Iron and steel foundries-------------Gray iron foundries-----------------3321
3322
Malleable iron foundries---------Steel foundries------------------------3323
Nonferrous smelting and refin in g333, 4
Primary smelting and refining of
333
nonferrous m etals---------------------Primary smelting and refining
3331
of copper-------------------------------Primary smelting and refining
3332
of lead----------------------------------Primary smelting and refining
3333
of zin c----------------------------------Primary production of aluminum3334
Primary smelting and refining
3339
of nonferrous m etals, not
elsewhere c la s s ifie d ------------Secondary smelting and refining
334
of nonferrous m etals----------------Nonferrous r o llin g , drawing, and
335
extruding----------------------------------Copper r o llin g , drawing and
3351
extruding------------------------------Aluminum r o llin g , drawing, and
3352
extruding------------------------------Other nonferrous ro llin g ,
3356
drawing and extruding-----------Nonferrous wire drawing and
3357
insu latin g-----------------------------Nonferrous foundries-------------------336
Aluminum castin gs--------------------3361
Other nonferrous castin gs-------3362, 9
Miscellaneous primary metal
339
products-----------------------------------Iron and ste e l forgings-----------3391
Primary metal in d u stries, not
3392, 9
elsewhere c la s s ifie d -------------

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

1,345.4
651.3
571.3

100.0
48.4
42.5

81.4
81.4
81.8

6.3
4.1
3.5

1/52.5
1/27.1
238.5
141.5
27.7
69.3
78.1
1/60.7
1/16.0
1/ 3.4
1/ 9.6
1/23.6

2/4.0
2/2.0
17.7
10.5
2.1
5.2
5.8
2/4.6
2/1.2
2/0.3
2/0.7
2/1.8

(3)
(3)
85.5
86.3
84.8
84.0
77.2
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)
4.8
4.0
4.3
6.8
4.0
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

1/ 8.2
1/15.5
215.0
48.4
71.4
1/22.3
71.9
90.5
44.5
45.9
72.1
49.1
1/22.6

2/0.6
2/1.2
16.0
3.6
5.3
2/1.7
5.3
6.7
3.3
3.4
5.4
3.6

(3)
(3)
77.5
77.5
78.3
(3)
78.4
84.3
86.1
82.8
80.9
82.3
(3)

(3)
(3)
13.3
7.9
8.0
(3)
22.5
11.4
8.3
14.4
6.4
5.3
(3)

2/1.7

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not availab le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the inclusion of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

52




increase in production and in the introduction of
laborsaving technology. Employment in iron and steel
industries increased by 24 percent while employment in
the nonferrous industries rose by 27 percent. An
expanding population and rising levels of disposable
income were among factors stimulating demand for
metal consumer durables, including automobiles and
household appliances. Increasing demand for highways,
commercial and industrial construction, and producers
durable equipment, such as machinery, also contributed
substantially to the rise in employment. However,
laborsaving innovations, such as the basic oxygen
furnace and continuous casting of aluminum, increased
output per worker and limited employment growth.
Despite the substantial increase anticipated in output,
manpower requirements in the primary metal industries
in 1975 are expected to be relatively unchanged from
1966, even assuming a slight reduction in imports of
steel. Production of metal consumer durables is expected
to increase during the next decade in response to growth
of the population and rising levels of disposable income.
Output also is expected to be stimulated by an increased
demand for housing, factories, office buildings, high­
ways, and producers of durable equipment such as
machinery.
Employment trends in the various ferrous and the
nonferrous industry groups are expected to differ
widely. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Manpower require­
ments in nonferrous foundries are expected to be greater
because of a substantial increase in the demand for
nonferrous (especially aluminum) castings. In contrast,
little employment growth is expected in establishments
producing and casting iron and steel. The growing use of
electronic data processing and communications equip­
ment is expected to result in increased efficiency in
office operations, particularly in basic iron and steel
establishments. Continuing increases in output per
worker are expected to result from the extensive use of
the basic oxygen furnace and the continuous casting
process; greater use of oxygen in blast furnaces and open
hearth furnaces; continued mechanization of materials
handling operations; and greater use of instruments to
control production, especially in rolling mills, in tin
coating processes, and in heating and controlling
furnaces. However, growing industrial requirements for
improved grades of steel may somewhat slow the future
growth of output per worker.
Manpower requirements in the remainder of the
major industry group are expected to increase slightly
between 1964 and 1975. Continued mechanization of
materials handling is expected to be one of the major
factors in limiting manpower requirements in these
industries.




Occupational Structure
The pr >duction of metals requires the use of massive
and complex furnaces, rolling mills, and other special­
ized metal processing and forming equipment. Tons of
raw materials and semifinished and finished metal
products are often lifted, transferred, and positioned
throughout the production process. Large numbers of
manual workers are required to perform these functions,
and in 1960, the primary metal industries employed
nearly a million blue-collar workers— than 3 out of
more
4 workers in the industry.50 Operatives accounted for
one-third of the industry’s work force. (See volume IV,
appendix G.) Largest of the operative occupations were
furnacemen, smelters, and pourers; welders and flamecutters; drivers, and inspectors. The vast majority of
operatives, however, performed specialized production
jobs and are not identified separately but are grouped
into “operatives, not elsewhere classified”. Some ex­
amples of such jobs are piercer-machine operator
(workers who run seamless tube making machines),
bloom shearman (operators of hydraulic shears that cut
blooms to length), and shakeout man (those who remove
castings from molds).
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers accounted
for nearly 3 out of 10 workers in the primary metals
major industry group. Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen were employed extensively throughout the
industry, particularly in the blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling mills industries, where skip operators, hot
metal cranemen, ingot strippers, manipulator operators,
and other skilled operators were needed to move vast
quantities of metals safely and efficiently. Maintenance
workers, especially those engaged in machinery repair
and maintenance, also were one of the largest skilled
occupations. Molders were one of the largest production
occupations, accounting for nearly one-fourth of all the
skilled workers in the “other” primary metals sector.
Rollers and roll hands, another important occupation,
were employed mostly in the blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling mills industries, where they were engaged in
jobs associated with rolling ingots into semifinished
blooms, slabs, or billets. In 1960, laborers accounted for
over 15 percent of total employment, about double the
proportion for total durable goods manufacturing. Many
of these laborers performed loading and unloading tasks,
as well as cleanup duties. Others had specialized jobs
such as shearman’s helper, steel chipper, and scrap
cutter. White-collar workers in primary metals made up
only about one-fifth of the work force, compared with
the average of nearly one-third for all durable goods
manufacturing. About 1 out of 10 workers in primary

50
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers..

53

metals was employed in a clerical job. Most of the
remaining white-collar workers were about equally
divided between the professional and managerial occupa­
tional groups.
Technological developments are expected to have a
significant effect on the occupational composition of the
primary metal industries through the mid-1970’s. For
example, the proportion of laborers will decline sharply
as new and improved loading and charging devices and
other materials movement equipment, such as con­
veyors, sand feeders, and mold and flask-handling
equipment, are used increasingly. The decline is
expected to be particularly significant in foundries
where materials handling workers represent one of the
largest occupational groups. In the blast furnaces, steel
works, and rolling mills industries, expanded use of the
continuous casting process and automatic billet condi­
tioners will reduce intermediate operations and handling
of materials.
Although the proportion of laborers is decreasing,
both craftsmen, foremen and kindred workers, and
professional and technical workers will account for a
larger share of primary metals employment by 1975.
Although the ratio of craftsmen and foremen will
increase, diverse trends are likely within this occupa­
tional group and the industry sectors. For example,
foremen, millwrights, mechanics, and repairmen are each
expected to increase as supervisory and maintenance
requirements expand to meet the needs of an increas­
ingly mechanized and technical metals industry. Greater
instrumentation in the industry-particularly in the areas
of basic oxygen steelmaking and continuous casting
which are particularly adaptable to automatic control—
is
expected to increase the proportion of instrument

repairmen. The percentage of cranemen, derrickmen,
and hoistmen also should grow as materials handling
operations and other manual jobs become increasingly
mechanized.
On the other hand, improvements in the efficiency of
molding machines and advances in close tolerance
forging techniques are expected to reduce the propor­
tion of both molders and machinists. Rollers and roll
hands also will be adversely affected— by the
both
continuous casting process and by automated rolling and
finishing operations controlled by computers. However,
the relative position of these workers is likely to rise in
the other primary iron and steel sector, since continuous
casting techniques are not readily adaptable to this
industry sector.
All major occupations within the professional, tech­
nical, and kindred occupational group will increasemany of them substantially— the coming decade as
over
greater emphasis is placed upon research and develop­
ment activities and modernization of production facil­
ities. More widespread use of the basic oxygen furnace
and oxygen lances in blast furnaces and open-hearths are
expected to increase the percentage of engineers and
scientists. Some of these workers will be needed to
develop mathematical models and pilot studies so that
optimum benefits can be obtained from these new
techniques. Other professional and technical workers—
particularly metallurgical engineers— be needed to
will
engage in the metals industry’s continuing search for
alloys that are stronger, lighter, and more resistant to
heat. Opportunities for electronic technicians, electronic
computer programers, and other personnel trained in the
preparation of data for use in computers also are
expected to increase.

Fabricated Metal Products51

Current Employment
drums or pails, safes and vaults, or steel springs. The
remaining workers were employed in establishments
About 1.3 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the fabricated metals industry in 1966 (See
51 SIC 34. This major group includes establishments
fabricating
metal
table 21) Almost 30 percent were employed in establish­ engaged inmetal cans, ferrous and nonferrouscutlery,products
such as
tinware, hand tools,
general
ments manufacturing fabricated structural metal pro­ hardware, nonelectric heating apparatus, fabricated structural
ducts, including fabricated structural steels, metal metal products, metal stampings, and a variety of metal and wire
window and door frames, power boilers and storage products not elsewhere classified. Certain important segments of
vessels, and architectural and ornamental metalwork. the metal fabricating industries are classified in other major
ordnance
36;
Nearly 18 percent were employed in establishments groups such as equipmentininSIC 19; machinery in SIC 35 andand
transportation
SIC 37; professional, scientific,
producing metal stampings; 12 percent worked in controlling
watches and clocks in SIC 38; and
establishments making cutlery, handtools, and general jewelry andinstruments, in SIC 39. Establishments primarily
silverware
hardware; and 11 percent were in establishments produc­ engaged in producing ferrous and nonferrous metal and their
ing miscellaneous fabricated metal products such as steel alloys are classified in SIC 33.
54




Table 21. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Fabricated
Metal Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
34
341
342
3421, 3,
5
3429
343
3431, 2
3433
344
3441
3442
3443
3444
3446, 9
345
3451
3452
346
347
348
349
3491
3492, 3,
6, 7 , 9
3494, 8

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Industry
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution
Fabricated metal products---------------- 1,349.1
100.0
64.8
4.8
Metal cans-------------------------------------C utlery, hand to o ls , and general
12.0
hardware-------------------------------------- 161.3
Cutlery and hand to o ls , including saws----------------------------------63.4
4.7
Hardware, not elsew here
98.0
c la s s if ie d ------------------------------7.3
Heating equipment and plumbing
fix tu re s (except e le c t r ic ) ------80.2
5.9
Sanitary ware and plumbers'
brass goods-----------------------------2.6
35.7
Heating equipment, except
e le c t r ic ............................... - ..............
44.5
3.3
Fabricated stru ctu ral metal
products-------------------------------------- 397.7
29.5
8.1
Fabricated stru ctu ral s t e e l------ 109.2
Metal doors, sash, frames,
65.6
and trim ----------------------------------4.9
Fabricated p la te work (b ro iler
7.8
shops) -------------------------------------- 104.8
Sheet metal work------------------------74.0
5.5
A rchitectural and m iscellaneous
44.1
metal work------------------------------3.3
Screw machine products, b o lts ,
e t c .--------------------------------------------- 107.9
8 .0
50.1
Screw machine products-------------3.7
B o lts, n u ts, screw s, r iv e ts ,
57.8
and washers-----------------------------4.3
Metal stamping--------------------- ---------- 235.9
17.5
C oating, engraving, and a llie d
85.0
s e r v ic e s-------------------------------------6.3
M iscellaneous fabricated wire
66.2
4.9
products-------------------------------------M iscellaneous fabricated metal
11.1
products-------------------------------------- 150.2
Metal shipping b a rrels, drums,
2 /0 .9
kegs, and p a ils -------------- -------- 1/11.3
M iscellaneous fab ricated metal
products, not elsewhere
2 /3 .6
c la s s if ie d ------------------------------- 1/48.1
6.6
V alves, p ip e, and p ip e fittin g -89.3

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
77.8
84.9
79.3

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
17.0
17.9
30.6

80.3
78.6

23.3
35.4

75.3
81.2

14.3
16.8

70.6

12.4

72.8
74.5
72.1
71.0
73.0

8.6
4.9
16.5
6.4
10.5

73.5

7.9

79.5
85.4

19.9
22.0

74.4
81.6
84.4
81.4
75.7
(3)

18.2
18.7
18.2
23.7
17.2
(3)

(3)
72.3

(3)
14.7

1 / Benchmark data for March 1966.
21 Based on March 1966, to ta l employment of the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.




55

making screw machine products, and bolts, nuts, screws,
rivets and washers; heating apparatus (except electrical)
and plumbing fixtures; metal cans; miscellaneous fabri­
cated wire products; and in establishments performing
coating, engraving, and allied services.
Production workers accounted for 78 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,
compared* with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
proportion of production workers in the individual
industry groups within this major industry group ranged
from 73 percent in the fabricated structural metal
products industry group to 85 percent in both the metal
cans industry group and the coating, engraving, and
allied services industry group.
Women workers accounted for 17 percent of total
employment in the fabricated metals industry in 1966,
compared with 27 percent for all manufacturing employ­
ment. Among the individual industries in this major
group, the proportion of women workers ranged from 8
percent in the fabricated structural metal products
industry to 31 percent in establishments producing
cutlery, hand tools, and general hardware.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in establishments producing fabricated
metal products increased from 989,000 in 1947 to over
1.3 million in 1966, an increase of 36 percent. This
increase was considerably faster than employment
growth for all manufacturing over the 19-year period.
Production rose by 115 percent over this same period
compared to a 139 percent increase in production for
total manufacturing.
Between 1958 and 1966,52 employment growth
differed widely among the various fabricated metal
products industry groups. Employment in establish­
ments producing metal cans remained virtually un­
changed. The growth in demand for metal cans was
limited by competition from fiber-foil, plastic, and glass
containers, and the increasing output per worker result­
ing from the greater use of laborsaving technological
innovations. On the other hand, employment increased
by 52 percent in establishments performing coating,
engraving, and allied services, in response to a rising
demand for plated parts such as bumpers.
Production workers declined as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 84

percent in 1947 to 78 percent in 1966. Nearly all of this
decrease occurred during the 1947-58 period; since
1958, the proportion of production workers to total
employment has remained relatively unchanged.
Manpower requirements in the fabricated metal pro­
ducts industry are expected to rise from over 1.3 million
to about 1.5 million between 1966 and 1975, an
increase of nearly one-sixth. (See volume IV, appendix
B) Although the high levels of economic activity
anticipated in the decade ahead will stimulate output of
fabricated metal products, employment will increase
more slowly than output because of the growing
application of laborsaving technological innovations such
as numerically controlled machine tools and automatic
processing and handling equipment.
Employment trends for the individual industries are
expected to differ because of differences in demand and
in the rates of adoption of laborsaving technological
innovations. For example, employment requirements in
establishments performing coating, plating, and allied
services are expected to increase substantially because of
rising demand. Since the production processes in these
establishments already are highly mechanized, techno­
logical developments are not expected to have a signifi­
cant impact on labor requirements. In contrast, employ­
ment requirements in establishments in the metal can
industry are expected to decline slightly, primarily
because of improvements in production machinery and
procedures that will increase output per worker.
Occupational Structure
The production of varied fabricated metal products,
such as cans, cutlery and metal stampings entails many
sequences involving blue-collar activities. In 1960, more
than 2 out of 3 persons53 in this industry was a
blue-collar worker, the majority of whom were opera­
tives. (See volume IV, appendix G.) Since production
operations in the industry are highly mechanized and
assembly is an important aspect of the work, machine

53
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers. The occupational patterns data
for the fabricated metal products major industry group includes
employment in the ordnance and accessories major industry
group (SIC 19), except those employed in establishments
producing sighting and fire control equipment (SIC 194).
Because of the inclusion of ordnance employment (which has a
high proportion of white-collar workers compared with the
52
BLS employment (payroll) data for 4 industries-heatingaverage for fabricated metal products establishments other than
equipment and plumbing fixtures, metal stampings, coating ordnance) in the occupational patterns data, the ratio of
engraving and allied services; miscellaneous fabricated wire white-collar workers is somewhat higher and that for blue-collar
products; and miscellaneous fabricated metal products-are not workers is lower than would be the case if ordnance employment
were excluded from the occupational patterns data.
available for the years prior to 1958.

56




tool operators, assemblers, and inspectors accounted for
a substantial proportion of all workers in the operative
classification. Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
were the next largest blue-collar occupational group and
represented about 1 out of 4 workers. Many craftsmen
were employed as foremen, maintenance personnel,
sheet metal workers, and tool and die makers. Most of
the laborers employed in the industry were engaged in
materials handling activities.
White-collar workers accounted for about one-third
of total employment in the fabricated metal products
major industry group in 1960. Many of the professional
and technical workers, particularly scientists, engineers,
and technicians, were employed in ordnance establish­
ments where they were engaged in the design, develop­
ment, and production of military hardware such as
missiles, tanks, and guns. The proportions of workers in
the remaining white-collar major occupation groups—
managers, officials, and proprietors; sales workers; and
clerical workers— higher than the average for
were
durable goods manufacturing as a whole. These higher
ratios of managers, proprietors, and sales workers re­
flected the large numbers of small establishments pro­
ducing fabricated metal products. Clerical workers ac­
counted for about one-seventh of total industry employ­
ment, slightly above the average for durable goods
manufacturing.
Technological innovations are expected to affect
some changes in occupational structure in fabricated
metal establishments by 1975. Increasing use of auto­
matic transfer equipment and numerically controlled
machines, as well as other new developments such as
welding and cutting with electronic beams, chemical
milling and electro-chemical machining, and high energy
forming methods should alter somewhat the composi­
tion of the operative occupational group. By performing
more operations and doing them more accurately and

quickly, such processes and equipment will tend to
adversely affect operative occupations such as assem­
blers, electroplater, and machine tool operator. On the
other hand, the proportions of welders is expected to
increase as a result of the more extensive use of the
welding process in metal fabrication. The proportion of
laborers should decline because of improved materials
handling techniques such as automated transfer and
conveyor systems. Although the proportion of craftsmen
is not expected to change very much during the next 10
years, like operatives, there will be some shifts within
the occupational group. For example, because of the
greater efficiency and speed of numerically controlled
machine tools, the proportions of metalworking crafts­
men, such as production and toolroom machinists, are
expected to decline. On the other hand, the ratios of
foremen and of mechanics and repairmen should rise as a
result of needs for increased supervision and main­
tenance of new and more complex mechanical equip­
ment.
Among the white-collar occupational groups, the
proportion of professional and technical workers is
expected to show the most significant change, increasing
more than one-fourth by 1975. Engineers and techni­
cians are among occupations that should undergo the
most rapid growth. Their growth will stem largely from
expanding research and development activities in the
industry (particularly in ordnance establishments), and
from expansion and modernization of production facil­
ities. Among clerical workers, office machine operators
will increase in relative importance because of the
widespread adoption of ADP equipment. The use of this
equipment will adversely affect employment in occupa­
tions such as accounting clerks, shipping and receiving
clerks, and other workers performing routine clerical

jobs.

Machinery, Except Electrical 54

Current Employment
and over 11 percent were in establishments manu­
facturing office equipment, including calculating and
More than 1.9 million wage and salary workers were accounting machines. The remaining workers in this
employed in the machinery, except electrical, major
industry group in 1966. (See table 22.) About one-fourth
54
SIC 35. This major industry group includes establish­
of all workers were employed in establishments produc­ ments engaged in manufacturing machinery and equipment,
other than electrical equipment (SIC 36), and
ing special industry machinery or general industry equipment (SIC 37). Machines powered by built-intransportation
or
machinery. About 18 percent were in establishments motors ordinarily are included in this major group, detachable
except for
manufacturing metalworking machinery; 15 percent electrical household appliances (SIC 36). Portable tools, both
were in establishments manufacturing construction, electric and pneumatic powered, are included in this major
mining, and materials hauling machinery and equipment; group, but hand tools are classified in (SIC 34).




57

SIC
Code
35
351
3511
3519
352
353
3531,
3533
3534
3535,
3537
354
3541
3544
3545
3542,
355
3551
3552
3554
3555
3553,
356
3561
3562
3564
3565,

2

6

8

9

7,

3566
357
3571
3572
3576, 9

Table 22. D istrib ution of Wage and Salary Workers in the Machinery (Except
E lectric a l) Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
Women
work ers
workers as workers as
Industry
Number | P ercent percent of percent of
d is t r i­ employment, employment,
bution
by industry by industry
100.0
Machinery, except e le c tr ic a l----------- 1,911.1
70.4
13.5
Engines and turbines--------------------99.1
5.2
69.1
12.9
1.6
Steam engines and turbines------30.9
57.0
10.4
Internal combustion engines,
3.6
68.1
not elsewhere c la s s ifie d ------14.0
74.7
7.7
74.1
8.6
Farm machinery and equipment------- 148.0
Construction and related
machinery------------------------------------ 277.8
8.4
14.5
68.5
Construction and mining
machinery-------------------------------- 151.3
7.9
70.9
7.3
Oil fie ld machinery and equipment----------------------------------------68.4
2.1
8.1
39.3
2 /0.8
Elevators and moving stairw ays- J./15.8
(3)
(3)
Conveyors, h o is ts , m onorails,
40.0
2.1
and in d u strial cranes-----------65.5
10.5
Industrial trucks, tra cto rs,
2 /1 .6
tr a ile r s , and stack ers----------- 1 /3 0 .0
(3)
(3)
Metalworking machinery and
17.6
equipment------------------------------------ 335.5
75.9
10.9
Machine to o ls , metal cutting
79.6
70.1
4.2
types--------------------------------------8.9
Special d ie s, to o ls , j ig s , and
6.2
6.8
fix tu r e s---------------------------------- 118.0
82.7
60.4
3.2
Machine tool a ccesso ries---------74.2
18.9
M iscellaneous metalworking
4.1
machinery-------------------------------77.6
72.7
12.9
10.8
69.2
Special in d u strial machinery------- 205.5
10.9
64.8
2.2
11.8
Food products machinery-----------42.3
2.4
45.8
T extile machinery---------------------77.7
11.1
2/1.1
Paper ind ustries machinery------- 1/20.9
(3)
(3)
29.6
Printing trades machinery--------1.5
70.3
12.2
Special in d u strial machinery,
not elsewhere c la s s ifie d ------- 1/66.1
2 /3.5
(3)
(3)
14.9
67.3
15.7
General in d u strial machinery------- 284.7
77.4
4.1
Pumps; air and gas compressors57.5
12.9
78.8
B all and r o lle r bearings----------3.3
63.3
23.9
Blowers, exhaust and v e n tila ting fan s---------------------------------- 1 /2 8 .5
2 /1.5
(3)
(3)
General in d u strial machinery
9
and equipment, not elsewhere
c la s s ifie d ------------------------------- 1 /6 0 .4
(3)
2 /3.2
(3)
Mechanical power transm ission
equipment-------------------------------53.6
2.8
74.8
13.1
O ffice, computing and accounting
11.4
machines------------------------------------- 217.1
59.1
27.1
Computing machines and cash
8.8
r e g iste r s-------------------------------- 167.5
56.2
26.4
2/1.1
Typewriters-------------------------------- 1 /2 0 .4
(3)
(3)
S cales, balances, and o ffic e
machines, not elsewhere
c la s s ifie d ------------------------------- 1/2 6 .9
2 /1 .4
(3)
(3)

See footnotes at end of ta b le.
58




Table 22. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Machinery (Except
E le c tr ic a l) Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966--Continued
SIC
Code
358
3585
3581, 2, 6,
9
359

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
Industry
d is tr i­
bution
Service industry machinery----------- 126.2
6.6
R efrig era tio n , except home
r e fr ig e r a to r s-------------------------79.6
4.2
Other serv ice industry
2 /2 .4
machinery--------------------------------- 1/45.2
M iscellaneous machinery-------------- - 217.3
11.4

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
70.0

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

70.1

12.3
(3)
13.2

(3)
78.9

13.9

I I Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

products, such as navy and marine steam turbines,
increased at a slow pace. In contrast, employment
advanced very rapidly (63 percent) in the accounting,
computing, and office machine industry group, primarily
because of an accelerated demand for computers. Rapid
employment growth also occurred in establishments
producing general industry machinery, miscellaneous
machinery, and metalworking machinery (primarily
machine tools). In the latter establishments, employ­
ment gains reflected the expansion and modernization of
the domestic metalworking industries, particularly the
automotive industry, the largest user of machine tools.
Because of the general increase in the demand for
personal services, employment also rose moderately in
establishments manufacturing service industry ma­
chinery, such as vending machines and dry cleaning
equipment. In addition, employment m establishments
producing construction, mining, and materials handling
equipment rose rapidly, reflecting increased demand for
machinery and equipment used in mining, logging,
agriculture, oil fields, land reclamation, irrigation, power
and communications systems, and municipal main­
tenance, as well as general construction. The greater use
of materials handling equipment in many industries has
contributed to the growth of this industry group.
Employment also gained rapidly in the industry groups
manufacturing farm machinery and special industry
machinery reflected the replacement of obsolete equip­
ment and increased demand for the products of direct
55
BLS employment (payroll) data for most of the industry
groups are not available for the years prior to 1958.
user industries such as textiles, paper and paper
59

major industry group were employed in establishments
manufacturing engines and turbines, farm machinery and
equipment, service industry machinery, and miscel­
laneous machinery.
Production workers accounted for 70 percent of total
employment in the machinery, except electrical, major
industry group in 1966, compared with 74 percent for
all manufacturing. The majority of individual industry
groups within the major industry group had about the
same proportion of production workers. However, the
proportion was somewhat higher in the metalworking
and miscellaneous machinery industry groups, and the
proportion was somewhat below the average in the
office machinery industry group.
Women workers accounted for about 14 percent of
total employment in the machinery industry establish­
ments in 1966, compared with 27 percent for all
manufacturing. Among the individual industry groups,
the proportions of women ranged from 8 percent in
establishments producing farm machinery and equip­
ment to 27 percent in establishments manufacturing
office, computing, and accounting machinery.
Between 1958 and 1966,55 employment rose in all of
the machinery industry groups, although the rates of
growth differed widely. Employment in the engines and
turbines industry group was only about 10 percent
higher in 1966 than in 1958 because the demand for




Occupational Structure
Operatives accounted for the largest occupational
group56 in the machinery, except electrical, major
industry group in 1960— 35 percent. (See volume
about
IV, appendix G) Metalworking occupations, such as
machine tool operators, assemblers, and welders,
accounted for one-half of the operative group, reflecting
the extensive use of sophisticated metalworking equip­
ment.
Craftsmen were the next largest occupational group,
representing nearly 3 out of 10 workers. Significantly
large occupations in this group were tool and die makers,
mechanic and repairmen, and foremen. Professional and
technical workers were the largest white-collar occupa­
tional group, making up almost 10 percent of total
employment, about average for durable goods manu­
facturing.
Occupational structure differed significantly within
the industry in 1960— between office, computing
mainly
and accounting equipment and the other industry
groups. The proportions of professional and technical
workers and sales workers were more than twice as high
in the manufacture of office, computing and accounting
equipment than in the remainder of the major industry
group. The emphasis on research and development
activities and the complex nature of production pro­
cesses resulted in a high ratio of scientists, engineers, and
technicians in office, computing and accounting equip­
ment manufacturing. Sales workers represented a par­
ticularly high proportion of the work force, mainly
because of the intensive competition for sales between
firms producing computing and accounting equipment.
The occupational structure in the machinery, except
electrical, major industry group is expected to change
significantly by 1975, primarily because of the impact of
technology on occupational requirements and a rapid
growth in the office, computing and accounting equip­
ment industry group. A large increase in the proportion
of professional and technical workers— by about
rising
two-fifths from 1960— expected in this major industry
is
group. Although all industry segments will participate in
this shift, the computer and accounting machine seg­
ment will contribute greatly to the overall trend by
boosting its proportion of these workers by more than
one-half, and by gaining more than twice as rapidly in
total employment as the major industry group as a
whole. The expected growth in the proportion of
professional and technical workers can generally be
attributed to the continuing emphasis on research and
development activities. The spreading use of numeri­
56
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, ascally-controlled machine tools also will tend to raise
well as wage and salary workers.
requirements for engineers, programers, and technicians
60

products, and foods. The demand for these products was
stimulated by an increasing population and rising levels
of personal disposable income.
Although the total number of production workers in
this major industry group increased (12 percent) over
the 1947-66 period, production workers decreased as a
proportion of total employment, from 79 percent in
1947 to about 70 percent in 1966. The decrease
occurred primarily between 1947 and 1958.
Manpower requirements in this major industry group
are expected to increase to over 2 million by 1975. (See
volume IV, appendix B.) Employment is expected to
grow as a result of the rising demand for machinery and
related equipment. Expenditures for new plant and
equipment are expected to grow and will stimulate the
demand for machinery and equipment. In addition, a
high proportion of machinery currently in use is
obsolete and will have to be replaced. For example, as of
1963, 64 percent of the metalcutting machinery in use
was at least 10 years old, and 20 percent was more than
20 years old. Also, the rules governing depreciation
allowances have been changed to allow a more rapid
depreciation of new machinery and equipment. Federal
tax law changes, which allow income tax credit for new
investments in plant and equipment, also will stimulate
the demand for machinery.
Employment trends for individual industries within
the major industry group are expected to differ only
slightly between 1965 and 1975. For example, worker
requirements are expected to increase at a faster pace in
establishments producing special industry machinery,
such as food processing machinery, textile machinery,
paper industries machinery, and printing trades ma­
chinery. Expanding population and rising levels of
personal disposable income will result in a greater
demand for food, clothing, and furniture, as well as for
paper and paper products. Manpower requirements also
are expected to increase substantially in the machine
tool industries. The growing use of numerically con­
trolled equipment should increase machine tool orders.
However, greater demand for numerically controlled
equipment may reduce in part, orders for conventional
machines.
Employment in the construction, mining, and mate­
rials handling machinery and equipment industries is
expected to be spurred by rising construction activity to
meet the needs of an increasing population. In addition,
emphasis on cost-reduction and more efficient materials
movement will increase the need for mechanized mate­
rials handling equipment.




at the expense of skilled and semiskilled machine tool
operators and tool and die makers.
The proportion of laborers is expected to decline
nearly one-third by 1975, reflecting mainly the more
intensive application of materials handling equipment
and work feeding devices. The use of automatic transfer
equipment will grow rapidly, especially in plants making
large quantities of standardized products, and will
adversely affect employment of materials handlers. The
increasing application of instrumentation and computer
control will decrease the proportion of inspectors and
machine tool operators, but raise manpower require­
ments in such occupations as instrument repairmen. In
addition, the more extensive application of electronic
computers will tend to lower requirements for some
clerical workers; however, the overall proportion of

these workers is expected to remain relatively un­
changed.
The overall trends in the occupational structure are
expected to be reversed in some sectors of the major
industry group. For example, the ratio of operatives is
expected to increase in farm machinery and equipment,
primarily because of an anticipated rise in the propor­
tion of welders and flame cutters, attributable to the
greater importance of welding in this industry. More­
over, the proportion of assemblers in office, computing
and accounting machines is expected to rise, reflecting a
shift in the product mix from office and accounting
machines to computers. Operatives in the office, com­
puting and accounting machine industry group, however,
are expected to decline proportionately, mainly because
technicians will be increasingly needed as production
processes become more complex.

Electrical Machinery, Equipment and
Supplies57

Current Employmen t
About 1.9 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies major industry group in 1966. (See table 23.)
About half were employed in the three industry groups
primarily engaged in manufacturing electronic pro­
ducts—
communications equipment; electronic compo­
nents; and radio and television sets and other home
entertainment equipment. (About 50 percent of the
workers in electronics manufacturing establishments
were estimated to be engaged in the manufacture of
military and space products.) The remaining employees
in this major industry group were employed in the five
industry groups primarily engaged in manufacturing
electrical lighting and wiring equipment, electrical distri­
bution equipment, and miscellaneous electrical equip­
ment and supplies.
Production workers accounted for 69 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,
compared with about 74 percent in manufacturing as a
whole. Among the individual electrical machinery,
equipment and supplies industry groups, the proportion
of production workers ranged from about 50 percent in

the communications equipment industry group to 80
percent in the radio and TV receiving sets industry
group. The relatively low proportion of production
workers in the communications equipment industry
group reflected the extensive employment of scientific
and technical manpower needed in the development and
production of military and space electronics products.
Women workers accounted for 40 percent of total
employment in electrical machinery, equipment and
supplies establishments in 1966, compared with 27
percent in all manufacturing. In two industry groups—
radio and TV receiving sets and electronic components
and accessories— proportion of women workers was
the
more than twice as high as in all manufacturing. Women
made up a relatively high proportion of the work force
in the electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies
major industry group, mainly because many production
operations center around the assembly, inspection, and
testing of lightweight, very small products— often
work
performed by women.

Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in this major industry group increased
by more than 83.2 percent between 1947 and 1966,
SIC 36. This major group includes establishmentsfrom slightly more than 1 million to nearly 1.9 million
engaged in manufacturing machinery, apparatus, and supplies for
workers. This rate of increase was almost four times as
the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and utiliza­
fast as the rate for all manufacturing employment.
tion of electrical energy; and in manufacturing household
appliances.
During the same period, production of electrical ma57




61

Table 23, D istrib ution of Wage and Salary Workers in the E lectrica l Machinery
Equipment and Supplies Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
Production
Women
workers
workers as workers as
SIC
Industry
Number Percent percent of percent of
Code
d is t r i­ employment, employment,
bution
by industry by industry
36
E lectrica l machinery, equipment,
and su p p lies---------------------------------- 1,896.4
100.0
69.4
40.4
361
E lectrica l d istrib u tio n equipment-------------------------------------------- 189.8
10.0
68.8
31.8
3611
E lectric measuring d evices------67.4
65.7
3.5
43.1
Power d istrib u tio n trans3612
formers-----------------------------------51.0
70.8
2.7
24.9
Switchgear and switchboard
3613
apparatus-------------------------------73.1
3.9
68.7
26.3
362
E lectrica l in d u strial apparatus-- 214.3
11.3
71.2
32.6
3621
Motors and generators---------------- 117.6
6.2
71.7
32.1
3622
Ind ustrial co n tro ls------------------57.9
67.2
3.1
38.7
3624
Carbon and graphite products---- J./12.8
2 /0 .7
(3)
(3)
3623, 9
Other e le c tr ic a l in d u strial
apparatus-........................................- 1/25.0
2 /1 .4
(3)
(3)
9.6
Household appliances--------------------- 181.3
78.8
22.6
363
Household refrig era to rs and
3632
freezers---------------------------------57.8
3.0
82.0
13.1
Household laundry equipment-----26.0
1.4
76.5
3633
13.5
45.8
E lectric housewares and fan s---2.4
78.6
3634
47.2
3636
Sewing machines-------------------------- 1/ 8.9
(3)
2 /0 .5
(3)
Other household appliances------- 1/38.1
2 /2 .0
3631, 5, 9
(3)
(3)
364
E lectrica l lig h tin g and wiring
equipment------------------------------------ 193.1
10.1
78.1
42.2
3641
34.0
1.8
E lectrica l lamps-----------------------88.5
66.5
Lighting fix tu r e s---------------------62.6
77.6
3642
3.3
31.3
Wiring d evices--------------------------96.5
5.1
74.7
3643, 4
40.5
Radio and TV receiving s e ts --------- 159.8
8.4
56.8
365
79.5
366
Communications equipment-------------- 465.5
50.4
24.5
34.7
3661
Telephone and telegraph
apparatus--------------------------------- 128.2
6.8
43.6
67.9
Radios and TV communications
3662
equipment--------------------------------- 337.4
17.8
31.4
43.7
E lectronic components and
367
a ccesso ries--------------------------------- 381.5
20.1
76.6
60.1
Electron tubes--------------------------3671-3
74.5
71.7
3.9
51.1
3674, 9
E lectronic components, NEC
and su p p lies--------------------------- 307.0
16.2
77.9
62.3
369
M iscellaneous e le c tr ic a l equipment-------------------------------------------- 111.3
5.9
28.6
77.3
Storage b a tte r ie s---------------------- 1/20.5
3691
2/1.1
(3)
(3)
Primary b a tte r ie s---------------------- 1/10.0
3692
(3)
2 /0.5
(3)
3694
E lectrica l equipment for
3.2
27.4
engines-----------------------------------60.3
79.1
3693, 9
M iscellaneous e le c tr ic a l
machinery, NEC------------------------ 1 / 1 6 . 8
2 /0.9
(3)
(3)
1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the inclusion of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
62




chinery, equipment, and supplies rose by 264 percent,
almost twice the growth for total manufacturing produc­
tion.
In recent years, employment and output in industries
primarily engaged in manufacturing electronic products
have increased faster than industries primarily producing
electrical items. Between 1958 and 1966,58 the com­
bined employment in the three industry groups manu­
facturing electronics rose 74 percent, while employment
in the five electrical manufacturing groups rose 33
percent. A high proportion of the electronics shipments
were military and space products.59 Many of these
products were complex, low volume items, which were
not produced by mass production methods. On the
other hand, many of the production processes in the
electrical products industries involved the fabrication of
metal or plastic parts, many of which were mass
produced.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 78.1
percent in 1947 to 69.4 percent in 1966. However,
between 1958 and 1966, the relative importance of
production workers did not change significantly because
a sharp decline in the ratio of production workers in
establishments manufacturing communications equip­
ment was offset by increases in all other industry groups.
The relative importance of production workers de­
creased rapidly in the communications equipment
industry group, in large part, because of the rapid
growth in the employment of scientific and technical
personnel engaged in research and development
activities; and in the production of increasingly complex
equipment, particularly military and space electronics
products.
Manpower requirements in the electrical machinery,
equipment and supplies major industry group are
expected to increase by about 6 percent to about 2
million by 1975, despite the growing application of
laborsaving technological innovations. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) Increased employment is expected to result
from a rapidly rising demand for electronic and electrical
products, particularly electronic products. This projec­
tion assumes that the demand for military products will
continue to rise at about the same rate as that
58 BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data for the individual
industry groups are not available for the years prior to 1958.
59 Almost half o f total electronics shipments were chan­
neled into the Nation’s military and space efforts each year
between 1958 and 1965, according to the Electronics Industries
Association’s 1965 Electronic Industries Yearbook.




experienced during the late 1950’s and early 1960’s,but
considerably below the sharp 1965 and 1966 increases
resulting from the Viet Nam buildup. By 1975, establish­
ments manufacturing such products will continue to
account for a high proportion of electronic employment.
The demand for other products is expected to grow
rapidly because of rising levels of general economic
activity and greater use of electrical and electronic
products in the home and industry.
The demand for electrical equipment also should be
stimulated by improvements in urban transportation,
including the construction of subway systems that use
electric power; by the construction of atomic powered
electric utility systems; and by the installation of
underground transmission systems. The automation of
many industrial processes will stimulate demand for
electric products. It is anticipated that the growing
consumer and commercial markets for electronic equip­
ment also will greatly increase the demand for electronic
components. The growth in population and family
formation and the higher levels of personal spendable
income are expected to provide booming markets for
consumer and consumer-related items. Electrical and
electronic systems also will play a significant role in
telecommunications, underwater research, medicine,
electroluminescense, and optical technology.
Occupational Structure
Operatives accounted for more than 4 out of 10
workers60 in this major industry group— of the
one
highest proportions for a durable manufacturing group.
(See volume IV, appendix G.) Large numbers of assem­
blers and inspectors were employed, reflecting the
relatively low level of mechanization in the assembly
process for complex electronic products. Professional
and technical workers were the largest white collar
occupational group, accounting for about one-sixth of
the industry’s work force. Engineers and technicians
(including draftsmen) accounted for more than 3 out of
4 of these workers— high ratio for a manufacturing
a
industry. The higher proportion of engineers and techni­
cians reflects the emphasis on research and development
activities and the need for technically trained workers in
the production process. Craftsmen constituted nearly 16
percent of total employment— than one-quarter of
more
whom were foremen. Clerical workers made up about
15 percent and laborers, less than 3 percent of employ­
ment.
60
Including self-employed and unpaid fam ily workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

63

Occupational structures were significantly different
between establishments primarily engaged in the pro­
duction of electronic products and those producing
electrical products. Moreover, differences existed in the
occupational patterns of establishments by type of
electronic or electrical products manufactured. Gen­
erally, plants producing electrical products have a much
lower proportion of professional and technical workers
and a higher proportion of craftsmen than plants
producing electronic products. However, professional
and technical workers and clerical workers accounted for
a higher proportion of employment in establishments
manufacturing military-space electronic products than
they did in plants producing other types of electronic
products. The emphasis on research and development
activities and the large number of technicians required to
assemble and inspect complex, low-volume products
resulted in a high proportion of scientists and engineers
in plants producing military-space products. The large
number of clerical workers in these establishments were
required to perform the paperwork generated by defense
and space related business activities, and to support the
professional and technical personnel. In contrast, the
ratio of professional and technical workers is lower in
establishments manufacturing consumer electronic and
electrical products, such as radio and television sets and
household appliances. These plants have a higher propor­
tion of operatives because most consumer items are
produced in great quantities and require many separate
assembly, inspecting, and testing operations.
The occupation structure in the electrical machinery,
equipment and supplies major industry group is
expected to shift slowly by 1975; the greatest changes
being the sharp increase in the proportion of pro­
fessional and technical workers and the decreasing
proportion of clerical workers. The high proportion of
engineers and technicians in 1960 is expected to rise
further as expenditures for research and development
activities continue to grow, and as technicians find

employment, for example, in plants shifting from
conventional switching devices to microcircuits. Also, a
rapid growth of employment in establishments pro­
ducing electronic products (relative to those producing
electrical products) is expected to reinforce this trend.
However, some professional and technical occupations
are expected to decrease by 1975. For example, the
greater use of computer-controlled and other drafting
techniques is expected to reduce engineering detail time
and adversely affect employment of draftsmen.
The proportion of clerical workers is expected to
decline for two reasons. First, the increasing use of
electronic data processing systems will reduce the need
for some kinds of clerical workers. The rising demand
for workers to operate peripheral computer equipment,
however, will somewhat offset this affect. Second, more
rapid growth in consumer-industrial products is
expected, where the proportion of clerical workers is
lower than in the remainder of the major industry group.
In the operative occupational group, the shift in
product mix in favor of consumer-industrial products
will tend to increase requirements for assemblers and
inspectors at the same time that technological change
will be tending to reduce requirements for these
workers. The net effect of these contrasting trends is
that the ratios of assemblers and inspectors are expected
to decline between 1960 and 1975.
The proportions of skilled craftsmen and foremen are
expected to increase only slightly by 1975. However,
significant changes are expected within the occupational
group. The proportion of foremen will increase, reflect­
ing the close supervision required by increasingly sophis­
ticated manufacturing processes. Mechanics and repair­
men are expected to rise by about one-third because of
the need to maintain the greater number of complex
machinery. As in most major industry groups, the
proportion of laborers will continue to decline, mainly
because of the continued application of automatic
conveyor systems.

Transportation Equipment61

Current Employment
More than 1.9 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the transportation equipment major
industry group in 1966. (See table 24.) About 45 percent
were employed in the motor vehicle and motor vehicle
equipment segment and nearly 40 percent were employ­
ed in the aircraft and aircraft parts group. The remaining
64




workers were employed in ship and boat building and
repairing; railroad equipment manufacturing and re61
SIC 37. This major group includes establishments
engaged in manufacturing equipm ent for transportation o f
passengers and cargo by land, air, and water. Important products
produced by establishm ents classified in this major group include
motor vehicles, aircraft, ships, boats, railroad equipm ent, and
m iscellaneous transportation equipm ent such as m otorcycles and
bicycles.

Table 24. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Transportation
Equipment Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

SIC
Code

Industry

37
371

Transportation equipment-----------------Motor v eh icles and motor v eh icle
equipment------------------------------------Motor v e h ic le s---------------------------Passenger car b od ies-----------------Truck and bus b od ies-----------------Motor v eh icle parts and
a c c e sso r ie s-----------------------------Truck t r a ile r s ---------------------------A ircra ft and p a rts-----------------------A ircra ft-------------------------------------A ircra ft engines and p a rts------Other a ir c r a ft parts and
equipment--------------------------------Ship and boat building and
rep a irs---------------------------------------Ship building and rep a irin g----Boat building and rep airin g----Railroad equipment-----------------------Locomotives and p a rts---------------R ailroad and str e e tc a r s-----------Other tran sp ortation equipment—

3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
372
3721
3722
3723, 9
373
3731
3732
374
3741
3742
375, 9

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

1,911.5

100.0

71.2

859.2
361.5
65.3
36.8

44.9
18.9
3 .4
1.9

77.8
74.2
81.5
81.0

368.4
1/28.5
750.5
417.3
208.1

19.3
2 /1 .5
39.3
21.8
10.9

80.4
(3)
59.3
57.5
57.4

10.3
8.6
6.4
7.7
6.3
11.4
(3)
14.2
14.7
13.2

125.1

6.5

68.3

14.2

176.4
142.8
33.7
61.6
1/19.7
1/40.1
63.8

9.2
7.5
1.8
3.2
2 /1 .0
2 /2 .1
3.3

83.2
83.1
83.1
78.9
(3)
(3)
82.3

3 .6
3.2
5.6
5.7
(3)
(3)
11.6

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2 / Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

pairing; motorcycles, bicycles, and parts manufacturing;
and miscellaneous transportation equipment manu­
facturing.
Production workers accounted for 71 percent of total
employment in this major industry group in 1966,
compared with 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
proportion of production workers in the sectors within
the major industry varied from 59 percent in aircraft and
parts to approximately 83 percent in ship and boat
building and repair.
Women workers accounted for about 10 percent of
total employment in the transportation equipment
major industry group, compared to 27 percent for all
manufacturing. Among the individual industry groups,
the proportion of women workers ranged from only 4
percent in ship and boat building and repair to 14
percent in aircraft and parts.




Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the transportation equipment
industry increased from about 1.3 million in 1947 to
over 1.9 million in 1966. This 50 percent increase was
more than twice as fast as employment growth in all
manufacturing. During the same period, production
nearly tripled and was more than twice the rate of
increase for all manufacturing.
Between 1947 and 1966, employment trends among
the individual industries differed widely. Employment
fluctuated considerably in the motor vehicle group,
ranging between a high of 917,000 in 1953 and a low of
606.000 workers in 1954. (See statement on motor
vehicles.) In contrast, employment increased rapidly
between 1947 and 1957 in aircraft and parts from
239.000 to 896,000. Most of this growth resulted from
65

Employment in the other industries— and boat
ship
building, railroad equipment, and other transportation
equipment— expected to increase moderately. How­
are
ever, changes in government shipbuilding and policy
could affect the level of employment projected in
shipbuilding.
Occupational Structure
Production methods in the transportation industry
vary widely— a very high degree of mechanization
from
in the motor vehicle and equipment industry to sub­
stantially custom work in boatbuilding and repairing. As
a result, occupational manpower needs are equally
diverse. (See volume IV, appendix G.)
For example, as a percentage of total employment in
I960,63 operatives varied from more than half in motor
vehicles, where large numbers of operatives—
particularly
assemblers— required for assemblyline work, to
were
slightly more than one-fifth in boatbuilding and repair­
ing, where the custom and complex nature of ship
construction and repairs limited the degree of work
simplification. However, because it’s composed of metal
working and metal fabrication industries, the transpor­
tation equipment major industry group, as a whole,
employed significant numbers of assemblers and
machine tool operators in 1960. Welders and flame
cutters were employed in large numbers, including
particularly high proportions in railroad equipment and
boatbuilding and repairs, where the welding process is
used widely in the construction of freight cars and ship
hulls.
The percentage of skilled workers in boatbuilding and
repairing (50 percent) was much higher than the average
for the transportation equipment major industry group
in 1960 because of the high skill requirements needed
for both construction and maintenance of ships. Carpen­
ters, structural metal workers, and machinists were the
most common occupations within boatbuilding and
repairing. Carpenters were used extensively in construc­
tion and repair of wood boats; machinists for con­
struction, repair, and refitting work; and structural
workers for construction of large ships. Because of the
high degree of mechanization in the transportation
equipment major industry group, a high ratio of
mechanics and repairmen were found throughout all
sectors of the industry.
Professional and technical workers accounted for
nearly 14 percent of the transportation equipment
industry’s work force in 1960. Although this ratio was
industries-

overall increases in government procurement of aircraft
and missiles, rising developmental and manufacturing
demands for space vehicles, and increased demand for
commercial airplanes during that period. Employment
declined to 605,000 by 1964 as government expendi­
tures leveled off prior to the Viet Nam buildup. Since
1964, employment has risen sharply because require­
ments for military aircraft have increased.
Employment in ship and boat building and repair has
fluctuated between 1947 and 1966. Employment fell in
the years immediately following World War II, as
Government expenditures for shipbuilding declined and
many ships were relegated to the “moth ball fleet.”
Sharp increases in defense expenditures during the
Korean emergency and the Viet Nam buildup have
caused temporary increases in employment in this
industry.
Employment in the railroad equipment industry
declined significantly over the 1947-66 period. The
conversion from steam to diesel locomotives that began
at the end of World War II was virtually completed by
1958. Most of the production activity after 1958 has
been devoted to the repair, modification, and replace­
ment of existing diesel locomotives and freight cars, and
to the production of parts.
Employment increased rapidly between 1958 and
196662 in establishments manufacturing other transpor­
tation equipment such as motorcycles, bicycles, and
trailer coaches.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in the transportation equipment major
industry group, from about 8 out of 10 workers in 1947
to 7 out of 10 in 1966. Most of this decrease took place
prior to 1958. Since 1958, the proportion of production
workers to total employment has remained relatively
stable.
Manpower requirements in the transportation equip­
ment major industry group are expected to decline by
1975 to about the levels of the period prior to the Viet
Nam buildup. Employment requirements in the motor
vehicles sector are expected to decline as increases in
production are more than matched by rising output per
worker. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Manpower require­
ments also are expected to decline in the aircraft and
parts sector as military demands for aircraft decrease to
pre-Viet Nam levels, and output per worker increases
more than the growth in the production of commercial
aircraft.
62
BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data for 2
m otorcycles, bicycles and parts; and miscellaneous transporta­
tion equipm ent-are not available prior to 1958.

66




63
Including self-em ployed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

somewhat above the average for all durable goods
manufacturing, it results primarily from the especially
high concentration of professional and technical workers
in the aircraft industry. This industry engages heavily in
research and development activities, and accordingly,
nearly one-fourth of its work force was classified as
professional or technical workers. Engineers alone
accounted for over 12 percent of the workers in the
aircraft industry. Thus, despite relatively lower engineer­
ing ratios in each of the other three sectors of the
industry, engineering was the second largest occupation
in the transportation equipment major industry group.
Clerical workers were employed in large numbers in
the aircraft industry. Many of these workers are engaged
in assisting the large number of engineers and technicians
employed by this industry.
The ratio of laborers in the transportation equipment
major industry group in 1960 was less than half of the
average for all durable goods manufacturing. Few
laborers are required because of the high degree of
mechanization in the motor vehicles and equipment and
aircraft and parts industries.
Laborers were most prevalent in the boat building
and repairing and railroad and miscellaneous transpor­
tation equipment industries, the latter industry
employing large numbers of laborers in its trailer and
coach sector.
Some changes in the occupational structure of the
transportation equipment major industry group can be
expected by 1975 as a result of technological innova­
tions. The most significant changes are expected in the
professional-technical occupational groups of the motor
vehicles and equipment and the aircraft and parts
industry sectors. (See individual statements that follow.)
Most of the anticipated rise of these workers is attribu­

table to increasing requirements for engineers and
technicians in research and development activities.
Requirements for clerical workers performing repetitive
routine will be reduced by the computer. The propor­
tion of blue-collar workers in transportation equipment
is expected to decline slightly, as greater use of
laborsaving innovations substantially lowers require­
ments for laborers in each of the industry sectors. Also
among the craftsmen group, increasing use of such
innovations as numerically controlled machining will
tend to reduce requirements for machinists and tool and
die makers.
In general, the occupational structure in the ship and
boat building and repairing industry sector is expected
to follow the trend in the transportation equipment
major industry group as a whole— concentrations
higher
of professional and technical workers, such as engineers
and designers, and lower ratios of laborers. Develop­
ments such as the “Telerex” plate cutting process could
reduce requirements for occupations involved in line
development, patternmaking, and platemarking and
shaping. On the other hand, the increasingly complex
machines and equipment used in the industry could
result in higher proportions of mechanics to repair them
and foremen to supervise their operation.
Except for a significant decline in the proportion of
laborers, little change is expected in the occupational
structure of the miscellaneous transportation equipment
groups during the next 10 years. Few changes are
anticipated among craftsmen occupations. However,
carpenters, sheetmetal workers, mechanics, and cabinet­
makers are expected to increase somewhat as a result of
the more rapid growth expected in the trailer and coach
sector, where larger numbers of these craftsmen are
employed.

Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment6 4

equipment industry in 1966. (See table 25.) Over 40
percent worked in establishments manufacturing or
assembling complete passenger cars, trucks, commercial
cars and buses, and special purpose motor vehicles.
Another 40 percent were employed in establishments
producing motor vehicle parts and accessories. The
64
This industry group includes establishments primarily
engaged in manufacturing or assembling complete passenger cars, remaining workers were in establishments assembling
trucks, commercial cars and buses (except trackless trolleys), and passenger car, truck, and bus bodies; or in establishments
special purpose motor vehicles (SIC 3711); establishments manufacturing truck trailers and truck trailer chassis.
primarily engaged in manufacturing passenger car bodies (SIC
Production workers
percent of total
3713); establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing motor employment in the accounted for 78and equipment
motor vehicle
vehicle parts and accessories (SIC 3714); and establishments
primarily engaged in manufacturing truck trailers and truck industry in 1966, compared with 74 percent for all
manufacturing. The individual industries constituting the
trailer chassis (SIC 3715).
67
Current Employment
More than 859,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the motor vehicle and motor vehicle




Table 25. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Motor V eh icles
and Motor V ehicle Equipment Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
371
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

Motor v eh icles and motor v eh icle
equipment------------------------------------- 859.2
Motor v e h ic le s ---------------------------- 361.5
Passenger car b od ies-----------------65.3
36.8
Truck and bus b od ies-----------------Motor v eh icle parts and
a c c e sso r ie s------------------------------ 368.4
Truck t r a ile r s ...................................... 1/28.5

Production
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

100.0
42.1
7.6
4.3

77.8
74.2
81.5
81.0

42.9
2 /3 .2

80.4
(3)

8 .6
6.4
7.7
6.3
11.4
(3)

>
IV Benchmark data fo r March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

motor vehicle and equipment industry group had about
equal proportions of production workers. Women
workers accounted for only 9 percent of total employ­
ment in the industry, a percentage well below the
average for all manufacturing.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Between 1947 and 1966, employment in the motor
vehicle and equipment industry fluctuated between
606.000 and 917,000, reflecting the cyclical pattern of
motor vehicle production and, to some extent, changes
in the pattern of defense expenditures. Although
employment fluctuated from year to year, the employ­
ment trend was generally downward between 1953 and
1958 and has been generally upward since. In contrast,
the trend in motor vehicle production has been more
steadily upward, nearly doubling between 1953 and
1966. Technological innovations, such as automatic
fabrication and assembly operations, have limited
employment growth.
Although motor vehicle production for civilian use
was resumed in the latter part of 1945, it did not reach
prewar levels until 1947. Employment rose from
768.000 in 1947 to an all time high of 917,000 in 1953.
This record employment level set in 1953 was the result
of a very high output of civilian motor vehicles (7.3
million) coupled with defense production resulting from
the Korean Conflict. Employment dropped to about
766.000 in 1954 because a cutback in defense spending
68




and a general contraction of economic activity caused
output to drop. In the following year, employment
rebounded to 891,000 as a combination of favorable
forces— business conditions, easy credit, and major
good
styling changes—
spurred production to an unprece­
dented high of 9.2 million vehicles.
Employment declined steadily after 1955 to a post­
war low of 607,000 in 1958, a recession year in which
only 5.2 million vehicles were produced. Production rose
steadily from 1961 and reached an all time high of 11.1
million motor vehicles in 1965. Employment was
859,000 in 1966, the third highest employment figure in
the industry’s history.
Production workers decreased slightly as a proportion
of total employment in this industry group, from 82
percent in 1947 to 78 percent in 1966. However, this
proportion has remained relatively stable since 1959.
Manpower requirements in this industry group are
expected to decline between 1966 and 1975, to about
790,000, as substantial growth in the production of
motor vehicles and equipment is more than matched by
increases in output per worker. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) Production will be spurred by increases in
population, households, and multicar ownership. Tech­
nological innovations that are expected to have a
significant effect on the employment requirements in
this industry through the mid-1970’s include the
increasing use of computers, numerically controlled
machine tools, and increased mechanization of existing
manufacturing processes.

design, and engineering activities. On the other hand, the
introduction of drafting machines and computer assisted
systems is expected to slow the rate of increase
experienced by these workers in past years. Programers
and systems analysts are among jobs likely to become
more prevalent.
The percentage of skilled workers is expected to
decline as greater use of automatic equipment lowers the
relative requirements for these workers. Tool and die
maker, pattern maker, and machinist are among occupa­
tions likely to be adversely affected by such develop­
ments as the introduction of electronic and numerical
control machining. However, the proportions of
mechanics and repairmen, and electricians, needed to
install and maintain such new equipment, are expected
to increase.
Increased mechanization will reduce the need for
some operatives, but this trend is expected to be offset
by increases in the number of machine operation jobs
formerly performed by skilled workers. Little change is
expected in the proportion of operatives employed in
the industry. Continuing mechanization will tend to
reduce the needs for some semiskilled jobs while
increasing others. Assemblers— largest occupational
the
group of semiskilled workers are expected to decline due
to increasing use of machines that can perform auto­
matically such assembly operations as screwdriving, nut
running, and riveting. On the other hand, mechanization
will increase the need for certain semiskilled machine
operators as the trend towards work simplification
65
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.
continues.

Occupational Structure
Skilled mechanics are required to repair automobiles,
but many semiskilled workers are needed to build them.
These variances in skill requirements are attributable, in
part, to the work simplification techniques of assembly
line production. In 1960, over half of the work force65
in the motor vehicle and equipment industry were
operatives. (See volume IV, appendix G.) Semiskilled
metal working occupations, such as inspectors, welders,
or machine tool operators, alone accounted for nearly
one-third of the industry’s work force. Large numbers of
mechanics and repairmen, machinists, and electricians
also are employed to install, maintain, and repair
production equipment. The percentage of skilled
workers in 1960 (nearly 23 percent) was about the same
as the average for all durable goods manufacturing.
White-collar employees—
almost half of them clerical
workers-accounted for one-fifth of total employment in
1960. Among the professional, technical, and kindred
group, engineers and technicians were the largest occupa­
tions.
Technological developments are expected to affect
the motor vehicle and equipment industry’s occupa­
tional structure moderately by 1975. The most signifi­
cant change will occur in the proportion of professional
and technical workers whose percentages are expected to
increase in response to expanded research, development,

Aircraft and Parts66

Production workers accounted for 59 percent of total
employment in the aircraft and parts industry in 1966,
compared to 74 percent for all manufacturing. The
individual industries within this industry group had
about the same proportion of production workers.
Women workers accounted for 14 percent of total
employment in this industry, about half the average for
all manufacturing.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the aircraft and parts industry nearly
tripled between 1947 and 1957, growing from 239,000
to 896,000. Between 1957 and 1966, employment
66
This industry includes establishments primarily engageddeclined by approximately one-sixth. Supporting the
in manufacturing or assembling complete aircraft; aircraft overall expansion of employment, production in the
engines and engine parts; aircraft propellers and propeller parts;
and aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment, not elsewhere aircraft and parts industry increased about 3Vi times, a
much faster rate of growth than that for all manuclassified.
69

Current Employment
Approximately 750,000 wage and salary workers
were employed in the aircraft and parts industry group
in 1966. (See table 26.) More than 8 out of 10 workers
were concentrated in two industries—
aircraft, which
employed over half of the industry’s workers; and
aircraft engines and engine parts, which accounted for
over one-fourth. The remaining workers were employed
in industries producing aircraft propellers and propeller
parts or other aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment.




Table 26. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the A ircraft
and Parts Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

A ircra ft and p a rts, t o t a l-----------A ircra ft-------------------------------------A ircra ft engines and engine
p a rts---------------------------------------Other a ir c r a ft parts and
equipment---------------------------------

372
3721
3722
3723, 9

Production
workers as
percent o f
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
14.2
14.7
14.2

750.5
417.3

100.0
55.6

208.1

27.7

59.3
57.5
57.4

125.1

16.7

68.3

13.2

Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of rounding.

facturing production between 1947 and 1958. From
1958 to 1966, however, production in this industry has
increased at about the same rate as that experienced for
total manufacturing.
The downward trend in employment between 1958
and 1965 resulted primarily from the decline in produc­
tion of military aircraft for the Federal Government,
which has purchased about four-fifths of the industry’s
output in recent years. During this period (1958-65), the
Government’s greater emphasis on the development and
production of missiles and spacecraft has resulted in
some gain in demand for components produced by this
industry.
Since 1965, employment in the aircraft and parts
industry has increased sharply to over 800,000 workers.
A recent Bureau of Labor Statistics study indicated that
most of this increase resulted from military orders
directly attributable to the Viet Nam buildup.67
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in the aircraft industry, from 74 percent in
1947 to 59 percent in 1966. The rate of decline in the
proportion of production workers has been about the
same in the individual industries within the industry
group.
Manpower requirements in the aircraft and parts
industry group are expected to decline to about 585,000
by 1975. (See volume IV, appendix B.) This projection
assumes that the trends and patterns of military expendi­
ture will return to that experienced prior to the Viet
Nam buildup and that continuing large expenditures will
be made on space research and developments. A signifi­
cant variation from these assumptions would affect
employment accordingly.
67

O ccupational Structure

Years of research and development at a cost of many
millions of dollars are often required to produce a safe
and marketable aircraft. The complex and technical
nature of aircraft and aerospace development work is
reflected in the industry’s very high percentage of
professional and technical workers— one out of five
over
in 1960— ratio higher than any other durable goods
a
manufacturing industry. (See volume IV, appendix G.)
Over one-tenth of the work force68 in the aircraft
industry were engineers, a majority of whom were
aeronautical engineers. Most engineers were employed in
research and development work, although significant
numbers were in production planning, quality control,
tool designing, and technical sales. Technicians
accounted for almost 5 percent of the workforce. Most
of these highly trained workers assisted engineers and
scientists in research, development, and prototype p r ­
oduction operations.
In 1960, operatives were the largest blue-collar
occupational group, accounting for over one-fourth of
industry employment. Assemblers, the largest semi­
skilled occupation, were required for such jobs as joining
subassemblies and installation of engines and auxiliary
equipment such as fuel systems and flight controls.
Inspectors and machine tool operators also made up an
important share of the work force. Skilled workers
accounted for another fourth of employment in the
aircraft and parts industry in 1960. A significant
proportion of airplane mechanics and repairmen were
employed in the industry, both to produce new aircraft
and to modify and overhaul existing aircraft. Sheet

“The Employment Effects of Defense Expenditures”, 68
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

M onthly Labor Review , September 1967, pages 9-16.

70




metal workers also were widely needed in the assembly
and modification process. The proportion of clerical
workers in the industry— 17 percent— consider­
over
was
ably higher than the 12 percent average for all durable
goods manufacturing.
Although substantial changes in technology are
expected in the aircraft industry in coming years, the
industry’s occupational structure is expected to change
only moderately by 1975. The most significant metal­
working development in the industry over the next 10
years will be the more extensive use of numerical
controlled machining (N/C). Laborsaving tape-controlled
tools are particularly important in short production runs
of intricate shapes common in prototype development
of aircraft and space vehicles. In 1962, aerospace firms
were using more than 400 numerically controlled tools.
About 1,600 are expected to be in use by 1970.
Additional operations, such as drafting, welding, and
inspection are being adapted to numerical control.
Estimates in the reduction of unit labor requirements
possible in machining operations through the use of this
technique reportedly range from 20 to 80 percent.
Relative to total output, the aircraft and parts
industry’s research and development budget is expected
to continue to rise over the decade ahead, thus creating
considerably higher ratios of professional and technical
workers. Expansion of the space program and increased

research and testing of manned spacecraft, such as
supersonic and hypersonic transports, are among
developments likely to raise the ratio of engineers in
particular. The computer is expected to create additional
jobs for systems analysts and programing personnel.
Draftsmen will be adversely affected by the spreading
use of electromechanical drafting devices. The trend
away from high production runs of identical aircraft and
the increasing emphasis on research and development
should result in a decline in the relative position of both
operatives and craftsmen. The ratios of machinists and
machine tool operators are expected to be reduced as
computer programing of numerical control tools is used
increasingly. The proportions of foremen and electri­
cians are expected to increase. These workers will be
needed to service a rapidly rising number of complex
machines and instruments and to supervise the output of
more custom and diversified products. The ratio of
machinists is expected to fall significantly because of the
broadening applications of numerical control to the
operation of machine tools.
A slightly higher proportion of managers and officials
will be needed to oversee the expanding number of
activities, especially R&D projects, undertaken in this
industry. The proportion of clerical workers will decline
somewhat as the growing use of electronic data pro­
cessing equipment reduces manpower requirements in
many routine repetitive office jobs.

Instruments and Related Products69

equipment and supplies. The remaining workers were
Current Employment
employed in establishments making surgical, medical,
About 433,000 wage and salary workers were and dental equipment; optical goods; and watches and
employed in the instruments and related products major clocks.
Production workers accounted for almost two-thirds
industry group in 1966. (See table 27.) More than
one-half were employed in establishments producing of total employment in this major industry group in
scientific and related instruments, including engineering 1966, compared with nearly three-fourths for all manu­
and scientific instruments; mechanical-measuring and facturing. Among the individual industry groups, the
control devices; and opthalmic goods.70 Over one-fifth proportion of production workers ranged from about
were employed in establishments making photographic one-half in engineering and scientific instruments to
about four-fifths in establishments making watches and
clocks.
69 SIC 38. This major industry group includes establish­
Women workers accounted for 35 percent of total
ments engaged in manufacturing mechanical measuring, engineer­
employment in the instruments and related products
ing, laboratory, and scientific research instruments; optical
instruments and lenses; surgical, medical, and dental instruments, major industry group in 1966, somewhat higher than the
equipment and supplies; and watches and docks. Establishments 27 percent for all manufacturing. Among the individual
primarily engaged in manufacturing instruments for industry, industry groups, the proportion of women workers
measuring and recording electrical quantities and characteristics
ranged from 24 percent in establishments producing
are classified in SIC 3611.
engineering and scientific instruments to 60 percent in
70 Electrical instruments are classified in the electrical
machinery major industry group (SIC 36).
establishments manufacturing watches and docks.




71

Table 27. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Instruments
and Related Products Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
38
381
382
3821
3822
383
384
385
386
387

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Industry
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution
Instruments and rela ted products—
100.0
433.1
Engineering and s c ie n t if ic
ins truments--------------------------------80.1
18.5
Mechanical measuring and control
d e v ices---------------------------------------- 108.5
25.1
Mechanical measuring d ev ices—
67.3
15.5
Automatic temperature cont r o ls - ....................................................
41.3
9.5
2 /4 .0
O ptical instrum ents and le n se s— 1/16.9
S u rgical, m edical, and dental
equipment-----------------------------------61.6
14.2
Ophthalmic goods---------------------------31.6
7.3
Photographic equipment and
96.8
22.4
su p p lies-------------------------------------Watches and clo ck s-----------------------37.0
8.5

Production
workers as
percent of
emp1oymen t ,
by industry
63.9

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
35.4

52.1

24.1

65.4
62.6
70.0
(3)

34.6
29.7
42.4
(3)

69.3
76.6

48.2
44.0

57.7
81.6

26.5
60.0

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2 / Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the instruments and related products
major industry group increased from 267,000 to 433,000
between 1947 and 1966, or by 62 percent. This
expansion was almost three times as fast as the rate of
growth in total manufacturing employment in the
post-World War II period. During the same period,
production rose by 229 percent in this major industry
group, compared with a rise of about 139 percent for all
manufacturing.
Between 1958 and 1966,71 employment growth
among the individual industry groups varied greatly,
reflecting differences in the growth of product demand
and in the rate of introduction of laborsaving innova­
tions. Employment increased fastest (over one-half) in
establishments manufacturing optical goods because
many industries—
including aerospace, chemical, and
food manufacturing—
increased their use of optical
instruments to improve both manufacturing methods
and quality control.

Employment in establishments manufacturing photo­
graphic equipment; surgical, medical, and dental instru­
ments; ophthalmic goods; and watches and clocks also
rose rapidly between 1958 and 1966, despite the
increased application of such laborsaving equipment as
automatic transfer machines and electronic testing
devices. Employment in establishments producing
photographic equipment rose over two-fifths, reflecting
the growth of the population, rising levels of disposable
personal income, increased leisure time, and expanding
exports. The number of workers in establishments
manufacturing surgical, medical, and dental instruments
increased by two-fifths. These employment gains can be
traced primarily to greater demand for medical and
dental care due to an expanding population, changes in
the age composition of the public (more older people),
increased health consciousness, and the extension of
prepayment plans for medical care and hospitalization.
Employment rose by one-fifth in establishments manu­
facturing ophthalmic goods, reflecting increases in the
size, literacy, and educational level of the population;
the rising number of older persons; and the increasing
71
BLS employment (payroll) data for all industry groupsemphasis on good vision. The number of workers in
are not available for years prior to 1958.
establishments producing watches and clocks rose over
72




two-fifths, primarily reflecting increases in population
and family income.
The number of workers in establishments manu­
facturing engineering and scientific instruments rose 24
percent, and employment in establishments producing
measuring, controlling, and indicating instruments
increased by 25 percent. Demand for these products is
especially sensitive to spending for capital investment
and research and development, both of which accel­
erated rapidly during the 1958-66 period. The intro­
duction of laborsaving innovations, such as numerically
controlled machine tools, however, was a significant
factor in limiting employment in these industry groups.
Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 80
percent in 1947 to 64 percent in 1966. During the
recent 1958-66 period, however, the proportion declined
only slightly. The decreasing production worker ratio
resulted from the rising mechanization of production
operations.
Manpower requirements in the instruments and allied
products industry group are expected to increase by
nearly one-fifth between 1966 and 1975, rising from
433,000 to 510,000. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
Output is expected to be stimulated by the rapid
increase in demand for instruments and allied products
by manufacturing and utility industries. However, the
growth of labor requirements will be limited somewhat
by the greater application of laborsaving technological
innovations.
Employment trends for the individual industries
within the major industry group are expected to differ
only slightly because of differences in demand. Worker
requirements are expected to increase rapidly in those
industry groups that manufacture scientific and related
instruments because of increased capital spending for
modernization of industrial production processes and
rising expenditures for research and development. Re­
search and development activity is expected to lead to
the development of many new instruments and the
refinement of those now in use. Expanding activity in
fields such as air purification, including environmental
control, vehicle exhaust control, and better methods of
weather forecasting also will increase the demand for
scientific instruments and related products.
Employment growth in the surgical, medical, and
dental instruments and supplies section, as well as in the
ophthalmic goods section, will stem from the rising
demand for health services by an expanding population,
the growing number of persons 55 years old and over,
the extension of prepayment plans for medical care and




hospitalization, and higher levels of personal disposable
income.
Employment in establishments producing watches,
clocks, and photographic equipment also are expected to
increase as the growing population and rising income
levels spur demand for these products.
Occupational Structure

The instruments industry is composed of large
numbers of small establishments, many producing highly
complex and custom-designed devices such as infrared
sensing instruments and ultraviolet detecting and analyti­
cal apparatus. Large numbers of professional and tech­
nical workers—
particularly engineers and technicians—
are required for research and development activities; in
1960, these workers accounted for one-eighth of the
industry’s work force.72 (See volume IV, appendix G.)
Substantial numbers of clerical workers also were
employed in the industry, many as support personnel for
the large professional staff. Product diversity and
complexity, coupled with a fast-moving pace of techno­
logical change that hastens product obsolescence, tends
to restrict the application of automatic production
methods in this industry. Accordingly, assembly,
balancing, calibration, and inspection are important
aspects of the work performed in this industry. Nearly
one-third of the workers in the instruments group were
concerned with these or other such operative activities.
The high degree of accuracy required in the production
process is reflected by the substantial concentration of
foremen in the skilled occupational group. Mechanics
and repairmen, and opticians and lens grinders also were
widely utilized to maintain and repair equipment and to
satisfy the mounting research and development activities
occurring in the field of optics.
The occupational structure in the watches and clocks
industry sector differed markedly from the overall
industry averages, in part, because of considerably lower
research and development activities. In this industry
sector, blue-collar workers, particularly operatives,
accounted for 7 out of 10 workers while professional
and technical workers represented less than 5 percent.
Because of the custom nature and limited volume of
many of the systems developed in the instrument and
72
Includes self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers. The occupational patterns data
for the instruments and allied products major industry group
includes employment in the sighting and fire control equipment
industry group (SIC 194).

73

related products industry, technological innovations are
expected to exert only a moderate influence on the
industry’s occupational structure during the decade
ahead. Still, the industry’s occupational structure seems
likely to undergo some significant changes through the
mid-1970’s. The most significant changes are expected
among professional and technical workers. Their relative
importance should rise considerably, primarily because
of increasing requirements for engineers and technicians
in research and development activities associated with an
anticipated burgeoning demand for scientific and related
instruments. Increasing use of numerically controlled
machine tools, particularly in the production of
scientific and engineering instruments, also is expected
to increase labor requirements for engineers, technicians,
machine repairmen, and other personnel skilled in
operation and maintenance of electronic data processing
equipment.
On the other hand, at least some of the relatively
moderate decline expected in the proportion of some
operatives and skilled trades can be attributed to the
growing use of numerically controlled machine tools.
This technique, which utilizes coded instructions on
punched cards to control the sequence of machining
operations, can lower scrap and inventories, shorten lead
time in production, and permit volume duplication.
Workers likely to be adversely affected by increasing use
of this technique include machine tool operators, some

assemblers, inspectors, machinists, and tool and die
makers. More widespread use of transfer machines—
multistation machines that automatically load and un­
load the work piece at each station and move it from
station to station— will reduce requirements for
alos
machine tool operatives, as well as materials handling
laborers.
More widespread use of computers will contribute
toward the slight decline anticipated in the relative
position of clerical workers. In this occupational group,
growing manpower requirements for office machine
operators will be more than offset by decreasing needs
for hand bookkeepers, shipping and receiving clerks, and
other clerical workers performing routine jobs that can
be more economically handled by a computer.
Two sectors of the instruments and allied products
major industry group are expected to exhibit some
differences during the decade ahead in the rates of
change in their occupational structure. For example, in
the watches and clocks industry group, the need for
skilled craftsmen, such as tool and die makers and
mechanics and repairmen will increase because of the
growing use of more complex fabricating and testing
equipment and the need for greater precision tooling in
the manufacture of watches. In contrast, the relative
position of craftsmen should decline slightly in the
instruments industry sector.

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries7 3

materials (8 percent); and musical instruments (6
percent). The remaining workers were employed in
More than 435,000 wage and salary workers were plants manufacturing miscellaneous products, including
employed in the miscellaneous manufacturing industries brooms, linoleum, matches, candles, lamp shades, morti­
major industry group in 1966. (See table 28.) About cians’ goods, furs, signs and advertising displays, and
two-thirds of employment was concentrated in five umbrellas.
Production workers accounted for 80 percent of total
industry groups: toys, amusements, sporting and athletic
goods (27 percent); costume jewelry, buttons, and employment in this major industry group in 1966,
notions (14 percent); jewelry, silverware, and plated somewhat higher than the 74 percent for all manu­
ware (11 percent); pens, pencils, other office and artists’ facturing employment. Individual industries within this
major industry group had similar proportions of produc­
73
SIC 39. This major group includes establishmentstion workers except for the pens, pencils, and other
primarily engaged in products not classified in any other office and artists’ materials industry where the ratio was
manufacturing major group. Included are industries manu­
somewhat lower.
facturing jewelry, silverware, and plated ware; musical instru­
Women workers accounted for 44 percent of total
ments; toys, sporting, and athletic goods; pens, pencils, and employment in this major industry group, substantially
other office and artists’ materials; the manufacture of buttons,
costume novelties, and miscellaneous notions; and “other” higher than the 27 percent for all manufacturing. Among
miscellaneous manufactured products such as brooms and the individual industry groups, the proportion of women
brushes and morticians’ goods.
workers ranged from 28 percent in establishments
Current Employment

74




SIC
Code
39
391
3911-3
3914
393
394
3941-3
3949
395
396
398, 9

Table 28. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the M iscellaneous
Manufacturing In d u stries Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary 1 Production
Women
workers as workers as
workers
Number ; Percent percent of percent of
Industry
d i s t r i ­ employment, employment,
bution
by industry by industry
M iscellaneous manufacturing
in d u str ie s-------------------------------------- 434.5
Jew elry, silverw are, and plated
ware-------------- -------- ---------------------49.2
Jew elry, and cu ttin g and
p o lish in g precious sto n es------ 1/3 4 .4
Silverw are and plated ware------- 1/14.3
Musical instrum ents and p a rts-----27 o2
Toys, amusement, and sporting
goods------------------------------------------117.9
Toys, games, d o lls and play
v e h ic le s -----------------------------------! 73.4
Sporting and a th le tic goods,
44.4
not elsew here c la s s if ie d ------Pens, p e n c ils, o ffic e and art
34.6
m a te r ia ls----------------------------------Costume jew elry, buttons and
n o tio n s---------------------------------------58.9
Other m iscellaneous manufacturing
in d u str ie s----------------------------------- 1/144.1

100.0

80.0

44.0

11.3

78.0

38.8

2 /8 .2
2 /3 .4
6.3
27.1
16.9
10.2
8 .0

(3)
(3)
83.0

(3)
(3)
28.3
53.4

13.6
2 /3 4 .6

83.3
84.1
82.2

58.9
44.6

73.4

52.0

82.5
(3)

55.2
(3)

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

group rose by 99 percent between 1947 and 1966,
considerably slower than all manufacturing production.
Between 1958 and 1966,74 employment increased in
all industry groups within this major industry group. The
Employment Trends and Outlook
most rapid increases in employment occurred in esta­
blishments producing musical instruments and parts; and
Employment in the miscellaneous manufacturing toys, amusements, and sporting goods. Demand for these
industries major industry group declined by more than products, as well as most items produced by other
11 percent between 1947 and 1958, falling from miscellaneous manufacturing industries, was stimulated
421,000 to 373,000. Since 1958, however, this down­ by an increasing population, particularly in the number
ward trend has been reversed, and by 1966, employment of young people; rising personal disposable income; and
had rose by 16 percent. Over the entire 1947-66 period, increased leisure time.
however, employment increased only 3 percent,
compared to the 23 percent increase in all manu­
74
BLS employment (payroll) data are not available for all
facturing employment. Production in the major industry industry groups for the years prior to 1958.
producing musical instruments and parts to 55 percent
in establishments producing costume jewelry, buttons,
and notions.




75

Production workers decreased as a proportion of total
employment in this major industry group, from 87
percent in 1947 to 80 percent in 1966. Most of this
decrease occur during the 1947-58 period. Since 1958,
the proportion of production workers to total employ­
ment in each of the industry groups remained relatively
stable.
Employment requirements in this major industry
group are expected to increase from 435,000 in 1966 to
approximately 475,000 in 1975, or by about 10 percent.
(See volume IV, appendix B.) The number of new family
formations is expected to rise significantly beginning in
the late 1960’s and will spur demand for such items as
household accessories and toys. Technological change is
expected to have little effect on employment growth in
this major industry group. In general, the establishments
in this industry are relatively small in size, and some of
the products, such as precious and costume jewelry, are
largely handmade and produced in relatively limited
quantities.
Within the miscellaneous manufacturing industries
major industry group, increases in labor requirements are
expected to occur in establishments producing toys,
amusements, and sporting goods; musical instruments;
pens, pencils, office and art materials; and “other”
manufactured products, combined. Employment
requirements in both jewelry, silverware, and plated
ware and in costume jewelry, buttons, and notions are
expected to decline.

operative occupation. Though small in proportion
relative to some other durable goods industries, crafts­
men and foremen represented the second largest occupa­
tional group in this industry, accounting for nearly
one-sixth of total employment. Foremen made up about
one out of four workers in the skilled occupational
group. The high manpower requirements for these
workers reflects the limited skill required in many of the
production processes and the large concentration of
operatives in this industry.
Clerical workers (13 percent) accounted for nearly
one-half of the white-collar workers, while managers,
officials, and proprietors (9 percent) made up most of
the remainder. The high proportion of managers results
primarily from the small establishment size that is a
characteristic of this industry.
Technological innovations are not expected to affect
the occupational structure of this industry significantly
over the coming decade. In general, establishments in
this industry are relatively small in size and some of the
products, like precious and costume jewelry, are largely
handmade and produced in relatively limited quantities.
In the manufacture of precious jewelry, for example,
little technological change has occurred and hand crafts­
manship is still essential to jewelry manufacturing.
Although the manufacture of costume jewelry is
becoming more mechanized, hand assembly and
finishing operations will continue to be necessary.
However, in some production operations, improvements
in industrial machinery are being introduced. For
example, in the casting process, continued improvements
Occupational Structure
in the operating speed, capacity, and instrumentation of
About half of all workers75 in the miscellaneous equipment have occurred, resulting in faster production
manufacturing major industry group in 1960 were of better quality casting. In toy manufacturing, in­
operatives (see volume IV, appendix G), the vast creasing use will be made of automatic assembly
majority of whom were in the residual “other” operative machines, plastic blow molding, and spray painting
classification. Workers in this occupation have such techniques. These technological developments are
heterogeneous job titles as bowling pin refinisher, expected to result in a slight reduction in the proportion
bobby-pin maker, toy stuffer, button breaker, and brush of operatives such as assemblers and inspectors, while
cutter. The diversity of the products manufactured and increasing the relative proportion of foremen. On the
the considerable importance of assembly operations on other hand, welders and flame cutters are expected to
small and frequently delicate products accounted in increase slightly, due to the anticipated rise in the
large measure for the significant number of these production of musical instruments and parts. Among
workers. Assemblers accounted for the most common professional workers, the relative position of designers
should improve as design of jewelry, games, and toys
becomes increasingly important. Few changes are
75
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.
expected in most other occupational categories.

76




T R A N S P O R T A T IO N A N D PU B LIC U T IL IT IE S 76

Current Employment

Nearly 4.2 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the transportation and public utilities
industry division in 1966. (See table 29.) Almost half of
total transportation and public utility employment was
concentrated in two major industry groups—
motor
freight, which accounted for nearly one-fourth of
employment; and communications, which represented
more than one-fifth. Railroads accounted for slightly
over one-sixth of total employment in this division, and
electric, gas, and sanitary services represented about 15
percent. Other major industry groups employing smaller
proportions include: local and interurban passenger
transit; water transportation; air transportation; pipeline
transportation; and transportation services such as
freight forwarding and stockyards.
Manpower requirements in the transportation and
public utilities industry division are expected to increase
moderately through the mid-1970’s. The number of
workers employed in this industry division may reach
4.6 million by 1975, 10 percent higher than the 4.2
million workers employed in 1966. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) Technological developments which could
adversely affect manpower requirements in this division
involve higher capacity equipment, such as larger truck
tractors and higher capacity electric generating equip­
ment. In addition, data processing equipment coupled
with improved communications facilities will play an
increasingly important role in advance planning and
administrative decisionmaking, as well as in improving
office operations.
Manpower requirements in the transportation
industries are expected to increase slightly faster than

the labor requirements for the division as a whole.
Despite the high level of activity projected for the
telephone and broadcasting segments of the communi­
cations industry, manpower requirements in the com­
munications industry are expected to be about the same
in 1975 as in 1966. Also, little or no change is
anticipated in manpower requirements for electric, gas,
and sanitary services, even though output in all sectors
of this major industry group is expected to continue to
increase rapidly as a result of population and business
expansion. These rapid increases in output, however, are
expected to be approximately offset by gains in output
per worker.
Employment Trends and Outlook

Employment in the transportation and public utilities
industry division remained constant at 4.2 million
between 1947 and 1966.
Employment trends varied widely among the major
industry groups. Rapid employment growth occurred
only in motor freight and air transportation. Between
1947 and 1966, motor freight employment grew by
more than four-fifths; over the 1958-66 period, employ­
ment in this industry increased by nearly one-third.
During this latter period,77 employment in air transpor­
tation increased by nearly one-half. The only other
major industry groups to experience overall employment
growth were water transportation and transportation
services, combined; communications; and electric, gas,
and sanitary services, which increased rapidly until the
late 1950’s but leveled off between 1957 and 1966.
Employment in the remaining industry sectors
declined over the years for which employment data are
available. The most rapid employment declines occurred
76
SIC Division E. This division includes enterprises engagedin railroad and pipeline transportation. Railroad employ­
in passenger and freight transportation by rail, highway, water, ment in 1966 was less than half of that recorded for
or air, or furnishing services related to transportation; petroleum 1947. Between 1958 and 1966, both railroad and
pipeline transportation; warehousing; telephone and telegraph
communication services; radio broadcasting and television; and pipeline employment dropped by more than one-fourth,
the supplying of electricity, gas, steam, water, or sanitary and employment in local and interurban passenger
services. Industries assigned to this division are, to a large extent, transit declined by 6 percent.
regarded legally as having a semipublic character. Most of the
establishments included are regulated by commissions or other
public authorities as to the rates or prices they may charge, and
the services they may render. The workers and physical facilities
of an enterprise classifiable in this division are often distributed
over an extensive geographic area.




77
BLS employment (payroll) data are not available for 6 of
the 9 major industry groups in this industry division for the
years prior to 1958.

77

SIC
Code

Table 29. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Transportation
and Public U t ilit ie s D ivision by Major Industry Group, 1966
(In thousands)
NonWage and salary
Women
supervisory workers as
workers
workers as
Industry
Number Percent percent of percent of
d i s t r i ­ employment, employment,
by industry by industry
bution

E
40
41
42
44
45
46
47
48
49

Transportation and pu blic
u t i l i t i e s ---------------------------------------Railroad tran sp ortation --------------Local and interurban tr a n s it------Motor freig h t tra n sp ortation ------Water tran sp ortation --------------------Air tran sp ortation -----------------------P ip elin e tran sp ortation ---------------Transportation s e r v ic e s ---------------Communications------------------------------E le c tr ic , g a s, and sanitary
se r v ic e s--------------------------------------

4 ,1 5 1 .0
718.5
268.7
1,007.5
1/231.0
246.9
18.8
1/ 90.3
927.0

100.0
17.3
6.5
24.3
2 /5 .7
5 .9
0 .5
2.2
22.3

(3)
(3)
(3)
91.2
(3)
(3)
84.0
(3)
79.0

18.9
(3)
7.9
8.1
(3)
23.6
8 .0
(3)
49.8

628.2

15.1

86.7

15.0

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the industry d iv isio n .
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
21

Railroad Transportation78

The decrease in railroad employment during this
period is attributable to a rapid decline in passenger
Approximately 719,000 wage and salary workers traffic and advancements in laborsaving technology.
were employed in the railroad transportation major Railroad passenger miles dropped steadily from 46.8
industry group in 1966. (See table 30.) Nearly 9 out of billion in 1947 to 17.5 billion in 1965, a decline of over
10 workers were employed by Class I line-haul railroads. 60 percent. Although rail ton-milage was slightly higher
The remaining workers were distributed between Class II in 1965 (700 billion) than in 1947 (665 billion), the
railroads and services allied to rail transportation, such as increased freight activity was not a major influence on
sleeping and dining car services, railway express, and the long-run decline of railroad employment. Techno­
switching and terminal companies.
logical changes contributing to the decline of railroad
employment included the transition to diesel loco­
Employment Trends and Outlook
motives, which have less maintenance requirements and
can haul larger and heavier trains than could steam
Employment in railroad transportation declined from locomotives; the expanding use of mechanical equip­
1.6 million in 1947 to 719,000 in 1966, a reduction of ment to maintain roadways; the application of auto­
over one-half. Employment in class I line-haul railroads matic control to freight classification activities; a
and in the remaining industry groups, combined, reduction in rail tracks through the use of centralized
declined at approximately the same rate as the major traffic control systems and the elimination of some track
industry group.
lines; and the increasing application of electronic data
processing systems to accounting and recordkeeping
78
SIC 40. This major group includes companies furnishing
transportation by line-haul railroad, and certain services allied to activities.
Manpower requirements in railroad transportation are
rail transportation such as sleeping and dining car services,
railway express, and switching and terminal companies.
expected to continue to decline through the remainder
Current Employment

78




SIC
Code
40
4011-1
4011-2
4013-1
4013-2

Table 30. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the R ailroad
Transportation Major Industry Group, 1966 1/
(In thousands)
Wage cind salary
W(prkers
Industry
Number
Percent
d istrib u tio n
Railroad tran sp ortation -------------------------------------718.5
1 0 0 .0
C lass I ra ilr o a d s------------------------------- ------------624.9
87.0
C lass II ra ilr o a d s------------------------------------------2 /2 .2
1/15.9
C lass I sw itching and term inal companies----1/24.6
2 /3 .5
C lass II sw itching and term inal companies—
1 /1 6 .6
2 /2 .3

1J Benchmark data March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because data for a ll in d u stries in the major
industry group are not a v a ila b le , and because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data and/or rounding.

of the 1960’s. By the early 1970’s, however, the
employment trend is expected to reverse, and labor
requirements should reach 810,000 by 1975, an overall
increase of about 13 percent between 1966 to 1975.
(See volume IV, appendix B.) This employment increase
is expected to stem from a more pronounced upward
trend in freight traffic due to anticipated high levels of
economic activity and the likelihood that improved
technology will enlarge the industry’s share of all freight
traffic through reduced unit costs. However, should this
acceleration of output growth fail to occur, and should
current trends in output and productivity continue,
employment is likely to be approximately 600,000 in
1975.
Technological innovations are expected to limit the
growth of employment requirements in this major
industry group. For example, savings in maintenance and
operating labor will be derived as older diesel electric
locomotives are replaced by relatively fewer more
powerful diesel electrics pulling heavier loads at greater
speeds. Improved electronic equipment and automatic
control systems will improve operating efficiency and
permit traffic to grow without proportionate increases in
employment. *‘Piggyback” service will continue to gain
favor with shippers over the coming decade. This
trailer-on-flatcar transportation system lowers unit labor
requirements significantly.
Continuation of the present trend towards railway
mergers—
particularly mergers between roads having
parallel lines— could reduce employment oppor­
also
tunities for railroad workers. However, since freight
traffic is increasing, consolidated railroads may delay
reductions in duplicate roadways, trackage, and signal
facilities until new traffic patterns are determined.




O ccupational Structure

In 1964, the railroad industry rolled some 30,000
locomotives and several million freight cars over the
Nation’s 200,000 miles of rail lines. Large numbers of
blue-collar workers— 6 out of 10 workers79 in the
about
industry in 1960— engaged in operating and main­
were
taining this vast network. Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers constituted the largest occupational
group in the industry in 1960, accounting for half of the
blue-collar workers and nearly one-third of total railroad
employment. (See volume IV, appendix G.) The crafts­
men group was primarily composed of foremen, two
groups of skilled operating personnel (locomotive
engineers and firemen), and three groups of maintenance
workers (mechanics and repairmen, mechinists, and
inspectors). Most maintenance workers were employed
in railroad yards, carshops, and engine houses, where
they maintained, inspected, and repaired locomotives,
cars, and other rolling stock. Locomotive firemen
(helper) assisted engineers by looking for track obstruc­
tions and by checking and adjusting equipment. About
one-fifth of all railroad workers were operatives, more
than half of whom were brakemen or switchmen.
Brakemen (sometimes referred to as trainmen or flag­
men) are members of the train crew and directs the
placement and pick up of cars at industry sites and make
numerous safety inspections of the train and its braking
system. Switchmen (also referred to as yard brakemen or
helpers) are yard workers who assist in coupling and
uncoupling cars and in controlling the yard movement of
79

Including self-em
ployed fam w
ily orkers, as w as w
ell
age
and salary w
orkers.

79

cars. Most of the remaining workers in the operative
segment were grouped in the residual classification.
Among workers in this category were oilers and greasers,
stationary firemen, towermen, and platform truckers.
Constituting more than 1 out of 10 workers in the
industry, laborers were employed in significant numbers
to maintain roadbeds and rails, and as helpers in repair
shops.
White-collar workers accounted for nearly one-third
of railroad employment in 1960. A majority of whitecollar workers were in the clerical occupational group,
mostly in the “other” clerical and kindred workers
segment. Ticket agent, railway express agent, baggage­
man, and railway mail clerk are common occupations
found in the “other” segment. Employment in the
managers, officials, and proprietors group was about
equally divided between conductors and other managers
and officials. Utilized on both passenger and freight
trains, conductors are “captains” of their trains and are
responsible for all onboard activities. Yard conductors
(often called yard foremen) direct the work of switching
crews and, in mechanized yards, operate consoles that
electrically control the alinement of track switches.
Many of the service workers provide personal services to
passengers at stations and aboard trains. Included were
Pullman conductors who supervise sleeping and parlor
car service on most trains, as well as porters and
attendants, cooks, waiters, and redcaps. In 1960, the
ratio of professional, technical, and kindred workers was
less than 3 percent.
The effects of both improving technology and
increasing freight traffic are expected to be reflected in a
railroad work force in 1975 having higher percentages of
workers in the professional and operatives occupational
groups and relatively fewer workers in the laborers,
service workers, and certain craftsmen occupations.
Because of increasing emphasis on new and improved
mechanical and electrical freight handling systems, the
railroad industry is expected to employ a larger propor­
tion of workers in most of the professional, technical,
and kindred occupations. Many technically trained
workers—
particularly methods analysts and industrial
engineers— be needed to develop and establish new
will
procedures for handling freight, as well as improve the
utilization of existing facilities. Other engineers will be
assigned research and development activities in areas
such as roadbed stabilization, automatic prevention and
detection of equipment malfunctioning, packaging
improvement, and “piggyback” refinement. Develop­
mental programs in high speed ground transportation
systems also will increase the need for technically
trained personnel. As railroads continue to explore new
80




ways to meet competition, specialists in industrial
development and marketing will be used more widely.
The ever widening horizon of the computer will be
reflected in larger concentrations of programers and
other electronics specialists.
The proportion of operatives should increase, pri­
marily because of the growth in the number of brakemen. Unlike most nonoperating employees, brakemen
and other operating personnel (except firemen) will
increase in nearly direct relation to the expansion in
traffic that is expected over the next 10 years. Anti­
cipated growth in railway express and piggyback services
will be reflected in greater needs for truck and tractor
drivers associated with these activities. On the other
hand, yard brakemen will be adversely affected by the
trend toward automatic classification yards. An increase
in the ratio of conductors—
another operating group—
is
the prime factor behind the rising share of employment
expected in the managers, officials, and proprietors
occupational group.
Expanding use of the computer and other new office
equipment, together with a growing volume of business,
should contribute to improving somewhat the relative
position of clerical workers such as office machine
operators. On the other hand, the trend toward railway
mergers and automated accounting and recordkeeping
activities is likely to consolidate clerical operations and
result in a slight decline in the relative position of
accounting clerks and other clerical workers performing
routine repetitive tasks.
The proportion of workers in the craftsmen, foremen,
and kindred workers occupational group is expected to
decline somewhat by 1975, although the absolute
number of most occupations in the group will increase.
This apparent contradiction is explained by the un­
usually sharp decline anticipated in one important
occupation in 1960—
locomotive firemen. Under terms
of a 1964 arbitration award, railroads operating in states
without “full-crew” laws were given the right to elimi­
nate eventually most locomotive firemen’s jobs in road
freight and yard locomotive service. Foremen,
machinists, locomotive engineers, and railroad and car
shop mechanics should each increase in relative impor­
tance as the number, size, and complexity of rolling
stock increases in response to rises in freight activity.
The proportions of electricians and instrument repair­
men also will gain as electronically operated controls,
such as those used in automatic car identification
systems and micro-wave communications, are exten­
sively used.
Roadway maintenance machines will continue to
displace laborers who once performed these tasks using

hand or pneumatically powered tools. However, more important factor in the relative decline of laborers. The
efficient “second generation” machines such as those downward drift in long distance coach and pullman
capable of raising and lining a track and leveling and passenger service will adversely affect the majority of
tamping the roadbed in a single operation, will contri­ service worker occupations. However, policemen will
bute to a further reduction in the needs for laborers by increase slightly relative to total employment as rising
1975. Greater use of materials handling equipment for freight activity generates additional protection require­
bulk loading and stores movement also will be an ments.
Local and Suburban Transit and Interurban Passenger Transportation80

mately 6 percent. Between 1947 and 1966, employment
in local and suburban transit declined by nearly threeApproximately 269,000 wage and salary workers fifths. A slower employment decrease of about 10
were employed in the local and suburban transit and percent was experienced in the taxicab sector between
interurban passenger transportation major industry 1958 and 1966. The reduction in employment in each of
group in 1966.81 (See table 31.) About 9 out of 10 these industry groups was principally the result of a
workers were concentrated in three principal industry growing reliance on private automobile transportation.
groups—
taxicabs (41 percent), local and suburban transit The demands of suburban living for a highly flexible
(31 percent), and intercity and rural buslines (16 means of personal transportation, higher levels of con­
percent). Employment of the remaining workers was sumer incomes, and improved highways all contributed
distributed among charter services, school buses, and toward wider use of private automobiles, decreasing the
terminal and service facilities.
need for other types of interurban passenger transpor­
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for more than 9 tation.
out of 10 workers in both local and suburban transporta­
Employment in intercity and rural buslines declined
tion and intercity and rural buslines.
nearly one-fourth between 1947 and 1966. Competition
About 8 percent of the workers in the major industry from other modes of transportation, such as private
group in 1966 were women. Among the individual automobiles and air carriers, was largely responsible for
industry groups, the proportion of women workers this decrease. Although intercity passenger travel has
ranged from 4 percent in taxicab establishments to 11 grown dramatically since the post-World War II period,
intercity bus travel has declined both relatively and
percent in intercity and rural busline establishments.
absolutely. However, since 1960, the downward trends
in intercity bus traffic and employment appear to have
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook
leveled off, largely because of vigorous promotional
Employment in the local and interurban passenger campaigns by intercity bus companies and improved
transportation major industry group declined from services to the traveling public.
In contrast to the declining trends in the three
285,000 in 195882 to 269,000 in 1966, or by approxiprincipal industry groups, employment in other services
allied to highway transportation more than doubled
SO
SIC 4 1 . This m group includes com
ajor
panies prim
arily
between 1958 and 1966. Most of this increase resulted
engaged in furnishing local and suburban passenger transporta­
from the growing demand for school bus transportation.
tion, such as com
panies providing passenger transportation
little or no change is expected in employment
w
ithin a single m
unicipality, contiguous m
unicipality, or a
requirements of the local and suburban transit and
m
unicipality and its suburban areas by rail or trolley coach,
interurban passenger transportation major industry
either separately or in conjunction w m
ith otor buslines, and
com
panies engaged in furnishing transportation to local scenic
group between 1966 and 1975. (See volume IV,
Current E m ploym en t

features, including cable and cog railw Com
ays.
panies furnishing
highway passenger term or m
inal
aintenance facilities also a
re
included as areintercity buslines.
81 BLS em
ploym
ent (payroll) data for th local and
e
suburban transportation industry excludes w
orkers em
ployed by
publicly ow transit system
ned
s.




82 BLS em
ploym (payroll) data for th m industry
ent
e ajor
group a not available for years prior to 1 9 5 8 . Available
re
inform
ation indicates that em
ploym in publicly and privately
ent
ow
ned transit system com
s
bined declined by about 1 0 0,000
w
orkers in the post-W W II period.
orld ar

81

SIC
Code
41
411
412
413
414, 5, 7

Table 31. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Local and
Suburban T ransit and Interurban Passenger Transportation Major
Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
NonWage and salary
supervisory
workers
as
Number Percent workers of
Industry
percent
d i s t r i ­ employment,
bution
by industry
Local and suburban tr a n sit and
interurban passenger transporta tio n --------------------------------------------Local and suburban transportatio n --------------------------------------------Taxicabs-------------------------- --------------In te rcity and rural b u slin es------Other serv ices a llie d to highway
tran sp ortation ----------------------------

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

268.7
82.0
108.7
41.8

100.0

(3)

7.9

30.5
40.5
15.6

94.5
(3)
91.6

5.1
4 .4
10.5

1/4 1 .6

2 /1 5 .0

(3)

(3)

1/ Benchmark data fo r March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
2/

appendix B.) Employment growth in these industries will
be limited principally by the lack of growth in passenger
traffic on privately operated public transportation
systems, rather than by increasing use of labor saving
innovations.
little or no change is expected in employment
requirements in the local and suburban transportation
and the taxicab industry groups between 1966 and
1975. The continuing shifts in population to the suburbs
and the increasing use of privately owned automobiles
will further reduce passenger traffic. This decrease will
be moderated somewhat as downtown traffic congestion
and parking problems continue to abet bus and taxi
travel in mid-town areas. Privately owned transportation
companies83 also will be adversely affected by a
continuation of the present trend toward publicly
owned local transit systems. Employment declines also
should be moderated by legislation, such as that passed
in mid-1964, which offers financial assistance to help
urban communities alleviate downtown traffic conges­
tion and parking problems. However, this legislation is
unlikely to affect total transit employment significantly
in the next decade.
Employment requirements in intercity and rural
buslines are expected to increase moderately between
BLS payroll series includes only privately ow trans­
ned
portation com
panies. Publicly ow system are included w
ned
s
ith
local governm em
ent ploym
ent.

82




1966 and 1975. Population growth, higher consumer
income, and more leisure time will result in an increase
in intercity travel. Bus traffic also will be favorably
affected by touring and charter services and by bus
transport of package-express and first-class mail, an
important source of carrier revenue in the past several
years. Further curtailment or elimination of railroad
passenger service in many areas also may be expected to
encourage greater use of intercity bus service.
Occupational Structure

Operatives— all of them drivers—
nearly
accounted for
more than 7 out of 10 workers employed in the local
and suburban transit and interurban passenger transpor­
tation major industry group in 1960. (See volume IV,
appendix G). The proportions of craftsmen (primarily
mechanics), service workers, and laborers in the local
and suburban transportation sector were much higher
than in the taxicab sector. On the other hand, the
percentage of operatives and of managers and pro­
prietors to total employment was somewhat higher in
the taxicab industry. These differences were related to
variances between the two sectors in the average size of
establishments. Firms engaged in the taxicab business are
often quite small, and many drivers are self-employed
owner-operators. Thus, the proportion of operatives and
proprietors was high, and the ratio of support personnel,

such as mechanical workers and laborers, tended to be
low.
Technological innovations are expected to have only
a moderate effect on the occupational structure of local
and interurban passenger transportation industries over
the coming decade. Most improvements in technology
will center around development of rapid (rail) transit
systems in the larger cities and improvements in bus
facilities in many small and medium-sized cities. The
development and improvement of local transit facilities
in both large and small cities are expected to be
accelerated by provisions of the recently enacted Federal
legislation mentioned earlier.
Technological developments coupled with expected
changes in traffic volume will cause a significant shift in
the occupational composition of the local and suburban
transit and interurban major industry group over the
1965-75 period. The proportion of drivers is expected to
increase, mainly because of the expansion of intercity
bus operations and the increased use of charter and
school bus services. The growing network of new
highways will provide the major impetus for increased
intercity bus travel. The shorter time schedules made
possible by these new highways are expected to make
motor buses more competitive with other forms of
transportation. In addition, more comfortable buses
equipped with washrooms, meal facilities, and air con­
ditioning should make motor bus travel more attractive
and reduce the frequency of stops on long trips. In the

taxicab industry sector however, the proportion of
drivers is expected to remain at about the 1960 level.
Increased use of privately owned automobiles, as well as
continuing population shifts to the suburbs, will limit
the need for drivers in this industry group. This negative
influence, however, will be offset womewhat by a
continuing scarcity of parking space in inner cities, as
well as general traffic congestion, which will stimulate
the use of local transit facilities.
A lower proportion of managers and proprietors is
anticipated in the taxicab industry sector by 1975. This
is expected to result from the continuation of a trend in
the industry toward larger firms. This trend also is
expected to result in larger proportions of dispatchers,
radio operators, motor vehicle mechanics, and clerical
workers. On the other hand, technological improvements
in motor bus design and construction, improved high­
ways, and advances in tool and maintenance equipment
will result in less maintenance downtime and a slightly
lower ratio of mechanics and repairmen to total employ­
ment in the local, suburban, intercity passenger transpor­
tation industry sectors. Technological innovations, such
as automatic ticket dispensing machines, office machine
copiers, and electronic data processing equipment, will
become more prevalent and should result in lower ratios
for clerical personnel. The percentage of accounting
clerks, for example, is expected to decrease sub­
stantially, as computers are used increasingly to handle
accounting and payroll operations.

Motor Freight Transportation and Warehousing8 4

Current E m ploym en t

Over 1.0 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the motor freight transportation and
warehousing major industry group in 1966. (See table
32) More than 9 out of 10 workers were employed by
local and long distance trucking firms. The remainder
were employed in public warehousing establishments.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for more than 9
out of 10 workers in this major industry group in 1966.
84 SIC 4 2 . This m
ajor group includes establishm
ents
furnishing local or long distance trucking, transfer, and draying
services, or engaged in the storage of farm products, furniture,
and other household goods or com ercial goods of any nature.
m
Hie operation of term facilities for handling freight, with or
inal
without m
aintenance facilities, is also included. This group does
not include delivery departm
ents or w
arehouses operated by
business concerns fer their own u .
a
se




Women workers accounted for less than one-tenth of
total employment.
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook

Employment in the motor freight transportation and
warehousing major industry group increased rapidly in
the post-World War II period, from 551,000 workers in
1947 to over 1.0 million in 1966, an increase of about
80 percent.
The growth of trucking employment resulted from a
rapid increase in motor carrier freight traffic. Between
1947 and 1965, the number of intercity ton-miles
accounted for by all private and for-hire motor carriers
increased over 2Vi times, compared to an increase of
about 60 percent in the number of intercity ton-miles
for all carriers of freight (rail, truck, pipeline, water and
air). Growth of trucking employment also was stimu83

Table 32. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Motor
F reight Transportation and Warehousing Major Industry Group,
by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
42
422
421, 3

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

Motor fr e ig h t tran sp ortation and
storage............ - ........................................... 1,007.5
P ublic warehousing-----------------------84.5
Motor freig h t tran sp ortation 17-- 2/888.2

100.0
8 .4
3 /9 1 .7

Nonsupervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

91.2
87.7
(4)

8.1
12.7
(4)

1/ C onsists of lo c a l and long d istan ce trucking as w ell as term inal maintenance f a c i l i t i e s
for motor fr e ig h t tran sp ortation ,
2/ Benchmark data for March 1966,
3 / Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group,
4/ Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

lated by the expansion of local freight volume, since
Motor trucking will continue to be the predominant
trucks carry virtually all freight for local distribution. method of distributing goods within local market areas.
Local trucking employment also has been favorably Employment in local trucking should grow rapidly in the
affected by the rapid increase in suburban shopping years ahead in response to the anticipated rapid rise in
centers and by a shift toward suburban industry reloca­ the total volume of freight moved in the economy.
tions.
Manpower requirements in this major industry group O ccupational Structure
are expected to increase by about one-fifth between
1966 and 1975, rising to approximately 1.2 million. (See
More than half of all workers employed in the motor
volume IV, appendix B.) Future employment growth is freight and warehousing major industry group in 1960
predicated upon a steadily rising demand for motor were truck and tractor drivers.85 (See volume IV,
freight services. However, increasing use of more effi­ appendix G.) However, the occupational structure of the
cient freight handling systems and changing competitive two major sectors of the industry differed considerably.
conditions will have a limiting affect on this industry’s The ratio of operatives in the local and long distance
trucking sector was more than 5 times that in the
employment growth in the years ahead.
Intercity motor freight traffic is not expected to warehousing sector because of the very large numbers of
expand in the future as rapidly as it has in the past. The motor freight industry workers who were employed as
diversion of high value commodity traffic from rail to truck and tractor drivers. Ratios for all occupational
truck by means of lower freight rates can no longer be groups except operatives were larger in the warehousing
expected to contribute to the expansion of the motor sector than in the motor freight group. Laborers and
carrier industry. Today, in their effort to retain existing clerical workers represented particularly large propor­
business and recover traffic formerly carried, railroads tions of total employment in warehousing, reflecting the
are placing more emphasis on cost reduction. Motor greater importance of materials handling and record­
carriers also are facing increasing competition from air keeping functions in this industry group. The percent­
carriers for the movement of high value traffic. In ages of professional workers and craftsmen in the motor
addition, rail, water, and air carriers are establishing or freight transportation and warehousing major industry
increasing the size of their own trucking fleets, enabling
them to provide direct freight services to customers far
85 Em
ploym data related to self-em
ent
ployed and unpaid
removed from their facilities.
family w
orkers, as w as w and salary w
ell
age
orkers.
84




group were low. Most professional workers were accoun­
tants and auditors, while over half of the industry’s
craftsmen were motor vehicle mechanics.
Changing technology during the next 10 years will
significantly increase output per worker in nearly all
occupational areas of the motor freight transportation
and warehousing major industry group. The changing
nature of our system of highways and the laws governing
their use determine a significant part of the changing
technology of the motor freight industry. The vast
interstate and defense highway system, which is now
over half completed, will continue to increase the
efficiency of motor carrier operations by reducing
running time and cutting maintenance and accident
costs. The completion of this system of divided, limitedaccess highways and the construction of toll throughways and improvements in other Federal and State roads
is expected to result in increased legal size and weight
maximums for vehicles.
Over the next decade, technological developments in
the motor freight transportation and warehousing major
industry group are expected to change the industry’s
occupational structure somewhat. The proportion of
laborers is expected to decline substantially, particularly
in the warehousing industry sector. More efficient
terminals and warehouses, applying modern materials
handling practices, such as containerization, cargo
caging, palletizing, conveyorizing, and automatic drag­
line methods, will significantly contribute toward a
decline in the relative requirements of materials handling
laborers.
The greatest employment growth in this major
industry group is expected to occur among larger firms.
Compared with smaller organizations, larger companies
have considerably higher proportions of professional
workers, clerical workers, mechanics and repairmen, and
foremen. These workers are expected to increase their
share of total employment as the trend towards larger
firms continues. However, the increasing use of stand­

ardized freight containers, as well as computers and
other office machines, will tend to moderate growth
rates in some clerical positions such as shipping and
receiving clerk, bookkeeper, and accounting clerk.
Customarily, managers make up a greater proportion
of employment in smaller firms, since they often
perform many functions that are assigned to other
occupational groups in larger organizations. Therefore, a
decline in the proportion of managers, officials, and
proprietors is expected in the trucking industry as
employment becomes more concentrated in larger firms.
Because of divergent employment trends, the relative
position of operatives—
nearly all of them truck and
tractor drivers— expected to change only slightly over
is
the coming decade. The most significant laborsaving
changes will occur in non-driving areas, and this should
tend to increase the proportion of drivers. The ratio of
truck drivers, especially those engaged in moving home
furnishings, should advance substantially in the ware­
housing industry sector in response to the increasing
mobility of American families. These positive influences,
however, are likely to be offset somewhat by the
continuing growth of large firms, where drivers make up
a smaller part of the work force; and by other
developments such as the new interstate highway net­
work, and the increasing capacity and performance of
trailers and power units which will reduce driving
requirements per ton of freight. Among operatives other
than truck and tractor drivers, the proportion of meat
cutters in warehousing is expected to be adversely
affected because of an anticipated continued decline in
food locker plants. The ratio of equipment operators
should rise as mechanization in the warehousing industry
becomes more widespread.
The relatively low ratio of sales workers in this major
industry group is expected to rise appreciably over the
next decade as competition with other transportation
modes intensifies.

Transportation by A i r 86

Current E m ploym en t

Of the nearly 247,000 wage and salary workers in the
air transportation major industry group in 1966, 9 out
86 SIC 45. This major group includes companies engaged in
furnishing domestic and foreign transportation by air and also
those operating flying fields and furnishing terminal services.




of 10 were employed by air common carriers providing
for-hire air transportation to the public.(See table 33.)
The remaining workers were employed at airport termi­
nals and by operators of airports and flying fields.
One-fourth of the workers employed by air common
carriers were women, a slightly higher proportion than
the average for the major industry group.
85

T a b le 3 3 .

D i s t r ib u t io n o f Wage and S a la r y Workers in th e T r a n s p o r ta tio n
by A ir M ajor In d u stry Group, by I n d u s tr y , 1966

SIC
Code

In d u stry

A ir t r a n s p o r t a t i o n -----------------------------------T r a n s p o r ta tio n , common c a r r i e r s ------------F a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to a i r
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ------------------------------------

45
451, 2
458

1/
2/
3/

Wage and s a l a r y
w orkers
P e rc e n t
Number
d istr i­
b u tio n

Women
w orkers a s
p e rc e n t o f
em ploym ent,
by in d u stry

2 4 6 .9
2 2 1 .9

1 0 0 .0
8 9 .9

2 3 .6
2 5 .3

1 /2 4 .1

2 / 9 .8

(3 )

Benchmark d a t a f o r March 1966.
Based on March 1966, t o t a l employment in th e m ajor in d u stry g ro u p .
D ata a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .

N ote:

I n d iv id u a l item s may n ot add to t o t a l s b e c au se o f th e in c lu s io n o f benchmark d a t a .

from an expanding demand for air transportation
services, both passenger and cargo, because of rising
Employment of wage and salary workers in the air consumer and business incomes, an expanding popula­
transportation major industry group increased from tion, and increasing amounts of leisure time.
165,000 in 1958 to nearly 247,000 in 1966, or by
Technological innovations also will have a significant
almost 50 percent,87 paralleling the rise in air carrier impact on the growth of air traffic. Equipment improve­
employment, which rose from about 149,000 to ments, such as better flight control and guidance
222,000. The growth in air carrier employment resulted systems, are expected to make air travel more attractive
primarily from the very rapid rise in air traffic, particu­ by increasing safety and dependability. Greater use of
larly among scheduled airlines. However, airlines have more efficient turbine powered aircraft in cargo opera­
been able to expand their activities several times faster tions and improvements in cargo handling and loading
than employment, chiefly by utilizing more efficient equipment are expected to stimulate demand for freight
aircraft and ground operations equipment. In recent traffic by reduced rates and improved service. Future
years, the airlines have been replacing piston powered growth in air traffic also is expected to result from the
aircraft with faster and higher hauling capacity turbine extension of air freight services to many small- and
(jet) powered aircraft. On the ground, computers and medium-sized communities. Growth in employment
other electronic and mechanical devices have been used requirements will be limited, however, by technological
to improve communications, data processing, flight innovations such as the development of longer range and
planning, and aircraft and traffic servicing.
higher capacity jet planes.
Employment in fixed facilities and related services,
airports, flying fields, and terminals increased by 44 O ccupational Structure
percent between 1958 and 1966. Employment at airport
terminals and in fixed base operations has expanded
To fly a commercial plane into the air in 1960, the
with the general rise in air traffic. Fixed base employ­ services of 10 support personnel were required for every
ment also has gained, matching the increasing activity in pilot and navigator employed in the air transportation
business flying and other segments of general aviation.
major industry group.88 Nearly 3 out of 10 support
Manpower requirements in the air transportation personnel were clerical workers, the vast majority of
industry are expected to increase from 247,000 in 1966 whom were employed in traffic service occupations
to 325,000 in 1975, or about 32 percent. (See volume such as reservation, baggage, ticket, or freight clerk.
IV, appendix B.) This rapid growth is expected to result Reflecting the large number and complexity of today’s
aircraft and their rigid maintenance requirements, air8 7
BLS employment (payroll) data for the air transporta­
88 Employment data in this section cover self-employed and
tion major industry group and for the fixed facilities and services

E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook

industry are not available for years prior to 1958.

86




unpaid family workers, as well as wage and salary workers.

plane mechanics constituted by far the largest occupa­
tion in the industry. A majority of the professional and
technical personnel, as well as service workers, were
engaged in flight deck activities. Pilots and navigators
accounted for nearly two-thirds of all professional and
technical workers, while airline stewards and stew­
ardesses accounted for more than half of all service
workers. Many of the remaining service workers were
employed in occupations such as airplane cabine cleaner,
detective, guard, fireman, cook, and waitress.
The rising demand for air transportation services and
the introduction of technological innovations, such as
more efficient jet aircraft and improved flight control
systems, are expected to cause significant shifts in the
occupational structure of the air transportation industry
over the decade ahead. (See volume IV, appendix G.) The
demands of an expanding volume of traffic are expected
to increase employment requirements for stewards and
stewardesses, and these workers should make up a larger
share of the industry’s labor force in 1975. Rising
passenger and cargo traffic also are expected to increase
the need for operatives and clerical workers, which
include aircraft and traffic servicing personnel, as well as
traffic agents and reservation clerks. However, the
increasing use of laborsaving innovations is expected to
limit employment growth in some occupations. The

utilization of electronic computers, both in the pro­
cessing of paperwork and in machine-to-machine
communications, should limit the growth of labor
requirements for traffic agents and some types of clerical
personnel. However, clerical workers as a group will
account for a larger share of total employment in 1975.
More advanced radio and telecommunication systems
will result in a decline in the relative position of
technicians, such as radio operators.
Although the need for pilots is expected to increase
substantially, they will make up only a slightly larger
share of total employment because of the greater use of
jet aircraft having greater hauling capacities. Jet aircraft
have lower maintenance requirements than piston engine
aircraft; therefore, the ratio of airplane mechanics to
total employment is expected to decline. In addition,
there will be a shift in the occupational composition of
airplane mechanics. Fewer engine overhaul mechanics
will be needed because of the greater simplicity and
reliability of jet engines. However, more airframe and
systems mechanics will be required because of the
increasing complexity of electrical, electronic, hydraulic,
and other aircraft systems. Furthermore, the increasing
use of more efficient cargo handling and loading
equipment should limit the growth of employment
requirements for freight-handling personnel.

Communications89

Current E m ploym en t

the telegraph communications industry to 81 percent in
the radio broadcasting and television industry.

Approximately 927,000 wage and salary workers
were employed in the communications major industry E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook
group in 1966. (See table 34.) About 8 out of 10 were
Estimated employment in the communications major
employed by companies providing telephone services.
The remaining workers were employed in radio broad­ industry group increased by nearly one-third between
casting and television (12 percent); telegraph communi­ 1947 and 1957, but declined about 6 percent between
cations (4 percent); and communications services not 1957 and 1964.90 Since 1964, employment has risen by
nearly 10 percent. Employment was stimulated during
elsewhere classified (about 1 percent).
the early post-World War II period by the rapid rise of
Women workers accounted for nearly half of total
employment in communications establishments in 1966,
9 0
BLS
data for the overall
and non supervisory workers represented nearly four- munications establishment (payroll) are available only forcom­
major industry group
the
fifths of the industry’s work force. Among the individual years 1958-65 because of the exclusion of the radio broadcasting
industry groups, the proportion of non supervisory and TV industry group prior to 1958. However, 1947-57 BLS
workers to total employment ranged from 69 percent in establishment data are available for the telephone and telegraph
87 percent of
89 SIC 48. This major group includes companies furnishing industries, which employed industry grou] total employment in
the communications major
in 1965. These data
point-to-point communication services, whether by wire or
radio, and whether intended to be received aurally or visually;
and radio broadcasting and television. Services for the exchange
or recording of messages also are included.




for 1947-57 were aggregated with unemployment insurance data
for the broadcasting industry for the same years to provide
estimates of employment trands for the total major industry
group between 1947 and 1957.

87

T ab le 34 . D i s t r ib u t io n o f Wage and S a la r y Workers in th e
Com munications M ajor In d u stry Group, by I n d u s tr y , 1966
(In th o u sa n d s)

—
SIC
Code

In d u stry

Com m unications----------------- ------------T elephone com m unication-................. T eleg ra p h com m unication-------------R adio b r o a d c a stin g and t e l e v i s io n ---------------------------------------Communication s e r v i c e s , n ot e l s e where c l a s s i f i e d ----------------------

48
481
482
483
489

IV

2/

3/

Wage and s a l a r y
w orkers
Number
P e rc e n t
d istr i­
b u tio n

Non­
s u p e r v is o r y
w orkers a s
p e rc e n t o f
em ploym ent,
by in d u stry

Women
w orkers a s
p e rc e n t o f
em ploym ent,
by in d u s tr y

9 2 7 .0
7 7 3 .4
3 3 .0

1 0 0 .0
8 3 .4
3 .6

7 9 .0
7 9 .7
6 9 .1

4 9 .8
5 5 .3
(3 )

1 1 2 .2

12.1

8 0 .7

2 1 .8

1 / 7 .9

2 / 0 .9

(3 )

(3 )

Benchmark d a t a f o r March 1966.
Based on March 1966, t o t a l employment in th e m ajor in d u stry g ro u p .
D ata a r e not a v a i l a b l e .

N ote: I n d iv id u a l item s may not add to t o t a l s b e c au se o f th e in c lu s io n o f benchmark d a t a
a n d /o r ro u n d in g.

television broadcasting and the increased use of tele­ During the 1958-63 period, employment in telephone
phone communications. During the 1957-64 period, communications declined steadily, dropping to 686,000
employment decreased in this major industry group, in in 1963. This decrease resulted primarily from the
part, because of the growing use of technological conversion to automatic and direct dial systems. By
laborsaving devices such as automatic and direct dialing 1964, this conversion was largely completed and
in telephone communications; computer systems for employment again began to increase in response to the
traffic and plant planning, supply operations, and rising demand for telephone services, reaching an all time
equipment ordering; and the decreasing utilization of high of 773,000 workers in 1966.
Between 1958 and 1966,91 the proportion of nontelegraph communications. By 1964, the impact of the
change to automatic and direct dialing on employment supervisory workers in this major industry group
was completed, and since that time, the growing demand declined from 83 percent to 79 percent. The rate of
for communication services has resulted in a rapid rise in decline was about the same in each of the industry
groups.
employment for this major industry group.
Manpower requirements in the communications
Employment growth rates varied widely among the
individual communications industry groups in the post- major industry group are expected to grow to over 1
World War II period. Employment in radio broadcasting million by 1975, an increase of about 10 percent.
and television, spurred by the extremely rapid growth of Employment trends for the individual industry groups
television, increased more than one and a half times are expected to differ widely. (See volume IV, appendix
between 1947 and 1966. In sharp contrast, employment B.) Manpower requirements in the telephone communi­
in telegraph communications declined by nearly half cations industry will increase to over 865,000 by 1975
during the same period, primarily because of the greater as the rapid rise in the demand for telephone services,
use of competing services such as air mail, telephones, the growth in household formations, and the increasing
number and size of business and industrial establish­
and data transmission by telephones.
Employment in telephone communications increased ments results in employment growth. However, these
by nearly one-third between 1947 and 1966, rising from gains will be moderated by the continuing adaption and
585,000 to 773,000. Most of the increase occurred use of laborsaving technological innovations.
before 1957 and reflected the rapid growth of telephone
services, resulting in part from the backlog of orders for
91 Data on nonsupervisory workers are not available prior
new telephones accumulated during World War II. to 1958.
88




A moderate increase is expected in manpower
requirements for the radio broadcasting and television
industry. Although the rise will not be as great as in the
past, continuing increases in the number of radio and
television broadcasting stations are expected to raise
employment requirements despite the introduction of
many laborsaving innovations. The downward trend in
employment in telegraph communications is expected to
continue through 1975, as strong competition from
telephones, data transmission by telephone, and airmail
services continue.
Occupational Structure

White-collar workers accounted for about 70 percent
of total employment92 in the communications major
industry group in 1960. (See volume IV, appendix G.)
This high proportion reflected the employment of
especially large numbers of clerical workers in the
telephone industry group (telephone operators), and
technicians and managers in the radio broadcasting and
television industry group. Telephone operators alone
accounted for over one-fourth of the total employment
in this major industry group. Craftsmen made up more
than 90 percent of the small proportion of blue-collar
workers; the dominant occupation in this group was
lineman and serviceman, which includes three large,
specialized groups of workers—
central office craftsmen,
installation and exchange repair craftsmen, and line,
cable, and conduit craftsmen. Operatives, laborers, and
service workers accounted for only a small proportion of
total employment.
The occupational structure of the communications
major industry group is dominated by the telephone
industry group which employs more than 4 out of 5
workers. Occupational patterns in the telephone
industry group are expected to change slowly by 1975.
The proportion of clerical workers is expected to
continue a long-term decline as direct dialing and
automatic billing of long-distance calls, computerized
handling of information and intercept calls, and other
innovations reduce employment requirements for tele­
phone operators. More extensive use of computers and
advanced input devices for clerical functions, such as
accounting, billing, and collecting, will be responsible for
the reduction in the proportion of clerical workers
92
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.




needed to perform these functions. Professional and
technical workers in the telephone industry group are
expected to rise proportionately, mainly because of the
increasing need for workers to design, service, or modify
the complex equipment used in the industry, especially
electronic switching equipment, multiplex transmission
equipment, and electronic data processing equipment.
Craftsmen in the telephone industry are expected to
increase as a proportion of total employment, in spite of
technological innovations which tend to decrease
requirements for these workers. The main reason for this
paradox is an expected sharp increase in demand for
telephone industry services which will dispropor­
tionately affect requirements for craftsmen. The outlook
for the three groups of skilled workers within the
craftsman category, however, will vary. The proportion
of central office craftsmen will rise, mainly because the
number of central offices will grow in response to
increased telephone service requirements in suburban
areas and rapidly rising demand for data communica­
tions services by business. Installation and repair crafts­
men also will rise relatively. Although the need for these
workers will be limited by the ease with which tele­
phones can be serviced, the rising demand for telephone
service will more than offset negative employment
influences of new technology and installation practices.
Line, cable, and conduit craftsmen are expected to
decrease proportionately because of the increased use of
microwave transmission, pulsecode modulation, and
other forms of time and frequency multiplexing which
allow more efficient use of wire and cable facilities.
In the radio broadcasting and television industry
sector, the most significant change will be a decline in
the proportion of professional and technical workers.
The growing use of remote transmitter controls, the
extensive use of taped recorded announcements in radio
broadcasting, and film and video tape in television
broadcasting tends to reduce manpower requirements
for these workers, especially technicians. An increase in
the proportion of managers in this industry sector will
result from the growth in the number of small radio and
television stations in which the ratio of managers is high.
In the telegraph industry, the most significant
expected changes are an increase in the proportion of
craftsmen. These highly skilled workers will be needed
for the installation and maintenance of increasingly
complex transmission systems. Clerical workers will
decrease in proportion as the handling and transmitting
of messages becomes more fully automated.
89

Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services93

of growth varied considerably.95 Employment in
electric utilities increased by more than one-fifth
An estimated 628,000 wage and salary workers were between 1947 and 1966. However,, the growth occurred
employed in the electric, gas, and sanitary services major during the early part of the period, and since 1957,
industry group in 1966. (See table 35.) This major employment has decreased slightly. The number of
industry group includes three large industry groups— workers in gas utilities increased by nearly one-third
electric companies and systems (electric utilities)-which between 1950 and 1959, and since then, it has remained
comprised about two-fifths of total employment in the relatively stable. Employment in the combination
major industry group in 1966; gas companies and utilities sector has shown little change from 1950 to
systems (gas utilities), which employed one-fourth; and 1965, increasing from 169,000 to 177,000. Combined
combination companies and systems (combination employment in the four smaller industry groups rose
utilities) which accounted for over one-fourth. The from 29,000 to 42,000 between 1957 and 1966, after
remaining workers (about 7 percent) were employed in remaining relatively stable from 1947 to 1957.
Employment in electric and gas utilities96 has not
four smaller industry groups— supply, sanitary
water
services, steam companies and systems, and irrigation matched the rapid expansion in output. Output
increased by over 2Vi times between 1947 and 1963,
systems.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for 87 percent of while employment increased by less than one-fourth.
total employment in this major industry group in 1966. These variances reflect the growing use of laborsaving
The individual industry groups had about the same technological innovations such as improved electric
proportion of nonsupervisory workers. Women workers generating plant equipment and improved facilities for
accounted for 15 percent of the major industry’s total the storage and liquification of natural gas.
Nonsupervisory workers decreased as a proportion of
employment. The variation in the proportion of women
workers among the individual industry groups was small. total employment in this major industry group, from 93
percent in 1950 to 87 percent in 1966. The rate of
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook
decline was much faster in electric utilities and gas
utilities than in other sectors of the major industry
Employment in electric, gas, and sanitary services group.
increased from about 498,000 to over 628,000 between
Employment requirements in the electric, gas, and
1947 and 1966.94 Almost all of the increase occurred sanitary services major industry group are expected to
before 1957 when employment reached about 611,000. remain at about the same level between 1966 and 1975.
Since 1957, employment has remained relatively stable, The very large increases anticipated in the demand for
the industry’s products and services are expected to be
ranging from about 610,000 to 628,000.
Although employment in each of the industry groups nearly matched by rising output per worker resulting
increased during the post-World War II period, the rates from the increasing use of laborsaving technological
innovations.
93 SIC 49. This major group includes companies engaged in
Demand for the industry’s services will be stimulated
the generation, transmission and/or distribution of electricity or
gas or steam. Such companies and systems may be combinations by increases in population and family formations. Gains
of any of the above three services and also include other types of in the number of appliances, including gas and electric
service such as transportation, communication, and refrigeration. air conditioners, will lead to greater consumption per
Water and irrigation systems, and sanitary systems engaged in the residential customer. Industrial and commercial con­
collection and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other wastes by sumption of gas and electricity is expected to continue
means of destroying or processing materials also are included.
94
Workers employed by Federal, State and local govern­ to its upward trend because of business expansion and
Current E m ploym en t

ment agencies or departments providing the services of this
major industry group are not included in the employment data.
This exclusion is particularly important in the water supply,
sanitary services, steam companies and systems, and irrigation
systems industry groups, as over 70 percent of the workers in
these groups (combined), in 1960, were employed by Govern­
ment agencies.

90




95 BLS employment (payroll) data for the gas and the
combination utilities industry groups are not available for the
years prior to 1950.
96 The analysis in this paragraph is limited to electrie,,gas,
and combination utilities. Comparable output data are not
available for water, steam, and sanitary services.

Table 35, D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the E le c tr ic , Gas,
and Sanitary Services Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
49
491
492
493
494-7

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

E le c tr ic , gas, sanitary s e r v ic e s-----E le c tr ic companies and system s---Gas companies and system s-----------Combination companies and
system s........................- ...........................
Water supply, sanitary se r v ic e s,
steam companies and system s,
and ir r ig a tio n system s--------------

Nonsupervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

628.2
256.7
152.2

100.0
40.9
24.2

86.7
85.1
86.5

15.0
15.1
16.3

177.4

28.2

89.2

13.9

41.9

6.7

87.4

13.8

Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of rounding.
the growing use of computers, electronic controls, and
other electrical and electronic equipment.
Employment trends in the electric, gas, and sanitary
services industry groups are expected to vary. (See
volume IV, appendix B.) Although outpuf of electric
power is expected to double by 1975, a small employ­
ment decrease is expected in this industry segment,
continuing the very slow downward trend that began in
1957. Employment in gas utilities is expected to increase
somewhat, mainly as a result of an anticipated rapid rise
in the consumption of gas. However, technological
developments will limit employment growth. Employ­
ment in combination utilities is expected to remain at
about the 1966 level through 1975. Rapid employment
growth is expected in the four smaller industry groups
combined, but because of the small size of these
industry groups, the number of additional workers
required will not be great.

sanitary services industry sector in 1960 were either
truckdrivers or laborers—a reflection of the service
orientation of the industry. Most of the laborers were
street cleaners, trash and garbage collectors, or sewer
cleaners.
In the electric, gas, and steam sectors, the ratios of
professional workers and craftsmen were higher than the
corresponding ratios in the major industry group, indi­
cating the relatively more technical nature of electric
generating processes. Many engineers were required to
supervise construction, develop improved operating
methods, and test the efficiency of new types of
generating and transmission equipment. Linemen, the
most prevalent skilled occupation, were used in large
numbers to maintain the network of transmission lines
between producers and consumers. About 1 out of 5
persons in the major industry was a clerical worker, a
majority of whom were employed as meter readers.
In the electric, gas, and steam industry sectors, the
most significant of the expected occupational changes
Occupational Structure
will be increased in the proportion of professionals and
Plant operations in the electric, gas, and sanitary craftsmen and decreases in the ratios of clerical workers
services major industry group are highly mechanized and and operatives. The ratio of engineers, technicians, and
large numbers of skilled workers were employed in 1960 other professional workers is expected to rise as elec­
to install, maintain, repair, and operate this complex tronic instruments are more widely used; as larger
equipment. (See volume IV, appendix G.) There were, generating units are put into use; and as generation by
however, variations in occupational structure among the nuclear power increases the technical nature of the work
three sectors constituting the major industry group. For in this industry segment. Much of the increase in
example, more than 7 out of 10 workers97 in the professional and technical occupations will occur in
computer-related jobs, as computers are used in­
97
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, ascreasingly for clerical operations and for the control of
well as wage and salary workers.
electric generating stations, electric dispatching centers,
91




and for gas distribution plants. The ratio of craftsmen to
total utility employment also is expected to increase by
1975. Much of this increase will occur among main­
tenance workers, since the initial high cost of utility
equipment, the considerable cost to the company when
the most efficient equipment is not in operation, and the
growing complexity of utility equipment will place a
premium on preventive maintenance. On the other hand,
the relative position of skilled operating personnel, such
as stationary engineers (craftsmen, not elsewhere classi­
fied) is expected to decline as the duties of generator,
turbines auxiliary, and gas compressor operators are
performed increasingly by a single operator in a central
control room. Manpower requirements for linemen will
be tempered by the growing volume of line construction
being contracted out and the spreading use of aerial lifts,
rotating derricks, and other laborsaving innovations.
However, the growing volume of line construction work,
spurred by the development of high voltage lines capable
of carrying electric power over long distances, should
cause the proportion of linemen to increase moderately
through the mid-1970’s. The decrease in the proportion
of clerical workers will stem in large measure from the
relatively lower labor requirements for meter readers in
the electric, gas, and steam industry sectors. Meter
readers will be adversely affected by a growing trend
toward more readily accessible outdoor meters; and
meter reading on a bimonthly, quarterly, and even
semiannual basis. The speed and efficiency of the
growing numbers of computers in use by the industry
will be reflected in lower concentrations of more routine
jobs, such as hand bookkeeper and accounting clerks,
and higher percentages of specialized clerical workers
such as console operators and other computer-related

92




personnel. Typically, less skilled workers, such as opera­
tives and laborers, are most affected by technological
change. This tendency is expected in the electric, gas,
and steam industry sectors over the next decade as
mechanization continues to improve efficiency and
reduce the need for operatives, such as power station
operators and laborers. Greater use of aerial lift trucks,
pole grabbers, and hole digging equipment is expected to
be particularly adverse to groundmen who aid line crews
in erecting utility poles and repairing overhead power
lines.
In sanitary services, a decrease in the proportion of
laborers and an increase in the ratio of truck drivers is
expected by 1975. The ratio of laborers should decline
as continuing improvements in sanitation trucks lead to
fewer laborers per truck; as mechanized street cleaners
are used increasingly; and as incineration plants become
more mechanized. Truck drivers should increase because
they will not be significantly affected by mechanization.
Rising demand for sanitation services by a rapidly
growing urban population also will contribute toward
the expected rise in the proportion of truck drivers.
In the water supply and irrigation industry sector, the
rising level of automation in water treatment and
pumping plants, and the growing use of mechanical
equipment in the installation and upkeep of water lines,
should result in reductions in the relative position of
operatives and laborers and substantial increases in the
percentages of craftsmen, particularly maintenance
workers such as mechanics and repairmen. A growing
trend toward metered rather than fixed cost water
billing methods should increase ratios of meter installers
and repairmen, meter readers, and other clerical workers
associated with billing and recordkeeping.

WHOLESALE AND R E TA IL TR A D ES 98

Current Employment
More than 13.2 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the wholesale and retail trade in 1966. (See
table 36.) Nearly three-fourths worked in retail trade
establishments.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for nearly 9 out
of 10 workers in this industry division in 1966. The
proportion of nonsupervisory workers was slightly
higher in retail trade than in the industry division.
Women workers represented almost two-fifths of total
employment in the industry division. The proportion of
women working in the retail trade was double the
percentage in the wholesale trade.
Employment Trends and Outlook

Employment growth in both wholesale and retail
establishments was limited somewhat by the increasing
use of laborsaving technological innovations such as
computers and automatic materials handling techniques.
Employment in wholesale trade was affected more by
mechanization than employment in retail trade because
a larger proportion of wholesale trade employees were
engaged in activities that lend themselves readily to
mechanization, such as warehousing, and billing and
other recordkeeping operations.
Nonsupervisory workers decreased as a proportion of
total employment in this major division, from 79
percent in 1947 to 75 percent in 1 9 6 6 ." Both
wholesale and retail trade experienced a small decrease
in the proportion of nonsupervisory workers.
Manpower requirements in the wholesale and retail
trade are expected to increase by over one-fifth between
1966 and 1975, rising from 13.2 million to over 16
million. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Employment
growth will continue to be stimulated by gains in
population and increases in consumer expenditures.

Employment in the wholesale and retail trade
increased rapidly between 1947 and 1966, rising from
nearly 9 million to more than 13.2 million, or by about
47 percent. Between 1955 and 1966, employment in
retail trade establishments rose slightly faster than in
wholesale trade establishments. Retail trade employment
increased from 7.7 million to almost 10 million, or by
98
Division F. This
30 percent, while employment in wholesale trade rose places oSICbusiness primarily division includes establishments or
f
engaged in selling merchandise to
from approximately 2.8 million to about 3.4 million, or retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or professional
by 21 percent.
users; or acting as agents in buying merchandise for or selling
Employment growth in the post-World War II period merchandise to such persons or companies. Retail trade includes
establishments engaged in selling merchandise
resulted from population growth and rising per capita household, or farm consum ption, and rendering for personal,
services inci­
personal consumption expenditures. Between 1947 and dental to the sale o f the goods.
99 Does not include comparable data on nonsupervisory
1966, population increased by 37 percent and per capita
personal consumption expenditures (in 1958 dollars) by workers in eating and drinking places. This information was not
available prior to 1964.
48 percent.
Table 36. D istrib u tion of Wage and Salary Workers in the Wholesale and
R eta il Trade Industry D iv isio n , by Major Industry Group, 1966
(In thousands)
Non­
Wage and Salary
Women
supervisory workers as
workers
workers as percent of
SIC
Industry
Number Percent percent of
Code
d i s t r i ­ employment, employment,
bution
by industry by industry
F
W holesale and r e ta il trade----------- 13,211
100.0
38.6
89.2
50
W holesale trade-------------------------- 3,438
26.0
84.7
22.3
52-59
74.0
90.8
44.3
R etail trade------------------------------ 9,773
Note: Because of rounding, sums of ind ividu al items may not equal to ta ls .




93

However, employment requirements are expected to be
slowed somewhat by the increasing application of
laborsaving technology such as the greater use of
electronic data processing equipment, automated ware­

housing equipment, growth in the number of self-service
stores, and the extensive use of vending machines. Labor
requirements are expected to increase slightly faster in
the retail than in the wholesale trade.

Wholesale Trade

Current Employment
More than 3 million wage and salary workers were
employed in wholesale trade establishments in 1966.
(See table 37.) Over one-third of all wholesale trade
employees worked in miscellaneous wholesale establish­
ments, which include distributors of tobacco, beer, wine
and distilled alcholic beverages; paper and paper pro­
ducts; furniture and house furnishings; lumber and
construction materials; petroleum storage and distri­
bution terminals; establishments engaged in the
distribution of metals and minerals, except petroleum
products and scrap; and establishments primarily
engaged in assembling, sorting, and distributing scrap

and waste materials. Almost one-fifth of all wholesale
trade employees were employed in the distribution of
machinery equipment and supplies, and nearly one-sixth
were employed in the distribution of groceries and
related products.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for 85 percent of
total wholesale trade employment in 1966. Among the
individual wholesale industries, the proportions of pro­
duction workers varied only slightly, ranging from 81
percent in dry goods and apparel to 88 percent in
wholesale grocery establishments. Women workers
accounted for 22 percent of all wholesale trade employ­
ment. The proportion of women workers ranged from
18 percent at distributors of motor vehicle and auto-

Table 37. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the W holesale
Trade Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966

SIC
Code
50
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509

Industry

(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

W holesale trade--------------------------------- 3 ,4 3 8 .0
Motor v eh icles and automotive
equipment------------------------------------- 261.1
Drugs, chem icals, and a llie d
products-------------------------------------- 206.9
Dry goods and apparel------------------- 142.8
G roceries and rela ted products---- 511.6
Farm products-raw m aterials
(w h olesa le)--------------------------------- 1 /93.2
E le c tr ic a l goods---------------------------- 272.0
Hardware, plumbing and heating
goods-------------------------------------------- 154.5
Machinery equipment and su p p lies- 623.8
M iscellaneous w h o lesa les-------------- 1 ,165.0

Non­
supervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

100.0
7.6
6.0
4.2
14.9
2 /2 .8
7.9

84.7
83.8
82.7
81.2
87.9
(3)
82.4

22.3
18.1
31.7
43.6
21.3
(3)
23.1

4.5
18.1
33.9

84.9
84.8
84.7

21.4
18.3
21.5

17 Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
94




mobile equipment, and distributors of machinery, equip­
ment and supplies to 44 percent in establishments
distributing dry goods and apparel.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in wholesale trade establishments
increased from 2.4 million to 3.4 million between 1947
and 1966, an increase of more than two-fifths. Employ­
ment growth resulted from the expanding population
and rising consumer expenditures. However, employ­
ment growth was slowed somewhat by the increased use
of laborsaving innovations such as automatically con­
trolled conveyors for sorting and moving goods in
storage.
Between 1958 and 1966,100 employment growth
among the various sectors of the wholesale trade differed
widely. Employment increased by over one-third in
establishments distributing motor vehicles and auto­
motive equipment; electrical goods; and machinery,
equipment and supplies. On the other hand, there were
only small increases in employment in establishments
distributing hardware, plumbing, and heating goods, and
in groceries and related products establishments.
Nonsupervisory workers decreased as a proportion of
total wholesale employment, from 92 percent in 1947 to
85 percent in 1966. The rate of decline in recent
years-1958-66 period- was somewhat slower in whole­
sale establishments distributing motor vehicles and acces­
sories; groceries and related products; machinery equip­
ment and supplies; drugs, chemicals, and allied products;
and miscellaneous wholesale establishments than in the
remaining 4 wholesale industry groups.
Manpower requirements in wholesale trade are
expected to increase by over one-fourth between 1966
and 1975. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Employment
will continue to be stimulated by a growing population
and rising income, although technological innovations
are expected to temper the rate of employment growth.
For example, the efficiency of warehousing operations is
expected to be increased by the greater use of improved
palletizing methods and packaging of items in normal
purchasing quantities (instead of by the dozen, gross,
etc.), which should reduce materials handling. Greater
use of electronic data processing equipment located at
central locations of large multiunit trade organizations
will substantially improve efficiency by facilitating
control over customer accounts, sales and inventory
data, and other operating information.

Occupational Structure
Reflecting the sales orientation of the industry,
white-collar workers accounted for almost 7 out of 10
workers101 in the wholesale trade major industry group
in 1960. (See volume IV, appendix G.) On the other
hand, many truck drivers and other operatives such as
conveyor and forklift operators, also were employed,
mostly in distribution and warehousing operations.
The occupational structure differed considerably
among the sectors of the wholesale trade major industry
group. The most notable difference was the much higher
proportion of craftsmen and foremen employed in the
machinery sector of wholesale trade. Most of these
skilled workers were mechanics and repairmen, who
were utilized to install and service machine and machine
tools sold by the industry. Because food products are
often distributed in limited quantities to large numbers
of retail establishments, the need for drivers and
materials handling workers was greater in food whole­
saling than in the other industry segments.
The occupational structure in the wholesale trade is
expected to be affected over the next decade by
increasing efficiency of wholesaling operations through
improvements in materials handling methods, packaging
innovations, and greater use of computers for inventory
control and billing operations. Automatically controlled
conveyors for sorting and moving goods and for storing
and selecting items for shipment also are expected to be
used more widely. A growing number of these systems
will be controlled by computers.
Such laborsaving innovations in combination with
other marketing influences are expected to result in a
moderate shift in the occupational composition of the
wholesale trade major industry group by 1975. The most
significant changes are expected in the managers occupa­
tional group and in the craftsmen group. The groceries
and related products, the machinery and equipment, and
the “other” wholesale trade sectors employ the largest
numbers of workers and are among the fastest growing
of the wholesale trade industry groups. Also, the size of
these firms is expected to increase by 1975. Since larger
establishments generally require fewer managers and
officials relative to total employment, a decline in the
proportion of managers, officials, and proprietors is
expected in the wholesale trade by 1975. Craftsmen, on
the other hand, are expected to increase as a percent of
total employment. This increase will mainly reflect the
greater need for foremen, and mechanics and repairmen

100
BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data for all industry groups 101
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
are not available for the years prior to 1958.
well as wage and salary workers.




95

to supervise the operation and repair of increasingly
complex mechanized materials handling equipment. In
machinery equipment wholesaling, the ratio of
mechanics and repairmen is expected to increase rapidly
because this growing industry relies more heavily upon

the services of mechanics to maintain the increasing
numbers of complex machinery being marketed. The
expected increases in wholesale trade warehouse mecha­
nization also is expected to cause laborers to decline
slightly as a proportion of total employment.

Retail Trade (SIC 52-59)

About 9.8 million wage and salary workers were
employed in retail trade establishments in 1966. (See
table 38.) More than 7 out of 10 retail trade employees
worked either in general merchandise establishments
such as department stores, mail order houses, and
limited price variety stores; in eating and drinking places;
in food stores; or for auto dealers and service stations.
The remainder were employed in apparel and accessories
stores; building materials, hardware, and farm equipment
establishments; furniture and appliance stores; or in
“miscellaneous” retail outlets.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for over 90
percent of retail trade employment in 1966. Among the
various industry groups within the retail trade, the
proportion of nonsupervisory workers varied only
slightly—from 86 percent in building materials, hardware
and farm equipment to 93 percent in food stores.
Women workers represented 44 percent of total employ­
ment in this major industry group. The proportion of
women workers ranged from 11 percent in the auto­
mobile dealers and service station group to 69 percent in
the general merchandise group.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in retail trade establishments increased
from 6.6 million to 9.8 million between 1947 and 1966,
or approximately 50 percent. The gain in employment
resulted from the Nation’s growing population and rising
per capita personal income. Employment growth was
limited, however, by the increasing use of laborsaving
innovations such as computers in recordkeeping opera­
tions and by self-service stores.
Between 1958 and 1966,102 employment increased
by about one-third in general merchandising establish­
ments and in eating and drinking places. Employment
remained relatively stable in building materials and
hardware stores.
Manpower requirements in retail trade establishments
are expected to increase by over one-fifth between 1966

and 1975, rising from 9.8 million to near 12 million.
(See volume IV, appendix B.) Employment growth will
continue to be stimulated primarily by population
increases and a continuing high level of consumer
expenditures. The continuing movement of the popula­
tion from rural to urban areas and from cities to
suburbs, and the trend toward longer store hours, also
are expected to increase manpower requirement in retail
trade. However, employment growth is expected to be
slowed somewhat by the increasing efficiency of
retailing operations through improvements in materials
handling, packaging, and the spreading use of computers
for inventory control and billing operations. Other
factors likely to limit employment growth include the
increasing use of automatic equipment in supermarkets,
a rise in the number of self-service stores, and the
anticipated rapid growth of machine vending.
Occupational Structure
More than a million and a half retail trade establish­
ments in the Nation were engaged in nearly 100
different kinds of business in 1960, and the retail trade
major industry group required very large numbers of
both sales workers and managers and proprietors.
About 1 out of 4 workers103 in retail establishments
were a manager, official, or proprietor. Usually account­
ing for a substantial share of the work force in small
establishments, managers and proprietors were especially
prevalent in industry groupings such as gasoline service
stations, miscellaneous retailing, food and dairy store,
apparel and accessories stores, lumber, and building and
farm equipment establishments. Reflecting the person to
person nature of retail trade activities, sales workers
accounted for one-fifth or more of the workers in every
retail industry segment, except for gas stations and
eating and drinking establishments. Service workers
accounted for nearly one-sixth of total retail trade
employment in 1960, although more than 7 out of 10
service workers were employed in one industry

Em ploym ent data in this section relate to self-employed
102
Em ploym ent data in this section relate to self-employed 103
and unpaid fam ily workers, as w ell as wage and salary workers.
and unpaid family workers, as well as wage and salary workers.

96




Table 38. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the R etail
Trade Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

SIC
Code

Industry

52-59
52

R etail trade-------------------------------------Building m a teria ls, hardware, farm
equipment---------------------------------------General m erchandise-------------------------Department s to r e s-------------------------Mail order house---------------------------Limited p rice v a riety sto r e s------Other general m erchandising--------Food s to r e s---------------------------------------Grocery meat and vegetable
sto r e s -----------------------------------------Candy, nut; and con fection ery-----Other food s to r e s-------------------------Automobile d ealers and serv ice
s ta tio n s -----------------------------------------Motor v eh icle d ea lers------------------Apparel and a ccesso ries sto r e s------Men's and boys' apparel---------------Women's ready-to-w ear------------------Family cloth in g sto r e s -----------------Shoe sto r e s------------------------------------Furniture and appliance sto r e s------Furniture and home fu rn ish in g-----Home appliance sto r e s------------------Eating and drinking p la c e s-------------M iscellaneous r e ta il sto r e s -----------D rugstores-------------------------------------Book and sta tio n ery sto r e s----------Farm and garden supply sto r e s -----Jewelry s to r e s ------------------------------Fuel and ice d e a lers--------------------R eta il trad e, not elsew here
c la s s if ie d -----------------------------------

53
531
532
533
534, 5, 9
54
541-3
544
545, 6, 9
55
551, 2
56
561
562
565
566
57
571
572, 3
58
59
591
594
596
597
598
592, 3, 5,
9

9 ,7 73 .0

100.0

Nonsupervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
90.8

539.9
1,968.8
1,250.6
124.9
319.9
1/256.7
1,538.3
1,365.2
1/ 28.3
1/142.7

5.5
20.1
12.8
1.3
3.3
2 /2 .7
15.7
14.0
2 /0 .3
2 /1 .5

86.0
92.0
91.9
93.9
93.6
(3)
92.9
92.8
(3)
(3)

1,470.0
737.8
665.5
111.2
246.6
109.6
129.3
421.8
272.0
1/148.0
2,063.8
1 ,105.4
420.1
1/ 54.9
95.7
1/ 67.1
109.0
1/340.1

15.0
7.5
6.8
1.1
2.5
1.1
1.3
4.3
2.8
2 /1 .6
21.1
11.3
4.3
2 /0 .6
1.0
2 /0 .7
1.1
2 /3 .6

(3)
85.5
90.0
90.6
90.6
92.7
87.1
88.0
87.9
(3)
93.4
(3)
91.1
(3)
(3)
(3)
87.0
(3)

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
44.3
15.5
69.0
68.5
62.5
80.7
(3)
33.3
30.5
(3)
(3)
10.7
10.2
65.4
37.9
88.9
69.6
34.8
28.8
29.5
(3)
57.3
43.8
58.2
(3)
18.2
(3)
16.6
(3)

IV Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the combined r e ta il trade major industry groups.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
21

segment— and drinking places. The vast majority
eating
of service workers were waiters and waitresses, cooks,
bartenders, and counter and fountain workers. Clerical
workers were important in all retailing sectors. Nearly
one-fifth were employed in food and dairy stores, where
labor requirements for cashiers were great. Ratios of
clerical workers were lowest in gasoline service stations
and in eating and drinking establishments. Because of




the small size of many owner-operated establishments in
these two industry sectors and the nature of the business
operations, relatively few secretaries, bookkeepers, and
other office workers were employed. The proportion of
professional and technical workers was high in drug
stores—
almost 26 percent, compared to less than 2
percent for all retail trade—
reflecting the employment of
many pharmacists.
97

Operatives accounted for over half of total employ­
ment in gasoline service stations, compared with a ratio
of 10 percent for the retail trade as a whole. In the
gasoline service station sector, almost all workers in this
occupation group were automotive service attendants.
Other important operative occupations in the retail trade
in 1960 included truckdriver, delivery man, and meat
cutter. A majority of all craftsmen in the retail trade
were mechanics and repairmen. Most mechanics and
repairmen were motor vehicle mechanics, largely
employed by motor vehicle and accessories establish­
ments.
The personal nature of retailing activities is likely to
insulate the industry’s occupational structure during the
next decade from substantial changes resulting from
technological innovations. Notwithstanding, the reper­
cussions of such technological developments and the
relatively moderate occupational changes that are
expected to occur in retailing by 1975 are likely to
result more from changes in operating methods than
changes in technology. A significant decline is expected
in the ratio of managers, officials, and proprietors.
Establishment size will continue to grow during the
coming decade. As retailing sales increase and multiunit
(chain) organizations become more prevalent, large
establishments will require relatively fewer managers and
a higher proportion of paid workers such as cashiers.
Self-service, central check-out operations, already widely

98




used in food and limited price variety retailing, are being
adapted by other types of retail establishments— as
such
drug and clothing stores. Greater use of this method of
operation should increase the relative proportion of
clerical workers (cashiers) at the expense of sales
workers.
Despite some adverse employment effects of auto­
matic vending, the proportion of service workers is
expected to increase as sales volume in eating and
drinking establishments continue to increase, and limited
price variety stores increase their food service opera­
tions.
Craftsmen are expected to increase as a proportion of
total employment. The anticipated growth will result
primarily from an increase in the proportion of
mechanics and repairmen, especially motor vehicle
mechanics, employed in motor vehicle and accessories
establishments. These establishments are expected to
increase their share of the automative service market
(relatively to gasoline service stations and other service
outlets) because of the advent of long term car war­
ranties that tend to tie customers to new car dealerships,
and an increase in the number of automobiles in use.
The ratio of meat cutters is expected to decline. More
meat cutting will be performed at specialized central
locations, and personnel other than butchers will be used
to weigh, price, and wrap meats.

FINANC E, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 104

Although banking experienced the largest increase in
total employment, its rate of increase was slowed by the
expanding application of computers and related equip­
ment to record keeping operations. Employment in each
of the three remaining major industry groups—
insurance
carriers; real estate; and other finance, insurance, and
real estate establishments rose by roughly one-tenth.
Finance, insurance, and real estate activities have
expanded markedly with the postwar industrial and
population growth. Between 1950 and 1963, for
example, the amount of life insurance in force increased
from $234 billion to $731 billion, while the value of
property and casualty insurance premiums written rose
from $6.9 billion to about $17 billion. During the same
period, commercial bank checking accounts rose about
two-fifths and the dollar value of their loans more than
tripled. Since World War II, significant increases also
have occurred in the volume of consumer credit out­
standing and in the annual market value of securities
sold. Assets of savings and loan associations increased,
and because of the expansion in homebuilding, these
additional funds found ready loan outlets. The increased
volume of homebuilding and other construction
activities also led to an increase in the number and size
of real estate firms.
Manpower requirements in finance, insurance, and
real estate establishments are expected to increase by
approximately one-fifth between 1966 and 1975, rising
from 3.1 million to about 3.7 million. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) Employment will be stimulated by the same
factors that influenced its growth during the postwar
period. Increases will be slower than in the past decade,
however, primarily because of the spreading use of
electronic data processing equipment. However, these
innovations will not affect employment equally in each
of the major industry groups within this industry divi­
sion.
In banking, technological change is expected to be a
significant factor in limiting the growth of employment
requirements, but not to the same extent that it has in
104
SIC Division G. The division comprises establishmentsrecent years. Although insurance establishments are
operating primarily in the fields of finance, insurance, and real
estate. Finance includes banks and trust companies, credit already extensively penetrated by modern equipment,
agencies other than banks holding companies (but not predomi­ future employment growth is expected to continue to be
nantly operating), other investment companies, brokers and slowed as ADP equipment is introduced into new areas.
dealers in securities and commodity contracts, and security and The remaining major industry groups have experienced

Current Employment
More than 3.1 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the finance, real estate, and insurance
industry division in 1966. (See table 39.) Insurance
accounted for three-eighths of all employment in this
division; banking accounted for more than one-fourth;
and nearly one-fifth were employed in the real estate
industry. Most of the remaining workers were in two
major industry groups— agencies other than banks;
credit
and security and commodity brokers, dealers, exchanges
and services.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for 80 percent of
total employment in finance, insurance, and real estate
in 1966. The proportion of nonsupervisory workers
ranged from 70 percent in insurance (excluding non­
office salesmen) to 88 percent in security dealers and
exchanges.
Women workers accounted for half of employment in
finance, insurance, and real estate establishments, their
proportion ranging from 32 percent in security dealers
to 61 percent in banking.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in finance, insurance, and real estate
establishments increased from nearly 1.8 million in 1947
to over 3.1 million in 1966, or by about three-fourths.
This rate of increase was almost twice as great as the rate
of growth in nonagricultural employment over the same
period.
Between 1958 and 1966,105 employment growth
rates varied widely among the major industry groups in
this division. Employment increased by about one-half
in two major industry groups— agencies other than
credit
banks; and security and commodity brokers, dealers,
exchanges, and services. Employment rose by about
one-third in both the banking industry and in the
insurance agents, brokers, and insurance service industry.

commodity exchanges. Insurance covers carriers of all types of
insurance, and insurance agents and brokers. Real estate includes
owners, lessors, lessees, buyers, sellers, agents, and developers of
real estate.




105
BLS employment (payroll) data for most finance,
insurance, and real estate industry groups are not available for
the years prior to 1958.

99

SIC
Code
G
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

Table 39, D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Finance, Insurance,
and Real E state D iv isio n , by Major Industry Group, 1966
(In thousands)
Non­
Wage and salary
Women
supervisory workers as
workers
as
Industry
Number Percent workers of percent of
percent
d i s t r i ­ employment, emp 1oymen t ,
bution
by industry by industry
Finance, insurance, and real
e s ta te --------------------------------------------- 3 ,1 02 .0
100.0
79.9
50.2
83.4
Banking-------------- ----------------------------- 823.1
26.5
61.2
C redit agencies other than
banks-------------------------------------------- 335.0
10.8
53.8
79.7
Security dealers and exchanges---- 140.7
88.0
4.5
32.3
70.4
Insurance c a r r ie r s------------------------- 909.8
29.3
49.3
Insurance agen ts, bankers, and
s e r v ic e ---------------------------------------- 239.2
7.7
(3)
56.2
Real e s ta te ------------------------------------- 573.2
18.5
(3)
35.5
Combination of real e s ta te ,
insurance, loan s, law o f f ic e s - - 1/50.7
2 /1 .7
(3)
(3)
Holding and other investm ent
2 /1 .0
companies------------------------------------ 1 /29.5
(3)
(3)

1J Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the industry d iv isio n .
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

relatively little mechanization to date. However, future by increasing use of computers and related equipment in
employment growth is expected to be limited somewhat repetitive clerical operations.
Finance106

Current Employment
three-fifths of the 823,100 wage and salary workers in
banking were
other
Over 1.3 million wage and salary workers were proportion ofwomen. Inworkersfinance industries, the
women
ranged from about
employed in the finance major industry groups in 1966.
(See table 40.) More than 6 out of 10 workers were
employed in banking institutions; about one-fourth
106
SIC
These
worked in credit agencies other than banks, and the institutions that are60,61,62,inand 67. bankingmajor groups comprise
engaged deposit
or closely related
remaining workers were employed either by security functions, including fiduciary activities; establishments engaged
of loans
dealers and exchanges or by holding and other invest­ in extending credit in the form engaged inbut not engaged in
deposit banking; establishments
underwriting, pur­
ment companies.
chase, sale, or brokerage of securities and other financial
Nonsupervisory workers account for a high propor­ contracts their own account
tion of wage and salary workers in finance. In 1966, exchanges,onclearing houses andor for the account of others and
other services allied with the
they accounted for nearly 9 out of 10 workers employed exchange of securities and commodities; and investment trusts,
by security dealers and exchanges and more than 8 out investment companies, holding companies, and commodity
of 10 workers in banking and credit agencies other than trading companies. employment in SIC 67, Holdings and
Discussion includes
banks.
Other Investment Companies, included in the IndustryWomen workers accounted for a large share of the Occupational patterns in table 40, and volume IV, appendix G,
work force in the finance industry. In 1966, more than as part of the Finance segment of the Major Industry Division.
100




Table 40. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in
Major Industry Groups, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
Industry
d is tr i­
bution

SIC
Code
60, 61, 62,
67
60
61
612
614
611, 3, 5,
6
62
67

the Finance
Nonsupervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

F inance-------------------------------------------- 1 /1 ,3 2 8 .3
Banking-------------------------------------------823.1
C redit agencies other than banks335.0
Savings and loan a sso c ia tio n s-96.3
Personal cred it in s titu tio n s ---180.0

100.0
62.0
25.2
7.2
13.6

(4)
83.4
79.7
80.8
(4)

(4)
61.2
53.8
63.3
(4)

Other cred it a g en cies---------------Security dealers and exchanges---Holdings and other investm ent
companies------------------- ----------------

2 /5 8 .9
140.7

3 /4 .5
10.6

(4)
88.0

2 /29.5

3 /2 .3

(4)

(4)
32.3
(4)

1/ Includes March benchmark data for SIC 67.
Benchmark data for March 1966.
3/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the industry group.
4 / Data are not a v a ila b le.
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
2/

one-third in security dealers and exchanges to over
three-fifths in savings and loan associations.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the finance major industry groups
rose from about 1 million in 1959107 to 1.3 million in
1966, an increase of approximately 33 percent. This
increase occurred despite the advancing automation of
banking and other financial operations. In banking,
where the majority of finance workers are employed,
employment rose sharply to service the needs of a
growing population and activities associated with
increases in personal and corporate income. For
example, between 1951 and 1964, the total number of
checks handled by the Federal Reserve System more
than doubled. In addition, banks have introduced many
new services and expanded old ones such as accepting
payment for utility bills, reconciling business checking
accounts, and expanding branch office facilities.
107 BLS employment (payroll) data are not available for all
finance major industry groups for the years prior to 1959.




Manpower requirements in finance are expected to
advance over one-third between 1966 and 1975, to
nearly 1.8 million. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Many
of the past trends responsible for the growth in finance
activity and employment are expected to continue
through the mid-1970’s. Factors such as an increasing
population, rising income levels, growing use of credit,
and, in banking, the increasing popularity of personal
checking accounts, are expected to contribute to
employment growth in the finance industry. Differences
in the rates of employment expansion are expected
among the finance major industry groups because the
growth in demand varies from sector to sector, and new
technology has a greater impact on some sectors than
others. For example, despite the growing use of com­
puters and other laborsaving devices in credit agencies,
manpower requirements in these establishments are
expected to increase over the next decade by more than
half; rising from about 335,000 to 510,000 because of
the continuing rapid growth in the use of personal and
business credit. On the other hand, manpower require­
ments in banking are expected to increase slower—
about
one-third— 823,100 to nearly 1.1 million. The
from
101

increasing use of electronic data processing equipment
by banks will tend to moderate employment growth in
this sector.
Occupational Structure
The complicated financial transactions of today’s
business world require the services of hundreds of
thousands of white-collar workers. In 1960, (see volume
IV, appendix G), white-collar workers accounted for
more than 9 out of 10 workers employed108 in finance.
More than three-fifths were clerical workers employed as
tellers; stenographers, typists, and secretaries; book­
keepers; office machine operators; or “other clerical
workers,” such as account analysts, board operators,
safety deposit clerks, telephone quotation clerks,
transfer clerks, messengers, and pneumatic tube men.
Managers, officials, and proprietors accounted for
more than one-fourth of the workers in finance, re­
flecting the relatively large number of financial establish­
ments, including branch banks and investment establish­
ments.
Professional and technical personnel and sales
workers, combined, made up less than 5 percent of the
work force in finance in 1960. By far, the highest
proportions of these workers were employed by stock
brokers and other investment companies. Included in the
sales group are stock and bond salesmen, as well as
“representatives” and agents of brokerage and invest­
ment firms. The professional and technical group
includes a substantial proportion of accountants and
auditors, the remainder being employed in occupations
such as lawyers, and economists and statisticians who do
industry and other types of economic analyses.
The effects of most of these technological develop­
ments will be felt primarily by workers in the clerical
occupational group. In banking, EDP is expected to be
extended to additional functions, including consumer
credit, check account reconciliation, and customer pay­
roll activities. This should add to the volume of banking
business with little increase in requirements for clerical
workers. likewise, the use of checks coded with
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition numerals should
permit banks to handle a substantially greater number of
checks without a corresponding increase in the need for
108 Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

102




bookkeepers and other clerical workers. In general,
declines in manpower requirements for clerical workers
in banking will be particularly sharp in occupations
concerned with check tabulation, sorting, and clearance;
account maintenance and statement preparation; and
other routine banking functions for which the applica­
tion of new automatic processing equipment is most
suited.
Increasing use of EDP in stock exchanges is expected
to reduce employment requirements for telephone quo­
tation clerks, messengers, floor reporters, and pneumatic
tube-men—
mostly occupations in the residual other
clerical workers classification. A central certificate
service that records each firm’s securities balances could
eliminate most transfer clerk positions by 1975. Board
operators also will be adversely affected as computers
are used increasingly to control the information on stock
quotation boards. On the other hand, the accelerating
use of computers in this industry should dramatically
increase the ratio of office machine operators such as
console and keypunch operators.
The higher capital requirements for trading opera­
tions and the need for expensive EDP equipment are
expected to cause the current trend toward merger and
consolidation of brokerage houses to continue. The
movement towards fewer but larger firms could culmi­
nate in a lower concentration of both clerical and
managerial workers in this industry sector by 1975. The
1975 outlook for managers and officials of banks
appears more promising. As banks continue to open new
branch offices and expand their volume of business and
customer services, requirements for bank officers in
areas requiring personal attention, such as credit, trusts,
and investment, should grow.
The proportions of professional and sales workers are
expected to increase in stock broker and investment
companies. Increasing capital demands by business and a
growing volume of security transactions should raise
employment requirements for stock brokers and sales­
men, as well as investment counselors and advisors.
Economists and analysts are among professional workers
most likely to benefit from the increasing emphasis
expected to be placed upon research in all fields of
investment activity. Accountants and auditors, however,
may not fare quite so well. Increasing use of integrated
EDP accounting systems and the greater accuracy of
such systems should cause the proportion of these
workers to decline somewhat by 1975.

Insurance109

Current Employment
Of the more than 1.1 million wage and salary workers
employed in the insurance major industry group in
1966, almost 910,000 were employed by insurance
carriers; the remaining 239,000 were employed by
insurance agents, brokers, and services establishments.
(See table 41.) Within the insurance carrier industry,
more than half of all wage and salary workers were
employed by life insurance firms.
Nonsupervisory workers accounted for 7 out of 10
employees in insurance carriers establishments. In the
life insurance industry group, the ratio of nonsuper­
visory workers was 58 percent, compared to about 86
percent in the accident and health insurance group, and
84 percent in the fire, marine, and casualty insurance
group.
Women workers accounted for slightly less than half
of the employment in insurance carrier establishments,
while in insurance agent, broker, and service firms, over
half the workers were women.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Insurance employment rose rapidly during the postWorld War II period, and since 1958, it increased by
about 150,000, to more than 1.1 million workers in
1966.110 During this 7-year period, employment in
insurance carrier establishments rose by about 12 per­
cent, while the numbers of workers in insurance agents,
brokers, and service establishments increased by about
29 percent.
Insurance sales and employment rose rapidly during
the post-World War II period, mainly because of a rising
population of persons aged 15 to 44— group which
the
accounts for most insurance sales. Other factors con­
tributing to this growth included rising personal income
and longer life expectancy.
Manpower requirements in insurance are expected to
grow to about 1.25 million by 1975, an increase of
about 125,000 workers. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
Employment growth will be stimulated by the same
factors that influenced growth in the insurance industry
during the post-World War II period. Employment,
however, is not expected to rise as fast as the growth in

insurance activity because the increasing use of com­
puters will moderate the demand for manpower.
Occupational Structure
Servicing the millions of insurance policies in force in
the United States requires a vast amount of paperwork
and occupies the time of hundreds of thousands of
clerical workers. Accordingly, nearly half of all workers
in the insurance major industry group in 1960 worked at
clerical jobs. (See volume IV, appendix G.) About half
of these workers were secretaries, stenographers, and
typists; operators of bookkeeping and other office
machines; or accounting clerks. Other clerks, employed
mostly in home offices, had specialized jobs found only
in the insurance business such as policywriter, policy
change clerk, insurance checker, and claim adjuster.
Sales workers— key group in the insurance busi­
a
ness-accounted for one-third of the workers in the
insurance industry ini 960. Nearly all of these workers
were agents or brokers who sold policies directly to
individuals and business firms.
Over one-eighth of all workers were employed as a
manager, official, or proprietor, reflecting, in part, the
large number of branch offices maintained by insurance
companies, and the prevalence of independent insurance
brokerage firms. Managers employed in home offices
were usually company officials or administrators respon­
sible for policy issuance, accounting, investments, and
other office activities.
Of the relatively few professional and technical
workers employed by insurance firms in 1960, more
than 2 out of 5 were accountants and auditors who dealt
primarily with insurance company records and financial
problems relating to premiums, investments, and pay­
ments to policyholders.
Over the decade ahead, the expanding use of elec­
tronic data processing (EDP) and data transmission
equipment is expected to result in a moderate shift in
the occupational composition of the insurance industry.
Insurance companies now have electronic data proc­
essing for such high-volume tasks as premium billing and
accounting, reserve and commission accounting, and
dividend accounting. As more of these functions are
performed by EDP equipment, an increasing number of
firms will establish integrated EDP systems capable of
109 SIC 63 and SIC 64. These industry groups include handling a large number of operations through a single
insurance carriers of all types and agents and brokers dealing in master policy record contained in the computer file. As
insurance, and also organizations offering services to insurance
a result, clerical posting jobs will be reduced, fewer
companies and to policy holders.
control audits wil) be required, and separate records
0
BLS employment (payroll) data for the major industry
group are not available for the years prior to 1958.
eliminated.
103




Table 41. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Insurance
Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
SIC
Code
63
631
632
633
635, 6, 9
64

Industry

(In thouis and s )
Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution

Insurance c a r r ie r s---------------------------L ife insurance------------------------------A ccident and health insurance----F ir e, marine, and casualty
insurance-----------------------------------Other insurance c a r r ie r s-------------Insurance agents, brokers, and
se r v ic e s------------------------------------------

909.8
486.6
60.1

100.0
53.5
6.6

322.2
1/41.9

35.4
2 /4 .7
100.0

239.2

Nonsupervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
70.4
58.1
86.4

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

84.3
(3)

55.5
(3)
56.2

(3)

49.3
42.1
70.4

1_/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
2/ Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

Data transmission systems will be increasingly used to
send information from field offices to home office
computer centers, or to link district computer centers.
The expanded use of such equipment is expected to
reduce the number of field office employees engaged in
recordkeeping functions without comparable increases in
requirements for home office personnel. Various reading
and sensing techniques will be used more widely in areas
such as premium collection. For example, check-writing
and handling operations are being coordinated with
magnetic ink character recognition systems similar to
those used by banks. These developments are designed
to reduce the amount of input preparation work.
In addition to improvements in data processing
techniques, insurance employment also will be affected
by changes in marketing methods and industry organi­
zation. For example, direct selling (using mail, adver­
tising, and company agents) is increasing, particularly in
the case of automobile lines. Direct premium billing by
the carrier’s home office is reducing agency record­

104




keeping, facilitating consolidation of records, and
reducing service costs per policy. Carrier consolidation
has been encouraged by changes in State regulatory laws
that now allow fire and casualty companies to write all
types of nonlife lines. Consolidated insurance companies
can service several lines of insurance, resulting in some
reduction in unit labor requirements.
Such developments are expected to result in a slightly
lower ratio of clerical workers by 1975. However,
divergent trends are expected among individual clerical
occupations. For example, the trend toward centralized
billing activity by means of EDP, and increasing reliance
on EDP for recordkeeping and other routine clerical
functions, is likely to reduce the ratio of workers such as
billing and accounting clerks, bookkeepers, insurance
checkers, and most filing and posting workers. Antici­
pated advances in the application of EDP could virtually
eliminate card tabulating departments from insurance
firms in the years ahead, precipitating a rapid decline in
the number of tabulating machine and electronic
accounting machine operators.

Real Estate111

Current Employment
About 573,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the real estate major industry group in
1966. (See table 42.) More than 8 out of 10 of these
workers were in operator or lessor establishments,
including operators of nonresidential and apartment
developments and lessors of real property such as farms
and forests; title abstract companies; or in agents,
brokers, or managers establishments. The remaining real
estate workers were employed either by operative
builders (firms engaged primarily in construction for sale
or for their own account) or by subdividers and
developers.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the real estate major industry group
increased from about 507,000 in 1958112 to 573,000 in
1966, or by 13 percent. This employment growth
resulted primarily from rising building activity, particu­
larly residential housing and commercial structures.
Housing activity was stimulated by the shift of families
from cities to suburbs and from rural to urbans areas;
rising personal income; and favorable credit terms,
resulting mainly from Government legislation such as
Veterans’ Administration (VA) and Federal Housing
Administration (FHA) home loan guarantees. Between
1958 and 1966, employment grew fastest in operative
builders, subdividers, and developers establishments.
Among the remaining real estate establishments, employ­
ment was relatively stable in the operators and lessors
group and increased somewhat in the agents, brokers,
and managers sector.
Between 1959 and 1966,113 employment in combi­
nations of real estate, insurance, loans, and law offices
dropped from about 57,000 to approximately 51,000.
This drop reflected, in large part, the shift of these
111 SIC 65 and 66. These major groups comprise real estate
operators and owners and lessors of real property ; title abstract
companies; buyers, sellers, developers, agents, and brokers; as
well as employment in establishments which are regularly
engaged in any combination of real estate, insurance, loans, or
the practice of law, where no one of these activities constitute
the principal business. This section discusses mainly employment
in real estate (SIC 65), which constitutes more than 90 percent
of total wage and salary employment in these major groups.
112
BLS employment (payroll) data for the real estate
major industry group are not available for the years prior to
1958.




activities into separate establishments specializing in real
estate, insurance, loans, or law.
Manpower requirements in the real estate industry are
expected to rise by about 13 percent between 1966 and
1975, rising from 573,000 to about 650,000. (See
volume IV, appendix B.) Employment growth will be
stimulated by the same factors that influenced its
growth during the post-war period. Technological change
is not expected to affect real estate employment growth
significantly through the mid-1970’s because of the
small size of the average real estate firm and because the
industry is service-oriented.
Little change in employment is expected in establish­
ments engaged in combination real estate, insurance,
loans, and law activities. Growth in real estate, insur­
ance, and other activities performed in these establish­
ments will be offset by greater separate specialization in
these services.
Occupational Structure
Sales workers are responsible for nearly all property
transactions. In 1960, they were the largest occupational
group in the real estate industry, accounting for about 3
out of 10 employees.114 (See volume IV, appendix G.)
Nearly all sales workers were employed as real estate
agents and brokers, and most specialized in residential
sales. This industry had an exceptionally large propor­
tion of managers, officials, and proprietors, a reflection
of the large number of small firms selling real estate.
About 1 out of 6 employees was a clerical worker. The
proportion (7 percent) of stenographers, typists and
secretaries to total employment was especially high
because of the prevalence of small firms, each usually
requiring at least one secretary or typist.
Many service workers were employed by real estate
management firms to clean and service apartment and
commercial buildings. Service occupations, such as jani­
tor and charwoman, accounted for a substantial majority
of employment in the service workers occupational
group.
Several developments in the industry are expected to
cause a substantial change in the occupational composi113 BLS employment (payroll) data for the combinations
of real estate, insurance, loans, and law offices major industry
group are not available for the years prior to 1959 (benchmark
data for March).
114 Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

105

Table 42. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Real Estate
Major Industry Groups, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)
Wage and salary
workers
Number
Percent
Industry
d is tr i­
bution

SIC
Code
65
651, 3, 4
655
656
66

Real e s ta te ---------------------------------------------------- 573.2
Real e s ta te , other 1 /------------------------------- 2/457.6
Subdividers and develop ers----------------------- 2/ 62.6
O perative b u ild ers-----------------------------------41.0
Combination of real e s ta te , insurance,
loans, and law o f f ic e s ........................................... 2 / 50.7

100.0
3/8 1 .1
3 /11.1
7.2
100.0

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
35.5
(4)
(4)
13.9
(4)

1/ Includes real e sta te operators (except developers) and lesso rs (651); agen ts, brokers,
and managers (653); and t i t l e a b stract companies (654).
2/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
3V Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
4 / Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

tion by 1975. The proportion of service workers will
decline sharply over the next decade as growing numbers
of real estate firms contract out much of the mainte­
nance and service activities presently performed by their
own employees. Accordingly, the industry’s require­
ments for janitors, charwomen, and other service
workers will be reduced.
On the other hand, the percentage of sales workers is
expected to rise considerably because a growing popula­
tion and an expanding economy stimulate a strong
demand for housing and a wide variety of commercial
structures. High population mobility, continuing migra­
tion to metropolitan areas, and increasing urban renewal
activity all are expected to spur continued increase in
real estate business activity.
The growing number of persons in both the 20 to 30
and over 60 age groups is expected to stimulate a strong

106




demand for apartment housing over the decade ahead
and cause the proportion of apartment and building
managers to increase.
Electronic data processing and other new types of
office machines are likely to be used increasingly over
the next decade in the real estate industry, particularly
in large firms. The laborsaving effects of such technologi­
cal innovations will undoubtedly slow the employment
growth of such clerical occupations as billing clerk,
bookkeeper, tabulating machine operator, and other
routine clerical jobs. However, the ratio of most clerical
occupations will increase somewhat by 1975 as addi­
tional workers—
particularly stenographers, typists, and
secretaries— required to handle the mounting paper­
are
work associated with a growing volume of real estate
activity.

SERVICES AND M ISCELLANEOUS115

Current Employment
More than 9.5 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the services and miscellaneous industries
division in 1966. (See table 43.) Medical and other
health services constituted almost one-fourth of total
wage and salary employment; miscellaneous business
services accounted for 13 percent; and personal and
educational services each accounted for more than 10
percent. Other major industry groups having significant
numbers of workers were hotels and other lodging
places, legal services, motion pictures, and miscellaneous
services. Most of the remaining workers were employed
in automobile repair services; miscellaneous repair
services; amusement and recreation services; museums,
art galleries, botanical and zoological gardens; private
households; and nonprofit membership organizations.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in the services and miscellaneous indus­
tries increased from almost 5.1 million in 1947 to over
9.5 million in 1966, or by about 85 percent. Employ­
ment growth resulted primarily from increases in popula­
tion, rapid rise in personal disposable income, expanding
economic activity, and growing demand for services that
add to people’s convenience and comfort.

115 SIC Division H, 07-09, and 99. This classification
includes establishments primarily engaged in rendering a wide
variety of services to individuals and business establishments.
Hotels and other lodging places, and establishments providing
personal, business, repair, and amusement services; medical,
legal, engineering and other professional services; educational
institutions; nonprofit membership organizations, and other
miscellaneous services are included. Also included are establish­
ments primarily engaged in performing agricultural, animal
husbandry, and horticultural services on a fee or contract basis;
commercial hunting and trapping, and the operation of game
preserves; and establishments primarily engaged in the operation
of timber tracts, forest nurseries, and related activities. Commer­
cial fishing, the operation of oyster farms, the tonging and
dredging of oysters, the gathering of sponges, seaweed, etc., and
the operation of fish hatcheries or fishing preservies, as well as
nonclassified establishments, also are included.
Because of differences between the industrial classification
used in the Census of Population and BLS wage and salary data,
employment in establishments primarily engaged in performing
agricultural, animal husbandry, and horticultural services on a
fee or contract basis (except grist mills) also is included in the
discussion of agricultural employment, including the distribution
of employment by occupational group and major occupation.
116 BLS employment (payroll) data are not available for all
major industry groups for the years prior to 1958.




Between 1958 and 1966,116 employment grew in all
but one of the services and miscellaneous industries
division major industry groups. Miscellaneous business
services, the fastest growing major industry group,
increased by more than 90 percent over this period, as
rising levels of business activity spurred increased expend­
itures by business firms on such services as management
consulting, research and development work, consumercredit reporting, building maintenance, and advertising.
In medical and other health services, employment
increased by more than three-fifths, primarily reflecting
the expanding population and its increasing proportion
of very young and very old people— groups most in
the
need of medical care— an increase in expenditures
and
for health and medical care. Employment in miscella­
neous services grew by more than one-half; educational
services by more than two-fifths; legal services by more
than two-fifths; and hotels and other lodging places by
nearly 30 percent. Personal services grew moderately by
about one-sixth, while motion picture employment
decreased about 4 percent.
Between March 1959 and March 1966,117 employ­
ment in miscellaneous repairs services and amusement
and recreation services each grew by more than onefourth, automobile repair employment by about twofifths, and nonprofit membership organizations by
one-sixth. During the same period, employment in
museums and art galleries grew much faster— about
by
three-fourths.
Manpower requirements in the services and miscella­
neous industries division are expected to increase from
over 9.5 million in 1966 to nearly 13 million in 1975, or
approximately 36 percent. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
Factors that will contribute to the rapid increase in
employment requirements include continuing popula­
tion gains; expanding interest in preventive medicine and
rehabilitation of the handicapped; and the more fre­
quent use of beauty parlors, restaurants, and other
services by families and individuals as income levels rise
and leisure-time increases; and as a growing number of
housewives take jobs outside the home.
Growth in employment requirements in educational
services is expected to be especially rapid (more than
one-half) as more young people attend schools at all
levels. Expanding Government assistance to vocational
and adult education, youth, the disadvantaged, and the
unemployed also will increase the need for workers in
117
BLS employment (payroll) data are not available for
the years prior to 1959 (benchmark data for March).

107

Table 43. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Services and
M iscellaneous In d u stries D iv isio n , by Major Industry Group, 1966
(In thousands)
SIC
Code
H, 07-09, 99
70
72
73
75
76
78
79
80
81
82
84
86
89
07-09
99

Industry

Wage and salary
workers
Number
Percent
d istr ib u tio n
9 ,5 4 5 .0
100.0
684.6
7.2
10.6
1,012.9
12.8
1,220.2

S erv ices, t o t a l-------------------------------------------------H otels, rooming houses, camps and other
lodging p la ces--------------------------------------------Personal se r v ic e s------------------------------------------M iscellaneous business s e r v ic e s------------------Automobile rep a ir, autom obile serv ices and
garages-------------------------- - ---------------------------1/334.5
M iscellaneous repair se r v ic e s ---------------------1/161.2
190.2
Motion p ic tu r e s----------------------------------------------Amusement and recreation serv ices except
1/366.4
motion p ic tu r e s------------------------------------------Medical and other health s e r v ic e s---------------- 2,206.5
Legal s e r v ic e s-----------------------------------------------190.3
968.1
Educational se r v ic e s -------------------------------------Museums, art g a lle r ie s , botanical and
zo o lo g ica l gardens-------------------------------------- 1/ 13.8
N onprofit membership o rgan ization s-------------- 1 /1 ,4 4 7 .4
M iscellaneous se r v ic e s----------------------------------488.5
A gricultural s e r v ic e s ,fo r e s tr y , fis h e r ie s -- 1/151.6
N o n cla ssifia b le estab lish m en ts--------------------- 1/ 21.0

2 /3 .6
2 /1 .7
2.0
2 /3 .9
23.1
2.0
10.1
2 /0 .1
15.6
5.1
2 /1 .6
2 /0 .2

1/ Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the industry d iv isio n .

21

Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.

educational services. Manpower requirements in business
services of all kinds also are expected to grow rapidly as
business firms rely increasingly on specialists to handle
such functions as advertising, accounting, and mainte­
nance. Technological developments are not expected to
limit employment growth in these industries signifi­
cantly because of the person-to-person nature of much

of the work performed in service establishments. In ad­
dition, many of the establishments are small and have
limited investment potential, a factor likely to slow the
introduction of laborsaving technological innovations.
However, clerical workers will probably be affected
somewhat by the increasing use of laborsaving office
machines and data processing equipment by small firms.

Hotels, Rooming Houses, Camps, and Other Lodging Places118

Current Employment
Approximately 685,000 wage and salary workers
were employed in the hotels, rooming houses, camps,
and other lodging places major industry group in 1966.

(See table 44.) Almost 9 out of 10 of these workers were
employed by hotels, motels, or tourist courts. The
remaining employees worked in rooming and boarding
houses, trailer parks and camps, and organization hotels
and lodging places run on a membership basis.
118
SIC 70. This major group includes commercial establish­ Nonsupervisory workers accounted for 94 percent of
ments and institutions engaged in furnishing lodging, or lodging employment in hotels, motels, and tourist courts. About
and meals, camping space and camping facilities, on a fee basis. half of the workers in this industry sector were women.
108




Table 44. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the H otels,
Rooming Houses, Camps, and Other Lodging P laces Major
Industry Group, by Industry, 1966

SIC
Code
70
701
702-4

Industry
H otels and lodging p la c e s---------------H otels, to u r ist cou rts, and
m otels----------------------------------------Other lodging p la c e s---------------------

Wage and salary
workers
Number Percent
d is tr i­
bution
684.6

100.0

610.1
1 /56.2

89.1
2 /8 .9

Nonsupervisory
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry

(3)
93.6
(3)

(3)
49.3
(3)

Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3 / Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual items may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
\_ /

2 !

anticipation of a heavy influx of travelers— will
also
stimulate employment. Technological change is not
Employment in the hotels, rooming houses, camps, expected to limit employment growth significantly in
and other lodging places major industry group increased this major industry group through the mid-1970’s, since
by more than one-third between 1947 and 1966, rising the personal nature of many of the services performed
from 506,000 to 685,000. Most of the employment does not lend itself to mechanization. However, employ­
growth occurred during the 1958-66 period. Employment ment requirements for clerical workers and kitchen
grew by about 29 percent in hotels, tourist courts, and helpers will be adversely affected by mechanical aids.
motels during this period. Although the number of
hotels decreased by about 22 percent between 1958 and
1963, this decline was more than offset by an increase in Occupational Structure
the number of motels. This trend was reflected similarly
in employment— employment declined by 10
hotel
Reflecting the personal nature of much of the work
percent and motel employment increased 27 percent performed in the industry, service workers accounted for
over the 1958-63 period.
nearly three-fifths of total employment119 in the hotels,
Manpower requirements in this major industry rooming houses, camps, and other lodging places major
group are expected to rise to about 820,000 in 1975, an industry group in 1960. (See volume IV, appendix G.)
increase of almost 20 percent. (See volume IV, appendix
Waiters and waitresses, and cooks were the two
B.) The anticipated employment growth will result largest service occupations, although they accounted for
partly from increasing travel associated with higher levels only about one-fifth of all service workers. Another large
of business activity, expanding population, greater per­ group of service workers were employed in the house­
sonal income, and more leisure time. In addition, keeping occupations. Maids, porters, housemen, and
employment expansion will be stimulated by the greater linen room attendants were among workers assigned to
variety of hotel services and accommodations; for “back of the house” jobs to make beds, clean rooms and
example, conferences and banquet services, recreational halls, move furniture, hang draperies, and provide
facilities such as tennis courts and swimming pools, guests with fresh linens and towels. Women were usually
weekend entertainment programs, shuttle services, and employed for the lighter housekeeping tasks, whereas
vacation “packages” offered in conjunction with trans­
portation companies. Greater use of “Instant hotels” 119
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
low cost mobile units that can be quickly placed in w ell as wage and salary workers.
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook




109

men had jobs requiring more strenuous physical effort,
such as washing walls and arranging furniture.
In most hotels, a uniformed staff, including bellmen,
doormen, and elevator operators, performed services in
the lobby. Other types of service occupations common
in the industry were bartender, barber, beauty salon
operator, recreation worker, detective, valet, and various
helpers. The personal nature of the services rendered by
lodging establishments and the considerable number of
smaller motels and other accomodations managed and
operated with little paid help is reflected in the high
concentration of managerial workers— than onemore
fifth of the workers in the industry. In addition to a
general manager in charge of overall operations, most
larger hotels employed management specialists in such
areas as food service, sales, credit, purchasing, front
office, and clerical operations. About 1 out of 10
workers in the lodging industry in 1960 was a clerical
worker. About half of hotel clerical workers were front
office employees working at jobs such as room clerk,
key clerk, mail clerk, and information clerk. The
remainder, mainly women, were employed in a variety
of office occupations, including telephone operator,
cashier, and secretary. The combined total of profes­
sional, blue-collar, and sales workers represented less
than 10 percent of the workers in the major industry.
The largest occupations within this group were account­
ants, entertainers, maintenance mechanics and repair­
men, and laundry and drycleaning operatives.
About 4 out of 5 workers in this major industry
group performed service or management functions that
may be aided, but not substituted for, by machines.
Accordingly, technological change is not expected to
have a significant impact on the industry’s occupational
structure through the mid-1970’s. Clerical workers doing

routine office tasks are among workers most likely to be
affected by mechanical aids. The use of electronic data
processing equipment and other types of office machines
is now widespread in this industry and is expected to
increase further. Technological developments will be a
contributing factor in an expected decline in the
proportion of service workers. For example, the increas­
ing use of automatic dishwashing equipment, vegetable
cutters and peelers, and other mechanical kitchen
equipment will continue to limit requirements for
kitchen helpers. Elevator operators will decrease as a
proportion of total employment as self-service elevators
are more widely used. On the other hand, an expanding
population, traveling more frequently for both business
and pleasure, is expected to create a greater demand for
lodging facilities. The resulting employment gain should
cause service occupations that represent relatively fixed
labor costs (janitor, elevator operator, and detective, for
instance) to decline relatively or grow more slowly than
service occupations (maid, waiter, and waitress) which
represent variable labor costs that are more closely
associated with levels of room occupancy. Thus, the
ratios of many variable cost service occupations will
increase while the proportions of many fixed-cost
occupations will decline. Craftsmen engaged in mainte­
nance activities also will increase as a percentage of total
employment. The ratio of mechanics and repairmen is
expected to continue to grow as demands increase for
skilled workers to cope with the rising maintenance
requirements of modern facilities, such as air condition­
ing and swimming pools, now offered by many hotels
and motels. Among professional workers, the trend
towards chain and larger service oriented lodging facili­
ties should increase the proportion of workers such as
entertainers and recreation specialists.

Miscellaneous Business Services12 0

More than 1.2 million wage and salary workers were
employed in the miscellaneous business services major
industry group in March 1966. (See table 45.) About
two-thirds were employed in “other business services”
establishments.121 Establishments furnishing services to
buildings accounted for about 16 percent of total
employment, and advertising establishments employed
about 9 percent. The remaining workers were employed
in establishments providing services such as consumer

120 SIC 73. This major group includes establishments
rendering services not elsewhere classified to business enterprises
on a fee or contract basis.
110




credit and mercantile reporting, and adjustment and
collection.
Women workers accounted for 34 percent of total
employment in miscellaneous business services in 1966.
In the consumer credit reporting and collection agency
121
Includes the following industries: news syndicates;
private em ploym ent agencies; duplicating, addressing, blue­
printing, photocopying, mailing, mailing list, and stenographic
services; and business services n.e.c. (establishments engaged in
research, developm ent, and testing on a commercial basis;
business management and consulting and other business services,
such as airplane rental, photographic developing, and finger­
printing.)

Table 45. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the M iscellaneous
Business Services Major Industry Group, by Industry, 1966
(In thousands)

SIC
Code
73
731
732
734
733,

Wage and salary
workers
Industry
Number
Percent
d is tr i­
bution
100.0
M iscellaneous business s e r v ic e s---------------- 1,2 20 .2
A dvertising----------------------------------------------111.9
9.2
Consumer cred it reporting and c o lle c 68.4
5.6
tio n a g en cies---------------------------------------2 /1 6 .4
Services to b u ild in g s------------------------------ 1/194.0
5, 6, 9 Other business s e r v ic e s -------------------------- 1/810.3
2/68.5

Women
workers as
percent of
employment,
by industry
34.1
39.2
71.5
(3)
(3)

IV Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.
3/ Data are not a v a ila b le .
Note: Individual item s may not add to to ta ls because of the in clu sio n of benchmark data
and/or rounding.
2 /

industry sector, women workers represented about 72
percent of total employment, compared to 39 percent in
advertising establishments.
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook

Employment in the miscellaneous business services
major industry group increased from 700,000 in 1959 to
1.2 million in 1966,122 or by nearly three-fourths.
During this period, employment more than doubled in
the services to buildings group and increased by 90
percent in “other business service” industry group.
Employment' in credit bureaus and collecting agencies
also expanded moderately (36 percent) over the 1959-66
period. In the advertising industry segment, employment
grew much less rapidly-by only about 6 percent.
Employment trends varied within the rapidly growing
other business services sector between 1959 and 1963.
An estimated employment rise of two-thirds occurred in
research and development laboratories in response to a
general increase in research and development activity.
Employment in business and management consulting
firms also increased by about two-thirds, primarily
because of the growing complexity of business opera­
tion. On the other hand, employment in news syndi­
cates is believed to have declined slightly because, in
part, of improvements in communications and transpor­
tation.

Manpower requirements in the miscellaneous business
service major industry group are expected to rise from
1.2 million in 1966 to 1.8 million in 1975, an increase of
about 50 percent. (See volume IV, appendix B.) This
rapid rise of employment needs is expected mainly
because of factors related to rising levels of business
activity. For example, employment growth in establish­
ments furnishing services to buildings is expected to be
very rapid as a result of increases in the number of
commercial buildings, and the trend towards contract
services for window washing, floor waxing, office
cleaning, and other janitorial services. Employment in
consumer credit reporting and collection agencies also is
expected to grow very rapidly as population and income
rise.
Occupational Structure

Workers in the managerial and the professional
occupational groups together accounted for about onethird of total employment123 in the miscellaneous
business services major industry group in 1960. (See
volume IV, appendix G.) This high occupational concen­
tration mirrored the relatively small size of establish­
ments in this industry and the importance of specialized
engineering, technical, and managerial services in
research, development, and testing laboratories, and

Including self-employed and unpaid fam ily workers, as
122
BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data (benchmark) for all 123
well as wage and salary workers.
industry groups are not available for years prior to 1959.




Ill

business and management consulting firms. To support
the professional staffs, large numbers of clerical workers
also were employed in this industry. Many of these
clerical workers were employed in typical office occupa­
tions such as stenographers, secretaries, and typists, but
many others were employed in clerical specialties such as
media clerks, agents, and collectors.
Occupational structures differed substantially among
the two sectors of the miscellaneous business services
major industry group. The proportion of service workers
was much higher in the other business services sector,
due primarily to the greater demand for cleaning and
maintenance workers in establishments providing
services to buildings. Also, reflecting the greater diversity
of services which it provides, the other business services
sector used significantly larger proportions of most
blue-collar occupations. The proportions of both
managers, officials, and proprietors and sales workers
were much larger in the advertising segment because of
the particular nature of the services provided, the small
firm size, and the importance of sales and promotional
work in this industry,
Service workers, mainly guards and watchmen, and
cleaning and janitorial personnel, represented about 1
out of 7 workers. Because of the personal nature of
business services, craftsmen and operatives accounted for
less than one-fifth of the industry’s work force. Most
operatives were in the residual “other” operative classifi­
cation and performed various jobs ranging from placing
advertising signs on public transit vehicles to extermi­
nating household pests.

Because of the small size of establishments in this
industry and the personal nature of the services
rendered, technological innovations are not expected to
have a significant impact on the industry’s occupational
structure during the next 10 years. However, the rapid
growth of businesses providing electronic data processing
services seems likely to cause some shifts within the
industry’s clerical occupational structure. Office
machine operators are expected to increase their relative
position at the expense of other clerical workers, some
of whom perform routine jobs readily adaptable to ADP
equipment. On balance, however, the ratio of clerical
workers should increase slightly.
Despite the minimal effect of technology, other
trends in the industry are expected to cause substantial
shifts in the miscellaneous business service’s occupa­
tional structure during the decade ahead. For instance,
the proportion of professional and technical workers—
particularly engineers and technicians— expected to
is
increase considerably as rising research and development
expenditures by both business and government benefit
firms that provide research, development, and testing
facilities. On the other hand, managers, officials, and
proprietors should decline relatively, primarily because
of a sharp drop in the proportion of managers in the
other business services sector, where the number of
smaller firms is expected to be reduced by mergers and
by a decrease in the number of new firms entering the
businesses represented by this industry group.
Sign errectors and painters are among operatives and
craftsmen in advertising who could be adversely affected
by the trend restricting the use of out-door advertising.

Automobile Repair, Automobile Services, and Garages12 4

Current E m ploym ent

Wage and salary workers totaled about 335,000 in
automobile repair, automobile services, and garages in
March 1966. (See table 46.) Almost 4 out of 5 workers
were employed in auto repair shops and establishments
providing auto services such as inspection, washing,
polishing, towing, and driving instruction. The remaining
124 SIC 75. This major group includes establishments
primarily engaged in furnishing automobile repair, rental, and
storage services to the general public.
125 BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data for this major industry
group are not available for the years prior to 1959 (benchmark
data for March).

112




employment was about equally divided between auto
parking and auto rental establishments.
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook

Employment in automobile repair, automobile
services, and garages increased from about 240,000 in
March 1959 to more than 335,000 in March 1966, or
approximately 40 percent.125 Employment increased
most rapidly— than doubling-in auto rental estab­
more
lishments, mainly because of increases in business and
pleasure travel which is accompanied by the growing
practice of renting and leasing motor vehicles. The
growing number and complexity of automobiles
accounted for a combined one-third increase in employ-

Table 46. D istrib u tio n of Wage and Salary Workers in the Automobile
R epair, Automobile S erv ices, and Garages Major Industry Group,
by Industry, 1966
( In thousands)
SIC
Code
75
751
752
753, 4

Industry
Automobile rep a ir, se r v ic e s, and garages-------------Automobile r e n ta ls, w ithout d riv ers------------------Automobile parking------------------------------------------------Automobile repair and se r v ic e s----------------------------

Wage and salary
workers
Percent
Number
d istrib u tio n
1/334.5
1/ 40.5
1/ 36.4
1/257.6

2/100.0
2/ 12.1
2/ 10.9
2/ 77.0

IV Benchmark data for March 1966.
Based on March 1966, to ta l employment in the major industry group.

2 /

Note: Because of rounding, sums of ind ividu al item s may not equal to ta ls .

ment in the automobile repair and services industries.
Between 1959 and 1965, automobile registrations in­
creased from about 59.6 million to 75.0 million, or by
26 percent.126 The trend toward increasingly complex
automobiles accelerated during the late 1950’s and early
1960’s because of the growing popularity of equipment
such as automatic transmissions, power steering, and air
conditioning.
Employment in auto parking establishments increased
only slightly—
about 10 percent—
between 1959 and
1966. This relatively slow rate of employment growth
resulted from the rapid increase in the number of
self-service parking lots and suburban shopping centers
offering free parking.
Employment requirements in automobile repair,
automobile services, and garages are expected to rise to
400,000 in 1975, an increase of nearly one-fifth. (See
volume IV, appendix B) Employment growth will
continue to respond primarily to the growing number
and complexity of automobiles.
Employment in establishments renting automobiles is
expected to increase by three-fourths between 1966 and
1975. The demand for rental automobiles will be
stimulated by increases in business and pleasure travel.
Air travel, a major factor in the demand for rental
automobiles, is expected to grow at a rapid pace.
In the auto repair and services industries, employ­
ment is expected to grow moderately over the next
decade. The increase will be less rapid than in the past
due, in part, to the greater emphasis on replacement
126 Automobile Facts and Figures,
M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c ia t io n , 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 8 .




1966,

A u to m o b ile

rather than repair of auto parts, and the introduction of
extended maintenance warranties that tend to tie buyers
of new automobiles to dealers for repair services. In
addition, employment growth will be somewhat limited
by increases in output per worker resulting from job and
repair shop specialization and the growing use of
laborsaving innovations such as dynamometers, engine
analyzers, pneumatic wrenches, transmission jacks, and
tire changers.
Despite an anticipated increase in the need for
parking facilities, employment requirements in parking
establishments is expected to grow slowly between 1966
and 1975. The continuing rapid increase in the number
of self-service parking operations together with the
popularity of shopping centers offering free parking will
limit employment.
Occupational Structure

Reflecting the complex and custom nature of motor
vehicle repair work, the automobile repair, automobile
services, and garages major industry group has the
highest proportion of skilled workers among the
Nation’s major industries (see volume IV, appendix G).
In 1960, close to 3 out of 5 workers127 in this major
industry group were craftsmen or foremen, most of
whom were motor vehicle mechanics. Operatives
accounted for about 1 out of 8 workers, the largest
proportion of them being auto service and parking
attendants. Most of the remaining blue-collar workers
were laborers such as car washers and tire changers.
12 7 Including self-employed and unpaid family workers, as
well as wage and salary workers.

113

Nearly two-thirds of the white-collar workers in this
major industry group in 1960 were managerial person­
nel, reflecting the large number of small automobile
repair shops. The proportion of professional and techni­
cal workers was very small, and most of these workers
were teachers in establishments offering driver training.
Technological developments, shifts in the size of
establishments, and growth pattern variations among
industries are ,the major factors expected to cause a
significant change in the industry’s occupational struc­
ture over the decade ahead. The most significant change
in the occupational structure is expected to be a decline
in the relative position of craftsmen. One reason for this
decline is the anticipated rapid growth in employment
requirements for automobile rental agencies, which
employ comparatively few mechanics and repairmen. In
addition, the spreading use of power and special purpose
tools and test equipment, such as dynamometers and
engine analyzers, may adversely affect the employment
growth of mechanics by reducing the time needed to
diagnose malfunctions and check the quality of repairs.
On the other hand, the relative position of diagnosticians

and mechanic specialists could improve. Increasing out­
put per mechanic resulting from the more widespread
use of laborsaving devices and improved operating
procedures will be offset to some extent by the greater
complexity of automobiles. During the next decade, a
growing proportion of automobiles is expected to be
equipped with air conditioners, power steering, crank­
case and exhaust emission control devices, and other
items that add to maintenance requirements and the
need for mechanics.
The proportion of managerial workers is likely to
decrease over the decade ahead. Automobile repair
establishments are expected to become increasingly
larger, multiunit operations having more paid employees
and relatively fewer managers. The proportion of
owner-operated shops is expected to continue to decline.
Conversely, the proportion of operatives is expected to
increase moderately, mainly because of the anticipated
rise in the average size of establishments specializing in
operations such as parking services, where semiskilled
workers account for a substantial share of total employ­
ment.

Miscellaneous Repair Services12 8

March 1959 to more than 161,000 in March 1966, or
almost one-third.130 Employment grew by one-fifth in
About 161,000 wage and salary workers were electrical repair shops and by more than one-third in
employed in the miscellaneous repair services major “other” miscellaneous repair services. Maintenance needs
industry group in March 1966. (See table 47.) Almost rose primarily from the growing stock of appliances,
one-third of all workers were employed in establish­ machinery, and other durable goods being utilized
ments primarily engaged in the repair of electrical throughout the economy. In addition, much of the
equipment such as home appliances, television sets, equipment also has increased in complexity, thus in­
radios, transformers, and electronic and electrical con­ creasing labor requirements.
trol equipment. The remaining workers were employed
Manpower requirements in the miscellaneous repair
in “other” miscellaneous repair services.129
services major industry group are expected to rise from
161,000 in March 1966 to 205,000 by 1975, an increase
of more than one-fourth. (See volume IV, appendix B.)
E m ploym en t Trends and O utlook
The increase in employment requirements will result
from increasing consumer
electrical goods,
Employment in the miscellaneous repair services including portable and colorpurchases ofstereophonic and
televisions,
major industry group increased from about 124,000 in transistor radios, video tape recorders, and household
appliances, and rising business expenditures for capital
12 8 SIC 76. This major group includes a miscellany o f repair
goods.
services performed by independent owner-operators or by very
Employment requirements in electrical repair shops
small shops.
are expected to grow moderately between 1966 and
129
Current E m ploym ent

Includes bicylc, leather goods, musical instruments,
farm machinery, business machine, reupholstery and furniture
repair shops; typewriter rental shops; and establishments
primarily engaged in the repair o f watches, clocks, and jewelry.

114




130 BLS em ploym ent (payroll) data (benchmark) are not
available for this major industry group for the years prior to
1959.

T ab le 4 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Wage and S a l a r y Workers in the M is c e lla n e o u s
R e p a ir S e r v i c e s Major In d u str y Group, by I n d u s t r y , 1966
(In th o u sa n d s)
SIC
Code

In d u str y

76
762
763, 4 , 9

1/
2/

Wage and s a l a r y
workers
P e rc e n t
Number
d istrib u tio n

M is c e ll a n e o u s r e p a i r s e r v i c e s ----------------------------E l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r s h o p s ----------------------------------Other m i s c e ll a n e o u s r e p a i r s e r v i c e s -----------------

1 / 1 6 1 .2
1/ 5 1 . 0
1 /1 1 0 .2

2 / 1 0 0 .0
2/ 3 1 .6
2 / 6 8 .4

Benchmark d a t a f o r March 1966.
Based on March 1966, t o t a l employment in the m ajor in d u s t r y g ro u p .

Note:

B ecause o f rou n din g , sums o f i n d i v i d u a l item s may not eq u al t o t a l s .

1975, or about 14 percent. The employment growth will
reflect an increase in the number of electrical products
in use such as radios, televisions, and phonographs; and
home appliances such as electric can openers, waste
disposals, and knife sharpeners. New consumer products,
such as home video tape recorders, as well as improved
styling and design of existing products, also will stimu­
late demand for repair services.
Employment requirements in “other” miscellaneous
repair shops are expected to grow by more than 40
percent between 1966 and 1975. Increases in the rental
and purchase of typewriters and various other business
machines will stimulate demand for repairmen. In
addition, growth in both the number and complexity of
machines used on farms will increase requirements for
farm equipment repairmen.
However, advances in technology, resulting in the
manufacture of products that can be sold at prices
competitive with the cost of repair, are expected to
somewhat slow growth in employment requirements in
this industry group.
Occupational Structure
Reflecting the high skill requirements of repair work,
the craftsmen occupational group accounted for about
three-fifths of all workers131 in the miscellaneous repair
services major industry group in 1960. (See volume IV,
appendix G.) The vast majority of these craftsmen were
mechanics and repairmen, nearly half of whom special­
ized in radio and television repairs. Other significant
mechanic and repairmen jobs included motor vehicle
mechanic, office machine mechanic, and other
131 Including self-employed and unpaid family workers as
well as wage and salary workers.




mechanics such as air conditioning and musical instru­
ment repairmen. Operatives accounted for less than
one-fifth of all employment in the industry. Welders and
flame cutters utilized widely for structural repair work
represented nearly half of the operative group.
White-collar workers, about half of whom were
managers, officials, or proprietors, made up about
one-fifth of total employment in this major industry
group. The relatively high proportion of workers in the
managerial group reflected the small size of most repair
shops. The majority of miscellaneous repair services
establishment have fewer than five employees; many are
operated by proprietors having no employees. The small
size of most of the establishments also is reflected in the
relatively low proportion of clerical workers (6 percent).
During the next decade, technological innovations are
not expected to significantly alter existing relationships
among occupational segments in the miscellaneous repair
services major industry group. Many of the services
offered by this industry, such as watch repairing and
reupholstering, are essentially performed by hand and
are custom in nature. In addition, the small size of many
repair shops tends to limit the extent to which laborsaving innovations can be introduced. Continuing in­
creases in research and development activities should
result in many new and improved products for both
industry and the consumer. Although many of these
products will be designed for more efficient repair, and
some of them may be less expensive to replace than to
repair, the growing number of products in use is
expected to more than offset these inhibiting forces and
cause a significant rise in the proportion of mechanics
and repairmen. Within the mechanics and repairmen
occupational group, the ratio of radio and television
servicemen is expected to gain considerably because of
115

anticipated strong consumer demands for electrical
products such as color televisions, stereophonic radios
and phonographs, and tape recorders.
Some skilled occupations, such as blacksmith and
jeweler and watchmaker, should account for a smaller
share of employment in this major industry by 1975.
Welders and other metal workers will continue to
displace blacksmiths in the competition for repairwork,

while watch repairmen will be adversely affected by the
increasing number of watches that can be sold at prices
competitive with the cost of repairs. Few other signifi­
cant changes are foreseen in the occupational structure
of this major industry group, although a trend toward
larger establishments seems likely to reduce the relative
position of proporietors and raise the percentage of
clerical workers.

Medical and Other Health Services13 2

Current Employment
Approximately 2.2 million wage and salary workers
were employed in the medical and other health services
major industry group in 1966. (See table 48.) About
two-thirds worked in hospitals. The remaining workers
were employed in establishments other than hospitals
that provided medical services, including medical and
dental laboratories; sanatoria, convalescent homes, and
rest homes; offices of doctors, dentists, and optome­
trists; establishments of registered nurses engaged in
independent practice; and associations providing medical
or other health services to their members.
Women workers accounted for 79 percent of total
employment in medical and other health service estab­
lishments in 1966. Women workers were more highly
concentrated in hospitals than in nonhospital establish­
ments.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in medical and other health services
establishments increased from nearly 1.4 million in 1958
to about 2.2 million in 1966, or by about threefifths.133 Factors affecting this growth were: expanding
population, including an increasing proportion of very
young and very old people who most need medical care;
rising expenditures for medical care; expanding medical
services resulting from new medical techniques and
drugs; growing interest in preventive medicine and the
rehabilitation of the handicapped; expanding medical
research on the cause and prevention of physical and
mental diseases; and the extension of medical insurance
plans.
132 SIC 80. This major group includes private establish­
ments primarily engaged in furnishing medical, surgical, and
other health services to persons.

116




Employment in hospitals increased by more than
one-half during the 1958-66 period, stimulated by such
factors as a rise in the number of hospital beds and
admissions; the rapid extension of hospital insurance
programs; advances in medical technology as, for ex­
ample, the introduction of electronic computer systems
that automate blood testing and other complex elec­
tronic devices used in hospitals; and the expansion of the
range and volume of services provided by hospitals.
Manpower requirements in the medical and other
health services major industry group are expected to rise
from about 2.2 million in 1966 to 3.4 million in 1975,
an increase of more than one-half. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) Manpower requirements will be stimulated
by the same factors as in the recent past. In addition, the
new Medicare program, provided by the Social Security
Admendments of 1965, will enable more persons to
receive medical care in hospitals and nursing homes.
Additional workers will be required to staff the newly
created community mental health centers currently
being built under the Mental Retardation Facilities and
Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of
1963. Health workers will be needed to help staff the
regional health centers provided by the Heart Disease,
Cancer, and Stroke Admendments of 1965. More expen­
ditures for medical research also will stimulate employ­
ment, particularly of professional and technical workers.
Employment in medical and health services outside of
hospitals is expected to increase by about two-thirds
during the 1966-75 period. This increase will result from
continuation of many of the factors that stimulated past
employment expansion in the medical and other health
services major industry group as a whole.
Manpower requirements in hospitals are expected to
increase by about three-fifths between 1966 and 1975.
133 BLS employment (payroll) data for this major industry
group are not available for years prior to 1958.

T a b le 48. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Wage and S a l a r y Workers in the M edical and
Other H ealth S e r v i c e s Major I n d u str y Group, by I n d u s t r y , 1966
(In th o u sa n d s)
SIC
Code

In d u s tr y

80
806
801, 2, 3,
4 , 7, 9

1/
2/
3/

Wage and s a l a r y
workers
Percent
Number
d istri­
b u tio n

W
omen
w orkers a s
percent of
employment,
by in d u s t r y

M edical and o th e r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ----------H o s p i t a l s ---------------------------------------------

2 ,2 0 6 .5
1 ,4 1 8 .5

10 0 .0
64.3

7 8 .7
8 1.0

Other h e a l t h s e r v i c e s --------------------------

1 / 760.1

2 /3 5 .4

(3 )

Benchmark d a t a f o r March 1966.
Based on March 1966, t o t a l employment in the m ajor in d u s t r y g rou p .
Data a r e not a v a i l a b l e .

Note:
I n d i v i d u a l item s may not add to t o t a l s b e c au se o f the i n c l u s i o n o f benchmark d a t a
a n d /o r roun ding.

acumen of medical teams of inter-dependent profes­
sional specialists. More than 2 out of 5 workers134 in
this major industry group in 1960 was engaged in a
professional, technical, or related occupation. (See
volume IV, appendix G.) The personal nature of the
services provided in the industry was evidenced by the
very high concentration of nurses (representing about 40
percent of all professional workers and more than
one-sixth of all workers), and physicians and surgeons.
Other support workers widely utilized included medical
and dental technicians, dentists, and chiropractors and
therapists.
About 1 out of 3 persons in medical and other health
services in 1960 was a service worker. The vast majority
were attendants, practical nurses, or other auxiliary
workers who contributed to the comfort and welfare of
patients. Workers in the residual services group included
kitchen workers, porters, and barbers. Clerical workers
accounted for nearly 1 out of 6 persons in the work
force. About one-third of the clerical workers were
stenographers, typists, and secretaries. The ratio of
managers, officials, and proprietors was not high, mainly
because many hospitals and other medical and health
service establishments employ administrators who are
professional workers such as doctors or nurses.
Relatively few blue collar workers are employed in
this industry, reflecting the service orientation of the
industry.
The occupational structure differed somewhat among
the two industry sectors. For example, ratios of profes­
134
Including self-employed and unpaid family workers and
government workers, as well as public and private wage and sional and related workers were substantially higher in
the other health services (except hospitals) sector than in
salary workers.
117

In addition to the employment growth expected as a
result of the increasing demand for hospital care,
increasing numbers of workers will be required to
operate new and improved instruments such as elec­
tronic flowmeters that regulate the flow of human blood
during heart-lung operations. Additional workers also
will be needed to help develop and dispense newly
discovered drugs such as antiblood-clotting agents, drugs
that reduce high blood pressure, and new psycho-active
drugs administered to mental patients. Furthermore, a
continuing reduction in hours worked would require
additional workers to maintain 24-hour hospital care. On
the other hand, certain new developments in medical
treatment, such as the use of antibiotics, will reduce the
need for hospitalization or shorten the length of a
patient’s stay in a hospital. Because these treatment
developments may reduce the amount of services pro­
vided per hospital patient, they may tend to moderate,
to some degree, the' growth in worker requirements
resulting from growing demand and technological
improvements.
Occupational Structure
As the center of all patient-care services, hospitals and
many other organizations providing medical and health
services have unique responsibilities. Their business is life
and death, and the difference often rests upon the




the hospitals sector. These differences were primarily
attributable to significantly higher ratios of physicians,
dentists, optometrists, and osteopaths in the other
health services segment, where private practice pre­
dominated and support staffs are smaller. Likewise, the
percentage of clerical workers also was highest in the
other health services sector. This again reflected the
tendency for establishments in this sector to be owned
and operated by professional persons whose major
employee needs were for clerical workers in secretarial,
typing, and recordkeeping functions, and for such
service workers as attendants and practical nurses.
During the decade ahead, changing technology and
shifts in the nature of medical and health care are
expected to be reflected in higher concentrations of
both service and clerical workers, and reduced propor­
tions of professional and technical workers.
Nearly every occupation among the professional,
technical, and related workers group is expected to
decline in relative importance by 1975, primarily
because of increasing reliance upon nonprofessional
personnel to support nurses and doctors, and to perform
routine nontechnical duties. Technicians, however, are
an important exception to this trend. The relative
requirements for these workers will increase because of
the expanding use of new and complex medical devices
and techniques such as computer-controlled blood

testing systems, physiological monitoring equipment,
and hyperbaric pressure chambers.
Despite the general increase in the proportion of
service workers expected by 1975, some jobs in this
major occupational group may decline in relative im­
portance. For instance, the growing use of disposable
plastic and paper surgical gloves, caps, masks, hypo­
dermic needles, and other hospital items is expected to
temper needs for workers who perform laundry and
sterilization duties. Furthermore, new hospitals will
increasingly incorporate laborsaving innovations, such as
new tray-assembly lines, that reduce the need for
kitchen workers. The basic nature of health and medical
care services will, however, continue to emphasize
personal attention. As a result, anticipated employment
growth among practical nurses, nurse aids, and hospital
attendants is expected to more than offset lower labor
requirements for some other service occupations.
Increases in the proportion of clerical workers are
expected, resulting from the increasing needs for these
workers in the more rapidly growing other health
services industry grouping. This sector is composed of
medical establishments that will be less likely to possess
laborsaving office machines and computers. At the same
time, record keeping requirements should increase to­
gether with the growing demand for medical services and
the expansion of health insurance programs.

Educational Services13 5

Current Employment
About 968,000 wage and salary workers were
employed in the educational services major industry
group in 1966. (See table 49.) Nearly three-fifths of the
workers in this major industry group worked in private
colleges, universities, professional schools, and junior
colleges. About one-third were employed in private
elementary and secondary schools. The remaining
workers were employed in libraries, correspondence and
vocational schools, and specialized nondegree institu­
tions such as dancing schools.
Women workers accounted for 45 percent of total
employment in educational services establishments in
1966. Women workers were more highly concentrated in
135 SIC 82. This major group includes private establish­
ments furnishing formal, academic or technical courses, cor­
respondence schools, commercial and trade schools, and
libraries.

118




elementary and secondary schools than in private
colleges and universities.
Employment Trends and Outlook
Employment in private educational services establish­
ments increased from about 685,000 in 1958 to about
968,000 in 1966, an increase of more than twofifths.136
The employment growth stemmed primarily from
increasing school age population. The high birth rates of
the 1940’s brought an unprecedented expansion of
elementary school enrollments in the early 1950’s. By
the mid-1950’s, these children were beginning to enter
high schools, and in the early 1960’s, colleges were
feeling the full impact of this population growth.
Furthermore, the proportion of young people of high
BLS employment (payroll) data for the major industry
group are not available for years prior to 1958.

T able 49.

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Wage and S a l a r y Workers in the E d u c a tio n a l
S e r v i c e s Major In d u str y Group, by I n d u s t r y , 1966
( I n th o u sa n d s)

SIC
Code

Wage and s a l a r y
workers
Number
P e rc e n t
d istri­
b u tio n

In d u s tr y

82
821
822
823, 4 , 9

1/
21

E d u c a tio n a l s e r v i c e s -------------------------------Elementary and secondary s c h o o l s .................
Higher e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s -----------Other e d u c a t i o n a l ...................................................

968.1
3 2 5 .9
5 7 0 .8
1 / 7 0 .8

100.0
33 .7
5 9 .0
2 / 7 .1

W
omen
workers a s
p e r c e n t of
employment,
by in d u s t r y
45.0
5 7 .2
3 8 .0
(3 )

Benchmark d a t a f o r March 1966.
Based on March 1966, t o t a l employment in the m ajor in d u s t r y g ro u p .
D ata a r e not a v a i l a b l e .

3/

Note: I n d i v i d u a l item s may not add to t o t a l s b e c a u se o f the i n c l u s i o n s o f benchmark d a t a
an d /o r roun din g .

school age and college age who attend school has been
steadily increasing.
Manpower requirements in the private educational
services major industry group are expected to continue
to grow to approximately 1.4 million in 1975, an
increase of more than two-fifths. (See volume IV,
appendix B.) Further expansion of the school age
population and the rising proportion of persons remain­
ing in school longer will generate most of the expected
increase. Also, the greater availability of scholarships and
loans will be a stimulus to greater enrollments in private
schools of higher education. Moreover, the minimum age
at which young people can leave school may be raised in
some States. The ability to pay for education, resulting
from the anticipated continued rise in family income, is
another factor that will stimulate higher enrollments in
educational institutions.
Occupational Structure
More than half of all workers137 employed in the
educational services major industry group in 1960 were
teachers (see volume IV, appendix G), a majority of
whom taught in elementary schools. The large number
of teachers accounts for the industry’s very high
proportion of professional workers— than twomore
thirds. Non-teaching professional occupations in the
industry in 1960 included librarians, technicians,
Including self-employed and unpaid family and govern­
ment workers, as well as private wage and salary workers,
employed in educational services (SIC 82), and museums, art
galleries, and botanical and zoological gardens (SIC 84).
13

7




psychologists, nurses, artists, athletes, and entertainers.
The residual other professional group was composed of
such specialists as counselors and social and welfare
workers.
Clerical workers accounted for about 1 out of 10
workers in this major industry group. About one-half of
the clerical work force was made up of stenographers,
secretaries, and typists. Most of the remaining clerical
workers fell in the “other” clerical worker category,
which included primarily library attendants and assist­
ants, and teacher aides. Service workers accounted for
nearly one-sixth of total employment. Many service
workers are involved in school lunch programs or
janitorial and cleaning activities, although other service
workers, such as nursing school attendants, practical
nurses, and watchmen, also are employed in substantial
numbers.
Although technological innovations, such as educa­
tional television and teaching machines, are expected to
be used increasingly in educational services during the
next 10 years, their anticipated impact seems more
likely to supplement the role of teachers rather than
displace them. These devices should free teachers from
many routine tasks, enabling them to spend more time
in preparing lessons and teaching materials, and in giving
assistance to individual students.
Nevertheless, changing teacher ratios will be the main
effect of an anticipated shift in the occupational
structure expected in educational services by 1975.
High post-World War II birth rates coupled with the
growth in college attendance rates expected during the
next decade will shift the area of most rapid school
119

enrollment growth to the college level. This trend should
raise the proportion of college teachers, and lower the
proportions of both elementary and secondary school
teachers. Overall, the percentage of teachers and profes­
sional workers as a group is expected to decline. Most of
the decrease is expected mainly in the proportion of
elementary school teachers (the largest professional
group). This trend, to some extent, will result from the
increasing use made of teacher’s aides and professional
specialists such as counselors.
A much' higher percentage of clerical workers is
foreseen by 1975. The largest increase in this occupa­
tional group appears in the clerical residual occupational
group where teacher’s aides are classified. The propor­

120




tion of aides is expected to rise rapidly as a result of
legislation passed in 1965 that makes available Federal
funds for employment of these workers. Teacher’s aides
perform many clerical and nonprofessional duties pre­
viously assigned to teachers. Additional clerical workers
also will be needed in occupations not significantly
affected by advancing technology, such as stenographers
and receptionists.
Among service workers, the higher proportion of
cooks expected by 1975 will result from the expansion
of lunch programs in many school systems. The relative
position of managers and officials also is expected to rise
in response to increasing numbers of institutions and
physical facilities.

G O VERNM EN T EMPLOYM ENT138

Current Employment

was stimulated by the country’s military commitments.
Defense Department employment increased by nearly
Nearly 10.9 million wage and salary workers were one-half, but since 1955, has remained relatively con­
employed in government in 1966. (See table 50.) More stant. Growth in Federal Government civilian employ­
than half worked for local government; nearly one- ment in recent years has been due to the creation of new
fourth worked for the Federal Government; and one- agencies and programs such as the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration and the expanding functions
fifth were employed in State government.
of established agencies.
Manpower requirements in government are expected
Employment Trends and Outlook
to increase from about 10.9 million to approximately
Total government employment nearly doubled be­ 14.0 million between 1966 and 1975, or by over
tween 1947 and 1966, increasing from 5.5 million to one-fourth. (See volume IV, appendix B.) Employment in
State government is expected to increase most rapidly,
10.9 million.
Between 1955 and 1966, the largest increase in by about three-fifths. Local government employment
government employment— 85 percent— been at is expected to increase by more than two-fifths. Be­
about
has
the State level. This increase was due primary to the cause of the continuing rapid rise in the population, and
very rapid growth in educational activities. Employment the resultant increased demand for services, sizeable
in the local level of government also increased very growth in employment is expected in all major State and
rapidly by nearly three-fourths—
between 1955 and 1966. local government functions, including education, health
Local government expansion also resulted primarily and hospital care, sanitation, welfare, and protective
from the growth of educational needs. The increases in services. Federal employment is expected to increase
State and local government in functions other than slightly between 1966 and 1975, by only 11 percent,
education— percent and 54 percent, respectively— barring major increases in our military commitments.
60
resulted from a growing, more urban population and the Most of the anticipated increase is expected to result
need to expand public health, sanitation, welfare, and from growth in nondefense programs. Technological
developments, such as automatic data processing, quick
protective services.
copy devices, data transmission and communications
Federal Government employment increased by more
than one-third between 1947 and 1966. Most of the networks, and materials handling equipment, are ex­
growth in civilian employment between 1947 and 1955 pected to be a significant factor in limiting employment
growth in government employment. Most of this impact
13 8 Division I. This discussion includes all Federal, will be felt at the Federal and State level where
SIC
State, and local, and international government activities, such as centralization of functions lend themselves to wider use
the legislative, judicial, and administrative functions, as well as of these developments. (For occupational distribution in
government-owned and operated business enterprises.
public administration, see volume IV, appendix G.)
T ab le 50.

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Wage and S a l a r y Workers in Government, 1966
(In th o u sa n d s)

SIC
Code
I
91
92
93

Government--------------------------------------------------F e d e r a l Government----------------------------------S t a t e government-------------------------------------L o c a l government-------------------------------------Note:

Wage and s a l a r y
workers
Number
Percent
d istrib u tio n

In d u s tr y

1 0 , 8 7 1 .0
2 ,5 6 4 .0
2 , 1 6 1 .9
6 ,1 4 5 .0

1 0 0 .0
2 3 .6
19.9
5 6 .5

B ecause o f rou n din g , sums o f in d i v i d u a l item s may not eq ual t o t a l s .




121
☆

U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1969 0 -3 4 7 -3 5 5







U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212
OFFICIAL




BUSINESS

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

I

THIRD”CLASS MAiT